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Perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness in counseling and consultation

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Title:
Perceived expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness in counseling and consultation
Creator:
Harrison, Thomas C., 1948-
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 117 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic advising ( jstor )
Cognitive models ( jstor )
Cognitive psychology ( jstor )
Consulting services ( jstor )
Educational psychology ( jstor )
Mental health ( jstor )
Psychological counseling ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
School counseling ( jstor )
Social influence ( jstor )
Counseling ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Helping behavior ( lcsh )
Interpersonal relations ( lcsh )
Psychological consultation ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1983.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 110-116.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas C. Harrison, Jr.

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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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PERCEIVED EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS IN COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION



By

THClvMAS C. HARRISON, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILIIENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1983














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



This is dedicated to Linda and Chamois who, while meeting the demands of their own professions, never failed to offer support and guidance throughout the writing of this dissertation.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......
LIST OF TABLES ...........
LIST OF FIGURES ........ ABSTRACT ...............


*. . . . . . . . .I *

e @ i g l ~ t I *


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ............
The Problem ............
Purpose .............
Related Questions.....
Rationale .............
Definitions of Terms.
Limitations and Delimitations
Delimitations ....... .
Limitations ...........
Overview of the Remaining Chap


* S S S f t S � S

* S S I S S I *

ters . ....


II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............
Selection of the Relevant Literature. ,
Counseling and Consultation . . . . . ....
Social Influence Theory . . . . . . ..
Counseling as a Social Influence Process, . .
Perceived Counselor Dimensions and Counseling Consultation as a Process of Social Influence Summary .. ................... ...

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES. .. ......
Helper and Helpee Characteristics ......
Independent Variables ...... .. ....
Dependent Variables ............ .
Subjects ..... ......... .......
Procedures ...... . ...... ......
Experimental Deisgn . . . ....
Data Analysis ...... ...............



iii


ii
V vi vii


Outcome


o S S S

* S S I
* I S I I ft









TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)



CHAPTER PAGE

IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ..... .................. .... 69
Preliminary Analysis ..... .................. .... 69
Expertness ...... ....................... ..... 71
Summary ..... ... ........................ .... 75
Trustworthiness ...... .... .................... 77
Summary ..... ... ........................ .... 79
Attractiveness ...... ..................... .... 80
Summary ..... ... ........................ .... 81

V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........ 83
Limitations ....... ...................... .... 83
Discussion ...... . ...................... ... 86
Summary of the Analyses Addressing the Three Research
Questions ....... ....................... .... 90
Implications and Recommendations for Future Research. 92 Conclusions ...... .... ...................... 95

APPENDENCIES

A DIRECTIONS FOR HELPER AND HELPEE ...... ............ 97

B JUDGES' RATING SHEET ..... .................. .... 99

C JUDGES' RATING BY SEGMENT ............... ........102

D DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS ..... ................ .... 103

E ORDER OF PRESENTATION TO SUBJECTS ..... ........... 104

F SU44UZY OF TWO-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF
VARIANCE FOR APPROACH (S) X SEQUENCE (T) FOR EXPERTNESS,
TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS ............ ... 105

G SUMMARY OF REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR
SIMPLE EFFECTS OF APPROACH X SEQUENCE ON EXPERTNESS,
TRUSTWORTHINESS AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS ....... 106

H SUMRN Y OF POST HOC COMPARISONS FOR SEQUENCE AT EACH
LEVEL OF APPROACH ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND
ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS .... ............... .... 107

I SU4IARY OF TUKEY HSD POST HOC COMPARISONS OF APPROACHES
AT EACH LEVEL OF SEQUENCE ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS,
AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS ... ............. ....108

REFERENCES.. . . . . . ... .. .......................... 110
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..... .... ..... .... ... .. 117













LIST OF TABLES



TABLE PAGE

1 STUDIES COMPARING COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION. . . . . . . 34

2 ESTABLISHMENT OF COUNSELING AS A SOCIAL INFLUENCE
PROCESS........ . . . . . . . ... ....................... 42

3 SOCIAL INFLUENCE THEORY AND COUNSELING OUTC4E STUDIES . , 49 4 SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN CONSULTATION. . . . . . . . . . . 56

5 SUMMARY OF THE FOUR-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE-REPEATED
MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTNESS
ATTRACTIVENESS, TRUSTWORTHY, AND SEX DIMENSIONS ......... 70

6 SUMMARY OF THE TWO-WAY ANALYSES OF VARIANCE-REPEATED
MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON THE EXPERTNESS
TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS ... ...... 72

7 SUMMARY OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR
COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS,
AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS ........... 76















LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE PAGE

1 COUNTERBALANCED EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN . . . .. . . .. . 66

2 THE WITHIN SUBJECTS 2 x 4 x 3 x 2 FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR
REPEATED MEASURES ...................... 67













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


PERCEIVED EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND

ATTRACTIVENESS IN COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION By

THOMAS C. HARRISON, JR.

August, 1983

Chairman: Larry C. Loesch
Maj or Department: Counselor Education

This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness in counseling and consultation. A review of the literature in the field indicated that counseling and consulting differed theoretically but did not differ in practice. Second, although both counseling and consulting had received support as being processes of interpersonal influence, counseling and consulting processes had not been investigated through a comparison of the relative strengths of perceived helpers' expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness.

Two 3 minute videotapes were made for each of two counseling and

two consulting approaches. One segment depicted the problem identification phase of each model and one segment depicted the action phase.








From undergraduates living in on-campus housing during Summer Term A, 1983, a residence area was chosen and 79 subjects volunteered to participate in the study. The 8 videotapes were randomly ordered and

presented to the subjects. After each video segment, subjects recorded their perceptions of the helper's expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness on the Counselor Rating Form.

A 2 x 3 x 4 x 2 repeated-measures factorial design was used to analyze subjects' responses. Results indicated that there were no

significant differences between the responses of males and females.

Significant differences within models of consultation and counseling were found along the expertness and trustworthiness dimensions. This did not allow consulting and counseling models to be collapsed into "consulting vs. counseling." Analysis of results on a model-by-model basis indicated that the directive approaches of cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation were perceived as more expert than the non-directive approaches of client-centered therapy and consultee-centered case consultation. Consulting was seen as maintaining a consistent level of perceived helper attractiveness across both sequences whereas counseling was shown to have increased levels of attractiveness across the same sequences.

The results of this study indicate the relationship between counseling and consulting is complex and is best understood on a model-by-model basis. Because the directive approaches were perceived as more expert, practitioners might consider using these approaches when working with college students.


viii















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



The witch doctor is usually a person, who,
through some accident of fate such as widowhood, sterility, or insanity, is not in a position to function in the social system
in a normal, competitive manner. Often
society delegates to this position persons for whom the social system has no adequate
social definition or role. It is not uncommon for such a person to purchase extensive training at the hands of an experienced practitioner
who understands the mysterious gadgetry of witchcraft. After a long apprenticeship, the would-be
shaman begins his or her career through an attempted
cure or other supernatural intervention in the
community. If the novice's attempts are successful,
legitimacy is established and he or she begins to
gain a clientele on the basis of the successful wonders performed. (Woodworth and Nelson, 1971,
p. 72)

As implied by the above description, the "helping" relationship

has been around for a long time and has taken many forms. Throughout

history people have sought advice and counsel from others. When problems

arose, those in authority often sought the expertise of others to guide

decisions. During periods when humans lived in caves, it was the shamans

or spiritual leaders whose advice was sought. These were individuals

who had some "magical" powers and were able to "communicate" with the

spiritual world.









As humans developed larger crania, they began to abstract thoughts and develop a sophisticated verbal language. Their ability to make and use tools flourished, and as a result, humans began to specialize both within the clan itself as well as specializing as a clan.

Commerce and trade developed between clans, and helpers evolved to include "elders" as well as the spiritual leaders. Elders were those whose experience and age made them "experts" in matters of the new world. Together with the primitive shamans, these elders became specialized helpers--the guiding forces behind socialization of the clan members and commercialization of their wares. As socialization between clans increased, thus creating societies or groups of interdependent clans, the need for specialized helpers increased as well. Continuous specialization and socialization throughout history has created helping processes which today we refer to as counseling and consultation.

When people became recognized as "counselors" in the early part of the twentieth century, they were defined more by what they did than by any formal training. Counselors directed their efforts in the area of social reform, advocating the passage of child labor laws and meat inspection regulations.

Freud's work in the areas of dream analysis, hypnosis, and free association became known in the United States in the 1920's, and this, together with the Great Depression, helped shape the social reformers into a profession which emphasized vocational guidance. This trend toward guidance continued until the end of the Second World War. At that time, the Veterans Administration recognized that many veterans would be coming home with emotional problems and commissioned Carl Rogers, who was then









at the University of Chicago, to develop methods of dealing with emotional maladjustment. Concomitantly, the psychiatric profession was perfecting one of the most significant break-throughs in the history of mental health. The introduction of phenothiazines or major tranquilizers, would revolutionize the entire mental health care system in terms of philosophy and economical concerns. It would also be the spark which set the wheels of modern consultation in motion.

Because many psychiatric patients would now be released from hospitals back to communities, services had to be set up to cope with the patients' emotional problems as well as the concerns which communities would display at having "crazy people" living among them, To help with the transition, Congress passed the Community Mental Health Centers Act in 1963. This was the first time that certain mental health services and "consultation and education" to communities had been mandated as a necessary and useful practice

Coupled with new technology from the field of counseling and psychology, the modern economic concerns of our Western society, and the introduction of the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963, consultation began to be formally defined and began developing a technology.

Definitions of consultation ranged from such processes as the modeling of effective coping and problem-solving skills (Williams, 1972), aiding Chelpees to effectively "organize, synthesize, and utilize" knowledge and perceptions (Schein, 1969), teaching new skills and information to helpees (Tyler & Fine, 1974), to the process of assisting helpees in dealing with the problems that impeded helpees' professional growth (Caplan, 1970).


iHelpee(s) refers to the person receiving services from a counselor or consultant.









In developing mental health consultation practices, Gerald Caplan and Eric Lindemann arranged to consult with the Wellesley Public School System in Massachusetts in 1952. Caplan and Lindemann "stumbled" upon the value of "teacher-psychiatrist collaboration" after being barraged and annoyed by questions teachers were asking. The second major influence in contemporary mental health consultation centered around the development of the Psycho-Educational Clinic at Yale University by Seymour Sarason. While both the Caplan and Lindemann and Sarason approaches emphasized the altering of teachers' perceptions of pupils, Sarason emphasized the social psychological problems inherent in the function of teaching. Caplan and Lindemann concentrated their interests on the psychodynamic approach.

That school systems had teachers and pupils who could benefit from mental health consultation was not new. However, the approach of Caplan, Lindemann, and Sarason was novel. A few years prior to his introduction of mental health consultation in schools, Caplan had begun developing his theory of mental health consultation while working at a guidance center in Jerusalem where he was charged with supervising the mental health of sixteen thousand new immigrant children (Caplan, 1970, p. 8). Although Caplan outlined the major components of his theory from his work in Jerusalem, he refined it at Wellesley, Massachusetts. The refinement to his approach was the result of his recognition that the teachers at the public schools in Wellesley were professionals, whereas those with whom he consulted in Jerusalem were non-professionals. This distinction led Caplan to advance his famous idea of a "coordinate" consulting





5

relationship rather than the traditional "hierarchial" relationship. It was this coordinate relationship, later supported by Reger (1964), which, in large part gave rise to a new role for the school psychologist: that of consultant.

Once mental health consultation became established, consulting techniques became further refined with the introduction of "behavioral," "school-based," and "systematic" consultation. Behavioral consultation is a process whereby helpers focus on identifying reinforcement contingencies, which are maintaining inappropriate client behavior, attempting to assist helpees substitute more appropriate contingencies for their clients, and endeavoring to aid helpees evaluate intervention outcomes through direct observation (Medway & Forman, 1980). Stewart and Medway (in Reschly, 1976) describe school consultation as a series of face-to-face interactions between mental health specialists (consultant) and those (consultees)2 who provide services to clients of a psychological nature with the goal being to improve and strengthen consultees' abilities to work with clients. Myrick defines school consultation in this Systematic Model as the "performance of such functions as working with parents, teachers, administrators, and educational specialists in matters involving student understanding and student management" (Myrick, 1977, p. 8). Lundquist and Chamley (in Reschly, 1976) talk about consulting as an interpersonal process whereby helpers attempt to aid helpees to increase awareness of their affective domain and its relationship to their professional identity, help develop helpees' awareness of how their intrapersonal feelings influence their interactions with their clients, and help develop more positive attitudes and feelings in helpees so that they can change and become more effective in the work setting.

2Consultee(s) refers to the person who is receiving consulting services.









While many of these concepts sound similar to concepts and theories of counseling, the literature suggests there are generic differences between counseling and consulting.

While consultants may consult with individuals, groups, communities, and organizations, counselors can only counselorwith individuals and groups of individuals. Second, help-seekers hold certain differing perceptions of "what counselors do" and "what consultants do," and which problems are appropriate for each type of helper (Snyder, 1972; Ziemelis, 1974). Moreover, it is a commonly held view that counselors do not take "responsibility" for altering clients' social or physical environment. In that some consultants collaborate with consultees (i.e., take partial responsibility for action), and other consultants may actually alter a consultee's social and physical environment, then counseligg and consultation differ in that the latter can operate, and often does operate, from an "ecological" power base (Strong, 1968) in which the helper has some ability to directly alter the helpee's physical and social environment. Fourth, counselors and consultants make arbitrary decisions as to which roles they themselves will assume. This choice of roles dictates to a large extent the professional helper focus in the problem-solving process of the helping relationships. According to Caplan (1970), Myrick (1977), Schein (1969), and others, the focus used by the professional helper in consultation involves some unit "outside of the individual seeking help. For mental health consultation, the "outside" unit might be the consultee's client.









In business, the executive's (consultee's) line staff supervisor might be the "outside" unit. Caplan (1970) maintains further that in consultation the focus on the helpee's emotional qualities in the case are for diagnostic purposes and serve only to help guide the professional in choosing a particular intervention style. In counseling, however, concern with the client's emotions is constant throughout the process.

Finally, the goals of each process differ both in terms of outcomes and intraprocess stage goals. Caplan (1970), Myrick (1977), and others maintain that the goal of consultation is to enhance the help-seekers' work performance. The general goal of counseling can be said to enhance the individuals' general emotional and behavioral wellbeing. It is important to note that emotional well-being and increased job performance are not mutually exclusive, Yet the theoretical orientations of the helping processes designed to improve each condition are exclusive of each other.

In terms of the intra-process stages of both helping relationships, evidence indicates that client goals in counseling differ from consultee goals in consultation (Egan, 1982; Schein, 1969). Egan (1975, p, 30) presents a "pre-helping" phase and three stage developmental model in attempting to demonstrate the process of counseling. The "pre-helping" phase concerns the helpers' attending behaviors of warmth and openness, The first stage has clients' goal of increased self-exploration. Stage two has the goal of clients to be dynamic "self-understanding" whereby








the client identifies the need for change, action, and the potential personal resources which have been unused. The client goal in the third stage is action. Salient through Egan's process model is that the focus of the helping relationship is upon individuals' self exploration, dynamic understanding, and action. Consultation, however, has a different process and focus.

While the goal of counseling is to increase individual emotional and behavioral adjustment, the goal of consultation is to increase the individuals' work (or performance) efficiency (Caplan, 1970; Schein, 1969). Thus, in a generic developmental model of the consultation process, the "pre-helping" phase, like that of counseling, is to establish rapport, but the "first stage" is directed toward problem-exploration. The goal of "stage two" is to have consultants, either with or without counsultees, determine a style or type of intervention. This intervention might include counseling with employees, conducting specific in-service training, developing goals and appropriate reinforcement schedules, altering the physical and/or social environment, or a variety of other interventions. Stage three is characterized as having the same goal as the third stage of counseling: action. Yet, unlike in counseling, the action in consultation could be initiated by the consultant, consultee, or by both.

The empirical examination of these process differences has

received little attention in the professional literature. To date, only one study has been reported (Schmidt & Osborne, 1981). The results of the study show that while theoretically different, counseling and consultation are the same process. Historically, philosophically and generically, consultation, like counseling, "suffers" from being essentially








a process of human interactions, and as such eludes research efforts which endeavor to reduce it to monothetic and linear functions measured by simple outcome effectiveness. That consultation is a human process necessitates that such intangible concepts as "consultee attitudes" toward the consultant, "interest" in having consultation, the "readiness" of the consultee, the "timing" of consultant interventions, consultee "expectations" of the consulting process, consultant "charisma," "credibility," and "power" to effect change be incorporated to some degree by researchers in an attempt to unify theories of consultation. While a number of researchers have looked at some of these "ambiguous components" of consultation, there have been few empirical studies which have attempted to demonstrate that consultation is a generic process of human interaction, subjects to the "laws" of this oftentimes inexplicable process of verbal and nonverbal interchange. This dearth of research lends fuel to the conflict between counseling and consultation.

The Problem

Consulting and counseling are major tools of intervention for

mental health and school counselors. Some studies suggest consulting and counseling are the same processes. Others maintain these processes differ. Therefore, the problem under investigation in this study was, Is there a relationship between the counseling and consulting processes? This problem, however, was so broad that all counseling and consulting processes could not be examined in one investigation, Thus, to conduct an investigation which could be replicated, a representative sample of counseling and consulting processes was used.









Purpose

In seeking a representative sample of counseling and consulting, the researcher was concerned with using processes: (a) which had clearly specified procedures, and (b) which were widely utilized by mental health and school counselors. Second, in attempting to investigate similarities and differences between counseling and consultation, the investigator was concerned with using a theoretical basis which was applicable to both counseling and consultation.

In reviewing the literature on studies comparing counseling and consultation, the authors fail (a) to provide a common theoretical basis for comparison, and (b) to adequately control for the counseling and consulting processes. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the relationship between the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and interpersonal attractiveness in counseling and consulting.

Related Questions

1. Is there a relationship between a cognitive-behavioral counseling

model, a client-centered counseling model, a behavioral consultation model, and a mental health consultation model in terms of

perceived helper "expertness"?

2. Is there a relationship between a cognitive-behavioral counseling

model, a client-centered counseling model, a behavioral consultation

model, and a mental health consultation model in terms of perceived

helper "attractiveness"?
3. Is there a relationship between a cognitive-behavioral counseling

model, a client-centered counseling model, a behavioral consultation

model, and a mental health consultation model in terms of perceived

helper "trustworthiness"?









Rationale

Borrowing from Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory and from opinion-change research, Strong (1968), Strong and Matross (1973), and others have demonstrated the significance of perceived counselors' interpersonal behaviors and the effect those behaviors have upon the counseling process. From his studies, Strong presents counseling as an interpersonal influence process whereby success of the counseling relationship is dependent upon helpees' perceived need for help and upon per-* ceived helpers' ability to have resources to meet those needs. Themore clients' self-perceived needs are congruent with counselors' ability to meet those needs, the more "power" the counselor has to influence change in the client (Strong 04 Matross, 1973). Strong and Matross further maintain that there are three major counselor power bases utilized in the helping process: expertness, interpersonal attractivensss, and trustworthiness. While these power bases will be discussed in detail in Chapter II, brief mention of them is merited here.

Expert power is based upon clients' perceptions of counselors having knowledge and skill in the field. Interpersonal attractivenss is defined as the helpees' perception of helpers having similar values, attitudes, and views as helpees. A trustworthiness power base is established through cultural norms and personal values which posit helpers as having sanctioned cultural and institutional roles as helpgivers.

Counselors can increase their respective power bases by increasing clients' felt need for help and by having clients perceive counselors









as having the resources to meet those needs. Thus, counselors, in attempting to increase or alter their power bases will engage in an interpersonal process whereby they communicate behaviors congruent not only with their established power bases, but behaviors which are perceived by helpees as being helpful. A crucial ccmponent in social influence theory is that what is important is clients' perceptions of the helpers and not actual helpers' characteristics.

That these counselor "power bases" operate in client-counselor relationships has been the subject of voluminous research in the past decade (Barak & Dell, 1977; Barak & LaCrosse, 1975, 1977; Claiborn, 1979; Dell, 1973; Rothmeier & Dixon, 1980; Strong & Dixon, 1971; Strong & Gray, 1972; Strong & Schmidt, 1970; Zamostny, Corrigan, & Eggert, 1981). Details of the research on the presence of counselor power bases will appear in Chapter II. However, it is appropriate to suggest here that the results of studies reviewed by Corrigan, Dell, Lewis, and Schmidt (1980) and by Heppner and Dixon (1981) indicate the presence of these perceived counselor source dimensions in number of data based studies using a variety of counseling relationships, with a variety of clients, and with a variety of research methodologies.

Few empirical findings have demonstrated consultation as a

process of interpersonal influence. Earlier, non data-based studies by Reger (1964) and Aubrey (1972) attempted to present school-based consultation as a human interaction process and stressed the importance of consultants' efforts in developing a network of "power bases" within the school and community. Martin (1978) focused the earlier concepts of










consultant "power," and borrowing from social psychology and the concept of counseling as a social influence process (Strong, 1968), posited consultation as a process of social influence, thus conceptualizing consultation as a multidimensional modality. Although Martin did follow-up on his theory with a study of the effects of age and experience of consultant and consultees (Martin & Curtis, 1980), little else has been done with the theory of consultation as a process of social influence. Second, there has been no comparison of consultant characteristics in different consulting models, although one study has examined consultant characteristics (age and experience), and consultation outcome (Martin & Curtis, 1980). This study was descriptive, however, and can offer little evidence to support its findings. Nevertheless, the studies of counseling as a process of interpersonal influence and those studies examining consultation as a social influence process suggest that there may be a relationship between perceived counselor source characteristics of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness and perceived consultant characteristics along those same dimensions.

Theoretical differences between the two processes do exist (Caplan,

1970; Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer, 1978; Dorr, 1977; Lambert, 1974; Meyers, 1973; Myrick, 1977; Schein, 1969). This suggests that there may be operational differences between counseling and consulting processes in terms of perceived helper characteristics. For example, it may be shown that while both processes of counseling and consulting are based upon the power bases of interpersonal influence, the relative strengths of these power bases may vary between a mental health consultation model and a behaviorally









oriented counseling model, or between a behavioral consulting model and a non-directive affective counseling model. By comparing the strengths of these three power bases across modelsof counseling and consultation, theoretical support for similarities and differences between and within these two processes will be addressed.

To date, researchers who have compared counseling and consultation have not controlled for either the counseling or consulting processes. Therefore, the study compared specific models of counseling (cognitivebehavioral and client-centered) and consultation (behavioral and consultee-centered case mental health). Second, the only empirical study published since 1973 which has compared counseling and consultation was a descriptive study (Schmidt & Osborne, 1981).

Definitions of Terms
In order to ensure consistency of meaning, thereby avoiding a

salient flaw in both consultation research and those comparing counseling and consultation, the following definitions were used in the study.

The interpersonal influence process or social influence is defined by the interpersonal dynamics which occur between helpers and helpees during face-to-face meetings. These dynamics center around the extent

to which helpees see helpers as being an "expert," being "interpersonally attractive" and "trustworthy."

Perceived helper "expertness" is defined by the extent to which the helper is seen as being alert, analytic, clear, confident, experienced, expert, informed, insightful, intelligent, logical, prepared, and skillful as reported by scores on the Counselor Rating Form (CRF; Barak & LaCrosse, 1975).









Perceived helper "trustworthiness" is defined by the extent to

which the helper is seen as being believable, dependable, honest, open, reliable, respectful, responsible, selfless, sincere, straightforward, trustworthy, and genuine as reported by scores on the CRF.

Perceived helper "attractiveness" is defined by the extent to

which the helper is seen as being agreeable, appreciative, attractive, casual, cheerful, close, compatible, enthusiastic, friendly, likeable, sociable, and warm as reported by scores on the CRF.

Power base is a term used to describe the relative strengths of the perceived helpers' characteristics of expertness, attractiveness and trustworthiness. The more helpers are seen as expert, attractive, and trustworthy, the more "power" helpers have.

Consultation, according to Cherniss (1978) refers to a socialpsychological process whereby helpers attempt to improve the conditions of "third parties" (clients) by working directly with "significant others" (helpees).

Mental health consultation refers to the consultee-centered case mental health consultation model advanced by Caplan (1970). The assumption the consultant makes in this model is that consultees may have the necessary skills, knowledge, and self-confidence to appropriately deal with the client, but lack the objectivity to do so. The consultants endeavor to point out to consultees that the problem consultees are having with their clients is a "test case" for countertransference occurring between consultees and clients. The resolutions of the consultees' problems reside in their becoming aware of their own









assumptions (Initial Category) about their clients, and consultees' expectations of what their clients will do (Inevitable Outcome). This process of working with consultees is called by Caplan (1970) "theme interference reduction." It is the process of weakening the link between the Initial Category and Inevitable Outcome. This is achieved by (1) verbal focus on consultees in which consultants actively engage consultees in a cognitive examination of other possible outcomes,

(2) verbal focus on a parable, (3) nonverbal focus on the case, and

(4) nonverbal focus on the consulting relationship,

Behavioral consultation is based upon Bergan's (1977) model. He refers to consultants taking more directive and supervisory roles in the relationship with consultees, and focusing on identifying reinforcement contingencies that maintain inappropriate client behavior in an attempt to assist consultees in substituting these inappropriate contingencies with more appropriate ones,

The actual process of consultation is somewhat standardized and formal (Bergan & Tombari, 1976; Bersoff & Greiger, in Reschly, 1976; Goodwin, Garvey, & Barclay, in Reschly, 1976). The thrust of these operations is upon behavioral observation, data collection, intervention, and evaluation, although the specifics of the various behavioral consultants may differ slightly. For example, Lanyon and Lanyon (1978) present the behavioral consultation process as being one of behavioral assessment, observation and record keeping, assessing consultee resources, designing and implementing the strategy, and follow-up. Russell (1978) maintains behavioral consultation involves a series of steps which include a behavioral definition of the problem, collection of baseline










data, intervention, continued data collection, and evaluation of the results. Dustin and Burden (1973) identify the following procedures: 1) problem identification, 2) problem behavior identification, 3) specifying desired behaviors, 4) observation, 5) program or strategy development, and 6) evaluation of the outcomes. Finally, Russell (1978) uses observation, functional analysis, objective setting, behavioral intervention, evaluating results, and withdrawal.

Counseling, according to Egan (1975) and Ford and Urban (1963),

is an interpersonal process involving a helper and one or more helpees. The purpose of counseling is to have the helpees change their attitudes, opinions, perceptions, and/or behaviors. The relationship between helpers and helpees is a coordinate one in which helpees talk about themselves in terms of their thoughts, feelings, and actions. Rather than being like a brief conversation with friends, helpers and helpees often engage in prolonged verbal and nonverbal intercourse in which the helpees' situations are explored in depth.

Patterson (1971) asserts that counseling is not helpers giving

advice to helpees. It does not involve coercion on the part of helpers. Rather, it is a voluntary arrangement (except in the cases of court referrals), in which helpers attempt to provide conditions for helpees' voluntary change.

Client-centered therapy refers to the non-directive affective counseling approach of Rogers (1975) and is operationally defined by counselors' uses of clarifications, "open" questions, and feelingfocused responses. Clarifications are the paraphrasing or restating of what clients say. Open questions are those questions which cannot easily be answered by clients' "yes" or "no" responses. Feeling-focused









responses are remarks by counselors which indicate how clients are feeling about particular events in the clients' lives. The core

dimensions of counselor warmth, empathy, genuineness, and concreteness (Carkhuff and Berensen, 1967; Truax, in Egan, 1975) are central to non-directive affective therapy.

Warmth is essentially conveyed by the nonverbal expressions of eye contact, head nodding, leg position, vocal intonation, smiling, open body orientation (measured by shoulder orientation of zero degrees), gestures with the hands, learning, and proximity to the client (Fretz, Corn, Tuenmler, & Bellet, 1979; LaCrosse, 1980: Sealy & Altekruse, 1979; Smith-Hanen, 1977).

Genuineness is a term used to describe therapists who, during the

course of the therapeutic relationship, are "freely and deeply themselves, with their actual experience accurately represented by their awareness of themselves. It is the opposite of presenting a facade" (Rogers, 1975, p. 97). Basically, genuineness refers to the extent to which therapists express a congruence between their inward experience and outward expression. In short, the therapists who are genuine do not hide behind their roles of "being therapists" (Egan, 1982).

The role of empathy is to promote clients' capacities for selfexploration and understanding while lowering their defensiveness. Rogers (1975) maintains that empathy enables clients to take a "prizing and caring attitude" toward themselves, and to become more aware of their own experiences. Essentially, empathy is the ability to convey to clients that therapists are aware, appreciative, and understand the









experiences of their clients. It is the capacity for the therapist to "walk in the clients' shoes." Empathic understanding characterizes the

total therapeutic climate.

The four types of therapist responses are open questions, clarification and summarizing statements, feeling-focused responses, and selfdisclosures. Concreteness or specificity on the part of therapists in using these responses is of paramount importance. The extent to which these responses are efficacious in providing an empathic, unconditionally accepting, and safe environment for client change is regulated by the extent to which these four therapist responses 1) gather information about the experiences and feelings of clients; 2) clarify and make explicit clients' implicit or unstated messages; 3) are accurate; 4) are temporally based in the here and now; 5) are consistent with the words, phrases, and images of clients; 6) refer to the salient feature of clients' experiences; 7) match the clients' vocal qualities; 8) communicate to the clients a sense of mutuality of exploration; and 9) facilitate new areas of growth for the clients (Elliott, Filipovich, Harrigan, Gaynor, Reimschuessel, & Zapadka, 1982, p. 381).

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Mahoney, 1977) refers to counseling process which emphasizes behaviors and cognitions.

One of the prominent methods used by cognitive-behavior therapists is called "rational restructuring" (Beck, 1970; Ellis, 1962; Goldfried, in Kendall & Hollon, 1979). These therapeutic methods emphasize clients' "faulty" thought patterns which result in maladaptive emotional and behavioral response patterns. The goal of cognitive restructuring is to










help clients accept their own abilities to adapt a "more reasonable perspective" on potentially upsetting events (Goldfried, in Kendall & Hollon, 1979). Two types of "cognitive restructuring" processes which have received most attention in research are Beck's (1970) cognitive therapy, and Ellis' (1962) rational-emotive therapy.

Ellis' (1962) Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) maintains that individuals feel what they think. Treatment consists of helping the clients identify their irrational beliefs which are leading to emotional disturbances and help replace those faulty beliefs with more rational, constructive thought patterns. Goldfried describes a five step procedure by which therapists help clients restructure their cognitive processes. This process is similar to systematic desensitization in that clients are asked to imagine or role play a hierarchy of particular problem situations. At each step clients must identify the irrational thoughts associated with that particular situation, dispute them, and reevaluate the situation more rationally, Then therapists assign homework in which clients are instructed to confront a problem situation, dispute the aforementioned irrational beliefs, and reevaluate the situation more rationally.

Beck's (1970) Cognitive Therapy actually stresses behaviors as opposed to cognitions, although the ultimate goal is for clients to develop rational, adaptive thought patterns. Ellis' style is one of therapists actively disputing clients' irrational beliefs, and Ellis' and Beck's focus is upon behavioral methods such as modeling, behavior rehearsal, and graded task assignments, but Beck uses a less confrontive verbal approach with clients such that they can recognize their own faulty cognitions (Wilson & O'Leary, 1980),








The therapeutic approach involved utilizes both behavioral and cognitive components. Cognitive emphasis centers around clients' abilities to "distance" themselves or to view their irrational thoughts more objectively, and "decentering." The latter refers to clients not personalizing the misfortunes of others. In Beck's (1970) cognitive therapy approach, clients are encouraged to not only become aware of their thoughts, but to identify them in terms of the five ways that clients distort their thinking (Beck, 1970), Behaviorally, clients are to engage themselves in situations and experiences which previously evoked noxious feelings and reactions and are to attempt to successfully master those experiences by replacing faulty cognitions with more objective and reasonable thoughts, The method used is called graded task assignments (Kendall & Hollon, 1979, p. 185). These are structured sequences of tasks which clients attempt. Starting with the least demanding task, so that they experience success, clients work their way on up through the hierarchy so as to maximize the probability of initiating and completing any given task. Therapists often engage clients in role playing in which the task is sub-divided into a step-by-step sequence to ensure even the most seemingly "insignificant" success.

Limitations and Delimitations

Delimitations

The experimental population of subjects was selected from one of the residence hall areas at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. This land-grant university has an enrollment of 33,000 graduate and undergraduate students. As of November, 1980, 17.6% of









male undergraduates live in on-campus residence halls as do 25.1% of undergraduate women. Subjects for this investigation were volunteers who presented themselves at a designated time for the experiment. Limitations

While the study utilized a number of procedures which enhanced a high degree of internal and external validity, certain limitations

continued to exist.

The use of only one helper to act as a counselor and a consultant

raised questions as to the generalizability of results to other counselors and consultants. A commonly cited problem among researchers of consultation and of those who compare counseling and consultation had been the lack of treatment control. To counter this widespread problem, the study endeavored to maintain strict control over the treatment modalities by having the helper competently trained to act in both the counseling and consulting capacities so that any errors due to interpersonal style would have been reflected consistently across all models. Second, one of the major purposes of the study was to compare specific models of counseling and consultation, again to counter the widespread practice of not specifying the particular types of counseling and consulting processes to be compared. To use more than one helper would have introduced error variance within and across each treatment model. While that would have added to the generalizability of results, the nature of the current research comparing counseling and consultation suggested that "between helper" variance should be the basis for future research endeavor.









A second limitation concerned the use of a confederate client. While this may have limited the degree of generalizability to the "real" practice of these helping processes, an ethical question concerning the use of a variety of treatment modalities upon a client in distress was avoided. Moreover, since the main concern of the study was to compare and contrast counseling and consulting process, emphasis was upon stringent control of the helping procedure to ensure that the respective models were adequately and consistently demonstrated.

The use of only two counseling treatments and two consulting

treatments may have been viewed as limiting. However, efforts were made to include treatments which were representative not only of those currently used in practice and research, but those which represented the three major approaches in helping: cognitive, behavioral, and affective-oriented processes. By using only two representative approaches, the possibility of finding results which would have allowed the two counseling and the two consulting processes to be collapsed into "counseling" and "consultation" was greatly facilitated.

Overview of the Remaining Chapters

Chapter II presents a more extensive review of the current literature. Chapter III presents the methodological approach: sampling, procedures, instrumentation, and statistical methods. Chapter IV presents data, analysis and results. Chapter V includes a discussion of the findings, implications, and conclusions.
















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


In this chapter the results of a review of the literature

regarding the relationship between counseling and consulting will be presented. The chapter is divided into six sections in which the procedures used for obtaining and selecting relevant literature are detailed, a presentation and analysis of literature is provided, and conclusions are presented.

Selection of the Relevant Literature

In selecting relevant literature for inclusion in the proposed study, the following four topics were considered: (a) studies comparing counseling and consultation, (b) studies examining counseling as a process of interpersonal influence, (c) studies examining the presence of social influence and its relationship to counseling outcome, and (d) the social influence process in consultation. Presentation of studies comparing counseling and consulting is significant because they demonstrate

previous insufficient efforts in describing the similarities and differences between counseling and consultation. Second, the review of studies examining social influence theory in counseling and its relationship to counseling outcome are significant because they support the efficacy

of social influence theory as a viable means of investigating helping











processes.Finally, a review of studies which present consulting as

an interpersonal influence process supports the contention that both consulting and counseling can be viewed as social influence processes. The studies presented in Chapter II result from a systematic review of the literature in education and psychology.

Certain criteria were used as rules for inclusion in the proposed study. The literature review of studies comparing counseling and consulting include articles which appeared in or after 1965. These articles meet the criteria for acceptable experimental, quasi-experimental, and case studies as outlined by Ary (1979).

For social influence theory, articles appearing in or after 1968 were included (the year Strong introduced counseling as a process of social influence). Selection criteria for studies which supported the establishment of counseling as a process of social influence and its

relationship to counseling outcome were as follows. The studies had to be (a) empirically based, (b) had to study perceived helper "expertness," "attractiveness," and/or "trustworthiness," (c) had to use either observers' ratings or self-reports, and (d) had to have used a reliable

dependent measure.

Only four studies have empirically investigated the presence of

the interpersonal influence process in consultation. Each of these studies conforms to Ary's (1979) criteria for acceptable experimental research.









The following journals were reviewed in an effort to obtain the

relevant literature: Psychology in the Schools, The Journal of Counseling Psychology, Professional Psychology, Psychological Review, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of School Psychology, American Journal of Community Psychology, Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, Dissertation Abstracts International, Counselor Education and Supervision, The

School Counselor, American Psychologist, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and the Personnel and Guidance Journal. Once an article was found and reviewed, the reference list was used to locate other articles.

Using the selection criteria, three articles which compare counseling and consulting, eight articles examining the establishment of the social influence process in counseling, eight articles studying the relationship of social influence theory and counseling outcome and four articles describing consultation as a process of interpersonal influence are detailed in the review of relevant literature.

To aid in the review of empirical studies, four tables are presented. Table 1 delineates studies which have compared counseling and consultation. Table 2 lists support for the establishment of the social influence process in counseling. Table 3 lists those studies which examine social influence theory and its relationship to counseling outcome. Table 4 presents studies of consultation as a process of interpersonal influence.

Counseling and Consultation
In a case study reported by McGehearty (1969), evidence is offered

which supports theoretical differences between counseling and consultation, but indicates process similarities. In the study, a fifth grade student









was reported to have benefitted from individual counseling and counselorparent consultation in that the student was moved up into a higher level reading class, and his overall performance increased. Counseling was described as being conferences which were "non-threatening, ego-building, and supportive." Consultation with the parent was reported to have "focused on the child," yet the consultant helped the child's mother see her son in new ways (alternate frames of reference), was encouraged to reinforce her son's positive behavior, and was delivered negative reinforcement in terms of having the consultant ignore certain derogatory statements made by the mother about her son.

Russell (1978) presents theoretical support for differences between the two processes, but, like McGehearty's (1969) case study, demonstrates process similarities. According to Russell, the behavioral consultants aim to reduce or eliminate clients' problem behaviors by effecting changes in the consultees' behaviors (Russell, 1978).

Regardless of whether a behavior is deemed socially appropriate or

inappropriate, the interactions between clients' behaviors and controlling environments serve to maintain present client behaviors. An important feature of the "present behaviors" is that they are not simply confined to observable actions, but apply to thoughts and feelings as well (Lanyon & Lanyon, 1978). For the behavioral consultants, "feeling and behaviors" is of special interest because the consultees' feelings about their clients may serve to bring about consultee behaviors which initiate or maintain aberrant client behaviors (Phillips, 1977). For example, consultees will nonverbally demonstrate their feelings about the clients' behaviors, and these nonverbal cues will alter the clients' controlling









environment. The behavioral consultants, in the interaction with the consultees, must endeavor to translate the consultees' feelings into observable behavioral data (such as finding out who did what to whom, when, where, how, under what circumstances, etc.).

Because consultees are a critical part of clients' controlling

environments, consultees' behaviors function as antecedents or consequences for clients' appropriate and aberrant behavior. Thus, behavioral consultants recognize that unless consultee behaviors are examined and modified, the probability of client change will greatly decrease. Thus, according to Russell (1978), the consultants become "alert to [consultee] verbal and nonverbal cues that indicate how the clients' behaviors are affecting the consultees and probe to identify how the clients' behaviors

might be providing antecedent stimuli or consequences for consultees' actions" (Russell, 1978, p. 349).

Behavioral consultants use "every available resource" to analyze and understand the consultees and clients' behavioral interaction. In attempting to alter the consultees' behaviors, consultants' interventions will include a combination of modeling, positive reinforcement and role-playing. These consulting procedures are some of the same techniques used by cognitive-behavioral counselors.

The similarities between counseling and consultation have received further theoretical support as well. Fine, Grantham, and Wright (1979) presented consultant characteristics which facilitate or impede the consulting process. The variables they described as being important for consultants could be interchanged with those of successful counselors. For example, the authors state that consultants must be congruent, need

to take care of their own needs, and should be sensitive and empathic.











Furthermore, consultants should remember that it is the consultees' problem, that lack of closure is acceptable, and that consultants should have broad response repertoires (Fine, Grantham & Wright, 1979). In another study, Kurpius (1978) maintains that consultants should model helping behaviors that are "nonjudgemental and noncompetitive."

Finally, Schein (1978) reports on two models of process consultation. In the catalyst model, consultants do not know the solution themselves, but have skills which aid consultees in finding their own solutions. The facilitator model has consultants helping consultees solve their own problems although the consultant may have clear and definite ideas about possible solutions. These models are similar to the "selfdirected" change process of client-centered therapy.

Rogawski (1978), however, in presenting the consultee-centered

case consultation of Caplan, states that consultants should never treat consultees as "patients." Thus, while trying to maintain a positive relationship with consultees, the consultants should never ask questions about consultees' private lives, nor interpret directly the meaning of their (consultees) productions. The purpose of mental health consultation, according to Rogawski, is to indirectly point out to the consultees the reasons for their difficulties, which may be due to lack of objectivity on the part of the consultee or to their lack of skills, knowledge, or self-confidence. This lack of objectivity results from clients "triggering" crises in consultees (Bindman, 1959; Caplan, 1970; Vaughan, 1959).










By triggering some unresolved issue in consultees' lives, the consultees begin to stereotype their clients according to the consultees' unresolved issues. The consultants then try to understand the nature of the consultees' unresolved issues, the relationship of those issues to the consultees' clients, and help to "educate" consultees in seeing the connection between their unresolved issues and the problem they are having with their clients (Caplan, 1970). Caplan's (1970) model resembles counseling models by suggesting that an examination by consultees of their own unresolved issues will increase consultees' work performances.

The consultants do not confront the consultees, but rather act in congruence with the consultees whereby the consultants and consultees operate on the basis that the problem is "out there" with the clients, even though the consultants are acutely aware that the clients' problem has some very special meaning for the consultees (Plog & Ahmed, 1977),

The appealing feature of Caplan's consideration of themes is that it is one of the few theories in the professional literature which has clear implications for consultants, interventions (Plog & Ahmed, 1977). In spite of this special feature, the empirical studies which employ "consultee-centered case consultation" for the most part neither delineate nor report the specifics of the intervention used,

McGehearty (1969) also reported on differences between the counseling and consultation processes. The most blatant difference centers around the apparently manipulative approach of the consultant in endeavoring to effect change in the behaviors of consultees (McGehearty, 1969, p. 155). Counselors engage in an open manner toward the same goals with the full and complete knowledge of the client.









Thus, the theoretical literature depicts rather ambiguous and conflicting information on the theoretical orientations and process operations of counseling and consulting. Researchers seem to agree that consultation really aims to improve the conditions of the "outside unit" or "third party," but it is equally obvious that consultees' improvement is advocated. It appears that the techniques used by consultants to improve consultees are similar to those techniques used by counselors.

To date, only four studies have empirically examined counseling

and consultation. One study by Schmidt and Osborne (1981) was designed to address two questions: 1) whether counselor and situational variables correlated with the counselors' preferences for either counseling or consultation; and 2) whether the variables that correlated with the preference for the type of service were the same variables that related to the frequency of using that service. The researches randomly selected 100 counselors from an initial list of 360 counselors who were employed in 1978-79 in the elementary schools of North Carolina,

The researchers used the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBGI) and the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) to determine counselors' characteristics. Georgraphical data in a third questionnaire included sex, age, years teaching, years counseling, graduate credit, number of schools, number of students, highest grade level, and number of grades served. In order to assess the preferences for and frequency of










counseling and consulting services, two surveys were developed and tested (test-retest reliability, 4-week period), so that the subjects were presented with seven counseling activities (e.g., "counseling individual students about personal concerns"; "Counsel individual parents about their specific concerns"), and seven consulting activities (e.g., "Consult with individual parents regarding their child's academic and personal needs") and a five point Likert type scale for preferences.

The researchers used Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis to determine which personal characteristic variables accounted for variance in preferences and use of counseling and consultation, Results indicated weak correlations between preferences for which type of service to perform. No variables differentiated counselors who used one process from those who used the other. The authors concluded that as a result, their study indicated that the counseling and consultation processes were very similar,

In light of a recent study by Splete and Bernstein (1981) demonstrating the widespread lack of consultation training in counselor education programs, the results of Schmidt and Osbornes' (1981) study could be explained by their subjects' lack of knowledge, skill and confidence in distinguishing between counseling and consultation in theory and/or practice. Second, the two instruments developed by Schmidt and Osborne (1981), designed to assess the preference for counseling or











activities, are representative of the limitations in consultation research. These limitations include the lack of clear definitions (Tyler & Fine, 1974), a reliance on self-reports (Alpert, 1976), and a lack of explicitely outlined consultant techniques and behaviors (Meyers, Friedman, & Gaughan, 1975). These weaknesses lead to difficulties in replication.

Similar weaknesses are demonstrated in three field studies (see Table 1). In a study designed to examine the short-term effectiveness of counseling and consulting, Mayer, Kranzler,and Mathes (1967) assigned fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students, who had indicated a desire for better peer relationships, to either a counseling (n=5) or group (n+5) treatment. The teacher-guidance group was characterized by the counselors studying the records of the students and offering suggestions to the teachers during counselor-teacher conferences, Change scores on teacher perceptions of students' popularities revealed that all the treatments were equal in effect upon the subjects' popularities.

Marchant (1973) conducted a field study using fourth and fifth grade students and their teachers to determine the effectiveness of counseling and consultation. Subjects were assigned to one of four treatment groups: counseling with students/consulting with teachers, counseling with students only, teacher consultation only, and a control group receiving no treatment. The treatment was defined by meetings twice a week for five weeks. The dependent variable was change scores on the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist, The results from analyses of variance indicated there was no difference among the treatment groups.








TABLE 1
STUDIES COMPARING COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION


TYPE OF STLW PROBLEM


INDEPENDENT SAMPLE VARIABLE


DEPENDENT VARIABLE


STATISTICS RESULTS


Kranzler Field study Compare 4th,Sth Types of ser- Scale of Change Counseling more (1969) (effectiveness) effective- 6th grade services social re- scores effective than ness of students (counseling, lations consulting counseling consul ting, & consult- & control) ing

Marchant Field study Examine 4th, 5th Types of ser- Problem Change Behavior change (1973) (effective- short- graders vices (coun- behavior scores equal for all
ness) term & their seling,con- identifi- but control effective- sulting, & cation ness of control) checklist
counseling
& consulting


Types of services (counseling,consulting, & control)


Teacher ratings
of pupils' on Sociometric scale


Change scores


No differences between consulting & counseling


AUItHORS


Mayer, Kranzler, & Mathes (1967)


Field study
(effectiveness)


4th, 5th
6th graders


Examine effects of counseling & consulting










The authors' conclusions that there are no differences between counseling and consultation in effectiveness are suspect. Because these studies do not specify what counseling and consulting processes were used, it is difficult to show that the treatments did in fact differ. Thus, the conclusions should be viewed cautiously.

The empirical studies investigating the relationship between counseling and consultation do little to clear up the ambiguities inherent in consultation theory. This ambiguity partly results from consultation not having a unifying theory (Blake & Mouton, 1978; Kurpius, 1978). These authors suggest that a sound unifying theory will allow for more consistent and methodologically sound studies comparing counseling and consulting. Strong's (1968) Social Influence theory seems to provide this integration and will be discussed next.

Social Influence Theory

The roots of social influence theory are imbedded in cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) and in the attitude and opinion change research of social psychology. Dissonance theory assumes that humans have a basic tendency toward a consistency of cognitions about oneself and about the environment. If two or more cognitive elements become psychologically inconsistent in an individual, the result is psychological tension which has impelling drive characteristics to reduce psychological discomfort by making the cognitions more consistent (Zimbardo, 1960).








Earlier studies in attitude and opinion change research demonstrated that there are five means of reducing cognitive dissonance:

(1) individuals can change their opinions to those of the commuicators; (2) individuals can discredit communicators; (3) individuals can devalue the importance of the issue; (4) they can attempt to change the communicators' opinions; and (5) individuals can gather more cognitive support for their own opinions. Which of these avenues for reducing dissonance is used is dependent on the circumstances of the influence attempt. For example, if cognitive support cannot be found, the communicator cannot be discredited, the issue cannot be devalued, and a counter-persuasion cannot be adequately exerted, the recipient's cognitive change will be in the direction of the opinion held by the communicator (Festinger, 1957, p. 27). Moreover, the five ways of reducing dissonance operate in a "closed system" and are affected by other circumstantial variables as well. In counseling, for example, individuals' involvement in the issues are high, thus they will not try to discredit the issue. Instead, they will turn more force upon the other avenues of dissonance reduction such as gathering cognitive support for their views, increasing efforts to change therapists opinions, or more staunchly discrediting therapists.

Goldstein (in Strong, 1968) extrapolated both concepts of cognitive dissonance theory and of a "closed-system" of dissonance reduction and offered these as viable ways of viewing psychotherapy, because in both processes the communication of the message is the central factor, Strong (1968) and Strong and Matross (1973) adhered to Goldstein's arguments and began researching counseling as a process of social influence.









According to social influence theory, clients enter into a "dependent" relationship with counselors because clients feel the need to have help in changing behaviors and attitudes. The nature of the "dependency" is based upon the relationship of clients' felt needs for help and clients' corresponding perceptions of whether counselors have the available resources to meet those needs. According toFrench and Raven (1957), the more dependent the clients are, the more potential power counselors have to help the clients change. However, there are psychological biases operating within clients at the time the dependent relationship is initiated. These continue to operate throughout the counseling process and regulate the strength of that dependence at any given moment in time. These psychological forces are conceptualized by Strong and Matross (1973) as (1) impelling forces in clients to change in the direction advocated by the counselor, and (2) opposing forces resisting change in that direction.

The "impelling forces to change" are generated by the clients' perceptions of counselors as having the necessary and available resources to meet the needs of clients. The relative strength of the impelling forces is determined by the degree to which clients' perceive a correspondence between their needs and the counselors' resources. Those forces operating in clients which pit them against counselors' advocated change are comprised of (1) opposing forces which are generated by the implications of the content of the counselors' suggestions, and (2) resisting forces, generated by the way in which counselors attempt to influence change. The more "power" counselors have, the stronger the "impelling forces to change," and reciprocally the weaker are the opposing and









resisting forces. Subsequently, if the counselors' power is increased to a point where it is greater than the clients' opposition and resistance, the clients change in the direction advocated by the counselors.

Significantly, however, is the fact that counselors cannot act directly upon the opposing and resisting forces operating within the clients. Because the counselors' suggestions are, by nature, in dissonance with the cognitions of the clients, there is at least some degree of client opposition and resistance to those suggestions. Thus, counselors can only directly control (1) the content of their influence attempt, and (2) the manner or way in which they attempt to communicate.

In terms of the relationship clients have with counselors, the content of and manner by which counselors attempt to influence serves to increase or decrease the counselors' "Power" and subsequent clients' "dependence." If the content of the counselors' suggestions and the way in which the suggestions are conveyed serve to increase the clients' felt needs for help and increase the clients' perceptions that counselors can meet those needs, dependencies upon the counselors are strengtheened, counselors' social powers are increased as is the probability of the influence attempt being successful.

French and Raven (1957) first introduced five basic types of

dependencies. Strong and Matross (1973) modified this typology, and purported that the correspondence between clients' felt needs for help and perceived counselors' abilities to meet those needs gives rise to three client-counselor dependencies. These specific dependencies are essentially counselors' "power bases"-- that is, sources of counselors' influence attempts. These "power bases" operate to varying degrees in every ciient-counselor relationship.










First is the "expert" power base. This refers to the extent clients perceive counselors as having the knowledge and skills to help clients change. Second is the "referent" or "interpersonal attractivensss" power base. This power base refers to the extent to which clients see counselors as having similar attitudes, opinions, and values to those of the client. According to earlier research in social psychology (Byren, in Strong and Matross, 1973; Byrne, Griffitt, and Golightly, in Strong and Matross, 1973), persons who find initial points of similarity will attribute more similarity than is actually

there, and this causes individuals to continue the relationship in order to seek out other similarities. In terms of counseling, the more counselors are perceived to be similar to their clients, the more clients will seek out the attitudes, opinions, and values of those counselors.

The third power base is termed "legitimate" or "trustworthiness." This seems to be the least well-understood and least well-defined, but pertains to the clients' perceptions that counselors live up to their role of being socially sanctioned and respected agents of change.

Counseling as a Social Influence Process

A number of studies have examined counseling as a process of

interpersonal influence (see Table 2). Barak and LaCrosse (1975) investigated the existence of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness dimensions in an analogue study. Using films of Perls, Rogers, and Ellis, the researchers had 202 undergraduates rate the therapists on 36 bi-polar adjective dimensions. The 36 items had been classified by judges into representing the perceived counselor dimensions









of expertness (12 items), attractiveness, (12 items), and trustworthiness (12 items). The results indicate that all three therapists were described as being expert and attractive. Rogers and Perls were seen as being trustworthy, however, this factor was not found to be present for Ellis.

The validity and reliability of the 36-item Likert-type adjective inventory, the Counselor Rating Form (CRF), was established in another study (LaCrosse & Barak, 1976). One hundred twenty-seven undergraduates were asked to view the same films of Perls, Rogers, and Ellis. The ability of the CRF to differentiate the factors of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness was supported. Using the split-half method to determine internal consistency reliability, the authors found that while there was moderate overlap on some dimensions, the scales were reliable indications of perceived counselor dimensions.

In another large sample study using 206 undergraduates, Atkinson and Wampole (1982) employed an analogue format to test the presence of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS). The subjects (135 females and 71 males) were members of an undergraduate psychology class. A 10-minute segment of a counseling session in which Rogers was the therapist was shown. Half the subjects filled out the CRF first, followed by the CERS. The sequence was reversed for the remaining half. Using factor analysis, the authors found that both instruments could delineate the dimensions of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. Correlating the findings, the authors conclude that both instruments are effective research tools, that counseling can be seen as a process of interpersonal

influence.










In two field studies designed to compare the differential perceptions of counselors' expertness, attractivenss, and trustworthiness. Barak and LaCrosse (1977) and LaCrosse (1977) used clients', counselors', and observers' ratings of counseling sessions. In the former study, a 3 x 3, 2-factor repeated measurements analysis was carried out on the CRF ratings of 19 clients at the Student Consultation Service at the Ohio State University who were seen by graduate counseling students. Results indicate that all three sources perceived the counselor dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The ratings of each dimension were high (although counselors rated themselves lower on expertness), and the authors attribute this finding to the fact that all of the counselors had been trained to demonstrate the power base dimensions.
In the latter study LaCrosse (1977) used the CRF and the BarrettLennard Relationship Inventory. Data was gathered from 40 community

mental health clients (described as neurotic), their counselors, and observers. All viewed randomly selected sessions through a television monitor while the session was in progress. Correlations between the CRF and BLRI yielded the three counselor dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness.

A field study conducted by Zamostny, Corrigan, and Eggert (1981)

was designed to test the counselors' dimensions in a "real life setting." One hundred male and one hundred forty-nine females seeking help at a university counseling center participated by filling out (1) a staneard counseling center intake form, (2) a short questionnaire rating their expectations about counseling, (3) a questionnaire asking their willingness to refer a friend for help at the center, (4) their ratings








TABLE 2
ESTABLISHMENT OF COUNSELING AS A SOCIAL INFLUENCE PROCESS


TYPE OF STUDY


PROBLIN


INDEPENDIENT DEPENDENT SAMPLE VARIABLE VARIABLE


STATISTICS RESULTS


Atkinson Analogue Compare 206 10 Minute CRY & CERS Factor An- Expertness, & Iampole CRF Under- video of (pre/post) alysis Attractiveness,
(1982) grads Trustworthiness, Order of Correla- (EAT) factors
instruments tion demonstrated

Barak & Field study Compare 19 Sessions CRF 3x3 All three LaCrosse (single counselor, Under- 2-factor sources (1977) session) client, grads repeated discriminated super- measure- perceived
visors' ients counselor percep- FAT tions

Barak & Analogue Study 202 Films of CRF Factor EAT demonstrated LaCrosse perceived Under- Perls, analysis for Perls, &
(1975) counselor grads Ellis and Rogers EAT Rogers
fA established
for Ellis


Analogue


Diff. between
friends & counselors


211 Undergrads


Think of a friend or a counselor


bdified CRF (only "positive" adjectives


Factor EAT established analysis for both
counselors &
friends


AUTI IORS


Corrigan
(1978)









TABLE 2 (Continued)


INDEPEENMT DEr-PFENT
AIW)RS TYPE OF STUDY PRORLEN SAIPLE VARIABIE VARIABLE STATISTICS RESULTS LaCrosse Field study Compare 40 Sessions CRF & Anova All three (1977) (single counselor, "neurotic BLRI sources dissessions) client, commmity criminated observer mental perceived ratings health counselor of FAT clients EAT

Rothmeier Analogue Perceived 34 Counselor Scores Change Perceived & Dixon trust- Under- trust- on Achieve- Scores Counselor (1980) worthiness grads worthiness ment Motiva- trustworthiness
6 outcome behaviors tion Sclae 6 client motivation
related


Study perceived counselor expertness, client preferences and client reactions


49
Undergrads


Counselor intro. (expert vs. in-expert)

Counselor roles (expert vs. inexpert)


EPPS Change (pro/post/ scores 1-week post)


Cotnselor expertness scale

Client reaction questionna ire


Strong & Schmidt
(1970)


Analogue


Counselor expertness, client preferences & client reactions related













TABLE 2 (Continued)


TYPE OF SIUDY PIDOBLEN


INH'PENDIET IE)PINI)NT
SMIPL IE VARIABLE VARIABLE STATISTICS RESULTS


Zamostny, Field Study Study FAT 249 Counselor CRF Correla- Counselor EAT Corrigan (single- in a "real Under- Experience tional established & Eggert session) life" set- grads level (1981) ting & Stress Counselor client sat- level expertness isfaction expect- related to ancy client satisfaction


AUTHOR









of the severity and duration of their problem, and (S) their preferences for a counselor to be expert, attractive, and trustworthy. The CRF was modified to include only the positive adjectives of the 36-item bi-polar characteristics. Following the intake session, the subjects were asked to fill out two questionnaires concerning their satisfactions and confidences in the counseling center and their willingness to refer a friend. Analyses of both preintake preferences and postintake perceptions of the three counselor dimensions resulted in expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness being clearly defined.

Corrigan (1978) studied the differential characteristics of counselors and friends according to the social influence theory dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. He asked 211 undergraduates (155 females and 56 males) to think of the characteristics they would prefer counselors and friends to have. He modified the CRF (in the same manner as that which was used in the study by Zamostny et al., 1981) and used factor analysis procedures in finding preferences for and the presence of the perceived counselor dimension of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. An analysis of variance reveals that subjects prefer counselorswho have all three dimensions.

Perceived Counselor Dimensions and Counseling Outcome

Table 3 presents studies examining the perceived counselor source characteristic on counseling outcome. Two recent studies measuring perceived counselor dimensions and client satisfaction have been reported by Zamostny et al. (1981) and Heppner and Heesacker (1983). Partial results of the Zamostny et al. (1981) study were reported in the previous section in which the authors found counselors perceived as







46

being expert, attractive, and trustworthy. To determine the effectiveness of these dimensions in the influency attempt, the authors correlated the change scores between the preintake and postintake measures on client stress level and the expectancy measures with the findings on the CRF. They concluded that the dimension of expertness is directly related to the self-report measures of client satisfaction.

In the latter study, Heppner and Heesacker (1983) also examined the

relationship of perceived counselor characteristics and client satisfaction as well as studying the effect of actual counselor experience level on perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. This field study used 72 undergraduates (48 females and 24 males) who sought counseling services at a university. The researchers had the subjects fill out the Expectations About Counseling Questionnaire prior to counseling. At the end of the semester, subjects filled out the Counselor Evaluation Inventory and the CRF. The results of correlating clients' expectations with perceived counselor characteristics and clients' satisfactions demonstrate that the clients' expectations about counseling were related to their perceiving counselors as expert, attractive, and trustworthy. While not supporting the findings of Zamostny et al. (1981) on the relationship between clients' expectations and perceptions of counselors (after one interview), Heppner and Heesacker did support Zamostny, et al. in finding that perceived counselor source characteristics were correlated with client satisfaction.

Cash, Kehr, and Salzbach (1978) studied clients' help seeking

attitudes, perceived counselor source characteristics, and counseling outcome. The researchers randomly selected tapes (which depicted male and










female counselors counseling with a confederate client) and showed them to groups of undergraduates (N=219 females),. Initially, subjects were asked to fill out the Attitudes Toward Seeking ProfessionalHelp Scale. After viewing 2 16-minute videotapes of a counseling session, subjects completed (1) 2 modified CRF designed to determine perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness, (2) the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory, (3) a scale measuring their optimism in the helpfulness of the client continuing with the taped counselor, (4) a scale determining the likelihood of the client returning for additional counseling, and (5) a scale assessing the subjects' degrees of confidences in the counselor helping with 15 specific types of problems. Using a correlational analysis, the authors found that counselors seen as having expertness and trustworthiness dimensions would be more likely to have the client return and have a favorable counseling outcome.

Barak and Dell (1977a; 1977b) conducted two studies which were designed to examine the effects of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness and clients' willingness to refer themselves for help. Both studies used videotapes of male counselors and used undergraduate subjects (N=68; N=73). The first study manipulated the counselor's experience level (low and high) while the second study introduced a baseline experience level (intermediate). Each study had thensubjects view the first ten minutes of the counseling videotape, the had the subjects fill out the CRF and a self-referral questionnaire. The results of both studies indicate a positive correlation between the magnitude of the perceived counselor source characteristics and the rate of self-referral.










Atkinson and Carskaddon (1975) examined perceived counselor

expertness and clients' preferences to see the counselor. Using 32 undergraduates, 32 community mental health clients, and 32 correctional facility inmates (N-96), the authors showed two videotapes depicting

counselors and manipulated the counselor introductions (expert vs. inexpert). An analysis of variance was used to study the responses of the three groups of subjects. The authors' found that regardless of which setting the subjects were in, counselors who were introduced as "expert" were more often rated as someone the clients would see.

In an earlier analogue study, Strong and Schmidt (1970) manipulated the expert and inexpert introductions and roies with 49 male undergraduates. Using the Edwards Personal Preference Inventory (pre, post, and 1-week post), an expert scale, and a questionnaire measuring the subjects' reactions to the videotapes, the authors found that subjects' favorable reactions to the tape were positively correlated with their perceptions of counselors as being "expert."

Four additional studies have examined perceived counselor source characteristics and counseling outcome. LaCrosse (1980) conducted a field study in which pre and post data on the CRF and Global Attainment Scale were obtained from 36 drug abuse clients (8 females and 28 males). Utilizing correlational analyses, the authors found that higher GAS scores were related to the magnitude of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness.

In another field study conducted by Beutler, Johnson, Neville,

Elkins, and Jobe (1975), 97 psychiatric patients were used to determine











SOCIAL INFLUENCE ITIEORY


TABLE 3
AND COUNSELING OUTCOME STUDIES


IYPIE OF S11JDY


Analogue


PIRBLEM

Effects of high/
low
counselor prestigious intro.


SAMILE VARIABLE VARIABLE


32 Undergrads 32 mental health 32 correctional inmates


15 min.video Semantic
differCounselor ential intro, for perCounselor ceived jargon counselor


STATISTICS RESULTS


Anova


Clients preferred expert counselors


Barak Analogue Effect of 68 Under- 10 min.video CRF Correla- Perceived & counselor grads Counselor tional counselor EAT Dell perceived Referral & rate of experience qusincletr(study #1) EAT & level question- client re1(1977a) client (high/ naire ferral posiwillingness low) tively reto self- lated refer

Barak Analogue Same as 73 Under- 10 min.video Same as Same as Same as F above grads above above above
Dell Counselor (study #2) experience (1977b) level
(medium vs.
high)


AIM JORS


Atkinson Carskadden (1975)












TABLE 3 (Continued)


TYPE OF STUDY


PROBLEM


INDEPENIDiNT IIPEN DENT
SAMPLE VARIABLE VARIABLE STATISTICS


Beutler, Field study Study 97 Counselor/ Change Anova Perceived Johnson, perceived Psych- client scores counselor Neville, counselor iatric similarity high credElkins, attractive- patients (high, ibility & & Jobe ness, cred- medium, client (1975) ibility & low). self-report client Perceived on improveimprove- counselor ment related ment credibility

Cash, Analogue Perceived 219 Under- 16 mintite CRF Correla- Perceived Kehr, counselor grads audio-tape (modified tional counselor Salzbach behavior, of counsel- to include ET, client (1978) client ing ses- only 9 desire to help- sions expertness return, & seeking dimensions) client exattitudes, pectancy of & client BLRI favorable expectancy (Barrett- outcome Lennard, related
1962)

Attitudes
Toward Seeking Professional Help
Scale (Fisher
F, Turner,1970).


AUI1 IORS


RESULTS







TABLE 3 (Continued)


TYPE OF STUDY


PROBLEM


INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT SAMPLE VARIABLE VARIABLE


STATISTICS RESULTS


90 Under- 20 minute CRF grads session

Counselor Probleminexpert vs. solving
expert skills
inventory
Client ratings of Level of needs problem(high vs. solving
low) skills estimate
form


Anova Change scores


Expert influence related to client change, but only behaviors requiring minimal commitment

Client need not related to amount of counselor power to influence


Ileppner Field study Perceived 72 Under- Counselor CRF Correla- Perceived & (multiple counselor grads experience tional counselor Heesacker session) EAT & level Expecta- EAT & (1983) client tions client satis- about satisfaction faction counsel- related ing

CEI
LaCrosse Field study Perceived 36 drug- Sessions CRF Correla- Perceived


counselor EAT F outcome

Predictive validity of
OW1


abuse clients


(initial & final sessions)

Global Attainment Scale


tional counselor EAT
& GAS


CRF Predictive validity established


AUTIORS


Ileppner

Dixon (1978)


Analogue


Study perceived counselor expertness & outcome

Level of client need & counselor power to influence


(1980)


(multiple sessions)









the relationship between perceived counselor attractiveness, expertness, and clients' self-reported ratings of improvement. Counselors and clients were matched on high, medium, and low perceived counselor credibility or expertness. After the counseling treatment, subjects' views of the counselors' influence attempts were measured by the Situational Appraisal Inventory. Data on clients' improvement was gathered from both clients and counselors. Results of the change scores and analysis of variance indicate that patients who were seen as improving the most had also rated the credibility or expertness of the counselors higher.

Clients' level of need and counselors' perceived expertness was

correlated in another analogue outcome study. Heppner and Dixon (1978) used 90 female undergraduates as clients for a twenty minute interview. The researchers manipulated counselors' expert and inexpert behaviors, introductions, and objective evidence (diplomas). The subjects were asked to fill out the Problem Solving Skills Inventory and a questionnaire designed to assess clients' estimated level of problem solving ability prior to the twenty minute counseling session. The PSSI, the estimated level of problem-solving ability questionnaire, and the CRF were administered immediately after treatment. In addition, the researchers assessed the subjects' willingness to receive additional helpful written information and their willingness to attend a followup workshop. Change score and analysis of variance procedures indicate that the subjects were influenced by counselors who were perceived as being expert, but that the success of the influence only pertained to those client behaviors which required minimal client commitment.










Finally, Rothmeier and Dixon (1980) studied the effects of perceived counselors' trustworthiness and changes in clients' motivation for achievement. Thirty-four male and female undergraduates were interviewed twice by either"trustworthy" or "untrustworthy" counselors. Analyzing the differences between clients' motivation for achievement before and after counseling,as measured by an achievement motivation scale, the researchers found that clients who perceived counselors as being more trustworthy rated clients' motivation for achievement higher.

Consultation as a Process of Social Influence

Consultation as a process of social influence is also supported in the professional literature. However, only two of those reported address the social influence process directly (Martin, 1973; Martin & Curtis, 1980). The other articles, while demonstrating the presence of social influence theory constructs, do so indirectly and with no reference to the approach of consultation being a process of interpersonal influence. Table 4 lists the studies of consultation as a process of social influence.

Martin (1978) maintains that consultants need to be seen as expert in the area of human behavior. Also, Martin suggests that a concomitant feeling of attraction and commonality of purpose between consultant and consultee must be present. He advances a number of hypotheses about consultation as a process of social influence (1) Expert consultants will be more successful. (2) Consultants will have more interpersonal attractiveness when consultees are younger. (3) Referent power (interpersonal

attractiveness) will have a more profound effect upon consultees than does the power. Finally, successful consultants will have a better balance between expert and referent power than will less successful consultants.










A study by Martin and Curtis (1980) concerning consultant's age

and consultation success was a descriptive study involving 78 Pennsylvania, 65 Ohio, and 21 New Jersey school psychologists. Using the Critical Incident Technique, the subjects were asked to respond to questions concerning their successful and unsuccessful consulting experiences and to provide some biographical data on their own age and experiences as well as on that of their consultees. A 2 x 2 factorial design analysis found that the consultation was most effective when both the consultant and consultee were similar in age and experience, thus, supporting some dimensions of the interpersonal attractiveness.

An earlier report by Reger (1964) also stressed the importance of consultant/consultee interpersonal attraction. Reger purported that an effective professional relationship shows a common interest for the improvement of the overall effectiveness and quality of the consultees' work performance.

Alpert, Ballantyne, and Griffiths (1981) used 12 graduate student consultants and 15 elementary school and day care teachers as consultees in examining the characteristics of consultants and consultees and their relationship to outcome effectiveness. The researchers administered the Educational Values Assessment Questionnaire, a need for assistance scale, and scales designed to measure locus of control, authoritarianism, open-mindedness, and conservatism to both consultants and consultees. By matching consultants and consultees on high and low similarity of









attitudes and values, the researchers were able to measure successes of consultation and the degrees of interpersonal attractivenesses. T-test comparisons yield results demonstrating that generally, the more alike consultants and consultees are, the better the chance for successful consultation.

Bergan and Tombari (1976) and Curtis and Watson (1980) both

studied the effects of perceived consultants' expertness and consultation outcomes. In the former study, Bergan and Tombari trained 11 school psychologists to consult with the parents and teachers of 806 elementary (K-3) students about problem-solving skills. The consultation services were conducted for an academic year. The measures of consultants' skill and efficiencies were measured by service efficiency, skill in applying psychological principles, and interview skills. Changes in the consultees' behaviors were assessed by examining information on problem-solving from the case-reporting forms which consultants had to file. A multiple-regression analysis was performed on the consultants' variables and consultees' problem-solving measures. Results show that the more skilled the consultants (i.e., the more expertise), the greater the likelihood of consultees learning better problem-solving skills.

The Curtis and Watson (1980) study also examined the consultants' skills and process outcome. Twenty-four elementary and middle school teachers (23 females and 1 male) volunteered and were assigned to either a treatment or control group. Eight consultants were used. These consultants were divided into those having high and those having low levels of consulting skills. The researchers audiotaped the pretreatment consultation sessions in which information about students' specific behavior







TABLE 4
SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN CONSULTATION


IYPE OF STUDY


PROBLEM


Field study Examine
consultant/consultee similarity & outcome


INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT SAMPLE VARIABLE VARIABLE


12 grad. consultation students

15 elem. & day school consultees


Consultant/ consultee attitude & value similarity
(high/low)


STATISTICS RESULTS


Consulta- T-test tion outcome: consultee perceptions of behavior change in client


Consultant perceptions of client change


Generally, the more similar consultant & consultee are, the more successful the consultation


Client percept ions of client change


Field study Examine
consultant
skill,
efficiency & consultation outcome


806
elem. school children


Consultant skills (high/ low)


Service Multiple efficiency regression skill: consultant caseload & average time elapse between referral & initial interview


Tapescripts of interviewer skills


AUT! ORS


Alpert Ballantyne

Griffiths (1981)


Bergan Tombari
(1976)


High consultant skills related to more problem I.D. in consultees












TABLE 4 (Continued)


TYPE OF STUDY PROBLEM


INDEPENDENT DEPENDNrT
SAMPLE VARIABLE VARIABLE STATI STI CS RESULTS


Field study Examine
consultant
skill
(high/ low) &
consultation outcome


24
teachers (elem., middle, special educ.)


Consultant skills (high/ low)


Audiotapes Analyzed
pre/post
audiotapes
with a
problem
I.D.


Response Anova on Critical Incident Technique


Consultation more successful if consultant same age or older than consultees


AU'IIOR


Curtis Watson
(1980)


Martin Curtis
(1980)


Descriptive


Consultant skill related to consultation outcome


Examine consultant age, experience & consultation outcome


168 school psychologists


Asked to recall unsuccessful consulting experiences









problem was elicited. Following the three week treatment period in which the consultants and consultees met once a week for a one-to-one session, another interview was videotaped. This taped interview had the teacher talk about a previously never mentioned student with a previously never mentioned type of problem. The two taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed according to specified procedure which was translated into a rating on a problem identification checklist. The difference between the pretreatment and posttreatment checklist indicated that success in problem clarification skills correlated with the more skilled consultants.

Summary

Investigators have suggested a relationship between counseling and consulting. However, the nature of the relationship remains ambiguous. Theorists show counseling and consulting differing. However, empirically it has been demonstrated that they are similar in effectiveness and processes. In all of the empirical literature comparing counseling and consultation, however, there is a failure to control for the counseling and consulting treatments. As a result, replication has been impossible. Any conclusions drawn from these studies must therefore be viewed with caution.

Tables2, 3, and 4 present studies which have investigated both

counseling and consulting in terms of Strong's social influence process. The results of these studies suggest that the interpersonal influence process provides a sound, consistent, and systematic basis through which the relationship between counseling and consulting can be explored.






59



An analysis of all the reviewed literature suggests three conclusions:

1. There is a relationship between counseling and consultation.

2. Without controlling the counseling and consulting treatments, no valid conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between counseling and consulting.

3. The relationship between counseling and consulting can be

described as one in which both counselors and consultants engage in a process of interpersonal influence.














CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES



Consultation has become a major intervention tool for school counselors, school psychologists and various mental health workers in the past two decades. Yet, while being supported as an altogether distinct process or technique, consultation does seem to approximate counseling in the helper/helpee relationship, consultant helping strategies, the dynamics which occur between the consultant and the consultee, and various helper or source characteristics.

Studies examining the training processes of counselor/consultants in the counselor education departments across the country demonstrate that most counselors-to-be do not receive specific course work in the area. Rather, consultation theory and practice is part of various other courses. This training practice reflects the notion that the two processes of counseling and consultation are seen as so similar that the latter does not require much specialized training. The few studies to date which examined this process similarity have offered support for this view. Nevertheless, there is enough theoretical evidence to suggest that consulting and counseling are different processes.












One of the problems in consultation and in examining the relationship between counseling and consulting is the lack of a unifying theory for consultation. Due to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework, the research appearing in the professional literature reflects the use of a variety of definitions of consultation, a variety of undifferentiated processes, and a variety of theoretical orientations and assumptions. Before counseling and consulting processes can be studied with an acceptable degree of validity and reliability, consultation needs to have a unifying theoretical framework.

Martin (1978) maintains that consultation is a process of interpersonal influence whereby consultants attempt to change consultees through interpersonal interactions. He followed with a study of the impact of the consultants' age upon consultation outcome which supported the view that consultation is a process of interpersonal influence.

Social influence may not only be used in unifying the various theories of consultation, but can provide a consistent framework through which the relationship between counseling and consulting can be studied. The questions of concern were

1. Is there a relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of perceived helper expertness?

2. Is there a relationship between counseling and consulting

in terms of perceived helper attractiveness?









3. Is there a relationship between counseling and consultation in terms of perceived helper trustworthiness?

Helper and Helpee Characteristics

A male counseling psychologist, on the faculty in the Department

of Psychology at the University of Florida, acted as both counselor and consultant.

The helpee was a female graduate student in the University's

Department of Theatre. She was used as the client in all counseling and consulting treatments.

Independent Variables

To address questions, two independent variables were used

1. Models: (A) cognitive-behavioral therapy (Ellis, 1962, Mahoney, 1977)

(B) client-centered therapy (Rogers, 1975)

(C) consultee-centered case consultation (Caplan, 1970)

(D) behavioral consultation (Russell, 1978)

2. Segments:(l) problem identification phase

(2) action phase

Using a problem identification and action phase for each of the four models, eight 3 minute video tapes were made.











The client studied the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (Rathus, 1973) and was asked to portray a "mild to moderate degree of unassertive behavior" in trying to cope with a college roommate problem. The helper was handed a sheet describing the target behaviors which were to be demonstrated. Refer to Appendix A for a detailed description of the directions for each.

After a particular video segment had been taped, it was reviewed by the researcher to determine (a) if the tape was recorded properly, and (b) if the psychologist had demonstrated the target behaviors.

Eleven doctoral students in the Department of Counselor Education also acted as judges. All of the video segments were judged as representative of the intended model (Range 88%-100%) and the competency of the psychologist was judged as acceptable (Range 85%-96%) for all models. Appendices B and C show the Judges' Rating Sheet and judges' ratings respectively.

Dependent Variables
Perceived helper behavior was measured by the Counselor Rating Form (Barak and LaCrosse, 1975). This instrument is based upon Strong's (1968) theory of counseling as a process of social influence and measures the dimensions of perceived helper expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The Counselor Rating Form (CRF) contains 36 7-point bi-polar scales. Each dimension is measured by 12 items and the range of scores for each item is 12-84. A number of studies have









demonstrated the reliability of the CRF and have supported the capability of the CRF to discriminate the expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthy dimensions between and within counselors (Atkinson & Wampole, 1982; Barak & LaCrosse, 1975, 1977; Corrigan, 1978; Zamostny, Corrigan, & Eggert, 1981).

Subjects

The population from which the sample was drawn was all undergraudates currently residing in on-campus residence halls at the University of Florida during Summer Term A, 1983.

Permission to conduct the study in a residence area was obtained from the Division of Housing and from the Resident Area Director. To advertise for volunteer subjects, each Hall Director and their respective assistants were asked to post flyers on all bulletin boards in their halls. The flyers asked subjects to volunteer 1 1 hours for a study on "how people change attitudes, opinions, and behaviors, while seeking professional help." The subjects were told each would receive $5 for participation.

Thirty-four males and 45 females participated in the study (N=79). Of these, 71% were Caucasian, 25% Black, and 4% were Asian. Sophomores were the most represented group (38%), followed by seniors (28%), Freshman (19%), and Juniors (19%). A wide variety of majors was represented. All subjects lived in one on-campus residence area at the University of Florida and were enrolled in Summer Term A. Appendix D presents a description of the subjects.









Procedure

To identify potential difficulties in the administration of

the treatment, a pilot study was conducted using 18 undergraduates. Problems in the computerized scoring sheets, videotape clarity, and directions were identified.

For the experimental treatment, computerized scoring sheets were not used. Two recently serviced video monitors were used to ensure that all 79 subjects could see and hear the tapes. A

packet containing (a) an Informed Consent Form, (b) a biographical data sheet, and (c) 8 Counselor Rating Forms was handed to each participant once all were seated. The researcher demonstrated on a blackboard the correct way of recording on the data sheet and read aloud the instructions for the Counselor Rating Form.

To ensure each subject's CRF ratings would correspond to the appropriate video segment, the CRFs in the packet were numbered 1 through 8 and stapled together.

The order of segments was randomized by segment and model (see Appendix E). After each segment was shown, the researcher reminded the subjects of what number should appear on their CRF and they were given time to fill out the CRF. Next segment was then shown. This process was repeated until all 8 segments had been shown and their corresponding CRFs filled out. At the end of the treatment, each subject received 5 dollars.











Experimental Design

The design used in the study was a modification of a counterbalanced design (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1979). Figure 1 depicts this modification.


R X1


R X2 02 R X3 03


R X4 04 R X5 05 R X6 06 R X7 07 R X8 08


FIGURE 1
COUNTERBALANCED EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN











Data Analysis

The analysis used in the study was a within subjects 2 x 4 x 3 x 2 factorial design for repeated measures (Kiugh, 1974). There were two levels for each of the four models. Each level of the models was analyzed in terms of perceived helper expertness, attractivensss, and trustworthiness. Subject sex was used as a moderator variable. Figure 2 depicts the factorial design.


TREATMENTS Cognitive- ClientBehavioral Centered Behavioral Mental Health Therapy Therapy Consultation Consultation Problem E* E
I.D. T** T Segments A

Action




FIGURE 2
THE WITHIN SUBJECTS 2 x 4 x 3 x 2 FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR
REPEATED MEASURES
*Expertness
**Trustworthiness
***Attractiveness






68


Stummary
Strong's theory of social influence is a potentially valuable

tool for studying the relationship between counseling and consultation. This study is not intended to answer all the questions concerning the nature of the relationship, but rather endeavors to introduce a comprehensive and systematic way of examining these two processes together.














CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS



This chapter will present the results of the study. The first

section will present the preliminary analysis. The next three sections will detail analyses which address the research questions outlined in Chapter I. Finally, a brief summary of all analyses will be presented.

Preliminary Analysis

A 3 x 4 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis for repeated measures was

utilized to examine the relationship between counseling and consultation. The factors used in the design were dimensions - 3 levels (expertness, trustworthiness, attractiveness), approaches - 4 levels (consultee-centered case consultation, client-centered therapy, behavioral consultation, and cognitive-behavioral therapy), sequence - two levels (problem identification and action-oriented), and sex - two levels (males and females). The repeated measures design was used both because the dimensions of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness have been shown to be intercorrelated (LaCrosse & Barak, 1976) and because each set of ratings came from 8 different helping sessions, The summary of the preliminary analysis is presented in Table 5,















TABLE 5
SUMMARY OF THIE FOUR-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE-REPEATED
MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTNESS
ATTRACTIVENESS, TRUSTWORTHY, AND SEX DIMENSIONS


Source SS Df MS F


Dimension (R) Approach (S) Sequence (T) Sex (G)
Interactions RXG SXG TXG RXS
RXT SXT RXSXT
RXSXG RXTXG SXTXG RXSXTXG Pooled Error


3638.619 5058.065 3824.062
2711.684

149.847 128.833 442.897 4292.786 937.809 6629.811 3004.390
133.347 34.949
1284.967 125.031 10938.201


1819.309
1686.021 3824.062 2711.684

74.923 42.944 442.897
715.464 468.904 2209.937 500.731 22.224 17.474 928.322 20.838 23.675


20.47*
9.22* 25. 28* 2.24

0.84 0.23 2.93
39.35* 29. 73*
10. 79* 21.15*
1.22
1.11
2.09
0.88


*Significant at p < .05










As can be seen from the analysis of variance summarized in

Table 5 no significant differences were found between males and females for dimensions (R), approaches (S), and sequences (T). A threeway interaction was found between dimensions, approaches, and sequences (RXSXT). The F-value for analysis was 21.15 and the degrees of freedom were 6 and 624 (p < .01). The significant RXSXT interaction suggested further analysis in which the specific interaction between approach X sequence (SXT) needed to be investigated at each level of dimension

(R).

This analysis was warranted because the investigator was interested in the relationship between counseling and consulting according to the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Thus, the SXT at each level of R analyses would address the relationship between rather than within approaches and sequences. Table 6 summarizes the results of repeated measures analysis of variance for the ST interaction at each level of dimension (R).

Expertness
Myers (1972) points out that the F-ratio in repeated measures ANOVA can be positively biased when more than two levels of the repeated factor exist. Geisser and Greenhouse (1958) argued that conservative degrees of freedom (1, n-l) be used to determine the critical F-ratio. However, using conservative degrees of freedom biases the F-ratio in a














TABLE 6
SUMMARY OF THE TWO-WAY ANALYSES OF VARIANCE-REPFATED
MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON THE EXPERTNESS
TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS


SOURCE SS Df MS F


Expertness
Approach (S) Sequence (T)
SXT
Simple Effects**
T at s1
T at S2

T at S3 T at S4
S at t1 S at t2
Trustworthiness Approach (S) Sequence (T)
SXT
Simple Effects T at S1 T at S2 T at S3 T at S4 S at T1 S at T2


8238.941 3612.533 4890.283

4812.556 300.784

1127.113 112.284 3315.072 13413.000

1200.632 1287.348 1831.006 1069.120
250.639 22.784 952.810 3315.974


2746,313 3612.533 1630.094


1 4812.556
1 300.784

1 1127.113 1 112.284
3 3315.072 3 13413.000


400,210 1287.348 610.335


1 1069,120 1 250.639 1 22.784 1 952.810 3 1105.324


304.962 5.84*


30.87 42.93 15.62* 37.08*
2.57

12 87* 2.47 15,28* 39.93*

6.00 22.83 8.07* 11. 52*
3,92 0.28 18.30* 14. 39*


914.886 3















TABLE 6 (Continued)


SOURCE
Attractiveness Approach (S) Sequence (T)
SXT
Simple Effects
T at S1 T at S2 T at S3 T at S4 S at T1
S at T2


57.890 299.406 3377.169 154.025 482.126 216.613
1386.227 1645.177 1832.313


**S1: Consultee centered case consultation
s 2 Client-centered therapy s3: Behavioral consultation

s4: Cognitive-behavioral therapy
t 1 Problem identification segment
t 2 Action segment
* Significant at p < .05


19.296 299.406
1125.723 154.025 482.126 216.613 1386.227 548.392
610.771


0.31 6.50 14.99* 2.48 5.74 2 92 26.80* 7.59*
10.93*










negative direction (Collier, Baker, Mandeville, & Hayes, 1967). Thus, for repeated measures analysis of variance, the conventional degrees of freedom should be multiplied by the E (epsilon) statistic (Collier, et al., 1967) to determine the exact degrees of freedom to be used (Barak & LaCrosse, 1977).

In examining the relationship of approaches and sequences on the expertness dimension, the conventional degrees of freedom (3 and 234) were multiplied by the E statistic (.889) to yield 3 and 208 degrees of freedom. The F-value of 15.62 was found to be significant indicating an AxS interaction.

Further analysis yielded significant differences between the problem identification and action phases of the consulting models. The means and standard deviations are reported in Table 7. It was found that the helper was seen as more expert in the problem identification phase of consultee-centered case consultation than in the action plase (X 66,64, SD1D.A.67 vs. Y 55.60, SD 14.53). However, the opposite was true for behavioral consultation where the helper was seen as more expert in the action phase (X 71.10, SD 11.72). No significant differences were found between the two segments in client-centered therapy and in cognitivebehavioral therapy.

An investigation between the approaches (S) at each level of segment (T) was conducted. The results, reported in Table 6, indicated that perceived helper expertness varied between approaches in both probelm identification and action sequences. Post hoc pairwise comparisons, using Tukey HSD procedures and the epsilon statistic for










corrected degrees of freedom, (p < .05), was performed on the SxT interaction.

For the problem identification phase, the consulting models did not significantly differ in amount of perceived helper expertness. For the counseling models, however, client-centered therapy was seen as less expert than cognitive-behavioral therapy (X 60.77, SD 13.89 vs. X 69.79, SD 8.96). When differences between counseling and consulting models were examined, it was found the helper in cognitivebehavioral therapy was seen as more expert than in any other approach, and the helper in client-centered therapy was seen as the least expert.

The same procedure was used to investigate the expertness dimension between models in the action phas. These means and standard deviations are also reported in Table 7. The consulting models were found to be significantly different with behavioral consultation seen as more expert than consultee-centered case consultation (X 71.10, SD 11.72 vs. X 55.60, SD 14.53). For the counseling models, cognitive-behavioral therapy again was seen as more expert than client-centered therapy (Y 71.55, SD 9.36 vs. X 63.53, SD 11.54). When comparing models of counseling and consulting, it was found that consultee-centered case consultation was seen as the least expert for the action phase among all models. Behavioral consultation was seen as more expert than client centered therapy, but did not significantly differ from cognitive-behavioral therapy (_ 71.10, SD 11.72 vs. X 71.55, SD 9.36 respectively).

Summary
The results of the analyses of the expertness dimension indicated that the consultant was seen as differentially expert throughout the














TABLE 7
SUMMARY OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR
COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS*



Problem Identification Action

APPROACH X SD X SD Consultee-Centered
Case Consultation
E 66.64 10,67 55.60 14.53 T 65.65 11.53 60.45 11.54 A 64.53 11,07 62.55 10.37

Client-Centered
Therapy
E 60.77 13.89 63.53 11.54 T 61.15 11.74 63.67 10.22 A 58.10 11.50 61.59 10.98

Behavioral Consultation
E 65.75 11.17 71.10 11.72 T 64.67 10.77 65.43 12.88 A 62.75 9.92 60.41 11.21

Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy
E 69.79 8,96 71.55 9.36 T 64.51 10.71 69.43 11,02 A 60.56 10.20 66.49 9.83

*n=79








problem identification and action process of consultation. The amount of perceived expertness dropped significantly during the action phase of consultee-centered case consultation, but increased significantly during the same phase of behavioral consultation. This differential in expertness was not found when counseling models were examined. The amount of perceived helper expertness remained (essentially) constant across both phases.

When examining differences between models, sequence was held constant. The results of pairwise comparisons of approaches at the problem identification phase showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as the most expert while client-centered therapy was perceived as the least expert of all approaches, During the action phase, however, this trend did not continue. Consultee-centered case consultation was rated as the least expert while both behavioral consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy were seen having the most amount of helper expertness.
No clear pattern emerges from the analysis of expertness between counseling and consulting. However, cognitive-behavioral therapy was consistently rated high in perceived helper expertness while clientcentered therapy was consistently rated low, This suggests that the differences of expertness between counseling and consulting is dependent upon the specific models compared.

Trustworthiness
A significant interaction between approaches and sequences was found for the trustworthiness dimension (Table 6). The F-value was

8.07 with 2 and 183 degrees of freedom (corrected with the epsilon of .783), and p < .05.










Further analysis of simple effects indicated significant differences between the problem identification and action phases on the approaches. The means and standard deviations appear in Table 7. For the consulting models, the problem identification phase of consultee-centered case consultation was seen as more trustworthy than the action phase, but no

significant difference was found between both phases of behavioral consultation. Mixed results were found between the problem identification and action phases in both counseling models. While no significant difference was found in the client-centered therapy sequences, the action phase of cognitive-behavioral therapy was perceived as significantly more trustworthy than the problem identification sequence.

An investigation was then conducted between approaches and sequences for the trustworthiness dimension. Table 6 presents the results which indicated differences between approaches on both levels of sequence. Tukey HSD post hoc procedures were used. The epsilon factor for adjusted degrees of freedom produced 2 and 253 degrees of freedom (p < .05).

The consulting models did not significantly differ in amount of perceived helper trustworthiness for the problem identification phase. However, for the counseling approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated more trustworthy than was client-centered therapy (X 64.51, SD 10.71 vs. Y 61.15, SD 11.74). When differences between counseling and consulting models were analyzed the results were mixed. Clientcentered therapy was seen as significantly less trustworthy than all other approaches, but there were no differences between consulteecentered case consultation, behavioral consultation, and cognitivebehavioral therapy.








For the action phase, the consulting models differed significantly. Behavioral consultation was rated more trustworthy than was consulteecentered case consultation (X 65.43, SD 12.88 vs. X 60.45, SD 11.54). The counseling models differed as well with cognitive-behavioral therapy seen as more trustworthy than client-centered therapy.

Comparisons across models of counseling and consultation again produced mixed results. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as significantly more trustworthy than all other approaches. Clientcentered therapy was not significantly different from the consulting models.

Summary
The results of the analysis of the trustworthiness dimension indicated that while the degree of perceived helper trustworthiness did not vary between the problem identification and action phases of clientcentered therapy and behavioral consultation, both consultee-centered case consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy showed significant differences between their respective sequences.

Each sequence was held constant and analysis was conducted across all models. The results of Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons indicated that client-centered therapy was seen as being the least trustworthy during the problem identification phase. No significant differences were found to exist between consulting models and cognitive-behavioral therapy. During the action phase, cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as being the most expert, but no significant differences were found between consulting models and client-centered therapy.









No clear pattern between counseling and consulting is indicated by these analyses. Again, as in the expertness dimension, the amount of

perceived helper trustworthiness tends to vary according to specific helping models across counseling and consultation.

Attractiveness
Table 6 also presents results of a repeated measures analysis of variance conducted for the attractiveness dimension. Using 3 and 199 degrees of freedom with p < .05, the F-value of 14.99 for the approach

(s) X sequence (T) interaction was found to be significant.

In examining differences between thE: problem identification and action phases within models, the only significant difference appeared in the counseling modes. Both were seen as having more attractiveness

in the action phases. The means and standard deviations appear in Table 7.

In comparing each model for the amount of perceived helper attractiveness in the problem identification phase, a significant interaction was found. This required further examination using the Tukey HSD post hoc analysis procedure for pairwise comparisons. The means and standard deviations appear in Table 7.

No significant differences were found when consulting models were compared, nor were there significant differences between counseling models. When counseling and consulting models were compared mixed results were indicated. Consultee-centered case consultation was seen as more interpersonally attractive than both counseling models. Behavioral consultation was perceived as having significantly more attractiveness than clientcentered therapy (Y 62.75, SD 9.92 vs. X 58.10, SD 11.50), but not significantly different from cognitive-behavioral counseling (X 60.56, SD 10.20).









Pairwise comparisons were also performed on the approaches at the

action sequence. No significant differences were found between consulting models. However, cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as having more interpersonal attractiveness than client-centered therapy. When comparing models of counseling and consulting, cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated as the most interpersonally attractive. No significant differences were found to exist between client-centered therapy and both consulting models.

Summary
The results of the analyses for the attractiveness dimension

indicated that the amount of perceived helper attractiveness remained essentially constant throughout consultation phases, but varied consistently in counseling models.

Holding sequence constant, mixed results were reported when comparing counseling and consulting models during the problem identification phase, although consultee-centered case consultation was rated as more interpersonally attractive than both counseling models.

For the pairwise comparisons of approaches during the action phase,

cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as having a greater degree of interpersonal attractiveness than both consulting models and the clientcentered therapy approach.

As for both expertness and trustworthiness dimensions, no clear

pattern emerges from the study of counseling and consulting in terms of perceived helper attractiveness. One consulting approach has a higher degree of interpersonal attractiveness during the problem identification phase while a counseling approach is rated higher than the other models during the action phase.











The results of all analyses performed for approaches and sequences at each level of dimension fail to demonstrate a clear pattern between counseling and consulting. However, some interesting groupings do occur for expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness between the problem identification and action phases. For the problem identification phase, client-centered therapy was seen as having the least amount of expertness and trustworthiness. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated as having the most amount of expertness. The attractiveness dimension produced mixed results,

In the action sequence, cognitive-behavioral therapy was perceived as having the most amount of trustworthiness and interpersonal attractiveness. The expertness dimension was divided among behavioral consultation and cogntive-behavioral therapy.














CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOaVENDATIONS



In the past two decades, educators, school-based and mental health counselors, and authors have suggested that there is a relationship between counseling and consultation. Current researchers have shown that both counseling and consulting can be viewed as processes of interpersonal influence. However, studies comparing counseling and consultation have failed to use this interpersonal influence approach. The result has been that similarities and differences between counseling and consulting are based largely upon theoretical writing and fail to clarify the relationship. If counseling and consulting could be empirically compared as processes of interpersonal influence, the nature and extent of their relationship would be clarified.

This chapter presents a summary and interpretation of the findings in this study. Limitations and practical implications are presented. Additionally,recommendations for further research are included.

Limitations
A number of limitations in the current investigation exist and should be considered when interpreting these data.

One of these limitations concerns the use of a 3 minute videotape to represent counseling and consulting processes. The length of the








videotapes, although rated as accurately representing the intended processes and receiving literature support as indicative of a 50-minute session, may not be representative of entire counseling and consulting processes. However, in anticipation of this limitation, the investigator used eleven judges to determine the accurate portrayal of each treatment modality in the 3 minute video segment. In addition, the judges were asked to rate the helpers' degree of competency. The results of the judges' ratings appear in Appendix C. The results indicated that both counseling and consulting processes were performed accurately and that the helper had an acceptable degree of competency ( Z 85% concurrence among judges). Second, while a 3 minute video segment may have lacked "authentic" helping processes, one of the purposes of the current investigation was to maintain a high degree of control over the presentation of the counseling and consulting modalities.

A related limitation concerns the separation of each process into a "problem identification" and "action" segment. The purpose was to allow for a more complete investigation of the relationship between counseling and consulting. Moreover, this separation appears to be consistent with the stages which occur in "real life" counseling and consulting. Again, to ensure accuracy, judges were used to rate each segment.

The uses of the same counselor/consultant and helpee throughout both counseling and consulting approaches presents a third limitation. Although, the use of judges' ratings was an attempt to counterbalance this limitation, it is difficult to assert that all models were equally









represented by the helper. In that between 65% and 90% of the message in a normal two-person conversation is communicated nonverbally, it is probable that the helper's subtle preferences for particular models was present. Second, these same subtle factors may have been operating for the client as well. The current investigation was concerned with exercising control over the treatments to avoid a salient flaw in the current literature. Thus, while perhaps limiting the generalizations which could be made from the results, the purpose of using only one helper and helpee was to control potential confounding variables such as between helper variance. In the future, researchers may want to limit their investigations to the use of one counseling and one consulting process with two or more helpers and helpees representing each approach.

Having subjects fill out 8 Counselor Rating Forms might be viewed as limiting because the CRFs may have acted as a type of pre-test sensitization. However, the presentation of the 8 video segments was randomized, thus acting as a counterbalance.

Finally, a problem was encountered during the implementation of this research which should be considered in interpreting these data. It was pointed out to the researcher that 10 of the subjects were currently enrolled in an undergraduate course taught by the counselor/ consultant used in the study, and that the parable used by the helper in the action phase of the consultee-centered case consultation had been used in the class for instructional purposes. However, this affected only one set of ratings for less than 10 subjects. Future investigations might address this question by having subjects indicate on their response forms if they are currently acquainted with either the helper or helpee.







Discussion

Question 1: Is there a Relationship Between Counseling and Consulting in Terms of Perceived Helper Expertness?

An analysis of the data comparing counseling models at each level of sequence indicated that cognitive-behavior therapy was seen as more

expert than client-centered therapy in both the problem identification (X 69.79 vs. X 60.77) and action sequences (7 71.55 vs. X 63.53).

In the comparison of consulting models across both sequences,

the data indicated no differences between consultee-centered case consultation and behavioral consultation in the amount of perceived helper expertness during the problem identification phase. However, behavioral consultation was seen as more expert in the action sequences (X 60.43 vs. X 55.60). These differences prevented a-"collapse" of counseling models and consulting models into "counseling versus consulting" on the expertness dimension across process sequences. Therefore, all four models had to be analyzed independently of their generic classifications.

When comparing specific models across both problem identification and action sequences on the expertness dimension, a number of interesting findings emerged. The data indicated that cognitive-behavioral counseling was rated the highest of the four models in the problem identification phase and, along with behavioral consultation, was rated again as having the most amount of perceived expertness in the action sequence. Client-centered therapy and consultee-centered case consultation were rated the lowest in the problem identification and action phases respectively. These findings suggest that regardless of whether










one is using a counseling or consulting model, the non-directive approaches are viewed as being less expert than the more directive counseling and consulting models.

Second, although the counseling models differed in terms of perceived expertness, the data indicated that these differences remained fairly constant across both their problem identification and action sequences. Counseling seems to maintain an essentially constant amount of perceived counselor expertness throughout the middle and final phases.

This finding was not characteristic of consulting models. The results indicated that the amount of perceived helper expertness during consultation varied between problem identification and action phases but the direction of these differences was dependent upon the particular consulting intervention used.

Question 2: Is there a Relationship Between Counseling and Consulting in Terms of Perceived Helper Trustworthiness:

The results of comparing the counseling models at both levels of sequence demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as more trustworthy than client-centered therapy in the problem identification and action phases. In the same comparison using consulting models, behavioral consultation was rated as more trustworthy than consulteecentered case consultation in the action phase (X 65.43 vs. X 60.45). No significant differences appeared between consulting models in the problem identification phase. Due to these within group differences, it was again not possible to collapse the comparisons into "counseling versussus consulting" on the trustworthiness dimension across sequences.









Thus, as with expertness, comparisons of counseling and consulting had to be performed on a model-by-model basis.

The results of these comparisons are noteworthy. Client-centered therapy was rated significantly lower than all other models in terms of perceived helper trustworthiness for the problem identification phase. Thus, for both the expertness and trustworthiness dimensions of the problem identification phase, client-centered therapy had the lowest ratings.

For the action phase on the trustworthiness dimension, cognitivebehavior therapy was rated significantly higher than all other approaches. This finding differed from that on the expertness dimension only in that both cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation were seen as having the most amount of perceived helper expertness.

Data from the comparisons of models to trustworthiness across both problem identification and action sequences failed to support the findings on the expertness dimension. While counseling was seen as remaining rather constant in terms of expertness across sequences, mixed results were found on the trustworthiness dimension when comparing counseling

and consulting models. Client-centered therapy and behavioral consultation remained relatively constant across sequences. However, cognitivebehavioral therapy and consultee-centered case consultation both varied in terms of the amount of perceived helper trustworthiness. The former was seen as less trustworthy in its respective action phase while the latter was rated as more trustworthy in its action phase. Thus, although specific relationships between particular models of counseling and consulting processes are indicated, the generic relationship between "counseling and consultation" is unclear in terms of perceived helper trustworthiness.









Question 3: Is there a Relationship Between Counseling and Consulting in Terms of Perceived Helper Attractiveness?

The comparisons of counseling models at each level of sequence on the attractiveness dimension indicated that there was no significant difference between client-centered and cognitive-behavioral therapy during the problem identification phases. However, cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated as having a greater degree of perceived helper attractiveness in the action phase. No differences were found to exist between the problem identification and action phases of consulting models. Thus, consultee-centered case and behavioral consultation can be collapsed into the generic term "consultation."

When viewed as such, consultation is perceived as having more interpersonal attractiveness than is client-centered therapy in the problem

identification phase but is rated significantly lower than cognitivebehavioral therapy in attractiveness during the action phase.

Therefore, when addressing the question concerning the relationship between counseling and consulting, it appears that during the problem identification phase, consultation has more perceived helper attractiveness than does client-centered therapy, but the results are mixed when comparing consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy. During the action phase, no significant differences appear between consultation and clientcentered therapy. However, consultation is seen as having less perceived interpersonal attractiveness than is cognitive-behavioral therapy.

When the counseling and consulting processes were analyzed in terms

of the increase or decrease in perceived helper attractiveness across both sequences, interesting results were indicated.









For the expertness dimension of counseling, it was shown that the amount of perceived helper expertness did not significantly vary across problem identification and action sequences. The action phase of counseling, however, was rated more interpersonally attractive than the problem identification phase. This suggests that while maintaining a consistent level of helper expertness, counseling seems to increase in perceived helper attractiveness in the later or action stages.

The results of this study indicated that the level of perceived

helper interpersonal attractiveness remained rather constant throughout the problem identification and action phases of consultation. It appears, then, that the relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of helper attractiveness, is that consultation presented a consistent level of interpersonal attractiveness throughout the middle and final stages while counseling increases as the process moved into the later stages. Summary of the Analyses Addressing the Three Research Questions

The research questions in the current investigation were designed

to address the relationship between counseling and consulting. The results of the study indicated that a general collapse of consulting and

counseling models into "consulting vs. counseling" was not possible. This was due to significant differences found between models of consultation

and between counseling models along the dimensions of expertness and trustworthiness. For example, consultee-centered case consultation was perceived as less expert than behavioral consultation in the action sequence. For counseling models, cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as more trustworthy than client-centered therapy during the action phase.









Although these within group differences did exist, the pattern of differences was not consistent. Therefore, in general, it was not possible to draw specific conclusions about differences and similarities between counseling and consultation.

In one instance, it was possible to collapse the models into the

generic classification of counseling and consulting because no significant differences were found within consulting and counseling groups across sequences on the attractiveness dimension. The results indicated that counseling increased in perceived helper attractiveness as the process moved from the problem identification phase to the action phase. Consultation was seen as maintaining a consistent level of attractiveness across those same sequences.

A summary of other results examining the relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness indicated

1. Client-centered therapy was seen as having the least amount

of perceived helper expertness and trustworthiness in the

problem identification phase.

2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated as having the most

amount of perceived helper trustworthiness, attractiveness,

and along with behavioral consultation, the most amount of

expertness than all other models in the action phase.

3. Consultation demonstrated a consistent level of perceived

helper attractiveness throughout thE: middle and final stages of the process, but the amount of perceived helper expertness varied throughout the middle and final stages. However, the

direction of the difference was dependent upon the specific

consulting model.










From these results, implications can be drawn about the relationship between counseling and consulting. The results of the literature reviews in Chapters I and II indicated that counseling and consulting were theoretically different, yet did not seem to differ in practice. The results of the current investigation do not support these claims.

An implication of the present study is that both counseling and consulting can be studied as processes of interpersonal influence. It may be that particular models of counseling and consulting are theoretically different. However, these differences are not necessarily theoretical differences between counseling and consulting per se. Rather, they appear to be differences emanating from generic views of how people change. In other words, differences which appear seem to be delineated by the directiveness vs. non-directiveness of the helper regardless of which helping process was being demonstrated.

For example, the current investigation used two non-directive

approaches (client-centered therapy and consultee-centered case consultation) and two directive approaches (cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation). The non-directive counseling model was seen as least expert in the problem identification phase, and the non-directive consulting model was seen as least expert in the action phase. The directive models of counseling and consulting were seen as more expert in the action phase than were both non-directive models.

Differences between the practices of counseling and consulting as reported in Chapters I and II are also refuted by the findings of the present investigation.




Full Text

PAGE 1

PERCEIVED EXPERINESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS IN COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION By THOMAS C. HARRISON, JR. A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1983

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This is dedicated to Linda and Qiamois who, while meeting the demands of their own professions , never failed to offer support and guidance throughout the writing of this dissertation. ii

PAGE 3

TABLE OF COMTNTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES vi ABSTRACT vii CflAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 9 Purpose , 10 Related Questions , 10 Rationale , 11 Definitions of Terms. . 14 Limitations and Delimitations . , 21 De 1 imi tations 21 Limitations , , , 22 Overview of the Remaining Chapters 23 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 24 Selection of the Relevant Literature. , . . , , 24 Counseling and Consultation , , 26 Social Influence Theory . 35 Counseling as a Social Influence Process 39 Perceived Counselor Dimensions and Counseling Outcome . . 45 Consultation as a Process of Social Influence 53 Summary 58 III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 60 Helper and Helpee Characteristics , . , . 62 Independent Variables , , , , 62 Dependent Variables 63 Subjects 64 Procedures , , , , . 65 Experimental Deisgn ..... 66 Data Analysis 67 iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER PAGE IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 69 Preliminary Analysis 69 Expertness 71 Summary 75 Trustworthiness 77 Summary 79 At tract ivene ss 80 Summary 81 V CONaUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOM^DATIONS 83 Limitations 83 Discussion 86 Summary o£ the Analyses Addressing the Three Research Questions 90 Implications and Recommendations for Future Research. . 92 Conclusions 95 APPENDENCIES A DIRECTIONS FOR HELPER AND HELPEE 97 B JUDGES' RATING SHEET 99 C JUDGES' RATING BY SEGMENT 102 D DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS 103 E ORDER OF PRESENTATION TO SUBJECTS 104 F SUMMARY OF TWO-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR APPROACH (S) X SEQUENCE (T) FOR EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AI^ ATTRACTIVENESS 105 G SUNMARY OF REPEATED >.1EASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SIMPLE EFFECTS OF APPROACH X SEQUENCE ON EXPERTWESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS 106 H SUMMARY OF POST HOC COMPARISONS FOR SEQUENCE AT EACH LEVEL OF APPROACH ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS 107 I SUNMARY OF TUKEY HSD POST HOC COMPARISONS OF APPROACHES AT EACH LEVEL OF SEQUENCE ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS 108 REFERENCES 210 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .'.'.'.".*.*." .' .* .* ny iv j

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 STUDIES COMPARING COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION 34 2 ESTABLISHMENT OF COUNSELING AS A SOCIAL INFLUENCE PROCESS 42 3 SOCIAL I>1FLUENCE THEORY AND COUNSELING OUICOME STUDIES . . 49 4 SOCIAL INFLUENCE IN CONSULTATION 56 5 SUMMARY OF THE FOUR-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE -REPEATED MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTOESS ATTRACTIVENESS, TRUSTWORTHY, AND SEX DIMENSIONS, . , . , , 70 6 SUMMARY OF THE TIYO-WAY ANALYSES OF VARIANCE -REPEATED MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON THE EXPERTNESS TRUSTIVORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS 72 7 SUMMARY OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERBIESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTRMSS DIMENSIONS 76 V

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i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 COUhTTERBALANCED EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 66 2 THE WITHIN SUBJECTS 2x4x3x2 FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR REPEATED MEASURES 67 vi

PAGE 7

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the IMiversity of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PERCEIVED EXPERTOESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS IN CDUNSELING AND CONSULTATION By THOMAS C. HARRISON, JR. August, 1983 Chairman: Larry C. Loesch Major Department: Counselor Education This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness in counseling and consultation. A review of the literature in the field indicated that counseling and consulting differed theoretically but did not differ in practice. Second, although both counseling and consulting had received support as being processes of interpersonal influence, counseling and consulting processes had not been investigated through a comparison of the relative strengths of perceived helpers' expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. TWo 3h minute videotapes were made for each of two counseling and two consulting approaches. One segment depicted the problem identification phase of each model and one segment depicted the action phase. vii

PAGE 8

Frcsn undergradimtes living in oncampus housing during Summer Term A, 1983, a residence area was chosen and 79 subjects volunteered to participate in the study. The 8 videotapes were randomly ordered and presented to the subjects. After each video segment, subjects recorded their perceptions of the helper's expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness on the Counselor Rating Form. A2x3x4x2 repeated-measures factorial design was used to analyze subjects' responses. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the responses of males and females. Significant differences within models of consultation and counseling were found along the expertness and trustworthiness dimensions. This did not allow consulting and counseling models to be collapsed into "consulting vs. counseling." Analysis of results on a mo del -bymodel basis indicated that the directive approaches of cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation were perceived as more expert than the nondirective approaches of client-centered therapy and consulteecentered case consultation. Consulting was seen as maintaining a consistent level of perceived helper attractiveness across both sequences whereas counseling was shown to have increased levels of attractiveness across the same sequences. The results of this study indicate the relationship between counseling and consulting is complex and is best understood on a raodel-by-model basis. Because the directive approaches were perceived as more expert, practitioners might consider using these approaches when working with college students. viii

PAGE 9

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The witch doctor is usually a person, who, through some accident o£ fate such as widowhood, sterility, or insanity, is not in a position to function in the social system in a normal, conpetitive manner. Often society delegates to this position persons for 'whom the social system has no adequate social definition or role. It is not uncommon for such a person to purchase extensive training at the hands of an experienced practitioner who understands the mysterious gadgetry of witchcraft. After a long apprenticeship, the would-be shaman begins his or her career through an attempted cure or other supernatural intervention in the community. If the novice's attempts are successful, legitimacy is established and he or she begins to gain a clientele on the basis of the successful wonders performed. (Woodworth and Nelson, 1971, p. 72) As implied by the above description, the "helping" relationship has been around for a long time and has taken many forms. Throughout history people have sought advice and counsel from others. When problems arose, those in authority often sought the expertise of others to guide decisions. During periods when humans lived in caves, it was the shamans or spiritual leaders whose advice was sought. These were individuals who had some "magical" powers and were able to "communicate" with the spiritual world.

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As humans developed larger crania, they began to abstract thoughts and develop a sophisticated verbal language. Their ability to make and use tools flourished, and as a result, humans began to specialize both within the clan itself as well as specializing as a clan. Commerce and trade developed between clans, and helpers evolved to include "elders" as well as the spiritual leaders. Elders were those whose experience and age made them "experts" in matters of the new world. Together with the primitive shamans, these elders became specialized helpers--the guiding forces behind socialization of the clan members and commercialization of their wares. As socialization between clans increased, thus creating societies or groups of interdependent clans, the need for specialized helpers increased as well. Continuous specialization and socialization throughout history has created helping processes which today we refer to as counseling and consultation. When people became recognized as "counselors" in the early part of the twentieth century, they were defined more by what they did than by any formal training. Counselors directed their efforts in the area of social reform, advocating the passage of child labor laws and meat inspection regiilations . Freud's work in the areas of dream analysis, hypnosis, and free association became known in the United States in the 1920 's, and this, together with the Great Depression, helped shape the social reformers into a profession which emphasized vocational guidance. This trend toward guidance continued until the end of the Second World War. At that time, the Veterans Administration recognized that many veterans would be coming home with emotional problems and commissioned Carl Rogers, who was then

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3 at the University of Chicago, to develop methods o£ dealing with emotional maladjustment. Concomitantly, the psychiatric profession was perfecting one of the most significant break-throughs in the history of mental health. The introduction of phenothiazines or major tranquilizers, would revolutionize the entire mental health care system in terms of philosophy and economical concerns. It would also be the spark which set the wheels of modem consultation in motion. Because many psychiatric patients would now be released from hospitals back to communities, services had to be set up to cope with the patients' emotional problems as well as the concerns which communities would display at having "crazy people" living among them. To help with the transition. Congress passed the Community Mental Health Centers Act in 1963. This was the first time that certain mental health services and "consultation and education" to communities had been mandated as a necessary and useful practice Coupled with new technology from the field of counseling and psychology, the modem economic concerns of our Western society, and the introduction of the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963, consultation began to be fomally defined and began developing a technology. Definitions of consultation ranged from such processes as the modeling of effective coping and problem-solving skills (Williams, 1972), aiding (helpees/ to effectively "organize, synthesize, and utilize" knowledge and perceptions (Schein, 1969) , teaching new skills and information to helpees (Tyler § Fine, 1974), to the process of assisting helpees in dealing with the problems that impeded helpees' professional growth (Caplan, 1970). """HelpeeCs) refers to the person receiving services from a counselor or consultant.

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4 In developing mental health consultation practices, Gerald Caplan and Eric Lindeniann arranged to consult with the Wellesley Public School System in Massachusetts in 1952. Caplan and Lindemann "stumbled" upon the value o£ "teacher-psychiatrist collaboration" after being barraged and annoyed by questions teachers were asking. The second major influence in contemporary mental health consultation centered around the development of the PsychoEducational Clinic at Yale l&iiversity by Seymour Sarason. While both the Caplan and Lindemann and Sarason approaches emphasized the altering of teachers' perceptions of pupils, Sarason emphasized the social psychological problems inherent in the function of teaching. Caplan and Lindemann concentrated their interests on the psychodynamic approach. That school systems had teachers and pupils who could benefit from mental health consultation was not new. However, the approach of Caplan, Lindemann, and Sarason was novel. A few years prior to his introduction of mental health consultation in schools, Caplan had begun developing his theory of mental health consultation while working at a guidance center in Jerusalem where he was charged with supervising the mental health of sixteen thousand new immigrant children (Caplan, 1970, p. 8). Although Caplan outlined the major canponents of his theory from his work in Jerusalem, he refined it at Wellesley, Massachusetts. The refinement to his approach was the result of his recognition that the teachers at the public schools in Wellesley were professionals, whereas those with whom he consulted in Jerusalem were non-professionals. This distinction led Caplan to advance his famous idea of a "coordinate" consulting

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relationship rather than the traditional "hierarchial" relationship. It was this coordinate relationship, later supported by Reger (1964) , which, in large part gave rise to a new role for the school psychologist: that of consultant. Once mental health consultation became established, consulting techniques became further refined with the introduction of 'TDehavioral," "school-based," and "systematic" consultation. Behavioral consultation is a process whereby helpers focus on identifying reinforcement contingencies, which are maintaining inappropriate client behavior, attempting to assist helpees substitute more appropriate contingencies for their clients, and endeavoring to aid helpees evaluate intervention outcomes through direct observation (Medway 5 Forman, 1980). Stewart and Medway (in Reschly, 1976) describe school consultation as a series of facetoface interactions between mental health specialists (consultant) and those (consul tees) \dio provide services to clients of a psychological nature with the goal being to improve and strengthen consultees' abilities to work with clients. M)rrick defines school consultation in this Systematic Model as the "perfomance of such functions as working with parents, teachers, administrators, and educational specialists in matters involving student understanding and student management" O^ick, 1977, p. 8). Lundquist and Chamley (in Reschly, 1976) talk about consulting as an interpersonal process whereby helpers attempt to aid helpees to increase awareness of their affective domain and its relationship to their professional identity, help develop helpees' awareness of how their intrapersonal feelings influence their interactions with their clients, and help develop more positive attitudes and feelings in helpees so that they can change and become more effective in the work setting. 1, Consultee(s) refers to the person who is receiving consulting services.

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While many of these concepts sound similar to concepts and theories of counseling, the literature suggests there are generic differences between counseling and consulting. While consultants may consult with individuals, groups, communities, and organizations, counselors can only counselor with individuals and groups of individuals. Second, help-seekers hold certain differing perceptions of "what counselors do" and "what consultants do," and which problems are appropriate for each type of helper (Snyder, 1972; Ziemelis, 1974). Moreover, it is a commonly held view that counselors do not take "responsibility" for altering clients* social or physical environment. In that some consultants collaborate with consultees (i.e., take partial responsibility for action), and other consultants may actually alter a consultee's social and physical environ ment, then counseligg and consultation differ in that the latter can operate, and often does operate, from an "ecological" power base (Strong, 1968) in which the helper has some ability to directly alter the helpee' physical and social environment. Fourth, counselors and consultants make arbitrary decisions as to which roles they themselves will assume. This choice of roles dictates to a large extent the professional helper focus in the problem-solving process of the helping relationships. According to Caplan (1970), Myrick (1977), Schein (1969), and others, the focus used by the professional helper in consultation involves some unit "outside of the individual seeking help. For mental health consultation, the "outside" unit might be the consultee's client.

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7 In business, the executive's (consultee's) line staff supervisor might be the "outside" mit. Caplan (1970) maintains further that in consultation the focus on the helpee's emotional qualities in the case are for diagnostic purposes and serve only to help guide the professional in choosing a particular intervention style. In counseling, however, concern with the client's emotions is constant throughout the process. Finally, the goals of each process differ both in terms of outcomes and intraprocess stage goals, Caplan (1970), ^^yrick (1977), and others maintain that the goal of consultation is to enhance the help-seekers' work performance. The general goal of counseling can be said to enhance the individuals' general emotional and behavioral wellbeing. It is important to note that emotional well-being and increased job performance are not mutually exclusive. Yet the theoretical orientations of the helping processes designed to improve each condition are exclusive of each other. In terms of the intra -process stages of both helping relationships, evidence indicates that client goals in counseling differ from consultee goals in consultation (Egan, 1982; Schein, 1969). Egan (1975, p. 30) presents a "pre-helping" phase and three stage developmental model in attempting to demonstrate the process of counseling. The "pre-helping" phase concerns the helpers' attending behaviors of warmth and openness. The first stage has clients' goal of increased self -exploration. Stage two has the goal of clients to be dynamic "self-understanding" whereby

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8 the client identifies the need for change, action, and the potential personal resources which have been unused. The client goal in the third stage is action. Salient through Egan's process model is that the focus of the helping relationship is upon individuals' self exploration, dynamic understanding, and action. Consultation, however, has a different process and focus. While the goal of counseling is to increase individual emotional and behavioral adjustment, the goal of consultation is to increase the individuals' work (or performance) efficiency (Caplan, 1970; Schein, 1969) . Thus , in a generic developmental model of the consultation process , the "pre-helping" phase, like that of counseling, is to establish rapport, but the "first stage" is directed toward problem-exploration. The goal of "stage two" is to have consultants, either with or without counsultees, determine a style or type of intervention. This intervention night include counseling with employees, conducting specific in-service training, developing goals and appropriate reinforcement schedules, altering the physical and/or social environment, or a variety of other interventions. Stage three is characterized as having the same goal as the third stage of counseling: action. Yet, unlike in counseling, the action in consultation could be initiated by the consultant, consultee, or by both. The empirical examination of these process differences has received little attention in the professional literature. To date, only one study has been reported (Schmidt § Osborne, 1981). The results of the study show that vihile theoretically different, counseling and consultation are the same process. Historically, philosophically and generically, consultation, like counseling, "suffers" from being essentially

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a process of human interactions, and as such eludes research efforts which endeavor to reduce it to monothetic and linear functions measured by simple outcome effectiveness. That consultation is a human process necessitates that such intangible concepts as "consultee attitudes" toward the consultant, "interest" in having consultation, the "readiness" of the consultee, the "timing" of consultant interventions, consultee "expectations" of the consulting process, consultant "charisma," "credibility," and "power" to effect change be incorporated to some degree by researchers in an attempt to unify theories of consultation. While a number of researchers have looked at some of these "ambiguous components" of consultation, there have been few empirical studies which have attsTipted to demonstrate that consultation is a generic process of human interaction, subjects to the "laws" of this oftentimes inexplicable process of verbal and nonverbal interchange. This dearth of research lends fuel to the conflict between counseling and consultation. The Problem Consulting and counseling are major tools of intervention for mental health and school counselors. Some studies suggest consulting and counseling are the same processes. Others maintain these processes differ. Therefore, the problem under investigation in this study was. Is there a relationship between the counseling and consulting processes? This problem, however, was so broad that all counseling and consulting processes could not be examined in one investigation, Thus, to conduct an investigation which could be replicated, a representative sample of counseling and consulting processes was used.

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10 Purpose In seeking a representative saiiple of counseling and consulting, the researcher was concerned with using processes: (a) which had clearly specified procedures, and (b) which were widely utilized by mental health and school counselors. Second, in attempting to investigate similarities and differences between counseling and consultation, the investigator was concerned with using a theoretical basis which was applicable to both counseling and consultation. In reviewing the literature on studies comparing counseling and consultation, the authors fail (a) to provide a common theoretical basis for comparison, and (b) to adequately control for the counseling and consulting processes. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the relationship between the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and interpersonal attractiveness in counseling and consulting. Related Questions 1. Is there a relationship between a cognitive -behavioral counseling model, a client -centered counseling model, a behavioral consultation model, and a mental health consultation model in terms of perceived helper "expertness"? 2. Is there a relationship between a cognitive-behavioral counseling model, a client-centered counseling model, a behavioral consultation model, and a mental health consultation model in terms of perceived helper "attractiveness"? 3. Is there a relationship between a cognitive -behavioral counseling model, a client -centered counseling model, a behavioral consultation model, and a mental health consultation model in terms of perceived helper "trustworthiness"?

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11 Rationale Borrowing from Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory and from opinionchange research, Strong (1968) , Strong and Matross (1973) , and others have demonstrated the significance of perceived counselors' interpersonal behaviors and the effect those behaviors have upon the counseling process. From his studies, Strong presents counseling as an interpersonal influence process whereby success of the counseling relationship is dependent upon helpees ' perceived need for help and upon perceived helpers' ability to have resources to meet those needs. The more clients' self -perceived needs are congruent with coimselors' ability to meet those needs, the more "power" the counselor has to influence change in the client (Strong 5 Matross, 1973). Strong and Matross further maintain that there are three major counselor power bases utilized in the helping process: expertness, interpersonal attractivensss, and trustworthiness. While these power bases will be discussed in detail in Chapter II, brief mention of them is merited here. Expert power is based upon clients' perceptions of counselors having knowledge and skill in the field. Interpersonal attractivenss is defined as the helpees' perception of helpers having similar values, attitudes, and views as helpees. A trustworthiness power base is established through cultural norms and personal values which posit helpers as having sanctioned cultural and institutional roles as helpgivers. Counselors can increase their respective power bases by increasing clients' felt need for help and by having clients perceive counselors

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12 as having the resources to meet those needs. Thus, counselors, in attenpting to increase or alter their power bases will engage in an interpersonal process whereby they communicate behaviors congruent not only with their established power bases, but behaviors which are perceived by helpees as being helpful. A crucial canponent in social influence theory is that what is important is clients' perceptions of the helpers and not actual helpers' characteristics. That these counselor "power bases" operate in clientcounselor relationships has been the subject of voluminous research in the past decade (Barak ^ Dell, 1977; Barak § LaCrosse, 1975, 1977; Claibom, 1979; Dell, 1973; Rothmeier ^ Dixon, 1980; Strong 5 Dixon, 1971; Strong § Gray, 1972; Strong § Schmidt, 1970; Zamostny, Corrigan, ^ Eggert, 1981). Details of the research on the presence of counselor power bases will appear in Chapter II. However, it is appropriate to suggest here that the results of studies reviewed by Corrigan, Dell, Lewis, and Schmidt (1980) and by Heppner and Dixon (1981) indicate the presence of these perceived counselor source dimensions in number of data based studies using a variety of counseling relationships, with a variety of clients, and with a variety of research methodologies. Few empirical findings have demonstrated consultation as a process of interpersonal influence. Earlier, non data-based studies by Reger (1964) and Aubrey (1972) attempted to present school-based consultation as a human interaction process and stressed the importance of consultants' efforts in developing a network of "power bases" within the school and community. Martin (1978) focused the earlier concepts of

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13 consultant "power," and borrowing from social psychology and the concept of counseling as a social influence process (Strong, 1968), posited consultation as a process of social influence, thus conceptualizing consultation as a multidimensional modality. Although Martin did follow-i^) on his theory with a study of the effects of age and experience of consultant and consul tees (Martin ^ Curtis, 1980), little else has been done with the theory of consultation as a process of social influence. Second, there has been no comparison of consultant characteristics in different consulting models, although one study has examined consultant characteristics (age and experience) , and consultation outcome (Martin § Curtis, 1980). This study was descriptive, however, and can offer little evidence to support its findings. Nevertheless, the studies of counseling as a process of interpersonal influence and those studies examining consultation as a social influence process suggest that there may be a relationship between perceived counselor source characteristics of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness and perceived consultant characteristics along those same dimensions. Theoretical differences between the two processes do exist (Caplan, 1970; Dinkmeyer § Dinkmeyer, 1978; Dorr, 1977; Lambert, 1974; Meyers, 1973; M>rrick, 1977; Schein, 1969). This suggests that there may be operational differences between counseling and consulting processes in terms of perceived helper characteristics. For example, it may be shown that while both processes of counseling and consulting are based upon the power bases of interpersonal influence, the relative strengths of these power bases may vary between a mental health consultation model and a behaviorally

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14 oriented counseling model, or between a behavioral consulting model and a non-directive affective counseling model. By comparing the strengths of these three power bases across models of counseling and consultation, theoretical support for similarities and differences between and within these two processes will be addressed. To date, researchers who have conpared counseling and consultation have not controlled for either the counseling or consulting processes. Therefore, the study conpared specific models of counseling (cognitivebehavioral and clientcentered) and consultation (behavioral and consulteecentered case mental health). Second, the only empirical study published since 1973 which has conpared counseling and consultation was a descriptive study (Schmidt 5 Osborne, 1981). Definitions of Terms In order to ensure consistency of meaning, thereby avoiding a salient flaw in both consultation research and those comparing counseling and consultation, the following definitions were used in the study. The interpersonal influence process or social influence is defined by the interpersonal dynamics which occur between helpers and helpees during facetoface meetings. These dynamics center around the extent to which helpees see helpers as being an "expert," being "interpersonally attractive" and "trustworthy." Perceived helper "expertness" is defined by the extent to which the helper is seen as being alert, analytic, clear, confident, experienced, expert, informed, insightful, intelligent, logical, prepared, and skillful as reported by scores on the Counselor Rating Form (CRF; Barak 5 LaCrosse, 1975).

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15 Perceived helper "trustworthiness" is defined by the extent to VN^iich the helper is seen as being believable, dependable, honest, open, reliable, respectful, responsible, selfless, sincere, straightforward, trustworthy, and genuine as reported by scores on the CRF. Perceived helper " attractiveness" is defined by the extent to which the helper is seen as being agreeable, appreciative, attractive, casual, cheerful, close, compatible, enthusiastic, friendly, likeable, sociable, and warm as reported by scores on the CRF. Power base is a term used to describe the relative strengths of the perceived helpers' characteristics of expertness, attractiveness and trustworthiness. The more helpers are seen as expert, attractive, and trustworthy, the more "power" helpers have. Consultation , according to Chemiss (1978) refers to a social psychological process whereby helpers attempt to improve the conditions of "third parties" (clients) by working directly with "significant others" (helpees) . Mental health consultation refers to the consultee -centered case mental health consultation model advanced by Caplan (1970) . The assimption the consultant makes in this model is that consul tees may have the necessary skills, knowledge, and self-confidence to appropriately deal with the client, but lack the objectivity to do so. The consultants endeavor to point out to consultees that the problem consultees are having with their clients is a "test case" for countertransference occurring between consultees and clients. The resolutions of the consultees' problems reside in their becoming aware of their own

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16 assumptions (Initial Category) about their clients, and consul tees' expectations of what their clients will do (Inevitable Outcome) . This process of working with consultees is called by Caplan (1970) "theme interference reduction," It is the process of weakening the link between the Initial Category and Inevitable Outcome. This is achieved by (1) verbal focus on consultees in which consultants actively engage consultees in a cognitive examination of other possible outcomes, (2) verbal focus on a parable, (3) nonverbal focus on the case, and (4) nonverbal focus on the consulting relationship. Behavioral consultation is based upon Bergan's (1977) model. He refers to consultants taking more directive and supervisory roles in the relationship with consultees, and focusing on identifying reinforcement contingencies that maintain inappropriate client behavior in an attempt to assist consultees in substituting these inappropriate contingencies with more appropriate ones. The actual process of consultation is somewhat standardized and fonnal (Bergan § Tombari, 1976; Bersoff § Greiger, in Reschly, 1976; Goodwin, Garvey, § Barclay, in Reschly, 1976). The thrust of these operations is upon behavioral observation, data collection, intervention, and evaluation, although the specifics of the various behavioral consultants may differ slightly. For exanple, Lanyon and Lanyon (1978) present the behavioral consultation process as being one of behavioral assessment, observation and record keeping, assessing consul tee resources, designing and implementing the strategy, and follow-up. Russell (1978) maintains behavioral consultation involves a series of steps which include a behavioral definition of the problem, collection of baseline

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17 data, intervention, continued data collection, and evaluation of the results. Dustin and Burden (1973) identify the following procedures: 1) problem identification, 2) problem behavior identification, 3) specifying desired behaviors, 4) observation, 5) program or strategy development, and 6) evaluation of the outcomes. Finally, Russell (1978) uses observation, functional analysis, objective setting, behavioral intervention, evaluating results, and withdrawal. Counseling , according to Egan (1975) and Ford and Urban (1963) , is an interpersonal process involving a helper and one or more helpees. The purpose of counseling is to have the helpees change their attitudes, opinions, perceptions, and/ or behaviors. The relationship between helpers and helpees is a coordinate one in which helpees talk about themselves in terms of their thoughts, feelings, and actions. Rather than being like a brief conversation with friends, helpers and helpees often engage in prolonged verbal and nonverbal intercourse in which the helpees* situations are explored in depth. Patterson (1971) asserts that counseling is not helpers giving advice to helpees. It does not involve coercion on the part of helpers. Rather, it is a voluntary arrangement (except in the cases of court referrals) , in which helpers attempt to provide conditions for helpees ' voluntary change. Client -centered therapy refers to the non -directive affective counseling approach of Rogers (1975) and is operationally defined by counselors' uses of clarifications, "open" questions, and feelingfocused responses. Clarifications are the paraphrasing or restating of what clients say. Open questions are those questions which cannot easily be answered by clients' "yes" or "no" responses. Feeling -focused

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18 responses are remarks by counselors which indicate how clients are feeling about particular events in the clients' lives. The core dimensions of counselor warmth, enpathy, genuineness, and concreteness (Carkhuff and Berensen, 1967; Truax, in Egan, 1975) are central to nondirective affective therapy. Warmth is essentially conveyed by the nonverbal expressions of eye contact, head nodding, leg position, vocal intonation, smiling, open body orientation (measured by shoulder orientation of zero degrees) , gestures with the hands, learning, and proximity to the client (Fretz, Com, Tuemmler, § Bellet, 1979; LaCrosse, 1980: Sealy ^ Altekruse, 1979; Smith-Hanen, 1977). Genuineness is a term used to describe therapists who, during the course of the therapeutic relationship, are "freely and deeply themselves, with their actual experience accurately represented by their awareness of themselves. It is the opposite of presenting a facade" (Rogers, 1975, p. 97). Basically, genuineness refers to the extent to which therapists express a congruence between their inward experience and outward expression. In short, the therapists who are genuine do not hide behind their roles of "being therapists" (Egan, 1982) . The role of empathy is to promote clients' capacities for selfexploration and understanding while lowering their defensiveness. Rogers (1975) maintains that empathy enables clients to take a "prizing and caring attitude" toward themselves, and to become more aware of their own experiences. Essentially, empathy is the ability to convey to ' clients that therapists are aware, appreciative, and understand the

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19 experiences of their clients. It is the capacity for the therapist to "walk in the clients' shoes." Enpathic understanding characterizes the total therapeutic climate. The four types of therapist responses are open questions, clarification and summarizing statements, feeling-focused responses, and selfdisclosures. Concreteness or specificity on the part of therapists in using these responses is of paramount inportance. The extent to which these responses are efficacious in providing an empathic, unconditionally accepting, and safe environment for client change is regulated by the extent to which these four therapist responses 1) gather information about the experiences and feelings of clients; 2) clarify and make explicit clients' implicit or unstated messages; 3) are accurate; 4) are temporally based in the here and now; 5) are consistent with the words, phrases, and images of clients; 6) refer to the salient feature of clients' experiences; 7) match the clients' vocal qualities; 8) communicate to the clients a sense of mutuality of exploration; and 9) facilitate new areas of growth for the clients (Elliott, Filipovich, Harrigan, Gaynor, Reimschuessel , § Zapadka, 1982, p. 381). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (Mahoney, 1977) refers to counseling process \Aich emphasizes behaviors and cognitions. One of the prominent methods used by cognitive -behavior therapists is called "rational restructuring" (Beck, 1970; Ellis, 1962; Goldfried, in Kendall § Hollon, 1979). These therapeutic methods emphasize clients' "faulty" thought patterns wliich result in maladaptive emotional and behavioral response patterns. The goal of cognitive restructuring is to

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20 help clients accept their own abilities to adapt a "more reasonable perspective" on potentially upsetting events (Goldfried, in Kendall § Hollon, 1979) . Two types of "cognitive restructuring" processes which have received most attention in research are Beck's (1970) cognitive therapy, and Ellis' (1962) rational -emotive therapy. Ellis' (1962) Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) maintains that individuals feel what they think . Treatment consists of helping the clients identify their irrational beliefs which are leading to emotional disturbances and help replace those faulty beliefs with more rational, constructive thought patterns. Goldfried describes a five step procedure by which therapists help clients restructure their cognitive processes. This process is similar to systematic desensitization in that clients are asked to imagine or role play a hierarchy of particular problem situations. At each step clients must identify the irrational thoughts associated with that particular situation, dispute them, and reevaluate the situation more rationally, Then therapists assign homework in which clients are instructed to confront a problem situation, dispute the aforementioned irrational beliefs, and reevaluate the situation more rationally. Beck's (1970) Cognitive Therapy actually stresses behaviors as opposed to cognitions, although the ultimate goal is for clients to develop rational, adaptive thought patterns, Ellis' style is one of therapists actively disputing clients' irrational beliefs, and Ellis' and Beck's focus is upon be?iavioral methods such as modeling, behavior rehearsal, and graded task assignments, but Beck uses a less confrontive verbal approach with clients such that they can recognize their own faulty cognitions (Wilson § O'Leary, 1980),

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' 1 21 The therapeutic approach involved utilizes both behavioral and cognitive components. Cognitive emphasis centers around clients' abilities to "distance" themselves or to view their irrational thoughts more objectively, and "decentering . " The latter refers to clients not personalizing the misfortunes of others. In Beck's (1970) cognitive therapy approach, clients are encouraged to not only become aware of their thoughts, but to identify them in terms of the five ways that clients distort their thinking (Beck, 1970). Behaviorally, clients are to engage themselves in situations and experiences which previously evoked noxious feelings and reactions and are to attempt to successfully master those experiences by replacing faulty cognitions with more objective and reasonable thoughts. The method used is called graded task assignments (Kendall § Hollon, 1979, p. 185). These are structured sequences of tasks which clients attempt. Starting with the least demanding task, so that they experience success, clients work their way on up through the hierarchy so as to maximize the probability of initiating and completing any given task. Therapists often engage clients in role playing in v^iich the task is sub-divided into a step-by-step sequence to ensure even the most seemingly "insignificant" success. Limitations and Delimitations Delimitations The experimental population of subjects was selected from one of the residence Piall areas at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. This land-grant university has an enrollment of 33,000 graduate and undergraduate students. As of November, 1980, 17.6% of

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22 male undergraduates live in on-campus residence halls as do 25.1% of undergraduate women. Subjects for this investigation were volunteers who presented themselves at a designated time for the experiment. Limitations While the study utilized a number of procedures which enhanced a high degree of internal and external validity, certain limitations continued to exist. The use of only one helper to act as a counselor and a consultant raised questions as to the generalizability of results to other counselors and consultants. A commonly cited problem among researchers of consultation and of those who compare counseling and consultation had been the lack of treatment control. To counter this widespread problem, the study endeavored to maintain strict control over the treatment modalities by having the helper competently trained to act in both the counseling and consulting capacities so that any errors due to interpersonal style would have been reflected consistently across all models. Second, one of the major purposes of the study was to compare specific models of counseling and consultation, again to counter the widespread practice of not specifying the particular types of counseling and consulting processes to be compared. To use more than one helper would have introduced error variance within and across each treatment model. While that would have added to the general izability of results, the nature of the current research comparing counseling and consultation suggested that "between helper" variance should be the basis for future research endeavor.

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23 A second limitation concerned the use of a confederate client. While this may have limited the degree of generalizability to the "real" practice of these helping processes, an ethical question concerning the use of a variety of treatment modalities upon a client in distress was avoided. Moreover, since the main concern of the study was to conpare and contrast counseling and consulting process, enphasis was upon stringent control of the helping procedure to ensure that the respective models were adequately and consistently demonstrated. The use of only two counseling treatments and two consulting treatments may have been viewed as limiting. However, efforts were made to include treatments v\4iich were representative not only of those currently used in practice and research, but those which represented the three major approaches in helping: cognitive, behavioral, and affective -oriented processes. By using only two representative approaches, the possibility of finding results which would have allowed the two counseling and the two consulting processes to be collapsed into "counseling" and "consultation" was greatly facilitated. Overview of the Remaining Chapters Chapter II presents a more extensive review of the current literature. Chapter III presents the methodological approach: sanpling, procedures, instrumentation, and statistical methods. Chapter IV presents data, analysis and results. Chapter V includes a discussion of the findings, inplications, and conclusions.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE In t±iis chapter the results of a review o£ the literature regarding the relationship between counseling and consulting will be presented. The chapter is divided into six sections in which the procedures used for obtaining and selecting relevant literature are detailed, a presentation and analysis of literature is provided, and conclusions are presented. . Selection of the Relevant Literature In selecting relevant literature for inclusion in the proposed study, the following four topics were considered: (a) studies conparing counseling and consultation, (b) studies examining counseling as a process of interpersonal influence, (c) studies examining the presence of social influence and its relationship to counseling outcome, and (d) the social influence process in consultation. Presentation of studies conparing counseling and consulting is significant because they demonstrate previous insufficient efforts in describing the similarities and differences between counseling and consultation. Second, the review of studies examining social influence theory in counseling and its relationship to counseling outcome are significant because they support the efficacy of social influence theory as a viable means of investigating helping 24

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25 processes. Finally, a review of studies which present consulting as an interpersonal influence process supports the contention that both consulting and counseling can be viewed as social influence processes. The studies presented in Chapter II result from a systematic review of the literature in education and psychology. Certain criteria were used as rules for inclusion in the proposed study. The literature review of studies conparing counseling and consulting include articles which appeared in or after 1965. These articles meet the criteria for acceptable experimental, quasiexperimental, and case studies as outlined by Ary (1979) . For social influence theory, articles appearing in or after 1968 were included (the year Strong introduced counseling as a process of social influence) . Selection criteria for studies which supported the establishment of counseling as a process of social influence and its relationship to counseling outcome were as follows. The studies had to be (a) empirically based, (b) had to study perceived helper "expertness," "attractiveness," and/or "trustworthiness," (c) had to use either observers' ratings or self -reports, and (d) had to have used a reliable dependent measure. Only four studies have empirically investigated the presence of the interpersonal influence process in consultation. Each of these studies confoms to Ary's (1979) criteria for acceptable experimental research.

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The following journals were reviewed in an effort to obtain the relevant literature: Psychology in the Schools , The Jou r nal of Counseling Psychology , Professional Psychology , Psychological Review , Psychological Bulletin , Journal of School Psychology , American Journal o f Community Psychology , Elementary School Guidance and Counseling , Dissertation Abstracts International , Counselor Education and Supervision , The School Counselor , American Psychologist , Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , and the Personnel and Guidance Journal . Once an article was found and reviewed, the reference list was used to locate other articles. Using the selection criteria, three articles which compare counseling and consulting, eight articles examining the establishment of the social influence process in counseling, eight articles studying the relationship of social influence theory and counseling outcome and four articles describing consultation as a process of interpersonal influence are detailed in the review of relevant literature. To aid in the review of empirical studies, four tables are presented. Table 1 delineates studies which have conpared counseling and consultation. Table 2 lists support for the establishment of the social influence process in counseling. Table 3 lists those studies which examine social influence theory and its relationship to counseling outcome. Table 4 presents studies of consultation as a process of interpersonal influence. Counseling and Consultation In a case study reported by McGehearty (1969) , evidence is offered which supports theoretical differences between counseling and consultation, but indicates process sijnilarities. In the study, a fifth grade student

PAGE 35

27 was reported to have benefitted from individual counseling and counselorparent consultation in that the student was moved up into a higher level reading class, and his overall performance increased. Counseling was described as being conferences which were "nonthreatening, ego-building, and supportive." Consultation with the parent was reported to have "focused on the child," yet the consultant helped the child's mother see her son in new ways (alternate frames of reference) , was encouraged to reinforce her son's positive behavior, and was delivered negative reinforcement in terms of having the consultant ignore certain derogatory statements made by the mother about her son. Russell (1978) presents theoretical support for differences between the two processes, but, like McGehearty's (1969) case study, demonstrates process similarities. According to Russell, the behavioral consultants aim to reduce or eliminate clients' problem behaviors by effecting changes in the consultees' behaviors (Russell, 1978). Regardless of whether a behavior is deemed socially appropriate or inappropriate, the interactions between clients' behaviors and controlling environments serve to maintain present client behaviors. An important feature of the "present behaviors" is that they are not sinply confined to observable actions, but apply to thoughts and feelings as well (Lanyon § Lanyon, 1978). For the behavioral consultants, "feeling and behaviors" is of special interest because the consultees' feelings about their clients may serve to bring about consultee behaviors which initiate or maintain aberrant client behaviors (Phillips, 1977). For example, consultees will nonverbally demonstrate their feelings about the clients' behaviors, and these nonverbal cues will alter the clients' controlling

PAGE 36

i 28 environment. The behavioral consultants, in the interaction with the consul tees, must endeavor to translate the consul tees' feelings into observable behavioral data (such as finding out \A\o did what to whom, when, where, how, under what circumstances, etc.). Because consul tees are a critical part of clients' controlling environments, consul tees' behaviors function as antecedents or consequences for clients' appropriate and aberrant behavior. Thus, behavioral consultants recognize that unless consul tee behaviors are examined and modified, the probability of client change will greatly decrease. Thus, according to Russell (1978), the consultants become "alert to [consultee] verbal and nonverbal cues that indicate how the clients' behaviors are affecting the consul tees and probe to identify how the clients' behaviors might be providing antecedent stimuli or consequences for consul tees' actions" (Russell, 1978, p. 349). Behavioral consultants use "every available resource" to analyze and understand the consul tees and clients' behavioral interaction. In attempting to alter the consul tees' behaviors, consultants' interventions will include a combination of modeling, positive reinforcement and role-playing. These consulting procedures are some of the same techniques used by cognitive-behavioral counselors. The similarities between counseling and consultation have received further theoretical support as well. Fine, Grantham, and Wright (1979) presented consultant characteristics which facilitate or impede the consulting process. The variables they described as being inportant for consultants could be interchanged with those of successful counselors. For example, the authors state that consultants must be congruent, need to take care of their own needs, and should be sensitive and empathic.

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29 Furthermore, consultants should remember that it is the consul tees' problem, that lack of closure is acceptable, and that consultants should have broad response repertoires (Fine, Grantham ^ Wright, 1979). In another study, Kurpius (1978) maintains that consultants should model helping behaviors that are "nonjudgemental and nonconpetitive . " Finally, Schein (1978) reports on two models of process consultation. In the catalyst model, consultants do not know the solution themselves, but have skills which aid consultees in finding their own solutions. The facilitator model has consultants helping consultees solve their own problems although the consultant may have clear and definite ideas about possible solutions. These models are similar to the "selfdirected" change process of clientcentered therapy. Rogawski (1978), however, in presenting the consulteecentered case consultation of Caplan, states that consultants should never treat consultees as "patients." Thus, while trying to maintain a positive relationship with consultees, the consultants should never ask questions about consultees' private lives, nor interpret directly the meaning of their (consultees) productions. The purpose of mental health consultation, according to Rogawski, is to indirectly point out to the consultees the reasons for their difficulties, which may be due to lack of objectivity on the part of the consultee or to their lack of skills, knowledge, or self-confidence. This lack of objectivity results from clients "triggering" crises in consultees (Bindman, 1959; Caplan, 1970; Vaughan, 1959).

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30 By triggering some unresolved issue in consultees' lives, the consul tees begin to stereotype their clients according to the consultees' unresolved issues. The consultants then try to understand the nature of the consultees' unresolved issues, the relationship of those issues to the consultees' clients, and help to "educate" consultees in seeing the connection between their unresolved issues and the problem they are having with their clients (Caplan, 1970). Caplan's (1970) model resembles counseling models by suggesting that an examination by consultees of their own unresolved issues will increase consultees' work performances. The consultants do not confront the consultees, but rather act in congruence with the consultees whereby the consultants and consultees operate on the basis that the problem is "out there" with the clients, even though the consultants are acutely aware that the clients' problem has some very special meaning for the consultees (Plog § Ahmed, 1977), The appealing feature of Caplan's consideration of themes is that it is one of the few theories in the professional literature which has clear implications for consultants' interventions (Plog § Ahmed, 1977). In spite of this special feature, the empirical studies which employ "consulteecentered case consultation" for the most part neither delineate nor report the specifics of the intervention used^ McGehearty (1969) also reported on differences between the counseling and consultation processes. The most blatant difference centers around the apparently manipulative approach of the consultant in endeavoring to effect change in the behaviors of consultees (McGehearty, 1969, p. 155). Counselors engage in an open manner toward the same goals with the full and complete knowledge of the client.

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1 31 Thus, the theoretical literature depicts rather ambiguous and conflicting information on the theoretical orientations and process operations of counseling and consulting. Researchers seem to agree that consultation really aims to improve the conditions of the "outside unit" or "third party," but it is equally obvious that consul tees' improvement is advocated. It appears that the techniques used by consultants to improve consultees are similar to those techniques used by counselors. To date, only four studies have empirically examined counseling and consultation. One study by Schmidt and Osborne (1981) was designed to address two questions: 1) whether counselor and situational variables correlated with the counselors' preferences for either counseling or consultation; and 2) whether the variables that correlated with the preference for the type of service were the same variables that related to the frequency of using that service. The researches randomly selected 100 counselors from an initial list of 360 counselors who were employed in 1978-79 in the elementary schools of North Carolina, The researchers used the Meyers -Briggs Type Indicator (MBGI) and the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) to determine counselors' characteristics. Georgraphical data in a third questionnaire included sex, age, years teaching, years counseling, graduate credit, number of schools, number of students, highest grade level, and number of grades served. In order to assess the preferences for and frequency of

PAGE 40

32 counseling and consulting services, two surveys were developed and tested (test-retest reliability, 4-week period), so that the subjects were presented with seven counseling activities (e.g., "counseling individual students about personal concerns"; "Counsel individual parents about their specific concerns") , and seven consulting activities (e.g., "Consult with individual parents regarding their child's academic and personal needs") and a five point Likert type scale for preferences. The researchers used Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis to determine which personal characteristic variables accounted for variance in preferences and use of counseling and consultation. Results indicated weak correlations between preferences for which type of service to perform. No variables differentiated counselors who used one process from those who used the other. The authors concluded that as a result, their study indicated that the counseling and consultation processes were very similar. In light of a recent study by Splete and Bernstein (1981) demonstrating the widespread lack of consultation training in counselor education programs, the results of Schmidt and Osbomes' (1981) study could be explained by their subjects' lack of knowledge, skill and confidence in distinguishing between counseling and consultation in theory and/or practice. Second, the two instruments developed by Schmidt and Osborne (1981) , designed to assess the preference for counseling or

PAGE 41

33 activities, are representative of the limitations in consultation research. These limitations include the lack o£ clear definitions (Tyler 5 Fine, 1974), a reliance on self-reports (Alpert, 1976), and a lack of explicitely outlined consultant techniques and behaviors (Meyers, Friedman, § Gaughan, 1975). These weaknesses lead to difficulties in replication. Similar weaknesses are demonstrated in three field studies (see Table 1) . In a study designed to examine the short-term effectiveness of counseling and consulting, Mayer, Kranzler,and Mathes (1967) assigned fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students, who had indicated a desire for better peer relationships, to either a counseling (n=5) or group (n+5) treatment. The teacher -guidance group was characterized by the counselors studying the records of the students and offering suggestions to the teachers during counselor -teacher conferences, Change scores on teacher perceptions of students' popularities revealed that all the treatments were equal in effect upon the subjects' popularities. Marchant (1973) conducted a field study using fourth and fifth grade students and their teachers to determine the effectiveness of counseling and consultation. Subjects were assigned to one of four treatment groups: counseling with students/consulting with teachers, counseling with students only, teacher consultation only, and a control group receiving no treatment. The treatment was defined by meetings twice a week for five weeks. The dependent variable was change scores on the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist. The results from analyses of variance indicated there was no difference among the treatment groups.

PAGE 42

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The authors' conclusions that there are no differences between counseling and consultation in effectiveness are suspect. Because these studies do not specify what counseling and consulting processes were used, it is difficult to show that the treatments did in fact differ. Thus, the conclusions should be viewed cautiously. The empirical studies investigating the relationship between counseling and consultation do little to clear up the ambiguities inherent in consultation theory. This ambiguity partly results from consultation not having a unifying theory (Blake § Mouton, 1978; Kurpius, 1978). These authors suggest that a sound unifying theory will allow for more consistent and methodologically sound studies comparing counseling and consulting. Strong's (1968) Social Influence theory seems to provide this integration and will be discussed next. Social Influence Theory The roots of social influence theory are imbedded in cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) and in the attitude and opinion change research of social psychology. Dissonance theory assumes that humans have a basic tendency toward a consistency of cognitions about oneself and about the environment. If two or more cognitive elements become psychologically inconsistent in an individual, the result is psychological tension which has impelling drive characteristics to reduce psychological discomfort by making the cognitions more consistent (Zimbardo, 1960).

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36 Earlier studies in attitude and opinion change research demonstrated that there are five means of reducing cognitive dissonance: (1) individuals can change their opinions to those of the communicators; (2) individuals can discredit communicators; (3) individuals can devalue the importance of the issue; (4) they can attempt to change the communicators' opinions; and (5) individuals can gather more cognitive support for their own opinions. Which of these avenues for reducing dissonance is used is dependent on the circumstances of the influence attenpt. For exanple, if cognitive support cannot be found, the communicator cannot be discredited, the issue cannot be devalued, and a counter -persuasion cannot be adequately exerted, the recipient's cognitive change will be in the direction of the opinion held by the communicator (Festinger, 1957, p. 27). Moreover, the five ways of reducing dissonance operate in a "closed system" and are affected by other circumstantial variables as well. In counseling, for example, individuals' involvement in the issues are high, thus they will not try to discredit the issue. Instead, they will turn more force upon the other avenues of dissonance reduction such as gathering cognitive support for their views, increasing efforts to change therapists opinions, or more staunchly discrediting therapists. Goldstein (in Strong, 1968) extrapolated both concepts of cognitive dissonance theory and of a "closed -system" of dissonance reduction and offered these as viable ways of viewing psychotherapy, because in both processes the communication of the message is the central factor. Strong (1968) and Strong and Matross (1973) adhered to Goldstein's arguments and began researching counseling as a process of social influence.

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37 According to social influence theory, clients enter into a "dependent" relationship with counselors because clients feel the need to have help in changing behaviors and attitudes. The nature of the "dependency" is based upon the relationship of clients' felt needs for help and clients' corresponding perceptions of whether counselors have the available resources to meet those needs. According to French and Raven (1957), the more dependent the clients are, the more potential power counselors have to help the clients change. However, there are psychological biases operating within clients at the time the dependent relationship is initiated. These continue to operate throughout the counseling process and regulate the strength of that dependence at any given moment in time. These psychological forces are conceptualized by Strong and Matross (1973) as (1) impelling forces in clients to change in the direction advocated by the counselor, and (2) opposing forces resisting change in that direction. The "inpelling forces to change" are generated by the clients' perceptions of counselors as having the necessary and available resources to meet the needs of clients. The relative strength of the ijipelling forces is determined by the degree to which clients' perceive a correspondence between their needs and the counselors' resources. Those forces operating in clients which pit them against counselors' advocated change are conprised of (1) opposing forces which are generated by the implications of the content of the counselors' suggestions, and (2) resisting forces, generated by the way in which counselors attempt to influence change. The more "power" counselors have, the stronger the "impelling forces to change," and reciprocally the weaker are the opposing and

PAGE 46

38 resisting forces. Subsequently, if the counselors' power is increased to a point where it is greater than the clients* opposition and resistance the clients change in the direction advocated by the counselors. Significantly, however, is the fact that counselors cannot act directly upon the opposing and resisting forces operating within the clients. Because the counselors' suggestions are, by nature, in dissonance with the cognitions of the clients, there is at least some degree of client opposition and resistance to those suggestions. Thus, counselors can only directly control (1) the content of their influence attempt, and (2) the manner or way in which they attempt to communicate. In terms of the relationship clients have with counselors, the content of and manner by which counselors attempt to influence serves to increase or decrease the counselors^ "power" and subsequent clients' "dependence." If the content of the counselors' suggestions and the way in which the suggestions are conveyed serve to increase the clients' felt needs for help and increase the clients' perceptions that counselors can meet those needs, dependencies upon the counselors are strengtheened, counselors' social powers are increased as is the probability of the influence attempt being successful. French and Raven (1957) first introduced five basic types of dependencies. Strong and Matross (1973) modified this typology, and purported that the correspondence between clients' felt needs for help and perceived counselors' abilities to meet those needs gives rise to three client-counselor dependencies. These specific dependencies are essentially counselors' "pDwer bases"-that is, sources of counselors' influence attempts. These "power bases" operate to varying degrees in every client-counselor relationship.

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39 First is the " expert" power base. This refers to the extent clients perceive counselors as having the knowledge and skills to help clients change. Second is the " referent" or " interpersonal attract ivensss" power base. This power base refers to the extent to which clients see counselors as having similar attitudes, opinions, and values to those of the client. According to earlier research in social psychology (Byren, in Strong and Matross, 1973; Byrne, Griffitt, and Golightly, in Strong and Matross, 1973), persons who find initial points of similarity will attribute more similarity than is actually there, and this causes individuals to continue the relationship in order to seek out other similarities. In terms of counseling, the more counselors are perceived to be similar to their clients, the more clients will seek out the attitudes, opinions, and values of those counselors. The third power base is temed " legitimate" or " trustworthiness ." This seems to be the least well -understood and least well-defined, but pertains to the clients' perceptions that counselors live up to their role of being socially sanctioned and respected agents of change. Counseling as a Social Influence Process A number of studies have examined counseling as a process of interpersonal influence (see Table 2). Barak and LaCrosse (1975) investigated the existence of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness dimensions in an analogue study. Using films of Perls, Rogers, and Ellis, the researchers had 202 undergraduates rate the therapists on 36 bi-polar adjective dimensions. The 36 items had been classified by judges into representing the perceived counselor dimensions

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40 of expertness (12 items), attractiveness, (12 items), and trustworthiness (12 items) . The results indicate that all three therapists were described as being expert and attractive. Rogers and Perls were seen as being trustworthy, however, this factor was not found to be present for Ellis. The validity and reliability of the 36item Likert-type adjective inventory, the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) , was established in another study (LaCrosse § Barak, 1976). One hundred twenty-seven undergraduates were asked to view the same films of Perls, Rogers, and Ellis. The ability of the CRF to differentiate the factors of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness was supported. Using the split-half method to determine internal consistency reliability, the authors found that while there was moderate overlap on some dimensions, the scales were reliable indications of perceived counselor dimensions. In another large sample study using 206 undergraduates, Atkinson and Wampole (1982) employed an analogue format to test the presence of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS) . The subjects (135 females and 71 males) were members of an undergraduate psychology class. A 10-minute segment of a counseling session in which Rogers was the therapist was shown. Half the subjects filled out the CRF first, followed by the CERS. The sequence was reversed for the remaining half. Using factor analysis, the authors found that both instruments could delineate the dimensions of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. Correlating the findings, the authors conclude that both instruments are effective research tools, that counseling can be seen as a process of interpersonal influence .

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41 In two field studies designed to conpare the differential perceptions of counselors' expertness, attractivenss, and trustworthiness. Barak and LaCrosse (1977) and LaCrosse (1977) used clients', counselors', and observers' ratings of counseling sessions. In the former study, a 3 x 3, 2-factor repeated measurements analysis was carried out on the CRF ratings of 19 clients at the Student Consultation Service at the Ohio State University who were seen by graduate counseling students. Results indicate that all three sources perceived the counselor dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The ratings of each dimension were high (although counselors rated themselves lower on expertness) , and the authors attribute this finding to the fact that all of the counselors had been trained to demonstrate the power base dimensions. In the latter study LaCrosse (1977) used the CRF and the BarrettLennard Relationship Inventory. Data was gathered from 40 community mental health clients (described as neurotic), their counselors, and observers. All viewed randomly selected sessions through a television monitor while the session was in progress. Correlations between the CRF and BLRI yielded the three counselor dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. A field study conducted by Zamostny, Corrigan, and Eggert (1981) was designed to test the counselors' dimensions in a "real life setting." One hundred male and one hundred forty-nine females seeking help at a university counseling center participated by filling out (1) a standard counseling center intake foim, (2) a short questionnaire rating their expectations about counseling, (3) a questionnaire asking their willingness to refer a friend for help at the center, (4) their ratings

PAGE 50

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45 of the severity and duration of their problem, and (5) their preferences for a counselor to be expert, attractive, and trustworthy. The CRF was modified to include only the positive adjectives of the 36-item bi-polar characteristics. Following the intake session, the subjects were asked to fill out two questionnaires concerning their satisfactions and confidences in the counseling center and their willingness to refer a friend. Analyses of both preintake preferences and postintake perceptions of the three counselor dimensions resulted in expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness being clearly defined. Corrigan (1978) studied the differential characteristics of counselors and friends according to the social influence theory dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. He asked 211 undergraduates (155 females and 56 males) to think of the characteristics they would prefer counselors and friends to have. He modified the CRF (in the same manner as that which was used in the study by Zamostny et al., 1981) and used factor analysis procedures in finding preferences for and the presence of the perceived counselor dimension of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. An analysis of variance reveals that subjects prefer counselorswho have all three dimensions. Perceived Counselor Dimensions and Counseling Outcome Table 3 presents studies examining the perceived counselor source characteristic on counseling outcome. Two recent studies measuring perceived counselor dimensions and client satisfaction have been reported by Zamostny et al. (1981) and Heppner and Heesacker (1983). Partial results of the Zamostny et al. (1981) study were reported in the previous section in which the authors found counselors perceived as

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46 being expert, attractive, and trustworthy. To determine the effectiveness of these dimensions in the influency attenpt, the authors correlated the change scores between the preintake and postintake measures on client stress level and the expectancy measures with the findings on the CRF. They concluded that the dimension of expertness is directly related to the self-report measures of client satisfaction. In the latter study, Heppner and Heesacker (1983) also examined the relationship of perceived counselor characteristics and client satisfaction as well as studying the effect of actual counselor experience level on perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. This field study used 72 undergraduates (48 females and 24 males) who sought counseling services at a university. The researchers had the subjects fill out the Expectations About Counseling Questionnaire prior to counseling. At the end of the semester, subjects filled out the Counselor Evaluation Inventory and the CRF. The results of correlating clients' expectations with perceived counselor characteristics and clients' satisfactions demonstrate that the clients' expectations about counseling were related to their perceiving counselors as expert, attractive, and trustworthy. While not supporting the findings of Zamostny et al. (1981) on the relationship between clients' expectations and perceptions of counselors (after one interview) , Heppner and Heesacker did support Zamostny, et al. in finding that perceived counselor source characteristics were correlated with client satisfaction. Cash, Kehr, and Salzbach (1978) studied clients' help seeking attitudes, perceived counselor source characteristics, and counseling outcome. The researchers randomly selected tapes (which depicted male and

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47 female counselors counseling with a confederate client) and showed them to groups of undergraduates (N=219 females),. Initially, subjects were asked to fill out the Attitudes Toward Seeking ProfessionalHelp Scale. After viewing 2 16-minute videotapes of a counseling session, subjects completed (1) 2 modified CRF designed to determine perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness, (2) the Barrett -Lennard Relationship Inventory, (3) a scale measuring their optimism in the helpfulness of the client continuing with the taped counselor, (4) a scale determining the likelihood of the client returning for additional counseling, and (5) a scale assessing the subjects' degrees of confidences in the counselor helping with 15 specific types of problems. Using a correlational analysis, the authors found that counselors seen as having expertness and trustworthiness dimensions would be more likely to have the client return and have a favorable counseling outcome. Barak and Dell (1977a; 1977b) conducted two studies which were designed to examine the effects of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness and clients' willingness to refer themselves for help. Both studies used videotapes of male counselors and used undergraduate subjects (N=68; N=73). The first study manipulated the counselor's experience level (low and high) while the second study introduced a baseline experience level (intemediate) . Each study had thensubjects view the first ten minutes of the counseling videotape, the had the subjects fill out the CRF and a selfreferral questionnaire. The results of both studies indicate a positive correlation between the magnitude of the perceived counselor source characteristics and the rate of selfreferral.

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J 48 Atkinson and Carskaddon (1975) examined perceived counselor expertness and clients' preferences to see the counselor. Using 32 undergraduates, 32 community mental health clients, and 32 correctional facility inmates (N-96), the authors showed two videotapes depicting counselors and manipulated the counselor introductions (expert vs. inexpert). An analysis of variance was used to study the responses of the; three groups of subjects. The authors' found that regardless of which setting the subjects were in, counselors v^io were introduced as "expert" were more often rated as someone the clients would see. In an earlier analogue study. Strong and Schmidt (1970) manipulated the expert and inexpert introductions and roles with 49 male undergraduates. Using the Edwards Personal Preference Inventory (pre, post, and 1-week post), an expert scale, and a questionnaire measuring the subjects' reactions to the videotapes, the authors found that subjects' favorable reactions to the tape were positively correlated with their perceptions of counselors as being "expert." Four additional studies have examined perceived counselor source characteristics and counseling outcome. LaCrosse (1980) conducted a field study in which pre and post data on the CRF and Global Attainment Scale were obtained from 36 drug abuse clients (8 females and 28 males). Utilizing correlational analyses, the authors found that higher GAS scores were related to the magnitude of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. In another field study conducted by Beutler, Johnson, Neville, Elkins, and Jobe (1975), 97 psychiatric patients were used to determine

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52 the relationship between perceived counselor attractiveness, expertness, and clients' self -reported ratings o£ inprovement . Coimselors and clients were matched on high, medium, and low perceived counselor credibility or expertness. After the counseling treatment, subjects' views of the counselors' influence attempts were measured by the Situational Appraisal Inventory. Data on clients' iirqjrovement was gathered from both clients and counselors. Results of the change scores and analysis of variance indicate that patients who were seen as improving the most had also rated the credibility or expertness of the counselors higher. Clients' level of need and counselors' perceived expertness was correlated in another analogue outcome study. Heppner and Dixon (1978) used 90 female undergraduates as clients for a twenty minute interview. The researchers manipulated counselors' expert and inexpert behaviors, introductions, and objective evidence (diplomas). The subjects were asked to fill out the Problem Solving Skills Inventory and a questionnaire designed to assess clients' estimated level of problem solving ability prior to the twenty minute counseling session. The PSSI, the estimated level of problemsolving ability questionnaire, and the CRF were administered immediately after treatment. In addition, the researchers assessed the subjects' willingness to receive additional helpful written information and their willingness to attend a followup workshop. Change score and analysis of variance procedures indicate that the subjects were influenced by counselors who were perceived as being expert, but that the success of the influence only pertained to those client behaviors which required minimal client commitment.

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53 Finally, Rothmeier and Dixon (1980) studied the effects of perceived counselors' trustworthiness and changes in clients' motivation for achievement. Thirtyfour male and female undergraduates were interviewed twice by either" trustworthy" or "untrustworthy" counselors. Analyzing the differences between clients' motivation for achievement before and after counseling, as measured by an achievement motivation scale, the researchers found that clients who perceived counselors as being more trustworthy rated clients' motivation for achievement higher. Consultation as a Process of Social Influence Consultation as a process of social influence is also supported in the professional literature. However, only two of those reported address the social influence process directly (Martin, 197S; Martin § Curtis, 1980). The other articles, while demonstrating the presence of social influence theory constructs, do so indirectly and with no reference to the approach of consultation being a process of interpersonal influence. Table 4 lists the studies of consultation as a process of social influence. Martin (1978) maintains that consultants need to be seen as expert in the area of human behavior. Also, Martin suggests that a concomitant feeling of attraction and commonality of purpose between consultant and consultee must be present. He advances a number of hypotheses about consultation as a process of social influence (1) Expert consultants will be more successful. (2) Consultants will have more interpersonal attractiveness when consul tees are younger. (3) Referent power (interpersonal attractiveness) will have a more profound effect upon consultees than does the power. Finally, successful consultants will have a better balance between expert and referent power than will less successful consultants.

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54 A study by Martin and Curtis (1980) concerning consultant's age and consultation success was a descriptive study involving 78 Pennsylvania 65 Ohio, and 21 New Jersey school psychologists. Using the Critical Incident Technique, the subjects were asked to respond to questions concerning their successful and unsuccessful consulting experiences and to provide some biographical data on their own age and experiences as well as on that of their consul tees. A 2 x 2 factorial design analysis found that the consultation was most effective when both the consultant and consul tee were similar in age and experience, thus, supporting some dimensions of the interpersonal attractiveness. An earlier report by Reger (1964) also stressed the importance of consul tant/consultee interpersonal attraction. Reger purported that an effective professional relationship shows a common interest for the iirprovement of the overall effectiveness and quality of the consul tees' work performance. Alpert, Ballantyne, and Griffiths (1981) used 12 graduate student consultants and 15 elementary school and day care teachers as consultees in examining the characteristics of consultants and consultees and their relationship to outcome effectiveness. The researchers administered the Educational Values Assessment Questionnaire, a need for assistance scale, and scales designed to measure locus of control, authoritarianism, open-mindedness, and conservatism to both consultants and consultees. By matching consultants and consultees on high and low similarity of

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55 attitudes and values, the researchers were able to measure successes of consultation and the degrees o£ interpersonal attractivenesses. T-test comparisons yield results demonstrating that generally., the more alike consultants and consul tees are, the better the chance for successful consultation. Bergan and Tombari (1976) and Curtis and Watson (1980) both studied the effects of perceived consultants' expertness and consultation outcomes. In the former study, Bergan and Tombari trained 11 school psychologists to consult with the parents and teachers of 806 elementary (K-3) students about problemsolving skills. The consultation services were conducted for an academic year. The measures of consultants' skill and efficiencies were measured by service efficiency, skill in applying psychological principles, and interview skills. Changes in the consultees' behaviors were assessed by examining information on problem-solving from the case-reporting forms which consultants had to file, A multiple-regression analysis was performed on the consultants' variables and consultees' problem-solving measures. Results show that the more skilled the consultants (i.e., the more expertise), the greater the likelihood of consultees learning better problem-solving skills. The Curtis and Watson (1980) study also examined the consultants' skills and process outcome. Twenty-four elementary and middle school teachers (23 females and 1 male) volunteered and were assigned to either a treatment or control group. Eight consultants were used. These consultants were divided into those having high and those having low levels of consulting skills. The researchers audiotaped the pretreatment consultation sessions in which infomation about students ' specific behavior

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•t-t n3 I— t (U trt i-H CO C t— t O ^ (D 3 O CJ -M U 13 -l-i M O I >>u.o a 4) T3 C 3 e t« (U 1/1 l-l (1) X X] • a+j o ca ra 'H (-1 . J 3 P,l-H r-t C/l \ 3 .-1 X tfl I— I o ^ o 1/1 o • o a jr E -H • U (L) T3 u u ^ O 3 o o -H ci.-a I 4J >— ' £ [/I 0 C I t CO a! *-i (U +J •(-'3 C l-l \UTi-l O •H 3 l-l X 3 S m 00/— N « C B c -H -H 3 c o X O ,iS X O O -H 3 in u 1 c in m o t/i 1 O i-t H 3 4-1 o rH 1/1 3 •r-t s 0 VI 4-1 0) S C rH o 3 OCX u U1 CO 4-1 . . gC -H C +-I -H O l-i c c W i-i "O u O C « -rt (U d; o u u ft/i S u o 3 I 1 a 4-1 (/) c M < o O X W 0 0 4-1 00 X >, in u in -H I— I in ex bO 4J C rH i S ^ 8 o c o O Io o CO ftia 4J

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58 problem was elicited. Following the three week treatment period in which the consultants and consultees met once a week for a one-to-one session, another interview was videotaped. This taped interview had the teacher talk about a previously never mentioned student with a previously never mentioned type of problem. The two taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed according to specified procedure which was translated into a rating on a problem identification checklist. The difference between the pretreatment and posttreatment checklist indicated that success in problem clarification skills correlated with the more skilled consultants. Summary Investigators have suggested a relationship between counseling and consulting. However, the nature of the relationship remains ambiguous. Theorists show counseling and consulting differing. However, empirically it has been demonstrated that they are similar in effectiveness and processes. In all of the enpirical literature comparing counseling and consultation, however, there is a failure to control for the counseling and consulting treatments. As a result, replication has been impossible. Any conclusions drawn from these studies must therefore be viewed with caution. Tables 2, 3, and 4 present studies which have investigated both counseling and consulting in terms of Strong's social influence process. The results of these studies suggest that the interpersonal influence process provides a sound, consistent, and systematic basis through which the relationship between counseling and consulting can be explored.

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59 An analysis of all the reviewed literature suggests three conclusions: 1. There is a relationship between counseling and consultation. 2. Without controlling the counseling and consulting treatments, no valid conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between counseling and consulting. 3. The relationship between counseling and consulting can be described as one in which both counselors and consultants engage in a process of interpersonal influence.

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CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES Consultation has become a major intervention tool for school counselors, school psychologists and various mental health workers in the past two decades. Yet, while being supported as an altogether distinct process or technique, consultation does seem to approximate counseling in the helper/helpee relationship, consultant helping strategies, the dynamics which occur between the consultant and the consultee, and various helper or source characteristics. Studies examining the training processes of counselor/consultants in the counselor education departments across the country demonstrate that most counselors -to-be do not receive specific course work in the area. Rather, consultation theory and practice is part of various other courses. This training practice reflects the notion that the two processes of counseling and consultation are seen as so similar that the latter does not require much specialized training. The few studies to date which examined this process similarity have offered support for this view. Nevertheless, there is enough theoretical evidence to suggest that consulting and counseling are different processes. 60

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61 One of the problems in consultation and in examining the relationship between counseling and consulting is the lack of a unifying theory for consultation. Due to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework, the research appearing in the professional literature reflects the use of a variety of definitions of consultation, a variety of undifferentiated processes, and a variety of theoretical orientations and assumptions. Before counseling and consulting processes can be studied with an acceptable degree of validity and reliability, consultation needs to have a unifying theoretical framework. Martin (1978) maintains that consultation is a process of interpersonal influence whereby consultants attempt to change consultees through interpersonal interactions. He followed with a study of the ijnpact of the consultants' age upon consultation outcome which supported the view that consultation is a process of interpersonal influence. Social influence may not only be used in unifying the various theories of consultation, but can provide a consistent framework through which the relationship between counseling and consulting can be studied. The questions of concern were 1. Is there a relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of perceived helper expertness? 2, Is there a relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of perceived helper attractiveness?

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62 3. Is there a relationship between counseling and consultation in terms o£ perceived helper trustworthiness? Helper and Helpee Characteristics A male counseling psychologist, on the faculty in the Department of Psychology at the University of Florida, acted as both counselor and consultant. The helpee was a female graduate student in the University's Department of Theatre. She was used as the client in all counseling and consulting treatments. Independent Variables To address questions, two independent variables were used 1. Nfodels : (A) cognitive -behavioral therapy (Ellis, 1962, Mahoney, 1977) (B) client-centered therapy (Rogers, 1975) (C) consultee -centered case consultation (Caplan, 1970) (D) behavioral consultation (Russell, 1978) 2. Segments : CI) problem identification phase (2) action phase Using a problem identification and action phase for each of the four models, eight minute video tapes were made.

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63 The client studied the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (Rathus, 1973) and was asked to portray a "mild to moderate degree of unassertive behavior" in trying to cope with a college roommate problem. The helper was handed a sheet describing the target behaviors which were to be demonstrated. Refer to Appendix A for a detailed description of the directions for each. After a particular video segment had been taped, it was reviewed by the researcher to determine (a) if the tape was recorded properly, and (b) if the psychologist had demonstrated the target behaviors. Eleven doctoral students in the Department of Counselor Education also acted as judges. All of the video segments were judged as representative of the intended model (Range 88%1001) and the competency of the psychologist was judged as acceptable (Range 851-96%) for all models. Appendices B and C show the Judges' Rating Sheet and judges' ratings respectively. Dependent Variables Perceived helper behavior was measured by the Counselor Rating Form (Barak and LaCrosse, 1975). This instrument is based upon Strong's (1968) theory of counseling as a process of social influence and measures the dimensions of perceived helper expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The Counselor Rating Form (CRF) contains 36 7-point bi-polar scales. Each dimension is measured by 12 items and the range of scores for each item is 12-84. A number of studies have

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64 demonstrated the reliability of the CRF and have supported the capability of the CRF to discriminate the expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthy dimensions between and within counselors (Atkinson ^ Wampole, 1982; Barak ^ LaCrosse, 1975, 1977; Corrigan, 1978; Zamostny, Corrigan, § Eggert, 1981) . Sub j ects The population from which the san^le was drawn was all undergraudates currently residing in on-canpus residence halls at the University of Florida during Summer Term A, 1983. Permission to conduct the study in a residence area was obtained from the Division of Housing and from the Resident Area Director. To advertise for volunteer subjects, each Hall Director and their respective assistants were asked to post flyers on all bulletin boards in their halls. The flyers asked subjects to volunteer Ih hours for a study on "how people change attitudes, opinions, and behaviors, while seeking professional help." The subjects were told each would receive $5 for participation. Thirtyfour males and 45 females participated in the study (N=79) . Of these, 71% were Caucasian, 251 Black, and 4% were Asian. Sophomores were the most represented group (38%) , followed by seniors (281) , Freshman (19%), and Juniors (19%). A wide variety of majors was represented. All subjects lived in one on-campus residence area at the University of Florida and were enrolled in Summer Terai A. Appendix D presents a description of the subjects.

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Procedure To identify potential difficulties in the administration of the treatment, a pilot study was conducted using 18 undergraduates. Problems in the conputerized scoring sheets, videotape clarity, and directions were identified. For the experimental treatment, computerized scoring sheets were not used. Two recently serviced video monitors were used to ensure that all 79 subjects could see and hear the tapes. A packet containing (a) an Informed Consent Form, (b) a biographical data sheet, and (c) 8 Counselor Rating Forms was handed to each participant once all were seated. The researcher demonstrated on a blackboard the correct way of recording on the data sheet and read aloud the instructions for the Counselor Rating Form. To ensure each subject's CRF ratings would correspond to the appropriate video segment, the CRFs in the packet were numbered 1 through 8 and stapled together. The order of segments was randomized by segment and model (see Appendix E) . After each segment was sho^^m, the researcher reminded the subjects of what number should appear on their CRF and they were given time to fill out the CRF. Next segment was then shown. This process was repeated until all 8 segments had been shown and their corresponding CRFs filled out. At the end of the treatment, each subject received 5 dollars.

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66 Experimental Design The design used in the study was a modification of a counterbalanced design (Ary, Jacobs, 5 Razavieh, 1979). Figure 1 depicts this modification. R O2 RX3 R X4 % RX3 RX^ ^6 R X^ O7 RXg ^8 FIGURE 1 COUNTERBALANCED EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

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67 Data Analysis The analysis used in the study was a within subjects 2x4x3x2 factorial design for repeated measures (Klugh, 1974) . There were two levels for each of the four models. Each level of the models was analyzed in terms of perceived helper expertness, attract ivensss, and trustworthiness. Subject sex was used as a moderator variable. Figure 2 depicts the factorial design. TREATMENTS Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CI lent Centered Therapy Behavioral Consultation Mental Health Consultation Problem I.D. E* E A*** A Action FIGURE 2 THE WITHIN SUBJECTS 2x4x3x2 FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR REPEATED MEASURES *Expertness **Trustworthiness * * *At tract ivene s s

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68 Summary Strong's theory of social influence is a potentially valuable tool for studying the relationship between counseling and consultation. This study is not intended to answer all the questions concerning the nature of the relationship, but rather endeavors to introduce a comprehensive and systematic way of examining these two processes together.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS This chapter will present the results o£ the study. The first section will present the preliminary analysis. The next three sections will detail analyses which address the research questions outlined in Chapter I. Finally, a brief summary of all analyses will be presented. Preliminary Analysis A3x4x2x2 factorial analysis for repeated measures was utilized to examine the relationship between counseling and consultation. The factors used in the design were dimensions 3 levels (expertness, trustworthiness, attractiveness), approaches 4 levels (consulteecentered case consultation, client -centered therapy, behavioral consultation, and cognitive -behavioral therapy) , sequence two levels (problem identification and act ion -oriented) , and sex two levels (males and females) . The repeated measures design was used both because the dimensions of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness have been shown to be intercorrelated (LaCrosse § Barak, 1976) and because each set of ratings came from 8 different helping sessions. The summary of the preliminary analysis is presented in Table 5^ 69

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TABLE 5 SUMMARY OF THE FOUR-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE -REPEATED MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTOESS ATTRACTIVENESS, TRUSTWORTHY, AND SEX DIMENSIONS Source SS Df MS F Dimension (R) 3638. 619 2 1819. 309 20. 47* Approach (S) 5058. ,065 3 1686. 021 9. 22* Sequence (T) 3824. ,062 1 3824. 062 25. 28* Sex (G) 2711. 684 1 2711. 684 2. 24 Interactions RXG 149. ,847 2 74. 923 0. 84 SXG 128. ,833 3 42. 944 0. 23 TXG 442. ,897 1 442. 897 2. 93 RXS 4292. ,786 6 715. 464 39. 35* RXT 937. .809 2 468. 904 29. 73* SXT 6629. ,811 3 2209. 937 10. 79* RXSXT 3004. ,390 6 500, 731 21. 15* RXSXG 133. .347 6 22. 224 1. 22 RXTXG 34. ,949 2 17. 474 1. 11 SXTXG 1284. ,967 3 928. 322 2. 09 RXSXTKG 125. .031 6 20. 838 0. 88 Pooled Error 10938, .201 462 23. 675 *Significant at p < .05

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71 As can be seen frcm the analysis of variance summarized in Table 5 no significant differences were found between males and females for dimensions (R) , approaches (S) , and sequences (T) , A threeway interaction was found between dimensions, approaches, and sequences (RXSXT) . The F-value for analysis was 21.15 and the degrees of freedom were 6 and 624 (p < .01). The significant RXSXT interaction suggested further analysis in which the specific interaction between approach X sequence (SXT) needed to be investigated at each level of dimension (R). This analysis was warranted because the investigator was interested in the relationship between counseling and consulting according to the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Thus, the SXT at each level of R analyses would address the relationship between rather than within approaches and sequences. Table 6 summarizes the results of repeated measures analysis of variance for the ST interaction at each level of dimension (R) . Expertness Myers (1972) points out that the F-ratio in repeated measures ANOVA can be positively biased when more than two levels of the repeated factor exist. Geisser and Greenhouse (1958) argued that conservative degrees of freedom (1, n-1) be used to determine the critical F-ratio, However, using conservative degrees of freedom biases the F-ratio in a

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TABLE 6 SIMIARY OF THE TWO-WAY ANALYSES OF VARIANCE -REPEATED MEASURES FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON THE EXPERTNESS TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS SOURCE SS Df MS F Expertness Approach (S) 8238.941 3 2746 313 30.87 Sequence (T) 3612.533 1 3612.533 42.* 93 SXT 4890.283 3 1630,094 15.62* T at s-j^ 4812.556 1 4812.556 37.08* T at S^ 300.784 1 300.784 2.57 Tat S3 1127.113 1 1127.113 12 87* T at S4 112 -.284 1 112.284 2.47 S at t-^ 3315.072 3 3315.072 15,28* S at t2 13413.000 • 3 13413.000 39.93* Trustworthiness Approach (S) 1200.632 3 400,210 6.00 Sequence (T) 1287.348 1 1287.348 22.83 SXT 1831,006 3 610.335 8,07* Simple Effects T at S-j^ 1069.120 1 1069,120 11.52* Tat S2 250.639 1 250.639 3.92 T at Sj 22.784 1 22.784 0.28 T at S4 952.810 1 952.810 18.30* S at T-j^ 3315.974 3 1105.324 14,39* Sat T2 914.886 3 304.962 5.84*

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73 TABLE 6 (Continued) SOURCE SS D£ MS F Attractiveness Approach (S) 57.890 3 19.296 0.31 Sequence (T) 299.406 1 299.406 6.50 SXT 3377.169 3 1125.723 14.99* Simple Effects: T at S^ 154.025 1 154.025 2.48 T at $2 482.126 1 482.126 5.74 T at S3 216.613 1 216.613 2.92 T at S4 1386.227 1 1386.227 26.80* S at T-j^ 1645.177 3 548.392 7.59* S at T2 1832.313 3 610,771 10.93* **s^: Consul tee centered case consultation S2: Client -centered therapy S3: Behavioral consultation s^: Cognitive -behavioral therapy t^: Problem identification segment t2: Action segment * Significant at p < .05

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74 negative direction (Collier, Baker, Mandeville, ^ Hayes, 1967). Thus, for repeated measures analysis of variance, the conventional degrees of freedom should be multiplied by the E (epsilon) statistic (Collier, et al., 1967) to determine the exact degrees of freedom to be used (Barak § LaCrosse, 1977). In examining the relationship of approaches and sequences on the expertness dimension, the conventional degrees of freedom (3 and 234) were multiplied by the E statistic (.889) to yield 3 and 208 degrees of freedom. The F-value of 15.62 was found to be significant indicating an AxS interaction. Further analysis yielded significant differences between the problem identification and action phases of the consulting models. The means and standard deviations are reported in Table 7. It was found that the helper was seen as more expert in the problem identification phase of consulteecentered case consultation than in the action plase (X 66,64, SD ID, .67 vs. X 55.60, SD 14.53). However, the opposite was true for behavioral consultation where the helper was seen as more expert in the action phase (X 71.10, SD 11,72). No significant differences were found between the two segments in client-centered therapy and in cognitivebehavioral therapy. An investigation between the approaches (S) at each level of segment (T) was conducted. The results, reported in Table 6, indicated that perceived helper expertness varied between approaches in both probelm identification and action sequences. Post hoc pairwise comparisons, using Tukey HSD procedures and the epsilon statistic for

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75 corrected degrees of freedom, (p < . 05) , was performed on the SxT interaction. For the problem identification phase, the consulting models did not significantly differ in amount of perceived helper expertness. For the counseling models, however, client-centered therapy was seen as less expert than cognitive-behavioral therapy (X 60.77, SD 13.89 vs. X 69.79, SD 8.96). When differences between counseling and consulting models were examined, it was found the helper in cognitivebehavioral therapy was seen as more expert than in any other approach, and the helper in clientcentered therapy was seen as the least expert. The same procedure was used to investigate the expertness dimension between models in the action phas. These means and standard deviations are also reported in Table 7. The consulting models were found to be significantly different with behavioral consultation seen as more expert than consul teecentered case consultation (X 71.10, SD 11.72 vs. X 55.60, SD 14.53). For the counseling models, cognitive-behavioral therapy again was seen as more expert than client-centered therapy (X 71.55, SD 9.36 vs. X 63.53, SD 11.54). IVhen comparing models of counseling and consulting, it was found that consul teecentered case consultation was seen as the least expert for the action phc^e among all models. Behavioral consultation was seen as more expert than client centered therapy, but did not significantly differ from cognitive -behavioral therapy (X 71.10, SD 11. 72 vs. X 71 . 55, SD 9. 36 respectively). Summary The results of the analyses of the expertness dimension indicated that the consultant was seen as differentially expert throughout the

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TABLE 7 SUMMARY OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION ON EXPERTOESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS* Problem Identification Action APPROACH X SD X SD Consultee -Centered Case Consultation n C DO .64 10, ,67 55 .60 14. 53 T 65 .65 11, 53 60 .45 11. 54 A 64 .53 11, 07 62 .55 10. 37 CI lent -Centered Therapy E 60 .77 13. 89 63 .53 11. 54 T 61 .15 11. 74 63 .67 10. 22 A 58 .10 11. 50 61 .59 10. 98 Behavioral Consultation E 65 .75 11. 17 71 .10 11. 72 T 64 .67 10. 77 65 .43 12. 88 A 62 .75 9. 92 60 .41 11. 21 Cognitive -Behavioral Therapy E 69 .79 8. 96 71 .55 9. 36 T 64 .51 10. 71 69 .43 11. 02 A 60, .56 10. 20 66 .49 9. 83 *n=79

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77 problem identification and action process of consultation, The amount of perceived expertness dropped significantly during the action phase of consultee -centered case consultation, but increased significantly during the same phase of behavioral consultation. This differential in expertness was not found when counseling models were examined. The amount of perceived helper expertness remained (essentially) constant across both phases. When examining differences between models, sequence was held constant. The results of pairwise comparisons of approaches at the problem identification phase showed that cognitive -behavioral therapy was seen as the most expert ^^ile client -centered therapy was perceived as the least expert of all approaches. During the action phase, however, this trend did not continue. Consultee -centered case consultation was rated as the least expert while both behavioral consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy were seen having the most amount of helper expertness. No clear pattern emerges from the analysis of expertness between counseling and consulting. However, cognitive -behavioral therapy was consistently rated high in perceived helper expertness while clientcentered therapy was consistently rated low. This suggests that the differences of expertness between counseling and consulting is dependent upon the specific models compared. Trustworthiness A significant interaction between approaches and sequences was found for the trustworthiness dimension (Table 6) . The F-value was 8.07 with 2 and 183 degrees of freedom (corrected ;dth the epsilon of .783) , and p < .05.

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78 Further analysis of siji^jle effects indicated significant differences between the problem identification and action phases on the approaches. The means and standard deviations appear in Table 7. For the consulting models, the problem identification phase of consul teecentered case consultation was seen as more trustworthy than the action phfise, but no significant difference was found between both phases of behavioral consultation. Mixed results were found between the problem identification and action phases in both counseling models. While no significant difference was found in the client-centered therapy sequences, the action phase of cognitive -behavioral therapy was perceived as significantly more trustworthy than the problem identification sequence. An investigation was then conducted between approaches and sequences for the trustworthiness dimension. Table 6 presents the results which indicated differences between approaches on both levels of sequence. Tukey HSD post hoc procedures were used. The epsilon factor for adjusted degrees of freedom produced 2 and 253 degrees of freedom (p < .05). The consulting models did not significantly differ in amount of perceived helper trustworthiness for the problem identification phase. However, for the counseling approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated more trustworthy than was clientcentered therapy (X 64.51, SD 10.71 vs. X 61.15, SD 11.74). When differences between comseling and consulting models were analyzed the results were mixed. Clientcentered therapy was seen as significantly less trustworthy than all other approaches, but there were no differences between consulteecentered case consultation, behavioral consultation, and cognitivebehavioral therapy.

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i 79 For the action phase, the consulting models differed significantly. Behavioral consultation was rated more trustworthy than was consulteecentered case consultation (X 65.43, SD 12.88 vs. X 60.45, SD 11.54). The counseling models differed as well with cognitive-behavioral therapy seen as more trustworthy than clientcentered therapy. Comparisons across models of counseling and consultation again produced mixed results. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as significantly more trustworthy than all other approaches. Clientcentered therapy was not significantly different from the consulting models . Summary The results of the analysis of the trustworthiness dimension indicated that while the degree of perceived helper trustworthiness did not vary between the problon identification and action phases of clientcentered therapy and behavioral consultation, both consul teecentered case consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy showed significant differences between their respective sequences. Each sequence was held constant and analysis was conducted across all models. The results of Tukey HSD pairwise conparisons indicated that clientcentered therapy was seen as being the least trustworthy during the problem identification phase. No significant differences were found to exist between consulting models and cognitive-behavioral therapy. During the action phase, cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as being the most expert, but no significant differences were found between consulting models and clientcentered therapy.

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80 No clear pattern between counseling and consulting is indicated by these analyses. Again, as in the expertness dimension, the amount of perceived helper trustworthiness tends to vary according to specific helping models across counseling and consultation. Attractiveness Table 6 also presents results of a repeated measures analysis of variance conducted for the attractiveness dimension. Using 3 and 199 degrees of freedom with p < .05, the F-value of 14.99 for the approach (s) X sequence (T) interaction was found to be significant. In examining differences between the problem identification and action phases within models, the only significant difference appeared in the counseling modes. Both were seen as having more attractiveness in the action phases. The means and standard deviations appear in Table 7. In comparing each model for the amount of perceived helper attractiveness in the problem identification phase, a significant interaction was found. This required further examination using the Tukey HSD post hoc analysis procedure for pairwise comparisons. The means and standard deviations appear in Table 7. No significant differences were found when consulting models were compared, nor were there significant differences between counseling models. When counseling and consulting models were compared mixed results were indicated. Consul teecentered case consultation was seen as more interpersonally attractive than both counseling models. Behavioral consultation was perceived as having significantly more attractiveness than clientcentered therapy (X 62.75, SD 9.92 vs. X 58.10, SD 11.50), but not significantly different from cognitive -behavioral counseling (X 60.56, SD 10.20).

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81 Pairwise comparisons were also performed on the approaches at the action sequence. No significant differences were found between consulting models. However, cognitive -behavioral therapy was seen as having more interpersonal attractiveness than client -centered therapy. IVhen comparing models of counseling and consulting, cognitive -behavioral therapy was rated as the most interpersonal ly attractive. No significant differences were found to exist between client -centered therapy and both consulting models. Summary The results of the analyses for the attractiveness dimension indicated that the amount of perceived helper attractiveness remained essentially constant throughout consultation phases , but varied consistently in counseling models. Holding sequence constant, mixed results were reported \-ihery comparing counseling and consulting models during the problem identification phase, although consul tee -centered case consultation was rated as more interpersonally attractive than both counseling models. For the pairwise comparisons of approaches during the action phase, cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as having a greater degree of interpersonal attractiveness than both consulting models and the client centered therapy approach. As for both expertness and trustworthiness dimensions, no clear pattern emerges from the study of counseling and consulting in terms of perceived helper attractiveness. One consulting approach has a higher degree of interpersonal attractiveness during the problem identification phase while a counseling approach is rated higher than the other models during the action phase.

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82 The results of all analyses performed for approaches and sequences at each level of dimension fail to demonstrate a clear pattern between counseling and consulting. However, some interesting groupings do occur for expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness between the problem identification and action phases. For the problem identification phase, client-centered therapy was seen as having the least amount of expertness and trustworthiness. Cognitive -behavioral therapy was rated as having the most amount of expertness. The attractiveness dimension produced mixed results. In the action sequence, cognitive -behavioral therapy was perceived as having the most amount of trustworthiness and interpersonal attractiveness. The expertness dimension was divided among behavioral consultation and CO gntive -behavioral therapy.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND REC0M«)ATIONS In the past two decades, educators, school -based and mental health counselors, and authors have suggested that there is a relationship between counseling and consultation. Current researchers have shown that both counseling and consulting can be viewed as processes o£ interpersonal influence. However, studies comparing counseling and consultation have failed to use this interpersonal influence approach. The result has been that similarities and differences between counseling and consulting are based largely upon theoretical writing and fail to clarify the relationship. If counseling and consulting could be enpirically compared as processes of interpersonal influence, the nature and extent of their relationship would be clarified. This chapter presents a summary and interpretation of the findings in this study. Limitations and practical implications are presented. Additionally, recommendations for further research are included. Limitations A number of limitations in the current investigation exist and should be considered when interpreting these data. One of these limitations concerns the use of a 3k minute videotape to represent counseling and consulting processes. The length of the 83

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84 videotapes, although rated as accurately representing the intended processes and receiving literature support as indicative of a 50 -minute session, may not be representative o£ entire counseling and consulting processes. However, in anticipation of this limitation, the investigator used eleven judges to determine the accurate portrayal of each treatment modality in the 5h minute video segment. In addition, the judges were asked to rate the helpers' degree of competency. The results of the judges' ratings appear in Appendix C. The results indicated that both counseling and consulting processes were performed accurately and that the helper had an acceptable degree of competency C > 851 concurrence among judges) . Second, while a 3% minute video segment may have lacked "authentic" helping processes, one of the purposes of the current investigation was to maintain a high degree of control over the presentation of the counseling and consulting modalities, A related limitation concerns the separation of each process into a "problem identification" and "action" segment. The purpose was to allow for a more complete investigation of the relationship between counseling and consulting. Moreover, this separation appears to be consistent with the stages which occur in "real life" counseling and consulting. Again, to ensure accuracy ,^ judges were used to rate each segment . The uses of the same counselor/consultant and helpee throughout both counseling and consulting approaches presents a third limitation. Although, the use of judges' ratings was an attempt to counterbalance this limitation, it is difficult to assert that all models were equally

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85 represented by the helper. In that between 65% and 90% of the message in a normal two-person conversation is communicated nonverbally, it is probable that the helper's subtle preferences for particular models was present. Second, these same subtle factors may have been operating for the client as well. The current investigation was concerned with exercising control over the treatments to avoid a salient flaw in the current literature. Thus, while perhaps limiting the generalizations which could be made from the results, the purpose of using only one helper and helpee was to control potential confounding variables such as bet;veen helper variance. In the future, researchers may want to limit their investigations to the use of one counseling and one consulting process with two or more helpers and helpees representing each approach. Having subjects fill out 8 Counselor Rating Forms might be viewed as limiting because the CRPs may have acted as a type of pre-test sensitization. However, the presentation of the 8 video segments was randomized, thus acting as a counterbalance. Finally, a problem was encountered during the implementation of this research which should be considered in interpreting these data. It was pointed out to the researcher that 10 of the subjects were currently enrolled in an undergraduate course taught by the counselor/ consultant used in the study, and that the parable used by the helper in the action phase of the consulteecentered case consultation had been used in the class for instructional purposes. However, this affected only one set of ratings for less than 10 subjects. Future investigations might address this question by having subjects indicate on their response forms if they are currently acquainted with either the helper or helpee.

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86 Discussion Question 1: Is there a Relationship Between Counseling and Consulting in Terms of Perceived Helper Expertness ? An analysis of the data comparing counseling models at each level of sequence indicated that cognitive-behavior therapy was seen as more expert than clientcentered therapy in both the problem identification (X 69.79 vs. X 60.77) and action sequences (X 71.55 vs. X 63.53). In the conparison of consulting models across both sequences, the data indicated no differences between consul tee -centered case consultation and behavioral consultation in the amount of perceived helper expertness during the problem identification phase. However, behavioral consultation was seen as more expert in the action sequences (X 60.43 vs. X 55.60). These differences prevented a "collapse" of counseling models and consulting models into "counseling versus consulting" on the expertness dimension across process sequences. Therefore, all four models had to be analyzed independently of their generic classifications. When comparing specific models across both problem identification and action sequences on the expertness dimension, a number of interesting findings emerged. The data indicated that cognitive-behavioral counseling was rated the highest of the four models in the problem identification phase and, along with behavioral consultation, was rated again as having the most amount of perceived expertness in the action sequence. Clientcentered therapy and consul teecentered case consultation were rated the lowest in the problem identification and action phases respectively. These findings suggest that regardless of whether

PAGE 95

87 one is using a counseling or consulting model, the non-directive approaches are viewed as being less expert than the more directive counseling and consulting models. Second, although the counseling models differed in terms of perceived expertness, the data indicated that these differences remained fairly constant across both their problem identification and action sequences. Counseling seems to maintain an essentially constant amount of perceived counselor expertness throughout the middle and final phases. This finding was not characteristic of consulting models. The results indicated that the amount of perceived helper expertness during consultation varied between problem identification and action phases but the direction of these differences was dependent upon the particular consulting intervention used. Question 2: Is there a Relationship Between Counseling and Consulting in Tems of Perceived Helper Trustworthiness : The results of comparing the counseling models at both levels of sequence demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as more trustworthy than clientcentered therapy in the problem identification and action phases. In the same comparison using consulting models, behavioral consultation was rated as more trustworthy than consulteecentered case consultation in the action phase (X 65.43 vs. X 60.45). No significant differences appeared between consulting models in the problem identification phase. Due to these within group differences, it was again not possible to collapse the comparisons into "counseling versussus consulting" on the trustworthiness dimension across sequences.

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88 Thus, as with expertness, conparisons of counseling and consulting had to be performed on a model-by-model basis. The results of these conparisons are noteworthy. Clientcentered therapy was rated significantly lower than all other models in teniis of perceived helper trustworthiness for the problem identification phase. Thus, for both the expertness and trustworthiness dimensions of the problem identification phase, clientcentered therapy had the lowest ratings. For the action phase on the trustworthiness dimension, cognitivebehavior therapy was rated significantly higher than all other approaches. This finding differed from that on the expertness dimension only in that both cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation were seen as having the most amount of perceived helper expertness. Data from the comparisons of models to trustworthiness across both problem identification and action sequences failed to support the findings on the expertness dimension. IVhile counseling was seen as remaining rather constant in terms of expertness across sequences, mixed results were found on the trustworthiness dimension when comparing counseling and consulting models. Clientcentered therapy and behc.vioral consultation remained relatively constant across sequences. However, cognitivebehavioral therapy and consul tee -centered case consultation both varied in terms of the amount of perceived helper trustworthiness. The former was seen as less trustworthy in its respective action phase while the latter was rated as more trustworthy in its action phase. Thus, although specific relationships between particular models of counseling and consulting processes are indicated, the generic relationship between "counseling and consultation" is unclear in terns of perceived helper trustworthiness.

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89 Question 3: Is there a Relationship Between Counseling and Consulting in Terms of Perceived Helper Attractiveness ? The canparisons of counseling models at each level of sequence on the attractiveness dimension indicated that there was no significant difference between clientcentered and cognitive-behavioral therapy during the problem identification phases. However, cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated as having a greater degree of perceived helper attractiveness in the action phase. No differences were found to exist between the problem identification and action phases of consulting models. Thus, consul teecentered case and behavioral consultation can be collapsed into the generic term "consultation." When viewed as such, consultation is perceived as having more interpersonal attractiveness than is client-centered therapy in the problem identification phase but is rated significantly lower than cognitivebehavioral therapy in attractiveness during the action phase. Therefore, when addressing the question concerning the relationship between counseling and consulting, it appears that during the problem identification phase, consultation has more perceived helper attractiveness than does clientcentered therapy, but the results are mixed when comparing consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy. During the action phase, no significant differences appear between consultation and clientcentered therapy. However, consultation is seen as having less perceived interpersonal attractiveness than is cognitive-behavioral therapy. When the counseling and consulting processes were analyzed in terms of the increase or decrease in perceived helper attractiveness across both sequences, interesting results were indicated.

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90 For the expertness dimension of counseling, it was shown that the amount o£ perceived helper expertness did not significantly vary across problem identification and action sequences. The action phase of counseling, however, was rated more interpersonally attractive than the problem identification phase. This suggests that while maintaining a consistent level of helper expertness, counseling seems to increase in perceived helper attractiveness in the later or action stages. The results of this study indicated that the level of perceived helper interpersonal attractiveness remained rather constant throughout the problem identification and action phases of consultation. It appears, then, that the relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of helper attractiveness, is that consultation presented a consistent level of interpersonal attractiveness throughout the middle and final stages while counseling increases as the process moved into the later stages. Summary of the Analyses Addressing the Three Research Questions The research questions in the current investigation were designed to address the relationship between counseling and consulting. The results of the study indicated that a general collapse of consulting and counseling models into "consulting vs. counseling" was not possible. This was due to significant differences found between models of consultation and between counseling models along the dimensions of expertness and trustworthiness. For example, consul tee -centered case consultation was perceived as less expert than behavioral consultation in the action sequence. For counseling models, cognitive-behavioral therapy was seen as more trustworthy than clientcentered therapy during the action phase.

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91 Although these within group differences did exist, the pattern of differences was not consistent. Therefore, in general, it was not possible to draw specific conclusions abc^ut differences and similarities between counseling and consultation. In one instance, it was possible to collapse the models into the generic classification of counseling and consulting because no significant differences were found within consulting and counseling groups across sequences on the attractiveness dimension. The results indicated that counseling increased in perceived helper attractiveness as the process moved from the problem identification phase to the action phase. Consultation was seen as maintaining a consistent level of attractiveness across those same sequences. A stimmary of other results examining the relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of the perceived helper characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness indicated 1. Client -centered therapy was seen as having the least amount of perceived helper expertness and trustworthiness in the problem identification phase. 2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was rated as having the most amount of perceived helper trustworthiness, attractiveness, and along with behavioral consultation, the most amount of expertness than all other models in the action phase. 3. Consultation demonstrated a consistent level of perceived helper attractiveness throughout the middle and final stages of the process, but the amount of perceived helper expertness varied throughout the middle and final stages. However, the direction of the difference was dependent upon the specific consulting model.

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92 From these results, ijnplications can be drawn about the relationship between counseling and consulting. The results of the literature reviews in Chapters I and II indicated that counseling and consulting were theoretically different, yet did not seem to differ in practice. The results of the current investigation do not support these claims. An implication of the present study is that both counseling and consulting can be studied as processes of interpersonal influence. It may be that particular models of counseling and consulting are theoretically different. However, these differences are not necessarily theoretical differences between counseling and consulting per se. Rather, they appear to be differences emanating from generic views of how people change. In other words, differences which appear seem to be delineated by the directiveness vs. non-directiveness of the helper regardless of v^iich helping process was being demonstrated. For example, the current investigation used two non-directive approaches (client -centered therapy and consulteecentered case consultation) and two directive approaches (cognitive -behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation) . The non-directive counseling model was seen as least expert in the problem identification phase, and the non-directive consulting model was seen as least expert in the action phase. The directive models of counseling and consulting were seen as more expert in the action phase than were both non-directive models. Differences between the practices of counseling and consulting as reported in Chapters I and II are also refuted by the findings of the present investigation.

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93 In some cases, not only was it found that counseling and consulting differed in terms of the amount of perceived helper expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness, but that counseling and consulting models differed among themselves as well. For example, cognitive -behavioral counseling was seen as having more perceived helper expertness than both consulting models in the problem identification phase. Additionally, it was rated higher than was client -centered therapy. Further support for differences between counseling and consulting is suggested by the fact that in the current investigation, consulting was seen as maintaining a consistent level of perceived attractiveness across both segments, whereas counseling was seen as increasing in attractiveness during the later stage. Implications and Recommendations for Future Research This study investigated the relationship between counseling and consulting in terms of the perceived helper source characteristics. The findings of this study may have practical inplications for others involved in research or applied practice in the area. The results reflect some patterns that have been noted in the pro-fessional literature on consultation and counseling. The popularity of cognitive-behavioral counseling has been noted in the professional literature (Smith, 1982). The current study seems to support this view because the cognitive -behavioral counselor was perceived in the action phase as having a greater degree of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness than the other counseling model. Studies have also correlated these three source characteristics with client preferences for counselors (Atkinson ^ Carskadden, 1975; Barak and Dell, 1977a; 1977b). In that no significant difference was found between

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94 the amount o£ perceived helper expertness in behavioral consultation and cognitive-behavioral therapy, future investigators might examine these two models in terms o£ helpee preferences. Moreover, researchers have demonstrated the relationship between expertness and client expectations of favorable outcome (Beutler et al., 1975; Cash et al., 1978). Because behavioral consultation and cognitivebehavior therapy were found to be related in terms of expertness, future investigations might be undertaken to compare these two models in tertns of helper expectations for favorable outcome-given a similar degree of perceived helper expertness. In the present investigation, the parable intervention was used in the action phase of consultee-centered case consultation. The results of the analysis indicated that this intervention was rated the lowest of all models in terms of perceived helper expertness. Researchers may find that the use of another consultee -centered case consultation intervention such as "verbal focus on the client" might produce different results. All helping models used in this study were divided into a "problem identification" and an "action" phase. The results indicated that consul teecentered case consultation decreased in the amount of perceived helper trustworthiness when the process moved into the action phase v^ile in cognitive -behavioral counseling the level of the trustworthiness increased. Rothmeier and Dixon (1980) correlated perceived helper trustworthiness and clients' motivation for achievement in counseling, A study might be undertaken to compare these two models in terms of helpees' motivations for achievement and change.

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95 Finally, future investigators might examine the perceived helper characteristics using 50-minute sessions. Results of the comparisons of these helper characteristics in two discrete sequences showed differences between the problem identification and action phases. These differences may be obviated if raters were to respond to a full 50-minute session. Using a social influence model, counseling and consultating practitioners might note the results of counseling studies which indicate the presence of perceived helper expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness and their relation to favorable counseling outcome (Beutler et al., 1975; Cash et al., 1978; Rothmeier 5 Dixon, 1980). It may be that practicing counselors and consultants might concentrate more on increasing their power bases than by perfecting a particular helping modality. For the current investigator, the results of this study suggest that practitioners might want to employ the more directive counseling and consulting approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral consultation, rather than the non-directive approaches, client -centered therapy and consultee -centered case consultation, when working with college students. This is based on the findings which indicated that the directive approaches were perceived as more expert than the non-directive approaches. Conclusions This study investigated the relationships between counseling and consulting by measuring subjects' responses on the Counselor Rating Form after viewing four videotaped segments of each process. The results of analyzing subjects' responses indicated that the relationships between these two interventions are complex. Therefore, conclusions drawn from this investigation about the nature of the relationship between counseling and consulting should be interpreted with caution.

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96 Nevertheless, the results o£ this study suggested that both counseling and consulting can be examined through a framework o£ interpersonal influence. In terms of practice, the results indicated that differences between these two generic processes do exist and that these differences are best understood on a model -by-model basis. Significant differences were found within counseling models and consulting models. Therefore, the models could not be collapsed into generic processes of counseling and consulting. The results did suggest that differences between these four models was based more on the directiveness vs. non-directiveness of the models than on counseling vs. consulting dimensions.

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APPENDIX A DIRECTIONS FOR HELPER AND HELPEE Psychologist's Directions For the problem identification phase of consul tee -centered case consultation, you are to identify the consultee's "theme" which is interf erring with their ability to perform adequately. You are to focus on the "outside unit's behaviors i\^ich seem to "trigger" unresolved conflicts in the consultee. You are to be persistent in asking questions. When you clarify and paraphrase, use the consultee's own words. Remember, the nature of your relationship v/ith the consultee is a coordinate one. During the action phase of this consulting intervention, you are to identify the problem situation and then immediately offer a parable in an endeavor to have the consultee see how she is responsible for her difficulties. Your goal in the problem identification phase of behavioral consultation is to identify the "outside" unit's maladaptive behaviors as well as those of the consultee. Focus on identifying who is to do what to whom, }fjhen, how, and why? 97

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98 During the action phase, focus on identifying the consultee behaviors which seem to initiate and maintain maladaptive client actions. If necessary, give advice based upon research in the field of behavior modification, which can be useful in getting the consultee to modify the client's behaviors. During client-centered therapy, maintain constant focus upon the helpee's feelings throughout the problem identification and action phases. Use accurate empathy statements, clarifications, paraphrases, and open-ended questions for the problem identification phase. Use these same responses during the action segment except make advanced enpathic responses. For the problem identification phase of cognitive -behavioral therapy, use Ellis' RET and/or Beck's Cognitive Therapy techniques to identify client antecedent events, consequential feelings, and irrational thoughts. Be didactic and persistent. During the action phase have the client role play an upsetting situation. Help the client identify her irrational thoughts associated with that event. Have the client dispute the irrational thoughts and replace them with more rational ideas.

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APPENDIX B JUDGES' RATING SHEET INSTRUCTIONS: You will be shown eight minute segments o£ either a counseling or consulting session. You will be asked at the end o£ each 3h minute segment to identify from a list of various counseling and consulting techniques the model you believe the segment depicted. You will also be asked to indicate the degree to which you believe the technique or model was adequately demonstrated , IT IS POSSIBLE TO SEE THE SAME APPROACH TWICE (i,e., ONE MAY DEPICT "SEGMENT A" AND ANOTHER im DEPICT "SEGMENT B"), BUT NO APPROACH WILL BE SHOWN MORE TH AN 2 TIMES ! The session I have just seen was: BEHAVIORAL CONSULTATION : IVhile talking with consultees, the focus is on the "outside unit." (Russell, 1978) . Segment A: Consultants attempt to identify when, what and how often the "outside unit" demonstrate behaviors v^ich cause problems for consultees. Segment B: Consultants attempt to educate consultees in basic principles of behavior modificat ion so that consultees can initiate new behaviors which in turn will help modify the behaviors of "outside units." SYSTEMATIC CONSULTATION : IVhile talking with consultees, the focus is on the "outside unit." (Myrick, 1977). Segment A: Consultants utilize a stepwise procedure to get consultees to identify the feelings, expectations, and goals they have for the "outside units." Segment B: Consultants engage in behavioral observation of the "outside units" and help consultees brainstorm plans and develop specific strategies. CONSULTEECENTERED CASE CONSULTATION : IVhile talking with consultees, the focus is on the "outside unit." (Caplan, 1970) . 99

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100 Segment A: Consultants act similar to client-centered therapists in providing an atmosphere of trust and mutual exchange. Consultants use clarifications and questions ("What exactly?" What else?" etc.) Consultants try to understand the consultees point of view by exploring how the consultant might be affected by the "outside unit." (e.g., "Would I like her?") Segment B: Consultants frequently engage in telling a parable to consultees the purpose of which is to indirectly point out to consultees reasons for consultees' lack of objectivity. REALITY THERAPY : The focus is on the client. (Ellis, 1962) Segment A: The reality therapists attenpt to have clients accept full responsibility for their actions. Therapists use a stepwise procedure by which client admit and define behaviors and examine consequences. Segment B: Therapist get clients to make value judgements and plans of action. Therapists often asign behavioral homework assignments. CLIEOTCENTERED THERAPY : The focus is on the client. (Rogers, 1975) Segment A: The therapists act in a facilitative manner such that through counselors' warmth, genuineness, understanding, respect, and concreteness clients can more fully understand their feelings. Therapists use a combination of "open-ended" questions, clarifications, feelingfocused responses, summaries and enpathy statements in their endeavors. Segment B: Same as above, but the therapist uses advanced empathy, GESTALT THERAPY : The focus is on the client. (Kenpler, in Corsini,1973) Segment A: Therapist attempt to have clients become more aware of their experiences by having them focus on "the here and now." Therapists have clients repeat or exaggerate certain behavioral gestures in attempting to have clients "contact" their feelings. Segment B: Therapists have clients use fantasy or "popularity" techniques to help clients reach an impasse.

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101 COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY : The focus is on clients. (Mahoney, Wn) Segment A: Therapists utilize rational or cognitive therapy techniques in helping clients become more aware of their "faulty" or "irrational" thought patterns which mediate between antecedent events and consequential feelings . Segment B: Therapists frequently engage clients in role playing, the purpose of which is to have clients recognize "irrational" thoughts and then substitute more rational thoughts. FOR THE ^DDEL CHOSEN, I THINK THE HELPER'S CCMPETENCY IN DENDNSTRATING THE TREATMENT IS: Q% 20% m 601 80% 100% No Competency Competency

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APPENDIX C JUDGES' RATING BY SEG^'IEN^ PERCENT MEAN RANGE OF COMPETENCY OF DESCRIPTOR SEGNffiNT AGREEMENT RATING COMPETENCY Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Problem Action I.D, 100% 100% 95.4% 96.0% 85% 90% -100% -100% Behavioral Consultation Problem Action I.D. 100% 91% 93.8% 88.1% 90% 80% -100% -98% Client -Centered Therapy Problem Action I.D. 91% 100% 94.7% 90.1% 80% 80% -100% -100% Consultee -Centered Case Consultation Problem Action I.D. 88% 100% 88.3% 85.1% 80% 80% -95% -91% 102

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APPENDIX D DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECTS DESCRIPTOR FREQUENCY PERCENT SEX Male 34 43% Female 45 57% RACE Asian 3 4% Black20 25% Caucas ian 56 71% COLLEGE YEAR Freshman 15 19% Sophomore 30 38% Junior 12 15% Senior 22 28% MAJOR Psychology 8 10% Accounting 1 1% Health Related Professions 7 9% Business 11 14% Education 4 5% Engineering 15 19% Journalism 13 16% Other 18 23% Undecided 2 3% Have you or family manber ever seen a psychologist 21 Yes 27% for help? 58 No 73% 103

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APPENDIX E ORDER OF PRESEOTATION TO SUBJECTS VIEWING ORDER SEGMENT 1 Consultee -Centered Case Consiiltation Action 2 Client -Centered Therapy Action 3 Consultee -Centered Case Consultation Problem I .D. 4 Behavioral Consultation Action 5 Cognit ive ' Behavioral Therapy Problem I .D. 6 Behavioral Consultation Problem I, .D. 7 ClientCentered Therapy Problem I, .D. 8 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Action 104

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APPENDIX F SUMMARY OF TWO-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR APPROACH (S) X SEQUENCE (T) FOR EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVESS SOURCE SS df MS F Expertness S 8238.941 3 2746.313 . 30.87 Error 20814.183 234 88.949 T 3612.533 1 3612.533 .42.93 Error 6563.341 78 84,145 ST 4890.283 3 1630.094 15.62 Error 24417.341 234 104.347 Trustworthiness S 1200.632 . 3 400,210 6.00 Error 15605.867 234 66,691 T 1287.348 1 1287.348 22.83 Error 4397.651 78 56.380 ST 1831.006 3 610,335 8.07 Error 17690,993 234 75.602 Attractiveness S 57.890 3 19.296 0.31 Error 144.984 234 61.871 T 299.406 1 299.406 6.50 Error 3591.781 78 46.047 ST 3377.169 3 1125.723 14.99 Error 17570.205 234 75,086 ICS

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APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SIMPLE EFFECTS OF APPROACH X SEQUENCE ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS SOURCE SS df MS Expertness Problem I.D. Aproach (S) Error 3315.072 16922.677 3 234 1105.024 72.319 15.28* Action Approach (S) Error 13413.000 26200.000 3 234 4471.000 111.965 39.93* Trustworthiness Problem I.D. Approach Error 914.886 12224.613 3 234 304.962 52.241 5,84" Action Approach Error 3315,974 17971.525 3 234 1105.324 76.801 14.39* Attractiveness Problem I.D, Approach Error 1832.313 13075.936 3 234 610,771 55.880 10.93* Action Approach Error 1645.177 16897.322 3 234 548.392 72.217.59" Significant at p <:;^ .05 106

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APPENDIX H SUMMARY OF POST HOC COMPARISONS FOR SEQUENCE AT EACH LEVEL OF APPROACH ON EXTERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS SOURCE (RST) SS d£ MS F EAA vs EAB 4812.556 1 4812.556 37.08* Error 10122.443 78 129.774 EBA vs EBB 300.784 1 300,784 2.57 Error 9131.215 78 117.066 ECA vs ECB 1127.113 1 1127.113 12.87* Error 6828.886 78 87.549 EDA vs EDB 122.284 1 122.284 2.42 Error 3938.215 78 50,489 Trus two rth ines s TAA vs TAB 1069.120 1 1069.120 11.52* Error 7240.379 78 92.825 TBA vs TBB 250.639 1 250.639 3.92 Error 4986.860 78 63,934 TCA vc TCB 22.784 1 22.784 0.28 Error 6350.215 78 81.413 TDA vs TDB 952.810 1 952.810 18.30* Error 4060.189 78 52.053 Attractiveness AAA vs AAB 154.025 1 154.025 2.48 Error 4850.974 78 62.191 ABA vs ABB 482.126 1 482.126 5.74* Error 6552.873 78 84.011 ACA vc ACB 216.613 1 216.613 2.92 Error 5780.886 78 74.113 ADA vs ADB 1386.227 1 1386.227 26.82* Error 4034.772 78 51.727 Significant at p .05 107

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i APPENDIX I SUMMARY OF TUKEY HSD POST HOC COMPARISONS OF APPROACHES AT EACH LEVEL OF SEQUENCE ON EXPERTNESS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, AND ATTRACTIVENESS DIMENSIONS APPROACH INTERVAL ESTIMATE Expertness Problem I. D. (F2 -95 = 2.72) A vs B = 5.87 ± 2.72 (3.15 and 8.59)* A vs C = .89 ± 2.72 (3.61 and -1.83) A vs D = -3.15 ± 2.72 (-0,43 and -5.87)* B vs C = -4.98 ± 2.72 (-2.26 and -7,70)* B vs D = -9.02 ± 2.72 (06,30 and -11,74)* C vs D = -4.04 ± 2.72 (-1,32 and -6.76)* Action 0=2. 289 ~ 3,27) A vs B = -7.93 ± 3.27 (-4.66 and 011,2)* A vs C = -15.50 ± 3.27 (-12.23 and -18.77)* A vs D = -15.95 ± 3.27 (-12.68 and -19.22)* B vs C = -7.57 ± 3.27 (-4.30 and -10.84)* B vs D = -8.02 ± 3.27 (-4.75 and -11.29)* C vs D = -0.45 ± 3.27 (2.82 and-3.72) Trustworthiness Problem I, D, (F2 253 -95 = 2,25) A vs B = 4.51 + 2,25 A vs C = 0.96 + 2,25 A vs D = 1.13 + 2,25 B vs C = 3.52 + 2,25 B vs D = -3.37 + 2.25 C vs D = 0.15 + 2,25 Action ^^3 95 288 = 2,73) A vs B = -3.21 + 2.73 A vs C = -4.98 + 2.73 A vs D = -8,98 + 2.73 B vs C = -1,76 + 2,73 B vs D = -5,76 + 2,73 C vs B = -4,00 + 2.73 (6,76 and 2.26)* (3,21 and -1,29) (3.38 and -1,12) (-1.27 and -5.77)* (-1.12 and -5.62)* (2.40 and -2.10) (-0.48 and -5.94)* (-2.25 and -7,71)* (-6.25 and -11.71)* (0,97 and -4.49) (-3.03 and -8.49)* (-1.27 and -6.73)* 108

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109 APPENDIX I (Continued) APPROACH INTERVAL ESTIMATE Attractiveness Problem I. D. (F^ 266 '^'^ = 2.78) A vs B = 6.43 ±'2.78 (9.21 and 3.65)* A vs C 1.77 ± 2.78 (4.55 and -1.01) A vs D = 3.96 ± 2.78 (6.74 and 1.18)* B vs C = -4.66 ± 2.78 (-1.88 and -7.44)* B vs D = 2.47 ± 2.78 (5,25 and -0.31) C vs D = 2.19 ± 2.78 (4.97 and -0.59) Action (F^ -95 = 3.21) A vs B = 0.97 ± 3.21 (4^8 and -2.24) A vs C = 2.14 ± 3.21 (5.35 and -1.07) A vs D = -3.94 ± 3.21 (-0.73 and -7,15)* B vs C = 1.17 ± 3.21 (4.38 and -2.04) B vs D = -4.91 ± 3.21 (-1,70 and -8.12)* C vs D = -6.08 ± 3.21 (-2.87 and -9.29)* Reject null hypothesis at p <,.05

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112 Diiikmeyer, D. § Dinkmeyer, D., Jr. Consultation: One answer to the counselor role. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling , 1978, 13, 99-103. Dorr, D. Some practical suggestions on behavioral consulting with teachers. Professional Psychology , 1977, 8^, 95-102. Dustin, R., 5 Burden, C. The counselor as behavioral consultant. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling , 1973, 1_, 14-19. Egan, G. The skilled helper . Monterey, California; Brooks/Cole, 1975. Egan, G. The skilled helper (Rev. ed.). Monterey, California; Brooks/ Cole, 1982. Ellis, A, Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy . New York: Stuart, 1962. Elliott, R., Filipovich, H. , Harrigan, L., Gaynor, J,, Reimschuessel , C, § Zapadka, J. K. Measuring response empathy: The development of a multicomponent rating scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1982, 29, 379-387. Festinger, L. A. A theory of cognitive dissonance . Evanston, 111.: Row, Peterson, 1957. Fine, M. J., Grantham, V. L., § Wright, J. G. Personal variables that facilitate or impede consultation. Psychology in the Schools, 1979, 16, 533-539. Ford, D. H. , § Urban, H. B. Systems of Psychotherapy . New York: Wiley 5 Sons, 1963. French, J. R. P., § Raven, B. Group support, legitimate power, and social influence. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1957, 59, 400-409. ^ Fretz, B. R. , Corn, R. , Tuemmler, J. M., § Bellet, W. Counselor nonverbal behaviors and client evaluations. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 1979, 26, 304-311. "~ ^ ^ Geisser, S., § Greenhouse, S. W. An extension of Box's results on the use of the F distribution in multivariate analysis. Annals of Mathematical Statistics . 1958, 2£, 885-891. Goodwin, D., Garvey, W. , § Barcley, J. Micronconsultation and behavior analysis: A method of training psychologists as behavior consultants. Journal of School Psychology , 1976, 14, 105-113.

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113 Heppner, P. 0., § Dixon, D. N. Effects of client perceived need and counselor role on client's behaviors. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1978, 25, 514-519. Heppner, P. 0., 5 Dixon, D. N. A review of the interpersonal influence process in counseling. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1981, 59 542-550. Heppner, P. P., § Heesacker, M. Perceived counselor characteristics, client expectations, and client satisfaction with counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1983, 30, 31-39. Kendall, P. C, 5 Hollon, S. D. Cognitive behavioral interventions . New York: Academic Press, 1979. Klugh, H. E. Statistics: The essentials for research . New York: Wiley § Sons, 1974. Kurpius, D. Consultation theory and process: An integrated model. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1978, _56, 335-338. LaCrosse, M. B. Comparative perceptions of counselor behavior: A replication and extension. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1977, 24, 464-471. LaCrosse, M. B. Perceived counselor social influence and counseling outcomes: Validity of the counselor rating form. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1980, Tl_, 1)2-321 . LaCrosse, M. , ^ Barak, A. Differential perception of counselor behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1976, 2Z, 170-172. Lambert, N. M. A school-based consultation model. Professional Psychology , 1974, 5, 267-276. Lanyon, R. I., § Lanyon, B. P. Behavior therapy : A clinical introduction . Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1978. Mahoney, M. J. Cognition and behavior modification . Cambridge, Massachusetts! Ballinger, 1977. Marchant, W. C. Counseling and/or consultation: A test of the education model in the elementary school. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling , 1973, 1_, 4-8. Martin, R. Expert and referent power: A framework for understanding and maximizing consultation effectiveness. Journal of School Psychology , 1978, 16, 49-55. Martin, R. P., § Curtis, M. Effects of age and experience of consultant and consultee on consultation outcome. American Journal of Community Psychology , 1980, 8, 733-736.

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114 Mayer, G. R. , Kranzler, G.D., Mathes, W. A. Elementary school counseling and peer relations. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1967, 46 , 360-366. McGehearty, L. Case analysis: Consultation and counseling. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling , 1969, 3, 289-293. Medway, F. J., § Foman, S. G. Psychologists' and teachers' reactions to mental health and behavioral school consultation. Journal of School Psychology , 1980, 18, 338-348. Meyers, J. A consultation model for school psychological services. Journal of School Psychology , 1973, 11, 5-15. Meyers, J., Friedman, M., 5 Gaughan, E. The effects of consultee-centered consultation on teacher behavior. Psychology in the Schools , 1975, 12, 288-295. Myers, J. L. Fundementals of experimental design (Rev. ed.). Boston: Allyn 5 Bacon, 1972. Myrick, R. D. Consultation as a counselor intervention . Ann Arbor: Eric Counseling and Personnel Services Clearinghouse, 1977. Patterson, C. H. Are ethics different in different settings? School Counselor , 1971, 19, 20-24. Phillips, E. L. Counseling and Psychotherapy : A behavioral approach . New York: John Wiley ^ Sons, 1977. Plog, S. C, 5 Ahmed, P. I. (Eds.), Principles and techniques of mental health consultation . New York: Plenum, 1977. Rathus, S. A. A 30-item schedule for assessing assertive behavior. Behavior Therapy , 1973, 4, 398-406. Reger, R. The school psychologist and the teacher: Effective professional relationships. Journal of School Psychology , 1964, 3, 13-18. Reschly, D. J. School psychology consultation: Frenzied, faddish, or fundamental? Journal of School Psychology , 1976, 14, 105-113. Rogawski, A. S. The Caplanian model. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1978, 56, 324-347. Rogers, C. Enpathic: An unappreciated way of being. Counseling Psychologist , 1975, _5, 2-10. Rothmeier, R. C, § Dixon, D. N. Trustworthiness and influence: A reexamination in an extended counseling analogue. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1980, 26, 315-3 .

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115 Russell, M. L. Behavioral consultation: Theory and process. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1978, 56, 346-350. Schein, E. H. Process consultation: Its role in organization develop ment . Reading, Mass. : Addis on -Wesley, 1969. Schein, E. H. The role of the consultant: Content expert or process facilitator? Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1978, _56, 339-343. Schmidt, J. J., 5 Osborne, W. L. Counseling and consultation: Separate processes or the same? Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1981, 60 , 168-171. Seay, T. A., d, Altekruse, M. K. Verbal and nonverbal behavior in judgements of facilitative conditions. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1979, 26, 108-119. Smith, D. Trends in counseling and psychotherapy. American Psychologist , 1982, 37, 802-807. Smith-Hanen, S. S. Effects of nonverbal behaviors on judged levels of counselor warmth and empathy. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1977, 24, 87-91. Snyder, J. F. IVhy some students do not use university counseling. Journal of Counseling Psycholo,gy , 1972, 19, 263-268. Splete, H. , § Bernstein, B. A survey of consultation training as a part of counselor education programs. Personnel and Guidanc e Journal, 1981, 60^ 470-472. Strong, S. Counseling: An interpersonal influence process. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1968, 15, 215-224. Strong, S. R. , ^ Dixon, D. N. Expertness, attractiveness, and influence in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1971, 18^, 562-570. Strong, S. R., ^ Gray, B. L. Social comparison, self -education, and influence in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1972. 19, 178-183. Strong, S., 5 Matross, R. P. Change processes in counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology . 1973, 20, 25-37.

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116 Strong, S. R. , § Schmidt, L. D. Expertness and influence in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1970, 17_, 81-87. Tyler, M. M. , § Fine, M. J. The effects of limited and intensive school psychologistteacher consultation. Psychology in the Schools , 1974, U, 8-16. Vaughan, W. T. Mental health consultation for school children. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1959, 23, 473-482. Williams, D. L. Consultation: A broad, flexible role for school psychologists. Ps ychology in the Schools , 1972, 9^, 16-21. Wilson, G. T., 5 O'Leary, K. D. Principles of behavior therapy . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice -Hall, 1980. Woodworth, W., § Nelson, R. Witch doctors, messianics, sorcerers, and od consultants: Parallels and paradigms, Organization Dynamics , 1971, 8, 17-33. Zamostny, K. P., Corrigan, J. D., § Eggert, M. A. Replication and extension of social influence processes in counseling: A field study. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1981, 28, 481-489. Ziemelis, A. Effects of client preference and expectancy upon the initial interview. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1974, 2]^, 23-30. Zimbardo, P. G. Involvement and communication discrepancy as determinants of opinion conformity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 1960, 60, 86-94.

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117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Thomas C. Harrison, Jr., was born on July 5, 1948, in Nashville, Tennessee. Raised in New York, he attended Furman University on an athletic scholarship and graduated in 1971 with a B. A. in philosophy. After graduation Tom moved to Seattle where he took a job as an account executive for King Broadcasting Company. He left King to start his own property maintenance company. In 1977, Tom began his graduate studies in counselor education at the University of Florida. He received his M. Ed. and Ed. S. degrees in 1979. After working in community mental health as an adult outpatient therapist, he returned to the University of Florida for doctoral studies. His major was counselor education with specialization in mental health consultation. His wife, Linda Lanier, is a third year medical student at the Lhiversity of Florida College of Medicine. Upon her graduation both plan to open a practice specializing in the mental and medical aspects of mental health.

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i I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Department of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^obh^D. Myrick, Professor Department of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality, as a di-sertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. E. Schmic , Department of Special Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate School, and was accepted for partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of .Philosophy. August, 1983 Dean for Graduate Studies and Research