Citation
Community-Based Ecotourism Development of Uaxactún, Guatemala

Material Information

Title:
Community-Based Ecotourism Development of Uaxactún, Guatemala
Creator:
Carr, Jennifer
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Sustainable Development Practice)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Schmink, Marianne C.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Communes ( jstor )
Communities ( jstor )
Community associations ( jstor )
Community based instruction ( jstor )
Community forestry ( jstor )
Community life ( jstor )
Ecotourism ( jstor )
Forests ( jstor )
Political action committees ( jstor )
Tourism ( jstor )

Notes

General Note:
sustainable development practice (MDP)
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Jennifer Carr. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1039729393 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID ENEGIGGLQ_8O1CZH INGEST_TIME 2016-04-21T20:50:31Z PACKAGE AA00032188_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EOO18L2GC_2XONQ6 INGEST_TIME 2016-04-19T22:47:19Z PACKAGE AA00032188_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

Community Based Ecot ourism Development of UaxactÂœn, Guatemala Jennifer Carr Master of Sustainable Development Practice Advisor: Marianne Schmink April 27 , 2012

PAGE 2

Introduction In 1954 the President of Guatemala, Arbenz, was ousted by the CIA for trying to redistribute land holdings by the huge U.S corporation, United Fruit, back to the poor. U.S. officials replaced the president with a brutal non elected pro U.S. military general, who proceeded to restore United Fruit's land to the company. F rom 1960 to 1996 Guatemalan had a civil w ar that started as a grassroots movement against the military seizure of the government and it was marked by widespread human rights abuses , social and economic injustice and racism ag ainst the indigenous population . In 1995 the rebels declared a ceasefire and in 19 96, a peace agreement was signed with the government ("Timeline: Guatemala," 2012). The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) (Fig. 1) , created in 1990 to control deforestation, is the lar gest body of intact tropical forest in Central America. It is a 2.6 million hectare tri national (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize) protected area with 1.65 million hect ares in the Peten basin of Guatemala. However, there was conflict between local communities an d state agencies due to the restriction of access to resources within the new protected area, and the forest destruction continued. The 1996 Peace Accords mandated increased democratization, decentralization of power and resources, and participatory develo pment, including the establishment and strengthening of participatory arrangements, such as cooperatives (Radachowsky et. al, 2011) . P art of the peace agreement called for increased access to land and the sustainable use of land resources, specifically re quiring that the Guatemalan government allocate to farmer groups, 100,000 hectares within multiple use areas for sustainable forest management'' (ASESA, 1996). Therefore, the Guatemala n National Council of Protected Areas (CONAP) started granting community concessions in the MBR Multiple Use Zone. CONAP prioritized the granting of forest concession to organized community groups that had historically inhabited or extracted resources from the area and that includes the village of Uaxact œ n. Uaxactœn is a com munity located within the borders of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) of Guatemala and has an 80 year history of forest use with no dependence on timber . The community started as a chicle collectorsÔ camp which later grew into a regular village. They commu nity consists of about 200 families ( about 1000 people ) and is comprised of Mestizos Ð descendants of chicle collectors of various, often Mexican descent; and Maya from the highlands. In 1998 Uaxactœn was g ranted an 83,588 ha , 25 year community forest con cession by CONAP f ormally giving usufruct rights to all above ground resources (Litow et al., 2001). The community must meet governmental requirements for managin g the forest and pay a lease of $142,049 over a ten year period (McNab, 1999). Under the agree ment, the community must prohibit new deforestation and cattle farming, protect key species like the jaguar, control fires, use zoning to limit agricultural expansion, abide by financially transparent business practices and work with World Resources, 2008 Figure 1: Map of the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala Mexico Belize

PAGE 3

the supervision of CON AP. Based on the experience in Uaxactœn, CONAP is exploring the possibility of replicating agreements to implement the National Strategy of Communal Lands, which was recently approved (www.conservation.org). Non timber forest products (NTFP) such as xate (ornamental palm fronds) (Fig.2) , chicle gum resin, and allspice are generating some income to pay the concession fee. The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) , an international NGO that has a long history of working with the community , was solicited by the Uaxactœn Organization for Management and Conservation (OMYC ), which is the community based legal entity created in 1998 that manages the forest resources, to assist the community in creating a management plan for the forest and meeting the requirements o f the concession agreement. However, the community needs to find new sources of income to pay the concession fee and to support their growing population while decreasing dependency on NTFPs. OMYC created the Tourism Commission of Uaxactun as another way to generate money to pay the concession fee and to unite local guides. WCS has included community based ecotourism a s part of a strategy to diversify livelihoods as a means to pay the concession fee and thus reduce dependence on NTFP and avoid timber produc tion . WCS also supports a research station in Uaxactun for students from prominent universities to help develop the information needed as new questions and challenges arise during the concession years. Uaxactun is home of several Mayan ruins including th e oldest astronomical observatory in Mesoamerica wher e you can observe the sun rise d irectly over the central temple during the equinox . Uaxact un hosts an annual equinox festival which brought about 600 visitors in 2011. In 2010 , an agreement was made betw een OMYC and the Ministry of Culture and Sports (MICUDE) that authorizes the provision of services for tourism in the archaeological site of Uaxactun and authorizes the implementation of a tourist kiosk that would be located in Tikal National Park (World H eritage Site located 23 kilometers south of Uaxactun) and would promote tourist activities in Uaxactœn . As part of the effort to operationalize this agreement and to support research in Uaxactun, the director of the WCS Guatemala program , R oan McNab , and I developed a proposal to conduct my practicum in Uaxactun. WCS has a cooperative agreement with the Asociaci — n Balam. Asociaci — n Balam is a Guatemalan NGO , created in 2002 . The focus of the organization is to promote conservation of natural and cultural heritage in an integrated way , through the incorporation of civil society to its management through strategic alliances to generate economic opportunities for local people . There fore my role was to work in collaboration with WCS, Asociaci — n Balam , and the Tourism Commission of Uaxactun as well as Tikal National Park (PANAT) to lay the foundation for the orderly development of community based eco tourism . I worked closely with three people who were a ssigned as my field supervisors; David Ventura, a community based tourism expert from the Asociaci — n Bala m; WCS technician Julio Zetina the assistant Figure 2: Workers sorting xate in the Bodega de Xate in Uaxactun.

PAGE 4

coordinator of OMYC and former administrator of the xate workshop in Uaxactun; and WCS technician, America Rodriguez, who lived and worked in Uaxactun for 10 years. The offices of WCS and Asociacion Balam are next door to each other in Flores so it was easy to meet with both NGOs to develop the products. C ommunity based e cotourism A fundamental characteristic of community based ecotourism is that the quality of t he natural resources and cultural heritage of an area should not be damaged and, if possible, should be enhanced by tourism. Adverse impact on the natural environment should be minimiz ed and the culture of communities should not be compromised. Ecotourism should encourage people to value their own cultural heritage. However, culture is not static and com munities may wish to see change (www.icrtourism.org). Ecotourism is becoming more attract ive because it has the potential to improve income generation witho ut harming the environment (Shoka, 2006). Community based ecotourism ( CBET ) is a n effective way of achieving both goals of conservation of natural resources and local development because CBET gives an incentive of nature conservation for local community wh ile also providing an economic benefit ( Wunder 2000, Salafsky et al. 2001). Sustainable tourism development requires partnership among the stakeholders of the local tourist destination. This partnership must implement a shared sustainable development visio n in order to avoid conflict between the tourism industry , which seeks to respond to market forces , and a public sector which acts to protect public goods and wealth for future generations (International Council on Local Environmental Initiatives , 1999 ). The term "community based" means to create potential for the empowerment of the community, enhancing their involvement in decision making, but also simply making sure that the will and incentive to participate come from the community itself (Armstrong, et al. ,2010 ) . According to The International Ecotourism Society, ecotourism is "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and benefits local communities." Bringing tourists to the community of Uaxactun will benefit small local enterp rises, especially women who may be less able to leave their homes or the community to pursue more income opportunities. When ecotourism is community based, it essentially brings the market home, and this allows for different ways of participating in the ma rket economy without necessarily or irreversibly disrupting normal livelihoods or social relations Recent international initiatives, such as the Millennium Development Goals, continue to emphasize the need for a comprehensive campaign against poverty. Com munity based tourism initiatives appear to have had significant success in this area ( USAID, 2005 ) . A combination of micro credit financing and training will certainly continue to be essential to poverty focused invest ment (USAID, 2005). Introducing sustai nable ecotourism to an area is a challenging feat that requires a c ritical assessment of the cultural, social, environmental, and economic aspects of tourism development. Ecotourism implementation without appropriate planning could lead to exploitation of forest resources (Alvarez et al., 2006).

PAGE 5

Figure 3 : Community based ecoto urism framework (Kersten, 1997) The community based ecotourism framework by Kersten ( 1997 ) (Fig. 3) shows the complex relationships between stakeholders, their capacities, liveliho od strategies, conservation, and tourism development in the form of a flowchart in which I can visualize at what stage the community is in the tourism development process. "Management guidelines" in the framework is the stage during which this project is t aking place. Once the capabilities of the involved persons and organizations are set, the community will be ready to implement Community Based Ecotourism (CBE) which should be able to create job opportunities while at the same time save/protect/conserve th e species and the ecosystem.

PAGE 6

The framework also emphasizes that if the community becomes too focused on creating jobs, then the ecosystem could degrade because of the stress received by the ecotourism attractions. Likewise, the opposite trend could also happen when management focused mostly on conservation so that the community viewed the CBE as not a viable livelihood. The resulting discontent among the local people could lead to uncontrolled utilization of the resources for livelihood and survival (Reg is, 2004). This framework is useful in demonstrating the need to strike a balance between ecosystem protection and creating viable livelihoods. CBET gives an effective incentive of nature conservation for local community while simultaneously providing an e conomic benefit (e.g. Wunder 2000, Salafsky et al. 2001). This framework focus es on community development/p articipation and includes the following aims: • T o help preserve ecosystems and natural area s with a high tourism potential • T o cultivate environmental consciousness among the local population by educating them about the dangers of overexploiting resources and unrestricted number of tourists • T o promote new economic incentives, e.g. selling of local (environmentally safe) products, crafts, and cultivated m edicinal plants thereby create some entrepreneurial skills • T o ensure communal ownership and control, and that part of the profits flow into community development programs rather than into personal enrichment • T o foster a feeling of pride and community throu gh a revival or preservation of "traditional" practices and cultural techniques Purpose and Objectives The end goal of this project was to contribute to the conservation of the Maya Biosphere Reserve through the sustainable development of community based ecotourism in Uaxactun by developing useful products/tools to put in the hands of the community . The project also allowed me to contribute to ongoing processes within the community. These products include d the following: 1. Opinion survey results 2. Prototype tourist packages 3. Draft profile for the implementation of a tourist kiosk in Tikal 4. Draft internal regulation for the Tourism Commission of Uaxactun This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility study carried out in collaboration with WCS and Asociacion Balam from May to July 2011. By way of introduction, the paper summarizes Uaxactun's role in forest conservation within the MBR, their collaborative partnerships with NGOs, the tourism attractions within Uaxactœn and Tikal, and past research on ecotourism in Uaxactun. Primary survey results provide the basis for presentation of a logical framework and community development recommendations.

PAGE 7

Draft Profile for Implementation of a tourist kiosk (Appendix I ) The purpose of the draft profile for th e implementation of the tourist kiosk in Tikal is to provide the Tourism Commission with a template/draft that they can further develop for use in proposals for funding the kiosk. The profile is modeled after the formatting of another project profile creat ed by INGUAT (Guatemalan Tourism Institute). It i ncludes the following sections : 1. Identification of Project 2. Project Description 3. Objectives 4. Goals 5. Tourism Market Focus 6. Problems 7. Budget and Financing 8. Schedule of Activities 9. Current Project Status Draft Interna l Regulation (Appendix II ) An internal regulation is fundamental in the establishment of an organization. The Tourism Commission of Uaxactun needed to develop an internal regulation in order for the c ommission to function effectively . The management of fu nds was a major source of conflict during community meetings. This internal regulation was modeled after the internal regulation of the tourism commission of Carmelita (another village in the MBR also developing tourism ). Julio Zetina did the majority of the initial editing to adapt it to Uaxactun. The document consists of 52 articles divided into the following chapters: 1. General Provisions 2. Legal and Institutional F ramework 3. Adm i nistrative , Operating and Financial Structure 4. Tourism Activities in the Commu nity Forestry Concession 5. Provision o f Tourism Services 6. Strengthening in Training and Equipment of the Tourism Commission 7. Tourism Infrastructure 8. Other Provis ons America, David, Julio and I went to Uaxactun to present the draft version to the community a nd the tourism commission on a projector. To announce the meeting to the co mmunity the Coordinator of the Tourism Commission went door to door to pass out announcements on pieces of paper that say where and Julio (right) explaining the regulation David presenting the regulation and America editing the document as the community comments on changes.

PAGE 8

when the meeting was to be held (9:00 am Saturday , July 9 th ) and that the meeting was about the internal regulation. The influence of travel and tourism on a community is significant. Most obviously, tourists bring revenue. However, how this revenue is attracted and the number of people who reap the ben efits vary greatly. S o does the way the money is spent and how it is reinvested (Hatton , 1999 ). The main objective should be to achieve broad and equitable benefits throughout the community. Issues of gender may also be important , and ecotourism can provid e good opportunities for women (www.icrtourism.org). To ensure equitable benefits to the community and mitigate corruption, the Uaxactun Tourism Commission (UTC) has included a section regarding the management of funds in their internal regulation which a ssigns a certain percentage of earnings to be invested in community benefit projects. The regulation states that profits will not be distributed among the members of the commission. Forty percent must be invested in productive and social projects that bene fit the community ; the Commission o f Tourism, COCODE and OMYC and will be responsible for deciding such use. Community Development Councils (COCODEs) were introduced into the Guatemalan polity as part of the 1996 peace accord that ended 36 years of civil w ar. Running parallel to the traditional electoral flow chart of governors and mayors, the COCODEs are designed to decentralize power and allow greater community participation ( www.waterandnature.org ). Also included in the internal regulation is an article for the rotations of tour guides of Uaxact œ n. Before the internal regulation was developed a major source of internal conflict occurred because certain tour guides were accused of monopolizing access to the tourists. A calendar of assigned shifts for gui des then this will create equitable income among the guides and reduce conflict. Survey s S urvey s w ere developed jointly by myself , WCS and Association Balam during meetings in Flores . The purpose of these survey s was to collect preliminary survey data and to inf orm my impression regarding the community of Uaxactœn's perspective on tourism, infrastructure needs and other issues related to tourism development. We also included questions to gain a perspective of the community's attitude towards the Tourism Commission of Uaxactun. The target groups for the survey s included: • Local population of Uaxactun • Tourists in Tikal • Service providers and t our guides in Uaxactun • Travel agencies in Flores Local Population of Uaxac tun : N=88

PAGE 9

Age Distribution -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 12 to 15 20 to 23 28 to 31 36 to 40 45 to 48 Age Groups Number in age group M F The surveys in the commun ity of Uaxactun and with the tourists in Tikal were conducted as a varied, convenience sample and therefore the results are not representative of the target populations ; they have potential for bias and are missing data . The surveys were designed with op en ended questions in order to obtain some quick baseline data and to access the respondents' impression on an issue to provide some context for the situation. I conducted the local population survey during June and July, 2011 . I passed out surveys to mem bers of the Tourism Commission and about fifteen highschool students in Uaxactun who each filled out a survey themselves and took one home to their parents which were later returned to me. The rest of the surveys I conducted by walking house to house, some times with assistance from America Rodriguez and sometimes with my Costa Rican husband and sometimes I went alone. The community survey consisted of 19 questions and took 15 20 minutes to complete. Figure 4 gives the age distribution for my community sampl e showing some bias towards the younger population. According to this survey it is apparent that almost all respondents think tourism should be developed, however the results of this survey may be somewhat biased because the community knew that the survey was about tourism. Some of the main findings of the community survey were that • 98% of respondents said that tourism should be developed in Uaxactun. • 27% said tourism is the most important project for the community as shown in figure 5 . About half the respondents cited education and other basic infrastructure needs. • The l ack of security, transportation, and advertising were cited as the 3 main things affecting tourism. • 70% said that the "Tourism Commission is not well organized" and gave reasons why. For example, S ample 1 below say s "th ere is a lot of jealousy among themselves" and that to improve the commission they should learn English and not be envious of each other. Sample 2 says that the commission should make a tourist network, and that NGOs should support communities more . Figure 4: Age distribution of community respondent s Figure 5: Community survey question

PAGE 10

Sample 1 Sample 2 ! Harvesting of NTFPs is currently the most important economic activity for the community however, tourism was the most frequently cited project for future importance for the community, overtaking even the traditional NTFP. Only 1% of respondents cited wood as what would be the most important activity for the community which reflects the community's long history of dependence on non timber forest products. These results also indicate that basic services access still is an issue for some community members, which could suggest the need to invest in these improvements as a means to benefit the whole community. Is it also evident that the respondents are not satisfied with the Tourism Commission although they are willing to financially support them if there were more benefits to the community and less internal conflict. During the survey it was interesting to observe that the respondents s eemed more open to complaining about the Tourism Commission when I surveyed with my husband (he would start out the conversation by saying he's heard some negative rumors about the Commission) compared to when I surveyed with staff from WCS. This observati on serves as a reminder that some community members may not always express their true feelings to NGOs who work in the community. Tourists in Tikal : N=109 Prototype tourist packages and Willingness to Pay graphs (Appendix IV) I worked with David Ve ntura to develop hypothetical tourist packages in English and Spanish using powerpoint. The purpose of this was to collect willingness to pay data from tourists in Tikal for tourist packages to Uaxactun with transportation from Flores. The layout of the pa ckages consists of first an aerial photo of the village of Uaxactun with a short description of Jennifer Carr and tourism expert David Ventura using powerpoint to develop tourism packages

PAGE 11

background of the community, and then a map of the Peten highlighting the route from Flores to Uaxactun on the second page, followed by the three packages with ; 1day; 2 day/1 night; and 3 day/2 night options that show images from Uaxactun and gives a description of the trip. Having decided on doing a survey when I was already in the field I was somewhat unprepared for data collection/ analysis g oing into the fiel d and I hadn't had any classes in tourism. To the community I presented simple graphs of the number of responses for each price range that I grouped together. T he descriptions in the packages were unclear as to the quality of the accommodations that were b eing offered, which was a major concern for the tourists. I also think I should have asked the tourists about their income , because of the wide variations in price ranges they gave me. The packages were p rinted on glossy paper with plastic covering and 19 Ring plastic binding c ombs . Tikal is a focal point for the majority of tourists that visit the PetŽn. Tikal National Park was chosen in previous studies of Uaxactun as the location to conduct a tourist survey because of the high visitation rate and its p roximity to Uaxactœn. Essentially all potential tourists to Uaxactœn would also visit Tikal when in the region. The ruins of Tikal are incomparable to those of other nearby sites, both in the quantity and size of the ruins and the extensive amount of exca vation and rehabilitation that has occurred there. Tikal hosts approximately 500 visitors per day, accounting for over 15% of all tourists that visit Guatemala (UNESCO , 2005). Within Tikal National Park, the Grand Plaza was selected as the main location of participant solicitation. This location was chosen because it is perhaps the only place within Tikal that attracts the entire pool of visitors to the park. It is relatively close to the entrance of the park and visitor center, exhibits a dense and impress ive ruin population, and provides plentiful benches and steps for relaxing or sitting in the shade. Tour groups, individuals, day visitors, overnight visitors, low budget and affluent travelers alike visit this particular location and most stop there to re st briefly. By using this as our solicitation site, we were able to capture a varied non random sample of all tourists in Tikal. S upport and approval from park officials was acquired before carrying out the survey . I conducted th e tourist survey in Tikal with help from two park staff. from June 9 th to 14 th which was towards the end of the 30 day state of siege that was declared in the PetŽn on May 17 th following the massacre of 27 farmers by the Mexican drug cartel, Los Zetas. A travel warning was issued telling people not to travel to the Peten, and a curfew was set and all the tourists in Flores disappeared over night. Guatemala has one of the highest violent crime rates in Latin America ("Guatemala country specific," 2011) which can deter tourists. The tourists were mostly from the US, and Europe or were Guatemalan residents. • 85% foreign tourists hadn't heard of Uaxactun Figure 6: Tourist survey question

PAGE 12

• 95% agreed it is important to have a kiosk in Tikal to promote Uaxactun • No one had heard of any tourist packages to Uaxactun, except for two residents • There is some debate between Tikal and Uaxactun about where exactly to build the kiosk . F igure 6 may be useful during discussions of where to locate the kiosk . Thirty five percent of respondents said the kiosk should be located at the entrance to the park but there are a lot of other possibilities. Service providers and tour guides in Uaxactun N=37 From the guides and service providers I found that most are willing to give 5 Ð 10% of their income to the Tourism Commission if they saw more benefits to the community. Signs and services in the community are not sufficient for tourism because tourists need directional and informational signs so they can find their own way around. T ravel agencies in Flores N=12 Americ a Rodriguez of WC S conducted this survey with 12 travel agencies in Flores. Flores is the natural starting point for a visit to PetŽn's wild interior, as it is the region's transportation and services hub. Of the twelve tour operators nine did no t know how many lodges ther e are in Uaxactun of which there is only one . The tour operators are willing to use the services of local guides if certified a nd they suggested that Uaxactun receives capacitation for quality of service. Discussion Although tourism offer s an importan t alternative form of economic activity, it must b e seen as only one component of a larger series of development initiatives within any economic system ("Promotion of investment," 2011) . A destination that is entirely dependent on one source of income is m uch more vulnerable to change than an economy that is well diversified and has tourism as just one of its industries. Therefore, it is important for Uaxactun to not only continue expanding their sources of income but consider broader development strategies The operation of tourism facilities, s ervices and amenities are often dependent on a number of travel infrastructure networks. These networks may include transportation, water supply, energy/power, waste disposal and telecommunications ("Promotion of inve stment," 2011) most of which Uaxactun is deficient . The most usual case in tourism development is for infrastructure development to come before the completion of tourism facilities , such as the prospective tourist kiosk in Tikal. Uaxactun has t wo radio pho nes which are the town's only means of telecommunications access. Electricity is provided by a generator, but not all homes are electrified. Likewise, while most homes have access to running water, not all community members are in agreement as to whether o r not they

PAGE 13

want (or can afford) this luxury (Juska and Koenig, 2006) . According to field research conducted by Juska and Koenig in the summer of 2005, too few community members were willing or able to purchase fuel to run the water pump, and as a result, t he pump ceased to operate, and women and children added water collectio n to their daily tasks. As reflected in the community survey results , there are still basic infrastructure concerns that could influence tourism, therefore I believe investment in infr astructure is crucial and should take priority over the kiosk initiative. T he installation of infrastructure should be considered a public sector responsibility, with the cost for development contributing to the o verall costs of tourism development. ("Prom otion of investment," 2011) . Infrastructure development needs to be an integrated system that facilitate s non touri sm development within Uaxactun .and contributes to the economic welfare of the area. Future visiting students could assist the tourism commiss ion of Uaxactun to d evelop a monitoring and evaluation plan with sustainable development indicators to measure their progress in community based tourism development and adherence to the internal regulation. Another suggestion for a future student would be to facilitate future scenario s planning/ visioning exercise with the tourism commission of Uaxactun and facilitate communication between the commission and Tikal National Park directors. Future scenarios help communities think about dependency, vulnerabilit ies and ways to prepare for the future; the methods develop organizational capacity and encourage internal democratic processes and planning (Evans et al., 2008). Despite the original purpose of the MBR, deforestation kept occurring because of demograph ic pressure due to migration and fertility driven population growth. Th rough about 1970, the population of PetÂŽn was around 60,000. During the next 27 years, the population jumped to about 350,000 in 1997. Although this growth seems to have slowed down , t he sudden increase of the population has imposed negative impacts on the MBR through deforestation and land misuse (Shoka, 2006). In 2005, the United Nations' Millennium Ecosystem Assessment identified population growth as a principal indirect driver of en vironmental change. Population pressures in Uaxactun are leading to unsustainable forest harvest (Shoka, 2006) . Twenty eight percent of women in Guatemala want to use contraception but cannot due to limited access. As a result, Guatemala has the highest fe rtility rate in Latin America. The average woman in Guatemala will have more tha n four children in her lifetime ("Planned Parenthood", 2012). Therefore, I think a holistic development plan for Uaxactun should include family planning considerations, as we ll as increased education opportunities. However, in 2010 the Uaxactun community leader said there were some who feared the impacts of opportunities provided by the concession agreement, thinking that, with increased education, their children would leave the community and the village's way of life would be forever altered ("Conservation International", 2010). Therefore, I would suggest conducting focus groups in Uaxactun to gain insight into the community's perceptions pertaining to different development s trategies. Mother and children in Uaxactun

PAGE 14

References Alvarez, M. and French, L. (2006) Planning for ecotourism in UaxactÂœn, Guatemala . Masters Practicum, University of Michigan. Armstrong, Avery, Janet Hou, Alicia Malvar, Taylor Mclean, and Julien Pestiaux. 2010. Research brief #1 Community based Ecotourism . Cornell. Retrieved 5 May 2012 http://www2.dnr.cornell.edu/saw44/NTRES431/Products/Fall%202003/Module1/CBEess ay.pdf Bray, D.B., Duran, E., Ramos, V.H., Mas, J.F., Velazquez, A., McNab, R.B., Barry, D., Radachowsky, J., 2008. Tropical deforestation, community forests, and protected areas in the Maya Forest. Ecology and Society 13 (2), 56, < http:// www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art56/ >. "Community Leads Forest Protection Effort in Guatemala." Conservation International . N.p., 21 April 2010. Web. 6 May 2012. . "Guatemala Country Program." Planned Parenthood . Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc., 2012. Web. 6 May 2012. . Hatton, Michael. "The Character of Community Based Tourism." Tourism in the Asia Pacific . School of Media Studies at Humber College, 1999. Web. 7 May 2012. . International Council on Local Environmental Initiatives (1999). Tourism and sustainable development sustainable tourism: a local authority perspective Background Paper # 3 . Commission on Sustainable Development. New York. Juska, C. and Koenig, C. 2006. "Planning for Community Based Ecotourism in UaxactÂœn, Guatemala". A Master's Practicum completed for the School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan. Advised by Professor Ivette Perfecto and Associate Professor Arun Agrawal. Litow, P., Baker, M., Hildebrand, P. (2001) Swidden agriculture in a forest society: Livelihood strategies in the Maya Biosphere Reserve community of Uaxactun. McNab, R. (1999). Comparative impacts of chicle and xate harvests on wildlife of the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Masters thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.

PAGE 15

Hughes, Ross and Flintan, Fiona (2001) Integrating Conservation and Development Experience ,:, International Ins titute for Environment and Development http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/9080IIED.pdf Litow, P., M. Baker & P.E. Hildebrand. 2001. Swidden agri culture in a forest society: livelihood strategies in th e Maya Biosphere Reserve community of Uaxactœn, Peten, Gua temala. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education 8(3): 49 54. Salafsky, N. et al. (2001) ÔA Systematic Test of an Enterprise Strategy for Community Based Biodiversity Conservat ion', Conservation Biology 15(6): 1585 1595 Radachowsky, Jeremy, Victor Ramos, Roan McNab, Erick Baur, and Nikolay Kazakov . 2011. "Forest concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: A decade later." Forest Ecology and Management. n. page. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. . Regis, Emilina. "Conceptual Framework of Ecotourism." INECAR, January 2004. Web. 6 May 2012. . Schwartz, Norm an. 1990. Forest Society: A Social History of the Peten, Guatemala. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Shoka, D. (2006) An analysis of tourist preferences for the development of ecotourism in Uaxactœn, Guatemala, using choice experiments. Mas ters thesis, University of Michigan. Timeline: Guatemala. (2012, January 15). BBC News . Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1215811.stm UN ESCAP, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (2011). Promotion of investment in tourism infrastructure . Retrieved from website: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TPTS_pubs/pub_2133_tor.pdf U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs. (2011). Guatemala country specific information . Retrieved from websi te: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1129.html USAID/EGAT/Office of Natural Resources Management. MS. Washington, DC. USAID And Sustainable Tourism: Meeting Development Objectives . U.S. Agency for International Development, 19 Oct. 2005. W eb. 5 Mar. 2012. . http://www.conservation.org/global/csp/fmg/articles/Pages/Community_Forest_Protectio n_Guatemala.aspx http://www.un redd.org/AboutUNREDDProgramme/FAQs/tabid/586/Default.aspx

PAGE 16

A ppendices App endix I : Draft project profile for the implementation of a tourist kiosk in Tikal PROJECT PROFILE I. PROJECT CONTEXT 1. PROJECT NAME: "IMPLEMENTATION OF A N INFORMATION KIOSK ON THE SITE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL UAXACTUN Tikal, Maya Biosphere Reserve, Peten 2. ENTITY RESPONSIBLE FOR TOURIST ATTRACTION: Organization Management and Conservation of Uaxactun (OMYC) Tourism Commission. Air National Council of Protected Areas (CONAP). Guatemalan Inst itute of Tourism (INGUAT) Ministry of Culture and Sports (MICUDE). 3. RESPONSIBLE ENTITY OF THE PROJECT: The Tourism Commission and IDAEH Uaxactun 4. ADDRESS AND TELEPHONE NUMBER OF RES PONSIBLE ENTITY: Uaxactun village, Peten. 77833931, 78612558 Legal Representative of Uaxactun: Manuel Recinos Casasola.Cel 46015164 5. PROJECT LOCATION: 5.1 Tikal National Park 5.2 Region: 8 5.3 Department: Peten 5.4 Municipality: Flores. Georeferenced data: !"#$$%&' ( )*#+!,, Tikal National Park: UTM Z?

PAGE 17

6. DISTANCES (in miles) AND ACCESSIBILITY: Tikal National Park: • From Guatemala City: 305 .35 km • Uaxactun Village: 23 km III. Project Description 1 DESCRIPTION: The project is to install an informational kiosk to promote Tikal Uaxactun archaeological site. It is intended in the project ProfileCust omer lay the groundwork for the administration of the kiosk. is considered a priority to establish an informational kiosk to improve care Tikal tourism currently directed to sites that make up the 4 Balam as is the Mirador site, NakbŽ, T he Tintal, Wakna, Xulnal, Chuntuqui that make up the circuit Carmelita's Viewpoint Resort. This project will provide: 1. Restoration of basic infrastructure for the attention to tourism in the community of Carmelita (control booth, camping area, bathro oms, kitchen). 2. Promote the participation of local communities in developing community tourism, generating economic benefits. 3. Strengthen local capacity of the Cooperative and Tourism Commission to manage the infrastructure by fostering partnerships with companies and tour operators and ensuring support of organizations specializing in the subject. 2. BACKGROUND . Management and Conservation Organization (OMYC) is a community based Civil Society, established in 199 9 to ensure that the community of Uaxactun, founded nearly a century, obtains the rights to manage the forest in the Maya Biosphere Reserve ( RBM) in their traditional use area maintains excellent natural state to date. In 2000, the OMYC was successful in its struggle for years, finally managing to get the National Council of Protected Areas (CONAP) a contract of 25 years for a forest concession of 83.558 hectares, the largest in the MBR. The primary objective of the OMYC is "to promote social, cultural and economic development through the orderly management, conservation and sustainability of natural resources, cultural and archaeological sites." The social organizational structure consists of the General Assembly (Members of the OMYC), represented by a Boa rd of Directors (Representatives), an Advisory Council and a Committee or Commission for the most productive and / or projects.

PAGE 18

The Tourism Commission was created by OMYC to bring service providers together to increase tourism in Uaxactun According To the Agreement between the General Directorate of Cultural and Natural Heritage of the Ministry of Culture and Sports Management and Conservation Organization (OMYC) Discusses the duties and responsibilities and the General Directorate OMYC. An area authorized to serve information kiosk in the Tikal National Park, after technical review of the Administration on the location of the kiosk. This project focuses on the Implementation of an Information Kiosk located on Uaxactun Tikal National Park. 3. OBJECTIVES 3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES: a) Increase tourism in the community of Uaxactun b) employment Proeever Uaxactun c) Install capabilities in the Tourism Commission 3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES a) Build an informational kiosk T ikal b) Promote the tourist attractions of Uaxactun c) Provide information on transport between Tikal and Uaxactun 4. Goals a) Promote the development of community tourism in Uaxactun to generate economic benefits for the commun ity. b) Strengthening local capacities for the Tourism Commission to manage the kiosk Uaxactun, promoting partnerships with companies and tour operators and ensuring the support of organizations specializing in the subject. 5. TOURIST MARKET THAT FOCUSES THE PROJECT: Local, national and international levels. 6. PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED: The implementation of the project will address the following issues: A) The lack of security on the road between Tikal and Uaxactun is an impediment to tourism to Uaxactun.Implementation of safety between Tikal and Uaxactun is necessary to protect the tourists and increase tourism in Uaxactun.

PAGE 19

B) Strengthen and build local capacity of community groups to increase tourism quality in the provision of services currently performed as tour guides and small business community. C) Improving the quality of service within the community to make tourists feel comfortable and have a positive experience. D) Improve signage tourism services and archaeological sites of Uaxactun for the tourists who can target tourists and promote local services. III. BUDGET AND FINANCING: 1. ESTIMATED INITIAL COST OF THE PROJECT: 2.1 Preparatory phase: Q. 0.00 2.2 Implementation Phase: Q 000,000.00 2.3 Total Cost: 000,000.00 Q 2.4 Remedies: ----------------2.5 External Resources: $ 00,000.00 (USDOI) 2. MAINTENANCE COST OF THE PROJECT: 3.1 Monthly Q 0, 000.00 3.2 Annual Q 000, 000.0 0 3. SCHEDULE AND PLANNED DATES FOR HOME AND FINAL PHASE OF THE PROJECT: FINAL HOME 4.1 Preparatory phase: 4.2 Phase of Execution: 4.3 Dura tion of Project: PREPARATORY PHASE SCHEDULE: No LINE OF WORK MONTHS Preparatory Phase 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 January 2005 12 1 Topography 2 Construction plans 3 Technical Specification 4 Budget

PAGE 20

SCHEDULE OF PHASE OF CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION KIOSK AT TIKAL: No LINE OF WORK MONTHS 1 Kiosk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 January 2005 12 1 Cleaning and stump 2 Stroke and Level ing 3 Earthworks 3.1 Courts 3.2.hh Fillings 4 Foundations 5 ceiling 6 Floor construction 7 Labeling 4. ESTIMATE BUDGET Consecutive Line of Work Qty Units Unit Price Total price a) Q 1 Kiosk Module Q 2 Module sanitary toilets Q 3 Incidental expenses Q 4 Q Q 5 Total Cost Q 000,000.00 USDOI Finance (Department of the Interior EU). Q 000,000.00 TOTAL COST INVESTMENT PROJECT. Q000, 000.00 5. FINANCING SOURCE 1.1 Municipal: _____ 1.2 Social Funds: _____ 1.3 Local Bank Loan: _____ 1.4 International Loan: _____ 1.5 Community (Uaxactun) 1.6 Joint Funding: _____ 1.7 State Institution INGUAT, CODEDE PETEN.

PAGE 21

1.8 Other _____ IV. CURRENT PROJECT STATUS This year in conjunction with the INGUAT, the Touri sm Commission OMYC, COCODES, ACOFOP, Balam Association, have been identified and concensuado: a) The location of infrastructure b) The designs and types of infrastructure c) The initial structure for managing the infrastructure. d) The need to harmonize the project with other initiatives such as the PDP RBM 1. STAGE IN WHICH THE PROJECT IS ADVANCE DATE Pre investment stage 1.1 Idea _ ________________ 100% 1.2 Profile Jun. 1.3 Feasibility studies: 100% ________ 1.4 Feasibility Studies: 100% ________ 1.5 Design 100% ________ Stage of Investment (at this stage begins in March 2011 with the construction). 1.6 Execution _0% _________ Operation Phase: * (Only for physical work.). __________________ 1.7 Project Underway 2. PROJECT BENEFICIARIES (state their contribution to local development) Men's 2.1 National and international tourists. 2.3 National and In ternational Tourists Women. a) The current estimate is an average annual visitation of 000 tourists (domestic and international) in Uaxactun. b) With the construction of a kiosk information through this project is projected to increase visitation by XX% w ith an estimated 0.000 visitation of tourists a year. c) With respect to the Carmelite communities and Uaxactun, overall the estimated direct and indirect benefits of more than 180 families

PAGE 22

3. LEVEL OF JOBS CREATED: 3.1 Stage of Completion: 154 days / man 3.2 Stage of Operation: 365days / man 4. Impacts 4.1 IMPACT TOURISM 4.1.1. Positive X ___ 4.1.2 Neutral __________ 4.1.3 Negative __________ 4.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IM PACT 4.2.1 Positive: X ___ 4.2.2 Neutral: __________ 4.2.3 Negative: __________ SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT 4.3: 4.3.1 Positive: X ___ 4.3.2 Neutral: __________ 4.3.3 Negative: __________ 5. RESPONSIBLE FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: 5.1 Name: Byro n A. Castellanos Romero 5.2 Position: Executive Director 5.3 Institution: Asociaci—n Balam 5.4 Unit: 5.5 Location: Flores, PetŽn 5.6 Telephone: 7867 5048 Fax: 7867 5048 5.7 Email: bcastellanos@asociacionbalam.org Website: asociacionba lam.org We recommend the following documents: • Map where the site is located in the study. • Site plan and / or location • Project plans • Other documents supporting the project

PAGE 23

Appendix II : Draft Internal Regulation for the Tourism Commission of Uaxactun Rules for Community Tourism Commission, the Civil Society Organization, Management and Conservation OMYC and the Community Development Council, Uaxactun, Flores, PetŽn. RULES OF THE COMMITTEE ON COMMUNITY TOURISM VILLA GE OF UAXACTòN, multiple use zone Maya Biosphere Reserve, Flores, PetŽn CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1. L Objectives Regulation: This regulation aims at defining the operatio nal framework of the Tourism Commission Uaxactun Community, Organization, Management and Conservation OMYC in the context of community organizing. The regulations will function as a tool to strengthen community organization, increase the participation of its members and present administrative and financial schemes that allow lay the foundations for the definition of a strategic plan to define and order the provision of services, based on the capabilities group. The Tourism Commission, in due course will consist of volunteers within the community, all those actors and / or support persons involved in the development of tourism in the community. . ARTIC ULO 2.Application of Regulation: This regulation shall apply within the Tourism Commission and will be enforcement for the entire area of the Management Unit Uaxactun, community forest concession therefore must be ratified by the Civil Society OMYC and Community Development Council COCODE through a community assembly to take into account the members and n onmembers. Article 3. L Effective Regulation. The validity of these rules will be 5 (five) years from the date of approval. The Tourism Commission Uaxactun reserves the right to update and make amendments as long as they are under 50 +1 consensus of the m embers of the Tourism Commission, (it is understood that an hour after the meeting said, the total participants in the same, will be 100% of the assembly) and with the participation of civil society and OMYC COCODE. For this purpose the regulations must be ratified at the General Community. CHAPTER II Legal and Institutional Framework THE COMMISSION ON TOURISM. ARTICLE 4: Legal: All tourism activities in the Uaxactun concession area should be developed respecting the Protected Areas Law, Law on Protec tion of Cultural Heritage, and the guidelines established in the Concession Agreement and the General Management Plan Uaxactun. Article 5. Institutional Framework: The Community Tourism Commission is under the direction of Civil Society OMYC in coordinati on with the COCODE.F or implementation of tourism projects and activities in the concession area must have the endorsement of the Organization, who is the entity responsible for managing the grant.

PAGE 24

CHAPTER III THE COMMISSION ON TOURISM. Article 6: The Creation of the Tourism Commission. The Tourism Commission Uaxactun, must be represented by a Board that integrates figures Coordinator, Deputy Coordinator, Treasurer, Secretary and Members .. All members of the Tourism Commission will hold quarterly me etings, which inform the conduct of activities during the period (as scheduled and financial).At each meeting held, it must involve at least one representative and a representative of OMYC COCODE. ARTICLE 7: On the Head of the Coordination and Administra tion of the Tourism Commission. The Tourism Commission will have a coordinator, who is the person responsible for operating and development activities within the tourism commission. This is responsible for overseeing the development of activities under the guidelines established in the Annual Operating Plan Commission and compliance with these regulations. The Coordinator may be a member or otherwise, of the Tourism Commission and shall be selected in Tourism Commission meeting. ARTICLE 8. Functions of the Coordinator of the Tourism Commission. a) Participate in the design and development of operational plans of the community tourism commission. b) Promoting ownership and implementation of activities in the Community Tourism Commission. c ) Comply with and enforce the guidelines established in this regulation. d) Coordinate the planning and execution of activities in the Operational Plan Commission. e) Ensuring control of accounting office jointly with the Treasurer of th e Tourism Commission and the accounting department of the OMYC. f) Take control of equipment, with a corresponding liability inventory and cards, along with Secretariat. g) Design and develop strategies to promote community tourism activities . h) Encourage and support the participation of members of the committee on tourism development activities. i) Coordinate and support the formation of teams, taking into account the needs of the Tourism Commission. j) Keep the spirit of teamwork, and promote efforts to achieve common goals. k) To promote conflict resolution in a peaceful and respectful relationship between the members of the Commission. l) Propose solutions to the problems found on the basis of values and expectations of those involved. m) Listen and respect the views of members of the Tourism Commission. n) Perform their duties ethically and professionally o) Support the preparation of quarterly reports (of the planned activities, pro grammatic, and financial) to the Tourism Commission, to be submitted to the OMYC already COCODE. p) Coordinate with the Board the implementation of promotion and marketing of tourism services provided by the Tourism Commission.

PAGE 25

q) Submit a mont hly report of activities, the Board of the Tourism Commission with a copy to the OMYC already COCODE. r) To evaluate the performance of activities planned in the Annual Operating Plan. s) Convene in coordination with the secretary to the meet ings of the tourism commission, which at the time deemed appropriate. t) Prepare agendas and reports, together with the Secretary of each of the meetings of the Board and the Tourism Commission. u) Coordinate and implement an annual work plan of the Tourism Commission jointly with the Organization and OMYC COCODE. v) Provide quarterly reports of planned activities and financial Tourism Commission and the OMYC COCODE. w) To ensure strict compliance with this regulation, promoting its implementation and promoting their socialization to members of the commission and other entities. x) Representing the Tourism Commission in all those meetings or initiatives that deal with tourism development promoted by any other instance in the com munity, in accompanying OMYC and COCODE. y) Representing the Tourism Commission to the government bodies, NGOs and community groups in other geographical areas related to tourism, in accompanying OMYC and COCODE. z) Other as assigned according to the nature of his position. ARTICLE 9: Functions of the Sub Commission Coordinator. The duties of the vice president are: a) Participate in the design and development of operational plans of the community tourism commission. b) Comply with and enforce the guidelines established in this regulation. c) Supporting the design and development of strategies that promote community tourism activities. d) Represent the President in the absence of this, both in the community, and in those meetings scheduled at whatever you delegate. e) Support the President of the Commission in implementing the Annual Work Plan of the Tourism Commission. f) Supporting the President in the implementation and socialization of these regula tions. g) Provide support to the President and Board of Directors in all those activities aimed at promoting the strengthening of the Community Tourism Commission. h) To evaluate the performance of activities planned in the Annual Operating Pla n. i) Develop those activities assigned by the President. ARTICLE 10: Duties of the Secretary of the Tourism Commission. The duties of the secretary are: a) Support the President of the Tourism Commission in calls to meetings. b) Keeping track of records and reports of meetings of Board of Directors and members of the Commission and jointly produce quarterly reports for.

PAGE 26

c) Keeping track of correspondence sent and received from the Tourism Commission, and socialize the pers on concerned. d) Bring the administrative control of material resources owned by the Tourism Commission. e) Accompanying the President of the Tourism Commission at those meetings that it considers necessary. f) Serve and educate the pub lic in case you need information. ARTICLE 11: Duties of the Treasurer of the Tourism Commission. The duties of the treasurer are: a) Ensure that the annual operating plan of the Tourism Commission to include the financial plan for the implementa tion of activities. b) Carry the registration and control of the finances of the Tourism Commission, under the supervision of Financial Management OMYC also control and inventory of equipment owned by the Commission. c) Using a financial contr ol framework across formats established by the Administration and Management of OMYC. d) Provide monthly reports of the financial performance of the Tourism Commission of the Organization with OMYC COCODE present. e) Comply fully with budget pl anning in the annual operating plan of the Tourism Commission. f) Transparently manage the financial resources of the Tourism Commission and keep the files in the offices of the OMYC to receive the advice of management accounting in the documentati on. Article 12: Functions of VOCAL I Tourism Commission. The functions of Vocal I: a) Support members of the Tourism Commission in all those activities aimed at implementing the Annual Operating Plan. b) Replace the President, Vice Preside nt, Treasurer, Secretary in the temporary absence and / or definitive of them, provided they are ratified by the Commission. c) Participate in all the meetings convened by the Tourism Commission. d) Comply with the specific functions delegated by the President and / or the Board of the Tourism Commission. e) Other members may participate in all other activities that may be called. Article 13: Term and election of the Board of the Tourism Commission. The Board of the Tourism Commission s hall be elected every two years, thus ensuring a medium term work. The board elections should not promote the change of more than 50% of the members of the board, for a period equal or similar. May be elected all those members who are members of the tou rism commission and participation is active, it can promote changes in the board when identifying non compliance of any of its members and / or end of period; provided it is approved by fifty plus one (50 +1) of all participants in the regular and special meetings of the Tourism Commission ..

PAGE 27

ARTICLE 14: The quality and profile of the new members of the Tourism Commission. The tourism commission shall once a year to promote the integration of new members to the commission, provided they meet the follow ing requirements. a) persons recognized as honorable and community partners. b) linking or experience in the tourism activity. c) that are active, well behaved, transparent and have not been generating conflicts in the community. ARTICLE 15. Inte gration of new members to the Tourism Commission: Membership of the committee members and nonmembers people of the Organization., Individuals must file a written request to the board of the Tourism Commission with the approval of at least two members of th e Commission.It should promote the participation of youth and women. CHAPTER III ADMNISTRATIVA STRUCTURE, OPERATING AND FINANCIAL THE COMMISSION ON TOURISM. ARTICLE 16: Administrative Structure: The Tourism Commission shall have an administrative st ructure with representation from the OMYC Board in coordination with the COCODE. To this end it is proposed that the Tourism Commission have a space physicist at the office OMYC or other spaces that are appropriate. ARTICLE 17: Administrative and Financi al Structure: The Tourism Commission will have a financial structure that is under the scheme of administrative and financial OMYC a) The Tourism Commission will develop its accounting and financial operations in accordance with the guidelines and rules established by the OMYC b) The Commission must have a bank account for the specific use of funds. c) The bank account should be recorded as a "Derivative Account" on OMYC so should be subject to all administrative and financial guideli nes of the Organization to fulfill legal commitments to the Superintendency of Tax Administration SAT , Controller of Account and Banking Law. d) The account must be operated by joint signatures which will be as follows: a) Signature of Legal Repres entative OMYC (Mandatory) b) Signature of the Coordinator of the Tourism Commission and / or Treasurer of the Tourism Commission. e) The OMYC provide administrative and financial guidelines that enable proper handling of the economic resources of the commission. f) The Tourism Commission will prepare a quarterly report that includes financial and program activities during the period. g) The Tourism Commission will repay the value of taxes for the use of each of the bills OMYC. h) 1 00% of the funds should be handled in specific accounts of the tourism commission. Donations of:

PAGE 28

• The OMYC provide a donation receipt if necessary, by raising funds and their use will be based on established guidelines to be decided by mutual agreement with the Commission and the OMYC. ARTICLE 18: On the use of the proceeds from tourism activities. Do not allow the distribution of profits among the members of the commission. L as profits or earnings resulting from the activity of tourism shou ld be used as follows. a) 40% for Uaxactun Tourism Commission, which must be inverted for operation, equipment and training. b) 40% must be invested in productive and social projects that benefit the community.The Committee on Tourism, COCODE OMYC and will be responsible for deciding such use. c) The remaining 10% shall be for the OMYC as the legal entity under which the tourism commission work. ARTICLE 19: Operational Structure. All activities of the Tourism Commission should be subj ect to an Annual Operating Plan which will form part of the Operational Plan of the Organization OMYC , those responsible in the implementation of activities will be the Coordinator and the Board of the Commission. ARTICLE 20. Formulation of the Operatio nal Plan of the Commission on Tourism. The Annual Operating Plan of the Tourism Commission must be made parallel to OMYC Operational Plan and must be complied with planned activities during the period. The formulation of the Operational Plan must include the participation of most members of the tourism commission and accompanied by members of the OMYC and COCODE. ARTICLE 21.Approval of Annual Operating Plan. This plan must be approved by the Board and members of the Tourism Commission and the OMYC and COC ODE. ARTICLE 22: Amendments to the Annual Operating Plan. Any amendment to the Annual Operating Plan Commission will be given according to the nature of the needs and must be made by consensus with the Board and the majority of its members and thereafter with the approval of the OMYC and COCODE. Chapter IV TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN THE COMMUNITY FORESTRY GRANT UAXACTòN ARTICLE 23: Tourism Activities. All tourism activities in the concession area (83.558 ha) shall be conducted within the framework of the Tourism Commission Uaxactun Community, and the guidelines of the Civil Society Organization, OMYC. All activities must comply with the rules and regulations established by the Law on Protected Areas, Cultural Heritage Act, the Concession Agreement and P lan of Operation. ARTICLE 24: Activities outside the framework of the Commission. All those tourism activities that are not within the Commission and the Annual Operating Plan, not the responsibility of the commission.

PAGE 29

In case of any problems related to tourism, the Tourism Commission must inform the OMYC, SC Assistant to the Mayor and follow proper procedures, if necessary, passed at the behest of the National Council of Protected Areas CONAP The Institute of Anthropology and History IDAEH and the Gu atemalan Institute of Tourism INGUAT to implement corrective measures. CHAPTER V PROVISION OF TOURISM Article 25: Provision of Tourism Services. The Tourism Commission will be the official body of the community dedicated to the provision of tourism ser vices. Therefore all developed tourism in the area of community forest concessions and other areas adjacent to the concession should be made through the Tourism Commission. To this end the Tourism Commission will develop an information system that offers service packages, which contain information on the types of service, focus areas, and other costs. Article 26: Definition of the Offer of Tourism. The Tourism Commission will define a range of tourist services, based on the capabilities of the commission, which shall form part of a business platform wit h local tour operators, domestic and foreign. For this purpose provides assistance and support to the Tourism Commission through organizations that support the topic. ARTICLE 27: Merchandising and Marketing of tourism services. This should be develop ed by the Tourism Commission, through its Board and its Coordinator. The promotion and marketing campaign should include at least the following: a) Update on the tourism aspects in Uaxactun. b) Development of tourism packages in the Manag ement Unit. c) Strategic alliances with tour operators. d) Website. e) Linking to the marketing of INGUAT page. f) Linking to regional tourism fairs, national and international, with the Ministry of Economy. ARTICLE 28.Strategi c Alliances with the Business Tourism sector. The Tourism Commission should promote strategic alliances with Government Agencies, Tour Operators, Travel Agencies, Hotels and Restaurants in order to increase tourism opportunities in the area. ARTICLE 29. Of the rates and prices of tourism services. The definition of the rates and prices of tourism services should be supported under the criteria of economic profitability, and be commensurate with the capacity and quality of services provided by the Commissio n. Fees must be agreed between providers of service within the community, and must have the approval of the Tourism Commission of the OMYC.

PAGE 30

ARTICLE 30: The guiaje within the concession. All activities in the field of tourism in the areas of management unit Uaxactun requiring guiaje must count on the support of a community guide. ARTICLE 31: In the slot allocation for guiaje tourists. The Tourism Commission will adopt a schedule of shifts to provide services guiaje and services. The schedule shall provide for the community guides turns, turns for the rental of mules / vehicles according to their availability, equipment rental and others linked to this activity. Those tour guides and others who can not fulfill their assigned shift, the shift shoul d give the person that corresponds to the roster and shall not assign any guide appointed by them, those guides are not will have to Q50.00 fined, when not justified the absence of this .. Article 32: Community tour guides. All tour guides Uaxactun Commu nity, shall be approved and accredited by a specific uniform card and awarded by the Tourism Commission, this guide does not carry the hallmarks nominated for its work, shall be fined in the amount of Q50.00 The Tourism Commission Uaxactun, reserves the right to sue those who engage in activity without any accreditation. ARTICLE 33.Accreditation of community tourism guide to the INGUAT: The Tourism Commission will promote accreditation Uaxactun their community guides to the Guatemalan Institute of Tour ism INGUAT ARTICLE 34.Training for Community Tourism Guide. The community tourism guide of the Tourism Commission will be subject to a systematic training plan and ongoing evaluation, the Commission reserves the right to veto the participation in the eve nt of deficiencies found and / or abnormalities in the development of activities. ARTICLE 35.Suspension of accreditation to community tourism guides. Will be subject to suspension of authorization and accreditation those tour guides that do not comply w ith the provisions of this regulation and the basic rules for behavior, attention to tourism and implementation of environmental mitigation measures. The sanctions tour guides should be made as follows. a) Wake up call for those writing guides w ho miss meetings and trainings without any justification, contrary to the interests of the tourism commission. b) Economic sanctions, which shall be defined by members of the Commission, as the corresponding lack where: • Q5.00 for those mem bers who miss scheduled meetings. • Q 50.00 for members who miss their shifts without notice. • Q100.00 for those members who leave the training with no justification developed in the framework of the tourism commission. c) Temporary suspension in the Tourism Commission for those committee members who violate the articles of this regulation.

PAGE 31

d) Final suspension in the Tourism Commission for those members who are repeat contravene the guidelines in this regulation and / or are caught in criminal acts in and out of the Management Unit.In the latter case the Tourism Commission must promote to the cancellation of the license INGUAT. ARTICLE 36: In the basic rules of the persons providing tourism services in the Commission. It sho uld make a special section and linked to these rules a manual of basic rules for behavior, measures to mitigate the environmental impact (solid waste, protection of water sources, roads). Article 37: Of the contributions to the commission by the service providers. All service providers who benefit from activities through tourism commission must contribute 5% of total earnings in the activity. CHAPTER VI STRENGTHENING IN TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT TO THE COMMITTEE ON TOURISM Article 38: Training Plan. The Tourism Commission will develop a training plan for members of the Commission. This plan must consider issues of strengthening the organization focus to socialize, and implement these regulations. Training on community guides, training in service deliver y, marketing and strategic alliances. The training plan should at least focus on: English Language, Basic Script on the area of influence, Pocketbook, attention to tourism, food services, natural and cultural interpretation, First Aid, Crafts, and oth ers considered based to the needs identified in the development of activities. Article 39: Implementation of the Training Plan. The Tourism Commission will carry out efforts to have the support of governmental and nongovernmental implementation (operatio nalization) Training Plan, which must be endorsed and channeled by the OMYC. This plan shall contain a schedule prioritizing the training based on identified needs. ARTICLE 40: Equipment for the Tourism Commission. Based on a needs assessment of equipmen t, you must implement a plan of equipment to the Tourism Commission which shall be endorsed and channeled by the OMYC. This equipment plan must be focused on the following areas: a. Equipment for the administrative office and b. Equipment for the provi sion of services. ARTICLE 41: The management for the equipment. The Tourism Commission jointly with the OMYC, the COCODE, and support organizations for the formulation of projects and initiatives focused on the acquisition of funds to operate. CHAP TER VII TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT UNIT

PAGE 32

ARTICLE 42: In the infrastructure in the community of Uaxactun: The Tourism Commission jointly with the COCODE OMYC and promote the construction of infrastructure to develop tourism activities. The needs a nd type of infrastructure in place, should be defined by the Tourism Commission, the COCODE OMYC and Uaxactun. The Commission and the OMYC promote negotiations with government agencies, nongovernmental organizations and cooperation mechanisms to provide su pport and assistance necessary for the design and construction of infrastructure for tourism services. ARTICLE 43: The maintenance and management of tourism infrastructure Uaxactun. The Tourism Commission and in conjunction with the COCODE OMYC have the exclusive right to manage all tourism infrastructure is built in the community. For this purpose be defined mechanisms for administration of this infrastructure. ARTICLE 44: Coordination and Management for the Construction of Tourism Infrastructure. The Tourism Commission and OMYC, with the support of COCODE will be responsible for coordinating the entire process of managing financial resources to build infrastructure for tourist services. ARTICLE 45.Construction of tourism infrastructure. The Committ ee on Tourism, COCODE OMYC and will be responsible for coordinating the construction of infrastructure in the Management Unit, who will provide according to their financial resources for capacity building of the same. In the case of projects co funded by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations and cooperation mechanisms are the responsibility of the Tourism Commission and OMYC, ensure proper implementation and investment of resources allocated. ARTICLE 46.Management for the Security of Touri sm. The Tourism Commission jointly with the Assistant Mayor OMYC and make the necessary arrangements with the relevant authorities in order to strengthen and provide security to tourists in the Management Unit Uaxactun. ARTICLE 47.Donations to the Touri sm Commission. All those donations to the Tourism Commission must be submitted in the framework of coordination between the Commission and OMYC. The Organization shall provide and ensure that all those donations to the Tourism Commission to be delivered in full and invested according to budget planning. CHAPTER VIII OTHER PROVISIONS ARTICLE 48. Controversies and Disputes. Any controversy or dispute arising from the implementation of this regulation shall be resolved through dialogue between the partie s, Tourism Commission, and COCODE OMYC. ARTICLE 49.Unforeseen situations. Any situation not covered by these regulations shall be incorporated through an amendment thereto, prior approval of fifty percent plus one (50% +1) of the members of the Commission , and the COCODE OMYC.

PAGE 33

ARTICLE 50.In the penalty to members of the Tourism Commission: E ach member of the Tourism Commission that does not comply with the provisions of these regulations shall be punished first by over a verbal wakeup call: second and third suspension in writing final tourism activities in the community of Uaxactun. ARTICLE 51.The adoption of this regulation. This regulation must be approved by more than 50 +1 of the members of the Tourism Commission to attend the meeting, which shall be informed in Community General Assembly and accompanied by the minutes of that meeting held for approval. Article 52 of the participation in meetings / Quorum. At meetings convened by the tourism commission, it is understood that all participants give n an hour after the event, will be the total of 100%, who can make changes and decisions approved by the 50 +1 of the total attending the meeting. (Signatures of the members of the Tourism Commission)

PAGE 34

Appendix III: Survey Results Local Population of U axactun Demographics Sex # Responses Female 33 Male 49 No Response 6 Total 88 !"#$%&'() $ * $ + $ !$-./-!% % $ !+-./-!* !! , $&-./-$, !& " $0-./-$" + 0 $)-./-,! 0 , ,$-./-,% $ , ,+-./-0& & 0 0! ( 00 ! 0 0%-./-0) , & 0*-1 0 0 ,'-./ $ 01 $ 20 $ Age Distribution -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 12 to 15 20 to 23 28 to 31 36 to 40 45 to 48 Age Groups Number in age group M F

PAGE 35

1. What would be the most important project for the community of Uaxactun ? Responses # Responses Educ ation 16 Tourism 23 Xate/chicle/pimienta 18 Light/eletrificati on 8 Potable Water 9 Capacitation for the use of natural re sources 4 Cleaning t he village 2 Arte sanry 2 Improving the road 2 Wood 1 No response 3 Total 88

PAGE 36

2. What do you currently consider the most important economic activity in the community? Res ponses # Responses Xate/chicle/pimienta 77 Timber resource s 2 Turismo 4 Artesania 2 No contesta 3 Total 88 3. Do you think that community based tourism should be developed in Uaxactun? Resp onses # Responses Yes 86 No Response 2 Total 88 4. Do you think that tourism has generated jobs for th e people of Uaxactun? Res ponses # Responses No 21 SÂ’ 61 No Response 6 Total 88

PAGE 37

5. Do you think community tourism as an economic alternative for the community? Resp onses # Responses Yes 80 No 4 No Response 4 Total 88 6. What is the main pro blem affecting the tourist trade in Uaxactun? Re sponses # Responses Lack of security 23 Lack of publicity 36 Lack of Transportation 26 Road in poor condition 1 No Response 2 Total 88 7. Which of the current and potential attractions of Uaxactu n you consider most important? Resp onses # Responses Cultu ral 2 Ar chaeology and nature 36 Ar chaeology 16 Natur e 9 Artisanry, archaeology , and natur e 22 No Response 3 Total 88

PAGE 38

8. Do you think tourism services in the community are improving? Resp ons es # Responses Yes 56 No 28 No Response 4 Total 88 9. Would you like to work in tourism activity in the community? Res ponses # Responses Yes 83 No 2 No Response 3 Total 88 10. Do you know the types of services offered to tourists in the community? What other services or products should be offered to tourism? • Feeding • Jungle Tour • Horse Tour • Tour of ecological • Crafts • Better camping Res ponse # Responses Yes 67 No 12 No Response 9 Total 88

PAGE 39

• Food • Lodging • Security • Tour in English • Services of guides • Products and woven so • Tour of medicinal plants • Showers • Bird Tour • Adventure 11. Have you received any training? In what? Resp onses # Responses Yes 53 No 32 No response 3 Total 88 • Feeding • Beverages • Languages • Guide • Self management • Crafts • GPS • Pi–atas • Wildland Fire Tr aining 12. Would you be interested to you participate in a training program? In what? Res ponses # Responses Yes 84 No 2 No Response 2 Total 88

PAGE 40

Other • Sewing • Self management • Firefighter wildfires • Maya Cosmo vision • Processing of medicinal plants • First Aid • GPS 13. Do you think that the signs of archaeological sites and services within the community is enough? Why? Respondents commented that there needs to be more signs for the following reasons: • Need more signs. • The signs are damaged • Lack of information • There are tourists who do not want to guide • In general, tourists are lost • There are some signs that they may not see or understand • The tourists will realize what is offered at Uaxactun • The tourists need to orient themselves and get to places • You do not see many signs • The tourists are confused without signs Res ponses # Responses Food 24 Guide/ tourism 22 Languages 23 Ot her 8 No response 11 Total 88 Respuestas # Entrevistados S’ 21 No 64 No Contesta 3 Total 88

PAGE 41

14. Do you know the means of promotion for tourism activities in Uaxactun? Respuestas # Entrevistados SÂ’ 63 No 18 No Contesta 7 Total 88 Which of means of promotion of tourism activities in Uaxactun do you know? Respuestas # Entrevistados Only poster for the Equinoccio festival 33 Gu ides and travel agencies 12 Web Page 2 TV/Radio 2 Map s/ Broc hures 13 No Response 8 Doesn't know 18 Total 88

PAGE 42

15. Do you think it is important that the Tourism Commission make alliances with tour operators to promote visitation at Uaxactun? Do you know any company to suggest? The suggestions of tour operators companies and NGOs to promote Uaxactun are as follows: • Aventuras Mayas • San Juan • Explore • INGUAT • Mundo Maya • WCS • Balam • Genesis Business • STP Guatemala • Adventure Tourism • Camtur • Mundo Maya 16. Do you think that the Tourism Commission Uaxactun Community is well organized? Responses to why the commission is not well organized are: • They lack communication • Are not bonded • They lack information • They don't encourage people Respuestas # Entrevistados Yes 82 No 3 No Contesta 3 Total 88 Respuestas # Entrevistados S’ 24 No 61 No Contesta 3 Total 88

PAGE 43

• They lack initiative • Do not coordinate well • They lack training • There is jealousy, selfishness, and envy among themselves • They are not professional • No vision • Not everyone works the same • There are many conflicts • Have not seen benefits to the community 17. How do you think the Tourism Commission could be improved to benefit the community? Respuestas # Personas Working together and the community 29 Training and Organization 38 More support 10 Rotate tourist s with businesses 3 Make network of companies 2 No reply 6 Total 88 Other comments: • The Tourism Commission needs support from other institutions. • Let us support tourism and that is our future. • There is little tourism. • Come more tourism. • The Tourism Commission has to be well organized to do projects. • We need support from other companies. • We must improve the bathrooms. • Must be binding on the Commission. • I do not know how is Tourism Commission because they don't provide information to the community. • We have a variety to offer to tourism. • No materials to improve, the cost is very high leave, no benefits to the community only to the Commission. • The Co mmission has no vision. • At the equinox all are united.

PAGE 44

• We must train well and be well organized to carry on. • I hope the survey can make profits. • The Commission needs to promote and develop services. • All in Uaxac tun have to agree. • It should consolidate the foundations of the Tourism Commission and legalize it. • That NGOs should support more communities. • There are young people without experience who want to take tourists because sometimes there is no certified guides available. • The Commission should be fair. • Thanks for joining us.

PAGE 45

Appendix IV: Prototype tourist packages Background of the Community of Uaxactun Uaxact œ n is a community with more than 100 years of history , located 23 km north of Tikal National Park and 86 km from the departamental head of " Flores " ; with an archaeological site with the same name as " Uaxact œ n " ; with a population of 960 inhabitants that live by sustainable resource use activities from the forest, and today maintains more than 90% of the forest cover intact . Uaxact œ n Tikal Flores Access Route LEGEND Source :

PAGE 46

Package 1 ( TraditionalUaxact œ n /1 day) One day trip , introduces history and culture of Uaxact œ n Departure from the city of Flores towards Uaxact œ n by a 64 km stretch of highway and 23 km by gravel road ; where you can visit the oldest astronomical observatory in Mesoamerica and other structures ; observe the daily life of a forest community , where the residents have learned to live sustainably with their environment naturally and culturally .

PAGE 47

Package 2 ( Uaxact œ n Forest /2 days /1 night) Trip to learn about the history and culture of Uaxact œ n Have the opportunity to learn about the history , traditions and culture of the forest society of Uaxact œ n , go into the lush maya jungle to observe species of birds , mammals and more, also learn about activities of sustainable use and management and live with the families to learn about their daily lives .

PAGE 48

Package 3 ( Uaxact œ n Adventure /3 days /2 nights ) Learn about the history , culture and forest of Uaxactun Visit the oldest astronomical observatory in Mesoamerica and other structures ; observe the daily lives of residents and their sustainable living with their natural environment and their culture; go into the maya jungle to observe species of birds , mammals and more; activities of sustainable use and management . ( Optional Bicycle and / or Horse )