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Relationships among work behavior types and job satisfaction/dissatisfaction factors of college placement service officers

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Relationships among work behavior types and job satisfaction/dissatisfaction factors of college placement service officers
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Olson, John Edward, 1943-
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Job satisfaction ( jstor )
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Educational Leadership thesis Ph. D
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Vita.
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by John Edward Olson.

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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES
AND JOB SATISFACTION/DISSATISFACTION FACTORS OF
COLLEGE PLACEMENT SERVICE OFFICERS









BY

JOHN EDWARD OLSON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1988


'P-W .~iO~ FLORIDA LIBRARIES












































Copyright 1988

by

John Edward Olson


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This study was made possible through the help and guidance of many people. I am very grateful to Dr. John Nickens, my committee chairman, and the committee members Dr. Beverly Henry and Dr. James Longstreth.

I sincerely appreciate the advice and support of Dr. Sybil

Wellstood and Dr. Mary McGuigan. Their enthusiasm was invaluable.

I wish to thank Ms. Linda Kunz, Ms. Lisa Hurewitz, and Ms.

Leila Cantara for their patience and energy and for their typing and editing skills.

I wish to acknowledge the special contribution of Ms. Jane Shirley Olson, MSW, LCSW, whose encouragement, understanding, and therapeutic Snickers bars were critical to the completion of this project.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......... ........................iii

LIST OF TABLES ............ ........................ vi

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ....................... . vii

ABSTRACT ........... ........................... ...viii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION ....... ...................... .I. 1

Background .i......................1
Job Satisfaction ......... .................. 2
Work Behavior Types ........ ................. 2
Possible Relationships Among Constructs ... ....... 3
Statement of the Problem . ...... ................ 4
Operational Definitions ... ... ................. 5
Placement Service Definitions ...... ............ 5
Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms ..... ........ 5
Job Satisfaction Definitions ...... ............ 6
Justification ........... ...................... 7
Delimitations and Limitations ....... .............. 9
Assumptions ........... ....................... 10
Organization of Subsequent Chapters ..... ........... 10

II SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE .... .............. o 11

Work Behavior Type Theory .... .. .............. 11
Emotions of Normal People . .. ............... 13
Clustered Traits Theory .... ............... . 15
Important Differences in Models of Analysis ..... 18 Independent Pairs ......... .................. 19
Automated on Site Analysis .... .............. . 20
Other Models ........ ...................... . 23
Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory . .......... 28
College Placement Services and Officers . ......... ... 38
Historical Antecedents ..... ................ ... 38
Principles ........ ...................... ... 41
Theories of Career Development ..... .......... . 41
Studies of Career Placement Services and Officers . . . . 45












III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .................. 50

Statement of the Research Problem .... ............ . 50
Procedures .......... ........................ ... 51
Data Source, Data Collection, Instrumentation ..... . 51 Statistical Procedures ...... ................ .. 58
Summary of Design and Methodology .... ............ . 59

IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ....... .................. .. 60

Work Behavior Types of College Placement Service Officers 60
Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire .......... ..................... 66
The Important Motivators and Hygienes for Placement
Service Officers ....... ................... .. 69

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE
RESEARCH .......... ......................... ... 76

Description of the Study ..... ................ .. 77
Major Findings ........ ..................... . 79
Conclusions ......... ...................... ... 81
Recommendations for Future Research ... ........... . 81

REFERENCES ........... ........................... ... 83

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........ ...................... ... 89

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Career Education Students' Ratings of MPPP Validity
for Describing Their Work Behavior ........... ... 54

2 Median and Range of Hoyt Reliability Coefficients
for 27 Normative Groups, by MSQ Scale ....... . 57

3 Distribution of Work Behavior Types Among College
Placement Service Officers ... ............. ... 61

4 Enhanced Analysis Statements .. ........... . 61

5 Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire ... ............ . 67

6 Inter-Item Correlations .... .. ............. 70

7 Order of Motivators and Hygienes for CPS Officers . 72

















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Two axis model. 14 2 Dimensions of personality traits. 16 3 Clusters of primary emotions. 17 4 Comparison of motivation and hygiene factors. 75















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES AND JOB
SATISFACTION/DISSATISFACTION FACTORS OF
COLLEGE PLACEMENT SERVICE OFFICERS By

John Edward Olson

August, 1988

Chairman: John M. Nickens Major Department: Educational Leadership

The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satisfiers and dissatisfiers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profiles (MPPP) of college placement service officers.

Questions addressed were

1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types?

2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their MPPP scores?

3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/job

dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the MSQ?


viii










4. What are the relationships of college placement service

officers' work behavior characteristics on the MPPP and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction contributors on the MSQ?

The MPPP was used to discern work behavior type and the MSQ was employed to determine job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction. The instruments were administered to 45 college placement service officers from six universities and nine community colleges in Florida.

Factor analysis was used to discern important elements of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction for the four work behavior types. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to identify underlying themes of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction for each of the work behavior types.

The results of this study strongly support the theory that

certain work behavior types are attracted to and suited to particular vocations. Significant (p < .05) positive relationships were found between work behavior type and areas of job satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory was strongly supported for college placement service officers as 18 of 20 data items were clearly motivators; the other 2 data items were clearly hygienes. These findings were consistent with expectations based on a synthesis of related literature. The order of importance of motivators and hygienes was identified for this group.

Implications of the findings of this study for personnel

management include the use of work behavior type and important job satisfaction elements in career planning, person-job compatibility, and team building. Further research is needed to establish comparisons between college placement service officers and other vocations.

















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION



Background

Much of the modern research into work behavior and job

satisfaction began in the 1920s during the era of Taylor's scientific management principles (Mayo, 1933). The research emphasis was in human motivation and behavior based on Jung's theories of clusters of emotions (Marston, 1928). Subsequently, World War II provided a need for matching people and jobs (Roe, 1956) and, in the 1950s and 1960s, rapidly advancing and declining business cycles provided the opportunity to investigate the American workforce under stress (Knowles, 1964). The increasing availability of computers in the late 1960s and the 1970s facilitated a great increase in the speed and depth of research in the behavioral sciences (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969).

A review of literature published in these six decades on research in the areas of work behavior and job satisfaction showed parallel developments in these areas but a lack of research on the interrelationship of the two developing areas. A brief description of specific constructs in each area that are of interest in this research will follow.













Job Satisfaction

Herzberg's (1966; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) theory that the factors that related to job satisfaction are different from factors related to job dissatisfaction brought a new perspective to the study of job satisfaction. Herzberg indicated that job satisfaction is related to a set of conditions called motivators (recognition, achievement, advancement, challenge, and responsibility) and job dissatisfaction is related to a set of conditions called hygienes (salary, interpersonal relationships, supervision, company policy and administration, working conditions, status, and security). What is lacking is the knowledge of why there are differences in employees' reactions to motivators and hygienes. Work Behavior Types

The theory of work behavior types suggested that there are

certain inherent differences in personality factors that determine work behaviors (Nickens, 1984). When work behaviors are used as a basis for categorizing, four factors or types result. Energizer types are creative and prefer to work with the broadest overview of a problem; inducer types are people-oriented and work well with group process; concentrator types are methodical and loyal to the organization; and producer types are detail-oriented and follow guidelines for quality (Nickens, 1984).













Further, the characteristic descriptions of each work behavior type (Nickens, 1984) suggested that the Herzberg motivators and hygienes would be different for each type. Thus, different types workers would be expected to react differently to the same work environment. Such reaction differences may help to explain the different reactions to the motivators and hygienes. Combining these theories may help to form a method for examining and predicting the compatibility of a person and certain job characteristics. This method could facilitate a better understanding of how to enhance job performance (as measured by job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction) for each of the four work behavior types. Possible Relationships Among Constructs

Bauch (1981) suggested that research using work behavior types

might be conducted in business settings for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team building, and training. He also suggested that, in education settings, research might be conducted in student personnel and placement offices. Further, Herzberg et al. (1959) suggested that "future research may be able to pinpoint the order of importance of the various satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Even better, we may be able to relate any given order of importance either to the situation or to the kind of people with whom we are dealing" (p. 112).

College placement service chiefs, assistant chiefs, and professional (degreed) counselors are a group of professional














educators who are involved with the practical application of work behavior and job satisfaction concepts. College placement service officers were especially interested in the theoretical constructs and the direct application of this study to their work. Thus, these educators and administrators participated enthusiastically in studies as suggested by Bauch (1981) and Herzberg et al. (1959).

Statement of the Problem

The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satisfiers and dissatisfiers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) of college placement service officers.

Questions addressed were

1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types?

2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their MPPP scores?

3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/job

dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the MSQ?













4. What are the relationships of college placement service

officers' work behavior characteristics on the MPPP and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction contributors on the MSQ?

Operational Definitions

Placement Service Definitions

College placement service refers to the branch of a community college of university that provides students with professional job seeking and job finding data, knowledge, and activities.

College placement service officers include the director,

assistant director, and other professional (non-clerical) staff members who provide job placement counseling to students in a college placement service.

Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms

Work behavior type (WBT) is defined as "the complex product of a long series of learned and habitual styles of perceiving and coping with demands of the environment" (Neff, 1968, p. 72). Coping behaviors consolidate to form a particular work style.

Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) is an instrument designed to measure work behavior type. The four types are as follow:

The energizer type is work behavior type which describes an

individual who is interested in getting results and who is typically assertive, direct, impatient with detail, but quite creative in the work situation.













The inducer type is a work behavior type which indicates an

individual who is people-oriented, sensitive, and optimistic and who places more emphasis on interpersonal relations and getting things accomplished within the group than on the organization itself.

The concentrator type is a work behavior type which describes an individual who is a loyal, steady worker and tends to be patient, systematic, and effective.

The producer type is a work behavior type which indicates an

individual who strives for quality, follows guidelines carefully, and supports his or her work and decisions with documentation. Job Satisfaction Definitions

Job satisfaction is defined as the positive effect which is derived from factors (achievement, recognition for accomplishment, challenging work, increased responsibility, and advancement) which most often contribute to higher needs (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Job dissatisfaction is defined as feelings associated with "the built-in drive to avoid pain from the environment, plus all the learned drives which become conditioned to the basic biological needs" (Herzberg, 1966, p. 28).

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) is a 20-item

questionnaire consisting of statements about various aspects of a person's job which he or she is asked to rate on a 5-point scale from "not satisfied" through "extremely satisfied." The 20 scales utilize descriptors derived from Herzberg's work.














Justification

Researchers have indicated that people exhibit a particular

pattern of behaviors and qualities in their working situations (Geier, 1979; Herzberg, 1966; Nickens, 1984). When individuals have information about their work behavior styles, and they are matched to jobs requiring and encouraging those styles, they have a greater opportunity for success and job satisfaction. The right fit between employee and job also "decreased the likelihood that the employee will become frustrated and quit" (Wellstood, 1984, p. 5).

If information were available on the work behavior types of

college placement service (CPS) officers who enjoyed their work and intended to remain in the profession, major efforts could be directed towards matching people with these profiles to jobs and educational programs. This study was designed to add to the limited research on work behavior types. Findings may also provide new insights into problems related to job-people matching.

Successful job matching will increase worker satisfaction and productivity and will gratify more fully the needs of both organizations and individuals (Argyris, 1964). "We look forward to the next few years as a time when personnel selection practices can take rapid strides to assure improved matches between persons and jobs for the good of everyone" (Dunnette & Borman, 1979, p. 482).














Results of the study may also have implications for career

planning, academic advising, and effective planning of educational and training programs for CPS officers. Advisors, counselors, students, and employers may use the information as a basis for a more systematic approach to career selection and hiring. Program evaluators may apply the results in developing instructional strategies that would foster and enhance work behaviors essential for success in the CPS field.

Personnel recruiters and administrators have few enough objective criteria on which to base decisions concerning employees' working conditions. This study was proposed to determine whether certain variables can be utilized to discriminate between job satisfiers and job dissatisfiers for the four work behavior types. Information derived from this study may contribute to the selection and training of future CPS officers. The knowledge may allow for more expert counseling of those who are interested in pursuing a career in the CPS in universities and community colleges.

The results may contribute to better relationships among the four work behavior types. To the extent that CPS officers are made more aware of the commonalities and the differences among the types and their respective satisfiers and dissatisfiers, CPS officers may come to a greater understanding of their colleagues' points of view. Group function may be enhanced and individual stresses may be lessened.













This study resulted in a set of data with which other CPS

officers can be compared in further research. Given a set of data and some indication of the significance of important variables, CPS officers will be in a better position to evaluate themselves. The results of this study will contribute to further consideration of the value of the assessment instruments, although more extensive research is necessary to substantiate the magnitude of such usefulness.

Delimitations and Limitations

In answering the preceding questions, the following delimitations were observed:

1. This study was limited to placement service officers in the university and community college systems of Florida holding at least a bachelor's degree.

2. Information about work behavior type and preference was limited to that identified by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.

3. Measures regarding job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were limited to those indicated in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.

In addition, the following limitations were inherent in this study:

1. The population of eligible community college and university placement service officers was approximately 200 (M. Mayberry, University of Florida placement service director, personal













communication, May 15, 1986); the sample size was 45, or 22.5% of the population.

2. Since this study was limited to community college and

university placement service officers in the state of Florida, it may not be generalizable to other populations.

Assumptions

This study was based on the following assumptions:

1. Participants answered the surveys honestly and their responses accurately reflect their attitudes and preferences.

2. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring work behavior type.

3. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of worker satisfaction.

Organization of Subsequent Chapters

A review of the literature is presented in Chapter II. Included are major areas of research relevant to work behavior types, job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and college placement services and officers. The design and methodology of the study are presented in Chapter III. Data sources, data collection, instrumentation, and data treatment are addressed. Chapter IV contains the results of the analysis of the data collected from the Marcus Paul Placement Profile and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Chapter V includes the summary of the results, conclusions drawn, and recommendations for future research.
















CHAPTER II
SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE



Work Behavior Type Theory

The chronology of those whose work contributed to the development of the theory of work behavior types can be traced through Wundt in the 1890s, Jung in the early 1920s, Marston in the late 1920s, Geier in the 1960s, and Geier, Bauch, and Nickens in the 1970s and 1980s. Their work will be reviewed briefly below.

Wundt established the first "official" psychological laboratory in 1879. He is considered the founder of experimental psychology for his investigations into nerve, muscle, and emotional responses (Goldenson, 1970). In contrast to many psychologists of the behaviorist school of thought who proposed that there were only two emotions, pleasantness and unpleasantness, Wundt suggested that there were six primary emotions: pleasantness and unpleasantness, excitement and depression, and tension and relaxation (Marston, 1928).

The work of Jung was instrumental in the development of the

theory of personality types. In his 1921 work, Personality Types, he wrote that there were clusters of characteristics and a "collective unconscious" the helped mold an individual's personality and behavior. Some of the factors that contributed to this process were "archetypes"













of ideas, symbols, and experiences that have been repeated and retained through the many generations of man. Jung also viewed the human personality in terms of polarities: conscious values and unconscious values, sublimation and repression, rational and irrational functions, and introversion and extraversion (Jung, 1921).

Jung wrote that each person possesses only four ways of orienting toward the world: the two "rational" functions of thinking (recognizing meaning) and feeling (experiencing pleasure and pain); and the two "irrational" functions of sensation (perceiving by means of unconscious and subliminal processes) (Jung, 1921). Further, Jung emphasized that each person chooses a dominant attitude toward life: introversion, which is an orientation toward inner processes; and extraversion, an orientation toward the external world of people and events (Jung, 1921).

Marston (1928) reviewed the work of both Wundt and Jung in

preparation for an investigation of responses of the nervous system and muscle system in relation to emotions, intentions, and other areas of consciousness. Based on research into "motation" (emotions as measured by motor consciousness, nerve, and muscle response), Marston identified four primary emotions, primary emotions being defined as "an emotion which contains the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, and superiority of strength of the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus" (p. 106). The four primary emotions were termed dominance,













compliance, inducement, and submission, according to an individual's reaction in a favorable environment (alliance) or unfavorable environment (antagonism) and according to his or her actions being active (superior strength) or passive (inferior strength). Marston further recognized the influence of previous experience on the person's response. Marston took great care in selecting these four terms, being certain that each work accurately described the "objective relationship between motor self and motor stimulus" and that each word "must suggest the experience in question" (p. 107). Emotions of Normal People

Marston illustrated that the four emotions, dominance,

inducement, compliance, and submission, do not exist entirely independently, but form a two axis model (see Figure 1). Dominance and compliance form one axis; inducement and submission form the other (Marston, 1928). The idea implies that each pair of emotions exists on a continuum being separated by a degree of activity or passivity and an outward or inward orientation (Nickens, 1984).

Dominance and compliance formed one axis in Marston's model. Accordingly, an individual tries to maintain a balance between the extremes of the axis (Marston, 1928). The point of balance varies among individuals explaining differences in their behavior tendencies (Marston, 1928).














Dominance Inducement




Active
Orientation

----------------------------------------------------------------------Passive
Orientation




Submission - Compliance



Figure 1. Two axis model.




Marston (1928) viewed submission and inducement as a continuum on the second axis of his emotion model. As on the dominant-compliance axis, they are at opposite ends of a continuum, being separated by intensity of response, either active or passive, and the orientation of the individual, either outward or inward (Nickens, 1984).

It should be noted that the dimensions of Figure 1 are not

all-inclusive labels. Rather locations in the dimensions indicate behavior tendencies. Individuals exhibit some or all the types of behavior, but their traits tend to cluster around a point (Marston, 1928). Marston's active and outward orientation dimensions relate to













Jung's extrovert and intuitive functions and the passive and inward dimensions relate to this introvert and sensing functions (Nickens, 1984).

Geier (1979) added to Marston's model the idea that persons whose traits cluster predominantly around the dominance or the inducement dimensions have a process orientation while those whose traits cluster predominantly around the submission or compliance dimensions are more product oriented (see Figure 2). Process-oriented persons want to shape the environment according to their particular views. These are individuals who continually test and push the limits (Geier, 1979). By contrast, product-oriented individuals focus on the how and the why (Geier, 1979).

Clustered Traits Theory

Marston also identified clusters of traits for each of the four primary emotions. These clusters are shown (in part) in Figure 3. It can be observed that each cluster characterized a primary emotional tendency. Although Marston did not statistically confirm these clusters, later researchers (Allport & Odbert, 1936; Geier, 1967, 1979, 1980) substantiated the trait clusters through factor analysis. Geier (1980) found many of Marston's suggested adjectives for each of his four emotions have correlated together through at least r = .60 (p. 14).


















Inducement


Active Orientation


Process Orientation


Extravert Intuitive


Passive Orientation


Product Orientation


Introvert

Submission


Sensing Compliance


Figure 2. Dimensions of personality traits.


Dominance













DOMINANCE
aggressiveness boldness courage dare-devilry determination ego centricity ego-emotion fighting instinct



adapting awe
caution candor conforming well disciplined empathy fear
COMPLIANCE


SUBMISSION
accommodating admiration a good child altruism benevolence considerate docility being an easy mark



alluring appealing attraction attractive personality captivation charming convincing converting INDUCEMENT


Figure 3. Clusters of primary emotions.

Note. Adapted from The Marcus Paul Placement Profile and Work Behavior Analysis (p. 20) by J. M. Nickens, Gainesville, FL: University Laboratories. Reprinted by permission.



It is interesting to note that many psychologists of the past few decades have attempted to explain personality in terms of clustered traits. Most theories or models contain numerous clusters and many are pathologically-oriented, while Marston's model uses four simple categories with cluster traits to support each dimension. Marston's model has an explicit nonpathological orientation, which is most appropriate for work behavior analysis. Further, most trait psychologists began with long lists of traits and subsequently clustered them into categories (Allport, 1937; Allport & Odbert, 1936;













Cattell, 1946; Duffy, 1949; Eysenck, 1947). However, Marston began with categories and added traits according to his theoretical constructs (Nickens, 1984).

The major problem with Marston's model is the limitation of the opposite pairs for explaining the paradoxical and simultaneous occurrence of dominant and compliant feelings and of inductive and submissive feelings. Explanations have been attempted, however, using environmental considerations as circumstantial influencers. Stated simply, people will display work behavior not normal for them when the job induces pressures beyond the normal. Thus, this is not the normal behavior or feelings and as such is beyond the theory. However, behaving differently under different circumstances is normal. The model advanced by Nickens (1984) is similar to that of Herzberg (1966) in explaining the simultaneous occurrence of job satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. Instead of using one scale between "opposites," the "opposites" are measured independently. Important Differences in Models of Analysis

Marston and Geier viewed behavior as a two-dimensional model with each dimension representing two opposites, dominance-compliance and submission-inducement. As we understand dominance and compliance in the current vernacular, one may exhibit strong dominant tendencies toward compliance to rules or policies of the employer. Also, many acts or strategies of inducement are submissive in nature. For













example, a salesperson who is anxious to induce a client into accepting a big deal will compromise (submit) by paying the luncheon check, making concessions on minor issues, and providing vendor service far beyond expectations. This paradoxical type of behavior was mentioned earlier as a major inadequacy of the Marston and Geier models of analysis.

Another major problem of traditional analysis, including Geier's procedure, is that of accumulating responses, norming, and deriving and communicating interpretations. Also, the time involved as well as the cost of materials limits the practical use of such procedures. Nickens avoided the model inadequacy and the analysis problems by treating the "opposite pairs" independently and using microcomputers to automate the scoring and analysis. Independent Pairs

The theoretical basis of the MPPP is similar to Herzberg's model of motivator-hygiene for job satisfaction. Herzberg recognized that those factors that enhanced job satisfaction (motivators) did not necessarily produce dissatisfaction when they were not present, and those factors that induced dissatisfaction (hygienes) did not necessarily produce satisfaction when not present. Thus, one may be very satisfied with some aspects of a job situation and very dissatisfied with other aspects of the same job situation. Then it follows that both satisfaction and dissatisfaction, although related













inversely in a sample, should be evaluated independently when describing an individual's attitude toward work. It is important to note that Herzberg was concerned with the work environment rather than work behavior.

Accordingly, Nickens viewed the primary behaviors as independent pairs. This does not mean that Nickens denied the existence of strong inverse relationships between the "opposite pairs" in statistical models. However, recognizing the independence of traits provided a more powerful tool than Marston's and Geier's models for explaining complex behaviors on an individual basis. Automated on Site Analysis

Perhaps the major contributions of Nickens in work behavior

analysis was the automation of the response analysis and reporting, which provides the counselor or analyst with a printed structure for communicating results to clients. Specifically, responses marked on the MPPP response sheet can be quickly entered into a microcomputer and results analyzed and printed immediately in a form that can be discussed. With this system, units on work behavior can be taught to career education students followed by students using a microcomputer to obtain analyses in the same class period. Also, the report can be retained by the students for future reference and discussion.

Marston's (1928) traits were later confirmed statistically by Cattell (1948) and Geier (1967). Building on their research, Bauch














(1981) developed the MPPP to measure work behavior types and updated some of Marston's terminology naming the four work behavior types energizer, inducer, concentrator, and producer.

The MPPP system is based not only on Marston's theory but also on substantial theories of management, career counseling, and placement. It acknowledges the fact that individuals possess a myriad of qualities and patterns of behavior in a work situation (Glenn, 1982, p. 94).

The intention was to produce an instrument that would discern work behavior type for the purpose of matching individuals and jobs. The instrument was designed to be utilized as a tool in the educational setting for student personnel and placement as well as in the business setting for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team building, and training (Bauch, 1981).

In keeping with the work of Argyris (1964), Blake and Mouton (1964), McGregor (1960), and others who have brought humanistic principles into the work place, the aim was to design an instrument which would increase understanding of work behavior, both for employer and employee. Bauch (1981) believed that work behavior traits and types were not judgments of work behaviors but were terms to be employed to increase understanding of work behaviors. Accordingly, he felt that any terminology used should be positive or neutral, and that the terms in the profile should reflect work behaviors. Therefore,















some of Marston and Geier's terminology was modified for application in the work setting. Words with negative connotations were replaced by terms which were more positive or neutral. For example, the titles of Marston's original categories were dominance, inducement, submission, and compliance. Geier changed these to dominance, influence, steadiness, and compliance. In the MPPP, the work behavior types appear as energizer, inducer, concentrator, and producer (Glenn, 1982).

Glenn (1982) used work behavior types as variables in a study of vocational education coordinators. She found that there were significant relationships between work behavior types and aspects of job satisfaction. Also, specific areas of job effectiveness were found to be significantly related to work behavior types. By being aware of employees' work behavior types, supervisors and employers could maximize worker effectiveness and satisfaction.

Wellstood (1984) investigated the relationships of work behavior type and job satisfaction in medical technologists. She found that attrition from the medical terminology field could be predicted based on work behavior types. Those counseling students about to enter the medical technology field should encourage different types to consider administrative or educational roles later in their career. Also, teaching and training techniques should differ for different types.















Other Models

Besides the Marson-Geier-Nickens model of work behavior types, two other models have been created by Neff (1968) and by Holland (1966). These models were examined in the review of the literature, but neither was chosen to be used in this study.

Neff proposed that work behavior can be examined and categorized by maladaptive or pathological responses. Neff (1968) studied the components of the work personality and concluded

the most viable hypothesis concerning human personality is that it is composed of a number of substructures and areas
which, although not entirely unrelated, manifest considerable degrees of internal differentiation. The emotional responses
that people make to each other appear to be simultaneously
motivated by two opposing conceptions: that people are like
each other in important ways and different from each other in
important ways. (p. 153)

Neff (1968) further asserted that the work personality is of a "semiautonomous nature" (p. 153). His position was that the work personality of adults is created through a long process of development. Its relationship to the personality as a whole is a "special subsarea" (p. 154) with a "set of interrelated motives, coping styles, [and] defensive maneuvers" (p. 154) which each individual brings to the work situation.

In deciding to address the area of "work psychopathology," Neff (1968) stated that it was important to understand that the maturation process involves the mastery of many internal emotional and biological demands, but that "the compulsion to work, however, is initially














entirely external" from the person (p. 164). As this demand becomes

internalized, it may create "a stimulus for gratification, anxiety,

guilt, or inadequacy" (p. 164) which is incorporated into the

particular work style of the individual.

In a larger-scale study with Koltuv (Neff & Koltuv, 1967), a

rating scale, the Coping Scale, was developed which defined seven

possible predominant maladaptive work behavior styles or categories.

(F) Fearful. Among other things, this sort of
individual may be tense, fidgety, jumpy, uneasy, may be frequently troubled or worried, may be afraid and timid
in his relationship with others, may be afraid to establish
contact with others, may seem mousy, may shy away from
things and people.
(D) Dependent. This kind of individual might give the
appearance of being impotent in dealing with the world by
himself. Among other things, he may frequently ask help
from others, may rely on others for support, may be unable
to initiate action on his own, may place himself in the
position of making others direct him, may be highly compliant,
may seek others' approval.
(I) Impulsive. Among other things, this sort of
individual may rarely see a task through, may be unable to
stick to a plan of action, may flit from one thing to
another, may be unable to delay the gratification of his
impulses, may immediately seek to satisfy his desires, may
easily become enthusiastic about something and then rapidly
lose his enthusiasm.
(SN) Socially Naive. This kind of individual may be
unperceptive when it comes to the needs or feelings of
others, may not realize that his behavior elicits reactions from others or has an effect on them, may be socially inept, may not seem to know what is appropriate in ordinary social
situations.
(W) Withdrawn, Apathetic. Among other things, this
kind of individual may be bland, lethargic, may lack vitality,
may give the impression of being indifferent to things going
on around him, may lack emotional responsivity, may seem very
easygoing and uninvolved.














(SD) Self-deprecatory. Among other things, this sort of
individual may point up and willingly talk about his
deficiencies, may be highly self-critical, may talk about
his ineptitude, may derogate his qualities and abilities, may
generally run himself down, may express self-doubts.
(H) Hostile. Among other things, this sort of individual
may be angry with others most of the time, may be subtly
negativistic, may contradict and argue with others, may be
sarcastic, may belittle or insult others, may criticize
others. (Neff, 1968, pp. 214-215)

As this delineation of work behavior types focuses on maladaptive

or pathological behaviors, it is of limited usefulness in describing

work behavior styles or types in those assumed to be healthier

subjects.

Holland suggested that work behavior types can be derived from

need theory, role theory, self theory, social learning theory,

psychoanalytic theory, and sociology (cited in Carkhuff, Alexik, &

Anderson, 1967). Holland (1959, 1966) considered hereditary and

environmental factors as primary bases for the development of a

hierarchy, pattern, or preferred mode for dealing with the world of

work. This preferred mode tends to propel one toward one of six

orientations or work behavior types (Holland, 1966).

1. The Motoric Orientation. Persons with this orientation
enjoy activities requiring physical strength, aggressive action, motor coordination, and skill . . . they wish to
play masculine roles, dealing with concreted, well-defined problems as opposed to abstract, intangible ones . . . they
prefer to act out rather than think through.
2. The Intellectual Orientation. Persons of this
orientation appear to be task-oriented . . . [preferring
to] think through rather than act out problems. . .
They need to organize and understand the world. They















enjoy ambiguous work tasks and interactive activities
and possess somewhat unconventional values and attitudes.
3. The Supportive Orientation. Persons of this
orientation prefer teaching or therapeutic roles ....
They possess verbal and interpersonal skills . . . are
responsible, socially oriented and accepting of feminine
impulses and roles. . . . They prefer to deal with
problems through feeling and interpersonal manipulations
of others.
4. The Conforming Orientation. Persons of this class
prefer structured verbal and numerical activities and subordinate roles. They achieve their goals through
conformity. In this fashion, they obtain satisfaction
and avoid conflict and anxiety aroused by ambiguous
situations or problems involving interpersonal relationships
and physical skills.
5. The Persuasive Orientation. Persons of this class prefer to use their verbal skills in situations which
provide opportunities for dominating, selling, or leading
others. They conceive of themselves as strong masculine leaders. They avoid well-defined work situations. They
are concerned with power and status.
6. The Esthetic Orientation. Persons of this orientation
prefer indirect relationships with others. They [are]
artistic . . . need individual expression, are more
feminine, and have less ego strength. (pp. 36-37)

As Holland's types or orientations were frankly and obviously sexist

in nature, they are of limited usefulness in describing the members of

the workforce of the 1980s.

The purpose of the theories described above is to determine the

best "fit" employee and job by personality characteristics or traits

and by job characteristics. Other theories of person/job fit have

been suggested by Getzels and Guba (1957) and Argyris (1974).

Getzels and Guba (1957) proposed that the complex interaction of

"roles" and "needs" designated by the employer and the employee

determined person/job compatibility. The two levels of preferences














were termed the nomothetic dimension and the idiographic dimension, areas of conflict occur at the points where institutional and individual preferences are perceived to be incompatible. If the two dimensions (role expectations and individual goals) can be moved closer together, person/job compatibility is enhanced (Getzels & Guba, 1957).

Argyris (1974) theorized that "in their attempt to live, to grow in competence, and to achieve self-acceptance, men and women tend to program themselves" (p. 224) along the lines of maturity continua. Infants begin as dependent and submissive to other. They have few abilities, little skill in developing their abilities, and a short time perspective. Adults, however, continue to strive for relative autonomy and control over their immediate environment. They develop a wide range of abilities, some at great depth, and have a longer time perspective (Argyris, 1974).

Leaders of organizations design work, evaluate performance, and reward or punish on low (informal) to high (formal) continua for each activity. The nature of compatibility or conflict among the individual factors and organizational factors varies according to conditions of interaction.

If the individual aspired And the organization
toward: (through job, technology, controls, leadership,
etc.) required that the
individual aspire toward:














(1) adult dimensions (1) infancy dimensions
(2) infancy dimensions (2) adulthood dimensions (3) adulthood dimensions (3) adulthood dimensions
(4) infancy dimensions (4) infancy dimensions
(Argyris, 1974, p. 226)

When there is incongruence between the needs of the individual and the needs of the organization, individuals will tend to experience frustration, psychological failure, short time perspective, and conflict. Conversely, the more the employee and the employer can agree on appropriate dimensions, the more the employee will feel he or she has control over working conditions and is best able to employ his or her abilities (Argyris, 1974, p. 226).

Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory

The chronology of those whose work contributed to the development of Herzberg's motivator/hygiene theory can be traced through Jung in the 1920s, Hoppock in the 1930s, and Maslow in the 1940s.

As described earlier, Jung was one of the most prominent researchers to try to discover which factors determined certain qualities in individuals. He felt that a set of characteristics, combined with a realistic attitude and reasonable opportunity, allowed a person to find place for himself or herself in life (Jung, 1921). Herzberg quoted Jung's statement "the supreme goal of man is to fulfill himself as a creative, unique individual according to his own innate potentialities and within the limits of reality" (Herzberg et al., 1959, p. 83).














Herzberg stated that the factors that lead to positive job

attitudes do so because they satisfy the individual's need for selfactualization in his work (Herzberg et al., 1959). Herzberg agreed with Jung that when a person is deflected from this goal he or she becomes "a crippled animal" (p. 114).

The study of job satisfaction is not new. Since the Industrial Revolution, when individual craftsmanship was replaced with machine tending, researchers have shown that workers have considered tasks to be fragmented and have felt less pride in accomplishment (Glenn, 1982).

One of the first studies of job satisfaction was in the field of education. Hoppock questioned 500 teachers and analyzed the 100 most satisfied and 100 least satisfied responses. From this he formulated his theory which suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were on one continuum (Hoppock, 1935). He concluded job satisfaction consisted of many factors. The presence of these factors in the work situation led to satisfaction while their absence led to job dissatisfaction. He also examined the relationship among job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and mental health. In a survey involving 500 teachers, 21% of the least satisfied teachers were from unhappy homes, compared to only 6% of the teachers expressing high satisfaction (Hoppock, 1935).















In Hoppock's study, respondents expressed overall job

satisfaction directly by answering questions designed to investigate their global attitudes toward the job; i.e., whether the respondent liked or disliked it. The primary usefulness of this approach, according to Herzberg et al. (1959) was in the investigation of the relationships among the demographic variables. In Hoppock's study, for example, the overall job satisfaction of individuals was compared to the demographic variables of age, sex, educational level, social class, occupation, earnings, marital status, and IQ scores.

Hoppock's single-continuum construct has been identified as "global" satisfaction and is a fundamental tenet of traditional theories of job satisfaction (Yoder et al., 1975, p. 627). However, in 1943, Maslow created a new theory based on a needs hierarchy which explained the dynamics of job satisfaction in terms of fulfilling individual needs (Maslow, 1943).

In Maslow's theory, a person's needs are arranged in order in the hierarchy of prepotency as (a) physiological, (b) safety, (c) belongingness and love, (d) esteem, and (e) self-actualization. Maslow (1954) theorized that the physiological needs were the most prepotent. He said that "a person who is lacking food, safety, love, and esteem would probably hunger for food more strongly than for anything else" (Maslow, 1954, p. 82). As the physiological needs of a person are met, "at once other (and higher) needs emerge and these,














rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism' (Maslow, 1954, P. 83). The emerging needs become the motivators of behavior. As soon as the needs on a lower level in the hierarchy are met, they are no longer a motivator.

Building on Maslow's work, Herzberg et al. (1959) formulated the two-factor theory of job satisfaction. They claimed that two classes of work variables, the motivators and hygiene factors, influenced job satisfaction. Motivators were intrinsic factors such as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, and the inherent interest of the work itself. When present in a job, motivators were satisfiers because they had a positive effect on employee output. Achievement was the strongest motivator followed by recognition. Motivators correspond to Maslow's higher-order needs.

Hygiene factors were extrinsic to the job and included pay,

security, supervision, and physical working conditions. They were analogous to Maslow's lower-order needs. When absent from the job, they were linked to dissatisfaction. However, Herzberg and associates clearly pointed out that the presence of a hygiene factor does not automatically produce job satisfaction and the absence of a motivator does not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction.

Isaacson (1971) described the differences and interaction of

Herzberg's and Maslow's theories as "Maslow is helpful in identifying needs or motives, while Herzberg provides us with insights to the goals and incentives that tend to satisfy these needs" (Isaacson, 1971, p. 66).















We feel that the physiological, safety, social, and part of the esteem needs are all hygiene factors. The esteem
needs are divided because there are some distinct
differences between status per se and recognition. Status
tends to be a function of the position one occupies. One
may have gained this position through competence and
achievement. It is earned and granted by others.
Consequently, status is classified with physiological,
safety, and social needs as a hygiene factor, while
recognition is classified with esteem as a motivator.
(Isaacson, 1971, p. 67)

According to Herzberg's 1959 theory, which he developed further in 1966, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction can be measured on two disparate scales such that "the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and motivation) are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction" (Herzberg et al., 1959). The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, it is an absence of job satisfaction. Conversely, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, it is an absence of job dissatisfaction, as determined by the employee, encompassing the feelings that the employee has toward the job content (intrinsic). In other words, job content factors are "motivators" which are the personal growth factors that are intrinsic to the job. These include achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility, the possibility of growth or advancement, and the work itself. Job dissatisfaction encompasses the employee's feelings toward job context (extrinsic). Job context factors are "hygienes" which are the factors that are extrinsic to the job such as company policy and














administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, status, job security, salary, and working conditions. The primary function of "hygienes" is to prevent or avoid pain or hunger or to fulfill the other basic biological needs of man. Herzberg used the term "hygienes" to describe factors in the work context that act "in a manner analogous to the principles of medical hygiene" (Herzberg et al., 1959, p. 113). That is, hygiene is preventative, not curative, in removing health hazards from the environment of man. In comparison, "motivators" function to provide the individual with personal psychological growth. Herzberg et al. (1959) compared the dynamics of hygiene to the dynamics of motivators as follows:

The dynamics of hygiene:
- The psychological basis of hygiene needs is the
avoidance of pain from the environment.
- There are infinite sources of pain in the environment.
- Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature.
- Hygiene needs have an escalating zero point.
- Hygiene improvements have short-term effects.
- There is no final answer to hygiene needs.
The dynamics of motivation:
- The psychological basis of motivation is the need
for personal growth.
- There are limited sources of motivator satisfaction.
- Motivator improvements have long-term effects.
- Motivators are additive in nature.
- Motivators needs have a non-escalating zero point.
- There are answers to motivator needs. (p. 101)

Herzberg's motivator-hygiene (M-H) theory was based on the

original Herzberg et al. study in 1959 of 203 male, mid-level managers who were engineers and accountants selected from companies in Pittsburgh. In addition to demographic data, information was














collected from the respondents in the form of their responses to a semi-structured interview. This interview technique was known as the "critical-incident" interview technique. Herzberg's goal was to determine the respondent's judgment of his or her psychological state during a critical event when the respondent felt particularly good or bad about his or her job. "The primary need that emerged was one for an investigation of job attitudes in toto, a study in which factors, attitudes, and effects would be investigated simultaneously. The basic concept was that the factors-attitudes-effects (F-A-E) complex needs study as a unit" (Herzberg et al., 1959, p. 11).

Since his theory was first published, hundreds of studies have been conducted with every level of worker, supervisor, and management in this and foreign countries (Burr, 1980). While there has been widespread support for Herzberg's theory, it has not been without controversy.

Burr (1980) listed 13 studies conducted in a period of less than 10 years in which researchers found Herzberg's theory useful in discussing various populations just in the field of education, including Thomas (1977) who studied college and university administrators in Florida. Similar numbers of studies have been described for administrators by Glenn (1982) and for medical technology by Wellstood (1984).

Critics of Herzberg's theory have suggested that his original

population was too small and narrow (Burr, 1980, p. 46). Others have














indicated that different conclusions could have been derived from the original data and that measures of overall satisfaction may have been ignored (Glenn, 1982, p. 36). Herzberg acknowledged his critics and addressed some of their issues in his second book (1966) but has continued to find much support for his theory (Wellstood, 1984, p. 92).

Vroom (1964) was one of Herzberg's strongest critics. "The

methods used were neither correlational nor experimental. The authors assumed that people have the ability and the motivation to report accurately the conditions which made them satisfied and dissatisfied with their jobs" (p. 127). In reporting a study by Shwartz, Jenusaitis, and Clark which replicated Herzberg's study, Vroom (1964) wrote, "these investigators also found no significant relationships between story content and either demographics variables, such as age and education, or personality characteristics, as measured by the Edwards Personal Preference Test" (p. 127).

Vroom (1964) offered two possible alternative explanations for Herzberg's results. "One could also argue that the relative frequency with which job-content or job-contextual feature will be mentioned as sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction is dependent on the nature of the content and context of the work roles of the respondents" (p. 128). "It is still possible that obtained differences between stated sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from defensive processes within the individual respondent" (p. 129).















Vroom's summary of his opinion was

Herzberg's conclusion . . . can neither be accepted nor rejected on the basis of the evidence available at this
time. [First edition of Vroom's book was printed in
1964.] Corroboration of his position will require
correlational or experimental evidence of nonlinearity
in relationships, a problem that is worthy of much more
attention than it has received. (p. 129)

Vroom (1964) considered job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction to be one continuum and suggested that the six most critical factors were "(I) supervision, (2) the work group, (3) job content, (4) wages,

(5) promotional opportunities, and (6) hours of work" (p. 105).

King (1970) suggested that much of the controversy associated

with research using Herzberg's "theory" could be accounted for because of five different theories, or interpretations of the original theory were being utilized by different authors.

Sergiovanni and Starratt (1979) advocated Herzberg's theory and applied his concepts to education professionals. They stated that

satisfaction at work is not a motivator of performance
per se, but results from quality performance.
Administrators and supervisors should not use
satisfaction as a method of motivating teachers, but
satisfaction should be thought of as a goal that teachers seek, one that is best obtained through
meaningful work. (p. 164)

Sergiovanni and Starratt further stated that "administrators and supervisors who use job satisfaction to motivate teachers are practicing human relations. This has not been proven to be an effective approach. Human relations emphasize the hygienic factors" (p. 164).















Administrators and supervisors who consider job satisfaction as a goal that teachers seek through accomplishing meaning and work and "who focus on enhancing the meaningful work and the ability of teachers to accomplish this work are practicing human resources supervision. This has been proven to be an effective approach. Human resources development emphasizes the motivational factors" (p. 164).

Sergiovanni and Starratt (1979) offered the comparison of

criticism of Herzberg's theory by Dunette, Campbell, and Hakel and the supportive view of Whitutt and Winslow (among others) and concluded "our review of motivator-hygiene studies leads us to conclude that the theory is indeed appropriate for white collar and professionally oriented workers but less appropriate for other workers" (p. 164).

Meyers (1964), however, felt that Herzberg's theory was useful at every level of an organization. He stated that it "is easily translatable to supervisory action at all levels of responsibility. It is a framework on which supervisors can evaluate and put into perspective" the suggestions offered by employees and "serves to increase their feelings of competence, self-confidence, and autonomy" (p. 27).

Bass (1981), in his continuation of Stogdill's extensive

collection of literature, offered a multitude of studies of job satisfaction. At least 29 separate researchers have studied factors affecting job satisfaction and/or job dissatisfaction at all levels of organization and in a wide variety of populations.














Elias (1987) reported a study by Staw who indicated that job

satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be predicted at as early an age as 12, based on certain personality traits. In research begun in 1928 with 100 boys under school age, Staw determined that "personality traits at age 12 accurately predicted job satisfaction as adults in their 40s, 50s, and 60s" (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). Staw found that, at 12, boys destined to be satisfied at work were (a) sympathetic and giving, (b) warm and likeable, and (c) cheerful and self-satisfied. Future unhappy employees were (a) hostile toward others, (b) mistrusted and punitive, (c) thin-skinned and moody, and

(d) condescending boys "bothered by demands" who felt a lack of personal meaning (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). Staw suggested that the findings "throw into question the value of quickie employee training programs" (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). He indicated that more employee participation in decision making, pay incentives, and job redesigns be done to "take individual differences into consideration" (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10).

College Placement Services and Officers Historical Antecedents

Stephens (1970) described the transition of student career counseling passing from a primarily religious function in the universities of New England to a faculty advisory function in post-1862 land grant colleges. The first recorded vocational guidance















counselor was Jesse B. Davis at Central High School in Detroit. President Silman of Johns Hopkins University appointed the first chief faculty advisor in 1899. The first formal curriculum in college student personnel education was taught by Dr. Paul Monroe at Columbia University in 1916 (Stephens, 1970).

Small professional groups joined to become the National

Vocational Guidance Association in 1913. A competing organization, the National Association of Appointment Secretaries was created in 1924. The pattern of petty rivalries and professional jealousies continued until 1952 when the American Personnel and Guidance Association was formed. A further attempt to coordinate organizations dealing with student personnel activities developed in 1963 with the formation of the Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education (Stephens, 1970). "The realization of this objective--the full maturing of each student cannot be attained without interest in and integrated efforts toward the development of each and every facet of his personality and potentialities" (p. 1).

After a period of experience and refinement, Kirkpatrick (1953) more specifically defined the role of college placement work. The primary function of college placement work is to help each new graduate find work in a socially useful occupation appropriate for his or her particular abilities, interests, and ambitions. In many cases this may involve information, counsel, and the opportunity to















investigate a variety of openings, rather than direct placement. Final responsibility for finding a job rests squarely upon the student, and successful placement will depend largely upon the vigor and discrimination of his or her own efforts. Nevertheless, the institution has a definite responsibility to provide students with competent assistance and guidance through appropriate placement activities.

A closely related responsibility of the placement function is to serve employers seeking qualified students from the institution. Its effectiveness in this regard will influence greatly its efforts to help its students. Through employer contacts, moreover, the placement staff becomes an invaluable listening post for the faculty and administration in reviewing the effects of training and in appraising the development of their students (Kirkpatrick, 1953, p. 1).

The placement facilities of the college frequently can be useful to students leaving college before graduation and to alumni seeking new positions. Within the limits of the resources available, it is desirable that assistance be given to nongraduates and also to alumni. It is at the time of graduation, however, that the institution has the most clear-cut responsibility for assisting in student placement, and it also has the greatest opportunity to aid them.

Kirkpatrick (1953) expressed the philosophy that "American colleges and universities recognized that education is a process














involving the whole student" (p. 12), including intellectual

achievement, emotional stability, physical condition, social

relationships, vocational attitudes, and moral and religious values. "The college that accepts this responsibility must build its education

and its student personnel services programs upon principle and

practices which take into account all the needs of the individual

student" (p. 12).

Principles

Stephens (1970) delineated nine principles to guide placement

directors.

Principle 1 - The aim of higher education is the development
of the whole individual equipped to cope with a fastchanging world.
Principle 2 - Growth is a development process.
Principle 3 - Successful vocational choice lies in fulfilling
the self-concept.
Principle 4 - Counseling is the heart of the placement
function.
Principle 5 - The effectiveness of a placement service can be measured by its educational value to the student and to
the college.
Principle 6 - The placement office functions primarily to
serve the student.
Principle 7 - No one particular professional group is best
qualified to counsel.
Principle 8 - In dealing with students, it is important to
remember that it is not what the facts are but, rather, what students think they are that will spell success or
failure for the college administrator.
Principle 9 - A major purpose of career counseling is to
help the student help himself. (pp. 35-45)

Theories of Career Development

A Boston social worker and educator, Frank Parsons, is generally

credited with being the real motivator of vocational counseling and














placement. In 1909, Parsons created the first theory of vocational choice which received widespread attention (Stephens, 1970, p. 9). Parsons advocated man-analysis and job-analysis in a three-step theory:

1. self-understanding on the part of the client;
a knowledge of his interests, aptitudes, resources,
limitations, etc;
2. knowledge of the world of work: aptitudes required
on a job, educational background necessary, paths of
advancement, remuneration, etc.;
3. matching of individual qualifications to job
requirements. (cited in Stephens, 1970, p. 10)

After World War II, as servicemen returned home, and the nation's economy shifted to peacetime production, career choice and career development theorists flourished. The theories of Hoppock, Holland, Roe, Super, Tiedeman, and O'Hara are described in the following sections.

Hoppock wrote that occupational choice is based on meeting needs. These needs may be mental, physical, or emotional, and may shift with

time, but the individual will pursue the greatest gratification of them (Hoppock, 1935).

Holland's theory, as described earlier, involved the interaction of personality types and environment categories. He stated that members of a vocation have similar personalities and therefore will respond to many situations and problems in similar manners. Vocational satisfaction, stability, and progress depend upon the extent to which an individual's personality and work environment are














compatible (Holland, 1966, p. 33). Holland developed the Vocational

Preference Inventory which is used to measure the primary and

secondary patterns of an individual (p. 35).

Roe (1964) stated that differences among people grew out of

their genetics and early childhood experiences. She presented five

propositions which delineated this theory.

Proposition 1: Genetic inheritance sets limits to the
potential development of all characteristics, but
specificity of the genetic control and the extent and nature of the limitations are different for different
characteristics.
Proposition 2: The degrees and avenues of development of
inherited characteristics are affected not only be
experience unique to the individual, but also by all
aspects of the general cultural background and the socioeconomic position of the family.
Proposition 3: The pattern of development of interests,
attitudes, and other personality variables with relatively
little or non-specific genetic control is primarily
determined by individual experiences through which
involuntary attention becomes channeled in particular
directions.
Proposition 4: The eventual pattern of psychic energies,
in terms of attention directedness, is the major
determinant of interests.
Proposition 5: The intensity of these needs and of their
satisfaction perhaps particularly as they have remained
unconscious and their organization are the major
determinants of the degree motivation that reaches
expression in accomplishment. (p. 35)

Roe (1964) further proposed that the emotional climate in the

home (the relationship between parent and child) is of three types.

It can be one of emotional concentration of the child, or avoidance of

the child, or acceptance of the child. These climates are thought to

form a pattern of relationships, with some binding or overlapping.















Probably no one has written as extensively about the topic of vocational development as have Super, Starishevsky, Millin, and Jordaan (1963). These authors combined aspects of developmental psychology with self-concept theory. They stated that both occupations and individuals have patterns and traits that are tolerant enough to accept some variety. Individuals' vocational preferences, competencies, and experiences make the self-concept adjust in a continuous process (Super et al., 1963).

Super et al. (1963) further theorized that this self-career choice process can be summarized in a series of life stages termed growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline. The exploration stage may be subdivided into the fantasy, tentative, and realistic phases, and the establishment stage may be subdivided into the trial and stable phases.

Tiedeman, O'Hara, and Baruch (1963) suggested that career

development is a process of organizing an identification with work through the interaction of the individual's personality with society. "They consider personality development as a process in which the individual is involved in both differentiation and integration" (p. 54).

Tiedeman et al. (1963) used the term "ego identity" to refer to personal meanings, values, and relationships upon which the individual builds a broader integration with society. The ego identity is














formed through the interaction of three factors, the individual's biological constitution, his or her psychological make-up, and the society or subculture in which he or she exists. Decisions in many aspects of life, including vocational development and career choice, are based on two periods or aspects: the period of anticipation, including exploration, crystallization, choice, and specification and the period of implementation and adjustment, including induction, transition, and maintenance (Tiedeman et al., 1963).

Studies of Career Placement Services and Officers

Cappeto (1980) delineated the audiences, roles, skills, and

responsibilities of the CPS professional. The audiences include the university (its values, philosophies, and mission), the university power structure (board, president, deans), students, alumni, and employers.

The roles of the professional are advisor, evaluator,

intermediary, and advocate. Career skills are social (strong interest and concern for people), enterprising (selling and persuasion), and investigative (exploring student and employer interests and values). Responsibilities are in the realm of ethical and legal issues which affect the professional's relationships with students, employers, and the university.

Parrent (1981) investigated perceptions of placement officials and departmental representatives about interrelationships between














placement offices and the departments they served at Indiana University, Bloomington. The issue of whether the placement office fills a clerical or professional function persisted. There was confusion over whether faculty members should provide placement opportunities for students. Better communication between faculty and placement service staff varied but could be improved.

Weatherall (1981) was critical of the career service profession in general for not researching, or even discussing, the concept of ambition as related to student career development. He was further critical of professionals' inability to listen effectively to all elements of students' interests and questions to help determine career choices and preferences. In conclusion, he stated that career service professionals need to do more research so as not to be seen as "ignorant, and ignorance is not a virtue in a university" (p. 30).

Crouch and Tolle (1982) conducted a nationwide survey to

determine, describe, and analyze selected factors concerning the careers of placement directors. They found that directors at 4-year colleges or universities were males in their early 40s and held a master's degree. They had been in business and government for 6.5 years and headed a staff of one professional, two secretaries, and three student workers.

Directors at 2-year colleges were males in their late 30s and held a master's degree. They had been in business or government for














7.5 years before joining the CPS. They had been director for 4.3 years and headed a staff of one secretary and two student workers. Both groups felt that English, psychology, and counseling or guidance courses were most helpful in their work.

Brumley (1983) studied the career planning and placement center at Southern Illinois University. It was found that placement services were initiated through informal methods from 1874 until 1913; formalized structures began in 1914 and continued through 1980. It was found that the placement services had been responsive to the individual needs of students by providing special services to the underprivileged minorities and the handicapped. The researcher concluded that the principal objective of the placement service is to enhance freedom of choice (Brumley, 1983).

Castro (1983) studied the current status of placement services in Texas. Of the individuals responsible for placement programs, 66% were males; the majority of individuals in the field held master's degrees with the emphasis in counseling. A majority of the services operated on a small budget but did not charge for services. Of the students eligible to use career services, 20% did so. Of the placement service programs, 66% offered career development classes for credit, but 79% did not have a student outreach program.

DeVoe, Spicuzza, and Baskind (1983) studied burnout among career services directors. Their burnout rate was low ("not present at a














statistically significant level" (p. 46)) and several explanations were offered. Personal characteristics such as a realistic sense of capabilities, a good sense of humor, and an ability to delegate responsibility may have contributed to the low burnout rate. Also, possible contributory factors may have been a well-defined organization and a variety of job roles to prevent boredom. Further, the phenomenon of denial may have intervened. Finally, the Maslach Burnout Inventory may not have been an appropriate instrument for the population.

Campbell and Wertz (1984) described a model for the training of future CPS officers at the graduate school level based on the University of South Carolina program. The 2-year course was divided into four units, each using lecture and discussion, guest speakers, audiovisual tapes, and field trips. The curriculum included the following:

1. Historical review, including vocational education,

orientation, and terminology.

2. Student-oriented activities, counseling, testing, and

work experiences.

3. Administrative and managerial activities and coursework.

4. Contemporary issues and future implications of the economy

and technology on the job market.

These four units are subdivided into eight sequential modules which followed a developmental process to provide a knowledge base for future learning.














Carlson (1985) analyzed more than 5,000 position advertisements for seven areas of student personnel listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education from 1979 to 1982. Patterns of hiring, position requirements, skills required, and an analysis of salary were reported.

Williamson (1937) wrote the seminal study on student personnel services up to that time. His work was instrumental in coalescing scattered regional trends into a national effort.

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) has been used in a variety of studies in education and clinical settings. The research cited below is representative of these applications.

Curley (1982) studied job satisfaction and self-actualization among curriculum developers. Feinstein (1982) investigated teacher burn-out and job satisfaction among teachers of the emotionally disturbed. Frey (1977) studied employee satisfaction in stereotypical male or female occupations in vocational school training programs.

Gates (1977) researched job satisfaction and occupational level. Marquez (1982) investigated job satisfaction among staff members of alcohol treatment programs. Wills (1982) studied the relationships of age and gender with job satisfaction. Winkler (1982) researched the job satisfaction of university faculty in the United States.

With such a range of applications in job satisfaction research,

the MSQ was chosen as an appropriate instrument for the current study. Chapter III contains additional information on the MQ.

















CHAPTER iII
DESIGN AND UITTH)TLOGY



Statement of the Pesearch Problem The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satifiers and dissatisfiers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by Lhe Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profiles (MPPP) of college placement service officers.

Questions addressed were

1. What is the distribution of Florida university and

community college placement service officers among the

four MPPP work behavior types?

2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college

placement service officers as determined by their

Marcus Paul Placement Profile scores?

3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/job

dissatisfaction contributors of college placement

service officers as defined by Herzberg and as

measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire?














4. What are the relationships of college placement

service officers' work behavior characteristics on

the MPPP and satisfaction/dissatisfaction contributors

on the MSQ?

Procedures

Data Source, Data Collection, Instrumentation

Initial communication with community college and university

placement service directors established which institutions would be part of the study. Arrangements were made to attend a staff meeting to distribute the instruments to staff members who volunteered to participate. The participants were assured that no names, disciplines, or institutions would be identified in the presentation of the results of the study.

The Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) and the Minnesota

Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to CPS officers who participated in the study. Their MPPPs were scored by the MPPP computer program, and the results were given to the subjects immediately. This was considered to be an incentive to participate in the research. The job satisfaction instrument was scored at a later time.

The MPPP was used to measure the CPS officers' self-perception of work behavior type. The MPPP was developed by Nickens and Bauch (Nickens, 1984) as a tool to increase understanding of work behavior.














The instrument was designed to be utilized as a tool in the educational setting for student personnel and placement as well as in the business setting for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team building, and training (Nickens, 1984).

Nickens and Bauch believed that work behavior traits and types

were not judgments of work behaviors, but were terms to be employed to increase understanding of work behaviors. Accordingly, terminology used in the profile is positive or neutral and reflect work behavior rather than social behaviors (Nickens, 1984).

The basis of the analysis is the subject's choice of words from 24 sets (boxes) that are most and least descriptive of his or her perceived work behavior. The 24 boxes are presented on an instrument that permits the drawing of circles around numbers associated with word choices. These numbers are entered into a computer program which associates the numbers with the appropriate MPPP behavior type score. The scores are scaled, plotted on a graph, and the standard interpretation printed (Nickens, 1984, pp. 10-11). Reported for the MPPP are independent scores for four behavior types: energizer, inducer, concentrator, and producer. Each of the behavior type scores is plotted on a scale extending from minus 15 through plus 15. The center point of the scale is the norm score, zero. The graph readily allows the observation of the deviations of each score with respect to the norm and with respect to other scores. The subject's highest















score of the four MPPP scores represents the subject's primary type of best fit. A narrative description of the behavior associated with the score of best fit is written below the graph. An interpretation of the behavior associated with the relative scaled scores is also provided (Nickens, 1984).

Reliability is the degree of consistency of results. "It is possible for a measuring instrument to be reliable without being valid. However, it cannot be valid unless it is first reliable" (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavich, 1985, p. 226). "So if one demonstrates a satisfactory level of validity, at least internal reliability must be assumed" (Nickens, 1984, p. 14). Therefore, the developers of the MPPP chose to prove reliability by proving validity.

Instrument face validity is supported by the theoretical basis on which the MPPP was developed. The instrument was also found to have a high degree of concurrent validity.

Ninety-six Santa Fe Community College career education students responded to the MPPP and analyzed their own responses with a microcomputer. After examining their MPPPs, the students responded to a questionnaire in which they rated the accuracy of the analysis components provided by the computer system (Nickens, 1984). The results are presented in Table 1.














Table 1

Career Education Students' Ratings of MPPP Validity for Describing Their Work Behavior



N %


Both paragraphs accurate descriptions 84 88.4 First paragraph not an accurate description 0 Second paragraph not an accurate description 10 10.4 Neither paragraph an accurate description 1 1.1 Not usable 1 1.1



It can be observed that 88.4% of the students responded that both paragraphs of the printed MPPP were "an accurate description of my work behavior." The practice of relating a measurement to a criterion to determine the amount of congruence is called concurrent validity. Rarely in the literature are there reported measures that account for more than 64% of the variance in a criterion measure. This high degree of congruence between students' perceptions of their work behavior and the descriptions provided by the MPPP is sufficiently valid for helping college students understand their work behaviors (Nickens, 1984, p. 14). The MPPP was also found to have predictive validity when used for career planning. Glenn (1982) studied vocational education coordinators in Florida and reported significant













relationships between MPPP work behavior types and areas of job satisfaction. Furthermore, she found that specific areas of job satisfaction were found to be significantly related to work behavior type.

Additional research related to the question of predictive

validity of the MPPP was conducted by Wellstood (1984). Wellstood studied the relationships among work behavior types, job satisfaction, and attrition in medical technologists. She administered the MPPP, the Job Descriptive Index, and a demographic data questionnaire to 111 medical technologists. Wellstood reported that work behavior type relates to overall and to specific aspects of job satisfaction. In addition, attrition from medical technology can be predicted from producer and energizer scores on the MPPP.

Researchers at Santa Fe Community College and at the University of Florida and the face validity of the MPPP have indicated that the MPPP is valid for use as a career advisement tool to help understand work strengths. Thus, researchers also found that the MPPP is useful for suggestions in writing effective letters of reference for individuals seeking job placements (Nickens, 1984). The developers of the instrument felt that all theoretically valid uses of the instrument have not been researched completely at this time. Since the instrument was designed to be utilized as a tool in the business setting as well as the educational setting, it was chosen for this














study. Use of the MPPP in this study also provided additional insight into another theoretically valid use for the instrument.

The MSQ is available in two forms, the short-form and the

long-form. The short-form was used in this research. The short-form MSQ consists of 20 items. Each item refers to a possible motivator or hygiene in the work environment. The respondents indicate with each mark the extent of satisfaction or dissatisfaction on their present job. Five response alternatives are presented for each item: "very dissatisfied," "dissatisfied," "neither" (dissatisfied nor satisfied), "satisfied," and "very satisfied."

A summary of Weiss, Davis, England, and Lofquist's (1967) data on the internal consistency reliability of the MSQ as estimated by Hoyt's analysis of variance method is shown in Table 2. From Table 2 it can be seen that Hoyt reliability coefficients for the MSQ scales ranged from a high of .97 on ability utilization (for both stenographers and typists) and on working conditions (for social workers) through a low of .59 on variety (for buyers). The median Hoyt reliability coefficients ranged from .93 for advancement and recognition through .78 for responsibility. Of the 567 Hoyt reliability coefficients reported (27 groups with 21 scales each), 83% were .80 or higher and only 2.5% were lower than .70.

These data can be viewed as suggesting that, in general, the MQ scales have adequate internal consistency reliabilities. The reliability of some scales, however, tends to vary across groups.











Table 2

Median and Range of Hoyt Reliability Coefficients for 27 Normative Groups, by MSQ Scale


Highest Median Lowest


1. Ability utilization .97 .91 .79 2. Achievement .91 .84 .73 3. Activity .92 .86 .71 4. Advancement .96 .93 .87 5. Authority .92 .85 .66 6. Company policies and practices .93 .90 .80 7. Compensation .95 .91 .82 8. Co-workers .93 .85 .67 9. Creativity .92 .87 .72 10. Independence .91 .85 .73 11. Moral values .93 .81 .62 12. Recognition .96 .93 .84 13. Responsibility .89 .78 .66 14. Security .87 .80 .64 15. Social service .95 .89 .73 16. Social status .92 .79 .71 17. Supervision-human relations .95 .89 .75 18. Supervision-technical .94 .86 .71 19. Variety .93 .86 .59 20. Working conditions .97 .89 .80 21. General satisfaction .95 .88 .82













Data on the stability of the scores on the 21 MSQ scales were obtained for two time-intervals, one week and one year. For the one week retest, data were obtained on 75 employed night school students in courses in psychology and industrial relations; for the one year retest, data were obtained on 115 employed individuals. Both groups were heterogeneous with respect to age and occupational level (although the latter group was heterogeneous with respect to presence or absence of any disability). Neither group included individuals who had changed jobs between MSQ administrations.

Test-retest correlation coefficients for the 21 MSQ scales are shown in Table 2. For a one-week interval, stability coefficients ranged from .66 for co-workers through .91 for working conditions. Median coefficients (excluding the general satisfaction scale) was .83. One-week stability coefficient for the general satisfaction scale was .89 (Weiss et al., 1967, pp. 13-15).

Statistical Procedures

To answer questions 1 and 2 in the present study, both the graphic and the narrative responses on the Marcus Paul Placement Profile were analyzed. To determine the important elements of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire as required by questions 3 and 4, factor analysis was performed for each of the four work behavior types. Pearson correlations were calculated to establish the strength of MSQ













responses and to investigate underlying satisfaction/dissatisfaction themes.

Summary of Design and Methodology

The procedures of the study were detailed in this chapter. Data were collected from 45 college placement service officers to ascertain relationships among work behavior types and job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction factors. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to measure these areas of interest. The results and analyses of these data are presented in the following chapter.
















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



Work Behavior Types of College Placement Service Officers

"Every man's work, whether it be literature or music or pictures or architecture or anything else, is always a portrait of himself" (Butler, 1980, p. 620).

The results of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile administered to college placement officers are shown in Tables 3 and 4. It can be seen that the CPS officers were distributed among the four work behavior types as 7% energizers, 67% inducers, 15% concentrators, and 11% producers. For comparison, Glenn (1982) studied vocational education administrators and found 7% energizers, 21% inducers, 47% concentrators, and 25% producers. Wellstood (1984) sampled medical technologists and found 6% energizers, 11% inducers, 35% concentrators, and 48% producers. From these findings it can be inferred that, in concurrence with work behavior type theory, different work behavior types are attracted to different occupations.

In the present study, the predominance of inducers (67%) in this particular vocation is consistent with the theory of work behavior types and the definition of inducers, i.e., those who work well with individuals and groups of people. Inducer type workers are noted for their ability to translate challenges into group process, and these












Table 3

Distribution of Work Behavior Types Among College Placement Service Officers


MPPP Type N% Energizers 3 7 Inducers 30 67 Producers 5 11 Concentrators 7 15





Table 4

Enhanced Analysis Statements



Group Energizers Inducers Producers Concentrators Total N--45


Energizers - 1 (37%) .... 11 (24%) Inducers 2 (67%) -- 4 (80%) 1 (14%) 7 (16%) Producers 1 (33%) 12 (40%) -- 6 (86%) 19 (42%) Concentrators -- 7 (23%) 1 (20%) 8 (18%)













persons are friendly and communicate thoughts and ideas to associates. Inducers have no problem getting help from these associates when they call for it, and they bring up good ideas and are leaders in reaching consensus on matters of a controversial nature. They help associates understand the importance of their work and inspire teamwork and cooperation. A major asset of these workers to the organization is the good interpersonal relationships and team spirit they help build (Bauch, 1981).

The next largest group, concentrators (15%), are systematic,

effective, and help maintain moderation in tense situations. These characteristics are valuable in the process of matching students of diverse backgrounds and talents with potential employers. The concentrator type has work traits described as steady and systematic. Workers of this type complete jobs without distraction or variation in pace and performance. They are determined to finish the job and will do so independently. These persons are especially good in jobs where there are objective criteria for job success. They are not swayed by the influence of peers or personal criticism. They often take a scientific approach to problem solving, collecting facts, considering possible alternatives, and completing the assignment according to the most sensible alternative (Bauch, 1981).

The group of producers (11%) support their decisions and actions with irrefutable documentation. Classifying and recording data about













students and employment opportunities would appeal to them. They are committed to doing the job correctly and try hard to be prepared to do their best. They like predictable work environments where their jobs are clearly defined, but will enthusiastically accept new assignments if the assignments are in their area of expertise.

They first will take the time to be sure they understand exactly what is desired of them, get the facts relating to the assignment, and if they make a commitment, they produce accordingly. An important value to the organization is the precision and quality of their work, and their personal identity with their product (Bauch, 1981).

The group of energizers (7%) was the smallest in the sample, and predictably so. Energizers prefer to be involved with creativity and initiating the opening moves of a campaign. While there is a certain amount of this activity in CPS offices, it is not the general role of the worker. It should be noted that one of the energizers in this study was a retired Air Force colonel who earned a doctoral degree and became the director of the placement service in a major university. Energizers are noted for getting results. These workers drive forward, take command, and cut through the barriers to get results fast. They are quick to accept a challenge and make most decisions in solving the problem, including doing most of the work themselves. They prefer a competitive and dynamic working environment where they can show how their solutions are the best and quickly move to new













problem areas. In working with others, people of this type expect direct answers and immediate responses from their associates. They are able to bypass limiting conditions and procedures and think of ways to get at the heart of the matter and solution (Bauch, 1981).

Previous researchers (Glenn, 1982; Wellstood, 1984) looked only at the primary work behavior type. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile computer program provides an in-depth analysis of the interaction among scores on each of the four scales. While the placement of the respondent into one of the four categories is based on the highest scores on the four scales, the specific descriptions are based on the interactions of the four scales. These enhanced analysis statements indicate varying intensities of work behavior along the four dimensions and the complex relationship between the dimensions. The specific description differentiates among individuals of the same general category according to degrees of the strength of their responses (Bauch, 1981).

The placement officers who were energizers had strong inducer and producer influences in their enhanced analysis statement (see Table 4). This influence was described as interests in tackling new problems and creating ideas for making changes.

As shown in Table 4 the enhanced statement analysis for inducer types resulted in three groups. The statements that describe these groups follow. Among the inducers, 12 (40%) had enhanced analysis statements influenced by producer behavior scores.













This group strives to meet the expectations of the job
and supervisor. They follow established procedures
and will evaluate themselves and associates according
to how well tasks for technical procedures are followed.
(Bauch, 1981, p. 13)

The second group of 11 inducers (37%) had enhanced analysis

statements influenced by energizer behavior scores. These traits are associated with successful promotions persons.

These workers place positive personal interaction above
other factors and take maximum advantage of friendly relations with others to start projects and produce
change in organizations. (Bauch, 1981, p. 13)

The third group of 7 inducers (23%) had enhanced analysis

statements influenced by concentrator behavior scores. This is the type noted for helping others be comfortable and satisfied in the work situation.

These workers are very understanding listeners, and they tend to seek and retain many personal friends.
Employing these persons will enhance the image of the organization as they have a high degree of tolerance
and patience for ideas and actions of others. (Bauch,
1981, p. 13)

Among the producers, the prevalent enhanced analysis statements were influenced by inducer behavior scores. This combination of attributes suggests "individuals who are valued in systems where each worker functions as a part of a well trained and highly organized team" (Bauch, 1981, p. 14).

Among the concentrators, the prevalent enhanced analysis

statements were influenced by producer behavior scores. "These people













are noted for good planning and persistence on the job over long periods. They like consistency in their work environment, and they value tried and proven methods" (Bauch, 1981, p. 14).

Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

"He chose to include the things that in each other are included, the whole, the complicated, the amassing harmony" (Stevens, 1980, p. 768).

In order to characterize college placement service officers, factor analysis was performed using both behavior characteristics measured by MPPP scores and job satisfaction-dissatisfaction data from the MSQ scores. The results of the factor analysis which were descriptive of MPPP characteristics are shown in Table 5. The factor loadings were expected to provide a perspective of the importance of the subsets of MSQ items.

MSQ items that loaded on Factor 1 were noted as emphasizing the importance of doing something that makes use of the person's abilities, the provision for steady employment, the freedom to use his or her own judgment, and the chance to be "somebody" in the community. These factor items are consistent with the characteristics of energizers. Both the energizer and the factor represent a need for a secure base for creativity and recognition. These data are in congruence with the theories of Maslow (1954) and Herzberg et al. (1959) which explain multiple layers of needs and satisfactions.










Table 5

Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


Factor Loading (all p < .05) Questionnaire Item


FACTOR 1

.79


.77 .64

-.49

FACTOR 2

.71 .65 .61 .61

FACTOR 3

.64 .49 .48 .41

FACTOR 4

-.55


.54 .43


(Energizer related)

the chance to do something that makes use of my
abilities

the job provides for steady employment

the freedom to use my own judgment

the chance to be "somebody" in the community (Inducer related)

how the boss handles his/her workers

the opportunity to use my own judgment

the opportunity to tell people what to do

the opportunity to do things for other people (Producer related)

the freedom to use my own judgment

the working conditions

the chance to try my own methods

the chance to work alone (Concentrator related)

the chance to do something that makes use of my
abilities

my pay and the amount of work I do

the chance to do something different from time
to time

the chance to work alone













Factor 2 contained items which emphasized the importance of how the employer handles the employees, the opportunity of a person to use his or her own judgment, the opportunity to tell others who to do, and the opportunity to do things for other people. These elements are consistent with work behavior type theory in that inducers seek "quality of interaction" (Glenn, 1982, p. 118) with others. These items correspond to MPPP descriptions of inducers, i.e., people who emphasize interpersonal relationships. These data are in congruence with Geier's (1979) observation that inducers are people and process oriented.

Factor 3 items were shown to emphasize the importance to a person of the freedom to use his or her own judgment, the working conditions, the chance to try his or her own methods, and the chance to work alone. These items correspond to MPPP descriptions of producers, i.e., people who emphasize independence in goal achievement. These data are in congruence with Geier's (1979) observation that producers are task and product oriented.

Factor 4 included items emphasizing the importance to a person of the chance to do something that makes use of his or her abilities, the salary and amount of work he or she does, the chance to do something different from time to time, and the chance to work alone. These items correspond to MPPP descriptions of concentrators, i.e., people who emphasize self-esteem through the accomplishment of their tasks.













These data are in congruence with the theories of Maslow (1954) and Herzberg et al. (1959) explaining need for recognition of achievement. The findings in the present study are consistent with Glenn's (1982) research. She found energizer-related factor loadings ranged from

-.50 on recognition for accomplishments and -.40 on opportunity for promotion through .40 and .47 on items related to the work itself.

Glenn (1982) also found inducer-related factor loadings ranged

from -.27 for assessing educational programs through .36 for volume of work. Another significant (.35) satisfier was participating in section and division meetings, the human relations interest.

Glenn (1982) determined concentrator-related factor loadings ranged from -.56 for recognition for accomplishments and -.49 for opportunity for promotion through .34 and .44 for items related to the work itself. Producers' factor loading ranged from -.23 on opportunity for promotion through .47 for working conditions.

The Important Motivators and Hygienes for Placement Service Officers
"In order that people may be happy in their work, these three

things are needed; they must be fit for it, they must not do too much of it, and they must have a sense of success in it" (Ruskin, 1980, p. 572).

In order to determine the important elements of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, the factor analysis items were examined as motivators and hygienes. Table 6, Inter-Item Correlations, and Table












Table 6

Inter-Item Correlations


Factors Pearson Correlations


Energizer Factors

1. use of abilities 2. steady employment

3. own judgment

4. somebody in community Inducer Factors

1. boss handles workers

2. own judgment

3. tell others

4. doing things for othe Producer Factors 1. own judgment

2. work conditions

3. own methods

4. work alone Concentrator Factors 1. use of abilities

2. salary

3. do different things

4. work alone

*p < .05


rs


1



.79 .10

-.18

1



.15 .80 .20

1



.47 .20

-.04

1



-.02

-.19

-.05


2

.79*



.26

-.14

2

.15



.24 .61

2

.47*



.33 .32

2

-.02



.22

-.17


3

.10

.26



.06

3

.80* .24



.12

3

.20 .33



-.02

3

-.19

.22



.17


4

-.18

-.14

.06



4

.20 .61 .12



4

-.04

.32 .02



4

-.05

-.17

.17














7, Order of Motivators and Hygienes, are presented to explore possible links between factor analysis items and job satisfaction-job dissatisfaction.

Energizers found satisfaction in the use of their abilities,

steady employment, and the opportunity to use their own judgment. The high correlation (.79) of items 1 and 2 illustrates the need for a secure base for creativity, as noted above. The item "the chance to be somebody in the community" (-.49, see Table 5) indicated energizer dissatisfaction with the opportunity for career and/or social prominence. This item was the only major dissatisfier for energizers.

Inducers found satisfaction in almost all aspects of their job. The high correlation (.80) between the items "how the boss handles his/her workers" and "the chance to tell people what to do" indicated good role modeling and respectful relationships of a collegial nature. The other high correlation (.61) between "the opportunity to use my own judgment" and "the opportunity to do things for others" indicated a high degree of satisfaction and achievement in the purpose of the job, matching students and potential employers. The highest rated motivator, "doing things for others," (see Table 7) was the primary orientation of the predominant work behavior type, the inducers.

Some inducers did not feel their abilities were being utilized to the fullest. However, the only item producing more dissatisfaction than satisfaction for inducers was "company policies," one of Herzberg's classic hygienes.











Table 7

Order of Motivators and Hygienes for CPS Officers


MSQ Items Hygienes Motivators


1. Doing things for others

2. Not going against conscience

3. Chance to use own methods

4. Feelings of accomplishment

5. Chance to use own judgment I

6. Chance for advancement

7. Co-workers get along well I:E 8. Salary I 9. Being able to keep busy I 10. Being able to work alone 11. Being able to do different
things

12. Job provides steady
employment C:P:I 13. Chance to be somebody in
community P: E 14. Chance to tell others what
to do C:P:I 15. Competence of supervisor I 16. Working conditions C:P:I 17. Way boss handles workers P: I 18. Praise I get for good job P:I 19. Make use of my abilities C :P: I 20. Company policies C: P: I


E: I :P: C

I : P :C E: I :P:C E: I :P: C .E: I :P :C E: I :P :C E: I :P :C E: I :P :C

I :P:C E: I :P:C


E: I :P:C


E: I :P:C


I:P : C


I :P:C

I :P: C E: I :P: C E: I :P:C

I :P:C E: I :P:C E: I:P:C














Producers found moderate to strong satisfaction in many areas of their jobs. Modest correlation existed among the items in the factor analysis, stressing the interaction of the elements that enhance satisfaction. Producers experienced some dissatisfaction from a variety of sources, but none was very high.

Concentrators could be the most dissatisfied work behavior type in CPS jobs. The item "the chance to make use of my abilities" (-.55, Table 5) indicated dissatisfaction with a major aspect of their work. As concentrators tend to be more task-oriented than relationshiporiented, they may find the number and variety of people they encounter to be frustrating or irritating. Some concentrators found moderate satisfaction in several aspects of their positions, especially those who felt comfortable "doing things for others." Correlation among the items in the factor analysis was expectedly weak, an indication of the diversity of feeling about their jobs and duties.

Other high Pearson correlations of satisfiers were found in the data, but not shown in the tables. These were "doing things for others" and "using my own judgment" (.61), and "doing things for others" and "using my own methods" (.50). Among the dissatisfiers, a modest correlation was found between "company policies" and "how boss handles his/her workers" (.33).

These findings are consistent with Geier's (1980) research on traits. Marston (1928) began to assign traits to each of the four














main dimensions of his model. Marston's notion was supported by Cattell (1948) who proposed that arbitrary assignment of traits to categories be confirmed by statistical analysis.

Geier (1980) enriched Marston's list with terms from Allport and Odbert (1936). Geier used factor analysis to better understand the relationships and found the enriched list of terms to be highly related to the factors to which they had been assigned. The correlation coefficient was at least r=.60 (Geier, 1980).

Work behavior factors found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were presented in Table 5, and the strengths of inter-item correlations were presented in Table 6. Table 7 is a presentation of the order of the motivators and hygienes, by job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, for CPS officers. Of the set of 20 MSQ items, 10 were strong satisfiers and 8 were moderate satisfiers. Only 2 items contributed more to dissatisfaction than to satisfaction.

These data are consistent with Herzberg's theories and data as illustrated in Figure 7. While all of the descriptors are not the same, it can be seen from comparing Table 7 with Figure 7, the motivator and hygiene elements are congruent. Also, the data in Table

7 establish a response to Herzberg's query concerning finding such a ranking for a particular group of people. There has been a dearth of these rankings reported in the literature.
















Hygiene Motivator


-18



-14




-8


-8 Achievement


Recognition 32


I_ Work itself


I Responsibility


-12 Advancement Company policy and administration 5



Supervision - technical 5 Salary


-18 Interpersonal relations -


-12 Working conditions 4



0


Comparison of motivation and hygiene factors Herzberg et al., 1959).


(adapted from


25




24


-31



-30


Figure 4.


SU pv.


Motivator


Hygiene

















CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH



The rapidly changing pace of technology, education, and the

business world is accompanied by rapidly changing demands in the job market. Jobs are disappearing, people are being replaced by electronic devices, and skills are becoming obsolete. People are turning (and returning) to their education systems to find the knowledge, skills, and abilities that will allow them to participate at the leading edge of the job market.

The job market is also becoming more complex. Corporate mergers, the mushrooming electronics industry, and recent problems in the oil industry have had cumulative effects on education systems, communities, and states. Parts of the country that once provided stable and attractive places to live and work no longer do so; others are much in demand.

The college placement service is one of the links among the world of business, the education system, and the community. This placement service staff provides information on companies and other employers, maintains lists of job openings and requirements, arranges seminars on employment skills, and provides interview opportunities for














prospective employers and employees. The literature provided little information or data that would allow a broader and deeper comparison of CPS officers with other administrators and professionals.

The study of work behavior types is relatively new and more information for analysis and comparison is required. A more well-established area of study is the area of job satisfaction. Numerous investigations have been conducted over a long period of time. The review of the literature did not seem to provide documentation of studies combining work behavior type and job satisfaction factors among college placement service officers. The focus of this study was on the applicability of the work behavior type theory and the applicability of Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory to college placement service officers to determine factors which contributed to the job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction of the four work behavior types.

Description of the Study

Forty-five college placement service officers from the State

University System and the Community College System of Florida were the subjects in the study. These college placement system officers were administered the Marcus Paul Placement Profile to determine their work behavior type and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire to determine elements of job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction.

The researcher computed the scores from the instruments to

determine the distribution of the CPS officers and the distribution of














the motivators and hygienes among the four work behavior types. Factor analysis was then used to determine the important clusters of elements which contributed to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.

The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satisfiers and dissatisfiers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profiles (MPPP) of college placement service officers.

Questions addressed were the following:

1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types?

2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their MPPP scores?

3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/job

dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the SQ?

4. What are the relationships of college placement service

officers' work behavior characteristics on the MPPP and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction contributors on the MSQ?














Major Findings

The following statements are made in response to question 1.

1. As predicted by the work behavior type theory, inducer types dominated with 67% of the sample. This type of person is particularly oriented to interpersonal relationships and the use of their interpersonal skills. Appropriately for inducers, the goal of college placement service officers is to match potential employees and employers.

2. Concentrators and producers accounted for 15% and 11% of the sample. These work behavior types are more task oriented than relationship oriented.

3. Energizers accounted for 7% of the sample. This work behavior type is creative but not very detail oriented.

The following statements are made in response to question 2.

1. For the first time, enhanced analysis statements were

reported. Producer characteristics dominated this category with 42%, reflecting a combination of relationship orientation (inducer) and task orientation (producer) which most fully describes the requirements of a college placement service officer.

2. Energizer characteristics accounted for 24% of the enhanced analysis statements. This group found new ways to handle the challenges of the work.














3. Concentrator characteristics accounted for 18% of the

enhanced analysis statements and enabled this group to be interested in record keeping and data analyses associated with the work.

The following statements are made in response to question 3.

1. The prevalent motivator was "doing things for others." "Using my own methods," "using my own judgment," "feelings of accomplishment," and "chance for advancement" clustered closely behind.

2. "Use of my abilities" and "company policies" were the prevalent dissatisfiers.

3. Concentrator types were the most dissatisfied. Perhaps this could be explained by the number and variety of human relationships confounding their tendency to be detail oriented.

The following statements are made in response to question 4.

1. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for energizers were characterized as relating to feelings about security, creativity, and recognition.

2. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for inducers were characterized as relating to feelings about participating in human relationships.

3. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for producers were characterized as relating to feelings of independence in goal achievement.















4. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for concentrators were characterized as relating to feelings of self-esteem through the accomplishment of their tasks.

Conclusions

The general conclusions which the author derived from the study include

1. The work behavior type theory was applicable to the study of college placement service officers and provided a framework within which to examine a variety of behavior patterns. The theory was strongly supported.

2. Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory was useful in the study of college placement service officers and provided a framework to examine their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. The theory was strongly supported.

3. Inducers are particularly suited to college placement services and experienced greater satisfaction than other work behavior types in the study. Attrition among non-inducers could be measured to preclude inappropriate hiring.

Recommendations for Future Research

Several studies are logically suggested by the present one.

Certainly, college placement service officers outside Florida provide populations for comparison. Comparisons of results with other professions would be instructive.















Organizations should be studied from the combined perspectives of work behavior types and job satisfaction, not one or the other in isolation.

Selection and prediction studies could establish the rate of promotion from entry level to chief of CPS based on work behavior type. As there seems to be a predominance of inducers, the other factors which contributed to the rise could be studied.

A study of student satisfaction with CPS staff and performance could be complimented by a study of administration satisfaction with CPS staff and performance. Recurring studies on a regular basis would provide a measure of progress.

Use of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile and Minnesota

Satisfaction Questionnaire in different organizational environments would further identify specific satisfiers and dissatisfiers associated with specific populations. Multiple comparisons could then be easily made.

Comparative studies of organizational functions could be made by group composition and quality and quantity of output. Examples include research projects, budget and policy making, and collective bargaining teams.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


John Edward Olson was born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1943. Due to the nature of his father's business, he was able to experience many areas of the country and was educated in school systems in Illinois, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Following graduation from the University of Mississippi with a B.A. in Spanish, he entered the U.S. Air Force and was an intelligence officer, reaching the rank of Captain.

After working for several years as a teacher and technical

writer, he entered graduate school and earned a Master's in Social Work degree from Florida State University in 1977. In 1979, he joined the Academy of Certified Social Workers. He has worked as a psychiatric social worker in the Family Counseling Center in Columbus, Georgia, and in the Veterans Administration Medical Centers in Miami, Florida; Dublin, Georgia; and Gainesville, Florida.












I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Associate Professor of Nr'


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



:s W. Longte
sociate Professor of Educational Leadership


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


August, 1988


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Full Text

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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES AND JOB SATISFACTION/DISSATISFACTION FACTORS OF COLLEGE PLACEMENT SERVICE OFFICERS BY JOHN EDWARD OLSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1988 f BPBttRSin OF aORIDA LIBRARIES

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Copyright 1988 by John Edward Olson

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was made possible through the help and guidance of many people. I am very grateful to Dr. John Nickens, ray conraiittee chairman, and the committee members Dr. Beverly Henry and Dr. James Longstreth. I sincerely appreciate the advice and support of Dr. Sybil Wellstood and Dr. Mary McGuigan. Their enthusiasm was invaluable. I wish to thank Ms. Linda Kunz, Ms. Lisa Hurewitz, and Ms. Leila Cantara for their patience and energy and for their typing and editing skills. I wish to acknowledge the special contribution of Ms. Jane Shirley Olson, MSW, LCSW, whose encouragement, understanding, and therapeutic Snickers bars were critical to the completion of this project. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii ABSTRACT viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background 1 Job Satisfaction 2 Work Behavior Types 2 Possible Relationships Among Constructs 3 Statement of the Problem 4 Operational Definitions 5 Placement Service Definitions 5 Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms 5 Job Satisfaction Definitions 6 Justification 7 Delimitations and Limitations 9 Assumptions 10 Organization of Subsequent Chapters 10 II SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 Work Behavior Type Theory 11 Emotions of Normal People 13 Clustered Traits Theory 15 Important Differences in Models of Analysis 18 Independent Pairs 19 Automated on Site Analysis 20 Other Models 23 Herzberg ' s Motivator-Hygiene Theory 28 College Placement Services and Officers 38 Historical Antecedents 38 Principles 41 Theories of Career Development 41 Studies of Career Placement Services and Officers .... 45 iv

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Ill DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 50 Statement of the Research Problem 50 Procedures 51 Data Source, Data Collection, Instrumentation 51 Statistical Procedures 58 Summary of Design and Methodology 59 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60 Work Behavior Types of College Placement Service Officers . 60 Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 66 The Important Motivators and Hygienes for Placement Service Officers 69 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 76 Description of the Study 77 Major Findings 79 Conclusions 81 Recommendations for Future Research 81 REFERENCES 83 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 89 V

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LIST OF TABLES Table P§Se 1 Career Education Students' Ratings of MPPP Validity for Describing Their Work Behavior 54 2 Median and Range of Hoyt Reliability Coefficients for 27 Normative Groups, by MSQ Scale 57 3 Distribution of Work Behavior Types Among College Placement Service Officers 61 4 Enhanced Analysis Statements 61 5 Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 67 6 Inter-Item Correlations 70 7 Order of Motivators and Hygienes for CPS Officers . 72 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Two axis model. 1^ 2 Dimensions of personality traits. 16 3 Clusters of primary emotions. 17 4 Comparison of motivation and hygiene factors. 75 vii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES AND JOB SATISFACTION/DISSATISFACTION FACTORS OF COLLEGE PLACEMENT SERVICE OFFICERS By John Edward Olson August, 1988 Chairman: John M. Nickens Major Department: Educational Leadership The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satisfiers and dissatisf iers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profiles (MPPP) of college placement service officers. Questions addressed were 1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types? 2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their MPPP scores? 3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the MSQ? viii

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4. What are the relationships of college placement service officers' work behavior characteristics on the MPPP and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction contributors on the MSQ? The MPPP was used to discern work behavior type and the MSQ was employed to determine job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction. The instruments were administered to 45 college placement service officers from six universities and nine community colleges in Florida. Factor analysis was used to discern important elements of job satisfaction/dissatisf action for the four work behavior types. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to identify underlying themes of job satisfaction/dissatisf action for each of the work behavior types. The results of this study strongly support the theory that certain work behavior types are attracted to and suited to particular vocations. Significant (p < .05) positive relationships were found between work behavior type and areas of job satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory was strongly supported for college placement service officers as 18 of 20 data items were clearly motivators; the other 2 data items were clearly hygienes. These findings were consistent with expectations based on a synthesis of related literature. The order of importance of motivators and hygienes was identified for this group. Implications of the findings of this study for personnel management include the use of work behavior type and important job satisfaction elements in career planning, personjob compatibility, and team building. Further research is needed to establish comparisons between college placement service officers and other vocations. ix

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background Much of the modern research into work behavior and job satisfaction began in the 1920s during the era of Taylor's scientific management principles (Mayo, 1933). The research emphasis was in human motivation and behavior based on Jung's theories of clusters of emotions (Marston, 1928). Subsequently, World War II provided a need for matching people and jobs (Roe, 1956) and, in the 1950s and 1960s, rapidly advancing and declining business cycles provided the opportunity to investigate the American workforce under stress (Knowles, 1964). The increasing availability of computers in the late 1960s and the 1970s facilitated a great increase in the speed and depth of research in the behavioral sciences (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969) . A review of literature published in these six decades on research in the areas of work behavior and job satisfaction showed parallel developments in these areas but a lack of research on the interrelationship of the two developing areas. A brief description of specific constructs in each area that are of interest in this research will follow. 1

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2 Job Satisfaction Herzberg's (1966; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) theory that the factors that related to job satisfaction are different from factors related to job dissatisfaction brought a new perspective to the study of job satisfaction. Herzberg indicated that job satisfaction is related to a set of conditions called motivators (recognition, achievement, advancement, challenge, and responsibility) and job dissatisfaction is related to a set of conditions called hygienes (salary, interpersonal relationships, supervision, company policy and administration, working conditions, status, and security). What is lacking is the knowledge of why there are differences in employees' reactions to motivators and hygienes. Work Behavior Types The theory of work behavior types suggested that there are certain inherent differences in personality factors that determine work behaviors (Nickens, 1984). When work behaviors are used as a basis for categorizing, four factors or types result. Energizer types are creative and prefer to work with the broadest overview of a problem; inducer types are people-oriented and work well with group process; concentrator types are methodical and loyal to the organization; and producer types are detail-oriented and follow guidelines for quality (Nickens, 1984).

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3 Further, the characteristic descriptions of each work behavior type (Nickens, 1984) suggested that the Herzberg motivators and hygienes would be different for each type. Thus, different types workers would be expected to react differently to the same work environment. Such reaction differences may help to explain the different reactions to the motivators and hygienes. Combining these theories may help to form a method for examining and predicting the compatibility of a person and certain job characteristics. This method could facilitate a better understanding of how to enhance job performance (as measured by job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction) for each of the four work behavior types. Possible Relationships Among Constructs Bauch (1981) suggested that research using work behavior types might be conducted in business settings for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team building, and training. He also suggested that, in education settings, research might be conducted in student personnel and placement offices. Further, Herzberg et al. (1959) suggested that "future research may be able to pinpoint the order of importance of the various satisfiers and dissatisf iers. Even better, we may be able to relate any given order of importance either to the situation or to the kind of people with whom we are dealing" (p. 112). College placement service chiefs, assistant chiefs, and professional (degreed) counselors are a group of professional

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4 educators vdio are involved with the practical application of work behavior and job satisfaction concepts. College placement service officers were especially interested in the theoretical constructs and the direct application of this study to their work. Thus, these educators and administrators participated enthusiastically in studies as suggested by Bauch (1981) and Herzberg et al. (1959). Statement of the Problem The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satisfiers and dissatisf iers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (f-lSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) of college placement service officers. Questions addressed were 1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types? 2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their MPPP scores? 3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the MSQ?

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5 4. What are the relationships of college placement service officers' work behavior characteristics on the MPPP and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction contributors on the MSQ? Operational Definitions Placement Service Definitions Colleae placement service refers to the branch of a community college of university that provides students with professional job seeking and job finding data, knowledge, and activities. College placement service officers include the director, assistant director, and other professional (non-clerical) staff members who provide job placement counseling to students in a college placement service. Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms Work behavior type (TOT) is defined as "the complex product of a long series of learned and habitual styles of perceiving and coping with demands of the environment" (Neff, 1968, p. 72). Coping behaviors consolidate to form a particular work style. Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) is an instrument designed to measure work behavior type. The four types are as follow: The energizer type is work behavior type which describes an individual who is interested in getting results and who is typically assertive, direct, impatient with detail, but quite creative in the work situation.

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6 The inducer type is a work behavior type which indicates an individual \A\o is people-oriented, sensitive, and optimistic and who places more emphasis on interpersonal relations and getting things accomplished within the group than on the organization itself. The concentrator type is a work behavior type which describes an individual who is a loyal, steady worker and tends to be patient, systematic, and effective. The producer type is a work behavior type which indicates an individual vho strives for quality, follows guidelines carefully, and supports his or her work and decisions with documentation. Job Satisfaction Definitions Job satisfaction is defined as the positive effect which is derived from factors (achievement, recognition for accomplishment, challenging work, increased responsibility, and advancement) which most often contribute to higher needs (Herzberg et al., 1959). Job dissatisfaction is defined as feelings associated with "the built-in drive to avoid pain from the environment, plus all the learned drives which become conditioned to the basic biological needs" (Herzberg, 1966, p. 28). Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) is a 20-item questionnaire consisting of statements about various aspects of a person's job vrfiich he or she is asked to rate on a 5-point scale from "not satisfied" through "extremely satisfied." The 20 scales utilize descriptors derived from Herzberg 's work.

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7 Justification Researchers have indicated that people exhibit a particular pattern of behaviors and qualities in their working situations (Geier, 1979; Herzberg, 1966; Nickens, 1984). When individuals have information about their work behavior styles, and they are matched to jobs requiring and encouraging those styles, they have a greater opportunity for success and job satisfaction. The right fit between employee and job also "decreased the likelihood that the employee will become frustrated and quit" (Wellstood, 1984, p. 5). If information were available on the work behavior types of college placement service (CPS) officers who enjoyed their work and intended to remain in the profession, major efforts could be directed towards matching people with these profiles to jobs and educational programs. This study was designed to add to the limited research on work behavior types. Findings may also provide new insights into problems related to job-people matching. Successful job matching will increase worker satisfaction and productivity and will gratify more fully the needs of both organizations and individuals (Argyris, 1964). "We look forward to the next few years as a time when personnel selection practices can take rapid strides to assure improved matches between persons and jobs for the good of everyone" (Dunnette & Borman, 1979, p. 482).

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8 Results of the study may also have implications for career planning, academic advising, and effective planning of educational and training programs for CPS officers. Advisors, counselors, students, and employers may use the information as a basis for a more systematic approach to career selection and hiring. Program evaluators may apply the results in developing instructional strategies that would foster and enhance work behaviors essential for success in the CPS field. Personnel recruiters and administrators have few enough objective criteria on vdiich to base decisions concerning employees' working conditions. This study was proposed to determine whether certain variables can be utilized to discriminate between job satisfiers and job dissatisf iers for the four work behavior types. Information derived from this study may contribute to the selection and training of future CPS officers. The knowledge may allow for more expert counseling of those v*io are interested in pursuing a career in the CPS in universities and community colleges. The results may contribute to better relationships among the four work behavior types. To the extent that CPS officers are made more aware of the commonalities and the differences among the types and their respective satisfiers and dissatisf iers, CPS officers may come to a greater understanding of their colleagues' points of view. Group function may be enhanced and individual stresses may be lessened.

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9 This study resulted in a set of data with which other CPS officers can be compared in further research. Given a set of data and some indication of the significance of important variables, CPS officers will be in a better position to evaluate themselves. The results of this study will contribute to further consideration of the value of the assessment instruments, although more extensive research is necessary to substantiate the magnitude of such usefulness. Delimitations and Limitations In answering the preceding questions, the following delimitations were observed: 1. This study was limited to placement service officers in the university and community college systems of Florida holding at least a bachelor's degree. 2. Information about work behavior type and preference was limited to that identified by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile. 3. Measures regarding job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were limited to those indicated in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. In addition, the following limitations were inherent in this study: 1. The population of eligible community college and university placement service officers was approximately 200 (M. May berry. University of Florida placement service director, personal

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communication, May 15, 1986); the sample size was 45, or 22.5% of the population. 2. Since this study was limited to community college and university placement service officers in the state of Florida, it may not be generalizable to other populations. Assumptions This study was based on the following assumptions: 1. Participants answered the surveys honestly and their responses accurately reflect their attitudes and preferences. 2. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring work behavior type. 3. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of worker satisfaction. Organization of Subsequent Chapters A review of the literature is presented in Chapter II. Included are major areas of research relevant to work behavior types, job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and college placement services and officers. The design and methodology of the study are presented in Chapter III. Data sources, data collection, instrumentation, and data treatment are addressed. Chapter IV contains the results of the analysis of the data collected from the Marcus Paul Placement Profile and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Chapter V includes the summary of the results, conclusions drawn, and recommendations for future research.

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CHAPTER II SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE Work Behavior Type Theory The chronology of those whose work contributed to the development of the theory of work behavior types can be traced through Wundt in the 1890s, Jung in the early 1920s, Marston in the late 1920s, Geier in the 1960s, and Geier, Bauch, and Nickens in the 1970s and 1980s. Their work will be reviewed briefly below. Wundt established the first "official" psychological laboratory in 1879. He is considered the founder of experimental psychology for his investigations into nerve, muscle, and emotional responses (Goldenson, 1970). In contrast to many psychologists of the behaviorist school of thought who proposed that there were only two emotions, pleasantness and unpleasantness, Wundt suggested that there were six primary emotions: pleasantness and unpleasantness, excitement and depression, and tension and relaxation (Marston, 1928). The work of Jung was instrumental in the development of the theory of personality types. In his 1921 work, Personality Types , he wrote that there were clusters of characteristics and a "collective unconscious" the helped mold an individual's personality and behavior. Some of the factors that contributed to this process were "archetypes" 11

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12 of ideas, symbols, and experiences that have been repeated and retained through the many generations of man. Jung also viewed the human personality in terms of polarities: conscious values and unconscious values, sublimation and repression, rational and irrational functions, and introversion and extraversion (Jung, 1921). Jung wrote that each person possesses only four ways of orienting toward the world: the two "rational" functions of thinking (recognizing meaning) and feeling (experiencing pleasure and pain) ; and the two "irrational" functions of sensation (perceiving by means of unconscious and subliminal processes) (Jung, 1921). Further, Jung emphasized that each person chooses a dominant attitude toward life: introversion, which is an orientation toward inner processes; and extraversion, an orientation toward the external world of people and events (Jung, 1921). Marston (1928) reviewed the work of both Wundt and Jung in preparation for an investigation of responses of the nervous system and muscle system in relation to emotions, intentions, and other areas of consciousness. Based on research into "motation" (emotions as measured by motor consciousness, nerve, and muscle response), Marston identified four primary emotions, primary emotions being defined as "an emotion which contains the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, and superiority of strength of the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus" (p. 106). The four primary emotions were termed dominance,

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13 compliance, inducement, and submission, according to an individual's reaction in a favorable environment (alliance) or unfavorable environment (antagonism) and according to his or her actions being active (superior strength) or passive (inferior strength) . Marston further recognized the influence of previous experience on the person's response. Marston took great care in selecting these four terms, being certain that each work accurately described the "objective relationship between motor self and motor stimulus" and that each word "must suggest the experience in question" (p. 107). Emotions of Normal People Marston illustrated that the four emotions, dominance, inducement, compliance, and submission, do not exist entirely independently, but form a two axis model (see Figure 1). Dominance and compliance form one axis; inducement and submission form the other (Marston, 1928). The idea implies that each pair of emotions exists on a continuum being separated by a degree of activity or passivity and an outward or inward orientation (Nickens, 198A). Dominance and compliance formed one axis in Marston 's model. Accordingly, an individual tries to maintain a balance between the extremes of the axis (Marston, 1928). The point of balance varies among individuals explaining differences in their behavior tendencies (Marston, 1928).

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14 Dominance Inducement Active Orientation Passive Orientation Submission Compliance Figure 1 . Two axis model. Marston (1928) viewed submission and inducement as a continuum on the second axis of his emotion model. As on the dominant-compliance axis, they are at opposite ends of a continuum, being separated by intensity of response, either active or passive, and the orientation of the individual, either outward or inward (Nickens, 198A). It should be noted that the dimensions of Figure 1 are not all-inclusive labels. Rather locations in the dimensions indicate behavior tendencies. Individuals exhibit some or all the types of behavior, but their traits tend to cluster around a point (Marston, 1928). Marston 's active and outward orientation dimensions relate to

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15 Jung's extrovert and intuitive functions and the passive and inward dimensions relate to this introvert and sensing functions (Nickens, 1984). Geier (1979) added to Marston's model the idea that persons whose traits cluster predominantly around the dominance or the inducement dimensions have a process orientation while those whose traits cluster predominantly around the submission or compliance dimensions are more product oriented (see Figure 2). Process-oriented persons want to shape the environment according to their particular views. These are individuals who continually test and push the limits (Geier, 1979). By contrast, product-oriented individuals focus on the how and the vhj (Geier, 1979), Clustered Traits Theory Marston also identified clusters of traits for each of the four primary emotions. These clusters are shown (in part) in Figure 3. It can be observed that each cluster characterized a primary emotional tendency. Although Marston did not statistically confirm these clusters, later researchers (Allport & Odbert, 1936; Geier, 1967, 1979, 1980) substantiated the trait clusters through factor analysis. Geier (1980) found many of Marston's suggested adjectives for each of his four emotions have correlated together through at least r = .60 (p. 14).

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16 Dominance Inducement Active Process Orientation Orientation Extravert Intuitive Passive Product Orientation Orientation Introvert Sensing Submission Compliance Figure 2 . Dimensions of personality traits.

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17 DOMINANCE aggressiveness boldness courage dare-devilry determination ego centricity ego-emotion fighting instinct SUBMISSION accommodating admiration a good child altruism benevolence considerate docility being an easy mark adapting awe caution candor conforming well disciplined empathy fear COMPLIANCE alluring appealing attraction attractive personality captivation charming convincing converting INDUCEMENT Figure 3 . Clusters of primary emotions. Note . Adapted from The Marcus Paul Placement Profile and Work Behavior Analysis (p. 20) by J. M. Nickens, Gainesville, FL: University Laboratories. Reprinted by permission. It is interesting to note that many psychologists of the past few decades have attempted to explain personality in terms of clustered traits. Most theories or models contain numerous clusters and many are pathologically-oriented, while Marston's model uses four simple categories with cluster traits to support each dimension. Marston's model has an explicit nonpathological orientation, which is most appropriate for work behavior analysis. Further, most trait psychologists began with long lists of traits and subsequently clustered them into categories (Allport, 1937; Allport & Odbert, 1936;

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18 Cattell, 1946; Duffy, 1949; Eysenck, 1947), However, Marston began with categories and added traits according to his theoretical constructs (Nickens, 1984). The major problem with Marston 's model is the limitation of the opposite pairs for explaining the paradoxical and simultaneous occurrence of dominant and compliant feelings and of inductive and submissive feelings. Explanations have been attempted, however, using environmental considerations as circumstantial influencers. Stated simply, people will display work behavior not normal for them when the job induces pressures beyond the normal. Thus, this is not the normal behavior or feelings and as such is beyond the theory. However, behaving differently under different circumstances is normal. The model advanced by Nickens (1984) is similar to that of Herzberg (1966) in explaining the simultaneous occurrence of job satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. Instead of using one scale between "opposites," the "opposites" are measured independently. Important Differences in Models of Analysis Marston and Geier viewed behavior as a two-dimensional model with each dimension representing two opposites, dominance-compliance and submission-inducement. As we understand dominance and compliance in the current vernacular, one may exhibit strong dominant tendencies toward compliance to rules or policies of the employer. Also, many acts or strategies of inducement are submissive in nature. For

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19 example, a salesperson who is anxious to induce a client into accepting a big deal will compromise (submit) by paying the luncheon check, making concessions on minor issues, and providing vendor service far beyond expectations. This paradoxical type of behavior was mentioned earlier as a major inadequacy of the Marston and Geier models of analysis. Another major problem of traditional analysis, including Geier 's procedure, is that of accumulating responses, norming, and deriving and communicating interpretations. Also, the time involved as well as the cost of materials limits the practical use of such procedures. Nickens avoided the model inadequacy and the analysis problems by treating the "opposite pairs" independently and using microcomputers to automate the scoring and analysis. Independent Pairs The theoretical basis of the MPPP is similar to Herzberg's model of motivator-hygiene for job satisfaction. Herzberg recognized that those factors that enhanced job satisfaction (motivators) did not necessarily produce dissatisfaction when they were not present, and those factors that induced dissatisfaction (hygienes) did not necessarily produce satisfaction when not present. Thus, one may be very satisfied with some aspects of a job situation and very dissatisfied with other aspects of the same job situation. Then it follows that both satisfaction and dissatisfaction, although related

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20 inversely in a sample, should be evaluated independently when describing an individual's attitude toward work. It is important to note that Herzberg was concerned with the work environment rather than work behavior. Accordingly, Nickens viewed the primary behaviors as independent pairs. This does not mean that Nickens denied the existence of strong inverse relationships between the "opposite pairs" in statistical models. However, recognizing the independence of traits provided a more powerful tool than Marston's and Geier's models for explaining complex behaviors on an individual basis. Automated on Site Analysis Perhaps the major contributions of Nickens in work behavior analysis was the automation of the response analysis and reporting, which provides the counselor or analyst with a printed structure for communicating results to clients. Specifically, responses marked on the MPPP response sheet can be quickly entered into a microcomputer and results analyzed and printed immediately in a form that can be discussed. With this system, units on work behavior can be taught to career education students followed by students using a microcomputer to obtain analyses in the same class period. Also, the report can be retained by the students for future reference and discussion. Marston's (1928) traits were later confirmed statistically by Cattell (1948) and Geier (1967). Building on their research, Bauch

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21 (1981) developed the MPPP to measure work behavior types and updated some of Marston's terminology naming the four work behavior types energizer, inducer, concentrator, and producer. The MPPP system is based not only on Marston's theory but also on substantial theories of management, career counseling, and placement. It acknowledges the fact that individuals possess a myriad of qualities and patterns of behavior in a work situation (Glenn, 1982, p. 94). The intention was to produce an instrument that would discern work behavior type for the purpose of matching individuals and jobs. The instrument was designed to be utilized as a tool in the educational setting for student personnel and placement as well as in the business setting for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team building, and training (Bauch, 1981). In keeping with the work of Argyris (196A), Blake and Mouton (1964), McGregor (1960), and others who have brought humanistic principles into the work place, the aim was to design an instrument which would increase understanding of work behavior, both for employer and employee. Bauch (1981) believed that work behavior traits and types were not judgments of work behaviors but were terms to be employed to increase understanding of work behaviors. Accordingly, he felt that any terminology used should be positive or neutral, and that the terras in the profile should reflect work behaviors. Therefore,

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22 some of Marston and Geier's terminology was modified for application in the work setting. Words with negative connotations were replaced by terms which were more positive or neutral. For example, the titles of Marston 's original categories were dominance, inducement, submission, and compliance. Geier changed these to dominance, influence, steadiness, and compliance. In the MPPP, the work behavior types appear as energizer, inducer, concentrator, and producer (Glenn, 1982). Glenn (1982) used work behavior types as variables in a study of vocational education coordinators. She found that there were significant relationships between work behavior types and aspects of job satisfaction. Also, specific areas of job effectiveness were found to be significantly related to work behavior types. By being aware of employees' work behavior types, supervisors and employers could maximize worker effectiveness and satisfaction. Wellstood (1984) investigated the relationships of work behavior type and job satisfaction in medical technologists. She found that attrition from the medical terminology field could be predicted based on work behavior types. Those counseling students about to enter the medical technology field should encourage different types to consider administrative or educational roles later in their career. Also, teaching and training techniques should differ for different types.

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23 Other Models Besides the Marson-Geier-Nickens model of work behavior types, two other models have been created by Neff (1968) and by Holland (1966). These models were examined in the review of the literature, but neither was chosen to be used in this study. Neff proposed that work behavior can be examined and categorized by maladaptive or pathological responses. Neff (1968) studied the components of the work personality and concluded the most viable hypothesis concerning human personality is that it is composed of a number of substructures and areas which, although not entirely unrelated, manifest considerable degrees of internal differentiation. The emotional responses that people make to each other appear to be simultaneously motivated by two opposing conceptions: that people are like each other in important ways and different from each other in important ways. (p. 153) Neff (1968) further asserted that the work personality is of a "semiautonomous nature" (p. 153). His position was that the work personality of adults is created through a long process of development. Its relationship to the personality as a whole is a "special subsarea" (p. 154) with a "set of interrelated motives, coping styles, [and] defensive maneuvers" (p. 154) which each individual brings to the work situation. In deciding to address the area of "work psychopathology," Neff (1968) stated that it was important to understand that the maturation process involves the mastery of many internal emotional and biological demands, but that "the compulsion to work, however, is initially

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24 entirely external" from the person (p. 164). As this demand becomes internalized, it may create "a stimulus for gratification, anxiety, guilt, or inadequacy" (p. 16A) which is incorporated into the particular work style of the individual. In a larger-scale study with Koltuv (Neff & Koltuv, 1967), a rating scale, the Coping Scale , was developed which defined seven possible predominant maladaptive work behavior styles or categories. (F) Fearful. Among other things, this sort of individual may be tense, fidgety, jumpy, uneasy, may be frequently troubled or worried , may be afraid and timid in his relationship with others, may be afraid to establish contact with others, may seem mousy, may shy away from things and people. (D) Dependent. This kind of individual might give the appearance of being impotent in dealing with the world by himself. Among other things, he may frequently ask help from others, may rely on others for support, may be unable to initiate action on his own, may place himself in the position of making others direct him, may be highly compliant, may seek others' approval. (I) Impulsive. Among other things, this sort of individual may rarely see a task through, may be unable to stick to a plan of action, may flit from one thing to another, may be unable to delay the gratification of his impulses, may immediately seek to satisfy his desires, may easily become enthusiastic about something and then rapidly lose his enthusiasm. (SN) Socially Naive. This kind of individual may be unperceptive when it comes to the needs or feelings of others, may not realize that his behavior elicits reactions from others or has an effect on them, may be socially inept, may not seem to know what is appropriate in ordinary social situations. (W) Withdrawn, Apathetic. Among other things, this kind of individual may be bland, lethargic, may lack vitality, may give the impression of being indifferent to things going on around hira, may lack emotional responsivity , may seem very easygoing and uninvolved.

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25 (SD) Self-deprecatory. Among other things, this sort of individual may point up and willingly talk about his deficiencies, may be highly self-critical, may talk about his ineptitude, may derogate his qualities and abilities, may generally run himself down, may express self-doubts. (H) Hostile. Among other things, this sort of individual may be angry with others most of the time, may be subtly negativistic, may contradict and argue with others, may be sarcastic, may belittle or insult others, may criticize others. (Neff, 1968, pp. 214-215) As this delineation of work behavior types focuses on maladaptive or pathological behaviors, it is of limited usefulness in describing work behavior styles or types in those assumed to be healthier subjects. Holland suggested that work behavior types can be derived from need theory, role theory, self theory, social learning theory, psychoanalytic theory, and sociology (cited in Carkhuff, Alexik, & Anderson, 1967). Holland (1959, 1966) considered hereditary and environmental factors as primary bases for the development of a hierarchy, pattern, or preferred mode for dealing with the world of work. This preferred mode tends to propel one toward one of six orientations or work behavior types (Holland, 1966). 1. The Motoric Orientation. Persons with this orientation enjoy activities requiring physical strength, aggressive action, motor coordination, and skill . . . they wish to play masculine roles, dealing with concreted, well-defined problems as opposed to abstract, intangible ones . . . they prefer to act out rather than think through. 2. The Intellectual Orientation. Persons of this orientation appear to be task-oriented . . . [preferring to] think through rather than act out problems. . . . They need to organize and understand the world. They

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26 enjoy ambiguous work tasks and interactive activities and possess somewhat unconventional values and attitudes. 3. The Supportive Orientation. Persons of this orientation prefer teaching or therapeutic roles. . . . They possess verbal and interpersonal skills . . . are responsible, socially oriented and accepting of feminine impulses and roles. . . . They prefer to deal with problems through feeling and interpersonal manipulations of others. A. The Conforming Orientation. Persons of this class prefer structured verbal and numerical activities and subordinate roles. They achieve their goals through conformity. In this fashion, they obtain satisfaction and avoid conflict and anxiety aroused by ambiguous situations or problems involving interpersonal relationships and physical skills. 5. The Persuasive Orientation. Persons of this class prefer to use their verbal skills in situations which provide opportunities for dominating, selling, or leading others. They conceive of themselves as strong masculine leaders. They avoid well-defined work situations. They are concerned with power and status. 6. The Esthetic Orientation. Persons of this orientation prefer indirect relationships with others. They [are] artistic . . . need individual expression, are more feminine, and have less ego strength, (pp. 36-37) As Holland's types or orientations were frankly and obviously sexist in nature, they are of limited usefulness in describing the members of the workforce of the 1980s. The purpose of the theories described above is to determine the best "fit" employee and job by personality characteristics or traits and by job characteristics. Other theories of person/ job fit have been suggested by Getzels and Cuba (1957) and Argyris (1974). Getzels and Cuba (1957) proposed that the complex interaction of "roles" and "needs" designated by the employer and the employee determined person/ job compatibility. The two levels of preferences

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27 were termed the nomothetic dimension and the idiographic dimension, areas of conflict occur at the points where institutional and individual preferences are perceived to be incompatible. If the two dimensions (role expectations and individual goals) can be moved closer together, person/ job compatibility is enhanced (Getzels & Cuba. 1957). Argyris (1974) theorized that "in their attempt to live, to grow in competence, and to achieve self-acceptance, men and women tend to program themselves" (p. 224) along the lines of maturity continua. Infants begin as dependent and submissive to other. They have few abilities, little skill in developing their abilities, and a short time perspective. Adults, however, continue to strive for relative autonomy and control over their immediate environment. They develop a wide range of abilities, some at great depth, and have a longer time perspective (Argyris. 1974). Leaders of organizations design work, evaluate performance, and reward or punish on low (informal) to high (formal) continua for each activity. The nature of compatibility or conflict among the individual factors and organizational factors varies according to conditions of interaction. If the individual aspired And the organization toward: (through job, technology, controls, leadership, etc.) required that the individual aspire toward:

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28 (1) adult dimensions (1) infancy dimensions (2) infancy dimensions (2) adulthood dimensions (3) adulthood dimensions (3) adulthood dimensions (4) infancy dimensions (4) infancy dimensions (Argyris, 1974, p. 226) When there is incongruence between the needs of the individual £ind the needs of the organization, individuals will tend to experience frustration, psychological failure, short time perspective, and conflict. Conversely, the more the employee and the employer can agree on appropriate dimensions, the more the employee will feel he or she has control over working conditions and is best able to employ his or her abilities (Argyris, 1974, p. 226). Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory The chronology of those whose work contributed to the development of Herzberg's motivator /hygiene theory can be traced through Jung in the 1920s, Hoppock in the 1930s, and Maslow in the 1940s. As described earlier, Jung was one of the most prominent researchers to try to discover which factors determined certain qualities in individuals. He felt that a set of characteristics, combined with a realistic attitude and reasonable opportunity, allowed a person to find place for himself or herself in life (Jung, 1921). Herzberg quoted Jung's statement "the supreme goal of man is to fulfill himself as a creative, unique individual according to his own innate potentialities and within the limits of reality" (Herzberg et al., 1959, p. 83).

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29 Herzberg stated that the factors that lead to positive job attitudes do so because they satisfy the individual's need for selfactualization in his work (Herzberg et al., 1959). Herzberg agreed with Jung that when a person is deflected from this goal he or she becomes "a crippled animal" (p. 114). The study of job satisfaction is not new. Since the Industrial Revolution, when individual craftsmanship was replaced with machine tending, researchers have shown that workers have considered tasks to be fragmented and have felt less pride in accomplishment (Glenn, 1982). One of the first studies of Job satisfaction was in the field of education. Hoppock questioned 500 teachers and analyzed the 100 most satisfied and 100 least satisfied responses. From this he formulated his theory which suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were on one continuum (Hoppock, 1935). He concluded job satisfaction consisted of many factors. The presence of these factors in the work situation led to satisfaction while their absence led to job dissatisfaction. He also examined the relationship among job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and mental health. In a survey involving 500 teachers, 21% of the least satisfied teachers were from unhappy homes, compared to only 6% of the teachers expressing high satisfaction (Hoppock, 1935).

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30 In Hoppock's study, respondents expressed overall job satisfaction directly by answering questions designed to investigate their global attitudes toward the job; i.e., whether the respondent liked or disliked it. The primary usefulness of this approach, according to Herzberg et al. (1959) was in the investigation of the relationships among the demographic variables. In Hoppock's study, for example, the overall job satisfaction of individuals was compared to the demographic variables of age, sex, educational level, social class, occupation, earnings, marital status, and IQ scores. Hoppock's single-continuum construct has been identified as "global" satisfaction and is a fundamental tenet of traditional theories of job satisfaction (Yoder et al. , 1975, p. 627). However, in 1943, Maslow created a new theory based on a needs hierarchy which explained the dynamics of job satisfaction in terms of fulfilling individual needs (Maslow, 1943). In Maslow 's theory, a person's needs are arranged in order in the hierarchy of prepotency as (a) physiological, (b) safety, (c) belongingness and love, (d) esteem, and (e) self -actualization. Maslow (1954) theorized that the physiological needs were the most prepotent. He said that "a person who is lacking food, safety, love, and esteem would probably hunger for food more strongly than for anything else" (Maslow, 1954, p. 82). As the physiological needs of a person are met, "at once other (and higher) needs emerge and these,

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31 rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism" (Maslow, 1954, p. 83). The emerging needs become the motivators of behavior. As soon as the needs on a lower level in the hierarchy are met, they are no longer a motivator. Building on Maslow 's work, Herzberg et al. (1959) formulated the two-factor theory of job satisfaction. They claimed that two classes of work variables, the motivators and hygiene factors, influenced job satisfaction. Motivators were intrinsic factors such as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, and the inherent interest of the work itself. When present in a job, motivators were satisfiers because they had a positive effect on employee output. Achievement was the strongest motivator followed by recognition. Motivators correspond to Maslow 's higher-order needs. Hygiene factors were extrinsic to the job and included pay, security, supervision, and physical working conditions. They were analogous to Maslow 's lower-order needs. When absent from the job, they were linked to dissatisfaction. However, Herzberg and associates clearly pointed out that the presence of a hygiene factor does not automatically produce job satisfaction and the absence of a motivator does not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction. Isaacson (1971) described the differences and interaction of Herzberg 's and Maslow 's theories as "Maslow is helpful in identifying needs or motives, while Herzberg provides us with insights to the goals and incentives that tend to satisfy these needs" (Isaacson, 1971, p. 66).

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32 We feel that the physiological, safety, social, and part of the esteem needs are all hygiene factors. The esteem needs are divided because there are some distinct differences between status per se and recognition. Status tends to be a function of the position one occupies. One may have gained this position through competence and achievement. It is earned and granted by others. Consequently, status is classified with physiological, safety, and social needs as a hygiene factor, while recognition is classified with esteem as a motivator. (Isaacson, 1971, p. 67) According to Herzberg's 1959 theory, which he developed further in 1966, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction can be measured on two disparate scales such that "the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and motivation) are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction" (Herzberg et al. , 1959). The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, it is an absence of job satisfaction. Conversely, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, it is an absence of job dissatisfaction, as determined by the employee, encompassing the feelings that the employee has toward the job content (intrinsic). In other words, job content factors are "motivators" which are the personal growth factors that are intrinsic to the job. These include achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility, the possibility of growth or advancement, and the work itself. Job dissatisfaction encompasses the employee's feelings toward job context (extrinsic). Job context factors are "hygienes" which are the factors that are extrinsic to the job such as company policy and

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33 administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, status, job security, salary, and working conditions. The primary function of "hygienes" is to prevent or avoid pain or hunger or to fulfill the other basic biological needs of man. Herzberg used the term "hygienes" to describe factors in the work context that act "in a manner analogous to the principles of medical hygiene" (Herzberg et al., 1959, p. 113). That is, hygiene is preventative, not curative, in removing health hazards from the environment of man. In comparison, "motivators" function to provide the individual with personal psychological growth. Herzberg et al. (1959) compared the dynamics of hygiene to the dynamics of motivators as follows: The dynamics of hygiene: The psychological basis of hygiene needs is the avoidance of pain from the environment. There are infinite sources of pain in the environment. Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature. Hygiene needs have an escalating zero point. Hygiene improvements have short-term effects. There is no final answer to hygiene needs. The dynamics of motivation: The psychological basis of motivation is the need for personal growth. There are limited sources of motivator satisfaction. Motivator improvements have long-term effects. Motivators are additive in nature. Motivators needs have a non-escalating zero point. There are answers to motivator needs. (p. 101) Herzberg 's motivator-hygiene (M-H) theory was based on the original Herzberg et al. study in 1959 of 203 male, mid-level managers who were engineers and accountants selected from companies in Pittsburgh. In addition to demographic data, information was

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34 collected from the respondents in the form of their responses to a semi-structured interview. This interview technique was known as the "criticalincident" interview technique. Herzberg's goal was to determine the respondent's judgment of his or her psychological state during a critical event when the respondent felt particularly good or bad about his or her job. "The primary need that emerged was one for an investigation of job attitudes in toto, a study in which factors, attitudes, and effects would be investigated simultaneously. The basic concept was that the factors-attitudes-effects (F-A-E) complex needs study as a unit" (Herzberg et al. , 1959, p. 11). Since his theory was first published, hundreds of studies have been conducted with every level of worker, supervisor, and management in this and foreign countries (Burr, 1980). While there has been widespread support for Herzberg's theory, it has not been without controversy. Burr (1980) listed 13 studies conducted in a period of less than 10 years in which researchers found Herzberg's theory useful in discussing various populations just in the field of education, including Thomas (1977) who studied college and university administrators in Florida. Similar numbers of studies have been described for administrators by Glenn (1982) and for medical technology by Wellstood (1984). Critics of Herzberg's theory have suggested that his original population was too small and narrow (Burr, 1980, p. 46). Others have

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35 indicated that different conclusions could have been derived from the original data and that measures of overall satisfaction may have been ignored (Glenn, 1982, p. 36). Herzberg acknowledged his critics and addressed some of their issues in his second book (1966) but has continued to find much support for his theory (Wellstood, 1984, p. 92). Vroom (1964) was one of Herzberg 's strongest critics. "The methods used were neither correlational nor experimental. The authors assumed that people have the ability and the motivation to report accurately the conditions which made them satisfied and dissatisfied with their jobs" (p. 127). In reporting a study by Shwartz, Jenusaitis, and Clark which replicated Herzberg 's study, Vroom (1964) wrote, "these investigators also found no significant relationships between story content and either demographics variables, such as age and education, or personality characteristics, as measured by the Edwards Personal Preference Test" (p. 127). Vr oom (1964) offered two possible alternative explanations for Herzberg 's results. "One could also argue that the relative frequency with which job-content or job-contextual feature will be mentioned as sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction is dependent on the nature of the content and context of the work roles of the respondents" (p. 128). "It is still possible that obtained differences between stated sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from defensive processes within the individual respondent" (p. 129).

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36 Vroom's suramary of his opinion was Herzberg's conclusion . . . can neither be accepted nor rejected on the basis of the evidence available at this time. [First edition of Vroom's book was printed in 196A.] Corroboration of his position will require correlational or experimental evidence of nonlinearity in relationships, a problem that is worthy of much more attention than it has received, (p. 129) Vroom (1964) considered job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction to be one continuum and suggested that the six most critical factors were "(1) supervision, (2) the work group, (3) job content, (4) wages, (5) promotional opportunities, and (6) hours of work" (p. 105). King (1970) suggested that much of the controversy associated with research using Herzberg's "theory" could be accounted for because of five different theories, or interpretations of the original theory were being utilized by different authors. Sergiovanni and Starratt (1979) advocated Herzberg's theory and applied his concepts to education professionals. They stated that satisfaction at work is not a motivator of performance per se, but results from quality performance. Administrators and supervisors should not use satisfaction as a method of motivating teachers, but satisfaction should be thought of as a goal that teachers seek, one that is best obtained through meaningful work. (p. 164) Sergiovanni and Starratt further stated that "administrators and supervisors who use job satisfaction to motivate teachers are practicing human relations. This has not been proven to be an effective approach. Human relations emphasize the hygienic factors" (p. 164).

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37 Administrators and supervisors who consider job satisfaction as a goal that teachers seek through accomplishing meaning and work and "vdio focus on enhancing the meaningful work and the ability of teachers to accomplish this work are practicing human resources supervision. This has been proven to be an effective approach. Human resources development emphasizes the motivational factors" (p. 164). Sergiovanni and Starratt (1979) offered the comparison of criticism of Herzberg's theory by Dunette, Campbell, and Hakel and the supportive view of Whitutt and Winslow (among others) and concluded "our review of motivator-hygiene studies leads us to conclude that the theory is indeed appropriate for white collar and professionally oriented workers but less appropriate for other workers" (p. 164). Meyers (1964), however, felt that Herzberg's theory was useful at every level of an organization. He stated that it "is easily translatable to supervisory action at all levels of responsibility. It is a framework on which supervisors can evaluate and put into perspective" the suggestions offered by employees and "serves to increase their feelings of competence, self-confidence, and autonomy" (p. 27). Bass (1981), in his continuation of Stogdill's extensive collection of literature, offered a multitude of studies of job satisfaction. At least 29 separate researchers have studied factors affecting job satisfaction and/or job dissatisfaction at all levels of organization and in a wide variety of populations.

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38 Elias (1987) reported a study by Staw who indicated that job satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be predicted at as early an age as 12, based on certain personality traits. In research begun in 1928 with 100 boys under school age, Staw determined that "personality traits at age 12 accurately predicted job satisfaction as adults in their AOs, 50s, and 60s" (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). Staw found that, at 12, boys destined to be satisfied at work were (a) sympathetic and giving, (b) warm and likeable, and (c) cheerful and self-satisfied. Future unhappy employees were (a) hostile toward others, (b) mistrusted and punitive, (c) thin-skinned and moody, and (d) condescending boys "bothered by demands" who felt a lack of personal meaning (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). Staw suggested that the findings "throw into question the value of quickie employee training programs" (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). He indicated that more employee participation in decision making, pay incentives, and job redesigns be done to "take individual differences into consideration" (cited in Elias, 1987, p. 10). College Placement Services and Officers Historical Antecedents Stephens (1970) described the transition of student career counseling passing from a primarily religious function in the universities of New England to a faculty advisory function in post1862 land grant colleges. The first recorded vocational guidance

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39 counselor was Jesse B. Davis at Central High School in Detroit. President Silman of Johns Hopkins University appointed the first chief faculty advisor in 1899. The first formal curriculum in college student personnel education was taught by Dr. Paul Monroe at Columbia University in 1916 (Stephens, 1970). Small professional groups joined to become the National Vocational Guidance Association in 1913. A competing organization, the National Association of Appointment Secretaries was created in 1924. The pattern of petty rivalries and professional jealousies continued until 1952 when the American Personnel and Guidance Association was formed. A further attempt to coordinate organizations dealing with student personnel activities developed in 1963 with the formation of the Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education (Stephens, 1970). "The realization of this objective — the full maturing of each student cannot be attained without interest in and integrated efforts toward the development of each and every facet of his personality and potentialities" (p. 1). After a period of experience and refinement, Kirkpatrick (1953) more specifically defined the role of college placement work. The primary function of college placement work is to help each new graduate find work in a socially useful occupation appropriate for his or her particular abilities, interests, and ambitions. In many cases this may involve information, counsel, and the opportunity to

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AO investigate a variety of openings, rather than direct placement. Final responsibility for finding a job rests squarely upon the student, and successful placement will depend largely upon the vigor and discrimination of his or her own efforts. Nevertheless, the institution has a definite responsibility to provide students with competent assistance and guidance through appropriate placement activities. A closely related responsibility of the placement function is to serve employers seeking qualified students from the institution. Its effectiveness in this regard will influence greatly its efforts to help its students. Through employer contacts, moreover, the placement staff becomes an invaluable listening post for the faculty and administration in reviewing the effects of training and in appraising the development of their students (Klrkpatrick, 1953, p. 1). The placement facilities of the college frequently can be useful to students leaving college before graduation and to alumni seeking new positions. Within the limits of the resources available, it is desirable that assistance be given to nongraduates and also to alumni. It is at the time of graduation, however, that the institution has the most clear-cut responsibility for assisting in student placement, and it also has the greatest opportunity to aid them. Kirkpatrick (1953) expressed the philosophy that "American colleges and universities recognized that education is a process

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41 involving the whole student" (p. 12), including intellectual achievement, emotional stability, physical condition, social relationships, vocational attitudes, and moral and religious values. "The college that accepts this responsibility must build its education and its student personnel services programs upon principle and practices which take into account all the needs of the Individual student" (p. 12). Principles Stephens (1970) delineated nine principles to guide placement directors. Principle 1 The aim of higher education is the development of the whole individual equipped to cope with a fastchanging world . Principle 2 Growth is a development process. Principle 3 Successful vocational choice lies in fulfilling the self -concept. Principle 4 Counseling is the heart of the placement function. Principle 5 The effectiveness of a placement service can be measured by its educational value to the student and to the college. Principle 6 The placement office functions primarily to serve the student. Principle 7 No one particular professional group is best qualified to counsel. Pr inciple 8 — In dealing with students, it is important to remember that it is not what the facts are but, rather, what students think they are that will spell success or fail ure for the college administrator. Principle 9 A major purpose of career counseling is to help the student help himself, (pp. 35-45) Theories of Career Development A Boston social worker and educator, Frank Parsons, is generally credited with being the real motivator of vocational counseling and

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42 placement. In 1909, Parsons created the first theory of vocational choice v^ich received vddespread attention (Stephens, 1970, p. 9). Parsons advocated man-analysis and job-analysis in a three-step theory: 1. self -understanding on the part of the client; a knowledge of his interests, aptitudes, resources, limitations, etc; 2. knowledge of the world of work: aptitudes required on a job, educational background necessary, paths of advancement, remuneration, etc.; 3. matching of individual qualifications to job requirements, (cited in Stephens, 1970, p. 10) After World War II, as servicemen returned home, and the nation's economy shifted to peacetime production, career choice and career development theorists flourished. The theories of Hoppock, Holland, Roe, Super, Tiedeman, and O'Hara are described in the following sections. Hoppock wrote that occupational choice is based on meeting needs. These needs may be mental, physical, or emotional, and may shift with time, but the individual will pursue the greatest gratification of them (Hoppock, 1935). Holland's theory, as described earlier, involved the interaction of personality types and environment categories. He stated that members of a vocation have similar personalities and therefore will respond to many situations and problems in similar manners. Vocational satisfaction, stability, and progress depend upon the extent to which an individual's personality and work environment are

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compatible (Holland, 1966, p. 33). Holland developed the Vocational Preference Inventory which is used to measure the primary and secondary patterns of an individual (p. 35). Roe (1964) stated that differences among people grew out of their genetics and early childhood experiences. She presented five propositions which delineated this theory. Proposition 1: Genetic inheritance sets limits to the potential development of all characteristics, but specificity of the genetic control and the extent and nature of the limitations are different for different characteristics . Proposition 2: The degrees and avenues of development of inherited characteristics are affected not only be experience unique to the individual, but also by all aspects of the general cultural background and the socioeconomic position of the family. Proposition 3: The pattern of development of interests, attitudes, and other personality variables with relatively little or non-specific genetic control is primarily determined by individual experiences through which involuntary attention becomes channeled in particular directions. Proposition 4: The eventual pattern of psychic energies, in terras of attention directedness, is the major determinant of interests. Proposition 5: The intensity of these needs and of their satisfaction perhaps particularly as they have remained unconscious and their organization are the major determinants of the degree motivation that reaches expression in accomplishment, (p. 35) Roe (1964) further proposed that the emotional climate in the home (the relationship between parent and child) is of three types. It can be one of emotional concentration of the child, or avoidance of the child, or acceptance of the child. These climates are thought to form a pattern of relationships, with some binding or overlapping.

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44 Probably no one has written as extensively about the topic of vocational development as have Super, Starishevsky , Millin, and Jordaan (1963). These authors combined aspects of developmental psychology with self-concept theory. They stated that both occupations and individuals have patterns and traits that are tolerant enough to accept some variety. Individuals' vocational preferences, competencies, and experiences make the self-concept adjust in a continuous process (Super et al., 1963). Super et al. (1963) further theorized that this self-career choice process can be summarized in a series of life stages termed growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline. The exploration stage may be subdivided into the fantasy, tentative, and realistic phases, and the establishment stage may be subdivided into the trial and stable phases. Tiederaan, O'Hara, and Baruch (1963) suggested that career development is a process of organizing an identification with work through the interaction of the individual's personality with society. "They consider personality development as a process in which the individual is involved in both differentiation and integration" (p. 54). Tiedeman et al. (1963) used the term "ego identity" to refer to personal meanings, values, and relationships upon which the individual builds a broader integration with society. The ego identity is

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45 formed through the interaction of three factors, the individual's biological constitution, his or her psychological raake-up, and the society or subculture in which he or she exists. Decisions in many aspects of life, including vocational development and career choice, are based on two periods or aspects: the period of anticipation, including exploration, crystallization, choice, and specification and the period of implementation and adjustment, including induction, transition, and maintenance (Tiedeman et al., 1963). S tudies of Career Placement Services and Officers Cappeto (1980) delineated the audiences, roles, skills, and responsibilities of the CPS professional. The audiences include the university (its values, philosophies, and mission), the university power structure (board, president, deans), students, alumni, and employers. The roles of the professional are advisor, evaluator, intermediary, and advocate. Career slcills are social (strong interest and concern for people), enterprising (selling and persuasion), and investigative (exploring student and employer interests and values). Responsibilities are in the realm of ethical and legal issues which affect the professional's relationships with students, employers, and the university . Parrent (1981) investigated perceptions of placement officials and departmental representatives about interrelationships between

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46 placement offices and the departments they served at Indiana University, Blooraington. The issue of whether the placement office fills a clerical or professional function persisted. There was confusion over whether faculty members should provide placement opportunities for students. Better communication between faculty and placement service staff varied but could be improved. Weatherall (1981) was critical of the career service profession in general for not researching, or even discussing, the concept of ambition as related to student career development. He was further critical of professionals' inability to listen effectively to all elements of students' interests and questions to help determine career choices and preferences. In conclusion, he stated that career service professionals need to do more research so as not to be seen as "ignorant, and ignorance is not a virtue in a university" (p. 30). Crouch and Tolle (1982) conducted a nationwide survey to determine, describe, and analyze selected factors concerning the careers of placement directors. They found that directors at 4-year colleges or universities were males in their early 40s and held a master's degree. They had been in business and government for 6.5 years and headed a staff of one professional, two secretaries, and three student workers. Directors at 2-year colleges were males in their late 30s and held a master's degree. They had been in business or government for

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47 7.5 years before joining the CPS. They had been director for 4.3 years and headed a staff of one secretary and two student workers. Both groups felt that English, psychology, and counseling or guidance courses were most helpful in their work. Brumley (1983) studied the career planning and placement center at Southern Illinois University . It was found that placement services were initiated through informal methods from 1874 until 1913; formalized structures began in 1914 and continued through 1980. It was found that the placement services had been responsive to the individual needs of students by providing special services to the underprivileged minorities and the handicapped. The researcher concluded that the principal objective of the placement service is to enhance freedom of choice (Brumley, 1983). Castro (1983) studied the current status of placement services in Texas. Of the individuals responsible for placement programs, 66% were males; the majority of individuals in the field held master's degrees with the emphasis in counseling. A majority of the services operated on a small budget but did not charge for services. Of the students eligible to use career services, 20% did so. Of the placement service programs, 66% offered career development classes for credit, but 79% did not have a student outreach program. DeVoe, Spicuzza, and Baskind (1983) studied burnout among career services directors. Their burnout rate was low ("not present at a

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statistically significant level" (p. 46)) and several explanations were offered. Personal characteristics such as a realistic sense of capabilities, a good sense of humor, and an ability to delegate responsibility may have contributed to the low burnout rate. Also, possible contributory factors may have been a well-defined organization and a variety of job roles to prevent boredom. Further, the phenomenon of denial may have intervened. Finally, the Maslach Burnout Inventory may not have been an appropriate instrument for the population. Campbell and Wertz (1984) described a model for the training of future CPS officers at the graduate school level based on the University of South Carolina program. The 2-year course was divided into four units, each using lecture and discussion, guest speakers, audiovisual tapes, and field trips. The curriculum included the following: 1. Historical review, including vocational education, orientation, and terminology. 2. Student-oriented activities, counseling, testing, and work experiences. 3. Administrative and managerial activities £ind coursework. 4. Contemporary issues and future implications of the economy and technology on the job market. These four units are subdivided into eight sequential modules which followed a developmental process to provide a knowledge base for future learning.

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Carlson (1985) analyzed more than 5,000 position advertisements for seven areas of student personnel listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education from 1979 to 1982. Patterns of hiring, position requirements, skills required, and an analysis of salary were reported. Williamson (1937) wrote the seminal study on student personnel services up to that time. His work was instrumental in coalescing scattered regional trends into a national effort. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) has been used in a variety of studies in education and clinical settings. The research cited below is representative of these applications. Cur ley (1982) studied job satisfaction and self -actualization among curriculum developers. Feinstein (1982) investigated teacher burn-out and job satisfaction among teachers of the emotionally disturbed. Frey (1977) studied employee satisfaction in stereotypical male or female occupations in vocational school training programs. Gates (1977) researched job satisfaction and occupational level. Marquez (1982) investigated job satisfaction among staff members of alcohol treatment programs. Wills (1982) studied the relationships of age and gender with job satisfaction. Winkler (1982) researched the job satisfaction of university faculty in the United States. With such a range of applications in job satisfaction research, the MSQ was chosen as an appropriate instrument for the current study. Chapter III contains additional information on the MSQ.

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CHAPTER III DESIGN MD riE'rilOroLOGY Statement of th e Pesearch Problem The problem of this research v;as to determine the relationship betv/een the importance of sotiyfiers and dissatisf iers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profiles (MPPP) of college placement service officers. Questions addressed were 1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types? 2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their Marcus Paul Placement Profile scores? 3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire? 50

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51 4. What are the relationships of college placement service officers' work behavior characteristics on the MPPP and satisfaction/dissatisf action contributors on the MSQ? Procediires Data Source, Data Collection, Instrumentation Initial communication with community college and university placement service directors established which institutions would be part of the study. Arrangements were made to attend a staff meeting to distribute the instruments to staff members who volunteered to participate. The participants were assured that no names, disciplines, or institutions would be identified in the presentation of the results of the study. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to CPS officers vrtio participated in the study. Their MPPPs were scored by the MPPP computer program, and the results were given to the subjects immediately. This was considered to be an incentive to participate in the research. The job satisfaction instrument was scored at a later time. The MPPP was used to measure the CPS officers' self-perception of work behavior type. The MPPP was developed by Nickens and Bauch (Nickens, 1984) as a tool to increase understanding of work behavior.

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52 The instrument was designed to be utilized as a tool in the educational setting for student personnel and placement as well as in the business setting for recruiting, job placement, work assignment, team building, and training (Nickens, 198A). Nickens and Bauch believed that work behavior traits and types were not judgments of work behaviors, but were terms to be employed to increase understanding of work behaviors. Accordingly, terminology used in the profile is positive or neutral and reflect work behavior rather than social behaviors (Nickens, 1984). The basis of the analysis is the subject's choice of words from 24 sets (boxes) that are most and least descriptive of his or her perceived work behavior. The 24 boxes are presented on an instrument that permits the drawing of circles around numbers associated with word choices. These numbers are entered into a computer program which associates the numbers with the appropriate MPPP behavior type score. The scores are scaled, plotted on a graph, and the standard interpretation printed (Nickens, 1984, pp. 10-11). Reported for the MPPP are independent scores for four behavior types: energizer, inducer, concentrator, and producer. Each of the behavior type scores is plotted on a scale extending from minus 15 through plus 15. The center point of the scale is the norm score, zero. The graph readily allows the observation of the deviations of each score with respect to the norm and with respect to other scores. The subject's highest

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53 score of the four MPPP scores represents the subject's primary type of best fit. A narrative description of the behavior associated with the score of best fit is written below the graph. An interpretation of the behavior associated with the relative scaled scores is also provided (Nickens, 1984). Reliability is the degree of consistency of results. "It is possible for a measuring instrument to be reliable without being valid. However, it cannot be valid unless it is first reliable" (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavich, 1985, p. 226). "So if one demonstrates a satisfactory level of validity, at least internal reliability must be assumed" (Nickens, 198A, p. 14). Therefore, the developers of the MPPP chose to prove reliability by proving validity. Instrument face validity is supported by the theoretical basis on which the MPPP was developed. The instrument was also found to have a high degree of concurrent validity. Ninety-six Santa Fe Community College career education students responded to the MPPP and analyzed their own responses with a microcomputer. After examining their MPPPs, the students responded to a questionnaire in which they rated the accuracy of the analysis components provided by the computer system (Nickens, 1984). The results are presented in Table 1.

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54 Table 1 Career Education Students' Ratings of MPPP Validity for Describing Their Work Behavior N % Both paragraphs accurate descriptions 84 88.4 First paragraph not an accurate description 0 Second paragraph not an accurate description 10 10.4 Neither paragraph an accurate description 1 1.1 Not usable 1 1.1 It can be observed that 88.4% of the students responded that both paragraphs of the printed MPPP were "an accurate description of my work behavior." The practice of relating a measurement to a criterion to determine the amount of congruence is called concurrent validity. Rarely in the literature are there reported measures that account for more than 64% of the variance in a criterion measure. This high degree of congruence between students' perceptions of their work behavior and the descriptions provided by the MPPP is sufficiently valid for helping college students understand their work behaviors (Nickens, 1984, p. 14). The MPPP was also found to have predictive validity when used for career planning. Glenn (1982) studied vocational education coordinators in Florida and reported significant

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55 relationships between MPPP work behavior types and areas of job satisfaction. Furthermore, she found that specific areas of job satisfaction were found to be significantly related to work behavior type. Additional research related to the question of predictive validity of the MPPP was conducted by Wellstood (1984). Wellstood studied the relationships among work behavior types, job satisfaction, and attrition in medical technologists. She administered the MPPP, the Job Descriptive Index, and a demographic data questionnaire to 111 medical technologists. Wellstood reported that work behavior type relates to overall and to specific aspects of job satisfaction. In addition, attrition from medical technology can be predicted from producer and energizer scores on the MPPP. Researchers at Santa Fe Community College and at the University of Florida and the face validity of the MPPP have indicated that the MPPP is valid for use as a career advisement tool to help understand work strengths. Thus, researchers also found that the MPPP is useful for suggestions in writing effective letters of reference for individuals seeking job placements (Nickens, 1984). The developers of the instrument felt that all theoretically valid uses of the instrument have not been researched completely at this time. Since the instrument was designed to be utilized as a tool in the business setting as well as the educational setting, it was chosen for this

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56 study. Use of the f-lPPP in this study also provided additional insight into another theoretically valid use for the instrument. The MSQ is available in two forms, the short-form and the long-form. The short-form was used in this research. The short-form MSQ consists of 20 items. Each item refers to a possible motivator or hygiene in the work environment. The respondents indicate with each mark the extent of satisfaction or dissatisfaction on their present job. Five response alternatives are presented for each item: "very dissatisfied," "dissatisfied," "neither" (dissatisfied nor satisfied), "satisfied," and "very satisfied." A summary of Weiss, Davis, England, and Lofquist's (1967) data on the internal consistency reliability of the MSQ as estimated by Hoyt's analysis of variance method is shown in Table 2. From Table 2 it can be seen that Hoyt reliability coefficients for the MSQ scales ranged from a high of .97 on ability utilization (for both stenographers and typists) and on working conditions (for social workers) through a low of .59 on variety (for buyers). The median Hoyt reliability coefficients ranged from .93 for advancement and recognition through .78 for responsibility. Of the 567 Hoyt reliability coefficients reported (27 groups with 21 scales each), 83% were .80 or higher and only 2.5% were lower than .70. These data can be viewed as suggesting that, in general, the ^BQ scales have adequate internal consistency reliabilities. The reliability of some scales, however, tends to vary across groups.

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57 Table 2 Median and Range of Hoyt Reliability Coefficients for 27 Normative Groups, by MSQ Scale Highest Median Lowest 1. Ability utilization .97 .91 .79 2. Achievement .91 .84 .73 3. Activity .92 .86 .71 4. Advancement .96 .93 .87 5. Authority .92 .85 .66 6. Company policies and practices .93 .90 .80 7. Compensation .95 .91 .82 8. Co-workers .93 .85 .67 9. Creativity .92 .87 .72 10. Independence .91 .85 .73 11. Moral values .93 .81 .62 12. Recognition .96 .93 .84 13. Responsibility .89 .78 .66 14. Security .87 .80 .64 15. Social service .95 .89 .73 16. Social status .92 .79 .71 17. Supervision-human relations .95 .89 .75 18. Supervision-technical .94 .86 .71 19. Variety .93 .86 .59 20. Working conditions .97 .89 .80 21. General satisfaction .95 .88 .82

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Data on the stability of the scores on the 21 MSQ scales were obtained for two time-intervals, one week and one year. For the one week retest, data were obtained on 75 employed night school students in courses in psychology and industrial relations; for the one year retest, data were obtained on 115 employed individuals. Both groups were heterogeneous with respect to age and occupational level (although the latter group was heterogeneous with respect to presence or absence of any disability). Neither group included individuals who had changed jobs between MSQ administrations. Test-retest correlation coefficients for the 21 MSQ scales are shown in Table 2. For a one-week interval, stability coefficients ranged from .66 for co-workers through .91 for working conditions. Median coefficients (excluding the general satisfaction scale) was .83. One-week stability coefficient for the general satisfaction scale was .89 (Weiss et al., 1967, pp. 13-15). Statistical Procedures To answer questions 1 and 2 in the present study, both the graphic and the narrative responses on the Marcus Paul Placement Profile were analyzed. To determine the important elements of job satisfaction/ dissatisfaction from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire as required by questions 3 and A, factor analysis was performed for each of the four work behavior types. Pearson correlations were calculated to establish the strength of MSQ

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59 responses and to investigate underlying satisfaction/dissatisfaction themes. Summary of Design and Methodology The procedures of the study were detailed in this chapter. Data were collected from 45 college placement service officers to ascertain relationships among work behavior types and job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction factors. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to measure these areas of interest. The results and analyses of these data are presented in the following chapter.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Work Behavior Types of College Placement Service Officers "Every man's work, whether it be literature or music or pictures or architecture or anything else, is always a portrait of himself" (Butler, 1980, p. 620). The results of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile administered to college placement officers are shown in Tables 3 and 4. It can be seen that the CPS officers were distributed among the four work behavior types as 7% energizers, 67% inducers, 15% concentrators, and 11% producers. For comparison, Glenn (1982) studied vocational education administrators and found 7% energizers, 21% inducers, 47% concentrators, and 25% producers. Wellstood (1984) sampled medical technologists and found 6% energizers, 11% inducers, 35% concentrators, and 48% producers. From these findings it can be inferred that, in concurrence with work behavior type theory, different work behavior types are attracted to different occupations. In the present study, the predominance of inducers (67%) in this particular vocation is consistent with the theory of work behavior types and the definition of inducers, i.e., those who work well with individuals and groups of people. Inducer type workers are noted for their ability to translate challenges into group process, and these 60

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61 Table 3 Distribution of Work Behavior Types Among College Placement Service Officers MPPP Type N % Energizers 3 7 Inducers 30 67 Producers 5 11 Concentrators 7 15 Table 4 Enhanced Analysis Statements Group Energizers Inducers Producers Concentrators Total N=A5 Energizers — 11 (37%) 11 (24%) Inducers 2 (67%) 4 (80%) 1 (14%) 7 (16%) Producers 1 (33%) 12 (40%) 6 (86%) 19 (42%) Concentrators 7 (23%) 1 (20%) 8 (18%)

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62 persons are friendly and communicate thoughts and ideas to associates. Inducers have no problem getting help from these associates when they call for it, and they bring up good ideas and are leaders in reaching consensus on matters of a controversial nature. They help associates understand the importance of their work and inspire teamwork and cooperation. A major asset of these workers to the organization is the good interpersonal relationships and team spirit they help build (Bauch, 1981). The next largest group, concentrators (15%), are systematic, effective, and help maintain moderation in tense situations. These characteristics are valuable in the process of matching students of diverse backgrounds and talents with potential employers. The concentrator type has work traits described as steady and systematic. Workers of this type complete jobs without distraction or variation in pace and performance. They are determined to finish the job and will do so independently. These persons are especially good in jobs where there are objective criteria for job success. They are not swayed by the influence of peers or personal criticism. They often take a scientific approach to problem solving, collecting facts, considering possible alternatives, and completing the assignment according to the most sensible alternative (Bauch, 1981). The group of producers (11%) support their decisions and actions with irrefutable documentation. Classifying and recording data about

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63 students and employment opportunities would appeal to them. They are committed to doing the job correctly and try hard to be prepared to do their best. They like predictable work environments where their jobs are clearly defined, but will enthusiastically accept new assignments if the assignments are in their area of expertise. They first will take the time to be sure they understand exactly what is desired of them, get the facts relating to the assignment, and if they make a commitment, they produce accordingly. An important value to the organization is the precision and quality of their work, and their personal identity with their product (Bauch, 1981). The group of energizers (7%) was the smallest in the sample, and predictably so. Energizers prefer to be involved with creativity and initiating the opening moves of a campaign. While there is a certain amount of this activity in CPS offices, it is not the general role of the worker. It should be noted that one of the energizers in this study was a retired Air Force colonel who earned a doctoral degree and became the director of the placement service in a major university. Energizers are noted for getting results. These workers drive forward, take command, and cut through the barriers to get results fast. They are quick to accept a challenge and make most decisions in solving the problem, including doing most of the work themselves. They prefer a competitive and dynamic working environment where they can show how their solutions are the best and quickly move to new

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64 problem areas. In working with others, people of this type expect direct answers and immediate responses from their associates. They are able to bypass limiting conditions and procedures and think of ways to get at the heart of the matter and solution (Bauch, 1981). Previous researchers (Glenn, 1982; Wellstood, 1984) looked only at the primary work behavior type. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile computer program provides an in-depth analysis of the interaction among scores on each of the four scales. While the placement of the respondent into one of the four categories is based on the highest scores on the four scales, the specific descriptions are based on the interactions of the four scales. These enhanced analysis statements indicate varying intensities of work behavior along the four dimensions and the complex relationship between the dimensions. The specific description differentiates among individuals of the same general category according to degrees of the strength of their responses (Bauch, 1981). The placement officers \rtio were energizers had strong inducer and producer influences in their enhanced analysis statement (see Table 4). This influence was described as interests in tackling new problems and creating ideas for making changes. As shown in Table 4 the enhanced statement analysis for inducer types resulted in three groups. The statements that describe these groups follow. Among the inducers, 12 (40%) had enhanced analysis statements influenced by producer behavior scores.

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65 This group strives to meet the expectations of the job and supervisor. They follow established procedures and will evaluate themselves and associates according to how well tasks for technical procedures are followed. (Bauch, 1981, p. 13) The second group of 11 inducers (37%) had enhanced analysis statements influenced by energizer behavior scores. These traits are associated with successful promotions persons. These workers place positive personal interaction above other factors and take maximum advantage of friendly relations with others to start projects and produce change in organizations. (Bauch, 1981, p. 13) The third group of 7 inducers (23%) had enhanced analysis statements influenced by concentrator behavior scores. This is the type noted for helping others be comfortable and satisfied in the work situation. These workers are very understanding listeners, and they tend to seek and retain many personal friends. Employing these persons will enhance the image of the organization as they have a high degree of tolerance and patience for ideas and actions of others. (Bauch, 1981, p. 13) Among the producers, the prevalent enhanced analysis statements were influenced by inducer behavior scores. This combination of attributes suggests "individuals who are valued in systems where each worker functions as a part of a well trained and highly organized team" (Bauch, 1981, p. 14). Among the concentrators, the prevalent enhanced analysis statements were influenced by producer behavior scores. "These people

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66 are noted for good planning and persistence on the job over long periods. They like consistency in their work environment, and they value tried and proven methods" (Bauch, 1981, p. 14). Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire "He chose to include the things that in each other are included, the whole, the complicated, the amassing harmony" (Stevens, 1980, p. 768). In order to characterize college placement service officers, factor analysis was performed using both behavior characteristics measured by MPPP scores and job satisfaction-dissatisfaction data from the MSQ scores. The results of the factor analysis which were descriptive of MPPP characteristics are shown in Table 5. The factor loadings were expected to provide a perspective of the importance of the subsets of MSQ items. MSQ items that loaded on Factor 1 were noted as emphasizing the importance of doing something that makes use of the person's abilities, the provision for steady employment, the freedom to use his or her own judgment, and the chance to be "somebody" in the community. These factor items are consistent with the characteristics of energlzers. Both the energizer and the factor represent a need for a secure base for creativity and recognition. These data are in congruence with the theories of Maslow (1954) and Herzberg et al. (1959) which explain multiple layers of needs and satisfactions.

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67 Table 5 Work Behavior Factors Found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Factor Loading (all p < .05) Questionnaire Item FACTOR 1 (Energizer related) .79 the chance to do something that makes use of my abilities .77 the job provides for steady employment .64 the freedom to use my own judgment -.49 the chance to be "somebody" in the community FACTOR 2 (Inducer related) .71 how the boss handles his/her workers .65 the opportunity to use ray own judgment .61 the opportunity to tell people what to do .61 the opportunity to do things for other people FACTOR 3 (Producer related) .64 the freedom to use my own judgment .49 the working conditions .48 the chance to try my own methods .41 the chance to work alone FACTOR 4 (Concentrator related) -.55 the chance to do something that makes use of my abilities .54 my pay and the amount of work I do .43 the chance to do something different from time to time .40 the chance to work alone

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68 Factor 2 contained items which emphasized the importance of how the employer handles the employees, the opportunity of a person to use his or her own judgment, the opportunity to tell others who to do, and the opportunity to do things for other people. These elements are consistent with work behavior type theory in that inducers seek "quality of interaction" (Glenn, 1982, p. 118) with others. These items correspond to MPPP descriptions of inducers, i.e., people who emphasize interpersonal relationships. These data are in congruence with Geier's (1979) observation that inducers are people and process oriented . Factor 3 items were shown to emphasize the importance to a person of the freedom to use his or her own judgment, the working conditions, the chance to try his or her own methods, and the chance to work alone. These items correspond to MPPP descriptions of producers, i.e., people who emphasize independence in goal achievement. These data are in congruence with Geier's (1979) observation that producers are task and product oriented. Factor 4 included items emphasizing the importance to a person of the chance to do something that makes use of his or her abilities, the salary and amount of work he or she does, the chance to do something different from time to time, and the chance to work alone. These items correspond to MPPP descriptions of concentrators, i.e., people who emphasize self-esteem through the accomplishment of their tasks.

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69 These data are in congruence with the theories of Maslow (195A) and Herzberg et al. (1959) explaining need for recognition of achievement. The findings in the present study are consistent with Glenn's (1982) research. She found energizer-related factor loadings ranged from -.50 on recognition for accomplishments and -.40 on opportunity for promotion through .40 and .47 on items related to the work itself. Glenn (1982) also found inducer-related factor loadings ranged from -.27 for assessing educational programs through .36 for volume of work. Another significant (.35) satisfier was participating in section and division meetings, the human relations interest. Glenn (1982) determined concentrator-related factor loadings ranged from -.56 for recognition for accomplishments and -.49 for opportunity for promotion through .34 and .44 for items related to the work itself. Producers' factor loading ranged from -.23 on opportunity for promotion through .47 for working conditions. The Important Motivators and Hygienes for Placement Service Officers "In order that people may be happy in their work, these three things are needed; they must be fit for it, they must not do too much of it, and they must have a sense of success in it" (Ruskin, 1980, p. 572). In order to determine the important elements of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, the factor analysis items were examined as motivators and hygienes. Table 6, Inter-Item Correlations, and Table

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70 Table 6 Inter-Item Correlations Factors Pearson Correlations Energizer Factors 1 2 3 4 1. use of abilities ~ .79* .10 -.18 2. steady employment .79 .26 -.14 3. own judgment .10 .26 .06 4. somebody in community -.18 -.14 .06 — — Inducer Factors 1 2 3 4 1. boss handles workers — .15 .80* .20 2. own judgment .15 .24 .61 3. tell others .80 .24 .12 4. doing things for others .20 .61 .12 — Producer Factors 1 2 3 4 1. own judgment — .47* .20 -.04 2. work conditions .47 .33 .32 3. own methods .20 .33 .02 4. work alone -.04 .32 -.02 Concentrator Factors 1 2 3 4 1. use of abilities -.02 -.19 -.05 2. salary -.02 .22 -.17 3. do different things -.19 .22 .17 4. work alone -.05 -.17 .17 *p < .05

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71 7, Order of Motivators and Hygienes, are presented to explore possible links between factor analysis items and job satisfaction-job dissatisfaction. Energizers found satisfaction in the use of their abilities, steady employment, and the opportunity to use their own judgment. The high correlation (.79) of items 1 and 2 illustrates the need for a secure base for creativity, as noted above. The item "the chance to be somebody in the community" (-.49, see Table 5) indicated energizer dissatisfaction with the opportunity for career and/or social prominence. This item was the only major dissatisfier for energizers. Inducers found satisfaction in almost all aspects of their job. The high correlation (.80) between the items "how the boss handles his/her workers" and "the chance to tell people what to do" indicated good role modeling and respectful relationships of a collegial nature. The other high correlation (.61) between "the opportunity to use my own judgment" and "the opportunity to do things for others" indicated a high degree of satisfaction and achievement in the purpose of the job, matching students and potential employers. The highest rated motivator, "doing things for others," (see Table 7) was the primary orientation of the predominant work behavior type, the inducers. Some inducers did not feel their abilities were being utilized to the fullest. However, the only item producing more dissatisfaction than satisfaction for inducers was "company policies," one of Herzberg's classic hygienes.

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72 Table 7 Order of Motivators and Hygienes for CPS Officers VSSQ Items Hygienes Motivators 1. Doing things for others E: I : P : C 2. Not going against conscience I : P : C 3. Chance to use ovm methods E: I : P : C 4. Feelings of accomplishment E: I : P: C 5. Chance to use own judgment I E: I :P :C 6. Chance for advancement E: I : P :C 7. Co-workers get along well I:E E: I : P :C 8. Salary I E: I : P :C 9. Being able to keep busy I_ E: I : P:C 10. Being able to work alone E: I : P:C 11. Being able to do different things E: I :P:C 12. Job provides steady employment C:P:I E: I :P:C 13. Chance to be somebody in community P: E I : P C 14. Chance to tell others what to do C:P:I I P : C 15. Competence of supervisor I I : P: C 16. Working conditions C:P:I E: I :P: C 17. Way boss handles workers P: I E: I :P:C 18. Praise I get for good job P:I I :P :C 19. Make use of ray abilities C :P: I E: I :P: C 20. Company policies C : P: I E: I:P :C

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73 Producers found moderate to strong satisfaction in many areas of their jobs. Modest correlation existed among the items in the factor analysis, stressing the interaction of the elements that enhance satisfaction. Producers experienced some dissatisfaction from a variety of sources, but none was very high. Concentrators could be the most dissatisfied work behavior type in CPS jobs. The item "the chance to make use of my abilities" (-.55, Table 5) indicated dissatisfaction with a major aspect of their work. As concentrators tend to be more task-oriented than relationshiporiented, they may find the number and variety of people they encounter to be frustrating or irritating. Some concentrators found moderate satisfaction in several aspects of their positions, especially those who felt comfortable "doing things for others." Correlation among the items in the factor analysis was expectedly weak, an indication of the diversity of feeling about their jobs and duties. Other high Pearson correlations of satisfiers were found in the data, but not shown in the tables. These were "doing things for others" and "using my own judgment" (.61), and "doing things for others" and "using my own methods" (.50). Among the dissatisf iers, a modest correlation was found between "company policies" and "how boss handles his/her workers" (.33). These findings are consistent with Geier's (1980) research on traits. Marston (1928) began to assign traits to each of the four

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74 main dimensions of his model. Marston's notion was supported by Cattell (1948) who proposed that arbitrary assignment of traits to categories be confirmed by statistical analysis. Geier (1980) enriched Marston's list with terms from Allport and Odbert (1936). Geier used factor analysis to better understand the relationships and found the enriched list of terms to be highly related to the factors to which they had been assigned. The correlation coefficient was at least r=.60 (Geier, 1980). Work behavior factors found in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were presented in Table 5, and the strengths of inter-item correlations were presented in Table 6. Table 7 is a presentation of the order of the motivators and hygienes, by job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, for CPS officers. Of the set of 20 MSQ items, 10 were strong satisfiers and 8 were moderate satisfiers. Only 2 items contributed more to dissatisfaction than to satisfaction. These data are consistent with Herzberg's theories and data as illustrated in Figure 7. While all of the descriptors are not the same, it can be seen from comparing Table 7 with Figure 7, the motivator and hygiene elements are congruent. Also, the data in Table 7 establish a response to Herzberg's query concerning finding such a ranking for a particular group of people. There has been a dearth of these rankings reported in the literature.

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75 Hygiene Motivator 0 -8 Achievement -18 Recognition 32 -lA Work itself 25 -8 Responsibility 24 12 Advancement 20 -31 Company policy and administration 5 -30 Supervision technical 5 -19 Salary 15 -18 Interpersonal relations supv. 7 -12 Working conditions 4 0 Figure 4 . Comparison of motivation and hygiene factors (adapted from Herzberg et al. , 1959).

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The rapidly changing pace of technology, education, and the business world is accompanied by rapidly changing demands in the job market. Jobs are disappearing, people are being replaced by electronic devices, and skills are becoming obsolete. People are turning (and returning) to their education systems to find the knowledge, skills, and abilities that will allow them to participate at the leading edge of the job market. The job market is also becoming more complex. Corporate mergers, the mushrooming electronics Industry, and recent problems in the oil industry have had cumulative effects on education systems, communities, and states. Parts of the country that once provided stable and attractive places to live and work no longer do so; others are much in demand. The college placement service is one of the links among the world of business, the education system, and the community. This placement service staff provides information on companies and other employers, maintains lists of job openings and requirements, arranges seminars on employment skills, and provides interview opportunities for 76

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77 prospective employers and employees. The literature provided little information or data that would allow a broader and deeper comparison of CPS officers with other administrators and professionals. The study of work behavior types is relatively new and more information for analysis and comparison is required. A more well-established area of study is the area of job satisfaction. Numerous investigations have been conducted over a long period of time. The review of the literature did not seem to provide documentation of studies combining work behavior type and job satisfaction factors among college placement service officers. The focus of this study was on the applicability of the work behavior type theory and the applicability of Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory to college placement service officers to determine factors which contributed to the job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction of the four work behavior types. Description of the Study Forty-five college placement service officers from the State University System and the Community College System of Florida were the subjects in the study. These college placement system officers were administered the Marcus Paul Placement Profile to determine their work behavior type and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire to determine elements of job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction. The researcher computed the scores from the instruments to determine the distribution of the CPS officers and the distribution of

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78 the motivators and hygienes among the four work behavior types. Factor analysis was then used to determine the important clusters of elements which contributed to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. The problem of this research was to determine the relationship between the importance of satisfiers and dissatisf iers as facets of job satisfaction as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the work behavior characteristics determined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profiles (MPPP) of college placement service officers. Questions addressed were the following: 1. What is the distribution of Florida university and community college placement service officers among the four MPPP work behavior types? 2. What are the work behavior characteristics of college placement service officers as determined by their MPPP scores? 3. What is the importance of the job satisfaction/ job dissatisfaction contributors of college placement service officers as defined by Herzberg and as measured by the MSQ? 4. VJhat are the relationships of college placement service officers' work behavior characteristics on the I4PPP and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction contributors on the MSQ?

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79 Ma1or Findings The following statements are made in response to question 1. 1. As predicted by the work behavior type theory, inducer types dominated with 67% of the sample. This type of person is particularly oriented to interpersonal relationships and the use of their interpersonal skills. Appropriately for inducers, the goal of college placement service officers is to match potential employees and employers. 2. Concentrators and producers accounted for 15% and 11% of the sample. These work behavior types are more task oriented than relationship oriented. 3. Energizers accounted for 7% of the sample. This work behavior type is creative but not very detail oriented. The following statements are made in response to question 2. 1. For the first time, enhanced analysis statements were reported. Producer characteristics dominated this category with 42%, reflecting a combination of relationship orientation (inducer) and task orientation (producer) which most fully describes the requirements of a college placement service officer. 2. Energizer characteristics accounted for 24% of the enhanced analysis statements. This group found new ways to handle the challenges of the work.

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80 3. Concentrator characteristics accounted for 18% of the enhanced analysis statements and enabled this group to be interested in record keeping and data analyses associated with the work. The following statements are made in response to question 3. 1. The prevalent motivator was "doing things for others." "Using my own methods," "using my own judgment," "feelings of accomplishment," and "chance for advancement" clustered closely behind . 2. "Use of ray abilities" and "company policies" were the prevalent dissatisfiers. 3. Concentrator types were the most dissatisfied. Perhaps this could be explained by the number and variety of human relationships confounding their tendency to be detail oriented. The following statements are made in response to question 4. 1 . Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for energizers were characterized as relating to feelings about security, creativity, and recognition. 2. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for inducers were characterized as relating to feelings about participating in human relationships . 3. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for producers were characterized as relating to feelings of independence in goal achievement.

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81 4. Factor loadings of job satisfaction items for concentrators were characterized as relating to feelings of self-esteem through the accomplishment of their tasks. Conclusions The general conclusions which the author derived from the study include 1. The work behavior type theory was applicable to the study of college placement service officers and provided a framework within which to examine a variety of behavior patterns. The theory was strongly supported. 2. Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory was useful in the study of college placement service officers and provided a framework to examine their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. The theory was strongly supported. 3. Inducers are particularly suited to college placement services and experienced greater satisfaction than other work behavior types in the study. Attrition among non-inducers could be measured to preclude inappropriate hiring. Recommendations for Future Research Several studies are logically suggested by the present one. Certainly, college placement service officers outside Florida provide populations for comparison. Comparisons of results with other professions would be instructive.

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82 Organizations should be studied from the combined perspectives of work behavior types and job satisfaction, not one or the other in isolation. Selection and prediction studies could establish the rate of promotion from entry level to chief of CPS based on work behavior type. As there seems to be a predominance of inducers, the other factors which contributed to the rise could be studied. A study of student satisfaction with CPS staff and performance could be complimented by a study of administration satisfaction with CPS staff and performance. Recurring studies on a regular basis would provide a measure of progress. Use of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire in different organizational environments would further identify specific satisfiers and dissatisf iers associated with specific populations. Multiple comparisons could then be easily made. Comparative studies of organizational functions could be made by group composition and quality and quantity of output. Examples include research projects, budget and policy making, and collective bargaining teams.

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f 88 Tiedeman, D. V., O'Hara, R. P., & Baruch, R. W. (1963). Career development: Choice and adjustment . Princeton, NJ: College Entrance Examination Board. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation . New York: Wiley. Weatherall, R. K. (1981). A dissenting view. Journal of College Placement . 21(2), 27-30. Weiss, D. J., Davis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Wellstood, S. A. (1984). Work behavior types, job satisfaction, and attrition in medical technology (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1984). Dissertation Abstracts International . 45, 2092B. Williamson, E. G. (1937). The student personnel point of view . Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Wills, B. R. (1982). Age and sex: The relationship upon perceived job satisfaction among exempt level employees (Doctoral dissertation. Ball State University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International , 43 , 336A. Winkler, L. D. (1982). Job satisfaction of university faculty in the United States (Doctoral dissertation. University of Nebraska, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International , 43, 696A. Yoder, D., & Hanemann, H. G. (Eds.). (1975). ASPA handbook of personnel and industrial relations: Official handbook of the American Society for Personnel Administration . Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH John Edward Olson was born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1943. Due to the nature of his father's business, he was able to experience many areas of the country and was educated in school systems in Illinois, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Following graduation from the University of Mississippi with a B.A. in Spanish, he entered the U.S. Air Force £ind was an intelligence officer, reaching the rank of Captain. After working for several years as a teacher and technical writer, he entered graduate school and earned a Master's in Social Work degree from Florida State University in 1977. In 1979, he joined the Academy of Certified Social Workers. He has worked as a psychiatric social worker in the Family Counseling Center in Columbus, Georgia, and in the Veterans Administration Medical Centers in Miami, Florida; Dublin, Georgia; and Gainesville, Florida. 89

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I certify that I have read this stady and that in ray opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ickehs, Chairman of Educational Leadership I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degr of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for^he degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 5sociate Professor of Educational Leadership This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy . August, 1988 Dean, College of Education Dean, Graduate School