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The Relationship of Values and Self-Concept to the Academic Performance of Black College Students

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The Relationship of Values and Self-Concept to the Academic Performance of Black College Students
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Crutchfield, Gloria Ann, 1947-
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Academic achievement ( jstor )
African Americans ( jstor )
Black colleges ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Grade point average ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Minority group students ( jstor )
Self concept ( jstor )
Statistical discrepancies ( jstor )
Academic achievement ( lcsh )
African American college students -- Florida ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Self-perception ( lcsh )
Values -- Testing ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 84-91.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gloria Ann Crutchfield.

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF VALUES AND SELF-CONCEPT TO THE
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS








BY

GLORIA ANN CRUTCHFIELD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1982































Copyright 1982


By

Gloria Ann Crutchfield































TO RECHE AND MOTHER


Whose love and support made the completion
of this endeavor possible














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Several individuals have aided me in bringing this study to completion. I am deeply grateful to my chairman, Dr. Max Parker, for having faith in me and my ability to complete this project. Thank you for your insight, your professionalism, and your friendship.

I am indebted to Dr. Janet Larsen for her vote of confidence, her interest in this project, and her many incisive suggestions in the completion of this work. I am also especially indebted to Dr. John Nickens who provided the statistical expertise and made many suggestions for improving this study. I am grateful to Dr. Jim Pitts, Dr. H. C. Riker, and Dr. E. L. Tolbert who made many suggestions for improving this study.

I would like to thank the following family members: Skip, Dexter, David, Emily, Valencia, Brandi, Randy, Larry, Dexter, Carl, Jermaine, George, Henry, Harry, Trish, and grandparents Henry and Alice for their many prayers and words of encouragement.

I am also grateful to many students at the University of Florida who worked with me and participated in this study. I relied heavily on Elvia, Mbonya, Reggie, Pat, Juanita, and Cynthia.

Others who have contributed their friendship and support include Dr. Betty Stewart, Liz Parker, Suzan West, Mrs. Idella Knowles, and Julius Gilbert.
Finally, I would like to thank Vita Zamorano and Brenda Stoney for their care in typing this work.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......... ......................... iv

LIST OF TABLES .......... ......................... vii

ABSTRACT ................ ...................... viii

CHAPTER

ONE INIRODUCTION ....... ...................... . . 1

Need for the Study ........ ................... 2
Statement of the Problem ....... ................ 3
Purpose of the Study .. .................. 5
Theoretical Framework of the Study 5...........5
The Value Concept ....... ................. 5
The Self-Concept ........ ................. 7
Research Questions ........ ................... 8
Definition of Terms ....... .................. 9
Organization of the Study ...... ............... 10

TWO REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE .... .......... ...12

Noncognitive Correlates of Academic Success and Failure 12 Correlates of the Self-Concept ... ............. ... 18
Race and Sex ...... ................... ...18
Academic Performance ..... ............... ...21
The Nature of Values ........ .................. 24
Values and Achievement ....... .............. 26
Values and Race ........ .................. 28
Values and Behavior ..... ................ ...31

THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........ .................. 35

Population and Sample ..... ................. ... 35
Research Method ...... .................... ... 36
Statistical Hypotheses .... ................. ....37
Instruments ....... ...................... ...38
The Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) ... .......... ... 38
The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) ... ...... 40
Analysis of Data ...... .................... ...44
Limitations of the Study ..... ................ ...45










CHAPTER FOUR






FIVE


APPENDICES

A INFORMED CONSENT FORM . ...

B FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE
RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES . . .

C FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE
RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES


BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .


. . . . 79


81


. . . 83 . . . 84 . . . 92


Page

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ..... ................. ...46

Results ................. .................. 46
Hypothesis One ...... .................. ...48
Hypothesis Two ........ .................. 50
Hypothesis Three ....... ................. 54
Discussion ........ ...................... ..57

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 69

Summary .......... ........................ 69
Conclusions ....... ...................... ...71
Implications ......... ...................... 73
Recommendations ...... .................... ...76















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page

1. Means, Standard. Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum
Ranges of Grade Point Average for Black Females ........ 47
2. Means, Standard Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum Ranges
of Grade Point Average for Black Males .... .......... 47

3. The Results of Stepwise Regression Analysis ... ........ 49

4. Means and Standard Deviations of Black College Students'
Scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale .......... ..51

5. Means and Standard Deviations for Black Males' Scores on
the Tennessee Self Concept Scale ... ............. ..52

6. Means and Standard Deviations for Black Females' Scores on
the Tennessee Self Concept Scale ... ............. ..53

7. Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically Significant
Differences for Black Males' and Females' Instrumental
Value Systems ...... .. ....................... 55

8. Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically Significant
Differences for Black Males' and Females' Terminal Value
Systems ....... .......................... ..56

9. Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values
and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students . . 58 10. Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students . . . . 58 11. Significant Positively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students . . 59 12. Significant Positively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students . . . . 59










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE RELATIONSHIP OF VALUES AND SELF-CONCEPT TO THE
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS

By

Gloria Ann Crutchfield

August 1982

Chairman: Dr. Woodrow M. Parker
Major Department: Counselor Education

This study was designed to determine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black undergraduate students at the University of Florida. Specifically, the investigation was conducted (a) to determine whether the students' values accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (b) to determine whether the students' self-concepts accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (c) to determine whether males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems were ranked significantly different, and (d) to determine whether the students' values and self-concepts were related. The two instruments used in this study were the Tennessee Self Concept Scale which assesses the individuals' self-concepts, and the Rokeach Value Survey which measures 18 instrumental values (preferable modes of conduct) and 18 terminal values (preferable end-states of existence).
The instruments were administered during the final six weeks of the 1982 Spring semester to 100 black undergraduate students (49 males and 51 females). The students were randomly selected from the total population of black sophomores, juniors and seniors. The data were


viii










analyzed using stepwise multiple regression, correlations, and a oneway nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores.

Hypothesis One showed that self-concept accounted for 2 percent

of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average. Hypothesis Two revealed that values accounted for 23 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average. Sub-hypothesis 2a showed significant differences in the instrumental value systems of males and females. Sub-hypothesis 2b showed significant differences in the terminal value systems of males and females. Hypothesis Three revealed significant relationships between values and self-concepts. All hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of .05.

The findings of this study indicated that particular value rankings accounted for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students, while self-concept did not account for significant variance. Significant differences in the instrumental and terminal value systems were explained by the varying sex roles of males and females. There existed significant relationships between this sample of black college students' values and self-concepts.














CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION


Increasingly, minority students, and blacks in particular, have gained admission to predominantly white universities and colleges (Brown and Stent, 1977). Many have entered these institutions of higher education under the tutelage of special or equal opportunity programs. Access to institutions of higher education is critically important to the educational opportunity for Black Americans. Once admitted, the question of what happens to these students is of equal or greater importance.

Traditionally, institutions of higher education have relied on high school grades, standardized aptitude and achievement tests for admitting students and predicting their "success" in college. Research on the admission of blacks into white institutions has yielded inconclusive results (Sampel and Seymour, 1971). In various prediction studies comparing white students with ethnic minority students, some researchers concluded that conventional, broad based tests have little, if any, validity when applied to minority students (Cleary, 1968; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1971; Slack and Porter, 1980). While some researchers have shown conventional criteria are poor predictors of college grades for many blacks, others have found these measures to be valid (Borgen, 1972; Hills, 1964).

Even though there has been an increased enrollment, relatively few black students persist to graduation (Blackwell, 1978). Crucial

1










problems such as institutionalized racism, inadequate financial assistance, negative self-concepts, poor academic performance, conflicts in values and cultures and lack of counseling have been advanced as factors contributing to high attrition rates (Blackwell, 1978; Brown and Stent, 1977; Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980; DiCesare, Sedlacek and Brooks, 1972). Brown and Stent (1977) maintain that the doors have been opened for black students, but it appears that these students suffocate before they find the exits.



Need for the Study

A growing concern, expressed by administrators and recruitment officers, over the attrition of vast numbers of minority-group students from higher educational institutions resulted in a threeyear long investigation (Middleton, 1982). The purpose of this study was to ascertain what changes should be made in order to better meet the needs of these students. Based upon evidence of the study, the Ford Foundation Commission recommended that colleges and universities revise their testing and grading procedures for minority-group students (Middleton, 1982). Further, the commission encouraged these institutions to adopt a "value-added" system that is designed to admit and evaluate students on the basis of their potential for learning and growth, rather than their standardized test scores and high school grades (Middleton, 1982). By so doing, "educational institutions enlarge their concept of competency measures to include the assessment of growth in the noncognitive realm: personal development, interpersonal skills, and self-esteem" (Middleton, 1982, p. 10).










Dawkins and Dawkins (1980), Gurin and Epps (1975), Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1971) concentrated on establishing the validity of noncognitive correlates (i.e., sex, self-concept, achievement motivation, etc.) as potential predictors of academic success for black students. Such variables are possibly better predictors of academic success among minority college students than cognitive variables (such as standardized test scores and high school grades). Racial perception and experiences, values and goals, and social involvement do exert some influence on their academic performance (Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980). The extent to which this occurs is yet unknown.

There exists the need for a preliminary study to examine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students. The implications of such a study may contribute much to the recruitment and retention of black students and to the development and implementation of educational programs which provide value clarification and self-concept enhancement strategies. This knowledge will serve to ensure a more meaningful educational experience for black college students, particularly those encountering academic difficulties and adjustment problems.


Statement of the Problem

Historically, research studies have relied on cognitive measures as major predictors of the academic performance of black students. These measures have proven insufficient as evidenced by most prediction studies reporting that less than half of the variance is accounted for in grade point average (Katz, 1968; Trachtman, 1975). As a result,










other researchers are convinced that noncognitive factors exert a significantly greater influence on the success or failure of black students than do cognitive factors (Bailey, 1976; Shade, 1978).

The challenge of identifying the noncognitive factors which best predict the academic success or failure of black students is pervasive in the literature. Sedlacek and Brooks (1976) report that on conventional standardized tests black students, generally, fall below national norms. However, many of these students are capable of and do successfully meet the curriculum requirements of white institutions. The noncognitive factors which have a substantial impact on these students' academic performance are not clear.

Several researchers suggest that there exists a significant relationship between black students' perceptions, social status, values and behaviors, and their academic performance (Bradley, 1967; Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980; Gurin, 1970; Trachtman, 1975). Epps (1969) postulated that (a) social position determines values, and values influence behavior; (b) this behavior acts to determine personality characteristics of students; (c) therefore, the students' academic performance is an interaction between socialization, genetic endowment and social position. Allen (1978) urged that an interaction between historical, social, economic and psychological factors determine attitudes and achievement. Thus, a study to determine whether these students' values and self-perceptions relate to their academic performance may provide insight into their potential for learning and personal growth.










Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black undergraduate students currently enrolled at the University of Florida.

Data from this investigation were used as follows: (a) to

determine whether the students' self-concepts accounted for significant variance in their grade point averages, (b) to determine whether the students' values accounted for significance variance in their grade point averages, (c) to determine whether males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems were ranked significantly different, and (d) to determine whether the students' values and selfconcepts were related. The Rokeach Value Survey was used to measure the students' value systems. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale was used to assess the students' self-concepts.


Theoretical Framework of the Study


Within the following theoretical frames, this study focused upon the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students.


The Value Concept

Rokeach (1968a, 1973) maintained that values are a determinant of attitude and behavior; values are comprised of motivational, cognitive, behavioral and affective components; and the value concept provides an axiological organization of the individual (i.e., it explains and describes similarities and differences between cultures, nations,










individuals and groups). This comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the nature of values assumes that an individual possesses far fewer values than attitudes and is therefore an excellent tool for evaluation.

Rokeach (1973) formulated the concept of human values on the following assumptions: (1) the individual possesses a relatively small total number of values; (2) to varying degrees, all persons everywhere possess the same values; (3) values are organized into value systems; (4) culture, society and personality constitute the antecedents of human values; and (5) the effect of human values will be evidenced in virtually all phenomena which social scientists might consider understanding and investigating. Further, Rokeach believes the value concept should occupy a central position across the social sciences.

Rokeach (1968a, 1973) believes values are akin to modes of conduct (instrumental values) and end-states of existence (terminal values). Further, "values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct and end-state of existence" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5).

A value system is "an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of relative importance" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). All values are organized into hierarchial structures (rank-ordering) and substructures, thus forming a system of values comprised of instrumental and terminal values. Rokeach hypothesizes a function and cognitive nexuses within this system that is manifested in an individual's attitude and behavior toward specific objects and situations.










According to Rokeach (1971), individuals do not differ significantly as to the values they possesss, but in how they rank them in order of importance. In several studies, Rokeach has demonstrated that various combinations of values (i.e., terminal and instrumental) significantly differentiate women from men, blacks from whites, and Democrats from Republicans. More importantly, various combinations of values have been found to signicantly discriminate more successful students from less successful students. These findings imply a need to investigate further the relationship of personal values to academic performance.


The Self-Concept

Fitts (1965, p. 1) defines self-concept as "the way an individual perceives himself." He further contends that the individual's concept of himself is directly related to his general personality and mental health. For instance, if an individual sees himself as "bad" or worthless, there is the tendency for that individual to act accordingly. Conversely, if an individual sees himself as "good," that individual will act accordingly.

The Tennessee Self Concept Scale was developed to meet the need for an instrument that was well standardized, generalizable, multidimensional in describing the self-concept, and one which lacked complexity in administration and interpretation (Fitts, 1965). Moreover, this instrument has provided a basis of knowledge for assisting individuals through counseling, research in the behavioral sciences, individual evaluations, and clinical assessment and diagnosis.










In recent years, this construct measure has become significant and viable in studying and understanding human behavior. One such overwhelming interest in the self-concept stems from research evidencing the direct relationship of an individual's self-perception to his or her academic performance (Bailey, 1976; Green and Farquhar, 1965; Shade, 1978). Similarly, research has suggested that personal perceptions relative to race and sex have been proven effective in discriminating more successful from less successful academic performers (Campbell and Martinez-Perez, 1977; Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980; Leung and Sands, 1981). Implications from the studies conducted by the aforementioned researchers implied a need for further research to identify those personality factors associated with successful and less successful students.


Research Questions


The study attempted to answer the following research questions:

1. Does the self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept

Scale, account for significant variance in the academic performance of black college students?

2. Do value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, account for

significant variance in the academic performance of black college

students?

3. Is there a relationship between the values and self-concepts of

black college students, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept

Scale and the Rokeach Value Survey?

4. Are males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems

ranked significantly different, as measured by the Rokeach Value

Survey?









Definition of Terms


1. Academic Performance

Academic performance is defined as the student's current college cumulative grade point average. This criterion is formulated on the basis of the University of Florida's four point (4.00) grading system. The grading system intervals are:

3.00 - 4.00 good, excellent academic progress

2.00 - 2.99 average academic progress

0 - 1.99 warning, probation, suspension

For the purposes of this study, only those black students with

sophomore, junior, and senior classifications were included as subjects.

2. Value

A value is "an enduring belief that a specific mode of behavior or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of behavior or end-state of existence. Values are fundamental components within each individual which determine attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, values refer to either end-states (terminal values) or mode-states (instrumental values) of idealized behavior; (a) Instrumental values are idealized modes of behavior, and (b) Terminal values are idealized end-states of existence" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5).

In short, a value is a quality or standard considered by the individual to be significant or desirable.










3. Value System

A value system is "an enduring organization of beliefs

concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of relative importance" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5).


4. Self-Concept

For the purposes of this study, the self-concept was defined

as an individual's attitude toward his/her physical self and his/her behavior. This perception of self pervades consciws and unconscious cognitions; abilities and weaknesses; religious, ethnic and racial identity; and sexual roles. This total perception of self may have negative as well as positve connotations (Fitts, 1965; Rokeach, 1973).


5. Minority Student

Minority students are those ethnic groups (Black Americans,

Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans) with similar customs, traditions, language, lifestyles and sometimes physical characteristics that are different from the dominant culture. In addition, these groups' populations are smaller in number than the larger population.


Organization of the Study

A literary review pertinent to the study is presented in Chapter Two. The topics providing a rationale for the study are noncognitive correlates of academic success and failure, correlates of the selfconcept which consists of (a) race and sex, (b) academic performance, the nature of values which consists of (a) values and achievement,

(b) values and race, and (c) values and behavior. Chapter Three







II


addresses the research methodology of this study which includes an explanation of the population and sample, research method, statistical hypotheses, instruments, analysis of data, and limitations of the study. Chapter Four reports the results and discussion based upon the analysis of data. A summary of the research, conclusions, implications, and recommendations are presented in Chapter Five.















CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


The primary focus of this review was on the research germane to values and self-concept. The areas reviewed were noncognitive correlates of academic success and failure, correlates of the selfconcept which consists of (a) race and sex, (b) academic performance, the nature of values which consists of (a) values and achievement,

(b) values and race, and (c) values and behavior. The literature identifying the noncognitive correlates of academic performance for black college students was at best inconsistent and inconclusive.


Noncognitive Correlates of Academic Success and Failure

The results of previous studies and reports are somewhat consistent, that generally, black students tend to fall below national norms on conventional academic aptitude or achievement tests (Bradley, 1967; Cleary, 1968; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1971; Sedlacek and Brooks, 1976). However, the academic performance of blacks is less unequivocally unfavorable (Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1973). Formerly, it was argued that black students are inundated with counter-productive qualities which contribute to their failure in higher education. Such characteristics as negative self-concept, low need for achievement, fear of failure, anxiety and inability to delay gratification










have been attributed to these students (Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1973). Recent research has been conducted which evidence the positive relationship between self-concept and academic achievement, achievement motivation, feelings of competence, occupational aspirations and psychological adjustment (Bailey, 1976; Caplin, 1968; Dixon, 1972; Green and Farquhar, 1965; Shade, 1978; Smith, 1968). These researchers are convinced that noncognitive factors exert a significant influence on the success or failure of black students.

According to Petry and Craft (1976), the inconclusiveness of

previous efforts to determine which cognitive or noncognitive variables best predict academic success emphasizes the need for continued research. Petry and Craft (1976) maintained there are no noncognitive variables that have been identified as the best predictors of academic success in college and, subsequently, decided to assess the capability of certain instruments in predicting the academic performance of "high risk" college students. Among the noncognitive variables investigated were values, temperament, attitudes, interests, academic experiences, childhood activities and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The researchers concluded that of the four instruments selected for use in the study: the Cooperative School and College Ability Test, the Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament, the Study of Values and the Alpha Biographical Inventory, none consistently or effectively predicted the academic performance of "high risk" students.

Bradley (1967) investigated the academic performance of successful black undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and universities in Tennessee. Data from the study were analyzed through multiple










regression analysis to determine if there existed relationships between a student's grade point average and cognitive and noncognitive variables. Three factors emerged distinct; the acceptance factor, the confidence and ability factor and the morale factor. These findings corroborated the conclusions reached in the Clark and Plotkin's (1963) investigation. Clark and Plotkin observed that the Scholastic Aptitude Test scores could not be used as a basis for predicting the academic success of blacks in general, as they are used to predict the academic success of whites.

Dawkins and Dawkins (1980) explored the use of noncognitive factors as correlates of academic performance for black students admitted to a predominantly white institution. The researchers examined four of the following categories which were associated with these students' grade point averages: (a) purpose for college attendance; (b) academic advisement and social involvement; (c) experiences and perceptions relative to race; and (d) academic performance in high school and social background. The results were suggestive of the need for further research in order to identify those factors associated with successful academic performance. Further, the researchers concluded that racial perceptions and experiences, values and goals, and the social involvement of blacks do exert some influence on their academic performance. The extent of this occurrence is yet unknown.

Other studies have shown high levels of achievement need, or motivation, among black students as influential factors in their academic performance (Katz, 1968; Trachtman, 1975). Gurin (1979) conducted her study with the objective of identifying those










characteristics associated with level of aspiration and motivation within a population of black undergraduate students. The second objective was to determine to what extent a sense of competence or level of self-confidence accounts for aspirations. Essentially, the outcome of Gurin's study suggests that if a student places strong value on achievement, that individual is more likely to aspire to a higher and more difficult level of attainment (i.e., occupation, degree, etc.).

In another study involving Gurin, Gurin, Lao and Beattie (1969), it was concluded that students' beliefs pertaining to what contributes to their success or failure have no profound influence on their selfconfidence, personal expectancies or aspirations as measured by Rotter's Internal versus External Dimension Scale.

Numerous studies have indicated that cognitive-intellective

factors account for less than half of the variance in the academic performance of black students (Katz, 1967, 1969; Trachtman, 1975). The intent of Trachtman's study was to investigate those cognitive and motivational variables which related to the academic performance among these groups.

Trachtman's (1975) findings underscore the ineffectiveness and inconsistency of cognitive measures as sole predictors of academic performance. The researcher found that self-esteem was not significantly related to academic performance, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale.

Since less than 25 percent of the variability in college grades is accounted for by the SAT, Miller and O'Connor (1969) postulated that motivational variables are of crucial importance in the achievement










of academic success. In so doing, these researchers, through the Achiever Personality Scale, made an effort to demonstrate the predictive validity of this scale for special groups (i.e., black and white students who were disadvantaged). The researchers closely examined the variables associated with these students' academic success and concluded that traditional indicators (i.e., high school rank and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores) were ineffective in predicting the male subjects' academic performance. The interaction of the Achiever Personality Scale and the SAT score produced a valid indicator for those men scoring low on both instruments. However, the SAT score alone for women was associated with freshmen grades, but not subsequent academic performance. The most significant find of this study was that despite very low SAT scores, many nontraditional students were capable of successfully meeting academic requirements.

An investigation of academic motivation as it related to the

scholastic achievement of blacks was conducted by Green and Farquhar (1965). The reseachers were also concerned with the relationship of personality and cognitive factors to academic achievement. The findings revealed that self-concept was the best predictor of achievement for black males and females. Earlier conclusions were reached by these researchers suggesting a strong relationship between the student's self-perception and school achievement. These two studies reported the existence of a relationship between noncognitive factors and academic achievement among blacks.

Atkinson (1964) maintained the striving for success (theory of achievement motivation) is the positive and negative interactions of fear of failure, hope of success, perceived probability of success







17


and the incentive value of the goal. Employing the concepts of this theory, Epps (1969) investigated the fear of failure, and the perceived probability of success as these components related to the self-esteem of black college students. The researcher advanced the notion that a favorable self-perception was positively related to achievement behavior, but not necessarily synonymous. Thus, the study entailed the investigation of the subjects' ability, self-esteem, probability of success and achievement values. The results of Epps' study revealed no significant relationship existed between socioeconomic status and grades among these students. However, socioeconomic status was more significantly related to the amount of future education the subjects planned to obtain than any other variable. Socioeconomic status was significantly and positively related to self-concept of ability; however, the correlation coefficients were very small. No significant relationship was found to exist between socioeconomic status and self-esteem. Self-esteem and self-concept of ability were positively correlated with grade point average in the study. Understandably, self-concept of ability was the strongest personality correlate of grades; likewise, the amount of expected future education was second most consistent in relation to grades.

Recently, social scientists have observed that much of the dissension associated with the use of standardized aptitude tests has occurred as a result of these tests being used to evaluate blacks and other minorities on the basis of middle-class norms. Since most instruments are normed, based on the dominant culture, it is understandable that blacks frequently exhibit deviant attitudes and behaviors on measures using white norming groups (Cameron, 1978; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1971;









Vontress, 1966). For this and other reasons, researchers have concentrated on establishing the validity of noncognitive correlates (i.e., values, self-concept, achievement motivation, etc.) as potential predictors of academic success for nontraditional students, particularly blacks.

Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1974) observed the existence of a relationship between grades for blacks and personality measures, thus concluding that these variables warrant further study. Essentially, investigators have concerned themselves with identifying sufficient valid traits which differentiate those students with academic difficulties from those who are academically successful. If this identification could occur, then necessary and appropriate strategies such as seminars, workshops and courses may be developed to ensure a more meaningful experience for those black students who are unsuccessful.



Correlates of the Self-Concept

Particular groups of people have been shown to have characteristic self-concepts, but within any single sample wide individual differences often occur (Fitts, 1972; Thompson, 1972). These individual differences are thought to be influenced by variables such as age, sex, race, educational levels and socioeconomic status. For the purposes of this study, only race, sex and academic performance factors will be included in the discussion.


Race and Sex

Most researchers, using the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) to explore the question of race and sex as these factors relate to









self-concept, have invariably compared blacks and whites on the basis of dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds and educational levels. Little wonder the results of most of these studies are confounded with no evidence to substantiate hard conclusions.

With particular reference to college samples, Bartee (1967) compared the self-concepts of one hundred black disadvantaged college students to one hundred white disadvantaged college students. Students were classified as disadvantaged on the basis of parents' educational background and family income. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale scores of these groups were highly similar, with no substantial differences in P Scores. However, blacks tended to have significantly lower SelfCriticism Scores and higher Conflict and Variability Scores than did white subjects.

Other TSCS studies involving black and white students as subjects have reported similar findings to those of Bartee's study (Hands, 1967; Johnson, 1970; Runyon, 1958).

A paucity of TSCS studies were found involving all black samples of college students. Fitts and Bell (1969) reported a sample of 36 sophomore and junior students enrolled at the Meharry School of Nursing were above average in P Score (Positive Scores) and below average on Self-Criticism Scores, thus suggesting a tendency toward defensiveness.

Samuel and Laird (1974) compared the self-concepts of a group of black college women enrolled at a predominantly black institution to those of a group of black women attending a predominantly white institution. The researchers assumed that the different academic environments would not have an effect on the subjects' self-concepts as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The investigators compared scores










from the Physical Self, Moral-Ethical Self, Social Self, Personal Self, Family Self, Self-Criticism and Total Positive Scores of the two groups. Results of the study revealed no significant differences in self-concept between the two groups of black women on the seven dimensions of the TSCS. However, there was observed a significant difference between the normative group and both groups on three dimensions of this scale. The researchers advanced the possibility that black women in institutions of higher education may perceive themselves in a more positive vein than was originally thought.

A composite profile of the black self-perception, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale was compiled by Thompson (1972). The following characteristic features were identified:

Self-Esteem: Although the level of P Scores varies
considerably, most samples studied, particularly
junior high and high school students, had low P
Scores, indicating a below-average level of selfesteem; a characteristic pattern of Column P Scores
was an elevated Physical Self and Personal Self
Score and a lowered Moral-Ethical Self Score.

Defensiveness: Data indicate that Negroes show greater
than average defensiveness, reflected by a low SelfCriticism and a high DP (Defensive Positive) Score.

Conflict: Conflict Scores are usually high, indicating
contradiction, confusion, and general conflict in
self-perception.

Variability: The Variability Scores, which measure
amount of variability or inconsistency from one
area of self-perception to another, are generally
high for Negro samples.

Response Set: Negro samples usually score high on T/F Ratio, indicating an acquiescent response set,
i.e., a tendency to neither reject nor deny items. (p. 38)

Thompson (1972) found that black and Israeli samples, alike, obtained consistently low scores in Self-Criticism on the TSCS.










Generally, these low scores are suggestive of a high level of defensiveness. However, Thompson admitted that the scale items on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale could possibly have significantly different semantic meanings for these cultural subgroups than the TSCS norming group. Another explanation of the low scores is possibly the value systems of these subgroups elicit a totally different response than the norming groups, thus reflecting variations in semantics or values rather than personality differences.


Academic Performance

Questions of methodology relative to the selection of representative samples of blacks capable of college work have been raised by Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1971). Problems have arisen when dissimilar samples are investigated with various research methods. This lack of consistency in research methods accompanied by a lack of consistency in definitions of the theoretical concepts under investigation contribute to the lack of consistency in the literature (Ashbaugh, Levin and Zaccaria, 1973; Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1973; Petry and Craft, 1976; Sedlacek and Brooks, 1976). Thus the literature provides minimal insight into the noncognitive correlates of academic success for black students.

The self-concept of blacks has been the object of considerable research. The overwhelming interest in this area stems from the belief that one's self-perception has a direct relationship to one's academic performance, and there is evidence to substantiate this notion.
A search for noncognitive or nonacademic variables as correlates of black students' academic grades was conducted by Pfeifer and










Sedlacek (1974) and several were evidenced to be significant. For example, achievement through conformance and independence, responsibility, intellectual efficiency and socialization were related to academic success. Additionally, the most successful black students had positive self-concepts and significantly higher aspirations than did less academically successful black students (Allen, 1978; DiCare, Sedlacek and Brooks, 1972; Epps, 1969). Sedlacek and Brooks (1976) maintain that a strong self-concept is a necessity for all minorities, particularly blacks, at each level of education.

Shade (1978) contends that black students who perform well in academic achievement areas tend to possess similar personal characteristics. These students exhibit a more positive self-concept and greater self-confidence than nonachievers (Epps, 1969). However, many black students lack the self-confidence in their intellectual ability to succeed academically (Reed, 1978). Academically unsuccessful students perceive education as the key to social and economic mobility; yet, their capacity to achieve has been inhibited.

Gurin and Epps (1966) studied black Southern college students

from varying socioeconomic backgrounds to assess their levels of selfconfidence, as measured by the Mandler-Sarason Test Anxiety Scale. The results yielded no significant difference in levels of selfconfidence or personality disposition across groups. Similarly, the socioeconomic variable was not a significant factor in this study or the one conducted by Sherman (1971). There is no overwhelming evidence to suggest that ethnic groups or socioeconomic levels can be differentiated through measures of the self-concept. Yet, the selfconcept is evidenced to be a valid and consistent predictor of academic









performance. Also, self-concept measures have been proven effective in differentiating achievers from nonachievers (Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1973).

Several researchers believe high self-esteemed individuals

perceive themselves to be worthy and competent in dealing with their environments (Fitch, 1970; Fitts, 1965; Smith, 1968). Conversely, low self-esteemed individuals tend to devalue themselves and not function as competently. Fitch (1970) investigated the individual's interpretation of event outcomes (success or failure) to determine if these interpretations were consistent with the individual's self-esteem or if they enhanced self-esteem. Measuring self-esteem with the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, the conclusions suggested that individuals with high self-esteem tend to internalize success but not failure outcomes, while individuals with low self-esteem tend to internalize both success and failure.

Bailey (1976) explored the differences in self-concept of high and low achieving black college students. His results strongly supported the conclusions of previous studies indicating there are significant differences in self-concept between groups. Moreover, the researcher advanced the notion that the self-concept affects all areas of personality, thus it can either enhance or inhibit the individual's capacity to achieve.

Other studies establishing a positive relationship between selfconcept and academic performance have been conducted among elementary children (Wattenburg and Clifford, 1964), junior high students (Williams and Cole, 1968), adolescents, and-college students. This research has likewise established positive relationships










in the self-concept and academic performance in black and white student samples. However, more research should be conducted on the relationship of self-concept to academic achievement among college students (Leung and Sand, 1981).


The Nature of Values


In value formation, the developmental process occurs as the

individual interacts intellectually and emotionally with his culture (Konopka, 1973). This ongoing process of value development is influenced by family and peers and incorporated into daily behavior and decision-making by the individual.

Values are initially taught and learned in an absolute manner.

For example, one is taught to be completely honest, as opposed to being partially honest (Rokeach, 1973). The absolute learning and isolation of values ensures their stability and endurance (Rokeach, 1973). However, instances do occur which dictate an integration of these absolute values into a prioritized or hierarchically organized system of values, as they relate in significance to rival values that have been activated by the situation (Rokeach, 1973).

Values are comprised of three distinct components; cognitive,

affective, and behavioral. The cognitive aspects of a value refer to the process by which the individual strives for a desirable end-state of existence (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961). The affective component usually depicts one's emotional involvement with the value. Whereas, the behavioral constituent dictates the individual's functioning or performance when activated by the value (Allport, Vernon, and Lindzey, 1960; Rokeach, 1968b, 1973).










Rokeach (1968a, 1973) postulated there are two kinds of values -instrumental (desirable modes of conduct) and terminal (desirable endstates of existence). Terminal values generally involve personal (i.e., self-oriented) and social (i.e., society oriented) values, while instrumental values include those values relating to the morality and competence of the individual.

As maintained by Williams (1968), an individual's values serve as

standards or criteria by which evaluations are made. Similarly, Williams postulated that an individual's values as criteria are relatively small, thus the stint of identifying and measuring them is made easier. Both Rokeach (1973) and Williams hypothesized that if all individuals everywhere possess values and the total number of these values is relatively small, then the capacity to conduct cross-cultural investigations of values is enhanced and made less tedious.

Cultural similarities have been cited as factors which will reduce the number of variations in shaping the individual's value system. Moreover, similarities in sex, class, race, age, religion and political affiliation will further contribute to a reduction in the number of variations in value systems (Rokeach, 1968, 1973; Rokeach and Parker, 1970; Williams, 1968).

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) suggested that similarities in personal experiences by individuals within a culture will likewise shape value systems in similar ways. Thus, irrespective of background, culture or race, all individuals are influenced by values and the total number of these values is relatively small.










Values and Achievement

Rokeach and Berman (1973) conducted a study to identify the value correlates of achievement, power and affiliation within a sample of college students. The racial composition of the sample was not disclosed. The results indicated a significant relationship between needs and values as these variables related to achievement. The instrumental values most positively correlated with need for achievement were "independent" and "intellectual," while the most negatively correlated instrumental value was "honest" and "obedient." Several other values thought to be positively related to a high need for achievement (i.e., a "sense of accomplishment," "ambitious" and "capable") were not significantly related. Further implicationsof this research suggest that an individual's value measures are indicative of needs. Rokeach and Berman contend that specific values are excellent predictors of

academic performance.

As previously observed by several researchers, black high achieving students consistently possessed high self-concepts, high aspirations, strong achievement values and a sense of control over their environment (Epps, 1969; Gordon, 1972; Shade, 1978). Likewise, investigations conducted by Hill (1972) and Gurin and Epps (1975) have indicated selfconcepts, achievement values, and aspirations to be comparable for blacks and whites.

Allen (1978) took issue with the assumption that black children have negative self-concepts, low achievement aspirations and values. He investigated the relationships between family setting, race and adolescent achievement orientation (i.e., adolescent aspirations, selfconcepts, achievement values and environmental control). The researcher









examined racial differences in adolescent achievement orientation and racial differences in family settings and its antecedent effect on achievement orientation. The findings illustrated that black-white achievement orientations were comparable, in spite of variances in family socioeconomic status, childrearing practices, and family interpersonal relationships. Allen pointed out that an interaction among historical, social, economic and psychological factors determined an individual's attitudes and achievements, as opposed to the family itself.
As observed by Rovezzi-Carroll and Thompson (1980), grade point average and college graduation may result from the interaction of antecedents and intervening variables. Such antecedent variables as self-concept (Green and Farquhar, 1965) and values (Rokeach, 1973) may serve as better predictors of college success among minority groups than intellectual variables.
Epps (1969) surveyed Northern and Southern black high school
students in an effort to identify those personality traits which were predictive of academic achievement. The investigator made the following assumptions: (a) social position determines values, and values influence behavior; (b) this behavior acts to determine personality characteristics of students; (c) thus, the student's achievement behavior (performance) is a reflection of an interaction between socialization experiences, genetic endowment and social position.
Munson (1980) utilized the construct of personal values and the Rokeach Value Survey to differentiate successful from less successful college students. The results of his study suggested that the Rokeach Value Survey does significantly discriminate more successful from less









successful students. Therefore, implications for future research imply a need to investigate the relationship of personal values to academic achievement, motivation and aspirations.


Values and Race

In research conducted by Rokeach (1968a,1973), it was noted that specific value rankings did not distinguish blacks from whites, contrary to popular belief. Blacks and whites did not differ significantly on religious values, on "an exciting life" and "pleasure," or on "selfcontrol." Blacks tended to rank "equality," "a comfortable life," "social recognition," and being "ambitious," "clean," and "obedient" significantly higher than did whites. Conversely, blacks ranked the following values significantly lower: "a sense of accomplishment," "family security," "mature love," "national security," and being "logical," "responsible" and "loving." Rokeach stated, "these findings suggest a portrait of the average Black American as a person who, more than the average White American, yearns for a higher standard of living and a more equal status in society and at the same time places a higher value on conformity" (1973, p. 69). Interestingly, it was found that blacks ranked themselves higher on the value "ambitious" than did whites.

The question of educational and socioeconomic differences arose pertaining to the findings of the previous study. Rokeach, therefore, decided to make further inquiry holding education and socioeconomic variables constant. The researcher matched 198 blacks and whites on education and income and found only seven values ranked significantly different, wherein thirteen were ranked significantly different in the first investigation. It was believed, by Rokeach, that most of the differences were due to socioeconomic rather than racial differences.









Overwhelmingly, the results of the controlled study suggested that blacks and whites continue to differ on the value "equality." The value "equality" ranked second by blacks, was ranked twelfth by whites in importance. The value differences that still remained were a greater value on "a comfortable life" and on being "clean" and "obedient" by blacks with less value on "a world of beauty," "family security," and being "loving." When examined thoroughly, there are far fewer differences in values between blacks and whites which can be attributed to race, than there are in socioeconomic and educational differences (Rainwater, 1968; Rokeach, 1973).

Many individuals in today's society are of the opinion that blacks and whites differ markedly in life styles, attitudes, behavior and values. Sikula and Sikula (1975) addressed the question of basic value differences between black and white university students. Additionally, the researchers made an effort to examine and differentiate those differences. Employing the Rokeach Value Survey, black and white college students with similar socioeconomic and educational backgrounds were asked to rank order 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values. The findings illustrated that among instrumental values, black and white students differed markedly in their rankings of the values "clean," "honest," "independent," "polite," and "self-controlled." Conversely, among terminal values, black and white respondents differed significantly only on the value "salvation." In analyzing the data, the researchers suggested that race may be a significant causal factor in the determination of basic values, thereby affecting attitudes and behavior. Moreover, respondents were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, and marital status; however, these variables were not apparent.







30


Atolagbe (1980) simultaneously compared the values of blacks and whites in upper, middle and lower classes in an effort to ascertain if value differences do, in fact, exist among these classes. The findings of the Atolagbe study indicated no significant differences existed between social class, sex and race on aesthetic values, political values, economic values and theoretical values. Although, significant differences emerged between races on social and religious values, blacks tended to score significantly lower on social values, while whites scored significantly lower on religious values. Implications of this study advanced the notions that lower, middle and upper classes have similar values; disparities within the races and classes are greater than those between the races and classes; differences are prevalent in values between the races (social and religious). However, the similarities between the races are greater than the apparent differences. In sum, Atolagbe concluded, "people are much more alike than different" (1980, p. 452).

A study conducted by Sherman (1971) examined race and social status as factors associated with differences in the interpersonal value development of junior college students. The findings indicated there were no racial differences on the interpersonal value instrument. However, significant differences with respect to socioeconomic levels were found to exist, thus implying a greater need for expanded research on the relationship of socioeconomic level to individual values.

The articles reviewed suggested that value differences between the races are more a function of socioeconomics than race.










Values and Behavior
All people, regardless of culture, are characterized by some set of values. These values serve as governing standards for personal conduct, interaction with others, and one's perception and evaluation of self and others (Rokeach, 1973). According to Rokeach and Reagan (1980), values direct our occupations, interests, opinions, political and religious perspectives, and all such behaviors referable to adjustment, self-actualization and ego-defense. Essentially, "values serve to maintain one's self-esteem insofar as necessary, and to enhance it, insofar as possible" (1980, p. 577).

The individual's value priority system is the result of individual needs and societal demands developed through the socialization process. Recent research findings suggest that values are significantly related to all kinds of human behavior. Rokeach (1968a, 1973) found specific values (i.e., "equality," "a world at peace," "a world of beauty," and being "honest" and "self-controlled") to be most implicated by those individuals involved in and concerned with the civil rights of ethnic and racial groups. A value analysis indicated that these persons are more prone to participate in and join civil rights organizations.

Values associated with church attendance and social compassion

among adults and college students have been identified by Rokeach (1969) and Forbes, TeVault and Gromoll (1971). A composite ranking of the value "salvation" in the position of third most important distinguished churchgoers from nonchurchgoers. Other distinguishing features were a greater value placed on being "helpful" and "obedient" by churchgoers.

Similarly other researchers have investigated the relationship of values to political behavior, antiwar behavior, honest and dishonest










behavior, conflict between roommates, behavior in the counseling situation, academic pursuits, life styles, and academic values and occupational roles (Homant and Rokeach, 1970; Rokeach, 1968b, 1973; Shotland and Berger, 1970).

An investigation was conducted by Bertinetti (1972) to identify differences and similarities that were prevalent between three groups of students attending three dissimilar high schools. Through the use of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, the Hall's Occupational Orientation Inventory and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values, assessments were made. The researcher observed the presence of more similarities in self-concept, values and occupational orientations between groups than differences.

A study was conducted by Shotland and Berger (1970), using the Rokeach Value Survey, to investigate both the values of "honest" and "salvation" of a group of female employees identified as members of a devout religious denomination. A median test was performed to indicate the existence of value differences between those subjects who returned the pencils used to complete the questionnaire and those who did not. Those subjects returning the pencils with the questionnaire considered the values "honest" and "salvation" to be of more significance than those not returning the pencils.

Toler (1975) investigated the personal values of male addicts and alcoholics through the Rokeach Value Survey. The findings suggest that the two groups were very similar in personal values. In view of this similarity, Toler then combined and compared the values of the groups to those of the male sample of the general population. The results of this comparison revealed substantial variance between the two groups









and the sample of males from the population, thus suggesting a general theory of addition.

Mitchell (1976) investigated Rokeach's conception of the valueattitude system to determine its properties, internal consistency and predictive capacities. The researchers developed the Life Values Inventory to measure those terminal values posited by Rokeach. Moreover, the Personal Values Inventory was employed to measure Rokeach's hypothesized instrumental values, while the Inventory of Personal Opinion was developed to measure attitudes. The authors' findings supported Rokeach's contention that the value-attitude system is plausible, internally consistent, and predictive. Further, these results suggested the importance of cultural influences as determining factors in an individual's value hierarchy.

The purpose of the study conducted by Ohle and Vinitsky (1976) was to assess the extent to which values-clarification strategies increased awareness of personal values. Data were obtained through the undergraduates completion of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Occupational Value Survey. In so doing, the researchers observed the overall level of self-esteem and the personal values of each subject. A values-clarification workshop was conducted as part of the experiment. The results supported the assumption that participants in a values-clarification workshop become more aware of personal values than nonparticipants.

Kitwood and Smithers (1975) concurred that a systematic knowledge of personal values was imperative to the understanding of human behavior. However, past efforts to assess values (Allport, Vernon and Lindzey, 1960; Gordon, 1960, 1964; Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961),










have all involved different theoretical concepts of personal values. Rokeach. more than others has attempted to centralize a concept of values that is obviously more accurate than these previous attempts. Yet, these experts tend to agree that a relationship exists between an individual's values and goals. These values, likewise, are expressed by the individual's beliefs, attitudes and externalized behaviors.

There is sufficient data in the literature to suggest that successful and unsuccessful students rank values as two unique groups. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students.















CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of

values and self-concept to the academic performance of a random sample of black undergraduate college students currently enrolled at the University of Florida. The students' values and self-concepts were assessed through the use of two standardized instruments; the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale during the 1982 Spring Semester. The population and sample, research method, statistical hypotheses, instruments, analysis of data and limitations of the study are outlined in this chapter.


Population and Sample

The general population from which the sample for the study was

drawn consisted of 1,200 black undergraduate students (804 females and 396 males) who were admitted to the University of Florida between Sumer, 1976, through Winter, 1981. Approximately 70 percent of the students are from low income family backgrounds, while students with middle and upper income family backgrounds comprise 30 percent of the general population. Seventy-five percent of these students emanate from intra-Florida urban areas, whereas 25 percent are from rural areas. Ninety percent of these students entered the University of Florida through one of several special admission programs.










Only black sophomores, juniors, and seniors were selected for this study. The decision to use these groups, rather than freshmen, was based on the research suggesting that sophomores, juniors, and seniors tend to view themselves more realistically, encounter fewer adjustment problems, and earn higher grade point averages (Miller and O'Connor, 1969).

The sample of the study consisted of 100 randomly selected black students (49 males and 51 females). These subjects were between the ages of 18 and 24. There were 41 sophomores, 33 juniors, and 26 seniors.


Research Method

The following procedures for data collection were adhered to:

1. Permission to conduct the study with University of Florida

students as subjects was obtained from the University of Florida Human Subjects Committee.

2. A black students' status list was obtained from the Registrar's Office, and only sophomores, juniors, and seniors were identified. For the purpose of selecting a random sample for this study, every third student who had been identified was contacted and asked to participate in the study. A total of 120 students were identified to ensure a sample of 100 participants.

3. After the students were contacted and had agreed to participate in the study, the research procedure was then implemented. Individually, each subject completed the research procedure in the privacy of his/her resident dorm or in a special services office space on campus which was provided for the subject's convenience.










4. Each subject was presented with an Informed Consent Form

(Appendix A) for his/her signature indicating agreement to participate in the study and to release his/her grade point average. Then, each person was asked to complete the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Counseling Form, and the Rokeach Value Survey, Form D, anonymously. At the completion of these activities, the answer sheet, survey booklet and researcher's copy of the Informed Consent Form were collected and the subject thanked for his/her participation in the study.


Statistical Hypotheses

The following statistical hypotheses were constructed to test the research questions to determine whether values and self-concept related to the grade point averages of black college students and to determine whether males' and females' value systems were ranked significantly different.

Hol: The self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept

Scale, will not account for significant variance in the

grade point averages of black college students.

H02: The value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, will not

account for significant variance in the grade point averages

of black college students.

(a) There are no significant differences in the instrumental

value systems of black males and females.

(b) There are no significant differences in the terminal

value systems of black males and females.










H03: The values and self-concepts of black college students

will not relate.


Instruments


The Rokeach Value Survey (RVS)

The Rokeach Value Survey (1967, 1973) was one of two instruments used in the assessment of subjects who participated in this study. This instrument consists of 36 concepts which are designed to measure two distinct categories of values: (1) 18 instrumental values, defined as preferable modes of conduct, and (2) 18 terminal values, defined as preferable end-states of existence (Rokeach 1968a, 1973). The two lists of 18 alphabetically arranged terminal and instrumental values are to be rank ordered by the respondent. This rank ordering method is employed based on the assumption that the relativity of ordering is of significance as opposed to the value itself.

The Value Survey was developed and researched by obtaining input and conducting studies with college students and representative samples of adults. Ultimately, the resulting lists of values were derived through the following criteria: by retaining those judged to represent the most significant American values; by retaining those which discriminated across sex, race, class, religion, age and political affiliation; by retaining those perceived as relevant to all cultures; and by retaining those that most individuals would not deny (Rokeach, 1973).

Usually, respondents are requested to rank order each category of values in order of their importance, wherein the most preferred is to be ranked "" and the least preferred ranked "18." Each "value" is presented to the respondent as a word or brief phrase. Form D of the










RVS, which was utilitzed in this study, is a novelty in that items are printed on removable gummed labels allowing respondents to adjust them until they have created what they believe are their value systems. By far, this form of the instrument had obtained the highest reliabilities and completion rate of previous versions (Rokeach, 1973). Essentially, the task involves no writing; the time to complete it is 10 to 20 minutes; and this technique has been rated superior to other procedures.

Median test-retest reliabilities associated with terminal values range from .78 to .80, while reliabilities associated with instrumental values range from .70 to .72 for college students over a three to seven week period (Rokeach, 1973). For longer periods of time, the median reliability for terminal values is .76 after an interval of 2 to 4 months and .69 after a 14 to 16 month period. For instrumental values, the median reliabilities range from .61 to .65 (Rokeach, 1973). These results are suggestive of the stability of value systems among college students.

The validity of this instrument continues to be investigated by many researchers (Kitwood and Smithers, 1975; Mahoney and Katz, 1976; Munson, 1980).

The Rokeach Value Survey is an instrument that is ordinal and

ipsative in nature (Kitwood and Smithers, 1975; Rokeach, 1968a, 1973), thereby generating nonindependent data within subjects through a rank ordering procedure. According to Rokeach (1973), the instrument will yield normative ipsative data which violates the assumption of independence across individuals when statistically tested. However, the developer argues, the extent to which the assumption of independence










is violated is relatively small and this amount of ipsativity can be tolerated, but should be considered when interpreting the statistical results.


The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS)

This personality construct was developed by Fitts (1965) as a

means of studying and understanding human behavior. Research suggests an individual's perception of himself is highly influential in his behavior and is related to his general personality. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) consists of one hundred self-descriptive statements in which the respondent portrays a personal picture of himself (Fitts, 1965). The TSCS can be administered individually or with groups and is self-explanatory. The Counseling Form, which was utilized in this study, can be completed in 10 to 20 minutes.

The reliability coefficients for the Tennessee Self Concept Scale are based upon test-retest with college students over a two week period. Generally, reliability coefficients range from .60 to .92 with median reliabilities ranging from .80 to .90 (Fitts, 1965).

Validity of the instrument has been established in the following ways: (1) content, (2) discrimination between groups, (3) correlation with other personality measures, and (4) personality changes under particular conditions.

The instrument was normalized on a sample of individuals from

various backgrounds, ages (12 to 68), equal number of both sexes, black and white subjects with all levels of intellectual and educational attainment.










The Tennessee Self Concept Scale has been found to correlate

significantly with other personality measures (Hall, 1964; McGree, 1960; Sundby, 1962; Thompson, 1972).

Data obtained on the TSCS has been statistically treated by analysis of variance designs. This technique usually determines specific factors influencing the F-ratios (Bertinetti, 1972; Dixon, 1972; Fitts, 1965).

The Tennessee Self Concept Scale produces the following scores and definitions of self-concept (Fitts, 1965, p. 2-3). A. The Self-Criticism Score (SC). Ten mildly derogatory statements

constitute this scale. Fitts maintains that individuals who

deny most of these statements are cfeisive and making a conscious

effort to portray a favorable picture of themselves. High scores generally identify those individuals who are normal,

open and have a capacity for self-criticism. Extremely high

scores (above the 99th percentile) are associated with a lack of personal defenses, wherein low scores suggest defensiveness

and artificial elevation in Positive Scores.

B. The Positive Score (P). These scores convey three basic

principles:

Row 1 - Identify (this is what I am);

Row 2 - Self Satisfaction (this is how I feel about myself);

Row 3 - Behavior (this is what I do). These three Row Scores

(subscores), also known as the Total Positive or Total P

Score, depict an individual's description of self within their

internal frame of reference.










Also represented within the horizontal row categories are

five vertical column category scores. These five scores reflect the individual's external frame of reference and are the Physical Self (Column A), Moral-Ethical Self (Column B), Personal Self (Column C), Family Self (Column D), and Social Self (Column E).

Interestingly, there exists a two-way division of statements (items) on the score sheet. The vertical column scores represent the individual's external frame of reference, while the horizontal row scores represent the internal frame of reference, hence each item and each cell simultaneously contributes to two distinct scores.

1. Total P Score. As maintained by Fitts, this is the most

significant single score because it reflects the overall

level of one's self-esteem. High scoring individuals are

self-confident, feel they are of value and worth, like themselves, and their behavior is consistent with these

beliefs. Conversely, low scoring individuals tend to doubt

their worth and abilities, and frequently experience feelings

of anxiety, depression and unhappiness.

Fitts postulates that low Self Criticism (SC) Scores

accompanied by high P Scores are probably the result of

defensive distortion in the individual.

2. Row 1 P Score - Identity. This score produces a numerical

description of the individual's basic identity (i.e., one's

perception).

3. Row 2 P Score - Self Satisfaction. The individual's selfacceptance or self satisfaction with self is reflected by

this score.










4. Row 3 P Score - Behavior. The individual's perception of

his behavior is revealed through this score.

5. Column A - Physical Self. The score is a measure of the

person's appearance, health, sexuality and skills.

6. Column B - Moral-Ethical Self. Here the person is describing

religious satisfaction, relationship to God, being a "good"

versus "bad" individual, or moral worth.

7. Column C - Personal Self. Through this score the individual

is offering an evaluation of his/her feelings and adequacy,

personality and personal worth.

8. Column D - Family Self. The individual, through this score,

is describing self as perceived in relation to close friends

and family in an intimate setting.

9. Column E - Social Self. This score reflects the person's

sense of well-being in relating to others in general on a

less intimate basis.

C. The Variability Score (V). The score revals the degree of inconsistency in one's self perception. Again, high scores are

indicative of substantial inconsistency, whereas low scores suggest

less variability.

1. Total V. This score measures the sum variability for the

rows and columns. Little personal unity or integration

are usually characteristics of those high scoring individuals. Whereas, the tendency for well integrated individuals is to score below the mean, but above the first

percentile.

2. Column Total V. This score reflects within column variability.










3. Row Total V. The total variability across the rows is measured

by this score.
D. The Distribution Score. This score reveals the distribution of the

respondent's answers across the five available choices. High scores

are associated with those respondents who have a certaintude of

their opinion of themselves; however, low scoring individuals are considered the opposite. Those persons who employ a preponderance of "3" responses are also thought to exhibit a lack of commitment.


Analysis of Data

The stepwise multiple regression procedure was used to relate the

36 concepts on the Rokeach Value Survey and 10 dimensions of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale to grade point averages. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed between values and self-concept scores.
To identify the similarities and differences between males' and

females' instrumental and terminal value systems, a one-way nonparametric analysis of variance was used. This procedure performed a one-way analysis of variance on rank scores with similar results as the t-test and median test. The rank scores for males' and females' instrumental and terminal values are found in Appendix B and Appendix C, respectively. Each hypothesis was tested at the .05 level of significance.










Limitations of the Study


This study was limited by the paucity of research and knowledge base in the literature with reference to the value characteristics of black college students. The results of the studies did not permit synthesis due to the diversity of instrumentation used and variation in groups of students across race (i.e., black/white comparisons), socioeconomic status and regional subcultures.
This study was further limited to the rank ordering of terminal and instrumental values as indicated on the Rokeach Value Survey and caution is advised when interpreting the results because there may exist alternative reasons for ranking a value high or low. This instrument produces ipsative data, and has incorporated into its design this limitation which may obscure the results. There exist no recently developed measures with which to compare this instrument and its construct validity is still under investigation.

Finally, the population and sample may be considered a limiting

factor in that only black undergraduate college students were investigated. Therefore broad generalizations cannot be drawn.














CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



Results

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students currently enrolled at the University of Florida. Of the 100 undergraduate students who participated in the study, 49 were males and 51 were females. The Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale were administered to these students during the 1982 Spring semester. The results of the data analyses are presented as outlined in Chapter Three.

Mean scores and composite ranks were used in presenting the results relative to the value hierarchies of black college students. It should be noted that the mean scores and the compostie rank of values did not always coincide, and the composite rank did not enter into the statistical analysis of the data. Specifically, the composite rank indicates the relative position and importance of a value in the total hierarchy of values. Thus, in comparing the instrumental and terminal value systems of black males and females, it is the total hierarchy of values (value system) which is considered.

Fifty-one females participated in the study. Of that total, 17 were sophomores, 16 were juniors, and 18 were seniors. Table 1 shows the descriptive data for the females who participated in the study.









Table 1


Means, Standard Deviations, with
of Grade Point Average


Minimum and Maximum Ranges for Black Females


Classification Mean SD Minimum Maximum GPA


Sophomores 2.45 .52 1.27 3.39
(n=17)

Juniors 2.21 .67 0.00 3.18
(n=16)

Seniors 2.37 .28 1.84 3.78
(n=18)


N=51






Table 2

Means, Standard Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum Ranges
of Grade Point Average for Black Males


Classification Mean SD Minimum Maximum GPA


Sophomores 2.31 .49 0.92 3.54
(n=24)

Juniors 2.06 1.43 0.00 3.29
(n=17)

Seniors 2.37 .28 2.11 3.00
(n=8)


N=49









Means, standard deviations, and the minimum and maximun ranges of grade point average (GPA) by classification are listed in the table.

Of the 49 males who participated in the study, 24 were sophomores, 17 were juniors, and 8 were seniors. Table 2 shows the descriptive data for the 49 males who participated in the study including their mean scores, standard deviations, and the minimum and maximun ranges of grade point average (GPA) by classification.


Hypothesis One

Hypothesis One stated that the self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, would not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. This hypothesis was tested by means of stepwise multiple regression analysis. The variables on the TSCS included in the model were Self-Criticism, Total Positive, Identity, Self Satisfaction, Behavior, Physical Self, Moral-Ethical Self, Personal Self, Family Self, and Social Self.

The results of the analysis shown in Table 3 indicate that of the 10 dimensions used as independent variables, Identity had an F-value of
2.73 and was not statistically significant (p>.05). This dimension accounted for 2 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average and was the only dimension of the TSCS included in the table. These results mean that the null hypothesis was not rejected at the .05 level of significance.
A comparison of the subjects' scores on the 10 dimensions of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale with normative data, Table 4, revealed that no statistically significant differentiation existed between means. Tables 5 and 6 show the students' means and standard deviations according to sex.






Table 3

The Results of Stepwise Regression Analysis


Variables Multiple R R2 R2Change F p



Courageous .23 .05 .05 7.90 .006 An Exciting Life .29 .08 .03 12.16 .008 Clean .36 .13 .04 11.65 .001 Imaginative .41 .17 .04 8.28 .005 Helpful .46 .21 .04 7.00 .009 Sexl (males) .50 .25 .04 5.03 .02 True Friendship .52 .27 .02 3.08 -Identity .54 .29 .02 2.73 --


N=l00






50



Hypothesis Two

Hypothesis Two stated that value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, would not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. This hypothesis was tested by means of stepwise multiple regression. Inspection of Table 3 indicates that of the 36 value concepts used as independent variables, the values courageous (F=7.90, p<.05), an exciting life (F=12.16, p<.05), clean (F=ll.65, p<.05), imaginative (F=8.28, p<.05), and helpful (F=7.00, p<.05), were statistically significant. Collectively, these variables accounted for 21 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average in the regression model. These results mean that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance.
As an added dimension to this study, the variable Sexl was included as an independent variable to determine if sex would emerge as a significant factor. Inspection of Table 3 indicates that Sexl (males) had an F-value of 5.03 and was statistically significant (p,.05). This result indicates that 4 percent of the variance in grade point average was attributed to males. Therefore, six values, one self-concept dimension and sex accounted for 29 percent of the explained variance in the grade point averages of black college students, thereby having a multiple correlation (R) of .54 with grade point average.

The sub-hypotheses for null Hypothesis Two were as follows:

(a) There would be no significant differences in the instrumental

value systems of black males and females. This sub-hypothesis

was tested by means of a one-way nonparametric analysis of
variance on rank scores. Inspection of Table 7 indicates that






Table 4
Means and Standard Deviations of Black College Students' Scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale


Group Group TSCS TSCS Score Mean SD Mean SD (N=100)

Self-Criticism 34.40 6.38 35.54 6.70 Total Positive 344.53 28.45 345.57 30.70 Identity 128.20 9.60 127.10 9.96 Self Satisfaction 103.32 14.55 103.67 13.79 Behavior 113.03 10.94 115.01 11.22 Physical Self 70.25 8.80 71.78 7.67 Moral-Ethical Self 66.32 8.30 70.33 8.70 Personal Self 68.03 7.23 64.55 7.41 Family Self 70.45 7.97 70.83 8.43 Social Self 69.68 7.60 68.14 7.86





Table 5
Means and Standard Deviations for Black Males'Scores on the
Tennessee Self Concept Scale


Mean TSCS TSCS Score (N=49) SD Mean SD Self-Criticism 34.04 6.02 35.54 6.70 Total Positive 349.46 26.22 345.57 30.70 Identity 128.20 9.57 127.10 9.96 Self Satisfaction 105.65 12.99 103.67 13.79 Behavior 115.65 9.98 115.01 11.22 Physical Self 73.46 8.14 71.78 7.67 Moral-Ethical Self 65.57 7.84 70.33 8.70 Personal Self 69.23 6.29 64.55 7.41 Family Self 71.26 7.18 70.83 8.43 Social Self 70.10 7.55 68.14 7.86





Table 6
Means and Standard Deviations for Black Females'Scores on the
Tennessee Self Concept Scale


Mean TSCS TSCS Score (N=51) SD Mean SD Self-Criticism 34.74 6.75 35.54 6.70 Total Positive 339.78 29.92 345.57 30.70 Identity 128.19 9.72 127.10 9.96 Self Satisfaction 101.67 15.70 103.67 13.79 Behavior 110.50 11.33 115.01 11.22 Physical Self 67.15 8.35 71.78 7.67 Moral-Ethical Self 67.03 8.73 70.33 8.70 Personal Self 66.84 7.92 64.55 7.41 Family Self 69.66 8.67 70.85 8.43 Social Self 69.27 7.71 68.14 7.86










the value self-controlled was ranked significantly different

statistically (p<.05). This result means that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance.

(b) There would be no significant differences in the terminal

value systems of black males and females. A one-way nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores was employed

to test this sub-hypothesis. Inspection of Table 8 indicates that the values a comfortable life, a sense of accomplishment, a world at peace, a world of beauty, and salvation were ranked

significantly different statistically (p<.05). These results

mean that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of

significance.


Hypothesis Three

Hypothesis Three stated that the values and self-concepts of black college students would not relate. This hypothesis was tested by means of Pearson product-moment correlation. The students' 36 value concept scores and their 10 self-concept dimension scores were correlated and the results indicate that black college students' values and self-concepts were related.

Table 9 shows that three instrumental values and six self-concept

dimensions were significant and negatively correlated. These associations were broadminded and Identity (r=-.26, p<.05), helpful and Self-Criticism (r=-.21, p<.05), intellectual and Personal Self (r=-.26, p<.05), intellectual and Self Satisfaction (r=-.19, p<.05), intellectual and Identity (r=-.19, p<.05), intellectual and Total Positive (r=-.24, p<.05), and intellectual and Behavior (r=-.20, p<.05).









Table 7
Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically
Significant Differences for Black Males' and Females'
Instrumental Value Systems


Values Males Females p (N=49) (N=51)

Ambitious 6.5 (3) 6.4 (2)
Broadminded 9.6 (9) 10.2 (11)
Capable 8.3 (8) 8.8 (8)
Cheerful 11.9 (16) 11.0 (14) Clean 11.0 (13) 11.2 (15) Courageous 11.7 (15) 10.4 (12)
Forgiving 10.7 (12) 9.6 (9) Helpful 10.2 (10) 8.8 (7) Honest 5.6 (1) 5.5 (1)
Imaginative 13.0 (18) 12.4 (17)
Independent 7.5 (5) 7.2 (3) Intellectual 8.1 (7) 7.8 (6)
Logical 11.5 (14) 11.3 (18)
Loving 7.1 (4) 7.6 (5) Obedient 12.5 (17) 13.6 (18)
Polite 10.5 (11) 10.9 (13)
Responsible 6.4 (2) 7.3 (4) -Self-Controlled 7.9 (6) 10.2 (10) .03

Note: Figures shown are means, with composite rank ordersin
parentheses.









Table 8
Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically
Significant Differences for Black Males' and Females'
Terminal Value Systems


Values Males Females p (N=49) (N=51)

A Comfortable life 7.5 (6) 9.9 (13) .01 An Exciting Life 11.5 (13) 12.1 (14) -A Sense of Accomplishment 7.2 (5) 9.2 (11) .008 A World at Peace 12.9 (15) 8.4 (9) .004
A World of Beauty 14.8 (18) 12.9 (16) .01 Equality 8.4 (9) 8.3 (8) -Family Security 6.2 (3) 8.0 (7) -Freedom 8.2 (8) 7.7 (6) -Happiness 5.4 (1) 6.5 (3) -Inner Harmony 9.0 (10) 7.6 (4) -Mature Love 9.9 (12) 9.2 (10) -National Security 14.4 (17) 14.1 (17) -Pleasure 12.1 (14) 12.4 (15) -Salvation 8.2 (7) 5.1 (1) .01 Self-Respect 5.8 (2) 6.4 (2) -Social Recognition 12.9 (16) 14.1 (18) True Friendship 9.2 (11) 9.2 (12) Wisdom 6.7 (4) 7.6 (5)

Note: Figures shown are means, with composite rank orders in
parentheses.










Table 10 reveals that four terminal values and five self-concept dimensions were significant and negatively correlated. These associations were a comfortable life and Moral-Ethical Self (r=-.19, p<.05), pleasure and Self-Criticism (r=-.21, p<.05), salvation and Self Satisfaction (r=-.22, p<.05), true friendship and Physical Self (r=-.20,p<.05), and true friendship and Social Self (r=-.22, p<.05).

Table 11 indicates that three instrumental values and two selfconcept dimensions were significant and positively correlated. These associations were clean and Identity (r=.19, p<.05), independent and Self Satisfaction (r=.22, p<.05).

Table 12 indicates that two terminal values and two self-concept dimensions were significant and positively correlated. These associations were mature love and Moral-Ethical Self (r=.27, p<.05), and a sense of accomplishment and Physical Self (r=.24, p<.05).

These results mean that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance.


Discussion


Black males were above the means on eight of 10 dimensions on the

Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The two exceptions were Self-Criticism and Moral-Ethical Self. Black males at the University of Florida view themselves (in this study) as persons of worth and value, as reflected by the high Total Positive score, and exhibit a reasonably healthy openness and capacity for self criticism, as reflected by the Self-Criticism score. Even though males scored slightly below the mean on Self-Criticism, as revealed in Table 6, this scoring lacked statistical significance. Black males' Identity, Self Satisfaction, Behavior and Social Self were-above









Table 9

Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and
Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students


Self-Concept
Values Dimensions r p

Broadminded
(open-minded) Identity -.26 .007

Helpful (working for the
welfare of others) Self-Criticism -.21 .04
Intellectual
(intelligent, reflective) Personal Self -.26 .007 Intellectual Self Satisfaction -.19 .05 Intellectual Identity -.19 .04 Intellectual Total Positive -.24 .01 Intellectual Behavior -.20 .03 N=100


Table 10

Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and
Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students


Self-Concept
Values Dimensions r p

A Comfortable Life
(a prosperous life) Moral-Ethical Self -.19 .04

Pleasure (an enjoyable,
(leisurely life) Self-Criticism -.21 .02

Salvation (saved,
eternal life) Self Satisfaction -.22 .02
True Friendship (close
companionship) Physical Self -.20 .03 True Friendship Social Self -.22 .02 N=l00









Table 11

Significant Positively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students


Self-Concept
Values Dimensions r p


Clean (neat, tidy) Identity .19 .04

Independent (self-reliant,
self-sufficient) Self Satisfaction .20 .04

Obedient (dutiful,
respectful) Identity .22 .02


N=100






Table 12

Significant Positively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and
Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students


Self-Concept
Values Dimensions r p

Mature Love (sexual and
spiritual intimacy) Moral-Ethical Self .27 .005

A Sense of Accomplishment
(lasting contribution) Physical Self .24 .01


N=l00










average, thereby suggesting that they have a high opinion of themselves, function or behave competently, are pleased with their physical state of being, and feel confident in their ability to interact with others on a social or personal level. However, their perception of the Moral-Ethical aspect of self was below average.

An interesting result of this study was that black females at the University of Florida scored slightly lower on five of 10 dimensions on the TSCS. Females, generally, scored slightly below the average on Total Positive, Self Satisfaction, Behavior, Physical Self, and MoralEthical Self. Nevertheless, the latter tendency was not statistically significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that black females, as their male counterparts in this study, consider themselves as persons of worth, are open and capable of self-criticism, and are confident in their abilities to interact with significant others in a family, personal or social setting. Although females held a high opinion of themselves (Identity), they appeared less likely to be pleased with their Physical Self, Behavior and Moral-Ethical Self, as shown in Table 6. One plausible explanation for this outcome is that women, in general, might be more openly critical of themselves as a consequence of socialization. Similarly, in the Samuel and Laird (1974) study, black females scored slightly lower on three of seven dimensions of the TSCS. However, their low Moral-Ethical Self score was inconsistent with the high ranking of the value salvation, in Table 8, as most important for them.

These data showed that none of the 10 self-concept dimensions

tested accounted for statistically significant variance in the grade point averages of black males or females. These findings are










inconsistent with those in the literature suggesting that selfconcept is significantly related to grade point average (Bailey, 1976; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1974; Reed, 1978; Shade, 1978). Only one self-concept dimension, Identity, was judged significant by the stepwise multiple regression analysis procedure to be included in the table (Table 3). Identity accounted for 2 percent of the variance in grade point average. Nevertheless, it was not statistically significant at the .05 level. These findings are similar to Atkinson's (1964), who found that the self-concept is related to academic performance, but is not necessarily synonymous. Likewise, Trachtman (1975) found that self-esteem was not significantly related to academic performance.

Values. Suprisingly, several values which emerged as factors

significantly related to grade point average for black college students were not expected, as indicated in Table 3. Of the 36 ranked value concepts, the values clean, courageous, helpful, imaginative, and an exciting life were judged statistically significant at the .05 level and accounted for 21 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average. The value true friendship accounted for 2 percent of the variance, but was not judged statistically significant at the .05 level.

Students in this study were requested to rank order each category of values (18 instrumental and 18 terminal) in order of their importance, wherein the most preferred was ranked "1" and the least preferred ranked "18." As a result of these rank orderings, the value courageous (Table 3) emerged as the factor most significantly related to grade point average and accounted for 5 percent of the 29 percent explained variance










in grade point average. There was a tendency for grade point average to increase as rankings of the value courageous as least preferred increased in the value hierarchy. As shown in Table 7, courageous was ranked fifteenth by males and twelfth by females in this study. This result contradicted evidence indicating that among college populations, the value courageous was high in importance (Rokeach, 1973).

Rankings on the value an exciting life accounted for 3 percent of the variance in grade point average (Table 3). Similarly, there was a tendency for grade point average to increase as rankings of the value an exciting life as least preferred increased in the value hierarchy. Table 8 shows that the value an exciting life was ranked, in general of low importance (thirteenth by males and fourteenth by females).

Other unexpected significant factors relating to grade point average were the values clean, imaginative, and helpful (Table 3). Collectively, these values accounted for 12 percent of the variance in grade point average. Likewise, there was a tendency for grade point average to increase as rankings on these values as least preferred increased in the value hierarchy.

The findings of this study appear to support the contention that the value clean distinguishes between the low- and the high-educated, as observed by Rokeach (1973). The value clean was ranked thirteenth by males and fifteenth by females in this study (Table 7). These findings are consistent with Rokeach (1973) who found that the more education the individual has attained, the lower clean is ranked in the value hierarchy. In his findings, the value clean was ranked thirteenth by those individuals who had some college education, but'











had not received a degree.

Not only have values given evidence to differentiate between the low- and high-educated, but they serve as social indicators as well (Allen, 1978; Epps, 1969; Rokeach, 1973). Rankings of the value clean has been found to distinguish those individuals of low socioeconomic status from those who are affluent. The more affluent tend to rank clean significantly lower, seventeenth in the hierarchy, while those who are from the lower socioeconomic levels tend to rank it second most important (Rokeach, 1973). One could speculate that individuals from the lower socioeconomic levels tend to place a higher value on cleanliness because they are less likely to possess it. It is also reasonable to assume that the more education one has attained, the more likely that individual is to have better income opportunities, better living conditions and a higher social status. Based upon the results of this investigation, it could be further assumed that the significant variance on the value clean can be attributed to the varying socioeconomic levels of subjects in the study.

The values imaginative, true friendship, and an exciting life

were ranked near the bottom of the hierarchy by males and by females, as shown in Tables 7 and 8, while helpful was ranked in the middle. In studies conducted by Rokeach (1973), the values imaginative, true friendship, and helpful tended to characterize individuals according to socioeconomic levels. This value, imaginative, tends to be of higher importance to the affluent, whereas the values helpful










and true frienship are of higher importance to the less affluent (Rokeach, 1973). An exciting life is generally ranked towards the bottom of the hierarchy regardless of socioeconomics (Rokeach, 1973).

The variable Sexl accounted for 4 percent of the variance in males' grade point average. This dimension was included to determine whether sex would emerge as a significant factor in this study, and it did so.

In the instrumental value hierarchy, both sexes ranked honest, ambitious, independent, and responsible at the top, while they ranked imaginative, obedient, logical, and cheerful at the bottom (Table 7). These findings are supportive of Rokeach (1973), Rokeach and Parker (1970), and Williams (1968) who reported that these value patterns are held in common by both sexes, and appear to be characteristic of Americans, in general. Of considerable interest was the fact that the only instrumental value in this study which discriminated significantly between black males and females was the value self-controlled. Black males ranked this value sixth, while black females ranked it tenth. According to Rokeach (1973), neither American men-nor women cared much for self-control. However, the black males in this study contradicted that observation. One plausible explanation may be attributed to the way that black males and females are socialized in the south; therefore, these males may have viewed the value self-controlled- as being significantly more important as a result of race (Allen, 1978; Dawkins










and Dawkins, 1980; Epps, 1969; Sikula and Sikula, 1975). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) and Mitchell (1976) suggest that similarities in personal experiences by individuals within a culture will likewise shape value systems in similar ways.

Black males and females ranked five of 18 terminal values significantly different. Those values were a comfortable life, a sense of accomplishment, a world at peace, a world of beauty and salvation. Black males placed a significantly higher value than did black females on a comfortable life and a sense of accomplishment. Conversely, females valued a world at peace, salvation and a world of beauty significantly higher than males. These findings support the contention in the literature by Rokeach (1973) that males tend to be more materialistic and achievement oriented, wherein females appear more oriented toward personal happiness, religious values and a peaceful world. However, black males and females uniformly displayed more value similarities than differences, as shown in Table 8, thus supporting the findings by Atolagbe (1980) and Rokeach (1973).

Three of 18 instrumental values yielded significant (p<.05) negative relationships with six self-concept dimensions (Table 9). The value intellectual was negatively related to Personal Self, Self Satisfaction, Identity, Total Positive and Behavior dimensions on the TSCS. These findings support the contention that the value intellectual is high in relative importance to the black students who scored low on:

(a) level of self-esteem (Total Positive); (b) opinion of themselves (Identity); (c) level of self-acceptance (Self Satisfaction);

(d) behavior or functioning (Behavior); and (e) a sense of worth and adequacy (Personal Self). High importance on the value broadminded was










associated with low self-opinion (Identity) scores. Similarly, a high importance on the value helpful was associated with low capacities for self-criticism and openness (Self-Criticism).

There were four of 18 terminal values which resulted in significant (p<.05) negative relationships with self-concept dimensions of the TSCS (Table 10). High importance on the value pleasure was negatively related to the self-concept dimensions of Physical Self and Social Self. This was somewhat surprising since, generally, if an individual places high value on close companionship, then that individual is more likely to feel confident in his/her ability to interact with others on a social or personal level. The value salvation was negatively related to the self-concept dimension of Self Satisfaction. This relationship was not surprising. One could speculate that those individuals placing high importance on eternal life and being saved are more likely to have set high religious standards and expectations for themselves. Finally, the value a comfortable life was negatively related to the self-concept dimension of Moral-Ethical Self. Black males tended to place significantly more importance on the tangibles of a prosperous life and less on the intangibles of religion, thus supporting Rokeach's (1973) findings that males tend to be more materialistic than females.

Concerning positive relationships, three of 18 instrumental values were significant (p<.05) and positively related to two self-concept dimensions. The value clean was positively related to the self-concept dimension Identity. Likewise, the value obedient was positively related to the self-concept dimension Identity. The value independent was positively related to the self-concept dimension of Self-Satisfaction (Table 11). Understandably, increases in self-dependence and










reliance often does result in increases in self-satisfaction for the individual. However, the positive relationships which emerged between clean and Identity, and between obedient and Identity are inexplicable and interesting.

Two of 18 terminal values and two self-concept dimensions were significant (p<.05) and positively related, as shown in Table 12. The value a sense of accomplishment and the Physical Self dimension of the TSCS were positively related. Similarly, the value mature love and the self-concept dimension Moral-Ethical Self were positively related.

Summary. In this study, the findings suggest that, in general,

the values of black male and female college students were more significantly related to grade point average than was self-concept. Of the 29 percent variance found in grade point average, the values clean, courageous, an exciting life, helpful, imaginative, and true friendship accounted for the greatest portion of that variance, 23 percent. The variable Sexl (variance attributed to males) and the self-concept dimension, Identity, accounted for 4 percent and 2 percent of the variance, respectively. Therefore, approximately 71 percent of the variance in grade point average was associated with factors other than values, sex, and self-concept.

Essentially, black males' instrumental and terminal value systems

were consistent with value patterns held by males in general. Similarly, black females' instrumental and terminal value systems reflected the value patterns, generally, indicative of females. Therefore, socialization pertaining to traditional sex roles, apparently, has a significant impact on the value systems of individuals.











The relationship between values and self-concept, as indicated by the findings of this study, can best be characterized as interesting and complex. Three values (i.e., clean, helpful and true friendship) which emerged as factors significantly related to grade point average were, likewise, significant in both positive and negative relationships with several self-concept dimensions. Therefore, this study evidences the existence of significant relationships between this sample of black college students' values and self-concepts which need to be further investigated.















CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black undergraduate students at the University of Florida. This study was developed in response to a need to identify potential noncognitive predictors of academic success for black students and the lack of research data regarding the educational values of these students. More specifically, the investigation was conducted (a) to determine whether the students' values accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (b) to determine whether the students' selfconcepts accounted for significant variance in grade point average,

(c) to determine whether males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems were ranked significantly different, and (d) to determine whether students' values and self-concepts were related. The students' values and self-concepts were assessed through the use of two standardized instruments; the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale during the 1982 Spring semester.

The sample consisted of 100 black students (49 males and 51

females) who were randomly selected from the general population of undergraduate students. Only black sophomores,-juniors, and seniors










were included in the study. The decision to use these groups was based on research suggesting that these classifications of students tend to view themselves more realistically, encounter fewer adjustment problems, and earn higher grade point averages than freshmen.

The following major null hypotheses and two sub-hypotheses were constructed and tested at an alpha level of .05:

Hol: The self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept

Scale, would not account for significant variance in the
grade point averages of black college students.

H02: The value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, would

not account for significant variance in the grade point

averages of black college students.

(a) There were no significant differences in the instrumental value systems of black males and females.

(b) There were no significant differences in the terminal

value systems of black males and females.

H03: The values and self-concepts of black college students

would not relate.


The stepwise multiple regression analysis procedure was used to relate the 36 concepts on the Rokeach Value Survey and 10 dimensions of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale to the students' grade point averages (Hypotheses One and Two). Both sub-hypotheses were tested using a one-way nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed between values and self-concept scores to test Hypothesis Three.
The results of the study gave evidence that particular values were more significantly related to grade point average for black college











students than was self-concept. Black male and female college students shared movevalue similarities than differences. Finally, the study indicated that significant relationships exist between black college students' values and self-concepts.


Conclusions


The following conclusions were drawn from the results of this study:

1. Hypothesis One revealed that self-concept was not significantly related to grade point average for black college students in this study, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Self-concept accounted for 2 percent of the

29 percent explained variance in grade point average and was

not judged statistically significant by the stepwise multiple

regression procedure.

2. Hypothesis Two showed that values were more significantly related to grade point average for black college students in this

study than was self-concept, as measured by the Rokeach Value

Survey. Value rankings accounted for 23 percent of the 29

percent explained variance in grade point average and was

judged statistically significant by the stepwise multiple regression procedure.

3. Sub-hypothesis 2a revealed that there were significant differences in the instrumental (preferable modes of conduct) value
systems of males and females, as measured by the Rokeach

Value Survey. The value self-controlled was ranked










significantly higher in the instrumental value hierarchy

by males.

4. Sub-hypothesis 2b showed that there were significant differences in the terminal (preferable end-states of existence) value systems of black males and females, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. The values a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, a world at peace, and salvation

were ranked significantly different by males and females.

5. Sub-hypotheses 2a and 2b revealed that black males and females shared more value similarities than differences, as

measured by the Rokeach Value Survey.

6. Sub-hypotheses 2a and 2b revealed that the relative importance of particular values held by black college students in

this study were influenced more by education than by race,

as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. These results

were consistent with research conducted by Rokeach (1973)

which indicated that other college samples ranked these

values similarly.

7. Hypothesis Three showed that the values and self-concepts

of black college students in this study were significantly

related, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey and the

Tennessee Self Concept Scale. These associations were both positive and negative and the results were characterized as

complex and interesting.


Beyond the hypotheses tested, two additional conclusions were drawn:









1. Socialization and culture were major determinants in the

ranking of values by black males and females in this study,

as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. This result was

evidenced by Black males ranking the value self-controlled significantly different from females. Additionally, black

males' and females' value systems were consistent with

value patterns held by Americans, in general.
2. Socioeconomics significantly influenced the relative importance of particular values for black college students in

this study, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. This

was revealed in the study by rankings on the value clean.

This value was found to serve as a socioeconomic indicator by Rokeach (1973) and emerged as a factor significantly related to grade point average for the students in this study.


Implications

The first implication of this study is the critical need for further research to ascertain why (with the absence of differences in intellect, cognition and behavior) some students succeed and others do not.
Administrators, student personnel workers, educators, and counselors, must seek to understand the cognitive and noncognitive factors which most significantly relate to the academic performance of students. Clarification of this relationship might result in student development programs which are well-planned, student-centered, and humanistically oriented toward students. Further, those behaviors and attitudes which have been identified as essential to student success, might be included in student










development activities, which could ultimately demonstrate the effectiveness and viability of such programs in contributing to student success.

The second implication of this study is that if particular value

rankings are associated with the academic failure of low income students, then steps must be taken to assist these students in rearranging and prioritizing the values associated with academic success. These interventions should be implemented at each level of education (i.e., preschool, elementary, secondary and higher education) and should include the strategies which will enhance their human and economic development.

Past sociological studies indicate that large numbers of students from low income backgrounds enter school with deficits in cognitive and academic performance skills which perpetually increase throughout the school years. Thus, by the senior year of high school, many of these students lag far behind more affluent students. As observed by some researchers, the presence of academic deficiencies among high percentages of the low income population has been thoroughly documented. However, the nature and quality of these deficiencies have not been documented. What is needed is a better understanding of the relationship among one's values, one's socioeconomic conditions, one's personal characteristics and one's academic success. This information might be of immeasurable benefit to educators for the purposes of developing cognitive skills programs. Further, these programs could have incorporated into their designs a component whose objective is to teach "success values" to many students from low income backgrounds. These varied approaches might assist low income students to realize and develop their potential for learning and economic growth. It must be noted that low income students are






75



economically deprived, but these students are not necessarily deprived of motivation.
The study of values might also lead eudcators and counselors to a better understanding of the academic behavior of low income students.

The third implication of this study is that multiple factors influence the academic performance of students and these factors should be considered in the selection and admission of minority students into institutions of higher education.

The long-standing problem for minority recruitment and admissions

personnel has been the identification of potentially successful students on the basis of traditional admissions criteria (such as high school grades, SAT scores, and ACT scores). In utilizing these approaches, many capable black students and other minority students were overlooked. The findings of this study support the contention that the selection and admission of minority students should include multiple factors criteria in making colleges and universities more accessible to these students. This approach could enhance the identification and evaluation of potential students.

The fourth implication of this study is that further attention should be given to the student's values, rather than the student's self-concept in relation to academic performance.

The results of this study gave evidence that the student's values were more significantly related to his/her academic performance. Thus, student personnel workers and counselors share a professional responsibility to assist students in: (a) clarifying and understanding their values, and (b) understanding and identifying how these values might influence their success or failure not only in education, but in other










aspects of their lives, as well.
The fifth implication of this study is that the complexity of the issue regarding the academic performance of black students requires further research. Attention given to examining and identifying the relationship of values to the academic performance and career goals of black college students can assist college administrators and student personnel workers in gaining a better understanding of the educational values which influence black students' learning and academic growth.

By identifying the values which best relate to academic performance, it will be possible to develop programs, workshops and activities that would clarify and promote the values associated with academic success. Consequently, black college students who are encountering academic difficulties due to unclarified educational values, may be given an opportunity to clarify their values. By so doing, many of these students might be motivated to achieve academic success and thereby experience a more meaningful and rewarding education. Additionally, these developmental programs, workshops and value clarification activities should provide counseling and vocational guidance programs which will serve to inform, support and guide the student into the variety of field of study that are now available to them.


Recommendations

The following recommendations are made, based on the results of this study:
1. A replication of this study should be conducted, involving a

larger number of subjects in other universities and settings, to










ascertain whether particular values are substantial correlates

of the academic performance of black college students.
2. A longitudinal study should be conducted, beginning with the

freshman year, to ascertain whether black students undergo

significant value changes while attending college.

3. A longitudinal study should be conducted, with black high school

students as subjects, to determine how values influence their

grades, involvement in extra-curricular activities and decisions

to attend college.

































APPENDIX A
INFORMED CONSENT FORM















INFORMED CONSENT FORM


The study you are being asked to participate in is designed to investigate the relationship between your values and a description of yourself on a self concept scale. Should you decide to participate, you will be asked to complete two questionnaires; the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Both questionnaires will take no more than 30 minutes of your time. All information is being completed anonymously, so once completed, your questionnaires can never be identified with you.
The results of this study will be utilized by the support programs personnel in an effort to develop orientation workshops and seminars, which will contribute to a more meaningful college experience for future students.

Your participation in this study is voluntary, therefore no monetary compensation will be awarded for your participation. There are also no risks or discomforts to be expected. The results of this study will be made available to you at its completion upon your request.

As a subject in this study, you are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue the procedure at any time without prejudice.

If there are any questions about this procedure, please feel free to ask the researcher.

"I have read and understand the procedure described above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. I also agree to release my University of Florida cumulative grade point average to the researcher."
Signatures:
Subject Date




Witness Date




Principal Investigator Date
Gloria Ann Crutchfield 1824-B N.W. 9th Street Gainesville, FL 32601































APPENDIX B
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS
FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES





















FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS
FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES


Value Sex Ambitious Males
Females

Broadminded Males
Females

Capable Males
Females

Cheerful Males
Females

Clean Males
Females

Courageous Males
Females

Forgiving Males
Females

Helpful Males
Females

Honest Males
Females

Imaginative Males
Females

Independent Males
Females

Intellectual Males
Females

Logical Males
Females

Loving Males
Females

Obedient Males
Females

Polite Males
Females

Responsible Males
Females

Self-Controlled Males
Females


Rank 10 11

5 1 1 4 2 1 4 3 5 5
4 4 7 4 6 7 3 2 6 2 1 3 4 3 1 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 4 3 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 0 4 2 4


2 3

7 4 7 0

2 2 3 4 3 7 1 4 1 1 1 0 0 3 1 3 1 0 2 2 4 2 3 5 4 1 4 3 5 4 9 5 0 0 1 0 3 5 4 9 3 5 1 3

1 1 0 1 8 5 4 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 4 5 4 3 4 3 3 3 3


N=49 Males, 51 Females


6 7

3 3 5 2 0 3 1 5 5 3 2 7 3 0 4 0 1 1 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 2 1 1

2 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 2 1 1

1 3 2 2 6 2 0 9

2 3 2 2 0 4 3 5 4 0 1 1

7 1 4 1 3 7 9 4 6 4 4 2


14 15 1 1
3 0 5 2 1 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 2 3 3 1 6 4 4 5 7 0 1 2 7 5 3 2 1 0 3 6 7 9 2 1 3 2 1 4 2 1 5

3 0 5 5 2 3 3 2 4 1 4 2 3 2 7 6 1 0 0 3 1 2 1 2


Comp.
18 Means Rank

0 6.5 3 0 6.4 2

3 9.6 9 6 10.2 11

1 8.3 8 0 8.8 8

2 11.9 16 0 11.0 14

6 11.0 13 6 11.2 15

1 11.7 15 2 10.4 12

5 10.7 12 4 9.6 9

1 10.2 10 1 8.8 7

0 5.6 1 0 5.5 1

7 13.0 18 5 12.4 17

2 7.5 5 3 7.2 3

1 8.1 7 1 7.8 6

9 11.5 14 2 11.3 18

0 7.1 4 0 7.6 5

9 12.5 17
18 13.6 18

2 10.5 11 0 10.9 13

0 6.4 2 2 7.3 4

1 7.9 6
2 10.2 10


2 2 6 2 1 2 4 3

2 3 3 4 3 1 3 4
2 5 2 3 5 1 0 0

3 1 1 9 2 3 3 4

5 3 2 1 2 5 1 2

2 2 4 1 1 2 3 3


3 4 2 4

2 0 2 1

4 5 0 8

4 4 6 1

0 0 0 0

2 3 11 2
































APPENDIX C
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS
FOR TERMINAL VALUES





















FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS
FOR TERMINAL VALUES


Rank
Value Sex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 8 0 1 12 13 14


A Comfortable Life Males 5 Females 2

An Exciting Life Males 0
Females 0

A Sense of Males 1
Accomplishment Females 0

A World at Peace Males 1 Females 4

A World of Beauty Males 0 Females 0

Equality Males I Females 1

Family Security Males 5 Females 1

Freedom Males 2 Females 1

Happiness Males 4 Females 6

Inner Harmony Males 2 Females 4

Mature Love Males 1 Females 0

National Security Males 0 Females 1

Pleasure Males 0 Females 1

Salvation Males 17 Females 22

Self-Respect Males 6 Females 5

Social Recognition Males 0 Females 0

True Friendship Males 0 Females 0

Wisdom Males 4 Females 3


1 4
6 4

4 6 5 4

4 3 4 4

2 0 2 1

0 3 5 3

8 3
2 4

2 2 2 4

3 7
2 4

2 2 4 4

2 2 2 3

8 3 1 2

1 1 1 0

5 3 4 2

2 2 0 2

1 1
3 2

3 10 0 10

2 2 2 0

0 1 6 2


3 4 1 3

5 4 2 4

2 1 10 3

4 2 2 3

2 9 7 3

1 0 3 4

2 1 1 3

3 2 3 3

2 1 1 1

1 4 0 2

6 2 2 3

3 2 1 5

2 6 7 3

2 2 2 1

2 1 0 2

4 5
2 4

4 5 7 2

2 0 1 2


17


N=49 Males, 51 Females


15 16 1 1
2 4 3 2 5 3 1 0 2 0 8 7 2 8 4 9 5 3 4 1 3 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 10 1 8 6 4 4 5 2 3 2 2 0 0 3 0 4 5 7 6 2 1 1 3 3 2 1 1


Comp.
18 Means Rank

0 7.5 6 2 9.9 13

2 11.5 13 5 12.1 14

1 7.2 5 1 9.2 11

4 12.9 15 3 8.4 9

10 14.8 18 9 12.9 16

0 8.4 9 0 8.3 8

0 6.2 3 2 8.0 7

1 8.2 8 0 7.7 6

0 5.4 1 0 6.5 3

0 9.0 10 0 7.6 4

1 9.9 12 1 9.2 10

12 14.4 17 15 14.1 17

3 12.1 14 3 12.4 15

7 8.2 7 1 5.1 1

0 5.8 2 0 6.4 2

7 12.9 16 7 14.1 18

0 9.2 11 2 9.2 12

1 6.7 4 1 7.6 5














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THE RELATIONSHIP OF VALUES AND SELF-CONCEPT TO THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS BY GLORIA ANN CRUTCHFIELD A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1982

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Copyright 1982 By Gloria Ann Crutchfield

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TO RECHE AND MOTHER Whose love and support made the completion of this endeavor possible

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Several individuals have aided me in bringing this study to completion. I am deeply grateful to my chairman. Dr. Max Parker, for having faith in me and my ability to complete this project. Thank you for your insight, your professionalism, and your friendship. I am indebted to Dr. Janet Larsen for her vote of confidence, her interest in this project, and her many incisive suggestions in the completion of this work. I am also especially indebted to Dr. John Nickens who provided the statistical expertise and made many suggestions for improving this study. I am grateful to Dr. Jim Pitts, Dr. H. C. Riker, and Dr. E. L. Tolbert who made many suggestions for improving this study. I would like to thank the following family members: Skip, Dexter, David, Emily, Valencia, Brandi, Randy, Larry, Dexter, Carl, Jermaine, George, Henry, Harry, Trish, and grandparents Henry and Alice for their many prayers and words of encouragement. I am also grateful to many students at the University of Florida who worked with me and participated in this study. I relied heavily on Elvia, Mbonya, Reggie, Pat, Juanita, and Cynthia. Others who have contributed their friendship and support include Dr. Betty Stewart, Liz Parker, Suzan West, Mrs. Idella Knowles, and Julius Gilbert. Finally, I would like to thank Vita Zamorano and Brenda Stoney for their care in typing this work. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Need for the Study 2 Statement of the Problem 3 Purpose of the Study 5 Theoretical Framework of the Study 5 The Value Concept 5 The Self-Concept 7 Research Questions 8 Definition of Terms 9 Organization of the Study 10 TWO REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 12 Noncognitive Correlates of Academic Success and Failure 12 Correlates of the Self-Concept 18 Race and Sex 18 Academic Performance 21 The Nature of Values 24 Values and Achievement 26 Values and Race 28 Values and Behavior 31 THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 35 Population and Sample 35 Research Method 36 Statistical Hypotheses 37 Instruments 38 The Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) 38 The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) 40 Analysis of Data 44 Limitations of the Study 45 V

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CHAPTER Page FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 46 Results 46 Hypothesis One 48 Hypothesis Two 50 Hypothesis Three 54 Discussion 57 FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 69 Summary 69 Conclusions 71 Implications 73 Recommendations 76 APPENDICES A INFORMED CONSENT FORM 79 B FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES 81 C FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY 84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 92 vi

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1. Means, Standard. Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum Ranges of Grade Point Average for Black Females 47 2. Means, Standard Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum Ranges of Grade Point Average for Black Males 47 3. The Results of Stepwise Regression Analysis 49 4. Means and Standard Deviations of Black College Students' Scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale 51 5. Means and Standard Deviations for Black Males' Scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale 52 6. Means and Standard Deviations for Black Females' Scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale 53 7. Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically Significant Differences for Black Males' and Females' Instrumental Value Systems 55 8. Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically Significant Differences for Black Males' and Females' Terminal Value Systems 56 9. Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students . . 58 10. Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students .... 58 11. Significant Positively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students . . 59 12. Significant Positively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students .... 59 vii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE RELATIONSHIP OF VALUES AND SELF-CONCEPT TO THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLACK COLLEGE STUDENTS By Gloria Ann Crutchfield August 1982 Chairman: Dr. Woodrow M. Parker Major Department: Counselor Education This study was designed to determine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black undergraduate students at the University of Florida. Specifically, the investigation was conducted (a) to determine whether the students' values accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (b) to determine whether the students' self-concepts accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (c) to determine whether males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems were ranked significantly different, and (d) to determine whether the students' values and self-concepts were related. The two instruments used in this study were the Tennessee Self Concept Scale which assesses the individuals' self-concepts, and the Rokeach Value Survey which measures 18 instrumental values (preferable modes of conduct) and 18 terminal values (preferable end-states of existence). The instruments were administered during the final six weeks of the 1982 Spring semester to 100 black undergraduate students (49 males and 51 females). The students were randomly selected from the total population of black sophomores, juniors and seniors. The data were viii

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analyzed using stepwise multiple regression, correlations, and a oneway nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores. Hypothesis One showed that self -concept accounted for 2 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average. Hypothesis Two revealed that values accounted for 23 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average. Sub-hypothesis 2a showed significant differences in the instrumental value systems of males and females. Sub-hypothesis 2b showed significant differences in the terminal value systems of males and females. Hypothesis Three revealed significant relationships between values and self-concepts. All hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of .05. The findings of this study indicated that particular value rankings accounted for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students, while self-concept did not account for significant variance. Significant differences in the instrumental and terminal value systems were explained by the varying sex roles of males and females. There existed significant relationships between this sample of black college students' values and self -concepts. ix

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Increasingly, minority students, and blacks in particular, have gained admission to predominantly white universities and colleges (Brown and Stent, 1977). Many have entered these institutions of higher education under the tutelage of special or equal opportunity programs. Access to institutions of higher education is critically important to the educational opportunity for Black Americans. Once admitted, the question of what happens to these students is of equal or greater importance. Traditionally, institutions of higher education have relied on high school grades, standardized aptitude and achievement tests for admitting students and predicting their "success" in college. Research on the admission of blacks into white institutions has yielded inconclusive results (Sampel and Seymour, 1971). In various prediction studies comparing white students with ethnic minority students, some researchers concluded that conventional, broad based tests have little, if any, validity when applied to minority students (Cleary, 1968; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1971; Slack and Porter, 1980). While some researchers have shown conventional criteria are poor predictors of college grades for many blacks, others have found these measures to be valid (Borgen, 1972; Hills, 1964). Even though there has been an increased enrollment, relatively few black students persist to graduation (Blackwell, 1978). Crucial 1

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2 problems such as institutionalized racism, inadequate financial assistance, negative self -concepts, poor academic performance, conflicts in values and cultures and lack of counseling have been advanced as factors contributing to high attrition rates (Blackwell, 1978; Brown and Stent, 1977; Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980; DiCesare, Sedlacek and Brooks, 1972). Brown and Stent (1977) maintain that the doors have been opened for black students, but it appears that these students suffocate before they find the exits. Need for the Study A growing concern, expressed by administrators and recruitment officers, over the attrition of vast numbers of minority-group students from higher educational institutions resulted in a threeyear long investigation (Middleton, 1982). The purpose of this study was to ascertain what changes should be made in order to better meet the needs of these students. Based upon evidence of the study, the Ford Foundation Commission recommended that colleges and universities revise their testing and grading procedures for minority-group students (Middleton, 1982). Further, the commission encouraged these institutions to adopt a "value-added" system that is designed to admit and evaluate students on the basis of their potential for learning and growth, rather than their standardized test scores and high school grades (Middleton, 1982). By so doing, "educational institutions enlarge their concept of competency measures to include the assessment of growth in the noncognitive realm: personal development, interpersonal skills, and self-esteem" (Middleton, 1982, p. 10).

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3 Dawkins and Dawkins (1980), Gurin and Epps (1975), Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1971) concentrated on establishing the validity of noncognitive correlates (i.e., sex, self-concept, achievement motivation, etc.) as potential predictors of academic success for black students. Such variables are possibly better predictors of academic success among minority college students than cognitive variables (such as standardized test scores and high school grades). Racial perception and experiences, values and goals, and social involvement do exert some influence on their academic performance (Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980). The extent to which this occurs is yet unknown. There exists the need for a preliminary study to examine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students. The implications of such a study may contribute much to the recruitment and retention of black students and to the development and implementation of educational programs which provide value clarification and self-concept enhancement strategies. This knowledge will serve to ensure a more meaningful educational experience for black college students, particularly those encountering academic difficulties and adjustment problems. Statement of the Problem Historically, research studies have relied on cognitive measures as major predictors of the academic performance of black students. These measures have proven insufficient as evidenced by most prediction studies reporting that less than half of the variance is accounted for in grade point average (Katz, 1968; Trachtman, 1975). As a result.

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4 other researchers are convinced that noncognitive factors exert a significantly greater influence on the success or failure of black students than do cognitive factors (Bailey, 1976; Shade, 1978). The challenge of identifying the noncognitive factors which best predict the academic success or failure of black students is pervasive in the literature. Sedlacek and Brooks (1976) report that on conventional standardized tests black students, generally, fall below national norms. However, many of these students are capable of and do successfully meet the curriculum requirements of white institutions. The noncognitive factors which have a substantial impact on these students' academic performance are not clear. Several researchers suggest that there exists a significant relationship between black students' perceptions, social status, values and behaviors, and their academic performance (Bradley, 1967; Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980; Gurin, 1970; Trachtman, 1975). Epps (1969) postulated that (a) social position determines values, and values influence behavior; (b) this behavior acts to determine personality characteristics of students; (c) therefore, the students' academic performance is an interaction between socialization, genetic endowment and social position. Allen (1978) urged that an interaction between historical, social, economic and psychological factors determine attitudes and achievement. Thus, a study to determine whether these students' values and self-perceptions relate to their academic performance may provide insight into their potential for learning and personal growth.

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5 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of values and self -concept to the academic performance of black undergraduate students currently enrolled at the University of Florida. Data from this investigation were used as follows: (a) to determine whether the students' self-concepts accounted for significant variance in their grade point averages, (b) to determine whether the students' values accounted for significance variance in their grade point averages, (c) to determine whether males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems were ranked significantly different, and (d) to determine whether the students' values and selfconcepts were related. The Rokeach Value Survey was used to measure the students' value systems. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale was used to assess the students' self -concepts. Theoretical Framework of the Study Within the following theoretical frames, this study focused upon the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students. The Value Concept Rokeach (1968a, 1973) maintained that values are a determinant of attitude and behavior; values are comprised of motivational, cognitive, behavioral and affective components; and the value concept provides an axiological organization of the individual (i.e., it explains and describes similarities and differences between cultures, nations.

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6 individuals and groups). This comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the nature of values assumes that an individual possesses far fewer values than attitudes and is therefore an excellent tool for evaluation. Rokeach (1973) formulated the concept of human values on the following assumptions: (1) the individual possesses a relatively small total number of values; (2) to varying degrees, all persons everywhere possess the same values; (3) values are organized into value systems; (4) culture, society and personality constitute the antecedents of human values; and (5) the effect of human values will be evidenced in virtually all phenomena which social scientists might consider understanding and investigating. Further, Rokeach believes the value concept should occupy a central position across the social sciences. Rokeach (1968a, 1973) believes values are akin to modes of conduct (instrumental values) and end-states of existence (terminal values). Further, "values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct and end-state of existence" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). A value system is "an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of relative importance" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). All values are organized into hierarchial structures (rank-ordering) and substructures, thus forming a system of values comprised of instrumental and terminal values. Rokeach hypothesizes a function and cognitive nexuses within this system that is manifested in an individual's attitude and behavior toward specific objects and situations.

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7 According to Rokeach (1971), individuals do not differ significantly as to the values they possesss, but in how they rank them in order of importance. In several studies, Rokeach has demonstrated that various combinations of values (i.e., terminal and instrumental) significantly differentiate women from men, blacks from whites, and Democrats from Republicans. More importantly, various combinations of values have been found to signicantly discriminate more successful students from less successful students. These findings imply a need to investigate further the relationship of personal values to academic performance. The Self-Concept Fitts (1965, p. 1) defines self-concept as "the way an individual perceives himself." He further contends that the individual's concept of himself is directly related to his general personality and mental health. For instance, if an individual sees himself as "bad" or worthless, there is the tendency for that individual to act accordingly. Conversely, if an individual sees himself as "good," that individual will act accordingly. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale was developed to meet the need for an instrument that was well standardized, general izable, multidimensional in describing the self -concept, and one which lacked complexity in administration and interpretation (Fitts, 1965). Moreover, this instrument has provided a basis of knowledge for assisting individuals through counseling, research in the behavioral sciences, individual evaluations, and clinical assessment and diagnosis.

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8 In recent years, this construct measure has become significant j and viable in studying and understanding human behavior. One such overwhelming interest in the self -concept stems from research evidencing the direct relationship of an individual's self-perception to his or her academic performance (Bailey, 1976; Green and Farquhar, 1965; Shade, 1978). Similarly, research has suggested that personal perceptions relative to race and sex have been proven effective in discriminating more successful from less successful academic performers (Campbell and Martinez-Perez, 1977; Dawkins and Dawkins, 1980; Leung and Sands, 1981). Implications from the studies conducted by the aforementioned researchers implied a need for further research to identify those personality factors associated with successful and less successful students. Research Questions The study attempted to answer the following research questions: 1. Does the self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, account for significant variance in the academic performance of black college students? 2. Do value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, account for significant variance in the academic performance of black college students? 3. Is there a relationship between the values and self-concepts of black college students, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Rokeach Value Survey? 4. Are males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems ranked significantly different, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey?

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Definition of Terms 1 . Academic Performance Academic performance is defined as the student's current college cumulative grade point average. This criterion is formulated on the basis of the University of Florida's four point (4.00) grading system. The grading system intervals are: 3.00 4.00 good, excellent academic progress 2.00 2,99 average academic progress 0 1.99 warning, probation, suspension For the purposes of this study, only those black students with sophomore, junior, and senior classifications were included as subjects 2. Value A value is "an enduring belief that a specific mode of behavior or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of behavior or end-state of existence. Values are fundamental components within each individual which determine attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, values refer to either end-states (terminal values) or mode-states (instrumental values) of idealized behavior; (a) Instrumental values are idealized modes of behavior, and (b) Terminal values are idealized end-states of existence (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). In short, a value is a quality or standard considered by the individual to be significant or desirable.

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10 3. Value System | A value system is "an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of relative importance" (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). 4. Self-Concept For the purposes of this study, the self -concept was defined as an individual's attitude toward his/her physical self and his/her behavior. This perception of self pervades conscious and unconscious cognitions; abilities and weaknesses; religious, ethnic and racial identity; and sexual roles. This total perception of self may have negative as well as positve connotations (Fitts, 1965; Rokeach, 1973). 5. Minority Student Minority students are those ethnic groups (Black Americans, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans) with similar customs, 4 traditions, language, lifestyles and sometimes physical characteristics that are different from the dominant culture. In addition, these groups' populations are smaller in number than the larger population. Organization of the Study A literary review pertinent to the study is presented in Chapter Two. The topics providing a rationale for the study are noncognitive correlates of academic success and failure, correlates of the selfconcept which consists of (a) race and sex, (b) academic performance, the nature of values which consists of (a) values and achievement, (b) values and race, and (c) values and behavior. Chapter Three

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n addresses the research methodology of this study which includes an \ explanation of the population and sample, research method, statistical hypotheses, instruments, analysis of data, and limitations of the study. Chapter Four reports the results and discussion based upon the analysis of data. A summary of the research, conclusions, implications, and recommendations are presented in Chapter Five.

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CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE The primary focus of this review was on the research germane to values and self -concept. The areas reviewed were noncognitive correlates of academic success and failure, correlates of the selfconcept which consists of (a) race and sex, (b) academic performance, the nature of values which consists of (a) values and achievement, (b) values and race, and (c) values and behavior. The literature identifying the noncognitive correlates of academic performance for black college students was at best inconsistent and inconclusive. Noncognitive Correlates of Academic Success and Failure The results of previous studies and reports are somewhat consistent, that generally, black students tend to fall below national norms on conventional academic aptitude or achievement tests (Bradley, 1967; Cleary, 1968; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1971; Sedlacek and Brooks, 1976). However, the academic performance of blacks is less unequivocally unfavorable (Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1973). Formerly, it was argued that black students are inundated with counter-productive qualities which contribute to their failure in higher education. Such characteristics as negative self -concept, low need for achievement, fear of failure, anxiety and inability to delay gratification 12

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13 have been attributed to these students (Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1 1973). Recent research has been conducted which evidence the positive relationship between self -concept and academic achievement, achievement motivation, feelings of competence, occupational aspirations and psychological adjustment (Bailey, 1976; Cap! in, 1968; Dixon, 1972; Green and Farquhar, 1965; Shade, 1978; Smith, 1968). These researchers are convinced that noncognitive factors exert a significant influence on the success or failure of black students. According to Petry and Craft (1976), the inconclusiveness of previous efforts to determine which cognitive or noncognitive variables best predict academic success emphasizes the need for continued research. Petry and Craft (1976) maintained there are no noncognitive variables that have been identified as the best predictors of academic success in college and, subsequently, decided to assess the capability of certain instruments in predicting the academic performance of "high risk" college students. Among the noncognitive variables investigated were values, temperament, attitudes, interests, academic experiences, childhood activities and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The researchers concluded that of the four instruments selected for use in the study: the Cooperative School and College Ability Test, the Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament, the Study of Values and the Alpha Biographical Inventory, none consistently or effectively predicted the academic performance of "high risk" students. Bradley (1967) investigated the academic performance of successful black undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and universities in Tennessee. Data from the study were analyzed through multiple

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14 regression analysis to determine if there existed relationships between a student's grade point average and cognitive and noncognitive variables. Three factors emerged distinct; the acceptance factor, the confidence and ability factor and the morale factor. These findings corroborated the conclusions reached in the Clark and Plotkin's (1963) investigation. Clark and Plotkin observed that the Scholastic Aptitude Test scores could not be used as a basis for predicting the academic success of blacks in general, as they are used to predict the academic success of whites. Dawkins and Dawkins (1980) explored the use of noncognitive factors as correlates of academic performance for black students admitted to a predominantly white institution. The researchers examined four of the following categories which were associated with these students' grade point averages: (a) purpose for college attendance; (b) academic advisement and social involvement; (c) experiences and perceptions relative to race; and (d) academic performance in high school and social background. The results were suggestive of the need for further research in order to identify those factors associated with successful academic performance. Further, the researchers concluded that racial perceptions and experiences, values and goals, and the social involvement of blacks do exert some influence on their academic performance. The extent of this occurrence is yet unknown. Other studies have shown high levels of achievement need, or motivation, among black students as influential factors in their academic performance (Katz, 1968; Trachtman, 1975). Gurin (197P) conducted her study with the objective of identifying those

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15 characteristics associated with level of aspiration and motivation within a population of black undergraduate students. The second objective was to determine to what extent a sense of competence or level of self-confidence accounts for aspirations. Essentially, the outcome of Gurin's study suggests that if a student places strong value on achievement, that individual is more likely to aspire to a higher and more difficult level of attainment (i.e., occupation, degree, etc.). In another study involving Gurin, Gurin, Lao and Beattie (1969), it was concluded that students' beliefs pertaining to what contributes to their success or failure have no profound influence on their selfconfidence, personal expectancies or aspirations as measured by Rotter's Internal versus External Dimension Scale. Numerous studies have indicated that cognitive-intellective factors account for less than half of the variance in the academic performance of black students (Katz, 1967, 1969; Trachtman, 1975). The intent of Trachtman 's study was to investigate those cognitive and motivational variables which related to the academic performance among these groups. Trachtman's (1975) findings underscore the ineffectiveness and inconsistency of cognitive measures as sole predictors of academic performance. The researcher found that self-esteem was not significantly related to academic performance, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Since less than 25 percent of the variability in college grades is accounted for by the SAT, Miller and O'Connor (1969) postulated that motivational variables are of crucial importance in the achievement

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16 of academic success. In so doing, these researchers, through the Achiever Personality Scale, made an effort to demonstrate the predictive validity of this scale for special groups (i.e., black and white students who were disadvantaged). The researchers closely examined the variables associated with these students' academic success and concluded that traditional indicators (i.e., high school rank and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores) were ineffective in predicting the male subjects' academic performance. The interaction of the Achiever Personality Scale and the SAT score produced a valid indicator for those men scoring low on both instruments. However, the SAT score alone for women was associated with freshmen grades, but not subsequent academic performance. The most significant find of this study was that despite very low SAT scores, many nontraditional students were capable of successfully meeting academic requirements. An investigation of academic motivation as it related to the scholastic achievement of blacks was conducted by Green and Farquhar (1965). The reseachers were also concerned with the relationship of personality and cognitive factors to academic achievement. The findings revealed that self-concept was the best predictor of achievement for black males and females. Earlier conclusions were reached by these researchers suggesting a strong relationship between the student's self-perception and school achievement. These two studies reported the existence of a relationship between noncognitive factors and academic achievement among blacks. Atkinson (1964) maintained the striving for success (theory of achievement motivation) is the positive and negative interactions of fear of failure, hope of success, perceived probability of success

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17 and the incentive value of the goal. Employing the concepts of this theory, Epps (1969) investigated the fear of failure, and the perceived probability of success as these components related to the self-esteem of black college students. The researcher advanced the notion that a favorable self -perception was positively related to achievement behavior, but not necessarily synonymous. Thus, the study entailed the investigation of the subjects' ability, self-esteem, probability of success and achievement values. The results of Epps' study revealed no significant relationship existed between socioeconomic status and grades among these students. However, socioeconomic status was more significantly related to the amount of future education the subjects planned to obtain than any other variable. Socioeconomic status was significantly and positively related to self-concept of ability; however, the correlation coefficients were very small. No significant relationship was found to exist between socioeconomic status and self-esteem. Self-esteem and self-concept of ability were positively correlated with grade point average in the study. Understandably, self-concept of ability was the strongest personality correlate of grades; likewise, the amount of expected future education was second most consistent in relation to grades. Recently, social scientists have observed that much of the dissension associated with the use of standardized aptitude tests has occurred as a result of these tests being used to evaluate blacks and other minorities on the basis of middle-class norms. Since most instruments are normed, based on the dominant culture, it is understandable that blacks frequently exhibit deviant attitudes and behaviors on measures using white norming groups (Cameron, 1978; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1971;

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18 Vontress, 1966). For this and other reasons, researchers have concentrated on establishing the validity of noncognitive correlates (i.e., values, self-concept, achievement motivation, etc.) as potential predictors of academic success for nontraditional students, particularly blacks. Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1974) observed the existence of a relationship between grades for blacks and personality measures, thus concluding that these variables warrant further study. Essentially, investigators have concerned themselves with identifying sufficient valid traits which differentiate those students with academic difficulties from those who are academically successful. If this identification could occur, then necessary and appropriate strategies such as seminars, workshops and courses may be developed to ensure a more meaningful experience for those black students who are unsuccessful. Correlates of the Self-Concept Particular groups of people have been shown to have characteristic self-concepts, but within any single sample wide individual differences often occur (Fitts, 1972; Thompson, 1972). These individual differences are thought to be influenced by variables such as age, sex, race, educational levels and socioeconomic status. For the purposes of this study, only race, sex and academic performance factors will be included in the discussion. Race and Sex Most researchers, using the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) to explore the question of race and sex as these factors relate to

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19 self-concept, have invariably compared blacks and whites on the basis of dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds and educational levels. 1 Little wonder the results of most of these studies are confounded with no evidence to substantiate hard conclusions. With particular reference to college samples, Bartee (1967) compared the self -concepts of one hundred black disadvantaged college students to one hundred white disadvantaged college students. Students were classified as disadvantaged on the basis of parents' educational background and family income. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale scores of these groups were highly similar, with no substantial differences in P Scores. However, blacks tended to have significantly lower SelfCriticism Scores and higher Conflict and Variability Scores than did white subjects. Other TSCS studies involving black and white students as subjects have reported similar findings to those of Bartee's study (Hands, 1967; Johnson, 1970; Runyon, 1958). A paucity of TSCS studies were found involving all black samples of college students. Fitts and Bell (1969) reported a sample of 36 sophomore and junior students enrolled at the Meharry School of Nursing were above average in P Score (Positive Scores) and below average on Self-Criticism Scores, thus suggesting a tendency toward defensiveness. Samuel and Laird (1974) compared the self-concepts of a group of black college women enrolled at a predominantly black institution to those of a group of black women attending a predominantly white institution. The researchers assumed that the different academic environments would not have an effect on the subjects' self -concepts as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The investigators compared scores

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20 from the Physical Self, Moral-Ethical Self, Social Self, Personal Self, Family Self, Self-Criticism and Total Positive Scores of the two groups. Results of the study revealed no significant differences in self-concept between the two groups of black women on the seven dimensions of the TSCS. However, there was observed a significant difference between the normative group and both groups on three dimensions of this scale. The researchers advanced the possibility that black women in institutions of higher education may perceive themselves in a more positive vein than was originally thought. A composite profile of the black self -perception, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale was compiled by Thompson (1972). The following characteristic features were identified: Self-Esteem : Although the level of P Scores varies considerably, most samples studied, particularly junior high and high school students, had low P Scores, indicating a below-average level of selfesteem; a characteristic pattern of Column P Scores was an elevated Physical Self and Personal Self Score and a lowered Moral -Ethical Self Score. Defensiveness : Data indicate that Negroes show greater than average defensiveness, reflected by a low SelfCriticism and a high DP (Defensive Positive) Score. Conflict : Conflict Scores are usually high, indicating contradiction, confusion, and general conflict in self-perception. Variability : The Variability Scores, which measure the amount of variability or inconsistency from one area of self -perception to another, are generally high for Negro samples. Response Set : Negro samples usually score high on T/F Ratio, indicating an acquiescent response set, i.e., a tendency to neither reject nor deny items, (p. 38) Thompson (1972) found that black and Israeli samples, alike, obtained consistently low scores in Self-Criticism on the TSCS.

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21 .t Generally, these low scores are suggestive of a high level of defensiveness. However, Thompson admitted that the scale items on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale could possibly have significantly different semantic meanings for these cultural subgroups than the TSCS norming group. Another explanation of the low scores is possibly the value systems of these subgroups elicit a totally different response than the norming groups, thus reflecting variations in semantics or values rather than personality differences. Academic Performance Questions of methodology relative to the selection of representative samples of blacks capable of college work have been raised by Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1971). Problems have arisen when dissimilar samples are investigated with various research methods. This lack of consistency in research methods accompanied by a lack of consistency in definitions of the theoretical concepts under investigation contribute to the lack of consistency in the literature (Ashbaugh, Levin and Zaccaria, 1973; Klingelhofer and Hollander, 1973; Petry and Craft, 1976; Sedlacek and Brooks, 1976). Thus the literature provides minimal insight into the noncognitive correlates of academic success for black students. The self-concept of blacks has been the object of considerable research. The overwhelming interest in this area stems from the belief that one's self-perception has a direct relationship to one's academic performance, and there is evidence to substantiate this notion. A search for noncognitive or nonacademic variables as correlates of black students' academic grades was conducted by Pfeifer and

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22 Sedlacek (1974) and several were evidenced to be significant. For example, achievement through conformance and independence, responsibility, intellectual efficiency and socialization were related to academic success. Additionally, the most successful black students had positive self-concepts and significantly higher aspirations than did less academically successful black students (Allen, 1978; DiCesare, Sedlacek and Brooks, 1972; Epps, 1969). Sedlacek and Brooks (1976) maintain that a strong self-concept is a necessity for all minorities, particularly blacks, at each level of education. Shade (1978) contends that black students who perform well in academic achievement areas tend to possess similar personal characteristics. These students exhibit a more positive self -concept and greater self-confidence than nonachievers (Epps, 1969). However, 1^ many black students lack the self-confidence in their intellectual ability to succeed academically (Reed, 1978). Academically unsuccessful students perceive education as the key to social and economic mobility; yet, their capacity to achieve has been inhibited. Gurin and Epps (1966) studied black Southern college students from varying socioeconomic backgrounds to assess their levels of selfconfidence, as measured by the Mandler-Sarason Test Anxiety Scale. The results yielded no significant difference in levels of selfconfidence or personality disposition across groups. Similarly, the socioeconomic variable was not a significant factor in this study or the one conducted by Sherman (1971). There is no overwhelming evidence to suggest that ethnic groups or socioeconomic levels can be differentiated through measures of the self-concept. Yet, the selfconcept is evidenced to be a valid and consistent predictor of academic

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23 performance. Also, self-concept measures have been proven effective in differentiating achievers from nonachievers CKl ingelhofer and Hollander, 1973). Several researchers believe high self-esteemed individuals perceive themselves to be worthy and competent in dealing with their environments (Fitch, 1970; Fitts, 1965; Smith, 1968). Conversely, low self-esteemed individuals tend to devalue themselves and not function as competently. Fitch (1970) investigated the individual's interpretation of event outcomes (success or failure) to determine if these interpretations were consistent with the individual's self-esteem or if they enhanced self-esteem. Measuring self-esteem with the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, the conclusions suggested that individuals with high self-esteem tend to internalize success but not failure outcomes, while individuals with low self-esteem tend to internalize both success and failure. Bailey (1976) explored the differences in self-concept of high and low achieving black college students. His results strongly supported the conclusions of previous studies indicating there are significant differences in self-concept between groups. Moreover, the researcher advanced the notion that the self-concept affects all areas of personality, thus it can either enhance or inhibit the individual's capacity to achieve. Other studies establishing a positive relationship between selfconcept and academic performance have been conducted among elementary children (Wattenburg and Clifford, 1964), junior high students (Williams and Cole, 1968), adolescents, and college students. This research has likewise established positive relationships

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24 in the self-concept and academic performance in black and white student samples. However, more research should be conducted on the relationship of self-concept to academic achievement among college students (Leung and Sand, 1981). The Nature of Values In value formation, the developmental process occurs as the individual interacts intellectually and emotionally with his culture (Konopka, 1973). This ongoing process of value development is influenced by family and peers and incorporated into daily behavior and decision-making by the individual. Values are initially taught and learned in an absolute manner. For example, one is taught to be completely honest, as opposed to being partially honest (Rokeach, 1973). The absolute learning and isolation of values ensures their stability and endurance (Rokeach, 1973). However, instances do occur which dictate an integration of these absolute values into a prioritized or hierarchically organized system of values, as they relate in significance to rival values that have been activated by the situation (Rokeach, 1973). Values are comprised of three distinct components; cognitive, affective, and behavioral. The cognitive aspects of a value refer to the process by which the individual strives for a desirable end-state of existence (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961). The affective component usually depicts one's emotional involvement with the value. Whereas, the behavioral constituent dictates the individual's functioning or performance when activated by the value (All port, Vernon, and Lindzey, 1960; Rokeach, 1968b, 1973).

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25 Rokeach (1968a, 1973) postulated there are two kinds of values -instrumental (desirable modes of conduct) and terminal (desirable endstates of existence). Terminal values generally involve personal (i.e., self-oriented) and social (i.e., society oriented) values, while instrumental values include those values relating to the morality and competence of the individual. As maintained by Williams (1968), an individual's values serve as standards or criteria by which evaluations are made. Similarly, Williams postulated that an individual's values as criteria are relatively small, thus the stint of identifying and measuring them is made easier. Both Rokeach (1973) and Williams hypothesized that, if all individuals everywhere possess values and the total number of these values is relatively small, then the capacity to conduct cross-cultural investigations of values is enhanced and made less tedious. Cultural similarities have been cited as factors which will reduce the number of variations in shaping the individual's value system. Moreover, similarities in sex, class, race, age, religion and political affiliation will further contribute to a reduction in the number of variations in value systems (Rokeach, 1968, 1973; Rokeach and Parker, 1970; Williams, 1968). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) suggested that similarities in personal experiences by individuals within a culture will likewise shape value systems in similar ways. Thus, irrespective of background, culture or race, all individuals are influenced by values and the total number of these values is relatively small.

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26 Values and Achievement Rokeach and Berman (1973) conducted a study to identify the value correlates of achievement, power and affiliation within a sample of college students. The racial composition of the sample was not disclosed. The results indicated a significant relationship between needs and values as these variables related to achievement. The instrumental values most positively correlated with need for achievement were "independent" and "intellectual," while the most negatively correlated instrumental value was "honest" and "obedient." Several other values thought to be positively related to a high need for achievement (i.e., a "sense of accomplishment," "ambitious" and "capable") were not significantly related. Further implications of this research suggest that an individual's value measures are indicative of needs. Rokeach and Berman contend that specific values are excellent predictors of academic performance. As previously observed by several researchers, black high achieving students consistently possessed high self-concepts, high aspirations, strong achievement values and a sense of control over their environment (Epps, 1969; Gordon, 1972; Shade, 1978). Likewise, investigations conducted by Hill (1972) and Gurin and Epps (1975) have indicated selfconcepts, achievement values, and aspirations to be comparable for blacks and whites. Allen (1978) took issue with the assumption that black children have negative self-concepts, low achievement aspirations and values. He investigated the relationships between family setting, race and adolescent achievement orientation (i.e., adolescent aspirations, selfconcepts, achievement values and environmental control). The researcher

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27 examined racial differences in adolescent achievement orientation and racial differences in family settings and its antecedent effect on achievement orientation. The findings illustrated that black-white achievement orientations were comparable, in spite of variances in family socioeconomic status, childrearing practices, and family interpersonal relationships. Allen pointed out that an interaction among historical, social, economic and psychological factors determined an individual's attitudes and achievements, as opposed to the family itself. As observed by Rovezzi -Carroll and Thompson (1980), grade point average and college graduation may result from the interaction of antecedents and intervening variables. Such antecedent variables as self-concept (Green and Farquhar, 1965) and values (Rokeach, 1973) may serve as better predictors of college success among minority groups than intellectual variables. Epps (1969) surveyed Northern and Southern black high school students in an effort to identify those personality traits which were predictive of academic achievement. The investigator made the following assumptions: (a) social position determines values, and values influence behavior; (b) this behavior acts to determine personality characteristics of students; (c) thus, the student's achievement behavior (performance) is a reflection of an interaction between socialization experiences, genetic endowment and social position. Munson (1980) utilized the construct of personal values and the Rokeach Value Survey to differentiate successful from less successful college students. The results of his study suggested that the Rokeach Value Survey does significantly discriminate more successful from less

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28 successful students. Therefore, implications for future research imply a need to investigate the relationship of personal values to academic achievement, motivation and aspirations. Values and Race In research conducted by Rokeach (1968a, 1973) , it was noted that specific value rankings did not distinguish blacks from whites, contrary to popular belief. Blacks and whites did not differ significantly on religious values, on "an exciting life" and "pleasure," or on "selfcontrol." Blacks tended to rank "equality," "a comfortable life," "social recognition," and being "ambitious," "clean," and "obedient" significantly higher than did whites. Conversely, blacks ranked the following values significantly lower: "a sense of accomplishment," "family security," "mature love," "national security," and being "logical," "responsible" and "loving." Rokeach stated, "these findings suggest a portrait of the average Black American as a person who, more than the average White American, yearns for a higher standard of living and a more equal status in society and at the same time places a higher value on conformity" (1973, p. 69). Interestingly, it was found that blacks ranked themselves higher on the value "ambitious" than did whites. The question of educational and socioeconomic differences arose pertaining to the findings of the previous study. Rokeach, therefore, decided to make further inquiry holding education and socioeconomic variables constant. The researcher matched 198 blacks and whites on education and income and found only seven values ranked significantly different, wherein thirteen were ranked significantly different in the first investigation. It was believed, by Rokeach, that most of the differences were due to socioeconomic rather than racial differences.

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29 Overwhelmingly, the results of the controlled study suggested that blacks and whites continue to differ on the value "equality." The value "equality" ranked second by blacks, was ranked twelfth by whites in importance. The value differences that still remained were a greater value on "a comfortable life" and on being "clean" and "obedient" by blacks with less value on "a world of beauty," "family security," and being "loving." When examined thoroughly, there are far fewer differences in values between blacks and whites which can be attributed to race, than there are in socioeconomic and educational differences (Rainwater, 1968; Rokeach, 1973). Many individuals in today's society are of the opinion that blacks and whites differ markedly in life styles, attitudes, behavior and values. Sikula and Sikula (1975) addressed the question of basic value differences between black and white university students. Additionally, the researchers made an effort to examine and differentiate those differences. Employing the Rokeach Value Survey, black and white college students with similar socioeconomic and educational backgrounds were asked to rank order 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values. The findings illustrated that among instrumental values, black and white students differed markedly in their rankings of the values "clean," "honest," "independent," "polite," and "self-controlled." Conversely, among terminal values, black and white respondents differed significantly only on the value "salvation." In analyzing the data, the researchers suggested that race may be a significant causal factor in the determination of basic values, thereby affecting attitudes and behavior. Moreover, respondents were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, and marital status; however, these variables were not apparent.

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30 Atolagbe (1980) simultaneously compared the values of blacks and whites in upper, middle and lower classes in an effort to ascertain if value differences do, in fact, exist among these classes. The findings of the Atolagbe study indicated no significant differences existed between social class, sex and race on aesthetic values, political values, economic values and theoretical values. Although, significant differences emerged between races on social and religious values, blacks tended to score significantly lower on social values, while whites scored significantly lower on religious values. Implications of this study advanced the notions that lower, middle and upper classes have similar values; disparities within the races and classes are greater than those between the races and classes; differences are prevalent in values between the races (social and religious). However, the similarities between the races are greater than the apparent differences. In sum, Atolagbe concluded, "people are much more alike than different" (1980, p. 452). A study conducted by Sherman (1971) examined race and social status as factors associated with differences in the interpersonal value development of junior college students. The findings indicated there were no racial differences on the interpersonal value instrument. However, significant differences with respect to socioeconomic levels were found to exist, thus implying a greater need for expanded research on the relationship of socioeconomic level to individual values. The articles reviewed suggested that value differences between the races are more a function of socioeconomics than race.

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31 Values and Behavior All people, regardless of culture, are characterized by some set of values. These values serve as governing standards for personal conduct, interaction with others, and one's perception and evaluation of self and others (Rokeach, 1973). According to Rokeach and Reagan (1980), values direct our occupations, interests, opinions, political and religious perspectives, and all such behaviors referable to adjustment, self-actualization and ego-defense. Essentially, "values serve to maintain one's self-esteem insofar as necessary, and to enhance it, insofar as possible" (1980, p. 577). The individual's value priority system is the result of individual needs and societal demands developed through the socialization process. Recent research findings suggest that values are significantly related to all kinds of human behavior. Rokeach (1968a, 1973) found specific values (i.e., "equality," "a world at peace," "a world of beauty," and being "honest" and "self-control led") to be most implicated by those individuals involved in and concerned with the civil rights of ethnic and racial groups. A value analysis indicated that these persons are more prone to participate in and join civil rights organizations. Values associated with church attendance and social compassion among adults and college students have been identified by Rokeach (1969) and Forbes, TeVault and Gromoll (1971). A composite ranking of the value "salvation" in the position of third most important distinguished churchgoers from nonchurchgoers. Other distinguishing features were a greater value placed on being "helpful" and "obedient" by churchgoers. Similarly other researchers have investigated the relationship of values to political behavior, antiwar behavior, honest and dishonest

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32 behavior, conflict between roommates, behavior in the counseling situation, academic pursuits, life styles, and academic values and occupational roles (Homant and Rokeach, 1970; Rokeach, 1968b, 1973; Shotland and Berger, 1970). An investigation was conducted by Bertinetti (1972) to identify differences and similarities that were prevalent between three groups of students attending three dissimilar high schools. Through the use of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, the Hall's Occupational Orientation Inventory and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values, assessments were made. The researcher observed the presence of more similarities in self-concept, values and occupational orientations between groups than differences. A study was conducted by Shotland and Berger (1970), using the Rokeach Value Survey, to investigate both the values of "honest" and "salvation" of a group of female employees identified as members of a devout religious denomination. A median test was performed to indicate the existence of value differences between those subjects who returned the pencils used to complete the questionnaire and those who did not. Those subjects returning the pencils with the questionnaire considered the values "honest" and "salvation" to be of more significance than those not returning the pencils. Toler (1975) investigated the personal values of male addicts and alcoholics through the Rokeach Value Survey. The findings suggest that the two groups were very similar in personal values. In view of this similarity, Toler then combined and compared the values of the groups to those of the male sample of the general population. The results of this comparison revealed substantial variance between the two groups

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33 and the sample of males from the population, thus suggesting a general theory of addition. Mitchell (1976) investigated Rokeach's conception of the valueattitude system to determine its properties, internal consistency and predictive capacities. The researchers developed the Life Values Inventory to measure those terminal values posited by Rokeach. Moreover, the Personal Values Inventory was employed to measure Rokeach's hypothesized instrumental values, while the Inventory of Personal Opinion was developed to measure attitudes. The authors' findings supported Rokeach's contention that the value-attitude system is plausible, internally consistent, and predictive. Further, these results suggested the importance of cultural influences as determining factors in an individual's value hierarchy. The purpose of the study conducted by Ohle and Vinitsky (1976) was to assess the extent to which values-clarification strategies increased awareness of personal values. Data were obtained through the undergraduates completion of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Occupational Value Survey. In so doing, the researchers observed the overall level of self-esteem and the personal values of each subject. A values-clarification workshop was conducted as part of the experiment. The results supported the assumption that participants in a values-clarification workshop become more aware of personal values than nonpartici pants. Kitwood and Smithers (1975) concurred that a systematic knowledge of personal values was imperative to the understanding of human behavior. However, past efforts to assess values (Allport, Vernon and Lindzey, 1960; Gordon, 1960, 1964; Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961),

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34 have all involved different theoretical concepts of personal values. Rokeach. more than others has attempted to centralize a concept of values that is obviously more accurate than these previous attempts. Yet, these experts tend to agree that a relationship exists between an individual's values and goals. These values, likewise, are expressed by the individual's beliefs, attitudes and externalized behaviors. There is sufficient data in the literature to suggest that successful and unsuccessful students rank values as two unique groups. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students.

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of values and self -concept to the academic performance of a random sample of black undergraduate college students currently enrolled at the University of Florida. The students' values and self-concepts were assessed through the use of two standardized instruments; the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale during the 1982 Spring Semester. The population and sample, research method, statistical hypotheses, instruments, analysis of data and limitations of the study are outlined in this chapter. Population and Sample The general population from which the sample for the study was drawn consisted of 1,200 black undergraduate students (804 females and 396 males) who were admitted to the University of Florida between Summer, 1976, through Winter, 1981. Approximately 70 percent of the students are from low income family backgrounds, while students with middle and upper income family backgrounds comprise 30 percent of the general population. Seventy-five percent of these students emanate from intra-Florida urban areas, whereas 25 percent are from rural areas. Ninety percent of these students entered the University of Florida through one of several special admission programs. 35

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36 Only black sophomores, juniors, and seniors were selected for this study. The decision to use these groups, rather than freshmen, was based on the research suggesting that sophomores, juniors, and seniors tend to view themselves more realistically, encounter fewer adjustment problems, and earn higher grade point averages (Miller and O'Connor, 1969). The sample of the study consisted of 100 randomly selected black students (49 males and 51 females). These subjects were between the ages of 18 and 24. There were 41 sophomores, 33 juniors, and 26 seniors. Research Method The following procedures for data collection were adhered to: 1. Permission to conduct the study with University of Florida students as subjects was obtained from the University of Florida Human Subjects Committee. 2. A black students' status list was obtained from the Registrar's Office, and only sophomores, juniors, and seniors were identified. For the purpose of selecting a random sample for this study, every third student who had been identified was contacted and asked to participate in the study. A total of 120 students were identified to ensure a sample of 100 participants. 3. After the students were contacted and had agreed to participate in the study, the research procedure was then implemented. Individually, each subject completed the research procedure in the privacy of his/her resident dorm or in a special services office space on campus which was provided for the subject's convenience.

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37 4. Each subject was presented with an Informed Consent Form (Appendix A) for his/her signature indicating agreement to participate in the study and to release his/her grade point average. Then, each person was asked to complete the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Counseling Form, and the Rokeach Value Survey, Form D, anonymously. At the completion of these activities, the answer sheet, survey booklet and researcher's copy of the Informed Consent Form were collected and the subject thanked for his/her participation in the study. Statistical Hypotheses The following statistical hypotheses were constructed to test the research questions to determine whether values and self-concept related to the grade point averages of black college students and to determine whether males' and females' value systems were ranked significantly different. HqI : The self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, will not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. Ho2: The value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, will not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. (a) There are no significant differences in the instrumental value systems of black males and females. (b) There are no significant differences in the terminal value systems of black males and females.

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38 Hq3: The values and self-concepts of black college students will not relate. Instruments The Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) The Rokeach Value Survey (1967, 1973) was one of two instruments used in the assessment of subjects who participated in this study. This instrument consists of 36 concepts which are designed to measure two distinct categories of values: (1) 18 instrumental values, defined as preferable modes of conduct, and (2) 18 terminal values, defined as preferable end-states of existence (Rokeach 1968a, 1973). The two lists of 18 alphabetically arranged terminal and instrumental values are to be rank ordered by the respondent. This rank ordering method is employed based on the assumption that the relativity of ordering is of significance as opposed to the value itself. The Value Survey was developed and researched by obtaining input and conducting studies with college students and representative samples of adults. Ultimately, the resulting lists of values were derived through the following criteria: by retaining those judged to represent the most significant American values; by retaining those which discriminated across sex, race, class, religion, age and political affiliation; by retaining those perceived as relevant to all cultures; and by retaining those that most individuals would not deny (Rokeach, 1973). Usually, respondents are requested to rank order each category of values in order of their importance, wherein the most preferred is to be ranked "1" and the least preferred ranked "18." Each "value" is presented to the respondent as a word or brief phrase. Form D of the

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39 RVS, which was utilitzed in this study, is a novelty in that items are printed on removable gummed labels allowing respondents to adjust them until they have created what they believe are their value systems. By far, this form of the instrument had obtained the highest reliabilities and completion rate of previous versions (Rokeach, 1973). Essentially, the task involves no writing; the time to complete it is 10 to 20 minutes; and this technique has been rated superior to other procedures. Median test-retest reliabilities associated with terminal values range from .78 to .80, while reliabilities associated with instrumental values range from .70 to .72 for college students over a three to seven week period (Rokeach, 1973). For longer periods of time, the median reliability for terminal values is .76 after an interval of 2 to 4 months and .69 after a 14 to 16 month period. For instrumental values, the median reliabilities range from .61 to .65 (Rokeach, 1973). These results are suggestive of the stability of value systems among college students. The validity of this instrument continues to be investigated by many researchers (Kitwood and Smithers, 1975; Mahoney and Katz, 1976; Munson, 1980). The Rokeach Value Survey is an instrument that is ordinal and ipsative in nature (Kitwood and Smithers, 1975; Rokeach, 1968a, 1973), thereby generating nonindependent data within subjects through a rank ordering procedure. According to Rokeach (1973), the instrument will yield normative ipsative data which violates the assumption of independence across individuals when statistically tested. However, the developer argues, the extent to which the assumption of independence

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40 is violated is relatively small and this amount of ipsativity can be tolerated, but should be considered when interpreting the statistical results. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) This personality construct was developed by Fitts (1965) as a means of studying and understanding human behavior. Research suggests an individual's perception of himself is highly influential in his behavior and is related to his general personality. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) consists of one hundred self-descriptive statements in which the respondent portrays a personal picture of himself (Fitts, 1965). The TSCS can be administered individually or with groups and is self-explanatory. The Counseling Form, which was utilized in this study, can be completed in 10 to 20 minutes. The reliability coefficients for the Tennessee Self Concept Scale are based upon test-retest with college students over a two week period. Generally, reliability coefficients range from .60 to .92 with median reliabilities ranging from .80 to .90 (Fitts, 1965). Validity of the instrument has been established in the following ways: (1) content, (2) discrimination between groups, (3) correlation with other personality measures, and (4) personality changes under particular conditions. The instrument was normalized on a sample of individuals from various backgrounds, ages (12 to 68), equal numbers of both sexes, black and white subjects with all levels of intellectual and educational attainment.

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41 The Tennessee Self Concept Scale has been found to correlate significantly with other personality measures (Hall, 1964; McGree, 1960; Sundby, 1962; Thompson, 1972). Data obtained on the TSCS has been statistically treated by analysis of variance designs. This technique usually determines specific factors influencing the F-ratios (Bertinetti, 1972; Dixon, 1972; Fitts, 1965). The Tennessee Self Concept Scale produces the following scores and definitions of self-concept (Fitts, 1965, p. 2-3). A. The Self-Criticism Score (SC) . Ten mildly derogatory statements constitute this scale. Fitts maintains that individuals who deny most of these statements are cfefaisive and making a conscious effort to portray a favorable picture of themselves. High scores generally identify those individuals who are normal, open and have a capacity for self-criticism. Extremely high scores (above the 99th percentile) are associated with a lack of personal defenses, wherein low scores suggest defensiveness and artificial elevation in Positive Scores. B. The Positive Score (P) . These scores convey three basic principles: Row 1 Identify (this is what I am); Row 2 Self Satisfaction (this is how I feel about myself); Row 3 Behavior (this is what I do). These three Row Scores (subscores), also known as the Total Positive or Total P Score, depict an individual's description of self within their internal frame of reference.

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42 Also represented within the horizontal row categories are five vertical column category scores. These five scores reflect the individual's external frame of reference and are the Physical Self (Column A), Moral-Ethical Self (Column B), Personal Self (Column C), Family Self (Column D), and Social Self (Column E). Interestingly, there exists a two-way division of statements (items) on the score sheet. The vertical column scores represent the individual's external frame of reference, while the horizontal row scores represent the internal frame of reference, hence each item and each cell simultaneously contributes to two distinct scores. 1. Total P Score . As maintained by Fitts, this is the most significant single score because it reflects the overall level of one's self-esteem. High scoring individuals are self-confident, feel they are of value and worth, like themselves, and their behavior is consistent with these beliefs. Conversely, low scoring individuals tend to doubt their worth and abilities, and frequently experience feelings of anxiety, depression and unhappiness. Fitts postulates that low Self Criticism (SC) Scores accompanied by high P Scores are probably the result of defensive distortion in the individual. 2. Row 1 P Score Identity . This score produces a numerical description of the individual's basic identity (i.e., one's perception) . 3. Row 2 P Score Self Satisfaction . The individual's selfacceptance or self satisfaction with self is reflected by this score.

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43 4. Row 3 P Score Behavior . The individual's perception of his behavior is revealed through this score. 5. Column A Physical Self . The score is a measure of the person's appearance, health, sexuality and skills. 6. Column B Moral -Ethical Self . Here the person is describing religious satisfaction, relationship to God, being a "good" versus "bad" individual, or moral worth. 7. Column C Personal Self . Through this score the individual is offering an evaluation of his/her feelings and adequacy, personality and personal worth. 8. Column D Family Self . The individual, through this score, is describing self as perceived in relation to close friends and family in an intimate setting. 9. Column E Social Self . This score reflects the person's sense of well-being in relating to others in general on a less intimate basis. The Variability Score (V) . The score revals the degree of inconsistency in one's self perception. Again, high scores are indicative of substantial inconsistency, whereas low scores suggest less variability. 1. Total V . This score measures the sum variability for the rows and columns. Little personal unity or integration are usually characteristics of those high scoring individuals. Whereas, the tendency for well integrated individuals is to score below the mean, but above the first percentile. 2. Column Total V . This score reflects within column variability.

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44 3. Row Total V . The total variability across the rows is measured by this score. D. The Distribution Score . This score reveals the distribution of the respondent's answers across the five available choices. High scores are associated with those respondents who have a certaintude of their opinion of themselves; however, low scoring individuals are considered the opposite. Those persons who employ a preponderance of "3" responses are also thought to exhibit a lack of commitment. Analysis of Data The stepwise multiple regression procedure was used to relate the 36 concepts on the Rokeach Value Survey and 10 dimensions of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale to grade point averages. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed between values and self-concept scores. To identify the similarities and differences between males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems, a one-way nonparametric analysis of variance was used. This procedure performed a one-way analysis of variance on rank scores with similar results as the t-test and median test. The rank scores for males' and females' instrumental and terminal values are found in Appendix B and Appendix C, respectively. Each hypothesis was tested at the .05 level of significance.

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45 Limitations of the Study This study was limited by the paucity of research and knowledge base in the literature with reference to the value characteristics of black college students. The results of the studies did not permit synthesis due to the diversity of instrumentation used and variation in groups of students across race (i.e., black/white comparisons), socioeconomic status and regional subcultures. This study was further limited to the rank ordering of terminal and instrumental values as indicated on the Rokeach Value Survey and caution is advised when interpreting the results because there may exist alternative reasons for ranking a value high or low. This instrument produces ipsative data, and has incorporated into its design this limitation which may obscure the results. There exist no recently developed measures with which to compare this instrument and its construct validity is still under investigation. Finally, the population and sample may be considered a limiting factor in that only black undergraduate college students were investigated. Therefore broad generalizations cannot be drawn.

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CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results The purpose of this investigation was to detennine the relationship of values and self-concept to the academic performance of black college students currently enrolled at the University of Florida. Of the 100 undergraduate students who participated in the study, 49 were males and 51 were females. The Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale were administered to these students during the 1982 Spring semester. The results of the data analyses are presented as outlined in Chapter Three. Mean scores and composite ranks were used in presenting the results relative to the value hierarchies of black college students. It should be noted that the mean scores and the compostie rank of values did not always coincide, and the composite rank did not enter into the statistical analysis of the data. Specifically, the composite rank indicates the relative position and importance of a value in the total hierarchy of values. Thus, in comparing the instrumental and terminal value systems of black males and females, it is the total hierarchy of values (value system) which is considered. Fifty-one females participated in the study. Of that total, 17 were sophomores, 16 were juniors, and 18 were seniors. Table 1 shows the descriptive data for the females who participated in the study. 46 I

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47 Table 1 Means, Standard Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum Ranges of Grade Point Average for Black Females Classification Mean GPA SD Minimum Maximum Sophomores (n=17) 2.45 .52 1.27 3.39 Juniors (n=16) 2.21 .67 0.00 3.18 Seniors (n=18) 2.37 .28 1.84 3.78 N=51 Table 2 Means, Standard Deviations, with Minimum and Maximum Ranges of Grade Point Average for Black Males Classification Mean GPA SD Minimum Maximum Sophomores {n=24) 2.31 .49 0.92 3.54 Juniors (n=17) 2.06 1.43 0.00 3.29 Seniors (n=8) 2.37 .28 2.11 3.00 N=49

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48 Means, standard deviations, and the minimum and maximun ranges of grade point average (GPA) by classification are listed in the table. Of the 49 males who participated in the study, 24 were sophomores, 17 were juniors, and 8 were seniors. Table 2 shows the descriptive data for the 49 males who participated in the study including their mean scores, standard deviations, and the minimum and maximun ranges of grade point average (GPA) by classification. Hypothesis One Hypothesis One stated that the self -concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, would not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. This hypothesis was tested by means of stepwise multiple regression analysis. The variables on the TSCS included in the model were Self -Criticism , Total Positive . Identity , Self Satisfaction . Behavior , Physical Self , Moral-Ethical Self , Personal Self . Family Self , and Social Self . The results of the analysis shown in Table 3 indicate that of the 10 dimensions used as independent variables. Identity had an F^-value of 2.73 and was not statistically significant (p>.05). This dimension accounted for 2 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average and was the only dimension of the TSCS included in the table. These results mean that the null hypothesis was not rejected at the .05 level of significance. A comparison of the subjects' scores on the 10 dimensions of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale with normative data. Table 4, revealed that no statistically significant differentiation existed between means. Tables 5 and 6 show the students' means and standard deviations according to sex.

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49 M M >» C o •r" V) lA o> CO »0) c o CM OH CM a: •I— > 00 o o o o o CM o o o o o O O in 00 o CO CO CO f— — CM o o o CM 00 ir> CO CM IT) O CO O o o o •ao CM o CM O IT) O CO CO r>. o — I— .— in CM CM CM CM CO CM CM «3 I— CO ^ U5 o CM in in cx _l ch CD t/t o > +-) to sUJ O) C3. r— (U C 0) (0 X Z3
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50 Hypothesis Two Hypothesis Two stated that value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, would not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. This hypothesis was tested by means of stepwise multiple regression. Inspection of Table 3 indicates that of the 36 value concepts used as independent variables, the values courageous (F=7.90, p<.05), an exciting life {F=12.16, p<.05), clean (F=11.65, P5r.05), imaginative (F=8.28, p<.05), and helpful (F=7.00, p<-.05), were statistically significant. Collectively, these variables accounted for 21 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average in the regression model. These results mean that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance. As an added dimension to this study, the variable Sexl was included as an independent variable to determine if sex would emerge as a significant factor. Inspection of Table 3 indicates that Sexl (males) had an £-value of 5.03 and was statistically significant (p««.05). This result indicates that 4 percent of the variance in grade point average was attributed to males. Therefore, six values, one self-concept dimension and sex accounted for 29 percent of the explained variance in the grade point averages of black college students, thereby having a multiple correlation (R) of .54 with grade point average. The sub-hypotheses for null Hypothesis Two were as follows: (a) There would be no significant differences in the instrumental value systems of black males and females. This sub-hypothesis was tested by means of a one-way nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores. Inspection of Table 7 indicates that

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51 (/) c (U "O 3 +-> (/) o a. O (U u ^ c o o (0 o CO (41— 14_ O) 0 t/1 tf) 0) C (U 0 to •rto •4-> (U n) c •1c > 0) a> 1— 0 -0 I. (0 T3 C ta p 00 C <0 CO c <0 0 0 us CM 1^ 0 CO U3 0 0 CM VO 00 00 I/) t— U3 0 CO CO CO 00 0 r00 CO irj CO c IT) 0 CO Lf) 00 0 . CO 0 0 GO 1— 2: CO CO CM 0 t£> Q. 3 O O 00 $CD (U io o t>0 CO 0 in 0 0 CO 0 CO CO CO CM 00 0 CO CO CM r— Q. 0 0 CO 0 CM CO ir> CM CO in 00 3 c 0 CO 0 CM CO 0 to 0 00 0 cn CD 2: Z co CM 0 vo to CO <«c 0 0) CO to > u r— tf•r10 0 4J <4(U 0 0) tf•r•r10 00 (/) +J 10 oJ •r0 !-> s+-) 00 &. a. +j ns 0 (O UJ (O 1/1 0 1 c >> 1 +j > •r™ 0 lO t*(0 c tfrO to > s_ iE u oj 0 -a (U 0 1— 1— < 00 CO 2: Q. liOO

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53 0) x: •»-> e o 10 4) S. o u _ IT} E 0) CO 0) CO O 0) c o c « 1— -a c la +-) CO o c CO c CM CO 00 00 00 hCO o CO CO CO co 00 c 00 o 4•r— •rIB 10 O +-> •4'v 4M•rto oo •r00 4-> CO •r" (U O >> +-> &. 00 00 i. O. +J (0 o > r— 1 +J > 0 (B 4(0 4to rO CO •P— •r4^ 0) sE 0 "oJ O (U o
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54 the value self-controlled was ranked significantly different statistically (p<.05). This result means that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance, (b) There would be no significant differences in the terminal value systems of black males and females. A one-way nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores was employed to test this sub-hypothesis. Inspection of Table 8 indicates that the values a comfortable life , a sense of accomplishment , a world at peace , a world of beauty , and salvation were ranked significantly different statistically (p<.05). These results mean that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance. Hypothesis Three Hypothesis Three stated that the values and self-concepts of black college students would not relate. This hypothesis was tested by means of Pearson product-moment correlation. The students' 36 value concept scores and their 10 self-concept dimension scores were correlated and the results indicate that black college students' values and self-concepts were related. Table 9 shows that three instrumental values and six self-concept dimensions were significant and negatively correlated. These associations were broadminded and Identity (r=-.26, p<.05), helpful and Self-Criticism (r=-.21, p<.05), intellectual and Personal Self (r=-.26, p<.05), intellectual and Self Satisfaction (r=-.19, p<.05), intellectual and Identity (r=-.19, p<.05), intellectual and Total Positive (r=-.24, p<.05), and intellectual and Behavior (r=-,20, p<.05).

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55 Table 7 Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically Significant Differences for Black Males' and Females' Instrumental Value Systems Values Males (N=49) Femal (N=51 es ) P Ambitious 6.5 (3) 6.4 (2) Broadminded 9.6 (9) 10.2 (11) Capable 8.3 (8) 8.8 (8) Cheerful 11.9 (16) 11.0 (14) Clean 11.0 (13) 11.2 (15) Courageous 11.7 (15) 10.4 (12) Forgiving 10.7 (12) 9.6 (9) Helpful 10.2 (10) 8.8 (7) ~" Honest 5.6 (1) 5.5 (1) Imaginative 1 J . u \ lo; 12.4 (17) — — Independent 7.5 (5) 7.2 (3) Intpl 1 prtual 8.1 (7) 7 8 f6^ Logical 11.5 (14) 11.3 (18) Loving 7.1 (4) 7.6 (5) Obedient 12.5 (17) 13.6 (18) Polite 10.5 (11) 10.9 (13) Responsible 6.4 (2) 7.3 (4) Self -Controlled 7.9 (6) 10.2 [10) .03 Note: Figures shown are means, with composite rank ordersin parentheses.

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56 Table 8 Means, Composite Rank Orders, and Statistically Significant Differences for Black Males' and Females' Terminal Value Systems Values Males Females p (N=49) (N=51) A Comfortable life 7.5 (6) 9.9 (13) .01 An Exciting Life 11.5 (13) 12.1 (14) A Sense of Accomplishment 7.2 (5) 9.2 (11) .008 A World at Peace 12.9 (15) 8.4 (9) .004 A World of Beauty 14.8 (18) 12.9 (16) .01 Equality 8.4 (9) 8.3 (8) Family Security 6.2 (3) 8.0 (7) Freedom 8.2 (8) 7.7 (6) Happiness 5.4 (1) 6.5 (3) Inner Harmony 9.0 (10) 7.6 (4) Mature Love 9.9 (12) 9.2 (10) National Security 14.4 (17) 14.1 (17) Pleasure 12.1 (14) 12.4 (15) Salvation 8.2 (7) 5.1 (1) .01 Self -Respect 5.8 (2) 6.4 (2) Social Recognition 12.9 (16) 14.1 (18) True Friendship 9.2 (11) 9.2 (12) Wisdom 6.7 (4) 7.6 (5) Note: Figures shown are means, with composite rank orders in parentheses.

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57 Table 10 reveals that four terminal values and five self-concept dimensions were significant and negatively correlated. These associations were a comfortable life and Moral -Ethical Self (r=-.19, p<.05), pleasure and Self-Criticism (r=-.21, d<.Q5). salvation and Self Satisfaction (r=-.22, p<.05). true friendship and Physical Self (r=-.20,p<.05), and true friendship and Social Self (r=-.22, p<.05). Table 11 indicates that three instrumental values and two selfconcept dimensions were significant and positively correlated. These associations were clean and Identity (r=.19, p<.05), independent and Self Satisfaction (r=.22, p<.05). Table 12 indicates that two terminal values and two self-concept dimensions were significant and positively correlated. These associations were mature love and Moral -Ethical Self (r=.27, p<.05), and a^ sense of accomplishment and Physical Self (r=.24, p<.05). These results mean that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance. Discussion Black males were above the means on eight of 10 dimensions on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The two exceptions were Self-Criticism and Moral-Ethical Self . Black males at the University of Florida view themselves (in this study) as persons of worth and value, as reflected by the high Total Positive score, and exhibit a reasonably healthy openness and capacity for self criticism, as reflected by the Self-Criticism score. Even though males scored slightly below the mean on Self-Criticism , as revealed in Table 6, this scoring lacked statistical significance. Black males' Identity , Self Satisfaction , Behavior and Social Self were -above

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58 Table 9 Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students Values Self -Concept Dimensions r P Broadminded (open-minded) Identity .26 .007 Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Self-Criticism .21 .04 Intellectual (intelligent, reflective) Personal Self .26 .007 Intellectual Self Satisfaction .19 .05 Intellectual Identity .19 .04 Intellectual Total Positive .24 .01 Intellectual Behavior .20 .03 N=100 Table 10 Significant Negatively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students Values Self-Concept Dimensions r P A Comfortable Life (a prosperous life) Moral -Ethical Self .19 .04 Pleasure (an enjoyable, (leisurely life) Self-Criticism .21 .02 Salvation (saved, eternal life) Self Satisfaction .22 .02 True Friendship (close companionship) Physical Self .20 .03 True Friendship Social Self .22 .02 N=100

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59 Table 11 Significant Positively Correlated (r) Instrumental Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students Values Self-Concept Dimensions r P Clean (neat, tidy) Identity .19 .04 Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient) Self Satisfaction .20 .04 Obedient (dutiful , respectful ) Identity .22 .02 N=100 Table 12 Significant Positively Correlated (r) Terminal Values and Self-Concept Dimensions for Black College Students Values Self-Concept Dimensions r P Mature Love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) Moral-Ethical Self .27 .005 A Sense of Accomplishment (lasting contribution) Physical Self .24 .01 N=100

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60 average, thereby suggesting that they have a high opinion of themselves, function or behave competently, are pleased with their physical state of being, and feel confident in their ability to interact with others on a social or personal level. However, their perception of the Moral -Ethical aspect of self was below average. An interesting result of this study was that black females at the University of Florida scored slightly lower on five of 10 dimensions on the TSCS. Females, generally, scored slightly below the average on Total Positive , Self Satisfaction , Behavior , Physical Self , and Moral Ethical Self . Nevertheless, the latter tendency was not statistically significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that black females, as their male counterparts in this study, consider themselves as persons of worth, are open and capable of self-criticism, and are confident in their abilities to interact with significant others in a family, personal or social setting. Although females held a high opinion of themselves ( Identity ), they appeared less likely to be pleased with their Physical Self , Behavior and Moral-Ethical Self , as shown in Table 6. One plausible explanation for this outcome is that women, in general, might be more openly critical of themselves as a consequence of socialization. Similarly, in the Samuel and Laird (1974) study, black females scored slightly lower on three of seven dimensions of the TSCS. However, their low Moral-Ethical Self score was inconsistent with the high ranking of the value salvation , in Table 8, as most important for them. These data showed that none of the 10 self-concept dimensions tested accounted for statistically significant variance in the grade point averages of black males or females. These findings are

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61 inconsistent with those in the literature suggesting that selfconcept is significantly related to grade point average (Bailey, 1976; Pfeifer and Sedlacek, 1974; Reed, 1978; Shade, 1978). Only one self-concept dimension. Identity , was judged significant by the stepwise multiple regression analysis procedure to be included in the table (Table 3). Identity accounted for 2 percent of the variance in grade point average. Nevertheless, it was not statistically significant at the .05 level. These findings are similar to Atkinson's (1964), who found that the self -concept is related to academic performance, but is not necessarily synonymous. Likewise, Trachtman (1975) found that self-esteem was not significantly related to academic performance. Values . Suprisingly, several values which emerged as factors significantly related to grade point average for black college students were not expected, as indicated in Table 3. Of the 36 ranked value concepts, the values clean , courageous , helpful , imaginative , and an exciting life were judged statistically significant at the .05 level and accounted for 21 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average. The value true friendship accounted for 2 percent of the variance, but was not judged statistically significant at the .05 level. Students in this study were requested to rank order each category of values (18 instrumental and 18 terminal) in order of their importance, wherein the most preferred was ranked "1" and the least preferred ranked "18." As a result of these rank orderings, the value courageous (Table 3) emerged as the factor most significantly related to grade point average and accounted for 5 percent of the 29 percent explained variance

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62 in grade point average. There was a tendency for grade point average to increase as rankings of the value courageous as least preferred increased in the value hierarchy. As shown in Table 7, courageous was ranked fifteenth by males and twelfth by females in this study. This result contradicted evidence indicating that among college populations, the value courageous was high in importance (Rokeach, 1973). Rankings on the value an exciting life accounted for 3 percent of the variance in grade point average (Table 3). Similarly, there was a tendency for grade point average to increase as rankings of the value an exciting life as least preferred increased in the value hierarchy. Table 8 shows that the value an exciting life was ranked, in general of low importance (thirteenth by males and fourteenth by females). Other unexpected significant factors relating to grade point average were the values clean , imaginative , and helpful (Table 3). Collectively, these values accounted for 12 percent of the variance in grade point average. Likewise, there was a tendency for grade point average to increase as rankings on these values as least preferred increased in the value hierarchy. The findings of this study appear to support the contention that the value clean distinguishes between the lowand the high-educated, as observed by Rokeach (1973). The value clean was ranked thirteenth by males and fifteenth by females in this study (Table 7). These findings are consistent with Rokeach (1973) who found that the more education the individual has attained, the lower clean is ranked in the value hierarchy. In his findings, the value clean was ranked thirteenth by those individuals who had some college education, but

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63 had not received a degree. Not only have values given evidence to differentiate between the lowand high-educated, but they serve as social indicators as well (Allen, 1978; Epps, 1969; Rokeach, 1973). Rankings of the value clean has been found to distinguish those individuals of low socioeconomic status from those who are affluent. The more affluent tend to rank clean significantly lower, seventeenth in the hierarchy, while those who are from the lower socioeconomic levels tend to rank it second most important (Rokeach, 1973). One could speculate that individuals from the lower socioeconomic levels tend to place a higher value on cleanliness because they are less likely to possess it. It is also reasonable to assume that the more education one has attained, the more likely that individual is to have better income opportunities, better living conditions and a higher social status. Based upon the results of this investigation, it could be further assumed that the significant variance on the value clean can be attributed to the varying socioeconomic levels of subjects in the study. The values imaginative , true friendship , and an exciting life were ranked near the bottom of the hierarchy by males and by females, as shown in Tables 7 and 8, while helpful was ranked in the middle. In studies conducted by Rokeach (1973), the values imaginative , true friendship , and helpful tended to characterize individuals according to socioeconomic levels. This value, imaginative , tends to be of higher importance to the affluent, whereas the values helpful

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64 and true frienship are of higher importance to the less affluent (Rokeach, 1973). An exciting life is generally ranked towards the bottom of the hierarchy regardless of socioeconomics (Rokeach, 1973). The variable Sexl accounted for 4 percent of the variance in males' grade point average. This dimension was included to determine whether sex would emerge as a significant factor in this study, and it did so. In the instrumental value hierarchy, both sexes ranked honest , ambitious , independent , and responsible at the top, while they ranked imaginative , obedient , logical . and cheerful at the bottom (Table 7). These findings are supportive of Rokeach (1973), Rokeach and Parker (1970), and Williams (1968) who reported that these value patterns are held in common by both sexes, and appear to be characteristic of Americans, in general. Of considerable interest was the fact that the only instrumental value in this study which discriminated significantly between black males and females was the value sel f-controlled . Black males ranked this value sixth, while black females ranked it tenth. According to Rokeach (1973), neither American men nor women cared much for self-control. However, the black males in this study contradicted that observation. One plausible explanation may be attributed to the way that black males and females are socialized in the south; therefore, these males may have viewed the value sel f-controlled as being significantly more important as a result of race (Allen, 1978; Dawkins i j

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65 and Dawkins, 1980 i Epps, 1969; Sikula and Sikula, 1975). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) and Mitchell (1976) suggest that similarities in personal experiences by individuals within a culture will likewise shape value systems in similar ways. Black males and females ranked five of 18 terminal values significantly different. Those values were a comfortable life , a sense of accomplishment , a world at peace , a world of beauty and salvation . Black males placed a significantly higher value than did black females on a comfortable life and a sense of accomplishment . Conversely, females valued a world at peace , salvation and a world of beauty significantly higher than males. These findings support the contention in the literature by Rokeach (1973) that males tend to be more materialistic and achievement oriented, wherein females appear more oriented toward personal happiness, religious values and a peaceful world. However, black males and females uniformly displayed more value similarities than differences, as shown in Table 8, thus supporting the findings by Atolagbe (1980) and Rokeach (1973). Three of 18 instrumental values yielded significant (p<.05) negative relationships with six self-concept dimensions (Table 9). The value intellectual was negatively related to Personal Self , Self Satisfaction , Identity , Total Positive and Behavior dimensions on the TSCS. These findings support the contention that the value intellectual is high in relative importance to the black students who scored low on: (a) level of self-esteem ( Total Positive ); (b) opinion of themselves ( Identity ) ; (c) level of self-acceptance ( Self Satisfaction ) ; (d) behavior or functioning (Behavior); and (e) a sense of worth and adequacy ( Personal Self ). High importance on the value broadminded was

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66 associated with low self-opinion ( Identity) scores. Similarly, a high importance on the value helpful was associated with low capacities for self-criticism and openness ( Self-Criticism ) . There were four of 18 terminal values which resulted in significant (p<.05) negative relationships with self-concept dimensions of the TSCS (Table 10). High importance on the value pleasure was negatively related to the self-concept dimensions of Physical Self and Social Self . This was somewhat surprising since, generally, if an individual places high value on close companionship, then that individual is more likely to feel confident in his/her ability to interact with others on a social or personal level. The value salvation was negatively related to the self-concept dimension of Self Satisfaction . This relationship was not surprising. One could speculate that those individuals placing high importance on eternal life and being saved are more likely to have set high religious standards and expectations for themselves. Finally, the value a comfortable life was negatively related to the self-concept dimension of Moral -Ethical Self . Black males tended to place significantly more importance on the tangibles of a prosperous life and less on the intangibles of religion, thus supporting Rokeach's (1973) findings that males tend to be more materialistic than females. Concerning positive relationships, three of 18 instrumental values were significant (p<.05) and positively related to two self-concept dimensions. The value clean was positively related to the self-concept dimension Identity . Likewise, the value obedient was positively related to the self-concept dimension Identity . The value independent was positively related to the self -concept dimension of Self-Satisf action (Table 11). Understandably, increases in self-dependence and

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67 reliance often does result in increases in self-satisfaction for the individual. However, the positive relationships which emerged between clean and Identity , and between obedient and Identity are inexplicable and interesting. Two of 18 terminal values and two self-concept dimensions were significant (p<.05) and positively related, as shown in Table 12. The value a sense of accomplishment and the Physical Self dimension of the TSCS were positively related. Similarly, the value mature love and the self-concept dimension Moral -Ethical Self were positively related. Summary . In this study, the findings suggest that, in general, the values of black male and female college students were more significantly related to grade point average than was self-concept. Of the 29 percent variance found in grade point average, the values clean , courageous , an exciting life , helpful , imaginative , and true friendship accounted for the greatest portion of that variance, 23 percent. The variable Sexl (variance attributed to males) and the self-concept dimension. Identity , accounted for 4 percent and 2 percent of the variance, respectively. Therefore, approximately 71 percent of the variance in grade point average was associated with factors other than values, sex, and sel f-concept. Essentially, black males' instrumental and terminal value systems were consistent with value patterns held by males in general. Similarly, black females' instrumental and terminal value systems reflected the value patterns, generally, indicative of females. Therefore, socialization pertaining to traditional sex roles, apparently, has a significant impact on the value systems of individuals.

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68 The relationship between values and self-concept, as indicated by the findings of this study, can best be characterized as interesting and complex. Three values (i.e., clean , helpful and true friendship ) which emerged as factors significantly related to grade point average were, likewise, significant in both positive and negative relationships with several self-concept dimensions. Therefore, this study evidences the existence of significant relationships between this sample of black college students' values and self-concepts which need to be further investigated.

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CHAPTER FIVE SUrflARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of values and self -concept to the academic performance of black undergraduate students at the University of Florida. This study was developed in response to a need to identify potential noncognitive predictors of academic success for black students and the lack of research data regarding the educational values of these students. More specifically, the investigation was conducted (a) to determine whether the students' values accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (b) to determine whether the students' selfconcepts accounted for significant variance in grade point average, (c) to determine whether males' and females' instrumental and terminal value systems were ranked significantly different, and (d) to determine whether students' values and self-concepts were related. The students' values and self-concepts were assessed through the use of two standardized instruments; the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale during the 1982 Spring semester. The sample consisted of 100 black students (49 males and 51 females) who were randomly selected from the general population of undergraduate students. Only black sophomores, juniors, and seniors 69

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70 were included in the study. The decision to use these groups was based on research suggesting that these classifications of students tend to view themselves more realistically, encounter fewer adjustment problems, and earn higher grade point averages than freshmen. The following major null hypotheses and two sub-hypotheses were constructed and tested at an alpha level of .05: HqI : The self-concept, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, would not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. Hq2: The value rankings, on the Rokeach Value Survey, would not account for significant variance in the grade point averages of black college students. (a) There were no significant differences in the instrumental value systems of black males and females. (b) There were no significant differences in the terminal value systems of black males and females. Hq3: The values and self-concepts of black college students would not relate. The stepwise multiple regression analysis procedure was used to relate the 36 concepts on the Rokeach Value Survey and 10 dimensions of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale to the students' grade point " averages (Hypotheses One and Two). Both sub-hypotheses were tested using a one-way nonparametric analysis of variance on rank scores. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed between values and self-concept scores to test Hypothesis Three. The results of the study gave evidence that particular values were more significantly related to grade point average for black college

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71 students than was self-concept. Black male and female college students shared more value similarities than differences. Finally, the study indicated that significant relationships exist between black college students' values and self -concepts. Conclusions The following conclusions were drawn from the results of this study: 1. Hypothesis One revealed that self-concept was not significantly related to grade point average for black college students in this study, as measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Self-concept accounted for 2 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average and was not judged statistically significant by the stepwise multiple regression procedure. 2. Hypothesis Two showed that values were more significantly related to grade point average for black college students in this study than was self-concept, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. Value rankings accounted for 23 percent of the 29 percent explained variance in grade point average and was judged statistically significant by the stepwise multiple regression procedure. 3. Sub-hypothesis 2a revealed that there were significant differences in the instrumental (preferable modes of conduct) value systems of males and females, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. The value self-control led was ranked

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72 significantly higher in the instrumental value hierarchy by males. 4. Sub-hypothesis 2b showed that there were significant differences in the terminal (preferable end-states of existence) value systems of black males and females, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. The values a sense of accomplishment , a world of beauty , a world at peace , and salvation were ranked significantly different by males and females. 5. Sub-hypotheses 2a and 2b revealed that black males and females shared more value similarities than differences, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. 6. Sub-hypotheses 2a and 2b revealed that the relative importance of particular values held by black college students in this study were influenced more by education than by race, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. These results were consistent with research conducted by Rokeach (1973) which indicated that other college samples ranked these values similarly. 7. Hypothesis Three showed that the values and self-concepts of black college students in this study were significantly related, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. These associations were both positive and negative and the results were characterized as complex and interesting. Beyond the hypotheses tested, two additional conclusions were drawn :

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73 5 1. Socialization and culture were major determinants in the ranking of values by black males and females in this study, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. This result was evidenced by Black males ranking the value self -controlled significantly different from females. Additionally, black males' and females' value systems were consistent with value patterns held by Americans, in general. 2. Socioeconomics significantly influenced the relative importance of particular values for black college students in this study, as measured by the Rokeach Value Survey. This was revealed in the study by rankings on the value clean . This value was found to serve as a socioeconomic indicator by Rokeach (1973) and emerged as a factor significantly related to grade point average for the students in this study. Impl ications The first implication of this study is the critical need for further research to ascertain why (with the absence of differences in intellect, cognition and behavior) some students succeed and others do not. Administrators, student personnel workers, educators, and counselors, must seek to understand the cognitive and noncognitive factors which most significantly relate to the academic performance of students. Clarification of this relationship might result in student development programs which are well-planned, student-centered, and humanistically oriented toward students. Further, those behaviors and attitudes which have been identified as essential to student success, might be included in student

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74 development activities, V;hlch could ultimately demonstrate the effectiveness and viability of such programs in contributing to student success. The second implication of this study is that if particular value rankings are associated with the academic failure of low income students, then steps must be taken to assist these students in rearranging and prioritizing the values associated with academic success. These interventions should be implemented at each level of education (i.e., preschool, elementary, secondary and higher education) and should include the strategies which will enhance their human and economic development. Past sociological studies indicate that large numbers of students from low income backgrounds enter school with deficits in cognitive and academic performance skills which perpetually increase throughout the school years. Thus, by the senior year of high school, many of these students lag far behind more affluent students. As observed by some researchers, the presence of academic deficiencies among high percentages of the low income population has been thoroughly documented. However, the nature and quality of these deficiencies have not been documented. What is needed is a better understanding of the relationship among one's values, one's socioeconomic conditions, one's personal characteristics and one's academic success. This information might be of irrmeasurable benefit to educators for the purposes of developing cognitive skills programs. Further, these programs could have incorporated into their designs a component whose objective is to teach "success values" to many students from low income backgrounds. These varied approaches might assist low income students to realize and develop their potential for learning and economic growth. It must be noted that low income students <

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75 economicany deprived, but these students are not necessarily deprived of motivation. The study of values might also lead eudcators and counselors to a better understanding of the academic behavior of low income students. The third implication of this study is that multiple factors influence the academic performance of students and these factors should be considered in the selection and admission of minority students into institutions of higher education. The long-standing problem for minority recruitment and admissions personnel has been the identification of potentially successful students on the basis of traditional admissions criteria (such as high school grades, SAT scores, and ACT scores). In utilizing these approaches, many capable black students and other minority students were overlooked. The findings of this study support the contention that the selection and admission of minority students should include multiple factors criteria in making colleges and universities more accessible to these students. This approach could enhance the identification and evaluation of potential students. The fourth implication of this study is that further attention should be given to the student's values, rather than the student's self-concept in relation to academic performance. The results of this study gave evidence that the student's values were more significantly related to his/her academic performance. Thus, student personnel v/orkers and counselors share a professional responsibility to assist students in: (a) clarifying and understanding their values, and (b) understanding and identifying how these values might influence their success or failure not only in education, but in other

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76 aspects of their lives, as well. The fifth implication of this study is that the complexity of the issue regarding the academic performance of black students requires further research. Attention given to examining and identifying the relationship of values to the academic performance and career goals of black college students can assist college administrators and student personnel workers in gaining a better understanding of the educational values which influence black students' learning and academic growth. By identifying the values which best relate to academic performance, it will be possible to develop programs, workshops and activities that would clarify and promote the values associated with academic success. Consequently, black college students who are encountering academic difficulties due to unclarified educational values, may be given an opportunity to clarify their values. By so doing, many of these students might be motivated to achieve academic success and thereby experience a more meaningful and rewarding education. Additionally, these developmental programs, workshops and value clarification activities should provide counseling and vocational guidance programs which will serve to inform, support and guide the student into the variety of field of study that are now available to them. Recommendations The following recommendations are made, based on the results of this study: 1. A replication of this study should be conducted, involving a larger number of subjects in other universities and settings, to

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77 ascertain whether particular values are substantial correlates of the academic performance of black college students. 2, A longitudinal study should be conducted, beginning with the freshman year, to ascertain whether black students undergo significant value changes while attending college, 3. A longitudinal study should be conducted, with black high school students as subjects, to determine how values influence their grades, involvement in extra-curricular activities and decisions to attend college.

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APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FORM

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'1 INFORMED CONSENT FORM The study you are being asked to participate in is designed to investigate the relationship between your values and a description of yourself on a self concept scale. Should you decide to participate, you will be asked to complete two questionnaires; the Rokeach Value Survey and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Both questionnaires will take no more than 30 minutes of your time. All information is being completed anonymously, so once completed, your questionnaires can never be identified with you. The results of this study will be utilized by the support programs personnel in an effort to develop orientation workshops and seminars, which will contribute to a more meaningful college experience for future students. Your participation in this study is voluntary, therefore no monetary compensation will be awarded for your participation. There are also no risks or discomforts to be expected. The results of this study will be made available to you at its completion upon your request. As a subject in this study, you are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue the procedure at any time without prejudice. If there are any questions about this procedure, please feel free to ask the researcher. "I have read and understand the procedure described above. I agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. I also agree to release my University of Florida cumulative grade point average to the researcher." Signatures: Subject Date Witness Date Principal Investigator Date Gloria Ann Crutchfield 1824-B N.W. 9th Street Gainesville, FL 32601 79

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'1 APPENDIX B FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

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FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, V.EAKS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES Rank Comp. Value Sex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Means Rank Ambi t1ous Males 7 7 4 4 2 3 3 1 3 5 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 0 6.5 3 Fema 1 es 9 7 0 3 4 5 2 3 4 1 4 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 6.4 2 Broadml nded Males 3 2 2 1 7 0 3 4 2 2 1 4 4 5 2 1 3 3 9.6 9 Females 1 3 4 3 2 1 5 2 2 4 3 1 4 1 4 1 5 6 10.2 11 Capabi e Males 0 3 7 1 5 5 3 0 3 5 5 2 3 3 2 0 1 1 8.3 8 Females 0 1 4 5 6 2 7 0 3 4 4 5 0 2 3 1 4 0 8.8 8 Cheerful Males 0 1 1 1 1 3 0 3 4 7 4 1 3 2 3 3 10 2 11 .9 16 Females 0 1 0 1 4 4 0 3 2 6 7 3 6 2 4 6 2 0 11.0 14 Clean Males 1 0 3 6 4 1 1 0 1 3 2 3 5 4 2 3 4 6 11 .0 13 Females 2 1 3 2 3 1 3 1 1 6 2 3 1 3 3 4 6 6 11.2 15 Courageous Males 0 1 0 3 4 3 1 2 2 1 3 5 1 1 6 13 3 1 11.7 15 Females 0 2 2 2 2 3 3 6 4 4 3 1 0 4 4 4 4 2 10.4 12 Forgiving Males 3 4 2 0 1 1 2 4 2 1 3 2 4 5 7 0 3 5 10.7 12 Females 0 3 5 3 7 1 1 3 5 1 3 3 2 0 1 4 5 4 9.6 9 Helpful Males 2 4 1 2 0 2 4 4 3 2 3 3 6 2 7 2 2 1 10.2 10 Females 1 4 3 4 2 3 2 2 6 3 2 5 2 5 3 1 1 1 8.8 7 Honest Males 10 5 4 6 3 1 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 5.6 1 Fema 1 es 11 9 5 3 1 3 2 5 1 2 4 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 5.5 1 Imaginative Males 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 6 7 5 3 7 13.0 18 Females 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 4 6 9 2 5 3 5 12.4 17 Independent Males 6 3 5 5 4 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 0 1 3 3 1 2 7.5 5 Females 6 4 9 5 3 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 7.2 3 Intel lectual Males 2 3 5 3 3 6 2 3 2 0 4 1 4 4 2 2 2 1 8.1 7 Females 2 1 3 5 5 0 9 3 2 2 4 4 2 1 5 1 1 1 7.8 6 Logical Kales 2 1 1 3 0 2 3 2 2 2 6 2 4 3 0 3 4 9 11 . .5 14 Females 2 0 1 0 4 2 2 4 1 2 4 3 8 5 5 2 4 2 11 , .3 18 Loving Males 4 8 5 5 0 0 4 4 2 3 3 4 0 2 3 2 0 0 7 .1 4 Females 10 4 2 2 1 3 5 1 3 1 3 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 7 .6 5 Obedient Males 1 0 1 1 2 4 0 2 2 5 2 3 4 4 1 4 5 9 12 .5 17 Females 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 5 1 0 0 5 4 2 0 8 18 13, .6 18 Polite Males 1 0 1 1 4 7 1 2 3 1 1 9 2 3 2 4 4 2 10 .5 11 Females 0 0 4 3 1 4 1 4 2 3 3 4 3 7 6 6 1 0 10 .9 13 Responsible Males 3 5 4 4 4 3 7 5 5 3 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 6 .4 2 Females 2 3 4 5 3 9 4 5 2 5 1 2 1 0 3 0 0 2 7 .3 4 Self-Controlled Males 4 3 3 3 4 6 4 3 2 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 7 .9 6 Females 2 3 3 2 1 4 2 5 1 2 3 3 2 1 2 11 2 2 10 .2 10 N«49 Males, 51 Females 81

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APPENDIX C FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES

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FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES Rank . Comp. Value Sex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 Means Rank A Comfortable Life Males 5 4 5 1 6 5 0 2 2 4 1 4 3 4 1 1 1 0 7. .5 6 Females 2 2 0 1 4 2 3 4 2 5 6 4 1 3 2 4 2 2 9. ,9 13 An Exciting Life Males 0 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 4 3 4 6 5 4 3 2 6 2 11. .5 13 Females 0 0 0 3 0 3 1 3 4 3 5 4 2 4 5 3 5 5 12, .1 14 A Sense of Males 1 3 3 7 4 3 5 6 1 3 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 1 7, .2 5 Accompl i shment Females 0 0 3 3 7 5 3 2 1 3 4 4 10 3 2 0 0 1 9. .2 1 1 A World at Peace Males 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 3 4 3 2 0 4 2 8 7 9 4 12. .9 15 r Cllld 1 cb c 0 c 1 1 -i J 0 c 0 c L L L 1 1 L •5 J 0 c O 0 O C Q O . A . *t Q A World of Beauty Males 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 3 2 9 4 9 7 10 14. ,8 18 r Cilia 1 Q 1 0 c u u 3 J u c 5 c O 7 5 J c 1 J A 4 Q 1 9 1 C , Q 1 fi 1 D Equal ity Males 1 3 5 2 5 2 3 0 4 4 8 3 1 0 4 1 2 0 8. ,4 9 Ppma 1 PC 1 7 3 4 5 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 5 4 u "J J n u O o . . J Family Security Males 5 7 4 6 1 5 4 3 4 1 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 6. 2 3 pptnA 1 p< 1 5 4 5 2 4 g 3 2 2 2 4 ] 1 4 1 I u Q 0 . 7 Freedom Males 2 1 4 3 6 4 1 5 3 3 3 7 3 2 0 0 1 1 8. 2 8 Ppma 1 pc 1 Cilia 1 c 3 ] ] 7 4 5 4 o 0 2 1 1 9 C 4 5 J J 1 1 1 1 1 1 n U 7 7 D Happiness Hales 4 9 7 5 5 2 5 2 1 0 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 5. 4 1 Fenifl 1 es c 0 Q O J -3 A *t A c. 1 1 i 't A 1 1 1 1 1 0 6. 5 3 Inner Harmony Males 2 2 2 5 0 4 3 4 6 2 2 2 1 4 5 1 3 0 9. 0 10 Femal es 4 3 4 5 4 2 1 8 6 1 2 3 0 2 3 2 1 0 7. 6 4 Mature Love Males 1 0 2 3 3 4 2 0 6 2 8 3 6 2 2 3 1 1 9. 9 12 Females 0 1 5 3 3 3 3 9 2 5 1 2 2 3 4 2 2 1 9. 2 10 National Security Males 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 1 5 1 1 3 2 3 10 7 12 14. 4 17 Females 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 0 1 1 0 1 5 1 8 9 15 14. 1 17 Pleasure Males 0 1 0 1 2 1 5 2 1 2 5 3 2 6 6 4 5 3 12, .1 14 Females 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 6 3 4 2 7 3 4 5 7 3 12. .4 15 Salvation Males 17 1 0 4 0 0 1 4 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 7 8 .2 7 Females 22 4 4 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 2 2 0 1 5, .1 1 Self-Respect Males 6 6 5 2 7 3 2 8 1 4 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 5, .8 2 Females 5 5 6 6 4 4 2 1 3 5 3 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 6, .4 2 Social Recognition Males 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 2 3 2 3 10 4 5 4 5 4 7 12 .9 16 Females 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 4 1 0 10 2 4 7 6 10 7 14 .1 18 True Friendship Males 0 0 3 2 3 3 7 5 4 7 2 2 4 5 2 1 1 0 9, .2 11 Females 0 3 3 1 3 4 4 5 5 4 2 0 7 2 1 3 0 2 9, ,2 12 Wisdom Males 4 6 7 5 4 4 1 2 3 3 0 1 2 0 3 2 1 1 6, .7 4 Females 3 6 3 5 2 6 2 2 4 2 6 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 7 .6 5 N=49 Males, 51 Females 83

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, W. R. Race, family setting, and adolescent achievement orientatation. Journal of Negro Education , 1978, 47, 230-243. Allport, G. E.; Vernon, P. E.; and Lindzey, G. A study of values . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960. Ashbaugh, J.; Levin, C; and Zaccaria, L. Persistence and the disadvantaged college student. Journal of Education Research , 1973, 67^, 64-66. Atkinson, J. E. An introduction to motivation . Princeton, New Jersey: S. Van Nostrand, 1964. Atolagbe, E. Further study on values of Black and White children: Are they different? Journal of Negro Education , 1980, 4£, 448-452. Bailey, R. C. Self-concept differences in low and high achieving students. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1976, 27, 188-191. Bartee, G. M. The perceptual characteristics of disadvantaged Negro and Caucasian college students (Doctoral dissertation. East Texas State University, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1967, 28, 3455. (University Microfilm No. 68-01128). Beglis, J. F., and Sheikh, A. A. Development of the self concept in Black and White children. Journal of Negro Education , 1974, 43 , 104-110. Bertinetti, J. F. A comparison of self concepts, values and occupational orientations among three groups of adolescents (Doctoral dissertation. New Mexico State University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 33 (7-A), 3278. (University Microfilm No. 72-30746). Binder, D. M. Relationship between selected self-concept and academic achievement measures. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance , 1975, 8, 92-95. Blackwell, J. E. Access of Black students to graduate and professional schools . Atlanta: Southern Education Foundation, 1975. Blackwell, J. E. Social factors affecting educational opportunity for minority group students. Beyond desegregation: Urgent issues in education of minorities . College Board Publications, 1978. 84

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I 85 Boney, J. D. Predicting the academic achievement of secondary school Negro students. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1966, 44, 700-703. Borgen, F. H. Differential expectations? Predicting grades for Black students in five types of colleges. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance , 1972, 4, 206-212. Boyd, W. Desegregating America's colleges and universities . New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974. Bradley, N. E. The Negro undergraduate student: Factors relative to performance in predominantly white state colleges and universities. Journal of Negro Education , 1967, 36, 15-23. Brown, F., and Stent, M. Minorities in U. S. institutions of higher education . New York: Praeger Publishers, 1977 Cameron, H. K. Nonintellectual correlates of academic achievement. Journal of Negro Education , 1968, 37^, 252-257. Campbell, R. L., and Martinez-Perez, L, Self-concept and attitudes as factors in the achievement of pre-service teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching , 1977, 14_, 455-459. Cap! in, M. S, Self-concept, level of aspiration and academic achievement. Journal of Experimental Education , 1969, 37^, 13-16. Castaneda, A.; James, R. L.; and Robbins, W. The educational needs of minority groups . Lincoln, Nebraska: Professional Educators Publications, Inc., 1974. Clark, K. B., and Plotkin, L. The Negro student at integrated colleges . New York: National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students, 1963. Cleary, T. A. Test bias: Validity of the Scholastic Aptitude Test for Negro and White students at integrated colleges. Educational Testing Service Research Bulletin . Princeton: Educational Testing Service, 1966. Cleary, T. A. Test bias: Prediction of grades of Negro and White students in integrated colleges. Journal of Educational Measurement , 1968, 5, 115-124. Cross, K. P. Beyond the open door: New students in higher education . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1971. Dales, R. J., and Keller, J. F. Self-concept scores among Black and White culturally deprived adolescent males. Journal of Negro Education . 1972, 41, 31-34.

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86 Dawkins, M. P., and Dawkins, R. L. Perceptions and experiences as correlates of academic performance among Blacks at a predominatly White university: A research note. College and University , 1980, 55 , 171-180. DiCesare, A. C; Sedlacek, W. E.; and Brooks, G. C. Non-intellectual correlates of Black student attrition. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1972, 13, 319-324. Dispenzieri, A.; Giniger, S.; Reichman, W. ; and Levy, M. College performance of disadvantaged students as a function of ability and personality. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1971, 18^, 298-305. Dixon, C. C. A comparative study of the self concepts of disadvantaged Negro students (Doctoral dissertation. University of Georgia, 1972). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1973, 33 (7-A), 3253. (University Microfilm No. 72-34065). Epps, E. G. Correlates of academic achievement among Northern and Southern urban Negro students. Journal of Social Issues , 1969, 25, 55-72. ~ Fitch, G. Effects of self esteem, perceived performance, and choice on causal attributions. Journal of Personality and Socia l Psychology, 1970, 16, 311-315. Fitts, W. H. Manual. Tennessee Self Concept Scale . Nashville: Counselor Recordings and Tests, 1965. Fitts, W. H. The self concept and performance . Research Monograph No. 5. Nahsville, Tennessee: Counselor Recordings and Tests, 1972. Fitts, W. H., and Bell, G. K. An evaluation of group counseling for nursing students. Nashville Mental Health Center Research Bulletin , No. 4, July, 1969. ' Fitts, W. H., and Hamner, W. T. The self concept and delinquency. Nashville Mental Health Center Monogr aph No. 1. Nashville, Tennessee, TSW. Forbes, G. B. ; TeVault, R. K.; and Gromoll , H. F. Willingness to help strangers as a function of liberal, conservative or Catholic church membership: A field study with the lost-letter technique. Psychological Reports . 1971, 28, 947-949. Gordon, C. Looking ahead: Self Concept, race and family as determinants of adolescent orientation to achievement . Washington, D. C: American Sociological Association, 1972. Gordon, L. V. Survey of interpersonal values . Chicago: Science Research Association, 1960. Gordon. L. V. Survey of personal values . Chicago: Science Research Association, 1964.

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87 Green, R. L., and Farquhar, W. E. Negro academic motivation and scholatic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1965, 56, 242-243. Gurin, P. Motivation and aspirations of Southern Negro college youths. American Journal of Sociology , 1970, 75, 607-631. Gurin, P., and Epps, E. Black consciousness, identity and achievement. New York: Wiley, 1975. Gurin, P.; Gurin, G.; Lao, P. C; and Beattie, M. Internal -external control in the motivational dynamics of Negro youth. Journal of Social Issues , 1969, 25^, 29-53. Hands, S. L. Some comparisons among self -acceptance, authoritarianism and defensiveness in Negro and White college students . Unpublished Master's thesis. North Texas State University, 1967. Hayes, E. J. Environmental press and psychological need as related to academic success of minority group students. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1974, 21, 299-304. Healy, G. W. Self-concept: A comparison of Negro-, Anglo-, and Spanish-American students across ethnic, sex, and socioeconomic variables (Doctoral dissertation. New Mexico State University, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1969, 30^, 2849, (University Microfilm No. 70-01231). Hills, J. R. Prediction of college grades for all public colleges of a state. Journal of Educational Measurement , 1964, 1_, 155-159. Hills, R. The strengths of Black families . New York: Emerson Hall, 1972. Hodgkins, B. J., and Stakenas, R. C. A study of self-concepts of Negro and White youths in segregated environments. Journal of Negro Education , 1969, 38, 370-377. Homant, R., and Rokeach, M. Values for honesty and cheating behavior. Personality , 1970, 1, 153-162. Jenkins, C. G.; Anderson, E. C; and Wurster, S.R. A look at elementary school teachers' values . Washington, D. C, 1974] (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 096 249). Johnson, H. E. The relationship of the self-concepts of Negro and White college freshmen to the nature of their written work (Doctoral dissertation. North Texas State University, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International , 1970, 31, 1623. (University Microfilm No. 70-17978). Katz, I. Academic motivation and equal educational opportunity. Harvard Educational Review , 1968, 38, 57-65.

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88 Kendricks, S. A. College Board scores and cultural bias. College Board Review , 1964-65, 55, 7-9. Kendricks, S. A., and Thomas, C. L. Transition from school to college. Review of Educational Research , 1970, 40, 151-179. Kerlinger, F. N. Foundations of behavioral research . New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, Inc., 1973. King, E., and Price, F. T. Black self-concept: A new perspective. Journal of Negro Education , 1979, 48, 216-221. Kitwood, T. M. , and Smithers, A. G. Measurement of human values: An appraisal of the work of Milton Rokeach. Educational Research Bulletin , 1975, 17^, 175-179. Kl ingelhofer, E. L., and Hollander, L. Educational characteristics and needs of new students: A review of the literature . Washington, D. C: Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of Education, 1973. Kluckhohn, F. R. , and Strodtbeck, F. L. Variations in value orientations . Chicago^ Row-Peterson and Company, 1961. Konopka, G. Formation of values in the developing person. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 1973, 43, 86-96. Leung, J. J., and Sand, M. C. Self-esteem and emotional maturity in college students. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1981, 22, 291-299. Liebow, E. Tally's corner: A study of Negro street-corner men . Boston Little Brown, 1967. Luetgert, M. J. The ethnic student: Academic and social problems. Adolescence , 1977, 12, 321-327. Mahoney, J., and Katz, G. M. Value structures and orientation to social institutions. Journal of Psychology , 1976, 93, 203-211. Middleton, L. Colleges urged to alter tests, grading for benefit of minority-group students. The Chronicle of Highe r Educ ation , 1982, 23 (21), 1-11. Miller, S. M. , and O'Connor, P. Achiever personality and academic success among disadvantaged college students. Journal of Social Issues . 1969, 25, 103-116. Mitchell, J. V. The structure and predictive efficacy of an empirical model of the value-attitude system as postulated by Rokeach. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance , 1976, 8, 229-239.

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89 Morrison, T. L., and Thomas, M. S. Self-esteem and classroom participation. Journal of Educational Research , 1975, 68, 374-377. Munday, L. A. Predicting college grades in predominantly Negro colleges. Journal of Educational Measurement , 1965, 2^, 157-160. Munson, J. M. Concurrent validity of a modified Rokeach Value Survey indiscriminating more successful from less successful students. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 1980, 40, 479-485. Ohle, C. D., and Vinitsky, M. H. Effects of values-clarification workshop on value awareness. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1976, 23, 489-491. Petry, J. R., and Craft, P. A. Investigation of instruments to predict academic performance of high-risk college students. Journal of Educational Research , 1976, 70, 21-25. Pfeifer, C. M., and Sedlacek, W. E. The validity of academic predictors for Black and White students at a predominantly white university. Journal of Educational Measurement , 1971, 8, 253-261. Pfeifer, C. M., and Sedlacek, W. E. Predicting Black student grades with non-intellectual measures. Journal of Negro Education , 1974, 43, 67-76. Rainwater, L. The problem of lower class culture and poverty-war strategy. In D, P. Moynihan (Ed.), On understanding poverty . New York: Basic Books, 1968. Reed, R. J. Increasing the opportunities for Black students in higher education. Journal of Negro Education , 1978, 47, 143-150. Rokeach, M. Value Survey . Sunnyvale, California: Halgren Tests, 1967. Rokeach, M. Beliefs, attitudes, and values . San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1968a. Rokeach, M. A theory of organization and change in value-attitude systems. Journal of Social Issues . 1968b, 24, 13-33. Rokeach, M. The role of values in public opinion research. Public Opinion Quarterly . 1968-69, 32, 547-559. ^ Rokeach, M. The measurement of values and value systems. In 6. Abcarian (Ed.), Social psychology and political behavior . Columbus, Ohio: Charl es E. Merrill, 1971. Rokeach, M. The nature of human values . New York: Free Press, 1973. Rokeach, M., and Berman, E. Values and needs. In M. Rokeach (Ed.), The nature of human values . New York: Free Press, 1973.

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1 90 Rokeach, M., and Reagan, J. F. The role of values in the counseling situation. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1980, 58, 567-582. Rovezzi -Carrol 1 , S., and Thompson, D. L. Forecasting college success for lowincome students. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1980, 21, 340-343. Runyon, E. L. The relationship between the self concept and adaptational maneuvers in White and Negro "college studentT! DnpuETTshed doctoral dissertation. Western Reserve University, 1958. Sampel , D. D., and Seymour, W, R. The academic success of Black students: A dileiraia. Journal of College Student Personnel , 1971, 12, 243-247. Samuel, N.,and Laird, D. S. The self concepts of two groups of black female college students. Journal of Negro Education , 1974, 43 , 228-233. Sedlacek, W. E., and Brooks, G. C. Racism in American education: A model for change . Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976. Shade, B. J. Social-psychological characteristics of achieving Black children. Negro Educational Review , 1978, 29, 80-86. Sherman, C. E. An investigation of the interpersonal values of Negro and White junior college students. Journal of Negro Education , 1971 , 40, 356-360. Shotland, R. L., and Berger, W. G. Behavior validation of several values from the Rokeach Value Scale as an index of honesty. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1970, 54, 433-435. Sikula, J. P., and Sikula, F. A. Do Black and White university interns differ in their basic values? Journal of Negro Education , 1975, 44, 200-207. Slack, W. v., and Porter, D. Training, validity, and the issue of aptitude: A reply to Jackson. Harvard Educational Review , 1980, 50, 392-401. Smith, M. B. Competence and socialization. In J. A. clausen (Ed.), Socialization and society . New York: Little Brown, 1968. fl Strodtbeck, F. L. Family interaction, values and achievement. In C. D. McClelland (Ed.), Talent and society . Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand, 1958. Thomas, C. L., and Stanley, J. C. Effectiveness of high school grades for predicting college grades of Black students: A review and discussion. Journal of Educational Measurement , 1969, 6^, 203-215. Thompson, W. Correlates of the self concept . Research Monograph No. 6 Nashville, Tennessee: Counselor Recordings and Tests, 1972.

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91 Toler, C, The personal values of alcoholics and addicts. Journal of Clinical Psychology . 1975, 31, 554-557. Trachtman, J. P. Cognitive and motivational variables as predictors of academic performance among disadvantaged collete students. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1975, 22, 324-328. Trotter, J. P. Academic attitudes of high achieving and low achieving academically able Black male adolescents. Journal of Negro Education , 1981, 50. 54-62. Vontress, C. E. The Negro personality reconsidered. Journal of Negro Education , 1966, 3, 210-217. Wattenburg, W. W., and Clifford, C. Relation of self-concepts to beginning achievement in reading. Child Development , 1964, 35 , 461-467. Williams, R. L. Relationship of class participation to personality, ability, and achievement variables. Journal of Social Psychology , 1971, 83, 193-198. Williams, R. L., and Cole, S. Self-concept and school adjustment. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1968, 46, 478-481.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Gloria Ann Crutchfield was born in Fort Pierce, Florida, January 21, 1947. She is the daughter of Johnnie and Gladys C. Horton. She and Richard are the parents of a daughter, Reche Gladria, Gloria was educated in the Saint Lucie County public school system and graduated in 1965. Upon graduation, she entered Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University and received the Bachelor of Science degree in sociology in 1968. In 1970, she received the Master of Education degree in counselor education from the same institution. From 1970-71, she was employed as an elementary counselor in the Saint Lucie County public school system. She moved to Gainesville where she was employed as a counselor in the public school system from 1971-72. In 1973, she began her doctoral program in counselor education at the University of Florida. While pursuing her degree, she has held positions as an elementary counselor, as an academic advisor at Indian River Community College, and as a counselor for Upward Bound at the University of Florida. In 1980, she received the Specialist in Education degree from the University of Florida. Gloria has been employed as an academic advisor/counselor for the Program for Academic Counseling and Tutoring at the University of Florida for the past two years. 92

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Woodrow McClain Pan'ker", Chairman Associate Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ,arsen ;sor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Jame^ Pitts Ass/stant Professor of junselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. John Nickens Professor of Educational Administration and Supervision

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This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1982 Dean for Graduate Studies and Research