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A modified Delphi study of objectives for general education programs in Florida's public community colleges

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A modified Delphi study of objectives for general education programs in Florida's public community colleges
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Smith, Alan John, 1943-
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English
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x, 247 leaves : ;

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College students ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Community education ( jstor )
Education ( jstor )
Educational programs ( jstor )
Higher education ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Liberal arts education ( jstor )
Mathematics ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Community colleges -- Curricula -- Florida ( lcsh )
Community colleges -- Curricula -- Florida ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Delphi method ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Education, Higher -- Aims and objectives -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of St. Petersburg ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 242-246.
General Note:
Vita.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Photocopy of typescript. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms, 1979. 22 cm.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Alan John Smith.

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University of Florida
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02719641 ( OCLC )

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A MODIFIED DELPHI STUDY OF OBJECTIVES FOR GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN FLORIDA'S PUBLIC COMMUNITY COLLEGES By Alan John Smith A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1975

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sincere appreciation is entended to Dr. C. Glen Hass, chairman of the doctoral committee, for his guidance and encouragement in this study, but especially for his understanding, unfailing support, and sage counsel throughout the doctoral program. Special gratitude is expressed to Dr. James L. Wattenbarger, who graciously lent his support and expertise to the formation and conduct of this study. The author is also grateful to the other members of his conmittee. Dr. Albert B. Smith, Dr. Vynce A. Hines, and Dr. Gregory L. Ulmer for their assistance and critical suggestions. Grateful acknowledgement is given to all the conmunity college administrators and faculty members who comprised the Delphi panel for this study, without whose enthusiastic and steadfast cooperation this study would not have been possible. Special appreciation is also expressed to Mrs. LeAnne van Elburg for her diligence and skill in typing and editing this study. Finally, the author affirms his profound gratitude to Abby, his wife, for her patience, her empathy, and her silent sacrifice. To her this work is dedicated. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii LIST OF TABLES vi ABSTRACT . . . ' vii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 General Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Need for the Study 6 Coirmissioner of Education's Policy Statement 6 Articulation Agreement 6 Definitions 11 Questions 13 Procedures 13 Identification of Participants 13 Data Collection Process 14 Phase I: Generation of the objectives (first questionnaire) 14 Phase II: Priority ranking of the identified objectives (second questionnaire) 15 Phase III: Final priority ranking of the identified objectives (thi rd questionnaire) 15 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 17 Introduction 17 Origins and Development 17 Classical Origins 18 American Background 19 Yale Report 20 Morrill Act 21 The German University 21 Elective System 22 General Education Movement 23 Harvard University General Education Study 23 Report of the President's Coinmission on Higher Education 24 iii

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Page Major Theories of General Education 25 Mental Discipline 26 Humanism 27 Rationalism 28 Naturalism 29 Eclecticism 30 Purposes of General Education 32 The Concept of General Education 35 General Education versus Liberal Education 35 General Education versus Special Education 37 Definitions of General Education 38 General Education and the Community College 41 The .General Education Function 41 Patterns of General Education 42 • General Education: Present Concerns 44 Program Proposals 55 Summary 56 The Delphi Technique 57 Delphi: Origins and Development 59 Delphi in Education . 61 III DESIGN OF THE STUDY 63 ^ Introduction 63 Scope and Limitations of the Study 63 Procedures 63 The Study's Participants 66 College Representation 66 IV DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 69 Introduction . 69 Comparison of the Results of the Second and . Third Questionnai res 118 V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 120 Summary 120 Conclusions 121 Cognitive Objectives 121 Performance Objectives 122 Affective Objectives 124 Implications and Recommendations 131 APPENDIX A INITIAL LETTER TO COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS TO IDENTIFY DELPHI PAf^EL MEMBERS 136 APPENDIX B DELPHI PAT^EL MEMBERS 139 APPENDIX C INITIAL CORRESPONDENCE TO DELPHI PANEL MEMBERS AND FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE 144 iv

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Page APPENDIX D PARTICIPANTS' OBJECTIVES FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS (RESULTS OF THE FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE) 148 APPENDIX E THE SECOND QUESTIONNAIRE .... 215 APPENDIX F THE THIRD QUESTIONNAIRE 229 BIBLIOGRAPHY 242 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 247 V

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1.1 SUMMARY OF GENERAL EDUCATION REQUIRED COURSES IN FLORIDA COMWNITY COLLEGES, 1974-1975 8 3.1 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES 67 3.2 SUMMARY OF STUDY'S PARTICIPANTS (THIRD QUESTIONNAIRE) .... 67 4.1 IDENTIFIED GENERAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES BY ORDER OF PRIORITY 70 4.2 COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF SECOND AND THIRD QUESTIONNAIRES 108 4.3 COMPARISON OF SECOND AND THIRD QUESTIONNAIRE RANKINGS USING COEFFICIENT OF CONCORDMCE 114 vi

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requi rements" for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A MODIFIED DELPHI STUDY OF OBJECTIVES FOR GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN FLORIDA'S PUBLIC COMMUNITY COLLEGES By Alan John Smith December, 1975 Chairman: Dr. C. Glen Mass Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction Purposes The purposes of this study were to examine how general education has evolved as a philosophy of education, to determine the major theoretical positions which have emerged, and to determine how general education is defined and interpreted in Florida's public cormiunity colleges. The study proposed to determine what a selected group of comnunity college administrators and faculty members believe should be the cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of general education programs in Florida's public community colleges, and what should be the priority of the identified objectives. Procedures The study employed a modified Delphi technique to identify and establish consensus priorities for objectives of general education programs in Florida's public community colleges. A Delphi panel of 109 vi i

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comnunity college administrators and faculty meirters representing twentyfive Florida public community colleges generated a list of thirty-six cognitive, forty-two performance, and forty-three affective objectives. Through the implementation of iterative, sequential questionnaires with controlled opinion feedback, these objectives were ranked according to assessed degree of priority in a community college program of general education. Findings Regarding the general education program, administrators and faculty members in Florida's public comnunity colleges: 1. Believe the student's knowledge of and ability to use language to be a primary concern; they do not believe study of a foreign language should be included. 2. Do not consider important the student's knowledge of or ability to criticize literature and other art forms; he should, however, acquire an appreciation of aesthetics and the arts, and of his own and others' creative ability. 3/ Agree that a major purpose of the program is to enable the student to "learn how to learn." 4. Perceive general education as dealing primarily with the knowledge of principles and basic ideas, and to a lesser degree with the accumulation of specific facts or with mastery of concepts which relate bodies of generalizations and principles. 5. Consider problem solving important, and to a lesser degree, logical reasoning and interpretation skills. vi 1 i

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6. Favor a "problems" approach, with a focus on the relationship between objectives and their relevance to problems of life. 7. Do not consider preparation for a vocation to be an appropriate function of the program, but believe that the student should acquire a desire to succeed in a chosen vocation and a belief in the necessity and value of work. 8. Do not consider religious principles or values to be a legitimate concern of the program. 9. Siijscribe to no single theory of general education. 10. Deem most appropriate those objectives which conform closely witii objectives identified by the 1947 Report of the President's Coimission and the 1950 California Study of General Education in the Junior College , and least important objectives which depart from or add to those of the earlier studies. 11. View the program in all of the following ways: a. as a broad set of fundamental learnings designed to assist the stuctent in becoming an "educated" person and to help him succeed academically. b. as learning experiences which help the student acquire critical thinking skills, especially problem solving and logical reasoning skills. c. as a "survey" of the several fields of knowledge, but not including the humanities or literature. d. as an "instrumental" set of learning experiences which help the student acquire knowledge, ix

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abilities, and values relevant to his personal adjustment and well-being, to his life as a citizen, and to his role in the environment, but not to his role as a consumer, a worker, a family merrber, a civic leader, a member of small groups, a patron of the arts, or a church-goer. X

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION General Introduction There is no battle in the educational world which is raging more furiously at the present time than that which revolves around the question of the character of general education at the junior college level. (Zook, 1939, p. 353) Today, nearly four decades after this observation, there is evidence that community colleges do not yet fully understand their general education function. There remains much confusion about the aims and learning experiences for these programs. Harrison points out that: In spite of the relative consistency of the arguments on behalf of general education, there is strong evidence that this function more than any other, has been interpreted with a great deal of uncertainty by the community college movement [and] ... as the conmunity college has continued successfully to prepare its students for upper-level college and university work, has implemented many types of occupational curricula, and has engaged in a variety of community service activities . . that same understanding has not yet characterized community college efforts in . . . general education. (Harrison, 1973, pp. 83, 85) In his comprehensive study of the community college, Medsker concludes that: The data . . . lead inescapably to the conclusion that junior colleges have made relatively little progress in developing well organized curricula for general education. Among the factors responsible for this was the lack of a compelling conviction that an adequate program of general education requires a conscious and systematic effort. . . (Medsker, 1960, p. 63} In a later study, Thornton reached much the same conclusion regarding general education programs: 1

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The evidence is conclusive that the public junior colleges have not yet, in practice, accepted general education as one of tfteir primary purposes. (Thornton, 1966, p. 209) Such pronouncements, along with the recent proliferation of critical and prescriptive articles in the literature of general education, indicate a widespread uneasiness over the character and quality of general education in »e community college. Moreover, they raise a critical question: Gfven that general education has evolved as one of the public community college's basic curricular functions, why have these institutions failed to develop programs which adequately meet that function? The failure of community colleges to be "flexible, dynamic, new and responsive" m their programs of general education may in large part be due to their failure to adequately clarify the concept of general education, to their arbitrary recognition of the aims of general education, and to their al-fliost universal failure to evaluate the outcomes of general education programs with regard to goals (Quimby, 1969, p. 2). At a time when conflict and change are the order of the day, when "the realms of knowledge and living are rapidly and vastly multiplying—undergoing infinite muta:tions ... day by day" (Strasser, 1973, pp. 48-49), with no one able to keep up, even in highly specialized fields, in short, at a time when the need for general education is in great evidence, public community colleges are faced with answering the question of whether they can continue to package general education in traditional program structures, and whether they can continue to interpret their general education function in terms of abstract, idealistic goals, while overlooking or ignoring "the difficulties in implementing them in concrete curriculums, and the still greater difficulties of evaluating to what extent [they] niake good on wfrat [their] college catalogues promise" (Hook, 1952, p. 12)

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This study focuses on the identification and priorities of objectives for conmunity college programs of general education as a means of clarifying the general education function and enabling more effective evaluation of the general education effort? Statement of the Problem It is evident that a more viable general education curriculum in the public community college is called for— one formulated from a clear understanding of the general education function, consistent with its goals, and based on measurable, explicitly stated objectives or learning outcomes. The first step in building a viable program of general education for the public conmunity college, as it is in any area of curriculum construction or program development, must be to set major goals and related objectives through basic data analysis (Saylor and Alexander, 1974, p. 193). Rugg as cited by Saylor and Alexander (1974, p. 8) made this point nearly five decades ago when he set forth his "Tasks of Curriculum-Making": 1. The determination of fundamental objectives; 2. The selection of activities and other materials of instruction; and, 3. The discovery of the most effective organization of materi al s . In 1971, Tyler as cited by Saylor and Alexander (1974, p. 9) deemed still valid Rugg's "comprehensive outline for curriculum-making and [its] emphasis upon the use of objective studies ... to furnish data on which plans are built." Referring specifically to the community college, Johnson (1960, pp. 520-521) proposed a four-step plan for building a program of general eduoati on :

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1. Define the purposes. 2. Build a structure to achieve the purposes. 3. Operate the structure. 4. Evaluate the program on the basis of its purposes. To complete the "cycle" he further proposed continuous appraisal, leading to program renewal, revision, and refinement. To date, the most significant study to determine the purposes or goals for programs of general education in the public community college has been the California Study of General Education in the Junior College , under the direction of B. Lamar Johnson. This 1950 study generated what has since become the definitive list of goals for general education in the community college {Johnson, 1952, pp. 21-22): The general education program aims to help each student increase his competency in 1. Exercising the privileges and responsibilities of democratic citizenship. 2. Developing a set of sound moral and spiritual values by which he guides his life. 3. Expressing his thoughts clearly in speaking and writing and in reading and listening with understanding. 4. Using the basic mathematical and mechanical skills necessary in everyday life. 5. Using methods of critical thinking for the solution of problems and for the discrimination among values. 6. Understanding his cultural heritage so that he may gain a perspective of his time and place in the world. 7. Understanding his interaction with his biological and physical environment so that he may better adjust to and improve that environment. 8. Maintaining good mental and physical health for himself, his family, and his community. 9. Developing a balanced personal and social adjustment.

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10. Sharing in the development of a satisfactory home and fanrily life. 11. Achieving a satisfactory vocational adjustment. 12. Taking part in some form of satisfying creative activity and in appreciating the creative activities of others. ' Obviously, these commonly accepted goals of general education are not, nor were they at the time of the California study, newly recognized aims of general education. Indeed, such goals, variously stated, appear throughout the literature, including the catalogs of countless conmunity colleges. However, while the broad goals of general education are widely accepted, there is a "sharp difference of opinion and of practice in metiiods of achieving them" (Thornton, 1956, p. 120). Therefore, the present study focuses not on broad goals or fundanental purposes, but on more specific objectives of general education programs as perceived and interpreted by general education faculty members and administrators in Florida's public community colleges. The study attempts to achieve a consensus as to the priority assigned to cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of programs of general education, and in so (toing, to explicate means of bridging the present gap between the broad goals of general education and their realization in terms of specific learning outcomes. A major purpose of this study is to present a coherent and comprehensive picture of general education as a formulated theory and philosophy of education; adjunct to this purpose, the study examines how the major theories which have evolved in the field of general education are interpreted, and to what extent they are embraced by Florida's public conajiunity colleges. A further purpose is to help formulate a conceptual understanding of thse general education function of the public community

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college in Florida in an effort to effectively ascertain its relevance and utility. Need for the Study Cdianiissioner of Education's Policy Statement Evidence of the priority afforded general education programs in Rorida is provided by the Commissioner of Education's 1975 Pol i cy Statement (Turlington, 1974). Section I of the statement, entitled "Goals of Education," specifies seven goals for public education in the State of Florida, listed in priority order of state commitment to them. &sal One on that list concerns basic skills, with emphasis on reading, while Goal Two reads: All Floridians shall acquire the general education fundamental to participation in a democratic society. Referring specifically to the role of the state's public conmunity colleges, the statement affirms that these institutions should "place major eisphasis on general education . . . ." Articulation Agreement The Articulation Agreement Between the State Universities and Public Jwior Colleges of Florida (1971, p. 108) provides that "each institution hsts the continuing responsibility for determining the character of its OMi [general education] program," the only stipulation being that the prt^ram involve "not fewer than thirty-six semester hours of academic credit." Furthermore, once the individual colleges have developed and piifalished their general education programs, the articulation agreement provides that the integrity of the programs will be recognized by all

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other public postsecondary institutions within the state. The agreement encourages the public community colleges to "exchange ideas in the development and improvement of programs of general education," and to "work cooperatively in the development and improvement of general education." In spite of the latitude which the articulation agreement affords Florida's public community colleges, programs of general education in these institutions remain fixed in traditional credit-hour and required course patterns. A sunmary of required general education courses in Florida's public community colleges is provided in Table 1.1 (McDonald, 1975). The fundamental justification for this study is the need to identify specific objectives for general education programs in Florida's public community colleges, as a basis for the development of innovative, progressive, and relevant programs of general education under the provisions of the articulation agreement and the mandate of the Commissioner of Education's Policy Statement . Specifically, the study should serve as the initial step in a process of curriculum development which, when fully formulated, would: 1. Provide an operational definition of what is meant by the term "general education." 2. Provide an explicit set of criteria on the basis of which general education programs may be effectively evaluated. 3. Provide a basis for selection of modes of instruction which are more in concert with the desired learning outcomes of general education programs. 4. Present to students the objectives of general education programs in terms of the kinds of knowledge, behavior.

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n attitudes, and values they are expected to acquire and the need for doing so. 5. Specify and make clear those objectives of general education programs which have utility for all students in the : public community college, regardless of special interests or educational and occupational goals. 6. Promote institutional selfrenewal by providing a basis for continuing appraisal and revision of general education offerings, and by facilitating the convergence of student learning expectations with instructional objectives. It is proposed that the results of this study will serve as a basis for the development of a curricular model for general education programs which will ultimately incorporate goals and objectives, instructional modes, and evaluation procedures. It is further proposed that this study will serve as a stimulant to the relatively conservative fiinking which has heretofore characterized approaches to general education in Florida's public" community colleges. Definitions Public Conmunity College-a two-year post-secondary educational institution which is supported by and accountable to the public. Its functions usually include: (1) preparation for advanced study, (2) career education, (3) guidance and counseling, (4) developmental education, (5) general education, and (6) comnunity service. General Education— refers to nonspecialized, nonvocational education aimed at developing knowledge, attitudes, values, abilities, and behavior considered desirable by society.

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12 General Education Program— the organizational framework within the public community college which directs and coordinates the delivery of the general education effort. Participant. Respondent, or Delphi Panel Memberany full -time professional staff member in a public community college in Florida identified by the president of that community college as one who has special knowledge of and/or responsibility for planning, organizing, administering, and/or teaching in its general education program. General Education Program Goal— the broad statement of an end, a result, or an achievement toward which the general education effort is directed; the broad, significant outcomes desired from the general education progr« (Saylor and Alexander, 1974, p. 148). General Education Program Objecti ve-an explicit statement in specific terms of the nature of the ends sought in the learning opportunities provided within general education programs (Saylor and Alexander, 1974, p. 148). Cognitive Objective of General Education Program— the specific factual knowledge that students are expected to acquire as a result of participation In the learning experiences of a general education program. Performance Objective of General Education Program— the specific, overt changes in student behavior that are expected to result from participation in the learning experiences of a general education program. Affective Objective of General Education Program— the specific attitudes and values that students are expected to acquire as a result of participation in the learning experiences of a general education program. Delphi Tedinique-a procedure for obtaining greater consensus among experts without face-to-face discussion, achieved through a carefully

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13 designed program of sequential individual interrogations, conducted by questionnaire with controlled opinion feedback, the first questionnaire being open-ended (Helmer and Rescher, 1959, p. 47). Modified Delphi Technique — the procedure set forth for using the Delphi Technique in this study. Questions The specific problem with which this research deals is to identify and determine the order of priority of what a selected group of community college administrators and faculty members believe should be the objectives of a general education program in Florida's public community colleges. Relative to this problem, answers to the following specific questions were sought: 1. Vffiat should be the cognitive objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? 2. What should be the performance objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public conmunity colleges? 3. What should be the affective objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? 4. What should be the priority of the identified cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? Procedures Identification of Participants Presidents of the twenty-eight public community colleges in Florida were contacted {Appendix A) and asked to identify administrators and

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14 faculty members on their staffs with special knowledge of general education or whose primary responsibilities lay in planning, organizing, administering, and/or teaching in the general education programs in their colleges. Each president was asked to designate those administrators most familiar with the general education program at their institution, as well as at least one general education faculty member from each of the following major curriculum areas: math-science, communications, humanities, and social sciences. Twenty-six presidents responded, and a list of one hundred and sixty-six (166) prospective Delphi panel members was compiled. One hundred and nine (109) of these community college administrators and faculty members ultimately comprised the Delphi panel (Appendix B). Data Collection Process Collection of the data was carried out in three phases. Phase I: Generation of the objectives (first questionnaire) The identified participants were sent the first questionnaire (Appendix C) which consisted of: (1) an introduction to the nature of the study, including an explanation of the Delphi procedure to be used in the study, and (2) the instrument, a form on which the participants were asked to list what they believe should be the knowledge, abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and values acquired by students as a result of participation in the learning experiences of a general education program in the public community colleges of Florida. One hundred and nine (109) of the identified participants responded to the first questionnaire, representing twenty-five of the twenty-eight public community colleges in Florida (Appe?idix B).

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15 Phase II: Priority ranking of the identified objectives (second questionnaire) From the input on the first, open-ended questionnaire, a second-round instrument was developed. Responses to the first questionnaire (Appendix D) were reviev#ed, summarized, and phrased as cognitive, performance, and affective objectives on the second questionnaire (Appendix E). A total of one hundred and twenth-one (121) objectives were identified. The second questicmnaire was then sent to the participants, who were asked to respond to each objective by indicating their assessment of the degree of priority it should be afforded in a public community college program of general education. They were asked to indicate their responses on a scale ranging from 1 ("minimum priority") to 5 ("maximum priority") and were encouraged to make any comments concerning their response to particular objectives in the "comment" space provided. Responses were received from ninety-one (91) of the one hundred and nine participants. Phase III: Fiaal priority ranking of the identified objectives (ttrird questionnai re) Responses from the second questionnaire were used to calculate a consensus position for each of the identified objectives. It was determined that the median (that point on the scale above and below which fifty percent of the responses fell) was the most appropriate measure of central tendency. In computing the median response for each objective, data were treated as continuous and an interval scale set up as follows (Young and VeTcfean, 1972, pp. 55-56): 1 ("minimum priority"): 0.500-1.499 2 ("low priority"): 1.500-2.499

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16 3 ("medium priority"): 2.500-3.499 4 ("high priority"): 3.500-4.499 5 ("maximum priority"): 4.500-5.000 On the third questionnaire (Appendix F) the median (consensus) response for each objective was circled. The third questionnaire was then sent to tlie original one hundred and nine (109) participants. It was felt that, despite the fact that only ninety-one (91) responses to the second qtKL-stionn aire (Phase II) were received, the opportunity to dissent from the consensus rating which was provided for in the third questionnaire (Phase III) would afford each of the original group of participants tke opportunity to express an individual opinion. The participants were requested to study each item again and to respond in the following manner: if their previous priority on any item differed from the consensus (median), they were asked to (a) change their rating to conform with the consensus, or (b) state the reason why the consensus resporrse did not represent their opinion. Space was provided for comments. This allowed for the development of a final priority listing of the identified one hundred and twenty-one (121) objectives as well as an indication of the reasons for minority opinions. Responses to the third and final questionnaire were received from eighty-seven (87) participants. These responses were used to recalculate the consensus priorities and to prepare a summary report for each item, to include minority or dissenting opinions, as presented in Table 4.1. A median, mode, and mean were calculated for each of the identified objectives for general education programs in Florida's public community colleges.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The literature of a subject as comprehensive and superincumbent as general education is so prolific that, as a matter of practicality, a review of that literature can only hope to touch the tip of the iceberg. This review will, however, address the salient points of the debate surrounding the theory and practice of general education, particularly as that debate concerns the public community college. Specifically, this review of the literature will treat the following areas: (1) the origins and development of general education; (2) the major theoretical positions on general education; (3) the purposes of general education; (4) the concept of general education, including general versus liberal education, general versus special education, and definitions of general education; and (5) general education in the community college, including the general education function, patterns of general education, and present concerns regafding general education. Finally, there is a review of the literature of the Delphi technique. Origins and Development In order to derive a clear and coherent picture of general education as a formulated theory and philosophy of education, it is first necessary to consider a brief account of its origins and historical development. In so doing, this review is drawn substantially from the following 17

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18 sources: Bell (1968), Brubacher and Rudy (1958), Blackman (1969), and Good and Teller (1969). Classical Origins Good and Teller (1969, p. 36) trace the origins of general education to ancient Greece and Rome, where free men, or men who did not need to work for a living, studied music, gramnar, rhetoric, arithmetic, reading, writing, drawing, and physical training. Education was intended primarily for use in the cultivation of what Aristotle called the "leisurely arts," or what modern men refer to as liberal studies— "those that cultivate the higher gifts in contrast with occupational or recreational activities." Blackman (1969, p. 522) notes that, for example, in Plato's Academy and in Aristotle's Lyceum hi^er education embraced almost the entire range of philosophy known to us today, and the goals of education were taken to be beauty, truth, and goodness, rather than profit, wealth, and vocational success. In the medieval universities, state Good and Teller (1969, p. 70), undergraduates (up to the master's degree) studied the seven liberal arts comprising the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, dialect) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). A student who was interested in the practical could study law, medicine, or theology, but only at the graduate (post-master's) level. Harking back to Plato and Aristotle and Greek educational custom, educated feudal lords studied the liberal arts; they were gentlemen, "and as such they hunted, fought, and engaged in sports and entertainment." Serfs handled the physical, or vocational work. Higher education was characterized by the view that liberal or "general" education was exclusively for the educated

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19 aHstocracy. and conversely, that any type of specialized education wa: relegated to the masses. This view, as Blackman (1969, p. 522) notes, prevailed for centuries: Down through the first part of the nineteenth century, at Oxford and Cartridge and on the Continent, the view prevailed that general education was for the aristocrat and technical training was for the lower classes. Aaierican Background Beginning with Harvard in 1636, colleges were established in colonial Africa based on the OxfordCambridge model. Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 24) observe that: The colonial American college was in many ways a blood brother to its English model. Like the latter, it upheld the tradition of a prescribed liberal -arts curriculum, based upon a primarily classical preparatory course; it was more deeply concerned with the forming of character than the fostering of research; it placed great value on a residential pattern of life for students and it was concerned primarily with training a special elite for community leadership. By the time of the Revolutionary War, Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p., 78) point out, there were nine colonial colleges: Harvard, William anitd Mary, Yale, College of New Jersey, King's, Dartmouth, College of Phffladelphia, College of Rhode Island, and Queen's--all committed to gejneral -liberal education. As westward expansion progressed, observes Blackman (1959, p. 522), hundreds of new colleges were established, tcminly by Protestant denominations committed to the traditions of medieval ami colonial education. Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 289) note that Ajmsrican colleges and universities held steadfastly to the fundannntal palicies of the classical liberal arts curriculum, and without essential cheEJi^ge., for nearly two hundred years. BTackman (1969, p. 522) observes that, with the Industrial Revolution

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20 in America, rose a public demand for a more practical sort of higher education than the traditional patterns of liberal education. A few voices were raised against what was seen as the limited and impractical nature of the traditional curriculum. Some educators spoke for a "parallel" course— "not a substitute for the classical curriculum but an alternative that would permit the study of modern languages, more mathematics, English, and the sciences." Yale Report Perceiving such notions as a threat to traditional studies and the integrity of the classical curriculum, a committee of the Yale faculty issued the Yale Faculty Report of 1828 , which gave explicit and systematic statement to the principles of liberal education, whidi had up to this time been taken entirely for granted (Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, p. 290). Further, the committee declared that the college had neither the time nor facilities to teach "vocational" studies. The report, almost singlehandedly, determined the theory and practice of general -liberal education throughout the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Blackman (1969, p. 523) notes that, in spite of the Yale Report, as the nation became more democratic and increasingly industrial, technological, practical, and urban, more and more people demanded an education which was in larger measure vocational. Business and industry pressured colleges to serve the nation's needs by providing practical training — the new railroads, canals, highways, and factories created a need for technicians and for technically trained managerial personnel. With the passage of the Morrill Act, signed by President Lincoln in 1862, there came a turning point in American higher education— away from the generalliberal to the utilitarian-vocational .

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Morrill Act The Morrill Act (Land Grant Act) established the land grant colleges and universities, through which undergraduate training in agriculture, technical fields, preprofessional , and professional subjects won a permanant place in American higher education. The states were provided with resources--through the sale of government lands--for establishing at least one college in each state where agricultural and mechanical subjects (and military tactics) were offered. Not only did this represent a significant departure from the traditional classical curriculum, but the doors to higher education in America were opened to a whole new class of people. According to Mayhew (1956, p. 190) the provision of educational opportunities under the Morrill Act brought about "a more liberal approach by those colleges which had begun to harden into aristocratic institutions." Further, he notes: . . .it brought the influence of the federal government squarely into educational matters, thus permitting over the decades to follow the deeper democratic tendencies of the entire nation to triumph over the ephemeral, aristocratic urges of specific regions. The effect of the Morrill Act, then, was to diminish the significance of general -liberal education in favor of teaching and research in the "practical arts" (Blackman, 1969, p. 523). The German University In the decades following the Civil War, the influence of the German universities in American higher education posed a threat to the survival of general -liberal education at the undergraduate level. Blackman (1969, p. 523) describes the Gerran university as an institution . . . where nsen learned to be highly trained specialists who

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would later do some teaching to other prospective specialists but whose primary values were related to original research, the graduate seminar, the laboratory, the learned monograph, the journals, and the conventions of their disciplines. Some ten thousand Americans studied abroad at German universities during the nineteenth century, note Good and Teller (1969, p. 376), some of whom became very influential in American higher education. Interestingly enough, many of these men declared that American universities should close their dormitories and abandon the philosophy of in loco parentis — that the nation's colleges should become two-year institutions offering general studies and not attempting to become involved in specialized fields (Blackman, 1969, p. 524). Elective System Another development which further undermined general education, according to Blackman (1969, p. 524) was the elective system, first introduced at Harvard, where students could take whatever courses they chose to, and which at its extreme led to almost total specialization at the undergraduate level. The elective system, contined with the influence of the German university, produced in American colleges and universities academic departments which offered courses in depth and allowed the undergraduate to emerge as a specialist who "would go directly into some form of work or who would pursue his specialty in graduate or professional school" (Blackman, 1969, p. 524). Blackman (1969, p. 524) simmarizes the state of general education at the turn of the century: The growing technical needs of an increasingly complex society, the demands by students, parents, and employers for specialists, the Morrill Act, the influence of the German universities, and

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23 the elective system— all combined to create among thoughtful observers the fear that education in America's colleges and universities would produce highly specialized men who wholly lacked the characteristics of true humanity, the special province of general education. General Education Movement In the early twentieth century these fears spawned at a number of American colleges and universities a series of reforms which reasserted the basic primacy of general education. As Blackman (1969, p. 524) notes, these reforms became knavn collectively as the "general education movement." The origins of the general education movement are often traced to the inauguration of Columbia College's "Contemporary Civilization" course in 1917, and its zenith is commonly marked by Harvard's publication of General Education in a Free Society in 1946 (Anderson, 1973, p. 41). Blackman (1969, p. 525) states that the latter document, along with Higher Education for American Democracy , published in 1947, transformed the nature of the controversy surrounding general education. Whereas previously general education had been considered as that portion of a student's undergraduate program which lay outside his area of specialization, it now began to be interpreted in more utilitarian terms. Specific objectives— with emphasis on democracy, responsible citizenship, the dignity of man, and similar values— were spelled out (Blackman, 1969, p. 525). Harvard University General Education Study The self-stated purpose of the Harvard University report. General Education in a Free Society (1946, pp. 56-57) was:

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24 . . . to ameliorate some of the shortcomings of the elective system, and [the report] consists of requirements concerning how, in the interest of breadth, a student should distribute a portion of his courses among the various areas or departments . Further, the report stated: . . . there are altogether valid reasons for requiring students to have some things in comrron, but the reason for a comnon body of learning and of ideas should not be confused with the quite different reasons for an approach to learning more conducive to the objectives of a general education than are courses designed primarily for specialists or would-be specialists. (Report of the Harvard Conmittee, 1946, p. 190) The committee advocated "a general education capable at once of taking on many different forms and yet representing in all its forms the common knowledge and the common values on which a free society depends" (Report of the Harvard Committee, 1946, p. 58), and compared general education . . . the trunk of a tree from which branches, representing specialism go off at different heights, at high school or junior college or college or graduate school— the points, that is, at which various groups end their formal school. (Report of the Harvard Committee, 1946, p. 102) The general education aim identified by the Harvard study, according to Stoutamire (1975, pp. 50-51), was to "provide students with the necessary intellectual skills to identify competence in any discipline." The student abilities identified as imperative for meeting this aim were: 1. To think effectively 2. To communicate thought 3. To make relevant judgements 4. To discriminate among values 5. Some common body of information and ideas. (Report of the Harvard Committee, 1946, p. 55) Report of the President's Commission on Higher Education As a rationale for general education. Higher Education for American Democracy (1947, pp. 47-43) stated:

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25 Present college programs are not contributing adequately to the quality of student's lives either as workers or as citizens. This is true in large part because the unity of liberal education has been splintered by over-specialization . . . Today's college graduate may have gained technical or professional training in one field of work or another, but is only incidentally, if at all, made ready for performing his duties as a man, a parent, and a citizen ... A society whose members lack a body of common experience is a society without a fundamental culture; it tends to disintegrate into a mere aggregation of individuals. Some commonality of values, ideas, and attitudes is essential as a cohesive force in this age of minute division of labor and intense conflict of special interests. The crucial task of higher education today, therefore, is to provide a unified general education for American youth . . . Anderson (1973, p. 41) attributes the subsequent decline of the general education movement to three powerful social forces: first, the knowledge explosion, which increased student options and made specialization a necessity if depth of learning was to be possible; second, the "powerful surge" of science and the social sciences, which diminished the status of the humanities; and third, "pragmatism" or "instrumentalism," which emerged as the fundamental philosophical position for American life and education. Others suggest such reasons as the growth of departmentalism, lack of administrative support, poorly implemented instructional techniques, lack of effective evaluation, and the public demand for specific curricula leading to specific careers for which there is a demonstrable market (Kellams, 1973; Little, 1974). Major Theories of General Education Brubacher and Rudy (1968, pp. 239306) trace the histoncal forces which shaped theory in general education through five distinct theoretical positions: (1) mental discipline, (2) humanism, (3) rationalism, (4) naturalism, and (5) eclecticism.

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26 Mental Discipline Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 290) attribute the advance of the theory of mental discipline to the Yale Faculty Report of 1828 . Based in faculty psychology and Aristotelian mental philosophy, this theory held that the mind was "a self-active principle manifesting itself in various powers or faculties such as memory, reason, and imagination." The purpose of a college education, according to the theory, was to produce a "whole" or "all-around" man, to form as well as inform the mind, and to provide the "furniture" (factual knowledge) and discipline (judgement, memory, imagination, and habits of thought) of the mind. The mind, like a room, had to be filled; like a muscle, it required exercise (Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, pp. 290-292). The mental discipline theory maintained that: ... by exercising these powers or faculties, students developed mental power which could be transferred at will from one study to another and from studies in general to the occupations of life. (Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, p. 290) Applied to the general education curriculum, the mental discipline theory concerned itself with intellectual (liberal) studies, to the exclusion of practical (vocational) ones. Brubacher and Rudy (1968, pp. 292-294) attribute the eventual passing of the mental discipline theory, in the early decades of the twentieth century, primarily to the increasing democratization of American higher education, and to a series of scientific experiments which discounted the idea that transfer of learning occurs automatically from one subject to another. These experiments, however, failed to convince those who claimed and do claim that transfer can not be completely denied. Transfer does occur, they argue, when there are identical elements in

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the items learned, and when these similarities are pointed out. Such views led to the position that general education could be concerned with the structure of knowledge, with discovering that structure, and consequently, with the principles of inquiry rather than with substantive truth or facts. Humanism General education, according to the theory of humanism (Brubacher, 1968, pp. 296-297), should focus on the "whole man," the "educated man," and on the harmony of his rational and emotional natures. Knowledge is seen as good in and of itself, and emphasis is placed on the unity of si&ject matter. The "educated man" is seen as ideal, existing quite apart from his social status or vocational destiny, and his development as a useful and effective citizen is seen as a by-product of his own intrinsic worth rathier than as an object of the general education prograsRThis concept of the "educated man" is held by many modem educators For example, Woodring (1968, pp. 202-203) as quoted in Little (1974, p. 85) maintains that the following description of the "educated man" represents "a considerable amount of agreement among those who have ttought deeply about the matter," and that it has received "widespread acceptance . . . throughout the academic consminity": The liberally educated man is articulate, both in speech and writing. He has a feel for language, a respect for clarity and directness of expression, and a knowledge of some language other than his own. He is at home in the world of quantity, number and measurement. He thinks rationally, logically, objectively, and knows tiie difference between fact and opinion. When the occasion demands, however, his thought is imaginative and creative rather than logical. Ha is oerceptive, sensitive tc form and affected by beauty. He knows a good deal about the world of nature and the world of man.

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28 about the culture of which he is a part, but he is never merely "well informed." He can use what he knows, with judgement and discrimination. He thinks of his business or profession, his family life, and his avocations as parts of a larger whole, parts of a purpose which he has made his own. Whether making a professional or a personal decision, he acts with maturity, balance, and perspective which comes ultimately from his knowledge of other persons, other problems, other times and places. He has convictions, which are reasoned, although he cannot always prove them. He is tolerant about the beliefs of others because he respects sincerity and is not afraid of ideas. He has values, and he can communicate them to others not only by word but by example. His personal standards are high; nothing short of excellence will satisfy him. But service to his society or to his God, not personal satisfaction alone, is the purpose of his excelling. Above all, the liberally-educated man is never a type. He is always a unique person, vivid in his distinction from other similarly educated persons, while sharing with them the traits . . . mentioned. To Mark Van Doren (1943, Preface) quoted by Little (1974, p. 93), "the way to produce individual intellects is to teach all students the same things, and of course the best things." Humanism, in Little's perception, purports that: Equipped with a knowledge of fundamental truths, the "educated man" is capable of using his intellect to discern the lesser truths of life and the world, and thus to chart his course wisely and honorably ... The acquisition of true learning requires extremely high measures of intelligence, discipline, and perseverance, which are found in few men or women. When they exist, however, they are of such importance that the education of a few such persons each generation is sufficient to justify general education as an academic enterprise. (Little, 1974, p. 93) Rati onalism Rationalism as a theory of general education is based on metaphysical absolutes about the nature of man, the nature of truth, and the nature of value, according to Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 297). The theory holds that man is essentially a rational being, and therefore that the essence of education is the cultivation of the intellect; since human nature is intrinsically the sa-ne, intellectual excellence is the

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proper aim of general education. The proper content of the general education curriculum, therefore, is seen as "the wisdom of the ages"; in the "great books" lay the great storehouse of rational principles underlying the universe, arranged in a hierarchy based on their ability to bring out the human in man and waiting to be grasped by the rational insight of the student. The sciences, while thought to be too empirical and anti -intellectual in their concentration on the accumulation of facts, are to take the.ir place alongside the humanities in general education, but only within the framework of ultimate principles. The values of general education are seen as self-contained, intrinsic, not depending on the use to which they could be employed. Hence, vocational studies are seen as inferior to "liberal" subjects in college courses. Consequently, general education in the rational view is seen as training for thinking in long-range theoretical perspective; specific applications in contemporary social or vocational settings should be left to technical or professional schools, and to life (Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, pp. 297300). Naturalism The theory of naturalism draws support from the philosophy of pragmatism as well as that of liberalism and democracy. Naturalism, as a theory of general education, envisions a relationship between theory and practice, between conceptualization and application. Concepts are seen, not as primary objects of knowledge (as in the rationalist and humanist views), but as ways of knowing reality. Theory is seen as an instrument of inquiry--a proposed line of solution to a problem. Vocational subjects thus become a significant part of the curriculum, since occupational

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30 life provides the context within which theory is tested. The instrumental value of general education lies in the close affinity bet/veen general and specialized studies (Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, pp. 297-305). Eclecticism Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 305) note that by mid-twentieth century, two fundamentally different philosophies regarding general education had evolved. On one hand were those who saw general education as having evolved in relation to historical forces. Initially, general education reflected aristocratic interests which had dominated Europe from the Renaissance back to ancient Greece. This was its character in colonial America and up tfi rough the eighteenth century. Scientific, technological, economic, and ascendant democratic forces shaped general education beyond that time. On the other hand were those who espoused the universality of general education, who maintained that it was the same for all men everywhere and always. Rooted in a metaphysical, absolutist view of man and knowledge, it was independent of history. The Harvard report on General Education in a Free Society (1945) represented a major effort to face the schism of theory in general education by espousing an eclectic view. The committee stated: The true task of education is . . . so to reconcile the sense of pattern and direction deriving from heritage with the sense of experiinent and innovation deriving from science that they may exist fruitfully together . . . (Report of the Harvard Committee, "1946, p. 50, quoted in Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, p. 306) The report, in attempting to strike a mean between, on the one hand the humanist-rationalists, and on the other, -tfie naturalists, apparently satisfied neither school. Tne defenders of the "heritage" regarded the

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31 report as too brash, while the defenders of "experiment" saw it as too mild. The evident impasse between the genteel tradition of European arts and letters and the new proletarian and technological culture precluded a synthesis of theory. Consequently, a contradictory and stormy eclecticism has emerged as the nearest thing to compromise in general education (Brubacher and Rudy, 1968, pp. 305-306). Bell (1968, p. 1) detects the manifestation of this eclecticism when he points out the "paradoxical assumptions" of our culture in which our colleges are entwined: ... a desire for cultivation along with a utilitarian purpose ' to education, a populist spirit in the classroom ... and a respect for learning, a training for citizenship, yet a skepticism about laws, a deference to himianitas and an emphasis on the acquisition of technique and training for the purpose of a career. Rice (1972, p. 531) envisions the "schism of theory" in general education as a distinction between general and "traditional" education. He maintains that general education, historically as a movement and from its beginnings as a theory of education, has been existential in its orientation, as opposed to "traaitional " education, which has been "essentialistically oriented." That is, while the curriculum pedagogies and procedures of general education were developed in "reflective, concerned dialogue with the present, with the contemporary, and with students whose lives were being lived in that present," traditional education "held its dialogues with the past, man's heritage, the moral and cultural verities by which he guided his life and counted his successes; its metier was the disciplines, the knowledge, refined and abstracted from that dialogue." In the community colleges, the "schism of theory" in general education has shown up in programmatic distinctions. Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 265) observe:

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32 For the [transfer student], general education tended to take its character from the categories into, which liberal education in the four-year college were either traditionally cast or were being recently reorganized. For the [terminal student], general education developed a new set of categories based on phases of current living. Purposes of General Education The "phases of current living" mentioned by Brubacher and Rudy above as developed for programs of general education owe an indebtedness to the goals for general education spelled out in the report of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education (1918), known collectively as the "cardinal principles of education." In preface to their list of the principles, the commission stated what it believed to be the purpose of education in a democracy: . . . education in a democracy, both within and without the school, should develop in each individual the knowledge, interests, ideals, habits, and powers whereby he will find his place and use that place to shape both himself and society toward ever nobler ends. (Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, 1918, p. 9, quoted in Saylor and Alexander, 1974, p. 163) Specifically, the seven principles or "areas of daily living" which the conmission identified were: 1. Health 2. Command of fundamental processes 3. Worthy homemembers hip 4. Vocation 5. Civic education 6. Worthy use of leisure 7. Ethical character (Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, 1918, pp. 11-15, quoted in Saylor and Alexander, 1974, pp. 163-164) Two reports of the National Education Association's Educational Policies Commission provided a more explicit categorization of goals for general education. First, the Purposes of Education in American Democracy (1938, pp. 50, 72, 90, 108) as cited by Saylor and Alexander (1974, p. 155)

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proposed that goals be defined in terms of four aspects of human responsibility: 1. The objectives of self-realization 2. The crf)jectives of human relationships 3. The objectives of economic efficiency 4. The objectives of civic responsibility. Second, Education for All American Youth (1944, pp. 225-226) quoted in Saylor and Alexander (1974, pp. 165-166) proposed the "Imperative Needs of Youth": 1. All youth need to develop salable skills and those understandings and attitudes that make the worker an intelligent and productive participant in economic life. To this end, most youth need supervised work experience as well as an education in the skills and knowledge of their occupations. 2. All youth need to develop and maintain good health and physical fitness. 3. All youth need to understand tiie rights and duties of the citizens of a deinocratic society, and to be diligent and competent in the performance of their obligations as members of the coninunity and citizens of the state and nation. 4. All youth need to understand the significance of the family for the individual and society and the conditions conducive to successful family life. 5. All youth need to know how to purchase and use goods and services intelligently, understanding both the values received by the consumer and the economic consequences of their acts. 6. All youth need to understand the methods of science, the influence of science on human life, and the main scientific facts concerning the nature of the world and of man. 7. ATI youth need opportunities to develop their capacities to appreciate beauty in literature, art, music, and nature. 8. All youth need to be able to use their leisure time well and to budget It wisely, balancing activities that yield satisfactions to the individual with those that are socially useful. 9. All youth need to develop respect for other persons, to grow in their insight into ethical values and principles, and to be able to live and work cooperatively with others.

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34 10. All youth need to grow in their ability to think rationally, to express their thoughts clearly, and to read and listen with uncterstanding. Greatly inlHuenced by these documents, the purposes of general education then, according to Brubacher and Rudy (1968, p. 265) were to help the student: . . . continue an interest in personal and community health, lay the basis for a satisfying family life, develop an informed citizenship, choose a personally gratifying and socially useful vocation, cultivate skills in oral and written communication, and encourage critical examination of [his] social values. The Report of the President's Cormiission on Higher Education, Hi gher Education for American Democracy (1947, pp. 47-49) as cited in Blackman (1969, p. 525) held that general education should provide an understanding of one's cultural heritage, ethical values, scientific generalizations, and aesthetic conceptions as well as insight into our social institutions. Specific objectives for general education identified by the commission include the following: to develop a personal ethical code which is consistent with the ideals of democracy, to participate actively in the affairs of society at all levels, to understand other cultures and try to foster international peace, to understand common phenomena in the physical environment and especially the methods of the scientist, to be able to coirmunicate effectively, to attain satisfactory emotional adjustment, to maintain one's own health, to understand and enjoy aesthetic experiences and to share in some creative activity, to have a satisfying family life, to select an occupation realistically, and to think critically. Bell (1968, p. 8) believes the function of general education to be to "teach modes of conceptualization, explanation, and verification of knowledge . . . not wha^ one knows but how one knows." He delineates

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35 as his objectives for general education: 1. To overcome intellectual provincialism 2. To appreciate the central fty of method (that is, the role of conceptual inquiry and innovation, which varies with each discipline) 3. To gain an awareness of history 4. To show how ideas relate to social structures 5. To understand the way values infuse all inquiry 6. To demonstrate the civilizing role of the humanities. As mentioned in the previous chapter, the most significant study to determine goals for programs of general education in the public community college has been the California Study of General Education in the Junior College . The list of goals resulting from this study appear in Johnson (1952, pp. 21-22) and are delineated in the previous chapter (pp. 4-5). The Concept of General Education General Education versus Liberal Education Attempts to clarify the concept of general education have often become sidetracked in the debate over the distinction between "liberal" and "general" education. Little (1974, p. 107) considers them to be overlapping concepts, both concerned with: ... the whole range of coursework beyond the "major," that is, beyond the courses that prepare students for careers and for entry into graduate schools. Blackman (1969, p. 525) agrees, contending that efforts to dissolve the semantic confusion between general and liberal education are essentially futile since the terms have been "used interchangeably by too many people for too long a period of time to lend themselves to useful distinction." The term "general education" is perhaps more widely used today especially in the community college, and as Blackman (1969, p. 525)

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points out, "liberal education" is often felt to have undesirable connotations. The term "general education" also seems to more clearly incorporate the emphasis on democracy, responsible citizenship, and human dignity which has characterized the goals of general education in recent years. The Report of the President's Commission on Higher Education (1947, p. 47), for example, maintains that general education differs from liberal education in that the forn>er has greater interest in the contemporary, the relevant, the world around us. Dressel (1960, p. 62) points out that "liberal" is used to denote study in depth within the traditional disciplines of arts and sciences, while "general" suggests courses intended to serve not as stepping-stones to more advanced courses in the same area, but rather as courses complete in themselves for students not planning to major in the particular field. Stoutamire (1975, pp. 47-48) contends that "the relationship of general education to the term liberal education is one of degree," and that "general education was an attempt to revise and redefine the purpose of liberal education." She points out the uncertainty among writers on usage of the terms, and quoting Mayhew (1960, p. 10) asserts that the definitions given by many writers vary considerably: ... to some, general education is the older liberal arts in modem clothes; to others it is the liberal arts without the aristocratic connotations of that term; to still others general education is but a segment of the older liberal arts curriculum. Perhaps the best way to clarify the concept of general education is not by restatement of old distinctions, but by formulation of a new terminology. McGrath (1972, p. 8) suggests that perhaps today we might find another term for the modem concept of general education, and the Carnegie Corrmission (1972, pp. 42-43) recommends abandoning the nomenclature of "general education" and "liberal education" because both carry "connotations

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37 of past efforts at a general coverage of all essential knowledge," which it feels is impossible. Instead, the coimiission prefers the concept of a "broad learning experience," which allows: ... a chance to comprehend some major aspect of world cultures and human thought; a chance to get a wider perspective than the discipline or the individual elective provides; a chance to learn outside familiar paths, to absorb new points of view, to approach big problems and absorb data about them and to analyze them; a chance to expand the competence to think about broad new areas and to understand broad new situations; a chance, even, to discover some new interest that may lead to a new field of major concentration. General Education versus Special Education Among the writers in general education, there is substantial agreement that an undergraduate or community college program should provide for a balance between specialized and general education, and that demands by the specialists for more of a student's time should be resisted. For example, the Report of the Harvard Committee (1946, p. 53) addressed the question of: . . . the right relationship between specialistic training, on the one hand, aiming at any one of a thousand different destinies, and education in a common heritage and tavard a common citizenship on the other. Attempting to clarify the concept of general education as opposed to special education the Harvard Committee (1946, pp. 56-57) stated that: ... a general education is distinguished from special education, not by subject matter, but in terms of method and outlook . . . Just as [we regard] the courses in concentration as having definite relations to one another, so should we envisage general education as an organic whole whose parts join in expounding a ruling idea and in serving a comon aim. Bell (1968, p. 285), however, rejects the dichotomy between general and specialized studies, contending that in both cases the emphasis is

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on conceptual inquiry. Indeed, his idea of general education places emphasis on the essential explication of underlying conceptual foundations of knowledge. He contends (1968, p. 159) that: One must eirbody and exemplify general education through dis. ciplines; and one must extend the context of specialism so that the ground of knowledge is explicit ... The common bond of the two is the emphasis on conceptual inquiry . . . In effect, general education is education in the conduct and strategy of inquiry itself. Further, he declares (1968, p. 285) that: There is mudi truth in what is said about specialization, but its consequences are misinterpreted. Specialization cain_ lead to a narrowing of vision and an overconcem with vocation, but if that specialized knowledge is acquired in a context of inquiry ... and if a student learns not "received doctrine" but the modes of conceptual innovation, then special learning can be as liberal ... as the study of the humanities. Blackman (1969, p. 528) summarizes the position of those who seek a synthesis or balance in general and special education: It is often argued that courses in specialized or practical fields may be of substantial value— or may be taught in such a way as to be of substantial value--to the general education of the student. Another voice for a balance between general and specialized courses is McGrath (1962, p. 300), quoted in Verma (1973, p. 62), who believes that: All [occupational] programs should include a sufficiently broad component of general studies to prepare students for the responsibilities outside their profession. Definitions of General Education The difficulty in differentiating between general and liberal, and between general and special education may be largely attributed to the diverse, ambiguous, and often disparate definitions given to the term general education. Johnson (1952, p. 19), for example, indicates that

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39 the term has been variously defined as "that education which leads to the major fields of knowledge and the interrelations between them . . . the nonspecialized and nonvocational education which should be the heritage of all . . . education for the common life, . . . education educating a man's humanity rather than indulging his individuality, and as that form of education which prepares people for their common activities as citizens in a free society." Mayhew (1960, p. 9) indicates the scope of the problem in defining general education by pointing out that "one major criticism is that general education is really a meaningless term since people define it in almost any way their fancies dictate." Moreover, the Harvard Committee Report (1946, p. 51) calls the term "somewhat vague and colorless." The report goes on to offer its own definition. General education: . . . does not mean some airy education in general, nor does it mean education for all in the sense of universal education ... It is used to indicate that part of a student's whole education which looks first of all to his life as a responsible human being and citizen. The Dictionary of Education (1959, p. 245) cited in Johnson (1960, p. 517) defines general education as the: Broad type of learning aimed at developing attitudes, abilities, and behavior considered desirable by society but not necessarily preparing the learner for specialized types of vocational or avocational pursuits. McGrath (1974, p. 282) describes general education as "that which prepares the young for the common life of their time and kind." He also states (1972, p. 8) that it: . . . consists of the congress of knowledge, the complement of skills, and the cluster of personal traits and attitudes which all human beings, regardless of their special interests or occupations , must have to live a civically enlightened and a personally satisfying life.

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Stoutamire (1975, p. 54) quotes Barbara Jones' (1946, p. 119) del ition of general education: It is education of the indi vidual-as-a-whole in the cultureas-a-whole. It should be general education in two senses, in that it links the individual with his fellows in some shared knowledge and values, and in that it serves him well in a number of different life situations. Hence he should understand his own traditions and he should be able to conmumcate with people whose special line is different from his own. But his capacity to go on learning, adapting himself to change without losing conviction, is a more important ingredient in his general education than any particular content he may have learned. . The President's Commission on Higher Education (1947, pp. 47-49) states it is the term: . . . that has come to be accepted for those phases of nonspecialized and nonvocational learning which should be the comnon experience of all educated men and women. General education' should give to the student the values, attitudes, knowledge, and skills that will equip him to live rightly and well in a free society. Bruce Dearing (1972, pp. 139-140) cited in Stoutamire (1975, p. describes general education as: . . . that element of education commonly offered in the secondary schools and in the freshmai and sophomore years of most American colleges and universities, directed toward a broad acquaintanceship with and sow& confident understanding of the problems and preoccupations, me vocabularies and conceptual models, and the historical perspectives of representative disciplines within the sciences, the social sciences, and humanities. Mayhew (1957, p. 253) states that general education: ... is collegiate education with non-vocational or non-specialized goals or objectives. It starts from the premise that much of man's life is devoted to being an adequate person, a creative being, a member of groups, and a solver of problems. It assumes that education can contribute to the degree of success that individuals achieve in these activities outside their vocation. It therefore concentrates on subjects, skills, abilities, attitudes, and interests which are especially relevant to the person's life as a family member, a consumer, a citizen, a leisure-enjoying being, and an organism in search of satisfaction.

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41 He states elsewhere (1960, p. 62) that general education: ... is designed for all people irrespective of prospective vocation. It draws its material from all the academic disciplines, wherever basic and relevant ideas can be found. It is concerned with the student's total development, his values, and aesthetic sensitivity as well as his purely intellectual attributes, for all these affect his comprehension and mature response to the world around him. Johnson (1960, p. 519) describes general education as: that part of education which encompasses the common knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by each individual to be effective as a person, a meirber of a family, a worker, and a citizen." General education is complementary to but different in its emphasis and approach from, special training for a job, for a profession, or for scholarship in a particular field of knowledge. And David Bell (1968, p. 184), stating that his "commitment to general education [is] within the framework of a liberal arts program," defines general education as: ... the focusing of [the college's] concern on courses which cut across disciplinary lines ... to deal with the history, tradition, and great works of Western civilization, and on courses which deal with the integrative problems or common subject matters of several disciplines. General Education and the Community College The General Education Function The development of the public community college as an important dimension of American post-secondary education has been accompanied by the continuing assertion that general education is one of the institution's basic functions. Indeed, general education is widely asserted as a primary purpose for the existence of the community college. In its formative years, according to Harrison (1973, p. 83), "one of the major functions of the new institution was to be the provision of a program of general education."

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42 Various documents and publications confirm general education as a basic function of the cormunity college. The Report of the President's Comnission on Higher Education (1947, pp. 67-70) cited in Harrison (1973, p. 84)
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43 books" programs), (2) those organized around systems for the selection or compression of knowledge, primarily within broad fields of knowledge ("survey courses"), (3) those organized around categories of human behavior or performance ("problems" programs), and (4) those that draw on all three conceptualizations ("eclectic" programs). Rice (1972, pp. 5 34-536) describes five "clusters" of changes or "experiments" that have emerged in general education programs: (1) those aimed at tying education to reality, focusing on the learner and moving away from the concept of knowledge as a good in itself, (2) interdisciplinary, problem-centered courses and programs. (3) programs which group students in intimate "sub-conmuni ties" within the larger campus community for "primary experience," (4) programs focusing on independent study and individual learning rates and styles, and (5) programs aimed at expanding and heightening students' awareness of other persons, the world, and themselves ("consciousness expanding"). According to Harrison (1973, pp. 88-90), general education has come to take one of the following patterns in the majority of community colleges: (1) the distribution system-mini mum numbers of required credits from core areas, usually with a lower number of credits for occupational students; (2) required courses--interdisciplinary, introductory, or survey courses--concemed with providing the student with "the knowledge necessary for responsible citizenship"; (3) a confcination of (1) and (2), with the distribution system applying to transfer students and occupational students required to take particular courses; and (4) a separate "general studies" program designed for the "undecided" student, sometimes leading to the Associate in General Studies degree. • Thornton (1956, pp. 120-121) describes the major approaches to

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general education in the community college as: (1) the liberal arts approach, the oldest and most common approach to general education, where a student typically is expected to complete courses in (a) natural sciences and mathematics , (b) social sciences, including American history, (c) personal relations (or psychology), (d) health and physical education, (e) philosophy and the arts, and (f) English composition and literature and also, sometimes, in a foreign language; (2) the survey course approach, which avoids the compartmentalization of the liberal arts approach, where students are required to complete broad courses which cut across departmental lines; and (3) the functional course approach, where the focus is on the student rather than the subject matter, and vrfiere traditional course titles are often abandoned. General Education: Present Concerns The recent proliferation of critical and prescriptive articles in the literature of general education is symptomati c of a widespread uneasiness over the character and quality of general education in the community college. Many writers contend that the community college has failed to realize its Icng-standing commitment to general education. Indicative of this concern, Medsker and Tillery (1971, p. 69) state that: ... In spite of the attention faculties give to the pieces of enlightenment and their persistent efforts to achieve general education goals, many community college leaders are dissatisfied with the way this aspect of the comprehensive program is being carried out. Strasser (1973, pp. 45-47) contends that in many community colleges programs of ^neral education remain mired in the: . . . quandary of gross academic oversimplification, academic disciplinary departments, and the vested interests of faculty and adnrinistrators involved in preserving the status quo of their courses, disciplinary specialties, and methods of teaching.

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General education, he suggests, is interpreted in terms of the broad fields of knavledge, and courses are largely liberal arts and sciencesoriented, rather than student or problem-oriented. Global in intent, many general education programs attempt to "cover the field" through survey courses, often superficially and frustratingly , he believes. The (tevelopment of an integrative approach to general education, Strasser asserts, is often hampered by faculties who remain entrenched in their particular disciplines. Finally, and perhaps most unfortunately, he points out that many colleges, in the rigidity of their "core" requirements, totally ignore the variety and diversity of their students' backgrounds, cofrpetencies , and life goals. According to Quinty (1969, pp. 1-25), a self-renewing college is sensitive to the changing needs of each learner, its goals meet the learning expectations of students, its teachers translate these expectations into measureable teaching objectives, and it constantly revitalizes education. He states that present faults of general education in the conmunity college include fragmented curricula, teacher orientation to natural disciplines and transfer institutions, irrelevance to current society, and concern with abstractions. He argues that learning opportunities in the general education program must stem from objectives vrfiich help to develop a rational curriculum, but that currently the selection of learning opportunities, which are shaped by the institution via the administration, precedes the determination of learning objectives, which are fonred by the subject matter concerns via the teacher. He believes that the important task of translating educational objectives into learning opportunities must be done by teacher and administration together.

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Sinmons (1973, p. 39) decries the widespread dearth of instructors "wtio could qualify to teach true general education courses," and the ccmtinued specialization of disciplines in the conmunity college. He calls for "the preparation of more teachers who are generalists with a capacity to use an integrative approach in the development of a general education program which focuses upon the full career development of all students," and recommends the Doctor of Arts degree as most appropriate for teachers at this level. Garwood (1973, p. 44) also points to the need for generalists and COTtends that it is through such teachers, not courses, that the aim of gejieral education as he sees it— "learning to learn"--is achieved. The CafTiegie Commission Report, Reform on Campus (1972, p. 49), also emphasizes the importance of teaching, and proposes the Doctor of Arts and Master of Philosophy degrees, rather than the Doctor of Philosophy, as the standard undergraduate teaching degrees. Little (1974, p. 83) feels that much of the inertia impeding movement toward institutional change and serious revision of general educatim programs lies with faculties who view stable or declining enrollments, public demands for more practical courses of study, legislative parsimony in budgeting allocations, student demands for fewer required courses and more "humane" systems of education as "baser" or "illegitinrafce" pressures which can only lead to a lowering of academic standards. In their study of general education, Mayhew and Dressel (1954, p. 272) quoted in Medsker and Tillery (1971, p. 69) find that: Teachers commonly admit that it Is not possible to determine what knavledge students should possess . . . None [of the course patterns] possess a logic which can be accepted as valid by all teachers and by all students . . .

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47 They conclude that "emphasis on and selection of a body of common knowledge is not an adequate basis for further progress in general education." Feldman (1969, p. 24) quoted by Medsker and Tellery (1971, pp. 6970) contends that "the current tendency to give a student initial general education and then specialization is inaopropriate on pedagogical grounds and is at the roots of the major problem in community college education ... The intertwining of liberal and vocational elements in an educational program seeking to expand opportunity for a major proportion of our population is both necessary and possible." Barzun (1964, pp. 212-220) warns that the demand for early and intensive specialization in the undergraduate years could eliminate general education. He perceives the upward pressure from the high schools, which are often presumed to complete a student's general education before he goes on to college, as a threat to the existence of general education at the post-secondary level. Echoing Barzun's concern, Reynolds (1969, p. 29) quoted in Medsker andTillery (1971, p. 70) advises curriculum planners to "reconsider the years preceding junior college for clues as to what the junior college should be, or in order to suggest needed changes in the high school programs." He suggests that "without such articulation with the secondary schools, general education requirements may become increasingly repetitive and irrelevant." Bell (1968, pp. 58, 186), on the other hand, rejects the notion that the high schools are now preempting the general education function of post-secondary institutions. Kellams (1973, p. 228) attributes the evident failure of the Integrated Liberal Studies program (ILS) at the University of Wisconsin,

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a two-year undergraduate general college experiment which influenced the curricula at many community colleges (Flexner, 1972, p. 49), essentially to the rigidity of the program's core requirements and the "conflict between the rrore traditional educational goals of general education programs and the students' interest in personal development and social action." He suggests new directions for general education which incorporate more flexibility in offerings, and "much greater choice and freedom to pursue individual interests in more depth on an individual timetable." Little (1974, pp. 86-90, 98, 102) argues for a reconstruction of general education programs that "provide bridges between the concerns which arise out of students' own experiences and the light that [general education] can shed on those concerns." He maintains thiat, if a stronger case for general education is to be made, it must eschew such traditional abstract rationalizations as the concept of the "educated man" and the assunption that there is a "necessary relationship between world problems and the [general education] classroom." The case for general education, he contends, n?ust be reconstructed within such contemporary restraints as the notion that there exists "a fundamental level at v/hich all forms of knowledge converge into a unified whole," the idea that "learning in one situation influences and improves learning in another area" (the idea of general transfer), and the "historic elitism" which has traditionally characterized liberal education. Little makes these suggestions for a reconcestualizing of general education: (1) statement of overall objectives in more realistic terms; (2) clarification of the concept of general education to underscore the fact that "the structure of knowledge appropriate to t^ie kinds of questions ft raises is different . . . [than]

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the structure of knowledge which defines the study of specific disciplines"; (3) recognition of the fact that there is "no single all-inclusive rationale" which justifies general education programs"; and (4) recognition of three important purposes of general education: first, to provide the student with an understanding of the nature and problems of the contemporary world in which he lives; second, to perpetuate an appredation of the great works of learning and inspiration which constitute our cultural heritage; and, finally, to enrich human understanding. He proposes an organization of the general education curriculum which would be divided into thirds, the first devoted to the study of contemporary society, the second to the great civilizations of our history (Western, non-Western, ancient, and prehistoric), and the third focusing on the study of man and the physical universe from a scientific point of view. He stresses, however, that in whatever manner a faculty decides to divide tiie curriculum, there must be established "a clear sense of the difference between courses in -yie general curriculum and courses in the disciplines," and that "studies in the general curriculum should not be constrained by the limits of individual instructors in three-day-a-week one semester periods of time." Little further affirms that "the general education curriculum can only be properly conceived in relation to ... the 'major' curriculum," and recommends that a number of "field courses" be established which would "introduce students to the general problems and methoctologies of groups of related disciplines," and the "pairing" of general md specialized courses "in each of the several fundamental areas of knowledge," which he believes will "help to focus on the commonalities rather than the dissimilarities of individual disciplines in related fields."

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50 Rice (1972, pp. 541-543) suggests that, in light of recent develop^ ments and rented interest in general education, an "epiphany of practices, procedures, and programs" may be at hand. He argues that, if our programs of general education are to prepare students adequately for the future, we must be willing to: first, place "a wholistic theory of personality" at the center of all curriculum making and planning; second, strive for coherence in the assumptions and commitments we make; third, remember that "no single and successful experiment or dramatic innovation in one departi!?ent . . .will change the educational paradigm of the institution"; fourth, "maintain ... an open, creative attitude as to what the future will be"; fifth, make preeminent among our educational commitments our willingness to "enable and help each student become a reflec' tive questioner of the real world we help him to experience"; sixth, in . all educational change "maintain a tentative . . . experimental stance"; and finally, have "flexible institutional structures, forms, protocols," flexible enough to accommodate change and permit self-renewal. Harrison (1973, p. 91), in tracing the development of general education as a principal function of the community college, maintains that, in spite of the relative consistency on behalf of general education, there is strong evidence that this function, more than any other, has been interpreted wi th a great deal of uncertainty by the conmunity colleges. He attributes the apparent failure of the community college to implement a program of general education that is unique to that institution to the confusion and fragmentation that he feels has characterized the institution since its beginnings. As an institution devoted to meeting particular and evolving educational needs, the community college, he contends, has been necessarily unable to meet general educational needs .

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51 Anderson (1973, pp. 41-42) provides an overview of the recent history of general education as a movement, briefly examining the three major themes for general education over the last fifty years. He discusses the reasons why relatively less concern for general education has been evident during the last two decades (since 1950) as compared to the three previous ones, 1920 to 1950, and outlines some trends which he sees as currently emerging in the field, Anderson attributes the "cooling of interest" in general education during the last twenty years to an emerging shift of faculty emphasis from instruction to disciplinary or professional interests and research, and to the rigidity of general education programs themselves. He contends that today the call is for flexibility in institutional processes and in instructional programs, and that new programs of general education will require a departure from a single model, except as the model itself is one providing diversity or variety. He makes four observations regarding the future of general education: (1) the assisnptions on which general education programs have rested in the past need to be reexamined and tested; (2) the rigid, inflexible course requirements of the past are not appropriate for the general education model of the future; (3) new organizational alternatives need to be devised for new general education programs; and (4) because of the pervasion of professionalism, an increased and renewed attention to the nature of the "educated man" is in order. Flexibility, variety, relevance, and conwntment are key terms which he feels suitably describe new modes for general education. Egner (1958, p. 457) points out the lack of substantive and effective evaluation in general education, primarily due to the tendency of most postsecondary educational institutions to rest content with the formulation of broad, inexplicit goals. He does, however, acknowledge

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the great difficulty of evaluating the outcores of general education since general education is concerned more with the student's ability to analyze, synthesize, and apply data to new situations, and with his attitudes and ability to think critically, than with the amount of specific knowledge he possesses. Nevertheless, he contends, the goals of general education should be explicit, and "should be made clear to students in terms of the kind of behavior they are expected to develop and the need for doing so." He further points out that educators, as people whose profession it is to try to change human behavior, "must assume the responsibility for determining the extent to which they are successful." In his comprehensive overview of general education in the public junior college, Thornton (1956, pp. 120-139) maintains that, though the purposes of general education are widely accepted, there is a sharp difference of opinion and of practice in methods of achieving them. The principal object of general education, he contends, is to find means to lessen the gap between the goals of general education and their realization. Thornton believes in the importance of a proper balance between general and specialized education, pointing out that "proper combinations of general and special education for students of varying abilities and occupational objectives" is necessary for a unification of educational (*jectives. He also points out that the public junior college, with its expanded clientele and its emphasis on instruction, is in a unique position to undertake the "planning of programs of general education to serve the purposes of full-time and parttire, terminal and transfer, collegeage and adult students." He lists the following conditions adversely affecting the development of effective general education programs in the public junior college: (1) the high drop-out rate of students, (2) the

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53 diversity of student backgrounds, (3) the lower-division requirements imposed by four-year institutions, (4) the pressure on students to achieve a marketable skill as soon as possible, (5) faculty inertia and entrenchment in limited specialties, and (6) lack of funds to support development of new courses or programs. On the other hand, Thornton cites the following as factors favoring the development of general education in the public junior college: (1) new institutions, free from accumulated traditions, vested faculty interests, and alumni pressures, which can select faculty and design programs in concert with their espoused educational philosophy, (2) the opportunity and willingness to concentrate on quality instruction, and (3) conditions such as smaller classes, and cormiunity proximity and involvement. He believes the major deficiencies in current programs of general education to be: (1) that the content and organization is uncritically imitative, (2) that only a minority of students are exposed to general education courses, and (3) that evaluation is inadequate. His recommendations are that public junior colleges "cease to be so largely imitative and begin to make decisions for themselves about the nature and the quality of the education they provide for their several clienteles," and that they search for more effective means of instruction to achieve the goals of general education; that they study and carry out "effective in-service methods of broadening the vision and stimulating the pedagogic inventiveness of their faculties"; and finally, that they find more effective means to "make use of the experience, insight, and concern of the junior college student--adult, terminal, transfer--in developing all of the programs of education of the junior college." McGrath (1972, p. 8) reasons that a revival of general education is inminent because of two perceived developments. First, he sees among

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54 many scholars a dissatisfaction with "things as they are" which is growing in intensity and breadth, and he cites Rene Dubos, Abraham Kaplan, and Abraham Maslow as among the "clearest voices urging our citizens to reexamine the quality of life." These men, he asserts, are among those "arguing for a hierarchy of values in the body of knowledge determined by relevance to the problems of life rather than to the rest of the body of knowledge," which he contends is the basis for a reaffirmation of general education. Second, he interprets the rejection by students today of the "long sequences of esoteric specialized instruction in each of the . . . disciplines" as an affirmation of their support for the restoration of general studies to a central position in undergraduate education. He attributes the failure of general education in the past to "misconceptions of general studies' purposes," and to a lack of internal coherence and external relevance. He contends that any effort to reconstruct a general education program through an analysis of the now greatly increased bodies of knowledge would be incorrect in principle and would inevitably fail again. Instead, he insists, we must achieve the purposes of general education by, first, the analysis of life and society today, and then the organization of study around the problems to be solved. Like McGrath, Boyer (1975, pp. 57, 98) favors a problemcentered approach to general education, but with a focus on the future, on values, and on moral development: . . . let me suggest that we make consideration of the future a strong component of every college education. This is a polite way of saying that 1 would consider a thorough valueladen preparation for the next century an obligation for all students in this country. His point is that, while in the past the debate in general education has focused "sharply on pedagogic questions" such as electives versus core

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55 courses, today: ... the pressure to expose students to a richer overlay of value-laden education relates quite simply to the quality of life on earth. Program Proposals Emerging from the concern over the character and quality of general education in the community college has been a variety of proposals for programs of general education. Strasser (1973, pp. 51-54) proposes "mosaic programming" for general education in the community college. He sets out a series of goals for general education and upon them builds an interdisciplinary "mosaic structure." His proposal includes general education courses organized as learning modules of the academic credit hour, with written course goals and learning objectives for each one; courses organized under four categories, the student electing four or five courses in each, from "Human Society," "Nations and Humanity," "Human Commi cations," and "Symbol Systems"; a variable academic calendar, designed in time modules of six weeks each; self-paced learning and instructional materials; credit by examination; use of community resources, off-campus study; counseling services; program planning assistants; and a general education faculty, organized untter a particular administrator who is responsible only for the general education program. Harkness (1972, pp. 89-90) outlines a program for general education which stresses competency in dealing with the English language and with the "language of numbers," while offering the student optional routes to demonstrating these competencies —by examination, by waiver, or through traditional coursework. He proposes a "Satis factory -UnsatisfactoryHonors" grading system.

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56 Taking the characteristics of the "new" students to higher education into account, Flexner (19?2, pp. 52-56) proposes a general education curriculum which places a high priority on the individual and his total development, which is concerned with the present social context and the student's ability to function successfully in it, which recognizes the value of interdisciplinary studies as a means of dealing with contemporary issues and problems, which provides extra-instructional experiences, which emphasizes the need for restructuring the curriculum to provide greater student inputs and alternatives, which stresses the desirability of informal studentfaculty rapport, which urges greater faculty commitment to teaching and to the development of the whole student, and finally, one which recognizes the necessity of reforming. the graduate education and training of college teacher-s. Suimiary There has emerged a nryriad of programs of general education in the coninunity college. Some cotnertunity colleges employ the "distribution" system, where a minimum nujirfoer of credits is required from each of several "core" areas, usually with a lower number required for occupational or "terminal" students. other community colleges, students are required to take certain courses --introductory, interdisciplinary, or "survey" courses, covering the several fields of knowledge, to include the natural and social sciences, mathematics, humanities, English composition and literature, and sometimes health and physical education. In still other community colleges, the general education program consists of a combination of mininsuin credit hours and required courses (Harrison, 1973, pp. 89-90), More recently, many community colleges are employing

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57 a "problems" or "functional" approach which attempts to focus on tiie student and his environment ratner than the subject matter, mthstudents taking courses designed to help them perform activities in which they will supposedly be engaged in society (Thornton, 1956, p. 121; FTexner, 1972, p. 56). The current trend in patterns of general education in the conmunity college seems to be an emphasis on tying education to reality, focusing on the learner and his problerrs and moving away from the concept of knowledge as an end in itself. Some new programs promote independent study and take into consideration individual learning rates and styles, while others aim at heightening and expanding the student's awareness of self, others, and the world (McGrath, 1972, p. 8; Rice, 1972, pp. 534535; Strasser, 1973, pp. 51-54). The Delphi Technique In the past, educators in general have tended to use a conisrittee meeting approach to achieve a consensus on educational goals or objectives. In fact, "traditionally, the method for achieving consensus is a round-table discussion among individuals who arrive at a group position" (Cyphert and Gant, 1971, p. 272). Unfortunately, the final group position under this method, "usually a compromise, is often derived under the undue influence of certain psychological factors, such as specious persuasion . . ."by authoritative group members, an "unwillingness to abandon publicly expressed opinions, and the bandwagon effect of majority opinion" (Cyphert and Gant, 1971, p. 272). Burdin (1974, p. 141) as quoted in Stoutamire (1975, p. 71) points out that, in addition to using the committee meeting approach, educators "have tended to be past and present minded" in developing programs.

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58 That is, they have tended to develop contemporary programs based on past trends. Ihe inadequacy of this procedure is indicated by Stoutamire (1975, p. 71): The rapidity with which society is changing makes it unlikely that these past trends will continue without some interruption. Quoting Burdin (1974, p. 141), she adds: . . . changes of great rapidity and magnitude are forcing educators to look to the future. Without such foresight there is a certainty that education programs will rapidly become obsolete.. One forecasting technique that has been used for program development in education is the "relevance tree technique" that "systematically orders a hierarchy of programs and projects parameters" (Hudspeth, 1974, p. 4, quoted in Stoutamire, 1975, p. 73). This technique emphasizes: ... how to reach a desirable predetermined goal or avoid an undesirable one by directing a sequence or hierarchy of events in the pathways to the future. By identifying a taxonomy of objectives at different levels of specificity, relevance trees create planned control over future actions and decisions for attaining predetermined goals. The alternatives for reaching goals are the pathways of logically derived sequential hierarchial events. (Hencley and Yates, 1974, p. 73, quoted in Stoutamire, 1975, p. 73) Stoutamire points out that Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) and Prograsj Evaluation and Review Technique (P?RT) are examples of this method. The utility of the relevance tree technique would be in determining how to reach the objectives identified by this study, rather than in generation of these objectives. A more suitable technique for the present study is the Delphi technique, an intuitive methodology for organizing and sharing expert opinion (Weaver, 1971, p. 267), which avoids bringing participants together and which does not report individual opinions. The significant features of the technioye are that -'t provides "anonymity, statistical summaries of information provided by the group, controlled feedback and an iterative

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59 process that pennits and encourages the reassessment of initial judgements" (Ludlw, 1972, p. 3). Ludlow notes that the Delphi name "suggests the practices of the ancient Greeks of obtaining the counsel of a deity through oracles, one of the most renowned of which was the oracle at Delphi" (Ludlow, 1972, p. 2). Delphi: Origins and Deve1opm.ent Evolving from a series of studies conducted for the Rand Corporation by Helmer and Dalkey (Ludlow, 1972, p. 2), the Delphi technique was originally intended to improve "the statistical treatment of individual opinions" (Dalkey, 1969, p. 414). In 1953, Helmer added an additional feature, "iteration with controlled feedback. The set of procedures that have evolved from this work has received the name Delphi ..." (Dalkey and Helmer, 1953, p. 458). Hencley and Yates (1974, p. 100) point out that an early use of the Delphi method was "to determine defense technology needs and the timing of future advances." The Delphi technique as It has evolved may be described as: ... a iRethod of eliciting and refining group judgements. The rationale for the procedure is primarily the age-old adage "two heads are better than one," when the issue is one where exact knowledge is not available. The procedure has three features: (1) Anonymous response-ODinions of members of the group are obtained by formal questionnaire, (2) Iteration and controlled feedback— interaction is effected by a systematic exercise conducted in several iterations with carefully controlled feedback betv^een rounds, (3) Statistical group response —the qrQup opinion is defined as an appropriate aggregate of individual opinions on the final round. These features are designed to minimize the biasing effects of dominant individuals, of irrelevant comnunications , and of group pressure toward conforsif ty. (Vieaver, 1972, p. 1) The technique: . . . replaced direct debate by a carefully designed program of sequential individual interrogatives (best conducted by questionnaire) interspersed with information and opinion

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feedback derived by computed consensus from the earlier parts of the program. Some of the questions directed to the respondents may, for instance, inquire into the "reasons" for previously expressed opinions, and a collection of such reasons may then be presented to each respondent in the group, together with an invitation to reconsider and possibly revise his reasons and subsequent feedback of the reasons adduced by others may serve to stimulate the experts into taking into due account considerations they might through inadvertance have neglected, and to give due weight to factors they were inclined to dismiss as unimportant on first thought. (Helmer and Rescher, 1959, p. 47) Peterson (1970, p. 9) describes the Delphi procedure as follows: 1. Participants are asked to list their opinions on a specific topic, such as recommended activities or predictions for the future. 2. Participants are then asked to evaluate the total list against some criterion, such as importance, chance of success, etc. 3. Each participant receives the list and a summary of responses to the items and, if in the minority, is asked to revise his opinion or indicate his reason for remaining in the minority. 4. Each participant again receives the list, an updated summary of responses, a summary of minority opinions, and a final chance to revise his opinions. Hencley and Yates (1974, p. 98) cited in Stoutamire (1975, pp. 7 surmarize the Delphi process as follows: In a particular field a panel of experts is asked to individually respond to a questionnaire, making independent judgements about an issue. Open-ended questions can be used for purposes of assessing needs about the issue. The first questionnaire results are analyzed and a second questionnaire is developed using these results. The same panel responds to the second questionnaire. Items about which opinions are desired and statistical summaries may be contained in this second questionnaire. Participant responses to the second questionnaire are based on reconsideration of previous answers in view of the feedback information. Respondents with extreme individual forecasts, upper and lower quartiles, are asked to reconsider their forecast and to give a rationale for the response if it still falls outside the interquartile range or is shifted to the upper or lower quartile. These previous questionnaire responses are summarized again in statistical terms and incorporated into a third questionnaire. Respondents are again

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requested to reconsider and revise their responses and to summarize the rationale that supports their position if it continues or should shift to the outside of the second round interquartile range. The process is iterative and is repeated until consensus, defined as the median of the responses to the final round, develops. Delphi in Education The Delphi technique has been modified and applied to areas of educational planning. Weaver (1971, p. 268) points out that one assumption underlying the use of Delphi in educational planning is that "one way to improve the formulation of educational policies and plans is to expand the awareness among educators of alternative future options as well as the expectations they hold about such options," The potential use of Delphi in educational planning is demonstrated in a study by Helmer (1966, p. 3499) cited in Weaver (1971. p. 268) which : . . . incorporated as part of the 1965 Kettering project to elicit preference judgements from a panel of educational experts and experts in various fields related to education. The purpose was to compile a list of preferred goals for possible federal funding. The Delphi procedure was used in a study by Cyphert and Gant "as an opinion questionnaire to elicit preferences from the faculty of the School of Education at the University of Virginia and other concerned parties" (Weaver, 1971, p. 268, citing Cyphert and Gant, 1970, pp. 272273). Anderson used the Delphi procedure in a similar way in Ohio, limiting the focus to a county school district (Anderson, 1970, cited in Weaver, 1971, p. 268). Weaver (1971, p. 271) sees "more prom.ising educational applications" of the Delphi technique, particularly in these areas: 1. A method for studying the process of thinking about the future.

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62 2. A pedagogical tool or teaching tool which forces people to think about the future in a more complex way than they ordinarily would. 3. A planning tool which may aid in probing priorities held by members and constituencies of an organization. The third of Weaver's applications of the Delphi technique most closely fits the purposes of this study of objectives for community college programs of general education. Rasp (1973, p. 30) identifies the two key underlying assumptions of the Delphi technique which bear on the present study: 1. That if participants agree to a central position or consensus, then the resulting data is more believable. 2. That anonymous responses ... are more likely to lead to reasonable and objective input than are the activities of interpersonal conferencing. Also, Peterson (1970, p. 9) cited in Little (1974, p. 5) points out that the Delphi technique has the potential for providing: 1. A range of ideas about goals. 2. Priority ranking of the goals. 3. A degree of consensus about goals. The Delphi technique, in consideration of its potential for goal determination, priority ranking, and consensus achievement, is deemed the most appropriate methodology for accomplishing the purposes of this study of general education objectives.

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CHAPTER III DESIGN OF THE STUDY Introduction This chapter presents the design of the study, including the scope and limitations of the study, the procedures, the study's particpants, and the Florida public community colleges represented. Scope and Limitations of the Study The study concentrated on the identification and priority ranking of possible objectives of community college general education programs and was restricted to Florida's public community colleges during the 1975-1976 academic year. Further, objectives for community college general education programs were identified and priorities assigned exclusively by the use of the Delphi technique. While it may be hoped that the findings of this study will have present and future implications for programs of general education elsewhere, the data were collected from Florida public community colleges only, and application to other community colleges should be approached only with qualification. Procedure s The purpose of this study was to identify what a selected group of Florida public community college administrators and faculty members believed should be the cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of a community college program of general education. 63

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64 The source of data for the study was a modified Delphi procedure which employed iterative, sequential questionnaires with controlled feedback designed to, first, elicit statements of objectives, and then to seek consensus on those identified objectives among the study's participants. Collection of the data was carried out in three rounds. First, the presidents of the twenty-eight public comnunity colleges in Florida were contacted and requested to nominate potential Delphi panel members for the study. Each president was asked to designate the acfeinistrators on his staff who he felt were most familiar with the general education program at his institution, and at least one faculty member from each of these major curriculum areas: communications, humanities, social sciences, and math-science. Twenty-six community college presidents or their designated representatives responded with a list of 166 potential Delphi panel members. Follow-up letters were sent to those presidents who did not respond to the initial letter; no reply was received. Next, the 166 identified Delphi panel members were contacted directly and sent, along with an introduction to the study and an explanation of the Delphi procedure to be used, the first-round instrument (Questionnaire 1). Each participant was asked to list what he believed should be the specific knowledge, abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and values he felt students should acquire as a result of participation in the learning experiences of a community college general education program. Responses wera received from 109 participants representing twenty-five conmunity colJeges and a sixty-six percent rate of return. A representative of the twenty-sixth college indicated that the single individual designated from his Institution had left the college. The responses were reviewed and

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65 edited for duplication and repetition. A total of 121 objectives were identified and extracted from those submitted. These were phrased as cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of a community college general education program and listed on the second-round instrument (Questionnaire 2). The second questionnaire was then coded and sent to the 109 respondents to the first questionnaire. On this instrument, participants were asked to indicate their assessment of what they believed should be the relative priority (from 1 — "minimum priority" to 5--"maximum priority") for each of the identified cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of a community college program of general education. Responses were received from ninety-one participants, representing twenty-five community colleges and an eighty-three percent rate of return. From responses on the second questionnaire, consensus priorities were determined by calculating a median response for each of the 121 identified objectives. It was decided that, in view of the ordinal scale used in the questionnaire, the median would be the most appropriate measure of central tendency or consensus. A mode, it was thought, could have been misleading in instances where assigned priorities were distributed relatively evenly along the scale, and a mean might have unduly reflected extreme scores. In calculating the median, however, it was necessary to set up intervals and to assume as even distribution of cases within intervals. On the thirdround instrument (Questionnaire 3), the consensus priority (median) was circled for each of the 121 identified objectives. In instances where the consensus fell on the real limit between two intervals (iteirs 32, 50, 79, and 94), priorities in both intervals were

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circled. Then, in departure from the prescribed Delphi procedure, but in consideration of the fact that responses to the second questionnaire had been received from each of the twentyfive community colleges to which they were sent, the third questionnaire was sent to the original 109 Delphi respondents. On this instrument, participants were asked to study each objective again and to respond in the following manner: if their priority rating on any item differed from the consensus (median), they were asked to either (a) change t!nat rating to conform to the consensus, or (b) to again indicate their divergent rating and to indicate briefly the reason why the consensus response did not represent their opinion. Eighty-seven participants responded to the third questionnaire representing an eighty percent rate of return and, again, tventy-five cotiminity colleges. A summary of responses, by number of participants and number of community colleges is presented in Table 3.1. Results of the third questionnaire were used to recalculate the consensus priority for each of the 121 identified objectives. The Study's Participants On the third-round instrument (Questionnaire 3), participants were asked to indicate their current position. Of the total number of eighty seven respondents, thirty-seven identified themselves as administrators, thirty-seven as full-time faculty members, eleven as department or division chairmen with teaching duties, and two were undesignated. A summary of this information is presented In Table 3.2. College Representation Delphi panel members in this study represented the following public

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67 TABLE 3.1 SUMMARY OF RESPONSES Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Nunter of Participants Sent 166 109 109 Received 109 91 87 Number of Community Colleges Sent 26 25 25 Received 25 25 25 TABLE 3.2 SUMMARY OF STUDY'S PARTICIPANTS (THIRD QUESTIONNAIRE) Participants Total Comm. Hum. Soc. Math Sci . Sci . Tech. Voca. Faculty Full-time Faculty 37 9 7 7 13 1 Department or Division Chairmen 11 2 6 1 2 0 Admi ni s trati on 37 Not Indicated 2 Total 87

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68 community colleges in Florida (number of participants from each college in parentheses) : Brevard Community College (7) Broward Community College (3) Central Florida Community College (5) Chipola Junior College (1) Edison Community College (9) Florida Junior College at Jacksonville (5) Florida Keys Community College (3) Gulf Coast Community College (4) Hillsborough Community College (5) Lake City Community College (4) Lake-Sumter Coirmunity College (4) Manatee Junior College (4) Miami-Dade Community College (7) North Florida Junior College (2) Okaloosa-Walton Junior College (4) Palm Beach Junior College (3) Pasco-Hernando Community College (3) Pensacola Junior College (2) Polk Community College (5) Santa Fe Community College (5) Seminole Community College (3) St. John's River Junior College (2) St. Petersburg Junior College (9) Tallahassee Community College (4) Valencia Conmunity College (6)

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CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION Introducti on The modified Delphi technique used in this study yielded a final priority listing of the identified cognitive, performance, and affective objectives for programs of general education in Florida's public community colleges. That listing is presented in Table 4.1. Within each domain (cognitive, performance, affective), the objectives are listed in descending order of priority. Also, for each identified objective, all comments or divergent opinions are presented as they appeared on responses to the third questionnaire. A comparison of the median, mean, mode, and priority consensus of each objective between the second and third questionnaire is presented in Table 4.2. Medians and means of the priorities for each objective were prepared to three decimal places. To calculate the median (and mean), intervals were set up as follows: Category Rating Interval Maximum Priority 5 4.500 5.000 High Priority 4 3.500 4.499 Medium Priority 3 2.500 3.499 Low Priority 2 1.500 2.499 Minimum Priority 1 0.500 1.499 69

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70 TABLE 4.1 IDENTIFIED GENERAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES BY ORDER OF PRIORITY Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective Maximum Priority 1 The rules and principles of proper English usage. 4.939 Comments Use is important, not knovMledge or rules. iTOough this is important, it is not of maximum priority. Important but rules are not necessary for everyone to communi cate . I agree as long as this is not couched in grammatical terms— I think this should be a very pragmatic skill. Rules and principles have little to do with writing ability. Emphasize correct use. Should know in high school. Many people speak and write well without knowing rules. Why lie to the students. Gerald Ford splits infinitives. Hicji Priority 2 The concepts, principles and methods of Icwer mathematics. 4.067 Comments Like being able to communicate, this should have highest priority. High school subject. A must to function effectively in work and everyday living. This is a necessary communication skill. Not as a result of college level general education. I am convinced that mathematics as a separate course has no place in a college level general education program. Essential to every functional person. Has to be basic to life. To function this is a must. Necessary for day to day living. Very cri ti cal . Economic necessity.

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71 TABLE 4.1 Continued Coqni ti ve Ob jecti ves Rank Ob jecti ve Vi&dim 3 A proficient vocabulary. 4.052 Conments Communicative ability is a must for survival. Important to all other areas of endeavor. Necessary to function effectively in today's world. Very necessary and should be higher. Vocabulary is the basic tool of communication and cannot be stressed too highly. A good vocabulary usually makes for clear and precise thinking. 4 The interrelationship of man and his environment. 4.038 Comments Ecology is a specialized discipline. This is basic to all survival. Very high--success of life itself depends on this. Maximum priority if we ever hope to achieve the legislation and enforcement of it necessary to protect the environment and insure man's continued existence on earth! Do we really understand this? Someday could be critical! A survi val skill . If by environment you include the machine world, I would agree that it is very important. 5 The social, economic and political problems affecting life 4.022 in contemporary America. Comments Critical for group membership (active) and national survival. Must identify, study problems to properly solve them-improve society and individual welfare. Important for wise decisions and improved human relations. We should all be more involved. 5 The principles of problem solving. 4.022 Comments Problem solving is man's primary occupation. General or just math?

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72 TABLE 4.1 Continued Cocmi ti ve Objecti ves Rank Objective Must do our part to train a thinking public capable of solving individual and group problems. 6 The organization of his local, state and national 4.016 governments. Comments Civic responsibilities/action is prerequisite for "good" representative government. I view this pragmatically. Rather than knowing all the offices, I think it is more important to know how to get results. Necessary for effective citizenship. Basic for intelligent voting. We do rrat have enough participation in government by collegetrained people. This is a survival skill. The functioning and proper care of the body, including 3.992 the role of nutrition and exercise in maintaining good health. Comments High school is supposed to do this. Better left to secondary schools. The less thought about the body the better. Many hi^ school programs do this well. Health— most important item in all of life. Most students miss balanced meals. Essential to full utilization of self. Family responsibility, public grades 1-12. In or
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73 TABLE 4.1 Continued Coqni ti ve Ob jecti ves Rank Objective 9 The interdisciplinary nature of knof/ledge. 3.975 Comments Most problems require knowledge from several disciplines. Not every student can comprehend these relationships. Of great inportance to general education; clearly highest priority. Very important. We have a large enough task just teaching the separate disciplinary areas. Things interrelate. Is not productive to learning— cannot use it. 10 The principles of psychology which contribute to a fuller 3.970 understanding of his own personality and interpersonal relationshipsComments Psychology is a guessing game. Basic to survival . Perhaps a topic in an orientation course. "A little kn(Dwledge is a dangerous thing." Can this be done in a community college? Interpersonal relationships cannot be overs tressed. I simply do not regard this as being all that critical. I firmly believe that man is nappier when he is looking outward rather than inward and that the emphasis on understanding his own personality, etc., only makes the individual more egocentric without making him more satisfied. n The learning process, including one's own preferred mode 3.962 of learning and the role of motivation. Comnents Orientation course. Personal opinion of knowledge about learning process. Expose student to alternatives available. Want to have students involved in continuous learning, must understand their best method of learning.

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74 TABLE 4.1 Continued Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective Indian In order to learn one does not need to know the process. By the time any student reaches college he knows how he learns best. He needs to be encouraged to trynew ways of learning without being told that is what is happening. 12 The political, economic, social and cultural history of 3.955 the Uni ted States . Comments A study of history is necessary to avert repetition of past mistakes. Devote more time to current problems. Potential of too much stress on history at the expense of widespread situation. 13 The principles which underlie and affect the economy. 3.948 Comments Is anyone certain of the reliability and operation of such "principles?" A special study for students in that field. • Can this be taught? How much is known? As they relate to the contemporary economic situation. Easy to teach opinion here--not a must in general education. Should be practical not theory. 14 The major concepts and methodologies of at least one 3.910 discipline. Comments For major work. Not for general education. Not in community college. We are supposed to be talking about general education? Time? Only if the individual is majoring in a given field. This defeats the purpose of gene ral education. Not general education. Not in the first tv/o years of college.

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75 TABLE 4,1 Continued Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective Median Not for a community college. Diversity is very important ; specialists lose sight of other areas. Contradictory to purpose of general education. Medium Priority 15 The principles of the scientific method. 3.198 Comments The writing ability of students depends on this. Clearly the way we accumulate knowledge. It stresses solving problems in an orderly, logical fashion and indicates science cannot answer all questions, which most high school graduates do not understand. This is the basis for most research and obtainment of new knowledge. One of the bases of modern civilization. This is a basic principle of education. Tliis will help in solving personal and other problems. This can be taught in English or philosophy and should be part of a college student's background. Most predominant mode of thought today. Might help us think more clearly. Scientific method can give students a method for solving their own problems, but can be taught without traditional approach or terminology. 16 The principles and practices of wise consumerism. 3.155 Comnents This is hardly a college level subject. Consumerism is essential to effective living and therefore essential to general education. One of the most important things to know in our present inflationary economy. Need to cope with problem of making rost effective use of income in inflationary economy. College people (statistically) earn more money than others — they should spend wisely.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective ^g^^^" Too many people do not understand this, have money problems—lose or do not wisely spend their income. Survival. Fluctuations in the economy! Becoming more important at this time. Community and family responsibility— not for general requirements . Peripheral ! He needs this to survive economically. Fits the goals of the community college. All should be intelligent consumers. Economic necessity. Results in self enrichment. In view of our present and projected economy, should be hi gher. Majority of one's life spent in this pursuit. Huge problem area! 17 The principles of logic, including inductive and deduc3.143 tive reasoning. Comments The one thing which is indispensable is the ability to reason effectively. Correct reasoning of high importance. There is a di rth (sic) of this skill among my studentsthere (sic) ability to speak and write are hindered. You must know the principles in order to apply them to the solution of problems. Necessary for sound defense and presentation. This is a fundamental objective of education. This can be taught in English or philosophy and should be part of a college student's background. Man is supposedly separated from animals because of reason . I feel that every discipline within general education should develop the thought process behind the subject matter. A must to function properly in this world of politics and advertisements that so often use nonvalid arguments. Teaching the principles of thinking does not necessarily mean the traditional approach to logic with its formal terminology. 18 The dynamics of home and family life. 3.100

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77 TABLE 4.1 Continued Cognitive Objecti ves Rank Objective Comments Basic to development and preservation of core values, which citizenship used to provide. Can this be "taught" in a classroom? Community and family res pons i bi 1 i ty-not for general requi rements . A weak area in human development. We are not prepared for living together. Child welfare! Survi val . To help solve the increasing problems in this area. Need to strengthen stability of family life. No reason why this should be taught in college— classroom knowledge generally does not change behavior. If it can really be taught in a classroom--and if the family is to be preserved. A nice "elective" but of low priority for most students. The divorce rate and psychological problems indicate a great need . Very important for man--success and enjoyment of life. Rampant divorce rate indicates we need much greater enphasis in this area. This is too important a concern to be left to chance. 50% marriages now end in divorce. Family becoming less important, should be stressed. 19 The methods and motives of mass media. 3.093 Comments Shapers of basic concepts of values, justice, judicial process, etc. Tremendous influence. Also major factor in our lives; one must understand the full impact of the media. Important for consumarism and participatory democracy. We are bombarded--how can we react well without this? We have to know before we can teach. Too many people are too much affected to take this lightly. Survival. Greatest single influence on world thought today. Should be a higher level. Today's student is a consurer more than anything else. Media plays a vital role in society.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 78 Coqni t1 V£ Ob jecti ves Rank Obje ctive Indian 20 The major periods in the course of Western civilization 3.069 and the contributions of each in history, literature, music, art, philosophy and religion. Comments As an antidote to provincialism. Basic to an understanding of oneself. The knowledge students now have in this area is appalling. Essential for every person with any pretensions to being a cultivated man. One should know from where his culture comes. Should include economics. This is basic for humanities. Give student some selection — "or" instead of "and." Let us stress this while we have still got it to stress. Depends on the approach used— if it degenerates into an "appreciation" course I would rate it "1." 21 The reproductive process in plants, animals and humans. 3.054 Comments Extra-curriculum sources do this. Due to overpopulation, etc., must understand this process. People think they know more than they do! Still an area of ignorance in adults. 22 The expository, argumentative, descriptive and narrative 3.040 fonns of discourse. Comments He needs to know techniques of exposition and argument to comnuni cate, especially if he plans to pursue a B.S. or B.A. or higher--also, "knowing "how" will enable him to react more intelligently in discussion, etc. Verbal expression very important— parti cularly if not bi-lingual . Too technical to be included in any depth in community college curriculum. Communication skills yes ; isn't this peripheral? I would say certainly as important as #1. They should be able to do the processes; they need not know the names of the orocesses.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective Median If this means students should know the meanings of these four terms, no. If it means knowing how to express oneself effectively the objective becomes of maximum priori ty. 23 The qualifications necessary for the pursuit of various 3.025 vocations and professions. Comments Knowing how and where to find them gets a 5. Rapid change, several jobs in a lifetime. I can see little point in such "subject matter" if there is any. Consider it generally important to expand understandings of potential and scope of possibilities Prerequisite to planning curriculum. This can be handled by the counciling (sic) program. Do not believe this is a responsibility but rather a service (elective). Not general education. Needs understanding of necessity for and what is required to earn a living. This will lead to better personal goal setting and realistic understanding of self. Prevocational training has never been, and should never be general education. Career education is very important now that jobs are scarce. He needs to make a living so he can enjoy his liberal education. Much needed if the student is to make intelligent choices. I do not feel that the first two years of college should in any way be vocational or professional. This could take a student four or more years. 24 The principles of effective leadership. 3.023 Comments All of us are leaders--and should know how one leads We need leaders in this country. College-trained people need this skill. Enables one to participate more effectively in democratic proce-ss and in group situations. Country and education in particular needs leadership.

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80 TABLE 4.1 Continued Cogni ti ve Ob jecti yes Rank Objective Median 25 The basic form of a business letter. 3.008 Comments The only form of writing we can be sure everyone will need. Students lack skill but not all students will need this skill. If one has a need to communicate it is at (high priority) level . I cannot see the relevancy of this to general education. Of concern only to a limited nunfcer. Written communication in correct fonnat is needed. He may not have to diagram a sentence, but he darn well will have to write letters. 26 The relationship betkveen idea, image and symbol. 3.000 Comments A broad goal? A service (elective) function. Do not understand it. If an individual is to be able to communicate he needs to understand this area. This is for English majors not general education. What general education is all about. 27 A variety of sports and recreational activities. 2.992 Comments Extra-curricular sources do this. This sort of activity costs more than it is worth. We are far too work-oriented; also need for fitness. Keeping down middle-age spread can be a problem. These should not be part of a general education package, even though I do consider them important. We are soft physically. Available to students without use of limited money of col leges . Obvious. A service (elective) function--desi rable, not essential.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 81 Rank Objective Coqm' ti ve Ob jecti ves Median As leisure time becomes more available, an individual needs to be able to cope with it. In this period of more leisure time and earlier retirement this needs a higher priority. 28 Basic world geography, including mineral and agricultural 2.975 capacities of each major area. Comments Insufficient relevance to the overall spectrum of twoyear college education With depletion of resources and overpopulation this surely is most important. Increasing importance of other countries related to USA's "limited" resource base--relation of geographical foundations to better understanding American foreign policy and world affairs. Facts most students would forget two days after completing such a course. Potential overuse of name and place geography without concept use. Capacities not necessary for general public. Hi gh School ! 29 The significance of pattern, form and structure in liter2.919 ature and the other arts. Comnents Essential (only) to select group. Form and structure of literature and art lead to its appreciation but not necessarily to one's ability to function in a society. A service (elective) function. Hatter of personal choice. This is for English majors not general education. I do not see the importance of this in general education. Amusing and interesting, but hardly vital. There is no need for the average person to be concerned with the form of literature, just to find out that reading is enjoyable.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective Median 30 The inherent principles of Judeo-Christian and other 2.911 major religions of the world. Comments I give knowing the meaning of life (maximum) priority and students seem to need to know this . Nice to know but certainly not necessary or even of medium priority. Role of churches related to "separatism of church and state." Not really that important. Not our job! Should be available to student if desired. A service (elective) function. Too nuich emphasis on a dying creed. I do not feel that an individual should know this as part of gertcral education. Spiritual needs require factual knowledge. As applied to dominance of man it is of little importance in view of the present ecological trend. Not that important in my view. So we all know what we are arguing about. Why? Religious effects on history is important, but the religion itself may not be. 31 The techniques, forms and methods of criticism in music, 2.897 the visual arts, poetry, drama, dance, film, literature and philosophy. Comments Understanding of the arts. One should be led to enjoy, not to be critical. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder--! feel most people should choose what they like rather than what someone else says he should or should not like. Just be able to enjoy. We have too much emphasis on the criticism and not enough participation in the primary source. Some art forms, not all. I would reword to state exposure to rather than imply mastery of these forms. This is a more personal value than something that should be taught.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued Cogni ti ve Ob jecti ves Rank Ob jecti ve Medi an The essence is to "appreciate." Nice, but we must concentrate on more essential elements. An appreciation, definitely! Low Priority 32 The names of major works and their creators in each of 2.227 the arts: painting, sculpture, film, architecture, drama, literature, music, poetry. Comments Rote memory. Can look this up if he needs to. Of what use is this for living? Labels associated with ideas of no importance compared to understanding of idea itself! Not names but the works themselves of primary importance. Part of a good education. Their life might be more interesting if they do not know these tilings, but maybe not any better. 33 A language other than his own. 2.071 Comments Not all two-year college students are nontransfer. Very important for graduate study if one goes on with education. Working with other peoples. Of little relevancy. Essential to an understanding of the interaction of language and thought. Not a suitable goal for general education. I feel language (at least an introduction) is basic to appreciating another culture and this could be part of' general education. I feel this should be stressed if US is to assume leadership in world community. Would not requi re a second language but it should be available and encouraged for those interested. Shoul d be minimum. I reserve this for the student who needs it for work, study, or travel .

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84 TABLE 4.1 Continued Cognitive Objectives Rank Objective Median If at all possible. Becomes more important as the world becomes smaller. Tolerance for others' ideas and values are easiest learned through the language of a people. 34 The essential characteristics of the various branches of philosophy— epistemology, ethics, aesthetics. Comments We all have a philosophy--why not understand it and the underlying assumptions of it? Epistemology is basic to all reasoning and logical proposi tions . Usually too complex for undergraduate students. How could you underestimate the value of ethics in light of the past three years? 35 The hierarchical taxonomy used to group and classify animal and plant life. Comments In comparison to other needs I feel this applies to a very select group. This is something only biology majors would use ta any great extent. Is biology really that important for all ? Esoteric information which is not needed in twentieth century li fe. Not at all something everybody needs to know. Except for science majors, this is forgotten as soon as class is dismissed. I really see no need for this. 2.022 1.984

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85 TABLE 4.1 Continued Performance Objectives Rank Objective Maximum Priority 1 Read and listen with understanding. 4.993 Comments "Maximum Priority" seems unrealistic. Should be able to but few can or do_. The most important. Now receives information more than he sends it. 2 Express thoughts clearly in speaking and writing. 4.979 Cormients Less important than knowing how to live. (Maximum Priority) seems unrealistic. Should be able to but few can_ or do. The most important. Vague--what percent retention? High Priority 3 Use basic mathematical skills. 4.107 Comments As important as 39 or 40. Technology demands it, good or bad. Very important in society today. Essential for not being "ripped off" by some big business. Math is communication the same as reading and writing. Essential. One of the most important needs. 4 Use methods of critical thinking to solve problems and to 4.045 discriminate among values. Comments Equips student for life. This is what life is about. "Critical thinking" does not result in solving problems Clear thinking urgently important.

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86 TABLE 4.1 Continued Performance Objectives Rank Objective Median Participate actively and intelligently as a voting 4.045 citizen in local, state and national elections. Comments If we can teach this! Judgement in this area too much a matter of personal opinion. Rationale for education. Importance of this should be stressed in general education. Distinguish between fact and opinion in reading and 4.029 listening. Comments Would stop some bigotry which is all tooprevelant in USA. Learn independently. 4.023 Comnents Very important to education beyond the classroom. Purpose' of all education. Vast students do not learn well independently. This is the ultimate test of an educated man. Weakness here. More important for a changing world. Must learn to learn. People learn in a variety of ways. Not for all. 7 Define and describe personal goals. Comments Weakness here. Not all that enthusiastic about value of goal-setting. Extremely important for individual to know where he wants to go. Essential to self. Know thyself and where thou art headed. Where, v;hen, to whom and how?

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87 TABLE 4.1 Continued Performance Objectives Rank Objective Median 8 Manage personal finances, keep records, buy wisely and 4.016 tend to personal business affairs. Comments Hardly a college general education topic. Mandatory to maximum quality of living by wise management of income. This should have been learned much earlier than in college. Judgement in this area too much a matter of personal promoting. Very important. Should probably be of primary importance and why he needs basic math. 9 Question and evaluate proposals, sales arguments, adver4.014 tising, and political speeches with an open and logical mind. Comments How much can we do? 9 Practice good study habits, as demonstrated by proficiency 4.014 in study skills (note-taking, scheduling of time, etc.). Comments Prerequisite for achieving all other goals. If he learns without good study habits why should he demonstrate proficiency in anything but t}ie results? 10 Use the full facilities of the library. 4.008 Conronts My students need more instruction here. Not enough emphasis placed upon library and its function. Use of library only to the degree it is helpful to the individual; not full facilities . Where else do we learn? Most graduate students do not need to use "full" facilities. Orientation course.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 88 Performance Objectives Rank Objective Median 11 Practice conservation of natural resources and act to 4.000 preserve the ecology. Comments The "Gospel of Ecology" is 90% emotion and 10% substantial data. A good idea but is it in the curriculum yet? Wishful thinking but would be great if all would. Someday may be a matter of survival. Without it, our society will end abruptly in the near future. 12 Analyze and synthesize elements of a problem to provide 3.993 various alternatives. Comments Probably an impossible trait to develop in the average scholar. 12 Contribute positively to a discussion of local, state, 3.993 national and world affairs. Comments How much can we do? We should be "involved." 12 Give directions accurately and in proper sequence. 3.993 Comments Necessary to function in today's more compli cated world. This is grade 1 to 6. A by-product. 13 Recognize incom.plete or misleading advertising. 3.985 Comments Related to role as consumer and "selling" candidates. Most people learn to be adequately skeptical on their own. We cannot do it all "in general education.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued Performance Objectives Rank Objective Median 13 Select a topic, narrow it to workable limits, do 3.985 research, formulate ideas, and write a well organized paper in support of those ideas. Comments For fewer than half our students. How much can we do? This should be a part of every transfer student's training. Many "successful" people (college graduates) are unable to do this. Valuable, but freshmen and sophomore students do not know enough about any one thing to narrow down to a topic suitable for research. Also, too many instructors use this to justify a poor classroom experience. OK as long as this does not mean the form.al research paper. Only perhaps 40% of community college graduates will ever write a paper; why waste their time? 14 Lead a logical, coherent discussion, or present a logical, 3.971 coherent speech on a given topic. Conronts Leadership and verbalization not that important. Not necessary to this extent. T5 Demonstrate dependability through regular class attend3.953 ance, timely handing in of assignments, etc. Comments This essential to job success in a bad job market. This value teaches conform.i ty . Is not measure of dependabi li ty . Cannot help anyone's character by taking attendance With rare exceptions for creative. Helpful to us, but not necessarily helpful to student-demonstration of interest more im,portant. Nondependable persons handicapped in job market. If student not able to practice this by 18--we cannot train him. Am not sure these are valid measures of dependability.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 90 Performance Objectives Rank Objective 16 Function successfully in a four-year college or university environment. Comments Majority of community college students do not go on. If enrolled in A. A. program. This may not be the person's goal. Not everyone needs this. Why else do we have an A. A. program? Community college students must have competencies to compete in 4-year college. If college parallel , yes ! Not general education. Maybe tliis is not desirable for occupational graduate. The general education program should not be designed as preparation for the Jr. and Sr. years of college. Rather, it is a living educational program designed for all students. Not essential to total group served. What about trade schools? Fewer than half our students. Median Medium Priority 17 Use the metric system and make conversions from the U. S. 3.173 . to the metric system. Comments Not yet! Because we will soon all need to know the relationships when metric use is in effect. The US will be converting in the not too distant future . Soon to be a fact of life. Let us look ahead; metrics are here! Metric system is here to stay--we wi 1 1 adopt it! Time to learn conversion is now! Will be living with this. Teach them now--it will be here in 5 years. "Maximum priority" for use of system--no need for conversions. Gaining in importance. Might as well get used to it now.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 91 Perfonnance Objectives Rank Ob jecti ve Need for conversion already fully accepted by industry and health related vocations. N arrow appl i cab i 1 i ty . 18 Act as an astute consumer of goods and services. 3.130 Comments^ This is very important— so many college students never obtain a 4-year degree, but are consumers and need as much know-how as possible to spend wisely, to survive in economi c crises . Extra-curricular sources do this. Conservational consumerism. Too broad. College cannot be responsible for aVl_ aspects of a person's life, but many of us are careless "consumers." May help in current economic times. Let us stop the "rip-off of many consumers. This not true now, but should be; lack of money causes many family problems; being a wise consumer helps to avoid monetary problems. Make better use of income in inflationary economy. 19 Recognize and be able to use inductive and deductive 3.093 reasoning. Comments Not part of a general education program. How do you build anything without understanding the reasoning process? Use , but not necessarily recognize. Students' writing and verbal skills show great weakness due to lack of this skill. Even mechanics, electronics repairmen, etc., must have some means of arriving at sound conclusions. Why should "critical thinking" rank (high priority) when inductive and deductive reasoning rank (medium priority)? Necessary for analysis and problem solving. 20 Share in the development of a satisfying home and family 3.086 life.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 92 Performance Objectives Rank Objective Median Comments Divorce statistics. Not the role of the college to infringe on privacy of individual. Too much for general education. Very important! Not necessarily within the control or scope of the community college. Increasingly important in our fragrsnting world. Nothing could be more important than a stable home on the stability of the nation. Many of our social problems are caused by a poor home environment and family life. If possible. Stability of family life needs to be increased. The family should be preserved. For happiness and fuller enjoyment of life. 21 Participate in continuing education. 3.076 Comments More important for a changing world. Must learn to learn. Should relate to other community members. A source of continuing pleasure. We want them to be able to continue learning for they will be the leaders of the future. No one ever learns al 1— education is an ongoing process. Educated? Man never is. Changing environnEnt, technology and society makes it necessary to stay up to date. The outcore of general education and therefore should be of the highest priority. Should recognize as a life-long process. Goal of general education must be to promote further learning and education. General education should not be part of a 4-year B.S. or B.A. program. 22 Work productively in small groups, performing both as 3.065 leader and as group member.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 93 Performance Objectives Rank Objective ^^^^ Comments One will work in groups a great deal during a life-this skill is essential. Won't they be doing this rest of their lives in communities? Why not provide sore training for it? Key to success in most job and social situations. A basic part of one's existence. A frequent nethod of attacking problems in a democracy. This skill becoming more important every day. We can address ourselves to this! Why? Varying requirement, certainly one of those items education talks about but never accomplishes. 23 Analyze situations in terms of past, present and future 3.048 significance based on developed historical perspective. Comments Basic to understanding the present. Without a historical perspective each event appears as an isolated phenomenon. All educated men should use this ability. Life long education. Necessary to cope with the rapid pace of change today. "Situations" is vague. 24 Interpret maps, graphs and tables. 3.047 Comrents Related to environment economics, politics. Society uses this technique frequently. Modern use mandates these skills. Insufficiently relevant to the overall spectrum. Another communication skill. A by-product. 25 Apply the scientific method by describing in detail the 3.044 enpirical approach to the solution of a problem. Comments Let's teach problem solving skills!

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 94 Performance Objectives Rank Objective ^" This can be applied individually for the rest of the student's life!!!!! As inportant as basic skills. Significant part of the purpose of education. Problem solving very important and should be stressed. Would help in solving day to day problems. Objectivity is argued upon subjectivity. Should have a better understanding of a crucial tool. 26 Translate verbal problems into mathematical formulas 3.000 and solve. Comnents Necessary in work and everyday living situations. The point is to use math, not to just know it. All problems in real vvorld are verbal. Stresses application of math which is necessary for usage in problem solving. Of course! Not for most people. Not essential for great majority. 27 List, characterize and describe the relationship of the 2.978 elements of one or more past cultures which have had an impact on the culture of b'/entieth century America. Comments Not important. Life-long education. Students today lack foundations on which to examine the twentieth century. Cannot be done by those not disciplined. Synthesizing an idea is another part of the learning process . 27 Extract themes from literature and recognize the rela2.978 tionship of other elements to theme. Comrents Service (elective) function. Not inportant for most.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 95 Pe rf 0 rman ce Ob je cti ves Rank Objective Median 28 Perform mechanical skills necessary for everyday work. 2.944 Comrents This is "trade union" data, not college work. What does this mean— shop? Not part of a general education program. Too vague. What is meant by "mechanical?" Why is this any less important than reading or writing? General education should not be concerned with this at all. Some are just not mechanically inclined. 29 Apply algebraic equations to actual problems and solve. 2.943 Comnnnts Seems an important skill. This is specific, not general education. Practical? Not essential for great majority. We "flunk out" too many students on this one! In no way does this seem necessary other than teaching algebra once in high school. 30 Demonstrate a vocational skill. 2.915 Comments Important goal for community colleges. In the major area--Music! Later, but not as a result of general education. General education cannot train in a vocation; it can and should promote a respect for vocation. Not a suitable outcome of general education. Nice outcome, but not of a general education program. If you have the ability. Not really a purpose of general education. A good general education is about all we can hope for toward this goal . Not part of general education. If in A.S. program. As a result of general education? If vocational student, yes!

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96 T/^LE 4.1 Continued Performance Objectives Rank Objective Not general education. BecoiTiing increasingly inportant as a community college function. 31 Exercise sound critical judgement in appraisal of 2.852 various art forms. Comments Of doubtful importance in general education. Too abstract a skill to expect all students to exercise it. Excise "sound." Service (elective) function. General education? Amusing, not vital. Awareness -relates to number 45. Essential to a well-rounded education. Just need to be able to enjoy it. Art critique is not that important. A personal value. I like what is pleasing to me. "Sound" is whose opinion? 32 Listen critically to and/or make music. 2.851 Cormients Not important. Service (elective) function. Personal choice and value enters into this one. Excise "critically, and/or make." Object to "critically." Only an appreciation! Anyone can enjoy music without being critical. This is not an essential skill. Low Priority 33 Select a work of art and describe the characteristics of 2.264 the work that make it significant. Comments Of doubtful importance in general education.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 97 Performance Objectives Rank Objective Why? He may enjoy something without understanding why he does. General education? Evaluative concept in education, part of the learning process. Only experts should be expected to be able to do this. 34 Create a work of art or handicraft. 2.024 Comments May be a viable skill . Need fulfillment of individual creativity. Service (elective) function. Talent. As a hobby this has coping value for people. 35 Demonstrate proficiency in a shop or laboratory. 2.000 Comments Not in general education. Basic lab skills should be acquired in general education science courses. Service (elective) function. For those in such programs. Laboratory experiences greatly enrich non-lab experiences. (Jot a function of general education. Not a suitable goal for general education. Should be a very low general education priority. Science lab proficiency should be higher than indicated. 36 Participate in drama and/or dance. 1.950 Comments Only for those who wish to. Not necessary to lead a useful life. Life-long education. Dance and drama are equally important as music as a part of their future life; look at TV. Talent. A ("low priority") is absurd! Full development of body and communication skills. Time consuming. Extremely difficult to implement as part of general education program.

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98 TABLE 4.1 Continued Affective Objectives Rank Objective ^^edi an Maximum Priori ty 1 A sense of justice. 4.993 Comments By what value standard? Fairness . What is justice? 2 An intellectual curiosity and general desire for con4.986 tinued learning. Comments Do not like word "curiosity." Not for everyone. A sense of honesty. 4.979 Comments Wouldn't a "sense of integrity" be a better goal? By whose value standards? But in a conmunity college general education program? High Priority A sense of personal responsibility. 4.078 Comments Each, alone, is responsible for his acts. This should be an ultimate goal, personally responsible for our actions . Basic trait for one to become a reliable employee or citizen. Dostoevski says this is one of the basic needs of man, but he also says it is one of the reasons man has been enslaved. 5 An appreciation of learning as a life-long activity. 4.078

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 99 Affective Objectives Ran k Objective ^^^'Q" Comments We learn every day. To continue learning one must have this! Of critical importance. Must be maximum. A liberated mind— free of prejudice and bigotry, and 4.078 able to detect the difference between assumption (belief) and fact. Comments Very issportant and it can be taught. A respect for opinions and rights of fellav citizens to 4.063 express them. Comments Mankind too self-centered nowadays. What coiuld be more important? Bill of Rights! Necessary to prevent social problems. A sense of compassion for one's fellow man. 4.056 Comments The zenith of wisdom and experience. The province of church and family. If sudi a thing can be taught. Do we teach love? Tolerenoa of and willingness to learn about racial, 4.040 religious and ethnic groups different from one's own. Consents Bill of Rights! How else will we solve our racial (etc.) problems. Very tery important. Serves highest social and community values, as well as persoj^al; differences will exaco^ate as energy sources and afniience decline.

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100 TABLE 4.1 Continued Affective Objectives Ranife: Objective Medi an 8 9 A commitment to personal growth. 4.038 Comments Life-long education. A sense of fair play. 4.036 Comments No other way for a person to go. By whose standards? Golden Rule--yes . 10 Aopreciation of man's attempt to understand his envi4.031 ' ronment, to conserve it, and to maintain its proper balance. Comments Life-long education. Man's continued existence depends on this! TO Belief in the necessity and value of work. 4.031 Comments Essential to human survival ! Almost everyone has to work to earn a living--the work ethic is important to a productive society. A Puritanical value— work is good, idleness evil— Bash! n Self-confidence, self-awareness and self-actualization. 4.030 Comments Maybe too much to expect of two years of college. Only question is self-actualization is actually achievable. Self-confidence essential but in ways that others differ from self-confidence are not necessary. Basic. 12 Respect for the needs of future generations. 4.029

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101 TABLE 4.1 Continued Affective Objectives Rank Objective Comments What are these "needs?" Without this, there may be no future generations. 12 The capacity to accept criticism graciously , to change 4.029 one's .views if evidence warrants, it, but a willingness to hold one's position if convinced that it is right. Comments Essential for new leadership in this world and for harmonious life with self-respect. 13 A willingness to form personal opinions. 4.022 Comments Lifelong education. Hard to achieve, but should be a goal . My students are usually too opinionated. 13 Confidence in one's ability to deal with his own future. 4.022 Comments Vital ingredient to be successful. 13 A desire to succeed in a chosen vocation or profession. 4.022 Comments Almost everyone has to work to support himself and family. One man's success is another man's failure. If success means performing at your potential. Attitude essential for success. 14 An appreciation of the beauty of nature. 4.016 Comnents Lifelong education. Extra-curricular sources do this. How do we teach appreciation? Whether it is nature, art, music, literature all the teacher can do is introduce

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102 TABLE 4.1 Continued Affective Objectives Rank Objective Median the student to different things, but not what is good or what is bad. In man made objects he can demonstrate how weU made itere are put together, in nature he can simply attempt to open the student's eyes to things he may never have seen before. This is what any artist is attempting to do. "Appreciation" is a concept not taught. Art and nature are gratuitous. 15 A sense of personal initiative. 4.015 Comnents Transcends honesty. How much can we do? 15 A concern for others and an awareness of others' needs. 4.015 Comments By "others' needs" here I presume that it is not just econcKiic needs . This must be our ultimate goal! Very valuable; however, difficult to teach. 15 Openness to new and/or opposing ideas. 4.015 Comments f^st of us in education hope that an educated person is open-minded. 15 Pride in one's own creative efforts. 4.015 Comments Creativity is the third force . Creativity not important to all. 16 Awareness of the problem of reconciling the personal need 4.014 for maximum individual freedom with group social needs. Comments Bill of Rights, democratic government.

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 103 Affective Objectives Rank Objective Median Emphasis on group and social needs would stifle truly creative individual in any field; great scientist who is concerned with how others react to his ideas rather than the idea and its development will never accomplish much. 17 A sense of belonging to a community. 4.008 Com-ments Lifelong education. Extra-curricular sources do much of this. Because it is so easy to shirk our responsibility. 18 A regard for individual differences. 4.007 Comments Extra-curricular sources do much of this. Bill of Rights. 18 The desire to use time wisely. 4.007 Comments A matter of value judgement. One of the most important things we can learn. Who determines what is wisely? May lead to conformity rather than new ideas. 18 A spirit of cooperation and a willingness to function 4.007 in harmony with one's fellow man. Comments A dream but we should work for it. Real life is highly competitive. 18 Appreciation of the creativity of others. 4.007 18 An appreciation of independent thought. 4.007 19 Belief in the essential equality of all men. 4.000

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104 TABLE 4.1 Continued Rank Affecti ve Ob jecti ves Objecti ve Median Conments Political equality. All men not equal except under law and student should understand that; a Spurrier or Tiant or a Van CI i burn or Heifitz are unique and even with study the average person, is not equal . This is province of the church. Another modem American ideal. All education seems to be involved in sorting out, discriminating, emphasizing differences and inequalities in man. Basic tenet of American culture. All are not equal--biologically or msntally. 19 Awareness of one's own limitations. Comments Usually relative, rather than absolute--is student not trying to change them in college? Basic. Do not be aware of supposed limitations. Do not have to teach. Why not become aware of your potential. Should try to break one's limits, strive to go beyond. 4.000 20 An appreciation of the importance of education in our society. 3.993 21 A positive attitude toward change. Comments A critical attitude, positive or negative according to ci rcumstance. Not just for the sake of change! 3.985 22 The belief that knowledge produces satisfaction in and of itself. Consents Lower priority. Sometimes, this is not totally Aristotelian. 3.955

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 105 Affective Objectives Rank Objective 23 An appreciation of aesthetics, the arts, nature, and 3.938 humanistic values and insights. Comments Aesthetics, arts = 3; others =4. I am not clear on how we can teach all_ of these things. Change "appreciation'' to "understanding." First part is personal choice; 4 for humanistic values. Provided he has the right to make his own choice. Basic. 24 A healthy self -concept— a good sense of personal worth 3.750 and self-esteem. Comments A goal of all education. A self-concept in which the individual recognizes both his uniqueness and ability to contribute to his world is of primary importance. The greatest by-product possible. Healthy attitude toward others more likely with healthy attitude toward ourselves. If not, a person could self-destruct. How do you objectively measure tiiis? Essential to a productive life. How do we follow others without this? 25 A desire to contribute to group activities, and recogni3.588 tion of the importance of human interaction, love, and es teem. Comments "Contribute"— low prion ty; "recogni ze"--hi gh priority. Survi val ! An individual can be just as successful if he has nothing to do with any group--perhaps more so. Medium Priority 26 A good sense of humor. 3.132

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TABLE 4.1 Continued 106 Affective Objectives Rank Objective Median Comments How can you have 79-88 without this. Important for good interpersonal relationships. Necessary for survival. Helps in getting along and preventing ulcers. To laugh at oneself! Doubt general education can do much to develop this important trait. If in "sense of humor" we are including the ability to see things in proper perspective. Necessary in today's world. Essential to survival. 27 A dislike for violence of all sorts--to people, ideas, 3.069 nature. Comments How? We are a very violent society in many ways— physical , verbal, employer-employee relations, etc. Ireland, Lebanon! Not to be construed that we must kill predators because they display violence. Else death to the greater community of mankind. This is a violent world, and it is not likely to change anytime soon. Do not avoid confrontations. This is the church's purview. Necessary for survival. Certainly seems to deserve higher than "medium priority." 28 A sensitivity to the larger spiritual order of which man 3.019 is a part. Conments Obvious! Not clear. Part of cross cultural understanding which is an absolute as far as I am concerned. High priority needed here as man's relationship to God is where it is all at! This should be an individual belief.

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107 TABLE 4.1 Continued Affective Objectives Rank Objective Not quite that important. Bunk! Not within the scope of the community college. Every student I teach is vitally concerned with this dimension of man. Important to an orderly society. Life-long education. Too vague. Cannot force one to have faith in God. He must reach for God himself. The whole destiny of man depends upon it. Assumption! 29 Humility and the desire to place others before oneself. 2.960 Comments Essential to one's being. Unrealistic and perhaps unwise expectation. Real ly! A belief! Humility never got anyone anyplace except for the Uriah Heep's. Never--in this culture one needs to survive. No more a virtue than its opposite.

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w s~ tc c c o in oa s0) S•r— <0 c c o •I— -M t/> » = •rC i LO •rC O t/) •IE SO 0.0 0) -o o 0) > J_ •rQ} <~> E O >5j-sjCO c^-fO«* ^'d->5j-<3-'dCO -sjCO CM I— r-^ r— o O O O r— CO r>. o rU3 Csl Cd O o o c o o r— vr> o o o o «^ CO fo «do OJ tn CM «53eg I— o CNJ o o o o o •a"^a«^ ir> «dtr> ID !— CO o O CO O LD CTi CO ^ CO CO cn CO CO uo OJ CO O CO LD O CT> O LD CTl ^ CO «^ CO CO ^ «;J"d^ «;Jco r-^ «3cn o r-^ CM Lf) Lf> o CJi O O CTi O CO >^ ^ CO Ln Ln o o r** CO I— CO o o cr> o o o o CO «^ «;d"sJ"!J^ CO ^ ^ ^ xSc;J^ "a^ 'd1 "tf CO 'd«:^ «* «:r «dtf> CO Lfi o >— «^ r— r-> o CO 1 — to o en o I— r— CO ^ "S^ o ,— CO o to CO O l£5 lO o ^ «d^ I— r— un ^ «* >— CO rI— ^ 00 ^ ^ ^ ^ >5l^ I — to I — <— lo LO o «dco r— o CT> «:}-co«3-co«^ ^rococo«d«ct-cocofoco co— CO 1^ 1 — r-~ CD to o o i-n Lf) o CO O CO o CO I — vo cTi Ln Ln cri o CT> in OD CM LO o 00 CO OJ r— r00 <:J'SCO ^ ^ ro CO 00 ^ «dCO CO CO 00 CO ^ «^ CO I — CM CO 1X> CO CO 00 00 55 to 1^ CO 00 I OJ C I CO cr> r— CM CO LO CT> o cr> cn cr> CTi o

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n TABLE 4.3 COMPARISOK' OF SECGNt MD THIRD QUESTIONNAIRE RA.NKINGS USING COEFFICIENT OF CONCORDAfCE Rank Ob jecti ve ~ Second Third Questionnaire Questionnaire 1 5.5 6 11.5 132.25 9 C. /O /y 1 D3 i >in 40 0/ lU/ MA AO n H CI 0 1 D/ n D 1 i o 1 "309^ 1 jycf C t) 1 1 o yts 911 c 1 1 /I/IK91 f 40t 1 6 78.5 76 154.5 23870.25 7 1 lo ion 0 ID COO CCCA A 00044 O O / 1 . 9 ay .D 1 Tl 1 71 CI 1 / ID 1 y y / yo 1 QO 1 y^i QC OCA odod4 in lu ion TIC 1 10 obbyb n 103 104 207 42849 Of ft7 R 1 71 90/119 9C 6y4 tC.CD 1 o 90 0£ . D ^onc 9K jyUD . If 7^ /J C 1 . 0 yf. D 00 "jn 9c 13 Of 11^ 1 14 16 25 17 42 1764 1 / Q1 on yu 1 D1 i ol 99 7C1 5c /o 1 1 o lU 1 ins 900 CVV 4oDol 1Q lUU 1 QQ K 1 yy . 0 •jnonn 9C 117 lift Coo oocCo 21 109 110 219 47961 22 102 94 196 38416 23 112 111 • 223 49729 24 108 101 209 43681 25 31 14 45 2025 26 71.5 70 141.5 20022.25 27 77 83.5 160.5 25760.25 28 85 82 167 27889 29 63 62 125 15625 30 54 73 127 16129 31 88.5 78 166.5 27722.25 32 114.5 115 229.5 52670.25 33 44 57 101 10201 34 49 33.5 82.5 6806.25 35 67 65 132 17424

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TABLE 4.3 Continued 115 Rank Questionnaire Questionnaire 36 61 38 39 40 94 48 10 1 2 96 9 18.5 4.5 1.5 190 57 28.5 5.5 3.5 35100 3249 812.25 30.25 12.25 41 AO 43 44 45 7 78.5 56 58 7 106 81 44 59.5 14 205 159.5 100 117.5 196 42025 25440.25 10000 13806.25 46 A 7 48 49 50 52 OO • 14 107 114.5 69 89 28 112 114 121 177.5 42 219 228.5 14641 31505.25 1764 47961 52212.25 51 oc 53 54 55 95 92 5 68.5 33 65 102.5 93 63 46.5 54.5 197.5 185.5 131.5 79.5 119.5 39005.25 34410.25 17292.25 6320.25 14280.25 56 57 58 59 60 62 82 85 9 57 54.5 92 86 30 33.5 116.5 1 /4 172 39 90.5 13572.25 Mi. JO 29584 1521 8190.25 61 62 63 64 65 81 53 111 87 106 91 71 109 83.5 107 172 124 220 170.5 213 29584 15376 48400 29070.25 45359 66 67 68 69 70 104 105 64 110 121 99.5 102.5 59.5 113 121 203.5 207.5 123.5 223 242 41412.25 43056.25 15252.25 49729 58564

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TABLE 4.3 Continued 116 Rank Objective Second Thi rd Questionnaire Questionnaire 71 61 54.5 115.5 1 3340.25 72 98 11 175 30625 73 47 44 91 8281 74 70 37.5 107.5 11556.25 75 13 18.5 31 .5 992.25 76 116 119 235 55225 77 119 117 236 55696 78 90 85 175 30625 79 74.5 74 148.5 ^205^.^:0 80 5.5 3 o c o.b 70 OC 81 LI D/. b flccc oc 4b bb . ^b 82 32 50 82 6724 83 18 54.5 72.5 5256.25 OA 84 no c y<:.D 9/ loy .b Jby lU .£0 oc 85 Id 15 0 7 CI 86 22 20 42 1764 87 55 33.5 86.5 7482.25 88 46 40.5 86.5 7482.25 oy bU bU 1 m 1 lU 1 O 1 AA 12100 yu 28 33.3 61 .5 O T OA O 3782.25 y 1 TO 28 47 2209 DO 79 Id. 1 oo T AA yi J{ 19044 93 38 50 88 7744 94 74.5 75 149.5 22350.25 95 68.5 67 135.5 18360.25 96 42 59.5 101.5 10302.25 97 15 40.5 55.5 3080.25 98 21 26 47 2209 99 26 9 35 1225 100 43 50 93 8649 101 80 80 160 25600 102 96 105 201 40401 103 39 50 89 7921 104 45 44 89 7921 105 35 9 44 1936

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TABLE 4.3 Continued 117 Rank Questionnaire Questionnaire Objective c a tuj Z Second Third ' * 106 16 24.5 40.5 1640.25 107 24 24.5 48.5 2352.25 108 17 12 29 841 109 41 33.5 74.5 5550.25 no 23 21.5 44.5 1980.25 111 34 28 62 3844 IIZ 36 23 59 3481 113 3.5 4.5 8 64 114 n 40.5 51.5 2552.25 115 83 87.5 170.5 29070.25 116 20 12 32 1024 117 8 12 20 400 118 59 46.5 105.5 11130.25 119 30 16 46 2116 120 3.5 1.5 5 25 121 37 37.5 74.5 5550.25 ZX 7381 7381 EX = 14762 (zx)2 = 217926644 z(e)2 = 23636 88.75 S = 1x2 (ixli W = 12S . ^ k^n^-n) . 1^ = 2. n = 121 W F = .95 (k-l)W .

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118 A median was calculated for each objective in the following manner: 1. The total number of cases (priority responses) for the objective was determined. 2. The median was designated as the point on the scale (1-5) above and belov/ which half of the total number of cases fell. 3. The interval within which the median fell was determined. 4. The median was calculated by interpolation--that is, by counting the number of cases in the interval which when added to the number of cases in the preceding interval (s) would total one-half of all the cases for that objective, and dividing that number by the number of cases in the interval in which the median fell; the resulting number was then added to the lower real limit of the interval to arrive at the median. To calculate the mean for each objective, the nunter of responses within each interval was multiplied by the priority rating for that interval (1-5), summed, and divided by the total number of responses for that objective. For this study, mean was defined as the weighted average of responses. Comparison of the Results of the Second and Third Questionnaires The principle aim of the modified Delphi technique used in this study was to achieve the maximum degree of consensus among the study's particpants regarding the priority of the 121 identified objectives of a community college program of general education. Table 4.2 reveals that there is a convergence of the rnedian response between the second

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119 and third questionnaires about the mode in 117 of the 121 objectives (ninety-one percent), and convergence of the mean about the mode in 105 of the 121 objectives (eighty-seven percent). To more accurately assess the degree of agreement or association between the assigned priority rankings between the second and third questionnaires, a coefficient of concordance (W) was computed. This statistic expresses the average agreement, on a scale from 0.00 to 1.00, between the ranks (Kerlinger, 1973, pp. 293-294). A low coefficient of concordance (not significantly different from zero) would indicate a lack of association between the ranks, and thus a lack of consensus about ranks. On the other hand, a high coefficient of concordance (significantly different from zero) would indicate a high degree of association between ranks and thus a high degree of consensus about ranks. The coefficient of concordance is defined by: where S is the sum of tl-ie deviations squared of the totals o? the n ranks from their mean, and k is the nunter of sets of ranks. In this study, there were 121 ranks (n = 121) and two sets of ranks (k = 2). Computation of the coefficient of concordance was based on a comparison of the assigned priority rankings for the second and third questionnaires; priority rankings were determined by the descending order of median rating responses. Data for the computation of the coefficient of concordance are presented in Table 4.3. The conputed W = .95 indicates a substantial degree of association between the fc^^o sets of ranks. Calculating the F ratio, the relationship was found to be statistically significant at the .01 level.

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CHAPTER V COf^CLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purposes for which this study was undertaken were several. First, the study traced the history and evolution of general education as a formulated theory and philosophy of education and examined the major theoretical perspectives that have developed. Next, the study considered the purposes of general education as they are espoused by scholars and in important documents in the field and examined the concept of general education in its various interpretations. The study further examined patterns and programs of general education as they exist and as they are proposed in the conmunity college. In the course of so doing, the study explored some current concerns expressed by informed observers of general education in the community college. The study employed a modified Delphi technique to identify and establish consensus priority rankings for what a selected group of Florida public community college administrators and faculty members believed should be the cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of a program of general education in the conmunity college. A Delphi panel of 166 community college administrators and faculty members representing twenty-five Florida public conmunity colleges generated a list of thirtysix cognitive, forty-two performance, and forty-three affective objectives for a corrsTiunity college program of ganeral education. These objectives, 120

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121 through the use of iterative, sequential questionnaires with controlled feedback, were ranked according to assessed degree of priority. The specific questions which this research was designed to answer were: 1. What should be the cognitive objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? 2. What should be the performance objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? 3. What should be the affective objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? 4. What should be the priority of the identified cognitive, ^ performance, and affective objectives of the general education programs in Florida's public community colleges? Conclusions Answers to the research questions of this study are provided by the data presented in Tables 4.1 and 4.2. The specific identified cognitive, performance, and affective objectives which participants believed should receive high or maximum priority are listed here in descending order of assigned priority. Cognitive Objectives As a result of participation in a community college general education program, the student should know: 1. The rules and principles of proper English usage. 2. The concepts, principles, and methods of lower mathematics. 3. A proficient vocabulary.

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4. The interrelationship of man and his environment. 5. The social, economic, and political problems affecting life in contemporary America. 6. The principles of problem solving. 7. The organization of his local, state, and national governments . 8. The functioning and proper care of the body, including the role of nutrition and exercise in maintaining good health. 9. The basic laws of physical science. 10. The interdisciplinary nature of knowledge, n. The principles of psychology which contribute to a fuller understanding of his own personality and interpersonal relationships. 12. The learning process, including his own preferred mode of learning and the role of motivation. 13. The political, economic, social, and cultural history of the United States. 14. The principles that underlie and affect the economy. 15. The major concepts and methods of at least one discipline. Performance Objectives As a result of participation in a community college general educa tion program, the student should be able to: 1. Read and listen with understanding. 2. Express his thoughts clearly in speaking and writing. 3. Use basic mathematical skills.

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123 4. Practice conservation of natural resources and act to preserve the ecology. 5. Use methods of critical thinking to solve problems and to discriminate among values. 6. Participate actively and intelligently as a voting citizen in local, state, and national elections. 7. Distinguish between fact and opinion in reading and listening. 8. Learn independently. 9. Define and describe personal goals. 10. Manage personal finances, keep records, buy wisely, and tend to personal business affairs. 11. Question and evaluate proposals, sales arguments, advertising, and political speeches with an open and logical mind. 12. Practice good study habits, as demonstrated by proficiency in study skills (notetaking, scheduling of time, etc.). 13. Use the full facilities of the library. 14. Analyze and synthesize elements of a problem to provide various alternatives. 15. Give directions accurately and in proper sequence. 16. Contribute positively to a discussion of local, state, national, and world affairs. 17. Recognize incomplete or misleading advertising. 18. Select a topic, narrow it to workable limits, do research, formulate ideas, and write a well organized paper in support of those ideas.

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124 19. Lead a logical, coherent discussion, or present a logical, coherent speech on a given topic. 20. Demonstrate dependability through regular class attendance, timely handing in of assignments, etc. 21. Function successfully in a four-year college or university environment. Affective Objectives All of the items in the inventory (objectives 79-121) received either maximum or high priority, with the exception of three (84, 101, and 115), and are therefore presumed to be considered by the participants as important objectives for a community college program of general education. However, several participants expressed skepticism or outright disbelief as to whether these attitudes and values could be taught in the general education program. The priorities which participants assigned to these objectives, therefore, may have been based on their assessment of the relative importance of the concepts involved rather than on a perception of their relative significance as objectives of a cormunity college program of general education. Nevertheless, the overall high priority assigned to affective objectives has been interpreted as an indication that, while participants may harbor uncertainties about the methodologies of teachfng attitudes and values, they believe strongly that the identified attitudes and values shoul d be taught. Some specific conclusions which can be drawn from an analysis of the data generated by this study are: 1. Administrators and faculty members in Florida's public community colleges believe the student's knowledge of and ability

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to use language to be an area of major concern in a program of general education. Participants in the study assigned maximum priority to Objective 1 ("The rules and principles of proper English usage"). Objective 39 ("Express thoughts clearly in speaking and writing"), and Objective 40 ("Read and listen with understanding"); high priority was assigned to Objective 16 ("A proficient vocabulary"), Objective 53 ("Lead a logical, coherent discussion, or present a logical, coherent speech on a given topic"). Objective 56 ("Give directions accurately and in proper sequence"), and Objective 68 ("Select a topic, narrow it to workable limits, do research, formulate ideas, and write a well organized paper in support of those ideas"). Their concern is not, however, extended to knowledge of a language other than the student's own (Objective 10), which is of low priority, nor to a knowledge of the basic form of a business letter (Objective 5), of medium priority. Administrators and faculty members in Florida's public community colleges do not consider knowledge of or ability to criticize literature and other art forms to be an important aspect of a community college program of general education. Knowledge of the names of major works of art and their creators (Objective 32), selecting a work of art and describing its significant characteristics (Objective 50), participating in drama and/or dance (Objective 70), and creating a work of art or handicraft (Objective 77) all were given low priority, while medium priority was assigned to knowing the significance

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of pattern, form and structure in literature and other arts (Objective 18), knowing the relationship between idea, image, and symbol (Objective 19), the expository, argumentative, descriptive, and narrative forms of discourse (Objective 22), the techniques, forms and methods of criticism in (the arts) (Objective 23), and to the ability to exercise critical judgement in appraising art forms (Objective 49), to extract themes from literature (Objective 67), and to listen critically to and/or make music (Objective 69). Curiously, high priority was given to an appreciation of one's own creative ability and of others (Objectives 88, 89), to an appreciation of aesthetics and the arts (Objective 92), and to an appreciation of the beauty of nature (Objective 121). Administrators and faculty m.embers in Florida's public community colleges generally agree with Daniel Bell's assessment of the major aim of general education (Garwood, 1973, p. 43)--"Learning to learn." Participants in the study gave maximum priority to acquiring an intellectual curiosity and a general desire for continued learning (Objective 80) and high priority to knowing the learning process (Objective 35), the ability to learn independently (Objective 59), an appreciation of independent thought (Objective 82), an appreciation of the importance of education in our society (Objective 83), and to an appreciation of learning as a life-long activity (Objective 116) . Administrators and faculty members in Florida's public community colleges perceive general education as dealing primarily

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with the middle level of knowledge, rather than the lower or higher levels (Taba, 1952, pp. 211-215). even though they consider higher level knowledge more important. The cognitive objectives identified in this study for the most part concerned the knowledge of principles and basic ideas (level 2) rather than the accumulation of specific information (level 1) or the mastery of concepts which relate bodies of generalizations and principles (level 3). Participants identified thirty-six cognitive objectives, of whidi six were level 1, twenty-four level 2, and six level 3. Of the level 1 objectives, tjvo received low priority (7, 32), three received medium priority (5, 11, 24), and one received high priority (4); of the level 2 objectives, two received low priority (20, 10), thirteen received medium priority (2, 9. 12, 17, 21 , 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31 , 36), eight received high priority (3, 6, 8, 13, 15, 16, 23, 24), and ofiS received maximum priority (1); of the level 3 objectives, two received medium priority (18, 19) and four received high priority (14, 29, 30, 35). Administrators and faculty members in Florida's public community colleges consider problem solving (the application of facts and principles to the solution of new problems) to be an irportant aspect cf the general education program. Comparatively greater priorities were designated for problem solving than for other types of critical thinking. High priority was assigned to the student's knowledge cf the principles of problem solving (Objective 34) and tc the

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128 student's ability to engage in problem solving behavior (Objectives 38, 55). Medium priority was assigned to the student's knowledge of the principles of logical reasoning (the ability to detect faulty assumptions and to formulate sound ones) (Objectives 2, 6), and to the student's ability to apply logical reasoning (Objectives 43, 52, 64); in four instances, however, high priority was given to this ability (Objectives 38, 45, 48, 73). Medium priority was also assigned to the student's knowledge of the principles of interpretation (the ability to interpret data and generalize from them) (Objectives 2, 5), and medium priority was given to the student's ability to apply the principles of interpretation (Objectives 49, 51 , 52, 61 , 64, 67). 6. Administrators and faculty members in Florida's public community colleges favor a "functional" or "problems" approach to general education, with a focus on the relationship between objectives and their relevance to the problems of life. Eleven of the identified cognitive objectives and eleven performance objectives dealt with the individual's relationship to and ability to function well in society. Of these, six cognitive objectives (4, 13, 14, 15, 26, 33) and five performance objectives (37, 44, 71, 74, 75) received high priority; five cognitive (9, 24, 27, 28, 31) and six performance objectives (42, 43, 47, 63, 72, 78) received medium priority. 7. Florida's public community college administrators and faculty members do not consider preparation for a vocation to be an important function of general education (Objectives 9, 42, 63),

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129 although they do believe that students should acquire a desire to succeed in a chosen vocation or profession (Objective 87) and a belief in the necessity and value of work (Objective 106) through general education. 8. Florida's public community college administrators and faculty members do not consider religious principles (Objective 21) or religious values (Objective 84) to be a legitimate concern of the general education program. 9. There is no single theory of general education which characterizes the viewpoints of Florida's public community college administrators and faculty members toward the general education function. Rather, elements of several theories appear to be fused in a kind of aclecticism. The humanist view is evidenced by the relatively high priority assigned to the student's belief that knowledge produces satisfaction in and of itself (Objective 95), and to his appreciation of humanistic insights (Objective 92); further, there are several notations in the comments on the third questionnaire which refer to the "educated man" or "cultivated man." Moreover, objectives which reflect the unity of subject matter and its disciplinary organization were rated high (Objectives 8, 15, 29, 30, 41). The low priorities assigned to objectives dealing with occupational or vocational preparation reflect the rationalist view. On the other hand, the naturalist view is reflected in the high rating assigned to the student's acquiring a desire to succeed in a chosen vocation or profession (Objective 87),

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130 as well as in the overall high ratings assigned to pragmatic or instrumental objectives (4, 13, 14, 26, 33, 37, 44, 71, 74, 75). 10. Florida's public community college administrators and faculty members deem most important for a program of general education those objectives which conform most closely with the objectives identified by the 1947 Report of the President's Conmission on Higher Education, Higher Education for American Democracy , and by the 1950 California Study of General Education in the Junior College . The objectives identified in the present study which departed from or added to those identified in the two earlier studies were generally rated of iredium or low priority (5, 9, 17, 24, 27, 31 , 36, 42, 43, 47, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72. 76, 77). 11. Administrators and faculty members in Florida's public community colleges view general education in all of the following ways: a. as a broad set of common, fundamental learnings designed to assist the community colle,ge student in becoming an "educated" person and to help him succeed academically. b. as a set of learning experiences designed to help the community college student learn how to learn, that is, to help him acquire critical thinking skills, especially logical and problem solving kinds of tliinking ability.

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I 131 c. as a "survey" of the several fields of knowledge, to include the natural and social sciences (including psychology), mathematics, English language and composition, but not necessarily the humanities or literature. d. as an "instrumental" set of learnings designed to help the cormunity college student acquire knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and values which are relevant to his personal adjustment and well-being, to his life as a citizen, and to his role in the environment, but not necessarily to his life as a consumer, a worker, a family member, a civic leader, a member of small groups, a patron of the arts, or a church-goer. Implications and Recorrgnendations The findings of this study indicate that the conceptual ambiguity which has historically surrounded the term "general education" endures among Florida's public community college faculty members and administrators. Their variety of approaches to the general education function, and their occasionally inconsistent and contradictory assignment of priorities to the general education objectives which they identified would indicate a measure of uncertainty and conflict about the interpretation of the general education function in their institutions. One explanation of this uncertainty and conflict might be that these educators do not yet fully understand or subscribe to the community dimension and orientation of their institut-^ons. Philosophically, many administrators and faculty

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132 members seem still to regard their institutions as "junior" colleges-indeed, ten. of the state's twenty-eight public two-year post-secondary institutions still call themselves junior colleges. Another explanation might be that these educator have been trained and are functioning as specialists in a field where generalists, able to combine breadth of understanding with depth of learning and able to take an integrative approach to general education, are needed. It is, however, encouraging that, as indicated by many of the objectives identified and the priorities given them in this study, there is some emphasis in general education in this state on what have traditionally been the strengths of the community college--its conmitment to learnercentered programs, its emphasis on total student development, and its cultural 'and social consciousness. Regarding their general education function, Florida's public community colleges should formulate programs of general education based on answers to these questions: 1 . Who are tJ-iese progrartis to serve? 2. What are their needs and learning expectations, and, realistically, which of these are appropriately dealt with in the conmunity college, and which can be dealt with successfully. 3. What will be the learning experiences in these programs, and hm! well can they be matched with student's needs and expectations? 4. Who is to teach in the general education program, how are they to be prepared, and what will be their methods? 5. How can learning be measured in these programs --indeed, should U: be nieasured?

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133 6. Kliat provisions will there be for review, revision, and renewal of these programs? Only by determining the delimitations of a general education program in such a manner can an operational definition of general education be formulated. And only through formulating an operational definition of general education can Florida's public community colleges fully and clearly comprehend their general education function--a function v^hich, if their catalogs are to be believed, is emphatically and universally conceded to be among their fundamental purposes. Specifically, the following recommendations are made for Florida's public community colleges. They should: » 1. Conduct a comprehensive needs assessment survey among faculty, staff, administrators, and students to determine (a) who should be served by a program of general education (the clientele), (b) what needs and learning expectations are shared in common among the clientele, and (c) what needs and learning expectations are divergent. 2. Discern the aims and broad goals of general education as perceived by administrators, faculty members (in alil_ program areas), and students. 3. Derive the educational objectives of the general education program from the aims and broad goals; these should be stated, insofar as is possible, behaviorally . 4. Fashion appropriate learning opportunities, modes of instruction, and evaluation criteria out of educational objectives, and make them known to students . 5. Employ, train, encourage, and reward faculty members in the

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134 general education program who are general is ts , v;ho take an integrative and wholistic approach to general education, and who concentrate not on tfie teaching of existing knowledge but on imparting skills for continuing self-education —preferably through independent and guided study. 6. Reexamine the rationale for general education— it should not be a complement of common learnings to be ingested by all students (or by all transfer students), but a set of learning opportunities which will enable all students to confront, assess, and deal with large and constantly changing bodies of knowledge, situations, and issues; it should concentrate not on acquisition of knowledge, but on acquisition of processes--perceiving, communicating, decision-making, knowing, organizing, creating, valuing, problem solving. 7. Create a general education council or advisory committee to oversee the formation of goals, educational objectives, learning opportunities, instructional modes and criteria for evaluation in the general education program,, empowered to continually assess each aspect of the program, to suggest revision when called for, and to provide for program renewal . 8. Adopt flexible institutional structures and program parameters for general education learning opportunities--e.g. flexible time frames, variable credits, options in avenues to achieving general education objectives, variety in learning opportunities for the same objective, etc.

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135 Florida's public community colleges, with their peculiar assets and potential, have emerged as the post-secondary institutions in the state most concerned with providing educational programs which converge with the learning expectations of their students. As the rapid pace of social evolution and turmoil quickens, further obscuring the assumptions and values which underlie and give meaning to life, and as we daily become more engulfed in the "data blizzard" of rapidly accumulating knowledge, it becomes increasingly clear that to these institutions, and particularly to their programs of general education, will fall the task of educating a citizenry capable of making the critical choices of the future in terms of values and the broader social implications of those choices. It is hoped that this study has provoked among its participants some fresh and innovative thinking about general education programs, and that in so doing it will help the public community colleges in this state to more clearly understand and to better carry out this basic function.

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APPENDIX A INITIAL LETTER TO COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS TO IDENTIFY DELPHI PANEL MEMBERS

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137 Dear President : I think you will agree that among community college educators there are few topics more regularly or more heatedly debated than general education. The debate continues in spite of, and perhaps to some extent because of, recent attempts to develop innovative, alternate programs of general education at many colleges. However, without explicit, widely agreed upon objectives for general education programs, we are unable to determine whether such programs are any more purposive than more traditional approaches. Indeed, the debate over general education has persisted largely because of the lack of a clearly defined set of such objecti ves . The Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is conducting a study aimed at developing a comprehensive set of objectives for general education programs in community colleges. The principal investigator in this study will be Mr. Alan J. Smith. The procedure to be used will be a modified Delphi Technique, using as the Delphi panel knowledgeable persons in the area of general education in Florida's tv/enty-eight public community colleges. Members of the Delphi panel will be asked to react to three questionnaires as the objectives are developed. I am enclosing with this letter a form on which I hope you will designate those individuals from your institution who you feel would be willing to participate as members of the Delphi panel. To make the study as valid as possible, it is desirable to have a broadly representative panel; therefore, I would appreciate your designating the administrators on your staff who are most familiar with the general education program at your college, and one general education faculty member from each of these major curriculum areas: math-science, communications, humanities, and social sciences. With your permission, these individuals will be contacted directly and requested to serve as members of the Delphi panel. As you know, the success of a Delphi investigation depends on the willing and continued cooperation of each participating panel member. We feel, therefore, that it is extremely important that each of the selected institutions respond. I would very much appreciate your returning the form to us by June 20. Thank you for your assistance and cooperation in this effort. Cordially yours. James L. Wattenbarger, Director Institute of Higher Education

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NAME OF INSTITUTION The follaving list represents administrators and general education faculty members whose duties include planning, organizing, administering, and/or teaching courses in the program of General Education at our college: Name Position RETURN TO: Mr. Alan J. Smith Institute of Higher Education l^iversity of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

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APPENDIX B DELPHI PANEL MEMBERS

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Brevard Community College Dr. R. J. Kosiba, Provost, Cocoa Campus Dr. William B. Nunn, Provost, Titusville Campus Mr. Robert Aitken, Division Chairman, Titusville Campus Mr. Hans Schneider, Division Chairman, Melbourne Campus Mr. Paul Wignall, Division Chairman, Cocoa Campus Mr. L. Estergard, Instructor in Math-Science, Cocoa Campus Mr. Sidney Wilck, Instructor in Humanities, Cocoa Campus Brovifard Community College Dr. Roy Church, Academic Dean, North Campus Mr. Alvin Aurand, Instructor in Mathematics, Central Campus Dr. David Groth, Vice-President for Academic Affairs, Central Office Central Florida Community College Robert F. Ritterhoff, Dean of Academic Affairs Dr. H. Lynn Miller, Director, Division of Business and Social Science William E. Rumbach, Director, Division of Natural Science 0. Joseph Fleming, Director, Division of Fine Arts Charles T. Adams, Chairman, Humanities Department Chipola Junior College Mr. G. W. Allen, Jr., Dean of the College Edison Community College Dr. David G. Robinson, President H. J. Burnette, Vice-President and Dean of Academic Affairs Max G. Rieves, Dean of Student Affairs R. Bruce Warren, Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs Dr. Audrey Muller, Chairman, Division of Social Sciences Dr. Howard Kane, Chairman, Division of Basic Sciences James Newton, Instructor in Mathematics Floriece Love, Instructor in Speech John Tobin, Instructor in Humanities Florida Junior College at Jacksonville Dr. Eric R. Mills, Jr., District Dean, Career and Adult Education, District Offices Dr. Luther B. Christofoli, Academic Dean, North Campus Dr. Jon T. Taylor, Communications, North Campus Mr. Theodore N. Wattron, Social Science, North Campus Mr. Robert M. Pollard, Humanities, South Campus

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141 Florida Keys Community College William Brisbin, Director, Division of Arts and Sciences Mr. Greg 0' Berry, Instructor in Humanities Mr. John Russ, Instructor in Social Sciences Gulf Coast Community College Charles R. Bond, Dean, Academic Studies Cordell Henry, Chairman, Division of Math-Science William Cantrell , Chairman, Division of Social Science Norman Hair, Chairman, Division of Fine Arts Hillsborough Community College J. Raymond Entenman, Director of Instruction and Chairman, Academic Affairs Council Dr. Dale Thompson, Math-Science Department Mr. Charles E. Bell, Instructor in Communications Dr. Harpik Hovan, Instructor in Humanities Dr. Rose Frank, Instructor in Social Sciences Lake City Community College Dr. Walter A, Pamell, Dean, Transfer Division Mr. Robert McDonald, Instructor in Math-Science Mr. Leon Jacobson, Instructor in Communications Mr. William Jacobs, Instructor in Social Sciences Lake-Sumter Community College Dr. Edward D. Jackson, Jr., Chairman, Social Science Division Mrs. Janet V. King, Humanities Instructor Dr. Robert Wall, Biological Sciences Instructor Mrs. LaVera Yarish, Chairman, Humanities Division Manatee Junior College Dr. Kermit K. Johnson, Dean of Instruction Mr. George R. Cash, Chairman of Mathematics Mr. Raymond D. Cheydleur, Chairman of Speech-Religion Mr. J. Ross Young, Coordinator of Science Department Mi ami -Dade Community College Roch Mirabeau, Humanities Winston Richter, Math -Science Peter Lindbloom, Communications

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Dr. Charles Asbury, Social Sciences Dr. Ijourie Fisher Wilbur McElwain Dr. Bennie Wiley, Jr. North Florida Junior College Mr. Barry Barnhart, Instructor in Biology Mrs. Fanny Walton, Instructor in English Okaloosa-Walton Junior College Dr. Earl N. Gul ledge. Dean of Instruction Mr. Lewis C. He'ckroth, Mathematics Department Dr. J. Richard Warren, Humanities Department Dr. Joseph J. Matthev;s, Social Science Department Palm Beach Junior College Mrs. Ruth W. Wing, Chairman, Mathematics Department Mr. John W. Piatt, Jr., Instructor, Communications Department Dr. Paul W. Graham, Dean of Academic Affairs Pasco-Hernando Community College Dr. Charles Morant, Dean of West Campus Dr. Robert W. Wes trick, Dean of the Hernando Center Mr. Thomas D. Floyd, Instructor in Math-Science Pensacola Junior College Dr. Billy H. Daughdrill, Dean, School of Arts and Sciences Dr. Carl F. Zerke, Assistant Dean, School of Arts and Sciences Polk Community College Dr. Clarence C. Holden, Dean of Instruction Mr. David Buckley, Head, Mathematics Department Mr. Bill Swinford, Head, Language Arts Department Mr. Dion K. Brovvn, Head, Fine and Applied' Arts Department Mr. Max Brandon, Head, Institutions Department Santa Fe Community College Ms. B. Lambert, Instructor in Humanities Mr. Birt Browning, Instructor in Social Sciences Mr. Dick Cohen, Instructor in Mathematics

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143 Mr. Charles Beall, Instructor in Communications and Humanities Dr. Clyde Clements, Dean of Curriculum Seminole Community College Dr. Joseph B. White, Jr., Dean of Instruction Mrs. Mary L. Spencer, Instructor, Mathematics Mr. William Elwood, Coordinator, Engineering Program St. Johns River Junior College Mr. George Kennedy, Chairman, Divisions of Communications and Humanities Mr. John E. Miller, Instructor in Mathematics St. Petersburg Junior College Mr. Karl Garrett, Assistant Director, Division of Communications, Clearwater Campus Dr. Arthur D. Pollock, Director of Instructional Development, St. Petersburg Campus Mr. Robert N. Kreager, Director of Instructional Development, Clearwater Campus Ms. Nina G, Milton, Instructor in Natural Science, St. Petersburg Campus Ms. Margaret J. Wilcox, Instructor in English, Clearwater Cam.pus Ms. Geraldine C. Turner, Instructor in English, St. Petersburg Campus Mr. Einerson Day, Instructor in Speech, Clearwater Campus Mr. Paul W. Moorhouse, Instructor in Humanities, St. Petersburg Campus Mr. Joseph Marlin, Instructor in Logic, Clearwater Campus Tallahassee Community College Dr. Archie B. Johnston, Director of Institutional Research Dr. Josephine Curto, Communications Department Mrs. Bonnie Winberly, Humanities Department Mr. Earl Sapp, Social Sciences Department Valencia Community College James R. Richburg, Dean of Academic Affairs, VIest Campus Thomas Ribley, Dean of Instructional Develooment, East Campus Louis Schlegel, Chairman, Department of Humanities, West Campus Ronald Nelson, Instructor of Coimiunications , Hest Campus Jerome Wright, Instructor of Science, West Campus David Skinner, Instructor of Psychology, West Campus

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APPENDIX C INITIAL CORRESPONDENCE TO DELPHI PANEL MEMBERS AND FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE

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145 Dear : Your college president has recommended you as one experienced and knowledoeable in the area of general education. We are therefore asking you to assist us in a study currently being undertaken by the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida to develop a comprehensive set of objectives for community college general education programs. We will attempt, with your help, to determine what should be the cognitive, performance, and affective objectives of general education in Florida's public community colleges, and the priority of those identified objectives . The study will employ a modified Delphi technique which consists of the following three steps: 1. You and other respondents will be asked to list what they believe should be the specific knowledge, abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and values acquired by community college students as a result of their experiences in a general education program. All responses will be reviewed and edited and then listed on a second, check-off type questionnaire. 2. The respondents will be asked to evaluate the items on the second questionnaire by ranking the priority of each of the identified objectives. These responses will be summarized by item and a third questionnaire, which will include these surmary data, will be prepared. 3. The respondents will be given a final opportunity to revise their opinions using the information on the third questionnaire. Respondents ivhose opinions are in the minority will be asked to either change their rankings to conform with the majority or briefly state reasons for their remaining in the minority. These final results will demonstrate a consensus of opinions and will comprise a specific set of objectives for a community college general education program. In order for the Delphi technique to be maximally effective, it is extremely important that those individuals who agree to serve as panel members continue to serve throughout the procedure. This will mean reacting to two check-off type questionnaires in addition to the ooenended questionnaire enclosed here as Attachment I. Also, as a matter of practicality, and in order to complere the study within a reasonable time frame, cut-off dates will be set for returning questionnaires. If for any reason you are unable to meet these cut-off dates, please do not return questionnaires beyond them. Your continued help is essential to our success in this study, and we request your cooperation.

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Page Two We ask you now to join us in Step One of the study by completing Attachment I. Be assured that no individual information will be disclosed; the purpose of the study is to obtain group data. Complete and return Attachment I no later than July 22, 1975, please. Sincerely, Alan J. Smith Institute of Higher Education

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ATTACHMENT I Respondent's List of Objectives of a General Education Program in Florida's Public Community Colleges Name Insti tution Address Please list the specific knowledge, abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and values you feel students should acquire as a result of participation in the learning experiences of a community college general education program: Return to: Alan J. Smith Institute of Higher Education College of Education University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

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APPENDIX D PARTICIPANTS' OBJECTIVES FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS (RESULTS OF THE FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE)

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The objectives submitted by respondents to the first questionnaire listed as received. Individual respondents are designated by number Knowledae Receive career information and guidance from those professionally trained in a given discipline Learn in those disciplines missed or avoided in high school and reinforce or correct weak understandings Generate an understanding of the irreversibility of many natural processes • Abiliti es Learning how to learn in each major group of disciplines Increased skill in reading the content of each major group of disciplines, as it is encountered in their unique and concise forms Increased skill in the use of mathematical schemes in problem solving situations, emphasizing the quantization of events and concepts Increased accuracy and relevance in observations Behaviors Increased creativity and ability to generate order out of disorder Increased stimulation resulting from the exposure to the enthusiasm and zeal of the instructor for his subject Val ues Increased awareness of his surroundings and his interaction with it, as well as his responsibilities to his environment Understands that physical laws are discovered and constantly challenged and not derived from consensus or majority vote and that the violation of physical laws will result in injury to man To develop the ability of the individual to express himself through reading, writing and speaking To develop the ability to obtain information by using the systematic approaches of observation, experimentation and questioning

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150 To develop an understanding of the importance of physical fitness and health and to iirprove the level of physical fitness for the individual To develop recreational skills which can be used by the individual during his leisure tine To develop a sel funderstanding of one's social, physical, emotional and mental needs To develop to capacity one's leadership abilities To develop an understanding of the individual's responsibilities and rights as a citizen 3. Students should obtain general and specific knowledge in the arts and sciences, i.e. fine arts, appreciation and general understanding with specific factual knowledge of works, authors, artists, composers, writers, etc.; science, biology or related earth sciences, physics, chesriistry, etc. A specific knowledge of how to compose a paper and "spelling" therein is most essential to the community college student. If this, the above, is given to the student with an observation and thirst for additional knowledge then I don't think we will have to worry about attitudes and behavior. These areas will take care of themselves because the student is learnino and learning is a corrective for a lot of frustrati ons . 4. Upon completion of a general education program an individual should possess: An understanding cf society's systems and interactions Competencies in reading, written expression and oral expression An ability to utilize constructively one's leisure time A knowledge of humanities An understanding of the international community An imderstar.ding of one's self, physically, mentally and effiotionally The ability to apply the general principles of problem solving 5. A general education procrsm should contain the elements capable of stimulating appreciation and interest (or exci tement ) in one or more of the academic cis-clp lines .

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General subject matter content (information the student will be using or exposed to in future years) should be learned, retained, and used whenever possible. Ability to discuss topics in a more knowledgeable manner, to read current articles and watch special TV programs with greater appreciation and understanding. By being more aware of the many factors affecting their lives, students behavior patterns will be modified accordingly, leading to a more successful and enjoyable life. Attitude styles would be modified to enable the student to appreciate and accept various other life styles and to help the student cope better with stressful situations which arise in his life and be more successful in problem solving. As values become modified, behavior patterns will change accordingly to enrich the life of the student, his family, and his future contacts. Students should have the ability to use and understand written communication: a. They should be able to write a unified paper. b. They should be able to research a subject. c. They should be able to read the 11th grade level as a minimum. Students should be able to communicate orally. Students should be able to perfonn the computational skills necessary to conduct their daily business. Students should have an awareness of their cultural development. Students should be able to relate to and with other people. Students should have a knowledge of the American political system. Students should have an awareness of the American economic system. Students should have developed a positive sense of the work ethic. Students should have sufficient knovjledge of scientific principles to be able to make rational decisions. Students should be prepared to use their leisure time. Students should have a better self-understanding. Students should have a better understanding of man's problerrs in the 20th century and the direction of political, social, economic, and technological change.

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I feel that the purpose of any general education course should emphasize the thought process which brings any discipline into a mature statement. Example: What is the basis for the study of history? How are the inferences arrived at and what is the validity of the factual material which is examined? The same with the physical sciences—is the truth arrived at through the inductive or the deductive process of thought? What are the particulars or universals which are in question? In the human1ties--what statement is being made and haw does this statement reflect the reality of a given time? What prompts the statement and how does the formal expression transmit the idea? When general education is approached in this manner, the main emphasis will be on the affective domain at all times. The cog.nitive domain becomes the basis for a mature examination but should be understood that it is only the basis and not the thing itself In too many cases only the cognitive is emphasized with a Utopian faith that the universal or affective understanding will result. This rarely happens and from twenty three years of teaching experience I know that only by starting and staying with the affective domain will the results of general education provide intellectual gravth. Specific things which take place in the student from my approach are: 1. He/she gains the individual ability to analyze particular facts within a larger perspective, (upper level cognitive) 2. The major behavioral change comes about through the self confidence which is gained by realizing the he/she is actually expressing what they have discovered, (affective) 3. The entire attitude towards learning becomes an exciting experience as a result of this self awareness of ability, (affective) 4. The student learns to read, think, and express on a mature college level and at this point is prepared to enter into an extensive search of a more specific nature, (upper level cognitive) 1 have not expressed my position on general education in the format which has been deemed appropriate for behavioral objectives. I believe that the present "style" (form) of objectives emphasizes the technique rather than the content. Objectives which ;refer to the cognitive domain are quantifiable and therefore luany teachers prefer the security of the statistics rather than the adventure of teaching in the affective domain. I believe that by encouraging the "quantifying" of the general education piTOcess we are destroying its true intent which is to provide

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153 experiences in which the individual realizes his/her unique potential through self-disciplined study and dialectical interaction with the faculty and his peers. I can think of no general education experience that cannot be approached in this manner. Here the student becomes an individual part of his/her learning process as opposed to being processed by external factors. 9. The ability to identify personal goals and develop means to achieve them The ability to do scholarly inquiry, scientific research, and problem definition and solution The desire and ability to direct self-learning The ability to synthesize knowledge from a variety of sources A lifelong cormiitment to learning 10. Proficiency in the research skills implicit in the structure of the major disciplines A working understanding of the nature of mass media, with some skill in coping Transfer of learning, applying problem-solving procedures to the various disciplines and exploiting similarities and parallel skills Literate in the documents and artifacts of our culture Confident in his ability to comprehend, experiment with and solve problems Concomitant comprehension and expressive skills to be an articulate person Ability to conceptualize numbers and number situations Ability to infer the probable method in which a given idea was deri ved Eagerness to learn new and interesting things; wide reading and exploration of ideas Contempt for pat answers, ostentation, phoniness and dishonesty Demanding attitude insisting on honest dealings, clear thinking and integrity

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154 Abandonment of naivete surrounding fad issues, popular causes, "hot" ideas Development of a sense of rigorous testing of ideas against comprehended standards, but keeping an open attitude toward ways that might be better If the general education experience takes, the student should never watch a soap opera, should picket game shows and the Miss America pageant as obscene, distrust Walter Cronkite, demand elected politicians' resignations for the semblance of evildoing, comprehend mathematical concepts, never overdraw at the bank, never use installment credit, read Faulkner, go to any live stage play available, make a personal resolution about his religion or lack of it, love his family and feel a little sad at parades. 1 1 . Specific Knowledge : Societal structure and societal functions Governmental structure, roles, and functions Knowledge about self (abilities, roles, and career objectives) Abilities : Problem-solving Communication skills (written, verbal, and mathematical) Behaviors: Goal-directed behavior Inquisi ti veness/inqui ry behavior Adapting behavior to various social environments Attitudes : Appreciation of learning as an integral part of one's life Appreciation of individual's role in society Appreciation of individual responsibilities in society Values : World-mi ndednes s Worth of the individual Selfdirecting and self-fulfillment 12. Having collaborated wi th another participant on generation of general education goals for his college, felt that the other participant's list represented his own as well. 13. The student should be able to read at a satisfactory level. The student should be able to use written communication effectively. The student should demonstrate a basic understanding of mathematics.

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The student should be aware of the humanities. The student should be able to speak before a group. The student should demonstrate a basic understanding of law. The student should be familiar with the different cultures, subcultures, institutions, and groups in our society. The student should be aware of international affairs and people abroad. The student should demonstrate his understanding of how to improve interpersonal effectiveness. The student should develop skills which will enable him to optimize his leisure time. The student should develop an understanding of the influence of economics on the person, the business, and the world. The student should have an awareness of biology, ecology, and health areas. The student should be aware of the political system in the U. S. and other countries. The student should be aware of parenting practices. Development of a set of sound moral and spiritual values Expression of thoughts clearly in speaking Expression of thoughts clearly in writing Reading with understanding Listening with understanding Use of basic mathematical skills necessary in everyday life Use of critical thinking methods for problem solving Use of thinking for discrimination among values Understanding of cultural heritage Understanding of biological systems Understanding of the physical environment Understanding of importance of irental and physical health

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156 Obtain balanced personal and social adjustment Developing understanding of home and family life Achieve satisfactory vocational adjustment Appreciation of creative activities Understanding of privileges and responsibilities of a democratic citizenship 15. (From Oregon Graduation Requirements , prepared by the Graduation Requirements Task Force, Oregon State Department of Education, September,. 1973) Personal Development Each person shall demonstrate competencies necessary to: a. Read, listen, analyze, speak, and write. b. Compute, using the basic processes. c. Understand basic scientific and technological processes. d. Develop and maintain a healthy mind and body. e. Develop and maintain the role of a lifelong learner. Social Responsibility Each student shall demonstrate the competencies required to function effectively and responsibly: a. As a citizen in the community, state and nation. b. As a citizen in interaction with his or her environment. c. As a citizen on the streets and highways. d. As a consumer of goods and services. Career Development Each student shall demonstrate competencies required to function effectively within a career cluster or broad range of occupations. 16. General education programs should not be designed to disseminate specific information , but rather they should be designed to help the student gain general information in areas o uts i de of his major which might be useful to him in everyday living and would prevent him from being one-sided in his educational development.

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157 The student should be able to communicate effectively and to think clearly and logically. He should be made aware of his heritage and how the past is linked to the present. It should be pointed out how the contributions and achievements of others affect his life today. From this knowledge the student should develop acceptable character traits, values and attitudes that will make him a better adjusted and contributing member of society. 17. General knowledge of all the disciplines, including subjects often excluded like: philosophy, logic, etc. Reasonable reading speed and comprehension Reasonable composition skills, including spelling, punctuation, syntax, organization, etc. Reasonable interpersonal communication and verbal skills Enough mathematical skill to handle personal budgets, financial planning 18. Specific Knowledge Vocabulary, certainly of popular terms, and of some specialized discipline terms in the Humanities, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences Mathematical principles applicable to everyday life experiences Historical knowledge of the development of the Sciences and the implications for the present as well as the future Cultural awareness --why and how "we" came to be the way we are Abilities To: Read, write and spell ( communicate ideas in both written and oral expression) Discern fallacious arguments Use a library as a resource center Take various kinds of exams without being terrified Discipline the mind, for purposes of learning and character development Apply abstract principles to life situations

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Behavior (action, conduct) Sensitivity toward the rights and privileges of others, tempered by a knowledge of the difference betv;een justice and mercy Restraint (based on confidence) Moderation (based on ability to recognize extremes of behavior) Di gni ty Conjoining of self-interest with service to the community (state or nation) Attitudes (state of mind) Patience Curiosity (without fear of reproof) Desire to exercise responsibility, not license Willingness to test ideas for validity— to work without promise of immediate or material reward Honesty toward self and others Responsible skepticism Confidence--without arrogance Arete Calm-about life and its vicissitudes Enthusiasm for life and learning Di gni ty— based on an awareness of the student of his inherent worth as an individual Values (a worthwhile principle or standard) A standard of ethics and morality against which the student can measure and evaluate social attitudes and behavioral manifestations 1. To acquire those skills and concepts basic to effective living in a democratic society: a. to communicate with clarity and understanding through both the written and the spoken word;

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b. to read with understanding for both knowledge and leisure; c. to think critically and to make decisions and judgments based upon fact and research so that he can participate intelligently in the decisionmaking of his diverse conmuni ties --city, county, state, nation, and world; d. to learn those computation skills which will enable him to gain maximum benefit from his earnings ; e. to gain an understanding of his cultural heritage and to draw upon this understanding to enrich his own life; f. to learn how to maintain a healthy body and mind; g. to learn to use his leisure time in a creative and satisfying way; h. to examine the demands of various vocations and professions so that he may select one in which he is suited both intellectually and socially; i. to understand his physical environment and his responsibilities to and his association with it. 2. To become a well-adjusted individual, able to function as both an independent and an integral part of a greater whole a. To respect himself and to accept his individuality; b. To respect others for their individuality, yet not become a follower wi thout having evaluated, analyzed, and drawn conclusions; c. To have a wide exposure to the arts; d. To recognize his own capabilities and to accept his uniqueness . To develop the ability to express thoughts clearly in speaking and writing, and to read and listen with understanding To examine our cultural heritage To examine the basic laws governing the universe To study the privileges and responsibilities of democratic citizenship

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160 To examine theories pertaining to the origin and development of life To examine the relationship between the organic and the inorganic world To examine man's role in relation to other living things and the common envi ronment To explore the behavior and characteristics of the various units of matter To develop rewarding personal and social patterns of living To promote the use of mathematics as a tool for analysis of general problems To develop a lifelong physical activity that has significant health value To promote familiarization with library resources 21. I think the major purpose of the General Education Program should be to impart as systematic and comprehensive a coverage of the subject matter of the various academic disciplines composing the General Education guises as can possibly be done within the obvious limitations of introductory courses. Most importantly, I think the subject matter be considered the means by which the student extends and deepens his awareness of the human condition and increases his appreciation of man's past achievements in order for the student to have as substantial a grounds as possible to enable the student to live a more worthwhile life and recognize his obligations and responsibilities to the larger society which surrounds him and in which he will make whatever contributions he is able to enhance and further develop the human condition. I fully realize the above statement has been the goal of general education traditionally, but I believe our all too obvious failures to achieve this goal lies in large part to our deep-seated belief {not articulated of course) that knowledge is an end in itself and not primarily the means to an end. I do not imply here that the ends justify the means as I am convinced that man's most atrocious acts have always been justified as a means to the Good. We must continue to build upon those attitutdes of generosity, patience, goodwill, and sympathetic understanding which the young persons initially bring to us rather than as seems all too often the case of destroying them under whatever guise we employ. The teacher should know this, the student is only dimly aware of this. We can learn from the student to be sure, but our responsibility is to teach the student what he obviously does not know. And that lack of knowledge is profound.

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161 22. Knowledge Basic rules of English language The principles of logic Simple arithmetic, simple algebra, and plane geometry Basic methodology of library research A fund of basic factual data on the Humanities, the Natural Sciences, and the Social Sciences, plus knowledge and understanding of the distinctive, as well as the common, characteristics of the content, methodology, values, and objectives of each of them Abi lities To read significant writings with comprehension; to write and speak at the level of expression adequate to the requirements of educated people; and to use simple mathematics To apply principles to new situations To identify and appraise judgements and values which bear upon choosing a position or adopting a course of action To recognize problems and make realistic efforts tavard analysis and solution To select and organize ideas, data, and experience in support of the performance of chosen or assigned tasks (including the ability to prepare for and take college-level examinations) To participate effectively in interpersonal relations and activities in both the cognitive and non-cognitive areas of daily life Behavior Purposeful and realistic pursuit of assigned or chosen goals in both the cognitive and non-cognitive areas of daily life Constructive participation in peer-group activities in these same areas of daily life Satisfying use of leisure time Attitudes Self-assurance Open-mindedness

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Tolerance of the opinions and attitudes of others Intellectual curiosity Values Patriotism Ethical conduct Indi vi dualism Self-discipline Success Th e ration ale: The general education provided to its students Ey a community college supported by public funds should enable them to think straight, communicate their ideas effectively, make effective use of available resources relevant to the performance of assigned or chosen tasks, and maintain their selfassurance and self-respect in the activities of daily life. The ability to communicate verbally and in writing at least at the level of current business standards Knowledge of the role of the physical and biological sciences in the improvement of the quality of life Kno.vledge of the influence of art, music, and literature on human af f ai rs Knov/ledge of the development of civilized man from pre-historic times to the present An appreciation of the value of physical fitness To develop the habits and attitudes needed for responsible citizenship To acquire a good basic knowledge of the courses taught in the general education program To develop the ability to bring together and to understand the relationship of knowledge in different fields of study To develop a set of ethical and moral principles to guide individuals in their personal conduct To gain an understanding of oneself, including one's strengths and weaknesses

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To understand and respect people of different cultures To develop skills in interpersonal relationships To develop the ability to communicate effectively To acquire the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world Knowledge of : Language function General psychology Fundamentals of mathematics (theoretical and practical) Humanities (literature, art, music, philosophy, religion) Sciences (biological, physical, earth) Political concepts Governirental functions Economics (theoretical and practical) Historical perspective on all above categories Abil ities : To speak and write efficient English To be familiar with a language other than one's own To use resource materials To reason logically To use mathematics creatively and practically To relate economic problems to real causes To incorporate creative endeavor into one's daily life To understand one's bodily processes To see human problems, within and without To analyze social problems and attempt solutions To understand, accept, and instigate change Behaviors: To observe language change and developrrent To discuss public issues rationally To control excessive emotion To appraise and evaluate self To exhibit social responsibility To show political awareness To make considered decisions To initiate projects To be sensitive to line, form, design To acknovifledge tlie existence of various kinds of music To try to live in harmony with nature To gain perspective of time and space Atti tudes : Respect for self and confidence in self Respect for others

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164 Respect for group Willingness to explore ideas and concepts Receptive to ideas of others in all age groups Acknowledgement of own deficiencies Commitment to the belief of becoming Expectation of change Willingness to practice patience Values : Individual worth Integrity Group concern Fair play Acceptance of responsibility Consciousness of the infinite 26. "To interest ourselves [students] in subjects for which we have no aptitude."--!. S. Eliot To ". . .be wholly educated, rightly formed not only in one single matter or in a few, or even in many, but in all things which perfect human nature. "--John Comenius To instill "... a sense of what, under various disguises, superiority has always signified and may still si gni fy. "— Wi 1 liam James To use "language designed to put man in touch with his fellow man. "--Ashley Montague To bring together "... the knavledge of the fact and the feel of the fact. . . For only when poetry itself--which means all the powers of the arts--regains its place in the consciousness of mankind will the trium.phant civilization the sciences have prepared for us become a civilization in which man can live again." --Archibald MacLeish To feel the fact with Pascal when he meditated, "When I consider the short duration of my life, swallowed up in the eternity before and after, the little space which I fill, and even can see, engulfed in the infinite immensity of spaces of which I am ignorant, and which know me not, I am frightened, and am astonished at being here rather than there; for there is no reason why here rather than there, why now rather than then . "— Bl ai se Pascal To become "The comipletely educated person. . . who has settled some sort of relation in his mind between past, future, and present. "--Mark Van Doren

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165 27. To encourage, develop, and to demonstrate: 1. An awareness, understanding and appreciation of self, people and nature in both a subjective and an objective sense. 2. An awareness, understanding and appreciation of the above in the light of different approaches in obtaining information as well as in the light of change (i.e. past, present and future inquiry). 28. Become familiar with accumulated knowledge of the world Understand his cultural heritage so that he may gain perspective of his time and place in the world Understand his interaction with his biological and physical envi ronment Maintain good mental and physical health for himself, his family and his conmuni ty , Express his thoughts clearly in speaking and in writing and read and listen with understanding Develop sound moral and spiritual values Exercise privileges and responsibilities of democratic citizenship Use mathematical and mechanical skills effectively for purposes of vocation and of ordinary life situations Use methods of critical thinking for the solution of problems and for discriminating among values Develop rewarding personal and social patterns of life Share in the development of a satisfying home and family life Achieve optimum vocational adjustment Develop creativity and appreciation for the creativity of others 29. Improvement of intellectual skills Development of understandings in the broad areas of liberal educati on Effective personal living Development of responsible citizenship Acquaintance with broad areas of subject matter

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166 30. Utilization of the pattern of reflective thinking Knowledge of methods of research (library facilities, interviews, etc.) Evaluation of evidence Organization and presentation of material Objectivity Appreciation of art and literature as it relates to men and cul ture A basic understanding of the Sociel Sciences A basic understanding of the Physical Sciences (Natural Sciences) An understanding of the interrelationship of the various disciplines A better understanding of the "self" 31. Obtain a broader knavledge of himself, his own abilities and career goals Acquire knavledge of the basic skills and develop the ability to communicate Develop an intellectual curiosity and general desire for continuous learning Understand and utilize the principles of logic To have a concern for others and develop an awareness of mankind's needs To become knowledgeable of the history and development of man's civilization in order to weigh values and determine his behavior patterns in making future decisions concerning man's scientific, environmental and social development 32. To provide students with a comrnon set of learning experiences which will help equip them to participate effectively in our society To provide learning experiences broad enough, and including enough options, to allov.' t^ne individual to prepare himseif in accordance with his own abilities, needs, and interests

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To help students develop the ability to think, solve problems, and to learn general principles rather than isolated bits of knowledge or training which may soon become obsolete To develop and enhance an awareness and knowledge and appreciation of the physical world in which m live, characteristics of human behavior, and problems of human existence To promote the acquisition of the skills necessary for active involvement as concerned and thinking citizens General Education Must : (be "Everything for Everybody") Be effective in preparing citizens to think and act more responsibly and intelligently both individually and as members of society. The program aims to help each student increase his competence in these areas: 1. Developing a set of sound values by which he guides his life through critical thinking and discrimination 2. Increasing his specific knowledge in order to: a. Express thoughts clearly in speaking and writing b. Read and listen with understanding c. Understand the privileges and responsibilities of democratic citizenship d. Use basic mathematical skills e. Understand his cultural heritage f. Understand his environment to the point where he may adjust to, improve and protect that environment 3. Improved abilities to enable him to: a. Think and react more effectively b. Use critical thinking for solution of problems c. Develop mechanical skills necessary for everyday work and recreation d. Maintain good mental and physical health e. Develop practical skills of rreasurement of space, time and materials f. Be involved In c^-eative activity

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168 g. Develop vocational adjustment 4. Behaviors to be acquired: a. Increased consumer skills b. Problem solving methods c. Personal and social competence d. Increased efficiency in daily living e. Moral and spiritual values by which he guides his life 34 As a result of participating in a community college general education program, the student should have acquired the skills necessary to communicate effectively both orally and in written form. This means simply that he should be able to convey his thoughts by means of complete sentences and by correct use of subjects and verbs. He should develop the ability to study, to think, to isolate the relevant from the irrelevant and to solve problems by use of a logical approach. He should have learned something about human nature and how to get along with others so he can become an effective citizen in our society. Finally, he should learn the general guiding principles so that he may have a better understanding of the workings of our world and may thus find his proper place in it. 35. Communicate effectively in verbal and written media Perform basic mathematical calculation Awareness of Western heritage, i.e. Social, Political, Literary, Artistic, etc. Help open up value systems for reshaping 36. Students should gain knowledge of the problems of humanity and the attempts that have been made and are being made to solve these problems. General education therefore should afford the opportunity for students to become conversant with the various disciplines that address themselves to these problems (i.e. humanities, social and physical sciences, mathematics and philosophy). It is hoped that witli competence achieved commensurate with lower division studies, attitudes, behavior and values would be positive in the framework of our culture.

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169 37. Knowledge and Ability to : Acquire knowledge independently Analyze problems and issues Think logically Speak effectively Write grammatically Participate constructively in society Use fundamental mathematics Appreciate significant social, political and economic challenges Beliefs and Attitudes : Courtesy t Cooperation Independent thought and openness Awareness of perspective and balance Respect for self and others Appreciation for education Values : Honesty Work Initiative 38. Awareness that a "working knowledge" in some area is essential for effective living Spiritual awareness Knowledge that there are different world styles of living and that to be different is not "right" or "wrong" Awareness that many times objectivity is merely consensus subjectivity Awareness that to have life is to have change

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170 39. To know at least one field with some thoroughness To be able to communicate with others, to be able to speak and write one's native language with a high degree of competence To be able to live in a changing world and to entertain new ideas To be able to get along with others To be able to entertain oneself To be sensitive to the larger spiritual order of which man is a part 40. Ability to express oneself both in writing and orally Ability to understand basic concepts and relationships in mathematics and sciences in order to make better decisions in personal and professional life Ability to understand himself and his fellow man better through a knowledge of his own body, mind, and spirit Awareness of the influences which affect our lives — the sounds, sights, movements which characterize the arts 41. Knowledge : (1) organization of local, state, national government; (2) 20th century U. S. history; (3) basic economics and consumer education {practical math instead of algebra); (4) three philosophies of life (religion); (5) child and adolescent psychology; (6) health principles (not pure biology); (7) American authors, including minorities of women, blacks, etc.; (8) science of conservation of natural resources and reduction of pollution; (9) history of one art form or relationships among several art forms of one era Abilities : (1) present ideas (original or researched) verbally or in writing, in depth of 3level outline; (2) interpret and/ or summarize readings in the largest area newspaper (front page, editorial page, one^self-choi ce section), in a weekly news magazine, and a consumer magazine; (3) do practical math problems involving loans, interest, installment buying, home purchasing vs. renting, comparison shcDoing, etc.; (4) recognize advertising that is not complete in giving all necessary informiation or comparisons (printed and TV ads); (5) listen to another person and paraphrase what he said B ehaviors : (1) express beliefs firmly (written or verbally) without being overbearing; (2) listen to others who disacrae, without losing composura; (3) learn or strengthen the habit of being dependable (clasi attendance and assignTionts , both absence and tardiness)

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171 Attitudes(1) respect for opinions and rights of fellow citizens(2) ' interest in learning about racial and national minorities 'of his comniLinity; (3) appreciation of /^inerica's history in becoming the "free-est" nation; (4) appreciation of an art form of his choice; (5) desire to succeed in his vocation, implying desire to continue to learn throughout life Values: (1) be kind to and thoughtful of others; (2) accept "others"' rights to their religious and life-style philosophies 42. Capability in conmuni cation— listening, speaking, reading, and writing Knov\;ledge of how to achieve and sustain physical health Knowledge of how to achieve and sustain mental health Introduction to the visual and performing arts Ability to perform basic computational tasks Fundamental information about the ecological environment Knowledge of the principle social and political systems 43. Verbal communication skills and written communication skills, acceptable in terms of standard English usage Quantitative skills Knowledge of own skills and abilities and ability to relate these to some career goal(s) (or life goals) Knowledge of contribution of past and present civilization in fields of science, art, music, literature, philosophy Knowledge of present and projected problems for mankind in fields of science, social science, and humanities with alternatives for solutions Value of the human being, relationships to others in a rapidly changing technological world; positive self-image Knowledge of the current and projected role of technology in our world-the promise and dangers for the future Knowledge of man's past and present in terms of the events, movements, and ideas which shape our lives and destinies 44. Expresses his thought clearly in writing.

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Expresses his thoughts clearly in speech. Evinces pride in his own creative efforts. Appreciates the creative efforts of others. Displays awareness of communicative effort in a wide variety of media. Works productively in small groups, as both participant and leader. Displays awareness of the hierarchial nature of values. Explores the relationship between language and behavior, particularly in the valuing process. Employs several specific techniques for discovering and ranking his own values in a given situation. Distinguishes betv-zeen fact and opinion in reading or listening. Demonstrates proficiency in study skills, such as note taking, scheduling time, etc. Is prepared to assuma at least one specific kind of work. Displays increased valuing of and competence in citizenship. Deeper awareness of his cultural heritage. Uses basic mathematical and mechanical skills in budgets, personal records, etc. Knows a basic form for a business letter, which can be adapted to many situations. Understands his interaction with his environment. Values the maintenance of good health for himself and others. Values his increasing competence in maintaining mental health. Works toward a balanced personal adjustment. Displays awareness of the increasing complexities of family life and of personal and community resources to help ameliorate them. Regards change as a challenge. Feels competent to deal with his future. Reading efficiency with a variety of materials.

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173 Math ability, through general algebra. Acquaintance with western history and culture. Self awareness --knov/l edge of personal interaction. Enough science to understand non-techni cal publications such as Time, National Geographies . Critical judgement in modem popular arts. Tolerance of opinions of others. Knowledge of career choices open to his/her ability. 46. An understanding of the need to earn a productive living and the background to make an initial determination of fields of interest. An understanding of himself and his relationship to others in society. To examine alternative value systems within society and make an intelligent selection based on his own needs and the probable consequences of the choice. To be able to adapt economically, socially, psychologically and philosophically to an ever rapidly changing society. 47. An ability to read on at least the 12th grade level. A general knowledge of the concepts related to sociology and psychology. Completion of communication courses, with heavy emphasis on writing and speaking. Some ability to understand the importance of humanities in giving meaning to life. Developing awareness of the individual's role in the political process. 48. A student completing general education programs should be able: a. To demonstrate an understanding of his own personal identity and his interpersonal relationships with others . b. To demonstrate competencies in effective conriuni eating • skills including writing, reading, speaking, and listening.

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174 I c To demonstrate that he can arrive at his own logical conclusions to questions involving moral, ethical, and value judgements. d. To demonstrate an understanding of the complex local, national, and international society in which he lives. e. To demonstrate an understanding of his body's physical needs. f. To demonstrate skills, appreciation, and effective use of his leisure time. g. To demonstrate insioht of his own abilities, values, and interests which may culminate in sound vocational choices. h. To demonstrate an understanding of his physical environmenti. To demonstrate effective problem solving techniques involving mathematical, scientific, and social concerns. j. To demonstrate an appreciation of the creative talents of others and investigate his own potential talents. 49. The knov/ledge and ability to examine critically all human values. The kno^vledge and ability to examine crit-'cdlly all social institutions, their histories, their powers, their successes and their failures . The knwl edge and ability to examine critically all natural phencaisna. The knoi'/ledge and ability to examine critically the attitudes and values men have had when men believed themselves to be free men. 50. Stated that he endorsed the general education objectives which resulted from an A. A. degree competency study into which he had some input and which has been submitted by a colleague. 51. Exposure to various schools of thought, i.e. philosophical, psychological, scientific, mathematical, etc. Exposure to the system of values Americans hold dear. Exposure to the American heritage. Exposure to non-American ideologies and their value system.

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The knowledge of how to learn; the analysis and evaluation of questions. The ability to adjust oneself to a changing world. The capacity to accept criticism; and respond with an alternate plan if convinced one is in error, but to defend and further explain in depth one's original thoughts if convinced one is still correct. Social Science Objectives The student will demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of man's role as an individual in society by meeting the following objectives: A. The student will be able to relate himself as an individual in society to society as a whole in terms of one or more of the social science disciplines, orally or in writing. B. The student will be able to describe and give the significance of the political process of the United States orally or in writing. Humanities Objectives The student will demonstrate the possession of an aesthetic insight concerning the artistic creations of man by meeting the following objectives: A. The student will be able to select a work of art, i.e. literary work, costume, graphic art, sculpture, architecture, or musical composition and describe orally or in writing the characteristics of that work which make it significant. B. The student will be able to list, characterize, and describe the relationship of the elements of one or more past cultures which have had an impact on the culture of twentieth century America. Mathem.atics Natural Science Objectives The student will deranstrats a knowledge and understanding of the natural v;orld and mathematics by mieeting the following objectives A. The student will demonstrate the mastery of the theory and application of the mathematical principles embodied in at least one methematics course through successful com,pleticn of the objectives of that course. B. The student will d£i";onstrate a knowledge of the content and application of the scientific rrethcd by describing in oetail.

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orally or in writing, the application of the enpirical approach to a particular problem supplied by the instructor. C. The student will demonstrate orally or in writing a knowledge and understanding of the hierarchial nature of taxonomic scheme used to group life forms in our natural world. D. The student will demonstrate a knowledge of the significance of one or more of the basic laws of physical science as selected by the instructor. Communication Objectives The student will demonstrate that he can communicate effectively by meeting the following objectives: A. The student will be able to read at 12.0 grade level as measured by Nelson-Denny Reading Test or similar standardized instrument. B. The student will be able to compose an essay of at least five hundred words which, to the satisfaction of the instructor, is reasonably well organized, logical and granrnatically correct. C. The student will be able to lead a thirty minute logical, coherent discussion or present a logical, coherent fiveminute speech on a topic selected by the instructor to the satisfaction of the instructor. D. The student will be able to demonstrate a knowledge of and an ability to use a library and other research sources as demonstrated through a practical examination including usage of books, periodicals, maps, microfilm, and audio visual materials. Electives Objectives Through the elective courses he takes, a student will meet the following objectives: A. The student will obtain an adequate pre-major background which will prepare him to succeed in major courses at the upper division level in the university for which his junior college pre-major courses are prerequisites. B. The student will explore the areas of major study for which he may have an interest or aptitude, and based upon this experience, will choose a career area in which to major.

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177 53. I can only answer for that academic discipline in which I have been trained--history . ^?i.siraany , I think that students ought to be able to do critical dacunentary research, be cognizant of the chronology and major events of Ancient, Medieval, and Modem history in such a way that they are able coherently to reconstruct in their minds the historical human past. 54. Develop the ability and desire to exercise the privileges and responsibilities of an actvys, well-informed, contributing citizen in our democratic socie^. Promote sound moral and ethical values by which he lives and makes decisions affecting fafaily and community. Develop the ability to comnruni cate, to read, to write, to speak, and to think with clarity and precision. Create an appreciation of aesthetic values, the arts, music, nature, and humanistic values and insights. Produce skills for critical and analytical thinking for problem^ solving and decision-making in all aspects of life. Cause one to realize one's own potentialities, limitations and motivations and make decisions based on this knowledge—selfassessment. Develop the ability to choose a satisfying vocation and one that will fulfill economic requirements. Develop mathematical and mechanical skills necessary to function effectively in everydcty living. Develop attitudes and skills needed for maintaining a satisfactory and rewarding home and family life. Provide knowledge and understanding needed for maintaining good mental and physical health for himself and family. Develop an understanding of the physical and biological environment and ability to work and live in harmony with both. Provide a knowledge and appreciation of our cultural heritage and its importance in maintaining and enriching his personal life and in maintaining our democratic way of life. Develop a cooperative attitude, the ability to function in harmony with fellow men, the ability to contribute to group activities of all types, and recognition of the importance of human interaction, love and esteem.

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Attitude: Should develop attitude of rational tolerance toward different values and situations. Abilitv: (a) be able to use reason in all situations, i.e. be i^Tit^ analyze and synthesizriTii^nts of a problem to provide various aUernatives/ (b) be able to communicate so as to understand and be understood in spoken and written form. Values: he should develop his own through exposure to varied ^UTHTulum in an open, objective manner-education should not be indoctrination . Knowledae: student should have oenerai knowledge of four areas: conmuni cations, arts humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences. Perhaps student should take six courses in each area. General characteristics: 1. The ability to use the tools of his vocation whether they be wor
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179 Specific areas of learning: 12. Knowledge of arithmetical functions and the ability to compute accurately. 13. Knwledge of some language and culture other than his own. 14. Knowledge of the physical and mental similarities and differences between human beings. 15. Knovjfledge of how social patterns have developed, how they can be changed, and how to cope with unpleasant situations in a constructive manner, 16. Knov/ledge of the basic government patterns and the distinguishing characteristics of each. 17. Knowledge of basic world geography, including mineral and agricultural capabilities of each major area. 18. KnoNtfledge of the major periods of western civilization and the contributions of each in history, literature, music, art, philosophy and religion. 19. Knowledge of American historical development and resulting atti tudes . 57. Stated that participation would commence with second questionnai re. 58. Each graduate will be able to demonstrate: a. His understanding of and appreciation for the nature and developn^nt of our system of government. b. His knowledge of the factors effecting good mental and physical health and the moral and social values related to membership in the family and in society. c. His ability to communicate thoughts clearly in speaking and writing, and his ability to read with understanding. d. His understanding of the biological or physical environment. e. His uncterstanding of, appreciation for, and participation in cmative and cultural heritage and activities or economic environment. f. His ^ility to use the basic mathematical and arithmetical skills necessary to everyday life.

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180 59. An understanding of the political processes and principles through which democracy expresses itself. Comprehension of the major social, economic, and political problems of contemporary USA. Knowledge of the relationships that exist between man and his natural -cultural environment, and how man changes, controls and directs his environment. An understanding and appreciation of Art and Literature and their relations with modem day living. Preparation for social and economic success in a capitalist society. Acquisition of historical, geographical, scientific and political foundations necessary to better understand/cope/solve/ the problems of contemporary society. To solve problems via the techniques of the scientific method. ^ To interpret data presented by maps, graphs, and tables. To protect the rights and to exercise the responsibilities of US citizenship. To develop the political skills and attitudes necessary for intelligent voting and participation in political processes. To acquire the tools and methods to influence the formulation and implementation of government policies. To stimulate interest in the worthwhile use of leisure time. To develop the cormiuni cati ve skills essential for social, economic, political and educational advancement. 60. Knowledge : To be familiar with and have a basic understanding of the different thought complexes and their manifestations in the various "disciplines" and the historical position, import, and development of same. To have a knowledge of, basic understanding of, and ability to apply the various system, i.e. math, economics, etc. To have a knowledge of, basic understanding of, and ability to use the various communications processes, i.e. written, visual, aural , etc.

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Abilities : To participate successfully in either role in a communications model using the various communications processes To use logic and problem casting and solving techniques To identify relationships To synthesize information To be selfactualizing To apply theoretical to actual Behavior: Should be a manifestation/outgrowth of above characterized by: Awareness of surroundings in various ways and relationship to and with surroundings Developing self-concept Rationality (where appropriate) Openness Humaneness, honesty, integrity Attitudes : , Open to new and/or opposing ideas Open to art, music, etc. Sel f-confi dence Self-awareness Positive toward "ideas" Values : (see above) should be: Self defined as a partially direct result of the knowledge, etc. listed above. I would not begin to say w!,at they should be-that's what education is for--for them to be developed. I know that it (education) is not value-free however--so I will say what they mi ght be characterized by: Positive valuing of: Life, People, Nature, Art, Literature, Music, Justice Negative valuing of: violence of all sorts and kinds to peoDle, ideas, naturae, etc.

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182 61. Be able to read with sufficient speed and comprehension to succeed in college without devoting an inordinate amount of time to study Be able to communicate clearly in both written and oral forms For example: clear, concise, and properly structured sentences and paragraphs; well organized thoughts that flow in a logical sequence; good spelling; clear pronunciation; projection of voi ce Be self confident and emotionally mature to adjust to the University life Be open minded to the reception of new ideas, able to consider this information, and draw conclusions--develop philosophy based upon all input Have a broad foundation of general subject matter including Natural Science, Social Studies, and Humanities and specific skills and abilities in English and Mathematics Have good study habits and self-discipline 62. Knavledge of personal health Ability to communicate effectively Appreciation of cultural background Awareness of his own values and value commitments Tolerance of others' values and value commitments Knowledge and concern for contemporary events, problems, issues Knowledge of how to acquire knov/ledge concerning problems he might face in the future Awareness of his own career interests in life and a conmitment to becoming prepared for his life's work Ability to solve problems Ability to live with both niniself and with society 63. The student should have some knov/ledge in the various areas of life to make him a more "rounded" individual; i.e., positive attitudes and abilities should be developed in the following areas: humanities, communications, literature, social sciences, sciences, mathematics, and physical education.

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183 64. Students should acquire an "indepth" knowledge of: Personal Health Put into practice good health habits (human life) Mental Health Techniaues Learn how to deal with other people as well as yourself (practical psychology) Communicate Learn how to speak and write correctly, analyze information and put it to the best possible use Physical Society Knowledge of the societies in which we live and travel, the physical universe which we inhabit Government Knowledge of and ability to function in our systems of government Economics Knowledge of the consumer system and how to effectively live within such a system Values Knowledge of man's beliefs and morals, his use of leisure time and concern for a higher goal Academic Choice Knowledge of a subject matter that simply holds interest and fascination for students (electives) 65. To assist the student in developing an improved understanding of himself and others To gain knowledge of and ability to practice sound mental health techniques in regard to self and dealing with other people To gain knowledge of the Anerican system of government, as compared to other systems of government, and the ability to function effectively as a mem.ber o^ a democratic society To comprehend the various public forces influencing the political process To gain some awareness of the origin and development of Western institutions and to recognize cause and effect relationships in human events 66. Should serve as a base for all students which will serve to enrich their cultural and intellectual understanding and appreciation Equip the student with basic skill so as to solve problems in everyday life Make it possible for students to be aware of problems which will confront them

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184 To instill in the student a set of values which will give him a positive approach to life Prepare the student so he will be able to make an analysis of problems and organize his approach to solve those problems Give him all necessary skills to make a living 67. Knowledge of personal health and ability to practice good health habits Knowledge of and ability to practice sound mental health techniques in regard to the individual and in dealing with other people Ability to communicate effectively and to analyze the great amount of information available in modern society Knowledge and appreciation of the physical environment in which both the individual and society must live Knowledge of the American system of government, as compared to ^ other systems of government, and ability to function effectively as a member of a democratic society Knowledge of the American economic system and ability to operate effectively as a consumer in such a system, as well as the ability to solve problems Knowledge of the student's individual philosophy of life, tolerance for other philosophies of life, and an appreication of values Knowledge of the wide range of academic offerings available in general education, ability to seek out information when needed, and a desire to continue learning throughout his lifetime 68. Basic communication skills « Ability to analyze communication events for content and hidden content Recognition of difference between opinion and judgement Ability to suspend judgement Recognition of personal viewpoint influence in acquiring information, and in processing and reacting to stimuli Tolerance of others' personal point of view An inkling of what the creative process entails

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185 Some familiarity with cultural and historical background Willingness to explore Willingness to change Comprehension of inter-relatedness of different disciplines To not take himself too seriously To take others seriously A general wariness of quantification when human beings are involved 69. Indicated that circumstances prevented submission of list of objectives but would gladly participate in subsequent questionnai res 70. The student should acquire the common knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to serve effectively as a person, a member of a family, a worker and a citizen in a free society. General Education requirements should include Communications, Humanities, Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Social Sciences. 71. The following are what I consider to be the essential purposes of a general education program: 1. To develop an understanding of psychology and human nature and to help students to be able to handle personal relationships; also to help identify and resolve social problems. 2. To equip students with skills necessary for effective communication, i.e., reading, writing, speaking and listening. 3. To develop an understanding of the history of our country and its governiiient and to enable students to understand the duties of citizenship, that they may become involved and intelligent citizens in their community. 4. To develop an awareness of the beauty and structure of our natural surroundings, ths interrelations of various disciplines and the ecological concerns of man. 5. To instill an appreciation of cultural activities such as music, art and literature, that man may fill his leisure time with worthwhile and self-satisfying activities. 6. To develop an understanding of the importance of maintaining physical, mental and emotional health.

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186 7. To enable students to read current literature with understanding to make intelligent decisions and to develop creativity. 72. Skill in communications An understanding of our culture Ability to think logically and critically Develop understanding of self To comprehend the forces of environment, both social and physical To develop or enhance a value structure that is functional in society 73. Ability to express thoughts precisely in speaking and writing Ability to organize thoughts intelligibly, logically, and effec^ ti vely Ability to read and understand books, magazines, and newspapers of at least average difficulty Ability to write an objective report Ability to write ordinary business correspondence effectively Ability to think logically Ability to think creatively Knowledge of the principles of problem-solving Knowledge of research techniques in solving a problem Knowledge of the principles of good health Knowledge of how our social and political institutions operate Knowledge of our nation's history Knowledge of a few of the more important thoughts, theories, . and philosophies of the past Knowledge of psychology to understand oneself and others Enough knowledge of social problems to eliminate prejudices Knowledge of some of the many fields open to a young person beyond his previous limited experience

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187 Knowledge of some of the enduring literature of the past Knowledge of a few of the principles of good taste in literature and the arts Knowledge of some laws and principles that give order to the natural world Knowledge of some of the enduring art and music Knowledge of mathematics for general use or higher level General knowledge of physical and political world geography Rudimentary knowledge of a foreign language 74. Unable to participate in first phase, but will participate in future phases of study. 75. Community college students should have the following specific knowledges, abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and values as a ' result of their experiences in a general education program: Specific Knowledge 1. Understand concepts and methods of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. 2. Have the capacity to perform the duties of responsible citi zenship. 3. Be capable of analyzing and resolving problems. 4. Use inter-disciplinary approach to integrate knowledge of history, philosophy and literature. 5. Identify principles rather than learn specific techniques. 6. Recognize general relationships and values. 7. Communicate effectively in one's native language. Abilities 1. To think effectively, to communicate thought, to make relevant judgments, to discriminate among values. 2. To achieve selfdiscipline. 3. To use time appropriately. 4. To appreciate one's own limitations.

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188 Behaviors 1. To be able to educate oneself. 2. To develop intellectual curiosity. 3. To develop a frame of reference within which the relationship of ideas takes on meaning. 4. To establish physical and emotional well-being and recognize ethical and moral principles of conduct. 5. To define personal goals. 6. To relate to oneself and the group--be a participating member of society. 7. To maintain a sense of humor. 8. To have a healthy sense of self-sacrifice. Atti tudes 1 . Be tolerant. 2. Achieve honest thinking. 3. Adopt attitudes and concepts suited to social, economic, and political circumstances. Values 1. Develop a sense of personal responsibility. 2. Develop a sense of belonging to a community. 3. Be a whole person, aware of one's share in the common fate. 4. Recognize what is worthwhile. 76. Effective communication skills are paramount (oral, written). A development of the fundamental mathematical skills--not just familiarity, a working skill! A developing awareness of historical, social, environmental, etc. factors as they contribute to the individual's life (and people as a whole) i.e., just develop the person's perspective of the world around him. A developing awareness of the different fields of knowledge and their effects upon people, events, etc.

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189 77. The student should have acquired the ability to obtain knowledge and likewise the ability' to apply that knowledge in practical usage. Th,'i student should attain a high level of proficiency in the use of communicative skills-'listening, reading, speaking, and writing. The student should obtain a better knowledge of his person, i.e. self-awareness , the dignity and worth of others , recognizing individual differences. Tliis includes exposure to differing cultures and value systems. The student should obtain a sense of responsibility to utilize the talents he possesses in a manner that is productive to mankind. The student should acquire an awareness of his total living environment, i.e. political, social, ecological, etc. 78. Knowledge: Knowing some of the major issues that confront and are likely to J confront humankind Distinguishing between: truth, fact, opinion Awareness of the possibility of gaining some measure of quality control over learning and study habits Knowing that there are many ways to learn besides lectures and textbooks Knowing some techniques and disciplines that put one in touch with oneself Having a sense of personal identity Awareness of personal values Abilities : To read and listen with empathy, crtical understanding, and personal evaluation to the ideas, feelings and commitments of others To communicate ideas, feelings, and commitments clearly and effectively To learn independently To learn cooperatively with others To analyze situations in terms of past, present, and possible future significance

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To cooperate rationally and altruistically with others who combine in order to acconplish purposeful work activity To rethink and reaffirm or modify personal concepts of individual and human potential To deal with the impact of the rate of change as an independent vari able To check assumptions from different disciplines or points of view against each other To apply past learning to the facilitation of new learning To apply past learning to the solution of new problems Behaviors ; Choose responsibly--i .e. satisfy personal needs without depriving others of the opportunity to satisfy their needs Rebel or conform on consi dered grounds Cooperate rationally and altruistically with others to save our planet Participate actively in creative endeavors Apply a set of individual ethical values chosen for their intrinsic moral validity Attitudes : Appreciation for the uses and limitations of the arts, sciences, philosophies, and religions in fostering human welfare Appreciation for the uses and limitations of logical and intuitive ways of getting and organizing knowledge Recognition of the problems involved in reconciling personal needs for maximum individual freedom with group social needs Wide sense of identification with others Confidence in the ability to influence events which are personally important Appreciation for learning as selfrewarding Realization that it is necessary to use multi d isciplinary content and methodology in order to study how a particular growing conceiTi has emerged, is changing, is continuous, etc.

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191 Openmindedness— i .e. receiving and evaluating new information on its intrinsic merits, rather than in terms of its external source or its relationship to inner-personal needs Wide sense of identification with others Enjoyment of time spent while actively engaged with material to be learned Val ues : Kaleidoscopic pi uralism--respect for individual uniqueness Compassion Justice— including liberty, equality, reciprocity Principles with intrinsic moral validity—such that each of us would be willing to live under them even as the least advantaged in the society Respect for human personality Good mental, physical, emotional health 79. The general education program will give the student a base from which to more effectively deal with life. It will provide an excellent transitional period to learn values, attitudes, and behaviors and enable the student to make more realistic choices. The program is the first opportunity for exposure to college programs which will give the student the insight to make decisions as to the goals to be achieved. The student will acquire a better perspective and understanding after completion of the general education program, thereby equipping the student in the areas of specific knowledge, abilities, behavior, attitudes, and values. For the student who continues a planned education program, these areas of concern will provide a framework into which can be fit the segments of more advanced work which will make a better adjusted individual. 80. Knowledge : As a result of the community college experience, the student should have achieved a higher level of understanding and mastery of the concepts in the following disciplines: 1. Science 2. Mathematics

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192 3. Communication Skills 4. Humanities Abilities: As a result of the community college experiences, the student, should be able to: Function successfully in an institution of higher learning that is beyond the community college level. This should include any institution whether technical or one of general education experiences . Behaviors : Hopefully, as a result of the community college experiences, the student should have matured to the point where he is capable of mature actions and responsibilities. Attitudes and Values: The student should have gained a mutual respect for all mankind. With knov/ledge required by the community college student, the student should be able to: 1. Feel sympathetic towards the situations that pledge mankind. 2. Devote himself to the betterment of mankind. 3. Truly understand the meaning of the vjords "All men are created equal . " 4. Recognize that the anthropocantric doctrine is not always a valid concept. Guiding Principles : 1. Every effort shall be made to remove the geographic, economic, and cultural barriers to higher education. All citizens should be encouraged to continue their education to the limits of their abilities and interests. 2. The college shall provide a diversity of programs to ireet the needs of the community. 3. The college shall attempt to instill in all its students an understanding of the value and necessity of work. An appreciation of all workers and a respect for all types of v/ork shall be cultivated. 4. The college shall attempt to emphasize the fact that the rights of citizens in a democracy are inseparably associated witfi their responsibilities.

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193 5. The college shall attempt to instill in each student a desire for continued learning which will help him understand and adapt to the many rapid changes in contemporary African society. 81. Basic communication skills (English, English composition, speech) Math (general level) Philosophy, Humanities (Arts, Cultural History, Thought) Biological, Physical Science (basic theory, applications) Social Science (Psychology, Sociology) (Acquire Sophomore level in college-university work in the above) A basic appreciation that education is not the sum total of credits earned; a sense that an education is a self evolved process that should continue If a technical or vocational oriented student, a skill and enough of the above skills to give him or her a sense of the need to continue in areas where they feel a desire to explore, and facilities to do it A final appreciation that although American society demands knowledge be used there is a place for pure enjoyment, and finally a respect for learning that has a broader cultural implication than a living 82. Should acquire ability of self expression, both written and oral Should gain knowledge of underlying principles of all learning and how to build personal knowledge through planned self direction Should receive sufficient information regarding life controllers and motivators in order to develop personal attitudes and values which will make the individual a contributor 83. The aim of community college general education should be to equip and encourage the student to pursue his life goals by stimulation through expansion of his experiences, enhancing his capacities, broadening his interests and fulfilling his needs and aspirations. General education must promote growth and development based on the student's particular abilities, interests and personality. Basically, this includes: 1. The development of a personal value system.

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194 2. The development of a functional means of communication both linguistically and mathematically. 3. The development of creative thinking as related toward problem solving. 4. The development of self-understanding and social awareness. 5. The development of an understanding of the world he lives in, both manmade and natural. 6. The development of an understanding of the five social institutions (family, education, religion, economics and politi cs). 7. The enhancement of self-esteem and sel f -actual i zati on. 8. The achieving of a vocational skill. 84. 1. Logical Thought A. Semantics ^ 1. Emotive 2. Factual B. Identify logical fallacies C. Recognize and be able to use deductive and inductive reasoning 2. Communication Skills A. Understand grammar system of English language 1. See relationship between logic of grammar system and logic of expression of ideas B. Demonstrate conmand of English language orally and in wri ting C. Writing free from comma splices, fragments, run-on sentences, spelling errors, capitalization and punctuation errors D. Wrtie well organized, coherent and unifed paper 3. Reading A. Proficient vocabulary (approximately 50th percentile on Nelson-Denny or McGraw Hill test) B. Proficient in comprehension C. Proficient in reading rate 4. Basic Ma thematic Skills A. Facility with algebraic equations and their use in actual application B. Translate verbal problems into formulas, and solve 5. Science A. Use scientific method of inquiry B. Recognize and use basic natural laws

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C. Solve problems using formulas related to chemistry and physical sciences D. Knowledge of irolecular structure E. Familiar wi til organic and inorganic compounds F. Understand role of DHA and RNA in life processes G. Nutrition H. Photosynthesis I. Reproduction (Human, Plant, Animal) J. Genetics 6. Humanities A. See that in literature, as in life, some actions and statements are more important than others B. Significance of pattern, form, structure in literature and other arts C. Extract themes from literature, and see the relationships of other elements as related to theme D. Understand intimate relation between ideas, images, symbols E. Familiar with branches of philosophy--Epistemology , Ethics, Aesthetics, etc. F. Understanding of cultural heritage (Eastern and Western) G. Acquire a philosophical system for use as a guide to actions H. Tolerance of different cultures and philosophical systems I. Understand those institutions and ideas which have been dominant in shaping nations and cultures 1. Understand influences on and effects of these on our present world J. Understand Judeo-Christi an Religion and other major religions of the world 1. See similarities and differences K. Understand elements of various art forms 1. Organizational patterns and form L. Understand difference between aesthetics of student's culture and that of another culture 7. Research A. Be familiar with and use research tools and library facilities B. Be able to select topic, narrow topic to workable limits, do research, formulate ideas, and write well organized, well presented paper in support of these ideas One overall objective of the general education program that must not be overlooked by specifics; it is "to provide a learning experience for student who have not decided upon a specific career field." Knowledoe 1. In Communication Skills

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Interpretative and critical reading of essays, biographies, fiction, drama and poetry. Intense practice in writing the exposition, argument, descriptive and narrative discourses. 2. In Humanities Techniques, forms and basic evaluative tools related to music, the visual arts, poetry, drama, the dance, films, literature and philosophy. 3. In Social Science American History, including the Constitution, and World Civilization. 4. In Mathematics Sets, logic, numeration systems, mathematical systems, real number systems, and probability. 5. In Biological Sciences Principles of biology with emphasis on human biology. 6. In Physical Sciences Concept of the solar system, behavior of matter and energy, and atomic phenomena. 7. In Health and Physical Education Choices of activity sports, each carrying its own basic knowledge and skills, plus special options for the "handicapped. " Abilities 1. Logical thinking, and writing the library research tenn paper. 2. Listening to and/or making music, viewing art works, and participating in drama and dance. 3. Study skills are improved and is better able to keep abreast of affairs. Participate in local, state, national, and world affair discussion. 4. Operations on sets, use of logic in arriving at conclusions, computations with numeration systems; and real numbers with stress upon definitions and theory, and use of formulas to determine probability. Determining properties of a mathematical system and making use of it. 5. Scientific method of study.

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6. A little knowledge arouses his curiosity and the ability to read and understand helps him to continue to learn about the physical makeup of his universe. 7. Basic skill in chosen activities, and/or non-activities. Behavior 1. Conmuni cati on with others is enhancing. 2. Involvement in cultural activities. 3. Through an understanding of the past, man relates to the present and becomes an active part of current affairs. 4. Pursuit of mathematics as a human endeavor. 5. Relating to his environment with understanding of his bodily functions and surroundings. 6. Relating to the universe with understanding. 7. Group activities help individuals to relate to other individuals. Non-activity options result in providing aid to individuals or groups. Attitudes 1. Life takes on meaning through reading, and thought, and one relates to his fellowman through literature, spoken word, and writing. 2. He has ideas about the nature of man and his relationship to his universe, positive attitudes toward culture and fine arts. 3. He develops basic American character, ideas and attitudes, social, religious, philosophical, political and economi cal . 4. He has an appreciation for what mathematics attempts to accomplish. 5. He has appreciation of man's understanding of his environment. 6. He views the physical makeup of his surroundings in a more meaningful way. 7. A healthy person's attitude tends to be positive, whereas the attitude of the unhealthy tends to be negative. Through these courses, health is aided, and negative attitudes change to positive.

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198 Val ues 1. "No man is an "island" but without communication he tends toward it. Through the study of communication he relates to others and receives enjoyment from reading. 2. Brings about advantageous use of leisure time. 3. The world becomes a better place to live as one understands its history and becomes involved in current affairs. 4. Insight into what mathematics is, interest in mathematics ^ is enhanced, mathematics is appreciated, and negative attitudes are replaced with positive ones. 5. Insight into basic biological concepts develops interest in ecology. 6. Conservation is practical. 7. Equips individual with activity skills needed for maintaining health and relating to fellow man in a positive way. 86. Submitted a list of performance outcomes for the Associate of Arts degree too comprehensive and detailed to list here. As they apply to a program of general education, the objectives listed are similar to those identified by other participants. 87. Objectives of a General Education Program: General education in college should comprise a basic exploratory experience in all major academic areas for the purpose of opening new insights and interests into learning or knowledge and stimulating the student in lifetime interests or selection or alteration of vocational and avocational pursuits, or developing interest in other areas which would complement previously chosen vocational or avocational pursuits. It should have a goal of "making a more complete person" or a liberated, renaissance -type person, and the development of understandings which contribute to a well-educated, understanding and tolerant individual who is knowledgeable in many areas of learning and who is a wellinformed, participating citizen. General education should be considered exploratory for all students, and should not attempt to duplicate the beginning courses of a professional or vocational sequence. While some may be critical of the broad liberal studies approach as being superficial, the goals of appreciation and casual acquaintance with many differing fields should be undergirded by basic learnings in these fields which may make possible further more defined study in a given field of knowledge. General education desirably is accomplished during the first uio years of CDllece. It should be oriented toward the changing world, using the past to give meaning and understanding to the present and future. It should have reaning for both terminal-vocational and baccalaureate-professional students.

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Through General Education studies, the student should gain basic knowledge, skills, abilities and approaches to further study in the "liberating arts" and should develop attitudes which would guide use of these learnings to new situations and citizenship responsibilities. The actual content of General Education should not be so firmly fixed that it fails to relate to changes and needs in society. The divisions or course names and even the actual content of General Education should be dynamic; however, several areas should be considered as fairly well established in the needs of the educated individual: Communications Read and write the native language in an acceptable form and style and vocabulary. Be able to use library and laboratories, completing written reports and research findings in accurate, complete and acceptable form. Review and explore concepts and develop basic skills in mathemati cs . Review and explore basic skills or understandings in the visual arts, crafts, theatre arts, music notation. Become sufficiently aware of foreign languages, dialects and other cultures to appreciate difficulties in written translation, oral communication and differences of backgrounds and customs of different ethnic or national peoples; and to have insights into how to surmount problems of verbal communication between differing peoples. Sciences Become aware of both the potentials and limitations of scientific methods as well as developing an acquaintance with the approaches that selected significant scientists have used in their discoveries that have led to scientific discovery and contributions . Explore a general acquaintance with the approaches and general content of both biological and physical sciences, with at least one laboratory science experience. Relate the accomplishments and potentials of science to the civilized development of the world and the benefits (or dangers) to mankind. Attention should be given the appreciation of science and general concepts. The purpose of the study of the sciences in General Education should not be obscured or defeated by stress on terminology or efforts to condense a pre-professional program into the General Education course. Humanities (Arts and Philosophy) Explore a general acquaintance with the aesthetics history, practice, significant works and content of the following. Where applicable, stress should be placed on the medium, elements, organization, color, style, historical period and function, with the lesser stress on title, creator and value judgement of the critic.

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200 —visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts; architectural, landscape and community planning) --theatre arts (both mechanics and literary aspects) —musical arts (all areas, including dance) —poetry and prose literature —philosophy (epistemology , logic, metaphysics, governance, ethics, religion, etc.) a cursory acquaintance with approaches and their relationships to our thought and actions. Social Sciences Be introduced to the approaches to history, the value and limitations of study of historical writings and data. Be made aware of the various aspects of the social studies: anthropology, civics or government, sociology, psychology, history, economics, etc. Review and become more aware of the historical foundations of our own society— local , state, region, nation, western, world. Phsical Education General Education efforts should be oriented toward health, first-aid, and activities which the aging adult can continue to enjoy. Crafts An experience with non-verbal use of hands in crafts, construction or similar skill effort might strengthen the General Education of students. An experience employing the skilled use of hands in a construction or art laboratory, a musical instrument, an electronics laboratory or a welding, an automechani cs or home repair study, might add a new dimension to the chiefly verbal studies contained in most General Education sequences. Business An experience in the basic economics of business and governmental regulation, including accounting and tax reporting procedures, would be both of value and fulfilling a vital aspect of learning needed by the "fully educated person." Just addition of another requireioent in either Business or Crafts will not accomplish such purposes", however, should aspects of these two areas be incorporated into a meaningful experience designed to enlighten general students, this addition could prove significant. It is very possible that time could be found within the present allotment of hours by considering "science" on one General Education area, rather than attempting to reduce the college physics course into one semester with the college botony and biology course condensed into other general education requirements, and if freshman English consisted of a sen-ester of survey of prose and poetry with students learning how to read and write in grades K-12 or in a non-credit grammar class. In the latter vein, one should assume some General Education experience has occurred prior to the student's entry into college. Ihe. a-nterfnc student ihoula demonstrate competency or elect

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201 remedial or preparatory work in those areas of extrene weakness, or study and audit classes until sufficiently prepared to proceed with college academic work. The student should be familiar with the spoken and written native language. The student should have exposure to basic knowledge in general areas of mathematics, biological and physical sciences, social studies, the arts (music notation and performance, speech and theatre basics, drawing and the visual arts), physical education activities, research or report writing, and American and English or v/orld literature. General Education should be just that: liberal studies for the general student. It should not be considered the entering level of a baccalaureate or professional program. Should a student wish to pursue higher level studies in a specific area, the_ General Education course required in that area should be waived. If the college faculty cannot design a course in a specific area which will meet the needs of both transfer-baccalaureate students and terminal-vocational students, then separate courses should be devised. It is desirable, however, that all students achieve a similar basic General Education base. The concepts of democracy suggest that there should be no half-educated or second-class citizens. 88. General Objectives: The college strives to: 1. Create a quality educational program leading to the AA degree. 2. Introduce the student to those communication and comnutational skills necessary for living in the technological world. 3. Introduce the student to life-time recreational skills. Specific Objectives: As a result of instruction leading to the AA degree, the student should be proficient in: 1. Critical and analytical thinking as a basis for reading, writing and speaking skills. 2. Fundamental mathematical skills. 3. Understanding basic sociolcgical processes. 4. Understanding philosophical and religious assumptions of the peoples of the world. 5. Understanding physical and biological concepts as they affect everyday living. 6. SensitivHy to the thinking, values and personalities of other persons.

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202 7. Appreciation of creative efforts of man as manifested in music, art and literature. 8. Creating a sense of values, including an appreciation of the democratic heritage of this nation. 89. The college should: Provide enough experience through courses and other activities that will enable each student to move forward into higher education or into a job with cor:petency consistent with his goal needs and ability. Provide enough "stimulation" to encourage each student to seek more training and to realize that life must consist of more than just working at a job. Provide the student with the kind of instructor-student relationships that will help him see himself as a valuable individual whether he is academically talented or not. 90. I. Natural Science A. General knowledge of ecology and principles by which ecosystems operate B. Knowledge of man's effect on the environment, stressing Florida and county regions C. Analysis of envi ronn^ntal problems for causes and sol uti ons D. Develop an attitude of respect for the environment and concern for its deterioration E. To generate action behavior, political, economic, sociological, and personal that will prevent and correct environmental deterioration II. Communication A. To acquire the ability to express themselves clearly and concisely both orally and in writing B. To advance their knowledge and application of mathematical tools III. Knowledge of forms or art and beauty; both natural and man made Knowledge of the great achievements of man both past and present Knowledge that all disciplines are interrelated to some degree and must be consulted collectively to achieve lasting solutions to the problems that face mankind 91. Stated that circumstanced prevented submission of list of objectives but would be willing to participate in further questionnaires.

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203 92 I. Knowledge of: . ^ j x j A Political and economic history-facts and trends B. Great works of literature—English, Anencan, Continental , . ,, X M C. Great works of art (painting) and music-Western Man D The development of science as separate from philosophy E. The great i deas— philosophy--of Western Man (basics of logic here) F. The English language G. At least one foreign language H. Comparative religion I. Human motivational forces— psychology II. Ability to: . .^^ j ,i A. Use correctly the English language in written and oral form ^ . , B. Use correctly on a basic level one foreign language c'. Read and comprehend non-fictional material on the college level D. Interpret and evaluate (process of synthesis) g»^at works of fiction, art, music (poetry, drama included) E. Use the library and write a fairly comprehensive library paper— for any academic area F. Discuss objectively ideas of common interest (handle the basics of logic) G. Write an "essay" test answer III. Behavior-Attitudes-Values: A. All of the above abilities are behaviors of a sort B. Attitudes— students should display a liberated mindone free of prejudice and bigotry, one able to recognize the difference between assumption (belief) and fact, one that knows the value of discipline C. Students should at least have formed the beginning of an accurate self-concept D. Students should display a concept of values which is based on knowledge gained and the place of the self in a realistic framework I consider science laboratory courses, math, and specific business skills and physical education skills to be outside the area of general learning. Skills in these areas would, of course, be important additions for the student interested in pursuing these areas . 93. Develop skills in reading and writing needed for success in future studies, in students' future or current occupations, and in their personal lives Provide students with a fundamental understanding of the historical evolution of Airerican government, the current structure of its institutions, and ^.e changing nature of its processes

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Provide students with knowledge of our literary heritage and develop skills and attitudes required for life-long appreciation and enjoyment of literature Provide students with mathematical skills required for success in academic, occupational, and personal endeavors Provide students with knowledge and skills in the biological and physical sciences that will contribute to successful academic, occupational, and personal achievment The student should: 1. Be able to express himself intelligently, clearly and both orally and verbally. 2. He should have knowledge of his country's heritage and the role it has played in world history. 3. He should have an understanding of the structure and functioning of the U. S. form of government, particularly at the state and national levels. 4. He should have at least the degree of mastery of fundamental methematics to be able to carry out the ordinary banking transactions common to most citizens. He should also have broad knowledge in the field of mathematics so that he knows what is involved in the various branches of mathematics and their applications. 5. He should be able to use the metric system and know conversions from the I). S. system to the metric system. 6. He should at least be exposed to classical and contemporary literature, including contributions made by U. S. authors. 7. He should be exposed to various forms of the fine arts: music, dance, and art. 8. He should possess knowledge of the functioning and proper care of his body plus the role nutrition and exercise play in maintaining good health. TTiis should include alerting him to the hazards of overeating, smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, misuse of drugs, and venereal disease. 9. He should be made aware of his environment, the role of each aspect, both physical and biological, in maintaining a balance in nature and his role as a citizen to help restore balance and harmony where it has been disturbed. 10. Having been given the opportunity to explore many areas, he should be better able to select a career in which he is interested and for which he has the aptitude to succeed.

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205 11 He should possess the ability to find answers to questions ' and prablems he encounters by utilizing various reference sources . 12. He should be able to approach new areas of study, be able to plan a technique for learning the necessary concepts and proceed to do so in an independent manner. 13. He should know how to conduct himself as an adult member of a group. 14. He should learn how to interact with and better understand people with various ethnic and social background. 95. Acquire knowledge of personal and civic code of behavior based on ethical principles . Participate actively as informed and responsible citizens in community, state and nation. Recognize interdependence of different world's people and be conscious of his personal responsibility in promoting understanding and peace. Understand common phenomena in his physical environment and appreciate scientific method and discovery for promoting human wel fare. Develop ability to understand the ideas of others and learn to express his own effectively. Maintain and improve his own health. Acquire satisfactory emotional and social adjustment behavior. Develop cultural pursuits sufficient to maintain well adjusted personality in interpersonal relations. Acquire and develop adequate knowledge and attitudes essential to achievement of a wholesome family life. Develop career goals consistent with his interests and abilities. Acquire the ability to use the skills and habits involved in critical, scientific, constructive thinking. 96. A knowledge of and an understanding of the past, and willingness and ability to use its lessons for living in the present and planning for the future. Familiarity with and a discriminating appreciation of the artistic cultura' heritage of our civilization.

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206 Ability to function effectively as a participating citizen of the local coimiunity, the state, and the nation. A knowledge of the physical, psychological, and social factors which affect human behavior. An understanding of the history, philosophy, and methods of science and the willingness and ability to apply scientific thinking to life. A knowledge of and sympathy toward other nations and other cultures. 97 The student in aeneral education should be educated to the limits of his abilities if he is to reach his maximum potential for service to self and society. General education in the Florida community college should: reestablish and strengthen the concept of the work ethic. provide opportunities for cultural enrichment not normally found in the classroom. provide an understanding of man's physical and biological environment. develop and broaden skills in oral communications. provide the wherewithal of good mental and physical health. develop sound moral and spirital values. provide an understanding of his cultural heritage. develop rewarding social and personal patterns of life in the home and community. develop creativity and appreciation for the creativity of others. provide a program of general education studies meeting the requirements of work in the upper division. through exposure to experience, ideas, discoveries of the past help the student to acquire a basic philosophy of life. encourage the student to examine the conflicts and many values held by men±>ers of society. help to remove the geographic, economic, and cultural barriers to higher education.

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207 emphasize that the rights of citizens in a democracy are inseparably associated with their responsibilities of the community. provide continuing educational opportunities to meet the needs of the citizens. provide an atmosphere conducive to learning and to ensure freedom of inquiry. provide a basis for ethical, moral, esthetic values, attitudes and sensitivities , 98. 1. Composition/Conmuni cation: mechanics of writing, ability to formulate and express ideas effectively. 2. Quantitative Skills: basic computational math, algebra, trigonometry and goometry to the extent they are useful in problem solving (not "new math"). Introduction to probability and statistics. Quantitative reasoning and ability to recognize valid arguirents. 3. Natural Sciences: Ideas fram physics, chemistry, biology, earth science which will enhance the ability to thrive (not simply survive) in a technical society. Introduction to contemporary scientific thought. Encourage inquisitive attitudes, willingness to form personal opinions. 99. Objectives for a General Education Program: When an average student has completed the two-year program of general education in a corrimunity college he should have acquired some knovv'Tedge, skills, behavioral patterns, abilities, attitudes and values that have been developed because of the twoyear program. Not all students enter with the sam^? degree of development, and those who complete the program probably form an even less homogeneous group. For this reason the following list must be interpreted in terms of each individual set of student capabi 1 i ti es . Cognitive Objectives 1. A mature level of understanding of the mathematics necessary to our way of life . 2. Scientific knowledge adequate foi a reasonable understanding of our environment and its resources. 3. U.S. and World History for an appreciation of our place in the world. 4. An adequate vocabulary and tiie experience of using it in all forms of comir;unicat':on.

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5. Humanities appropriate to th,e students' talents and interests. 6. The facts of life with respect to economics, labor relations, and business. 7. Sociological and economical features of our, and other, societies, and related problems. Affective Objectives 1. He should realize both his capabilities and limitations in an academic sense. 2. His vocational, or career, goals should be tentatively established. 3. He should come to think of himself as an effective member of political and social groups. 4. He should be ready to assume the responsibility for his future. Pe rfo rman ce Ob je cti ves 1. He should be able to approach his problems systematically and logically. 2. He should be able to communicate in writing using correct spelling, proper grammar and proper sentence, paragraph, and essay structure. 3. He should be able to calculate correctly whenever it becomes necessary. 4. He should be able to evaluate proposals, sales arguments, advertising, political speeches, etc. with an open and logical mind. 5. He should have acquired the ability to communicate orally in a mature fashion. 6. He should be able to manage his ov;n finances, keep records, buy wisely and tend to his own personal business affairs. This listing is not intended to be exhaustive. I believe that it is imperative that we distinguish between General Education and Liberal Arts education. General Education should have as its goal the preparing of a student for the assumption of a role in a democratic society. This necessarily implies that his economic welfare should receive as much emphasis as his cultural welfare. This is usually entirely avoided in the statement of General Education objectives. It should be a dominant feature today.

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209 100. The ability to write effectively at several levels of formality. The ability to read critically. Knowledge of the workings and the proper maintenance of the human body. Knowledge of consumer economics and self-defense against corporate rip-offs and cheats. Knowledge of the world and its workings so that we can minimize damage to the earth. Knowledge of our political system and its weaknesses. Appreciation of and ability in at least cie art form and at least one sport so as to allow him to keen body and soul intact in a crooked and perverse world. 101. Student knows what goes on inside his human consciousness. He knows himself. He experiences trust. He sees himself in relationship to the world. He experiences interdisciplinary self. He knows something about politics and power. He becomes self-directed. Values clarification. Knows value of verbal (expletive deleted). Knows what made him what he is. Becomes aware of absolutes. Knows socialization process. Expresses his own creativity. Becomes aware of alternative life styles. Becomes aware of personal integrity. Develops life philosophy. Develops interpersonal skills.

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210 Develops decision making skilTs. Likes himself. Copes with change. Commitment to personal growth. Choices about decisions. Commitment to love. Awareness of energy output, tiire limitations, personal limitations . Awareness of his own power. Conflict resolution. Be able to deal with ideas. Become a critical thinker. Be an intelligent consumar. Aesthetics. Know trends of future employment. Global consciousness. Communicate his ideas effectively. Economics. Awareness of sensual self. Deal with myths. Development of imagination. Understand stereotypes. Know how to operate with real and ideal. Group power and dynami cs , Improve local environment. Understand value of propaganda. National and international trends. Concern for human v/elfare.

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211 Survival ethic. Acquire knowledge effectively. 102. Knowledge of self and what he/she expects from the college experience. Knowledge of what it will take to fulfill his/her expectations. Knowledge of what the college and society expect of him/her (obligations). Basic skills needed to fulfill his/her expectations and obligations. Ability to relate learning experiences in and out of the classroom to four major areas of possible application: Career/ Job (whether reached after or without further study), Citizenship Actualization, Home and Personal Life, and Leisure. Behaviors which reflect the logical outcomes of the above, e.g. improved interpersonal communication, management of self and * resources, hygiene and health habits, agressive pursuit of knowledge and skills, enjoyment of arts, sports, crafts, science, reading, communication skills, cooperation with others. A general attitude of recepti veness to the notion that general education is a cooperative venture aimed at improvement of student and society, not a were set of academic hurdles in a meritocratic scheme. 103. Specific Knowledge : Sufficient familiarity of the arts and humanities to enable the individual to gain enjoyment from participation in associated activities, i.e. concernts, art exhibits, reading of classics. Historical knowledge of civilization as well As U.S. General understanding of political and economic theory, social sciences, physical and natural sciences. Abilities : Competent written and verbal expression. Skill in some life-time sport, i.e. golf, tennis, sailing, bowling. Relevant skills for being an effective and contributing citizen in our democracy

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Abilities which enable the individual to understand his own behavior and that of ethers. Behaviors : Participates intelligently as a citizen in local, state and national politics, as a voting citizen. Attends cultural events, i.e. art exhibits, concerts. Enjoys reading. Keeps abreast of current events. Participates in continuing education. Sustains adequate nutritional and dietary practices for good health. Manages financial affairs effectively. Atti tudes : Tolerant and accepting of styles of life different from his own Views all people as being of equal intrinsic worth. Has a good sense of personal worth and self-esteem. Respects the needs of future generations. Values (Places high): Freedom for himself that does not impinge on the freedom of others . Ecological and environmental protection. The role of education in attaining "the good life." Personal health. Companionship of friends and love of spouse and family. Citizenship priviledges and responsibilities of a democratic way of life. The beauties of nature. Esthetic pursuits. Stated that, while unable to participate in initial questionnaire, would serve as panel member in subsequent questionnaires

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213 105. Stated that, while unable to participate in intial questionnaire, would serve as panel member in subsequent questionnaires. 105. The subjects taken by the student should stimulate him intellectually, challenge him to maximum performance, and contribute to his overall development. The student's curriculum should not only increase his storage of knowledge but should also help him form positive attitudes. Discipline in study is essential. Proficiency in accurate, rapid, interpretive reading should be mastered. Methods of observation and collection of data, evaluation, deduction, and interpretation of findings (scientific method) are essential in the science areas. A high degree of skill in the use of spoken and written language should be developed to record facts and instructions. The study of foreign languages enhances appreciation of "the exact meaning of words and the use of subtle differences in shading. 107. General Education should provide students with the methods of acquiring knowledge about themselves and the world in which they live, the ability to develop self-dependence; the facility of dealing with other people and the "things" of our society; the ability to "read" their environment and to get a "compass reading" of their condition, and a future orientation which goes beyond the here and how attitude; the ability to make value judgements and choices which are in keeping with their conscience, and the realities of the situation; the ability to accept "different" cultures and people; the understanding that true education lies in recognizing what they don't know is more important than what they do know. 108. 1. General Education--those phases of learning which should be common experience for all students enrolled in the college program. 2. Objectives of General Education are to assist the student in learning to: a. Communicate ideas b. Think effectively c. Make sound judgments and d. Solidify his or her values

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3. General Education should enable the student to: a. Conmunicate with others b. Understand problem solving and scientific methods c. Be an active and informed citizen d. Appreciate our heritage in history, music and art e. Make best possible use of aptitudes and talents in choice of career English Language: knowledge of and ability in correct usage. Our Heritage: knowledge and appreciation of Western Civilization in general and our republic in particular. Know how to take part in democratic processes and have a desire to do so. Mathematics: sufficient skill for most advantageous use in daily living. People: appreciation for contributions of others, tolerance of individual and cultural differences. Health: knowledge of the human body, its uses and care; knowledge of external factors affecting health (and environment) and a desire to improve the quality of living.

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APPENDIX E THE SECOND QUESTIONNAIRE

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216 Dear Delphi Panel Member: We would like to express our thanks and appreciation for your response to the first phase of our study of objectives for community college prograirs of general education. We look forward to your continued cooperation in this the second of the three phases of our study. All responses from the first, open-ended questionnaire have been summarized in the enclosed "second round" questionnaire, in which you are asked to assign priority ratings to the identified objectives. Upon completing this questionnaire, please return it within five days so that data may be tabulated in time for the final phase of the study. The list of identified objectives is quite lengthy, and we solicit your indulgence in responding to each item in the inventory. Again, we appreciate your demonstrated willingness to assist us in this project. In order for the Delphi Technique to succeed, however, it is ei;s2ntial that each panel member participate in all three phases of the study. Sincerely yours. Alan J. Smith Institute of Higher Education University of Florida

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217 Introduction : This questionnaire consists of statements of possible cognitive, performance, and affective objectives for a community college program of general education. Using the answer key as shorn in the example below, you are asked to respond to each statement by indicating your assessment of the degree of priority for that objective. Instructions: 1. Indicate your responses by crossing out the number following each statement which corresponds to your assessment of the relative priority of that objective. 2. You are encouraged to make any comments concerning your response to particular statements in the space provided. 3. Please try to respond to every statement in the inventory. Example: Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 5. The basic form of a business letter. 1 2 3 « 5 6. The principles of the scientific method. 1 Z 3 4 5 The response to Statement 5 (above) indicates that the respondent believes that this objective should receive high priority in a community college general education program. For Statement 6, the response suggests that low priority should be afforded this objective in a community college program of general education.

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218 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority As a result of participating in a community college general education program, the student should know: Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) The rules and principles of proper English usage. 12 3 4 5 2. The principles of logic, including inductive and deductive reasoning. 1 2 3 4 5 3. The political, economic, social and cultural history of the United States. 12 3 4 5 4. The organization of his local, state and national governments. 1 2 3 4 5 5. The basic form of a business letter. 1 2 3 4 5 6. The principles of the scientific method. 12 3 4 5 7. The hierarchial taxonony used to group and classify animal and plant life. 1 2 3 4 5 8. The basic laws of physical science. 12 3 4 5 9. The qualifications necessary for the pursuit of various vocatioiis and professions. 1 2 3 4 5 10. A language other than his own. 1 2 3 4 5 11. Basic world geography, including mineral and agricultural capacities of each major area. 12 3 4 5

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219 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 MaxiPiUin Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 12. The major periods in the course of Western civilization and the contributions of each in history, literature, music, art, philosophy and religion. 12 3 4 5 13. The social, economic and political problems affecting life in contemporary American. 12 3 4 5 14. The interrelationship of man and his environment. 1 2 3 4 5 15. The principles of psychology which contribute to a fuller understanding of his ov/n personality and interpersonal relationships. 12 3 4 5 16. A proficient vocabulary. 1 2 3 4 5 17. The reproductive process in plants, animals and humans. 12 3 4 5 18. The significance of pattern, form and structure in literature and the other arts. 12 3 4 5 19. The relationship between idea, image and symbol . 1 2 3 4 5 20. The essential characteristics of the various branches of phi losophy--epistemo logy, ethics, aesthetics. 12 3 4 5 21. The inherent principles of Judeo-Christian and other major religions of the world. 1 2 3 4 5 22. The expository, argumentative, descriptive and narrative forms of discourse. 1 2 3 4 5

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220 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objecti ve 23. The techniques, forms and methods of criticism in music, the visual arts, poetry, drama, dance, film, literature and philosophy. 24. A variety of sports and recreational activities. 25. The concepts, principles and methods of lower mathematics. 26. The principles which underly and affect the economy. 27. The methods and motives of mass media. 28. The dynamics of home and family life. 29. The interdisciplinary nature of knowledge. 30. The major concepts and methodologies of at least one discipline. 31. The principles and practices of wise consumerism. 32. The names of major works and their creators in eich of the arts: painting, sculpture, film, architecture, dra.ma, literature, music, poetry. 33. The functioning and proper care of the body, including the role of nutrition and exercise in maintaining good health. 34. The principles of problemsolving. Priority Rating Comment (optional) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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221 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 35. The learning process, including one's own preferred mode of learning and the role of motivation. 1 2 3 4 5 36. The principles of effective leadership. 12 3 4 5 II. As a result of participating in a community college general education program, the student should be able to : 37. Practice conservation of natural resources and act to preserve the ecology. 12 3 4 5 38. Use methods of critical thinking to solve problems and to discriminate among values. 12 3 4 5 39. Express thoughts clearly in speaking and writing. 1 2 3 4 5 40. Read and listen with understanding. 1 2 3 4 5 41. Use basic mathematical skills. 1 2 3 4 5 42. Perform mechanical skills necessary for everyday work. 12 3 4 5 43. Act as an astute consumer of goods and services. 12 3 4 5 44. Practice good study habits, as demonstrated by proficiency in study skills (note-taking, scheduling of time, etc.). 12 3 4 5 45. Recognize incomplete or misleading advertising. 12 3 4 5

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222 Key 46, 47. 48. 49. 50, 51 52. 53. 54, 55. 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Demonstrate dependability through regular class attendence, tirrely handing in of assignments, etc. Work productively in small groups, performing both as leader and as group member. Priority Rating Comment (optional) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Distinguish between fact and opinion in reading and listening. 1 Exercise sound critical judgement in appraisal of various art forms . Select a work of art and describe the characteristics of the work that make it significant. List, characterize and describe the relationship of the elements of one or more past cultures which have had an impact on the culture of twentieth century America. 1 Apply the scientific method by describing in detail the empirical approach to the solution of a problem. Lead a logical, coherent discussion, or present a logical coherent speech on a given topic. Use the full facilities of the library. Analyze and synthesize elements of a problem to provide various alternati ves . 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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223 Key 1 Kinimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objecti ve 56. Give directions accurately and in proper sequence. 57. Interpret maps, graphs and tables . 58. Participate in continuing education. Priority Rating 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 59. Learn independently. 60. Define and describe personal goals . 61. Analyze situations in terms of past, present and future significance based on developed historical perspective. 62. Function successfully in a four-year college or university envi ronment. 63. Demonstrate a vocational skill. 1 54. Recognize and be able to use inductive and deductive reasoning. 1 65. Apply algebraic equations to actual problems and solve. 1 66, 67. 68. Translate verbal problems into mathematical formulas and solve. 1 Extract themes from literature and recognize the relationship of other elements to theme. Select a topic, narrow it to workable limits, do research, formulate ideas, and write a well organized paper in support of those ideas. 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Comment (optional) 1 2 3 4 5

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224 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective 69. Listen critically to and/or make music. 70. Participate in drama and/or dance. 71. Contribute positively to a discussion of local, state, national and world affairs. 72. Use the metric system and make conversions from the U. S. to the metric system. 73. Question and evaluate proposals sales arguments, advertising, and political speeches with an open and logical mind. Priority Rating 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 74. 75, Manage personal finances, keep records, buy wisely and tend to personal business affairs. Participate actively and intelligently as a voting citizen in local, state and national elections . 76. Demonstrate proficiency in a shop or laboratory. 77. Create a work of art or handi' craft. 1 2 3 4 5 12 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 78. Share in the development of a satisfying home and family life, i 2 3 2 3 4 4 2 3 4 5 Conment (optional) III. As a result of participating in a community college general education program, the student should acquire the following attitudes and values: 79. A healthy self-concept--a good sense of parscnal worth and self-este-^T:. 1 2 3 4 5

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225 Key 90, 91 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective 80. An intellectual curiosity and general desire for continued learning. 81. A concern for others and an awareness of others' needs. 82. An appreciation of independent thought. 83. An appreciation of the importance of education in our society. 84. A sensitivity to the larger spiritual order of which mm is a part. 85. A respect for opinions and rights of fellow citizens to express them. 86. Tolerence of and willingness to learn about racial, religious and ethnic groui)s different from one's own. 87. A desire to succeed in a chosen vocation or profession. 88. Pride in one's own creative efforts . 89. Appreciation of the creativity of others. Confidence in one's ability to deal with his own future. Priority Rating Comment (optional) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 The capacity to accept criticism graciously, to change one's views if evidence varrants it, but a willincnass to hold one's position if convincid that it is right. 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 2 3 4 5

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226 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Ob jecti ve Priority Rating Comment (optional) 92. An appreciation of aesthetics, the arts, nature, and humanistic values and insights. 93. A spirit of cooperation and a willingness to function in harmony with one's fellow man. 94. A desire to contribute to group activities, and recognition of the importance of human interaction, love, and esteem. 95. The belief that knowledge produces satisfaction in and of itself. 95. A positive attitude toward change. 97. Openness to new and/or opposing ideas. 98. Self-confidence, self-awareness and self-actualization. 99. Awareness of one's own limitations . 100. The desire to use time wisely. 101. A good sense of humor. 102. Humility and the desire to place 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 others before oneself. 103. A regard for individual differences . 104. Awareness of the problem of reconciling the personal need for maximum individual freedom with group social needs. 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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227 Key 1 Minimum Priori ty 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 105. Belief in the essential equality of all men. 1 2 3 4 5 106. Belief in the necessity and value of work. 12 3 4 5 107. Appreciation of man's attempt to understand his environment, to conserve it, and to maintain its proper balance. 1 2 3 4 5 108. A liberated mind--free of prcjudice and bigotry, and able to detect the difference between assumption (belief) and fact. 1 2 3 4 5 109. A willingness to form personal opinions. 12 3 4 5 no. A commitment to personal growth.] 2 3 4 5 111. Respect for the needs of future generations. 1 2 3 4 5 112. A sense of fair play. 12 3 4 5 113. A sense of honesty. 12 3 4 5 114. A sense of personal initiative. 1 2 3 4 5 115. A dislike for violence of all sorts— to people, ideas, nature.! 2 3 4 5 116. An appreciation of learning as a life-long activity. 1 2 3 4 5 117. A sense of personal responsibility. 1 2 3 4 5 118. A sense of belonging to a community. 1 2 3 4 5 119. A sense of compassion for one's fellow man. 12 3 4 5

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228 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 120. A sense of justice. 1 2 3 4 5 121. An appreciation of the beauty of nature. 12 3 4 5

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APPENDIX F THE THIRD QUESTIONNAIRE

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230 Dear Delphi Panel Member: Thank you for your prorapt response to the second phase of our study of objectives for community college programs of general education. Enclosed you will find the third and final questionnaire in the study, which will give you an indication of how your fellow panel members have been responding. After completing the questionnaire, please return it within 5 days so that the data may be tabulated and analyzed. All responses from the second questionnaire have been used to calculate a consensus position for each of the identified objectives. For each objective the median response has been. circled (i.e. the priority rating above and below which fifty percent of all responses fell). Where the median fell between tv;o points on the scale, both of these points have been circled. The purpose of the final questionnaire is to identify any reasons for opinions that differ from the consensus opinion. Please react to the statements in the questionnaire as follows: Once again, indicate your assessment of the degree of priority for each objective by crossing out the number which corresponds to that assessment. Then, if the category you have crossed out is different than th?. one w'lich is circled (the consensus), please indicate briefly some reasons for your opinions in the comment section. As you know, the success of the Delphi Technique depends upon the participation of each panel member in the full three-phase cycle. We have greatly appreciated your continued help and look forward to your final response. Again, our thanks. Sincerely, Alan J. Smith Institute of Higher Education University of Florida

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231 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority I. As a result of participating in a community college general education program, the student should knov/ : Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 1The rules end principles of proper English usage. 1 2 3 4 [5] 2. The principles of logic, including inductive tnd deductive reasoning. 1 2 [3] 4 5 3. The political, econoniic, social and cultural history of the United States. 1 2 3 [4] 5 4. The organization of his local, state and national governments, 1 2 3 [4] 5 5. The basic form of a business letter. 1 2 [3] 4 5 6. The principles of the scientific method. 1 2 [3] 4 5 7. The hierarchial taxonomy used to group and classify animal and plant life. 1 [2] 3 4 5 8. The basic laws of physical science. 1 2 3 [4] 5 9. The qualifications necessary for the pursuit of various vocations and professions. 1 2 [3] 4 5 10. A language other than his own. 1 [2] 3 4 5 11Basic world geography, including mineral and agricultural capacities of each major area. 1 2 [3] 4 5

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232 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medi um Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 12The major periods in the course of Western civilization and the contributions of each in history, literature, music, art, philosophy and religion. 1 2 [3] 4 5 13. The social, economic and political problems affecting life in contemporary America. 1 2 3 [4] 5 14. The interrelationship of man and his environment. 1 2 3 [4] 5 15. The principles of psychology which contribute to a fuller understanding of his own personality and interpersonal relationships. 1 2 3 [4] 5 16. A proficient vocabulary. 1 2 3 [4] 5 17. The reproductive process in plants, animals and humans. 1 2 [3] 4 5 18. The significance of pattern, form and structure in literature and the other arts. 1 2 [3] 4 5 19„ The relationship between idea, image and symbol. 1 2 [3] 4 5 20. The essential characteristics of the various branches of philo5ophy--epistemology, ethics, aesthetics. 1 [2] 3 4 5 21. The inherent principles of Judeo-Christian and other major religions of the world. 1 2 [3] 4 5 22. The expository, argumentative, descriptive and narrative forms of discourse. 1 2 [3] 4 5

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233 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 23. The techniques, forms and methods of criticism in music, the visual arts, poetry, drama, dance, film, literature and „ roi /> c philosophy.. 1 2 [3] 4 5 . 24. A variety of sports and recreational activities. 1 2 [3] 4 5 25. The concepts, principles and methods of laver mathematics. 1 2 3 [4] 5 26. The principles which underly and affect the economy. 1 2 3 [4] 5 27. The methods and motives of mass media. 1 2 [3] 4 5 28. The dynamics of home and family life. 1 2 [3] 4 5 29. The interdisciplinary natuy^ of knowledge. 1 2 3 [4] 5 30. The major concepts and methodologies of at least one discipline. 1 2 3 [4] 5 31. The principles and practices of wise consumerism. 1 2 [3] 4 5 32. The names of major works and their creators in each of the arts: painting, sculptur-e, film, architecture, dran;a, literature, music, poetry. 1 [2][3] 4 5 33. The functioning and proper care of the body, including the role of nutrition and exercise in maintaining good health. 1 2 3 [4] 5 34. Tne principles of probi"f,isol ving. 12 3 [4J 5

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234 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priori ty Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 35. The learning process, including one's ovm preferred mode of learning and the role of motivation. 1 2 3 [4] 5 36. The principles of effective leadership. 1 2 [3] 4 5 II. As a result of participating in a comnunity college general education procjram, the student should be able to : 37. Practice conservation of natural resources and act to preserve the ecology. 1 2 3 [4] 5 38. Use methods of critical thinking to solve problems and to discriminate among values. 12 3 [4] 5 39. Express thoughts clearly in speaking and v^/ri ting. 1 2 3 4 [5] 40. Read and listen with understanding. 1 2 3 4 [5] 41. Use basic mathematical skills. 1 2 3 [4] 5 42. Perform mschani cal skills necessary for everyday work. 1 2 [3] 4 5 43. Act as an astute consumer of goods and services. 1 2 [3] 4 5 44. Practice good study habits, as demui'i.strated by proficiency in study skills (notetaking, scheduling of time, etc, ). 1 2 3 [4] 5 45. Recognize incomplete or misleading advertising. 1 2 3 [4] 5

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235 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 45, Demonstrate dependability through regular class attendence, timely handing in of assignments, etc. 1 2 3 [4] 5 47. Work productively in small groups, performing both as leader and as group member. 1 2 [3] 4 5 48. Distinguish between fact and opinion in reading and listening. 1 2 3 [4] 5 49. Exercise sound critical judgement in appraisal of various art forms. 1 2 [3] 4 5 50. Select a work of art and describe the characteristics of the work that make it significant. 1 [2][3] 4 5 51. List, characterize and describe the relationship of the elements of one or more past cultures which have had an impact on the culture of t';entieth century America. 1 2 [3] 4 5 52. Apply the scientific method by describing in detail the empirical approach to the solution of a problem. 1 2 [3] 4 5 53. Lead a logical, coherent discussion, or present a logical, coherent speech on a given topic. 1 2 3 [4] 5 54. Use the full facilities of the library. 1 2 3 [4] 5 55. Analyze and synthesize elements of a problem to provide various al ternatives . 1 2 3 [4] 5

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235 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medi um Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 56. Give directions accurately and in proper sequence. 12 3 [4] 5 57. Interpret maps, graphs and tables. 1 2 [3] 4 5 58. Participate in continuing education. 1 2 [3] 4 5 59. Learn independently. 1 2 3 [4] 5 60. Define and describe personal goals. 1 2 .3 [4] 5 61. Analyze situations in terms of past, present and future significance based on developed historical perspective. 1 2 [3] 4 5 62. Function successfully in a four-year college or university environment. 12 3 [4] 5 63. Demonstrate a vocational skill. 1 2 [3] 4 5 64. Recognize and be able to use inductive and deductive reasoning. 1 2 [3] 4 5 65. Apply algebraic equations to actual problems and solve. 1 2 [3] 4 5 66. Translate verbal problems into mathematical formulas and solve. 1 2 [3] 4 5 67. Extract themes from literature and recognize the relationship of other elements to theme. 1 2 [3] 4 5 68. Select a topic, narrow it to workable limits, do research, formulate ideas, and write a well organized paper in support of those ideas. 1 2 3 [4] 5

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237 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 69. Listen critically to and/or o r-?i a make music. ' 2 L3j 4 b 70 Participate in drama and/or r n >, c dance. 1 [2] 3 4 5 71. Contribute positively to a discussion of local, state national and world affiars. 1 2 3 L4J 5 72. Use the metric system and make conversions from the U. S. to the metric system. 1 2 L3J 4 5 73. Question and evaluate proposals, sales arguments, advertising, and political speeches with an open and logical mind. 1 2 3 [4] 5 74. Manage personal finances, keep records, buy wisely and tend to personal business affairs. 1 2 3 [4] 5 75. Participate actively and intelligently as a voting citizen in local, state and national elections. 1 2 3 [4 J 5 76. Demonstrate proficiency in a shop or laboratory. 1 [2] 3 4 5 77 Create a work of art or handicraft. U2] 3 4 5 78. Share in the development of a satisfying home and family life. 1 2 [3] 4 5 III. As a result of participating in a community college general education program, the student should acquire the following attitudes and values: 79. A healthy self-concept— a good sense of personal worth and self-esteem. 1 2 [3][4] 5

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238 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 80. An intellectual curiosity and general desire for continued learning. 1 2 3 4 [5] 81. A concern for others and an awareness of others' needs. 1 2 3 [4] 5 82. An appreciation of independent thought. 1 2 3 [4] 5 83. An appreciation of the importance of education in our society. 1 2 -3 [4] 5 84. A sensitivity to the larger spiritual order of which man is a part. 1 2 [3] 4 5 85. A respect for opinions and rights of fellow citizens to express them. 1 2 3 [4] 5 86. Tolerence of and willingness to learn about racial, religious and ethnic groups different from one's own. 1 2 3 [4] 5 87. A desire to succeed in a chosen vocation or profession, 12 3 [4] 5 88. Pride in one's own creative efforts. 1 2 3 [4] 5 89. Appreciation of the creativity of others. 1 2 3 [4] 5 90. Confidence in one's ability to deal with his own future. 1 2 3 [4] 5 91. The capacity to accept criticism ' graciously, to change one's views if evidence warrants it, but a willingness to hold one's position if convinced that it is right. 1 2 3 [4] 5

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239 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 92. An appreciation of aesthetics, the arts, nature, and humanistic values and insights. 1 2 3 [4] 5 93. A spirit of cooperation and a willingness to function in harmony with one's fellow man. 1 2 3 [4] 5 94. A desire to contribute to group activities, and recognition of the importance of human interaction, love, and esteem. 1 2 [3][4] 5 95. The belief that knowledge produces satisfaction in and of itself. 1 2 3 [4] 5 96. A positive attitude toward change. . 1 2 3 [4] 5 97. Openness to new and/or opposing ideas. 1 2 3 [4] 5 98. Self-confidence, self-awareness and self-actualization. 1 2 3 [4] 5 99. Awareness of one's own limitations. 1 2 3 [4] 5 100. The desire to use time wisely. 1 2 3 [4] 5 101. A good sense of humor. 1 2 [3] 4 5 102. Humility and the desire to place others before oneself. 1 2 [3] 4 5 103. A regard for individual differences. 1 2 3 [4] 5 104. Awareness of the problem of reconciling the personal need for maximum indi vi dual freedom with group social needs. 1 2 3 [4] 5

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240 Key 1 Minimum Priority 2 Low Priority 3 Medium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comnent (optional) 105. Belief in the essential equality of all men. 1 2 3 [4] 5 106. Belief in the necessity and value of work 1 2 3 [4] 5 107. Appreciation of man's attempt to understand his environment, to conserve it, and to maintain its proper balance. 1 2 3 [4] 5 108. A liberated mind--free of prejudice and bigotry, and able to detect the difference between assumption (belief) and fact. 1 2 3 [4] 5 109. A willingness to form personal opinions. 1 2 3 [4] 5 110. A commitment to personal growth. 1 2 3 [4] 5 111. Respect for the needs of future generations. 1 2 3 [4] 5 112. A sense of fair play. 1 2 3 [4] 5 113. A sense of honesty. 1 2 3 4 [5] 114. A sense of personal initiative. 1 2 3 [4] 5 115. A dislike for violence of all sorts— to people, ideas, nature. 1 2 [3] 4 5 116. An appreciation of learning as a life-long activity. 1 2 3 [4] 5 117. A sense of personal responsibility. 1 2 3 [4] 5 118. A sense of belonging to a community. 1 2 3 [4] 5 119. A sense of compassion for one's fellow man. 1 2 3 [4] 5

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241 Key 1 Minimum Priority Z Low Priority 3 Kfidium Priority 4 High Priority 5 Maximum Priority Objective Priority Rating Comment (optional) 120. A sense of justice. 1 2 3 4 [5] 121. An appreciation of the beauty of nature. 1 2 3 [4 J 5

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Donald P. "Clarifying and Setting Objectives in an Intermediate School District's Objectives Utilizing the Delphi Technique," paper presented at the AERA symposium in Exploring the Potential of the Delphi Technique by Analyzing Its Application, Minneapolis, Minn., March 4, 1970. Anderson, G. Lester. "Half a Century of General Education," Intellect . 102 (October, 1973), 41-42. Articulation Agreement Between the State Univerisities and Public Junior Colleges of Florida^ Tallahassee (n. pub., 1971). Barzun, Jacques. "College to Uni versity--and After," The American Scholar , 33 (Spring, 1964), 212-220. Bell, Daniel. The Reforming of General Education . Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1968. Blackman, Edward B. "General Education." Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 4th edition, Ed. Robert L. Ebel. New York: Macmillan Company, 1969, 522-537. Bogue, Jesse P. The Community College . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950. Boyer, Ernest L. "A New Liberal Arts Crucial to Survival," New York Times , 15 January 1975, Education supplement, 57, 98. Brubacher, John S. and Willis Rudy. Higher Education in Transition . New York: Harper and Row, 1958. Burdin, Joel L. "Futurism as a Focus in Instructional Planning," Journal of Teacher Education , 25 (Summer, 1974), 141-148. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Reform on Campus: Changing Students, Changing Academic Programs . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. Conmission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, U. S. Office of Education. Cardinal Prin ci ples of Secondary Education . Washington, D. C: Government Printing Office, 1918. » Cyphert, Frederick R. and Walter L. Gant. "The Delphi Technique: A Case Study," Phi Delta Kappan, 52 (January, 1971), 272-273. 242

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243 ^ CvDhert Frederick R. and Walter L. Gant. "The Delphi Technique: A Tool for cSllect?ng Opinions in Teacher Education "paper presented at the AERA symposium on Exploring the Potential of the Delphi Technique by Analyzing Its Application, Minneapolis. Minn., March 4, 1970. . Dalkey. Norman. "An Experirental Study of Group Opinion, The Delphi Method," Futures, The Journal of Forecasting a nd Planning, 1 (Septeriter, 1969). ' . Dalkey. Norman and Olaf HelnBr. "An Experirental Application of the Delphi Method to the Use of Experts," Management Science, 9 (April, 1953). 458-457, Dearinq, Bruce. "General Education and Radical Social Change," Journal of General Education , 24 (October, 1972), 139-140. Dictiona ry of Education . Carter V. Good, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill ^ook Company, inc., 1959. Dressel, Paul L. "What Should Be the Content of the Liberal Arts Curriculum?" Current Issues in Higher Education . National Conference on Higher Education. 1960. 62-56. Educational Policies Commission, National Education Association. _ Education for All An^rican Youth. Washington, D. C: The Association, 1944: Educational Policies Commission, National Education Association. The. Purposes of Education in American Democracy . Washington, u. L.: The Association, "1938. Educational Policies Commnssion, National Education Association. The_ Unique Function of Educ ation i n American Democracy . Washi ngton , D. C: The Association, 1937. Egner. Robert E. "Evaluation in General Education," Junior College Journal , 28 (April, 1958), 455-458. Feldman, M. Unpublished position paper for U. S. Cormission of Education, U. S. Office of Education. Washington, D. C, 1959. Flexner, Hans, "General Education and Academic Innovation," Journal of Research and Development in Education , 6 [Fall, 1972). 46-57. Garv;ood, John D. "The Wrong Premise in General Education." Intellect, 102 (October, 19 73), 43-44. Good, Harry G. and James D. Taller. A History of Western Education. London: Macmillan Company, 1969. Harkness, Donald R. "General Education Resuscitated: Back to the Three R's and Free Competition," Journal of General Education , 24 (July, 1972), 89-92.

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244 Harrison, J. Derek. "General Education in the CommLinity College: A Recent View," Journal of General Education , 25 (July, 1973), 83-93. Helmer, Olaf. "The Use of the Delphi Technique in Problems of Educational Innovation." Rand Corporation, Decenter, 1966. Helmer, Olaf and Nicholas H. Rescher. "On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences," Management Science , 1 (June, 1959), 25-52. Hencley, Stephen P. and James R. Yates. Futurism in Edifcation . Berkeley, California: McCutchan Publishing Company, 1974. Henry, Nelson B., ed. The Public Junior College: The Fifty-fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1955. Hook, Sidney. "Perennial and Temporal Goals in Education," Journal of Higher Education , 21 (January, 1952), 1-12. Hudspeth, Delayne R. Changing Role of the Pharmacist: A Delphi Forecas t. Office of Educational Development, College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, July, 1974. Johnson, B. Lamar. General Education in Action . Washington, D. C: American Council on Education, 1952. Johnson, B. Lamar. "Toward General Education in the Junior College," Junior College Journal , 30 (May, 1960), 517-524. Jones, Barbara. The Development of An Educational Idea . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945. Kellams, Samuel E. "Students and the Decline of General Education," Journal of General Education > 24 (January, 1973), 217-230. Kerlinger, Fred N. Foundations of Behavioral Research . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1973. Little, Augustus L. Goals for Community Service Programs in Florida's Public Community Colleges . Ed.D. dissertation. Gainesville: University of Flori da, 1974. Little, D. Richard. "Beyond Carearism: The Revival of General Education," Journal of General Education , 26 (Summer, 1974), 83-110. Ludlow, John D. Evaluation of Me thod olc^y in the University of Michigan's Sea Grant Inquiry , Technical Repeat No. 22. The University of Michigan Sea Grant Program, February, 1972. Mayhew, Lewis B. "The Background of General Education and the Junior Colleges," Junior College J ournal . 27 (December, 1956), 189-193. Mayhew, Lewis B. Ge neral Education: A n Account and Appraisal . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960.

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245 Mayhew, Lewis B. "Significance of General Education," Junior College Journal . 28 (January, 1957), 251-255. Mayhew, Lewis B. and Paul L. Dressel. General Education: Explorations in Evaluation , Final Report of the Cooperative Study of Evaluation. American Council on Education, Washington, D. C, 1954. McDonald, Robert. A Survey of the General Education Program at Lake City Community College . Unpublished thesis. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1975. McGrath, Earl J. "Careers, Values, and General Education," Liberal Education , 60 (October, 1974), 281-303. McGrath, Earl J. "Viewpoint: Bring Back General Education!" Change , 4 (September, 1972), 8-9. Medsker, Lei and L. The Junior College: Progress and Prospect . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1960. Medsker, Leland L. and Dale Tillery. Breaking the Access Barriers: A Profile of Two-Year Colleges . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. Peterson, Richard E. The Crisis of Purpose: Definition and Uses of Institutional Goals . Washington, D. C: The George Washington University, ERIC Clearinghouse in Higher Education, 1970. The President's Commission on Higher Education. Higher Education for American Democracy . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1947. Quimby, Edgar A. In Pursuit of the Self Renewing College: The Goodlad Conceptual System and the Pro blems of Curriculum Formation in Junio r College Programs of General Education . Unpublished thesis. Los Angeles: University of California, 1969. » Rasp, Alfred, Jr. "Delphi: A Decision-Maker's Dream," Nation's Schools, 92 (July, 1973), 29-32. Report of the Harvard Committee. General Education In A Free Society . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1946. Reynolds, James W. The Cor,prehensi ve Junior College Curriculum . Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 1959. Rice, James G. "General Education: Has Its Time Come Again?" Journal of Higher Education . 43 (Octobs^, 1972), 531-543. Saylor, J. Galen and William M, Alexander. Planning Curriculum for Schools. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1974. Slrmions, Howard. "Where is the General ist?" Conmunity and Junior Colleg e Journal , 44 (Novem,ber, 1973), 38-39, '~

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2^h6 Stoutamire, Virginia L. A System for Generating CurricuTum Design in Community Colleges . Ph.D. dissertation. Austin, Texas: 'University of Texas at Austin, 1975. Strasser, William C. "Mosaic Programming: A Radically Different Approach to General Education," Community College Review, 1 (Fall, 1973), 44-56. Taba, Hilda. Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice . New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, Inc., 1962. Thornton, James W., Jr. The Community Junior College , 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Thornton, James W., Jr. "General Education," The Publ i c Jun ior College: Fifty-fifth Yearbook of the National Society forThe Study of Education . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, Part I, Chapter 4, 118-139. Turlington, Ralph. "Education Policy Statement for Florida." Draft copy of Educational Element of State Comprehensive Plan distributed at annual conference of Florida Association of Community Colleges, Tampa, Florida, October 31-November 2, 1974. Tyler, Ralph W. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950. Van Doren, Mark. Liberal Education . Boston: Beacon, 1943. Verma, Dhviendra. "Occupational Programs Should Include General Education," Community College Revie w, 1 (July, 1973), 61-65. Weaver, Timothy W. Del phi, A Critical Review : A Research Apnt^oach. Washington, D. C: Syracuse University Research Corporation, 1972. Weaver, Timothy W. "The Delphi Forecasting Method," Phi Delt a Kappan, 52 (Januaiy, 1971), 267-271. Woodring, Paul. ITie Higher Learning in America: A Reassessment . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968. Young, Robert K. and Donald J. Veldman. I ntrodu cto ry Statistics f o r the Beh aviorai Sciences . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., T972: Zook, George F, "General Education at the Junior College Level," Junior College Journal , 9 (April, 1939), 353-354.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Alan John Smith was born in Geneva, New York, on Februar7 18, 1943, son of Merle and Rita Smith. He received his elementary and secondary education in the public school system of Waterloo, New York, graduating from high school in 1961. He attended Union College in Schenectady, New York, on a New York State scholarship, graduating in August, 1966, with an A.B. in English. Upon graduation from college, he served four years with the United States Army. He spent 1968-1970 with the First Infantry Division in South Vietnam. In October, 1970, he was discharged with the rank of Captain. In May, 1971, he was married to the former Iran Lang Nhi and took up residence in Florida. In August, 1972, he received the M.Ed, degree in Community College English Education from the University of Florida. During the 1972-1973 academi c year, he taught English composition at Florida Junior College in Jacksonville, Florida, and literature and English composition at Brevard Community College, Melbourne, Florida. In August, 1973, he returned to the University of Florida to begin work on the Ph.D. degree. While a doctoral student, he was a graduate research assistant and a graduate teaching associate under Dr. James L. Wattenbarger in the Institute of Higher Education, working in the University of FloridaFlorida State University Cooperative Community College Leadership Program. During that time he also became a member of Phi Delta Kappa and the American Association for Higher Education. 247

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. C. Glen Hass , Chairman Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in m,' opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. James L. K'sttenbarger 'Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in ny opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Lx Vynce A. Hines Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Albert B Associ ate Smith III Professor of Education

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Assistant Professor of English and Humanities This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1975 Dean, Grdduate School