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A comparison of non-resident and resident human services personnel training programs

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Title:
A comparison of non-resident and resident human services personnel training programs
Creator:
Duncan, Maria Valdes, 1948-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xv, 153 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
College students ( jstor )
Counselor training ( jstor )
Educational counseling ( jstor )
Government human services ( jstor )
Job training ( jstor )
Non permanent residents ( jstor )
Paraprofessionals ( jstor )
Professional training ( jstor )
Psychological counseling ( jstor )
School counselors ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Paraprofessionals in social service ( lcsh )
Social work education ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 143-152.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Maria Valdes Duncan.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator (ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
022939177 ( ALEPH )
05329941 ( OCLC )

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A COMPARISON OF NON-RESIDENT AND RESID14T HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL TRAINING PRXGRZNS
















By

Maria Valdes Duncan


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE
COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILIMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1978































Co(vyriiJht 1978



Mria V1]C,(s l ml~c






















Once upon a time, I, Chuang Chou, dreamt I was a butterfly, fluttering hither and thither, to all intents and purposes a butterfly.




I was conscious only of my happiness as a butterfly, unaware that I was Chou.




Soon I awaked, and there I was, veritably myself again.




Now I do not know whether I was then a man dreaming I was a butterfly, or whether I am now a butterfly, dreaming I am a man.


Chuang-Tze, 400 B.C.






























This work is a tribute to the three most significant people in the last ten years of my life. They have unsettled all my preconceived ideas about life, butterflies, men and women. C.W. Duncan, who
believed in me when I didn't believe in myself. Ted Landsman, whose demanding and supportive love encouraged me on. Pat Korb, always generous with her ideas and time.











ACKNOWLEDEMENTS


Many friends and teachers have encouraged me during my professional preparation. To them, I wish to express my love, respect and gratitude.

I wish to thank Dr. Ted Landsman, chairperson of my doctoral

committee, and my friend, for his help and encouragement, for the many hours he spent giving careful feedback, and for believing in me in a special and affirming way. Most important, I want to thank him for simply being a model as a teacher, helping person and human being.

I wish to thank Dr. Larry Loesch, member of my conmittee for his availability to meet with me and his help with statistics and research design. Most of all, I wish to thank him for his personal support and friendship.

My appreciation goes to Dr. Vernon Van De Reit, member of my committee, for his support and help and all he taught me about Gestalt therapy.

I also wish to thank Dr. Pat Korb who has believed in my ability "to do it," has told me so, has given me ideas, has worked side by side with me and without whose help this manuscript would probably not have

been completed.

My love and appreciation go to Dr. C.W. Duncan who has helped me

see new possibilities for myself both personally and professionally and who has affirmed rmy uniqueness.

I also wish to acknowledge the help and support of the following people who helped to make this dissertation a reality:









Dr. Robert Myrick, former member of my conmittee, for his help and for being one of my most stimulating teachers ever.

Mr. Ralph Glatfelter for wanting me to be "a star" and for the many opportunities he has created for me.

Drs. Joseph Wittiner, Rod McDavis, Marlin Schmidtt, Hanni Van De Reit, Tal Mullis, and Robert North for being wonderful teachers, role models and friends.

My friends, particularly Judy Aanstad for our many hours of long discussion and sharing about dissertations and many other subjects. Also, Charlie Flournoy, Tom West, Lauren Deldin, Betsy Kylstra, Marcia Wehr, Marta Konik, Chester Kylstra, Bill Korth, Gray Ward, and Suzanne Nickenson for their love, encouragement, and patience.

Crosby("C") Turner and Brian Van Duzee for their words of encouragement and crisis intervention.

Ben Vaughn for helping me get my data together.

Claire Walsh for being a friend and a reassuring face in my proposal

seminar.

The Florida Drug Abuse and Prevention Trust, the Career Development Center, and Santa Fe Community College, who jointly funded and supported this project.

The staff of the Human Service Program at Santa Fe Community College for developing the learning program, training the subjects, and most of all for being their creative, wonderful selves.

The students and facilitators who made this study an exciting,

personal and dynamic adventure.

Dr. Paul Schaubel for training the raters and being available for consultation.








Dr. Tal Mullis, for his belief in and support of my ideas and dreams,

particularly the external degree.

Brian Van Duzee for his help with computer programs and numerous statistical consultations.

David Gray, research assistant to the project, who was knowledgeable and helpful.

Gabriel Rodriguez, David Lindquist, James Penrod and Barbara Probert

for rating the counseling tapes.

Marcia Miller, Jackie King, Daisy Gunnoe, Kathy Howard, and Tillie McCall for the many long hours spent typing this manuscript.

Marcia Miller and Pat Korb for the many hours of editing and correcting of this manuscript.

John Young for his constant encouragement and support in my work.

To my mother and my father for inspiring me in my academic pursuits.

To Christina, my daughter, for bearing with me while I worked on this manuscript.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACOL GEENTS ......... ........................... v

LIST OF TABLES .......... ............................ x

LIST OF FIGURES .......... ........................... xii

ABSTRACT ............ ............................... xiii

CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I INTRODUCTION ........... ...................... 1
Purpose of the Study ........ ................. 5
Need of the Study ........ .................. 5
Importance of the Study ....... ............... 6
Human Service Program ....... ................ 7
Definition of Terms ........ ................. 9
Questions Posed by the Study .... ............. ... 12

II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH ..... ............... ...13
The Paraprofessional Counselor .... ............ ... 13
External Degrees ....... ................... ... 21
Applied Field Experience Vs Traditional Education 28
Didactic, Experiential and Experiential-Didactic
Teaching ........ ..................... ... 31
Helper Effectiveness ...... ................. ...33
Summary ......... ....................... ... 39

III EXPERIMIET=AL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES ... ........... ... 42
Experimental Design ...... ................. ...42
Subjects ........ ....................... ....49
Hypotheses ......... ...................... ... 54
Research Instruments ...... ................. ...57
Experimental Procedures ..... ............... ...66
Statistical Analysis ...... ................. ...70

IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY ......... .................. 73

V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS ... .......... . 101
Summary ......... ....................... . 101
Discussion ......... ...................... ...105
Limitations of the Study ..... ............... ...112
Conclusions ........ ..................... ...113
Areas for Further Research ..... .............. ...115


viii










TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page

APPENDICES ............................ 117
A COUNSFLOR VERBAL RESPONE SCALE ............. 119
B INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE CHECKLIST .... ........... ...127
C PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS MEASURED BY THE 16 PF
MEASUREMENT TEST ........ .................... .134
D DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET/PREVIOUS AND RELATED TRAINING
ASSESSMENT. .......... ....................... .137

REFERENCES ............ ............................ ..143

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......... ....................... .153











LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page

I DROPOUTS .......... .......................... .. 50

II GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: SEX ........ ................ 51

III GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: RACE ..... ................ . 51

IV GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: AGE ..... ................ 52

V CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: MARITAL STATUS ......... .. 52

VI CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: PREVIOUS EDUCATION ...... . 52 VII CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: REASON FOR ENTERING PROGRAM 53 VIII CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS .... 53 IX INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE SCALE 69 X INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE CHECKLIST 70 XI ANALYSIS OF COVAPJANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST
DATA CVRS AFFECTIVE/CXGNITIVE DIMENSION .. .......... 77

XII AFFECTIVE DIMENSION COMPARISON BETWEEN GROUPS PRE POST
DIFFERENCES ......... .........................

XIII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE PRE-POST
VS POST-TEST SCORES ....... .................... 78

XIV ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE PRE-TEST
VS POST-TEST SCORES ....... .................... 79

XV ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST
DATA CVRS UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING DIMENSION . . . . 81 XVI UNDERSTANDING DIMENSION COMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN GROUPS ........ ....................... . 81

XVII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST
UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING SCORES .. ........... . 82

XVIII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING SCORES ... ............. . 82

XIX ANALYSIS OF COOVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POSTTEST DATA CVRS SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC DIMENSION ..... . 84









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


TABLE Page

XX SPECIFIC DIMENSION COMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BETIEEN
GROUPS ............ ............................ 85

XXI ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/ NON-SPECIFIC SCORES ....... ..................... ..85

XXII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/ NON-SPECIFIC SCOPES .......... ..................... 86

XXIII ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RFSIDENT POST-TEST
DATA CVRS EXPLORATORY AND NON-EXPLORATORY DIMENSION ..... .. 88 XXIV EXPLORATORY DIMENSION COMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES
BET= (I0UPS ......... ........................ . 84

XXV ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST EXPLORATIORY/NON-EXPLORATORY SCORES ..... .............. . 89

XXVI ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST EXPLORATORY/
NON-EXPLORATORY SCORES ........ .................... . 89

XXVII FACILITATIVE RESPONSES COMPARISONS OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN GROUPS ......... ........................ . 91

KXVIII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST
FACILITATIVE RESPONSES ........ .................... . 91

XXIX ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST FACILITATIVE
RESPONSES ........... .......................... 91

XXX ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA POI ........... ........................... 94

XXXI ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST POI
SCORES ............ ............................ 95

XXXII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST POI SCORES . 96 XXXIII ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST
DATA 16 PF .......... .......................... . 98

XXXIV ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST 16 PF
SCORES ............ ............................ 99

XXXV ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST 16 PF SCORES 100











LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE Page

1 Time Spent on Instructional Activities Per Week ......... ... 44

2 Learning Activities, Teaching Methods, Evaluations ..... . 46 3 Level of Training of Staff ...... .................. ... 48








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requiremnents for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
A COMPARISON OF NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL TRAINING PIOGRAMS By

Maria Valdes Duncan

'June 1978

Chairman: Ted Landsman
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of the study was to investigate the differential and

comparative effectiveness of Non-resident (NR) and Resident (R) programs in training human service paraprofessional personnel. The study measured effectiveness in interviewing and counseling skills and personality changes.

In the study, non-resident or external program was used to refer to a program that allowed students to work toward a degree without full-time attendance in regular classes or even residence on campus. Students worked at their own pace. Learning experiences consisted largely of independent studies, learning packets, conferences, seminars, and workshops. Students had considerable input into those learning experiences that lead to attainment of skills.

Resident or traditional program was used to refer to a study program in which students working toward a degree were required to attend classes on a regular basis. Classes were held on campus. There was a prescribed period for students to complete their work and they had limited input in designing the learning experiences which were accepted for completion of a course.

The subjects of the study were 58 human service workers who enrolled full-time at a community college in the Fall of 1976. Thirty-one subjects completed the study. All non-resident students


xiii








were employed in human service agencies throughout six major metropolitan areas of the state. All resident students lived in the same metropolitan area where the college was located and only one was employed full-time in a human service agency. Subjects enrolled in the same courses and completed the same objectives. The main difference in the training consisted in the method of delivery and the structure of the program.

Four trainers were assigned to work with the non-resident students.

A consultant was hired in each of the major metropolitan areas to be an on-site supervisor or learning facilitator to the students, as well as a representative of the college in that area.

Pre-testing was followed by one year of training, and then posttesting was administered. The non-residents received two hours of

training each week. The residents received fifteen hours of training each week.

The effect of training was evaluated by four criterion instruments. Two of the instruents were used to rate pre- and post-audio taped segments of trainee counseling. The Counselor Verbal Response Scale which measures (1) ability to respond to the feelings of the helpee,

(2) ability to give understanding responses to the helpee, (3) ability to be specific, and (4) ability to give responses that lead the helpee to further self-exploration was used, as well as the Interpersonal Response Checklist which measures the helper's ability to give facilitative responses. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was used to measure the self-actualization level of trainees. The Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) was used to measure personality changes.










Twenty-eight hypotheses were tested using a pre-post design. Analyses of covariance and t-test were performed to test for the differences between the NR and R groups. T-tests were performed to measure differences within groups pre and post scores.

Both groups changed in a positive direction in all interpersonal effectiveness CVRS scales and the Interpersonal Response Checklist

with changes in all but the affective/cognitive dimension reaching at least a <.05 level of significance. The resident group experienced greater gain than the non-resident group in two scales: the affective/ cognitive dimension and the Interpersonal Response Checklist. The gains were significant at the <.05 level.

Subjects in the resident group significantly increased their level of self-actualization in six of the POI characteristics. Subjects in the non-resident group showed no increase.

Subjects in both groups experienced limited personality

changes as measured by the 16 PF. None of the changes were in areas that had been correlated to helper effectiveness in other studies. The changes that occurred were in different areas for each group.

Each program attracted a different trainee population. The groups were different in demographic characteristics, level of

caTritment and reasons for dropping out.












CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


During the past few years, one of the emerging trends in human service manpower utilization has been the hiring and training of support personnel or paraprofessionals, those workers who do not have a professional graduate education. Such workers usually have had some personal experiences and/or some training which help them respond effectively to those seeking help. The concept of using sub-professional personnel as support to the professional staff was initiated in the health-related fields where technicians were given specialized training enabling them to relieve medical doctors of the more routine duties.

In the 1950's paraprofessionals began to be used in some educational systems; however, the concept of paraprofessionals as an important part of the mental health care delivery system did not become prominent in professional literature until the 1960's. At that time paraprofessionals were being used in rehabilitative and welfare agencies to perform clerical duties, routine tasks, initial interviews and limited client management functions. They also worked under very close supervision by professionals. Initiative or a high degree of responsibility was not part of their job (Reiff and Reissman, 1965).

In the recent years the responsibilities given to paraprofessional human service personnel have greatly increased. Seeking innovative ways to meet client needs, some agencies have created jobs to meet needs that were not previously met by professionals. Titles describing the new








service delivery jobs include "ccamunity organizer," "advocate," "client broker," occupational specialist," and "behavioral manager" (McPheeters and King, 1971; Teare, 1971).

The public, increasingly better informed and more acutely aware

of welfare practices, is demanding better quality of services and more tangible results. Consequently, faced with the problem of need to increase productivity while maintaining qualitative standards, human service agencies are more and more relying on paraprofessionals (North, 1972).

The effectiveness of paraprofessional human service workers in establishing meaningful relationships has received wide support frm research studies and field reports (Truax and Carkhuff, 1967; Zax and Cowen, 1967; Grosser, Henry, and Kelly, 1969; North, 1974). Ccwen attempts to summarize the special assets which make paraprofessionals successful in human service work: (1) new, creative and flexible attitudes with which they handle their tasks, (2) energy, enthusiasm, involvement, and (3) the special identification and cooperation that clients give them (Cowen, 1967).

Paraprofessional human service workers often do not possess a broad background of professional education. Often they are given only a short period of training, if any, to help them perform their roles. Consequently, the human service agencies which are presently employing or which intend to employ paraprofessionals are left with the need to develop helpful in-service training programs. As paraprofessionals acquire experience and confidence scme want to move to better paying jobs. However, service agencies have limited possibilities for raises on the basis of performance. Better jobs often require better qualifications







and further training. The paraprofessionals face the dilema of staying on a job that is perhaps satisfying and meaningful but does not pay much, having to acquire additional training, or finding a different, better paying job.

As paraprofessional human service workers beccme a more integral

and useful part of agency staff, the question of minimizing job turnover and re-training becomes more crucial. Since further training either for better delivery of service and skill-upgrading or for inprovement of workers' opportunities, or both, involve money, time and effort on both the part of the paraprofessional worker and the agency, questions of the kind and the effectiveness of training beccme crucial issues. Agencies and paraprofessional hunan service workers are asking what is the most efficient way to deliver needed training? Which is the most feasible and workable training method that can best benefit agencies and paraprofessionals?

For many years the traditional university has been the primary institution offering training opportunities beyond the high school level. In addition, higher education has been the special province of the young.

Traditionally, American colleges have discriminated against
adult students whose work or family responsibilities prevent them from returning to the campus for regularly scheduled classes. For
such people a college education is very difficult, if not impossible
to attain. The present system of higher education is oriented to
the "college age" population. As a result, human potential is
going to waste and society suffers. (Troutt, 1971i, p. 2)

Paraprofessional human service workers are often fram lower socioeconomic backgrounds. They started to work early in life, got married and had families. opportunities for higher education were not available to them.









Yet they are important members of agencies and the need for further

training is there.

Paraprofessionals are certainly not the only group with needs that are not being effectively met by present higher education practices. The needs of veterans, minorities, low income persons, shift workers, housewives, the elderly and many others seeking additional career education have not been met by the present structure (Schmitt, 1975).

Recently the traditional institutional educational system has

begun to assess what it has to offer to persons over twenty-five years of age. Responding to both the financial need for enrolling more students

and the demands for alternative methods of education, some institutions have started to develop programs that would attract a wider range of students. Some of the comon characteristics of these programs are acceptance of alternative learning experiences that may or may not require classroom activities, flexibility of residency requirements and encouragement of experiences that are designed to help students learn in ways best suited to their needs and wants. The nonresidential or external degree program is one such option. These are programs that permit students to work toward a degree without full-time attendance at regular classes or even residence on campus. Such nonresidential degree programs have

been designed for paraprofessionals in the field of human services. They provide two years of training enabling workers to work in a variety of helping agencies.

Nonresidential degree programs particularly at the two-year level can perhaps meet the needs of both agencies and paraprofessional human service workers. Such programs can perhaps up-grade skills, as well as give credit for the knowledge and skills that workers already have









acquired on-the-job. They enable workers to stay on-the-job and at the same time improve their future career opportunities. In addition they are directly related to the student's job. For all these reasons they are nore able to meet the needs of both the agencies and tie paraprofessional human service .trker.


Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to assess the effects of training on both a residential and a nonresidential group of students in a paraprofessional human service training program and (2) to describe the differences between residential and nonresidential groups. The purpose of both training programs is to develop and improve skills related to effective interviewing and to increase those perceptual attitudes and personality traits correlated with effective counseling performance.


Need of the Study

Because there is likely to be an increase in the number of paraprofessionals Employed in human service agencies, models for efficient and effective training programs must be developed and tested. Since new alternatives to traditional education are being designed and implemented, research needs to be done to assess their effectiveness. Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of paraprofessional training programs over a period of a year or more. No research has been done assessing the effectiveness of external degree programs. No research has been done comparing the performance of students in a traditional program with that of students in an external degree program.









Importance of the Study

Because the paraprofessional human service worker has become a

respected addition to the staff of helping agencies, and because current national and state trends and policies tend to point to increasing utilization of the paraprofessional helper in the State of Florida and throughout the country, agencies are beginning to ask questions regarding training of paraprofessionals. With the shortage of funds for hiring new personnel and the ever-increasing need for social services, agencies are giving more and more responsibility to paraprofessionals. Their job responsibilities are shifting from clerical and record keeping tasks

to those client related tasks that used to be considered the sole danain of professionals. Their responsibilities range from intake interviewing, individual and group therapy, case management, and evaluation to supervisory and administrative tasks. Thus, with increased responsibilities the question of what is the minimal level of training that should be required of paraprofessionals becomes an issue of greater concern. Another pertinent question is what to do about those employees who are already on the job, functioning in positions of increasing responsibility, who yet have no formal training.

Several factors have led to increased enphasis on and need for ongoing training and/or on-the-job staff development programs. The quantity of knowledge is increasing faster than individuals can keep pace with. In sone countries, half the working population are in jobs that did not exist at the beginning of this century. As better care and health practice extends the life span of people and the years of productive healthy life increase, people are wanting to work longer. As a result of changed attitudes toward work, the emphasis in jobs is also being changed fram









meeting survival needs to desire for satisfaction and fullfillment. Re-training often is mandatory for shifts in careers or improvement in one's field. All these social changes point to a need for education to be available not only to young people but people of all ages who cannot and would not take off four years, leave their jobs, up-root their families and go to a university. Along with greater emphasis on

equal opportunity in employment comes a need to design viable alternatives for training those people who do not have parents that can send them away to college for several years and who instead have had to join

the labor force at an early age.

As education is being redefined from an activity in which people engage during the early years of their life to a life long process, alternatives to traditional education are becoming an area of concern to those interested in education and training. Open universities, external degree or nonresidential programs, continuing education courses, and individualized study programs are in existence, yet little research to assess their success or failure has been carried out.

Questions as to the effectiveness of such programs are still unanswered. One important question is whether educational work done in such alternative methods is worth credentialing equal to that which traditional methods of learning have carried. No studies have been done to determine the effect of external degree programs on the students or to compare the performance and learning of external students with students in more traditional programs.


Human Services Program

The Human Services Program research in ti-is study provides an

intensive training program in human relations, qeneral helpinq skills,









psychopathology, and in different approaches to helping and interviewing skills. The two most important assumptions underlying the program are: (1) that the single most critical resource a person has to bring to the helpinq situation is himself as an open, sensitive, caring human being; and (2) that the most effective learning takes place in situations in which a person is actively working in the area under study. Thus, the emphasis in the program is upon the student's development of himself as a helping person and upon his active participation in supervised field work in a variety of human service settings. Students in the nonresidential program are required to specialize in substance abuse counseling. Students in the residential program are encouraged but not required to have an area of specialty. One of their options is substance abuse, and other areas include working with groups or individual counseling.

The curriculum is divided into two major areas of ccpetence:

(1) Core counselor behaviors and understandings.

(2) Fieldwork or agency-applied behaviors and understandings.

Students in the external program have an additional area of competence:

(3) Substance abuse knowledge and the counseling behaviors
and understandings associated with substance abuse agency
work.

The core skills include those ccmpetencies that are necessary to work in any human service agency: interviewing and therapeutic skills, knowledge of community resources and community dynamics, process recording and psychopathology. The fieldwork competencies deal with those skills related to direct work with people and with the student's ability to apply the knowledge he has obtained through his/her core skill courses. Fieldwork skills include on-going counseling and in-take interviews, working








with groups, case management activities, client advocacy, outreach and any other activities that human service agencies require of the human service personnel. The substance abuse competencies deal with those skills related to work with drug abusers. They include knowledge of and ability to use those therapeutic skills that have been found to be effective in the treatment of substance abusers, legal and ethical considerations specific to this population, and pharmacological and historical information.

In addition to these courses, students in both programs have

to have a minimum of 18 hours of general education requirements in order to obtain an Associate in Science degree. General education courses

are math, science, comunication, humanities, social and behavioral sciences. These courses are needed in order to meet the general education requirements as specified by the articulation agreement between community colleges and universities.

At the completion of these experiences students in both programs are awarded an Associate in Science degree in human services work.


Definition of Terms

Some of the words in this study have special connotations. The

purpose of this section on definitions is to provide a general contextual explanation of some of the key words found throughout this study.

Nonresidential programs: Nonresidential program, sometimes also

referred to as "external," is a study program that permit students

to work toward an Associate of Arts or Sciences degree without fulltime attendance in regular classes or even residence on campus.

Students have considerable input into those learning experiences

that can lead to attainment of skills and are allowed to progress








towards their degree at their own pace. Learning experiences range fron regular courses and independent study to internships, video tape playbacks, conferences, workshops and seminars. Residential programs: Residential programs, sometimes referred to as "traditional," are study programs in which students working toward a degree are required to attend classes on a regular basis. The classes are generally held on campus or extension facility. There is a prescribed period of time during which students must finish their work. Students have limited input in designing the learning experiences which will be accepted for completion of a course.

Experience: A full-time job in a human services agency held by the student where he or she is involved in delivery of service to the client population.

Paraprofessional: For purposes of this study a paraprofessional

is a person who does not have a graduate level degree in counseling or related field and who works in a human service agency under the supervision of a professional. His/her position may require a twoyear degree, specialized training and/or experience, and in many cases, experiences not specific to helping others. A paraprofessional sometimes may hold a four-year degree in psychology or a related field or an unrelated field such as history. A paraprofessional may have a high school education and past personal experience may include having been a client himself, or having been a recipient of services such as those he is delivering. Counseling skills: Counseling skills are those behaviors which when performed proficiently by the counselor will lead to client








self-exploration and growth in the counseling process. In clientcentered therapy they are also referred to as providing the necessary and sufficient conditions and include empathic responding, warmth, genuineness and concreteness. Some other skills are the ability to reflect, clarify, appropriately self disclose, confront, give feedback and ask open ended questions. Experiential-didactic teaching: For purposes of this study experiential-didactic teaching is a method of teaching which incorporates both theory and actual practice within a presentation of materials to students. There is special emphasis on creating actual live experiences in the classroom that allow the student to become involved as an active participant. These experiences include role plays, video tapes, practice groups and discussion groups.

Personality: Personality can be defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique response to his environment. It is a combination of (1) those perceptions, characteristics, and attitudes through which he interprets reality, (2) those behaviors which he uses to gratify his needs and survive in his environment.

For purpose of this paper personality will be described by

the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). The 16PF defines personality in terms 16 independent dimensions ranging from how sociable and outgoing a person is to how conventional and practical. The POI defines personality in terms of self-actualizing characteristics as described by Maslow (1964) and Jourard (1968). In these instruments a healthy









person is one who is fully functioning and leads a richer, more fulfilling life than does the average person, one who is more individualistic and freer of inhibitions and emotional turmoil.


Questions Posed By The Study

(1) Will there be differences in gain between the groups of

non-residential students and residential students on counseling

skills?

(2) Will there be differences in changes between the groups of

the nonresidential students and residential students in their

level of self-actualization?

(3) Will there be differences in changes between the nonresidential students and residential students on personality

characteristics?











CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH

The review of related research centers around the following four areas:

(1) The paraprofessional human service worker, (2) the external degree, and experiential teaching, (3) applied field experience vs. traditional education, and (4) didactic-experiential and experiential didactic teaching, and (5) helper effectiveness.

The Paraprofessional Counselor

The practice of using paraprofessionals or sub-professional personnel has a long history. Accompanying the concept of job factoring, in the early part of this century, was the idea of giving the lower level jobs to the less skilled or trained worker (Taylor, 1911). Diversified staffing was introduced in the schools in 1950 and this introduced teacher-aides into the classrocm (Fine, 1967). Indigenous community workers began to be used to perform clerical and client management functions in the early 1960's (Reiff and Reissman, 1965). Also in the early 60's prison attendants began to perform minor counseling tasks in correctional institutions (Austin, 1972).

In the last few years the use of paraprofessional personnel has been increasing rapidly both in the number of available positions and in the scope of responsibilities which their jobs have come to include (Thigpen, 1974). A symposium of educators from eleven southeastern states was able to define thirteen different paraprofessional functions ranging from clerical tasks to highly sophisticated therapeutic and change agentry functions (King and McPheeters, 1969). The following functional roles were described:








1. Outreach (human link) worker. Reaches out to detect people
with problems, to refer them to appropriate services and to follow them up to make sure they continue to their maximun
rehabilitation.

2. Broker. Helps people get to the existing services and helps
the services relate more easily to clients.

3. Advocate. Pleads and fights for services, policies, rules,
regulations, and laqs for clients.

4. Evaluator. Assesses client or ccmmunity needs and problems
whether medical, psychiatric, social or educational, etc.
This includes formulating plans and explaining them to all
concerned.

5. Teacher educator. Performs a range of instructional activities
from simple coaching to teaching highly technical content
directed to individuals or groups.

6. Behavior changer. Carries out a range of activities planned
primarily to change behavior, ranging from coaching and counseling to casework, psychotherapy, and behavior therapy.

7. Mbbilizer. Uelps to get new resources for clients or communities.

8. Consultant. Wbrks with other professions and agencies regarding their handling of problems, needs and programs.

9. Community planner. Works with community boards, committees,
etc., to assure that conmunity developments enhance positive mental health and self and social actualization, or at least
minimized citizens emotional stress and strains.

10. Care giver. Provides services for persons who need ongoing
support of same kind (i.e., financial assistance, day care,
social support, 24 hour care).

11. Data manager. Performs all aspects of date handling; gathering data,
tabulating, analyzing, synthesizing, program evaluation, and
planning.

12. Administrator. Carries out activities that are primarily
agency or institution-oriented rather than client or conmunityoriented (budgeting, purchasing, personnel activities, etc.).

13. Assistant to specialist. This role is listed since some need
for aides and assistants to the existing professionals and
specialists may be anticipated.








In a survey of 185 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) training programs, Sobey (1970) found paraprofessionals working as therapists, case managers, special skill instructors, advocates, recreational aides, and in a multitude of other activities.

There seem to be three basic explanations for the increased use of paraprofessionals in the helping fields which point to the need for the development of effective paraprofessional training programs:

(1) The manpower available in the helping professions is limited and will continue to be increasingly so if only traditionally trained professionals are utilized. Th use only professionals does not seem financially feasible in light of the national economic crisis or the increased demand for quality service. (2) The development of new careers will provide jobs for presently unused but potential helpers. Lay counselors, being generally less educated, of a lower socioeconomic class and more likely to be non-white, are probably more like their clients than are professionals, and thus likely to be more easily trusted. (3) The alteration of what is seen as the best way to serve the mental health needs of this country reflects a widespread demand for placing a greater value of indigenous and comunity-supported workers. These people are perceived as being more in touch with the needs of clients and perhaps having ways to provide more creative helping services (Thigpen, 1974; Wehr, 1973).

In 1952 and 1955 Eysenck published research which seemed to deny the value of counseling and psychotherapy (Eysenck, 1952, 1955). His controversial articles caused those who were convinced of the benefits of counseling to get busy trying to prove its effectiveness. Part of









what some supporters of counseling and psychotherapy found in their research was that factors could be isolated which distinguished effective from ineffective therapists (Truax, Wittmer, and Warp, 1971). Carl Rogers (1961) represented the views of other therapists who insist that effective therapy comes not from any method, but rather from the quality of the helping relationship. Rogers believes that positive change happens in a helping relationship if the counselor is empathic, congruent and has positive regard for his client. By "empathtic" he means having a true understanding of the client's perspective; by "congruent," an ability to bereal; and by "positive regard", an unconditional acceptance of the client. Rogers calls these ingredients the "necessary and sufficient conditions" for therapeutic change (Rogers, 1961). These "necessary and sufficient conditions" have become the basis for scales that have been used to measure counselor effectivenss (Truax, 1961, 1962).

Truax and Carkhuff (1967) have attempted to measure therapeutic effectiveness, the relationship between personal characteristics of therapists and client outcome, and the relationship between the degree of professional training a therapist has had and his ability to adequately effect client change.

The Truax and Carkhuff research findings can be sumarized as follows:

(1) Individuals possessing such personal characteristics as
empathic understanding, non-possessive warmth and genuineness
can effect positive changes in clients. They can also rapidly
develop more sophisticated therapeutic skills.

(2) Counselors who have the facilitative interpersonal qualities
of empathy, warmth and genuineness effect therapeutic
changes without fully understanding the complexities of personality dynamics.








(3) Lengthy professional training is not a prerequisite for
effective functioning as a therapist.

(4) Paraprofessionals with limited training can be just as
effective in facilitating client change over relatively
short periods of time.

These findings establish a basis for training that is opposed to the basis upon which the traditional training model has been built: that only those with many years of specialized training were fit to be helpers. Now a sizable body of evidence is accumulating to indicate that many functions traditionally ascribed to professionals can be performed effectively by individuals with less formal training: housewives (Magoon and Golann, 1966); college students (Graves, 1944); indigenous community agents (Reiff and Reissman, 1965); black parents (Banks

and Carkhuff, 1970); and senior citizens (Sobey, 1970). Such

individuals have demonstrated their ability to perform meaningful tasks in various types of mental health settings.

An accumulating body of research has pointed out several discrepancies in previous assumptions of psychotherapeutic effectiveness. Berenson and Carkhuff (1967) have reworded these assumptions to fit present day knowledge as follows:

1. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
by nonprofessional persons trained to offer high levels
of psychological conditions that correlate with constructive change.

2. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
by persons providing high levels of facilitative interpersonal conditions independent of schools of therapy.

3. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
by many who have not passed the screening procedures
of a particular school of therapy.

4. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
by persons representing a wide range of levels of
intellectual functioning.









5. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
by persons who may or may not understand fully the
complexities of personality dynamics.

6. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
only by those who become involved at scme deep level
with the lives of their patients.

7. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
only by those who have first learned to trust their
own experiences, impulses and feelings.

8. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
only by those persons who are more "human" than
"therapist."

9. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished
only by those who make a basic conmitment to their
clients, who challenge the establishment with new learnings, and are continuously re-examining old
learnings.

10. Effective counseling and psychotherapy involving
the personal problems of clients can only be
accoplished by the most personal of approaches.


The above statements have been substantiated in numerous studies. That is, lay persons have been found to be able to provide facilitative conditions (empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence) after training sessions ranging from 20 hours to one year (Berenson, Carkhuff and Myrus, 1966; Demos, 1964; Demos and Zuwaylif, 1966; Gunning, Holmes, Johnson and Rife, 1965; Hansen and Barker, 1964;

Carkhuff and Truax, 1969a). Som research suggests that paraprofessionals or support personnel who have not undergone traditional academic training are even more effective than those with professional training (Magoon and Golann, 1966; Harvey, 1964) and are able to elicit as high or

higher counseling process movement than professionally trained personnel (Anthony and Carkhuff, 1969; Berenson, Carkhuff and Myrus, 1966; Bergin and Solomon, 1963).








Several suggestions to help understand these findings have been postulated by Carkhuff and Pierce (1967) and Banks, Berenson and Carkhuff (1967). They suggest that helpers who are different from their clients in race and social class may have more difficulty in effecting constructive changes in their clients than those who are mre similar in these denographic characteristics. Lay counselors, being generally less educated, of a lower socioeconomic background and more likely to be non-white, were probably more like their clients than were the professionals. Carkhuff (1969) noticed from his direct contact with both lay and professional counselors involved in his studies that lay counselors have only themselves as resources in counseling whereas professionally trained persons bring an additional set of theories and techniques that in many cases may encunber and block full and intense involvement with a client.

In addition to research findings within the mental health field which support the use of paraprofessionals, historical and political developments have had their influence. Davis (1975) states, 'With the event of the Russian Sputnik in 1957, the goverment invested much more noney in education, bringing more counselors and aids into the schools, and opening up jobs for paraprofessionals. The mvement was also aided in 1964 by the Economic Opportunity Act, which as part of the war on poverty, created many new agencies outside the civil service and state merit system. This also served to create job opportunities" (Davis, 1975, p.8).

In view of increasing client needs and research findings supporting the effectiveness of paraprofessionals,it would seem that they would be viewed as a welccue addition to the mental health field. Such is not the case, however, in 1967 the American Personnel and Guidance








Association (APGA) published guidelines excluding paraprofessionals from "counseling activities" and restricting their role to clerical assistance, information gathering, record keeping, and test scoring. Beal (1969) and Jones and Cox (1970) indicate that professional counselors at that time concurred with APGA guidelines, feeling that "non-counseling" activities were the only appropriate domain for the paraprofessional. These findings reflected a fear that the new workers would dilute the quality of services. There was also resentment fram professionals and fear of de-professionalization in the mental health field (Brown, 1974; Rosenbaum, 1966).

In spite of the resistance on the part of many professionals and in spite of such other obstacles as low pay, no specified paraprofessional line items and no career ladders, the use of paraprofessionals has persisted. There are indications of increased acceptance. The American Personnel and Guidance Association has published two monographs during 1975 which are much more receptive to paraprofessionals. Florida Career Development Association, a new organization for counselors which includes paraprofessionals, has been initiated by the Florida Personnel and Guidance Association (Rand, 1973).

In addition to their interpersonal effectiveness which has proven them to be valuable helpers as well as cheap manpower, there might be some other reasons for their growing popularity. Gartner and Reissman (1974) feel that poor people have not felt understood by professional helpers and professional helpers have felt frustrated in their attempts to reach the poor. Thus they have come to see the paraprofessional as a bridge to the poor.








Both the present increasing acceptance and the lack of clarity in the boundaries between professionals and paraprofessionals are evident in a recent article by Gartner and Riessman (1974). They state:

In this special issue, we are defining paraprofessionals
as persons who are selected, trained and given responsibility
for performing functions generally performed by professionals.
They do not possess the requisite education or credentials to
be considered professionals in the field . . . but thwey do
perform tasks central to the function of the agency. (p. 253)

Much controversy continues to surround the roles and functions of paraprofessionals. Questions as to what is effective and appropriate

training for these workers are being asked. Complicating factors in making training possible for these people are that they are often poor, relatively uneducated, not academically inclined and have family responsibilities that prevent them from devoting themselves to long hours of study at an educational institution. Hopefully, maningful training programs designed to increase the effectiveness of paraprofessional personnel and able to acccmmdate their particular needs can be designed and implemented in the near future. External degrees are perhaps one such alternative.


External Degrees

During the 1970's the external degree has come suddenly and powerfully to the attention of the American higher education ccmmunity. Many educators have spoken out on its behalf and several universities and university systems have made plans to initiate such a degree-granting program. New colleges entirely designed to provide such a degree were created; magazines and newspapers began to describe it, support it, and condemn it. Educators began to write articles about positive and negative aspects, including both the support and cautions. Uncritical








acceptance of the new degree by some was at once countered by skepticism from others. Experienced educators are well aware of fascination with new fads and ideas presented as the cure for all current ills. The executive vice president of the College Examination Board in an address on the subject said, "Candor moves me to begin by confessing that I had a very difficult time deciding whether to talk with you about hula hoops or miniature golf. In nry lifetime both have been fads which took the country by storm - in much the same way that the external degree promises to become the current 'thing' in higher education." He went on to say that after the initial excitement, a few solid and enduring programs would remain (Hanford, unpublished address at a conference for Adult and Continuing Education, April 1971).

There have been two essentially different patterns of basic requirements for obtaining an academic degree. The first one began with the founding of Harvard College and it defined the degree as an award for completing a set course of studies, pursued by all students in the same fashion and same sequence. Few choices were given to the individual student even though he could enrich his experience by belonging to different interest clubs or honorary societies. The second pattern was initiated by Charles W. Elliot as an effort to democratize higher education

in the late part of the nineteenth century. After many years of battle he was able to establish the elective system at Harvard. The impact of the elective system quickly led to other innovations such as course credit, concentration and distribution of content, grade points, lower and upper division, and a minimum number of credits for graduation. The result was a four year baccalaureate degree to be awarded on the basis of








a suitable number of and variety of hours of credit at an average level of acconwlishment. Such increased openness allowed for the emergence of the practical college exeplified by Cornell and the research university based on the German model both of which were established by the end of the nineteenth century. This openness also led to a proliferation in the degrees offered. In 1877 there were 11; ten years later, there were 60; twenty years later, 242; by 1960 there were more than 1,600 (Eells, 1963).

An underlying assumption in both patterns however, was that they were both to be secured only through full-time study, by young people, mostly men, in residence on campus of a college and university. American colleges by virtue of their daytime scheduling and residency requirements, have traditionally discriminated against adult students whose work or family responsibilities have prevented them from returning to the campus for regularly scheduled classes (Troutt, 1971).

A 1972 report International Carmission on Education to UNESCO

describing the status of worldwide education (Report 6, 1972) indicated that the belief of education being a lifelong process is not just a theory but already a fact and one which educational systems should take into consideration. The Commission's analysis of what education has been and is now can be sunmmarized by saying that education has become so institutionalized that it is no longer a creative approach to life or a way to meet man's need to learn but rather an institution that preserves itself

by limiting others. Even though the Commission lays no ground rules for the educational Systems of the world and recognizes that each country must find a system that suits its cultural climate it does give some general guidelines. Among these are flexibility, continuity and open access.








The report also points out the wide gap between the moral decision

to provide education to all and the educational actuality. The Commission found that, even though most countries profess a desire to make education available to all and not to a self-perpetuating elite, the reality is that education continues to be denied to the most underpriviledged. This

happens because of the locations of educational centers, the cost, and the lack of flexibility in requirements. The report insists that, at any rate, equality of access still would not mean the same as equality of opportunity, which must include an equal chance of success. What is needed, it says, it not equal treatment for everybody, but provision for each individual for a suitable education, tailored after his needs and at a suitable pace for his life condition.

Mullis (1972) states that:

Real solutions to the problems of inequality can only be
found in a sweeping reorganization on the lines of permanent, lifelong education for once education beccmes continual, ideas as to
what constitutes success and failure will change. An individual who
fails at a given age and level in the course of his educational
career will have other opportunities. He will no longer be relegated
for life to the ghetto of his own failure.

The idea of lifelong education is not a new one but has been
urged by some educators for many years. It is an observable fact that human beings, consciously or not, keep on learning throughout their lives, above all through the influence of their environment.

Recognition of this should bring revolutionary consequences. (p. 4)

Changes have been taking place in the re-evaluation and reorganization of colleges and universities. According to Feingold (1973) colleges and universities have begun to realize that they cannot remain static but must rather accept a new responsibility. Feingold states: "What we are discussing is moving from a closed system to an open system; recognizing








that a collegiate or any post-secondary educational pattern should not be rigid and fixed, but rather flexible, open and responsive to individuals and their changing needs." The Carnegie Corm-ission has enunciated this stance by urging institutions to serve the ages, life styles, abilities and career goals of their rapidly diversifying clientele (Van Dyne, 1972).

If an education is an acceptable substitute for experience, then som forms of experience should be accepted in lieu of a formal classroom education. One of the new formats being explored and implemented by many institutions is the "external degree." This degree is "awarded to an individual on the basis of scm program preparation (devised either by himself or by an educational institution) which is not centered on the traditional pattern of the collegiate university 'student" (Houle, 1973, p. 15). This format sometimes grants credit for previous life experiences and learnings, removes residential requirements, allows for greater individual study and provides the opportunity for each student to design an appropriate curriculun and to work at his own pace. According to Houle (1973) the concept of the external degree is based on three philosophical assumptions: First, the belief that students can, and should be responsible for their own learning; second, the belief that learning occurs in varied ways and places; and third, that styles of learning differ from person to person.

Many articles have been written describing (Bl6cmerly, 1974; Gibbs and Lee, 1974), supporting (yenning, 1974; Perlman, 1975), or attacking (Furniss, 1971; Perlman, 1975) the concept of the external degree. The Cbuncil on Higher Education was directed to review external educational options in the State of Washington during 1974. In attempting to determine









whether an educational activity was considered "external," the Council stipulated that the determining focus in their project would be expanding educational access. Options designed to reach out to students who were unable to spend considerable amounts of time attending classes on

campus were described as "external" (Council on Higher Education, 1974-75). This definition of external degree offerings is accepted by other sources (Houle, 1973). Thus, external degrees include a variety of options in terms of classroom time, contact hours, and instructors and learning methodology required.

Much has been written about external degrees at a theoretical level. However, after an extensive search of the literature, including an ERIC search covering up to 1976, the author has found only one research article dealing with external degree programs. The article was written by Siroky in 1973, who describes the kinds of students who are interested in an external degree program and for what reasons. He found that those interested in external degrees have a mean average age of 33, are predominantly male, married and enployed full-time in professional or managerial positions. He concludes that external degrees attract a more mature, better educated, self-reliant, and professionally more responsible

student body than traditional on-campus day programs. He also found that convenience of time is the major reason for the desire to study in an external degree program. Second in importance was the belief that family or personal needs would be met better; and third, the perceived relevance of external programs to job or work situations. rhe major personal reason for returning to an external degree program was the development of new skills and knowledge. The second most important reason was to prepare for a new vocation or job; the third was self enrichment. Practical








considerations weigh heavily in the choice of external degree programs as well as in the choice of the kinds of programs or majors under this model of instruction.

As far as this author can find there are no research studies on the

effectiveness of external degree programs at this point. Also, no published work describing external degree programs designed to train professional or paraprofessional counselors was found.

Fears and criticisms surrounding the creation of external degree programs mainly concern the deterioration of academic standards as a result of too little structure. Morland (1973) describes Nova University, a Florida institution that through its external program produced 1600 education doctorates in three years -- more than the three largest traditional producers. He attributes such high nurbers of graduates to lower quality standards. He states that Nova and other external degree universities have relaxed standards that do not favorably compare to those of traditional institutions. Shulman (1972) acknowledges the importance of the issue of quality of academic standards and believes it not to be a danger if three factors are in line: motivated students, adequate resources, and a process for proper guidance and rigorous assessment of the student.

An additional criticism of external degree programs is that a higher

education institution should provide students not only credentials but also

opportunities to participate in college life and student activities. Most external degree programs are lacking in this area, although some programs, such as Pegents' External Degree Program in New York, have made









attempts to make student services available to external students in order to remedy this situation. However, this may well be a built-in shortcoming of external degree programs due to both the structure of the programs and the students lack of time and desire to participate.

It is estimated that one third of all Pmerican colleges and

universities are engaged in some type of unconventional program (Houle, 1973). Some of these programs include extension degrees, individual study programs, adult degrees, and credit by examination (Gould and Cross, 1972). Some of the institutions offering the external degree are Empire State College in New York, Florida International University in Miami, Florida, Santa Fe Conriunity College in Florida, Minnesota Metropolitan State College, the Regents' External Degree Program in New York, Eagle University ( a consortium of nine universities) and the University Without Walls (composed of 25 institutional members spread throughout the country). All of these institutions share a belief in individual learning and attempt to provide

maximum flexibility to their clientele. Many students find that being able to work at their own pace eliminates some of the frustration that results from trying to meet the needs of their families, their school work, and trying to meet exhausting timetables. The primary philosophical basis for external degrees is the belief that effective learning derives from purposes and needs that are important to the individual.



Applied Field Experience vs Traditional Education
There sems to be an increasing agreement among educators that as

education is considered to be an acceptable substitute for experience, some forms of experience can be accepted in lieu of formal classroom education. The questions seem to center about what kinds of outside-the-









classroom experience are acceptable; what is an appropriate system to evaluate such experiences; and what is an appropriate balance of the two. The present study attempts to answer the question of whether extensive applied experience and limited formal classroom training is wore, less, or equally effective as extensive classroom training and limited applied experience.

The literature related to paraprofessional training reflects an increasing degree of valuing of applied experience by educators, field practitioners, and paraprofessionals (North, 1974; Carkhuff, 1971; Riock, Elkes and Fline, 1965; Danish and Brock, 1974; Davis, 1975). Their

views can be suTmarized in a statement by Harold McPheeters of Southern Regional Educational Board:

The field is the only setting in which paraprofessionals can
learn to become practitioners. In the field they learn to
experience the mentally ill, the retarded, the alcoholic and persons
with other problems of daily living. Here they learn the "how
soon," "how much" and "how far" in applying their skills with
real clients. They learn the realities of paraprofessional and
agency life. Here they learn to solve problems from the
beginning. Here, too, they learn the full implications of/generalist
role model. The field is not just a place where the students "test
out" or integrate their classroom knowledge. It is, in fact,
the place where the most effective acquisition of knowledge, skills,
and values actually take place. (McPheeters, 11., 1976, p. 76)

Friel and Carkhuff in The Art of Developing a Career (1974) discuss

the importance of all aspects of the learning process: (1) exploration;

(2) understanding; and (3) action. Traditional programs emphasize the first two components where external degrees attempt to integrate all three components (Mullis, 1972).

In a recent survey of how potential employers value components of

traditional and external doctorates (Gephart, Saretsky and Bost, 1975) it was found that they wanted individuals who were prepared to use their intellectual ablities and knc',7e1edr to resolved, ''or V n em, They were









asked to rate 17 items in three ways: (1) in terms of desirability as a

characteristic of a doctoral program; (2) as a factor influential in the consideration of job applicant; and (3) as an influence on a promotion decision. In terms of desirability as a ccmponent of a doctoral program employers ranked as the number one requirement an internship which offers opportunities to accomplish professional tasks in real life situations. Number two in the rankings was the program's emphasis upon roles, responsibilities and functions. These results indicate a high valuing of on-the job and directly job-related training. On the other hand, the number three ranking was dissertation component that focuses on research and scholarship. Their opinions of program quality do not seem rooted in time requirements of a specific duration; however, they do seem to highly value practical experience but not to the exclusion of intellectual and theoretical knowledge. In terms of factors influencing both consideration of a job

applicant and promotions for those already employed, those factors related to effective performance in applied situations and personal qualities were ranked higher than traditional education. Their responses suggest that these employers are not much influenced by the specific nature of a doctoral program when it comes to hiring decisions. In order of importance

they listed completion and possession of the doctorate, impressions from personal interviews and the nature of prior professional experience. The specifics of a doctoral program are even less influential in promotion

decisions. Here employers would consider comments of colleagues, performance on the job and recommendations.









If this study and other writings by educators are correct, the

message to those people interested in developing meaningful programs is

clear. Employers and employees want to see programs that prepare individuals to use theory and generalize knckiledge in the resolution of everyday jobrelated problems. It seems unlikely that such a program can be totally inmrsed in the field, or behind the walls of a school. It seems that a balancing combination is the answer. Questions related to what the appropriate balance is, what kinds of evaluation and accreditation procedures for non-traditional training experiences are appropriate, and what if any are the differences in the kinds of learning that can be effectively accomplished by each program remain to be answered.


Didactic, Experiential and Experiential-Didactic Teaching

In didactic teaching, a trainer provides information that the trainees

may use as a tool to help others. Helper trainers who believe in didactic methods contend that teaching should consist primarily of an information giving process (Wblberg, 1954). The major concern is to provide the necessary information to understand and change behavior. In experiential teaching, the focus is on learning about oneself (Patterson, 1964). Educators that support experiential teaching believe that a higher degree of self-awareness will make the trainee a better helper. The major assumption underlying the experiential model is that effective conrunication and counseling does not depend on the use of a special technique or adherence to a particular theory but rather on the nature of the helper's attitudes, his perceptions of himself and others (Patterson, 1964; Rogers, 1957b). The helper's effectiveness is believed to rest on his ability to









understand and evaluate his own attitudes and experiences. Experientialdidactic teaching combines both of these approaches. Self exploration and didactic teaching combine both of these approaches. Self exploration and information giving are both emphasized. The trainees have a chance to experientially explore their feelings and reactions and eritically explore the didactic information being given to them. Role plays and participatory experiences follow didactic presentations. Research has been done supporting the effectiveness of all of these teaching methods. A sumiary of each follows.

Didactic Teaching: Truax (1963) demonstrated that the didactic method can be effective in teaching helpers to discriminate levels of empathy. Both

Truax (1963) and Carkhuff (1970) can help people develop the coqnitive knowledge that is necessary to understand and change behavior; however, they also found that such knowledge does not always translate into the skills necessary for good counseling. Carkhuff, Collingwood and enz (1969) found that the ability to discriminate levels and types of functioning in oneself does not lead to the ability to helpfully communicate with a client. This is even more true when dealing with helper's functioning at low levels of interpersonal effectiveness (Carkhuff, Collingwood and Renz, 1969).

Experiential Teaching: Much of the literature relating to experiential teaching is theoretical rather than experimental in nature (North, 1974). Experimental studies that have been done support the idea that teaching in which self-understanding is enphasized can lead to positive change in helper's attitudes toward self and others (Boehm, 1961; Wessel, 1961; and Patterson, 1964). However, according to Krumboltz (1967), research









in experiential teaching methods has demonstrated little or no support for the assumed relationship between counselor, self-understanding and successful counseling outcomes. Thus, it can be said that although experiential training can change helper attitudes and perceptions in positive directions there is little evidence that such attitudinal changes result in more effective helper performance with clients.

Experiential-Didactic Teaching: Truax, Carkhuff and Douds (1964)

proposed the integration of the didactic and experiential teaching methods. Carkhuff and Truax (1965a) and Anthony and Carkhuff (1969) found that by using an integrated approach that includes both methods, both professional and paraprofessional trainees can be bought to a level of interpersonal effectiveness that is comparable with that of highly effective helpers and significantly higher than that of post-practicum and post-internship trainees in counsleing and psychotherapy. Furthermore, Truax and Carkhuff (1967) and Truax and Mitchell (1970) found that trainees who were trained with experiential-didactic teaching methods are effective in producing significant positive changes in mildly and severely disturbed clients. On the whole it appears that the most effective brief training programs for training prospective helpers in interpersonal skills are programs that integrate didactic and experiential activities (North, 1974).


Helper Effectiveness

What an effective helper is still remains somewhat of a mystery.

Originally, it seemed important to find individuals who had intellectual abilities enabling them to conplete training programs. However, academic test scores and grade point averages have been found to have little or no correlation with counselor effectiveness (Bergin and Solomon, 1963).








Studies by Wittmer and Lister (1971), McCreary (1957), Arbuckle (1968b), and Myrick and Kelly (1971) have all found little or no correlation between academic ability and helper effectiveness. At a later date it

seemed apparent that certain personal characteristics were essential (IRgers, 1961; Carkhuff and Truax, 1965 a, 1965 b). Since then,

the search to pinpoint those essential qualities and instruments to assess and predict helper effectiveness has taken a number of paths largely depending on the frame of reference of the author being studied. Those approaches that directly relate to this study are the personality measurement approach, and the helper interpersonal variable and verbal response approach.

Personality Measurement Approach: A popular approach to the quest for a system to predict and assess helper effectiveness has been the attempt to link certain personality characteristics to effective counseling. A number of instruments has been used. Although differentiations have been made between poor and good helpers, results have not been significant enough to use in screening of counselor and other helping professional trainees especially in light of the inconsistencies in findings (Wehr, 1973 Stern, Stein and Bloon, 1956).

The Strong Vocational Interest Blank has been used widely for purposes of counselor selection (Ohlsen, 1967). Kriedt (1949), Patterson (1962), and Foley and Proff (1965) found that counselors showed the social service block of occupations to be their highest interest, while Steffler, King and Leafgren (1962) reported that effective counselors were more likely to score high on these occupations than less effective counselors.










The Edward Personal Preference Scales has been used to differentiate

between effective and less effective counselors. Results are confusing and often conflicting. Ohlsen (1967), using the instrument with two groups of counselors, found the most effective in the first group scored higher than the least effective on "succorance," and lower on "order," "deference" and "consistence." In his second group, the most effective scored higher than the least effective on "introspection" and lower on "dominance" and "aggression." Results were simply not consistent. Steffler, King, and Leafgren (1962) found effective counselors to be higher on "deference" and "order," and lower on "aggression" and "abasement," while Truax, Silber, and Warge (1966) found high scores in "change" and "autonomy" and lower scores in "order" as characteristics of their counselors judges to be more effective.

The Sixteen Personality Factor Scale represents another attempt to predict and/or measure effectiveness using a standardized test. McClain (1968) derived an equation to predict effectiveness for helpers from 16PF scores. This equation, however, does not seem to be in wide use. This is possibly a reflection of significant, but rather inconsistent results between studies of researchers using the 16PF to discriminate effective

from ineffective counselors. For instance, Myrick, Kelly and Wittmer (1972) found that effective counselors tended to be more "mature and enotionally stable" (factor c) and more "trusting and adaptable" (factor 1) Donnan, Harlan and Thompson (1969), on the other hand, found that effective counselors scored higher on the dimensions "affected by feelings," instead of the dimension, "emotionally stable and mature."








According to Shostrom (1964), the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) effectively identifies persons who fit the criteria of superb functioning or self-actualization. Studies have been done by Green (1967) and Puttick (1964) which relate self-actualization characteristics to effectiveness of helpers in fields such as nursing and teaching although not specific to counseling.

Dogmatism as measured by the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale also seems to be

a differentiating factor, effective counselors scoring as less dogmatic than ineffective ones. Patterson (1967) concluded that Kenp's (1962), Russo, Kelz and Hudson's (1964) and Steffler, Leafgren and King's (1962) research all support this hypothesis.

Of the many instruments reviewed, the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale appeared to show the most promise, while the NMPI appeared to show the least promise (Steffler, King and Leafgren, 1962; Patterson, 1967; Wehr, 1973). In

general the literature reveals that a great deal of research has been done in this area and that there is a great diversity of opinions on the results.

Helper Interpersonal Variables and Verbal Responses Approach: Attempts to measure helper effectiveness through types and levels of verbal responses given by the helper is probably the most widely researched of all the different systems of measuring counselor effectiveness. Carkhuff, Truax, Berenson, and Rogers have been leading researchers in this area. Their research deals primarily with relating a set of interpersonal core factors to client gain. These factors are empathy, unconditional positive regard,

congruency, and concreteness. Effectiveness of communication of these relationship factors is measured through scales that assess the effectiveness of counselor responses on those dimensions.









In his model for effective therapy Carkhuff offers several propositions

concerning the effect of facilitative helper dimensions on the client

counselor interaction. A review of his two propositions and corollaries

seems appropriate as tJhe interactional scale used in this study closely

relates to that used by Carkhuff. In Helping and Human Relations Volume

One he supports the following statements with a wide variety of research

evidence.

Proposition I. The degree to which the helping
person offers high levels of facilitative conditions
in response to the expressions of the person
seeking help, is related directly to the degree to which the person seeking help engages in processes
to constructive change or gain.

Corollary I. The degree to which the helping
person offers high levels of empathic understanding
of the helpee's world is related directly to
the degree to which the helpee is able to understand himself and others.

Corollary II. The degree to which the helping person comunicates high levels of respect and warmth for the helpee and his world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to respect and direct warm feelings toward
himself and others.

Corollary III. The degree to which the helper is
helpful in guiding exploration to specific
feelings and content is related directly to the
degree to which the helpee is able to make concrete
his own problem areas.

Corollary V. The degree to which the helper
is responsively genuine in his relationship with the
helpee is related to the degree to which the helpee is able to be responsively genuine in his relationship with himself and others.

Proposition II. The degree to which the helping
person initiates action-oriented dimensions in a
helping relationship is directly related to the degree
to which the person seeking help engages in processes
that lead to constructive change or growth.









Corollary I. The degree to which the helper can be freely, spontaneously and deeply himself, including
the disclosing of significant information about
himself when appropriate, is directly related to
the degree to which the helpee is able to be genuine
and self-disclosing in appropriate relationships.

Corollary II. The degree to which the helper
actively confronts the helpee and himself is
directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to confront himself and others.

Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
both acts and directs the actions of the helpee imediately in the present in the relationship
between helper and helpee is related to the helpee's
ability to act with inridiacy and later to direct
the actions of others.

Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
can make concrete a course of constructive
action is related to the degree to which the helpee
can go on to make concrete courses of action for himself and others. (Carkhuff, 1969, pp 84-90)

These statements emphasize the direct effects of helper interpersonal

level of function on the helpee. According to Carkhuff's model, the degree

to which the helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect,

concreteness and genuineness as related directly to the degree of the

client's ability to internalize these facilitative conditions into his

own personal life. In addition, the degree to which the action-oriented

helpful counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing

of himself, actively confronting himself and the client, being with the

moment, and making concrete courses of action is directly related to the

helpee's ability to apply these same facilitative activities in his

own life situation.









Schauble, Pierce and Pesnikoff (1977) found the Counselor Verbal Response Scale to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales. Additionally, they found them to be more sensitive to smaller gains in interpersonal level of functioning and thus more appropriate for

measuring relatively short term helper trainee progress.

According to Wittmer and Myrick (1974) certain specific kinds of helper responses have been found to be perceived by clients as more empathic, caring, warm, and person centered than other responses. These responses have a higher probability of creating a facilitative, helping relationship than others and are the essential keys towards becoming a facilitative helper (North, 1974; Ivey, 1971; Wittmer and Myrick, 1974). The Interpersonal Response checklist, based on Wittmer and Myrick's helpful responses model, has been used to assess paraprofessional

human services workers performance in counseling in terms of what kinds of verbal responses they give to clients. North (1974) found that human service counselor trainees in a three month training period were able to significantly increase their ability to give more facilitative responses as measured by the Interpersonal Response checklist. These findings also correlated with gains in the Carkhuff scales. In general, extensive research has been done attempting to predict client gain by measuring helper level of effectiveness. The results seem to show more consistency than other approaches that have been used.



Sitmaary

There is a wide range of helping roles presently filled by paraprofessional human service workers. Controversy still surrounds the roles

and functions that the paraprofessionals are to fulfill in human service agencies. A primary wniresolved is.ae seelts to be that- iiuiy ptotessional









counselors are against the paraprofessionals assuming counseling roles.

In spite of disagreements, paraprofessional training programs that include teaching counseling skills continue to grow in number and size. Research

substantiating the effectiveness of paraprofessional personnel in performing both counseling and non-counseling helping functions continues to increase. The rapid increase in use of paraprofessional personnel in human service agencies points to the need for appropriate training programs for these workers as well as a re-examination of appropriate training procedures to fit the particular needs of this population. Research comparing the performance of paraprofessional and professionals indicates that outcome effectiveness of helpers is not necessarily related to particular schools of therapy, knowledge of personality theory, or intelligence level but rather to certain interpersonal qualities. Such research challenges the helping professions to look at past assumptions about selection and training of counselors and human service workers both at the professional and paraprofessional level.

Models for training are being scrutinized and experimentation is

increasing. Focal questions for pan paraprofessional training relate to appropriateness, effectiveness and evaluation procedures. Trainees are often poor, relatively under educated, not academically inclined, and have family responsibilities that prevent them from devoting themselves to long hours of study at an educational institution. Needs and priorities of agencies in which paraprofessionals are employed need to be considered

in designing training opportunities for these workers. There seems to be a need to explore alternatives to traditional academic structures. One important avenue for such experimentation is the external degree program.










The external degree structure allows the training to fit the work schedules and the needs of both the employed person and the employing agency. In many agencies paraprofessionals have been hired because of previous life experiences that enable them to effectively work with clients with whom professionals have not succeeded in the past. It seems to follow then that life experiences have instructed these paraprofessionals in some skills and understandings that are important in counseling. There seems to be a need to evaluate and credential such learnings, and at the same time provide additional training in areas in which they lack skills. It seems essential however, to use means of delivery that would make further training truly available to paraprofessionals.

Extensive controversy surrounds the external degree approach, a core issue is the question of whether the external degree is really equivalent to a traditional degree. After an extensive search of the literature no research supporting or denying the effectiveness of the external approach was found. Consequently, there seems to be a need for research that would compare the effectiveness of these two training models.











CHAPTER III


EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES

This chapter discusses the experimental design that was used in the study and the major considerations that were involved. It includes a description of training programs, the population, the hypotheses and the criterion instruments. In addition, the chapter provides an explanation of the experimental procedures used in the investigation.


Experimental Design

The population consisted of 54 students enrolled in the Human Services

Program at a Southeastern community college in the 1976-77 academic year. (A detailed description of the program has been included in Chapter I). Twenty-six of the 54 students were enrolled in the non-resident program and 28 were enrolled in a residential program. All of the students were working toward an A.S. degree in Human Services. All of the non-resident

students were employed full-time in human service agencies while only one resident student was holding a related job. The students in the resident program were self-selected. They paid their tuition or made arrangements for financial aid independently. The non-resident students were selected by their supervisors and 90% of their tuition was financed by the Florida Drug Abuse Trust with the exception of four students who lived in the community college area. All of the resident students lived in the area while the non-resident students lived in different cities throughout the state: Jacksonville, St. Petersburg, Tampa, Cocoa Beach, Orlando and Gainesville. Subjects in both training groups were registered full-time at Santa Fe Community College, Gainesville, Florida.









Comparisons of training programs are presented in four areas:

program structure; curriculum; learning activities, teaching methods and evaluation; instructional staff.

Program Structure: The resident students spent 15 hours a week in class for the first two semesters, and 8 hours in class plus 18 hours per week in a human service agency for the last three semesters.

The non-resident students, in contrast spent 2 hours a week in

class during their entire program, and 40 hours a week in the agencies where they were employed. In addition, they spent one day monthly in supervision and evaluation, and three days each semester in a curriculum related workshop.

Curriculum: Both groups of students took the same general education requirements, and both took the same core courses with the following exception: the non-resident group received nine credit hours of substance

abuse courses, whereas, the resident group took human service related electives. The program was structured around 42 different objectives. Both groups completed the same objectives. Learning Acitvities, Teaching Methods and Evaluation: Although the curriculum for the two groups was similar, the teaching method and amount

of time spent in class were different. Figure 1 sumarizes the number of hours spent by each group on each instructional activity. Both groups were involved in classroom activities and didactic and experientialdidactic teaching approaches were used with both groups. The resident students

spent 8-15 hours in class per week. They were taught in an experiential didactic approach mre often and had a large amount of time to practice skills and concepts, as well as, to be exposed to many kinds of learning activities such as role plays, skill building groups, video tapes and films.























1st Sem. 2nd Sem. 3rd Sem. 4th Sem. 5th Sem. CLASSROOM Resident 15 15 8 8 8
AC rITY Nn--resident 2 2 2 2 FIFLEN{ORK Resident 0 0 18 18 18
Non-resident 40 40 40 40


Ficgure 1: Time Spent on Instructional Activities Per Week










The non-resident students were taught in a more didactic manner. They spent only 2 hours per week in class. The class focused more on content than on practicing skills and relied more heavily on reading

materials presented through learning packets rather than through class interaction and other classroom resources. Learning packets were developed by the college staff for each of the objectives in the program. Learning packets included reading materials, project assignments and references to other materials. Students worked primarily on their own time and were encouraged to design learning projects around their work situations.

The type of evaluations for the two groups were different in the

follaving ways. The non-resident group had flexibility in the order and rate at which they completed objectives. They took evaluations to fulfill any of the objectives whenever they were ready. Evaluations were given only at their own individual request. The evaluations were very specific, were spelled out in advance, and closely related to materials included in learning packets that were given to the students. These features of the program emphasized individuality and allowed students to work at their c3.m pace. Students in the resident group took evaluations only when the instructor felt the entire group was ready. The evaluations themselves were not closely related to the learning materials or specific course

objectives. Evaluations were generally discussed in advance, but not as specifically as in the non-resident program.

A summary of the differences in learning activities, teaching

methods and evaluations can be found in Figure 2. Comparisons were made for each of these areas.






NON-RESIDENT PROGRAM


LEPARNING
ACTIVITIES AND TEACHING
METHODS


EVALUATION


1. Most of the time spent
in experiential activities such as role plays, video
tapes, feedback, etc.

2. No use of learning modules.

3. Sane didactic activities
like lecture and readings.





1. Evaluation administered
as a group.

2. Evaluations administered
when the instructor felt
the whole group was ready.

3. Generally discussed in
advance.

4. Loosely related to learning
materials.


1. Most of the time spent
on didactic presentation
and readings.

2. Ephasis on the use of
learning modules.

3. Some time spent on role
plays, listening to
counseling tapes, receiving
feedback fran others in
class.


1. Evaluations administered
on an individual basis.

2. Evaluations administered
when requested by each
individual student.

3. Clearly spelled out in
advance.

4. Closely related to learning
materials.


Figure 2: Learning Activities, Teaching Methods, Evaluations


RESIDENT PROGRAM









Instructional Staff: All of the instructional staff involved with the resident students were instructors at the community college. All of

the instructors teaching the core sourses had been involved in paraprofessional counselor training for a minimum of one year and were familiar with the skills necessary for counseling work. Their background and training included psychology, counseling, and social work. The resident students were exposed to at least 12 different instructors during their four semesters in the program.

Of the 12 instructors in the residents Human Services Program,

four were selected to work with the non-resident students. There were two instructors assigned to supervise and work with students on each site. The same two instructors worked with the same sites throughout the time length of the program. The four college staff members met for four hours each week to plan and revise the curriculum, write teaching modules and discuss problems that arose. The primary instructor for the students was a person in each of the areas. These instructors were called learning facilitators, and functioned as consultants to the college. The learning facilitators had similar backgrounds as the Human Service staff, both in terms of training and background experience. Figure 3 summarizes the level of training of the staff in both programs. They were also experienced teachers with a minimum of three years of teaching experience at the college level. Their teaching experience is primarily in areas other than the training of paraprofessional counselors. These areas include psychology and social science for freshmen behavioral sciences in a community college, and graduate courses in psychology at a state university. Prior to the beginning of the training, and at the beginning of each new semester, facilitators came to the college for a























INSTRUCTORS

1 1 1 1


IN BQI'H RESIDENT AND NON-RESIDENT PROGRAMS

Ph D in Counselor Education Ed S in Counselor Education M Ed in Counselor Education
Paraprofessional


Ph D in Counselor Education Ph D in Psychology

Ed S in Counseling M Ed in Counseling MA in Social Work MSW in Social Work Paraprofessional


RESIDENT PROGRAM
INSTRUCTORS

1 2 2 2


NON-RESIDENT PROGRAM
FACILITATORS

1

2


Figure 3: Level of Training of Staff








discussion of learning materials, training in the specific skills related to this program, feedback and evaluation. These workshops lasted for two to three days. During each of the on-site day labs, the facilitators met privately with Santa Fe staff for discussion and feedback.

The primary differences between programs in the area of instructional staff can be summrized by saying that resident students receive exposure to greater variety of instructors, who were also more experienced in training paraprofessionals. The non-resident students had more continuity with the college instructors with whom they worked, as well as with the learning facilitator to whcm they were assigned, and thus more of an opportunity to develop a relationship with the the college instructors and their area learning facilitator.


Subjects

The population used in this study consisted of 54 paraprofessional counselor trainees enrolled in the Human Service Program at a conmunity college. Of the total number, 28 were in the resident program and 26 were in the non-resident program.

Of the 54 students who enrolled in the program, post datawere only

gathered on 31. Of these, 19 were in the non-resident group and 12 in the resident group. Data concerning dropout students can be found in Table I. The non-resident student dismissed had not been performing at a satisfactory level and had been extremely undependable. No resident students were dismissed frcm the program or suffered death. Attrition for the resident group was high although similar to the attrition rate estimated by the Office of Records and Admissions for any freshman class at Santa Fe Conmmunity College. The attrition rate of non-resident students was much lower than the expected for entering freshmen. There was no pattern to the dropouts in either group.








They were balanced in terms of sex, race, marital status, previous education, reasons for taking course, socio-econcmic status and other related training. The majority of students in both groups dropped out during the first term or early on Ln the second term. The non-resident dropouts were more easily contacted for follow-up and were more cooperative about providing information. The non-resident students were more likely to drop out because of central life issues such as lack of money, loss of jobs, fear of inability to succeed in the program. The resident students dropped out for reasons such as travel,

further studies in spiritual areas, and joining other programs.

TABLE I

DROPOUTS
Original Left Not Locatable
Numbers Death Dismissal Voluntarily For Post-Test Non-Resident 28 0 0 13 3 Resident 26 1 1 4 0


All of the students in the non-resident program were employed full-time as counselors or administrators in a human service agency. Of the resident students, only one was employed full-time in a human service agency. Some other students were holding part-time jobs in unrelated areas such as secretaries, office clerks and receptionists. All of the students were pursuing their schooling on a full-time basis, and registered for the same courses.

Demographic data were analyzed and comparisons between groups were made in eight different areas. In general, the resident group had more females, the non-resident group was ore evenly divided. The resident group was largely white, the non-resident group more balanced. Both groups were fairly similar in age. The resident group appeared more typical of the college population having more single students while the non-resident group had more ccitmitnents Emid falily i tscibiLiiies. hie resicem- group ieported









a higher percentage of people with college degrees than the non-resident group. The non-resident students seemed to be interested in the program for essentially practical reasons. The resident students were also interested in the practical benefits of the program but appeared to have numerous secondary reasons for participating in the program. Scme sort of "personal growth experience" was a frequently stated reason. The resident students were mostly middle class in family background with a few subjects from upper middle class families. The non-resident group had only one subject from an upper middle class background and a majority from a lower class background. Tables II through VIII give specific figures for both groups in each of the areas mentioned above.





TABLE II


GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: SEX


RESIDENT % NON-RESIDENT %
Female 21 75 14 46 Male 7 25 12 54

Total 28 26


TABLE III


GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: RACE


RESIDENT % NON-RESIDENT %
White 22 79 14 46 Black 6 21 12 54

Total 28 26









TABLE IV


GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: AGE

RESIDENT NON-RESIDENT Mean 36.4 35 Range 60-70 54-20 Mode 26 25 Median 25.8 29





TABLE V


CHARACERISTICS OF SUBRECTh3: MARITAL STATUS

RESIDENT NON-RESIDENT Single 17 (61%) 4 (16%) Married 7 (25%) 10 (40%) Separated
Divorced, or
Widowed 4 (14%) 12 (44%) Total 23 26



TABLE VI


CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: PREVIOUS EDUCATION

RESIDENT NON-RESIDENT College Degrees 6 (21%) 1 (4%) N = 28 N = 26










TABLE IX


CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS:


REASON FOR ENTERING PROGRA


RESIDENT % NON-RESIDENT %

Job Security 3 11 7 24 Improved Skills 10 34 15 60 Training Money Available 1 4 2 8 Other 14 50 2 8 Total 28 26

TABLE X


CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS


RESIDENT % NON-RESIDE NT %

Upper Middle Class 6 21 1 4 Upper Middle Class to
Middle Class 13 46 5 19 Lcwer Class 9 32 20 77 Total 28 26

Other Training: There was considerable difference between groups on the level and extent of previous training. There were also some differences

in terms of training received while students in the human service program frcm a source other than the program. The majority of non-resident students had taken courses in related areas before they entered the program. They had all participated in related workshops and staff development. More

than half had other work experiences besides their present job. Onethird of the resident students had taken courses in a related area before entering the program. The majority had not attended workshops. One-third had been involved in volunteer work or related work experiences and had









participated in orientation and staff development activities. In general the non-resident students had received more extensive and in-depth training before entering the program. In terms of involvement in training other than the program, while enrolled in the program, the patterns for the groups were more similar. All of the non-resident students listed staff development activities and only very few of the resident students did. Some of the resident students, however, ended up being involved in staff development as part of their fieldwork. Both groups were similar in numbers of related courses they took, workshops they attended, and other related experiences they were involved in while enrolled in the program.

Both groups seemed to be representative of the description given in the review of the literature of typical students entering traditional

and external degree program.


Hypotheses

The hypotheses for the study relate to five dimensions measuring the subject's ability to relate interpersonally, one dimension measuring the subject's level of self-actualization and one dimension measuring personality characteristics. There are hypotheses for each dimension. These include one major hypotheses which tests for the significance of difference between training groups, e.g. H1 below, and two minor hypotheses, e.g.H11 and H12 below, which test the directionality of gain within groups.


Hypotheses H1, H1, H12: Affective/Cognitive

H1. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects

in the NR and R groups on the feeling level of the response to

their clients.









H11. There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the

response to their clients for subjects in NR.

H12. There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the

response to their clients for subjects in R.


Hypotheses H2, H22, H23: Understanding/Non-Understanding H2. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in

the NR and the R groups in the understanding of the client response

ratings.

H22. There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client

response ratings for subject in the NR.

H23. There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client

response ratings for subjects in R.


Hypotheses H3, H33, H34: Specific/Non-Specific H3. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in

the NR and the R groups in the degree of specificity of response

to their clients.

H33. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of

response to their clients for subjects in NR.

H34. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of

response to their clients for subjects in R. Hypotheses H4, H44, H45: Exploratory/Non-Fploratory H4. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects

in the NR and the R groups in the ability to give response that

lead clients to further self exploration.








1144. There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses

that lead clients to further self exploration for subjects in NR.

H45. There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses

that lead clients to further self exploration for subjects in R. Hypotheses H5, H55, H56 : Facilitative Responses H6. There will be no significant gain in number of facilitative responses

given between subjects in the NR and the R groups.

H66. There will be no significant gain in number of facilitative

responses given for subject in NR.

H67. There will be no significant gain in number of facilitative

responses given for subject in R.


Hypotheses H6, H66' H67: Self-Actualization H7. There will be significant difference in gain in self-actualization

between subjects in the NR and the R groups.

H77. There will be no significant gain in self-actualization

for subjects in NR.

H 78 There will be no significant gain in self-actualization

for subjects in the R.


Hypotheses H7, H77, H78: 16 PF Personality Characteristics H8. There will be no significant differences in changes in personality

characteristics as measured by the 16 PF between subjects in the

Nr and R groups.

H88. There will be no significant changes in personality characteristics for subjects in NR.

H89. There will be no significant changes in personality characteristics for subjects in R.









Research Instruments

Counselor Verbal Response Scale

The Counselor Verbal Response Scale developed by Kagan and Krathwohl is an attempt to describe a counselor's response to client comunication in terms of four dimensions: (a) affect/cognitive; (b) understanding/ non-understanding; (c) specific/non-specific; (d) exploratory/nonexploratory. Sample scales can be found in Appendix A. A fifth dimension,

effective/non-effective, provides a global rating of the adequacy of each response which is made independently of the four descriptive ratings (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). For purposes of this study, the first four dimensions are used only.

The unit for analysis is the verbal interaction between counselor and

client represented by a client statement and counselor response. A counselor response is rated on each of the five dimensions of the rating scale, with every client-counselor interaction being judged independently of preceding units. In judging an individual response, the primary focus is on describing how the counselor responded to the verbal and nonverbal elements of the client's communication. It draws on the theories of Carl Rogers (1957) and theories and research findings of Truax and Carkhuff (1967).

The Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) consists of five forced

choice dimensions measuring the extent to which counselors are characterized by affective, understanding, specific, exploratory, and effective responses. The dimensions are defined as follows: An affective program is one which makes reference to or encourages some affective or feeling aspect of the client's ccnmunication while a cognitive response refers primarily to the cognitive component of a client's statement; understanding refers to the counselor's ability to convey to the client his awareness of and sensitivity to the client's feelings and concerns by attemptinq to deal with the core of








his concern rather than making vague responses or referring to peripheral concerns; exploratory responses encourage the client to explore his feelings

and provide him with an opportunity to do so. Non-exploratory responses typically restrict the client's freedom to explore. The final dimension, effective/non-effective, is a global rating of the overall effectiveness of a counselor's response in promoting client movement.

The CVRS differs from other rating scales in that it focuses on a

series of individual client/counselor verbal units (client statement-counselor response) during the course of an interview, rather than on global ratings of entire interviews or longer interview segments. Thus, the judge is required to describe every counselor response to a client's verbalization on each of the five dimensions of the scale. After twenty

counselor responses have been dichotomized, on each dimension, totals are obtained. Thus a maximum score of 20 and a minimum of 0 is possible for each dimension.

Interjudge reliability was determined by applying Hoyt's analysis of variance technique to the ratings of two sets of judges who had rated the videotaped interviews of fifty inexperienced M.A. candidates in Counseling and Guidance at Michigan State University (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). Corresponding four-minute segments were rated for 53 counselors. The post tape of one of the M.A. candidates was lost). Of the 53, 45 were M.S. candidates and 8 Ph.D. candidates and they interviewed the same coached client. Because timed segments with unequal numbers of responses were used,

ratings were converted to proportionate scores. Corresponding 20 response segments were rated for the remaining 10 counseling interviews. Coefficients were obtained of average tape interjudge reliability of .84, .80, .79, .68, and









.79 for the affective-cognitive, understanding-non-understanding, specificnon-specific, exploratory-non-exploratory, and effective-non-effective dimensions of the scale respectively (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967).

These scales have been validated (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967) on fiftythree counselor education trainees. Forty-five of these trainees were M.A. candidates and eight were Ph.D. candidates. Types of counseling interviews from each of the trainees were collected and rated using the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. On each dimension of the scale, significant differences at the .01 level were found between the responses of the Ph.D. candidates and the M.A. candidates with the formal having more responses rated as affective understanding, specific, exploratory and effective (Kagan and

Krathwohl, 1967). Separate ratings made of two counselors with M.A. 's and same advanced training and counseling experience were compared to the ratings of the fifty-three trainees. The response patterns of these counselors fell between those of the M.A. and Ph.D. candidates (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). Other validation studies also conducted by the same authors can be found (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). Ratings in the Counselor Verbal Response Scale have also been found to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble, Resnikoff and Pierce, 1976) which have been validated in extensive process and outcome research in counseling and psychotherapy

(Truax and Carkhuff, 1967).


Description of Rating Dimensions

Affective-cognitive dimension. The affective-cognitive dimension

indicates whether a counselor's response refers to any affective component of a client's ccmnunication or concerns itself primarily with the cognitive component of that camnunication. Affective responses generally make reference









to feeling. The judge's rating is solely of the content and/or intent of the counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection, clarification, or interpretation. Cognitive responses on the other hand primarily with the content of a client's conmunication. Frequently, such responses seek

information of a factual nature. They tend to maintain the interaction on the cognitive level.

Understanding-non-understanding dimension. The understanding-nonunderstanding dimension indicates whether a counselor's response comunicates

to the client that the counselor understands or is seeking to understand the client's basic ccmmunication, thereby encouraging the client to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns. It's similar to Truax and Carkhuff empathic understanding concept (Carkhuff, 1969a).

Understanding responses ccrmunicate to the client that the counselor understands the client's conmunication -- or the counselor is clearly seeking enough information to gain such understanding. Non-understanding responses are those in which the counselor fails to understand the client's basic ccrnunication or makes no attempt to obtain appropriate information

frcm the client. Non-understanding can also imply misunderstanding.

Specific-non-specific dimension. The specific-non-specific dimension

indicates whether the counselor's response is central to the client's c omunication or whether the response does not specify the client's concern. In essence, it describes whether the counselor deals with the client's ccxnunication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or "zeroes in" on the core of the client's ccrmmnication. It is the same as "concreteness" as defined by Carkhuff (1969a). Specific responses focus on the core concerns being presented









either explicitly or implicitly, by the client. Non-specific responses indicate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic concerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client differentiate among various concerns. Such responses either miss the problem area completely or occur when the counselor is seeking to understand the client's conunication and has been presented with only vague bits of information.

Exploratory-non-exploratory. The exploratory-non-exploratory

dimension indicates whether a counselor's response permits or encourages the client to explore himself and his concerns further, or whether the response limits a client's exploration of these concerns. Exploratory responses encourage and permit the client involvement in his response. They are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility. Non-exploratory responses either indicate no understanding of the client's basic communication, or so structure and limit the client's responses that they inhibit the exploratory process. These responses actively discourage self-exploration or give the client little opportunity to explore, expand, or express himself freely.


Interpersonal Response Checklist

The Interpersonal Response Checklist describes four high facilitative and four low facilitative helper responses (Appendix r). It was developed by North (1974) both as a means of assessing paraprofessional performance within counseling and as a means for describing behavioral objectives for training. Used as an instrument for evaluation of counselor performance, raters count the number of high facilitative and low facilitative responses within a selected portion of taped counseling.








The checklist was derived from constructs developed by Wittmer and

Myrick (1974). Six of the responses -- reflection, clarification, allowing questions, advice, reassurance, and domineering questions -- are similar to responses defined and used by Ivey (1971) in training.

The content validity of the instrument was established by a panel of knowledgeable judges who determined that it possessed sufficient validity for gross behavioral classification and counting of responses (North, 1974). Test-retest reliability of the instruTent was determined by asking three raters to count the number of high facilitative and low facilitative responses in three, ten-minute tape segments of counselor-client interaction.

After ten days, the same group of judges were asked to rate the same tapes (North, 1974). A Pearson Product Moment Correlation (Steel and Torrie, 1960) of .94 was calculated.


Personal Orientation Inventory

One of the instruments used to measure personality change is the

Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) developed by Shostrom in 1964. Where many personality tests are negatively oriented, this one purports to give the level of mental health. It consists of 150 forced value judgments based on the types of judgments patients were making at the Institute of Therapeutic Psychology. It draws on the theories of Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Eric Frcrme, Karen Homey and others. The Personal Orientation Inventory is essentially self-administering. The questions are printed in a reusable test booklet, and the examinee records his answers on a specially designed answer sheet. There is no time limit set for completion of the inventory. Testing-time usually is about thirty to forty minutes. According to the manual, the POI was validated









on 650 freshmen at the Los Angeles State College, 75 members of the sensitivity training program at UCLA, and 15 school psychologist in a special training program. Retested after training, the latter two groups showed definite growth in inner-directedness.

The Personal Orientation Inventory was also tested on three other groups: 160 normal adults, 29 relatively self-actualized adults, and 34 relatively nonself-actualized adults as nominated by the clinical psychology societies of Orange and Los Angeles Counties, California.

The test does discriminate between the self-actualized and nonself-actualized persons on 11 of 12 scales according to Shostrom (1964).

Robert Knapp (1965) ccxnpared the Personal Orientation Inventory with the Eysenck Personality Inventory. The Eysenck measures neuroticismstability and extraversion-introversion. High- and low-neurotic students were selected fron 136 undergraduates on the basis of their Eysenck Personality Inventory and correlated with the Personal Orientation Inventory. Low-neurotic students tended toward self-actualization as did extroverted students. The Personal Orientation Inventory and Eysenck Personality Inventory are frcm different theoretical frames of reference, but seem to be tapping a ccunon core. Knapp and Shostrom (1964) correlated the Personal Orientation Inventory the NMPI and found high correlations between the Personal Orientation Inventory and the SI and D scales of the MMPI.

The manual gives high test-retest reliability coefficients of

.91 and .93. An independent retest (fifty week interval) study gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the Time Competence (Tc) and .71 for the Inner Direction (I) scale. The mean correlation for the










subscales was .58. Although this is not as high as would be desirable, it is well within the range of reliability similarly established for the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the T1PI (Ilardi and lay, 1968). On the basis of t-he above studies it was felt that the Personal Orientation Inventory would be a valid instnent for this research.

The dimensions used for this study and the scales used for them are as follow:

1. Time-competence: oriented to the present.

2. Inner support: tendency to be independent, autonomous.

3. Valuing: includes existentiality -- tendency to be flexible in application of values.

4. Feeling: includes (1) feeling reactivity -- sensitivity to one's own needs and feelings, and (2) spontaneity -- ability to freely express feelings at a behavioral level.

5. Self-perception: includes (1) self-regard -- sense of self-worth, and (2) self-acceptance -- acceptance of oneself despite shortcomings.

6. Synergistic awareness: includes synergy -- ability to reconcile the opposites of life.

7. Interpersonal sensitivity: includes (1) acceptance of aggression -ability to accept one's own anger as natural, and (2) capacity for intimate contact -- ability to establish close interpersonal relationships. Sixteen Personality Factor Qpuestionnaire (16PF)

Sixteen Personality Factor Test (16PF) is a personality questionnaire designed to measure th e major dimensions of human personality. It lists sixteen different personality dimensions and it includes characteristics such as ha)7 outgoing or reserved a person is, how









conservative or liberal, how relaxed or tense. For a complete list of these characteristics see Appendix C. Norm groups for the test include between six and seven thousand people. Separate norms exist for such distinct social groups as college students and the general population.

The test manual gives split half reliabilities for each of the sixteen factor scales; scales range from .71 to .03 averaging about .83 or .84. Numerous external concrete validities are known. According to the test manual, multiple correlations of the test scores are typically 0.75 with school achievement, 0.50 with clinically judged neurotic trend, 0.70 with earnings in salesmanship. Demographic Questionnaire

The denographic questionnaire or personal data sheet was intended

to elicit personal information so that comparisons could be made between the two sample groups.

The Personal Data Sheet elicits the following information on each subject (see Appendix D).

1. Subjects name, city where he presently resides.

2. Race

3. Sex

4. Age

5. Marital Status

6. Education ccnpleted

7. Father' s and mother' s occupations

8. Subject's number of children










9. Number of children and position of subject in family 10. Parent's level of education

11. Season for enrolling in tie program 12. Previous jobs held

An additional sheet was designed to find out related training that subjects had received before enrolling in the program and additional training that they may receive while in the program through a source unrelated to the program such as staff developm-nt, workshops or other courses which they may enroll in. It also asks for other related job or volunteer experiences, and for an overall estimate of number of hours spent in training before involvement with the Santa Fe program and an overall estimate of total number of hours from a source other than the Human Service Program while in training.


Experimental Procedures

Collection of Data

The pre-training data were collected as part of setting up a nonresident program at th-e conmunity college. The data collecting described here was repeated for the post data collection.

During the first two weeks of training and then again one year later, the subjects came to the ccrmRunity college for introductory and closing interviews and personality assessment. The purpose of the interviews were to assess the interviewing and counseling ability of each subject by giving them an opportunity to be video taped while helping a stranger with a problem. The personality tests were used to measure personality characteristics and level of self-actualization.

The procedure for each interview was as follaies: (1) For both the









pre and post interviews, a stranger to the subjects was selected as a client. The person selected was familiar with counseling and was an advanced student in the Human Services Program. (2) The client was asked to share a real problem in the same manner with each subject.

(3) The subject was introduced to the client and asked to help the client with a real problem. In order to help the subject feel at ease, all questions about the interview procedure were answered. (4) The 20minute interview was audio taped.

Two trained judges rated the pre- and post-interview segments with respect to the Counselor Verbal Response Scale.

Tw professional counselors were trained to identify and count the high and low facilitative responses in each of the pre- and postinterview video tapes. The interjudge reliability was calculated using Guilford and Fruther's (1973) two-way classification analysis. For the CVPS scales two-three minute segments were selected from the first third and second third of each counseling tape. Raters began rating the first segment after the first minute of the interview. Then they advanced the tape equivalent of three minutes for the second segment. For the Interpersonal Response Checklist the second segment was played back and rated on that scale. The rating sheet (see Appendix B) with the raw data was. then turned over to the researcher for further treatment.

During the same week the subjects were asked to take the Personality Orientation Inventory and the Sixteen Personality Factor. At the beginning of the program they were also asked to fill out a demographic data sheet and a previous and related, training assessment sheet. Selection and Training of Raters

Research on the selection of raters suggests that both raters level of









functioning and raters training by a qualified professional are a significant influence on discrimination scores (Cannon and Carkhuff, 1969), and that persons functioning below minimal facilitation levels (Level 3) would not be capable of accurate ratings. While the Counselor Verbal Response Scale used in this research employs a dichotomous rating assignment (as opposed to ranking by levels on a continuum), the training procedures are essentially the same.

Four raters were selected from a group of second-year graduate students in Counseling Psychology or Counselor Education. These individuals were functioning at above minimal levels of facilitative interaction, as judged by independent ratings of their own tapes as helpers. The training of the raters was conducted by a Counseling Psychologist at the University of Florida's Counseling Center, who is experienced in using the process scales, and who was himself functioning at high levels on these

instruments (as determined in previous research). The training procedures included use of tapes representing helping situations similar to those which were encountered in the actual study.

Six tapes, made by one resident and five non-resident subjects, were randomly selected for rating by four raters using the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. Reliability of ratings was ccputed using Guilford and Fruchter's (1973) two-way classification analysis as applied to intraclass correlation of a sum or average. The formula is:

rkk = (MS)r - (1AS)e

(MS)r
(Formula 13.39, p. 264)









Where rkk is the inter-rater reliability coefficient (MS)r is the variance of the ratings, and (4)e if the error variance. For the inter-rater reliability on the Interpersonal Response Checklist, the same procedures were followed but only two tapes were used, one from a resident student and one from a non-resident student.

The data for the inter-rater reliability study consisted of twenty

responses per tape for the Counselor Verbal Response Scale, and ten per tape, for the Interpersonal Response Checklist. When analyzing the data it was found that there were not enough responses in each of the catergories so the four categories which showed the largest number of responses were chosen.

For the Counselor Verbal Response Scale the resulting computations

are included in Table I:{.


TABLE IX


INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE SCALE

Dimension Reliability Study

Cognitive .95
Non-understand ing .98 Non-specific .98
Non-exploratory .75




For the Interpersonal Response Checklist the resulting computations

are included in Table X.









TABLE X


INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE CHECKLIST

Dimension Reliability Study

Reflection .88 Clarification .84 Assertion .98 Allowing Questions .99 Domineering Questions 100.
Reassurance .97 Interpretation 100.
Advice .97





Statistical Analyses

The criterion instruments were administered to the subjects in the non-resident and resident groups, both prior to and after 12 months of training in the Human Service Program. This study used the Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) to generate data for four dimensions of helper performance: affective/cognitive responses, understanding/non-understanding responses, specific/non-specific responses and exploratory/non-exploratory responses, Each of these dimensions are treated separately for purposes of statistical analysis. Since all the subjects in the non-resident group were employed in a human service agency and previous related experience may have significantly affected their abilities to learn, it was important to control for this effect. Thus, the nature of the study and the populations involved necessitated the use of analysis of covariance to control for relevant differences between the groups that may have existed prior to entering the Human Service Program and that could have affected performance in counseling situations (Snedecor and Cochran 1967).












The post score of each group was used as the dependent variable in the analysis of covariance with the pre score and the number of years of work experience in the human service field as the covariates. Group classification of resident or non-resident training was the independent variable. This procedure was followed for each major hypothesis that addressed group differences in performance on each of tie four dimensions of the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. An alpha level of .05 was used for all analyses of covariance. In addition, a t -test comparing pre to post mean differences between the non-resident and resident group was used. An alpha level of .05 was also used. In this statistical computation the CVRS responses were considered dichotomous, one end being the reciprocal of the other. Thus, there are 4 sets of dichotonous data: affective/cognitive; understanding/non-understanding; specific/non-specific; exploratory/non-exploratory. The results of the statistical analysis appear in Tables XII, XVI, XX, and xxIv which are included in Chapter IV.

The Interpersonal Response Checklist was used to generate tle data from assessing the proportion of facilitative responses given by the human service trainees. The data were also combined into two dichotomous constructs: facilitative and non-facilitative responses. Advice, interpretation, reassurance and closed questions were considered non-facilitative. Reflection, clarification, assertions and open questions were considered facilitative. The results of the t -test statistical computation can be found in Table XXVII.













The formula that was used for t -test is the following:


t R2 - XN ) -(2- )





Where X is mean difference between value at T1 and T2 in each group 4is standard deviation of the mean differences

S is standard error of the mean differences (Snedecor and Cochran 1967)


In order to test the minor hypotheses related to affective/cognitive, understanding/non-understanding, specific/non-specific, and exploratory/ non-exploratory responses as well as facilitative/non-facilitative responses

which were designed to co-pare pre and post scores within groups, two-tailed t-tests were used. An alpha level of .05 was used for all minor hypotheses. A two-tailed t-test, rather than a one-tailed test, was selected so as to enable the researcher to be sensitive to significant differences in either direction.

The pre and post data from the POI and the 16PF were treated with similar statistical analyses. Analyses of covariance using pre test scores and years of work experience as the covariates were applied to test the major hypotheses for each of the fourteen dimensions in the POI and for each of

the sixteen factors in the 16PF. Two-tailed t-tests were used to test each of the within-group hypotheses about self actualization and personality

characteristics changes between groups.













CHAPTER IV


RESULTS OF TlE STUDY

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different

methods of training paraprofessional human service personnel. Areas of comparison included interpersonal helper functioning, level of self actualization and personality characteristics. In the first part of this chapter, the analyses of the data relevant to the hypothesis are reported. In the second part of the chapter, additional analyses are sunrmarized.

A total of four instruments were used and a pre-test post-test design was followed. Two instruments were used to measure and evaluate counselor effectiveness variables. One instrument was used to evaluate level of self actualization and one instrument was used to evaluate personality characteristics. One major hypothesis and t4o minor hypotheses were postulated for each of the variables. Seven major null hypotheses were statements of no difference between each treatment group. Fourteen minor hypotheses were

statements of no differences within groups. Analyses of covariance as well as t-test statistics were used to test the major hypotheses dealing with counselor effectiveness as measured by the CVRS scale. A t-test was used to test major hypothesis H5 dealing with facilitative vs non-facilitative responses. Analysis of covariance was used to test the rmjor hypothesis dealing with self actualization and personality characteristics. All fourteen minor hypotheses were subjected to t-test analyses.

A synopsis of the results which relate to the major and minor hypotheses follows in the next three pages.










Results of the analyses indicated no statistically significant differences between groups in the following areas:


CVRS Scale

Understanding/Non-understanding Dimension

Exploratory/Non-exploratory Dimension


POI

No significant differences in any of the self-actualization

characteristics.


16 PF

No significant differences with the exception of factor Q.

There were no significant differences between groups in the Specific/ Non-specific Dimension of the CVRS Scale when using analysis of covariance and differences when t-test analysis was used.



Results of the analyses indicated statistically significant differences between groups in the following areas:


CVRS Scale

Affective/Cognitive with the resident group post score being

significantly higher than the non-resident group.


Interpersonal Response Checklist

Facilitative vs non-facilitative responses with the resident

group's post score being higher than the non-resident group and

the pre to post mean difference score being significantly higher.










16 PF

Significant differences in only one of the sixteen factors (experimentation vs conservatism) with the resident group

being higher in experimentation and the non-resident group

having decreased in experimentation while being in the program.

Results of the analyses indicated statistically significant differences in a positive direction between the non-resident groups' pre and post scores in the follajing areas: Non-resident


CVRS Scale

Understanding/Non-understanding Specific/Non-specific Dimension

Exploratory/Non-e-ploratory Dimension


Interpersonal Response Checklist


16 PF

These were significant changes in factors I and Q3" The

non-resident group became more sensitive and more casual and

inner-directed.

Results of the analysis indicated significant differences in a positive direction between the resident groups' pre and post scores in the following areas:

Resident


CVRS Scale

Understanding/Non-understandinig Dimension

Specific/Non-specific Dimension

Exploratory/Non-exploratory Dimension








Interpersonal Response Checklist

POI

There were significant changes in a positive direction for

six of the POI characteristics. They became less otherdirected, more inner-directed, their values came to resemble

more the values of self-actualizing people, their selfregard increased, they were better able to accept aggressive,

negative feelings and more capable of intimate contact.


16 PF

There were significant changes in factor B. The resident

students became more intelligent, less concrete in their

thinking patterns, more capable of abstract thinking.


Hypothesis H1: Affective/Cognitive Dimension

Hypothesis H There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR (non-resident) and R (resident) groups on feeling level of their response to their clients.

A summary of the analysis of covariance of the post-test affective/

cognitive dimension of the CVRS Scale is found in Table XI. A summary of the ccmparison of pre and post differences between groups in the affective dimension may be found in Table XII. According to the data summarized in Table XI the resident group scores significantly higher in the post test in their ability to respond to their clients' feelings. According to Table XII the nonresident group did not change significantly in the affective area. The resident group changed significantly more (p = .025) in the desired direction. Because









of the difference in gain between groups Hypothesis H1 was rejected.

Hypothesis H1 There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the response to their clients for subjects in NR.

A sumary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group pre-test and post-test scores in the affective/cognitive dimensions of the CVRS Scale may be found on Table XIII. The non-resident group showed no

significant change in their ability to respond to clients' feelings. Hypothesis HI1 was accepted.

Hypothesis H12 There will be no significant gain in feeling level of

the response to their clients for subjects in R.

A sunuary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group pretest and post-test scores affective/cognitive dimension of the CVRS Scale may be found in Table XIV. The resident group showed change in a positive direction (greater ability to respond to clients' feelings). Hoover, because the change did not reach the desired level of statistical significance, Hypothesis H12 was accepted.


TABLE XI


ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE
NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA
CVRS AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE DIMENSION Non-resident Resident
CVRS Post Post F
Item X X Value Affective 1.263 3.090 3.980* Cognitive 18.736 16.909 3.980* N = NR 19; R 12

Covariates: Length of counselor experience; pre-test scores


*p <.05









TABLE XII


AFFECTIVE DIMENSION COMPARISON OF BETWEEN GROUPS PRE POST DIFFERENCES



Pre To Post Diff.
Number Of t Group Affective Response df Value Non-resident
0 28 2.259* Resident 1.3636 N = NR 19; R 12


*p (.03








TABLE XIII


ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE
PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SCORES CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Difference Value Affective 1.263 1.263 0.0 0.0 Cognitive 18.736 18.736 0.0 0.0 N = 19













TABLE XIV


ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/OXINITIVE
PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SCORES


CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item K X Difference Value Affective 1.727 3.090 1.363 1.73 Cognitive 18.272 16.909 -1.363 1.73 N = 12










Hypothesis H2: Understanding/Non-understanding Dimension:

Hypothesis H2. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and the R in the understanding of the client response ratings.

A sunary of the analysis of covariance of the post-test understanding/ non-understanding dimension of the CVRS scale is found in Table XV. A summary of the comparison of pre post differences between groups in the understanding dimension may be found in Table XVI. According to the data sunmarized in Table XV, the resident groups' post-test scores were higher in the desired direction than the non-resident groups' score. However, the difference was not statistically significant. According to the findings summarized in Table XVI, both groups increased their ability to give understanding responses but the differences in level of learning between

the groups were not statistically significant. It appears that both groups improved about the same. Since there was no statistically significant difference in gain between groups, Hypothesis H2 was accepted.

Hypothesis H22. There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client responses for subjects in NR.

A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group pre and post test scores in the understanding/non-understanding dimension of the CVRS scale may be found in Table XVII. The non-resident group improved significantly in their ability to give understanding responses to their clients. Therefore, Hypothesis H22 was rejected.

Hypothesis H23. There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client response ratings for subjects in R.

A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group

pre and post test sotw -' n th Re ursLa.iJ2iujnw u L t .d imeiision of










the CVRS scale may be found in Table XVIII. The resident group showed changes in a positive direction, (greater ability to give understanding responses to their clients). These changes were statistically significant at the .01 level. Therefore, Hypothesis H23 was rejected.


TABLE XV


ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA
CVRS UiNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDEPSTANDING DIMENSION


Non-resident


Resident


CVRS Post Post F
Item X X Value Understanding 12.684 14.727 0.145 Non-understanding 7.315 5.272 0.145 N = NR 19; R 12

Covariates: Length of counselor experience; pre-scores


TABLE XVI


UNDERSTANDING DIMENSION COMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BDqIEEN GROUPS


Pre to Post
Pian Diff. In Number of Under- t Group standing Response df Value

Non-resident 6.9091 28 0.36 Resident 6.4737

N = NR 19; R 12)











TABLE XVII


ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP
PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTAND NDING/NON-UNDER STANDING SCORES

CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X N Difference Value Understanding 6.210 12.684 6.473 7.28* Non-understanding 13.789 7.315 -6.473 7.28* N = 19










TABLE XVIII


ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP
PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING SCORES

CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Difference Value Understanding 7.818 14.727 6.909 6.65* Non-Understanding 12.181 5.272 -6.909 6.65* N = 12


* p <.01 or better










Hypothesis H3: Specific/Non-specific Dimension:

Hypothesis H3' There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and R in the degree of specificity of response to their clients.

A suiimary of the analysis of covariance of the post-test specific/nonspecific dimension of the CVPS scale is found in Table XIX. A summary of the comparison of pre post differences between groups in the specific dimension may be found in Table XX. According to the data summarized in Table XIX, the resident group post scores were higher than the non-resident group scores. However, the difference was not statistically significant. According to findings sumarized in Table XX both groups increased their ability to be specific in their responses to their clients. There were differences in level of gain that were statistically significant at a level of .05 with the resident group showing greater gain. There were significant differences between groups in the area of specific/non-specific dimension from the beginning with the non-resident group being significantly higher in specificity at the beginning. The analysis of covariance adjusts for differences in pre scores between groups. Table XX simply surarizes differences in gain between groups. On the basis of analysis of covariance, Hypothesis H3 would be accepted. On the basis of simple comparisons between pre and post differences it would be rejected.

Hypothesis H33. There will be no significant gain in degree of

specificity of response to their clients for subjects in NR.

A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group

pre and post test scores in the understanding/non-understanding dimension of the CVRS scale may be found on Table XXI. The non-resident group improved










significantly to the ( . 01 level in their ability to be specific with their clients. Therefore, Hypothesis H33 was rejected.

Hypothesis H34. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of response to their clients for subjects in R.

A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group

pre and post test scores in the specific/non-specific dimension of the CVRS scale can be found in Table XXII. The resident group improved significantly in their ability to be specific with their clients. These changes were significant at the <.01 level. Therefore, Hypothesis f134 was rejected.


TABLE XIX


ANALYSIS OF ODVARIANCE
NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT T POST-TEST DATA CVRS SPECIFIC AN4D NO-SPECIFIC DIMSION


Non-Resident Resident
CVRS Post Post F
Item X X Value Specific 8.842 10.636 1.248 Non-Specific 11.157 9.363 1.248

N = NR 19; R 12

Covariates: Length of counselor experience; Pre scores










TABLE XX


SPECIFIC DIENSION
COMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS


Pre To Post Diff.
Number of t Group Exploratory Response df Value Non-resident 5.3684* 38 1.886*
Resident 7.6364* N NR 10; R 12


*p (.05







TABLE XXI


ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/NON-SPECIFIC SCORES

CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Diff. Value Specific 3.473 8.842 5.368 4.76* Non-specific 16.526 11.157 -5.368 4.76* N = 19


*P <.05




Full Text

PAGE 1

A CCM'ARISON OF NON-PESIDENT AND RF,SIDH;1T HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL TINNING PRDGRAtIS By Maria Valdes Duncan A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUf.]CIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMEIslTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1978

PAGE 2

Copyright 1978 by Miria Valdos Duncan

PAGE 3

Once upon a time, I, Chuang Chou, dreamt I was a butterfly, fluttering hither and thither, to all intents and purposes a butterfly. I was conscious only of my happiness as a butterfly, unaware that I was Chou. Soon I awaked, and there I was, veritably myself again. Now I do not know whether I was then a man dreaming I was a butterfly, or vAiether I am now a butterfly, dreaming I am a man. Chuang-Tze, 400 B.C.

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This work is a tribute to the three wost significant people in the last ten years of iny life. They have unsettled all my preconceived ideas about life, butterflies, men and wonen. C.W. Duncan, who believed in ire when I didn't believe in myself. Ted Landsman, whose demanding and supportive love encouraged me on. Pat Korb, always generous with her ideas and time.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many friends and teachers have encouraged me during my professional preparation, Tto them, I wish to express my love, respect and gratitude. I wish to thank Dr. Ted Landsman, chairperson of my doctoral conmittee, and my friend, for his help and encouragement, for the many hours he spent giving careful feedback, and for believing in me in a special and affirming way. Most inportant, I want to thank him for sinply being a model as a teacher, helping person and huoman being. I wish to thank Dr. Larry Loesch, member of my committee for his availability to meet with me and his help with statistics and research design. Most of all, I wish to thank him for his personal support and friendship. appreciation goes to Dr. Vernon Van De Reit, member of iry camnittee, for his support and help and all he taught me about Gestalt therapy. I also wish to thank Dr. Pat Korb who has believed in my ability "to do it," has told me so, has given me ideas, has worked side by side with me and without whose help this manuscript would probably not have been conpleted. My love and appreciation go to Dr. C.W. Duncan who has helped me see new possibilities for irr^self both personally and professionally and vdio has affirmed m/ uniqueness. I also wish to acknowledge the help and support of the following people v^o helped to make this dissertation a reality:

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Dr. Robert Myrick, former member of my comniittee, for his help and for being one of ray most stimulating teachers ever. Mr. Ralph Glatfelter for wanting me to be "a star" and for the many opportunities he has created for me. Drs. Joseph Wittmer, Rod McDavis, Marl in Schmidtt, Hanni Van De Reit, Tal Mullis, and Robert North for being wonderful teachers, role models and friends. My friends, particularly Judy Aanstad for our many hours of long discussion and sharing about dissertations and many otiier subjects. Also, Charlie Floumoy, Itom West, Lauren Deldin, Betsy Kylstra, Marcia Wehr, Marta Konik, Chester Kylstra, Bill Korth, Gray Ward, and Suzanne Nickenson for their love, encouragement, and patience. Crosby ("C") Turner cind Brian Van Duzee for their words of encouragement and crisis intervention. Ben Vaughn for helping me get my data together. Claire Walsh for being a friend and a reassuring face in my proposal seminar. The Florida Drug Abuse and Prevention Toast, the Career Development Center, and Santa Fe Community College, who jointly funded and supported this project. The staff of the Human Service Program at Santa Fe Community College for developing the learning program, training the subjects, and most of all for being their creative, wonderful selves. The students and facilitators who made this study an exciting, personal and dynamic adventure. Dr. Paul Schaubel for training tlie raters and being available for consultation. vi

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Dr. Tal Mullis, for his belief in and support of my ideas and dreams, particularly the external degree. Brian Van Duzee for his help with ccmputer programs and numerous statistical consultations . David Gray, research assistant to the project, who was knowledgeable and helpful. Gabriel Rodriguez, David Lindquist, James Penrod and Barbara Probert for rating the counseling tapes. Marcia Miller, Jackie King, Daisy Gunnoe, Kathy Howard, and Tillie McCall for the many long hours spent typing this manuscript. Marcia Miller and Pat Korb for the many hours of editing and correcting of this manuscript. John Yo\ang for his constant encouragement and support in ray work. Tt> my mother and my father for inspiring me in my academic pursuits. To Christina, my daughter, for bearing with me while I worked on this manuscript. vii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNCMLEDGE^^ENTS v LIST OF TABLES X LIST OF FIGURF5 xii ABSTRACT xiii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 5 Need of the Study 5 Importance of the Study 6 Human Service Program 7 Definition of Terms 9 Questions Posed by the Study 12 II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH 13 The Paraprofessional Counselor 13 External Degrees 21 ^plied Field Experience Vs Traditional Education . . 28 Didactic, Experiential and Experiential-Didactic Teaching 31 Helper Effectiveness 33 Sunmary 39 III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 42 Experimental Design 42 Subjects 49 Hypotheses 54 Research Instruments 57 Experimental Procedures 66 Statistical Analysis 70 IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY 73 V SUM^IARY, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS 101 Summary 101 Discussion 105 Limitations of the Study 112 Conclusions 113 Areas for Further Research 115 viii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page APPENDICES 117 A COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPC^SE SCALE 119 B INTERPERSaiAL RESPOl^E CHECKLIST 127 C PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS MEASURED BY THE 16 PF MEASUREMENT TEST 134 D DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET/PREVIOUS AND RELATED TRAINING ASSESSMENT 137 REFERENCES 143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 153 ix

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE I DROPOUTS II GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: SEX Ill GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: RACE IV GROUP CHAPxACTERISTICS: AGE V CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: MARITAL STATUS VI CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: PREVIOUS EDUCATION VII CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: RFJ^SON FOR ENTERING PROGRAM . VIII CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS . . . . IX INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE SCALE . . .X INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: INTERPFJ^ONAL RESPONSE QIECKLIST . XI ANALYSIS OF COVAPOT^CE NON-RESIDENT At© RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA CVRS AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE DIMENSION XII AFFECTIVE DIMENSION COMPARISON BETV^JEEN GROUPS PPvE POST DIFFERENCES XIII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE PRE-POST VS POST-TEST SCORES XW Af.]ALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/COGNITIVE PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SCORES XV ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA CVRS UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING DIMENSION . . . , XVI UNDERSTANDING DIMENSION COMPT^RISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BETOEEN GROUPS XVm ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDEfTT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING SCORES XVIII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING SCORES XIX ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT 7\ND RFSIDE^^^ POSTTEST DATA CVRS SPECIFIC AND ICiN-SPECIFIC DIT-IENSION X

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LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE Page XX SPECIFIC DIMENSION CO^^PARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BL'iWEEN GROUPS 85 XXI ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/ NON-SPECIFIC SCORES 85 XXII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/ NON-SPECIFIC SC0PF5 86 XXIII ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDEInTT POST-TEST DATA CVRS EXPLORATORY AND NONEXPLORATORY DII4ENSI0N 88 XXIV EXPLORATORY DIMEHSISION COMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BETOEEN GROUPS 84 XXV ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST EXPLORATORY/NON-EXPIDRATORY SCORES 89 XXVI ANALYSIS OF RESIDETTT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST EXPLORATORY/ NON-EXPLORATORY SCORES 89 XXVII FACILITATIVE RESPONSES CQ^ARISONS OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS 91 KXVEII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST FACILITATIVE RESPONSES 91 XXIX ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST FACILITATIVE RESPONSES 91 XXX A^mLYSIS of COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA POI 94 XXXI ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST POI SCORES 95 XXXII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST POI SCORES . 96 XXXIII ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA 16 PF 98 XXXIV ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST 16 PF SCORES 99 XXXV ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST 16 PF SCORES 100 xi

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Time Spent on Instructional Activities Per Week 44 2 Learning Activities, Teaching Methods, Evaluations 46 3 Level of Training of Staff 48 xii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Coixncil of the Unii'ersity of Florida in Partial Fiilf ilLnent of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosoj^y A GOMPARISOSI OF NON-PESIDENT AMD RESIDENT HUMAN SERVICES PERSCMEL TRAINING PROGRAMS By Maria Valdes Duncan June 1978 j Chairman: Ted Landsman Major Department: Counselor Education The purpose of the study was to investigate the differential and cotparative effectiveness of Non-resid^t (NR) and Resident (R) programs in training human service paraprofessional personnel. The study measured effectiveness in interviewing and counseling skills and personality changes. In the study, non-resident or external program was used to refer to a program that allowed students to work toward a degree without full-time attendance in regiilar classes or even residence on campus. Stxjdents worked at their own pace. Learning experiences consisted largely of independent studies, learning packets, conferences, seminars, and workshops. Students had considerable input into those learning experiences that lead to attainment of skills. Resident or traditional program was used to refer to a study program in v^ch students working toward a degree were required to attend classes on a regular basis. Classes were held on canpus. There was a prescribed period for students to complete their work and they had limited input in designing the learning experiences which were accepted for corpletion of a course. Ihe subjects of the study were 58 human service workers who enrolled full-time at a connunity college in the Fall of 1976. Thirty-one subjects corpleted the study. All non-resident students xiii

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were enployed in hunian service agencies throughout six major metropolitan areas of the state. All resident students lived in the same metropolitan area where the college was located and only one was enployed full-time in a human service agency. Subjects enrolled in the same courses and completed the same objectives. The main difference in the training consisted in the method of delivery and the structure of the program. Four trainers were assigned to work with the non-resident students. A consultant was hired in each of the major metropolitan areas to be an on-site supervisor or learning facilitator to the students, as well as a representative of the college in that area. Pretesting was folloi^'ed by one year of training, and then posttesting was administered. The non-residents received two hours of training each week. The residents received fifteen hours of training each week. The effect of training was evaluated by four criterion instruments. Two of the instruments were used to rate preand post-audio taped segments of trainee counseling. The Counselor Verbal Response Scale which measures (1) ability to respond to the feelings of the helpee, (2) ability to give understanding responses to the helpee, (3) ability to be specific, and (4) ability to give responses that lead the helpee to further self-exploration was used, as well as the Interpersonal Response Checklist vdiich measures the helper's ability to give facilitative responses. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was used to measure the self-actualization level of trainees. The Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) was used to measure personality changes . xiv

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TWenty-eight hypotheses were tested using a pre-post design. Analyses of covariance and t-test were performed to test for the differences between the NR and R groups. Ttests were perfomied to measure differences within groups pre and post scores. Both groups changed in a positive direction in all interpersonal effectiveness CVRS scales and the Interpersonal Response Checklist with changes in all but the affective/cognitive dimension reaching at least a ^.05 level of significance. The resident group experienced greater gain than the non-resident group in two scales: the affective/ cognitive dimension and the Interpersonal Response Checklist. The gains were significant at the ^.05 level. Subjects in the resident group significantly increased their level of selfactualization in six of the POI characteristics. Subjects in the non-resident group shewed no increase. Subjects in both groups experienced limited personality changes as measured by the 16 PF. None of the changes were in areas that had been correlated to helper effectiveness in other studies. The changes that occurred were in different areas for each group. Each program attracted a different trainee population. The groups were different in demographic characteristics, level of ccmmitment and reasons for dropping out. XV

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amPTER I INTRODUCTION During the past few years, one of the emerging trends in human service manpower utilization has been the hiring and training of support personnel or paraprof essionals , those workers v*io do not have a professional graduate education. Such workers usually have had sane personal experiences and/or some training which help them respond effectively to those seeking help. The concept of using sub-professional personnel as support to the professional staff was initiated in the health-related fields v/here technicians v/ere given specialized training enabling then to relieve medical doctors of the more routine duties. In the 1950 's paraprof essionals began to be used in some educational systems; however, tlie concept of paraprof essionals as an important part of the mental health care delivery system did not become prominent in professional literature until the 1960 's. At that time paraprof essionals were being used in rehabilitative and welfare agencies to perform clerical duties, routine tasks, initial interviews and limited client management functions. They also worked under very close supervision by professionals. Initiative or a high degree of responsibility was not part of their job (Reiff and Reissman, 1965) . In the recent years the responsibilities given to paraprofessional human service personnel have greatly increased. Seeking innovative ways to meet client needs, some agencies have created jobs to meet needs that were not previously met by professionals. Titles describing the new 1

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2 service delivery jobs include "ccmmunity organizer," "advocate," "client broker," occipational specialist," and "behavioral manager" (McPheeters and King, 1971; Teare, 1971) . The public, increasingly better informed and more acutely aware of welfare practices, is demanding better quality of services and more tangible results. Consequently, faced with the problem of need to increase productivity while maintaining qualitative standards, human service agencies are more and more relying on paraprofessionals (North, 1972 ) . The effectiveness of paraprofessional human service workers in establishing meaningful relationships has received wide support frcm research studies and field reports (Truax and Carkhuff, 1967; Zax and Cowen, 1967; Grosser, Henry, and Kelly, 1969; North, 1974). Ccwen attempts to sunmarize the special assets v^ich make par^rofessionals successful in human service work: (1) new, creative and flexible attitudes with which they handle their tasks, (2) energy, enthusiasm, involvement, and (3) the special identification and cooperation that clients give them (Cowen, 1967) . Paraprofessional human service workers often do not possess a broad background of professional education. Often they are given only a short period of training, if any, to help then perform their roles. Consequently, the human service agencies which are presently atploying or which intend to errploy paraprofessionals are left with the need to develop helpful in-service training programs. As paraprofessionals acquire experience and confidence seme want to move to better paying jobs. However, service agencies have limited possibilities for raises on the basis of performance. Better jobs often require better qualifications

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3 and further training. The par^rofessionals face the dLlenma of staying on a job that is perhaps satisfying and meaningful but does not pay much, having to acquire additional training, or finding a different, better paying job. As paraprofessional human service workers becone a more integral and xaseful part of agency staff, the question of minimizing job turnover and re-training beccmes more crucial . Since further training either for ' better delivery of service and skill-i:pgrading or for iirprovement of workers' opportunities, or both, involve money, time and effort on both the part of the par^rofessional worker and the agency, questions of the kind and the effectiveness of training becone crucial issiies. Agencies and paraprofessional hunan service workers are asking what is the most efficient way to deliver needed training? Which is the most feasible and workable training method that can best benefit agencies and par^rofessionals? For many years the traditional university has teen the primary w institution offering training opportunities teyond the high school level. In addition, higher education has teen the special province of the young » Traditionally, American colleges have discriminated against adult students whose work or family responsibilities prevent them from returning to the campus for regularly scheduled classes. For such people a college education is very difficult, if not iitpossible to attain. The present system of higher education is oriented to the "college age" peculation. As a result, human potential is going to waste and society suffers. (Troiitt, 1971;^ p. 2) Paraprofessional human service workers are often fron Icwer socioeconanaic backgrounds. They started to work early in life, got married and had families. Opportunities for higher education were not available to them.

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4 Yet they are important members of agencies and the need for further training is there. Paraprofessionals are certainly not the only group v/ith needs that are not being effectively met by present higher education practices. The needs of veterans, minorities, low income persons, shift WDrkers, housewives, the elderly and many others seeking additional career education have not been met by the present structure (Schmitt, 1975) . Recently the traditional institutional educational system has begun to assess what it has to offer to persons over twenty-five years of age. Responding to both the financial need for enrolling more students and the demands for alternative methods of education, some institutions have started to develop programs that would attract a wider range of students. Some of the oomnon characteristics of these programs are acceptance of alternative learning experiences that may or may not require classrocm activities, flexibility of residency requirements and encouragement of experiences that are designed to help students learn in ways best suited to their needs and wants. The nonresidential or external degree program is one such option. These are programs that permit students to wDrk tavard a degree without full-time attendance at regular classes or even residence on cairpus. Such nonresidential degree programs have been designed for paraprofessionals in the field of human services. They provide two years of training enabling workers to work in a variety of helping agencies. Nonresidential degree programs particularly at the two-year level can perhaps meet the needs of both agencies and paraprofessional human service vrorkers. Such programs can perhaps up-grade skills, as well as give credit for the knowledge and skills that workers already have

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5 acxjuired on-the-job. They enable workers to stay on-the-job and at the same time irrprove their future career opportunities. In addition they are directly related to the student's job. For all these reasons they are more able to meet the needs of both the agencies and the paraprofessional human service v.orker. Purpose of the Study The general purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to assess the effects of training on both a residential and a nonresidential group of students in a paraprofessional human service training program and (2) to describe the differences between residential and nonresidential groups. The purpose of both training programs is to develop and improve skills related to effective interviewing and to increase those perceptual attitudes and personality traits correlated with effective counseling performance. Need of the Study Because there is likely to be an increase in the number of paraprofessionals enployed in human service agencies, models for efficient and effective training programs must be developed and tested. Since new alternatives to traditional education are being designed and implemented, research needs to be done to assess their effectiveness. Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of paraprofessional training programs over a period of a year or wore. No research has been done assessing the effectiveness of external degree programs. No research has been done conparing the performance of students in a traditional program with that of students in an external degree program.

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6 Inportance of the Stuc3y Because the paraprofessional human service worker has becane a respected addition to the staff of helping agencies, and because current national and state trends and policies tend to point to increasing utilization of the paraprofessional helper in the State of Florida and throughout the country, agencies are beginning to ask questions regarding training of paraprof essionals . With the shortage of funds for hiring new personnel and the ever-increasing need for social services, agencies are giving more and more responsibility to paraprofessionals . Their job responsibilities are shifting fran clerical and record keeping tasks to those client related tasks that used to be considered the sole domain of professionals. Their responsibilities range from intake interviewing, individual and groip therapy, case management, and evaluation to supervisory and administrative tasks. Thus, with increased responsibilities the question of what is the minimal level of training that should be required of paraprofessionals becomes an issue of greater concern. Another pertinent question is what to do about those enployees who are already on the job, functioning in positions of increasing responsibility, who yet have no fomal training. Several factors have led to increased enphasis on and need for ongoing training and/or on-the-job staff development programs. The quantity of knowledge is increasing faster than individuals can keep pace with. In seme countries, half the working population are in jobs that did not exist at the beginning of this century. As better care and health practice extends the life span of people and the years of productive healthy life increase, people are wanting to work longer. As a result of changed attitudes tcward work, the erphasis in jobs is also being changed fran

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7 ineeting survival needs to desire for satisfaction and fullfillment. Re-training often is mandatoiry for shifts in careers or improvement in one's field. All these social changes point to a need for education to be available not only to young people but people of all ages v^o cannot and would not take off four years, leave their jobs, uproot their families and go to a university. Along with greater enphasis on eqiial opportunity in employment comes a need to design viable alternatives for training those people who do not have parents that can send than away to college for several years and who instead have had to join the labor force at an early age. As education is being redefined from an activity in which people engage during the early years of tlieir life to a life long process, alternatives to traditional education are becoming an area of concern to those interested in education and training. Open universities, external degree or nonresidential programs, continuing education courses, and individualized study programs are in existence, yet little research to assess their success or failure has been carried out. Questions as to the effectiveness of such programs are still unanswered. One inportant question is v^ether educational work done in such alternative methods is worth credentialing equal to that v\^ich traditional methods of learning have carried. No studies have been done to determine the effect of external degree programs on the students or to compare the performance and learning of external students with students in more traditional programs. Human Services Program The Human Services Program rcseai-ch in tiiis study provides an intensive training program in human relations, general helping skills.

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8 psychopathology , and in different approaches tn helping and interviewing skills. The two most inportant assunnptions underlying the program are: (1) that the single most critical resource a person has to bring to the helping situation is himself as an open, sensitive, caring human being; and (2) that the most effective leaoning takes place in situations in which a person is actively working in the area under study. Thus, the enphasis in the program is upon the student's development of himself as a helping person and upon his active participation in supervised field work in a variety of human service settings. Students in the nonresidential program are required to specialize in substance abuse counseling. Students in the residential program are encouraged but not reqmred to have an area of specialty. One of their options is substance abuse, and other areas include working with groups or individual counseling. The curriculum is divided into two major areas of ccmpetence: (1) Core counselor behaviors and understandings. (2) Fieldwork or agency-applied behaviors and understandings. Students in the external program have an additional area of ccmpetence (3) Substance abuse knowledge and the counseling behaviors and understandings associated with substance abuse agency work . The core skills include those ccmpetencies that are necessary to work in any human service agency: interviewing and therapeutic skills, knowledge of community resources and conmunity dynamics, process recording and psychopathology. The fieldwork conpetencies deal with those skills related to direct work v/ith pecple and with the student's ability to apply the knowledge he has obtained through his/her core skill courses. Fieldwork skills include on-going counseling and in-take intervisvs, working

PAGE 24

9 with grov:ps, case management activities, client advocacy, outreach and any other activities that hijman service agencies require of the human service personnel. The substance abuse competencies deal with those skills related to work with drug abusers. They include knowledge of and ability to use those therapeutic skills that have been found to be effective in the treatnent of substance abusers, legal and ethical considerations specific to this population, and pharmacological and historical information. In addition to these courses, students in both programs have to have a minimum of 18 hours of general education requirements in order to obtain an Associate in Science degree. General education courses are math, science, cannunication, humanities, social and behavioral sciences. These courses axe needed in order to meet the general education requirements as specified by the articulation agreement between ccmmunity colleges and universities . At the completion of these experiences students in both programs are awarded an Associate in Science degree in human services work. Definition of Terms Some of the words in this study have special connotations. The purpose of this section on definitions is to provide a general contextual explanation of some of the key words found throughout this study. Nonresidential programs: Nonresidential program, scmetimes also referred to as "external , " is a study program that permit students to work toward an Associate of Arts or Sciences degree without fulltime attendance in regular classes or even residence on canpus. Students have considerable input into those learning experiences that can lead to attainment of skills and are allowed to progress

PAGE 25

10 towards their degree at their cwn pace. Learning experiences range fron regular co\irses and independent study to internships, video tape playbacks, conferences, workshops and seminars. Resi dential programs: Ptesidential programs, scmetimes referred to as "traditional," are study programs in which students working toward a degree are required to attend classes on a regular basis. The classes are generally held on campus or extension facility. There is a prescribed period of time during which students must finish their work. Students have limited input in designing the learning experiences which will be accepted for conpletion of a course . Experience : A full-time job in a human services agency held by the student where he or she is involved in delivery of service to the client population. Paraprof essional : For purposes of this study a paraprofessional is a person who does not have a graduate level degree in counseling or related field and who works in a hviman service agency under the supervision of a professional . His/her position may require a two. year degree, specialized training and/or experience, and in many cases, experiences not specific to helping others. A par^rof essional sometimes may hold a four-year degree in psychology or a related field or an unrelated field such as history. A paraprofessional may have a high school education and past personal experience may include having been a client himself, or having been a recipient of services such as those he is delivering. Counseling skills : Counseling skills are those behaviors which when perforrted proficiently by the counselor will lead to client

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11 self -exploration and growth in the counseling process. In clientcentered therapy they are also referred to as providing the necessary and sufficient conditions and include enpathic responding, warmth, genuineness and concreteness . Sane other skills are the ability to reflect, clarify, appropriately self disclose, confront, give feedback and ask open ended questions. Experiential-didactic teaching ; For purposes of this study experiential -didactic teaching is a method of teaching which incorporates both theory and actual practice within a presentation of materials to students. Ihere is special an:iphasis on creating actual live experiences in the classroon that allow the student to become involved as an active participant. These ej^riences include role plays, video tapes, practice groiips and discussion groips. Personality: Personality can be defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique response to his environiTEnt. It is a catibination of (1) those perceptions, characteristics, and attitudes through vMch he interprets reality, (2) those behaviors which he uses to gratify his needs and survive in his environment. For purpose of this paper personality will be described by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) . The 16PF defines personality in terms 16 independent dimensions ranging fron how sociable and outgoing a person is to how conventional and practical. The POI defines personality in terns of self-actualizing characteristics as described Maslcw (1964) and Jourard (1968). In these instruments a healthy

PAGE 27

12 person is one who is fully functioning and leads a richer, more fulfilling life than does the average person, one who is niore individualistic and freer of inhibitions and emotional turmoil. Questions Posed By The Study (1) Will there be differences in gain between the groups of non-residential students and residential students on counseling skills? (2) Will there be differences in changes between the groups of the nonresidential students and residential students in their level of self-actualization? (3) VJill there be differences in changes between the nonresidential students and residential students on personality characteristics?

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARQI The review of related research centers aroiand the following four areas: (1) The paraprofessional human service worker, (2) the external degree, and experiential teaching, (3) applied field experience vs. traditional education, and (4) didactic-experiential and experiential didactic teaching, and (5) helper effectiveness. The Paraprofessional Counselor The practice of using paraprofessionals or sub-professional personnel has a long history. Acconpanying the concept of job factoring, in the early part of this century, was the idea of giving the lower level jobs to the less skilled or trained worker (Taylor, 1911) . Diversified staffing was introduced in the schools in 1950 and this introduced teacher-aides into the classrocm (Fine, 1967) . Indigenous coirmunity workers began to be used to perform clerical and client management functions in the early 1960 's (Reiff and Reissman, 1965). Also in the early 60 's prison attendants began to perform minor counseling tasks in correctional institutions (Austin, 1972) . In the last few years the use of paraprofessional personnel has been increasing rapidly both in the number of available positions and in the scope of responsibilities which their jobs have come to include (Ihigpen, 1974) . A symposium of educators from eleven southeastern states was able to define thirteen different paraprofessional functions ranging frcm clerical tasks to highly sophisticated therapeutic and change agentry functions (King and McPheeters, 1969) . The following functional roles were described: 13

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14 1. Outreach (human link) worker. Reaches out to detect people with problems, to refer them to appropriate services and to follow them up to make sure they continue to their maximm rehabi 1 i tat ion . 2. Broker. Helps people get to the existing services and helps the services relate more easily to clients . 3. Mvocate. Pleads and fights for services, policies, rules, recjulations , and la\7s for clients. 4 . Evaluator . T^^sesses client or canmunity needs and problems whether medical, psychiatric, social or educational, etc. This includes formulating plans and explaining them to all concerned . 5 . Teacher educator . Performs a range of instructional activities from simple coaching to teaching highly technical content directed to individuals or groups. 6. Behavior changer. Carries out a range of activities planned primarily to change behavior, ranging frcm coaching and counseling to casework, psychotherapy, and behavior therapy. 7. ^'bbilizer. Kelpsto get new resources for clients or coimunities . 8. Consultant. Works with other professions and agencies regarding their handling of problems, needs and programs. 9. Community planner. Works with coirmunity boards, committees, etc., to assure that canmunity developments enhance positive mental health and self and social actualization, or at least minimized citizens emotional stress and strains. 10. Care giver. Provides services for persons who need ongoing support of sane kind (i.e., financial assistance, day care, social support, 24 hour care) . 11. Data manager. Performs all aspects of date handling; gathering data, tabulating, analyzing, synthesizing, program evaluation, and planning . 12. Administrator. Carries out activities that are primarily agency or institution-oriented rather than client or conmunityoriented (budgeting, purchasing, personnel activities, etc.). 13. Assistant to specialist. This role is listed since some need for aides and assistants to the existing professionals and specialists may be anticipated.

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15 In a survey of 185 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) training programs, Sobey (1970) found paraprofessionals working as therapists, case managers, special skill instructors, advocates, recreational aides, and in a multitude of other activities. There seem to be three basic explanations for the increased use of paraprofessionals in the helping fields which point to the need for the development of effective paraprofessional training programs: (1) Ihe manpcwer available in the helping professions is limited and will continue to be increasingly so if only traditionally trained professionals are utilized, lb use only professionals does not seem financially feasible in light of the national economic crisis or the increased datand for quality service. (2) The developnent of new careers will provide jobs for presently unused but potential helpers. Lay counselors, being generally less educated, of a lower socioeconomic class and more likely to be non-\4iite, are probably wore like their clients than are professionals, and thus likely to be itore easily trusted. (3) The alteration of what is seen as the best way to serve the mental health needs of this country reflects a widespread danand for placing a greater value of indigenous and comnnunity-supported workers. These people are perceived as being more in touch with the needs of clients and perhaps having ways to provide more creative helping services (Thigpen, 1974; Wehr, 1973). In 1952 and 1955 Eysenck published research v^ich seemed to deny the value of counseling and psychotherapy (Eysenck, 1952, 1955). His controversial articles caused those v^o were convinced of the benefits of counseling to get busy trying to prove its effectiveness. Part of

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16 what sane supporters of counseling and psychotherapy foxand in their research was that factors could be isolated which distinguished effective fran ineffective therapists (Truax, Wittmer, and Warp, 1971), Carl Rogers (1961) represented the views of other therapists who insist that effective therapy comes not from any method, but rather from the quality of the helping relationship. Rogers believes that positive change happens in a helping relationship if tlie counselor is empathic, congruent and has positive regard for his client. By "empathic" he means having a true understanding of the client's perspective; by "congruent," an ability to be real; and by "positive regard", an unconditional acceptance of the client. Rogers calls these ingredients the "necessary and sufficient conditions" for therapeutic change (Rogers, 1961) . These "necessary and sufficient conditions" have become the basis for scales that have been i.:ised to measure counselor effectivenss (Truax, 1961, 1962) . Truax and Carkhuff (1967) have attempted to measure therapeutic effectiveness, the relationship between personal characteristics of therapists and client outcome, and the relationship between the degree of professional training a therapist has had and his ability to adequately effect client change. The Truax and Carkhuff research findings can be sunmarized as follows (1) Individuals possessing such personal characteristics as enpathic understanding, non-possessive warmth and genuineness can effect positive changes in clients. They can also rapidly develop more sophisticated therapeutic skills. (2) Counselors who have the facilitative interpersonal qualities of enpathy, warmth and genuineness effect therapeutic changes without fully understanding the corplexities of personality dynamics.

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17 (3) Lengthy professional training is not a prerequisite for effective functioning as a therapist. (4) Paraprofessionals with limited training can be just as effective in facilitating client change over relatively short periods of time. These findings establish a basis for training that is opposed to the basis upon which the traditional training model has been built: that only those with many years of specialized training were fit to be helpers. Now a sizable body of evidence is accumulating to indicate that many functions traditionally ascribed to professionals can be perfonned effectively by individuals with less formal training: housewives (Magoon and Golann, 1966) ; college students (Graves, 1944) ; indigenous camiunity agents (Reiff and Reissman, 1965); black parents (Banks and Carkhuff, 1970); and senior citizens (Sobey, 1970). Such individuals have demonstrated their ability to perform iteaningfiiL tasks in various types of mental health settings. An accumulating body of research has pointed out several discrepancies in previous assunptions of psychotherapeutic effectiveness. Berenson and Carkhuff (1967) have reworded these assunptions to fit present day knowledge as follows: 1. Effective counseling and therapy can be acconplished by nonprofessional persons trained to offer high levels of psychological conditions that correlate with constructive change. 2. Effective counseling and therapy can be acconplished by persons providing high levels of facilitative interpersonal conditions independent of schools of therapy. 3. Effective counseling and therapy can be acconplished by many who have not passed the screening procedures of a particular school of therapy. 4. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished by persons representing a wide range of levels of intellectual functioning.

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18 5. Effective counseling and therapy can be acccnplished by persons who may or may not understand fully the complexities of personality dynamics. 6. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished only by tliose who become involved at seme deep level with the lives of their patients. 7. Effective counseling and therapy can be acconplished only by those who have first learned to trust tlieir cwn experiences, impulses and feelings. 8. Effective counseling and therapy can be accomplished only by those persons who are more "human" than "therapist. " . 9. Effective counseling and therapy can be acccmplished only by those who make a basic conmitment to their clients, who challenge the establishment with new learnings, and are continuously re-examining old learnings . 10, Effective counseling and psychotherapy involving the personal problems of clients can only be accoiplished by the most personal of approaches. The above statements have been substantiated in nurterous studies. That is, lay persons have been found to be able to provide facilitative conditions (enpatliy, unconditional positive regard and congruence) after training sessions ranging from 20 hours to one year (Berenson, Carkhuff and ]y^/rus, 1966; Dannos, 1964; Demos and Zuwaylif, 1966; Gunning, Plolmes, Johnson and Rife, 1965; Hansen and Barker, 1964; Carkhuff andTruax, 1969a). Sone research suggests that par^rofessionals or support personnel who have not undergone traditional academic training are even more effective than those with professional training (Magoon and Golann, 1966; Harvey, 1964) and are able to elicit as high or higher counseling process movement than professionally trained personnel (Mthony and Carkhuff, 1969; Berenson, Carkhuff and Myrus, 1966; Bergin and Solomon, 1963) .

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19 Several suggestions to help understand these findings have been postulated by Carkhuff and Pierce (1967) and Banks, Berenson and Carkhuff (1967) . Ihey suggest that helpers vdio are different from their clients in race and social class my have more difficulty in effecting constructive changes in their clients than those vto are itore similar in these demographic characteristics. Lay counselors, being generally less educated, of a lower socioeconomic background and more likely to be non-v*iite, were probably more like their clients than were the professionals. Carkhuff (1969) noticed from his direct contact with both lay and professional counselors involved in his studies that lay counselors have only themselves as resources in counseling v*iereas professionally trained persons bring an additional set of theories and techniques that in many cases may encumber and block full and intense involvement with a client. In addition to research findings within the mental health field which support the use of paraprof essionals , historical and political developments have had their influence. Davis (1975) states, "With the event of the Russian Sputnik in 1957, the government invested much more ironey in education, bringing more counselors and aids into the schools, and opening up jobs for paraprof essionals . The movement was also aided in 1964 by the Eooncmic Opportunity Act, which as part of the war on poverty, created many new agencies outside the civil service and state merit syston. This also served to create job opportunities" (Davis, 1975, p.8) . In view of increasing client needs and research findings supporting the effectiveness of paraprof essionals, it would sean that they would be viewed as a welcome addition to the mental health field. Such is not the case, however, in 1967 the American Personnel and Guidance

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20 Association (APGA) published guidelines excluding paraprofessionals fron "counseling activities" and restricting their role to clerical assistance, information gathering, record keeping, and test scoring. Beal (1969) and Jones and Cox (1970) indicate that professional counselors at that time concurred with APGA giaidelines, feeling that "non-counseling" activities were the only appropriate domain for the paraprofessional . These findings reflected a fear that the new workers would dilute the quality of services. There was also resentnent fron professionals and fear of de-professionalization in the mental health field (Brown, 1974; RDSenbaum, 1966) . In spite of the resistance on the part of many professionals and in spite of such other obstacles as low pay, no specified paraprofessional line items and no career ladders, the use of paraprofessionals has persisted. There are indications of increased acceptance. The American Personnel and Guidance Association has published two monographs during 1975 which are much more receptive to paraprofessionals. Florida Career Development Association, a new organization for counselors which includes paraprofessionals, has been initiated by the Florida Personnel and Guidance Association (Rand, 1973) . In addition to their interpersonal effectiveness which has proven them to be valuable helpers as well as cheap manpower, there might be some other reasons for their grcwing popularity. Gartner and Eeissman (1974) feel that poor people have not felt understood by professional helpers and professional helpers have felt frustrated in their attempts to reach the poor. Thus they have come to see the paraprofessional as a bridge to the poor.

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Both tJie present increasing acceptance and the lack of clarity in the boundaries between professionals and paraprofessionals are evident in a recent article by Gartner and Riessman (1974). They state: In this special issue, we are defining paraprofessionals as persons who £u:e selected, trained and given responsibility for performing functions generally performed by professionals. They do not possess the requisite education or credentials to be considered professionals in the field . . . but they do perform tasks central to the function of the agency, (p. 253) Much controversy continues to surround the roles and functions of paraprofessionals. Questions as to what is effective and appropriate training for these workers are being asked. Cotplicating factors in making training possible for these people are that they are often poor, relatively uneducated, not academically inclined and have family responsibilities that prevent them fron devoting themselves to long hours of study at an educational institution. Hopefully, reaningful training programs designed to increase the effectiveness of paraprofessional personnel and able to acccmmodate their particular needs can be designed and inplemented in the near future. External degrees are perhaps one such alternative. External Degrees During the 1970 's the external degree has come suddenly and powerfully to the attention of the Anerican higher education conmunity. Many educators have spoken out on its behalf and several universities and loniversity systems have made plans to initiate such a degree-granting program. New colleges entirely designed to provide such a degree were created; magazines and nevs^spapers began to describe it, support it, and condemn it. Educators began to write articles about positive and negative aspects, including both the support and cautions. Uncritical

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22 acceptance of the -new degree by sane was at once countered by skepticism from others. Experienced educators are well aware of fascination with new fads and ideas presented as the cure for all current ills. The executive vice president of the College Examination Board in an address on the subject said, "Candor moves me to begin by confessing that I had a very difficult time deciding whether to talk with you about hula hoops or miniature golf. In my lifetime both have been fads which took the country by storm in much the same way that the external degree premises to beocme the current 'thing' in higher education." Ke went on to say that after the initial excitement, a few solid and enduring programs would remain (Hanford, unpi±)lished address at a conference for Mult and Continuing Education, April 1971) . There have been two essentially different patterns of basic requirements for obtaining an academic degree. The first one began with the fomding of Harvard College and it defined the degree as an award for conpleting a set course of studies, pursued by all students in the same fashion and same sequence. Few choices were given to the individual student even though he could enrich his experience by belonging to different interest clubs or honorary societies. The second pattern was initiated by Charles W. Elliot as an effort to democratize higher education in the late part of the nineteenth century. After many years of battle he was able to establish the elective system at Harvard. The inpact of the elective system quickly led to other innovations such as course credit, concentration and distribution of content, grade points, lower and upper division, and a minimum number of credits for graduation. The result was a four year baccalaureate degree to be awarded on the basis of

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23 a suitable nuinber of and variety of hours of credit at an average level of accoitplishment. Such increased openness allowed for the eitergence of the practical college exenplified by Cornell and the research university based on the German model both of which were established by the end of the nineteenth century. This openness also led to a proliferation in the degrees offered. In 1877 there were 11; ten years later, there were 60; twenty years later, 242; by 1960 there were more than 1,600 (Eells, 1963) . An underlying assumption in both patterns however, was tliat they were both to be secured only through full-time study, by young people, mostly men, in residence on campias of a college and university, itaerican colleges by virtue of their daytiine scheduling and residency requirements, have traditionally discriMnated against adult students whose work or family responsibilities have prevented them from returning to the campus for regularly scheduled classes (Troutt, 1971) . A 1972 report International Garmission on Education to UNESCO describing the status of worldwide education (Report 6, 1972) indicated that the belief of education being a lifelong process is not just a theory but already a fact and one v^ich educational systems should take into consideration. The Commission's analysis of what education has been and is now can be sumtm-ized by saying that education has become so institutionalized that it is no longer a creative approach to life or a way to meet man's need to learn but rather an institution tliat preserves itself by limiting others. Even though the Coimussion lays no ground rules for the educational systems of the world and recognizes that each country must find a system that suits its cultural climate it does give some general guidelines. Among these are flexibility, continuity and open access.

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24 The report also points out the wide gap between the moral decision to provide education to all and the educational actuality. The Commission found that, even though most countries profess a desire to make education available to all and not to a self -perpetuating elite, the reality is that education continues to be denied to the most underpriviledged. Ihis happens because of the locations of educational centers, the cost, and the lack of flexibility in reqioirements . Ihe report insists that, at any rate, equality of access still would not mean the same as equality of opportunity, which must include an equal chance of success. What is needed, it says, it not equal treatment for everybody, but provision for each individual for a suitable education, tailored after his needs and at a suitable pace for his life condition. Mullis (1972) states that: Real solutions to the problems of inequality can only be found in a sweeping reorganization on the lines of permanent, lifelong education for once education beccmes continual, ideas as to what constitutes success and failure will change. An individual v*io fails at a given age and level in the course of his educational career will have other opportunities. He will no longer be relegated for life to the ghetto of his own failure. Ihe idea of lifelong education is not a new one but has been urged by seme educators for many years. It is an observable fact that human beings, consciously or not, keep on learning throughout their lives, above all through the influence of their environment. Recognition of this should bring revolutionary consequences, (p. 4) Changes have been taking place in the re-evaluation and reorganization of colleges and universities. According to Feingold (1973) colleges and universities have begun to realize that they cannot remain static but must rather accept a new responsibility. Feingold states: "What we are discussing is moving fron a closed systan to an open system; recognizing

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25 that a collegiate or any post-secx)ndary educational pattern should not be rigid and fixed, but rather flexible, open and responsive to individuals and their changing needs;" Ihe Carnegie ODmmission has enunciated this stance by urging institutions to serve the ages, life styles, abilities and career goals of their rapidly diversifying clientele (Van Dyne, 1972) . If an education is an acceptable substitute for experience, then sane forms of experience should be accepted in lieu of a formal classroon education. One of the new formats being explored and inplemented by many institutions is the "external degree." This degree is "awarded to an individual on the basis of sane program preparation (devised either by himself or by an educational institution) which is not centered on the traditional pattern of the collegiate university ' student" (Houle, 1973, p. 15) . Ihis format sonetimes grants credit for previous life experiences and learnings, removes residential requirements, allows for greater individual study and provides the opportunity for each student to design an appropriate curriculum and to work at his own pace. According to Houle (1973) the concept of the external degree is based on three philosophical assumptions: First, the belief that students can, and should be responsible for their own learning; second, the belief that learning occurs in varied ways and places; and third, that styles of learning differ from person to person. Many articles have been written describing (Eacbanerly, 1974; Gibbs and Lee, 1974), supporting (Venning, 1974; Perlman, 1975), or attacking (Fumiss, 1971; Perlman, 1975) the concept of the external degree. Ihe Council on Higher Education was directed to review external educational options in the State of Washington during 1974 . In attonpting to determine

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26 v^ether an educational activity was considered "external," the Council stipulated that the determining focus in their project would be expanding educational access. Options designed to reach out to students who were unable to spend considerable airounts of time attending classes on campus were described as "external" (Council on Higher Education, 1974-75) . This definition of external degree offerings is accepted by other sources (Houle, 1973) . Thus, external degrees include a variety of options in terms of classroom time, contact hours, and instructors and learning methodology required. Much has been written about external degrees at a theoretical level. However, after an extensive search of the literature, including an ERIC search covering up to 1976, the author has found only one research article dealing with external degree programs. The article v/as written by Siroky in 1973, who describes the kinds of students who are interested in an external degree program and for what reasons. He found that those interested in external degrees have a mean average age of 33, are predominantly male, married and anployed full-time in professional or managerial positions . He concludes that external degrees attract a itore mature, better educated, self-reliant, and professionally more responsible student body than traditional on-canpus day programs. He also found that convenience of time is the major reason for the desire to study in an external degree program. Second in importance was the belief that family or personal needs would be met better; and third, the perceived relevance of external prograins to job or work situations. Ihe major personal reason for returning to an external degree program was the developnient of new skills and knowledge. The second most important reason was to prepare for a new vocation or job; the third was self enrichment. Practical

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27 cxDnsiderations weigh heavily in the choice of external degree programs as well as in the choice of the kinds of programs or majors under this model of instruction. As far as this author can find there are no research studies on the effectiveness of external degree programs at this point. Also, no published work describing external degree programs designed to train professional or paraprofessional counselors was found. Fears and criticisms surrounding the creation of external degree programs mainly concern the deterioration of academic standards as a result of too little structure. Morland (1973) describes Nova University, a Florida institution that through its external program produced 1600 education doctorates in three years — more than the three largest traditional producers. He attributes such high nurrbers of graduates to lower quality standards. He states that Nova and other external degree universities have relaxed standards that do not favorably compare to those of traditional institutions. Shulman (1972) acknowledges the inportance of the issue of quality of academic standards and believes it not to be a danger if three factors are in line: motivated students, adequate resources, and a process for proper guidance and rigorous assessment of the student. An additional criticism of external degree programs is that a higher education institution should provide students not only credentials but also opportunities to participate in oollege life and student activities. Most external degree programs are lacking in this area, although some programs, such as Regents' External Degree Program in New York, have made

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2d attempts to make student services available to external students in order to remedy this situation. However, this may well be a built-in shortcoming of external degree programs due to both the structure of the programs and the students lack of time and desire to participate. It is estimated that one third of all Ttoerican colleges and universities are engaged in some type of unconventional program (Houle, 1973) . Some of these programs include extension degrees, individual study programs, adult degrees, and credit by examination (Gould and Cross, 1972) . Seme of the institutions offering the external degree are Empire State College in New York, Florida International University in Miami, Florida, Santa Fe Community College in Florida, Minnesota Metropolitan State College, the Regents' External Degree Program in New York, Eagle University ( a consortium of nine universities) and the University Without Walls (composed of 25 institutional members spread throughout the country) . All of these institutions share a belief in individual learning and attertpt to provide maximum flexibility to their clientele. Many students find that being able to work at their own pace eliminates some of the frustration that results from trying to meet the needs of their families, their school work, and trying to meet exhausting timetables. Ihe primary philosophical basis for external degrees is the belief that effective learning derives from purposes and needs that are irtportant to the individual. Tjpplied Field Experience vs Traditional Education There seems to be an increasing agreement among educators that as education is considered to be an acceptable substitute for experience, some forms of experience can be accepted in lieu of formal classrcon education. The questions sean to center about what kinds of outside-the-

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29 classroom experience are acceptable; vhat is an appropriate systan to evaluate such experiences; and what is an appropriate balance of the two. Hie present study attonpts to answer the question of vdiether extensive applied experience and limited formal classroon training is more, less, or equally effective as extensive classroan training and limited applied experience. The literature related to paraprofessional training reflects an increasing degree of valuing of applied experience by educators, field practitioners, and paraprofessionals (North, 1974; Carkhuff, 1971; Riock, Elkes and Fline, 1965; Danish and Brock, 1974; Davis, 1975). Their views can be summarized in a statement by Harold McPheeters of Southern Regional Educational Board: The field is the only setting in which paraprofessionals can learn to become practitioners. In the field they learn to experience the mentally ill, the retarded, the alcoholic and persons with other probloiis of daily living. Here they learn the "how soon," "hew much" and "how far" in applying their skills with real clients. Ihey learn the realities of paraprofessional and agency life. Here they learn to solve problems from the beginning. Here, too, they learn the full implications of/generalist role model. The field is not just a place where the students "test out" or integrate their classroom knowledge. It is, in fact, the place where the most effective acquisition of knowledge, skills, and values actually take place. (McPheeters, H., 1976, p. 76) Friel and Carkhuff in The Art of Developing a Career (1974) discuss the inportance of all aspects of the learning process: (1) exploration; (2) understanding; and (3) action. Traditional programs emphasize the first two components v^iere external degrees atteirpt to integrate all three components (Mullis, 1972). In a recent survey of hew potential employers value components of traditional and external doctorates (Gephart, Saretsky and Bost, 1975) it was found that they wanted individuals v\^o were prepared to use their intellectual abilities and knavledqe to resolve work probloms. They were

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30 asked to rate 17 items in three ways: (1) in tenns of desirability as a characteristic of a doctoral program; (2) as a factor influential in the consideration of job applicant; and (3) as an influence on a prcmotion decision. In terms of desirability as a ccriiponent of a doctoral program employers ranked as the number one requirement an internship which offers opportunities to accomplish professional tasks in real life situations. Number two in the rankings was the program's emphasis upon roles, responsibilities and functions. These results indicate a high valuing of onthe job and directly job-related training. On the other hand, the number three ranking was dissertation corrponent that focuses on research and scholarship. Their opinions of program quality do not seem rooted in time requirements of a specific duration; however, they do seem to highly value practical experience but not to the exclusion of intellectual and theoretical knowledge. In terms of factors influencing both consideration of a job applicant and promotions for those already employed, those factors related to effective performance in applied situations and personal qualities were ranked higher than traditional education. Their responses suggest that these employers are not much influenced by the specific nature of a doctoral program when it ccmes to hiring decisions. In order of inportance they listed ccaipletion and possession of the doctorate, iitpressions fron personal interviews and the nature of prior professional experience. The specifics of a doctoral program are even less influential in pronotion decisions. Here employers would consider coirments of colleagues, performance on the job and recoitmendations .

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31 If this study and other writings by educators are correct, the message to those people interested in developing meaningful programs is clear. Employers and employees want to see programs tliat prepare individuals to use theory and generalize kna-zledge in tlie resolution of everyday jobrelated problems. It seems unlikely tliat such a program can be totally immersed in the field, or behind the walls of a school. It seems that a balancing conbination is the answer. Questions related to what the appropriate balance is, what kinds of evaluation and accreditation procedures for nontraditional training experiences are appropriate, and v^at if any are tlie differences in the kinds of locuning that caii be effectively acconplished by each program remain to be answered. Didactic, Experiential and Experiential-Didactic Teaching In didactic teaching, a trainer provides information that the trainees may use as a tool to help others. Helper trainers v^o believe in didactic methods contend tliat teaching should consist primarily of an information giving process (\'folberg, 1954) . The major concern is to provide the necessary information to understand and change behavior. In experiential teaching, the focus is on learning about oneself (Patterson, 1964) . Educators that support experiential teaching believe tliat a higher degree of self-awareness will make the trainee a better helper. The major assuitption underlying the experiential model is that effective communication and counseling does not depend on the use of a special teclmique or adherence to a particular theory but rather on tlie nature of the helper's attitudes, his perceptions of himself and others (Patterson, 1964; Rogers, 1957b) . The helper's effectiveness is believed to rest on his ability to

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32 understand and evaluate his own attitudes and experiences. Experientialdidactic teaching combines both of these approaches. Self exploration and didactic teaching combine both of these approaches. Self exploration and information giving are both emphasized. The trainees have a chance to experientially explore their feelings and reactions and eritically explore the didactic information being given to them. Role plays and participatory experiences follow didactic presentations. Research has been done supporting the effectiveness of all of these teaching methods. A sunmary of each follows. Didactic Teaching : Truax (1963) demonstrated that the didactic method can be effective in teaching helpers to discriminate levels of empathy. Both Truax (1963) and Carkhuff (1970) can help people develop the cognitive knowledge that is necessary to understand and change behavior; however, they also found that such knowledge does not always translate into the skills necessary for good counseling. Carkhuff, Collingwood and Renz (1969) found that the ability to discriminate levels and types of functioning in oneself does not lead to the ability to helpfully cormiunicate with a client. This is even more true when dealing with helper's functioning at low levels of interpersonal effectiveness (Carkhuff, Collingwood and Renz, 1969) . Experiential Teaching ; Much of the literature relating to experiential teaching is theoretical rather than experimental in nature (North, 1974) . Experiinental studies that have been done support the idea that teaching in which self-understanding is emphasized can lead to positive change in helper's attitudes toward self and otliers (Boelim, 1961; Wessel, 1961; and Patterson, 1964) . However, according to Krumboltz (1967) , research

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33 in e>53eriential teac±iing methods has demonstrated little or no support for the assumed relationship between counselor, self -understanding and successful counseling outcomes. Thus, it can be said that although experiential training can change helper attitudes and perceptions in positive directions there is little evidence that such attitudinal changes result in more effective helper performance with clients. Experiential-Didactic Teaching : Truax, Carkhuff and Douds (1964) proposed the integration of the didactic and experiential teaching methods. Carkhuff and Truax (1965a) and Anthony and Carkhuff (1969) found that by using an integrated approach that includes both methods, both professional and paraprofessional trainees can be bought to a level of interpersonal effectiveness that is ccirparable with that of highly effective helpers and significantly higher than that of post-practicum and postinternship trainees in counsleing and psychotherapy. Furthermore, Truax and Carkhuff (1967) and Truax and Mitchell (1970) found that trainees who were trained with experiential-didactic teaching methods are effective in producing significant positive changes in mildly and severely disturbed clients. On the vAiole it appears that the most effective brief training programs for training prospective helpers in interpersonal skills are prograits that integrate didactic and experiential activities (North, 1974) . Helper Effectiveness What an effective helper is still remins scsnewhat of a mystery. Originally, it seemed ijtportant to find individuals who had intellectiaal abilities enabling them to coirplete training programs. However, academic test scores and grade point averages have been found to have little or no correlation with counselor effectiveness (Bergin and Solomon, 1963) .

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34 Studies by Wittaer and Lister (1971) , McCreary (1957) , Arbuckle (1968b) , and IVb^rick and Kelly (1971) have all found little or no correlation between acadanic ability and helper effectiveness. At a later date it seemed apparent that certain personal characteristics were essential (Itogers, 1961; Carkhuff and Truax, 1965 a, 1965 b) . Since then, the search to pinpoint those essential qualities and instruments to assess and predict helper effectiveness has taken a number of paths largely depending on the frame of reference of the author being studied. Those approaches tliat directly relate to this study are the personality measuranent approach, and the helper interpersonal variable and verbal response approach. Personality Measurement i^proach ; A popular approach to the quest for a syston to predict and assess helper effectiveness has been the attanpt to link certain personality characteristics to effective counseling. A number of instruments has been used. Although differentiations have been made between poor and good helpers, results have not been significant enough to use in screening of counselor and other helping professional trainees especially in light of the inconsistencies in findings (Wehr, 1973 Stern, Stein and Eloon, 1956) . Ihe Strong Vocational Interest Blank has been used widely for purposes of counselor selection (Ohlsen, 1967) . Kriedt (1949) , Patterson (1962) , and Foley and Proff (1965) found that counselors showed the social service block of occupations to be their highest interest, while Steffler, King and I^afgren (1962) reported that effective counselors were more likely to score high on these occupations than less effective counselors.

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35 The Ecaward Personal Preference Scales has been used to differentiate between effective and less effective counselors. Results are confusing and often conflicting. Ohlsen (1967) , using the instrument with two groups of counselors, found the most effective in the first group scored higher than tiie least effective on "sucoorance, " and lower on "order," "deference" and "consistence." In his second group, tlie most effective scored higher than the least effective on "introspection" and laver on "dcminance" and "aggression." Results were sinply not consistent. Steffler, King, and Leafgren (1962) found effective counselors to be higher on "deference" and "order," and lower on "aggression" and "abasement," while Truax, Silber, and Warge (1966) found high scores in "change" and "autoncoY" and Icwer scores in "order" as characteristics of their counselors judges to be more effective. The Sixteen Personality Factor Scale represents another attempt to predict and/or measure effectiveness using a standardized test. McClain (1968) derived an equation to predict effectiveness for helpers frcm 16PF scores. This equation, however, does not seem to be in wide use. This is possibly a reflection of significant, but rather inconsistent results between studies of researchers losing the 16PF to discriminate effective from ineffective counselors. For instance, Ntyrick, Kelly and Wittmer (1972) found that effective counselors tended to be more "mature and emotionally stable" (factor c) and more "trusting and adaptable" (factor 1) Donnan, Harlan and Thompson (1969) , on the other hand, found that effective counselors scored higher on the dimensions "affected by feelings , " instead of the dimension, "emotionally stable and mature."

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36 According to Shostrom (1964) , the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) effectively identifies persons \>jh.o fit the criteria of superb functioning or selfactualization. Studies have been done by Green (1967) and Puttick (1964) which relate self-actualization characteristics to effectiveness of helpers in fields such as nursing and teaching although not specific to counseling. Dogmatism as measured by the Itokeach Dogmatism Scale also seems to be a differentiating factor, effective counselors scoring as less dogmatic than ineffective ones. Patterson (1967) concluded that Kenp's (1962) , Russo, Kelz and Hudson's (1964) and Steffler, Leafgren and King's (1962) research all support this hypothesis. Of the many instruments reviewed, the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale appeared to show the most promise, while the MMPI appeared to show the least promise (Steffler, King and Leafgren, 1962; Patterson, 1967; Wehr, 1973) . In general the literature reveals that a great deal of research has been done in this area and that there is a great diversity of opinions on the results. Helper Interpersonal Variables and Verbal Responses Approach : Attenpts to measure helper effectiveness through types and levels of verbal responses given by the helper is probably the most widely researched of all the different systems of measuring counselor effectiveness. Carkhuff , Truax, Berenson, and Rogers have been leading researchers in this area. Their research deals primarily with relating a set of interpersonal core factors to client gain. These factors are enpathy, unconditional positive regard, congruency, and concreteness . Effectiveness of conmunication of these relationship factors is measured through scales that assess the effectiveness of counselor responses on those dimensions.

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37 In his mcdel for effective therapy Carkhuff offers several propositions cxjnceming the effect of facilitative helper dimensions on the client counselor interaction. A reviev/ of his two propositions and corollaries seems appropriate as tlie interactional scale used in this study closely relates to that used by Carkhuff. In Helping and Human Relations Volume One he supports the following statements with a wide variety of research evidence . Proposition I . The degree to vi^hich the helping person offers high levels of facilitative conditions in response to the expressions of the person seeking help, is related directly to the degree to which the person seeking help engages in processes to constructive change or gain. Corollary I. The degree to w4iich the helping person offers high levels of ennpathic understanding of the helpee's world is related directly to the degree to which the helpee is able to understand himself and others. Corollary II. The degree to v^^ich the helping person communicates high levels of respect and warmth for the helpee and his world is related directly to the degree to whidi the helpee is able to respect and direct warm feelings toward himself and others. Corollary III. The degree to v^ich the helper is helpful in guiding exploration to specific feelings and content is related directly to the degree to \;hich the helpee is able to make concrete his own problem areas. Corollary IV. The degree to \4iich the helper is responsively genuine in his relationship with the helpee is related to the degree to which the helpee is able to be responsively genuine in his relationship with himself and others. Proposition II . The degree to which the helping person initiates action-oriented dimensions in a helping relationship is directly related to the degree to which the person seeking help engages in processes that lead to constructive cliange or growtli.

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38 Corollary I. The degree to which the helper can be freely, spontaneously and deeply himself, including the disclosing of significant information about himself when appropriate, is directly related to the degree to v\4iich the helpee is able to be genuine and self -disc losing in appropriate relationships. Corollary II. The degree to which tlie helper actively confronts the helpee and hiinself is directly related to the degree to which the helpee is able to confront himself and others. Corollary III. The degree to which the helper both acts and directs the actions of the helpee inmediately in the present in the relationship between helper and helpee is related to the helpee 's ability to act with immediacy and later to direct the actions of others. Corollary IV. The degree to \\hich the helper can make concrete a course of constructive action is related to the degree to which the helpee can go on to make concrete courses of action for himself and others. (Carkhuff, 1969, pp 84-90) These statements emphasize the direct effects of helper interpersonal level of function on the helpee. According to Carkhuff 's model, the degree to which the helping person offers high levels of enpathy, warmth, respect, concreteness and genuineness as related directly to the degree of the client's ability to internalize these facilitative conditions into his own personal life. In addition, the degree to which the action-oriented helpful counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing of himself, actively confronting himself and the client, being v/ith the moment, and making concrete courses of action is directly related to the helpee 's ability to apply these same facilitative activities in his own life situation.

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39 Schauble, Pierce and Pesnikoff (1977) found the Counselor Verbal Response Scale to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales. Additionally, they found them to be inore sensitive to smaller gains in interpersonal level of functioning and thus more appropriate for measuring relatively short term helper trainee progress. According to Wittmer and Myrick (1974) certain specific kinds of helper responses have been found to be perceived by clients as more empathic, caring, warm, and person centered than other responses. These responses have a higher probability of creating a facilitative, helping relationship than others and are the essential keys towards becoming a facilitative helper (North, 1974; Ivey, 1971; Wittnier and Myrick, 1974) . The Interpersonal Response checklist, based on VJittmer and I>lyrick's helpful responses model, has been used to assess paraprofessional h\jman services workers perfomnance in counseling in tenns of wliat kinds of verbal responses they give to clients. North (1974) found that human service coi:inselor trainees in a three month training period were able to significantly increase their ability to give more facilitative responses as measured by the Interpersonal Response checklist. These findings also correlated with gains in the Carkhuff scales. In general, extensive research has been done attenpting to predict client gain by measuring helper level of effectiveness. The results seem to show itore consistency than other approaches that have been used. Summary There is a wide range of helping roles presently filled by paraprofessional human service workers. Controversy still surrounds the roles and functions that the paraprofessionals are to fulfill in human service agencies. A prunary unresolved itisue seems to be that many professional

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40 counselors are against the paraprofessionals assuming counseling roles. In spite of disagreements, paraprofessional training programs that include teaching counseling skills continue to grow in number and size. Research substantiating tlie effectiveness of paraprofessional personnel in performing both counseling and non-counseling helping functions continues to increase. The rapid increase in use of paraprofessional personnel in human service agencies points to the need for appropriate training programs for these workers as well as a re-examination of appropriate training procedures to fit the particular needs of this population. Research conparing the perfomance of paraprofessional and professionals indicates that outccme effectiveness of helpers is not necessarily related to particular schools of therapy, knowledge of personality theory, or intelligence level but rather to certain interpersonal qualities. Such research challenges the helping professions to look at past assumptions about selection and training of counselors and human service workers both at the professional and paraprofessional level. Models for training are being scrutinized and experimentation is increasing. Focal questions for pan paraprofessional training relate to appropriateness, effectiveness and evaluation procedures. Trainees are often poor, relatively under educated, not academically inclined, and have family responsibilities that prevent them from devoting themselves to long hours of study at an educational institution. Needs and priorities of agencies in which paraprofessionals are employed need to be considered in designing training opportunities for these workers. There seons to be a need to explore alternatives to traditional academic structures. One important avenue for such experiitentation is the external degree program.

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41 The external degree stjoacture allows the training to fit the work schedules and the needs of both the ertployed person and the employing agency. In many agencies paraprofessionals have been hired because of previous life experiences that enable them to effectively work with clients with whom professionals have not succeeded in the past. It seems to follow then that life experiences have instructed these paraprofessionals in some skills and understandings tliat are important in counseling. Ihere seems to be a need to evaluate and credential such learnings, and at the same time provide additional training in areas in which they lack skills. It seems essential however, to use means of delivery that would make furtlier training truly available to paraprofessionals. Extensive controversy surrounds the external degree approach, a core issue is the question of vv^ether the external degree is really equivalent to a traditional degree. After an extensive search of tlie literature no research supporting or denying the effectiveness of the external approach was found. Consequently, there seems to be a need for research that would conpare the effectiveness of these two training models.

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CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES This chapter discaasses the experimental design that was used in the study and the major considerations that were involved. It includes a description of training prograins, the population, the hypotheses and the criterion instruments. In addition, the chapter pravides an explanation of the experimental procedures used in the investigation. Experimental Design The population consisted of 54 students enrolled in the Human Services Program at a Southeastern community college in the 1976-77 academic year. (A detailed description of the program has been included in Chapter I) . IWenty-six of the 54 students were enrolled in the non-resident program and 28 were enrolled in a residential program. All of the students were working toward an A.S. degree in Human Services. AJl of the non-resident students were enployed full-time in human service agencies while only one resident student was holding a related job. The students in the resident program were self-selected. They paid their tuition or made arrangements for financial aid independently. The non-resident students were selected by their supervisors and 90% of their tuition was financed by the Florida Drug Abuse Trust with the exception of four students who lived in the ccrtmunity college area. All of the resident students lived in the area vdiile the non-resident students lived in different cities throughout the state: Jacksonville, St. Petersburg, Tampa, Cocoa Beach, Orlando and Gainesville. Subjects in both training groups were registered full-time at Santa Fe Ccmnunity College, Gainesville, Florida. 42

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43 Comparisons of training programs are presented in four areas: program structure; curriculum; learning activities, teaching methods and evaluation; instructional staff. Program Structure : The resident students spent 15 hours a week in class for the first two semesters, and 8 hours in class plus 18 hours per week in a human service agency for the last three semesters. The non-resident students, in contrast spent 2 hours a week in class during their entire program, and 40 hours a week in the agencies where they were employed. In addition, they spent one day monthly in supervision and evaluation, and three days each semester in a curriculum related workshop. CurriciiLum : Both groups of students took the same general education requirements, and both took the same core courses with the following exception: the non-resident group received nine credit hours of substance abuse courses, whereas, the resident group took human service related electives. The program was structured around 42 different objectives. Both groups ccmpleted the same objectives. learning Acitvities, Teaching Methods and Evaluation : Although the curriculum for the two groups was similar, the teaching method and amount of time spent in class were different. Figure 1 suimarizes tiie number of hours spent by each group on each instructional activity. Both groups were involved in classroom activities and didactic and experientialdidactic teaching approaches were used with both groups. The resident students spent 8-15 hours in class per week. They were taught in an experiential didactic approach more often and had a large amount of time to practice skills and concepts, as well as, to be exposed to many kinds of learning activities such as role plays, skill building groups, video tapes and films.

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44 1st San. 2nd Sem. 3rd Sem. 4th Sem. 5th Sem. CLASSRXM Resident 15 15 8 8 8 ACrmTY rton--resident 2 2 2 2 FIEm-JORK Resident 0 0 18 18 18 Non-resident 40 40 40 40 Figure 1: Time Spent on Instructional Activities Per Wfeek

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45 The non-resident students v/ere taught in a more didactic manner. They spent only 2 hours per v/eek in class. The class focused more on content than on practicing skills and relied more heavily on reading materials presented through learning packets rather than tlirough class interaction and other classroom resources. Learning packets were developed by the college staff for each of the objectives in the program. Learning packets included reading materials, project assignments and references to other materials. Students worked primarily on their outi tine and were encouraged to design learning projects around their work situations. The type of evaluations for the tt/o groips were different in the follaving ways. The non-resident group had flexibility in the order and rate at w^iich they ccnpleted objectives. They took evaluations to fulfill any of the objectives whenever they v;ere ready. Evaluations were given only at their own individual request. Tlie evaluations were very specific, were spelled out in advance, and closely related to materials included in learning packets that were given to the students. These featiares of the program emphasized individuality and allowed students to work at their a,m pace. Students in the resident group took evaluations only v;hen the instructor felt the entire group was ready. The evaluations themselves were not closely related to the learning materials or specific course objectives. Evaluations were generally discussed in advance, but not as specifically as in the non-resident program. A summary of the differences in learning activities, teaching methods and evaluations can be found in Figure 2. Conparisons were made for each of these areas.

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46 Q H ^ '^ S o § H P QJ a, o 4-1 o •H •p B rH U (0 rH H -H m Q) O 4J U g CM 0) o M •H U (0 (0 -4-1 •H 05 ^ 0) fi D -H +J 0) H rO & QJ 0) +J W )H •H 0) I O rH o m 3 Qj c CO U U) r-i >i fO rH -H cn Qj 0 CM (1) •H 6h CO H

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47 Instructional Staff : All of the instructional staff involved with the resident students were instructors at the community college. All of the instructors teaching tlie core sourses had been involved in paraprofessional counselor training for a minimum of one year and were familiar witli the skills necessary for counseling work. Iheir background and training included psychology, counseling, and social work. The resident students were exposed to at least 12 different instructors during their four sonesters in the program. Of the 12 instructors in the residents Human Services Program, four were selected to work with the non-resident students. There were two instructors assigned to supervise and work with students on each site. The same two instructors worked with the same sites throughout the time length of the program. The four college staff members met for four hours each week to plan and revise the curriculum, write teaching modules and discuss problems that arose. The primary instructor for the students was a person in each of the areas. These instructors were called learning facilitators , and functioned as consultants to the college . The learning facilitators had similar backgrounds as the Human Service staff, both in terms of training and background experience. Figure 3 summarizes the level of training of the staff in both programs. They were also experienced teachers with a minimum of three years of teaching experience at the college level. Their teaching experience is primarily in areas other than the training of paraprofessional counselors. These areas include psychology and social science for freshmen behavioral sciences in a community college, and graduate courses in psychology at a state university. Prior to the beginning of the training, and at the beginning of each new semester, facilitators came to the college for a

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48 INSTRUCTORS IN BOTH RESIDENT Mm NON-RESIDENT PROGRAMS 1 Ph D in Counselor Education 1 Ed S in Counselor Education 1 M Ed in Counselor Education 1 Paraprofessional RESIDENT PROGRAM NON-RESIDENT PROGRAM INSTRUCTORS FACILITATORS Ph D in Counselor Education 1 1 Ph D in Psychology 2 2 Ed S in Counseling 2 M Ed in Counseling 2 MA in Social Vfork 1 MSW in Social Work 1 Paraprofessional 1 Figure 3: Level of Training of Staff

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49 discussion of learning materials, training in the specific skills related to this program, feedback and evaluation. These workshops lasted for tavo to three days. During each of the on-site day labs, the facilitators met privately with Santa Fe staff for discussion and feedback. Ihe primary differences between programs in the area of instructional staff can be summarized by saying that resident students receive exposure to greater variety of instructors, who were also more experienced in training paraprofessionals. The non-resident students had more continuity with the college instructors with whom they worked, as vr/ell as with the learning facilitator to v^om they were assigned, and thus more of an opportunity to develop a relationship with the the college instructors and their area learning facilitator. Subjects The population used in this study consisted of 54 paraprofessional counselor trainees enrolled in the Human Service Program at a community college. Of the total number, 28 were in the resident program and 26 were in the non-resident program. Of the 54 students who enrolled in the program, post data were only gathered on 31. Of these, 19 were in the non-resident group and 12 in the resident group. Data concerning dropout students can be found in Table I. . The non-resident student dismissed had not been performing at a satisfactory level and had been extremely undependable . No resident students were dismissed fron the program or suffered death. Attrition for the resident group was high although similar to the attrition rate estimated by the Office of Records and Mmissions for any freshman class at Santa Fe Conmunity College. The attrition rate of non-resident students was much lower than the expected for entering freshmen. There was no pattern to the dropouts in either group.

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50 Ihey were balanced in terms of sex, race, mrital status, previous education, reasons for taking course, socio-economic status and other related training. The majority of students in both groups dropped out during the first term or early on iri tiie second term. The non-resident dropouts were more easily contacted for follow-up and were more cooperative about providing information. The non-resident students were more likely to drop out because of central life issues such as lack of money, loss of jobs, fear of inability to succeed in the program. The resident students dropped out for reasons such as travel, further studies in spiritual areas, and joining other programs. TABLE I DROPOUTS Original Numbers Death Dismissal Left Voluntarily Not Locatable For Post-Test Non-Resident 28 0 0 13 3 Resident 26 1 1 4 0 All of the students in the non-resident program were eitployed full-time as counselors or administrators in a human service agency. Of the resident students, only one was onployed full-time in a human service agency. Seine other students were holding part-time jobs in unrelated areas such as secretaries, office clerks and receptionists. All of the students were pursuing their schooling on a full-time basis, and registered for the same courses. Demographic data were analyzed and ccraparisons between groups were made in eight different areas. In general, the resident group had more females, the non-resident group was more evenly divided. The resident group was largely vMte, the non-resident group more balanced. Both groups were fairly similar in age. The resident group appeared more typical of the college population having more single students while the non-resident group had more caHnittments and family responsibilities. The resiaenu group reported

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51 a higher percentage of people with college degrees than the non-resident group. The non-resident students seeraed to be interested in the program for essentially practical reasons. The resident students were also interested in the practical benefits of the program but appeared to have nxinerous secondary reasons for participating in the program. Son^ sort of "personal growtii experience" was a frequently stated reason. The resident students were mostly middle class in family background with a few subjects from upper middle class families. The non-resident grovap had only one subject from an upper middle class background and a majority from a lower class background. Tables II through VIII give specific figures for both groups in each of the areas mentioned above. TABLE II . GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: SEX RESIDENT % NON-RESIDENT % 21 75 14 46 7 25 12 54 l^tal 28 26 TABLE III GROUP CHARACTERISTICS: RACE RESIDENT % NO^-RESIDENT % 22 79 14 46 6 21 12 54 Female Male White Black Total 28 26

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52 TABLE IV GROUP aiARACTERISTICS : AGE RESIDENT NON-RESIDENT t-lean 36.4 35 Range 60-70 54-20 Mode 26 25 Median 25.8 29 TABLE V CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS : MARITAL STATUS RESIDENT NON-RESIDENT Single 17 (61%) 4 (16%) Married 7 (25%) 10 (40%) Separated Divorced, or Widowed 4 (14%) 12 (44%) Total 23 2G TABLE VI CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: PREVIOUS EDUCATION RESIDENT NON-RESIDENT College Degrees 6 (21%) 1 (4%) N = 28 N 26

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53 TABLE IX CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: REASON FOR ENTERING PROGRA^^ Job Security Inproved Skills Training Money Available Otlier Total RESIDENT 3 10 1 14 28 NON-RESIDENT % 11 34 4 50 7 15 2 2 26 24 60 8 8 TABIE X CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS: SOCIO-ECONQfUC STATUS Upper Middle Class Upper Middle Class to Middle Class Lover Class Tbtal RESIDENT % NON-RESIDEInIT % 6 21 14 13 9 28 46 32 5 20 26 19 77 Other Training : There was considerable difference between groups on the level and extent of previous training. There were also sane differences in terms of training received while students in the human service program from a source other than the program. The majority of non-resident students had taken courses in related areas before they entered the program. They had all participated in related workshops and staff development. More than half had other work experiences besides tlieir present job. Onethird of the resident students had taken courses in a related area before entering the program. The majority had not attended v/orkshops. Onethird had been involved in volunteer work or related work experiences and had

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54 participated in orientation and staff development activities. In general the non-resident students had received more extensive and in-depth training before entering the program. In terms of involvement in training other than the program, while enrolled in the program, the patterns for the groups were more similar. All of the non-resident students listed staff development activities and only very few of the resident students did. Seme of the resident students, however, ended up being involved in staff developnent as part of their fieldwork. Both groups were similar in numbers of related courses they took, workshops they attended, and other related experiences they were involved in while enrolled in the program. Both groups seemed to be representative of the description given in the review of the literature of typical students entering traditional and external degree program. Hypotheses The hypotheses for the study relate to five dimensions measuring the subject's ability to relate interpersonally , one dijiiension measuring the subject's level of self-actualization and one diinension measuring personality characteristics. There are hypotheses for each diirvension. These include one major hypotheses which tests for the significance of difference between training groups, e.g. H-^ below, and two minor hypotheses, e.g.H^^ andH^2 ^1°^, ^ich test the directionality of gain within groups. Hypotheses Hj^, H^, H^2= Affective/Cognitive H^. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and R groups on the feeling level of the response to their clients.

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bb . ^11* Thsre will be no significant gain in feeling level of the response to their clients for subjects in NR. ^12* Ihere will be no significant gain in feeling level of the response to their clients for subjects in R. Hypotheses H2, ^22' ^23' Understanding/ISfon-Understanding H2. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and the R groups in the understanding of the client response ratings . H22' There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client response ratings for subject in the NR. H23. There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client response ratings for subjects in R. Hypotheses H3, H33, H34 : Specif ic/Non-Specific H3. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and the R groups in the degree of specificity of response to their clients. H33. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of response to their clients for sub;:ipcts in NR. H34. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of response to their clients for subjects in R. Hypotheses H4, H44, H45: Exploratory/Nbn-Exploratory H4. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and the R groups in the ability to give response that lead clients to further self exploration.

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56 H^^. There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further self exploration for subjects in NR. H45. There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further self exploration for subjects in R. I^/potheses H^, H^^, ^56' Facilitative Responses Hg. There will be no significant gain in number of facilitative responses given between subjects in the NR and the R groups . Hgg. There will be no significant gain in number of facilitative responses given for subject in NR. Hgy. There will be no significant gain in number of facilitative responses given for subject in R. Hypotheses Hg, Hgg, H57: SelfActualization Hy. There will be significant difference in gain in self -actualization between subjects in the NR and the R groups. U-jj. There v/ill be no significant gain in self-actualization for subjects in NR. H^g. There will be no significant gain in self-actualization for subjects in the R. Hypotheses ^ Hy^, H7g: 16 PF Personality Characteri sties Hg. There will be no significant differences in changes in personality characteristics as measured by the 16 PF between subjects in the Nr and R groups. H88There will be no significant changes in personality characteristics for subjects in NR. Hgg. There will be no significant changes in personality characteristics for subjects in R.

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57 Research Instruments Counselor Verbal Response Scale The Counselor Verbal Response Scale developed by Kagan and Krathwohl is an attenpt to describe a counselor's response to client cormunication in terms of four dimensions: (a) affect/cognitive; (b) understanding/ non-understanding; (c) specific/non-specific; (d) exploratory/nonexploratory. Sanple scales can be found in Appendix A, A fifth dimension, effective/non-effective, provides a global rating of the adequacy of each response which is made independently of the four descriptive ratings (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). For purposes of this study, the first four dimensions are used only. The unit for analysis is the verbal interaction between counselor and client represented by a client statement and counselor response. A counselor response is rated on each of the five dimensions of the rating scale, with every client-counselor interaction being judged independently of preceding units. In judging an individual response, the primary focus is on describing how the counselor responded to the verbal and nonverbal elements of the client's connunication. It draws on the theories of Carl Rogers (1957) and theories and research findings of Truax and Carkhuff (1967) . The Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) consists of five forced choice dimensions measuring the extent to vdiich counselors are characterized by affective, understanding, specific, exploratory, and effective responses. The dimensions are defined as follows: An affective program is one v^iich makes reference to or encourages sane affective or feeling aspect of the client's conmunication while a cognitive response refers primarily to the cognitive conponent of a client's statement; understanding refers to the counselor's ability to convey to the client his awareness of and sensitivity to the client's feelings and concerns by attenpting to deal with the core of

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58 his concern ratiier than making vague responses or referring to peripheral concerns; exploratory responses encourage the client to explore his feelings and provide him with an opportunity to do so. Non-exploratory responses typically restrict the client's freedom to explore. The final dimension, effective/non-effective, is a global rating of the overall effectiveness of a counselor's response in pranoting client movement. The CVRS differs from other rating scales in that it focuses on a series of individual client/counselor verbal units (client statement — coianselor response) during the course of an interview, rather than on global ratings of entire interviews or longer interview segments. Thus, the judge is required to describe every counselor response to a client's verbalization on each of the five dimensions of the scale. After twenty counselor responses have been dichotonized, on each dimension, totals are obtained. Thus a maximum score of 20 and a minimum of 0 is possible for each dimension. Inter judge reliability was determined by applying Hoyt's analysis of variance technique to the ratings of two sets of judges who had rated the videotaped interviews of fifty inexperienced M.A. candidates in Counseling and Guidance at Michigan State University (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967) . Corresponding four-minute segments were rated for 53 counselors. The post tape of one of the M.A. candidates was lost) . Of the 53, 45 were M.S. candidates and 8 Ph.D. candidates and they interviewed the same coached client. Because timed segments with unequal numbers of responses were used, ratings were converted to proportionate scores. Corresponding 20 response segments were rated for the remaining 10 counseling interviews. Coefficients were obtained of average tape inter judge reliability of .84, .80, .79, .68, and

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59 .79 for the affective-cognitive, understanding-non-understanding, specificnon-specific, exploratory-non-exploratory, and effective-non-effective dimensions of the scale respectively (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967) . These scales have been validated (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967) on fiftythree counselor education trainees. Forty-five of these trainees were M.A. candidates and eight were Ph.D. candidates. Types of counseling interviews frcm each of the trainees were collected and rated using the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. On each dimension of the scale, significant differences at the .01 level were found between the responses of the Ph.D. candidates and the M.A. candidates with the formal having more responses rated as affective understanding, specific, exploratory and effective (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). Separate ratings made of two counselors with M.A. 's and seme advanced training and counseling experience were compared to the ratings of the fiftythree trainees. The response patterns of these counselors fell between those of the M.A. and Ph.D. candidates (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). Other validation studies also conducted by the same authors can be found (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967). Ratings in the Counselor Verbal Response Scale have also been found to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble, ResniJcoff and Pierce, 1976) v*iich have been validated in extensive process and outcane research in counseling and psychotherapy (Truax and Carkhuff, 1967) . Description of Rating Dimensions Affective-cognitive dimension . The affective-cognitive dimension indicates whether a counselor's response refers to any affective conponent of a client's ccmmunication or concerns itself primarily with the cognitive catponent of that canmunication. Affective responses generally make reference

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60 to feeling. The judge's rating is solely of the content and/or intent of the counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection, clarification, or interpretation. Cognitive responses on the other hand primarily with the content of a client's canmuni cation. Frequently, such responses seek information of a factual nature. They tend to maintain the interaction on the cognitive level. Understanding-non-understanding dimension . The understanding-nonunderstanding dimension indicates whether a counselor's response conmunicates to the client that the counselor understands or is seeking to understand the client's basic canmunication, thereby encouraging the client to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns. It's similar to Truax and Carkhuff enpathic i:inderstanding concept (Carkhuff , 1969a) . Understanding responses caimunicate to the client that the counselor understands the client's communication — or the counselor is clearly seeking enough information to gain such understanding. Non-understanding responses are those in which the counselor fails to understand the client's basic ccmmunication or makes no atteirpt to obtain appropriate information fron the client. Non-understanding can also imply misianderstanding. Specific-non-specific dimension . The specific-non-specific dimension indicates whether the counselor's response is central to the client's coimiunication or whether the response does not specify the client's concern. In essence, it describes whether the counselor deals with the client's canmunication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or "zeroes in" on the core of the client's cconunication. It is the same as "concreteness" as defined by Carkhuff (1969a) . Specific responses focus on the core concerns being presented

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bl either explicitly or iirplicitly, by the client. Non-specific responses indicate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic concerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client differentiate aitong various concerns. Such responses either miss the problem area ccnpletely or occiir when the counselor is seeking to understand the client's communication and has been presented with only vague bits of information. Exploratory-non-exploratory . The exploratory-non-exploratory dimension indicates whether a counselor's response permits or encourages the client to explore himself and his concerns further, or whether the response liMts a client's exploration of these concerns. Exploratory responses encourage and permit the client involvement in his response. They are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility, ^ton-exploratory responses either indicate no understanding of the client's basic conmunication , or so structure and limit the client's responses that they inhibit the exploratory process. These responses actively discourage self-exploration or give the client little opportunity to explore, expand, or express himself freely. Interpersonal Response Checklist The Interpersonal Response Checklist describes four high facilitative and four low facilitative helper responses (Appendix E) . It was developed by North (1974) both as a means of assessing paraprofessional performance within counseling and as a means for describing behavioral objectives for training. Used as an instrument for evaluation of counselor performance, raters count the number of high facilitative and low facilitative responses within a selected portion of taped counseling.

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62 The checklist was derived frcm constructs developed by Wittmer and I>tyrick (1974). Six of the responses — reflection, clarification, allowing questions, advice, reassurance, and domineering questions — are similar to responses defined and used by Ivey (1971) in training. The content validity of the instojment was established by a panel of knowledgeable judges who determined that it possessed sufficient validity for gross behavioral classification and counting of responses (North, 1974) . Test-retest reliability of the instrument was determined by asking three raters to count the n\jmber of high facilitative and low facilitative responses in three, ten-minute tape segments of counselor-client interaction. After ten days, the same group of judges were asked to rate the same tapes (North, 1974) . A Pearson Product Mcment Correlation (Steel and Ibrrie, 1960) of .94 was calculated. Personal Orientation Inventory One of the instruments used to measure personality change is the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) developed by Shostron in 1964. Where many personality tests are negatively oriented, this one purports to give the level of mental health. It consists of 150 forced value judgments based on the types of judgments patients were making at the Institute of Therapeutic Psychology. It draws on the theories of Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Eric Frcmme, Karen Homey and others. The Personal Orientation Inventory is essentially self-administering. The questions are printed in a reusable test booklet, and the examinee records his answers on a specially designed answer sheet. There is no time limit set for ccnpletion of the inventory. Testingtime usually is about thirty to forty minutes. According to the manual, the POI was validated

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63 on 650 freshmen at the Los Angeles State College, 75 members of the sensitivity training program at UCLA, and 15 school psychologist in a special training program. Rates ted after training, the latter two groups showed definite growth in inner-directedness . The Personal Orientation Inventory was also tested on three other groups: 160 normal adults, 29 relatively self -actualized adults, and 34 relatively nonself -actualized adults as nominated by the clinical psychology societies of Orange and Los Angeles Counties, California. The test does discriminate between the self-actualized and nonself-actmlized persons on 11 of 12 scales according to Shostrom (1964) . Robert Knapp (1965) compared the Personal Orientation Inventory with the Eysenck Personality Inventory. The Eysenck measiores neuroticismstability and extraversion-introversion. Highand low-neurotic students were selected frcm 136 undergraduates on the basis of their Eysenck Personality Inventory and correlated with the Personal Orientation Inventory. l£3w-neurotic students tended toward self-actualization as did extroverted students. The Personal Orientation Inventory and Eysenck Personality Inventory are frcm different theoretical frames of reference, but seon to be tapping a cormon core. Knapp and Shostrom (1964) correlated the Personal Orientation Inventory the MMPI and found high correlations beta^/een the Personal Orientation Inventory and the SI and D scales of the MMPI. The manual gives high test-retest reliability •coefficients of .91 and .93. An independent retest (fifty week interval) study gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the Time Competence (Tc) and .71 for the Inner Direction (I) scale. The nean correlation for the

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64 suloscales was .58. Although this is not as high as would be desirable, it is well within tlie range of reliability similarly established for the Edv/ards Personal Preference Schedule and the M^IPI (llardi and Ilay, 1968) . On the basis of tlie above studies it was felt tliat the Personal Orientation Inventory would be a valid instrument for this research. The dimensions used for this study and tlie scales used for them are as follows: 1. Time-conpetence: oriented to the present. 2. Inner support: tendency to be independent, autonomous. 3. Valuing: includes existentiality — tendency to be flexible in application of values. 4. Feeling: includes (1) feeling reactivity — sensitivity'to one's own needs and feelings, and (2) spontaneity — ability to freely express feelings at a behavioral level. 5. Self -percept ion; includes (1) self-regard — sense of self-^vortli, and (2) self-acceptance ~ acceptance of oneself despite shortccmings . 6. Synergistic av/areness: includes synergy — ability to reconcile the opposites of life. 7. Interpersonal sensitivity: includes (1) acceptance of aggression ~ ability to accept one's own anger as natural, and (2) capacit^/ for intijtate contact ~ ability to establish close interpersonal relationships. Sixteen Personality Factor (>je5tionnaire (16PF) Sixteen Personality Factor Test (16PF) is a personality questionnaire designed to measure the major dimensions of human personality. It lists sixteen different personality dimensions and it includes characteristics such as hw outgoing or reserved a person is, how

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65 conservative or liberal, how relaxed or tense. For a ccmplete list of these characteristics see Appendix C. Norm groups for the test include between six and seven thousand people. Separate norms exist for such distinct social groups as college students and the general population. The test manual gives split half reliabilities for each of the sixteen factor scales; scales range frcm .71 to .03 averaging about .83 or .84. Numerous external concrete validities are known. According to the test manual, multiple correlations of the test scores are typically 0,75 with school achievement, 0.50 with clinically judged neurotic trend, 0.70 with earnings in salesmanship. Demographic Questionnaire The demographic questionnaire or personal data sheet was intended to elicit personal information so that ccrrparisons could be made between the two sample groups. The Personal Data Sheet elicits the following information on each subject (see Appendix D) . 1. Subjects name, city where he presently resides. 2 . Race 3. Sex 4. Age 5. Marital Status 6. Education ccnpleted 7. Father's and mother's occupations 8. Subject's number of children

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66 9. Number of children and position of subject in family 10. Parent's level of education 11. Reason for enrolling in tiie program 12. Previous jdbs held An additional sheet v/as designed to find out related training that si±)jects had received before enrolling in tlie program and additional training tliat they iray receive while in tlie program through a source unrelated to tlie program such as staff development, workshops or other courses which they may enroll in. It also asks for other related job or volunteer experiences, and for an overall estimate of number of hours spent in training before involvement with tlie Santa Fe program and an overall estimate of total number of hours from a source otlier than the Human Service Program while in training. Experimental Procedures Collection of Data Tlie pre-training data were collected as part of setting up a nonresident program at tiie community college. The data collecting described here was repeated for the post data collection. During the first two wee}'^ of training and tiien again one year later, the subjects came to tlie connunity college for introductory and closing interviews and personality assessitent. The purpose of the interviews were to assess the interviewing and counseling ability of each subject by giving tliem an opportunity to be video taped while helping a stranger with a problem. The personality tests were used to neasure personality ciiaracteristics and level of self-actualization. The procedure for each intervie/^ was as folla^s: (1) For botli the

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67 pre and post interviev/s, a stranger to the subjects was selected as a client. The person selected was familiar witii counseling and was an advanced student in the Human Services Program. (2) Tiie client was asked to sliare a real problem in the same manner with each subject. (3) The subject was introduced to the client and asked to help the client with a real problem. In order to help the subject feel at ease, ^ all questions about the interview procedure were answered. (4) The 20minute interview was audio taped. T^^D trained judges rated the preand post-interview segments with respect to the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. TivD professional counselors were trained to identify and count the high and lew facilitative responses in eacl"! of tlie preand postinterview video tapes. The inter judge reliability was calculated using Guilford and Frutlier's (1973) two-way classification analysis. For the CVRS scales twD-tiiree minute segments were selected fron the first third and second third of each counseling tape. Raters began rating tlie first segirent after the first minute of the interview. Then they advanced tl^e tape equivalent of tliree minutes for the second segment. For the Interpersonal Response Checklist the second segment was played back and rated on that scale. The rating sheet (see Appendix B) with tlie raw data waS: then turned over to the researcher for furtlier treatment. During tlie same v;eek the subjects were asked to taJ^e the Personality Orientation Inventory and tlie Sixteen Personality Factor. At the beginning of the program tliey v^ere also asked to fill out a derrographic data sheet and a previous and related, training assessn^t sheet. Selection and Training of Rater s Research on tlie selection of raters suggests tliat both raters level of

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68 functioning and raters training by a qualified professional are a significant influence on discrimination scores (Cannon and Carkhuff , 1969) , and that persons functioning below minimal facilitation levels (Level 3) would not be capable of accurate ratings. ^Jhile the Counselor Verbal Response Scale used in this research employs a dichotomous rating assignment (as opposed to ranking by levels on a continuum) , the training procedures are essentially the same. Four raters were selected from a group of second-year graduate students in Counseling Psychology or Counselor Education. These individuals were functioning at above minimal levels of facilitative interaction, as judged by independent ratings of their own tapes as helpers. Ihe training of the raters was conducted by a Counseling Psychologist at the University of Florida's Counseling Center, who is experienced in using the process scales, and who was himself f motioning at high levels on these instruments (as determined in previous research) . The training procedures included use of tapes representing helping situations similar to those which were encountered in the actual study. Six tapes, made by one resident and five non-resident subjects, were randomly selected for rating by four raters using the Counselor Verbal Rssponse Scale. Reliability of ratings was ccnputed using Guilford and Fruchter's (1973) two-way classification analysis as applied to intraclass correlation of a sum or average. Ihe formula is: (MS)^ (Formula 13.39, p. 264)

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69 Where is the inter-rater reliability coefficient (MS)j. is the variance of the ratings, and (MS)e if the error variance. For the inter-rater reliability on the Interpersonal Response Checklist, the saine procedures were followed but only two tapes were used, one from a resident student and one fran a non-resident student. The data for tlie inter-rater reliability study consisted of twenty responses per tape for the Counselor Verbal Response Scale, and ten per tape, for the Interpersonal Response Checklist. When analyzing the data it was found that there were not enough responses in each of the catergories so the four categories vdiich showed the largest number of responses were chosen. For the Counselor Verbal Response Scale the resulting computations are included in Table ix. TABLE IX INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE SCALE Dimension Reliability Study Cognitive Non-understand ing Non-specific Non-exploratory .95 .98 .98 .75 For the Interpersonal Response Checklist the resulting corputations are included in Table X.

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70 TABLE X INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE CHECKLIST Dimension Reliability Study Reflection Clarification Assertion Mlowing Questions Domineering Questions Reassurance Interpretation Advice .88 .84 .98 .99 100. .97 100. .97 Statistical Analyses The criterion instruments were administered to the subjects in the non-resident and resident groups, both prior to and after 12 months of training in the Human Service Program. This study used the Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) to generate data for four dimensions of helper performance: affective/cognitive responses, understanding/non-understanding responses, specific/non-specific responses and exploratory/non-exploratory responses, Each of these dimensions are treated separately for purposes of statistica] analysis. Since all the subjects in the non-resident group were employed in a human service agency and previous related experience may have significantly affected their abilities to learn, it was important to control for this effect. Thus, the nature of the study and the populations involved necessitated the use of analysis of covariance to control for relevant differences between the groups that may have existed prior to entering the Human Service Program and that could have affected performance in counseling situations (Snedecor and Cochran 1967) .

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71 The post score of each group was used as the dependent variable in the analysis of covariance with the pre score and the number of years of work experience in the human service field as the covariates. Group classification of resident or non-resident training was the independent variable. This procedure was followed for each major hypothesis that addressed group differences in perfonnance on each of the four dimensions of the Counselor Verbal Response Scale. An alpl-ia level of .05 was used for all analyses of covariance. In addition, a t -test comparing pre to post mean differences between the non-resident and resident group was used. An alpha level of .05 was also used. In this statistical conputation the CVRS responses were considered dichotomous, one end being tlie reciprocal of tlie other. Thus, there are 4 sets of dichotomous data: affective/cognitive; understanding/non-understanding; specif ic/non-specific; exploratory/non-exploratory. The results of tlie statistical analysis ajpear in Tables XII, XVI, XX, and XXIV which are included in Chapter TV. The Inteirpersonal Response Checklist was used to generate the data fron assessing the proportion of facilitative responses given by the human service trainees. The data were also conbined into two dichotomous constructs: facilitative and non-facilitative responses. Mvice, interpretation, reassurance and closed questions were considered non-facilitative. Reflection, clarification, assertions and open questions were considered facilitative. The results of the t -test statistical computation can be found in Table XXVII.

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72 The formula that was used for t -test is the following: t = ( X2 Xj. ) (^2^1) S X2 Where X is mean difference between value at T-j^ and in each group /i(J.s standard deviation of the mean differences S is standard error of tlie mean differences (Snedecor and Cochran 1967) In order to test the minor hypotheses related to affective/cognitive, understanding/non-understanding, specific/non-specific, and exploratory/ non-exploratory responses as well as facilitative/non-facilitative responses which were designed to conpare pre and post scores within groups, two-tailed t-tests were used. An alpha level of .05 was used for all minor hypotheses. A two-tailed t-test, rather than a one-tailed test, was selected so as to enable the researcher to be sensitive to significant differences in either direction. The pre and post data from the POI and the 16PF were treated with similar statistical analyses. Analyses of covariance using pre test scores and years of work experience as the covariates were applied to test the major hypotheses for each of the fourteen dimensions in the POI and for each of the sixteen factors in the 16PF. Two-tailed t-tests were used to test each of the within-group hypotheses about self actualization and personality characteristics changes between groups.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF TIE STUDY The purpose of this study was to conpare the effect of two different methods of training paraprofessional human service personnel. Areas of comparison included interpersonal helper functioning, level of self actualization and personality characteristics. In the first part of this chapter, the analyses of the data relevant to the liypothesis are reported. In the second part of the chapter, additional analyses are sunniarized. A total of four instruments were used and a pre-test post-test design was followed. Two instruments were used to measure and evaluate coianselor effectiveness variables. One instrument was used to evaluate level of self actualization and one instrument was used to evaluate personality characteristics. One major hypothesis and tsvo minor hypotheses were postulated for each of the variables. Seven major null hypotlieses were statements of no difference between each treatment group. Fourteen minor hypotheses were statements of no differences within groups. Analyses of covariance as well as t-test statistics were used to test the major hypotheses dealing with counselor effectiveness as measured by the CVRS scale. A t-test was used to test major hypothesis H5 dealing with facilitative vs non-facilitative responses. Analysis of covariance was used to test the major hypothesis dealing with self actualization and personality characteristics. All fourteen minor hypotheses were subjected to t-test analyses. A s^mopsis of the results which relate to tiie major and minor hypotheses follows in the next three pages. 73

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74 Results of the analyses indicated no statistically significant differences between groups in the following areas: CVRS Scale Under standing/Non-under standing Dimens ion Exploratory /Non-exploratory Dimension POI No significant differences in any of the self -actualization characteristics . 16 PF No significant differences with the exception of factor Q. There were no significant differences between groups in the Specific/ Non-specific Diniension of the CVRS Scale when using analysis of covariance and differences vjhen t-test analysis was used. Results of the analyses indicated statistically significant differences between groips in the following areas: CVRS Scale Affective/Cognitive with the resident group post score being significantly higher than the non-resident group. Interpersonal Response Checklist Facilitative vs non-facilitative responses with the resident group's post score being higher than the non-resident group and the pre to post mean difference score being significantly higher.

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75 16 PF Significant differences in only one of the sixteen factors (experimentation vs conservatism) with the resident group jTeing higher in experimentation and tlie non-resident group having decreased in exr^erimentation while being in the program. Eesults of the analyses indicated statistically significant differences in a positive direction betv;een the non-resident groups' pre and post scores in the folia-zing areas: 1-fon-resident CVRS Scale Understanding/Non-understanding Specific/Non-specific Dimension Exploratory/Non-eJcploratory Dimension Interpersonal Response Cliecklist 16 PF These v;ere significant changes in factors I and Q3. The non-resident group became more sensitive and more casual and inner-directed . Results of the analysis indicated significant differences in a positive direction between the resident groups' pre and post scores in the following areas : Resident CVRS Scale Understanding/lSfon-understanding Dimension Specific/^n-specific Dimension Exploratory/Nbn-exploratorv Dimension

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76 Interpersonal Response Checklist POI There were significant changes in a positive direction for six of the POI characteristics. Ihey became less otherdirected, more inner-directed, their values came to resemble more the values of self-actualizing people, their self, regard increased, they were better able to accept aggressive, negative feelings and more capable of intimate contact. 16 PF There were significant changes in factor B. The resident students became more intelligent, less concrete in their thinking patterns, more capable of abstract thinking. Hypothesis H. ^^ ; Af fective/Cognitive Dimension Hypothesis H-j^. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR (non-resident) and R (resident) groups on feeling level of their response to their clients. A summary of the analysis of covariance of the post-test affective/ cognitive diirension of the CVRS Scale is found in Table XI. A summary of the corparison of pre and post differences between groups in the affective dimension may be found in Table XII. According to the data sunmarized in Table XI the resident group scores significantly higher in the post test in their ability to respond to their clients' feelings. According to Table XII the nonresident group did not change significantly in the affective area. The resident group changed significantly more (p = .025) in the desired direction. Because

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77 of the difference in gain between groups Hypothesis H^^ was rejected. Hypothesis Hn There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the response to their clients for subjects in NR. A suirrnary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group pre-test and post-test scores in the affective/cognitive dimensions of the CVRS Scale may be found on Table XIII. The non-resident groip showed no significant change in their ability to respond to clients' feelings. Hypothesis was accepted. Hypothesis H]_2 There will be no significant gain in feeling level of the response to their clients for subjects in R. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group pretest and post-test scores affective/cognitive dimension of the OJBS Scale may be found in Table XIV. The resident group showed change in a positive direction (greater ability to respond to clients' feelings). Hovvever, because the change did not reach the desired level of statistical significance, Hypothesis Ei^2 accepted. TABLE XI ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA CVRS AFFECTIVE/CDGNITIVE DIMENSION Non-resident Resident CVRS Post Post F Item X X Value Affective 1.263 3.090 3.980* Cognitive 18.736 16.909 3.980* N = NR 19; R 12 Covariates: Length of counselor experience; pre-test scores *p < . 05

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78 TABLE XII AFFECTIVE DIMENSION CCMPARISON OF BETWEEN GROUPS PRE POST DIFFERENCES Group Pre To Post Diff. Nvmber Of Affective Response df t Value Non-resident Resident 0 1.3636 28 2.259* N = NR 19; R 12 *p< .03 TABLE XIII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP AFFECTIVE/OOGNITIVE PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SCORES CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Difference Value Affective 1.263 1.263 0.0 0.0 Cognitive 18.736 18.736 0.0 0,0 N = 19

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79 TABLE XIV Ai;iALYSIS OF RESIDENT GR)UP AFFECTIVE/CX)GNITIVE PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SCORES CVRS Item Pre X Post X Mean Difference t Value Affective Cognitive N = 12 1.727 18.272 3.090 16.909 1.363 -1.363 1.73 1.73

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80 Hypothesis H2: Un der standing/Non-understanding Dijnens ion : Hypotiiesis H2. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and the R in the understanding of the client response ratings . A summary of the analysis of covariance of the post-test understanding/ non-understanding dimension of the CVRS scale is found in Table XV. A suirrnary of the comparison of pre post differences between groups in the understanding dimension may be found in Table XVI. According to the data surtmarized in Table XV, the resident groups' post-test scores were higher in the desired direction than the non-resident groups' score. However, the difference was not statistically significant. According to tlie findings summarized in Table XVI, both groups increased their ability to give understanding responses but the differences in level of learning between the groups werenot statistically significant. It ap^^ears that both groups inproved about the saine. Since there was no statistically significant difference in gain between groups. Hypothesis H2 was accepted. Hypothesis H22There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client responses for subjects in NR. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group pre and post test scores in the understanding/non-understanding dimension of the CVRS scale may be found in Table XVII. The non-resident group improved significantly in tlieir ability to give utiderstanding responses to their clients. Therefore, Hypothesis H22 was rejected. Hypothesis H23. There will be no significant gain in understanding of the client response ratings for subjects in R. A sunmary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group pre and post test Gcored ix\ tJie unclerstandiiKj/iionLuideustoiiding dimension of

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81 the CVRS scale may be found in Table XVIII. The resident group showed changes in a positive direction, (greater ability to give understanding responses to their clients). These changes were statistically significant at the .01 level. Therefore, Hypotliesis U^-^ was rejected. TABLE XV ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT MD RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA CVRS UNDERSTANDING/IO^-UNDERSTANDING DH ENS ION Non-resident Resident CVRS Post Post F Item X X Value Understanding 12.684 14.727 0.145 Non-understanding 7.315 5.272 0.145 N = NR 19; R 12 Covariates: Length of counselor experience; pre-scores TABLE }CVI UNDERSTANDING DIMENSION CCMPARISON OF PRE POST DIFFERETSICES BEI\^EN GROUPS Group Pre to Post Mean Diff . In Number of Understanding Response df t Value Non-resident Resident 6.9091 6.4737 28 0.36 N = NR 19; R 12)

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82 TABLE XVII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDEl^TANDING SCORES CVRS Pre Post r^ean t Item X X Difference Value Understanding 6.210 12.684 6.473 7.28* Non-understanding 13.789 7.315 -6.473 7.28* N = 19 TABLE XVIII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST UNDERSTANDING/NON-UNDERSTANDING SCORES CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Difference Value Understanding 7.818 14.727 6.909 6.65* Non-Understanding 12.181 5.272 -6.909 6.65* N = 12 * p < . 01 or better

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83 Hypothesis H3: Specific/Non-specific Diniension: Hypothesis H3. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and R in the degree of specificity of response to tlieir clients. A summary of tl-e analysis of covariance of the post-test specific/nonspecific dimension of the CVRS scale is found in Table XIX. A summary of the ccnparison of pre post differences between groups in the specific dimension may be found in Table XX. According to the data summarized in Table XIX, the resident group post scores were higher than the non-resident group scores. However, the difference was not statistically significant. According to findings sumnarized in Table XX both groups increased their ability to be specific in their responses to their clients. There were differences in level of gain that were statistically significant at a level of .05 with the resident qrovp shaving greater gain. There were significant differences between groups in the area of specific/non-specific dimension from tlie beginning with the non-resident group being significantly higher in specificity at the beginning. The analysis of covariance adjusts for differences in pre scores between groups. Table XX simply summarizes differences in gain between groups. On the basis of analysis of covariance, Hypothesis H^ wuld be accepted. On the basis of simple coitparisons between pre and post differences it would be rejected. Hypothesis H^-^. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of response to their clients for subjects in NR. A sunmary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group pre and post test scores in the understanding/non-understanding dimension of the CVRS scale may be found on Table XXI. The non-resident group improved

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84 significantly to the < . 01 level in their ability to be specific v/ith their clients. Therefore, Hypothesis H33 was rejected. Hypothesis H^^. There will be no significant gain in degree of specificity of response to their clients for subjects in R. A sumnxary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group pre and post test scores in the specific/non-specific dimension of the CVRS scale can be found in Table XKII. The resident group inproved significantly in their ability to be specific with their clients. These changes were significant at the <.01 level. Therefore, Hypothesis H34 was rejected. TABLE XIX ANALYSIS OF C0V7\KrANCE NOSI-RESIOmT Pm RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA CVRS SPECIFIC AInID NOT-SPECIFIC DITIHvISION Non-Res ident Resident CVRS Post Post F Item X X Value Specific 8.842 10.636 1.248 Non-S£)ecific 11.157 9.363 1.248 N = NR 19; R 12 Covariates: Lengtli of couiiselor experience; Pre scores

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85 TABLE XX SPECIFIC DIMENSION OOMPARISra OF PRE POST DIFFEl^CES BETVJER;I GROUPS Group Pre To Post Diff . Number of Exploratory Response df t Value Non-resident Resident N = NR 10; R 12 5.3684* 7.6364* 38 1.886* *p < .05 TABLE XXI ANALYSIS OF ira-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/NON-SPECIFIC SCORES CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Diff. Value Specific 3.473 8.842 5.368 4.76* Non-specific 16.526 11.157 -5.368 4.76* N = 19 *P <.05

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86 TABLE XXII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST SPECIFIC/NON-SPECIFIC SCORES CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Diff. Value Specific 3.000 10.636 7.636 4.52* Non-specific 17.00 9.363 -7.636 4.52* N = 12 *p < .01 or better

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87 Hypotliesis H^: Exploratory/iton-Exploratory Dimension: Hypothesis H^. There will be no significant difference in gain between subjects in the NR and R in tlieir abilities to give resfxinses that lead clients to further self-exi^loration. A suinmarY of the analysis of covariance of the post-test e>:ploratory/ non-exploratory dimension of tlie CVRS scale is found in Table XXIII. A suimary of the comparisons of pre post differences between groups in tlie exploratory dimension may be found in Table XXIV. According to the data sumnarized in Table XXII, the resident groups' post test scores were Mgher tlian the non-resident group in the desired direction but tlie difference was not statistically significant. According to findings sunmarized in Table XXIV, both groups improved in tlieir ability to give responses tliat lead their clients to further self -exploration but tlie differences in the level of gain in learning between tlie tvvo groups was not statistically significant. Since there was no statistically significant difference in gain between groups. Hypothesis was accepted. Hypothesis H^^. Tliere will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to furtiier self -exploration for subjects in NR. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the non-resident group pre and post scores in the exploratory/non-oxploratorY dimension of the CVRS scale can be found in Table XXV. The non-resident group improved significantly in tlieir ability to give responses tliat lead to furtiier self -exploration. Hiese findings were significant at the <.01 level. Tlierefore, Hypothesis K^^ was rejected. Hypothesis H^^. There will be no significant gain in ability to give responses that lead to further self -exploration for subjects in R.

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88 A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident group pre and post test scores in tlie exploratory/non-exploratory dimension of the CVRS scale can be found in Table XXVI. The resident grou^j sha./ed changes in a positive direction at the <.01 level of statistical significance. These findings indicate a definitive gain in ability to give responses that lead clients to further self exploration. Accordingly, Ilvpotliesis H^^ was rejected. TABLE XXIII ANALYSIS OF COVARIAIICE NON-RESIDED MJD RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA CVRS EXPLORATORY MD NON-EXPLORATORY DI>'ENSION CVRS Item Non-resident Post X Resident Post X F Value Exploratory 11.210 13.090 0.680 Non-exploratory 8.789 6.909 0.680 N ^' NR 19; R 12 Covariates: Length of counselor experience; Pre scores TABLE XXr/ EXPLORATORY DIMENSION OX^ARISON OF PRE POST DIFFEP£]NCES BETOEEN GROUPS Pre to Post Mean Diff . In N\jmber of t Group Exploratory Responses df Value Non-resident 4.8947 28 .5818 Resident 7.4545 N = NR 19; R 12

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89 TABLE XXV ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST EXPLORATORY/NON-EXPLORATORY SCORES CVRS Pre Post Mean t Item X X Diff. Value fins 11.210 4. 894 4.95* iNOl A|JXLJ1. Cl L-tJJy 1 1 fiR4 8 789 -4.894 4.95* N = 19 TABLE XXVI ANALYSIS OF REGIDnNn? GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST EXPLORATORY/LnION-EXPLORATORY SCORES CVRS Pre Post iMean t Item X X Diff. Value Exploratory 5.636 13.090 7.454 3.91* Non-exploratory 14.363 6.909 -7.454 3.91* N = 12 *p <.01 or better

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90 Hypothesis K^: Facilitative Responses Hypothesis H^. There will be no significant difference in gain in number of facilitative responses between subjects in the NR and R. A surnmary of the conparison of pre and post differences betv/een groups in tlie facilitative dimension may be found in Table XXVII, According to the data summarized in Table XXVII, both groups increased tiieir ability to give facilitative responses. The resident group, iiowever, increased significantly more than the non-resident group. Tliese findings were significant at a level <.01. Therefore, Hypothesis \N/as rejected. Hypotiiesis H^^. There v/ill be no significant gain in number of facilitative responses given for subjects in NR. A summary of the t-test statisticexl analysis for the non-resident group's pre and post scores in the facilitative and non-facilitative dimensions may be found in Table XXVIII. The non-resident group improved in their ability to give facilitative responses. These findings were statistically significant at the ^.01 level. Therefore, Hypothesis H^^ was rejected. Hypothesis H^g. Tliere will be no significant gain in nun±>er of facilitative responses given for subjects in R. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis for the resident group's pre and post scores in the facilitative and non-facilitative dimensions may be found in Table XXIX. The resident group improved significantly in their ability to give facilitative responses. These findings were significant at the ^.05 level. Therefore, Hypotiiesis H^g was rejected.

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91 TABLE XXVII FACILITATIVE I^SPONSES COf^lPARISOtJS OF PRE POST DIFFERENCES BE^V^/EEN GROUPS Group Pre to Post Mean Diff. In Number of Facilitative Responses df t Value Non-resident Resident N = NR 19; R 12 .2083 .3182 2.7 2.29 ** **p <.01 TABLE XXVIII ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AIO POST-TEST FACILITATIVE RESPONSES Pre X Post X df t Value 1.40 N 19 1.61 10.97** ^*p< .01 TABLE XXIX AJ^iALYSIS OF RESIDEiSrr GROUP PRE-TEST ATO POST-TEST FACILITATIVE RESPONSES Pre _K 1.52 N = 12 Post X 1.84 df t Value 2.69* *p <.05

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92 Ilypotliesis H : Self Actualization 6 Hypothesis H^. There will be no significant difference in gain in self actualization betii/een subjects in IJR and R. A sunmary of the analysis of oovariance of tlie post-test scores for all POI characteristics is found in Table XXX. According to the data summarized in Table XXX there was no significant difference in gain in self actualization between tlie resident and the non-resident groups. As evidenced in Table XXXII, which summarizes changes between pre and post scores for the resident group, they changed significantly in six of the POI characteristics vshereas tlie non-resident group experienced no change (see Table XXXI) . The six characteristics in which tliere were changes for the resident students were: increased inner-directedness, decreased otherdirectedness, increased self-regard, increased existentiality, increased acceptance of aggression, and increased capacity for intimate contact. It will be noted, however, that for all but one tlie characteristics in which the resident group experienced significant changes their post scores closely resemble the non-resident groups' pre scores. Thus it appears that although the resident group experienced higher growth, tliey also started at a lower point. Tliis explains why although the resident group experienced changes and tlie non-resident didii't, there was still no significant difference in gain between groups. Accordingly, Hypothesis H^ was accepted. Hypothesis H^^. There will be no significant gain in self actualization for subjects in NR. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of tlie non-resident group pre and post test scores for all POI characteristics is found in Table XXXI. It should be noted that in all of the POI characteristics

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93 with the exception of feeling reactivity, synergy and capacity for intiinate contact the non-resident students decreased in self-actualization. According to the data there was no significant gain in any of the POI characteristics for the non-resident group. Therefore, Hypothesis H^^ was accepted. Hypothesis H^-,. There will be no significant gain in self -actualization for subjects in R. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis of the resident grouop pre and post test scores for all POI characteristics is foiand in Table According to the data there was significant change in the desired direction for six of the POI characteristics. All changes were significant at least at the .05 level. The characteristics in which there were significant changes are: other-directedness (decreased) , innerdirectedness (increased) , existentiality (increased) , self-regard (increased) , acceptance of aggression (increased) , capacity for intimate contact (increased) . In all other characteristics except synergy, which decreased, there were changes in the desired direction although not statistically significant. Because of the significant gains in these scales. Hypothesis H^^ was rejected. Hypothesis H_,: 16 PF Personality Factors Hypothesis H^. There will be no significant differences in change in personality characteristics as iteasvired by the 16 PF between subjects in NR and R. A sunrnary of the analysis of covariance of each of the post-test 16 PF factors is found in Table . According to this table, the only factor where there was a significant difference in a personality factor change was Factor Q. Factor Q has to do with being conservative, respecting established ideas vs experimenting, critical, liberal and free thinking.

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94 TABLE XXX AimYSIS OF OOV?vRIAI\ICE NON-RESIDENT AND RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA POI POI Characteristics Non-Res ident Post X Resident Post X F Value Time Ratio Time Incompetency'' 4. 47 3. 83 0. 385 Time Competency 18. 47 18. 16 0. 044 Support Ratio Otlier Directedness 35. ,47 30. 16 1. ,539 Inner Directec3ness 90. 58 93. .50 1. .143 Self-Actualizing Value 21. .00 20. ,00 0. ,002 Existentiality 21. . 82 23. .25 1, .546 Feeling Reactivity 16. .76 17. .66 0, .051 Spontaneity 13, .52 13, .50 0, .019 Self-regard 13, .58 13, .25 0, .050 Sel f -accept ance 17, .29 17 .16 0, .312 Nature of man 11 .70 12, .00 0 .836 Synergy 7 .05 6, .25 0 .0 Acceptance of aggression 17, .47 18 .08 0 .858 Capacity for intimate contact 21 .05 21 .50 1 .114 N = NR 18; R 12 Covariates : Length of counselor experience; Pre scores

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TABLE XXXI ANALYSIS OF NON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST POI SODRES POI Characteristics Pre X Post X Mean Diff. t Value Time Ratio Time Incoitpetency A 4 • A 47 n 23 0. 46 Time Competency 18. 76 18. 57 -0. 29 0. 57 Support Ratio Other Directedness 35. .94 35. 47 -0. 47 0. 29 Inner Directedness PR Do u . /.y n u . 1 Q Self-Actualizing Value . / u 91 zx « nn 2Q n 42 Existentiality 22 .17 21. ,82 -0. 35 0. 41 Feeling Reactivity 17, ,11 16. .76 -0. ,35 0. ,75 Spontaneity 13 .17 13. ,52 0. ,35 0. .62 Self-regard 13 .70 13, ,58 -0. ,11 0. ,24 Self-acceptance 17 .23 17, .29 -0. ,05 0. ,11 Nature of man 12 .47 11 .70 -0. .76 2, .02 Synergy 7 .05 7 .05 -0, .0 0. .0 Acceptance of aggression 17 .47 17, .47 -0, .0 0, .0 Capacity for Intimate Contact 20 .47 21 .05 0 .58 1 .34 N = 18

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TABLE XXXII ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GRDUP PRE-TEST VS POST-TEST POI SCORES POI Ph3r"ar"1"prlstics Pre X Post X l ie an Diff. t Value Time Ratio Time Incompetency 4. 75 3. 83 -0. 91 1. Time Competency 18. 08 18. 16 0. 08 0. 08 Support Ratio Other Directedness 37, .83 30. 16 -7. 66 2. 61** Inner Directedness 86. , 83 93. 50 6. 66 2. 67** Self— Actualizing Value 20, . 00 HA uu U. U U. , U Existentiality 21, . 08 23. , 25 2 . lb 2 . o £r * . 3d* reeiiny i
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97 The resident group gained significantly more in experirrenting than the non-resident group. It should be noted, however, that the pre score 9.22 of the non-resident group was as high as the post score 9.25 of the resident group. The non-resident group decreased to 8. 88 on experinientation to the level where the resident group was at 8 . 66 . Possible reasons for marked lowering of experimenting attitudes in non-resident students and increase in experimentation for resident students will be discussed in Chapter V. Since changes were found in only one of the sixteen factors. Hypothesis was accepted. Hypothesis H^^: There will be no significant changes in personality characteristics for students in NR. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis for the non-resident group pre and post scores in each of the 16 PF factors can be found in Table XXXIV. The non-resident group changed significantly in two factors: Factor I (tough-minded, self-reliant, realistic vs tender-minded, sensitive, dependent) and Factor (casual, careless of protocol, \mtidy, follcws own urges vs controlled, socially-precise, self -disciplined, compulsive) . The non-resident subjects moved towards more conservatism, less experimentation, less self-control and discipline towards being more casual and inner-directed. Since changes were found in only two of the 16 factors. Hypothesis H_,_, was accepted. Hypothesis H-,,: There will be no significant changes in personality characteristics for subjects in R. A summary of the t-test statistical analysis for the resident group pre and post scores in each of the 16 PF factors can be found in Table XXXV. The resident group changed significantly only in Factor B. Factor B deals

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with having less intelligent concrete thinking vs more intelligent, abstract thinking. The resident group increase their ability to think abstractly. This was significant at the ^.05 level. Since changes were found in only one of the 16 factors, Hypothesis H__ was accepted. TABLE XXXIII ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE NON-RESIDENT AIvD RESIDENT POST-TEST DATA 16 PF 16 PF Factor Non-resident Post X Ptesident Post X F Value A 11.38 8.66 2.670 B 7.33 9.16 3.323 C 16.27 15.50 0.747 E 14.77 13.16 0.439 F 16.00 13.58 2.021 G 11.77 10.41 0.190 H 16.94 13.33 1.669 I 12.22 14.50 1.203 L 8.55 7.16 1.154 M 13.16 14.75 1.359 N 9.16 8.41 0.337 0 8.55 10.00 0.045 Qi 8.88 9.25 5.078* 10.16 11.00 0.040 12.55 10.83 0.816 11.83 14.58 2.754 N = NR 19; R 12 Covariates: Length of counselor experience; Pre-scores *p<.03

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99 TABLE XXXIV AIIALYSIS OF TON-RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST 16 PF SCDRES 16 PF Pre Post Mean t Factor X X Diff . Value A 13.00 11.38 -1.61 1.83 B 7.16 7.33 0.16 0.39 C 15.83 16.27 0.44 0.50 E 15.27 14.77 -0.50 0.56 F 15.88 16.00 0.11 0.16 G 12.83 11.77 -1.05 1.50 H 17.38 16.04 -0.44 0.42 I 13.72 12.22 -1.50 2.62* L 7.33 8.55 1.22 1.93 M 12.66 13.16 0.50 0.66 N 9.16 9.16 0.0 0.0 0 8.27 8.55 0.27 0.33 Qi 9.22 8.88 -0.33 1.09 9.38 10.16 0.77 2.61 14.94 12.55 -2.38 1.12* 10.66 11.83 1.16 0.0 N = 19 *p ^.03

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100 TABLE XXXV ANALYSIS OF RESIDENT GROUP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST 16 PF SCORES lb Pr Pre rOSX. Msan 1L. Factor X X Diff. Value A 7.91 8.66 0.75 1.62 B 7.75 9.16 1.41 2.33* C 14.83 15.50 0.66 0.95 E 13.25 13.16 -0.08 .07 F 13.25 13.53 0.33 0.24 G 10.16 10.41 0.25 0.24 H 11.25 13.33 2.08 1.51 I 13.66 14.50 0.83 0.90 J 7.58 7.16 -0.41 0.62 M 14.16 14.75 0.58 0.75 N 8.33 8.41 0.11 0.35 0 11.91 10.00 -1.91 1.50 Qi 8.66 9.25 0.58 0.90 11.33 11.00 -0.33 0.52 10.75 10.83 0.08 0.14 13.75 14.58 0.83 0.79 N = 12 *p < . 05

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The general purpose of this study was to find out whetlier an external degree approach to training of human service workers is effective and whether it coipares favorably to a traditional approach. Of primary interest was to find out whether non-resident trainees could learn counseling skills although attending classes on a very limited basis. It has been found (Carkhuff , 1969a) that the degree to which the helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect, concreteness and genuineness is related directly to client growth. Many educators justify the long hours of classroon training as the only way to receive the necessary supervised practice to attain those interpersonal skills. Of secondary interest was to find out whether desirable personality changes that have been found to be related to effective counseling, such as sensitivity (Donnan, Harlan and Thonpson, 1969) , could occiir in an external degree program. The specific behaviors examined in this study were the counselor's responses to client cotimunications in terms of four dichotomized dimensions measured by the Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan and Krathwohl, 1967), and the counselor's responses to client comiunications in terms of the Interpersonal Response Checklist (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974; North 1974). The four dichotonized dimensions included in the CVRS are: (1) affective/ cognitive; (2) understanding/non-understanding; (3) specific/non-specific; and (4) exploratory/non-exploratory. Counselor response is a clientcoxmselor interaction was rated on each of the four dimension of the rating scale, with each interaction teing judged as an independent unit. ]01

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102 The eight counselor responses included in the Interpersonal Response Checklist are: reflection, clarification, assertion, open question, closed question, reassurance, interpretation and advice. Counselor responses in a clientcounselor interaction were rated by assigning each response to one of the eight categories. The counselor's responses were judged primarily on the manner in which he responded to the verbal elements of the client's comunication. The judges rated each counselor response to the client on each of the dimensions of the scales. A total of twenty responses were rated for the CVRS; the last ten were re-played and used for the Interpersonal Response Checklist ratings. Totals were tallied after responses had been dichotordzed on each dimension on two segments of each tape. Previous research had been done to identify variables in the 16 PF and POI tliat could be correlated to helper effectiveness. Using the 16 PF, T'f/rick, Kelly and V7ittaner (1972) found that effective counselors tended to be more mature and emotionally stable and more trusting and adaptable. Green (1967) and Puttick (1964) have related self-actualization characteristics to effectiveness in helping fields such as nursing and teaching. Thus, the POI and the 16 PF were used to measure the self-actualization level and personality characteristics of subjects prior to and after one year of training. The population consisted of 54 paraprofessional counselor-candidates who enrolled at Santa Fe Ccmmunity College in the Human Services Program. In the Fall of 1976, a total of 28 enrolled in the traditional residential program and a total of 26 in the non-resident group. Nineteen non-resident students and twelve resident students were enrolled in the program after one year and post data were gathered on all of these students. Four graduate students in counseling psychology were selected as raters for the two sets of counseling tapes and were trained as raters by a

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103 psychologist v^^o was familiar v;ith the instruments and the rating procedures. Twenty response segments of each tape were rated by each of tavo raters. In scoring both sets the ratings of the two raters were averaged. A total of 21 hypotheses was generated to examine the following questions: (1) Will tliere be differences in gain within and between the groups of non-residential students and residential students on counseling skills? (2) Will there be differences in changes within and between the groups of the non-residential students and residential students in their level of self-actualization? (3) VJill there be differences in changes within and between the nonresidential and residential students on personality characteristics? Analysis of covariance and ttests were used to compare the two groups. t-tests were \ased to conpare pre and post scores within each group and also differences between the mean gains between groups. The findings of this study can be simnarized as follows: (1) There were no statistically significant differences in gain between groups in tavo of the CVRS dimensions, Understanding/Nonunderstanding and Exploratory/Non-exploratory. Findings with regard to the Specific/Non-specific dimension showed no difference in gain v^en using analysis of covariance and significant difference vihen using the t-test statistic. There were significant differences beti'/een groups in the Affective/Cognitive dimension and in gain in facilitative responses as measured by the Interpersonal Response Checklist with the resident students changing significantly more than the non-residents in a positive direction. Both the non-resident and the resident oroim chanaed dn the

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104 desired directions in all of t±ie CVRS scales and the Interpersonal Response Checklist with changes in all but the Affective/ Cognitive dimension reaching at least a<.05 level of significance. Changes in some scales reached^. 001 level of significance, it caii thus be concluded that lx5th groups learned more effective interpersonal helping skills with die resident group becoming more facilitative in some dimensions tliat the non-resident group. There v/ere no statistically significant differences in gain betv/een groups in level of self-actualization in any of the characteristics measured by the POI. The resident group changed significantly in a positive direction in six of the self-actualization characteristics: results indicated them to be more iimer directed; more flexible in their application of personal values; their selfregard increased; tliey tested as more able to accept aggression and mDre able to establish intimate contact with others. The non-resident students evidenced no significant changes. It will be noted, however, that for all but one of the characteristics in which the resident group experienced significant changes, their post scores closely resembled the non-resident group's pre scores. Thus it appears that, although the scores of the resident group indicated greater gra^rth, they also started at a Icv/er point. The scores of the non-resident students indicated a decreased self -actualization in all but three of the characteristics: feeling reactivity, synergy and capacity for intimate contact. These changes, however, did not reach the .05 level of significance. The results of the analysis of covariance on the 16 PF data

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105 indicate that personality changes in only Factor Q which relates to being conservative, respecting established ideas vs experiinenting , critical, liberal and f reethinking . The resident group gained significantly nore in experiitientation than the non-resident group. It should be noted, however, the pre score of the non-resident groups was as high as the post score of the resident group. It should also be noted that, while resident students increased in experimentation, the non-resident students decreased although not significantly. The analysis of the pre-post data of the indicated significant changes in two factors: the scores indicated change toward itore sensitivity and toward more casualness and inner direction. The resident students' scores indicate change in only one factor, which includes intelligence and the ability to think abstractly, These changes were in a positive direction. Discussion One of the most camion approaches to determine helper effectiveness is to assess the interpersonal skills of the helper. It is also the most widely researched and supported approach. Carkhuff (1969) , Truax (1961) , Carkhuff and Berenson (1967) and IRogers (1961) have contributed to defining those interpersonal skills that vd:ien present at certain minimal levels are conducive to client change. This study deals primarily with three of the areas covered in their research. Within seme of the three major skill areas that have been used to judge counselors are these: ability to respond to the feeling cotrnunications of the client; ability to ccrairunicate landers tanding of the client's world; and ability to be specific rather than general in their carmunication. These cjualities have been considered indicative of a high level of helper

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106 effectiveness (Carkhuff , 1969) . One additional skill is the ability to give facilitative responses that lead the client to self -exploration. Some of these facilitative responses are open questions, counselor self-assertion, clarification and reflection. Qn-canpus training has been considered the primary v/ay of helping human service trainees to acquire interpersonally facilitative skills. Thus, it v/as important to determine whether students in a non-resident program could acquire these skills altliough they were on cartpus on a very limited basis. If there v/as any gain, it was then also important to establish how their level of gain conpared to that of students in a traditional program. This project v/as designed to deal witli both of those questions. The research in tliis project indicates that in conparison with their ovm scores at tlie opening of the project, students in tlie non-resident program became more effective interpersonally. These changes in all but the affective/cognitive dimension, reached at least a <.05 level of significance. Their gains were less than those of the reside^nt group. As described in Chapter III, the primary means of acadeinic learning for the non-resident students were learning packets prepared by tlie college staff. It is interesting to note that specific learning packets aind evaluations v?ere developed for all the skills in which the non-resident students shewed significant improvement but not for the affective/cognitive skill area. Although the concept of feeling vs. thinlcing-oriented responses was touched on as part of one of the modules, no specific module was developed for it. TivD implications could be dra™ from this: (1) tliat the modules are very effective and made the difference and (2) that the task required to oonplete the modules was similar to the skdlls required to do well on the C\TPS and Interpersonal Response Qiecklist scales.

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A stateiTont about the overall structure seenns vvorthy of consideration at tl-iis point. Although the non-resident and resident programs differ significantly in the iretliod of delivery and overall structure, they are both highly structured training programs. Hie intent of both is to teach specific skills rather tlian global concepts; tliey both use lectures, video-tape equipment, workshops and practice groups in order to coiitnunicate concepts to the students. FeedbacJ; and modeling are emphasized and supervision is given to all students. This study has found that both methods of delivery effectively iirproved the interviewing and counseling skills of human service vrorkers. Many non-resident programs as well as resident programs, ha.-zever, are loosely structured with non-resident programs being even less structured as a rule. Findings of this study should not be generalized to such loosely structured programs. More research is necessary before any definitive statement could be made as to what the optimal structure for a non-resident program would be. Anotlier interesting finding relates to the canparative level of cliange which the non-resident students acquired as conpared to the resident students. In all the scores related to interpersonal skills, resident students gained more although the differences only reached the ^.05 level of significance in t^o instances: the affective/cognitive dimension and the facilitative dimension. Although more research is needed, there seems to be an indication that students in a resident program tend to learn interpersonal skills at a greater depth tlian non-resident students. These results raise an inportant question: hew skilled does an interpersonal facilitative paraprofessional have to be to adequately perform on his job? With respect to self-actualization only the resident group changed in the direction designated as self-actualization with the non-resident

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108 grotp changing in the opposite direction although negative changes did not reach the .05 level of significance. Thiere were significant positive changes for the resident group in six characteristics. However, it will be noted that for all but one of the six characteristics in which the resident qrovp experienced significant changes, their post scores closely resemble the non-resident groups pre scores. This indicates that the resident group \'jas starting out at a lov/er level. This author wishes to discuss several possible explanations for said changes. A possible explanation for the decrease for non-residents could be the job conditions of paraprofessional human service workers. Some time during every non-resident seminar had to be spent helping the students witli their low morale and general discouragement about their jobs. Tneir complaints included feelings of futility, hopelessness about tlieir client's situations, genercil discourageament, lack of horizontal and vertical job mobility, and lav income. It is also possible that they saw themselves in more realistic light as a result of both more experience on the job, a more structured and less supportive training experience than the residents had, and more real life conditions in their lives in general. It is possible that the very supportive positive nature of the resident human service program helped resident students see themselves in an unrealistic light. An additional explanation for the greater gain of resident students is that it is easier to get gains at the lo/7er level of a scale. An obvious reason is that such changes were real and that the resident program is very effective in producing self-actualizing positive changes in its students and the non-resident program is not. The changes in the resident program support other research indicating that counselor attitude towards self and others can be chaiiged in a positive direction through intensive training experiences (Boehm, 1961; Patterson, 1964b).

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ioy As already described in Chapter II, there is a major assunption underlying tlie ejq^eriential model of training which states that effective counseling depends on the nature of tlie helper's attitudes and the perceptions of himself, his clients, and tlie goals he has as a counselor (Patterson, 1964; Rogers, 1957). Some educators witli \^\cm the author has discussed tlie non-resident approach for training of potential helpers are not supportive of this approach. One of their major reservations deals with lack of time and experiences to develop positive attitudes in trainees. The findings of this study lend support to tlieir concerns. It should be noted, hcwever, tliat while research deinonstrates that helper attitudes can be changed in a positive direction, research in experiential training methods demonstrate little or no support for the assumed relationship between helper self -understanding and successful helping outcomes (Krumboltz, 1967). The results of the analysis of covariance on tlie 16 PF data indicate tliat there were statistically significant differences between groups in personality changes in only Factor Q which relates to being conservative, respecting ideas vs experimenting, critical, liberal and free-thinking. The resident group gained significantly more in experimentation than the nonresident group. It should be noted, however, that the pre score of the nonresident group was as high as the post score of the resident group. It should also be noted that, v^-iile resident students increased in experimentation, the non-resident students decreased although not significantly. The author would like to suggest several possible explanations for these changes. First of all, it is easier to make changes at the lower level. It is also possible tliat again the working conditions tliat presently exist for paraprofessional human service vrorkers stifle rather than promote

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creativity. There is concern on the part of agency supervisors about the iTorale of tlieir paraprofessional enployees; the high job turnover for this population is a well-known fact as well as a constant problem to agencies. An inportant part of the philosophy of the staff of the program researched in this study is to support and reinforce experimentation and creativity. The resident students receive quite a bit of encouragement while tlie nonresidents did not. The resident student received more actual training time. A rtore generalizable issue, however, is that the experience of being in school with a group of people who have opportunities to get together on a regular and frequent basis creates a supportive atmosphere conducive to encouragement of the individuals involved. The resident students enjoyed these opportunities while the non-residents did not. Tlais issue touches on an area of concern to {.-people interested in the concept of external degree programs: "extra curricular and related activities" that an institution offers to its students and v^ich pranotes learning although they do not occur in the classroom (Houle, 1973). This study, as well as the personal observation of the author, lends support to those concerns. It is perhaps a question of balancing out the importance of reaching people who had not been previously reached by traditional resident programs, knowing that these valuable extracurricular activities may be lost in tlie process. Tliis is perhaps one of the limitations that an external degree program has at present. Some schools are taking some beginning steps to correct this problem, such as adding experiences for external students that involve them in the school atmosphere. It is questionable, however, whether students who seem to have little time to attend classes in the first place vrould be able to or want to participate in such extra activities.

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J.J.X ?.s evidenced from the democjraphic data noted in Chapter III, both groups resemble typical students in other resident and non-resident programs (Houle, 1973). Coirpared to the resident students, the external students were older, came from lo-zer socio-economic backgrounds, had less previous education, and had more family responsibilities. The non-resident group also had more fenales and heads of household of both sexes. On the whole it can be said that the external program was serving a different group of students , an atypical college population while the traditional program served a more typical group. It should also be noted that the non-resident students v/ere more committed to finishing once they started and dropped out for more serious reasons . A feedback questionnaire (which was not part of this study, nevertheless irrportant enough to mention) v/as given to non-resdient students at the end of tlie program. The results indicated that seventeen out of the nineteen students in the program felt that they would not have canpleted the program in a traditional model. It seems that the external degree gave a group of human service workers an opportunity to taJ'ce the first step into higher education, as well as an opportunity to upgrade their skills and career mobility. All of these students had the capacity to successfully conplete the first two years of college; yet the traditional structures had either not appealed to them or had not seaned feasible. It should also be noted that at the end of the program, nine of the seventeen students had definite plans to conplete a four-year degree. It seems that external degrees are a viable alternative to reach human service workers that had not previously been reached by traditional structures and \'iho are capable of college work at the community college level. It is also true that students in the traditional program inproved more. Thus it is a recommended alternative for those who can afford it.

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11/ There is an increasing iinportance placed on staff developnent opportunities for workers employed full-time. External degree programs seem to be a viable alternative that upgrade both the skill levels of workers and their credentials. Better skills v/ill improve the quality of service delivered to the clients. Better credentials will increase tlieir career mobility. Limitations of the Study The limitations of the study are as follows: (1) The subjects of tliis research were human service paraprofessional trainees in one program. A wide variety of program exist throughout tlie country. The program on which this research is based is unique in its training mDdel, philosophy, staff and students. Therefore, the ability to generalize findings to other paraprofessional or graduate training programs is limited. (2) A variety of modes of training delivery fit under the definition of non-resident or external degree programs. A wide variety of other nonresident degree structure exist throughout the country. The external program on which this study is based is unique in its structure, learning materials, content of training, staff and students. Thus, the ability to generalize findings to other non-resident programs is limited. (3) Coimuiiity colleges and vocational programs have a high dropout rate for various reasons. In this particular program, career exploration is encouraged. As a result, only 31 of the original 54 remained in the program after a year. The lack of results in some areas may be attributed to high dropout rate and consequently lew numbers. (4) The lack of a control group that had no training makes it

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113 difficult to assign the growtli of subjects in either group entirely to participation in the program. Oonclusions This study supports ^±.e belief tliat human service paraprofessional personnel can inprove their interpersonal effectiveness witli clients by receiving training in a human service program at a coirmunity college. It also addresses a more controversial issue: whether non-resident or external degree programs can improve the skill level of trainees. This study indicates that trainees going through one non-resident program did improve their interpersonal effectiveness with clients. It also shows that trainees in one non-resident program irrproved in the same number and same areas of helper effectiveness as did students in one concurrent resident groip. More specifically, the study indicates that trainees in both programs inproved significantly in some areas of facilitative interpersonal behaviors. The five areas of helper effectiveness studied in this program were: (1) ability to respond to feelings rather than content; (2) ability to comaaunicate understanding to a client; (3) ability to 'je specific in their conmunications with clients; (4) ability to give responses that lead to further exploration; and (5) ability to give facilitative responses. Neither subject, groiip showed significant irtproveinent in tlie area of responding to feeling rather than content. Both resident and non-resident groups showed improvement in the other four areas. Trainees in the resident group showed a greater degree of gain than did trainees in the non-resident group. More specifically, resident students inproved significantly more tlian did non-resident students in ta^jo of the five interpersonal skills variables: ability to respond to the feelings

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114 expressed by the client and ability to give facilitative responses. There is a cannon belief airong helper trainers that extensive on-caxtpus training experiences tliat promote personal growth are necessary in order to help the trainees undergo changes that lead to self -actualization. This study si^^ports that belief. Furthenrore, although statistically nonsignificant, tliere is indication that non-resident students actually decreased in their level of self -actualization. It can also be concluded that trainees in a himan service program experience very limited personality changes as measured by the 16 PF after a year of training. Whether tliey are in non-resident or resident programs makes a difference not on the number of areas of change but on tlie areas in which the clianges are experienced. The demDgraphic data, the high dropout rate for the resident students and low dropout rates for non-residents, as well as tlie reasons for dropping for each of tlie groups point to certain conclusions. The non-resident program serves a different population than does the resident program. S-dbjocts in each group have different life situations and different backgrounds. Once students in the non-resident group ccmmitted themselves to school, • they stayed more committed and dropped out for more serious reasons. Their reasons for dropping out had to do v/ith more central life issues such as lack of money, loss of jobs, fear or inability to succeed in tlie program. The resident students dropped out for more personal reasons, such as travel, further studies in spiritual areas and interests changes. They were less concerned witli life problems and had more positive alternatives available to them. In sunroary, this study shows that both non-resident and resident students can learn interpersonal helping skills and that resident students learn the same skills as non-residents but that they learn them in greater depth.

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115 This study further shows that a resident program is conducive to selfactualization for trainees whereas non-resident programs are not. Resident and non-resident programs are conducive to limited personality changes. The changes are in different areas, however. Non-resident and resident programs serve a different population of human service workers. Trainees in each of these programs ccme from different life situations and have a different kind of involvement in training, as well as very different experiences outside the actual training situation. Areas for Further Research Many of the areas which will be mentioned here have been previously alluded to. Tlie author wishes to summarize those ideas, add sane new ones and present them as a concise sumnary of suggestions for further studies, since there is almost no research in the area of effectiveness of external degree programs. (1) As has been described in Chapter III and mentioned in the Discussion section of this chapter, both resident and non-resident programs were highly structured. This is not the usual format of external degrees as described in the literature and which the author has personally observed. More research is needed ccnparing the effectiveness of structured and less structured external degree programs for human service workers. Clear recommendations regarding optimal structure could be important to people wishing to design, inplement or enroll in an external degree program. (2) There seemed to be a greater deptli to the level of learning that the resident students arrived at. More research is needed to establish whether this is a condition particular to this population or to nonresident vs resident programs in general.

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116 (3) Even if it was txue that human service workers could only reach a certain level of depth in an external degree program, those findings vraiiLd not necessarily suggest excluding such training at this point. T-bre research needs to be done to find out what is the minimal level of interpersonal effectiveness, and what are the most desirable personality traits for a paraprofessional human service worker. Most present research has been done on professional counselors. These findings may or may not apply to paraprofessionals. The author is aware that there would be soma difficulty establishing a comiTon minimal level tliat applies to all paraprofessional jobs because of the variety of tlie roles and functions presently being felt by paraprofessional personnel (King and McPheeters, 1969; Sobey, 1970) . This is further conplicated by the fact that certain jobs such as outreach and client advocacy require very different skills from counseling and interviewing. Yet it seems that a minimal level of comnunication skills WDuld be necessary for one to effectively function as a helper regardless of the task to be done. The same would seem to be true of certain personality characteristics . (4) Additional research is needed to determine how well the trainees retained their skills with both methods. It is possible for instance that because the resident students had more classroom experiences, they were able to integrate concepts more meaningfully and deeply and thus retain them longer. (5) Additional data fron enployers of students who have gone through resident and non-resident programs need to be collected. Ccmparisons of their on-the-job performances need to be made. (6) The author considers the personality and philosophy of trainers involved an iir^portant part of the developinent and iirplementation of both

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117 tliese prograrps researched in the study. Futiire research is needed to establish the interaction of non-residential struct\ares and trainers. Perhaps trainers in non-resident programs need to have certain skills such as organization, clarity, creativity and flexibility that may be of less inpoirtance in a resident program. Since the groups in this study greatly differ in demographic characteristics, it is hard to attribute outcome differences entirely to the differential training. Mditional research with more ccttparable groups needs to be done. The conclusions of this study would have irtplications for the design of future training programs if future research not only replicated the results with other populations, but determined if one of the two methods would be more sioi table for a particular population.

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APPENDIX A COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE SCALE

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COUNSELOR VERBAL RESPONSE SCALE Description of Rating Dimensions I. ?^fective /Cognitive DiiTicnsion The affective-cognitive dimension indicates v^ether a counselor's response refers to any affective ccnponent of a client's carmunication or concerns itself primarily with the cognitive component of that ccamunication. A. Affective responses: Affective responses generally make reference to emotions, feelings, fears, etc. The judge's rating is solely by the content and/or intent of the counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection, clarification or interpretation. These responses attenpt to maintain the focus on the affective component of a client's cannunication. Thus they may: (a) Refer directly to an explicit or implicit reference to affect (either verbal or nonverbal) on the part of the client. (b) Encourage an expression of affect on the part of the client. Exairple: "How does it make you feel when your parents argue?" (c) Approve of an expression of affect on the part of the client. Example: "It doesn't hurt to let your feelings out once in a while, does it?" (d) Presents a model for the use of affect by the client. Example: "If somebody treated me like that, I'd really be mad." Special care must be taken in rating responses which use the word "feel," For example, in the statement "do you feel that your student teaching experience is helping you get the idea of teaching?" the phrase "do you feel that" really means "do you think that." Similarly, the expression "How are you feeling?" is often used in a matter-of-fact, conversational manner. 119

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120 Thus, although the verb "to feel" is used in both these examples, these statements do not represent responses whic±i would be judged "affective." B. Cognitive Responses: Cognitive responses deal primarily with the cx3gnitive element of client's contnunication. Frequently, such responses seek information of factual nature. They generally maintain the interaction on the cognitive level. Such responses may: (a) Refer directly to the cognitive corponent of the client's statement. Example: "So then you're thinking about switching your major to chanistry?" (b) Seeks further information of a factual nature from the client. Exanple: "What were your grades last semester?" (c) Encourage the client to continue to respond at the cognitive level. Example: "Hoiv did you get interested in art?" II. Understanding/Non-understanding dimension The understanding/non-understanding dimension indicates whether a counselor's res].X)nse oanmunicates to the client that the counselor imderstands or is seeking to understand the client's basic catmunication. This encourages the client to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns . A. Understanding responses: Understanding responses cormunicate to the client that the counselor understands the client's carmunication — the counselor ma]ces appropriate reference to what the client is expressing or trying to express both verbally and non-verbally — or the counselor is clearly seeking enough information of either a cognitive or affective nature to gain such understanding. Such responses: (a) Directly corrounicate an understanding of the client's carmunication. Example: "In other \7ords, you really want to be treated like a man."

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121 (b) Seek further information frcm the client in such a way as to facilitate botl-i the counselor's and the client's understanding of the basic problems. Example: "What does being a man mean to you?" (c) Reinforce or give approval of client ccrtmunications which exhibit understanding. Example: Client: "I guess then, when people criticize me, I'm afraid they'll leave me." Counselor: "I see you're beginning to make some connection betaveen your behavior and your feelings." B. Non-understanding responses: Non-understanding responses are those in which the counselor fails to understand tlie client's basic ootmunication or makes no attenpt to obtain appropriate information from the client. In essence, non-understanding inplies misunderstanding. Such responses: (a) Ccmmunicate misunderstanding of the client's basic concern. Example: Client: "Vihen he said that, I just turned red and clenched my fists." Counselor: "Seme people don't say nice things." (b) Seek information which may be irrelevant to the client's conmunication. Exanple: Client: "I seem to have a hard time getting along with iry brothers." Counselor: "Do all your brothers live at heme with you?" (c) Squelch client understanding or move the focus to another irrelevant area. Example: Client: "I guess I'm really afraid that other people will laugh at me . " Counselor : "We ' re the butt of other people's jokes sanetimes." Example: Client: "Scmetimes I really hate my aunt." Counselor: "Will things be better when you go to college?" III. Specific/non-specific dimension The specific/non-specific dimension indicates whether tlie counselor's responses delineates the client's problems aiid is central to the client's coimunication or whether the response does not specify the client's concern.

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122 In essence, it describes \^ether the counselor deals with the client's conmunication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or "zeroes in" on the core of the client's ccamunication. NB: A response judged to be non-understanding must also be non-specific since it would, by definition, misunderstand the client's conminication ard not help the client to delineate his concerns. Responses judged understanding might be either specific (core) or nonspecific (peripheral); i.e., they would be peripheral if the counselor conveys only a vague idea that a problem exists or "flirts" with the idea rather than helping the client delineate sane of the dimensions of his concent. A. Specific responses: Specific responses focus on the core concerns being presented either explicitly or implicitly, verbally or non-verbally, by the client. Such responses: (a) Delineate more closely the client's basic concerns. Exanple: "This vague feeling you have when you get in tense situations, is it anger or fear?" (b) Encourage the client to disciminate among stimuli affecting him. Exanple: "Do you feel in all your classes or only in seme classrooms?" (c) Reward the client for being specific. Exairple: Client: "I guess I feel this way most often with soneone who reminds me of ray father." Counselor: "So as you put vtot others say in perspective, the whole vrorld doesn't seen so bad, it's only when someone you value, like Father, doesn't pay any attention that you feel hurt." B. Non-specific responses: Non-specific responses indicate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic concerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client differentiate among various stimuli. Such responses either miss the problan area ccnpletely (such responses are also non-

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123 understanding) or occaar vv^en the comselor is seeking to londerstand the client's ccannunication and has been presented with only vague bits of infontation about the client's concern. Thus, such responses: (a) Fail to delineate the client's concern and cannot bring them into sharper focus. Example: "It seems your problem isn't very clear — can you tell me more about it?" (b) Canpletely miss the basic concerns being presented by the client even though the counselor may ask for specific details. Example: Client: "I've gotten all A's this year and I still feel lousy." Counselor: "V^at were your grades before then?" (c) Discourage the client from bringing his concerns into sharper focus. Example: "You and your sister argue all the time. What do other people think of your sister?" IV. Exploratory/ non-exploratory The exploratory-non-exploratory dimension indicates v^ether a counselor's response permits or encourage the client to explore his cognitive or affective concerns, or whether the response limits a client's exploration of these concerns . A. Exploratory responses: Exploratory responses encourage and permit the client latitude and involvement in his response. They may focus on relevant aspects of the client's affective or cognitive concerns but clearly attempt to encourage further exploration by tlie client. Such responses are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility in response. These responses: (a) Encourage the client to explore his own concerns. Exairple: Cognitive — "You're not sure what you want to major in, is that it?" Affective — "Maybe sane of these times you're getting mad at yourself, what do you think?"

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124 (b) Assist the client to explore by providing him with possible alternatives designed to increase his range of responses. Exainple: Cognitive — "What are sane of the other alternatives that you have to history as a inajor?" Affective--" In these situations, do you feel angry, mad, helpless, or what?" (c) Reward the client for exploratory behavior. Exanple: Cognitive — "It seems that you've considered a number of alternatives for a major, that's good." Affective — "So you're beginning to wonder if you always want to be treated like a man." B. Non-exploratory responses: Non-exploratory responses either indicate no understanding of the client's basic camiunication , or so structure and limit the client's responses that they inhibit the exploratory process. The responses give the client little opportunity to explore, expand, or express himself freely. Such responses: Discourage further exploration on the part of the client. Exaitple: Cognitive — "You really resent your parents treating you like a child." V. Effective/Non-effective dimension Ratings on the effective/non-effective dimension may be made independently of ratings on the other four dimensions of the scale. This rating is based solely upon the judge's professional irtpression of the appropriateness of the counselor's responses, that is, how adequately does the counselor's response deal with the client's verbal and non-verbal camiunication. This rating is not dependent on whether the response has been judged affective, cognitive, etc. A rating of 4 indicates that the judge considers this response among

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125 the most appropriate possible in the given situation, vMle a 3 indicates that the response is appropriate but not among the best. A rating of 2 indicates a neutral response which neither measurably affects client progress nor inhibits it, while a rating of 1 indicates a response which not only lacks basic understanding of the client's concerns but which in effect may be detrimental to the specified goals of client growth.

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APPENDIX B INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE CHEa
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127 INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE affia
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128 Purpose: Same as for Reflection. Pattern: Ihe Clarification usually follows the following verbal patterns: a. "It seems that you are saying that you feel .' b. "Am I hearing you say c. "Is this what you are saying?" Exanples: Husband: "All day long I have been running—doing this and that. I don't knew up fron down." Wife: "It seems that you are saying you are confused." ASSERTION: (H)^ — — (P) : A type of response that focuses on the feelings of the helper. The helper tells where he is and corpletes his part of the relationship. Purpose: a. 1o establish openness from the helper side. To indicate a willingness to share. b. Indicates to another that feelings are okay. c. Assists another person who has trouble recognizing feelings to label his feelings and to see that they are worthwhile. d. To indicate trrist, that it is all right to risk. Pattern: Assertion usually follows the following verbal pattern: a. "I feel or "Right now I feel ." Exaitple: ALiaA/ING QUESTION: Child: (sitting at the table, saying nothing, obviously upset about sonething) . Father: "I feel eirpty and helpless because it seems that sonething is bothering you and that you don't know how to talk about it." This is a type of response which inquires about the felt events or feelings of another.

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129 Purpose: To respectfully allow the other to e>^lore: a. Their feelings in depth. b. Their reasons for acting. c. The unfolding of their actions. This type of question does not arise out of preconceived evaluation of the worth of the feelings and actions; but rather is an open inquiry for the purpose of being better able to experience with the person. Examples: Wife: "I was so upset I walked in the front door, across the living room right in front of hijn, and then into the bedroom." Friend: a. "\<[hat did it feel like as you walked in front of him?" b. "I guess I nassed v*iat you said; v*iy were you upset?" c. "How did you walk across the living roan — did you look at him?" Low Facilitative Responses DOCENEERING QUESTION: This is a type of response which inquires about the feelings or behavior of another in a way that passes judgment upon the feelings and behavior. Purpose: a. The purpose of this type of response is often to help, v^en it usually results in guilt, b. The hidden meaning behind a domineering question asserts iry right to be responsible, to pass judgment upon what you do or feel.

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130 Example: One friend to another: a. "Why in the world did you do that? " b. "Do you know what Christ said about feeling hate?" c. "K^hy do you feel that way? Don't you know that he is always getting mad about uninportant things?" ilASSURANCE: A type of response which denies the feelings of another and is therefore, most often not facilitating. a. Overt purpose: To make the person "feel better." b. Covert purpose: To inplicitly state to the person: "Be like me, feel like I do." "Because I am not feeling it, why you?" "Change to please me." "Change your feelings to make me feel more canf ortable . " c. Removes responsibility and choice from the person being helped. Exaitples: a. Student to teacher: "I feel so inferior because I can't do well on the tests . " Teacher: "Don't feel that way; if you work hard you can be as smart as the next guy." b. Son to ^fother: "It seems like I'm running inside all the time; can't ever get on top." Mother: "Eton't worry, things will work out." TERPRETATION: A type of non-facilitating (often) response which denies (ANALYSIS) the stated reasons for one's feelings and actions by inposing alternative explanations.

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131 Purpose: a. (Overt) To help the person "really" understand vtot he is doing and why. b. (Covert) "Don't think your way v^en I can give you the "real" reasons why you are feeling that way." c. IiTposes "ray" philosophy and structure of experience. Exaitples: a. Student to teacher: "I feel so hostile when you act like you know it all." Teacher to student: "Are you sure that you are not projecting your own superiority ccmplex on me?" b. Student to student: "I feel so happy because I passed that test." Second student: "I wonder if you're not happy because you're doing better than others — dominating them." c. Wife to husband: "It's not ray fault that my openness hurts you — I'm saying it the way it is." Husband: "You are open because you want to hurt me — you ought to read Man the Manipulator ." Mvice: A type of non-facilitating (often) response which attenpts to irrpose my way of acting and/or feeling upon another. Purpose: a. (Overt) To assist the other person by offering solutions to their problems, b. (Covert) To deny the other person the opportunity to be responsible for his own feelings and actions. Pattern: a. "Do ..." b. "If I were you, I would ..."

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132 c. "You knov what you ought to do . . ." Exanple: a. Wife to friend: "What am I going to do, tell irie; he is just not open to my feelings?" Friend: "If I were you, I would get a divorce."

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APPENDIX C PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS MEASURED BY IHE 16 PF MEASUREME^n TEST

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SDCIEEN PEES0NALI1Y FACTOR MEASUEEMENT TEST (16 PF) PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS Sixteen Personality Factor Test (16 PF) is a personality questionnaire designed to measure the mjor dimensions of human personality. The sixteen primary dimensions are briefly listed below: A person with a low score is described as: Factor A Reserved, detached, critical, cool. B Less intelligent, concretethinking. C Affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset. E Humble, jild, obedient, conforming F Sober, prudent, serious, taciturn G Expedient, a law to himself, bypasses obligations. H Shy, restrained, diffident, timid. I Tough-minded, self-reliant, realistic no-nonsense . L Trusting, adaptable, free of jealousy, easy to get on with. M Practical, careful, conventional, regulated by external realities, proper. A person with a high score is described as: Outgoing, warmhearted, easygoing, participating. More intelligent, abstractthinking, bright. EiTDtionally stable, faces reality calmly. Assertive, independent, aggressive, stubborn. Happy-go-lucky, heedless, gay, enthusiastic . Conscientious, persevering, staid, rule-bound. Venturesone, socially bold, uninhibited, spontaneous. Tender-minded, dependent, overprotected, sensitive. Suspicious, self-opinionated, hard to fool. Imaginative, wrapped up in inner urgencies, careless of practical matters, bohemian.

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135 N Forthright, natural, artless, sentimental. Q Placid, self-assured, confident, serene. Q-^ Conservative, respecting established ideas, tolerant of traditional difficulties Q2 Group dependent, a "joiner" and good follower. Casual, careless of protocol, untidy, follows own urges. Relaxed, tranquil, torpid, unfrustrated. Shrewd, calculating, worldly, penetrating. T^prehensive , worrying, depressive, troubled. Experirrenting, critical, liberal, analytical, free-thinking. Self-sufficient, prefers own decisions, resourceful. Controlled, socially-precise, self -disciplined, cotpulsive. Tense, driven, overwrought, fretful.

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M'PENDIX D DEI^DGRAPHIC DATA SHEET PREVIOUS AND EEIATED TRAINING ASSESSMENT

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HUIM-l SEP7ICE TRPJNING PPDGrJZ^M Santa Fe Gamunity College August, 1976 Student Data Sheet Please fill in the blanks or circle the answer that is correct for you. 1. NAME: Local Area: 2. Pace: A. White B. Black C. Other 3. Sex: A. Male B. Female 4. Age: 5. Marital Status (at present time) A. Single (never married) B. Married C. Separated D. Divorced E. Widowed 6. Did you complete high school? A. Yes B. No 7. Have you ever attended a college or junior college? A. Yes B. No 8. Do you at present hold a college degree? 137

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138 A. Yes B. No 9. If you hold a college degree, please indicate what type of degree. A. Associate of Arts (A.A.) B. Associate of Science (A.S.) C. Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) D. Bachelor of Science (B.S.) E. Other 10. Wlien you were growing up, up ^t the job your father held nost often? (Please be as specific as possible) 11. If your rtother worked while you were grov/ing up, what was the job she held most often? 12. How many children do you have? 13. How many brothers do you have? 14. How many sisters do you have? 15. How many of these brothers and sisters are older than you? 16. In what city do you currently live? 17. How long have you lived there? A. Less than 1 year B. 1-2 years C. 2-3 years D. 3-4 years E. 4-5 years F. longer than 5 years 18. How many different cities have you lived in during the last 5 years?

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139 19. Did your father graduate from high schcol? A. Yes B. No C. Don't knew 20. Did yoior father ever attend college? A. Yes B. No C. Don't know 21. Did your mother graduate from high school? A. Yes B. No C. Don't know 22. Did your irxsther ever attend college? A. Yes B. No C. Don't know 23. Which of the follcv/ing reasons imost influenced your decision to enroll in this program? (Please choose only one) . A. Better job security. B. To inprove counseling skills. C. Available training money. D. Other . Comments:

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140 24. Previous work experience (start with irost recent) : EMPLOYER DATES TYPE OF WORK

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141 PREVIOUS AND RELATED TRAINING ASSESSMENT NAM E How much staff developnent have you had before you entered this program? (a) List courses you've taken with titles: (b) List workshops you've participated in with titles and topics: (c) List in-service training ejcperiences and topics: (d) List other job experiences related to Human Services: (e) List other related activities: (f) Make an estimate of the total number hours spent in training before you got involved in the Santa Fe Program: How much staff development or in-service training or other educational activities unrelated to the Santa Fe p3X»ject do you plan to be involved in while in the Santa Fe program. (a) List courses you will be taking with titles: (b) List workshops you will be participating in with titles and topics: (c) List in-sexvice training experiences and topics other than your job:

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142 (d) List other job experiences related to Human Services other than your job: (e) List other related activities: (f) Make an estimate of the total number of hours spent in training unrelated to Santa Fe Program while you are in the Santa Fe Program.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, T.W. An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1958. Anthony, W. & Carkhuff , R.R. Ihe effects of professional training in rehabilitation counseling. Journal of Coimseling Psychology , 1969, 16, 440-454. APGA Professional Preparation and Standards Ccimdttee. Sipport personnel for the counselor: Iheir technical and nontechnical roles and preparation. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1967, 45^, 857-861. Arbuckle, D.S. Current issues in counselor education. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1968(a), 1_, 244-251. Arbuckle, D.S. Counseling effectiveness and related issues. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1968(b), 15, 430-435. Austin, M.J. The professional and the paraprof essional : Manpower and educational inplication. In Continuing Education in Social Welfare . Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida Social and Rehabilitation Service, 1972. Bailey, M.A. , Warshow, L. & Eichler, R.M. A study of factors related to length of stay in psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1959, 15, 442-444. Banks, B., Berenson, B.C. & Carkhuff, R.R. The effects of counselor race and training upon Negro clients in initial interviews. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1967, 23, 70-72. Banks, C. & Carkhuff, R.R. Training as a preferred node of facilitating relations between races and generations. Journal of Counseling Pyschology , 1970, 17, 413-418. Beal, R.M. Counselor aides in conrnunity junior colleges; Duties , supervision, and preparation . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1969. Berenson, B.G. & Carkhuff, R.R. The Sources of Gain in Counseling and Psychotherapy . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1967. Berenson, B.C., Carkhuff, R.R. & Myrus, P. The interpersonal functioning and training of college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1966, 13, 441-446. Bergin, A.E. & Solomon, S. Personality and performance correlates of errpathic understanding in psychotlierapy. American Psychologist , 1963, 18, 393. Bloomer ly, P. Regent's external degree: How far have we cone? Conrnunity and Junior College Journal , 1974, 44, 6-8. 143

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144 Boehm, W. Social work: Science and art. Social Service Review ^ 1961, 35, 144-151. Brown, W.R. Effectiveness of paraprof essionals : The evidence. Personnel and Guidance Journal , December 1974, 53^, 257-263. Cannon, J.R. & Carkhuff , R.R. Ihe effect of rater level of functioning and experience upon discrimination of facilitative conditions. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1969, 33^, 189-194. Cannon, J.R. & Pierce, R.M. Order effects in the experimental manipulation of therapeutic conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1968, 2£, i 242-244. Carkhuff, R.R. Helping and Human Relations: A Prijner for Lay and Professional Helpers, Volumes One and IVo . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969 (a) . Carkhuff, R.R. The prediction of the effects of teacher^counselor education: The development of cCTimunication and discrimination selection indexes. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1969(b), 265-272. Carkhuff, R.R. Critical variables in effective counselor training. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1970, 16, 238-245. Carkhuff, R.R. Training as a necessary pre-condition of education: The developsnent and generalization of a systematic resource training model. Jovimal of Research and Development in Education , 1971, £, 3-16. Carkhuff, R.R. & Berenson, E.G. Beyond Counseling and Therapy . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1967. Carkhuff, R.R. , Collingwood, T. & Renz, L. The prediction of the effects of didactic training upon trainee level of discrimination and ccmnunication. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1969, 21, 460-461. Carkhuff, R.R. , Kratochvil, D. & Friel, T. The effects of graduate training. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1968, 15, 68-74. Carkhuff, R.R. , Piaget, G. & Pierce, R. The development of skills in interpersonal functioning. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1968, 7, 102-106. Carkhuff, R.R. & Pierce, R. The differential effects of therapist race and social class upon patient depth of self-exploration in the initial clinical interview. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1967, 31, 632-634. Carkhuff, R.R. & Truax, C.B. Lay mental health counseling: The effects of lay group counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1965(a), 29, 426-432.

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146 Eysneck, H.J. The effects of psychotherapy: A reply. Journal of Abnontial Social Psychology , 1955, 50^, 147-148. Favela, F. & Fuzessery, Z. Ihe new professional emerges. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1974, 53, 319-323. Feingold, S. Speech presented at the American Personnel and Guidance Association Convention, 1973. Education Recaps , Spring 1973, 2^. Fine, S. Guidelines for the Design of New Careers . Washington, D.C. : Upjohn Institute for Biployment Research, 1967. Fisher, W. , Mehr, J. & Truckenbrod, P. Human Services, The Ihird Revolution in Mental Health . New York, Alfred Publishing Co., 1974. Foley, W.J. & Proff , F.C. NDEA institute trainees and vocational rehabilitation counselors: A ccmparison of characteristics. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1965, A_, 154-159. Friel, T. & Carkhuff, R.R. The Art of Developing a Career . Massachusetts: Human Resource Development Process, 1974. Fumiss, W.T. Higher education for everybody? Washington, D.C, American Council on Education, 1971(a) . Fumiss, W.T. External degrees: An initial report. Washington, D.C: American Council on Education, 1971 (b) . Gartner, A. & Riessman, F. The paraprofessional movement in perspective. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1974, 53, 253-256. Gephart, W. , Saretsky, G. & Bost, D. How potential enployers value ccxtponents of traditional and external doctorates. Phi Delta Kappan , 1975, 406-408. Gibbs, O.B. & Lee, H. Colleges without v/alls: The status of nontraditional learning in California cotmunity colleges. College and University , 1974, 49, 267-274. Goldberg, A.D. A sequential program for supervision of counselors using the interpersonal process recall technique . Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 1967. Gould, S. & Cross, K. (Eds.) Explorations in Nontraditional Study . San Francisco: Jossey-Boss, 1972. Graves, J.T. The enployee counselor. Occupations , 1944, 22^, 495-497. Green, E. The relationship of selfactualization to achievement in nursing. Dissertation Abstracts, 1967, 28(6-A), 2092. Grosser, C, Henry, VJ. & Kelly, J. (Eds.) Nonprofessionals in the Human Services . San Francisco: Jossey-Boss, 1969.

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147 Guilford, J. P. & Fruther, B. Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education . New York: McGraw-Hill, Fifth Edition, 1973. Gunning, T. J. , Holmes, J.E., Johnson, P.W. & Rife, S.M. Process in a shortterm NDEA counseling and guidance institute. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1965, £, 81-88. Hanford, G.H. Ihe open university, the external degree and continuing education. Unpublished address at a conference of the Director's Poundtable for Mult and Continuing Education, Ppril 29, 1971. Hansen, J.C. & Barker, E.N. Experiencing and the supervisory relationship. ' Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1964, 11, 107-111. Harvey, L.V. The use of nonprofessional auxiliary counselors in staffing a counseling service. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1964, 11 , 348-351. Houle, C. The External Degree . San Francisco: Jossey-Boss, 1973. Ilardi, R.L. & May, W.T. A reliability study of Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1968, 4_, 68-72. International Conmission on Education Report Six UNESCO . UNESCO Press Special Article #3, September 1972. Ivey, A.E. Microcounseling . Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thonas, 1971. Jones, L.K. & Cox, W.K. Support personnel: Attitudes toward functions and training responsibility. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1970, 10, 51-55. Jourard, S. Disclosing Man to Himself . New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1968. Kagan, N. & Krathwohl, D.R. Studies in H\jman Interaction: Interpersonal Process Recall Stimulated by Video Tape . East Lansing, Michigan: Educational Publication Services, Michigan State University, 1967. Kemp, C.G. Influence of dogmatism on the training of counselors. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1962, % 155-157. King, J.B. & McPheeters, H.L. Roles and Functions for Different Levels of >fental Health ^torkers . Atlanta, Georgia: Southern Regional Education Board, 1969. Knapp, R. Relationship of a measure of self-actualization to neuroticism and extroversion. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1965, 29, 168-172. Knapp, R. & Shostron, E. The relationship of a measure of selfactualization to a measure of pathology and to therapeutic growth. Association for Advancement of Psychotherapy, 1964. Kriedt, P.H. Vocational interests of psychologists. Journal of ^plied Psychology , 1949, 33, 482-488.

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148 Krumboltz, J.D. Changing the behavior of behavior changers. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1967, 222-229. Magoon, T.M. & Golann, S.E. Nontraditionally trained wonen as nental health counselors-psychotherapists. Personnel and Giiidance Journal , 1966, 44, 788-793. Maslow, A. Further notes on the psychology of being. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 1964, 4 (1) , 45-54. lyfcClain, E.W. Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire scores and success , in coianseling. Joiimal of Counseling Psychology , 1968, 15, 492-496. tfcCreary, W.H. Who should be a guidance specialist? California Journal of Secondary Education , 1957, 32, 426-432. McPheeters, H, Southern Regional Education Board. A Guidebook for Mental Health/Human Service Programs at the Associate Degree Level , Jan. 1976. McPheeters, H. & King, J.B. Plans for Teaching Mental Health Workers : Camiunity College Curriculum Objectives . Atlanta, Georgia: Southern Regional Education Board, 1971. Moore, M. Training Professionals to work with paraprof essionals . Personnel and Guidance Journal , 53 , 308-312. Morland, R.B, The external degree doctorate in education: Blessing on blasphemy? Phi Delta Kappan , 1973, 55, 163-168. Mullis, T.E. Proposal and planning document for lifelong learning opportunities in the State of Florida. Proposal to the Legislature of the State of Florida, 1972. Myrick, R. & Kelly, D. A scale for evaluating practicum students in counseling and supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1971, 10, 330-336. Myrick, R.D., Kelly, D.F. & Wittmer, J. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire as a predictor of counselor effectiveness. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1972, 11, 293-301. North, R.W. Didactic-experiential and experiential-didactic training: The microlab and the minilab. In Proceedings of the 1972 Mental Health Workers Conference . Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board, 1972. North, R.W. A comparison of in-service training programs for social work aides. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1974. Nortli, R.VI., Bennett, C.L. & Davis, B.S. Freedom to choose: A training manual for human service personnel . Gainesville, Florida: Santa Fe Coimunity College, 1973.

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149 Ohlsen, M.M. Final Technical Report on Institute for Elementary School Counselors ". College of Education, Chairpaign, University of Illinois, 1967: Patterson, C.H. Itest characteristics of rehabilitation counselor trainees. Journal of Rehabilitation , 1962, 28^, 15-16. Patterson, C.H. Selection of rehabilitation counseling students. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1964(a), 41, 318-324. Patterson, C.H. Supervising students in the counseling practicum. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1964(b), 11, 47-53. Patterson, C.H. The selection of counselors. Paper read at Invitational Conference on Research Problems in Counseling. Washington University, January, 1967. Perlman, D. External degree programs: Alternative delivery systatis for higher education. Liberal Education , 1975, 61, 322-338. Puttick, W. A factor analytic study of positive modes of experiencing and behaving in a teacher college population . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1964. Rand, H.C. Helping the Helper: Florida's Occupational Specialists, American Vocational Journal , 1973, 4£, 31-35. Reiff , R. & Reissman, F. The Indigenous ttonprof essional : A Strategy of Change in Ccnimunity Action and Canmunity Mental Health Programs . New York: National Institute of Labor Education, 1965. Rioch, M.J., Elkes, C. & Flint, A.A. NITH pilot study in training mental health counselors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 1965, 33, 678-689. Rogers, C.R. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1957(a), 21, 95-103. Rogers, C.R. Training individuals to engage in the therapeutic process. In C.R. Strother (Ed.), Psychology and Mental Health . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1957 (b) . Rogers, C.R. On Beconing a Person . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961. Rosenbaum, M. Sane cc™rents on the use of untrained therapists. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 1966, 30, 292-294. Russo, J.R. , Kelz, J.W. & Hudson, G.R. Are good counselors open-minded? Counselor Education and Supervision , 1964, 3^, 74-77. Schauble, P., Pierce, R. & Resnikoff, J. A measurement of counselor effectiveness: Conparison of dichotonous and continuous rating scales. Unp\±)lished Manuscript, 1977.

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150 Schmitt, K.L. New options for cx)llege stvdy. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1975, 53 (10) , 739-745. Shostron, E.L. A test for the measurement of self-actxjalization. Educational and Psychological ^feasurement , 1964, 24_, 207-218. Shostrcm, E.L. Personal Orientation Inventory . San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1966. Shulman, C.H. A Look at External Degree Structures . American Association of Higher Education, 1972, Siroky, F. Ihe need for external degree programs in California. Report No. 6-Planning Data for California State Universib^. CatTOission on External Degree Programs , Sacramento, 1973. Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.G. Statistical Methods . Sixth Edition, Arres, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press, 1967. Sobey, F. The Nonprofessional Revolution in Mental Health . New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. Southern Regional Education Board. Roles and Functions for Different levels of Mental Health ^'forkers: A Report of a Syitposium on Manpower Utilization for Mental Health . December, 1969. Steel, R.G.D. & Tbrrie, J.H. Principles and Procedures of Statistics . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960. Steffler, B., King, P. & Leafgren, F. Characteristics of counselors judged effective by their peers. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1962, 9, 335-340. Stern, G.G. , Stein, M.L. & Blocan, B.S. Methods in Personality Assessment . Glencoe: Free Press, 1956. Taylor, F.W. Shop Management . New York: Harper and Bros., 1911. Teare, R.J. Snployment of subprof essionals : Staff and organizational adaptation and implications for service delivery. In Working Papers No. 1: National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers , Work, and Organizational Contexts . Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1971, 177. Teare, R.J. The middlelevel worker: Job functions and work activities. In H.L. McPheeters, Middle level >fental Health Workers are Here . Atlanta, Georgia: Southern Regional Education Board, 1973. Teare, R. & McPheeters, H.L. Manpower Utilization in Social Welfare . Atlanta, Georgia: Southern Regional Education Board, 1969. Thigpen, J.D. Most and least helpful experiences in the supervision of paraprofessional mental health workers . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1974.

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151 Troutt, R. Special Degree Programs for Adults: Exploring Nontraditional Degree Programs in Higher Education ! Iowa Cit^: ACT Publications, 1971. Truax, C.B. A scale for the measurement of accurate empathy. Psychiatric Institute Bulletin , 1961, 1, 13. Truax, C.B. A tentative scale for measurement of unconditional positive regard. Psychiatric Institute Bulletin , 1962, 2^, 1-5. Truax, C.B. Effective ingredients in psychotherapy: An approach to unraveling the patient-therapist interaction. Symposium: Ihe enpirical eitphasis in psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1963, 10, 256-263. Truax, C.B. & Carkhuff , R.R. Toward Effective Counseling and Psychotherapy ; Training and Practice . Chicago: Aldine, 1967. Truax, C.B. , Carkhuff, R.R. & Douds, J. Toward an integration of the didactic and experiential approaches to training in counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1964, 11, 240-247. Truax, C.B. & Lister, J.L. Effects of short-term training upon accurate enpathy and non-possessive warmth. Cbunselor Education and Supervision , 1971, 10, 120-124. Truax, C.B. & Mitchell, K.M. Research on certain therapeutic skills in relation to process and outcane. In A. Bergin and S. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change , New York: Wiley, 1970. Truax, C.B., Silber, D.D. & Warge, D.G. Personality Changes and Achievement in Therapeutic Training . Arkansas Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, University of Arkansas, 1966. Truax, C.B., Wittmer, J. & Warp, D.G. Effects of the therapeutic conditions of enpathy, non-possessive warm.th, and genuineness on hospitalized mental patients during groip therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 1971, 27, 137-142. True, J. & Young, C. Associate Degree Program for Human Service Workers. Personnel and Guidance Journal , 1974, 53^, 304-307. Van Dyne, L.A. Carnegie panel urges college reform. Chronicle of Higher Education , 1972, 6_, 5. Venning, P. Where does it get you anyway. Times Educational Supplement , London, 1974, 23, 19-24. Ward, R.B., Kagan, N. & Krathwohl, D.M. On atteitpt to measure and facilitate counselor effectiveness. Counselor Education and Siipervision, 1972, 11, 179-186. Washington State Council on Higher Education. External Programs and Off-Campus Instructional Sites . Washington Colleges and Universities, Olynpia, WashingtonT, Goluicil ori Higher Education, 1975.

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152 Wehr, M. A stu dy of the relationship between groi:p facilitative involvement and predicted effectiveness of counselor paraprof essionals . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1973. Wessel, R. Social w^rk education and practice. Social Services Review , 1961, 35, 151-160. Wittmer, J. & Lister, J.L. The Graduate Record Examination, 16 PF Questionnaire and counseling effectiveness. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1971, 10, 293. Wittner, J. & Myrick, R.D. Facilitative Teaching; Theory and Practice . Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear Publishing Co., 1974. Wittmer, J. & Wehr, M. Paraprof essional trainees and counselor education students: a comparison of personality and predicted counseling effectiveness. Counselor Education and Supervision , 1973, 12_, 255-262. Wolberg, L.R. The Technique of Psychotherapy . New York: Greene and Stratton, 1954. Zax, M. & Cohen, E. Early identification and prevention of emotional disturbance in a public school. In E. Cowen, E. Gardner, and M. Zax (Eds.), Bnergent J^proaches to Mental Health Problems . New York: i^pletonCentucy-Crof ts , 1967.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Maria Valdes Duncan was bom January 14, 1948, in LaHabana, Cuba. She attended the University of Florida and earned her Bachelor' s degree frcm the University of Florida in Augiast 1969. She majored in Psychology. She enrolled in the College of Education, the following semester, and received her Master's and Specialist in Counselor Education frcam there two years later. She is currently fulfilling the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree with a major in Counselor Education. Her minor is psychology, and her area of specialization is training of paraprofessional personnel. She has worked at Santa Fe Comnunity College for the last seven years training paraprofessionals. She developed and iirplemented an external degree program for substance abuse workers throughout North Florida. Her professional goals include training of helpers, developnent of effective training approaches, and counseling with watien. 153.,

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I certify that I have read this study and that in rty opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. /O I certify that I have read this study and that in iry opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, I certify that I have read this study and that in it^ opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. June, 1978 "iheodore Landsman'>_(2hairperson Professor of Psychology and Counselor Education Assist^t P: Education Vernon Van de Riet Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology Dean, Graduate School