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The effect of contextual and non-contextual motion pictures on the speechreading proficiency of comparable adult males

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The effect of contextual and non-contextual motion pictures on the speechreading proficiency of comparable adult males
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Arthur, Robert Harward, 1922-
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English
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ix, 159 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Auditory perception ( jstor )
Deafness ( jstor )
Hearing aids ( jstor )
Hearing loss ( jstor )
Hearing tests ( jstor )
Hospitals ( jstor )
Lip reading ( jstor )
Motion picture industry ( jstor )
Movies ( jstor )
Research paper writing ( jstor )
Deaf -- Means of communication ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Speech -- UF ( lcsh )
Speech thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Visual aids ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 129-141.
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Manuscript copy.
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Vita.

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This item is presumed in the public domain according to the terms of the Retrospective Dissertation Scanning (RDS) policy, which may be viewed at http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007596/00001. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator(ufdissertations@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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The Effect of Contextual and Non-Contextual Motion Pictures on the Speechreading Proficiency of Comparable Adult Males By ROBERT HARWARD ARTHUR A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA June, 1962

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported here Involved the cooperation of a great many Individuals. The author wished to express hla gratitude to the one-hundred and thirty people directly conoerned with one or more phases of this study and to all who contributed indirectly. Ninety veterans were studied through the films devised for this research. The willingness of these men to give their time and attention to the tests made this investigation possible* The author wishes to thank the Central Office Directors of the Veterans Administration Audiology and Speech Pathology Service, Dr. Bernard M. Anderman and Dr. 0. Donald Causey, for their approval of this research within a Federal installation. Grateful acknowledgment is expressed to Dr. Thomas L. Harvey, Director, Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, for his clearance to conduct this research within the New Orleans Veterans Adminstration Hospital and for his continued interest and encouragement. Further appreciation is accorded Dr. Lyman K. Richardson, former Chief of Staff in the New Orleans Hospital, curXi

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rently on active military duty, for hla consideration and support. Professor H. P. Const-ans, of the University of Florida Speech Department, In supervising this study gave oareful attention to all phases of the work durln? the two and a half year period of the Investigation, To Professor Cons tans for his encouragement and patient guidance the writer wishes to express sincere appreciation. Dr. Roy E. Tew and Dr. Richard J. Anderson, who were members of the graduate committee, gave Invaluable suggestions and counsel. The writer wishes to thank the other members of his committee: Ors. McKenzle W. Buck, Myron A* Cvinnlngham, Lester L. Hale, and Darrel J. Mase. ' . 3?he author wishes to acknowledge his Indebtedness to Mr* William D. Bohon, Chief of the Medical Illustration Service In the New Orleans Hospital, and to Mr. Thomas C« Morris, his assistant, for devoting their time and technical skill to the filming and editing of the twelve scripts devised for this experiment. The Investigator Is Indebted to all those employees of the New Orleans Veterans Administration Hospital who served as actors In the motion pictures. To his colleagues In the Audlology and Speech Pathology Clinic — Dr, Myrtle Holtby Dawson, Speech Pathologist, Mrs, Mary Stewart Carrlere, Audlologlst, and Mrs, Helen McDonald Soule, Secretary— the writer wishes to acknowledge ill

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his special gratitude for their assistance through the period of this research. Both Dr. Dawson and Mrs. Carrlere participated as actors In two of the film sequences and also served as Judges In the "1" and "Z" performance evaluations. In addition Dr. Dawson gave Invaluable criticism of portions of the original manuscript through editing and proofreading the material. Mrs. Soule aided the study through the skillful scheduling of the ninety subjects In the control and experimental groups, which added materially to her regular secretarial duties. , The physicians and nurses of the New Orleans Veterans Administration Hospital gave valuable assistance In screening a vast number of patients In order to locate the thirty subjects to be used as the control group In this study, Further Indebtedness is expressed for the cooperation of the Radioisotope Service at the Hospital and the Invalu* able statistical advice offered by Mr. David Penney. Appreciation Is accorded Mr. A. Prank Palrley, Post Master of the City of New Orleans, for the permission to film the Post Office sequence within an authentic Post Office setting. The Houghton Mifflin Company, Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts, gave permission to Include In the Appendix of this study the Revised Vocabulary Test of the Stanford-Blnet Scale by Lewis M. Terman and Maud A. Merrill. It

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The heavy oorrespondenoe required as well as the typing of the rough and final drafts of the dissertation were secvices contributed by the writer's wife, Patricia Eger Arthur. The author wishes to express his deepest ap preciation for the careful and patient attention and the hours devoted to this task.

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TABLE OP CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDOMENTS * 11 LIST OP TABLES •...•it Till LIST OP PIOUHES * Ix Chapter SPEECHRBADINOl SOME DEFINITIONS, FALLACIES, AND FACTS *••...••••««.••»' 1 n. SYSTEMS AND 3 ESSAHCH . .# if. 1? Basic Systems of Instruction .>,. Instruction and Testing through Motion v ,^ -r.].-: Pictures ' • ''^S:--^.-'^.'^' .ji,W.7^Sununary , . .. ' III. THE CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF TWELVE • CONTEXTUAL, NONCONTEXTUAL SPEECHREADING FILMS •••«.......«•••• 04 73 Test Construction Casting • 'rrFilming ^..^ Test Population ;K Physical Setting and Equipment , „ Film Test Administration . Scoring IV* EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 107 ' • Restatement of Purpose Major Group Homogeneity Sub-group Homogeneity Evaluation of Experimental Data Method of Scoring Correlation between Methods , Percentage Scores ' fx i

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Chapter Average Percentage Points Improvement Average Scores Expected Improvement in Scores on Contextual Films v -> V. SOME IMBLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 120 Summary of Research Implications Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 APPENDIX 1^2 VITA 159 vll

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LIST OP TABLES Table Pag# 1. Film Titles, Symbols, and Contents . . • • . 79 2* Summary of Sub-groups I, IX, and III, •*Range" md "Average" for Age, Education, Heading Grade Level and Vocabulary Test Results ..... 93 3» Summary of Major Groups I, II, and III, " ' "Range" and "Average" for Age, Education, Reading Grade Level and Vocabulary Test Results • 93 Case History Hearing Information on Subgroups I and II . 94' 5« Case History Hearing Information on Major Groups I and II ...... 94 6. Audlometrlc Information on Sub-groups I and II , , 96 7. Audlometrlc Information on Major Groups I and II / . , . » 96 8. The Three Groups of Subjects Tested and the Film Testing Order ..... 102 9» Data Pertinent to the Test of Homogeneity • • 109 10. Mean Raw Scores for Contextual and Non-contextual Presentation Computed by "X", "y*, and "Z* Analysis 110 11. Correlation Coefficients for the "XY", *XZ", and "YZ* Analyses 114 12* Percentage Scores for Contextual and Noncontextual Presentation Computed by "X", "Y", and "Z" Analyses 116 13 • Expected Percentage Improvement In Scores for Groups I, II, and III as Evaluated by the "X", "Y", and "Z" Analyses 118 vlll

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LIST OP PIOUHES Figure Page 1. Film Testing Room and Equipment 97

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CHAPTER I SPESCHREADINGj some DEPINinONS, FALLACIES, AND PACTS • Individuals with functioning vision who show a loss In hearing aoulty either oongenltally or adventitiously acquired, frequently receive habllltatlve or rehabilitative assistance In communication by learning to speeohread (lipread)* An Investigation of the literature reveals almost as many definitions for this process as the numerous Individuals who have sought to contribute pertinent Information. ^ Myklebust describes speechreadlng as • * a symbol receiving process Just as hearing and reading are. It Is the symbol system that In deafness takes the place of or supplements hearing: speech, the auditory symbol system."^ "Visual hearing," as It Is termed by Mason, "Is the comprehension of spoken thought by means of the eye when th« . ear falls to hear. It Is, therefore, 'hearing through the eye . • "^ iHelmer R. Myklebust, "Language Training: A Comparison Between Children with Aphasia and Those with Deafness," American Annals of the Deaf . CI (March, 1956), 2^3. ^Marle K. Mason, Manual on Visual Hearing I-XXX (Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University), p. 1. 1

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2 Eirliig defines llpreadlng "as the understanding of visible words in motion. "3 Though numerous Investigators lay emphasis only upon the Importance of observing artloulatory movement, there are many who protest the limitations of this definition. Newby states "visual clues come from watching the entire speaker rather than from concentrating solely on his llps.-^ Lip Reading more accurately called speech reading Is a somewhat misleading term. The skill It refers to .. Is actually a trained ability to derive meaning from watching not only a speaker's lips, but also movements of other parts of the face, expression, gestures. "Your face, my thane. Is as a book where men may read strange matters. "5 Btrgman notes . • . that the very term "lip reading" Is too narrow and confining. If we are thinking about the Interpretation of speech through the synthesis of visual oues we must recognize that there are a multitude of such cues present In most conversational situations. Not only are the limited number of lip, tongue, mouth and Jaw movements available, but many other situational cues v/hlch Influence or are affected by the speaker's thoughts may be used to Interpret fully what Is being said. Facial expressions generally reflect the speaker's emotion. Gestures, movements of the head, the hands, the arms, or of the entire body all may serve as Important aids In understanding speech. The Identity of the person talking and the place where the conversation Is held may suggest almost word for word exactly what will be said. It Is apparent that this visual understanding of speech Involves Interpretation of the entire situation. For 3lrene R. Ewlng, Llpreadlng and Hearing Aids (Manchester! Manchester University Press, 1959), p. 12, ^Hayes Newby, Audlologyt Principles and Practice (New yorkx AppletonCenturyCrofts Inc., 1958), p. 224. 5Lowell Brentano, Better Hearing (New York: Orosset d Dunlap, 19^6), p. 46.

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3 this reason "lip reading" has been replaced by the more Inclusive term "speechreadlng."" Though "llpreadlng" Is one of the oldest terms used to describe this method of interpreting speech, Bulwer In 1648 referred to the process as "Ocular Audition* and said "a man born d-eafe and dumbe may be taught to heare the sound of words with his eyes."^ As early as 1895 Mabel Gardiner Bell, wife of the Inventor of the telephone, referred to this method of communication as "speech-reading. it Is only within recent years, however, that the more Inclusive term "speechreadlng" has gained almost universal acceptance by workers In the field of hearing rehabilitation. This accord In terminology may be short-lived. O'Neill and Oyer In their recent and very excellent text on the subject have reverted to the term " llpreadlng because of Its historical usage and familiarity. "9 They note, however, that they "do not wish the term to be considered an operational ^Moe Bergman, "Special Methods of AudlCloglcal Training for Adults," Acta Otolaryngologlca , XL (1951-52), Lecture delivered at the International Course In Audlology, September 11-20, 1950. 7john Bulwer, Phllocophus or the Deafe and Dumbe Man's Friend (1648), quoted In John Chalmers Ballantyne, Deafness (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., I960), p. l65. ^Mabel Gardiner Bell, "The Subtile Art of SpeechReading," The Atlantic Monthly . LXXV (February, 1895 )» 166. 9john J. O'Neill and Herbert J. Oyer, Visual CotiJiunlcatlon for the Hard of Hearing (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1961), p. v.

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definition of the process; ratJler we want to use It in an organizational sense, to assist us in co-ordinating the lnforn'3tlon of the past and the present. "^^ Speechreadlng ability Is not possessed solely by hearing Impaired Individuals. Berry and Eisenson state that "all of us, hearing or non-hearing Individuals employ speechreading to a considerable degree. "^-l This point of view Is supported by Pauls* In ordinary conversation we employ both sight and hearing. Hearing Is so predominant for most of us, ' however, that we seldom appreciate the lraport«<.nce of sight. The Information that we get by watching not only the movements of the speaker's lips, but also his gestures and the expression of his face, Is realized only w'aen we hear with difficulty and are 'onable to see the speaker to our satisfaction. 12 Bell states thati It would not be hard to give good reasons why the art of speech-reading should be cultivated by persons who are not thrown In with those who are deprived of hearing. Speech-reading might be of advantage In the sickroom, where even the softest whisper Is apt to be extremely arjioylng to a nervous Invalid, as all the speechreader may require Is that the movements of the mouth shall be seen, —even the silent emission of breath re-:i quired In a whisper being unnecessary. In crowded reception-rooms, where the Incessant babble of many voices renders ordinary conversation a matter of difficulty, the ease of speech-reading, giving rest to overstrained voices and ears, would be a relief. lOlbld., p. vi, llMlldred Freburg Berry and Jon Eisenson, Speech Dii» orders I Principles and Practices of Therapy (New York* Applet onCenturyCrofts, Inc., 1956), p. 463. 12Miriam Pauls, "Speech Reading,* Hearing and Deafness-A Guide for the Layman . Ed. Hallowell Davis (New York* Murray Hill Books Inc., IW). p. 258.

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5 We Americans spend so ,!ZTe?.t a portion of our lives In noisy railroad oars that this means of carrying on long conversations easily and comfortably arald constant noise needs only to be knovra to be appreciated. 13 Nltchle also believed In the practical application of speechreadlng by those with normal hearing. He felt that teachers of the deaf and hard-of -hearing should be proficient speeohreaders though they themselves might hear normally. "Such an acquirement puts the teacher Into closer touch with his pupils, gives him an understanding of their difficulties and needs, and enables him to meet those needs more effectively than would otherwise be possible. "^^ He felt that members of the armed forces should have speechreadlng Instruction to assure accurate reception of face to face communication under combat conditions. 15 He further recognized the barrier of noise to communication when he proposed that workers In Industry and transportation learn to speechread.^^ Nltchle explains i I am not, however, advocating an expert knowledge of llp-readlng on the part of the general public, though such a knowledge would do no harm. But the reward for those who are not deaf, save In special cises. Is hardly great enough to Induce t'^.em to spend the time gnd effort necessary for a thorough mastery of the art.l? 13Bell, p. 171. * l^B4*ard B. Nltchle, "Lip Heading for the Hearing," Volta Review . XVII (November, 1915). **35. 15 lbld . I6 lbld . 1 7lbld. . p. J^36.

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6 Whether It Is possible for a person with normal hearing to become an excellent speechreader la a matter of conjecture. Newby observed that "It Is difficult for a normal hearing person to achieve a high degree of skill In speechreading. Apparently the motivation of having to depend on speechreadlng Is a prerequisite to becoming a proficient speechreader. ""^^ Saltzman pondered this saune question. Can a normally hearing person develop an outstanding degree of skill In llpreadlng? There Is a paucity of experimental evidence. Theoretically, "listening with the eyes" Is an Inborn trait functioning since Infancy, However, the hearing man neglects the sense of sight In Interpreting the verbal communications of his fellow man. Adequate Intelligibility Is obtained through audition, and his senscx-y habits become fixed In the course of years. To employ sight In everyday conversation as a predominant communicative skill, the hearing man would have to change his sensory habits radically, concentrating on the development of his visual and kinesthetic senses. 19 Most Individuals who teach the subject and those who rely on speechreadlng In dally communication are well aware of its limitations. Exaggerated claims are frequently made by uninformed Individuals. "In plays and novels people with normal hearing sometimes llpread with miraculous skill In circumstances which would defeat the most efficient llpreader yet known. Such unique performances occur only In fiction. "20 iSNewby, p. 225. 19Maurlce Saltzman, "Factors In Leirnlng Speechreadlng," American Medical Association Archives of Otolaryn^olog £1, LXV (1957). ^26, 20Ewlng, p. 17.

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7 In an article described by Canfleld, a counter-spyt using a telescope, read the conversation of a spy five miles away. 21 Another told of a "woman who sat In an International Conference table and lip read people who were talking In twenty lauiguages and replied to each one." In reference to this topic Nltchle concludes "the majority of stories In which llp-readlng has a part are based on an exaggerated misconception of what lipreaders can do. It Is evident that the authors of most of them have only a hearsay knowledge of the art. "23 Where there are those who feel that speeohreadlng Is of great benefit to the hypoacuslc, there are many who believe that Its value Is very limited. "Many of th« wonders attributed to It simply do not exist. It Is high time the hearing public was told this by those who know the deaf. "2^ The chief complaint expressed In the brochure cited above Is that speeohreadlng Is "Inexact" and that the speechreader must fill In the gaps In thought by guessing. 25 "Trained to a nice discrimination of words," Poose 21 Norton Canfleld, "Rehabilitation of the Deafened." Lecture presented at the Colorado State Medical Society Meeting, September 13t 19^6, p. 8. 22 lbld . 23Edward B. Nltchle, "The Detective Possibilities of Llp-Headlng," Volta Review . XVII (March, 1915 )» 82. 2^Natlonal Association of the Deaf, The Truth About LlpreadlniT (Grand Saplds, Minnesota: Stokes Printing Co., n.d. } , p. 3* 25 Ibid .

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8 argues, "we recoil from the thought of getting along with rags and patches of speech, as a lip reader must unavoidably do If ha wishes to get along at all.''^^ Keith placed the blame of poor apeechreadlng not on limitations Inherent in the process but to faulty Instruction. He complained that students and graduates of training were unable to speechread conversational speech, to Interpret profile or half profile speech, or to be relaxed while attempting to understand conversation.^*^ In contrast with the above there are many who feel they would be lost without the assistance which speechreading affords. Nobody Is more willing to admit the limitations of lip reading than the person who Is utterly dependent on It. It has been called a crutch, and such It Is; but It enables many Individuals who would otherwise be at a stand, still conversationally to get about quite well and quite surely. So long as there Is deafness, lip reading will be Important; and It behooves us to take It seriously. 28 It was Nltchle^a conviction that "llp-readlng can Indeed help almost everyone who Is deaf, but It cannot help all In equal degree. For none can It make the eyes, oven for understanding speech, do all that the good ears ought to do. "29 26jacob Foose, "One More Language," Volta Review, XLIV (July, 19^2), 401. 27john Keith, "Has Lip Reading Missed the Bus? — Yes,' Volta Review . XIV (May, 19'^3), ^^86-88. 28Harrlet Montague, "Lip Reading A Continuing Necessity ," £ournal_o£_3£eecl^^ VIII (September, 19^3), 26I-62 • 29Edward B. Nltchle, "Why Not Llp-Readlng?" Volta Review . XVII (May, 1915) i 178.

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The viewpoint of the teaoher, aa vcell as of one who employed It daily because of her own hearing loss. It pr«» aentei^. by Sinclair who discusses "what speeohreadlng la not. "30 Her first contention Is that "llp-readlng la not easy." It is "rather a skill to be acquired, the training for special use of latent powers of eyes and ralnd."^! sj^^ stresses that only through constant practice and determination can a person acquire this skill. Her second point, an outgrowth of the first, states that it "cannot be learned In a day, nor In a year and a day. "32 Though some degree of facility may be evident from the outset, only years of practical application can make It an Intuitive part of the Individual. Her third thesis Is that It "Is not a perfect substitute for the sense of hearing. "33 Skill In speechreadlng cannot assure perfect understanding but It is a proven aid to many. In the fourth place, Sinclair acknowledges "lip-reading does not Improve or cure deafness. "3^ This, she states. Is contrary to the opinion of many students who mistakenly 30virglnla Sinclair, "A Foreword to the Would-Be LipReader," Volta Review . XIX (April, 1917) f 181-82. 31 Ibid ., p. 181. 32ibld. 33 lb id . -. 3^ lbld .. pp. 181-82.

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v'*»__,^^ attribute an incraasing ease In coraraunloatlon to Improved hearing when In reality they are becoming better speechreaders. •The study of llp-readlng does not Indicate any mental def lclenoy"35 is the author's fifth point. Many Individuals with a hearing problem feel there Is a stigma attached to any handicap and attempt to conceal their hearing loss. By admitting the Impairment and relying upon speeohreading, the author contends others become more cooperative. Sixth, a point closely related to the first two, regardless of the effort! of the teacher, only the perseverance of the pupil will bring the desired results. ', The seventh point made by Sinclair Is that "llp-readlng ability does not so quickly come to the inveterate talker. "36 A good listener has much more opportunity to practice his speeohreading than the individual who monopolizes the conversation. A question frequently asked by Interested indlvlduala let Just how proficient can a person become in speeohreading? Categorizing degrees of proficiency, Trask describes a very good speechreader as a man who can understand most people with whom he comes in contact; who can sometimes follow a sermon or a lecture, and who is rarely forced to think of or mention his deafness. By a fair lip-reader, I raesm the man who has little difficulty in reading the lips of his family, of his 35 lbid .. p. 182, 36 lb id .

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it friends, and of people with whom he comes In dally contact. This may not seem like a great deal to accomplish by months of hard work, but It Is the difference between happiness and misery. 1/ those who get some help from llpreadlng, I mean those who can understand a few people readily and a few more a little. It makes their home life much easier for themselves and their families, and Is of very great help to them mentally. 37 Individuals with a severe hearing Impairment are frequently the easiest to oonvlnoe that speechreadlng can help them. In some Instances they have already developed this skill to an amazing degree without formal Instruction. Ihe most reticent to learn are often those with borderline hearing. While they may sense a diminution of hearing In the presence of noise, they may perceive speech very well In quiet surroundings. Counselling should emphasize the fact that "lip-reading Is a first aid and not a last resort '•38 resulting in improved communication under all listening conditions in addition to a form of Insurance should the loss prove progressive. lorrey emphasizes the fact that "almost any one can become a reasonably proficient lip-reader, and the sooner one begins, the less he has to overcome. This applies especially to men axil women who have to earn a living. It is always difficult for a deaf msm or woman to find a position. Why 37Allce N. T»ask, "More About LlD-Headlng, and Then Some," Volta Review . XIX (October, 1917), 569. 38coralie N. Kenfield, "What the General Public Should Know Concerning Llp-Readlng, " Volta Bevlew . XIX (October, 1917), 562.

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12 not learn to r^id the lips before deafness becomes so noticeable th3.t the work Is 9ffected?"39 Kinzle notes that as a result of having learned to speechraad "there are a s-ood maiynow who are holding their own with normal hearing people, both In professional and social life 3 proof that deafness need no Innger Interfere with one's success In llfe."^® Any ability to speeohread results In Improved communication, an extremely Important factor In the adjustment of the hypoacuslc. Perhaps a greater, though less tangible result, Is Its "psychological value because It removes feelings of Inferiority and shame and centers attention upon social achievement."^^ On this same point, Morgenstern observes: With the study of llp-readlng a new Interest comes Into the life of the learner. He gives up many of his habits acquired with deafness, such ps brooding over his trouble, melancholy reflection, suspicion and apathy toward his hearing friends, and begins to look about him full of Interest. "^2 39'5ertrude Torrey, "Llp-Headlng for the Slightly Deaf," Volta Review . XVII (February, 1915) » 53. ^OCora Elsie Kinzle, "The Value of Speech heading for the Deaf," Volta Review . XIX (August, 1917) t 366* ^iRoger 0, Barker and Others, Ad.lustment to Physical Handicap ^nd Illness; A Survey of the Social Psychology of Physique and Disability . Bulletin 55 (New York; Social Science Research Council, 1953), P* 196. ^2louIs I. Morgenstern, "The Significance of the Study of Llp-Readlng for the Hard-Of-Hearln-^ Adult," Volta Review . XIX (March, 1917), 128. Translation of an address delivered by the author to the members of the German Medical Society of the City of New York at the Academy of Medicine, February 5, 1917.

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People who had formerly gone about "with set faces and blank stares become allve-looklng and win the respect of their friends and associates by their alertness, self-confidence and perseverance. "^3 Pamlly members, friends, business associates, and the hearing Impaired themselves frequently allude to an Improvement In attitude, increase In sociability, as well as greater work proficiency which they feel is directly attributable to the acquirement of speechreadlng skill. In 1933 Max Ooldsteln wrote "to the otologist It jTpeech-readlixg] offers a consolation for his inability and Impotency to cope with certain forms of aural pathology and It places him In a position to restore the peace of mind and to Instil new hope In his deaf patient, "^^ In the twenty-eight years since the statement by Ooldsteln many significant advances have been made In the field of otology. The development of antibiotics and new techniques In middle ear surgery, such as the stapedectomy and tympanoplasjjy, have greatly reduced and in some Instances completely eliminated hearing losses. Despite this progress there are still those Individuals who fall to respond to medical treatment, are poor ^3Betty C, Wright, Look. Listen and Llpread (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Bros, Inc., 1957)t p. vll. ^^Max A, Goldstein, Problems of the Deaf (St. Louis i The Laryngoscope Press, 1933), quoted In Harriet Montapue, "Lip-leading A Continuing Necessity," Journal of Speech Disorders . VIII (September, 19^3), 258.

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surgical risks, are surarlcal failures, or have Inner ear Inolrement. For these Individuals there Is a continuing need for the assistance that speechreadlng can give. Those Interested In the rehabilitation of the hearing Impaired are frequently confronted with the question: Why should a person today learn sneeohreadlng when there are Innumerable makes and models of hearing aids on the market? Educators in this field have learned that some hearing losses are not amenable to amplification and that there are Individuals who receive only partial help from a hearing aid. Factors concerning the degree and pattern of loss, area of Involvement, longevity of loss, the Individual's adjustment to his problem, and his ability to adjust to ciange. Influence the degree of benefit derived from a sensory aid. In addition to the limitations Imposed by the physical loss, there are limitations inherent In the electronic device Itself. The frequency soectrum of marry aids falls to Include the highest speech frequencies effectively. Patients with perceptive deafness, with or without recruitment, and with discrimination losses do not receive the maximum potential improvement which an aid can yield. The gaps left by the hearing aid must be supplemented and filled In by visual clues. Effectiveness of a hearing aid Is roughly Inversely proportional to the kind and severity of the deafness. The most severely acoustically Impaired patients can expect the least amount of acoustic serviceability from a her^rlng ald.'*5 As Bergman points out: "Speech sounds which have low '*'5Horrls P. Heller, Bernard Anderman, and Ellis E. Singer, Functional Otology The Practice of Audlology (New York: Springs Publishing Co., Inc., 1955), p. 203.

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15 acoustic power euid which fall in the upper range of frequencies are easily confused when heard through the hearing aid. For example in English we have the *f • and 'th* sounds which usually cannot be distinguished through the aid but which are clearly different when viewed on the mouth. "^^ In an article published by Bushor, the -Author states | Although there are more than 12 million adults and 3 million children In the U.S. with a hearing problem, few of them are actually deaf — most have hearing losses of varying degrees. Of these 15 million people, 2i million now use aids and another 6 million could effectively do so. ^7 Objective research by several investigators— .Ewlng, ^8 Hudglns,^9 Hutton,50 and Krug51— confirms the subjective evaluation of clinicians and hearing impaired individualt that bisensory stimulation improves communication. Ninety-two partially deaf hearing-aid users, formerly ^^Eergman, pp. 3k'4.*45, ^7pers onal correspondence with D. Gottlieb writinar on behalf of Hearing Aid Industry Conference, March 30, 19^1, quoted in William E. Bushor, "Medical Electronics Part TV," Sleotronics . XXXIV (Juno 23, 1961), ^3. ^SEwing, p. 5. ^9c. V. Hudgins, "Lip Reading and Hearing Aids," Hearing I/ews . Reprint #202 (May, 19^8), p. 3, 50charles Hutton, "Combining Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Aural Rehabilltatidn, " Volta Bureau . Reprint f725, p. 4. 5iai chard F, Krug, Effects and Interactions of Auditory and Visual Cues In Oral Communication . A Final Report of Project '^^99 Contract 3AE 3177 by ths University of Oklahoma Researcii Institute, p. 27. The research reported herein was performed pursuant to a contract v;ith the United States Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

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16 trained In speechreadlnsr, participated In the study by Ewing, Comprehension of the test material was 6k percent accurate through either speechreadlng or amplification alone* In contrast, the simultaneous use of speechreadlng and hearing aids In a third test Improved understanding to a score of 90 percent, representing an Increase of 26 percent .52 These results show the value of llpreadlng when speech Is only partially or Imperfectly heard. So put It another way, neither auditory stimulation nor visual stimulation by Itself la entirely adequate. The combination of both Is exceedingly effective. The flguBes given above are tremendously encouraging. They supply the an. swer to the question wnich Is so often asked In the clinic or consulting room. Is llpreadlng worth while? There can be no doubt about the answer. It Is not a matter of personal opinion. Here Is proof that llpreadlng Is worth while and that Its benefit, like Portia's description of Mercy, Is two-fold, it blesses him who llpreads and him who speaks, for It cannot be denied that deafness handicaps communication for both. 53 52Ewlng, p. 5. 53 lb Id . t pp. 5-6,

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CHAPTER II SrSTEMS AND RESEARCH Basio systems of Instruotion In the late ISOO^s Julius Muller-Walle, a teacher of the deaf In Germany, became interested In what he believed constituted the major difference between teaching deaf children and deafened adults to speechread, Congenl tally deaf children needed tOuBaster the positions of speech sounds. Hearing Impaired adults, howerer, having previously mastered speech, needed to concentrate on the Inter-movement of sounds. Over a period of twenty-six years Muller-Walle developed this system of teaching inter-movement sound recognition to hearing impaired adults. Before the end of the nineteenth century the system which bore his name was hailed by many in Germany as the best method of learning to speechread, l Prior to the turn of the century there were few adherents In the United States of any one method of speechreadlng Instruotion. In 1902 Martha E. Bruhn, who had studied under IPrau Rosa Clohorlus, "The Life and Services of Julius Muller-Walle,* Volta Review , trans. M.E. Bruhn, XV (October, 1913). 317-19. 17

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it Huller-Walle, Introduced the Bruhn Llp-Readlng System^ to this country In Boston. In that same year Edward B. Nltohle opened a school of speeohreading in New York City. These schools served the dual purpose of training the hypoacuslc to speechread and of promoting the wide-spread use of these systems through teachertralnlr.g programs. Sortlnl notes that "methods of Instruction In speechreading range from those which concentrate on the analysis of the basic movements of speech to those which concentrate on the ability of the speeohreader to synthesize the meaning from contextual clues. "3 • The Bnuhn Method exemplified the analytic approach for interpreting soeech while the Nltchle School advocated the synthesis of visual clues as the more effective procedure. Of these two diametrically opcosed methods cited above, Bruhn discussed the forraerx The Muller-Walle course given to the hard-of -hearing adult consists of a series of simple, carefully graded lessons presented to the student in the order of their difficulty and covering the ground of sound combinations as thoroughly as possible. Those of you who are familiar with the method know that it is in the study of the ever-varying combinations of sounds that we lay the most stress and, moreover, not in the form of words , but in syllables. Movements of the vocal organs, the passing 2Martha £. Bruhn, "The Muller-V/alle Method of Lip Reading (Bruhn Lip Reading System)," Volta Review . XVII (August, 1915)f 293. 3 Adam Sortlnl, Speeohreading t a Guide for Laymen (\na. Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Bros., Inc., 1958), p. 10.

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19 from one sound to another, producing the so-called Intermovements — this Is the basis of the Muller-Walle method.^ Immediately following the syllable drills, these same syllables were used in short sentences to relnforoe the recognition of movement. Her method was directed toward the goal of improving the student's ability to interpret thought units in conversation. To achieve this ultimate goal Eruhn continued according to the sequence of verb drills and story exercises. 5 Ti^is course of training was applicable to children with one major difference. Word building, not used with adults, was the first step in teaching very young pupils.^ Nitchie, advocate of the synthetic approach to the mastery of speechreading, believed that meaningless syllable drills retgrded the development of speechreading proficiency. He argued that with very few exceptions, real words of one syllable exist for '=ill simrtle combinations of consonant and vowel in which any extra element occurring will modify the vowel movement scarcely a hqlr*s breadth. And it Is certainly simpler to teach the pupil to concentrate on the desired p^rts of such t/ords than to train him to pronounce all the meaningless syllables with unfailing accuracy.? This pioneer teacher also felt that too much time was wasted on drills for instantaneous recall. ^iMartha S. Bruhn, "Learning Lip Reading by the MullerWalle Method," Volta Review . XTX (Au^st, 1917), 390. 5 Ibid . . p. 392, \, 6 Ibid . 7Edward B. Nitchie, "Lip Reading, An Art," Volta Review . XV (September, 1913). 278,

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20 Memorizing vocabularies, Idioms, etc., Is essential In language study, but only an approach to such memorizing Is possible In lip-read ing. This is so partly because of the large body of homophenous or nearly homophenous words, and also because, no two mouths being Just the saias, what Is memorized for one mouth does not hold exactly true of other mouths. Not that Is Is not a s-ood thing to use common words, phrases, and sentences for practise, but that li; Is a mistake to expect the pupil to become a good llp-reader by dependence on memorizing them. By all means such words, phrases, and sentences should be used, and such help as may be possible In the endeavor to memorize them should be sought; but ateo*e this they should be used In such a way as to develop also the pupil's general ability, his quickness, alertness, accuracy of observation, his synthetic and his Intuitive powers, and when so used they have a many-fold greater value than when used simply as a vocabulary to be acquired. 8 He believed that one of the fallacies In speeohreadlng pedagogy which stifled students* progress was the demand by some Instructors for word by word translation of drill materials. 9 The power to grasp the thought as a whole Is essential to ease of understanding by lip-reading. The endeavor should be made always to seize the sense of a remark rather than the individual elements or words. It is thus with hearing; i-/e do not think of the words we hear, but of the thought conveyed by them. In lip-reading the thought can often be completely understood, even when some words are missing. While it is a very agreeable sensation to understand every word, the endeavor to do so will surely be at tne expense of understanding the thought. In fact, the surest way of understanding every word for ordinary rapid conversation is through the habit of getting the words from the thought rather than the thought from the words. But whether every word is understood or not, the llp-reader who understands the thought has accomplished his ends, while the llp-reader who Insists upon every word, before admitting that he understands, will either be lost by the time a dozen 8 Ibid . 9lbld. , p. 277.

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21 words have been utte^^ed or will compel the speaker either to go very slowly or to repeat frequently . 1-0 In the early years of the Nltchle school emphasis was placed "on the visible facial positions for the different sounds'* and drills were devised so the student learned "to associate the positions and their sounds Instantaneously. "^1 In later years the study of sound positions received less attention. Word lists were used by Nltchle but were not to be memorized. Instead these words served as "clues" around which phrases, sentences, and stories were developed. 12 Among Nltchle*s major contributions to the study of speechreadlng were his discussions of the psychological factors involved. Synthesis, intuition, attention, and concentration were the four faculties he believed to be most Important In speechreadlng. He acknowledged the importance of eye training but contended that optimal speechreadlng proficiency could not be achieved unless the mind was trained to quickly supply the missing parts and to form them Into a meaningful whole. As a tribute to Nltchle, Brand wrote i lOsdward B. Nltchle, "What a Deaf Adult Should Do to Acquire the Art of Lip Healing," Volta Review . XVII (July, 1915), 253. llEdward B. Nltchle, Lessons In Lip neailn/? for SelfInstruction (New York: Surdus Publishing Co. , 1905), p. 7. 12Edward B. Nltchle, "Synthesis and Intuition In Lip Reading," Volta aaview . XV (October, 1913), 313.

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It His great contribution to the teaching art has been the making of llp-readliig instruction psycho-physiolos-lcal. The teaflhlng of llp-raadlng had been up to his time a physiological process. What many psychologists, working together, have done for the pedagogy of reading, Nitchie has done for the pedagogy of lip-reading. "13 . Olorig states that previous to the advent of the hearing aid Nltohie's contributions did more than any other single factor to rehabilitate the hypoacuslc.^^ In 1917 a third system of speechreading was Introduced by Cora Kinzie, a former student of both Bruhu and Nitohle. In describing her new system Klnzie states: The Kinzie Method . * . has been developed from a combination of the valuable principles of the Muller-Walle and Nitchie Methods. Now, what are these valuable principles? Let us first take up the Muller-Walle Method, which is the method I studied first. The points of superiority of the Muller-Walle Method are its classification of sounds and its simplicity. 15 The author notes that the Kinzie system follows the Muller-Walle classification of sounds fior the first two lessons, then deviates by training the student in the psyohologlcal aspects of speechreading advocated by Nitchie. i^. Nitchie recognized the fact that while both eye and mind must be trained to their highest efficiency, speech-reading is far more of an intellectual than a mechanical process, and he made the basic feature of his work the training of the mind. 16 13siizabeth Brand, "Aftermath: a Tribute to Edward B. Nitchie," Volta Review . XIX (December, 1917), 6^8. l^Aram Glorlg, Jr., "A Beport on Speech Heading's Place in Rehabilitation of the Deaf" rftnnpubllshed, Walter Heed Army Jospital, Washington, D.C., 1952). p. 2. 15Gora Slsie Kinzie, fThe Kinzie Method of Speech Heading," Volta Review . XXII (May, 1920), 609. Ibid., p. 610.

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23 In studying the overall approach used by Klnzle, one Is Impressed with the thoroughness of her lesson plans, attention to minute details and the accelerated pace that oharacierized the entire program. In diSQQsslng thesa early speeohreadlng systems Montague states } All three of these methods are different from one another; all are similar, however. In that they Include the analysis of visible speech movements and the practice of these movements In words and sentences; all recognlz3 that the mind must be trained to grasp the meaning of speech movements that cannot be seen. In other words, all these methods assume that the eye affords the only sensory channel available to the lip reader, and that the eye must be supplemented by the "trained guess work" achieved through Inference and general Interpretation. 1? In 1927 the Jena Method of Speeohreadlng, developed by Brauchman In Germany, was Introduced In the United States by Relghard of the University of Michigan— translator of the original manuaorlpta. Whltaker and Bunger of the Michigan State Normal College became the first American Instructors In this method. This new system stressed the Importance of another dimension In the development of speeohreadlng skills. The old method of speeohreadlng Is based on the notion that we have only two ways of communicating one with another. We may see print or see It on the face. We have taken refuge In seeing It upon the face, and we have tied ourselves up to the old method of learning and teaching speech-reading. Within recent years a third method of understanding one another has been discovered. This method, used unconsciously and naturally by a few indl^ 17Harrlet Montague, "Lip Heading — ' A Continuing Necessity," Jouraal of Speech Disorders . VIIi (September, 19^3), 263^.

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21k Tiduals, dapenda mostly upon sensation, or In aclentlflo terms, upon "kinesthesia. "18 , In describing the rationale of the kinesthetic approach Relghard axplalns that sounds are produced by contractions of the speech musculature and that conversation results from an extended series of rhythmical contractions of the numer* 0U8 nmscles Involved. If the student is trained to feel these rhythmical sensations, first through self-practice and later while imitating the teacher, memory patterns for speech are stored in the brain. Then while conversing with others there is automatic recall and Interpretation, followed by understanding. This is very much more simple and easy than the old method. There Is no practice of certain syllables; there is no practice of individual words; always they are grouped into sentences which are related, not into individual sentences. There is no printed matter used— it does not need to be used— and there is no mind strain. 19 Mason in 1930 introduced a fifth method of instruction in speechreading through a series of motion pictures. Previous to this, though others had acknowledged the application of motion pictures for testing or instructional purposes, it was not until I^ason Introduced the "visual hearlng"20 f iiajs that this media gained extensive use as a teaching device. Mason described her system as 18 Jacob Relghard, "The Jena Method of Speech-Reading," Volta Review . XXIV (October, 1927), 57^-75. ^9lbld.. p. 579. 20piarie K?.therine Mason, "A CinematograpViic Technique for Testing Visual Speech Comorehenslon, * Journal of Speech iosorders, VIII (September, 19^3), 271.

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«5 a laboratory method In which students are required to make a visual Interpretation of material as spoken on a silent screen. This '^ethod comprises complete series of assignments of pro/^resslve difficulty. Each asslmnent consists of motion pictures of a different speaker making an oral presentation of the lesson content. 21 fhe laboratory session is followed by a classroom period for review and correction of the previously completed work and "the fundamental phonetic principles Involved in the laboratory assignment are then determined, discussed, and analyzed. "22 After twelve years of experience with this approach, the author had this criticism to make when the films were used in the home without classroom follow-up: 1. The students miss the educational direction of the well-trained teacher. 2. They lack the inspiration which comes of personal contact with an experienced teacher. 3. They lose the Judicious counsel, expert guidance, and perhaps above all, the sympathetic understanding of someone with w'lom they may discuss the many problems ' arising as a result of their hearing inadequacy. 23 In the late 19^0 *s Mason developed a series of nonsltuatlonal speechreading films In color. 2^ O'Neill describes this series as a complete instructional unit, ard the thirty films are arranged in a sequence proceeding from the easier to the 2lMarle X. Mason, "Methods of Teaching Lip Healing to Adults— A Symposium. #5 Teaching and Testing Visual Hearing by the -ineraatographlc Method," Volta Review . XLIV (December, 19^2), 703. 22 lbid .. p. 70'+. 23 lbid .. p. 705. 3^Marie K. Mason, Manual on Vi.^ual Hearing I-XXX (Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University n.d. ) .

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more difficult aspects of visual hearing. Pllm I Introduces the student to some of the basic principles underlying the visual coiiii'rehenslon of speech. Each succeeding film introduces a new phonetic element or principle, all of the English consonants being considered in their initial, medial, and final positions in words and in the combinations characteristic of normal speech. 25 Mason died in 1950 before follow-up studies were published. A sixth method of teaching speeohreadlng to adults was devised by Morkovln, Moore, suid Bartlett in 1938, While employing Mason's basic approach, they extended the method by presenting situational stories through motion pictures. Discussing the differences between these two methods, Moore notes that In the Mason Pilrai the person speaking the lesson content is photographed with little or no action or background. The material given Is not in dramatized form, nor does it have continuity. This type of motion picture gives practice in reading the lips in unrelated sentences and phrases without the situational background In ^'hlch one reads speech in life. 26 In contrast, Moore points out that the new films . . . are . . « shorts depicting scenes from real life. They have continuity of thought, action and story v«ilue and some dramatic suspense. Some of the actors are semi-professional, all are trained in their parts, and careful attention is paid to details and background as well as to close relationship between actions and objects and the speech reading dialogue. 27 25john J. O'Neill and Herbert J. Oyer, Visual Comn?unlcation f or the Hard of Hearing: History. Research, and Methods (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., I961), p. 1^7. 26Luceli3 Miller Moore, "Methoda of Teaching Lip Reading to Adults— A Symposium. f6 Life Situation Motion Pictures for Teaching,* Volta Review . XLIV (December, 1942), 706. 27 lbid .. pp. 706-707.

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27 These situational films were not to constitute the total lesson plan. They served, Instead, as primary steps to adlltlonal techniques used to emphasize specific sounds. Drills and discussion periods pertaining to other topics furnished esaentlal supplementary practice material ,28 This system was referred to as the "AVK Life Situation Method* by Morkovln29 who explained that the auditory, visual, and kinesthetic channels employed In these films are all used to teach foreign languages and should play an Important role In training the acoustically handicapped to speechread. Speechreadlng taught through this method has an additional advantage, Morkovln contends. As a cast of approximately 110 speakers participated In the production of this series of twenty films, the student has the opportimlty to speechrsad many Individuals rather than his classroom teacher alone. 30 Moore asserts that Life Situation Motion Pictures are not designed exclusively for our own use. These films may be used In conjunction with any method, either as a basis for teaching or a material for supplementary classwork.31 28 lbld .. p. 722. 29Borls V. Morkovln, •Rehabilitation of the Aurally Handicapped Through the Study of Speech Heading In Life Situations," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XII (De-cembar, 19^7), 366. 30Borls V, Morkovln and Lucella M. Moore, Life Situation 3pe ech-3eadlns' Through the Cooperation of Senses . "AVK" Method (Los Angalas. CcT\fnr"n\c,i n>iWor.e4<-y rsr g^.^^v^, ern California, 19^8-1949), p. iv, . 3lMoore, Volta x^evlew . XLIV, 722.

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28 The above stated polnt-of-vlew Is a new Idea and unlque In terms of all tho.t has been said and written to the contrary by some of the founders and followers of traditional methods* v,.^., ^ Exemplifying this modem trend of thinking, Oi^aai in a discussion of methods says: One of the things that have vexed me most in my contacts with many teachers has been the prevalence of a fixed , and adamant advocacy by each teacher of a particular method as "the best". Usually, of course, this was the particular method in which he or she had received training, 32 Just previous to our entry into World War II, Bruhn admitted! Methods that were devised and employed by the pioneer teachers forty years ago, when lip reading for adults was Introduced into this country, are no longer adequate today .... This does not mean that it is necessary to revolutionize the entire plan of study. The two basic methods, the ?!uller--Valle and the Nitchle, as well as the Kinzie Method which was developed from these two, are still the best for laying a foundation. 33 One revolutionary thinker in the early period of "The Hethods* controversy expressed the f ollowingj You wonder, perhaps, what method we have. Well, «e have none« We are afraid of the word. We don't want one definite method. We want to know all, !.'e want to study carefully and master each system, but we want to be free, absolutely free, and adaTJt our teaching to each individual. 3^ 32Theodore Ordraan, "Has Lip Healing Missed the Bus?— No," Yolta Review . X£V (May, 19^3), 318, V 33Martha E. Bruhft ."Methods of teaching Lip Reading to Adults. 1. Lip Reading as a Living Language," Volt a Rev iew. XLIV (November, 19^2), 636. " 3^Frldette Amsler, "Lip Reading for Adults in Switzerland," Volta Review . XXIX (October, 192?), 572.

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Ordman, who also represents the eclectic approach, and perhaps the less rigid thinking of many teachers In the field today, expressed the following! Now, with lessons In many methods behind me, I have reached the conclusion that there are no Irreconcilable differences. Each method has features of merit. Teachers should be willing to accept the good In each and to synthesize and harmonize them rather than make a shibboleth of any particular means of instruction. 35 Observations and speculations versus research Much that is taught to speechreadlng students today In classroom or counselling situations and much that Is contained in the literature Is based upon the Instructor's or author's subjective Judgments on how to master this subject. Soae of this information has been gathered over years of personal teaching experience and some through Information passed on to the teacher by the hearing impaired student. Much however that is taught in current methodology has been handed down from Instructors In schools for the deaf which were organized shortly after the turn of the century. Portions of the early literature contain discussions which though they appear to be based upon scientific fact are in reality theoretical dlsaussions of doubtful, and in some Instances now dlspooven, validity. Statements such as "it is more difficult to speechread in a dim light* or "it 18 difficult to speechread with the light shining In the 35ordman, Volta Review . XLV, 318,

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30 spe«chreader*s face" are obvious facts In terms of conditions required for visual perception and require no Investigation, Other statements, however, upon such topics as the speed of speech and its effect upon llpreadlng, the optimal angle of viewing, the b??st distance for apeechreadlng, the percentage of visible sounds In our language, and numerous other specific points have recently been Investigated. Increased interest in the needs of the aurally handlcapped and the developing awareness of the Importance of blsensory stimulation to rehabilitation have motivated an Intensification of research to determine the inter-relationships between the visual stimuli, the speaker, the receiver, and the speechreading environment. Silverman states that the factors which influence successful communication through visual hearing "... are exceedingly complex and difficult to analyse. "36 Those factors which must be considered in relation to the speaker are distance, light, position, the character of the talker's speech which may be influenced by precision and rate of articulation, sectionalisms, and facial expressiveness, and, of course, the familiarity of the lip-reader with the speaker»37 The speechreader»s interpretive ability Is influenced by such factors as his vision, his ability to synthesize from contextual ' clues, 'lis intelligance, his general Information, his 36iuchard S. Silverman, "Clinical and Educational Procedures for the Deaf," Handbook of Speech Pathology . Sd. Lee Edward Travis (Ne-^ York: Appleton-Crof ts Inc., 1957), pp. 413-414. 37 lbld .. p. 414.

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ability to recognize discrete units of speech, his ability to associate his own "feel" for speech with the speech he sees on the lips, and finally the fundamental structure of his personality which may determine his attitude toward lip-reading. 3° Those factors concerning the stimulus material or word message Itself are "the level of vocabulary and language structure. "39 "Limited research effort," O'Neill and Davidson noted, "has been directed toward a better understanding of llpreadlng."^0 E^rly Twentieth Century research The objective of a pioneering study by Kltson In 1915 was to Investigate the hypothesis that certain tests of mental ability could be correlated with spsechreadlng aptitude. For this determination Kltson examined fifteen hardof-hearlng adults by means of a tachlstoscopic and completion t%Bt» He believed that these tests would differentiate be* tween those using the "analytic" method to translate oommunication and those who employed the "synthetic" approach. . He concluded that the high coefficients of correlation obtained in this study proved that tests of this nature were 38ibld., p. klk, 39lbld., p. klk, ^John J. O'Neill and Jo Ann L. Davidson, "Relationship Between Lip Reading Ability and Five Psycliologlcal Factors," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XXI (De-^; cember, 1956), W. ^IH. D. Kitson, "Psychological Tests for Lip-Heading Ability," Volta Review . XVII (December, 1915), 471-76.

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3» applicable to the study of factors Influencing speechreadlng proficiency and further concluded that individuals using the "synthetic" approach were the better speechreaders. One of the earliest attempts to mdasure speechreading skill was made by Conklln who devised a teat using eight consonants, fiftytwo words, and twenty sentences. ^2 Each Item was delivered three times to an experimental group of sixteen children. One point credit was given each correct consonant and word and five points were scored for completely accurate sentences. Homophenous consonants and words received full credit. Several days after the first administration, a second test consisting of teachers subjective evaluations of speechreading skill was administered to eight of these children. These scores were then compared with those made on the first test. A positive correlation of .79 was obtained. Ctonklin felt that his test proved the practicality of developing a test in lipreading skill. He stated that an extension of his approach might lead to the development of more test materials which could be applied to different grade levels and might also help to determine which method of teaching was the most effective. Conklin's research evoked a reply from Nitohie who believed the tests failed to consider psychological factors important to speechreading. . . . ^23dniund S. Conklin, "A Method for the Determination of Helative Skill in Lip-Reading," Volta Review . XIX (May, 1917)» 216-19« ———————

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Mr. Conklln's tests are tests purely for the capacity of the eyes. It frequently happens, however, that pupils whose eyes are not trained In reading the lips will nevertheless understand very well Indeed. It la not possible to read the lips successfully without very considerable help from the mental abilities of the pupil. '*'3 In addition Nltohle avowed "... that a teat with sounds pronounced Individually by themselves i apart from any connection In words, is no real test of llp-readlng skill «*^^ Plntner Investigated the correlation between intelligence and speechreadlng ability as demonstrated by groups of superior students In day schools and institutional schools for the deaf.^^ Using the Plntner Non-Language Test which the author described as a "coarse measure of intelligence"^^ a zero correlation was found between intelligence and speechreadlng ability for both groups. Though the intelligence rating for Institutionalized children was slightly higher than that of » the day school students, the latter scored substantially higher in speechreadlng ability. An evaluation of the educational achievement of both groups showed positive correlation with success in speechreading. , ^ ^3Edward B. Nltchle, "Tests for Determining Skill in Lip heading," 7olta Reviow . XIX (May, 1917), 222, ^^Ibld. , p. 223. ^5Kudolf Plntner, "Speech and Speech-Heading Tests for the Deaf," Journal of Applied Psychology . XIII (June, 1929), 220-25. ^^ Ibld .. p. 223.

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3i> Over a five-year parlod Helder and Helder developed three tests to measure speeohreadlng ability. ^7 rhe third test, a modification of the first two, was believed to rep, resent i marked Improvement over Its predecessors. This test contained "30 unrelatsd nouns, 30 unrelated sentences, and two stories of about 150 words each.^^S The testing material was presented through motion pictures to sixty-eight children and young adults at the Clarke School for the Deaf. Results of this study would Indicate t 1. that after a certain amount of training there Is little improvement In speeohreadlng ability. 2. a knowledge of language is important to speeohreadlng. 3. In learning to llpread . . . vowels seem to be much more Important than consonants. The difference between good and poor lip-readers shows In the finer or less fine perception of vowels, while with the consonants there ars no great differences between them. With consonants one can-iot make great progress: that a certain consonant belongs, for instance, to the group of m, p, and b, one can see without much training — and no amount of training makes it possible to distinguish accurately between these three consonants. ^9 Later research To test the Influence of stimulus material upon speechreadabllity Morris studied sentence position, time de^7f^ritz Helder and Grace :i. Helder, "An 'Sxperlmental Inves titration of Lip-Readlng, " P3yohclo,gloal Monographs , LII, No. 1 (19^0), 124-53. ^Sibid., p. 127. ^9 Ibid., pp. 140-141

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n lay In presentation, and sentence length.^® A total of ^9 ttudents from the Clarke School for the Deaf participated In this study. Norrls concluded from her research that speechreadlng was not Influenced by the order of presentation or time delay between presentations of equally difficult sentences* , She found, however, the longer the sentence the poorer the speechreadlng score* In 19^6 Utley produced a silent motion picture designed to measure the lipreading skill of individuals at the third grade level and above. 51 This test was composed of words, sentences and several short stories which could be presented in test-retest form with the exception of the stories test. The words and sentences were filmed in black and white. Color film was used for the stories. In addition to developing a standardized test Utley hoped to determine whether significant correlation existed between speechreadlng ability and such factors as reading grade level, school achievement level, chronological a^e, school placement, and age at onset of deafness. The entire test was administered to 726 participants whose ages ranged 50Dorothy ?I. Morris, '•A Study of Some of the Pactors Involved in Lip-Reading" (unpubligvied Maater'a thasls, Smith College, IW), pp. 1-32. 51jean Utley, "Development and Standardization of a Motion Picture Achievement Test of Lipreading Ability" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Speech, Northwestern University, 19^6), pp. 1-83.

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36 from 8 to 21 years. Each student was also ranked hy his teacher according to a sutjeotlve evaluation of speechreadIng ability. The investigator drew the folloKlng conclusions from her research: 1. A reliable test of speechreadlng ability could be constructed to measure proficiency from the third grade through the adult level. 2. Teachers* Judgments were not a reliable means of predicting speechreadlng ability. 3. Reading level, school achievement, chronological age, age at onset of deafness and grade placement could not be used to predict speechreadlng success. ^. It was not possible to arrange test items according to a set standard of difficulty. 52 Held investigated the efficacy of constructing a stand' ardlzed speechreadlng test that would not only determine relative skill but would also clarify those factors which allow one individual to acquire greater proficiency than another, 53 For this purpose Held developed an " mm. color motion picture test using Isolated vowels and consonants. In addition, uirelatei sentences, related sentences, and a 52 lb id ., pp. 80-81. 53aiadys Held, "A Preliminary Investigation in the Testing of Lip Heading Achievement," Journal of Speech Disorders . XII (March, 19^7), 77-82.

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•hort story were used. A total of 99 deaf females, ages 1022 years, participated In this research. An analysis of test data led to the following conolu•lont Lip reading ability is not quantitatively correlated with, ani oannot be predicted from, the length of training In lip reading, mental age, I.Q., and grade status, respectively. 5'*' Though Held felt the test to be "fairly rellable"55 she believed that "a finer test Is needed that will measure the more elusive and subtle factors (which both the hearing and the deaf use to gain meaning) If this Is possible. "56 Ca vender sought to construct a completely objective speechreading test that could be administered In one school period without the use of special equipment. 57 Using the visibility scale devised by the W.P. A. Teaching of Llp-Headlng Program5 3 sentences of known visibility were constructed for a series of three experiments 5^ Ibld .. p. 81, 55 Xbld . 56 Ibid . . p. 82. 57Betty Jane Cavender, •The Construction and Investigation of a rest of Lip Headln,? Ability and a Study of Factors Assura-d to Affect the Results" (unoubllshed Master»8 thesis. The Graduate School, Indiana University, 1949). pp. 1-181. . of Lip Reading Proe^ram. New Aids a nd Materials for Teaching Llp-Readlng . Official Report on Pro^l^l ^iumber 165-l-97-9ti by the American Society for the Hard Of Hearing { A'ashington, D.C.: American Society for the Hard of Hearing, 19^3). pp. 1-27.

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3* conducted over a five year period. According to the Investigator "the third experiment was the one designed to answer most of the questions arising from the major problems establlahod for this study • • • .•'59 A total of 170 subjects participated In the third experiment which employed ten practice and 45 test sentences as stimulus material. Some of the Information resulting from this study Indicated* 1. Those with normal hearing demonstrated a wide range In speechreadlng ability. 2. The hard of hearing students scored higher than their normal hearing, matched controls. 3. The females scored slightly higher than the males, 4. There was no correlation between Intelligence quotients and speechreadlng scores. 5« Grade placement and llpreadlng ability showed a significant relationship. 6. Question and non-question sentences used In the test did not give significantly different results. 7. The order of difficulty of sentences was apparently the same for both groups tested. 8. The angle of viewing Influences speechreadablllty only slightly. 9. From 0 to 18 feet there was no significant Influence on speechreadlng scores. 59 Ca vender, p. 50.

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35» 10. Speechreadlng facility for the untrained increased with practice as the test progressed. Since Utley*s research In 19^6, the speechreadlng film which she developed has been used in several studies of speechreadlng ability. DlCarlo and Kataja proposed a study of this film in 1951 to determine whether It was "a valid and reliable Instrument to test achievement in lipreadlng and whether the test discriminates between good and poor llpreaders."60 Participating In the study were 57 hard-ofhearlng subjects, with a hearing loss of 50 db. or greater in the better ear, and 4^ normal indi-riduals with normal hearing. The relative skill of speechreadlng proficiency for all participants, as measured by the Utley test, was th«n compared with performance on the Morkovin motion picture, "A Family Dinner." . The test results on the Utley film evoked the following observations: 1. "The average score, 35.79 was only 19^ of the maximum 186, "6^ indicating the test was too difficult, 2« The test should be shortened '•since 50^ of the test contributed only 3% to the scores. "^2 3. Botn groips performed well which "would indicate that 60i,ouls DlCarlo and Raymond Kataja, "An Analysis of the Utley Lipreadlng Test," Journal of Speech and H earing Disorders . X7I {September, 1951), p. 229, 6libid. , p. 239. 62 Ibid ., p. 2^0.

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40 dependency of understand Inp: speech by lip movements alone Is insufficient In discriminating between . . ."^^ those with and without training in epeechreadlng. One teacher who had taught speechreading for twenty years found the Utley test so difficult that she refused to subject her students to it for fear it would destroy their confidence in their own speechreading ability. The Investigators further reported that* The test discouraged even the most accomplished lipreaders. In addition to being a test of llpreadlng ablllty, the test seems to be one which tests the ability to tolerate frustration and persistent failure. 64 Wood and Blakely observed that speechreaders interpret communication from incomplete patterns of visual movement. ^5 Their Investigation sought to determine whether interpretative ability carried over into the audlbdry modality as well. The Utley film was tested on 66 normal hearing college Btudents with no training in visual hearing. These students listened to recordings of sentences in which there were 65 circuit interruptions per minute. These brief breaks resulted In certain vowels, consonants or portions of sounds being omitted. The experimental group then listened to distorted speech Introduced by a phonograph recording revolving ^3 lbld .. p. 239. 64 ibid ., pp. £39-2^^0. 65Kenneth Scott .-/ood and Robert W. Blakely, '•The Association of Lip 33adlAg and the Ability to Understand Distorted Speech," Western Speech . XVII (October, 1953), 259261 •

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at half the normal speed. A final test consisted of subjecting the Individuals to sentences of increasing length which they attempted to transcribe. The investigators concluded from this study that the ability to Interpret partial visual cues does not guarantee a similar proficiency with auditory fragmentation though they felt this area of study warranted further research, To evaluate the often heard hypothesis that even those with normal hearing speechread, O'Neill examined 32 normal hearing undergraduate students through four experiments employing controlled speech-to-noise raclos. 67 The results demonstrated ••that vision contributed ^^•5% to the understanding of vowels, 72% for consonants, 6k, i% for words, and 25.9^ for phrases. "68 Van Bebber studied the effects of instruction upon the speeehreading ability of 50 hard-ofhearing service men and attempted • . . to relate this improvement to such characteristics as, A. Intellectual Factors B. Personality Factors C. Other Selected Factors a. Marital status b. Chronological age c. Sduoation ^^ Ibid .. pp. 260-61. 67john J. O'Neill, -Contributions of the Visual Components of Oral Symbols to Speech Comprehension,Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. XIX (December, 195^), 4^9-^39. 68ibid., p. 438,

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d. Duration of hearing loss e« Hearing gain (through electrical amplification) f . LenpTth of army service g. Hank69 To measure Intellectual factors the following tests were employed i The McCall Multi-Mental Scale, The WechslerBellevue Intelligence Scale, the Shipley Hartford Hetraat Scale and The Minnesota Clerical Test. Personality measurements, however, were based upon — scores made on the Cornell Indac N2 and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Speechreadlng proficiency was determined by scores received on the Deshon Motion Picture Test, Case histories furnished the remaining information. The results of this inquiry Indicated the following: a positive relationship existed between high scores obtained on the intellectual factors measured, and speechreadlng abillty, but no positive correlation was found between personality and speechreadlng. The selected factors measured indicated that the married students made better improvement in speechreadlng than the non-married students, that the younger the adult the greater the Improvement, and that previous education did not Influence progress, Vaughn proposed to investigate the utility of several 69Mary Lillian Van Bebber, "A Study of Factors Influencing Improvement in Speech Raading Ability" (unpublished Master's thesis, The Graduate School, University of Maryland, 195^), p. 3. J

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psychological tests administered prior to Instruction as a measurement of speechreadlng potential. ^0 Based upon te^.cher's ratings the twenty deaf pupils Involved were classified as good, average, or poor speeohreaders. They were then tested >ith the Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude, Progressive Matrices, House-TruPerson, Ooodenough Draw-AMan, and the Klnget DrawingCompletion Test, All findings in this research were negative. Keaster sought to determine • . why some people learn to lip-read with comparatively little effort and despite or because of any method of teaching, while oth rs never do learn to follow speech with any facility regardless of their background and education or their native intelligence. 71 A silent motion picture which she developed using 15 colloquial sentences was tested on 40 college students with normal hearing. In scoring the test credit was given for parts of sentences read correctly. The soores ranged from 8 to 9^ points out of a possible score of 96 points. This investigator then reported a study in progress in which she proposed to investigate factors influencing speechreadlng skill. Six sets of motion pictures, using 120 sentences, spoken by 3 males and 3 females were employed 70yerdy Darthulla Vaughn, "A Study of the Value of Certain Tests m Predicting Success in Speech Heading" (unpub'^''^''^ '""''^^^''^ 71 Jacqueline Keaster, "An Inquiry Into Current Concepts of Visual Speech Reception (Lip-:iealing) . " Laryngoscope, LXV (Januaay, 1955), 81.

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1^ In this research. This material was to be tested on those whth normal hearing as well as the hearing handicapped. , Keaster concluded with this admissloni We expect such a project to take years to accomplish, but we feel that there is no other way to ferret out a possible answer to the problem. i\'e may find that no pattern exists and that there are no specific traits closely correlated with lip-reading ability, but to find even that is worth a try. 72 O'Neill and Davidson studied the relationship of five psychological factors concept formation, intelligence, reading comprehension, visual perception, and level of aspiration to speechreading skill. 73 The participants in this study, 30 normal hearing undergraduate students, were tested on one of the silent motion picture tests developed by Mason. Of the five psychological fiactors under investigation, only one, namely nonverbal concept formation as determined by the Haufmann-Kasanin Test, showed slgnif ica^it correlation with speechreading ability. The authors concluded that in addition to teaching the student to speechread by the use of regular methods, training "in the recognition of simple forms or lip configuratlons"7^ might prove advantageous. Blair attempted to study the visual memory of deaf y^ ibicL .. p. 84. 73o'Nelll and Davidson, Journal of Speech s nd Hearing Disorders . XXT, 478-81. . — 7 ^Ibld . . p. 480,

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children as corap«ired to that of hearing children to determine whether a sensory loss In one avenue might influence the function of another sensory area. 75 Plfty-three deaf children, ages 7.6 to 12.6, were matched with hearing children In terms of Intelligence, age, and sex. The following battery of visual-memory tests was eraployedj The Knox Cube test, 'lemory for Designs, and Object Location Test. In addition four memory tests were employed Including Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Reversed, Picture Span, and Domino or Dot Pattern Span. Test results showed the deaf children to be Inferior to the control group In certain memory spam tests but superior on the Knox Cube and Memory-for-deslgna visual memory tests. Blair concludes that the superiority of the experimental group In the two taslcs cited above Is the result of a psychological compensatory phenomenon by which the deaf child becomes visually organized In specific ways In order to meet environmental demands. This adaptlveness appears to be manifest In memory for movements (as In the Knox test) and memory for whole patterns of stimuli without reference to the parts making up the whole (as in the designs test). 76 In 1957 Brannon and Kodman studied the ability of eight skilled and eight unskilled adults to llpread Isolated /'5 Francis X. Blair, "A Study of the Visual Memory of Deaf and Hearing Children,* American Annals of the Deaf. CII (Harch, 1957), 25^-65. 76 Ibid ., p. 261,

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words and sentences. 77 The stimulus material consisted of a filmed version of the Harvard PB List #6 employing 50 words and the Utley Sentence Test, Fowb A, with 31 sentences of 125 words. An analysis of test data showed no sl
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*7 Iflcatlon of a speechraadlng test by Keaster Into two test ministered to normal hearing young adults. The results Indicated that both revisions met the standards of reliability and that a high correlation existed between the two forms. It wa»f found, however, that approximately one-third of the words contained In the test failed to "discriminate between good and poor ll{>reader8,*81 A significant relationship was also found to exist between the original film test, the two revisions, the Horkovln film, "The Family Dinner," and a face-to-face presentation of live test material. Research Paper III sought to evaluate the Influence ot stimulus material upon speechreadablllty.^2 ^j^^g study used the original production by Keaster, A Film Test of Lip Headln£. As In the previous research the test population consisted of normal hearing, young adults with no training to speechread. Scores on the test were found to be Influenced by the rowel to consonant ratio. The greater the number of vowel* the greater the speeohreadlng success. SOoordon Taaffe, A Film Tefst of Llp Reading , ed. Edgar Lowell, John Tracy Clinic Research Papers II (Los Angeles, Callfornlat John Tracy Clinic, November, 1957), pp. 1-11. forms of equal difficulty. The modified tests were ad8llbld., p. 10. o2 Gordon Taaffe and Wilson Wong, Studies of Varlabl In Llp-Headlng Stim ulus Material , ed. Edgar Lowell, John es Angeles, California: . 21.

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^3 Regarding the question of difference In readability of O.eolaratlve and interrogative sentences the results for the specific sample used Indicated questions were the easiest to speechread. An analysis of the relationship of parts of speech to speec^ireading difficulty showed that success was greater with pronouns and verbs. Nouns, adverbs, adjectives, and prepositions wer-^ progressively more difficult in the order presented here though the difference for these parts of speech was not pronounced. Research Paper IV concerned a study of the basic unit of language, the phoneme, and the relative differences in yislbility among phonemic units. 83 Results of this study indicated that certain sets of English consonants could be grouped as homophenous clusters and that any differentiation by spsechreading could only be effected through the aid of sound, spelling, or clues of grammar. Research Paper V described a study of Facial Cues of context in Lip Reading. The variables under consideration were "faci-l exposure, facial expression, and lip mobility. "8^ 33Mary ^. Woodward, Lingitastic Nethodology in Lip. Beading, ed. Edgar Lowell, John Tracy Clinic Research Papers IV (Los Angeles, C?.liforniaJ John Tracy Clinic, December. 1957), p. 32. • S^Louls Stone, facial Cues of Context in Lip Heading , ed. Edgar Lowell, John Tracy Clinic Research Papers V (Los Angeles, California! John Tracy Clinic, December, 1957), p. 11.

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k9 A total of sixteen films was produced with a professional aator speaking ten questions and ten declarative sentences* The experimental group consisted of 2$|$ normal hearing female and male college undergraduates. An analysis of the data obtained In this study showed that normal lip mobility facilitated understanding In contrast to a poorer performance when "tight lips* were shown. Contrary to anticipated results It was found that a "grim" countenance yielded higher speechreadlng scores than . p. 7, S^Sdgar L. Lovrell , Patterns of Behavior In Children With Aud itory Disorders . John Tracy Clinic Research Papers VI (Los Angeles, California: John fracy Clinic, January. 1958), pp.

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0 speechre^idlng performance, personality, and aptitude. ^7 "Pirsonallty dimensions found to be Important lit lip reading were General Activity and l?ersonal Helutlons and Emotional Tnstffbllity .'QQ Multiple correlations Indicated that " Reaaonlnp; . Ideational Fluency , Spontaneous Flexibility and Assooi-^.tional Fluenoy '*Q9 were special abilities of Importance to spo'vchreadlng* Research Paper VIII ooncepned four pilot studies related to 8peechreadlng»90 The first experiment sought to evaluate Interpersonal speaker-receiver Influence upon the understandablllty of stimulus material. It was found that the highest scores were obtained for the "raost-pref erred" speaker. Speechreading was apparently Inhibited when the speaker was the "least-preferred." • The second experiment showed that "role playing" had no Influence upon speechreadlng scores when the leaders assumed roles unnatural to their basic personalities. In contrast, however, ", . . each communicator was slgnlf loantly 87wilson Wong and Gordon Taaffe, Relationships Between Selected Aptitude and Personality Tests and Lip Heading Ability , ed. Edgar Lowell, John Tracy Clinic Research Papers VII (Los Angelis, California: John Tracy Clinic, February, 1958). p. 8. 88rbld., p. 6. 89 lbld . 90Edgar L. Lowell, Pilot Studies In Lip Heading . John Tracy Clinic Reeearch Papers VI T I (Los Angeles, CallfomlaJ John Tracy Clinic, February, 1958), p. 26.

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51 i fcetter lip read when she played that role which was most •r^tural* to her. I.e., most similar to her own typical behavior ('moderate* for N.C*, *aggresr;lve* for S.L. , , The third section of this Research Paper tested two hypotheses I the first, ^ * that the more poBltlrely a , speaker Is perceived, the more efficiently he will be llpread» . • .,"92 the second, ** • . If a llpreader finds he ean llpre'^id a speaker efficiently, he will tend to perceive that speaker more positively after llpreadlng than he did before, ' « • • ."93 According to the results of this study the first and second hypothesis were not confirmed. The experimenters f«lt, however, that the findings were inconclusive and the subject deserved further investigation. fixe fourth section of the eighth Research Paper investigated conditions affecting the audition and visual perception of equally difficult stimulus material* The first part of the experiment entailed writing •peechreading material as projected by a test film containIng thttty sentences. The second part required the same ' • experimental group to record on paper what was heard over a tape recorder. The stimulus sentences were masked by a constant noise so that the words were almost inaudible* ^^ Ibid .. p. 11. , 92ibid., p. 13. . . : )[': • .. 93lbld., p. 15.

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It was concluded from the scores obtained on both toi3ts . • that good llpreaders and poor llpreaders are likely to be relatively poor llstener-j, while middle range llpreaders tend to be relatively good listeners. "9^ In a study reported by Costello, 36 d«»f and 3^1' hardof-hearlng children were tested to determine their relative scores on immediate memory, social intelligence, abstract reasoning, and reading level. 95 These children were further examined on a speechreading test devised by the investigator. The results showed the hard-of -hearing children to be superior in speechre9,dlng but the deaf children scored hlghett in memory as measured by the Knox Cube Test. Both group scores were equal on the tests of social Intelligence, abstract reasoning, and reading level, Costello concluded from this experiment that "... certain psychological traits such as memory, abstract reasoning, and so called social intelligence contribute to aohievement in speech reading. "96 In addition, this investigator surmised that the superiority of the hard-of-hearing over the deaf in speech9^Ibid,, p. 20. 95Mary R. Costello, "A Study of Speech Reading as a Developing Language Process in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children, Abstracts : Audlclogy Section jHh Annual Convention, American Speech and Hearing Association, November, 1958, pp. 22-23. 96 lbid .. p. 23.

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53 reading ability was attributable . to the accelerating effect of sound perception upon speech-reading growth. "97 Pusfeld approached the study of apeechreadlng proficiency in an entirely different -nanner from previous investigators — through interviews with two matched groups of twenty leaf business men. 98 The difference between these two groups rested upon their skill as speechreaders . One set consisted of ten excellent speeohreaders and the second was comprised of tan individuals, who though tralnod to speechread, were ineffectual in its use. The Investigator presented the following observations an an outgrowth of these interviews. 1. Speechreading Is a fillingIn process, a kind of educated guesswork. 2« The speechreader who has a prior knowledge of current events develops a preparatory set which aids him to llpread others. 3. The speechreader learns to anticipate what the speaker will talk about though this "hunch" may prove misleading. The speechreader tries to be adaptable to the unexpected in oral communication. 5. The speechreader does not seek to llpread every word but tries to grasp overall meaning. He seeks to understand ^ 97iMd. 98ii.ving S. Pusfeld, "Communication Factors In Lipreading as Determined by the Lipreader," American Annals of tne Deaf. CIII (March, 1958), 229-2^^2. ~

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5^ "key words" which unlock meaning. A dynamic speaker la easier to read than a phlegmatic Individual. 6. For the deaf Individual speechreadlng Is Incomplete communication as the overtones of sound are absent. 7. Some Individuals feign understanding when they fall to speechread what la said. 8. A willingness to try to speechread Is a necessary preparatory set for mastery. 9. It Is possible that speechreadlng skill la the result of special aptitudes. 10. The speechreader must have a good vocabulary. 11. There are certain limitations to speechreadlng whloh are beyond the control of the individual. 12. A person with an "outgoing* personality becomes a better llpreader. : 13. MMajt stories about speechreadlng overexag«^erate its usefulness. 14. Speechreadlng serves Its purpose to varying degree! but it can be of some benefit to all. 99 In a study of the application of television as a method of measuring speeohreadlrg progress, Larr and Hempen instructed and examined 25 students over a period of five sessions. They reported an Improvement In the mean accuracy 99 Ibid., pp. 2ifl-42

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m scores of .405 obtained at the bef^lnnlng of the study to .729 by the end of the final period. 100 Other findings Indicated that the size of the Image was an Important factor In speeohreadablllty. The class speechread the combined head, neck, and upper torso Images more successfully than either the head or lips alone. In addition the study Indicated that half-profile viewing afforded better results than did the full-face Image. To study the effect of the speed of speech upon rlsual hearing, Byers and Lleberman developed three test films from a aumber of sentences used In the A and B Porms of the Utley TMm Test. Using a screening film proj-cted at 120 words per minute the Zk best and 24 poorest speechreaders were selected from a group of 94 deaf students. These 48 students were then divided Into four groups, each group containing 6 "good* llpreaders and 6 "poor" llpreaders. Group I was shown a film at 120 words per minute representing the normal rate of speech. Group II viewed film at the rate of 80 words per minute or two-thirds the normal rate of speech. Group III was presented a film at one-half the normal speed of speech or 60 words per minute. Group IV lOOAifred Larr and Claude Hempen, "Speech Heading Through Closed Circuit Television," Abstracts : Audlology Section, 34th Annual Convention, American Speech and Hearing Association, November, 1958, p. 22. lOlvincent W. Byers and Lewis Lleberman, "Llpreadlng Performance and the Rate of the Speaker," Journ-il of Spee ch and i-Iearlng Hescaroh. II (September, 1959), 271-?6, — '

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56 viewed a film at ^0 words per minute or one-third the normal speed of speech, • ^ • This study showed that on a cortlauum from 120 words per minute down to ^0 words per minute "there was no noticeable decline In group perf ormance. "^^^ -pj^g Investigators concluded thatt The lack of evidence that slowing of rate affects the performances of either the good or the poor lip readers also seems to contradict the ext)ectatlon of certain workers In the field. 103 Previous to a study by O'Neill and Stephens^O^ no attempt had been made to validate how much of the same thing, speechreadlng ability, was measured by several films on the subject. In this exploration the films by Utley, "How Well Do You Head Lips"! Mason, Test #30 i and Morkovln, "A Family Dinner," were used to test 26 hard-of -hearing adults. Three teachers who had Instructed all members of the experimental group made nubjeotlve five-point Judgments on the speechreadlng ability of the participants. These ratings wers then compared with actual performance on the three films* It was statistically determined that a better than chance relationship existed between the tests and that the "teacher rating of llpreadlng ability on a five-point scale 102ibid., p. 275. i03 ibid . A i?^'^^''^ ^*Nelll and Mary C. Stephens, "Helatlnnshlps Among Three Filmed Llp-Readlng Tests," Journal of sge^S^ .^f Hearing Reaeflroh. n (March, 1959), 61-^5: ^

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w correlated significantly with test scores on each of the three film tests of lipreading ability. "105 Postov sought to develop a 16 en. color motion picture test of speechreading prof iciency.l06 stimulus materia al consisting of ^9 declarative and 50 interrogative sentences was presented by a male and female speaker whose upper torso images were filmed before a plain backdrop. Facial expressions ana body movements were kept to a minimum. The Postov and Deshon Film Tests were then administered to thirty-six hard-of-hearing patients attending the Army's Speech and Hearing Rehabilitation Center, Walter Heed Hospital. Employing a scalogram analysis the number of sentences to be used in a modified test were reduced to 16. These were further divided into a test-retest form of eight sentences each. Postov recommended that these two substantially modified test-retest forms be re-evaluated with the Deshon test Son various populations, such as all-male, allfemale, normal hearing, deaf, civilian, and different age" levels. "lO? A study by Simmons had a twofold purpose* to measure speechreading ability througn faceto-f ace interviews, and 105rbid., p. 65. 106Mary Jane Postov, "Selection of Items as a Basis for a Test of Speechreading Ability for Adults" (unpublished Master's thesis, The Graduate School, Univerlsty of Maryland, 1959), pp. l-6^^. ^ / 107 lbid .. p. 46, ^

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53 to determine those factors . , in the individual that may be related to the ease or difficulty with which he reads lips. "108 . . Twenty-four hard-of-hearing subjects, uninstructed in speechreading, were examined by the Mason amd Utley spsechreadinp' film tests. The subjects were also interviewed by a panel of five Judges who conversed with the participants by using belowthreshold speech. Through this method panel Judgments of speechreading ability were obtained on each of the participants. Additional teste were administered to measure ". . , i-itelligence, reading, concept formation, synthetic ability, and certain perceptual abilities in vision and auditory rhythm. "lO^ , • . . , Cross test analyses of acores obtained on the Utley and Mason Tests and the face-to-face interviews showed sig. nif leant correlations though the correlations were not high. Another finding showed no significant correlation existed between speachreading ability and I.5i^ l^ie ability to extract sentence meaning and key wordi appears to be related to the ability that is tested by the filmed tests, but none of the factors in reading appears to be significantly correlated with lipreadlng ability that is measured by the interview rating. 110 ' lOS^uiry Ann Simmons, "Factors Related to Llpreadlng. • Journal of Speech and Hearing Hesenroh . n (December, 19595, ' I09lbid./p. 3if5. ^lO lbld .. pp. 348-^9*

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59 The test of concept formation or abstracting ability did not correlate significantly with apeechreadlng skill. Synthetic ability as neasured b/ t.ie fragmentary Sentences Test correlated significantly with the two filmed tests but not with scores on the face-to-face interview, One test, that of Visual Memory Span , . was significantly correlated with all raaasures of lipreadlng and at least the aspect of -/Isual perception appears to be an important factor. The Seashore Rhythm Test correlated significantly with scores on the two filmed tests though not with the scores on ths personal interviews. Iiitson,112 Simmons, Story, and others have alluded to the importance of "synthetic ability" to skill in •peeohreading, Tatoul and Davidson sought to . • • detarmine whether relatively good lipreaders, as measured by scores on a lipreadlng film test, were significantly better than poor lipreaders with respect to synthetic ability as measured by scores on a letter prediction test. 115 . , Normal hearing college students were screened for the " ^^^Ibid. , pp. 3^9-50. llZKltson, Volta Review . XVII, l^7k, „ ,^^^SimmonSt Journal of Speech and Hearing liesearc h. IX, 3^0. ^ X. .J^^Arthur J. Story, Speech-Reading and Speech for th e Deaf (Stoke-on-Trent I Hill and Ainsworth Ltd., 1915), 3^. — 115Corinne M. Tatoul and 0. Don Davidson, "Lloreading and Letter Prediction," Journal of Speech and Hear ing Research, IV (June, 1961), 179. ^

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60 Initial part of this experiment using the John Tracy Cllnlo Flloi Test of Lip Reading . Rased upon the scores on this test, 25 of the best and 25 of the poorest speechreaders were used in the second phase of this study. These subjects were then examined using a letter prediction test based upon key words from 20 sentences employed in the film test. The researchers concluded from an analysis of test data that there vjas • • * no evidence of a difference between good and poor llpreaders with respect to letter prediction ability or of any important relationship between llpreading ability and letter prediction ability. 116 To determine the relative difficulty of speech materials commonly available to speech and hearing clinics, Brannon studied the Utley Llpreading Sentence Test, Form A, 50 Harvard PB Words, and ten words selectee" from the Harvard Spondee llsts.H'' A total of 65 nonmal hearing high school and college students participated in this study. Test analysis showed that both the hli^ school and college groups were nearly equal in performance. For words In sentence formation the response was nearly 50 percent correct. In contrast words In Isolation were Identified with only 30-35 percent accuracy. In addition to this a s study of the material used showed that words with greater consonantal viftibllity were the easiest to identify, and ll6 ibid .. p. 181. 117John B. Brannon, Jr., "Speechreadin/? of Various ^eech Materials , "Journal o f Speech and Heading Disorders . XXVI (November, I961), 345-53, ^ ^ — ^^^^*

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61 that Introduction of one or two additional consonants of high visibility did not simplify identification. Further, it was found there was no difference in speechreadlng ability between the 43 females and 22 males who participated* Enigmatical research findings In view of recent research endeavors one might expect to find a wealth of valuable information concerning the speechreadlng process. The faces, however, run contrary to expectations* While lip reading is a major avenue of communication for people with serious auditory handicaps, the lip reading process is not well understood. The little colentiflc research completed to date has been characterized by disagreement and inconsistent findings. Nor has it been demonstrated that any one of the teaching method! adopted by different educational organizations is superior to the others. 118 Discussing studies previous to her own, Simmons stated in 1959 thot "a survey of the literature yields a varied list of factors that might be related to llpreadlng but there is lack of agreement among investigators as to the degree of relationship, "119 Two years following Simmon's research Tatoul and I^vidson further attested to the inconclusive results of aiany of the investigations! For many years attempts have been made to isolate variables related to lip-reading ability, but to date these variables remain relatively obscure, and the llSTaaffe, A Film Test . . ii, i, okt^^^^'"''"®"^* Jo^-t^^^al of Speech and Hearing Sesearch.

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62 question as to wh'Stt significant ^^blllties are possessed by good lip-readers Is still far from being answered. 120 Simmons pointed out that the laok of correlation be^ tween studies by rarlous researchers inay be duo in part to the variability of the test populations examined* normal hearing, hard-of -hearing, and the deaf. As varied, too, as the subjects tested were the methods employed to measure speechreading proficiency. Evaluations were based upon subjective measurements through teacher Judgments, objective scores obtained from motion pictures of unproven standardization, or a combination of these two methods. Exploration of the psychological factors Involved yielded only negative correlations. 121 "Up to this time,* Keaster reported, "most of the Investigative work that has been dor? in the field of llpreadlng has pointed toward the standardization of test batteries that would test llp-readlng ability, , . . ,•122 Instruction and testing through motion pictures Nltchle was one of the first to utilize motion plc120Tatoul and I^vldson, Journal of Speech an d Hearlne Disorders . 17, I78, — ^ a TT l^^^-^^^or'S^ Journal of Speech and Hearing Research . 122 Jacqueline Keaster, "An Inquiry Into Current Concepts of Visual Speech Reception (Llp-Readlng) , » Laryngoscope, LXV (January, 1955), 83.

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63 tures in the study of speechreading. 123 The purpose of this inquiry was not to measure speechreading ability but to study speech movement and the influence of movement uTJon s sounds in Juxtaposition. The filmed image in this study comprised t^o-thirds of a full-faoe view of a male speaker reciting three proverbs. The individual frames were then printed in sequential order for movement analysis. The upshot of this experiment with movlng-plctures as applied to l'p--eadlng is ciiefly to enforce principles of teaching which we already know; but this practical demonstration of them Is full of encouragement and value. To epitomize them: We should train the eyes to De as quick and as accurate as possible; we should train the mind to grasp the thought, to construct the whole from the parts, and we should develop all forms of ererelse along natural lines, 124 In the following issue of this same publication, Bruhn also recognized the possibility of this medium being used for instructional purposes. Thanks to another great 20th Century invention, the hard-o^^rearlng adult is again brought one step closer in l^T^ "^'^ fellow-men and Is^egainlng his oUce ^^^Jlt ^-^^rViT :;orld. The talking motion pictures*, the Jo su^h^f Jf^^^f cinematograph, glvlni. as'they tLt ^ areatly increased prominence to the lip-movements in speech over the older silent film promise great tnlngs for hl-a in the future. 125 P^^mxsm great Bruhn concluded: ""^^^^^ pictures have not been made for the hardof-hearlng adults and consequently are not p. ^4 123Ei„ard B. Nitchle, "Moving Pictures Anplied to Lin Beading,Vclta Revi^.w . xv (June, 1913), 117-25 . ^ 124ibid., p. 125. fen T^r}l^^^^^^^n^:r "Talking Motion Pictures as an Aid to Lip 3eaders,Volta Review. XV (July, 1913),

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6k wholly adapted to their needs; but their adaptability It unquestionable. The basis of lip-reading is movement. Why not use moving pictures as one more road toward acquiring prof iclency?126 Wright was one of the first instructors to recognize the possible application of motion pictures as a method of testing speechreading competence. In a constructive suggestion to Conklin who had attempted to develop a universally applicable test, »^right recommended . . . that Dr. Conklin have a '•close-up" film made of himself, giving these, or a series of revised tesis, and that this film oe available for naking the Same test in any part of the country. This would be the (W)rlght method of getting comparable statistics. The test could be made simultaneously in all schools, after the fashion , of tAs exaainations of the College Entrance ExaminatnnBoard, and could be repeated at stated intervals of a year or more. 12/ Twenty-four years later Plntner referred to the dearth of objective measurements and stated "it would seem as if a standardized series of moving pictur-^s of various faces speaking staadardized sentences or paragraphs might form a possible scale for lip-reading ability, "128 In the statement of purpose of her study. Held noted %hat standardization of speechreading tests would provide •a means of obtaining objective, dependable information about the ability of individuals and of groups. "129 126 ibid .. p. 180. 127john Dutton Wright, "Pamiliarlty with Lan«maffe the Prime Factor." Volta Review ! XIX (May, 1917), 223II2II! Th« v.lll^'^^''^^ ^^J''*''' Elsenson, and Mildred Stanton, Litil.^ t ''^ Phvalcallv H^ndAa.r .r.^ (New York: ApI pleton-^^en tury-Crofts, Inc., 194l), p. M, ^ 129aeid, Journal o f Speech Disorders . XII, 78.

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65 A standardized test of spftsohraadln?^ ability would furnish "cues for predicting llpreading success and making •Atlsfactory school placement, and would undoubtedly contribute to more adequate training programs. "130 Refinement of motion picture tests might afford information on Individual speech sounds requiring te'^chlng emphasis. If available In two or three re-test forma these films could be used to determine progress after given Intervals of Instruction. Perhaps, the greatest contribution of such tests, however, would be their utility In research to determine "the personal, psychological and physiological factors that tend to produce good llpreaders , '•131 In discussing methods of testing speech reading, the Helders found that "motion picture tests , , , are highly reliable. "132 Mason statedi 1. The visual-hearing or cinematographic technique of administering a test of visual-speech comprehension provides reasonably objective measurement. It controls the variability of visible speech movement by presenting spoken discourse on a silent screen: It also controls such variables as distance from the sound source and rate of speech. 133 DlCarlo and Kataja felt; DUordl^f XVI^'^aS! Journal of Speech and Ha.^rinpr I31lra Hlrsh, "Audlology and the Basic Sciences," Acta OtolaryngQlogica. XL (1951-1952), 48. — ^ 151 Helder, Psychological Monograp hs. LII, , yl33Mason, Journal of Speech Disorders . VTII, 277.

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66 The claimed advantages of motion pictures for measuring achievement in lipreadlng is largely one of operational efficiency. First, It approaches a certain objectivity by providing control of the constancy of speech movements, the risibility of speech presentation and the rate of speaking. Second, since no hearing is involved, the llpreader is more free to concentrate attention on the visual speech patterns. 13^ rhey warned, however, there are some controversial elements imposed by the use of motion pictures. How closely this medium approaches a live presentation is unknown. At best "the approximation may be very close, though probably never as good as a well-constructed natural situation. •135 Cavender concurred with DiCarlo that the "unnatural" test situation created by motion pictures could result in unreliable scores. She believed that the enlarged, flat projected image, the special lighting effects used in the pooductlon and those required for viewing, as well as the bulky projection and viewing equipment negated the claimed advantages of a test of this nature. ^36 Taaffe believed that one of the distinct advantages of motion picture tests over live presentations rested with the . • well controlled experimental conditions" which "could be ensured from test administration to test admlnlstratlon."137 Through the years, numerous attempts have been made to 13^Li Carlo and Kataja, Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XVI, 227, ~ 135 ibid . 136cavender, pp. 21-24. 137Taaffe, A Film Test . . n, i.

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67 construct motion picture tests that will evaluate Individual speeohreadlng ability. Many of these tests have been subjected to objective analysis either by the authors themselves or other investigators in the field. Though several films show a significant degree of correlation with one anotherl38 to date no one film has been universally accepted as a highly reliable test of visual hearing. In discussing the limitations of a motion picture test which she constructed, Held reported: It must also be considered that in this study only one factor in the total lip reading situation, namely, articulation, was Isolated and tested. It is very probable that movements of the lips and face, while being the most Important single factor of the total stimulus in lip reading, assume this importance only when all other factors are present. This may explain in part the fact that teachers* ratings did not correlate more highly with scores on the test, assuming of course that the teacher who trains the child and is most familiar with his iblllty is a valid Judge. The point is that what the teacher probably rates Iff the child's ability to take \n all the stimuli — articulation, gestures, bodily tensions and movements, and the general situation and to relate each part to the whole. 139 Several years later Keaster conducted a similar study with motion pictures. Admitting the limitations of the experiment, the author stated: At best such material afi was shown only roughly simulates a live conversational situation. A film of this sort is more difficult because of its lack of situational cues, occasional sound, gesture and so forth, but it gives you some idea of what confronts the hard-of-hearResearch^^I 1*^65 StePli«ns, Journal of Speech and He^rin f r • 139aeid, Journal of Speech Disorders . XII, 81,

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68 Ing person when he attempts to understand speech by attentively watching the speaker, l'*'© < A training film produced by the Army for use In aural rehabilitation centers places heavy emphasis on the importance of non-language stimuli in comraunloatlon. The pamphlet which accompanied this film noted: This motion picture demonstrates how persons with a hearing loss may improve their powers of observation and facilitate their understandine: of what other individuals are saying. The opening sequences of this film show how careful observation and interxDretatlon of various elements in a situation such as place, actions, gestures, facial expressions, objects, time, and the occasion, will help the listener understand what others are saying, l'*-! Literature pertaining to the teaching of speech reading constantly alluded to the Importance of situational cues to understanding thought contents, Alexander, 1^2 Berry, 1^1 Dahl,!^^ Kelsch,1^5 Pauls, 1^6 Saltzman,1^7 and others have l^OKeaster, Laryngoscope . LX7, 82, e ^^^^Partment of the Army Instructor's Film Reference! Speech Reading;. PR TP 8-I706 (May, 1953), p. 1. o * ^'*tt}}J^ Alexander, "As the Amateur Views It.Volta Review. XLV (February, 19^3), 98. "^"^^ D « /5^3Mlldred Berry and Jon Eisenson, SpeechDls orders: Loralne Anson Dahl. Public S chool Audiom etry . Principles and Methods ( DanvillTTTlTi nols: fhe Inters tate Printers and Hiblishers, 19^9), p. 59, nv, Frazler Kelsch, ••Give the Lipre^der a Reprint ^-^265 from November, I952 (Washington 5, D.C.i American Hearing Society), p. 3. r,oc« ^T^^^' "Speech Reading.Hearing and De^f . §ggf:-| ^ylf T^ym^n, ed. Hallowel l Davis (New York » Murray Hill aooks Inc., 19^7), pp. 26O-6I. •l^7Maurlce Saltzman, "Factors in Learning Speechread-

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69 directed the attention of the reader to the slgnlficanca of non^sTerbal stimulation. Dlsousslnc the subjective evaluations of students tested by the Utley Film, Dl Carlo and Kataja noted that "the moat perslEtent criticism was registered against the lack of situational clues. This probably contributes a major portl*n of the difficulty encountered In the test.*1^8 In reference to the six situational skits employed by Utley, the above Investigators asserted that several of the Story Tests were • • . Inadequate for the purpose Intended. Even the ^ very best llpreaders did not succeed In understanding the conversation which developed in the scenes. The higher scores In Stories 1 and 5 iaay be attributed to the help which contextual cues gave In Interpreting the conversation. I'+P Brannon and Kodman concluded from their research that "skill In llpreadlng thus resides In the degree of utilization of contextual, situational, and other cues which are external to the lip movements themselves. "150 The first part of this chapter considers six systems of speechreadlng from the Muller-Walle method Introduced by ^j;^-^* Archives of Oto laryngology . LXV (JanuaryJune, VMT ol'f^^^^^^^ Kataja, Journal of Speech Disorders . Wlbid., p. 239. ^^^y LXX^^118°^ Kodman, A.M. A. Archives of Otolarvngo-

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70 Bruhn In 1902, through the Audlo-Vlsual-Klnesthetlo approach by Morkovln In 1938. . . , . . . , The tao earliest systems were basically different. ^ * Bruhn stressed syllable analysis, memorization, and drills while Nitchle advocated a Oestalt approaoh, with meaning derived from the synthesis of all visual cues. Klnzle later extracted from both of the above systems those principles which she believed contributed most to speeohreadlng skill. She coupled syllable recognition with mind training and developed a graded system of instruction, ' In 1927 the Jena Method, which originated in Germany, gained American adherents. Though much in this system paralleled that of previous methodology it stressed one new and significantly different concept— the importance of tactile sensations as applied to "feeling" speech in motion. In 1930 Mason was the first to utilize motion pictures extensively as a means of teaching speeohreadlng. Later Morkovln developed a series of motion pictures using life situations. These situation films emphasized the Importance of integrating all sense modalities— the auditory, the visual, and the kinesthetic. Over the p&st twenty-four years no substantially different methods of instruction have been proposed. Some few teachers continue to teach narrowly, utilizing only the one method in which they received Instruction. However, most Instructors today use an eclectic approach selecting what

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71 they consider the most practical techniques of the six basic systems. The becond part of this chapter discusses 20th Century speechreading research with the emphasis upon investigations conducted through the 1950 •s. Research in this field must concern the speechreader . the speaker , the stimulus material , and the environment in which the sensory stimulus originates and is perceived. The application of motion pictures to research and the development of specialized psychometrics has encouraged attempts to standardize measurements of performance. Normal hsaring, hard-of-hearlng, and deaf subjects of varied ages and educational backgrounds have been studied. The princi---^ pii concentration has been on the yeong deaf and the normal hearing high school and college student. The greatest emphasis in research has sought to determine the special abilities that are inherent to the speech^ reader. Intellectual factors such as mental age, memory, intelligence, abstract reasoning, concept formation, school achievement, language and reading ability, have been measured and compared. Personality factors such as social intelligence, personal relations, general activity, and emotional stability have been tested. Studies have also been made of other suspected variables— chronological age, age at onset of deafness, and the amount of training the subjects have received. Most of these studies have yielded either Questionable results or negative correlations.

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72 Relatively few Invastlf^atlons have been made Into the speaker's role In si^eeohreadlng which would suggest thqt further re3«aro:i In this area Is needed. Greater emphasis here may disclose a number of Important factors which will facilitate % better understanding of this means of communication. One of the most frequently investigated phases of the speeohreadlng process concerns the atlmulus material itself. Here are found fewer conflicting results and much Information that may be utilized profitably In the development of l«8fon plans and possible testing material. Snvlronment . like the speaker's role, has received very little attention. The few studies that have been made have contributed to a better understanding of techniques for Improving motion picture tests. In the concluding section of this chapter, the author discusses the early Interest In motion pictures as a method of presenting practice material and the eventual attempts to develop films as a means of evaluating speeohreadlng performance i?

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CHAPTER III THE CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OP TWELVE CONTEXTUAL, NONCONTEXTUAL SPEECHHEAOINO FILMS Por several years the author has been Interested professionally In the rehabilitation of hearing Impaired Individuals. In many Instances through Instruction these Individuals have gained a marked, though not objectively measurable, proficiency in apeechreadlng ability. Personal experience with the use of so-c
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7^ are Im portant to the speechreader and facilitate the under» standing of what he perceives during conversation , "Context" used In the sense intended here was described by Webster as "2. the whole situation, background, or environment relevant to some happening or personality. "1 To test the hypothesis two series of films were produced for use with adult subjects. Film series "C" (contextual) consisted of six situational stories filmed In settings believed to be familiar to the average adult. All minimal cues felt to be germane to the plot, such as facial expressions, gestures, and properties were Included in this production. Film series "NC" (non-contextual) was Identical with f41a series "C" in two respects i the dialogue was the ane and there were six individual film?. The «l«ference, however, was that each film in the "NC" series was, In so far as was possible, devoid of situational cues. The purpose of the remainder of this chapter will be to describe the construction, casting, filming, test population, physical setting and equipment, test administration, and scoring of the film tests. Test construction It was determined that short scripts would be written for setting? believed to be familiar to the average adult. A number of possible locations were examined and the feasllWebster'3 New World Dict ionary of the Amerio.gn Lg r^. EiMl* College liaitlon (Cleveland, Ohio: The World PublishIng Co., 1957), p. 319.

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75 blllty of filming the scripts In their natural environment was considered. It was then determined that six scripts could be filmed j*lthln the Installation where the research was b*lng conducted— the Veterans Administration Hospital, • New Orleans, Louisiana. The locations selected were the library, restaurant, barber shop, store. Post Office, and travel agency. The first five of these settings required no modification of actual areas within the hospital. The travel agency story, however, was to be filmed In the Credit Union Office. This required the elimination of certain Identifying posters and the Installation of a ship and airplane model on the counter. Appropriate travel brochures and posters were also added. As modified above, the travel a^sncy setting appeared to be authentic. Careful consideration had to be given the wording of each script. It was felt that not only should the vocabulary consist of terms appropriate to the situation, but should contain words familiar to the average adult and should be phrased In the Idiom of our language. In addition to the above, consideration was given to the effect of sentence length upon speechreadablllty. In discussing his research Taaffe notedt Length of sentences varied, adding difficulty In terms of number of words for longer sentences, while at the same time offering the lip reader more cues of context.

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1 76 Shorter sentences minimized the task of the lip reader, but also minimized cues of context .2 Both Morrls3 and Poster^ made similar observations In their studies. "Context" used In the sense discussed by Taaffe referred to units of language and. was defined by Webster In the following manners 1, the parts of a sentence, paragraph, discourse, etc. that occur Just before and after a specified word or passage, and determine Its exact meaning* as, It Is unfair to quote this remark out of Its context . 5 Though an Investigation of "context" used In the language sense was outside the scope of this research. It was felt that In the construction of the film dialogue some consideration should be given to sentence length* Excessively long, compound sentences would probably be more of a test of memory span than of speechreadlng ability. For this reason the majority of sentences were constructed of approximately six or seven words, though In several Instances fourteen, fifteen, and twenty words were used. Another factor that was considered was whether there 2oordon Taaffe, A Film Test of Lip Heading , ed. Edffar Lowell, John Tracy Clinic Research Papers II (Los Angeles, California: John Tracy Clinic, November, 1957), p. 1. 3Dorothy M, Morris, "A Study of Some of the Factors Involved In Llp-Seadlng" (Unpublished Master's thesis. Smith College, 19^4), p. 18. *Mary Jane Postov, "Selection of Items as a Basis for ft Test of Speechreadlng Ability for Adults" (unpublished Master's thesis. The Graduate School, University of Maryland, 1959 / , p. 26. } ^ Webster's New World Dictionary . 319, .J

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77 should be an equal number of declarative and Interrogative sentences* Research reported In this area is meager and inconclusive. Taaffe and Wong reported "... that declarative sentences were, on the average, more difficult to lip read than the questlors."^ Cavender, hovrever, found "... no significant difference between the question and non-question type of sentences ... ."7 As research on this subject Is equivocal no attempt was madd to prescribe In advance the number of sentences there should be of each type. It was believed. Instead, that the thoughts expressed In each of the stories would dictate the proper ratio. An analysis of the sentences In the scripts showed there were 8^ non-questions and 36 Interrogatlves (see Table 1, page 79), or approximately two and onethird declarative sentences to each Interrogative sentence. The original scripts written by this Investl^tor contained a to'al oT 791 words. The scripts were then submitted for criticism and suggestion to two professional staff members of the Audlology and Speech Pathology Clinic in the Veterans Administration Hospital. Their review resulted In Improved dialogues and in a reduction of the total vocabulary to 786 words. r. n Taaffe and U'llson Wong, Studies of Variables in Llp-Readlnp: 3cirnulu s Material , ed. Sdgar Lowell, John Tracy — ainlc assGarcb Papers III (Los Angeles, California i John Tracy Clinic, December, 1957), p. 5. 7Betty Jane Cavender, "The Construction and Investigation of a rest of Lip Reading Ability and a Study of Factors Assumed to Affect the Results" (unpublished Master's thesis. The Graduate School, Indiana University, 19^9) p io8

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78 A word count showed that 323 different words were employed. One hundred and nineteen of these words are contained In the 220 word Dolch Basic Sight Vocabulary list. "These words, Dolch found, " make up 50 to 75 percent of all school reading matter . They are recognized Instantly by good second grade readers and by average third grade readers. "8 Some of the less frequently us3d words which were not Included in the Dolch list were beast, breakable, Great Smokies, humidity, Insurance, medium, mountains. Heckles, rugged, and science fiction. It was felt by the author and the two staff members who reviewed the scripts that all of the words were within the vocabulary range of th« average adult. The dialogue of the revised scripts may be fourd In the Appendix. (See Appendix* Film Scripts, Noncontextual and Contextual. ) Table number 1, below, gives the film titles, symbols, number of words, number of sentences, and types of sentences employed in each of the six different scripts. Casting " V All of the actors in the contextual and the non-contextual films were employees in the Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans. Selection for the different roles was made primarily on the basis of willingness to participate and then upon availability. Some few individuals contacted 8e tf. Dolch, The Basic Sight Vocabulary Cards (Champaign, Illinois: The Garrard Press, 1952), p. 1.

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79 TABLE 1,— Pll>n titles, symbols, and contents Film Title j Library Restaurant Barber Shop store Post Office Travel i Asrency Total Symbols designating noncontextual films A B C D E P Symbols designating contextual films LI RES BAB STO PC TA Total words 133 Ilk 115 153 118 153 786 Total sentences 19 20 18 27 17 19 120 Average number of words per sentence 7.00 5.70 6.38 5.66 6.9^ 8.05 6.62 Declarative sentences 1^ 11 12 20 14 13 84 Interrogative sentences 5 9 6 7 3 6 36 were not interested in the pro.1ect. A number of those who were interested could not be spared from their employment. The final selection from those who were willing and availabla was made upon the basis of those having little or no regional accent and how well they appeared to fit the part. Several people were eliminated either because of their sub-standard

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80 speech patterns associated with Acadian French accents, referred to as "Cajun speech,"* or because of regional accent due to severe vowel distortion and some consonant omissions, frequently described as a "Southern drawl." Those with General American speech were ^Iven preference though five Individuals with some degree of Southern accent were cast. Tliree of the actors had received speech training in college and one of them had pe^^forraed in several amateur theatrical productions. ^11 three were engaged professionally in the field of speech and hearing rehabilitation. None of the remaining ten participants had speech training or acting experience prior to this projaet. The speaking roles for the six scripts were portrayed by five women and eight men. In addition there were four non-speaking parts. Pllmlng ' All phases of this portion of the study were conducted by the Medical Illustration Service of the Veterans Administration Hospital. The chief of the Service and his assistant flurnlshed the technical Information and equipment and made the "takes* on the preliminary still shots and the final motion pictures. Helder and Helder notf)d that distance , light , and position of the speaker In relation to the llpreader Influenced speechreadablllty.9 it was realized that careful consldera9Prltz Helder and Grace M. Helder, "An Experimental LlP^No^^l^( 1940)^^1^6*^*^^'^^*'' Monographs .

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81 tlon should be given to these three factors which are Fr*esent In any speeohreadlng situation. Drawing upon the Information gained from the research of others It was felt that certain generalizations could be made concerning the planned films. Factors concerning filming A. Distance ' l« General orientation shots should be used In the contextual film series to enable the J TiftNer to "size up** the situation before the action started. 2. Close ups should be employed In the contextual series to enphaslze Information Important to the thread of the conversation (I.e., objects, facial expressions and gestures germane to the subject matter and act Ion }• 3« During conversation head, neck, and upper fcorso Images should be photographed and not mouth, or chin and mouth, alone* B. Position of speaker ^''-4y.-\'r S^^c® Most conversation Is conducted upon a face to face basis most shots should be made from this position though some should be filmed In half profile. , '. . , ; C. Lighting 1. Over or under exposure should be guarded against. ' ' ' 2. Features of the actors should be clearly visible during conversation.

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32 Preliminary to the actual filming of the context'^al . series a study was made of each of the six locations within the hospital to determine the optimal lighting, distance, and shooting angles to be used with each line of dialogue. A 3*5 (1951 Model ) Hollelflex still camera was used to photograph "stand-ins" for this phase of the research. The individual photographs were then mounted in sequence, studied, and utilized as a "story board" shooting guide during the actual filming. Initially it was believed the dual test series could be filmed in color. Several previous investigators had employed color film in their productions. In 1957 Taaffe noted thatt Color film presentation of lip reading stimulus materials, . • • may make lipreading easier than it is for black and white film presentations ... .10 Reld felt that "colored film made the situation as natural as possible"!! for the film test which she devised. In his criticism of the Utley test, however, Olorlg stated that "the color s3Ctlon with its brilliant lighting was very distracting. "12 Postov believed that one of the criteria for a lOpaaffe, A Film Test . . . . II, 10. llGladya Held, "A Prellnlnary Investigation in the Testinr; of Lip Heading Ac-Jl-jveraent," Journal of Speech Dis orders . XII (March, 19^7), 79. 12 Aram Giorig, "A Report on Speech Reading's Place in Rehabilit'^.tlon of the Deaf" (unoubllshed, Walter Heed Amy Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1952), p. 3.

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83 reliable film test was that "It be filmed in color which will more nearly simul'ite the actual task of the speechreader.»13 To establish the feasibility of filming both the contextual and non-contextual series in color, the entire barber Shop sequence was photographed in 16 mm. Super Ansco Chrome. Lighting for this experiment with color was obtained from five 375 watt Sylvania general floodlights and one 750 wall spotlight, each of 3200 degree Kelvin. The processed color film proved a disappointment. Due to insufficient lighting, the projected image was found to be excessively grainy. It was the consensus of those who viewed the film that the mottled, unnatural appearance would be distracting to those baking the test. To eliminate this granular texture it would be necessary to use an estimated 10,500 watts, or 8,250 watts in excess of that employed in the trial color production. Since this would Impose too great a drain on the hospital's electrical system, plans for films In natural color were { bsmdoned. Sixteen millimeter blacsk and white Panchromatic Trl-X Reversal film was used In the final series. The number of 375 watt lights varied with each setting. As few as two general floodlights and one "spot* were used In the Post Office film. The Illumination from five general lights plus a "spot" was required for the Barber Shop sequence. 13Postoy, 5.

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84 An Eastman Kodak Clne-3peclal, 16 mm. camera with a Parr Adaption four lens turret was used to film both test series. The 15 mm. wide an.^le lens was eaployed In contextual film orienting shots that required great depth of field. The 25 ram. lens was used for approximately 75 percent of the contextual production. This permitted the photof^raphlng of combined upper torso, neck, and head Images within the very limited confines of each set. Por the close-up of the grilled window cov->r In the contextual Post Office film, the 50 mm. lens was employed. The 102 mm. lens mounted on the same turret was not used In the photography of either series. All sequences were filmed at "sound speed" or twenty-four ^ franes per second to produce smoother action. Prior to the shooting of each sequence the cast was Informed of the details of the story and was provided an opportunity to read the script. Each line of dialogue was the« practiced hy th(% rector as many times as he and the director felt necessary for It to sound and appear as speech appropriate to the situation and the Idea expressed. Though none of the films were to have sound-tracks, each actor spoke his lines using normal voice since It was felt this would result in more natural articulation and phrasing, fhe actual filming of each line of dlalogu
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85 at least twice. Many lines were repeated five or six times. The average number of retakes was four. The completed film w^s processed by a local firm that specializes in the preparation of films for television studios. Preparatory to splicing the nevfly processed film the rough production was projected in the studio of the Medical Illustration Division where five judges determined the best presentation of edch line of dialogue. A record was kept of the group's decision. Later the preferred sections were removed from the original reel on a Craig editing mac'iine and spliced in sequence to form the master copy. The master copy was not used for test purposes in the experiment but was only to produce reprints. Film titles were also spliced in at this time. The contextual films employed still-shots of small, full-title cards consolcuoualy placed with properties representative of the location. The title "Library** was placed against several shelves of books. The "Restaurant* title was placed by a setting of china and sllvervrare with a menu in the background. The Barber Shop film was introduced by the title card placed near electric clippers, scissors, and a comb. The Store utilized a still shot of merch'tsdise, the Post Office used several rows of built-in mail boxes with combinations, and the Travel Agency showed a collection of travel brochures depicting places to visit and modes of transportation*

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86 The procedures employed in the production of the noncontextual films differed in several ways from those of the contextual series. These six films were photographed in the studio of the Medical Illustration Service and not on "location," The 50 mm. lens was used exclusively in this production. Introductory.' orienting shots, props, and other situational cues were not utilized. The actors spoke their linei before a plain white backdrop. Head movements, changes in facial expression, and the use of gestures were discouraged. Those individuals who had acted in the contextual series performed in the corresponding role of the non-contextual films. As in the contextual series a minimum of two shots was taken of each line of dialogue. False starts, forgetting portions of the dialo^jue, or extreme stiffness of presentation occasionally necessitated more than two retakes. Fewer repetitions were needed for this series, however, as no acting was r^rtnired and the participants were more familiar with the scripts having previously completed the contextual films. The editing, splicing, and reproduction of master copies followed the same procedure used with the contextual series, . ' ^. .,,..,.„.: .<,..,... An estimated 1800 feet of film was used in the original contextual film production. Through adltlng this was reduced to approximately 900 feet. The original non-contextual production of 1200 feet edited to approximately 800 feet*

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87 Test population Throe adult groups totaling ninety United States Serv ice Veterans from either World War II and/or the Korean Con fllct were tested by the full series of contextual! non«oon textual motion pictures. The three groups, referred to in this study as Groups I, II, and III, were each composed of thirty Indlriduals. Groups I and II contained the hearing impaired experimental subjects whose hearing loss In the better ear was thirty decibels or greater as determined by both pure tone and speech audiometry. One factor, that of speechreadlng instruction, differ entlated between the two experimental groups. Group I had heariiig loss but no member had previously received instruetlcn in speechreadlng. Group II aleo !iad a bilateral hearing impairment but unlike the former group these subjects had received speechreadlng instruction. The thirty candidates used in the hearing Impaired, ' unins true ted group. Group I, were screened from approximately twice that number of veterans who were called to the Audiology and Speech Pathology Clinic of the New Orleans Veterans Hospital to attend a forty hour Aural Rehabilitation class. Prospective candidates in this group as well as Group II were examined audioraetrlcally in one of the two Audiology testing rooms of the hospital. The testing instruments employed in the hearing evaluations were two Beltone "15A" clinical, puretone speech audiometers and a GrasonStadler speech audiometer.

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88 ^ The thirty reterans In Group II were those with known hearing losses whose audlometrlc evaluations were on file In the Speech and Hearing Clinic. These men had previously "been taught to speechread either at one of the five Armed Forces Hearing Rehabilitation Centers or through the hearing rehabilitation program of the Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana. The five Armed Forces Hearing Heha« bllltatlon Centers were Walter Reed Speech and Hearing Center, Forest Olen, Maryland; Borden General Hospital, Chlckasha, Oklahoma; Deshon General Hospital, Butler, Pennsylvania; Hoff General Hospital, Santa Barbara, California; and the Philadelphia Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Locating the thirty normal hearing veterans for Group III peoved a more difficult problem than had been anticipated. It was believed Initially that veteran male hospital employees could be used for testing purposes. This, however, proved Impractical as they could not be released from their work for the six hours required to administer the tests. Several Veterans Service OrganlEatlAns were also contacted without success. Both the Psychology and Military Departments of Tulane University offered to refer students for testing but this plan had to be abandoned as It would cause the average educational level of control Group III to greatly exceed that of each of the Experimental Groups I and II. . The most feasible al ternatlte, therefore, seemed to be to obtain the cooperation of individuals who were patients within the hospital. Potential subjects for Group III were

PAGE 98

89 then selected by the staff physicians and nurses upon the following basis. Only those cases whose medical and/or surgical treat'^3nt would not be adversely affected by the six hour testing session were oonsidePBd as possible subjects for the research. Additional factors considered by the medical staff with regard to the advisability of using a specific patient as a subject were the limitations imposed by the etiology and extant of the patient's health problem, the effects that present medication might have upon his reaction time and thinlcing processes. Each patient with complete clearance on th« points described above was then Interviewed by this investigator to solicit his cooperation for the project. Some of the patients were not interested and the interview ended, ftway, however, expressed a definite interest to do something to keep themselves occupied while patients in the hospital. Those who were interested were screened audlometrically with the Beltone "ISA* clinical pure-tone speech audiometer. The criteria established for normal hearing was a response at 15 decibels to all the pure-tone frequencies of 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 cycles per second. Failure to respond at the 15 decibel "'evel to any one of the above frequencies In either ear necessitated the elimination of that person from the study. To acquire the thirty normal hearing patients in Group III, the medical records of approximately 375 patients were screened by the medical staff. Of that number, eighty-five

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of the hospitalized veterans were approved for the study. Eleven of the patients were not Interested. From the remaining 7^ potential candidates, thirty passed the norainl hearing requirements and obtained acceptable scores on the reading and vocabulary tests. These tfests are discussed later in this chapter. Minimum basic requirements were established for the three groups with reg&rd to sex, age, education, reading ablllty, and vocabulary test scores. Only those between and including the ages of twenty-five to fifty years were eligible to participate. All subjects in the study were male veterans. No veteran with less than a fifth grade education was considered, though no limitation was placed on the amount of education a subject might have had above that grade level. It may be conceded that to assure greater homogeneity aaong the three groups tested on the two film series it would be desirable to have on each subject objective test scorei that snowed a high degree of correlation with 8peechr'=iadlng skill. However as was discussed In Chapter II previous research had failed to establish conclusively that such a test had been found. Individuals Interested In the sublect of speechreadlng have alluded to the Importance of vocabulary and language facility to speechreadlng skill. When asked to comment on what she believed had contributed most to her speechreadlng ability. Bell stated! I have looked back over my life, I have studied the mech-

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91 anlsra of my speechreading apparatus, I nave thought carefully over all my experiences, and the result at which I have arrived Is, that not only is success in speech-reading dependent upon reading, —or rather on the extensive and intimate knowledge of language imparted by reading, — but good speech-reading is impossible without It.l* Several paragraphs later in the same article the author noted that a good speechreader should have an intimate knowledge of the 2ngli3h language, especially in its vernacular form so that a speechreader shall have at command a large stock of words from which to select the right word used by the speaker. 15 Goldman, as citea by Heider and Heider, *. , . found that the more highly developed the understanding of language • . • the better the lip-reading ability. "16 "Speech-reading will be aided considerably," Sortlni alleged, "if the speechreader has a large vocabulary, and a good knowled<^e of complex language structures. "17 Pusfeld noted that a necessary prerequisite to good speechreadlng, as determined subjectively through Interviews with deaf individuals, was "... facility with the English language . . . and finally the acquirement of a large working vocabulary . "18 l^Mabel Gardiner Bell, "The Subtile Art of SoeechHeadlng," The Atlant ic Honbhlv . LXXV (February, 1895), 166-67, 15 lbid .. 167. I6p. Goldman, "Untersuchungen uber das Ablesen vom Munde bel Taubstummen una Spaterlaubten, " Archives of Gestalt Pgicholo-i, LXVII (1929), ^f4l-504 quoted i n Heider and — "®l«i®i^» Psycholog ical Monographs . LTI, Mo. 1, 126. A-K« ^M^^u? •^^'^^i"!* 'Speechread lng: A Guide for Lavmen (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Bros., Inc., I958), p. 9. 18lrving S, Pusfeld, "Coaununl cat I onFactors In LinT!! n^^/^i^^^rS^"^*"^ Llpreader," American Anna! 5. nf the Deaf . CIII (March, 1958), 235. ~^

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92 Two tests were used In this study to determine the relative standing of each participant as to reading achieyement and kno'-tledge of words. These were the "Standardized .-^ Oral Heading Paragraphs'* by William 3. Orayl9 and the vooab* ulary scale, Form "L", of the Revised Stanford-Binet Tests of Intelligence. 20 (see Appendix* Stanford-Binet Vocabulary Scale* ) Each subject was administered these tests individually in a quiet room. Approximately thirty-five minutes was required to administer the reading and vocabulary tests 4 Arbitrary minimum performance limits for each of these tests were imposed by the investigator* Those individuals who performed below the fifth grade reading level or who scored lower than the ago ten vocabulary level were eliminated from the study. , ^Tables 2 and 3 below contain Sub-group and Major-group summaries of the "Hange" and "Average* for Age, Education, Heading Grade Level, and Vocabulary Scores on the 90 subjects* . . , . ' .Tables k and 5 contain Sub-group and Major-group summaries of additional case history hearing information on the hearing Impaired Experimental Oroupa I and II. (See Appendix! Case History.) '19willlam S. Gray, Standardized Oral Heading Paragraphs (Blooralngton, Illinois: Public School Publishing Co. I, pp. 1-3* 20Lewls M. Terman and Maud A. Merrill, Measuring IntelllgBnce (Cambridge, Massachudetts : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937). PP. 302-323.

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93 TABLE 2, — Summary of sub-groups I, II, and III, "Range" and "Average" for Age, Education, Reading Grade Level and Vocabulary Pest Results Group I A B II A B III A B Age-ysars Range Average 33-48 42.20 32-42 38.33 25-45 35.26 28-47 38.26 27-46 35.80 25-42 32.73 Educa t i ongr ad e Range Average 5-16 10.40 3-16 11.60 9-15 10.80 5-17 10.20 7-16 11.66 3-16 11.33 keadlng Grade Level: Range Average 7-12 8.80 7-12 9.30 5-12 3.33 5-12 9.33 6-12 9.60 5-12 9.46 Vocabulary Pest Score : Range (words) AreraKe 16-37 24.06 17-38 25.73 13-31 20.80 17-38 24.66 16-36 24.66 15-30 TABLE 3.— Summary of major groups I, II, and III, "Range" and "Average" for Age, Education, Reading Grade Level and Vocabulary Test Results GrouD I II III Age-years Range Average 32-48 40.26 25-47 36,76 25-46 3^.26 Education-grade Range Average 5-16 11.00 5-17 10.50 7-16 11.49 Reading Grade Range Average 7-12 9.30 5-12 8.83 5-12 9.53 Vocabulary Test Score: Range Aveira«e 16-38 24.39 13-38 22.73 15-36 23.16

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94 TABLE 4,— Case history hearing Information on sub-groups I and II Number oft Group t A E tl A E Xears hearing impaired » Range Avera/J:e 7-20 16.26 3-20 14.36 4-4o 14.64 9-32 17.86 Hearing aid users io" " 4a lb 2a 1 c * J xears instruments worm Sange Average 5-16 10.90 1-17 9.84 1-19 8.53 5-17 14.20 Hours per day Instruments worn: Hange Average 8-17 13.80 4-18 13.15 8-16 12.86 10-18 14.40 Hours of speechreading instructions Range Average 0 0 0 0 12-176 54.42 12-92 '^5.86 aVeterans scheduled to be fitted with instruments bVeteran unable to adjust to amplification TABLE 5.— Case history hearing Information on major groups I and II Number of: Group 1 II Years hearing impaired: Range Average 3-20 15.56 4-40 16.25 Hearing al*.. us ere ^ee Table 4 ;^ee Table * Tears Instruments worn: Range Average 1-17 10.37 1-19 11.36 Hours per day instruments worn: Range Average 4-18 13.47 8-18 13.63 Hours of speechreading insiructlcni » Hange Average — ^ : f 0 12-176 56.64

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95 Tables 6 and 7 give the Sub-group and Major-group audlometrlc information obtained on the hearing Impaired Experimental subjects in Groups I and II* Physioal setting and equipment The film tests were administered in a 16^ foot by 19i foot air conditioned classroom. There were four windows completely covered by light colored shades along the outside wall. Access was gained to the room through a rear door In the inside wall. A wide angle "Radiant" Lenticular daylight screen was placed front-center of the room. Two rows of two 18 inch by 72 inch tables were rslaced in the mld-sectlon of the classroom. These slanted aiiproxlmately 11 dep-rees toward the center. Each table had three plastic cushioned steel chairs placed behind it. The center-rear edge of each of the first row tables was six feet from the screen. The center-rear edge of the farthest tables was a distance of nine feet, A Kodak Pageant Sound Projector (Super ^0 Shutter), Model AV-2 55-S was placed to the center and extreme rear of the room. Two General Hlectric, Reflector Flood, I50 watt portable lamps furnished continuous Illumination throughout the test. Figure l. presents a scale drawing of the flojr plan of the classroom and tho placement of the equipment discussed above. Film test administration After the selected subjects were assembled approximate-

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96 TABLE 6.— Audlooetrlc Informatlor on sub-groups I and II Group I A B A 11 B Pure tone average decibel loss (500, 1000, and 2000 ops.) Left ear: Bange Average 37-67 52.20 35-93 55.53 33-68 46.21 42-87 61.85 Right ears Range Average 37-68 53.86 30-95 50.40 $$-80 52.60 42-98 60.66 Speech reception threshold decibel loss Left ear* Range Average 32-70 50.26 30-83 54.20 32-64 46.71 44-98 53.42 Right earl Range Average 32-70 51.73 30-80 49.73 38-78 52.66 40-88 53.85 TABLi 7.— Audlometrlc information on major groups I and II Group t 11 Purs tone average f'.eolbel loss (500, 1000, and 2000 cps.) Left earl Range Average 35-93 53.86 33-87 54.03 Right eart Range Average 30-95 52.13 35-92 56.63 Speech reception threshold decibel loss Left ear: Bange Average 30-83 52.23 32-98 52.56 Right ean Range Average 30-80 52.73 38-88 55.75

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97 O Projector 150 Watt Flood Lamp 150 Watt O F'lood Lamp Screen Air Conditioner Figure 1. — Film testing room and equipment (Scale: Approximately 5/l6" to 1 • )

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98 ly one-half hour was spent acquainting them A'lbh the historical background of speeflhreadlng and Informing them of the procedures to be followad in the testing session. At no time during the pre-testlng or testing program Itself were the subjects Informed of the specific purpose of this research. The examinees were asked not to comment about the film at any time during the test and to refrain during the lunch period from discussing any aspect of what they had seen. Further, each member of the group was asked to remind anyone who might forget of this request for silence concerning the films. The group was Informed that upon completion of the work that day any comments, criticisms, or general observations would be welcomed. It was explained that througViout the test period regular room lights would be out but the Indirect lights would remain on continuously. The subjects were Informed that Immediately before the projector was turned on each time they would hear the statement, "question number , on." If they were still recording the prerloas ar^swer they were to say "hold It." Then when ready to say, "Go ahead." At the signal from the projectionist, "iiuestlon number * they were to watch the screen until the projector light was turned off at which time thsy were to record what they thought the actor had said. Word for word responses were encouraged. The subjects were told, howerar, that if they only understood a few words

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99 they were to record ttiose. If they only understood the general Idea of what was said each time they were to write that down. The subjects were also Informed that each line of dialogue would be projected only once— that no "re-runs" would be made. In addition they were informed they would be given as much time as was needed to record their responses. Several subjects expressed tneir reticence to participate because of poor spelling ability or penmanship. Bach group was assured that these difficulties would not affedt the results if the investigator could get the meaning of what had been written. 'Before the test, time was given to determine whether the screen was clearly visible to all. Preferential front row seating was given those who had difficulty seeing from the rear or sides of the room. Prior to their arrival for the test, all participants had been requested to bring their glasses if they were accustomed to using these while viewing motion pictures or television. Pour stapled mimeographed s'leets containing three ruled blank lines co each iiuuibered line of dialogue were distributed to the participants. (See Appendix: Patient Teat Response Form.) The subjects wflre asked to write their xiames, the date, and the film symbol in the appropriate spaces at the top of thG first page. The film symbol was written on the blackboard to help all participants record it correctly. The symbols used for the contextual series were the first two or three let tars from the film title; for example, "LI*

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100 for Library and "RES" for Restaurant. The letters A through P were used for the fll-ns of the non-contextual series. (See Table I.) One extremely Important check of the equipment vfas required by the projectionist prior to each film presentation. Both film aeries had been photographed at "sound speed," or 24 frames per second, and It was therefore laperailve that the projector bp run at the "sound speed" setting. To hare done otherwise would hare resulted In distorted articulation of the projected Imaare. During the preliminary testing of the three subjects mentioned In the "Scoring" section that follows (page 103) one Important factor became apparent concerning the viewing of several of the films. When two actors appeared on the screen simultaneously, as In the contextual Barber Shop as well as In the contextual ^yad non-contextual Travel ^^gency 8eq[uences, the test sub .loots were often confused as to which person to observe for speechreadlng. For this reason prior to the presentation of each line of dialogue In the contextual I^arber Shop film, the experimental and control subjects were told which person to watch in that portion about to be presented. An example of the directions glvent "Watch the an who Is standing," At other times the viewers were told to "Watch the man seated In the chair." In the contextual and non-contextual travel agency sequences the male actor was the only speaker. Therefore, before the presentation of each of these two films, the fol-

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— : --wiy-vy TTT ;i;jt' "^i^ ' ' " >• 101 lowing statement was made to the test subjects prior to the presentation of the film and once again mid-way through each of the two particular films— "Where the man and woman appear at the same time on the screen watch only the man as the man Is the only one who speaks." Immediately after a complete fllui had been shown, the subjects were asked to turn to the reverse side of the last page of the answer sheets where they were to write a brief but complete summary of the conversation they had observed. They were asked to record their answers In no fewer than four or five sentences— more If needed. To ward off fatigue short "stretch breaks" were given before the presentation of the next film. With regard to film presentation It should be noted that each group of 30 subjects was sub-divided Into two equal sub-groups of fifteen members each. These were referred to as sub-groups A and B as shown in Table 8, which Is a schematic presentation of procedures followed. To one complete sub-group, A, the non-contextual films were presented first followed In tne second half of the test by the contextual series. The reverse procedure was used with the other fifteen sub-group members, B, who viewed the contextual films first and the non-contextual series last as shown In Table 8. The presentation within each series was a rsuidom one so that each film changed Its viewing position in relation to the other five films of the same series. At the halfway point, when either all of the contextual or all of the non-contextual films had been shown, the

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102 TABLE 8,— The three groups subjects tested and the film testing order Group Total Subjects Sub-group Division of Subjects Film Series Order of Testing * Experimental I Hearing Impaired Unlnstructed 30 A 15 1. NonContextual 2. Contextual B 15 1. Contextual 2. NonCon textual Experimental U Hearlns^ Impaired Instructed 30 A 15 1. NonContextual 2. Contextual B 15 1 . Contextual 2, Non-Contextu'^.l Control _ III Normal Hearing 30 A 15 1. Non-Contextual 2 . Contextual B 15 1. Contextual 2. NonCon textual *The six films witnin each series were tested in random order. session was Interrupted so that the subjects could have an hour for lunch and rest. Before leaving the classroom the group was reminded of the e^arlier request that at no time were they to discuss with other members of the group what they had seen or written.

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103 Twenty-six film projection sessions were required to test the three groups of ninety subjects. Each full session averaged five hours exclusive of the one hour lunch period and the time required for the reading and vocabulary tests. Scoring IXirlng the formative stages of this research, consideration was given to the most appropriate method of evaluating the test responses. In the second Tracy Clinic Research Study, Taaffe stated we do not have any clear evidence on the most appropriate unit of measurement In evaluating lip reading. How can we quantify this behavior? Can It beat be described In terms of the number of words which we are able to read, the number of syllables, length of sentence, or should measurement be In terms of ••meaning?''21 Investigators Morris, 22 Postov,23 Held, 2^ and several others had employed the unit scoring method. One point credit was given each correct word response. No allowance was made for correct thought units. In the revision of her sentence test Otley again scored by correct Idea and by number of words correctly recorded. The relationship between the two methods of scoring the sentences resulted In a correlation of +.97, which further substantiated the orevlous decision to score the final test of lip reidlng ability according to the number of correct words recorded, 25 21 Taaffe, A Pllm Test . . IT, I, 22Morrls, 10. 23Postov, 31. 2^Held, Journal of Speech Disorders . XII, 79-80. 25 Jean Utley, "Development and Standardization of a

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10^1' In the pioneering study by Conklln, five points were given •for each sentence read correctly. "26 For each of the other two-thirds of the test ualnt? consonants and words, one rolnt was allowed for each correct response. Though the Investigator was not clear on this point, the sentences were probably Judged either totally right or totally wrong. O'Neill utilized the dual method of scoring but noted i Still unans/ered la the question of which sort of recall, that is, recall of individual elements (words) or recall of thought units, Is most representative of llo-reading skill. Most of the current llp-readlng tests employ the Individual method of scoring, 2/ In the present study It was decided to utilize both the "unit* and "thought* scoring methods. Per reference purposes the unit or word scoring method was referred to as the 'X** analysis. The "X" analysis was conducted entirely by the writer. The answer sheets of each participant were examined word by word and the total number of correct words were recorded at the end of the sentence. No credit was given for homophenous words. The total sentence scores constituted the "X" smalysls raw score for that particular script on a given Individual. Phis raw score was then reMotlon Picture Achievement Test of Llpreadlng Ability* (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Deoartment of Speech, Northwestern University), pp. 25-26, 26Edinund S. Conklln, "A Method for the Determination of Relative Skill In Llp-Headlng, * Volta Review . XIX (Way. 1917), 217. — 27john J. 0»Nelll and Mary C. Stephens, "Relationship Among Three Filmed Llp-Headlnff Tests," Jourr^l of Speech and Hearing Research . II (March, 1959), 61,

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105 corded In the appropriate blank on a Master Record Sheet. Theoretically I'tl.J^SO words were to be checked for accuracy In the total "X" analysis, thouerh this number was reduced considerably due to numerous complete oralsslona or only partial responses by the participants. The "Y" and "2" analyses which followed were concerned with "thought" units and were conducted Independently by a panel of three judges. The three judges were members of the Audlology and Speech Pathology Clinic of the Veterans Administration Hospital In which this research was conducted. The "Y" analysis concerned the meaning associated with each line of dialogue In each film series. In contrast the "2" analysis was concerned only with the experimental and control subjects* suumary appraisal of what had transpired — the total description written about each of the film sequences. Prior to grading "I" and "Z" analyses by the "thought" method, the three judges met to determine an appropriate numerical value to assign each degree of correctness. After a tentative scale had been discussed and agreed upon, these Jodges graded Independently all of the test papers on three subjects who had been administered the test solely for this phase of the Investigation. These subjects were not Included among the ninety participants used In the final study. The Individual analyses by the three judges was followed by a second meeting In which the judges discussed, line for line, the rationale of their scoring. Several minor changes were made In the wording of the analysis sheets and a more

PAGE 115

106 descriptive five point scale was evolved, (See Appendix* X" and "Z* Analysis, Plve Point Scale Oulde.) The Judges worked Independently In scoring the answer sheets of the ninety subjects. As each Judge oompleted grading each line of dialogue, the newly determined numerical value was recorded on a master sheet assigned to eaoh of the research subjects. The total for each column on the master sheet then constituted the raw score "X* analysis value for a particular film In the twelve film series. Scores for the "Z* analysls, the sumiaary description, were recorded at the bottom of the same sheet described above. (See Appendix: Haw Score Data Sheet.) It may be no bed that the blacked In areas of the "Raw Score Data Sheet" Indicate the total number of sentences In each of the films. These served as visual guides to the three Judges In recording the raw scores. Vhen all of the film tests had been analyzed and the scores recorded, ninety record sheets had been compiled by each Judge, or a total of 270 sheets In all. The totals of each column on the 270 Record Sheets for both the "Y" and "Z" analyses were then transferred to a Master Chart from which the statistical analysis, to be discussed In Chapter IV, was derived.

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CHAPTER IV EXPBHIMENTAL RESULTS Restatement of purpose Tiie purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis! contextual (situational), non-verbal cues are Important to bhe speechreader and facilitate the understanding of wh»i he perceives during conversation. Wa.lor group homogeneity In the discussion of Test Populatlor in Chapter III, It was pointed out that certain basic conditions were to be met before the services of ninety subjects could be utilized In this research. These requirements pertained to age, sex, auditory a«uity, reading grade level, vocabulary proficiency, and the amount of Instruction In speeohreadlng. Three groupi of 30 subjects each were formed according to hearing acuity and previous Instruction In speeohreadlng. To test the effect of context upon each of the participants In the three major groups it was necessary to control for order and subdivide each group Into two equal parts. One half of each group viewed the non-contextual films first, followed by the contextual series. These were identified as sub-group A. Sub-group B viewed the contextual films first and then the non-contextual series. 107

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108 Sub-group homogeneity The nesting of subjects for the three major groups extended over a period of two years. To assure homogeneity between the two sub«group8 of a given major group a continue ous record was kept of the current number that had been tested In each sub-group and new subjects were placed In the sub-group having the least number of viewers to that date. These new subjeiits were then tested In the order prescribed for their particular sub-group. An evaluation of sub-group homogeneity was made to determine whether this alternating system of assigning test positions had inadvertently introduced a bias into the resulting scores between sub-groups A and B of each major group. , In order to test the hypothesis that the paired subgroups A and B were comparably matched within each of the major groups I, II, and III, Bartlett*s Test of Homogeneity of Variance was used.l This test was applied to the raw scores of the "X" analysis, and the results are summarized below. In each case the low value of indicates that there is no reason to reject the hypothesis that the variances differ, and It may be concluded that the method of assigning individuals to sub-groups A and B introduced little or no bias into the subjects' comparative performances. 'Oeorge W, Snedecor, Statist leal Methods (\mes, lowat The Iowa State College Press, 1959), pp. 285-87.

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109 TABLE 9.— Data pertinent to the test of homogeneity Major ' Group Subgroup Mean squares A 107.3 0.006 B 102.9 A 126.7 0.235 B 98.^ A 85.1 0.002 • B 89.0 Bvaluatlon of experimental data The actual statistical analysis of comparative performance as discussed in the last section of this chapter (page 118) was confined to a comparison between the scores obtained from the viewing of the non-contextual films by sub-group A and the viewing of the contextual films by subgroup B. The following table indicates why the analysis was restricted in this manner. The entries in the table were averaged over all individuaLs, all films, and in the case of the •r" and "Z" analyses, over the scores derived by the three Judges. An inspection of the "X" analysis A and B sub-group non-contextual scores for each of the three ijajor categories shows that the B sub-group scores were in every case at

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110 TABLE 10. — Mean raw scores for contextual and non-contextual presentation computed by "X", "Y", and "Z* analysis Major Group SubGroup X Analysis Y Z A Ml ^^3^.1 29. v^5.0 1.2 >^ >f.9 5o.y^ ^/^51.8 2,9 If 23. ^^^6.0 33.1/ >^53.8 1.3^^ > 53.5/^ >^ 52.9 3.0 in lif.6/^ ^^38.5 ^^^9.1 1.3^^ B 3^.9/^ ^3.6>/ >^6.0 2,^y^ >i.2 Non-contextual Gontettual least double the scores of the A sub-group. It is believed that the non-contextual B sub-group improvement was directly attributable to a learning factor. It would =ippear that individuals who had previously viewed films with the advantage of context were aided as much as if the non-contextual films were actually contextual in nature. The sub-group A and B contextual scores of major groups H and ill are also of interest. Sach of the A contextual,

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Ill "X* analysis scores for major groups II and III were somewhat higher than the B contextual scores which may have been due to a learning factor or transfer of Information from the noncontextual presentation* Due to the apparent learning factor present In moat of the "second vlewlngs" It was therefore decided to compare only those scores obtained from "first vlewlngs." Of Interest also are the "X" analysis A and B subgroup contextual scores for major group I. The A sub-group score was noticeably less than the B sub-group score. It Is believed that this difference In performance may have resulted from the difference In the sequence of testing. To what factor or factors In the sequence of testing could the poorer performance of this particular sub-group be attributed? Pour possible factors may have caused this disparity in scores: fatigue, variation in the presentation of test matfeer, frustration, and/or faulty learning, ' The problem of fatigue v/as controlled through short breaks between the presentation of each new film and a minimum of an hour allowed for lunch and relaxation. For this reason and through a continuous subjective clinical observation of the subjects It Is believed that fatigue was not a significant factor In this study. The presentation of all films in each series followed a well defined, standardized procedure, and should not account for the previously cited variation between the A and B contextual sub-group scores.

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112 The effort to derive meaning through the non-ontextual films from artloulatory movement alone may have Induced In the subjects a lack of confidence or feeling of futility for the task at hand. This frustration may have "been transferred, in turn, to the second sub-group presentation thereby affecting performance on the contextual films. It is also possible that once the subject had interpreted portions of the dialogue through word cues alone misinterpretations of the message may have been carried over and Influenced responses on the second half or contextual portion of the test. One Investigator has indicated there is no relationship between "level of aspiration" and speechreadlng performance.2 This determination was made from the results obtained with normal hearing individuals as tested by a noncontextual film similar to the films devised for this study. Should the same results obuain for each of the groups discussed here the author would have to reject simple frustration as the cause of the anomalous behavior exhibited by I5 of the subjects in Group I. Hence, still another reason for rejecting "second viewing" performances for analysis is presented as these groups are not comparable; their inconsistent performances reflect unknown and uncontrollable factors in the background. 2 John J. O'Neill and Jo Ann L. Davidson, "Relationship Betweer Lipreading Ability and Pive Psychological Factors," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XXI (December,

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113 Method of scoring In Chapter III the author discussed the three methods used In this study to evaluate speechreading skill. These methods were referred to as the "X", "Y", and "Z* analyses. The "X" analysis, which was conducted by the investigator, concerned the word by jord accuracy of each line of dialogue. The "Y" and "Z" analyses concerned the accuracy of thought as determined by a five point scale. These latter two evaluations were made by a panel of three Judges who scored each line of dialogue In the "Y* analysis and each summary for the "Z" analysis. Correlation between methods To determine the relationship between the three methods of analyzing the test data, correlation coefficients were derived for the "XY", "XZ", and "YZ" analyses for each of the three paired sub-groups. In each case the raw scores were the pairs from which the correlations were derived. In addition the same coefficient was computed for the entire test, and is shown in the bottom line of the following table, i The scores indicate that there is a significant, positive correlation between the »XY* word and sentence thought methods of grading speechreading performance, the *XZ* word summary thoua^ht methods, and the "YZ" sentence thought and summary thoujghh methods of evaluation. While these findings indicate a positive correlation

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between all three methods of grading, the most significant correlation was between the word and sentence thought or "XY" methods. TABLE 11.— Correlation coefficients for the "XY", "XZ", and "YZ* analyses Group XY Correlations XZ xz Ln IB 0.906 0.781 f\ (to 0.025 0.632 IIA IIB 0.890 0.9^2 0.618 0.524 0.585 0.498 IIIA IIIB 0.739 0.843 0.633 0.517 0.552 0.495 Correlation of all scores 0.885 0.638 0.585 It Is of Interest to note that the next highest correlation was not between the two subjective thought methods of evaluating performance (YZ), but between the word and summary thought (XZ) analyses. From this information it may be seen that the two thought methods of quantifying performance are more closely correlated with the obleotive word-for-word analysis than with one another.

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115 Percentage scores To facilitate comparisons between the contextual and non-contextual motion pictures 'ests, raw scores for both series were converted to percentage scores. This converted data Is presented In Table 12 below and shows the performauoe of each group on the "X", "Y", and "Z" analyses. As stated previously the purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that contextual (situational) cues • Impart information to the speechreader which enables him to better interpret communication. Average percentage points improvement The extreme right hand columns of Table 12 show the "average percentage points improvement" ov^r the non-contextual films that resulted from the presentation of contextual information. It may be seen that with each of the three major groups, as graded by the "X", "r", and "Z" analyses, contextual films in every case improved the scores measurably. The greatest overall improvement was made by the hearing impaired, unlnstructed subjects in Group I. Though the hearing Impaired, instructed subjects in Group II made slgnlfioant gains on the contextual material these gains were four average percentage points less than those of the first group on the 'X* and "Y" analyses. Both Groups I and II made equivalent gains of 57 average percentage points on the •*Z* analysis. Group III, normal hearing subjects, improved with contextual material: however, the overall Improvement w&s not as great as with the other two groups.

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116 fABI.E 12. — Percentage scores for contextual and non-contex> tual presentation computed by ••X", "I", and "Z" analyses Oroup I Analysis Film Oroup II Analysis ' " Piim Oroup III . Analysis ; Film

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1 '1 117 Avera,?e scores In each of the three preceding tables the columns designated as "average" reveal what one might expect to find concerning the basic speechreadlng ability of the three groups studied, aroup II subjects (hearing impaired, instructed) were the superior speechreaders either with or without contextual cues, with one exception— on the "Z" analysls of the non-contextual film. Groups II and III made equivalent scores. The hearing impaired, untrained subjects of Group I were not as adept In speechreadlng the non-oontextual material as the trained subjects of Group II, An Interesting observation iray be made at this point by comparing the performance of Groups I and II on the contextual tests. The data indicate that both groups performed almost eqiially as well on the contextual films though Group II was slightly superior. The case histories on Groups I and II indicate that these sixty subjects had hearing losses of sixteen years mean duration. Unlike Group I the subjects of Group II had received instruction. Twenty-one of the subjects In Group II had received this instruction Just prior to discharge from the Armed Forces in World War II, Prom this it may be inferred that the majority of Group II members have been speechreadlng with varying degrees of proficiency for approximately sixteen years. In contrast, the subjects in Group I have gradually acquired this ability j through trial and error. They have at this point In time j learned to utilize this skill and are now almost as profli

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118 clent speechreaders as the matched experimental subjects In Group II. The column designated ?i3 '•average* Indicates that the normal hearing, unlnatruoted subjects of Group III speechread the noncontextual material almost as well as the subjects in Group I on the "X" and "Y* analyses and slightly better than that gooup on the "Z* analyses. The subjects in Group III, when compared with those of Group IT, were found to be 7 and 6 percent poorer in interpreting the non-contextual films by the "X" and "Y" analyses though the scores . were equal on the "Z" analysis. The performance of Group III irap»oved on the contextual films but did not equal that of either Group I or Group II* Expected improvement in sooreg on contextual films TABLE 13. — Expected percentage Improvement in scores for Groups I, II, -id III as evaluated by the "X", "Y", and "Z" analyses Analysis Group X Y S • X 16 23 II 12 20 5t III 13 20 ^2 Each entry in the table above represents the minimum

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119 Improvement, expressed In percentage points, that may be ' anticipated from the contextual material 99 percent of th# time when the two contrasting film series are presented to subjects of the same background as those used in this re" search.

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CHAPTEB V SOME IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of researcli There are four areas of research in speechreadlng. These concerr the speaker , the receiver , the stimulus meterial, and the environment In which the attempted communication occurred. The greatest emphasis in research to data has been concerned with the receiver and the stimulus material. There is relatively little current information on either the speaker's role or the effect of environmental cues upon "visual hearing, * The present research represents the first attempt, In so far a3 the writer has l:m able to discover, to evaluate the influence of context (situation) through a series of paired contextual and non-contextual films upon a population of 90 subjects evenly divided Into three groups— hearing Impaired unlnstructed, hearing Impaired Instructed, and normal hearing Individuals. The results of this study support three of the flndlngi of previous Investigations! that normal hearing people do use speechreadlng to a measurable degree; that hearing impaired, unlnstructed subjects speechread better than their normal hearing matched control group; and that there is a 120

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121 high degree of correlation between the "word-for-word" said "sentence thought" methods of evaluating performance. In addition to the corroborating Information cited above, data were obtained on the relatively unexplored dimension of environmental Influence upon the speechreadlng process. The percentage point Improvement scores obtained for each of the three groups through the three performance evaluation methods support the original hypothesis that contextual (situational), non-verbal cues are Important to the specchreader and facilitate the understanding of what he perceives during conversation* Implications Many teachers and authorities who have lectured and published in this area have sought to develop the student's awareness of the importance of extracting meaning through the Interpretation of visible artlculatory movements and the language and non-language cues. Traditionally emphasis has b^en placed upon the sounds of the language and/or how these sounds appear in Juxtaposition to similar or contrasting sounds. Drill materials have been devised to facilitate immediate recofl'nitlon of these sounds and the Instantaneous interpretation of groups of sounds into meaningful speeoh. Sentence and story exercises have also been used to train the student to extract meaning from thought connected language material. Although not completely ignored the concept of sltua-

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122 tional context has had little emphasis In the development of teaching materials and techniques, as reflected In the literature. The present research has furnished evidence that situational context is Important to the speechreader. The abll* Ity to recognize and Interpret the additional clues that situational oontex':. afford differentiated, to a measurable degree, between the more and the less proficient speechreader. The first implication of this study suggests that speechreadlng pedagogy should give greater consideration to environmental cues, placing equal emphasis upon situational cues, language cues, and artlculatpry movement. This may be accomplished through motion pictures, tachistoscoplc exercises, live dramatic productions and role playing, as well SlB lectures and classroom work designed for this purpose* The second implication derived from this research con999m. the preparation and o:''esentation of test material, whether filmed or live. For such tests to measure accurately speechreadlng ability the many elements essential to speechreadlng must be present. Though this would appear to be a logical conclusion speechreadlng tests in the past have failed to utilize one essential element, sltiational cues. In fact, the literature on the subject of test preparation describes in minute detail the elaborate precautions taken to prevent the appearance of situational, non-language cues thereby limiting the speechreader solely to the artlculatory and language stimuli. This fact is readily confirmed by

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123 viewing the films purporting to measure speechreading abil* ity. Facial expressions, gestures, objects, and other situatlonal-environmental cues are 'Almost totally lacking. The upper torso image of a figure placed before a plain backdrop, speaking lines without animation or narraal facial expression, has become the trpideraark of these productions. As these fllriS are frequently presented to measure ability preliminary to instruction, the writer has observed that students express discouragement and develop a mental set against what they are forced to re^rd as an insurmountable task. Or if these films are used during progressive phases of the course to measure progress through training, this writer's students have expressed a deepening sense of failure and a growing conviction of their incapability of mastering the skill. Functional speechreading In daily life is conducted in a rJ.tuatlcn or environment that contributes Information to the speechreader. Under certain unusual circumstances situ* ational cues may be limited though seldom non-existent. In most life situations contextual non-language cues are numerous, contribute to the meaning and enrich the thoughts conveyed. For an accurate assessment of speechreading atlllty the speechreader must be able to Interpret the total speaker In his total environment, Speechreading tests delivered -live" by the Instructor too frequently follow the same stereotyped pattern of presentation as that of films.

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I2k • Until tests are designed to utilize the integrative action of the triiimvlrate: artlculatory movement, language cues, and situational, non-language cues, it ia the opinion of this Investigator, based upon the foregoing research, that a valid measurement of speechreadlng ability cannot be devised. Recommendations During the periods of presentation and evaluation of research materials the investigator was frequently made aware of certain self-imposed limitations Inherent In the design of his study. Based upon the experience gained In this research, the writer feels that some changes could be made to Improve future studies of a similar design. The three Judges found It difficult to evaluate certain lines of dialogue in the script material by the "Y" analysis (sentence thought) where in several Instances more than one main idea was expressed. This was more often a ' problem with longer and compound sentences. This problem is not easily corrected for sentences used in conversation normally vary In length. Any attempt to freeze sentence length to a few words would in all probability result In stilted, unnatural dialogue. This problem then may be a limitation Inherent to the "X" analysis. It observed as the testing sepslons progressed that the articulation of several of the actors was obviously

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125 Inferior to other members of the cast. This may have been due to the speaker's articulation and speech patterns or to a complex of these factors and filming difficulties. During the casting phase of this study the speech of each potential actor was glren careful consideration j»nd the final selection was made from those who were believed to have speech within normal limits. It could be argued that since the artlculatory variability is present in any given sample of the population and since the speechreader is constantly confronted by this variable In daily life, therefore If rigid control had been exerted here, this might have biased the test results. Several Investigators have stated that, to assure greater realism, speechreading films should be produced in natural color* It should be noted however that most of the population is used to viewing black and white television pro^'i^as and that many of the films shown in motion picture theaters still lack color. Research on the question of color versus black and white films is inconclusive and this might well be an area for further investigation. . The producers of future speechreading films might consider the following suggestions: First, no two torso images should appear on the screen simultaneously. This would prevent confusion as to which individual the viewer should watch. Second, the simultaneous synchronization of sound with the script could be used in an extension of the research re-

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126 ported here. It would be of Interest to learn whether .just audible threshold cues facilitate the speechreadlng process when used concurrently with artlculatory movement, language : cues, and situational, non»language cues* ; . Third, a revolutionary and more realistic presentation of future film tests might result from the production of three dimensional films. This, however, would be a costly undertaking as the filming equipment and projection apparatus would need to be of special design. ; Fourth, films sloillar to those prepared for this Study might be developed for children. These films should employ basic vocabulary and depict familiar situations of family and community life. The spontaneous responses of trhry young children might be taped and played back at a later time for evaluation during the scoring process. /. The three judges who evaluated performance on the basis of the "r* and "Z" five point Judgment scale discerned In their examination of the answer sheets on the three major groups that certain subjects consistently projected feelings of aggression and hostility, rejection, anxiety and frustration. These responses suggested personal adjustment problems which the subjects projected Into the activity ard nonaudlble speech presented on the screen. This would suggest that the films of this study, or similar films devised specifically for this purpose, might be used as psychometric screening tools similar to the Thematic Apperception Test

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127 for use In psychologlcal-psyohlatrio team studies of emotionally disturbed individuals. Since the termination of this research the dual film series has been of continued value to the patients attending the periodic courses in Aural Rehabilitation conducted in this hospital. The contextual and non-contextual Restaurant films have been presented numerous times to students as a dramatic example of the additional understanding derived from careful observation of the environment in which the conversation occurs, rhe higher scores obtained on the contextual film offer convincing proof to the viewers that the ability to comprehend the total situation is of extreme importance to speechreading. After classroom discussion of this matter a second similar presentation is made of the two additional films affording reinforcement of the idea. Several of the contextual films have been used In conJuziction with the teaching of specific speech sounds. As an example, in the "Library" sequence there are 35 ^'s, 17 d*8, 2k n's, 19 e»s, and 13 aePs. These films might also be used with adults as a periodic progress check to evaluate improvement at intervals throughout the course of instruction. It is the hope of the writer that the awareness of two critical investigative areas which have grown out of thi» study will give impetus to further application In training and research* 1. The value of presenting contaasting films in order

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123 to convince tha student of the critical need to increase his powers of observation and comprehension of total situation through contextual cues* 2» The need for a standardized and graded film library to be developed for use with children and adults in pretesting and continuous evaluation of speechreading progress through training.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY : Books Barker, Roger 0,, Wright, Beatrice A., and Myeson, Mollle H. Ad.lustment to Physical 'iandlcap and Illness: A Survey of the Social Psychology of Physique and Disability * Mew rork: Social Research Council, 1953. Pp. 4ifO, Berry, Mildred Preburg, and Elsenson, Jon. Speech Disorders : Principles and Practices of Therapy . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1956. Pp. 573. B«stt Harry. Deafness and the Deaf In the United States . New rork: The Macnulllan Co., 19^*3. Pp. 675. Brentano, Lowell. Better Hearing . New York: Orosset & Dunlap, 19^6. Pp. 80. Brltt, Stewart Henderson. Social Psychology of Modem Life . 2nd ed. revised. New York: Rlnehart i Company, Inc., 19^9. Pp. 703. ' Bruhn, Martha E. Conversational Efficiency . Washington 7, . D.C. : The Volta Bureau, 1956. Pp. 62. Bulwer, John. Phllocophus or the Deafe and Dumbe Man's Friend . Quoted In John Chalmers Ballantyne. Deafness . Boston: Little, Brown & Co., I960. Pp. 254. [ Bunger, Anna M. Speeohreadlng— Jena Method . Danville, 111.: The Interstate, 1952. Pp. 109. Dahl, Loralne Anson. Public School Audiometry Principles . and Methods. Danville, Ill.i The Interstate Printers and Publishers, 1949, Pp. 290. DeWeese, David D., and Saunders, WllHao H. Textbook of Otolaryngology. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company, I960. Ewlng, Irene R. Lipreadlng and Hearing Aids . Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1959. Pp. 73, Palrcloth, M. Lip Reading Study and Practice . Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1946. Pp. 6k, 129

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1.30 ^ : Hellor, Morris P., Anderman, Bernard, and Singer, Ellis E. Functional Otoloory: ?"ie Practice of Audlology , New Y.orkt Springs Publishing Co., Inc., 1955. Pp. 225. Lane, Helen S. Psychologloal Aspects of Physical Disability . Edited by James F. Garrett. Washington, D.C: Federal Security Agency-Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, 1952. Pp. 195. Macnutt, Ena G. Hearing'/1th Our Eyes . Boston: By the author, 1952. Pp. W. HorkOTln, Boris V., and Moore, Luoella M. Life Situation Speech-Reading Throuach the Cooperation of Senses. "AVK* Method . Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 19^8-19^9. Pp. 115. Murphy, Grace E, Your Deafness Is Not Yom New Design for Deafness . New York: Harper and Brothers, 195'tf, Pp. 238, Mewby, Hayes. Audlology: Principles and Practice . New York: Appleton-Century-Crof ts Inc., 1958. Pp. 3^2. Nltchle, Edward B. Lessons in Llp-Readlng for Self-Insrruotlon . New York: Surdus Publishing Co., 1905. Pp. 126. Nltchle, Elizabeth Helm. New Lessons in Lip Reading . Philadelphia: Lipplncott, T950I Pp. 251. O'Neill, John J., and Oyer, Herbert J. Visual Communication for the iard of Hearing: History. Research, and Methods . Snglewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., I96I. Pp. 163. * Ordman, Kathryn A., and Halll, Mary Pauline. What People SayThe Nitohfee School Basic Course in Llpfea dlng. 5rd ed. revised. Washington, D.C: ihe volta Bureau, 1957. Pp. 117. Pauls, Miriam. "Speech Reading," Hearing and Deafness A Guide for the Layman . Edited by Hallowell Davis, New York: Murray Hill Books Inc., 19^7. Pp. 496, Plntner, Rudolf, Elsenson, Jon, and Stanton, Mildred. The Psychology of the P hysically Handicapped . New Yorkl — Appleton-Century-Crof ts, Inc., 19*H. Pp. 3^1, Silverman, Richard S. "Clinical and Educational Procedures for the Deaf," Handbook of Speech Pathology . Edited by Lee Edward Travis. New York: Appleton-Crof ts Inc. 1957. Pp. 1088, . . •

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131 Snedecor, George W, Statistical Wethoda . Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State College Press, 1959. Pp. 53^. Sortinl, Adan. Speeohreadlng: A Guide for Laymen . Ann Arbor, Mlchlgjin: Edwards Bros,, Inc., 1958. Pp. 50 • Story, Arthur J. Speech-Heading and Speech for the Deaf > Stoke-onTrent: Hill and Alnsworth Ltd., 1915. Pp. 1 9 5 • Terman, Lewis M., and Merrill, Maud A* Measuring Intelll^^ence. Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937. Pp. 461. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language : College Edition . Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Co., 1957. Pp7 1724. Wright, Betty C. Look. Listen and Lip read . Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Bros. Inc., 1957. 110. Articles and Periodicals Albright, M. Arlina. "Ear, Bye, or Both," Volta ReTlew. XLVI (January, 19^^) t 11-13. Alexander, Alice. "As the Amateur Views It," Volta Review * XLV (February, 19^3), 97-98. American National Red Cross. "Loss of Hearing," American Red Cross (19^6), pp. 1-12. Amsler, Pridette. "Lip Heading for Adults in Switzerland," Volta Hevijw . XXIX (October, 1927), 572-57^. Bell, Mabel 0. "The Subtile Art of Speech-Reading," The Atlantic Monthly . LXXV (February, 1895)i 164-72, Bergman, Moe. "The Audiology Clinic," Acta Oto-Laryngologloa Supplementum . LXXXIX (1950), l^Oi; ^ . "Special Methods of Audlologlcal Training for Adults," Acta Otolaryngologioa . XL (1951-52), 336-45. Lecture delivered at the International Course in Audiology, September 11-20, 1950. Berryman, Florence S, "A Poor Thing, But Mine Own," Volta Review . XLV (Pebniary, 19^3)t 94-96. Blair, Francis X. "A Study of the Visual Memory of Deaf and Hearing Children," American Annals of the Deaf . CII (March, 1957), 25^'W»

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132 Brand, Elizabeth. "Aftermath* a Tribute to Edward B, Nltchle,* Volta Bevlew . XIX (December, 1917 }f 6^1-8-50. Brannon, John B. , Jr., and Kodman, Prank, Jr. The Perceptual Process In Speechreadlng, * A.M. A. Archives of Otolaryngology . LXX (JulyDecember, 1959), 11^-119. Brannon, John B., Jr. "Speeohreadlng of Various Speech Materials," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XKVI (November, 1961), 3^8-53. Bruhn, Martha S. "The Hard-of-Hearing Adult," Volta Review . XVII (October, 1915). 381-85. . "Is Lip Reading a Science or an Art?" Volta Review . XXVIII (September, 1926), ^76-78, . "'Known* Material In Lip heading Practice," Volta Review . XLV (October, 19^3), 578-79. . "Learning Lip Reading by the Muller-Walle Methoc[7^ Volta Review . XIX (August, 1917), 389-9^. . "Manual of Lip Reading," Volta Review . XIX (September, 1917), ^^6578. . "Methods of Teaching Hp Reading to Adults. 1. Lip Reading As a Living Language," Volta Review , XLIV (November, 19^2), 636-38. . "The Muller-Walle Method of Lip Reading (Bruhn Lip Reading System)," Volta Review . XVII (August, 1915)t 293-95. .. . "Relative Skill in Lip Reading," Volta Review . XIX (May, 1917), 220-222, . "Talking Motion Pictures as an Aid to Lip Readers," Volta Review . XV (July, 1913), 179-80. Bunger, Anne M. "College Classes In Speech Reading: Their Present Services, Their Future Possibilities," Volta Review . XLIV (November, 19-^^2), 640-58. Byers, Vincent w., and Lieberman, Lewis. "Llpreadinr Performance and the Rate of the Speaker," Journal of Speech and Hearing Reseraroh . II (September, 1959), 271-76. Clchorlus, Prau Rosa. "The Life and Services of Julius Muller-Walle," Volta Review . XV (October, 1913), 317-19,

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133 ConkHn, Edmund 3. "A Method for tho Determination of Helatlre Skill In Llp-Headlng, * Volta Hevlew . XIX (May, 1917). 217. " ' * Costello, Mary R. "A Study of Speech Reading as a Developing Language Process In Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children," Abstracts : American Speech and Hearing Association (November, 1958), pp. 1-24, DlCarlo, Louis, and Kataja, Raymond. "An Analysis of the Utley Llpreadlng Test," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XVI (September, 1951), ^^6-46. Dyer, Helen Louise, "The Speech-Reading Teacher's Opportun^-tyt" Volta Review . XVII (May, 1915), 175-76, Foose, Jacob, "One More Language," Volta Psvlew . XLIV (July, 19^2), i*01-405. Puller, Sarah. "Speech-Readlngj A Guide for Self Instruction," Volta Review . XV (September, 1913), 253-65, Pusfeld, Irving S. "Communication Factors In Llpreadlng as Determined by the Llpreader," American Annals of the Deaf , cm (March, 1958), 229-42."'^ Goldman, P, "Untersuchungen uber das Ablesen vom Munde bel Taubstummen und Spaterlaubten," Archives of Oestalt Psychology . LXVri (1929), 4^H-504, quoted In Helder and Helder. Psychological Monographs . LIIT No, 1, 126, Goldstein, Max A, Problems of the Deaf . St. Louis 1 The laryngoscope Press, 19:^3, quoted In Harriet Montague, "Llp*Readlng A Continuing Necessity," Journal of Speech Disorders . VIII (September, 19^3), 2$8. Gordon, Avondale. "Llp-Readlng for the Adult Deaf," Volta Review, XVII (September, 1915), 365-68. ~ — Gottlieb, D. Personal correspondence writing on behalf of Hearing Aid Industry Conference, March 30, I96I, quoted In William E. Bushor, "Medical Electronics Part IV," Electronics . XXXIV (June 23, I96I), 43-i^9. Helder, Prltz. "Acoustic Training Helps Lip Reidlng," Volta Review, XLV (March, 19^3), 135. and Helder, Grace M. "An Experimental Investigation of Llp-Readlng," Psychological Monogranha . LII, No. 1 (19^0), 12^-53.

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Henneraan, Blchard H. "Vision and Audition As Sensory Channels for Comm unloati on, " ^.uarberly Journal of Speech . XXXVIII (April, 1952), 161-66. " • . -,. ^ Hlrsh, Ira. TAudlology and the Basic Sciences," ActaOtoLarynprolQglca . XL (1951-1952), ^2-50. . . . , . , Howell, Louise. "Lip-Heading for the Hard-ofHearing Adult Volta Revlev' . XIX (January, 1917) t 15-16. Button, Charles. "A Diagnostic Approach to Combined Techniques in Aural Hehabllitation, " Journal of 3oeeoh and Hearing Disorders . XXV (August, 1^66), ^6^-?^. and Curry, Thayer E. "Semi-Diagnostic Test Waterials for Aural Hehabllitation," Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders . XXIV (November, 1959), 319-29, Keaster, Jacqueline. "An Inquiry Into Current Concepts of Visual Speech Reception (Lip-Heading)," Laryngosc ope. LXV (January, 1955), 80-8^. ^ ^ Keith, John. "Everyone Has What It Takes P^irther ThoughtJ on Lip Reading Instruction," Volta Heview . XLV (October, 19^3), W-78, ' Has Lip Reading Missed the Bus?— Yes," Volta Re. view . XIV (May, 19^3). 286-88. Kelsoh, Agnes Prazier. "Olve the Llpreader a Chance," Hearing News Reprint 0256 from November, 1952 (WashingtorT' dfQ»« American Hearing Society), p. 3. Kenfleld, Coralle N. "What the General Public Should Know Concerning Llp-Reading, " Volta Review . XIX (October, 1917). 562-65. Kennedy, Mildred, "It Is Very Easy— I" Volta Review . XXII (August, 1920), 464-66. " Kerrlson, Philip D. "The Latent Faculty of Llp-Headlng," Volta Heview . XVII (October, 1915), 386-87. Klnoade, Joseph M. "Llpreadlng for the Deaf and Hard of rfrfri^f^'w-^^^ Otologlc Therapy," Laryngoscope . LVIII (February, 1948), 118-1 37, ^ Klnzle, Cora Slsle. "The Klnzle Method of Speech Reading." Volta Review. XXII (May, 1920), 609-19. "Methods of Teaching Lip Reading to Adults 4, The Klnzle Method of Graded Instructions," Volta Rev iew! XLIV (December, 1942), 70I-03.

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133 • : '_ ' » "The Value of Soeech Rdading for the Deaf," Volt a Review . XIX (August, 1917). 365-6?. Kltson, H. D. "The Psychological Tests for Lip-Reading Ability*" Volta Review . XVII (December, 1915). ^71-76. Lambert, Catherine G. "A Teacher of Up Heading," VoltaHelew, LVI (May, 195^), 212-13. Larr, Alfred, smd Hempen, Claude. "Speech Reading Through Closed Circuit Television," Abstracts t Audiology Section, 34th Annual Convention, American Speech and Hearing Association (November, 1958), pp. 21-22. . Lederer, Francis L. "The Rehabilitation of the War-Deafened II. The Rehabilitation Program of the Navyi Aural Casualties," Laryngoscope . LIV (September, 19*4), 489-96. Lierle, Dean M, "The Hehabilltation of the War-Deafened IV. The CiTilian Program of the American Academy of Bphthalmology and Otolaryngology," Laryngoscope . LIV (September, 1944), 506-10. ,.. — *^ Love, E. B, "Growing Deaf and Learning Up Heading," Bolta Review . XLV (January, 1943), 36-38, — — Mason, Marie Katherine. "A Cinema togiraphlc Technique for Testing Visual Speech Comprehension," Journal 6f Speech Disorders . VIII (September, 1943), Z7i^Wl "Methods of Teaching Lip Reading to Adults— A Symposium. #5 Teaching and Testing Visual Hearln,^ by the Cinematographic Method," Volta Review . XLIV (December. 1942), 703-05. McLean, Marjorie. "The Development of Speech Reading Power," Volta Review . XXII (August, 1920), 485-94. Miller, June, Rousey, Clyde, and Ooetzinger, C, P. "An Exploratory Investigation of a Method of Improving Speechreading," American Annals of the Deaf . CIII (Hay, 1958), 473-78. Montague, Harriet. "As I Understand It," Volta Revie w. XLV (January, 1943), 32-35. ~ "Lip Reading — A Continuing Necessity," Journal of Speech Disorders . VIII (September, 1943), 257!^ , „ » "Oil on the Troubled Bus Route," Volta Re view. XLV (May, 1943), 312-14, — — »

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136 Hoore, Lucella Miller. "Methods of Teaching Lip Reading to Adults— A Symposium. #6 Life Situation Motion Pictures for Teaching," Volta Review . XLIV (December, 19^*2), 705-22. Worgenstem, Louis I. "The Significance of the Study of Llp-Readlng for the HardOfHearing Adults," Volta Re. view . XIX (March, 1917 )i 127-29. Translation of an address delivered by the author to the members of the German Medical Society of the City of New York at the Academy of Medicine, February 5t 1917. Morkovln, Boris V. "Rehabilitation of the Aurally Handicapped Through the Study of Speech Reading In Life Situations," Journal of Speech and Hearing: Disorders , XT I (December, 19^*7). 263-68. ~ Mykiebust, Helmer H. "Language Training: A Comparison Between Children with Aphasia and Those with Deafness," American Annals of the Deaf . CI (March, 1956), 240-'*^» Nltohle, Edward B. "The Detective Possibilities of LlpReadlng," Volt-^. Review . XVII (March, 1915 )f 81-83. "Lip Reading, An Art," Volta Review. XV (September, 1913). 276-78. . "Lip Reading for the Hearing," Volta Review . XVII iNovember, 1915 )» ^35-36. . "Moving Pictures Applied to Lip Heading," Volta Review . XV (June, 1913). 117-25'Synthesis and Intuition In Lip Reading," Volta Review . XV (October, 1913). 311-1^. . "Tests for Determining Skill In Lip Heading, • Volta Review . XIX (May, 1917), 222-23. "What a Deaf Adult Should Do to Acquire the Art of Lip Reading," Volta Review . XVII (July, 1915). 251-5^. . "Vniy Not Lip Reading?" Volta Review . XVII (Way, i9ll). 178-79. [ O'Neill, John J. "Contributions of the Visual Components of Oral Symbols to Speech Comprehension," Journal of 3r>eech and Hearing Disorders . XIX (December, 19?5Tr"•29^39t •An Exploratory Investigation of Llpreadlng Ability Among Normal Hearing Students," Speech Monographs . XVIII (November, 1951). 309-11. — '

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137 f and Stephens, Mary C. "Relationships Among Three Filmed Llp-Headlng Tests," Journal of Speech and Hearlniz; Research . II (March, 1959). 61-65, and Davidson, Jo Ann L. "Relationship Between Lip Rending Ability and Five Psychological Factors," Journal of Speech and Hearln/? Disorders . XXI (December, 1956), Ordman, Theodore. "Has Lip Heading Missed the Bus?— No," '/olta Review . XLV (May, 19^3), 288-318. Pettlnger, PrlscHla. "New Approaches to Teaching the Young Deaf Child," American Annals of the Deaf . CI (September, 1956) , 3^0.^^7^ V Plntner, Rudolf. "Speech and Speech-Reading Tests for the Deaf," Journal of Applied Psychology . XIII (June, 1929 )» 220-25. • V Balll^ Mary. "Methods of Teaching Lip Reading to Adultc— A Symposium. #2. Lip Heading as a Synthetic Process," Volta Review . XLIV (November, 19^2), 638-J^O. Held, Gladys. "A Preliminary Investigation In the Testing of Lip Reading Achievement," Journal of Speech Disorders . XII (M<^.rch, 19^7), 77-82. Belghard, Jacob. "The Jena Method of Speech-Heading," Volta Review . XXIV (October, 1927), 57^-76, Rice, Bertha M. "More About Speech-Heading and the Experience System," Volta Review. XVII (February, 1915 )| 6566. . ^ Saltzman, Maurice. "Factors In Learning Speeohreadlng," A.M. A. Archives of Otolaryngology . LXV (JanuaryJune, 1957) , ^25-^^ Samuelson, Estelle E. "Fundamentals of Llp-Headlng Including Demonstrations with th3 Audience as Subjects," Laryng-o* aoope . XLVII (April, 1937), 237-38. Sorlver, Helen. "Methods of Teaching Lip Heading to Adults A Symposium. As I Like It," Volta Review . XLV (January. ' 19*3), 30-32. Simmons, Audry Ann. "Factors Related to Llpreadlng," Jour3^0 52 and Hearing Research . II (December, Tt59),

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138 Sinclair, Virginia. "A Foreword to the Would-Be Lip-Header," Volta Beview . XIX (April, 1917). 181-82, Story, Arthur J. *I.lp-Headlng, " Volta Review . XVII (October, 1915). 389-91. ™ , ' "Speech-Head Inc: Depends More Upon Use Than Ae&tal Teaching," Volta Hevlew . XVII (May, 1915). 185-88. Taber, Prank A* "Further Thoughts for John Keith," Volta Renew, XLV (September, 1953). 518-26, • "A Swiss Comment of Lip Heading," Volta Review . 3SJ"( February, 19^3), 99-100, „ • "What About the Natural Lip Reader?" Volta Review . XLV (June, 19^3). 35'<-56. Tatoul, Corlnne M., and Davidson, a. Don. "Llpreadlng and ' Letter Prediction," Journal of Speech and Hearing Res earch . IV (June, 19^1). 178-81. Torrey, Oertrude. "Llp-Readlng for the Slls^tly Deaf," Volta Review . XVII (February, 1915). 51-53. Trask, Alice N. "More About Llp-Readlng, and Then Some," Volta Review . XIX (October, 1917), 567-69. Truex, Edward H,, Jr. "The Aray Aural Rehabilitation Program," The Journal of Speech Disorders . X (June, 19^5), 101-105. . "The Rehabilitation of the War-Deafened III. ' Hearing Rehabilitation at Deshon General Hospital," Larynp:o30ope . LIV (September, 19'*'*'), ^97-505. Utley, Jean. "A Test of Lip Reading Ability," Journal of Speech Disorders . I (June, 19^6), 109-116. vrheeler, Nellie 0. "On Reading the Lips," Volta Review . LVI (April, 195^), 158. : Wood, Kenneth Scott, and Blakely, Robert W. "The Association of Lip Reading and the Ability to Understand Distorted Speech," Western Speech . XVII (October, 1953), 259-61. Wright, John Dutton, "Pamlllarlty with Language the Prime Pactor," Volta Review. XIX (May, 1917), 223-24, Reports Krug, Richard P. Effects and Interactions of Auditory and

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139 Visual 3ues In Oral Coraraunlcatlon. A Pinal Report of • Project W9 Contract SAE 8177 by the University of Oklahoma Research Institute, p. 27* The research reported herein was performed pursuant to a contract with the United States Office of Bducatlon, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. , Ijamhll, Edgar L« Patterns of Behavior In Children With Auditory Disorders « John Tracy Clinic Research Papers VI. Lo9 Angeles s John Tracy Clinic, January, 1958, Pp. 1^. Pilot Studies In Lip Reading . John Tracy Clinic Research Pipars VIII, Las Angeles: Jolm Tracy Clinic, February, 1958» Pp. 26. Stone, Louis. Facial Cues of Context In Lip Reading . John Tracy Clinic Researca Papers V, Edited by Edgar Lov/ell. Los /Vngiless John Tracy Clinic, December, 1957. Pp. 11. Taaffe, Gordon. A Film Test of Lip Reading^ . John Tracy Clln» Ic Research Papers II, Edited by Ed,^r Lowell. Los Angeles t John Tracy Clinic, November, 1957. Pp. 11. . and Wong, Wilson. Studies of Variables In Ll pReadlnp; Stimulus Material . John Tracy Clinic Research Papers III. Edited by Edgar Lowell. Los Angeles* John Tracy Clinic, December, 1957. Pp. 21. W.P.A. Teaching of Lip Reading Program. New Aids and Katerials for Teachinfr Llp-Readlng . Official Report on Project Number 165-1-97-98 by the American Society for the Hard of Hearing. Washington, D.C.j American Society for the Hard of Hearing, 19^3. Pp. 27, Wong, i.'llson, Dl:;kens, Sara L. , and Taaffee, Gordon. A Blblioo:raphy of Psychological Characteristics of the Aul rally Handicapped and of Analytieal 'iltudles In Co?
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Unpublished Material Cavender, Betty Jane# "The Construction and Investigation of a Test of Lip Heading Ability suid a Study of Factors Assuoed to Affect the Results." Unpublished Master^s thesis, The Graduate School, Indiana University, 19^9* Pp. 181. Glorig, Aran. "A Report on Speech Reading's Place In Rehabilitation of the Deaf." Unpublished, Walter Reed Amy Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1952. Pp. 5# Morris, Dorothy H. "A Study of Some of the Factors Involved in Lip-aeading." Unpublished Master's thesis, Salth College, 19^4. Pp. 32. Postov, Mary Jane. "Selection of Items as a Basis for a Test of Speechreading Ability for Adults." Unpublished Master's thesis. The Graduate School, University of Maryland, 1959. Pp. 63. Eosenbaum, Sheldon B. "An Investigation of Low Intensity Auditory Stimulation in the Measurement of Results of Training in Speech Reading." Unpublished Master's thesis. The Graduate School, University of Maryland, 1957. Pp. 5^. Utley, Jean. "Development and Standardization of a Motion Picture Achievement Test of Lipreading Ability. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Speech, Northwestern University, 19^6. Pp. 83. Van Bebber, Mary Lillian, "A Study of Factors Influencing Improvement in Speech Reading Ability." Unpublished Master's thesis, The Graduate School, tftilversity of Maryland, 195**. Pp. 56. Vaughn, Verdy Darthulla. "A Study of the Value of Certain Tests in Predicting Success in Speech Reading." Unpublished Master's thesis. The Graduate College, University of Oklahoma, 195^. Pp. ^3. Other Sources Brand, Elizabeth. "Lipreading Moves Forward," Rearln/ar News . Reprint #275 (June, 1953), pp. 1-3. Canfleld, Norton. "Rehabilitation of the Deafened." Lecture presented at the Colorado State Medical Society Meeting, September . 13, 1946, Pp. 8#

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1 Department of the Army Instructor's Pllm Heforence. Speech Beading . PHTF8-I706 (May, 1953) » PP. 2. Dolch, E. W. The Basic Sight Vocabulary Cards . Champalgni The Garrard Press, 1952. Pp. 2. Gray, William S. Standardized Oral Reading Paragraphs . Bloom Ingt on, Ill.i Public School i^bllshlng Co. Pp. 1-3. Hudglns, C. V. "Lip Reading and Hearing Aids," Hearing News . Reprint #202 (May, 19^8), pp. 1-3. Hutton, Charles. "Combining Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Aural Rehabilitation," Volta Bureau . Reprint #725. Mason, Marie K. Manual on Visual Hearing I-XXX . Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. Pp. 87. National Association of the Deaf. The Truth About Lipreading . "Jrand Rapids, Minnesota* Stokes Printing Co. Wooley, Florence T. "How We Use the Tachistoscope," Hearing News . Reprint #222 (October, 19^9), pp. 1-2. Pp. 4. !

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APPENDIX

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1^3 FILM SCBIPr THE LIBRAar Symbols: Non-oon textual— A Contextual— LI 1. "I'd like to return these." 2* "Why you Just checked them out last night," 3f "Did you re-ad them all?" 4, "Every one!" 5» "You're a fast reader." 6^ "Xou must be able to skim well." 7, "Would you like to cheok out some more?" 8, "Zes, I would." 9, "Have you any books on travel?" 10. "What kind of travel— by air, boat, or train?" 11. "No, space travel." 12. "I like science fiction." 13 • "Well we have a whole shelf of books on that subject— rirrht over there ." l^. "Pine, 1*11 look them over, pick out the best ones, and have them back tomorrow." 15. "Tomorrow's Wednesday and we're closed all day." 16. "Are you closed in the evening too?" 17. "2Ces, v.'e won't open again until Thursday." 18. "In that case I'll take a few more ooks." 19. "I won't have to hurry with these I borrow tonight."

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FILM SCRIPT THE RESTAURANT Symbols t Non-ooni/extual— B Contextual— RBS Ir "Good evening, may I help you?* 2. "fes, I would like two hamburgers and an order of French fries." 3. "Do you want your hanbur^ers all the way?" k, "All the way? What's that?" 5« "With lettuce, tomato, pickle and onions." 6. "That'll be fine." "Would you like something to drink?" 8. "We have rallk, tea, and coffee." 9* "A cup of coffee please." 10. "Black or with cream?" . 11. "Cream please." 12. "1*11 get your order right away." 13. "Will there by anyth ng else sir?" 14. "Would you like some dessert?" 15. "Nothing else thank you. I'm full." 16. ""/ou make a mighty fine hamburger." 17. "How much do I owe you?" 18. "That will be a dollar ten." 19. "Thank you very much. Just keep the change." 20. "What change I" .J

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145 tIEM SCaiPT THE BARBER SHOP Symbols : Non-contextual— C Contextual— BAR "Next." 2« "i guess that's me." 3»' "i think I was here before you." "Well go ahead anyway."* 5« "I'm reading a good story in this nagazlne." 6. "How do you want your hair cut?" 7. "I don't want a regular hair cut." 8. "I want more of a trim." 9. "Oo you want any taken off the top?" 10. "Just a little bit, but not too much," 11. "Would you like me to use hair tonic or just plain water"?" 12. "Don't use anything, I don't like that plastered down look . " 13. "O.K. Tou're the boss." 14. "Would you like a shave?" 15. "No thank you. That's enough for one day." 16. "What do I owe you?" 17. "That'll be a dollar-fifty." 18. "See you again In three weeks."

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146 I'TLM SCRIPT THE STORE Symbols : Non-contextual— D Contextual — STO 1. "I'd like two packs of cigarettes please." 2. "What brand do you smoke?" 3» "I'll take that kind right there." 4. "Filter or regular?" 5. "Make it filters." 6. "Is there anything else?" 7* "Xes, I need some of that Henthol shaving cream in the push-button cern." 8. "All right." 9. "How about razor blades?" 10. "We hare a special on— two packs for a quarter." 11« "Sounds like a good buy," Xi* "Give me two packages of double-edge blades." 13» "Nice T-shirts." "How much are they?" 15» "Seventy-nine cents each." 16. "Wrap up three please." 17. "What size do you take— small?" ' 18. "No, I think I need a large size." 19. "I'm afraid that would be too big for you." 20. "Medium should be plenty large enough." 21. "Whatever you say." 22. "How much do I owe you?" 23. "Three dollars and fifty-seven cents." 24. "Pair enough." 25. "Oh! I must have left my wallet at home!" 26. "Don't put those things away." 27. "1*11 get my money and come right back."

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1^7 nm SCRIPT THE POST OPPICE Sysbolst Non-contextual— .E Contextual— PO I, "Hello." 2* "Oood morning." . ...,.,..,-.,.,,>. 3« "I*
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148 "ILM SCRIPT THE PflAVEL AGENCY Symbols: Non-contextual— P Contextual— TA 1. "Mighty hot dayf* 2. "Not a fit day for man or beast. But as the saying goes, lt»s not the heat, It's the humidity, * 3i "Can I help you folks
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Ik9 STANPORD-BINET VOCABULARY SCALE Name Name Name Name Blnet Blnet Blnet Blnet 1. orange 2. envelope 3. straw 4. puddle 5. tap 6. gown ?• eyela«h 8. roar 9. scorch 10* muzzle 11. haste 12. lecture 13. Mars 1^. skill 15. Juggler 16. brunette 17. peculiarity 18. priceless 19. regard 20. disproportionate 21. shrewd 22. tolerate 23. stave 24. lotus 25. bewail 26. repose 27. mosaic 28. flaunt 29. philanthropy 30. ochre 31. frustrate 32. incrustation 33. milksop jk, harpy 35» ambergris 36. piscatorial 37» depredation 38. perfunctory 39. limpet 40. achromatic 41. casuistry 42 t homunculus 43. sudorific 44. retroactive 45. parterre

PAGE 159

150 Patient Tett Besponse Form FILM; 1. "' 2. ' * • . •( 3. ^ ' , ^^. 5> 6. 7. NAME: DATE:

PAGE 160

151 Patient lest Response Form— continued 8. 9. 10. 11. 12, 13. 14

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152 j i I • j Patient Test Response Pora— continued 16. r 17. 18. 19. 20, 21. 23.

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i 153 Patient lest IlesponsQ Porm— continued 24. 25. 26. 27. 23. 29* 30.

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15^ "Y" Analysis PI re Point Scale auide Soore # • 1. Palled completely to perceive the thought of the line of dialogue. 2. Grasped a small portion of the central theme or related ideas. (One or the other.) 3. Grasped the general concept of the central theme, but missed most of tha finer details. Grasped the central theme, but missed some of the finer details. 5. Grasped the central theme and all of the finer details. •2* Analysis Plve Point Scale Guide Score # 1. Palled completely to perceive the Idea of the story. 2. Grasped a small portion of the central theme or related Ideas. (One or the other. ) 3. Grasped the general concept of the central theme, but missed most of the finer details. ^. Grasped the central theme, but missed some of the finer details. 5. Grasped the aadtral theme and all of the finer details.

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155 CASE HISTORY 1« Name ...................^.....^...^^ 2« Address 3. Age ^. Oooupatlon 5. How old were you when you first noticed a hearing problem? 6. What first brousfht the hearing loss to your attention? 7. What caused your hearing problem? 8« Circle the correct answer* a* I feel the hearing loss In my left ear 1st mild moderate severe b, I feel the hearing loss In my rlerht ear Isj mild moderate severe 9. Do you wear g^lasses ? 10. If you wear glasses approximately how many hours a day do you wear them? 11. If you wear glasses check all of the correct suiswers. I wear glasses: a. all the time b. part of the time o. when I read d. when I write e. when watching a motion picture „,„..^ f. when watching TV g. when talking with people ______ 12* Did you bring your glasses with you? 13« Will you wear your glasses during the llpreadlng motion picture?

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156 0M« History — continued Ik, Do you wear a heqirlng ^Id ? If so: a. In which ear do you wear the aid? ______________ b. How old were vou when you hemn to v.'ear a hearing aid? [ c. In what situations does the hearing aid help you most? d. FIoif''iiiifty hours a day do you wear a hearing aid? e. wiiere were you fitted with your first hearlnfr aid? Year? 15* Have you ever attended classes, or had special Instruction, In Aural Rehabilitation (llpreadlng, auditory training, etc.)? If so: Where? rear? 16. Approximately how nany hours of llpreadlng (speech reading) Instruction have you had? __________________________ 17 • How well do you feel that you read lips? (Circle the most accurate answer) a. very well d. poorly b. well e. very poorly • c. moderately well 18. Do you «8e llpreadlng In your dally life? ____________ If so, describe situations . . 19« Military Service) Month and Year Inducted: Month and Year DlschargedT Branch of Service:

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157 Raw Score Data Sheet It Y" A B n D E F 1 X 1 X 2 2 J J k 4 2 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 Q 7 10 10 1 1 -L J. 1 1 X J. 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 1 Q 20 21 22 22 23 2? 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 'zA B c D E F SUM 1 Y" LI BAF 3T0 PC TA 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 _2£^| 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 2? 2 26 26 27 27 ;UM "Z" LI BES BAR >T0 PO PA 3UM

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Robert Harward Arthur was born March 10, 1922, at Baltimore, Maryland. In 19^0 he was graduated from the Baltimore City College (High School) and attended the (diversity of Maryland through June, 19^2, In 19^2 he was Inducted Into the United States Air Force and was discharged from the Service In 19^6. In June, 1950, he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the University of Maryland and enrolled In the Graduate School of the University of Maryland In September of 1950. In June, 1951, he received the degree of Master of Arts. He was employed as Chief of the Audlology Unit of the Veterans Administration Regional Office, Pass-A-Grllle, Florida from June, 1951* through August, 195^. In September, 195^. he enrolled In the Graduate School of the University of Florida to pursue his studies toward the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. He worked as a graduate assistant In the Speech and Hearing Clinic until February, 1957. At that time he became Senior Clinician for the Florida Center of Clinical Services and continued in that capacity until August, 1958. In September, 1958, he re-entered Government Service as Chief of the Audlology and Speech Pathology Clinic, Veterans Administration Hosptfcal, New Orleans, Louisiana and has continued in that capacity to the present date. 158

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159 Robert Harward Arthur Is married to the former Patricia Beverly Eger and la the father of four children. He Is associated with the Department of Otorhynolaryngology of the Louisiana State University School of Medicine and is a me«» ber of the American Speech and Hearing Association.

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. June, 1962. Arts and Sciences Dean, Graduate School Supervisory Committee: