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Academic performance of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida

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Academic performance of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida
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Van Gelder, Eduard
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xi, 96 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.

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Thesis (Ed. D.)--University of Florida.
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Bibliography: leaves 88-95.
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Manuscript copy.
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Vita.

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1 . PL EOIMANCE~ OF BLACK FRES1hIEN 2\DT'cTi-ED TO COAPLNSATORY AND REGULAR PROC ERAMS AT TIE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA














By

EDUARD VAN GELDER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TIHE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1973
























































Copyright by
Eduard Van Gelder
1973

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This study was made possible through the cooperation, guidance, and assistance of various individuals.

To the mcnmbers of my committee I am deeply grateful

for their guidance, encouragement, and suggestions. It is with sincere appreciation that I thank Dr. James L. Wattenbarger, Da.. Dayton Y. Roberts, Dr. Thomas W. Cole, Dr. John M. Nickens, and Dr. Joseph S. Vandiver for permitting me to benefit from their experience and insight. Specifically, I am indebted to Dr. John M. Nickens for the many hours spent in guiding the research activities and for his patience.

The cooperation is gratefully acknowledged of Mr.

Richard H. Whitehead, University Registrar; Mr. Robert M. Feinberg, Assistant University Examiner; and Mr. Douglas I. Turner, Director of Financial Aid; who made it possible to gather the data for the study.

It is difficult to put into words my heartful gratitude to my wife and children who somehow endured it all.


iii



















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Review of the Literature. . . . . . . . . 3
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

II THE PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . . 29
The Need for the Study. . . . . . . . . . 30
Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . 33

III RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE. . . . . . . . 35

Description of Population . . . . . . . . 36
Collection of Data. . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Analysis of Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

IV FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

V CONCLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Implications for Further Research . . . . 75


APPENDICES


A DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANDED EDUCATIONAL
OPPORTUNITIES PROGRAM. . . . . . . . . .

B DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORIDA STATEWIDE
TWELFTH GRADE TESTING PROGRAM. . . . . .


. . 77


. . 79


iv











TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)


APPENDICES

C EXPLANATION OF DISCRIMINATE ANALYSIS . . ,

D RESULTS OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS FOR TWO
GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . .


V


Page

81


84 88 96

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Average high school grade-point average and
average Florida Twelfth Grade Test scores of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and
regular programs at the University of Florida
in 1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2 Number of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of
Florida in 1970, who came from all black or
integrated high schools. . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3 Number and average family income of black
freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular
programs at the University of Florida in 1970. 38

4 Number of black freshmen accepted to the
compensatory and regular programs at the
University of Florida in 1970 who came from
broken or intact homes . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5 Variable means by group and difference in
means. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

6 Linear combination F ratios resulting when one
or more variables are deleted from a combination of variables to discriminate between a
group of subjects making unsatisfactory progress
and a group of subjects making satisfactory
progress at the University of Florida. . . . . 46

7 Range, mean, and standard deviation of high school grade-point averages for students making
satisfactory academic progress (Group II) and
students making unsatisfactory academic progress
(Group I) at the University of Florida . . . . 48

8 Percentage of black students classified compensatory or regular who were making unsatisfactory
progress (Group I) or satisfactory progress
(Group II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


vi











LIST Lf TABLES (CONTINUED)


Table Page

9 Perccta< of sLudents classified in Group I
or Group Ti who were enrolled in either the
compensatory or regular programs . . . . . . . 50

10 Matrix of correlation coefficients for seven independent variables and grade-point average
earned at the University of Florida by 141
black studInts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

11 Means, sta-.dard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, a:>k proportion of variance (cumulative) for seven independent variables correlated with grade-point average earned at the University of
Florida b; 141 black students. . . . . . . . . 52

12 Correlaticns (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 141 black
students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

13 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 55 black
students rnaking unsatisfactory progress. . . . 55

14 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 86 black
students making satisfactory progress. . . . . 56

15 Matrix of correlation coefficients for four
independent variables and grade-point average
earned by 34 black students in the regular
section of Comprehensive Logic . . . . . . . . 59

16 Matrix of correlation coefficients for four
independent variables and grade-point average
earned by 55 black students in the special
section of Comprehensive Logic . . . . . . . . 59


vii











LIST OF TABLES (COITIUED)


Table Page

17 Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for four independent variables correlated
with grade earned in the regular section of
Comprehensive Logic by 34 black students . . . 60

18 Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for four independent variables correlated
with grade earned in the special section of
Comprehensive Logic by 55 black students . . . 61

19 Correlations (r) and multiDle correlations (R)
resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship
between the variables and grades received by
34 black students enrolled in the regular section
of Comprehensive Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

20 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R)
resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship
between the variables and grades received by
55 black students enrolled in the special section
of Comprehensive Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


viii










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctcr of Philosophy

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLACK FRESHMEN ADMITTED TO COMPENSATORY AND REGULAR PROGRAMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By

Eduard Van Gelder

December, 1973

Chairman: Dr. James L. Wattenbarger Co-Chairman: Dr. John M. Nickens Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision

This study inquired into the academic performance of 141 black students admitted to the University of Florida in 1970. Because they did not meet the admission requirements, 82 of the students had been assigned to the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program (EEOP) - a compensatory education program, designed to test whether students whose qualifications fell below the required standards for admission could with special assistance succeed at the University of Florida.

Specifically the study sought the answers to the

following questions: (1) Are there significant differences between black freshmen making satisfactory academic progress and black freshmen making unsatisfactory academic progress? and, (2) How well have black students, assigned to the compensatory program, performed academically as compared to black students admitted to the regular academic program? Indirectly, the study sought to evaluate the usefulness of


ix











the compensatory education program in relation to academic performance.

Independent variables included (1) participation in the compensatory or regular program, (2) high school gradepoint average, (3) Florida Twelfth Grade Test score, (4) graduation from integrated or non-integrated high school,

(5) sex, (6) marital status of parents, and (7) family income. The dependent variable was the overall gradepoint average earned at the University of Florida after three quarters. Students with an overall grade-point average of 2.0 or higher were considered to be making satisfactory academic progress. Students with an overall grade-point average of 1.9 or lower were considered to be making unsatisfactory progress.

The statistical treatments employed were a discriminant analysis for two groups using the Biomedical Computer Program, BMD04M, and a multiple regression analysis using the Biomedical Computer Program, BMD03R.

No significant differences were found between the two groups of black freshmen. For all practical purposes, the group making satisfactory academic progress and the group making unsatisfactory progress came from the same population. To a limited extent the two groups could be differentiated on the basis of high school grade-point average, an independent variable which was also found to have the strongest relationship to grade-point average earned at the University


x










of Florida. The findings of the study showed that for this particular group of black students the variables selected had little relationship to academic achievement. The findings also suggested that variables in addition to those selected will need to be investigated to learn more about the academic performance of black students at the University of Florida.

The results of the analyses brought into question (1) the reliance placed on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test as a means of selecting black freshmen for either the compensatory or the regular academic programs and (2) the usefulness of the compensatory education program. Furthermore, the reaching of conclusions in regard to the actual level of academic achievement attained by the students in the compensatory education program was made difficult by differences in grading practices.


xi

















CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


In 1964, the Educational Policies Commission of the National Education Association declared the time had come for accepting the idea that universal opportunity also applied to education beyond the high school. With the enactment of the Higher Education Act of 1965, the Congress committed this nation to that goal.

The ideal of equal opportunity for higher education for all Americans, regardless of race or economic circumstances, is slowly gaining acceptance but a century of separate and inferior education for Black Americans has created a significant disparity which has prevented black students from gaining admission to higher education, especially to colleges and universities with predominantly white students.

To overcome this disparity isa difficult task. Nevertheless, colleges and universities should be committed, legally and morally, to insure that access to higher education is not restricted because of race, color, or ethnic background. Toward the fulfillment of this goal, the Southern Regional Education Board's Commission on Higher Education (1967) commended to the educational leaders in the South


1







2


that "immediate steps . . . be taken to help Negro college students overcome the handicaps of educational disadvantage and cultural deprivation" [p. 1].

In 1970, the administration of the University of Florida took a step toward this goal when it admitted 141 black students, 82 of whom did not meet the minimum requirements for admission. These 82 students were enrolled in the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program (EEOP)--a compensatory education program designed to test whether students whose qualifications fell below the required standards for admission, could with special assistance, succeed at the University of Florida (for a description of the EEOP program see Appendix A).

Most of the 141 black students came from low income

families. Their educational achievements were such that when measured by traditional standardized instruments, the results would ordinarily have prevented them from gaining admission to the university system of the State of Florida.

To prepare the students in the compensatory program for matriculation in the regular college programs of the University of Florida, special services were provided throughout the freshman year such as tutoring, counseling, reading assistance and curriculum assistance.

With the inception of this project, the administration and faculty of the University of Florida expanded the opportunities for higher education to disadvantaged and minority






3


students. Tt ws tic University's first experience with compensatory edaatica designed to assist black students.


Review of the Literature

Related literature and research will be discussed under four main heaCdings: (1) Black Students in Higher Education, (2) The Nature and Extent of Compensatory Programs,

(3) Academic Prediction and Performance of Black Students in Higher Education, and (4) Black Students at the University of Florida, 1970-71.


Black Students in Higher Education

In 1968, the Bureau of the Census reported that the percentof non-white males completing high school had risen from 36 to 53 during the period of 1960-66. For non-white females the increase was from 41 to 49 percent. In spite of the rise in the number of black high school graduates, Coleman et al. (1966) reported that black students accounted for only 4.5 percent of the college population even though Black Americans comprise about 11 percent of the population in the United States. Kendrick (1967-68)stated that approximately half of these black students attended predominantly black colleges and the other half was enrolled mainly in junior colleges and other relatively non-selective institutions. In April of 1968, the Chronicle of Higher Education published enrollment figures by race which showed that





4


approximately 95,000 black students were enrolled in institutions which traditionally have served a predominance of white students. This amounted to about 2 percent of the nationwide total enrollment (Egerton, 1969). Some progress is noted in a recent report released by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1972). It shows that enrollment of black students in 1971 rose to 8 percent.

In 1950, the Supreme Court ruled the segregation of black students in publicly supported graduate schools illegal. When that same court in 1954 declared public school segregation illegal, ". . . state institutions were legally on their way to being open to all regardless of race . . .." (Gordon, 1971, p. 110). But it was not until after Sputnik I was launched in 1957, that through the National Defense Education Act resources became available for the discovery of "talent." This, according to Gordon, moved predominantly white universities to begin viewing minority groups, and especially black communities, as fruitful fields for recruiting academically promising students.

Little was done, however, to encourage and assist

poorly prepared students to overcome academic deficiencies imposed on them by a stifling environment over which they had no control. Gordon and Wilkerson (1966), as well as Cartey and Morrison (1970) have credited the National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students (NSSFNS) for encouraging colleges and universities to start placing






5


emphasis on potential rather than pas' achievement and to work toward the development of compensatory programs for disadvantaged students. A survey of black college students in the South led the Commission on Higher Educational Opportunity in the South to conclude that if equal opportunity were to become a reality for all Americans, regardless of race, color, or religion, "higher educational institutions must provide remedial and compensatory programs for disadvantaged students until public school preparation becomes truly equal for students of all backgrounds" (Commission on Higher Education Opportunity in the South, 1967, p. 36). The Board recommended that each senior college and university adopt a "high risk" quota for the admission of disadvantaged students.

Traditionally, college admissions has served as a

screening based on intellectual achievement and promise. Thresher (1966) pointed out, however, that most of the real screening had all along been done by the accidents of socioeconomic origins, early environment, and the various levels of aspirations habitually characterizing particular groups and subcultures. For centuries, colleges and universities accepted the "pool of ability" concept--the belief that higher education was the prerogative of only a small fraction of high school graduates drawn mainly from the well-to-do classes.

The determining factors that control entry into
higher education are rooted in the home and






6


school environment of children from infancy on.
What use to pass for "recruiting" on the part
of colleges and universities is seen in our
present perspective as a superficial effort to
rearrange the educational destinations of the
limited fraction of the population that had
managed to reach the twelfth grade without having
its potential for further education damaged or
destroyed. (Thresher, 1966, p. 6)

Thresher referred to studies done by Hollingshead (1952) and Berdie (1954) which showed that "talent" could not simply be recruited. It had to be searched out, helped, and encouraged. The "conditions of opportunity" to a large extent determined who went to college and where (Thresher, 1966, p. 12).


The Nature and Extent of Compensatory Programs in Hicrher Education

Compensatory education is a term which refers to programs directed at overcoming or circumventing assumed deficiencies in the background, functioning, and current experiences of youngsters from economically deprived, culturally isolated, and/or ethnically segregated families (Gordon and Jablonsky, 1968). The development of such programs on the campuses of American colleges and universities is a relatively recent phenomenon. Among the social forces giving impetus to this development, Gordon and Wilkerson (1966) mentioned the growing need for educated manpower, increasing pressures of the civil rights movement, new conceptions of the educability of the "lower classes," and philantropic stimulation and support. In addition: the militance of minority students already enrolled in










universities, the assassination of Martin Luther Kiig in 1968, the universities' growing realization of their responsibility to serve more than an elite minority, and the dramatic rise in the proportion of black students who now graduate from high school--these are given by Cartcy and Morrison (1970) as most important factors contributing to the rise of compensatory education.

Morrison and Ferrante (1971) identified two major categories of compensatory education programs and practices: (1) those that assist disadvantaged students in entering institutions of higher learning, and (2) those that help them succeed in academic and occupational-oriented programs once they have been enrolled. Gordon and Wilkerson (1966) defined compensatory practices and programs:

A continuing activity by an institution that
helps disadvantaged students who could not otherwise do so to enroll and progress in
college is . . . termed a compensatory
practice. . . . An organized group of related
activities to the same end is . . . termed
a compensatory program. . . . [p. 134]

In their efforts to assist disadvantaged and minority students, colleges and universities have engaged in a variety of programs and practices. Kendrick and Thomas (1970) listed the following: Summer-preadmission programs, reduced courseload, remedial courses, tutorial assistance, guidance and counseling, extended length of time to meet graduation requirements, and financial assistance. These are but a few





8


of the elements that have been employed either singly or in combination to meet the needs of disadvantaged and minority students.

Gordon and Wilkerson (1966) published the results of an extensive survey of the extent and distribution of compensatory practices among colleges and universities in the United States. Of the 2,093 institutions contacted, 610 responded representing 28.6 percent of the 2,131 colleges and universities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia during 1963-64. They found that the mainstream of higher education showed little or no concern for youth with educational handicaps born of poverty and discrimination. Moreover, it was noted that only 36.5 percent of the responding institutions had begun some form of compensatory programs and practices but that most of these seemed to fit ". . . the somewhat dreary pattern of remedial courses which have plagued many generations of low-achieving students with but little benefit to most of them" [p. 155].

A similar survey of 462 higher education institutions in five Midwestern states done by Simmons (1970) showed that of the 312 institutions which responded, only 21 percent had some form of compensatory practice or program for disadvantaged students. Most of these had been undertaken within the past two years and were found in institutions with less than 5,000 enrollment.






9


The major ef orL f: compensatory education has been made by traditionclly black colleges and universities (Gordon, 1971). In 1971, they were still serving approximately 65 percent of the black college students in fouryear programs and 45 to 50 percent if the figures for twoyear community colleges \cre taken into account. Consequently, research on the extensiveness and effectiveness of compensatory programs at traditionally white institutions is limited in quantity and scope.

In reviewing the educational research, Kendrick and

Thomas (1970) noted that existing compensatory practices and programs seemed to be making little impact in eradicating the problems of disadvantaged students, the majority of colleges and universities had not accepted this as their role. Although in his 1968 message to Congress on education, President Johnson considered it a triumph of American democracy that 50 percent of high school graduates were going on to college, Egerton (1968) found that in the same year less than 11.5 percent of the 162 institutions responding to his survey had initiated programs for the disadvantaged. He observed that the question which held the attention of university administrators and faculty was not how to proceed with effective programs for the disadvantaged, but whether they should become so engaged.





10


Opposition to compensatory education on the college level has evolved around several issues. One is tied to the argument that minority students are not prepared and will not succeed in college, another is found in the feeling that acceptance of high risk students will lower an institution's standards and will reduce its quality of education (Nunez, 1970). Both Gordon (1966) and Berger (1968) have argued that for compensatory programs to be successful, the nature and cause of poor school performance must be understood and that it is unwarranted to assume that past performance of disadvantaged youngsters is a direct function of ability. Gordon (1966) believes that where compensatory programs have failed, there has been no recognition of the relationship between conditions of life, characteristics of the learner, and success in the teaching - learning process. Organizers of compensatory programs have tried to help disadvantaged students by giving them more of what seems to work in educating middle and upper class youth.

What the literature reveals is a willingness on the part of colleges and universities to recruit "qualified" black students but a reluctance to commence with special programs aimed at helping youngsters overcome the disadvantages created by their environment. Chalk (1970) has pointed out the contradiction in granting admission and financial aid to students who have excellent grades and are also economically deprived for "what we are insisting upon





11


is that the student demonstrate exceptional merit despite his environment, inadequate diet, oftentimes disrupted family life, marginal self-esteem, and very little encouragement" [p. 11]. When the white middle-class student comes to college he has a cultural advantage by virtue of his exposure to a college-oriented environment. He has undergone what Merton (1965) has referred to as "anticipatory socialization." Haettenschwiller (1971) contrasted the white middle class and the black disadvantaged college-bound students. He stated that the white student, in his daily interaction with parents, peers and teachers has internalized the rudiments of the role he will be expected to play upon entering college. This, however, is not the case with the black disadvantaged student because whatever cultural advantages he may enjoy, they have little relevance to the demands of the academic environment [p. 29]. If colleges and universities are serious in assisting black disadvantaged students to cope with institutional demands and to help them overcome the alienating effect of the impersonal, white middle class insitutions, attention must be given to the special needs of these students requiring special counseling opportunities (Haettenschwiller, 1971).

Criticism has been leveled by black students, black

leaders, and black college officials at the traditional ways in which applicants for admission to institutions of higher learning have been selected. They have challenged the use










of standardized tests to determine who gets into college (Davis and Temp, 1971). One of the ten demands presented to Duke University administrators by the Afro-American Society in February, 1969, was that academic achievement in high school be the only criterion for black students' admission to that university (Davis and Temp, 1971). Academic Prediction and Performance of Black Students in Higher Education

Access to higher education has traditionally been determined by the quality of past scholastic performance. High school grades and entrance examinations have been the timehonored means by which past scholastic performance has been measured. The validity of high school grades and test scores to predict academic performance in college has been the subject of considerable research (Bloom and Peters, 1961; Lavin, 1965). A positive correlation of .30 or higher has been considered sufficient evidence of a positive degree of relationship (Hillway, 1964).

As early as 1917, Lincoln reported a correlation of

.69 between high school grades and academic performance in college while finding a correlation of less than .50 between entrance examinations and college grades. He concluded that the quality of work done in the secondary school was a better predictor of academic success in college than scores received on entrance examinations. Lincoln's findings supported those of Thorndike, to whom he referred in his










report, who found a low correlation between entrance examination scores and scholastic performance in college. Thorndike was quoted by Lincoln to have concluded that:

There is every reason to believe that of the
students . . . who were shut out, a fairly large percentage would have done better than one third
of those who were admitted. Sooner or later there will be someone barred out who, if admitted, would
be the best man in college. It is a moral
atrocity to decide fitness for college on [such]
a system . . . (Lincoln, 1917, p. 417)

Since 1917, there have been hundreds of studies directed at predicting academic success in college. In all of these, high school grades have consistently been found to relate positively to academic performance in college with correlations reported from as low as .29 to as high as .83 with a median value of .56 (Segel, 1934; Tribilcock, 1938; Cronbach, 1949; Travers, 1949; Garrett, 1949; Hills, 1964; Stanley and Porter, 1967; Richards and Lutz, 1968; Thomas and Stanley, 1969; Munday, 1970).

Notwithstanding Thorndike's criticism, standardized measures of aptitude and achievement have been found to correlate positively with academic achievement in college although not as high as grades. Correlations reported range from .23 to .85 with a median value of .50 (Garrett, 1949; Hills, 1964; McKelpin, 1965; Funches, 1965, 1967; Stanley and Porter, 1967; Richardsand Lutz, 1968; Coppedge, 1969; Munday, 1970).

It has been found that academic prediction is improved

when using high school grades in combination with standardized






14


test scores resulting in multiple correlations with an average of .65 (Hills, 1964; Lavin, 1965; Stanley and Porter, 1967; Munday, 1970). Researchers have also found that women are more predictable academically than men (Seashore, 1962; Stanley, 1967; Stanley and Porter, 1967).

The question which has received considerable attention during the past two decades is whether or not predictors of academic achievement have the same validity for members of minority groups, especially Black Americans, whose educational opportunities may have been severely restricted (Fishman et al., 1964; Jenkins, 1964; Epps, 1969; Thomas and Stanley, 1969; Borup, 1971; Stanley, 1971).

Out of this has evolved much debate and some research to determine whether or not such standardized measures as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (hereafter referred to as the SAT) and the American College Test (hereafter referred to as the ACT) are biased against black students (Eels, 1953;

Kendrick, 1964-65; Cleary and Hilton, 1968; Cleary, 1968; Davis and Temp, 1971).

Black students and educational leaders believe that

standardized predictors of academic success are oriented toward white, middle-class students, and are inadequate for determining the potential of Blacks (Davis and Temp, 1971). Eels (1953) discussed cultural bias in intelligence tests and stated that such tests were fair measures of scholastic aptitude but only for students in schools designed for the





15


white middle class. With more caution, Kendrick (1964-65) asserted that " . . . we must suspect that children who are culturally and soCially disadvantaged are probably underestimated fairly often, both by adults and by tests that adults devise" [p. 7]. He warned that it was " . . . extremely important that an unusually thorough investigation be made to determine whether or not the total environment of the candidate over the years justifies a suspicion that the test does not fit the student" [p. 8].

Defining test bias, Cleary (1968) stated that "

the test is biased if the criterion score predicted from the common regression line is consistently too high or too low for members of the subgroup" [p. 115]. Studies done at Morgan State College led Jenkins (1964) to conclude that scholastic aptitude and achievement tests have low validity for individuals and groups of restricted experiential background. This was further investigated by Cleary and Hilton (1968) who studied the variation of Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) item scores in different racial and socioeconomic groups and by Cleary (1968) who studied the regression of college grades on the SAT for black and white students in integrated colleges. In the first study, large samples of black and white students were used from seven integrated schools in three large metropolitan areas. The purpose of that investigation was to learn (1) whether test items were equally difficult for all groups, (2) whether the






16


group mean scores across items differed by groups, and (3) whether both group means and relative scores on individual items change as a function of race, socioeconomic standing within race, or both. It was concluded that the PSAT, for practical purposes, was not biased for the groups studied. In the second study, Cleary (1968) investigated the possible bias of the SAT in predicting academic performance of black students in three integrated colleges. Data were collected from two Eastern colleges and one Southwestern college. Subjecting these data to an analysis of covariance, it was found that there were no significant differences in prediction for black and white students from the Eastern colleges. At the Southwestern college, however, it was found that the college grades of black students tended to be overpredicted by the use of the white or common regression lines. Similar results were obtained by Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1971) at the University of Maryland. Black students were overpredicted and it was suggested that caution be exercised when using predictive equations based on predominantly white students,

Kallingal (1971) and Temp (1971) replicated Cleary's study and achieved similar results. Kallingal found the regression equations of sophomore year cumulative gradepoint averages on five ability and achievement test scores for blacks and whites at Michigan State University showed significant differences. He too concluded that the use of the white regression equation for predicting black cumulative grade-point averages would result in overestimates of





17


the criterion values. Temp studied the validity of the SAT for black and white students in thirteen integrated institutions and concluded that to predict first-year grades of black students, a separate regression equation should be utilized.

Sunday (1965) and Borup (1971) studied the validity of the ACT placement battery for predicting the grades of students from disadvantaged backgrounds and reached somewhat contradictory conclusions. Munday directed his inquiry at whether or not the validity of the ACT would be adversely affected in colleges whose students were predominantly black. Although the ACT scores for the black students were definitely lower than the national averages he, nevertheless, found that the ACT battery was as useful for predicting college grades of students in black colleges as it was for predicting the grades of other students. Munday's subjects were students in five predominantly black colleges located in four different southern states. Borup (1971), on the other hand, studied the comparative validity of the ACT battery to measure the achievement of Anglo- and MexicanAmericans in one large Texas state university. AngloAmerican students had scored significantly higher than the Mexican-American students on the ACT battery, yet, when first semester grade-point averages became available, there were no significant differences found between the two groups. Since the ACT scores had suggested that the Mexican-American










group would achieve considerably lower, it was concluded by Borup that the ACT battery had a built-in ethnic bias and that scores obtained on this battery when used for admission to college would erect barriers which tended to systematically discriminate against certain ethnic groups.

There has been no research to determine the validity of the Florida Twelfth Grade Test to predict academic performance of black students. In 1966, the Educational Testing Service published the results of a validity study which showed the Florida Twelfth Grade Test to have a correlation of .23 with first term freshman grades at the University of Florida. When high school grade-point average was added, a multiple correlation of .55 was obtained. The subjects in this study were all white.

Research into the actual academic performance of black students in higher education, especially in compensatory programs, is sparse. Sampel and Seymour (1971) regard this as " . . . particularly disturbing in the light of present criticisms being directed against the use of the usual predictors of academic success to determine minority students' eligibility for admission to college" [p. 243].

Clark and Plotkin (1963) found that the academic performance of the 509 black students in integrated colleges they studied was considerably above the level predicted by such indices as the SAT. Thirty-one percent achieved an average of B- or better and 50 percent achieved a C+ or


i





19


lower for the four years. Slightly less than 10 percent of the group studied graduated with honors and 1 percent was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. The authors reported a drop-out rate of 19 percent. Clark and Plotkin concluded that motivational factors were probably more important than test scores in the demonstrated superiority of black students in completing college.

The academic success of black students at the University of Missouri was investigated by Sampel and Seymour (1971). A sample of 180 black students was matched with a sample of 180 white students using high school rank and scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT) as predictor variables. Although the two groups matched evenly on high school gradepoint average, the group of white students showed significantly higher SCAT scores. The results showed that the white students achieved significantly higher grades in college than the black students. The mean college grade-point average for black freshmen, male and female, was well below a C (2.0) average. Sample and Seymour concluded that the data in their study suggested that for black students, especially males, some of the well-established predictors of academic success had little or no relevance. It is interesting to note that Sample and Seymour raised the question "How should these black students be selected so that there is some assurance that they will be able to succeed academically?" [p. 246]. A more relevant question might have been "How could we have helped these students to succeed?" For





2u


the truth of the matter is that the minority student is having a very busy and rather difficult time on campus.

He is plagued by money problems, he is working
very hard in his studies, he is having to remake
the social and even the physical environment,
sometimes with sympathetic assistance and sometimes without, and he is having to work out his future in a curriculum which did not originally
take him into account. . . . (Kendrick, 1970, pp. 49-50)

Compensatory practices and programs have provided some ways in which black students have been helped to succeed. There is, unfortunately, little published research to indicate how these practices and programs are succeeding. Bowers (1970) compared the regression equations for regularly admitted students and disadvantaged freshmen at the University of Illinois. His subjects were 515 beginning freshmen, most of whom were black, who had been admitted to the Special Educational Opportunities Program. For these students, increased financial aid and tutorial services had been budgeted, and several departments had developed special first year courses for these freshmen. First semester grade-point averages were obtained for both regularly admitted and specially admitted freshmen. For the latter group, the averages were based upon grades earned in regular courses as well as grades earned in the special courses. The mean grade-point average earned by the disadvantaged students in the special courses was higher than in the regular courses. Bowers cautioned






21


about the interpretation of the results and stated that different grading practices in the two types of courses were confounded with groups. Grade inflation in the special courses was expected to contribute to the differences. Bowers suggested that the effectiveness of special programs could better be evaluated on the basis of how successfully

theyprepared specially admitted black students for later regular course work.

The Staff of the Experimental Program in Higher Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee studied the performance of students admitted to that program (R. H. Murray, personal communication, July 10, 1972). Eighty-four percent of the students did not meet the admission requirements of the University of Wisconsin. The results showed the students received a mean grade-point average of 2.39 with over 80 percent achieving at least a 2.00.

The Educational Opportunities Program of the State

University of New York at Buffalo was evaluated by its staff (E. H. Lyons, personal communication, July, 1972), Since the beginning of the program in 1968 with 151 students, 21 percent had terminated, 60 percent had graduated and 9 percent were still in the program. The students who graduated had a cumulative overall grade-point average of 2.81 which was slightly below the average of 2.98 for the entire graduating class. The conclusion was reached by the Buffalo University Staff that the opportunities and special services






22


provided for the "high risk" students had realized their goal of helping them to succeed at the University of Buffalo.

A number of researchers have attempted to find a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and academic performance in college. In most studies, SES was measured by some objective technique rather than by subjective ratings (Lavin, 1965, ch. 6). "The objective techniques all involve the combining or weighting of scores on variables such as occupation, education, income, attendance at private or public school, area of residence, and the like so as to produce an index of the position of the student's family in the status hierarchy" (Lavin, 1965, p. 123).

Lavin has stated that SES is a derivative or summarizing variable; persons of different socioeconomic status face different kinds of life situations, and in adapting to them, they may develop different sets of values and life styles which may influence school performance [p. 123].

Intelligence has been found to relate positively with socioeconomic status (Crowley, 1959; Knief and Stroud, 1959; Mitchell, 1956). However, in one study it was found that when SES is controlled, the correlation between intelligence and grades was not lowered (Friedhoff, 1955). This raises the question as to the predictive validity of SES factors. Friedhoff found that when intelligence was controlled, correlations between SES and grades dropped from a range of .37 to .47 to a range of .20 to .32. Similar findings were reported by Knief and Stroud.






23


Rosen (1956) found a relationship between SES and achievement motivation. Students who demonstrated high levels of motivation came from higher status levels but when motivation was controlled, the relation between SES and grades was almost eliminated. Lavin (1965) stated this to be illustrative of the fact that SES sur~marized other variables. From his review of the research it was concluded that socioeconomic status is usually positively related to academic performance, but that on the college level the relationship is inverse when the range of SES runs from the upper to the middle class (pp. 127-128). When considered together with such academic predictors as grades and test scores, the increase in the multiple correlation is not

significant.

Barger and Hall (1965) found a relationship between the academic achievement of white females and parent's marital status. Those from broken homes experienced greater difficulty in adapting to the college environment.

Worthington and Grant (1971) found a relationship

between family income and academic success. It was considered likely that a student from a family with a given income would be in a relatively higher or lower socioeconomic status group depending on the geographical location of the high school attended. Therefore, the student may be affected by different socioeconomic factors than a student with the same family income who attends another high school.










Meyer (1970) tested the contention that the social

status of a high school affects the college-going intentions of its students and concluded that

Whether the presence of many higher status students acts primarily by creating an informal peer climate
favoring going to college, or by building an orientation toward college into the formal expectations
and standards is not clear. [p. 691

Nevertheless, Meyer found the observed effect of school upon college intentions to be greater than had usually been reported.

The relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performance is not consistent but Lavin (1965) has pointed out that socioeconomic status is an important variable to investigate because it summarized systematic variations in attitudes, motivations, and value systems, all of which are related to academic performance (ch. 6). Black Students at the University of Florida, 1970-71

Various researchers have drawn attention to the influence of environment upon learning (Pace and Stern, 1958; Pace, 1960; Stern, 1962). Studies cited by Stern (1962) suggest that selective academic performances are related to differences in response which the same apparent environment elicits from each of several distinct subgroups of students [p. 702].

That the environment or campus climate prevailing on

traditionally white colleges and universities has influenced






25


the academic performance of black students was suggested by Kendric' (1970) who stated that the black student " . . . is having to remake the social and even the physical environment . . . anr3 is having to work out his future in a curriculum which did not originally take him into account . ." [pp. 49-50].

Reports of events which occurred during the 1970-71

academic year at the University of Florida give indication that the attending black students found little harmony with the then prevailing "campus climate." It provoked the mayor of Gainesville--a black American--to charge "I don't believe the UP administration realizes the extent of the racist

image UF has with blacks around the nation" (Barrineau, 1971). This emotion-laden statement was made after black students had blocked the office of the University president and had presented him with a list of grievances and demands. The president's refusal to accede to the demands resulted in violence and the arrest of 72 students, most of whom were black (Reddick, 1971). Shortly thereafter, 123 black students withdrew from the University in protest drawing subsequently an investigation by the Southern Regional Council which in its preliminary report made the statement that

. . the University must become a place where the cultural pluralism of our society finds its fullest and freest expression. It must become a University which all students--white, black, or red--feel is theirs, one in which they have a vital stake and one in which they can find a viable and usable education. (Gainesville Sun,
1 June, 1971, p. 6)










A day-long hearing held on the campus of the University of Florida by the sub-committee of the Florida Civil Rights Advisory Committee convinced it that the attitude toward minority students was not good and that " . . . the university's administration [did] not comprehend the problems facing students who are members of minority groups" (Reddick, 1971).

It seems reasonable to infer from the events as reported that the prevailing environment on the campus of the University of Florida during the 1970-71 academic year may have influenced the academic performance of the black students-many of whom were enrolled in a compensatory program about which there existed certain misgivings. In a statement attributed to the then Chairman of the Florida Board of Regents, it was said that

The appropriate place for the preparation of blacks
for university level work is in the primary and
secondary schools and not in the freshman class of
our state universities. (Barrineau, 1971)

Making life more bearable for black students was a task that could not be accomplished by the University in the short period of 10 months, i.e., between the time the first group of black students was admitted and the time many of them withdrew. That considerable progress has been made may be deduced from a report which alleges that when the entire state system of higher education came under criticism from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for




27


failing to desegregate more thoroughly, the Florida Board of Regents looked to the University of Florida for a model to emulate (Cormeier, 1973).


Summary

.The review of the literature and research has shown

that an increasing number of black students are graduating from high school but that they are still not well represented in integrated institutions of higher education. Recruitment efforts have been directed at the "qualified" black student. Little effort has been made to bring forth ability among black students whose opportunities for the development of that ability have been thwarted by circumstances.

Most research has been directed at predicting the academic performance of black students with contradicting results. The literature suggests that academic performance of black students should be measured against norms developed within their own group. Published research to determine the effectiveness of compensatory programs is almost non-existent.

Some relationship appears to exist between socioeconomic factors and academic performance in college. Although there is little predictive potential in these findings, the results do suggest that black students may have special needs that cannot be met by traditional programs and services.





28



Research has also advanced the proposition that the prevailing campus environment may influence the academic performance of certain subgroups of students.
















CHAPTER II


THE PROBLEM


Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was to determine the answers to the following questions:

1. Is it possible to differentiate between the group

of black freshmen making satisfactory academic progress and the group of black freshmen making

unsatisfactory academic progress at the University of Florida on the basis of the following selected

variables: participation in the compensatory

program, high school grade-point average, total

score on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test, sex, graduation from all black or integrated high

school, family income, and family marital status?

2. Within a time period of three quarters, how well

have black freshmen, admitted to the compensatory

program, performed academically as compared to black freshmen admitted to the regular academic

program?


29






30


The Need for the Study

In 1970, the administration of the University of Florida implemented a program designed to meet the educational needs of black students. It now has become necessary to determine .the usefulness of the program. The Newman Report (1971) has suggested that for minority education to be improved, it is vitally necessary to evaluate what practices have been effective and what have not.

When compensatory education came into existence at the University of Florida, the administration found itself operating in an area in which it had no effective source of prior experience upon which to draw. And as pointed out by Kendrick and Thomas (1970), research on the extensiveness and effectiveness of compensatory programs and practices was limited in quantity and scope.

If decisions are to be made relative to te future development and management of the program, data must be collected to assist in decision making. This data must contribute to making the most appropriate choice among various alternative ways in which black students may be assisted in realizing their educational goals at the University of Florida. In discussing the evaluation of programs for blacks, Braskamp and Brown (1972) indicate that "Questions about whether a program for blacks will be certified or rejected, refunded or phased out, drastically altered or expanded need to be asked at some point" [p. 55]. Questions must be asked






31


and further consideration must be given to the kind of

program and curriculum that has bem p1: uned.

Most important, however, quciEions should be asked

about the black students. Are their needs being met? The program was initiated for them. Its main objective is to increase their chances for academic success. Because they are classified "disadvantaged," does not irean they comprise a homogeneous group. Gordon (1971) indicated that there may well be many variations in the population from which these students are drawn; therefore, they should be carefully defined and their special needs shouLd b: ralaLed to the kind of program that is provided.

If the results of the study were to show that on the basis of the variables selected there exist no differences between black students making satisfactory academic progress and black students not making satisfactory academic progress, additional variables will need to be investigated. If differences are found, then, what needs to be further studied is whether students making unsatisfactory academic progress have needs that are not being met by the program. If, in relation to academic performance, no differences are found between black students admitted to the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program and black students admitted to regular academic programs, admissions criteria may need to be reevaluated.





32


Rationale

From the review of the literature it is clear that

most previous research has concerned itself with predicting the academic performance of black students and with comparing that performance to achievement of white students. Little effort has been made to learn about black students per se. In this study the interest was centered upon how black students perform academically. Considering the differences in educational and economic opportunity, high school performance, and socioeconomic status, it was suspected that differences in levels of academic performance would most likely exist between black and white students at the University of Florida.

The rationale for this study was to learn about the

black students on the campus of the University of Florida. Specifically, it was aimed to investigate whether on the basis of selected variables it was possible to separate the successful from the less successful black student. Hopefully the results would contribute to learning more about how the needs of the black students could be met. By limiting the study to the black students, the effects of possible test bias--if present--in the Florida Twelfth Grade Test and differences in the "conditions of opportunity" were reduced.






33


Definition of Terms

Satisfactory progress.--University of Florida regulations state that students who achieve an overall 2.0 academic average or higher are making satisfactory progress.

Unsatisfactory progress.--Students whose overall academic average is less than a 2.0 are considered to be making unsatisfactory progress.

Group I.--Designation for the 55 students in this study making unsatisfactory progress.

Group II.--Designation for the 86 students in this study making satisfactory progress.

G.P.A.--Grade-point average.

Senior Placement Test.--The Florida Twelfth Grade Test by which it is commonly known.

CLC.--Course designation for Comprehensive Logic.

Intact home.--This term refers to the marital status of the student's parents and is meant to indicate that the parents are not divided by divorce or separation.

Broken home.--This term refers to the marital status of the student's parents and is meant to indicate that the parents are divided by divorce or separation.

Compensatory program.--The Expanded Educational Opportunities Program.

Regular program.--Course of study to which students

have been admitted who meet all admissions requirements and for whom no special services have been specifically designed.





34



Compensatory students.--Students admitted to the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program.

Regular students.--Students admitted to regular programs.















CHAPTER III


RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE


The study was designed to determine (1).whether or no'c the compensatory program had been useful in helping black freshman succeed in lower-division courses, and (2) whether the two groups of black freshmen--one making satisfactory academic progress, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress--could be distinguished from each other on tho bases of selected variables. The independent variables selected are specified below in the section Data Collection and represented factors that were available in the student records at the University of Florida.

The academic performance of the black students was observed over a period of three quarters. During this time period special services were provided to students in the compensatory program. (An explanation of these services is found in Appendix A.)

The independent variables were analyzed to determine

their relationship to academic performance of black students. The data analysis sought to identify that combination of variables which discriminated maximally between black students who at the end of the third quarter had an overall 2.0


35





36


academic average (C) or better and were thus making satisfactory progress and black students who at the end of the third quarter did not have an overall 2.0 academic average and were, consequently, not making satisfactory progress. .The analysis was made for black students admitted to the compensatory program as well as for black students admitted to the regular program.


Description of Population

The subjects for this study were the 141 black students admitted to the University of Florida in June and September, 1970. Eighty-two of the students did not meet the minimum requirements for admission and were enrolled in the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program (hereafter referred to as the compensatory group). Of the 59 black students who did meet the requirements for admission (hereafter referred to as the regular group) approximately half

commenced their program in June, the other half in September. In Table 1 is indicated the mean high school grade-point average and test scores of the two groups, Both groups presented a mean high school grade-point average above the required 2.0. The average total Florida Twelfth Grade Test score of the compensatory group was 48 points below the required minimum of 300 for admission to the University. The regular group presented an average Florida Twelfth Grade Placement score 55 points above the minimum requirement of






3-/


300 for admission to the University. The average total

Florida Twelfth Grade Test score for the entire entering

freshman class that year was 421.



Table 1 - Average high school grade-point average and average Florida Twelfth Grade Test scores of black freshmen admitted to
compensatory and regular programs at the
University of Florida in 1970


Subject Group



Compensatory-Male Compensatory-Female Regular -Male

Regular -Female


N HS GPA


36

46 28 31


2.43 2.81 2.80 2.99


Florida pt EH

48 44 47 56 73 67 67 74


Twelfth SS NS

54 56 51 41 76 74 68 69


Grade MS

55 52 75 69


Test

TotL-al 25?

246 365

347


In Table 2 is indicated the number of black students who graduated from all black or integrated high schools. As may be seen, the larger number of students came from high schools in which the enrollment was all black.


Table 2 - Number of black freshmen admitted to
compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970, who came from all
black or integrated high schools

Subject Group All Black H.S. Integrated H.S.

Compensatory 79% (65) 21% (17)

Regular 69% (41) 31% (18)

Total 106 35





38


Table 3 lists the average family income of the students and in Table 4 is found the percentage of students who came from either broken or intact homes.



Table 3 - Number and average family income of
black freshmen admitted to compensatory and
regular programs at the University of Florida
in 1970


Subject Group

Compensatory


$0-$2499


N= 18


Range
$2500- $5000$4999 $7499


N=25


N=20


$7500$9999


N= 17


$10000 +


N= 2


Average


Regular


Average Average Average


$1320 $3911 $6130 $8429

N= 9 N=l4 N=14 N=13


Average $1410


Average Average Average


$3614


$6371


$8557


Average $14000 N= 9

Average $11767


Table 4 - Number of black freshmen accepted to the
compensatory and regular programs at the University
of Florida in 1970 who came from broken or intact
homes


Subject Group Broken Homes Intact Homes

Compensatory 37% (31) 63% (51)

Regular 22% -(13) 78% (46)

Total 44 97






39


In summary, the data show that, as a group, students assigned to the compensatory program can be distinguished from the group of students admitted to the regular program by the following factors: On the average, they had earned lower grades in high school. The differences, however, were minimal although somewhat larger for male students than for female students. On the Florida Twelfth Grade Test, compensatory students had, on the average, obtained a score 100 points lower than the average score obtained by the regular students.

A higher percentage of compensatory students graduated from non-integrated high schools. Also, a higher percentage of them came from homes in which the family had been disrupted by divorce or separation of parents.

The average annual family income appears to have been somewhat higher for the compensatory students ($5,681.00) than for the regular students ($5,286.00), however, it should be pointed out that two students came from families with an annual income far above $10,000.00. The inclusion of these two incomes is responsible for inflating the average family income of the compensatory group to such an extent that it gives a misleading impression. If category 5 is not included, the average annual income would show higher for the families of the regular students. Therefore, it seems safe to state that, on the average, students in the compensatory group came from families with a lower annual income.





40


Collection of Data

The data for this study were obtained from student records maintained by the Registrar, the Financial Aid Office, and the Board of Examiners at the University of Florida. The review of the literature suggested that data such as high school grade-point average and test scores represented variables which had been found to be valid predictors of academic performance. The literature also suggested a relationship between sex, socioeconomic factors, high school environment, and academic performance in college. Data were collected for each subject to make up the following variables:

1. Participation in the compensatory program.

2. High school grade-point average.

3. Total Florida Twelfth Grade Test score.

4. Graduation from all black or integrated high school.

5. Sex.

6. Marital status of family (broken or intact homes).

7. Family income.

Two additional variables were created to test for interaction between participation in the compensatory or regular programs and sex.


Analysis of Data

To analyze the data, use was made of a statistical

technique known as discriminant analysis. This technique is proposed as a solution to the problem of using information





41


froni a :unuber of correlated variables to classify an unclassified subject into one of two groups to which he must belong (Tatsuoka and Tiedeman, 1954). The data were analyzed to determine the group an individual was most like (Tiedeman, 1951). This xcas done by seeking some linear combination of the variables that maximized the "between"-group difference relative to the "within"-group differences (Anderson, 1966). For a more detailed explanation of this technique, the reader is referred to Appendix C.

The statistical treatment employed was a discriminant

analysis for two groups using a Biomedical Computer Program BMD04M - available at the University of Florida Computing Center for use with the University's IBM 360 computer. This particular program computes a linear function of p variables measured on each individual of two groups and can serve as an index for discrimination between the groups. This index is determined from the criterion of "best" of all possible indices in that the difference between the mean indices for the two groups divided by a pooled standard deviation of the indices is maximized (Dixon, 1971, p. 185), The two groups between which this program discriminated were

(1) the group that made satisfactory academic progress (2.0 grade-point average or better at the end of the Winter Quarter, 1971) and (2) the group that did not make satisfactory academic progress (less than a 2.0 grade-point average at the end of the 1971 Winter Quarter). The analysis used






A42


pooled data with participation in the compensatory program' or regular program as two of the independent variables.


Limitations

1. Matriculation in college is a socialization experience. Whether a student succeeds academically or

not, the socialization experience may contribute to

his sense of values, to his understanding of himself,

and to his ability to relate to others. This study,

however, was limited to discriminating between two

groups of black students on the basis of an academic criterion and the usefulness of the compensatory program was measured against that criterion only. The

measurement of whatever else a student gained from the

program was beyond the scope of this study.

2. The subjects of this study were the black freshmen

admitted to the University of Florida in June and September, 1970. Although the methods employed in

this study may be applicable to similar ones at other

collegiate institutions, no claim is made that the

results can be generalized.

3. It is recognized that academic performance may

be influenced by health, personality factors, peer

group relations and campus environment. Such variables

were not included. The study, therefore, was limited to

independent variables available from student records.
















CHAPTER IV


FINDINGS


The discriminant analysis classified the 141 black students into a group of subjects making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) and a group of subjects making satisfactory progress (Group II). Group I contained 55 subjects who, at the end of the Winter Quarter, 1971, had each earned less than an overall 2.0 grade-point average. In Group II there were 86 subjects who at the end of the 1971 Winter Quarter had each earned a 2.0 or higher grade-point average at the University of Florida.

The first step in the discriminant analysis was to

determine the usefulness of each of a set of variables in classifying the students in the population into either Group I or Group II.

Table 5 presents the means of the two groups for each of the variables. It may be observed from this table that the two groups differed in each variable by negligible amounts. It was apparent that no single variable by itself was useful in discriminating between the two groups of students. The possibility existed, however, that combinations of these variables could be useful in separating the two groups.
43





Table 5 - Variable means by group and difference in means


Variable
Identification


x x2 x3 x4 X5 X6 x7 X8 x9 x10
x121 x 12


x 13


Variable
compensatory program regular program sex - male sex - female high school g.p. a.
senior placement score
non-integrated high school integrated high school family income in tact home broken home interaction
x 1 x3 x4


interaction
X2 x3 X4


(less than 2,0)(more than 2,0) Difference
Group I Group II in Mean


0.56364 0.43636 0,43636 0.56364 2.58545 290,36353 0. 81818 0.18182

2.45455 0.58182 0.41818

0.23636


0.23636


0.59302 0.40698

0.46512 0.53488 2.85348 297,43018 0 .70930 0.29070

2.89535 0.73256
0.26744 0.26744


-0.02939 0.02939

-0,02875
0.02875

-0.26803

-7.06665 0.10888

-0.10888

-0.44080
-0.15074 0.15074

-0.03108


0.20930 0.02706





45


Using the discriminant analysis technique provided by the Biomedical Computer Program - BMD04M - F ratios were obtained for each of several combinations of the variables. The first analysis employed all 13 variables, x1 . . .13' identified in Table 5.

Table 6 shows that the F ratio obtained for this full model was 1.75 which was not significant at the .05 level. Thus, using all variables, the linear combination did not yield a profile by which the two groups of students could be differentiated.

By eliminating one of the interaction variables, x13' the change in the degrees of freedom resulted in an F ratio of 2.12 which was significant at the .05 level. Thus the model, x1 . . . x12, could be used with greater accuracy than guessing to differentiate between the black students in this study and to classify each subject into either the group making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) or, into the group making satisfactory progress (Group II). The resulting separation between the two groups may be found in Appendix D.

The model, however, did not reveal which of the variables contributed to the significance of the model and which did not. Using various combinations by eliminating one or more variables at a time, it may be noted from Table 6 that the models remained significant only as long as high school grade-point average (x5) was included as one of the independent variables. When high school grade-point average






46-


Table 6.- Linear combination F ratios resulting when one
or more variables are deleted from a combination of variables to discriminate between a group of subjects making
unsatisfactory progress and a group of subjects making
satisfactory progress at the University of Florida

Variable Variable-(s) I Significance
Combination Eliminated df F at .05 level


x13 x12 S .x S .x x10



x81 x 9 . . 10 x8



x 9 x7





x5 x6

x4 x3
. . x2


x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . x . xl
x x5 x 1x 6
125
x2x6 x 2x56


13,
12, 11, 10, 10,
9, 9, 8, 8, 7, 7, 6, 6, 5,
5,
4,
3,
2, 1 ,
2, 2, 2,
2,


127 128 129 130 130 131 131 132 132 133 133
134 134 135 135 136 137 138 139 138 138 138 138


1.75
2.12 1.92 1.60 2.33
0,12
2.57 0.27
2.43 0.73
2.84
-0.37
2.71
0.48 2.96 0.06 0.06
0.04 0.12
6.17 1.33 6.17 1.33


ns
s
s
ns
s
ns
s
ns
s
ns
s
ns
s
ns
s
ns ns ns ns
s
ns
s
ns


x13
x 12 x13
x5x12x13 xllxl213
x5 6 12 13 x10 . . ' x 13 X5 6x * X # 13
9 * I ' "13 x 5 x6 10 ' ' ' 113 x8 x ' ' 13 x 5 x6 x9 , ' ' 13 x7 * * x 13 x 5 x6 x8 '* ' x 13 x 6 x 1 A3
x5 xx' '13 x 4 ' ' 13 x 3 ' ' 13 x 2 * * 13 X2x3x4x6 ' * * . 13 X2x3x4x5x6 * '13.

x1x3x4X .6 ' ' 13 x 1lx3 x4 x57 * 7 * x 13





47


(x5) was rercrated high school, family income, or marital status of parents--these were variables which did not contribute significantly to predicting whether a subject would be more like those in the group making satisfactory or unsatisfactory academic progress.

It was surprising to discover that participation in the compensatory program did not contribute significantly in the discriminant model. The only variable in the discriminant model found to be significant was high school grade-point average. Yet, on the basis of this variable, it would not have been possible to classify the 141 black students into one of the two groups with a degree of accuracy much greater than chance alone. The difference in mean high school gradepoint average for each group and the standard deviation was small while the range of high school grades was wide for each group and highly overlapping (Table 7). The slightly smaller standard deviation for the 55 students in Group I would indicate that it was somewhat more homogeneous than Group II in terms of high school achievement but the overlapping wide ranges of high school grades would make it difficult to achieve a clear separation.





48


Table 7 - Range, mean, and standard deviation of
high school grade-point averages for students
making satisfactory academic progress (Group II)
and students making unsatisfactory academic progress
(Group I) at the University of Florida


Range Mean S.D.

Group I 1.8 - 3.8 2.59 .42

Group II 1.6 - 3.9 2.85 .47



The only criterion used to assign a student to the

compensatory or the regular program was the total score on the senior placement test. The discriminant analysis did not show this test score to be useful in determining whether a black student was more like those in the group making satisfactory progress or the group making unsatisfactory progress. Although the difference in the mean score obtained by the group assigned to the compensatory program and the group assigned to the regular program was almost 100 points, the difference in the mean score between the group making satisfactory progress and the group making unsatisfactory progress was only seven points (Table 5).

High school grade-point average notwithstanding, it seems safe to state that on the basis of the variables selected, it is not possible to discriminate between black students who at the end of three quarters have earned a 2.0 or better grade-point average and those who at the end of three quarters have earned less than a 2.0 grade-point average at the University of Florida.









Table 8 shows that of the 82 subjects wio started in the compensatory program, 51 (62%) had earned a 2,0 or higher grade-point average by the en of the 1971 Winter Quarter. Of the 59 students who commenced tneir studies in the regular program, 35 (64%) had done so,



Table 8 - Percentage of black students classified compensatory or regular who were making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) or satisfactory progress
(Group II)


N Group I Group II

Compensatory students 82 38% (31) 62% (51)

Regular students 59 36% (24) 64% (35)




Similarly, Table 9 shows that of the 55 students making unsatisfactory progress (Group I), 31 (56%) were enrolled in the compensatory program and 24 (44%) were participants in the regular program. Table 9 also indicates that a greater percentage of the students making satisfactory progress were enrolled in the compensatory program, 59 percent as compared to 41 percent who matriculated in the regular program.






50


Table 9 - Percentage of students classified in
Group I or Group II who were enrolled in either
the compensatory or regular programs


N Compensatory Regular

Group I 55 56% (31) 44% (24)

Group II 86 59% (51) 41% (35)




Since, with the exception of the high school gradepoint average, none of the variables used in this analysis contributed significantly to determining whether a subject was most like those making satisfactory progress or unsatisfactory progress, a multiple regression analysis was done to learn what relationship the variables had to the grade-point average earned at the University of Florida by the end of the 1970 Winter Quarter.

This analysis utilized the Biomedical Computer

Program - BMD03R - a program which provided a correlation matrix, means and standard deviations, regression coefficients and their standard errors, intercepts, and multiple correlation coefficients.

For the regression analysis, data were pooled for all

141 subjects. Correlation coefficients are shown in Table 10 and the results of the analysis in Table 11.







51


Table 10 - Matrix of correlation coefficients for seven independent variables and grade-point average earned at the University of Florida by 141 black students


Participation in compensatory pgm. Sex


High school g.p.a. Senior Placement score


Non-integrated high school Family income


Parents' status


marital


Univ. of Fla. g.p. a.


Cd









-04
0>~
-H 0
(d 4-)
-2 M








-.81

.11 1.00


-.04


-.26



-.81



. 11


-.17



-.19


-.04


1.00


-.30



.14



-.04


-.05



-.06


Cd



0 0







-.26


-.30


1.00



.22



-.08


11


14


-P



U - C)


0-JO w -H



-.81 1lJ


141-.04


.22


.08


1.00|-.16


1611.00


22


.15


191-.20


.13|-.17


.H
4 U)



P4


-.19


-.06


14


Q)

0
0


>1


rz42

-.17


-.05


.11



.22



-.15


1.00



.42


.19



-.12


,42 1.00


Cd

0






-.05


,007 .29



.13



-.17


.14 .13


1


.


.


.14


.13


1.00


05


-.007


.29





Table 11 - Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error
of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for seven
independent variables correlated with grade-point average earned at the University of Florida by 141 black students

Regression Std. Error Prop. Variance
Variable Mean S.D. Coefficient of Reg. Coef. Cumulative

Compensatory
program .58156 .49506 .26443 .16912 .00234

Sex .45390 .49965 .11197 .10414 .00003

High school
g.p.a. 2.74890 .48968 .42019 .10886 .09575

Senior placement
score 294.67358 62.86674 .00159 .00136 .01658

Non-integrated
high school .75177 .43352 -.24489 .11434 .03412

Family income 2.72340 1.21365 .03261 .04452 .00650

Parents' marital
status .67376 .47051 .06162 .11425 .00184

Univ. of Fla.
g.p.a. 2.07495 .60481


Coerricient of Determination Multiple Correlation Coefficient Sum of Squares attributable to regression Sum of Squares of deviation from regressionVariance of Estimate Standard Error of Estimate Intercept (A Value)


0.1571
0.3964
8.04767 43.16399
0.32454 0.56969
0.29994


U,





53


The ineenn9 t variables were specified as follows:

x- comensaLry program
x2se
x- high school grade-point average
x - sen or pI x - fanB ilyiore
x - parents' zorital status

The regrcs-i- rncI.a: had the form

y= cx+ B +
1 2 X2 +B7 x7

where

PB 2' regression coefficients of variables
x 2' ' x7
x, 2' 7 = means of variables 1, 2, . . . 7
a intercept value
9 = predicted g.p.a. at the University
of Florida.

Employing the above formula, the contribution each variable

made to the mean grade-point average earned by the total

group of subjects was calculated from the data shown in

Table 11. That mean was 2.07 and was accounted for as

follows:

2.07 = .30 + (.26)(.58) + (.11)(.45) + (.42) (2.75) +

(.0016)(295) + (-.24) (.75) + (.03) (2.72) +

(.06) (. 67) , or

alpha .30
compensatory program .15
sex .05
high school grade-point average 1.16 senior placement score .47
non-integrated high school -.18
family income .08
parents' marital status .04

mean grade-point average 2.07





54


As was evident, the regression model accredited high

school grade-point average with the greatest contribution to the mean grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. In the model, senior placement test score made the second greatest contribution although considerably less than high school grade-point average. Of the total contribution made by all variables, participation in the compensatory program accounted for about 8 percent while such factors as sex, family income, and parents marital status had little irkfluence on the mean grade-point average earned at the University of Florida.

Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between those variables and gradepoint average earned by the 141 black students are shown in Table 12.



Table 12 - Correlations (r) and multiple correlations
(R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between
the variables and GPA earned by 141 black students


Variable Added r AR

compensatory program -.048 .048

sex .007 .049

high school g.p.a. .294 .313

senior placement
test score 130


.


.









Table 12 (continued)


Variable Added r LR

non-integrated
high school -.169 .385

family income .142 .394

parents' marital
status .129 .396




Similar correlations are shown in Tables 13 and 11 respectively for the 55 students in Group I and the 86 students in Group II.



Table 13 - Correlations (r) and multiple correlations
(R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between
the variables and GPA earned by 55 black students
making unsatisfactory progress


Variable Added r AR

compensatory program .143 .143

sex -.020 .144

high school g.p.a. .244 .299

senior placement
test score -.191 .318

non-integrated
high school -.153 .387

family income -.035 .393

parents' marital
status - 13


.


55


.









Table 14 - Correlations (r) and multiple correlations
(R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between
the variables and GPA earned by 86 black students
making satisfactory progress


Variable Added r AR

compensatory program -.320 .320

sex -.022 .322

high school g.p.a. .088 .327

senior placement
test score .384 .396

non-integrated
high school -.097 .396

family income .060 .400

parents' marital
status .048 .400




As data were gathered and analyzed, the notion grew that students in the compensatory program might have benefited to some extent from grading practices different from those used for students in the regular program. That notion was explored to determine whether or not this was indeed the case.

At the University of Florida, all students were required to complete a number of courses in general education. As explained in Appendix A, special sections were designed to aid students in the compensatory program in the areas of Comprehensive English, Comprehensive Social Sciences,





57


Comprehensive Physical Sciences, Comprehensive Logic, and Fundamentals of Mathematics. In the 1970-71 academic year, achievement in Comprehensive Social Studies, Comprehensive Physical Sciences, and Comprehensive Logic was measured by a standardized instrument which was administered to the students in the compensatory program as well as to the students enrolled in the regular program.

In Comprehensive Social Sciences and Comprehensive

Physical Sciences, students in the compensatory and in the regular program were apparently graded on the basis of the same norms. In relation to the standard scores, no differences were found between grades received by students in the two groups. In Comprehensive Logic, however, it was noted that students enrolled in the special section of that course were graded on the basis of norms obviously different from those established for the students attending the regular sections.

Again using the Biomedical Computer Program - BMD03R a regression analysis was done for the 34 students enrolled in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic and for the 55 students enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic. Grades received in Comprehensive Logic was the dependent variable and the following were the independent variables:





58


x - sex
x2 - high school g.p.a.
x3 - senior placement test score
x - standard score in CLC

The regression model had the form

y = a + B x + B2 2 + B33 + B4x4 where

B11B2,B3B 4 = regression coefficients of variables x ,x ,x ,x
x 2' 3''4= 4 man o vAriables 1,2,3, and 4
a = intercept value
y = grade received in CLC

A matrix of correlation coefficients for each group is

shown respectively in Tables 15 and 16 and the results of the analyses for each group in Tables 17 and 18 respectively.

The mean grade received by the regular group in Comprehensive Logic was 2.71. Employing the above formula, the contribution each variable made to the mean grade was calculated from the data shown in Table 17 and was found to be as follows:

alpha - -1.10
sex .07
high school g.p.a. - 2.14
senior placement test score - 1.15 CLC standard score - .45

Mean grade received in CLC 277T

The mean grade received by the group enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic was 2.16. It was accounted for as follows:





59


Table 15 - Matrix of correlation coefficients for four independent variables and grade-point average earned by 34 black students in thi regular section of Comprehensive Logic


Variable


sex


high school g.p.a.


senior placement test score CLC standard score CLC grade


Table 16 - Matrix of correlation coefficients for four
independent variables and grade-point average earned
by 55 black students in the special section of Comprehensive Logic




.H 4J


Variable w__ ___sex 1.00 -.48 .10 .16 -.07

high school
g-p-a. -.48 1.00 .16 .19 .27

senior placement
test score .10 .15 1.00 .26 .28

CLC standard score .16 .19 .26 1.00 .92

CLC grade .07 .27 .28 .92 1.00


0 )

-1 4J


1.00


.04 1.00


. 32

.24

.49


.04 .12 .22 .16


.12


.32 1.00

-.08

.24


.22 .24


-.08

1.00 .33


.16


.49 .24 .33

1.00








Table 17 - Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of
regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for four independent variables correlated with grade earned in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic by 34 black students

Regression Std. Error Prop. Variance
Variable Mean S.D. Coefficient of Reg. Coef. Cumulative

Sex 0.34545 0.47990 -0.08524 0.12850 0.00558

High school
g.p.a. 2.71636 0.40631 0.17531 0.15322 0.12313

Senior placement
score 243.65454 30.18799 0.00106 0.00179 0,03698

CLC raw score 136.76363 15.02467 0.05895 0.00371 0.69659

CLC grade 2.16364 0.97684


Coefficient of Determination Multiple Correlation Coefficient Sum of Squares attributable to regression Sum of Squares of deviation from regressionVariance of Estimate Standard Error of Estimate Intercept (A Value)


0.8623 0.9286
44.43115 7.09619
0.14192 0.37673
-6.60390


a)~
C)









Table 18 - Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for four independent variables correlated with grade earned in the special section of Com-rehensive Logic by 55 black students


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Regression Coefficient


Std. Error Prop, V ar:
of ReQ. Cocf. -


Sex


High school g.p.a.


Senior placement score

CLC raw score


0.44118 2.87058


354.11743 221.26469


0.50399 0.50605


36.47664

109.09253


CLC grade


Coefficient of Determination Multiple Correlation Coefficient Sum of Squares attributable to regression Sum of Squares of deviation from regressionVariance of Estimate Standard Error of Estimate
Intercept (A Value)


0.3055 0.5527 9.56992
21.75276 0.75010 0.86608
-1.10244


0.15141 0.74723 0.00326

0.00204


2.71471


0.31060 0.32885


0.00449 0.00149


0.97425


0,02534 0.23022


0.00495 0.04502


S. D. Coefficient






62


alpha
sex
high school g.p.a. senior placement score CLC standard score


Mean grade received in
CLC


-6.60
- .03
.48 .26 8.05


2.16


Correlations between the four independent variables and grades received in Comprehensive Logic are shown in Tables 19 and 20 for the groups enrolled in the regular and special sections of Comprehensive Logic respectively.



Table 19 - Correlations (r) and multiple correlations
(R) resulting when independent variables are added
to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and grades received by 34 black students enrolled in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic


Variable Added r AR

sex .159 .159

high school g.p.a. .485 .505

senior placement test score .237 .510

CLC standard score .330 .552


Table 20 - Correlations (r) and multiple correlations
(R) resulting when independent variables are added
to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and grades received by 55 black students enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic Variable Added r AR
sex .074 .074
high school g.p.a. .273 .358
senior placement test score .275 .407
CLC standard score .922 .928






63


It may be noted from Tables 19 and 20 that the relationship between standard scores and grades received in Comprehensive Logic was considerably greater for students enrolled in the special section of that course than it was for students enrolled in the regular section. Therefore, grades attained is to some extent attributable to differences in grading practices and, thus, mean grade-point average earned by the two groups of black students does not constitute a common base for comparing their academic performance.
















CHAPTER V


CONCLUSIONS


This study inquired into the academic performance of

141 black freshmen admitted to the University of Florida for the 1970-71 academic year. Eighty-two of the students who did not meet the entrance requirements had been placed in a compensatory program designed to assist students whose educational, financial, social and cultural background may have limited their opportunities to pursue a course of higher education at the University of Florida.

One of the basic questions the study sought to answer was to what extent differences existed between black freshmen who had made satisfactory academic progress and black freshmen who had not done so. Indirectly, the study sought to evaluate the usefulness of the compensatory program. On the bases of the findings, the following conclusions were reached:

1. There were no significant differences between the
group of black freshmen making satisfactory academic progress and the group of black freshmen
making unsatisfactory academic progress.

2. High school grade-point average had the strongest
relationship to grades earned by the black students.


64






65


3. The usefulness of the Florida Twelfth Grade Test
as a basis for assigning black freshmen to either
the compensatory or regular programs at the
University of Florida is questionable.

4. The compensatory program provided an opportunity
for 82 black students to gain admission to the
University of Florida. The program did not
directly contribute significantly to the academic performance of the black students.

5. Students assigned to the compensatory program
benefited, to some extent, from differential
grading practices.

6. The ability to cope with the then prevailing
"campus climate" may have been one possible factor separating a rather homogeneous group of 141 black students into two groups--one making satisfactory
academic progress, the other making unsatisfactory
academic progress,

On the average, the students making satisfactory academic progress could be distinguished from those making unsatisfactory academic progress by the following factors: They had earned a higher grade-point average in high school and had scored higher on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test. They came from families with a higher average annual income and in which the occurrence of divorce or separation of parents was less frequent. A somewhat higher percentage of students in the group making satisfactory academic progress had graduated from integrated high schools.

The differences found, however, were minimal. The

results of the discriminant analysis showed that, for all practical purposes, the individuals in both groups came from the same population. No clear dichotomy could be established on the bases of the variables selected with the possible





66


exception of high school grade-point average. The various models used in the discriminant analysis to explore possible differences were significant at the .05 level only when high school grade-point average was included as one of the independent variables. When removed, none of the combinations of variables were useful in establishing significant differences between the two groups of black students.

Although high school grade-point average was the only independent variable which was significant in the discriminant model, its usefulness is questionable. The two groups differed by only .3 of a grade point. Moreover, the range of high school grade-point average was wide for each group and highly overlapping so that on the basis of this variable alone, no definite conclusions can be drawn as to which of the two groups of students a black freshmen is most likely to belong. Thus, it may be concluded that distinction between the group of black students making satisfactory academic progress and the group of black students making unsatisfactory academic progress cannot be established with the variables selected for this study. Both groups appeared to be similar in terms of high school achievement and family background.

The results of the discriminant analysis did bring

into question the usefulness of the Florida Twelfth Grade Test as a basis for assigning black freshmen to compensatory





67


or regular prr . the point of selection, the

students in t two groups differed on this test by an

average of over O0 poi-ts. When after three quarters, these same studcnThs wcrc divided into two other groups-one making sati. cte::_, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress, tho> difference was found to be a mere 7 points. In addition, the results of the multiple regression analy -is (using pooled data) showed the correlation between Flcricla Tvclfth Grade Test score and gradepoint average earned at the University of Florida by the 141 black students to be only .13. In view of this weak relationship, it would appear that the practice of placing total reliance on this test as a means of selecting and assigning black freshmen to either the compensatory or the regular programs is questionable.

None of the variables investigated yielded a high

correlation to the grade-point average earned by the black freshmen. This may be noted from the results of the multiple regression analyses shown in Tables 12, 13, and 14.

For the total group of 141 black students, high school grade-point average, with a correlation of .29, showed the highest (although weak) relationship to grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. A similar result was obtained in a separate regression analysis for the 55 students making unsatisfactory academic progress. For this group, the correlation between high school and college grade-point average was .24.





68


On the surface, it would appear that for the 86 students making satisfactory academic progress that relationship, with a correlation of .088 was almost non-existent. Instead, for this group of students, the total score on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test appeared to have the highest relationship (.384) to grade-point average earned at the University. The meaning of this, however, should be interpreted with caution. It may also be noted from Table 14 that for the students achieving satisfactorily, participation in the compensatory program showed a negative correlation of

-.32 as compared to a mere -.048 using pooled data and .143 for the students making unsatisfactory progress. Thus it would appear that in the more successful group, students from the regular program tended to earn the higher grades. It should be pointed out, however, that the students admitted to the regular program achieved, on the average, scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test of over 100 points higher than did the students admitted to the compensatory program. It would thus seem reasonable to believe that being enrolled in the regular program and the Florida Twelfth Grade Test score would be highly correlated with each other and it is believed that this fact is reflected in Table 14.

For the total group of 141 students, the relationship between Florida Twelfth Grade Test score and grade-point average earned at the University showed a correlation of only .13. This fact, coupled with the results of the





69


discriminant analysis, tend to increase the suspicion that this test may not provide a useful basis for selecting and admitting black freshmen to the University of Florida.

The other variables investigated such as sex, integrated or non-integrated high school, family income, and parent's marital status showed either negative or very small positive correlations. In the regression models, these variables added little to the multiple correlations with the possible exception of attendance at a non-integrated high school. This variable consistently obtained a negative correlation in all three models (Tables 12, 13, and 14). In each case, however, the relationship was weak. To state that the students who graduated from all black high schools tended to make the lower grades would have to be done with reservation.

To 82 of the students in this study, the compensatory

program provided an opportunity--one without which they would not have gained admission to the state's university system. And as is shown in Table 8, 62 percent of them were making satisfactory academic progress at the end of the 1971 Winter Quarter. But beyond providing that opportunity, it would appear from the results of the multiple regression analyses that the compensatory program did not directly contribute significantly to the academic achievement of the black students. Ironically, the highest positive relationship found between participation in the program and





70


grades earned at the University was for the 55 students who were making unsatisfactory progress. With a correlation of only .143, however, the usefulness of the program is far from convincing. For the 86 more successful students (which included 51 individuals from the compensatory program), the correlation was -.32, while for the total group, using pooled data, the correlation between participation in the compensatory program and level of academic achievement was found to be extremely low--obtaining a correlation of not quite -.05. Thus it would appear that the students assigned to the regular program tended to make the higher grades. Whatever the educational deficiencies of the less successful students, the compensatory program appeared to contribute little to overcoming those deficiencies. Some individual black students may well have benefited from the services provided in the compensatory program but to the total group, the contribution made by the program to the academic achievement of the students seems questionable.

The highest multiple correlation obtained, using all

variables, was .40 which, although not unusual, would appear to be low. As was pointed out in the review of the literature, an average multiple correlation of .65 has been obtained by various researchers using grades and standardized test scores to predict grades in college. Validity studies done by the College Entrance Examination Board for the University of Florida achieved multiple correlations as high





71


as .61 using seven predictors including the Scholastic Aptitude Test and .57 using five predictors including the Florida Twelfth Grade Test. Thus with a multiple correlation of only .40, it would appear that factors in addition to those investigated were related to the academic performance of the black students.

It is, of course, difficult to reach definite conclusions in regard to the actual level of achievement attained by the students in the compensatory program because of the different grading practices held to in the Comprehensive Logic classes. The relationship between standard examination scores and grades received in Comprehensive Logic showed a correlation of .33 for the regular students. For those in the compensatory program, the correlation was .92. There is no doubt that students in the compensatory program received higher grades than students in the regular program received for the same standardized test score. To some extent, this affects the results of the discriminant analysis in that the two groups of black students were separated on the basis of grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. As it is, grades earned by individuals in the compensatory program reflect a level of academic achievement inflated by preferential grading practices.

The reason for this inflation may have been to instill confidence and to motivate students to continue to progress.






72


It makes evaluation of the compensatory program's merits, however, a difficult task. Its real effects, which already have been brought into question, require further research.

Nevertheless, the discriminant analysis established

the fact that the 86 students making satisfactory academic progress, and the 55 students not making satisfactory academic progress, comprised a rather homogeneous group with respect to the variables studied. What made two seemingly similar groups of black students achieve at different levels? The proposition advanced here (not supported by the findings of this study) is that differences in levels of achievement may have been related to differences in ability to cope with the University's environment.

The students in this study came from families with an average annual income below $5,000.00. Thirty-one percent of the students came from broken homes. Seventy-five percent had graduated from all black high schools. If one considers that many of these students had no plans to attend college until approached by the University of Florida, it seems reasonable to believe that this group of black students was far from "college-oriented." Furthermore, these 141 students comprised the first sizeable number of black students to be admitted to a traditionally all white university which, in 1970, had a campus climate that appeared to be far from "ideal" for Black Americans. The presence of black










faculty and staff was almost non-existent. It is an open question to what extent student organizations on campus were receptive to black people. It would thus appear that, in 1970, the atmospheree" at the University of Florida was far from conducive to learning as far as the black students were concerned many of whom had academic deficiencies to begin with. That year, the University does not appear to have attracted many academically well-prepared black students who, according to the review of the literature, were in general seeking admission to well-known black colleges and universities.

In addition, compensatory education directed toward overcoming the educational deficiencies of black students was a new experience on the campus of the University of Florida. During the three quarters covered by this study, the ensuing interaction between black students, the compensatory program, and the campus climate was, as pointed out in the review of the literature, wrought with tension. It was a period during which faculty, administrators, and black students appeared to be searching to find a common ground for compatibility. For this particular group of black youngsters recruited in 1970, attending the University of Florida may well have been a difficult experience because of the many adjustments demanded from them and the University. It was that situation which leads to the advancement of the





74


proposition that one possible factor accounting for the separation of a rather homogeneous group of 141 black students into two groups--one making satisfactory academic progress, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress-was the differences in ability to cope with a difficult environmental situation.

This study has brought into question the utility of the compensatory program as it existed in 1970. Much, however, has changed on the campus of the University of Florida since that year. There are larger numbers of black students, faculty and staff. It appears the atmosphere has become more receptive to black students. If the compensatory program is maintained to fulfill the University's social obligations, further research should be conducted to learn if the program can be justified in terms of cost and effort in relation to expected results.

With its changed "climate," however, it would appear the time has come for the University of Florida to exert greater effort in recruiting the many academically wellprepared black students who each year are graduating from high schools and community colleges. When "without persuasion" the University begins to attract those black students, then it may be offering educational opportunities that are truly equal.






75


Implications for Further Research

The findings of this study suggest the need for further research. Additional studies should be conducted to test the conclusion that the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program does not directly contribute significantly to the academic achievement of black freshmen at the University of Florida. If the conclusion is sustained, attention should be given to the question of whether resources, earmarked for the E. E. 0. program, should be diverted to areas that do directly contribute in a significant way to the academic achievement of black students who do not meet admission requirements. Decisions should not be reached, however, unless and until further research has been able to establish what those areas are.

An alternative would be to develop a university whose campus environment and academic offerings hold the same appeal and promise for academically well-prepared black Americans as it currently does for white Americans. In that case, compensatory education practices should perhaps be left to those institutions which for many years have had a reputation of expertise in that area, e.g., the community colleges. In any case, the findings of the present study suggest the need for a re-appraisal of the part of the faculty and administration at the University of Florida as to which efforts and method most effectively assimilate black Americans into the academic setting of the University.

































APPENDICES











APPENDIX A


DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANDED EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES PROGRAM


The program was designed to assist students whose financial, educational, social and cultural background may have limited their opportunities to pursue a course of higher education at the University of Florida. Each year, approximately 150 students are selected, most of whom present scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test below the required minimum for admission. A few are admitted with high school grades below the standards set for admission. Although the majority of the participants are Black Americans, the program is open to members of all races.

The students are enrolled in the regular required

basic program, however, special sections are specifically designed to aid participants in the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program. The special sections are found in the following areas: Comprehensive English, Comprehensive Social Sciences, Comprehensive Physical Sciences, Comprehensive Logic, Mathematics.

Each student in the Program is assigned to an academic counsel - at the time he first enrolls. The counselor advises the student concerning career options, curriculum, and academic problems which may arise. All effort is made


77





78


to prevent the student from experiencing serious academic difficulty.

Classes are limited to between 15 and 25 students. During the initial quarter classes are met five times a week instead of the normal three times a week. In the subsequent three quarters there is a gradual reduction of the in-class time.

To aid students in entering the regular academic programs of the University, special services are provided. Tutors are assigned to all students in the program for their required courses and for elective courses whenever possible. Counseling services are available in the form of academic, personal, and career counseling. Reading and study skills are improved through the University's Reading Improvement and Study Skills Center which is staffed with full-time personnel.

Financial aid is provided in the form of grants, loans, and workstudy programs. Participants are not allowed to

work during the initial quarter (summer) and may work no more than two quarters of the total academic year.












APPENDIX B


DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORIDA STATEWIDE TWELFTH GRADE TESTING PROGRAM


The Statewide Twelfth Grade Testing Program is conducted in all Florida high schools each fall to provide

comparable ability and achievement data on all seniors.

The testing instrument of the Florida Program was prepared

in 1963 by the Educational Testing Service, Princeton,

New Jersey.

The six components of the test are as follows:

Academic Ability--Verbal analogies (based on synonyms,
antonyms, part-whole, cause-effect, object-action,
class-subclass, and other relationships); mathematical
comparisons (requiring recognition of size relationships and situations in which there is insufficient
data to determine size relationships)

English--Usage (diction, idiom, parallelism, modification, logic and coherence, subject-verb agreement),
capitalization, punctuation, sentence correction

Social Studies--American history, world history,
government, economics, geography, sociology, general
culture

Natural Science--Biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology, meteorology

Mathematics--Algebra, geometry, the number system,
set theory, coordinate geometry, data interpretation

Reading--Index based upon performance in verbal aptitude section of ability test, the English test, and the
social studies test.


79





80


Scores are reported in terms of percentile ranks

based upon results for Florida high school seniors. Each student's performance is compared to that of other Florida high school seniors. The percentile rank indicates the percentage of students that earned scores equal to or less than a given raw score.

Scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test range from

0 to 495. Regulations of the Florida State Board of Regents require that a high school graduate present a total of 300 or above for the sum of the percentile ranks on the five tests as well as "C" average in academic high school subjects to be fully eligible for admission to the state universities.

A score of 300 would place a person at the 60th percentile. The median score of the 1970 incoming freshman class at the University of Florida in 1970 was approximately 420 which is at the 85th percentile.











APPENDIX C


EXPLANATION OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS


The following is based on Hoel (1965):

A problem which often arises is that of discriminating between two groups of individuals on the basis of several properties of those individuals. Whenever a relationship exists between academic performance of a particular group of students and a set of variables, it is possible to estimate by means of multiple regression the academic performance a student may be expected to demonstrate, provided it can be ascertained that the student belongs to that class of students. To analyze the set of variables for the purpose of determining the group of students an individual is most like, the technique of discriminant analysis is an appropriate technique.

For example, we wish to classify a group of students, some of whom belong to one group (successful) and the rest to a second group (unsuccessful), into their proper group by means of a set of variables obtained from each student. If the two groups are similar with respect to the set of variables, it will not be possible to classify the students correctly by means of a single variable because of a fairly large amount of overlap in the distribution of this single


81





82


variable for two groups; however, it may be possible to find a linear combination of those variables whose distribution for the two groups would possess little overlap. This linear combination may then be used to yield a set of discriminant weights by which students of two groups could be differentiated. The procedure for discriminating would consist in finding a critical value of the index such that any student whose index fell below the critical value would be classified as belonging to one group, otherwise to the other group.

The principal difference between a linear discrimination function and an ordinary linear regression function arises from the nature of the dependent variable. A linear regression function uses values of the dependent variable to determine a linear function that will estimate the values of the dependent variable, whereas the discriminant function determines no such values but uses instead a profile of combined variables to discriminate between two groups of students on the basis of their compiled profile (Hoel, 1965).

A linear combination of a set of variables may be represented as follows:

Z =X X + X2 2 + . . . + XkXk

where X1, X2' ' . . Xk are the variables and A the coefficient for each variable.





83


The problem then is to determine the A's by means of some criterion that will enable Z to serve as an index for differentiating between members of the two groups.

The discriminant function Z is in fact the weighted combination of the k variables that maximizes the difference between two groups.

Further explanation of this technique and examples of its practical application may be found in Tiedeman (1951), Tatsuoka and Tiedeman (1954), Ikenberry (1961), Ivanhoff (1961), Li (1964), and Anderson (1966).












APPENDIX D


RESULTS OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS
FOR TWO GROUPS


F(12,128) = 2.12


Pop. No.
1
2


Rank


N
55 86


First Group Values


0.03677 0.03552
0.03451 0.03384 0.03339 0.03082
0.03060



0.02939

0.02823 0.02811

0.02762 0.02759

0.02727 0.02698








0.02537 0.02532 0.02531


Mean Z
0.02291 0.01775


Second Group Values


0.03040
0.02982
0.02964

0.02843


0.02789


0.02728


0.02687 0.02663
0.02646 0.02641 0.02606 0.02577 0.02561
0.02541


Variance Z
0.00004 0.00004


First Group Item No.


16
9
24
1
12 46 49


4


26
3

39
22

17 11


Std. Dev. Z
0.00614 0.00666


Second Group Item No,


26 16 72

14


24


41


1
53 13 63 67 11
43 28


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31


84


25
48 36





85


First Group Rank Values


0.02508



0.02475 0.02426 0.02426 0.02410 0.02404 0.02385 0.02356
0.02349 0.02269 0.02260 0.02239 0.02236


0.02199 0.02195 0.02169
0.02149 0.02123



0.02061




0.01988 0.01983 0.01976 0.01976 0.01972
0.01934


Second Group Values


0.02509 0.02506 0.02503
0.02485



0.02420 0.02406


0.02381 0.02307


0.02256 0.02237 0.02226
0.02202 0.02190


0.02146 0.02119
0.02084 0.02073

0.02043 0.02039 0.02009 0.01995 0.01978


First Group Item No.


29


21 52
7

37 18 13 33 38

45
8

40


2


5
10 15 28 23


34


51
41

53 30
44 47


Second Group Item No.


84

61 59
3


27 75 18 51 73

12 42 25 81 32 66
54 39 55 30
64 20 15






86


Fir c. r i Rank Val


79..
80

82 83
84 85
8;
87

89

91
92 93
94 95 96 97
98 99
100 101
102 103
104 105 106 107 108 109 110 11
112 113
114 115 11.Ea
117 118 119 120
121 122
123 124


0.03 36 0.(1 C55


-. i1/85 0. U 1727



0.01712

0.01695 0.01661 0.01582




0.01523

0.01460



0.01399


Second Group Values

0,01925 0.01918
0.01894

0.01877

0.01796 0.01785

0.01736

0.01718
0.01714 0.01712

0.01700

0.01688

0.01657
0.01594

0.01566 0.01566 0.01551 0.01550

0.01478

0.01457 0.01452 0.01416

0.01307 0.01285 0.01268
0.01245 0.01237 0.01226 0.01217 0.01191
0.01174 0.01165 0.01163
0.01149 0.01114


First Group
Item No.




54 50


31

43


55 19 32 35


20

14


27


Second Group Item No.

10 33 37

9

40
6

58

65 50 71


57

23

62
44

36 68 17
45

52

82
49
83

31 85 35 69 79 29
4
60 76 38 56 22 86









First Group Rank Values-


Second Group Values


First Group Item No.


Second Group Item No.


125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133
134 135 136 137 138 139
140 141


0.01097 0.01072 0.01069 0.01065
0.01042 0.01013
0.01002 0.00898 0.00896 0.00877 0.00850


0.00714 0.00668
0.00654
-0.00167


8
46 70 19 80
21 77
47 78
7
74


5
48
2
34


6
42


0.00786
0.00785















BIBLIOGRAPHY


Anderson, H. E. "Regression, Discriminant Analysis, and a
Standard Notation for Basic Statistics." In Cattell,
R. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Multivariate Experimental
Psychology, 1966.

Barger, B., and Hall, E. "The Interaction of Ability and
Socioeconomic Variables in the Prediction of College
Dropouts and Grade Achievement." Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1965, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 501508.

Barrineau, Mary. "O'Connell Too 'Legal'--Butler." Gainesville Sun, April 17, 1971, p. 4.

Barrineau, Mary. "Regents Back O'Connell Chairman Kibler
Says," Gainesville Sun, April 17, 1971, p. 7.

Berdie, R. F. After High School - What? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954.

Berger, L. "University Programs for Urban Black and Puerto
Rican Youth." Educational Record, 1968, Vol. 49,
No. 4, pp. 382-388.

Bloom, B. S., and Peters, F. R. The Use of Academic Prediction Scales for Counseling and Selecting College Entrants. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1961.

Borup, J. H. "The Validity of American College Test for
Discerning Potential Academic Achievement Levels
Ethnic and Sex Groups." The Journal of Educational
Research, 1971, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 3-6.

Bowers, J. "The Comparison of GPA Regression Equations for
Regularly Admitted and Disadvantaged Freshmen at the
University of Illinois." Journal of Educational
Measurement, 1970, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 219-255.

Braskamp, L. A., and Brown, R. D. "Evaluation of Programs
for Blacks." Educational Record, 1972, Vol. 53, No. 1,
pp. 51-58.

Bureau of the Census. Social and Economic Conditions of Negroes in the United States. Current Population Reports,


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89


Series P-23, No. 26. Washington, D.C.: Superintendent
of Documents, Government Printing Office, July, 1968.

Cartey, W., and Morrison, A. Compensatory Education Programs in Higher Education: A Nationwide Survey. New
York: The Urban Center, Columbia University, 1970.

Chalk, 0. "Grades: A Barrier to College for the Disadvantaged." Changing Education, 1970, Vol. 4, No. 4,
pp. 11-13.

The Chronicle of Higher Education. "U.S. Survey of Undergraduate Enrollments by Race." Baltimore, Md.:
April 22, 1968.

Clark, K. B., and Plotkin, L. The Negro Student at Integrated Colleges. New York: National Scholarship
Service and Fund for Negro Students, 1963.

Cleary, T. A., and Hilton, T. L. "An Investigation of Item
Bias." Educational and Psychological Measurement,
1968, Vol. 28, pp. 61-75.

Cleary, T. A. "Test Bias: Prediction of Grades of Negro and
White Students in the Integrated Colleges." Journal of
Educational Measurement, 1968, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 115-124.

Coleman, J., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., and others.
Equality of Educational Opportunity. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education.
Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 1966.

Commission on Higher Education Opportunity in the South. The
Negro and Higher Education in the South. Atlanta:
Southern Regional Education Board, 1967.

Coppedge, F. L. "Relation of Selected Variables from High
School Records to Occupational and College Success."
The Journal of Educational Research, 1969, Vol. 63,
No. 2, pp. 71-73.

Cormeier, Clif. "The O'Connell Years," Gainesville Sun,
July 1, 1973, p. 8B.

Cronbach, L. J. Essentials of Psychological Testing. New
York: Harper and Brothers, 1949.

Crowley, F. J. "The Goals of Male High School Seniors."
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1959, Vol. 37, No. 7,
pp. 488-492.




Full Text

PAGE 1

7\CADEIiT.C PEIlFOIWvNCE OF BLACK FRESHMEN ADMI'L'TED TO COMPENSATORY AND REGUMR PROGRAMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By EDUARD VAN GELDER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1973

PAGE 2

Copyright by Eduard Van Gelder 1973

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was made possible through the cooperation, guidance, and assistance of various individuals. To the members of my committee I am deeply grateful for their guidance, encouragement, and suggestions. It is with sincere appreciation that I thank Dr. James L. Wattenbarger, Dr. Dayton Y. Roberts, Dr. Thomas W, Cole, Dr. John M. Nickens, and Dr. Joseph S, Vandiver for permitting me to benefit from their experience and insight. Specifically, I am indebted to Dr. John M. Nickens for the many hours spent in guiding the research activities and for his patience. The cooperation is gratefully acknowledged of Mr. Richard H. Whitehead, University Registrar; Mr. Robert M. Feinberg, Assistant University Examiner; and Mr. Douglas I. Turner, Director of Financial Aid; who made it possible to gather the data for the study. It is difficult to put into words my heartful gratitude to my wife and children who somehow endured it all. 111

PAGE 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES vi ABSTRACT ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Review of the Literature 3 Summary 27 II THE PROBLEM 29 Statement of the Problem 29 The Need for the Study 30 Rationale 32 Definition of Terms 33 III RESEARCH DESIGN MiD PROCEDURE 35 Description of Population 36 Collection of Data 40 Analysis of Data 40 Limitations 42 IV FINDINGS 43 V CONCLUSIONS 64 Implications for Further Research .... 75 APPENDICES A DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANDED EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES PROGRAM 77 B DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORIDA STATEWIDE TWELFTH GRADE TESTING PROGRAM 79 iv

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) APPENDICES Page C . EXPLANATION OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS .... 81 D RESULTS OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS FOR TWO GROUPS 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY 88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 96 V

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Average high school grade-point average and average Florida Twelfth Grade Test scores of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programis at the University of Florida in 1970 37 2 Number of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970, who came from all black or integrated high schools 37 3 Number and average family income of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970. 38 4 Number of black freshmen accepted to the compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 19 70 who came from broken or intact homes 38 5 Variable means by group and difference in means 44 6 Linear combination F ratios resulting when one or more variables are deleted from a combination of variables to discriminate between a group of subjects making unsatisfactory progress and a group of subjects making satisfactory progress at the University of Florida 46 7 Range, mean, and standard deviation of high school grade-point averages for students making satisfactory academic progress (Group II) and students making unsatisfactory academic progress (Group I) at the University of Florida .... 48 8 Percentage of black students classified compensatory or regular who were making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) or satisfactory progress (Group II) 49 vi

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) Table Page 9 Perceritatje of students classified in Group I or Group II v;ho v/ere enrolled in either the compensatcry or regular programs 50 10 Matrix of correlation coefficients for seven independerit variables and grade-point average earned at the University of Florida by 141 black students 51 11 Means, star.-dard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for seven :LTidependent variables correlated with grade-point average earned at the University of Florida bv 141 black students. , 52 12 CorrelatioriS (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 141 black students 54 13 Correlations' (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 55 black students ic^aking unsatisfactory progress. ... 55 14 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the irariables and GPA earned by 86 black students saaking satisfactory progress 56 15 Matrix of correlation coefficients for four independent, variables and grade-point average earned by 34 black students in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic 59 16 Matrix of correlation coefficients for four independent variables and grade-point average earned by 55 black students in the special section of Comprehensive Logic , . 59 vxi

PAGE 8

LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) Table Page 17 Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for four independent variables correlated with grade earned in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic by 34 black students ... 60 18 Means, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard error of regression coefficients, and proportion of variance (cumulative) for four independent variables correlated with grade earned in the special section of Comprehensive Logic by 55 black students ... 61 19 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting v;hen independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and grades received by 34 black students enrolled in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic 62 20 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and grades received by 55 black students enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic 62 viii

PAGE 9

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BLACK FRESHMEN ADMITTED TO COMPENSATORY AND REGULAR PROGRAMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By Eduard Van Gelder December, 1973 Chairman: Dr. James L. Wattenbarger Co-chairman: Dr. John M. Nickens Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision This study inquired into the academic performance of 141 black students admitted to the University of Florida in 1970. Because they did not meet the admission requirements, 82 of the students had been assigned to the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program (EEOP) a compensatory education program, designed to test whether students whose qualifications fell below the required standards for admission could with special assistance succeed at the University of Florida. Specifically the study sought the answers to the following questions: (1) Are there significant differences between black freshmen making satisfactory academic progress and black freshmen making unsatisfactory academic progress? and, (2) How well have black students, assigned to the compensatory program, performed academically as compared to black students admitted to the regular academic program? Indirectly, the study sought to evaluate the usefulness of ix

PAGE 10

the compensatory education program in relation to academic performance. Independent variables included (1) participation in the compensatory or regular program, (2) high school gradepoint average, (3) Florida Twelfth Grade Test score, (4) graduation from integrated or non-integrated high school, (5) sex, (6) marital status of parents, and (7) family income. The dependent variable was the overall gradepoint average earned at the University of Florida after three quarters. Students with an overall grade-point average of 2.0 or higher v/ere considered to be making satisfactory academic progress. Students with an overall grade-point average of 1.9 or lower v/ere considered to be making unsatisfactory progress. The statistical treatments employed were a discriminant analysis for two groups using the Biomedical Computer Program, BMD04M, and a multiple regression analysis using the Biomedical Computer Program, BMD03R. No significant differences were found between the two groups of black freshmen. For all practical purposes, the group making satisfactory academic progress and the group making unsatisfactory progress came from the same population. To a limited extent the two groups could be differentiated on the basis of high school grade-point average, an independent variable which was also found to have the strongest relationship to grade-point average earned at the University X

PAGE 11

of Florida. The findings of the study showed that for this particular group of black students the variables selected had little relationship to academic achievement. The findings also suggested that variables in addition to those selected will need to be investigated to learn more about the academic performance of black students at the University of Florida. The results of the analyses brought into question (1) the reliance placed on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test as a means of selecting black freshmen for either the compensatory or the regular academic programs and (2) the usefulness of the compensatory education program. Furthermore, the reaching of conclusions in regard to the actual level of academic achievement attained by the students in the compensatory education program was made difficult by differences in grading practices. xi

PAGE 12

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In 1964, the Educational Policies Commission of the National Education Association declared the time had come for accepting the idea that universal opportunity also applied to education beyond the high school. VJith the enactment of the Higher Education Act of 1965, the Congress committed this nation to that goal. The ideal of equal opportunity for higher education for all Americans, regardless of race or economic circumstances, is slowly gaining acceptance but a century of separate and inferior education for Black Americans has created a significant disparity which has prevented black students from gaining admission to higher education, especially to colleges and universities with predominantly white students. To overcome this disparity is a difficult task. Nevertheless, colleges and universities should be committed, legally and morally, to insure that access to higher education is not restricted because of race, color, or ethnic background. Toward the fulfillment of this goal, the Southern Regional Education Board's Commission on Higher Education (1967) commended to the educational leaders in the South 1

PAGE 13

2 that "immediate steps ... be taken to help Negro college students overcome the handicaps of educational disadvantage and cultural deprivation" [p. 1] . In 1970, the administration of the University of Florida took a step toward this goal when it admitted 141 black students, 82 of whom did not meet the minimum requirements for admission. These 82 students were enrolled in the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program (EEOP) — a compensatory education program designed to test whether students whose qualifications fell below the required standards for admission, could with special assistance, succeed at the University of Florida {for a description of the EEOP program see Appendix A) . Most of the 141 black students came from low income families. Their educational achievements were such that when measured by traditional standardized instruments, the results would ordinarily have prevented them from gaining admission to the university system of the State of Florida. To prepare the students in the compensatory program for matriculation in the regular college programs of the University of Florida, special services were provided throughout the freshman year such as tutoring, counseling, reading assistance and curriculum assistance. With the inception of this project, the administration and faculty of the University of Florida expanded the opportunities for higher education to disadvantaged and minority

PAGE 14

students. It was the University's first experience with compensatory education designed to assist black students. R eviev; of the Literature Related literature and research will be discussed under four main headings: (1) Black Students in Higher Education, (2) The Nature and Extent of Compensatory Programs, (3) Academic Prediction and Performance of Black Students in Higher Education, and (4) Black Students at the University of Florida, 1970-71. Black Students in Higher Education In 196 8, the Bureau of the Census reported that the percentof non-white males completing high school had risen from 36 to 53 during the period of 1960-66. For non-white females the increase was from 41 to 49 percent. In spite of the rise in the number of black high school graduates, Coleman et al . (1966) reported that black students accounted for only 4.5 percent of the college population even though Black Americans comprise about 11 percent of the population in the United States. Kendrick (196 7-68) stated that approximately half of these black students attended predominantly black colleges and the other half was enrolled mainly in jtinior colleges and other relatively non-selective institutions. In April of 1968, the Chronicle of Higher Education published enrollment figures by race which showed that

PAGE 15

4 approximately 95,000 black students were enrolled in institutions which traditionally have served a predominance of white students. This amounted to about 2 percent of the nationwide total enrollment (Egerton, 1969) , Some progress is noted in a recent report released by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1972). It shows that enrollment of black students in 1971 rose to 8 percent. In 1950, the Supreme Court ruled the segregation of black students in publicly supported graduate schools illegal. V7hen that same court in 1954 declared public school segregation illegal, "... state institutions were legally on their way to being open to all regardless of race . . .." (Gordon, 1971, p. 110). But it was not until after Sputnik I was laiinched in 1957, that through the National Defense Education Act resources became available for the discovery of "talent." This, according to Gordon, moved predominantly white universities to begin viewing minority groups, and especially black communities, as fruitful fields for recruiting academically promising students. Little was done, however, to encourage and assist poorly prepared students to overcome academic deficiencies imposed on them by a stifling environment over which they had no control. Gordon and Wilkerson (1966), as well as Cartey and Morrison (1970) have credited the National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students (NSSFNS) for encouraging colleges and universities to start placing

PAGE 16

5 emphasis on potential rather than past achievement and to work tov/ard the development of compensatory program.s for disadvantaged students. A survey of black college students in the South led the Commission on Higher Educational Opportunity in the South to conclude that if equal opportunity were to become a reality for all Americans, regardless of race, color, or religion, "higher educational institutions must provide remedial and compensatory programs for disadvantaged students until public school preparation becomes truly equal for students of all backgrounds" (Commission on Higher Education Opportunity in the South, 1967, p. 36). The Board recommended that each senior college and university adopt a "high risk" quota for the admission of disadvantaged students. Traditionally, college admissions has served as a screening based on intellectual achievement and promise. Thresher (1966) pointed out, however, that most of the real screening had all along been done by the accidents of socioeconomic origins, early environment, and the various levels of aspirations habitually characterizing particular groups and subcultures. For centuries, colleges and universities accepted the "pool of ability" concept— the belief that higher education was the prerogative of only a small fraction of high school graduates drawn mainly from the well-to-do classes. The determining factors that control entry into higher education are rooted in the home and

PAGE 17

6 school environment of children from infancy on. hliat use to pass for "recruiting" on the part of colleges and universities is seen in our present perspective as a superficial effort to rearrange the educational destinations of the limited fraction of the population that had managed to reach the twelfth grade without having its potential for further education damaged or destroyed. (Thresher, 1966, p. 6) Thresher referred to studies done by Hollingshead (1952) and Berdie (1954) v/hich showed that "talent" could not simply be recruited. It had to be searched out, helped, and encouraged. The "conditions of opportunity" to a large extent determined who V7ent to college and where (Thresher, 1966, p. 12). \ The Nature and Extent of Compensatory Programs in Higher Education Compensatory education is a term which refers to programs directed at overcoming or circxamventing assumed deficiencies in the background, functioning, and current experiences of youngsters from economically deprived, culturally isolated, and/or ethnically segregated families (Gordon and Jablonsky, 1968). The development of such programs on the campuses of American colleges and universities is a relatively recent phenomenon. Among the social forces giving impetus to this development, Gordon and Wilkerson (1966) mentioned the growing need for educated manpower, increasing pressures of the civil rights movement, new conceptions of the educability of the "lower classes," and philantropic stimulation and support. In addition: the militance of minority students already enrolled in

PAGE 18

7 universities, the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968, the universities' growing realization of their responsibility to serve more than an elite minority, and the dramatic rise in the proportion of black students who now graduate from high school--these are given by Cartey and Morrison (1970) as most important factors contributing to the rise of compensatory education. Morrison and Ferrante (1971) identified two major categories of compensatory education programs and practices: (1) those that assist disadvantaged students in entering institutions of higher learning, and (2) those that help them succeed in academic and occupational-oriented programs once they have been enrolled. Gordon and Wilkerson (1966) defined compensatory practices and programs: A continuing activity by an institution that helps disadvantaged students who could not otherwise do so to enroll and progress in college is . . . termed a compensatory practice. ... An organized group of related activities to the same end is . . . termed a compensatory program. ... [p. 134] In their efforts to assist disadvantaged and minority students, colleges and universities have engaged in a variety of programs and practices, Kendrick and Thomas (1970) listed the following: Summer-preadmission programs, reduced courseload, remedial courses, tutorial assistance, guidance and counseling, extended length of time to meet graduation requirements, and financial assistance. These are but a few

PAGE 19

8 of the elements that have been employed either singly or in combination to meet the needs of disadvantaged and minority students . Gordon and Wilkerson (1966) published the results of an extensive survey of the extent and distribution of compensatory practices among colleges and universities in the United States. Of the 2,093 institutions contacted, 610 responded representing 2 8.6 percent of the 2,131 colleges and universities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia during 1963-64. They found that the mainstream of higher education showed little or no concern for youth with educational handicaps born of poverty and discrimination. Moreover, it was noted that only 36.5 percent of the responding institutions had begun some form of compensatory programs and practices but that most of these seemed to fit "... the somewhat dreary pattern of remedial courses which have plagued many generations of low-achieving students with but little benefit to most of them" [p. 155], A similar survey of 462 higher education institutions in five Midwestern states done by Simmons (1970) showed that of the 312 institutions which responded, only 21 percent had some form of compensatory practice or program for disadvantaged students. Most of these had been undertaken within the past two years and were found in institutions with less than 5,000 enrollment.

PAGE 20

9 1 The major effort at compensatory education has been made by tradi tioncKlly black colleges and universities (Gordon, 1971). In 1971, they were still serving approximately 65 percent of the black college students in fouryear programs and 45 to 50 percent if the figures for twoyear community colleges v/ere taken into account. Consequently, research on the extensiveness and effectiveness of compensatory programs at traditionally white institutions is limited in quantity and scope. In reviev/ing the educational research, Kendrick and Thomas (1970) noted that existing compensatory practices and programs seemed to be making little impact in eradicating the problems of disadvantaged students, the majority of colleges and universities had not accepted this as their role. Although in his 196 8 message to Congress on education, President Johnson considered it a triumph of American democracy that 50 percent of high school graduates were going on to college, Egerton (196 8) found that in the same year less than 11.5 percent of the 16 2 institutions responding to his survey had initiated programs for the disadvantaged. He observed that the question which held the attention of university administrators and faculty was not how to proceed with effective programs for the disadvantaged, but whether they should become so engaged.

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10 Opposition to compensatory education on the college level has evolved around several issues. One is tied to the argument that minority students are not prepared and will not succeed in college, another is found in the feeling that acceptance of high risk students will lower an institution's standards and will reduce its quality of education (Nunez, 1970). Both Gordon (1966) and Berger (1968) have argued that for compensatory programs to be successful, the nature and cause of poor school performance must be understood and that it is unwarranted to assume that past performance of disadvantaged youngsters is a direct function of ability. Gordon (1966) believes that where compensatory programs have failed, there has been no recognition of the relationship between conditions of life, characteristics of the learner, and success in the teaching learning process. Organizers of compensatory programs have tried to help disadvantaged students by giving them more of what seems to work in educating middle and upper class youth. What the literature reveals is a willingness on the part of colleges and universities to recruit "qualified" black students but a reluctance to commence with special programs aimed at helping youngsters overcome the disadvantages created by their environment. Chalk (1970) has pointed out the contradiction in granting admission and financial aid to students who have excellent grades and are also economically deprived for "what we are insisting upon

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11 is that the student demonstrate exceptional merit despite his environment, inadequate diet, oftentimes disrupted family life, marginal self-esteem, and very little encouragement" Ip. 11]. When the white middle-class student comes to college he has a cultural advantage by virtue of his exposure to a college-oriented environment. He has undergone what Merton (19 65) has referred to as "anticipatory socialization." Haettenschwiller (1971) contrasted the white middle class and the black disadvantaged college-bound students. He stated that the white student, in his daily interaction with parents, peers and teachers has internalized the rudiments of the role he will be expected to play upon entering college. This, however, is not the case with the black disadvantaged student because whatever cultural advantages he may enjoy, they have little relevance to the demands of the academic environment [p. 29] . If colleges and universities are serious in assisting black disadvantaged students to cope with institutional demands and to help them overcome the alienating effect of the impersonal, white middle class insitutions, attention must be given to the special needs of these students requiring special counseling opportunities (Haettenschwiller, 1971). Criticism has been leveled by black students, black leaders, and black college officials at the traditional ways in which applicants for admission to institutions of higher learning have been selected. They have challenged the use

PAGE 23

12 of standardized tests to determine who gets into college (Davis and Temp, 1971). One of the ten demands presented to Duke University administrators by the Afro-American Society in February, 1969, was that academic achievement in high school be the only criterion for black students ' admission to that university (Davis and Temp, 1971) , Academic Prediction and Performance of Black Students in Higher Education Access to higher education has traditionally been deter mined by the quality of past scholastic performance. High school grades and entrance examinations have been the timehonored means by which past scholastic performance has been measured. The validity of high school grades and test scores to predict academic performance in college has been the subject of considerable research (Bloom and Peters, 1961 Lavin, 1965). A positive correlation of .30 or higher has been considered sufficient evidence of a positive degree of relationship (Hillway, 1964). As early as 1917, Lincoln reported a correlation of .69 between high school grades and academic performance in college while finding a correlation of less than ,50 between entrance examinations and college grades. He concluded that the quality of work done in the secondary school was a better predictor of academic success in college than scores received on entrance examinations. Lincoln's findings supported those of Thorndike, to whom he referred in his

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13 report, who found a low correlation between entrance examination scores and scholastic performance in college. Thorndike was quoted by Lincoln to have concluded that: There is every reason to believe that of the students . , . who v/ere shut out, a fairly large percentage would have done better than one third of those who were admitted. Sooner or later there will be someone barred out who, if admitted, would be the best man in college. It is a moral atrocity to decide fitness for college on [such] a system . . . (Lincoln, 1917, p. 417) Since 1917, there have been hundreds of studies directed at predicting academic success in college. In all of these, high school grades have consistently been found to relate positively to academic performance in college v;ith correlations reported from as low as .29 to as high as .83 with a median value of .56 (Segel, 1934; Tribilcock, 1938; Cronbach, 1949; Travers , 1949; Garrett, 1949; Hills, 1964; Stanley and Porter, 1967; Richards and Lutz, 1968; Thomas and Stanley, 1969; Munday, 1970). Notwithstanding Thorndike *s criticism, standardized measures of aptitude and achievement have been found to correlate positively with academic achievement in college although not as high as grades. Correlations reported range from .23 to .85 with a median value of .50 (Garrett, 1949; Hills, 1964; McKelpin, 1965; Punches, 1965, 1967; Stanley and Porter, 1967; Richards and Lutz, 1968; Coppedge , 1969; Mvmday, 1970). It has been found that academic prediction is improved when using high school grades in combination with standardized

PAGE 25

14 test scores resulting in multiple correlations with an average of .65 (Hills, 1964; Lavin, 1965? Stanley and Porter, 1967; Munday, 1970) . Researchers have also found that women are more predictable academically than men (Seashore, 1962; Stanley, 1967; Stanley and Porter, 1967). The question which has received considerable attention during the past two decades is whether or not predictors of academic achievement have the same validity for members of minority groups, especially Black Americans, whose educational opportunities may have been severely restricted (Fishman et al . , 1964; Jenkins, 1964; Epps , 19G9; Thomas and Stanley, 1969; Borup, 1971; Stanley, 1971). Out of this has evolved much debate and some research to determine whether or not such standardized measures as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (hereafter referred to as the SAT) and the American College Test (hereafter referred to as the ACT) are biased against black students (Eels, 1953; Kendrick, 1964-65; Cleary and Hilton, 1968; Cleary, 1968; Davis and Temp, 1971). Black students and educational leaders believe that standardized predictors of academic success are oriented toward white, middle-class students, and are inadequate for determining the potential of Blacks (Davis and Temp, 1971). Eels (1953) discussed cultural bias in intelligence tests and stated that such tests were fair measures of scholastic aptitude but only for students in schools designed for the

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15 white middle class. With more caution, Kendrick (1964-65) asserted that . . . we must suspect that children who are culturally and socially disadvantaged are probably underestimated fairly often, both by adults and by tests that adults devise" [p. 7] . He warned that it was "... extremely important that an unusually thorough investigation be made to determine v;hether or not the total environment of the candidate over the years justifies a suspicion that the test does not fit the student" [p. 8]. Defining test bias, Cleary (1968) stated that "... the test is biased if the criterion score predicted from the common regression line is consistently too high or too low for members of the subgroup" [p. 115], Studies done at Morgan State College led Jenkins (1964) to conclude that scholastic aptitude and achievement tests have low validity for individuals and groups of restricted experiential background. This was further investigated by Cleary and Hilton (1968) who studied the variation of Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) item scores in different racial and socioeconomic groups and by Cleary (196 8) who studied the regression of college grades on the SAT for black and white students in integrated colleges. In the first study, large samples of black and white students were used from seven integrated schools in three large metropolitan areas. The purpose of that investigation was to learn (1) whether test items were equally difficult for all groups, (2) whether the

PAGE 27

16 group mean scores across items differed by groups, and (3) whether both group means and relative scores on individual items change as a function of race, socioeconomic standing within race, or both. It was concluded that the PSAT, for practical purposes, was not biased for the groups studied. In the second study, Cleary (1968) investigated the possible bias of the SAT in predicting academic performance of black students in three integrated colleges. Data were collected from two Eastern colleges and one Southwestern college. Subjecting these data to an analysis of covariance, it was found that there were no significant differences in prediction for black and white students from the Eastern colleges. At the Southwestern college, however, it was found that the college grades of black students tended to be overpredicted by the use of the white or common regression lines. Similar results were obtained by Pfeifer and Sedlacek (1971) at the University of Maryland. Black students were overpredicted and it was suggested that caution be exercised when using predictive equations based on predominantly white students , Kallingal (1971) and Temp (1971) replicated Cleary's study and achieved similar results. Kallingal found the regression equations of sophomore year cumulative gradepoint averages on five ability and achievement test scores for blacks and whites at Michigan State University showed significant differences. He too concluded that the use of the white regression equation for predicting black cumulative grade-point averages would result in overestimates of

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17 the criterion values. Temp studied the validity of the SAT for black and white students in thirteen integrated institutions and concluded that to predict first-year grades of black students, a separate regression equation should be utilized. Munday (1965) and Borup (1971) studied the validity of the ACT placement battery for predicting the grades of students from disadvantaged backgrounds and reached somewhat contradictory conclusions. Munday directed his inquiry at whether or not the validity of the ACT would be adversely affected in colleges whose students were predominantly black. Although the ACT scores for the black students were definitely lower than the national averages he, nevertheless, found that the ACT battery was as useful for predicting college grades of students in black colleges as it was for predicting the grades of other students. Munday 's subjects were students in five predominantly black colleges located in four different southern states. Borup (1971), on the other hand, studied the comparative validity of the ACT battery to measure the achievement of Angloand MexicanAmericans in one large Texas state university. AngloAmerican students had scored significantly higher than the MexicanAmerican students on the ACT battery, yet, when first semester grade-point averages became available, there were no significant differences found between the two groups. Since the ACT scores had suggested that the Mexican-American

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18 group would achieve considerably lower, it was concluded by Borup that the ACT battery had a built-in ethnic bias and that scores obtained on this battery when used for admission to college would erect barriers which tended to systematically discriminate against certain ethnic groups. There has been no research to determine the validity of the Florida Twelfth Grade Test to predict academic performance of black students. In 1966, the Educational Testing Service published the results of a validity study which showed the Florida Twelfth Grade Test to have a correlation of .23 with first term freshman grades at the University of Florida. When high school grade-point average was added, a multiple correlation of .55 was obtained. The subjects in this study were all white. Research into the actual academic performance of black students in higher education, especially in compensatory programs, is sparse. Sampel and Seymour (19 71) regard this as " . . . particularly disturbing in the light of present criticisms being directed against the use of the usual predictors of academic success to determine minority students' eligibility for admission to college" [p. 243] . Clark and Plotkin (1963) found that the academic performance of the 509 black students in integrated colleges they studied was considerably above the level predicted by such indices as the SAT. Thirty-one percent achieved an average of Bor better and 50 percent achieved a C+ or

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19 lower for the four years. Slightly less than 10 percent of the group studied graduated v/ith honors and 1 percent was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. The authors reported a drop-out rate of 19 percent. Clark and Plotkin concluded that motivational factors were probably more important than test scores in the demonstrated superiority of black students in completing college. The academic success of black students at the University of Missouri was investigated by Sampel and Seymour (1971) . A sample of 180 black students was matched v/ith a sample of 180 white students using high school rank and scores on the School and College Ability Test (SCAT) as predictor variables. Although the two groups matched evenly on high school gradepoint average, the group of white students showed significantly higher SCAT scores. The results shov/ed that the white students achieved significantly higher grades in college than the black students. The mean college grade-point average for black freshmen, male and female, was well below a C (2.0) average. Sample and Seymour concluded that the data in their study suggested that for black students, especially males, some of the well-established predictors of academic success had little or no relevance. It is interesting to note that Sample and Seymour raised the question "How should these black students be selected so that there is some assurance that they will be able to succeed academically?" [p. 246]. A more relevant question might have been "How could we have helped these students to succeed?" For

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20 the truth of the matter is that the minority student is having a very busy and rather difficult time on campus. He is plagued by money problems, he is working very hard in his studies, he is having to remake the social and even the physical environment, sometimes with sympathetic assistance and sometimes without, and he is having to work out his future in a curriculum which did not originally take him into account. . . . (Kendrick, 1970, pp. 49-50) Compensatory practices and programs have provided some ways in which black students have been helped to succeed. There is, unfortunately, little published research to indicate how these practices and programs are succeeding. Bowers (1970) compared the regression equations for regularly admitted students and disadvantaged freshmen at the University of Illinois. His subjects were 515 beginning freshmen, most of whom were black, who had been admitted to the Special Educational Opportunities Program. For these students, increased financial aid and tutorial services had been budgeted, and several departments had developed special first year courses for these freshmen. First semester grade-point averages were obtained for both regularly admitted and specially admitted freshmen. For the latter group, the averages were based upon grades earned in regular courses as well as grades earned in the special courses. The mean grade-point average earned by the disadvantaged students in the special courses was higher than in the regular courses . Bowers cautioned

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21 about the interpretation of the results and stated that different grading practices in the two types of courses were confounded with groups. Grade inflation in the special courses was expected to contribute to the differences. Bowers suggested that the effectiveness of special programs could better be evaluated on the basis of how successfully tliey prepared specially admitted black students for later regular course work . The Staff of the Experimental Program in Higher Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee studied the performance of students admitted to that program (R. H. Murray, personal communication, July 10, 1972). Eighty-four percent of the students did not meet the admission requirements of the University of Wisconsin. The results showed the students received a mean grade-point average of 2.39 with over 80 percent achieving at least a 2.00. The Educational Opportunities Program of the State University of New York at Buffalo was evaluated by its staff (E. H. Lyons, personal communication, July, 1972), Since the beginning of the program in 1968 with 151 students, 21 percent had terminated, 60 percent had graduated and 9 percent were still in the program. The students who graduated had a cumulative overall grade-point average of 2.81 which was slightly below the average of 2.98 for the entire graduating class. The conclusion was reached by the Buffalo University Staff that the opportunities and special services

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22 provided for the "high risk" students had realized their goal of helping them to succeed at the University of Buffalo A number of researchers have attempted to find a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and academic performance in college. In most studies, SES was measured by some objective technique rather than by subjective rating (Lavin, 1965, ch. 6). "The objective techniques all involve the combining or weighting of scores on variables such as occupation, education, income, attendance at private or public school, area of residence, and the like so as to produce an index of the position of the student's family in the status hierarchy" (Lavin, 1965, p. 123). Lavin has stated that SES is a derivative or summarizing variable; persons of different socioeconomic status . face different kinds of life situations, and in adapting to them, they may develop different sets of values and life styles which may influence school performance [p. 123] . Intelligence has been found to relate positively with socioeconomic status (Crowley, 1959; Knief and Stroud, 1959; Mitchell, 1956). However, in one study it was found that when SES is controlled, the correlation between intelligence and grades was not lowered (Friedhoff, 1955). This raises the question as to the predictive validity of SES factors. Friedhoff found that when intelligence was controlled, correlations between SES and grades dropped from a range of .37 to .47 to a range of .20 to .32. Similar findings were reported by Knief and Stroud.

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23 Rosen (1956) found a relationship between SES and achievement motivation. Students who demonstrated high levels of motivation came from higher status levels but v.'hen motivation was controlled, the relation between SES and grades was almost eliminated. Lavin (1965) stated this to be illustrative of the fact that SES summarized other variables. From his review of the research it was concluded that socioeconomic status is usually positively related to academic performance, but that on the college level the relationship is inverse when the range of SES runs from the upper to the middle class (pp. 127-128). When considered together with such academic predictors as grades and test scores, the increase in the multiple correlation is not significant. Barger and Hall (1965) found a relationship between the academic achievement of white females and parent's marital status. Those from broken homes experienced greater difficulty in adapting to the college environment. Worthington and Grant (1971) found a relationship between family income and academic success. It was considered likely that a student from a family with a given income would be in a relatively higher or lower socioeconomic status group depending on the geographical location of the high school attended. Therefore, the student may be affected by different socioeconomic factors than a student with the same family income who attends another high school.

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24 Meyer (1970) tested the contention that the social status of a high school affects the college-going intentions of its students and concluded that Whether the presence of many higher status students acts primarily by creating an informal peer climate favoring going to college, or by building an orientation toward college into the formal expectations and standards is not clear. [p. 69] Nevertheless, Meyer found the observed effect of school upon college intentions to be greater than had usually been reported. The relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performance is not consistent but Lavin (1965) has pointed out that socioeconomic status is an im.portant variable to investigate because it summarized systematic variations in attitudes, motivations, and value systems, all of which are related to academic performance (ch. 6) . Black Students at the University of Florida, 1970-71 Various researchers have drawn attention to the influence of environment upon learning (Pace and Stern, 1958; Pace, 1960; Stern, 1962). Studies cited by Stern (1962) suggest that selective academic performances are related to differences in response which the same apparent environment elicits from each of several distinct subgroups of students [p. 702]. That the environment or campus climate prevailing on traditionally white colleges and universities has influenced

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25 the academic performance of black students was suggested by KendricX(1970) who stated that the black student "... is having to remake the social and even the physical environment . . . and is having to work out his future in a curriculum . which did not originally take him into account . . . ." [pp. 49-50] . Reports of events which occurred during the 1970-71 academic year at the University of Florida give indication that the attending black students found little harmony with the then prevailing "campus climate." It provoked the mayor of Gainesville — a black American — to charge "I don't believe the UF administration realizes the extent of the racist image UF has with blacks around the nation" (Barrineau, 1971) . This emotion-laden statement was made after black students had blocked the office of the University president and had presented him with a list of grievances and demands. The president's refusal to accede to the demands resulted in violence and the arrest of 72 students, most of whom were black (Reddick, 1971). Shortly thereafter, 123 black students withdrew from the University in protest drawing subsequently an investigation by the Southern Regional Council which in its preliminary report made the statement that . . the University must become a place where the cultural pluralism of our society finds its fullest and freest expression. It must become a University which all students — white, black, or red — feel is theirs, one in which they have a vital stake and one in which they can find a viable and usable education. ( Gainesville Su n. 1 June, 1971, p. 6)

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A day-long hearing held on the campus of the University of Florida by the sub-committee of the Florida Civil Rights Advisory Committee convinced it that the attitude toward minority students was not good and that "... the uni. versity's administration [did] not comprehend the problems facing students who are members of minority groups" (Reddick, 1971). It seems reasonable to infer from the events as reported that the prevailing environment on the campus of the University of Florida during the 1970-71 academic year may have influenced the academic performance of the black students — many of whom were enrolled in a compensatory program about which there existed certain misgivings. In a statement attributed to the then Chairman of the Florida Board of Regents, it was said that The appropriate place for the preparation of blacks for university level work is in the primary and secondary schools and not in the freshman class of our state universities. (Barrineau, 1971) Making life more bearable for black students was a task that could not be accomplished by the University in the short period of 10 months, i.e., between the time the first group of black students was admitted and the time many of them withdrew. That considerable progress has been made may be deduced from a report which alleges that when the : entire state system of higher education came under criticism from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for

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27 failing to desegregate more thoroughly, the Florida Board of Regents looked to the University of Florida for a model to emulate (Cormeier, 1973) . Summary The review of the literature and research has shown that an increasing number of black students are graduating from high school but that they are still not well represented in integrated institutions of higher education. Recruitment efforts have been directed at the "qualified" black student. Little effort has been made to bring forth ability among black students whose opportunities for the development of that ability have been thwarted by circumstances . Most research has been directed at predicting the academic performance of black students with contradicting results. The literature suggests that academic performance of black students should be measured against norms developed within their own group. Published research to determine the effectiveness of compensatory programs is almost non-existent. Some relationship appears to exist between socioeconomic factors and academic performance in college. Although there is little predictive potential in these findings , the results do suggest that black students may have special needs that cannot be met by traditional programs and services .

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28 Research has also advanced the proposition that the prevailing campus environment may influence the academic performance of certain subgroups of students.

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CHAPTER II THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study was to determine the answers the following questions: 1. Is it possible to differentiate between the group of black freshmen making satisfactory academic progress and the group of black freshmen making unsatisfactory academic progress at the University of Florida on the basis of the following selected variables: participation in the compensatory program, high school grade-point average, total score on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test, sex, graduation from all black or integrated high school, family income, and family marital status? 2. Within a time period of three quarters, how well have black freshmen, admitted to the compensatory program, performed academically as compared to black freshmen admitted to the regular academic program? ' 29

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30 The Need for the Study In 1970, the administration of the University of Florida implemented a program designed to meet the educational needs of black students. It now has become necessary to determine the usefulness of the program. The Newman Report (1971) has suggested that for minority education to be improved, it is vitally necessary to evaluate what practices have been effective and what have not. When cojnpensatory education came into existence at the University of Florida, the administration found itself operating in an area in which it had no effective source of prior experience upon which to draw. And as pointed out by Kendrick and Thomas (1970) , research on the extensiveness and effectiveness of compensatory programs and practices was limited in quantity and scope. If decisions are to be made relative to ttie future development and management of the program, data must be collected to assist in decision making. This data must contribute to ntaking the most appropriate choice among various alternative ways in which black students may be assisted in realizing tiieir educational goals at the University of Florida. In discussing the evaluation of programs for blacks, Braskamp and Brown (1972) indicate that "Questions about whether a program for blacks will be certified or rejected, refunded or phased out, drastically altered or expanded need to be asked at some point" [p. 55]. Questions must be asked

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31 and further consideration must be given to the kind of program and curriculuin that has been planned. Most important, however, questions should be asked about the black students. Are their needs being met? The "program was initiated for them. Its main objective is to increase their chances for academic success. Because they are classified "disadvantaged," does not mean they comprise a homogeneous group. Gordon (1971) indicated that there may well be many variations in the population from v/hich these students are drawn; therefore, they should be carefully defined and their special needs should be related to the kind of program that is provided. If the results of the study were to show that on the basis of the variables selected there exist no differences between black students making satisfactory academic progress and black students not making satisfactory academic progress, additional variables will need to be investigated. If differences are found, then, what needs to be further studied is whether students making unsatisfactory academic progress have needs that are not being met by the program. If, in relation to academic performance, no differences are found between black students admitted to the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program and black students admitted to regular academic programs, admissions criteria may need to be reevaluated.

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32 Rationale From the review of the literature it is clear that most previous research has concerned itself with predicting the academic performance of black students and with comparing that performance to achievement of white students. Little effort has been made to learn about black students per se. In this study the interest was centered upon how black students perform academically. Considering the differences in educational and economic opportunity, high school performance, and socioeconomic status, it was suspected that differences in levels of academic performance would most likely exist between black and white students at the University of Florida. The rationale for this study was to learn about the black students on the campus of the University of Florida. Specifically, it was aimed to investigate whether on the basis of selected variables it was possible to separate the successful from the less successful black student. Hopefully the results would contribute to learning more about how the needs of .the black students could be met. By limiting the study to the black students, the effects of possible test bias — if present — in the Florida Twelfth Grade Test and differences in the "conditions of opportunity" were reduced.

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33 Definition of Terms Satisfactory progress . — University of Florida regulations state that students who achieve an overall 2.0 academic average or higher are making satisfactory progress. Unsatisfactory progress . — Students whose overall academic average is less than a 2.0 are considered to be making unsatisfactory progress. Group I . — Designation for the 55 students in this study making unsatisfactory progress. Group II . — Designation for the 85 students in this study making satisfactory progress. G.P. A. — Grade-point average. Senior Placement Test . — The Florida Twelfth Grade Test by which it is commonly known, CLC. — Course designation for Comprehensive Logic. Intact home . — This term refers to the marital status of the student's parents and is meant to indicate that the parents are not divided by divorce or separation. Broken home . — This term refers to the marital status of the student's parents and is meant to indicate that the parents are divided by divorce or separation. Compensatory program . — The Expanded Educational Opportunities Program. Regular program . — Course of study to which students have been admitted who meet all admissions requirements and for whom no special services have been specifically designed.

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34 Compensatory students . "-Students admitted to the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program. Regular students . — Students admitted to regular programs.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE The study was designed to determine (1) whether or not the compensatory program had been useful in helping black freshman succeed in lower-division courses, and (2) whether the two groups of black freshmen — one making satisfactory academic progress, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress — could be distinguished from each other on the bases of selected variables. The independent variables selected are specified below in the section Data Collection and represented factors that were available in the student records at the University of Florida. The academic performance of the black students was observed over a period of three quarters. During this time period special services were provided to students in the compensatory program. (An explanation of these services is found in Appendix A.) The independent variables were analyzed to determine their relationship to academic performance of black students. The data analysis sought to identify that combination of variables which discriminated maximally between black students who at the end of the third quarter had an overall 2.0 35

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36 academic average (C) or better and v/ere thus making satisfactory progress and black students who at the end of the third quarter did not have an overall 2.0 academic average and were, consequently, not making satisfactory progress. The analysis was made for black students admitted to the compensatory program as well as for black students admitted to the regular program. Description of Population The subjects for this study were the 141 black students admitted to the University of Florida in June and September, 1970. Eighty-two of the students did not meet the minimum requirements for admission and were enrolled in the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program (hereafter referred to as the compensatory group) . Of the 59 black students who did meet the requirements for admission (hereafter referred to as the regular group) approximately half commenced their program in June, the other half in September. In Table 1 is indicated the mean high school grade-point average and test scores of the two groups. Both groups presented a mean high school grade-point average above the required 2.0. The average total Florida Twelfth Grade Test score of the compensatory group was 48 points below the required minimum of 300 for admission to the University. The regular group presented an average Florida Twelfth Grade Placement score 55 points above the minimum requirement of

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37 300 for admission to the University. The average total Florida Twelfth Grade Test score for the entire entering freshman class that year was 421. Table 1 Average high school grade-point average and average Florida Twelfth Grade Test scores of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970 Subject Group N HS GPA Florida Twelfth Grade Test Apt EH SS NS MS Total Compensatory-Male 36 2. 43 48 44 54 56 55 25 8 Compensatory-Female 46 2. 81 47 56 51 41 52 246 Regular -Male 28 2. 80 73 67 76 74 75 365 Regular -Female 31 2. 99 67 74 68 69 69 347 In Table 2 is indicated the number of black students who graduated from all black or integrated high schools. As may be seen, the larger number of students came from high schools in which the enrollment was all black. Table 2 Number of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970, who came from all black or integrated high schools Subject Group All Black H.S. Integrated H.S, Compensatory 79% (65) 21% (17) Regular 69% (41) 31% (18) Total 106 35

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38 Table 3 lists the average family income of the students and in Table 4 is found the percentage of students who came from either broken or intact homes. Table 3 Number and average family income of black freshmen admitted to compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970 $2500$5000$7500Subject Group $0-$2499 $4999 $7499 $9999 $10000 + Compensatory N=18 N=25 N=20 N=17 N= 2 Average Average Average Average Average $1320 $3911 $6130 $8429 $14000 Regular N= 9 N=14 N=14 N=13 N= 9 Average Average Average Average Average $1410 $3614 $6371 $8557 $11767 Table 4 Number of black freshmen accepted to the compensatory and regular programs at the University of Florida in 1970 who came from broken or intact homes Subject Group Broken Homes Intact Homes Compensatory 37% (31) 63% (51) Regular 22% (13) 78% (46) Total : 44

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39 In summary, the data show that, as a group, students assigned to the compensatory program can be distinguished from the group of students admitted to the regular program by the following factors: On the average, they had earned lower grades in high school. The differences, however, were minimal although somewhat larger for male students than for female students. On the Florida Twelfth Grade Test, compensatory students had, on the average, obtained a score 100 points lower than the average score obtained by the regular students . A higher percentage of compensatory students graduated from non-integrated high schools. Also, a higher percentage of them came from homes in which the family had been disrupted by divorce or separation of parents. The average annual family income appears to have been somewhat higher for the compensatory students ($5,681,00) than for the regular students ($5,286.00), however, it should be pointed out that two students came from families with an annual income far above $10,000.00. The inclusion of these two incomes is responsible for inflating the average family income of the compensatory group to such an extent that it gives a misleading impression. If category 5 is not included, the average annual income would show higher for the families of the regular students. Therefore, it seems safe to state that, on the average, students in the compensatory group came from families with a lower annual income.

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40 Collection of Data The data for this study were obtained from student records maintained by the Registrar, the Financial Aid Office, and the Board of Examiners at the University of Florida. The review of the literature suggested that data such as high school grade-point average and test scores represented variables which had been found to be valid predictors of academic performance. The literature also suggested a relationship between sex, socioeconomic factors, high school environment, and academic performance in college. Data were collected for each subject to make up the following variables : 1. Participation in the compensatory program. 2. High school grade-point average. 3. Total Florida Twelfth Grade Test score. 4. Graduation from all black or integrated high school. 5. Sex. 6. Marital status of family (broken or intact homes). 7. Family income. Two additional variables were created to test for interaction between participation in the compensatory or regular progrcuns and sex. Analysis of Data To analyze the data, use was made of a statistical technique known as discriminant analysis. This technique is proposed as a solution to the problem of using information

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41 from a n'a^±ier of correlated variables to classify an unclassified subject into one of two groups to which he must belong (Tatsvioka and Tiedeman, 1954). The data were analyzed to determine the group an individual was most like (Tiedeman, 1951) . This \vas done by seeking some linear combination of the variables that maximized the "between"-group difference relative to the "within" -group differences (Anderson, 1966) . For a more detailed explanation of this technique, the reader is referred to Appendix C. The statistical treatment employed was a discriminant analysis for tv.'o groups using a Biomedical Computer Program BMD04M available at the University of Florida Computing Center for use with the University's IBM 360 computer. This particular program computes a linear function of p variables measured on each individual of two groups and can serve as an index for discrimination between the groups. This index is determined from the criterion of "best" of all possible indices in that the difference between the mean indices for the two groups divided by a pooled standard deviation of the indices is maximized (Dixon, 1971, p, 185), The two groups between which this program discriminated were (1) the group that made satisfactory academic progress (2.0 grade-point average or better at the end of the Winter Quarter, 1971) and (2) the group that did not make satisfactory academic progress (less than a 2.0 grade-point average at the end of the 1971 Winter Quarter). The analysis used

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42 pooled data with participation in the compensatory program ^* or regular program as two of the independent variables. Limitations i* Matriculation in college is a socialization experience. Whether a student succeeds academically or not, the socialization experience may contribute to his sense of values, to his understanding of himself, and to his ability to relate to others. This study, however, was limited to discriminating between two groups of black students on the basis of an academic criterion and the usefulness of the compensatory program was measured against that criterion only. The measurement of whatever else a student gained from the program was beyond the scope of this study. 2. The subjects of this study were the black freshmen admitted to the University of Florida in June and September, 1970. Although the methods employed in this study may be applicable to similar ones at other collegiate institutions, no claim is made that the results can be generalized. 3» It is recognized that academic performance may be influenced by health, personality factors, peer group relations and campus environment. Such variables were not included. The study, therefore, was limited to independent variables available from student records.

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CHAPTER IV FINDINGS The discriminant analysis classified the 141 black students into a group of subjects making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) and a group of subjects making satisfactory progress (Group II). Group I contained 55 subjects who, at the end of the Winter Quarter, 1971, had each earned less than an overall 2.0 grade-point average. In Group II there were 86 subjects who at the end of the 1971 Winter Quarter had each earned a 2.0 or higher grade-point average at the University of Florida. The first step in the discriminant analysis was to determine the usefulness of each of a set of variables in classifying the students in the population into either Group I or Group II. Table 5 presents the means of the two groups for each of the variables. It may be observed from this table that the two groups differed in each variable by negligible amounts. It was apparent that no single variable by itself was useful in discriminating between the two groups of students. The possibility existed, however, that combinations of these variables could be useful in separating the two groups. 43

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R /II cn in in ro in 00 00 O 00 ID c c n n o VD 00 00 00 ro o — 1 00 r—i ro ro in ro ro in ro O c^ o in o •H -p (0 -H 4H U -H (0 -P > C 0) 4J (1) '0 g (U 0) -p g a) rH H o (0 rH rH 0 g (U C c 0 0) fO 0 H O ^3 0 o 0 g 0 0 p rH g 0 iH cn o Q) 0 G x: o H •H (0 (0 0) x: 0) x; P X! •r4 x: .P 4J m g M g g MH o 4J o (0 o •p O O nj (0 CO . C CO M CO u c to to «r 0) U rH ^ 1 1 0 •H <-i 03 u X a. Di x: • •H 1 x: a) x: •r( P ^ 0) ro (U ro g o cn 0 X X c O g 0 -p p X 0 u Q) U Q) Q) -H • O 0 -H (0 C M c rH c CN o a u CO CO x; cn CO CO c x: -H x; 4H •H XI •<-{ •H X X (N X ro X X in X X X 00 X O rXXX (N X CO rH X

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45 Using the discriminant analysis technique provided by the Biomedical Computer Program BMD0 4M F ratios were obtained for each of several combinations of the variables. The first analysis employed all 13 variables, . . . x^, identified in Table 5. Table 6 shows that the F ratio obtained for this full model was 1.75 which was not significant at the .05 level. Thus, using all variables, the linear combination did not yield a profile by which the two groups of students could be differentiated. By eliminating one of the interaction variables, x^^' the change in the degrees of freedom resulted in an F ratio of 2.12 which was significant at the .05 level. Thus the model, x^ . . . x^2> could be used with greater accuracy than guessing to differentiate between the black students in this study and to classify each subject into either the group making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) or, into the group making satisfactory progress (Group II) . The resulting separation between the two groups may be found in Appendix D. The model, however, did not reveal which of the variables contributed to the significance of the model and which did not. Using various combinations by eliminating one or more variables at a time, it may be noted from Table 6 that the models remained significant only as long as high school grade-point average (x^) was included as one of the independent variables. When high school grade-point average

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46 Table 6 Linear combination F ratios resulting when one or more variables are deleted from a combination of variables to discriminate between a group of subjects making unsatisfactory progress and a group of subjects making satisfactory progress at the University of Florida ariable Dmbination Variable (s) Eliminated df F Significance at ,05 level 1 * * * ^13 13 , 127 1.75 ns 1 * * * ^12 ^13 12 , 128 2,12 s 1 * * * ^11 ^12^13 11 , 129 1.92 s 1 * * * ^11 ^5^12^13 10 , 130 1.60 ns 1 * * * ^10 ^11^12^13 10 , 130 2. 33 s 1 * * * ^11 ^5'^6^12^ 13 9 , 131 0.12 ns 1 • • ^9 ^10 • • . Xj^3 9 , 131 2.57 s 1 * * * ^10 ^5^6^10 * • * ^13 8 , 132 0.27 ns 1 • • • ^8 Xg . . . ^13 8 , 132 2.43 s 1 • • » ^5^6^10 • • • ^13 7 , 133 0.73 ns 1 • • • ^7 Xg . . . ^13 7 , 133 2.84 s I • • • ^8 . . Xj^3 6 , 134 -0.37 ns 1 • • • ^6 • • • ^13 6 , 134 2.71 s 1 • • • ^7 • • ^13 5 , 135 0.48 ns 5 Xg . . . ^13 5 135 1 A. ^5 Xj^X^X^Xg • • • ^13 2, 138 6.17 s ^1^3^4^5^7 • • • ^13 2, 138 1.33 ns 1

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47 (x^) was removed from the model, none of the combinations of variables discriminated significantly between the two groups. Factors such as senior placement score, attendance at an all black or integrated high school, family income, or marital status of parents — these were variables which did not contribute significantly to predicting whether a subject would be more like those in the group making satisfactory or unsatisfactory academic progress. It was surprising to discover that participation in the compensatory program did not contribute significantly in the discriminant model. The only variable in the discriminant model found to be significant was high school grade-point average. Yet, on the basis of this variable, it would not have been possible to classify the 141 black students into one of the two groups with a degree of accuracy much greater than chance alone. The difference in mean high school gradepoint average for each group and the standard deviation was small while the range of high school grades was wide for each group and highly overlapping (Table 7) . The slightly smaller standard deviation for the 55 students in Group I would indicate that it was somewhat more homogeneous than Group II in terms of high school achievement but the overlapping wide ranges of high school grades would make it difficult to achieve a clear separation.

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48 Table 7 Range, mean, and standard deviation of high school grade-point averages for students making satisfactory academic progress (Group II) and students making unsatisfactory academic progress (Group I) at the University of Florida Range Mean S.D. Group I 1.8-3.8 2.59 .42 Group II 1.6-3.9 2.85 .47 The only criterion used to assign a student to the compensatory or the regular program was the total score on the senior placement test. The discriminant analysis did not show this test score to be useful in determining whether a black student was more like those in the group making satisfactory progress or the group making unsatisfactory progress. Although the difference in the mean score obtained by the group assigned to the compensatory program and the group assigned to the regular program was almost 100 points, the difference in the mean score between the group making satisfactory progress and the group making unsatisfactory progress was only seven points (Table 5) . High school grade-point average notwithstanding, it seems safe to state that on the basis of the variables selected, it is not possible to discriminate between black students who at the end of three quarters have earned a 2.0 or better grade-point average and those who at the end of three quarters have earned less than a 2.0 grade-point average at the University of Florida.

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49 Table 8 shows that of the 82 subjects \\ho started in the coiapensatory program, 51 (62%) had earned a 2,0 or higher grade-point average by the end of the 1971 VJinter Quarter. Of the 59 students who cominenced their studies in the regular program, 35 (64%) had done so, Table 8 Percentage of black students classified compensatory or regular who v/ere making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) or satisfactory progress (Group II) N Group I Group II Compensatory students 82 38% (31) 62% (51) Regular students 59 36% (24) 64% (35) Similarly, Table 9 shows that of the 55 students making unsatisfactory progress (Group I) , 31 (56%) were enrolled in the compensatory program and 24 (44%) were participants in the regular program. Table 9 also indicates that a greater percentage of the students making satisfactory progress were enrolled in the compensatory program, 59 percent as compared to 41 percent who matriculated in the regular program.

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50 Table 9 Percentage of students classified in Group I or Group II who were enrolled in either the compensatory or regular programs N Compensatory Regular Group I 55 56% (31) 44% (24) Group II 86 59% (51) 41% (35) Since, with the exception of the high school gradepoint average, none of the variables used in this analysis contributed significantly to determining whether a subject was most like those making satisfactory progress or unsatisfactory progress, a multiple regression analysis was done to learn what relationship the variables had to the grade-point average earned at the University of Florida by the end of the 1970 Winter Quarter. This analysis utilized the Biomedical Computer Program BMD03R a program which provided a correlation matrix, means and standard deviations, regression coefficients and their standard errors, intercepts, and multiple correlation coefficients. For the regression analysis, data were pooled for all 141 subjects. Correlation coefficients are shown in Table 10 and the results of the analysis in Table 11.

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51 Table 10 Matrix of correlation coefficients for seven independent variables and grade-point average earned at the University of Florida by 141 black students ram • C 0 • -P •H •H U d 10 a, • 0) 4J e 0) •rH • U »>i o •H U iH o (0 rH 0 H P 0 0 n3 dj n o o 4 nJ -P o Cn O c a 0 H MH H (0 t) Q -P o to 0 o c (/] G tn >1 -P to •H 0) 0 •H C 3 -p a -H +J 1 Xi •H • U B X CJi G 03 c £ n (d as 0 (U •H (1)
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52; o c > rH • e O U a, w • -p CO M-l o c c O 0) •H -H cn o 0) >4-l iH 4H a) o cc: u rH (0 -H > n in CO o n< cn o in rH in CO (N o in H o o a\ rH n o O o o o o o o O CM >1 M O -P (0 W B O o u o 00 00 o o o m in rH o in CM cri rH CN CM in rH rH • o vo in in 00 Q in V£> n ro o • 00 Ka ro o CO 00 'a' (N ^ VD o cu Xi p c -H I c o 2 Si o 0) cn rl 0) e o u c •H -H e p •H iH (0 E CO -p c (U M (0 CO 3 -P -p 04 cn (0 rH [X4 > . D Cn r» cr» ^ ^ r-H ^ vo <7^ in VD CTi VD r~fo '=r cTi cr> in cri VD (N VD (T> ro o rH ro in CN o o 00 ro o o o I I I I I P C U •H 4H MH X! CD (tS W 0) cn iH 0) 01 iH Q) cn iH 0) n 6 O o u 4-1 iP o u c o •H -p cu u u o u c o •rl •p as •H > cu cu 4J 3 XI H 4J +J MH CO (CJ O rH CO cn cu cu w iH IH CtJ (0 4H 3 3 O CU CO CO CU rH O a^H iw H O O rH 6 e 3 3 3 S CO CO a) -p (tJ e -p cn w cu c iH > 3 rH > -p cu o u cu •P c CO H

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53 The independent variables were specified as follows: Xj^ ~ coiTipensa tory program X2 sex higli school grade-point average x^ senior p3 -.cement test score Xg non~integr 2ted high school Xg family income x^ parent5j ' r-arital status The regression model had the form y = a + '^-^^-^ ^ ^2'^2 • • • ^7^7 where B^,B2, . . . = regression coefficients of variables x^,X2, . • . ^^ ~ means of variables 1, 2, ... 7 a = intercept value 9 = predicted g.p.a. at the University of Florida, Employing the above formula, the contribution each variable made to the mean grade-point average earned by the total group of subjects was calculated from the data shown in Table 11. That mean was 2.07 and was accounted for as follows : 2.07 = .30 + (.26){.58) + (.11){.45) + (.42)(2.75) + (.0016) (295) + (-.24) (.75) + (.03) (2.72) + (.06) (. 67) , or alpha .30 compensatory program .15 sex .05 high school grade-point average 1.16 senior placement score .47 non-integrated high school -.18 family income .08 parents' marital status .04 mean grade-point average 2.07

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54 As was evident, the regression model accredited high school grade-point average with the greatest contribution to the mean grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. In the model, senior placement test score made the second greatest contribution although considerably less than high school grade-point average. Of the total contribution made by all variables, participation in the compensatory program accounted for about 8 percent while such factors as sex, family income, and parents marital status had little influence on the mean grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between those variables and gradepoint average earned by the 141 black students are shown in Table 12. Table 12 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and CPA earned by 141 black students Variable Added r AR compensatory program -.048 .048 sex .007 .049 high school g.p.a. .294 .313 senior placement test score .130 .338

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55 Table 12 (continued) Variable Added r AR non-integrated high school -.169 .385 family income .142 .394 parents' marital status .129 .396 Similar correlations are shown in Tables 13 and 14 respectively for the 55 students in Group I and the 86 students in Group II. Table 13 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 55 black students making unsatisfactory progress Variable Added r AR compensatory program .143 .143 sex -.020 .144 high school g.p.a. .244 .299 senior placement test score -.191 .318 non-integrated high school -.153 .387 family income -.035 .393 parents ' marital status -.013 .397

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56 Table 14 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting as independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and GPA earned by 86 black students making satisfactory progress Variable Added r AR compensatory program -.320 .320 sex -.022 .322 high school g.p.a. .088 .327 senior placement test score .384 .396 nonintegrated high school -.097 .396 family income .060 .400 parents' marital status .048 .400 As data were gathered and analyzed, the notion grew that students in the compensatory program might have benefited to some extent from grading practices different from those used for students in the regular program. That notion was explored to determine whether or not this was indeed the case. At the University of Florida, all students were required to complete a number of courses in general education. As explained in Appendix A, special sections were designed to aid students in the compensatory program in the areas of Comprehensive English, Comprehensive Social Sciences,

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57 Comprehensive Physical Sciences, Comprehensive Logic, and Fundamentals of Mathematics. In the 1970-71 academic year, achievement in Comprehensive Social Studies, Comprehensive Physical Sciences, and Comprehensive Logic was measured by a standardized instrument which was administered to the students in the compensatory program as well as to the students enrolled in the regular program. In Comprehensive Social Sciences and Comprehensive Physical Sciences, students in the compensatory and in the regular program were apparently graded on the basis of the same norms. In relation to the standard scores, no differences were found between grades received by students in the two groups. In Comprehensive Logic, however, it was noted that students enrolled in the special section of that course were graded on the basis of norms obviously different from those established for the students attending the regular sections. Again using the Biomedical Computer Program BMD03R a regression analysis was done for the 34 students enrolled in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic and for the 55 students enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic. Grades received in Comprehensive Logic was the dependent variable and the following were the independent variables :

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58 sex 2 ~ high school g.p.a, x^ senior placement test score standard score in CLC The regression model had the form y = a -H B^x^ + B^x^ + B3X3 + B^x^ where ^l'^2'^3'^4 ~ ^^g^ession coefficients of variables ^l'^2'^3'^4 ^ "leans of variables 1,2,3, and 4 a = intercept value y = grade received in CLC A matrix of correlation coefficients for each group is shown respectively in Tables 15 and 16 and the results of the analyses for each group in Tables 17 and 18 respectively. The mean grade received by the regular group in Comprehensive Logic was 2.71. Employing the above formula, the contribution each variable made to the mean grade was calculated from the data shown in Table 17 and was found to be as follows: alpha 1^10 .07 high school g.p.a. 2.14 senior placement test score 1.15 CLC standard score . ,45 Mean grade received in CLC 2.71 The mean grade received by the group enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic was 2.16. It was accounted for as follows :

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59 Table 15 Matrix of correlation coefficients for four independent variables and grade-point average earned by 34 black students in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic Variable sex § rJ X'< • •H senior placenent test score Standard score CLC grade 1 sex 1.00 .04 .12 .22 .16 high school g.p.a. .04 1.00 .32 .24 .49 senior placement test score .12 . 32 1.00 -.08 .24 CLC standard score .22 .24 -.08 1.00 .33 CLC grade .16 .49 .24 .33 1.00 Table 16 Matrix of correlation coefficients for four independent variables and grade-point average earned by 55 black students in the special section of Comprehensive Logic Variable sex 1. -& d senior placement test score CD2 standard score CLC grade sex 1.00 -.48 .10 .16 -.07 high school g.p.a. -.48 1.00 .16 .19 .27 senior placement test score .10 .15 1.00 .26 .28 CLC standard score .16 .19 .26 1.00 .92 CLC grade .07 .27 .28 .92 1.00

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OJ u c QJ > •H •H 00 n CO 4J to rH rH o CN ro a> M (1) ^ 3 o rH o 0 'd Dj e » MCE a 3 o O o o M -H 0 o u a) o u V-i 0 0 C J-i 0 • (0 0 -H UH •P 4-1 4-> QJ w o o 0 ^ OJ >H U o CN rH " G) in u in CN w > w • 00 ro rH ro -P -H CN in O o C -P (0 • 0) rH rH o o 0) <0 iH 'd Pi • • • • •iH iH 3 -p O o o o o 3 tn in •H 6 QJ 0 M-l 3 W m u 0) OJ O XI O 0) -P c o 0 c c c -H OJ 'I' •— 1 <^ in 0 fO -H to •H (N CO o as in CJ^ CN ro o •H -f-l to o in in rH 00 ro VD rH rH CTi r~ c cniw • • • • 00 CTl ^ O f-\ -i o rH C -H O U tT> • as CO VO CO 0 to •HO w Q VD r»^ VD •r| to 4J ax; -p • o 00 CN r~ to OJ nJ 0 -P fi CO rH O CTv to Sh 1-t M -H OJ • • • • QJ C7> > ft ^ 73 o o o in o M QJ 0) 3 ro rH XT> U •d "d -p Q) c OJ to •P M S fd nJ 4-> C 0 QJ 0 Sh in ro Ti< •rl 4-> VM fd to OJ nj cn in VD VD C CJ C -P M rH C in ro ro 0 -rH QJ C n) C M ^ (0 rH in VD VO ._| rH 0 0) P QJ 0 OJ r~ rH 4J MH XI -rH to -a o ^ s • • • • • nj Q) nj 4J (d o CN ro VO CN C 0 -P t3 s «-H CO ro •rl CJ 3 -rl • rl to M-l OJ >i CN rH 6 ^ > ^J C m r-H XJ 0) to flJ OJ J3 QJ 0 >H "d P W 0) 0 nJ O -P -rl +J (d OJ g 0 -H -H Q} 4J 4J UH S 14H 3 ^^ Cr> Q (CJ (d o •H O rH 1 C (0 0 rH -P (d 0 > i-q QJ (U rn rn ' ' V4 CO Sh J> i Q) 0 M QJ OJ W 0 •H to -P QJ OJ QJ M V-l M 5h rfl to C > rH rH o 0 -p o Id (0 iw Sh — ' QJ QJ QJ -H Xi O nS o C U 3 3 O W rH J-l fd to O rH to QJ QJ d" cr ^ cn C C H £i -d •H QJ CO CO OJ ft (0 0) QJ QJ O O rH O Sh QJ (0 CO • (0 M rl ftMH >4H C (d O > O QJ M CP *W -H O 0 (dTl M Xi • •H U 14H +J •H C OJ >! cn Ok C 0 u u OJ rH H g M (d -P QJ •H • OJ U 0 3 3 3 (d +J c CO X di to to U U O g CO CO > CO H

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rj ! 1 LO CN 4-1 ! ^ CN 0 1 in 1 Q) CN CO o W (1) Vh o CN o O TS &i * • ^ C P p_ o o o o M -H 0 0 t) O i^i u (ij 'XJ 0 ''4 MOO fS m a u o fO 0 -H 4J 14-| 4J I. r-i w w u o (1) }_( o * Q) CO CO W > w Q 00 rH 4J -H rH rH CM o O C -P • G) CO o o O fO -H (X « * » • JJ (3) o o u G) CO M-l O m 3 t/v OJ ^ o 0 X U 0) -P G -P u 0 dec H rH 00 0 fd -H trt •H CN (N H -H to U rH CN W M 'O C! • (L) (L) « 0 W C! __i (rt c ij n (tJ VW JJ J 00 -H i W iH to +J tH rH o 0 0) OJ Q) -H XJ 0 o H M to n3 o rH CO XI di c c -H x: (tj (U a) (u M u (« to • u (d > O Q) u x: • -H U X CP C 0 u H o u CN O 00 rJ' in cTi rrH o in CN CTi (N O VD CN o in in in >JD o n in in r>00 rH O O CT> rH O O rH CM I I I c o •H to to 0) (U u o -p Q) rH XI (0 -p XI -H -P -P (0 c o •H to to 0) CP (U g o M UH C o •H -P nJ H > MH O to I I I to U -p e •H -P to (tJ O u < U ^ w -p Vh 0) (0 o C OJ (tJ -p P c

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62 alpha -6,60 sex ^ .03 high school g.p.a. .48 senior placement score .26 CLC standard score 8.05 Mean grade received in CLC 2.16 Correlations between the four independent variables and grades received in Comprehensive Logic are shown in Tables 19 and 20 for the groups enrolled in the regular and special sections of Comprehensive Logic respectively. Table 19 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and grades received by 34 black students enrolled in the regular section of Comprehensive Logic Variable Added r AR sex .159 .159 high school g.p.a. .485 .505 senior placement test score .237 .510 CLC standard score .330 .552 Table 20 Correlations (r) and multiple correlations (R) resulting when independent variables are added to a regression model seeking the relationship between the variables and grades received by 55 black students enrolled in the special section of Comprehensive Logic Variable Added r AR sex .074 .074 high school g.p.a. .273 .358 senior placement test score .275 .407 CLC standard score .922 .928

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63 It may be noted from Tables 19 and 20 that the relationship between standard scores and grades received in Comprehensive Logic was considerably greater for students enrolled in the special section of that course than it was for students enrolled in the regular section. Therefore, grades attained is to some extent attributable to differences in grading practices and, thus , mean grade-point average earned by the two groups of black students does not constitute a common base for comparing their academic performance.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This study inquired into the academic performance of 141 black freshmen admitted to the University of Florida for the 1970-71 academic year. Eighty-two of the students who did not meet the entrance requirements had been placed in a compensatory program designed to assist students whose educational, financial, social and cultural background may have limited their opportunities to pursue a course of higher education at the University of Florida. One of the basic questions the study sought to answer was to what extent differences existed between black freshmen who had made satisfactory academic progress and black freshmen who had not done so. Indirectly, the study sought to evaluate the usefulness of the compensatory program. On the bases of the findings, the following conclusions were reached: 1. There were no significant differences between the group of black freshmen making satisfactory academic progress and the group of black freshmen making unsatisfactory academic progress. 2. High school grade-point average had the strongest relationship to grades earned by the black students. 64

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65 . The usefulness of the Florida Twelfth Grade Test as a basis for assigning black freshmen to either • the corapensatory or regular programs at the University of Florida is questionable. 4'/ ' The compensatory program provided an opportunity • for 82 black students to gain admission to the University of Florida. The program did not . . , directly contribute significantly to the academic performance of the black students. 5'. Students assigned to the compensatory program benefited, to some extent, from differential grading practices. 6. The ability to cope with the then prevailing "campus climate" may have been one possible factor separating a rather homogeneous group of 141 black students into two groups — one making satisfactory academic progress, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress. On the average, the students making satisfactory academic progress could be distinguished from those making unsatisfactory academic progress by the following factors: They had earned a higher grade-point average in high school and had scored higher on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test. They came from families with a higher average annual income and in which the occurrence of divorce or separation of parents was less frequent. A somewhat higher percentage of students in the group making satisfactory academic progress had graduated from integrated high schools. The differences found, however, were minimal. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that, for all practical purposes, the individuals in both groups came from the same population. No clear dichotomy could be established on the bases of the variables selected with the possible

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66 exception of high school grade-point average. The various models used in the discriminant analysis to explore possible differences were significant at the .05 level only when high school grade-point average was included as one of the independent variables. When removed, none of the combinations of variables were useful in establishing significant differences between the two groups of black students. Although high school grade-point average was the only independent variable which was significant in the discriminant model, its usefulness is questionable. The two groups differed by only . 3 of a grade point. Moreover, the range of high school grade-point average was wide for each group and highly overlapping so that on the basis of this variable alone, no definite conclusions can be drawn as to which of the two groups of students a black freshmen is most likely to belong. Thus, it may be concluded that distinction between the group of black students making satisfactory academic progress and the group of black students making unsatisfactory academic progress cannot be established with the variables selected for this study. Both groups appeared to be similar in terms of high school achievement and family background. The results of the discriminant analysis did bring into question the usefulness of the Florida Twelfth Grade Test as a basis for assigning black freshmen to compensatory

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67 or regular progr^TiS. At the point of selection, the students in these two groups differed on this test by an average of over 100 points. When after three quarters, these same students were divided into two other groups — one making satisfactory, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress, that difference was found to be a mere 7 points. In addition, the results of the multiple regression analysis {using pooled data) showed the correlation between Florida Tv^elfth Grade Test score and gradepoint average earned at the University of Florida by the 141 black students to be only .13. In view of this weak relationship, it would appear that the practice of placing total reliance on this test as a means of selecting and assigning black freshmen to either the compensatory or the regular programs is questionable. None of the variables investigated yielded a high correlation to the grade-point average earned by the black freshmen. This may be noted from the results of the multiple regression analyses shown in Tables 12, 13, and 14. For the total group of 141 black students, high school grade-point average, with a correlation of .29, showed the highest (although weak) relationship to grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. A similar result was obtained in a separate regression analysis for the 55 students making unsatisfactory academic progress. For this group, the correlation between high school and college grade-point average was .24.

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68 On the surface, it would appear that for the 86 students making satisfactory academic progress that relationship, with a correlation of .088 was almost non-existent. Instead, for this group of students, the total score on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test appeared to have the highest relationship (.3 84) to grade-point average earned at the University. The meaning of this, however, should be interpreted with caution. It may also be noted from Table 14 that for the students achieving satisfactorily, participation in the compensatory program showed a negative correlation of -.32 as compared to a mere -.048 using pooled data and .143 for the students making unsatisfactory progress. Thus it would appear that in the more successful group, students from the regular program tended to earn the higher grades. It should be pointed out, however, that the students admitted to the regular program achieved, on the average, scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test of over 100 points higher than did the students admitted to the compensatory program. It would thus seem reasonable to believe that being enrolled in the regular program and the Florida Twelfth Grade Test score would be highly correlated with each other and it is believed that this fact is reflected in Table 14. For the total group of 141 students, the relationship between Florida Twelfth Grade Test score and grade-point average earned at the University showed a correlation of only .13. This fact, coupled with the results of the

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69 discriminant analysis, tend to increase the suspicion that this test may not provide a useful basis for selecting and admitting black freshmen to the University of Florida. The other variables investigated such as sex, integrated or non-integrated high school, family income, and parent's marital status showed either negative or very small positive correlations. In the regression models, these variables added little to the multiple correlations with the possible exception of attendance at a non-integrated high school. This variable consistently obtained a negative correlation in all three models (Tables 12, 13, and 14). In each case, however, the relationship was weak. To state that the students who graduated from all black high schools tended to make the lower grades would have to be done with reservation. To 82 of the students in this study, the compensatory program provided an opportunity — one without which they would not have gained admission to the state's university system. And as is shown in Table 8, 62 percent of them were making satisfactory academic progress at the end of the 1971 Winter Quarter. But beyond providing that opportunity, it would appear from the results of the multiple regression analyses that the compensatory program did not directly contribute significantly to the academic achievement of the black students. Ironically, the highest positive relationship found between participation in the program and t • X

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grades earned at the University was for the 55 students who were making unsatisfactory progress. With a correlation of only .143, however, the usefulness of the program is far from convincing. For the 86 more successful students (which included 51 individuals from the compensatory program) , the correlation was -.32, while for the total group, using pooled data, the correlation between participation in the compensatory program and level of academic achievement was found to be extremely low — obtaining a correlation of not quite -.05. Thus it would appear that the students assigned to the regular program tended to make the higher grades. Whatever the educational deficiencies of the less successful students, the compensatory program appeared to contribute little to overcoming those deficiencies. Some individual black students may well have benefited from the services provided in the compensatory program but to the total group, the contribution made by the program to the academic achievement of the students seems questionable. The highest multiple correlation obtained, using all variables, was .40 which, although not unusual, would appear to be low. As was pointed out in the review of the literature, an average multiple correlation of .65 has been obtained by various researchers using grades and standardized test scores to predict grades in college. Validity studies done by the College Entrance Examination Board for the University of Florida achieved multiple correlations as high

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71 as . 61 using seven predictors including the Scholastic Aptitude Test and .57 using five predictors including the Florida Twelfth Grade Test. Thus with a multiple correlation of only .40, it would appear that factors in addition to those investigated were related to the academic performance of the black students. It is, of course, difficult to reach definite conclusions in regard to the actual level of achievement attained by the students in the compensatory program because of the different grading practices held to in the Comprehensive Logic classes. The relationship between standard examination scores and grades received in Comprehensive Logic showed a correlation of .33 for the regular students. For those in the compensatory program, the correlation was .92, There is no doubt that students in the compensatory program received higher grades than students in the regular program received for the same standardized test score. To some extent, this affects the results of the discriminant analysis in that the two groups of black students were separated on the basis of grade-point average earned at the University of Florida. As it is, grades earned by individuals in the compensatory program reflect a level of academic achievement inflated by preferential grading practices. The reason for this inflation may have been to instill confidence and to motivate students to continue to progress.

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72 It makes evaluation of the compensatory program's merits, however, a difficult task. Its real effects, which already have been brought into question, require further research. Nevertheless, the discriminant analysis established the fact that the 86 students making satisfactory academic progress, and the 55 students not making satisfactory academic progress, comprised a rather homogeneous group with respect to the variables studied. What made two seemingly similar groups of black students achieve at different levels? The proposition advanced here (not supported by the findings of this study) is that differences in levels of achievement may have been related to differences in ability to cope with the University's environment. The students in this study came from families with an average annual income below $5,000.00. Thirty-one percent of the students came from broken homes. Seventy-five percent had graduated from all black high schools. If one considers that many of these students had no plans to attend college until approached by the University of Florida, it seems reasonable to believe that this group of black students was far from "college-oriented." Furthermore, these 141 students comprised the first sizeable number of black students to be admitted to a traditionally all white university which, in 1970, had a campus climate that appeared to be far from "ideal" for Black Americans. The presence of black

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73 faculty and staff was almost non-existent. It is an open question to what extent student organizations on campus were receptive to black people. It would thus appear that, in 1970, the "ati^sphere" at the University of Florida was far from conducive to learning as far as the black students were concerned many of whom had academic deficiencies to begin with. That year, the University does not appear to have attracted many academically well-prepared black students who, according to the review of the literature, were in general seeking admission to well-known black colleges and universities In addition, compensatory education directed toward overcoming the educational deficiencies of black students was a new experience on the campus of the University of Florida. During the three quarters covered by this study, the ensuing interaction between black students, the compensatory program, and the campus climate was, as pointed out in the review of the literature, wrought with tension. It was a period during which faculty, administrators, and black students appeared to be searching to find a common ground for compatibility. For this particular group of black youngsters recruited in 1970, attending the University of Florida may well have been a difficult experience because of the many adjustments demanded from them and the University. It was that situation which leads to the advancement of the

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74 proposition that one possible factor accounting for the separation of a rather homogeneous group of 141 black students into two groups--one making satisfactory academic progress, the other making unsatisfactory academic progress — was the differences in ability to cope with a difficult environmental situation. This study has brought into question the utility of the compensatory program as it existed in 1970. Much, however, has changed on the campus of the University of Florida since that year. There are larger numbers of black students, faculty and staff. It appears the atmosphere has become more receptive to black students. If the compensatory program is maintained to fulfill the University's social obligations, further research should be conducted to learn if the program can be justified in terms of cost and effort in relation to expected results. With its changed "climate," however, it would appear the time has come for the University of Florida to exert greater effort in recruiting the many academically wellprepared black students who each year are graduating from high schools and community colleges. When "without persuasion" the University begins to attract those black students, then it may be offering educational opportunities that are truly equal.

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75 Implications for Further Research The findings of this study suggest the need for further research. Additional studies should be conducted to test the conclusion that the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program does not directly contribute significantly to the academic achievement of black freshmen at the University of Florida. If the conclusion is sustained, attention should be given to the question of whether resources, earmarked for the E. E. 0. program, should be diverted to areas that do directly contribute in a significant way to the academic achievement of black students who do not meet admission requirements. Decisions should not be reached, however, unless and until further research has been able to establish what those areas are. An alternative would be to develop a university whose campus environment and academic offerings hold the same appeal and promise for academically well-prepared black Americans as it currently does for white Americans . In that case, compensatory education practices should perhaps be left to those institutions which for many years have had a reputation of expertise in that area, e.g., the community colleges. In any case, the findings of the present study suggest the need for a re-appraisal of the part of the faculty and administration at the University of Florida as to which efforts and method most effectively assimilate black Americans into the academic setting of the University.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANDED EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES PROGRAM The program was designed to assist students whose financial, educational, social and cultural background may have limited their opportunities to pursue a course of higher education at the University of Florida, Each year, approximately 150 students are selected, most of whom present scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test below the required minimum for admission. A few are admitted with high school grades below the standards set for admission. Although the majority of the participants are Black Americans, the program is open to members of all races. The students are enrolled in the regular required basic program, however, special sections are specifically designed to aid participants in the Expanded Educational Opportunities Program. The special sections are found in the following areas: Comprehensive English, Comprehensive Social Sciences, Comprehensive Physical Sciences, Comprehensive Logic, Mathematics. Each student in the Program is assigned to an academic counsel at the time he first enrolls. The counselor advises the student concerning career options, curriculum, and academic problems which may arise. All effort is made 77

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78 to prevent the student from experiencing serious academic difficulty. Classes are limited to between 15 and 25 students. During the initial quarter classes are met five times a week instead of the normal three times a week. In the subsequent three quarters there is a gradual reduction of the in-class time. To aid students in entering the regular academic programs of the University, special services are provided. Tutors are assigned to all students in the program for their required courses and for elective courses whenever possible. Counseling services are available in the form of academic, personal, and career counseling. Reading and study skills are improved through the University's Reading Improvement and Study Skills Center which is staffed with full-time personnel. Financial aid is provided in the form of grants , loans , euid workstudy programs. Participants are not allowed to work during the initial quarter (siimmer) and may work no more than two quarters of the total academic year.

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APPENDIX B DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORIDA STATEWIDE TWELFTH GRADE TESTING PROGRAM The Statewide Twelfth Grade Testing Program is conducted in all Florida high schools each fall to provide comparable ability and achievement data on all seniors. The testing instrument of the Florida Program was prepared in 1963 by the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. The six components of the test are as follows: Academic Ability — Verbal analogies (based on synonyms, antonyms, part-whole, cause-effect, object-action," class-subclass, and other relationships); mathematical comparisons (requiring recognition of size relationships and situations in which there is insufficient data to determine size relationships) English — Usage (diction, idiom, parallelism, modification, logic and coherence, subject-verb agreement), capitalization, punctuation, sentence correction Social Studies — American history, world history, government, economics, geography, sociology, general culture Natural Science — Biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology, meteorology Mathematics — Algebra, geometry, the number system, set theory, coordinate geometry, data interpretation Reading — Index based upon performance in verbal aptitude section of ability test, the English test, and the social studies test. 79

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80 Scores are reported in terms of pjercentile ranks based upon results for Florida high school seniors. Each student's performance is compared to that of other Florida high school seniors. The percentile rank indicates the percentage of students that earned scores equal to or less than a given raw score. Scores on the Florida Twelfth Grade Test range from 0 to 495. Regulations of the Florida State Board of Regents require that a high school graduate present a total of 300 or above for the sum of the percentile ranks on the five tests as well as "C" average in academic high school subjects to be fully eligible for admission to the state universities. A score of 300 would place a person at the 60th percentile. The median score of the 19 70 incoming freshman class at the University of Florida in 1970 was approximately 420 which is at the 85th percentile.

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APPENDIX C EXPLANATION OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS The following is based on Hoel (1965) : A problem which often arises is that of discriminating between two groups of individuals on the basis of several properties of those individuals. Whenever a relationship exists between academic performance of a particular group of students and a set of variables, it is possible to estimate by means of multiple regression the academic performance a student may be expected to demonstrate, provided it can be ascertained that the student belongs to that class of students. To analyze the set of variables for the purpose of determining the group of students an individual is most like, the technique of discriminant analysis is an appropriate technique. For example, we wish to classify a group of students, some of whom belong to one group (successful) and the rest to a second group (unsuccessful) , into their proper group by means of a set of variables obtained from each student. If the two groups are similar with respect to the set of variables, it will not be possible to classify the students correctly by means of a single variable because of a fairly large amount of overlap in the distribution of this single 81

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82 variable for two groups; however, it may be possible to find a linear combination of those variables whose distribution for the two groups would possess little overlap. This linear combination may then be used to yield a set of discriminant weights by which students of two groups could be differentiated. The procedure for discriminating would consist in finding a critical value of the index such that any student whose index fell below the critical value would be classified as belonging to one group, otherwise to the other group. The principal difference between a linear discrimination function and an ordinary linear regression function arises from the nature of the dependent variable. A linear regression function uses values of the dependent variable to determine a linear function that will estimate the values of the dependent variable, whereas the discriminant fxanction determines no such values but uses instead a profile of combined variables to discriminate between two groups of students on the basis of their compiled profile (Hoel, 1965). A linear combination of a set of variables may be represented as follows : where X^^, . . . Xj^ are the variables and X the coefficient for each variable.

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83 The problem then is to determine the A's by means of some criterion that will enable Z to serve as an index for differentiating between members of the two groups. The discriminant function Z is in fact the weighted combination of the k variables that maximizes the difference between two groups . Further explanation of this technique and examples of its practical application may be found in Tiedeman (1951) , Tatsuoka and Tiedeman (1954) , Ikenberry (1961) , Ivanhoff (1961), Li (1964), and Anderson (1966).

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APPENDIX D RESULTS OF DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS FOR TWO GROUPS F(12,128) 2.12 Pop. No. 1 2 N 55 86 Mean Z 0.02291 0.01775 Variance Z 0.00004 0.00004 Std. Dev. Z 0 .00614 0 .00666 First Group Values Second Group Values First Group Item No. Second Group Item No, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 03677 03552 0.03451 0.03384 03339 03082 03060 0 0, 0 0, 0, 0.02939 0.02823 0.02811 0.02762 0.02759 0.02727 0.02698 0,03040 0.02982 0.02964 0.02843 0.02789 0.02728 0.02687 0.02663 02646 02641 02606 02577 02561 0 0 0 0 0 0.02541 16 9 24 1 12 46 49 26 3 39 22 17 11 26 16 72 14 24 41 1 53 13 63 67 11 43 28 0.02537 0.02532 0.02531 25 48 36 84

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85 First Group Second Group First Group Second Rank Values Values Item No. Item 1 32 0.02509 84 33 0.02508 29 34 0.02506 61 35 0.02503 59 36 0.02485 3 37 0.02475 21 38 0.02426 52 39 0.02426 7 40 0 . 02420 27 41 0.02410 37 42 0.02406 75 43 0. 02404 18 44 0.02385 13 45 0.02381 18 46 0.02356 33 47 0.02349 38 48 0.02307 51 49 0.02269 45 50 0.02260 8 51 0.02256 73 52 0.02239 40 53 0.02237 12 54 0.02236 2 55 0.02226 42 56 0.02202 25 57 0.02199 5 58 0.02195 10 59 0,02190 81 60 0.02169 15 61 0.02149 28 62 0.02146 32 63 0.02123 23 64 0.02119 66 65 0.02084 54 66 0.02073 39 67 0.02061 34 68 0.02043 55 69 0.02039 30 70 0. 02009 64 71 0. 01995 20 72 0 . 01988 51 73 0. 01983 41 74 0.01978 15 75 0.01976 53 76 0.01976 30 77 0.01972 44 78 0.01934 47

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First. <;roup Rank . Valuo.s 79. 80 81 B2 . 0. 01BS6 93 ^. 84 0. 61855 «5 i B7 ^ 01785 .88 . 89 0. 01727 90 . 91 92 93 0. 01712 94 95 0. 01695 96 97 0. 01661 98 99 100 0, 01582 101 102 103 104 105 0. 01523 106 107 . .0. 01460 108 109 110 111 0, 01399 112 113 114 115 116 V 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 . 124 86 Second Group First Group Second Group Values Item No, Item No, 0.01925 10 0.01918 33 0.01894 54 37 0.01877 50 9 0.01796 40 0.01785 31 6 0.01736 43 58 0.01718 65 0.01714 50 0.01712 55 71 0.01700 19 57 0.01688 32 23 0.01657 62 0.01594 35 44 0.01566 36 0.01566 68 0.01551 17 0.01550 20 45 0.01478 14 52 0.01457 82 0.01452 49 0.01416 27 83 0.01307 31 0.01285 85 0.01268 35 0.01245 69 0.01237 79 0.01226 29 0.01217 4 0.01191 60 0.01174 76 0.01165 38 0.01163 56 0.01149 22 0.01114 86

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87 Rank 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 First Group Values 0.00786 0.00785 Second Group Values 0, 0, 01097 01072 0.01069 0.01065 0.01042 0.01013 0.01002 0.00898 0.00896 .00877 .00850 0, 0, 0.00714 0.00668 0.00654 -0.00167 First Group Item No, 6 42 Second Group Item No. 8 46 70 19 80 21 77 47 78 7 74 5 48 2 34

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92 Kendrick, S. A. "College Board Scores and Cultural Bias," College Board Roviev; , 1964-65, No. 55, pp. 7-9. Kendrick, S. A. "The Coining Segregation of our Selective Colleges." College Board Review , 1967-68, No. 66, Kendrick, S. A., and Thomas, C. L. "Transition from School to College." Review of Educational Research . Washington: American Educational Research Association, Vol. 40, No. 1, February, 1970, pp. 151-179. Kendrick, S. A. "Minority Students on Campus." In Altman, R. A., and Snyder, P. 0. (Ed.), The Minority Students on the Campus; Expectations and Possibilities . Boulder, Colorado: Center for Research and Development in Higher Education, 19 70. Kiiief, L. M. , and Stroud, J. B. " Intercorrelations Among Various Intelligence, Achievement, and Social Class Scores." Journal of Educational Psychology , 1959, Vol. 50, No. 3 , pp. 117-120. Lavin , D . E . The Prediction of Academic Performance: A Theoretical Analysis and Reviev; of Research . New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1965. Li, C. C. Introduction to Experimental Statistics . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964. Lincoln, E. A. "The Relative Standing of Pupils in High School, in Early College, and on College Entrance Examinations." School and Society , 1917, Vol. 5, No. 119, pp. 417-420. McKelpin, J. P. "Some Implications of the Intellectual Characteristics of Freshmen Entering a Liberal Arts College." Journal of Educational Measurement , 1965, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 161-166. Merton, R. K. Social Theory and Social Structure (rev. ed.). New York: The Free Press, 1965. Meyer, J. W. "High School Effects on College Intentions." American Journal of Sociology , 1970, Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 59-70, Mitchell, J. W. , Jr. "A Comparison of the Factorial Structure of Cognitive Functions for a High and Low Status Group." Journal of Educational Psychology , 1956, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 397-414.

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93 Morrison, J. L. ^ and Ferrante, R. Academically Disadvan taged Minority Group Students in Public Two-Year Col leges . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1971. Munday, L. A. "Predicting College Grades in Predominantly Negro Colleges." Journal of Educational Measurement , 1965, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 157-160. Munday, L. A. "Factors Influencing the Predictability of College Grades." American Educational Research Journal , 1970, Vol 7, No. 1, pp. 99-107. Newman, F. Report on Higher Education . U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1971. Nunez, R. "Recruitment and Admission of Minority Students: The Glaring Reality." In Altman, R. A., and Snyder, P. 0. (Ed.), The Minority Students on Campus: Expecta tions and Possibilities . Boulder, Colorado: Center for Research and Development in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley and Western Interstate Commission for Higiier Education, 1970. . Pace, C. R. "Five College Environments." College Entrance Examination Board Review , 1960, No. 41, pp. 24-28. Pace, C. R. , and Stern, S. S. "An Approach to the Measurement of Psychological Characteristics of College Environments." Journal of Educational Psychology , 1958, No. 49, pp. 209-277. Pfeifer, A. M. , and Sedlacek, W. E. "The Validity of Academic Predictors for Black and White Students at a Predominantly White University." Journal of Educational Measurement , 1971, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 253-261. Reddick, Dave. "Violence at UF Quelled; Blacks Issue Demands," Gainesville Sun , April 16, 1971, p. 1. Reddick, Dave. "Rights Group Hold UF Investigation," Gainesville Sun , June 11, 1971, p. 1. Richards, J. M. , and Lutz, S. W. "Predicting Student Accomplishment in College From the ACT Assessment." Journal of Educatiorial Measurement , 1968, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 17-28. ~~~ Rosen, B. C. "The Achievement Syndrome: A Psychocultural Dimension of Social Stratification." American Socio logical Review , 1956, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 203-211.

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94 Sarapel, D. D. , and Seymour, W. R. "The Academic Success of Black Students: A Dilemma." The Journal of College Student Personnel , 1971, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 243-247. Seashore, H. G. "Women Are More Predictable Than Men." Journal of Counseling Psychology , 1962, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 261-270Segel, D. Prediction of Success in College . Washington, D.C. Office of Education, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bulletin No. 15, 1934. Simmons, W. D. Survey and Analysis of Higher Education Pro grams for the Disadvantaged Student . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1970. Stanley, J. C. "Further Evidence via the Analysis of Variance that Women Are More Predictable Than Men." Ontario Journal of Educational Research , 1967, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 49-55. Stanley, JC. "Predicting College Success of the Educationally Disadvantaged." Science, 1971, Vol. 171, pp. 640-647. Stanley, JC, and Porter, A. C. "Correlation of Scholastic Aptitude Test Score with College Grades for Negroes Versus Whites." Journal of Educational Measurement , 1967, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 199-208. Stern, George G. "Environment for Learning." In Sanford, Nevitt (Ed.), The American College . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. Tatsuoka, M. M. , and Tiedeman, D. V. "Discriminant Analysis." Review of Educational Research , 1954, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 402-417. Temp, G. "Validity of the SAT for Blacks and Whites in Thirteen Integrated Institutions." Journal of Educa tional Measurement , 1971, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 245-251. Thomas, C. L. , and Stanley, J. C. "Effectiveness of High School Grades for Predicting College Grades of Black Students: A Review and Discussion." Journal of Educa tional Measurement , 1969, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 203-215. Thresher, B. Alden. College Admissions and the Public Inter est . New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1966.

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95 Tiedeman, D. V. "The Utility of the Discriminant Function in Psychological and Guidance Investigations." Harvard Educational ^Review , 1951, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 71-79. Travers, R. M. W. "Significant Research on the Prediction of Academic Success." In Donahue, W. T. , Coombs, C. H. , Travers, R. M. W. (Eds.), The Measurement of Student Adjustment and Achievement . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1949. Tribilcock, W. E. "Many of the 'lowest third' of our graduates Are College Material." Clearing House , 1938, Vol. 12, pp. 544-546. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Current Population Reports , Series P-20, No. 241, "Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 1971." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 19 72. Worthington, L. H, , and Grant, C. W. "Factors of Academic Success: A Multivariate Analysis." The Journal of Educational Research, 1971, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 7-10.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Eduard Van Gelder is a native of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, v;here he attended public schools. Before coming to the United States at the age of 21, he was employed as an assistant buyer by an international manufacturing and trading company. In the United States, after employment with a finance corporation and two years of service with the U.S. Army, he earned the B.S. degree in Business Administration from the University of Tampa in 1958. While serving that University as its Director of Admissions, he received the M.A. degree from Teachers College — Columbia University in 1964. In 1966, he became the Director of Freshman Admissions at the University of Florida. He attended the Graduate School of that University until December, 1973, when he was awarded the Ph.D. degree in Educational Administration (college level) with a minor in Sociology. Eduard Van Gelder is married to the former Mary Louise Suhrer of Tampa, Florida. They have four children. 96

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. JameslTr Wattenbarger , Chai; Pirofessor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. rohn" M." Nickens, Co-Chairman Assistant Professor of Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. /^hom^s W. Cole, Sr. / Processor in Educational ^ Administration and Dean of Academic Affairs for Instructional Services I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degre^-of Doctor of Philosophy. Associate Professor of Education

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Williani M. Alexander Professor of Education This dissertation was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1973 Dean, College of Education Dean, Graduate School



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An Analysis of Selected Aspects of Undergraduate Programs in Teacher Education Provided in Florida Colleges and Universities for the Preparation of Teachers for the Elementary School By ROY E. DWYER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA June, 1957

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To the memory of Dr. Kate V. Woffard

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ACKTOTiEDGMENTS Without the cooperation and encouragement of many individuals in the State of Florida this study would not have been possible. Indebtedness is due Dr. J. B. White, Dean of the College of Education, University of Florida, and to Dr. Ray V. Sowers, Chairman of the Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council, for their part in securing the endorsement of this study by the Executive Committee of the Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council. Especial appreciation is extended to Dr. J. T. Kelley, Director, Division of Teacher Education, Certification and Accreditation of the State Department of Education, His advice and direct assistance facilitated the securing of much of the data for this study. Acknowledgment of their invaluable assistance as members of the supervisory committee is due Dr. Aleyne C. Haines, Dr. Maurice R. Ahrens, Dr. Vynce A. Hines, Dr. Pauline HiHiard, Dr. Oliver Bruce Thomason, and Mr. Mell H. Atchley. Especially helpful was the expert and critical guidance of Dr. Aleyne C. Haines, chairman of the supervisory committee. Gratitude is extended to the personnel in all the institutions studied who made the campus visitations pleasurable as well as profitable. Especial appreciation is due those individuals who gave many hours from busy schedules for the interviews. Finally, the understanding given by my family during the months of writing is acknowledged as a gift of love. iii

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TABLE OP CONTENTS torn ACKNOETLEDGMSNTS • ill LIST OF TABLES , • . . . • vi LIST OF FIGURES viii Chapter I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .............. 1 Need for the Study in Florida The Purpose The Problem Delimitations Definition of Terms Scope of the Study Criteria for the Selection of Aspects Studied Procedures Used in Collecting Data Plan of Presentation II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE •••• 1$ Comprehensive Studies in Teacher Education Studies of Selected Phases of Teacher Education Studies of Pre-Service Teacher Education in Florida Trends and Issues in Teacher Education Suuuwry III. PROCEDURES USED IN COLLECTING AND ANALYSING THE DATA AW) DESCRIPTIONS OF THE INSTITUTIONS INCLUDED IN THE STUDY, 53 Procedures Used in Collecting the Data Procedures Used in Analyzing the Data The Institutions Studied Summary 17. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 76 Extent of Offerings Course Requirements for Students in Elementary Education Screening, Selection, and Placement of Students Counseling of Students Direct Experiences with Children and Youth Program Evaluation Combination Programs Summary m

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TABLE OF COHTEOTS — Continued Chapter NH V. GOTDIH} PRINCIPLES IN THE HtE-SERVJCK REPARATION OF ELE2/ENTART SCHOOL TEACHERS • l$2 sujnBWpy VI, SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS * . . 173 Limitations of the Study Reconaendations for Action Recommendations for Further Study BIBLIOGRAPHY 18? APPENDIXES • , • 198 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 211

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L3ST CF TABIES Table Page 1. Semester Hoars Work in Three Areas in Programs That Prepare Elementary School Teachers in Eleven Institutions in Florida , 78 2. Order of Seriousness of Problems Presented in Three Areas of The Preparation of Elementary School Teachers in Eleven Institutions in Florida » . 79 3. Semester Hours Required in General Preparation (Categorized According to Areas of ft-eparation Used by the State Department of Education) in Eleven Institutions in Florida ........... 81 lu Distribution of Requirements in Professional Preparation in the Institutions Studied by Grouping Established by State Department Certification Requirements . . 83 5. Distribution of Courses Used to Meet State Certification Requirements in Professional Education Area I (Foundations) in Eleven Institutions in Florida 8U 6. Distribution of Semester Hours Credit Used in Meeting State Certification Requirements in the Area of Elementary Specialization by Eleven Institutions in Florida . . 88 7. Provisions for the Remediation of Deficiencies in the Preparation and Qualifications of Students Preparing to Teach in the Elementary School in Eleven Institutions in Florida ....... 106 8. The Reported Percentage of Elementary Education Students Observing or Participating in Pre -School Planning Sessions and/or Opening of Public Schools in Eleven Institutions in Florida ....... 108 9. The Number of Courses Offered Prior to Internship That Include Direct Experience with Children as an Integral Part of Course Content in Eleven Institutions in Florida 109 10, Types of Direct Experiences with Children Prior to the Internship Included in Course Content for Prospective Elementary Teachers in Eleven Institutions in Florida . . 110 vi

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LIST OF TABLES— Continued Table Page 11, Allocation of Primary Responsibility for the Placement of Interns in Public Schools in Eleven Institutions in Florida »«***««*•« * 117 12, Semester Designated for the Internship Experience in Eleven Institutions in Florida 122 13, Certain Aspects Relative to the Selection and Training of Cooperating Teachers in Eleven Institutions in Florida • 128 llu Semester Hours Required for Graduation, Combined Programs Offered -within Limitations of Graduation Requirements, and Attitude Toward the Practice of Providing Combined Programs in Eleven Institutions in Florida 133 35. Types of Combination Programs that Include Meeting Certification Requirements for Elementary School Course and the Extent of Their {fee in Eleven Institutions in Florida 135 16. The Order in Which Certain Aspects of Screening and Selection of Students Are Presenting Problems in Over-all Programs as Ranked by Selected Personnel in Eleven Institutions in Florida lhO 17. The Order in Which Certain Aspects of Programs in Counseling Undergraduate Students in Elementary Education Are Presenting Problems as Ranked by Selected Personnel in Eleven Institutions in Florida ............ Ih2 18. The Order in Which Certain Aspects Relative to the Provision for Direct Experiences with Children Are Presenting Problems in the Over-All Programs for the Preparation of Elementary School Teachers as Ranked by Selected Personnel in Eleven Institutions in Florida . , lU$ 19. The Order in Which Certain Aspects of Program Evaluation in the Pre -Service Education of Elementary School Teachers Are Presenting Problems in Over-All Programs as Ranked by Selected Personnel in Eleven Institutions in Florida ...... 1^5 20. The Order in Which Certain Aspects of the Pre -Service Education of Elementary School Teachers Are Presenting Problems as Ranked by Selected Personnel in Eleven Institutions in Florida 150 vii

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LIST CF FIGURES Figure 1, Responsibility for the Counseling of Students In Elementary Education Assumed by the Department or Division of Elementary Education and by Other Departments or Divisions in Eleven Institutions in Florida • • 10$ 2. On-Campus and Field Experience During the Internship Semester ••• H6 3a, Visits Made by Supervisors During the Intern's Field Experience 120 3b, Number of Visits Made by Supervisors Equated to a Field Experience of 10 Weeks • ,, » « 121 U, Number of TCeeks Interns Spend in Cooperating Schools in Full— Time Student Teaching and the Semester -flour Credit Allocation to the Experience in Eleven Institutions in Florida 123 5. Intern Field Supervision-— Projection to Full Load Based on 13> Semester Honrs as Full Teaching Load 125 l vtti

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Teacher education in the United States is currently under closer scrutiny, and is of greater concern on a national level than ever before in the history of this country. In all media of communication, education has taken a prominent place among the topics and issues considered. In the newspapers and in the popular magazines that have national circulation, articles attacking or defending schools and teaching are common. In many of these articles, teacher education is explicitly treated} in most of them, some or all of the aspects of teacher education are implied. Despite the disparate viewpoints that are reflected in both the formulations and proposed solutions of many problems, there is common agreement as to the importance of education in our way of life. The need for more schools and more and better prepared teachers is universally expressed. While many factors are operative in the current focusing of attention upon education, two of them are particularly pertinent to the task of teacher education in relation to the composite picture. These are the everincreasing school population and the current period of economic prosperity. Stinnett maintains -(hat the former factor presents an "overwhelming burden" to teacher education. "Teacher education is at the crossroads because of the sheer weight of numbers, the staggering magnitude of the task which lies ahead, both for the public school system and 1-

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for those who must supply the needeo teachers for this system." 1 The relationship of concern about teacher education in this country to periods of economic prosperity and depression has long been known. Teacher shortages have been prevalent during periods of prosperity, and teacher surpluses exist during times of depression* History seems monotonously to repeat itself in this respect. Following World War I, the shortage of teachers was so serious that teachers were recruited from boys and girls who had not completed high school} temporary certificates were issued freely) standards were relaxed. Yet less than ten years later an equally serious oversupply of teachers was reported. The depression years from 1930 to 1939 produced more teachers than teaching positions, and the post World War II period presented more positions than there were available teachers to fill them. Because of the continued operation of both factors of economic prosperity and increasing school population, teacher shortages have continued and public and professional concern in education has remained at a high level. That this concern should focus on teacher education was an inevitable outcome .3 Public concern over teacher education has been accompanied by an even greater concern within the institutions that prepare teachers *M. Stinnett, Executive Secretary, National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards, "Teacher Education at the Crossroads" (Address before the Southern Council on Teacher Education at Memphis, Tennessee, December 2, 19f>3, Southern Council on Education), p. 3» (Mimeographed • ) 2 Edward S. Evenden, Guy C. Gamble, and Harold G. Blue, "Teacher Personnel in the United States, " Na tional Survey of the Education of Teachers , II (Bulletin 1933, No. 10), 7U ff. ^Stinnett, op. cit ., p. 3«

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and In the professional organizations that deal with one or all of the phases of teacher education. This renewed interest and greater participation holds promise of progress towards the goals of better understanding and greater cooperation both within institutions and among institutions that prepare teachers. Zirbes points up the problem as follow st Separate organizations of persons interested in particular functions in teacher education are getting together and working together, and this gives some prospect of a less piecemeal approach and a concern for more basic problems. This is a timely recognition of the limitations of organizational effort that brings the same small homogeneous coterie of devoted members together year after year for the promotion of projects concerned with the improvement of special functions, out of relation to similar groups and other forces in the same field .1 Ih the recent White House Conference on Education, held in Washington, D, C, November 28 to December 1, 19$$, particular attention was given to teacher education. In her report on Topic IV, "How Can We Get Enough Good Teachers—and Keep Them?" Mrs. Harold J. Fallon indicates a means of increasing the supply of good teachers. Another avenue of approach is improving the programs of teacher preparation. This would include strong programs of general education and a professional program keyed to professional problems and responsibilities as well as motivation for continued study after appointment. 2 The National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards deserves mention here for its role in focusing national attention on problems in teacher education and in effecting cross-organisational cooperation in solving these problems. The National Cowaission ^Laura Zirbes, Teachers for Tbday's Schools. Prepared for the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, National Education Association (Washington, D. C.i Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, National Education Association, 1951), pp. 80-81. 2 The Reports of the White House Conference on Education, Washington, D. C, November 28 December 1, 19$$, p. 12.

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on Teacher Education and Professional Standards was created by action of the National Education Association Representative Assembly in Buffalo, New York, on July 2, 19^6. It was charged with the following responsibilities! To carry forward for the profession a continuing program of improvement of standards for the selection, preparation, certification, and in-service growth of teachers, as well as standards for institutions which prepare teachers.^ In March, 1950, the National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards inaugurated The Journal of Teacher Education. Published quarterly, this is the only national journal devoted exclusively to the interest of teacher education. The Commission, working with other professional groups, established the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education which then, July 1, 195U, assumed the accrediting function of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. The roots of the movement began with the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, which had served as an accrediting agency since 1927, in seeking to broaden committee representation to include all segments of the profession. 2 Crowing national concern in teacher education has been paralleled on the regional, state, and local levels. The work of the American Council on Education in fostering the Implementation of program development in teacher education Illustrates the joining of national and local forces ,3 ^National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards, The Crucial Years : 1955 Annual Report to the Profession, National Education Association, "Washington 6, D. C, 1955, p. ii. (Piano graphed.) 29 pp. ^ior to 19U8 the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education was known as the American Association of Teachers Colleges. 3 American Council on Education, The Improvement of Teacher Educa tion (Washington, D. C.» National Education Association, 191*6), 283 pp.

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* Illustrative of regional cooperation is the Southern Council on Teacher Education, created in December, 1952, by action of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. One of its publications presents a progress report of teacher education in the southern states.^ On the state and local levels, primary impetus for the improvement of teacher education has stemmed from state departments of education and from state teacher education advisory councils* The bases on which our present curricula for the education of teachers were built point up an ever-present need for evaluation and study of all of its aspects and practices. Most present programs, it should be realized, were developed piecemeal, in the light of dubious precedents, and in the face of inhibiting resistances and pressures. These programs were extended more or less opportunistically and adjusted from time to time in response to diverse influences and demands in ways that were deemed feasible or expedient in the light of previous commitments and available resources .2 This chance evolution of teacher education programs, based on tradition and the expeditious meeting of immediate needs rather than by research, has led to severe criticisms of existing programs. It has been proclaimed that the curriculum for teacher education has undergone little fundamental change within the present century; and further, that there is no curriculum for teacher education in the same sense that there is a curriculum for law, medicine, dentistry, or pharmacy .3 *The Southern Council on Teacher Education, Teacher Education in the Southern States (Southern Council on Teacher Education, March, 1955), IB pp. (Mimeographed.) ^Laura Zirbes, op. cit ., p. 68, ^National Council for Teacher Education and Professional Standards, Teacher Education t The Decade Ahead , The DeKalb Conference Report (Washington, D. C.t National Education Association, 1955), p. U6.

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6 With the great number of factors Influencing the development of teacher education programs, and the almost limitless possibility in 'variation in the configurations of these factors on the local level, it is not surprising that uniform curricula have not evolved. While many common aspects are known to exist, there has been a tendency to stress the differences rather than the common features in teacher education programs. The state university, the state colleges for teachers and the privately controlled universities and colleges within the state are all usually preparing teachers, the majority of whom hope to be employed in the area. These institutions have, therefore, much in common) yet they often have few contacts with one another and are prone to be more sensitive to their differences than to their likenesses. ^> While program diversity in teacher education curricula within a state may be considered worthwhile, diversity per se is of little value* Ihter-college cooperation should encompass more than a superficial sharing of ideas. It should not seek conformity to standard practices as a goal. let if these diversities in practices are not shared, understood, and justified in the light of sound principles, there is a real danger of having uniformity legislated. That research is needed concerning the problems arising from differences in teacher education programs is indicated by the following statement. In the area of administrative practices, high priority should be given to research on the problems arising from the fact that most states have several institutions engaged in teacher education. It seems difficult for state legislators to understand why these colleges are different, why they have different curricula leading to the same degree, different standards for admission and graduation, and different departments and facilities (i.e., one has a psycho-educational clinic and others not). There seems a strong American Council on Education, The Improvement of Teac her iiducationt A Final Report by the Commission oiPi'eacher Education (Washington. D. C.i The National Education Association, 19kb), p. Ww

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7 tendency on the part of state legislators to want to make all teachers colleges in the state conform to a standard pattern.! Obviously, uniformity in programs for the preparation of teachers is not a goal to be sought. But diversified offerings without evaluation may result in peripheral quibbling about specific practices with no real bases for the clarification of the Important underlying Issues. A clear picture of current programs, with analyses of practices and problems, is needed. The need for more analytical research relative to both over-all institutional practices and to separate phases of the teacher education program has been pointed out by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. 2 Such research studies are also needed to give more significance to follow-up studies, which represent the culmination of evaluation at the preservice level. 3 Need for the Study In Florida Teacher education is a rapidly increasing concern of Florida colleges and universities. Despite expanded facilities, these institutions fall far short of producing enough teachers to serve the needs of this rapidly growing state. Concern with the quantity of teachers produced should not take precedence over concern with the quality of the preparation given in these preservice programs. A profitable evaluation of the quality of the preparation provided, however, is difficult ^American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, The Eighth Yearbook (The Association, 1955), p. 97. ^Bulletin No. 2, AACTE Study Series, Needed Research in Teacher Education (American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 195^}, p. 20. ^Maurice E. Troyer and Robert C. Pace, Evaluation in Teacher Education, Prepared for the Commission on Teacher Education (Washington, D. C.j American Council on Education, 19UU), p. 232.

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8 if not Impossible until a comprehensive picture of the present programs of preparation is presented and analyzed. A logical first step in the evaluative process is to find out where we are now in order to provide bases for the consideration of change. No comprehensive study of the teacher education programs for the preparation of elementary teachers In the state of Florida has ever been made. Several factors make the current study both timely and Important i 1. All of the Institutions in Florida which prepare teachers are multi-purpose colleges or universities. The development of their departments of education is not typical. In most sections of the country, Normal Schools have evolved first Into Teachers Colleges, then into multipurpose colleges and universities. A review of the history of teacher education in the state of Florida revealed such a multiplicity In the creation and abandonment of Institutions of higher learning that the identification of any of the normal schools with any of the existing institutions seems difficult to justify. 2. The current evaluations of programs for teacher education for accreditation by the State Department of Education are not made In all of the Institutions either by a common body or by a common procedure. Four of the institutions are members of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. These four are evaluated by the Association's visiting committee, composed of out-of-state members as well as state members. The remaining seven institutions are evaluated for accreditation by a committee from the State Department of Education. These committees do not visit the member Institutions of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. The State Department accepts the evaluation of this body as a basis for accrediting those institutions 1

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9 teacher-education programs. 3. Lines of communication that lead to the sharing of ideas or to state-vide evaluation of teacher education are limited. This is particularly true between the Negro and the White institutions. km No research in teacher education in the state of Florida involving survey of aspects of programs has included all of the institutions within the state engaged in preparing teachers. 5. It is possible for sudden changes in teacher education programs to be made as a result of legislative action regarding state certification regulations. The problems implicit in these conditions have been considered by organisations and groups within the state. Foremost among these is the Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council, established by the Florida Legislature "to aid in developing desirable standards and particularly to assist in the improvement of teacher and administrator education in the State." 1 Represented in the Advisory Council's membership are* eight institutions of higher learning in the State; the General Extension Division; the Florida Education Association; the parochial schools; the junior colleges; the public schools; and the State Department of Education. Particularly significant among the Council 1 s accomplishments are: (1) the development of the standards for teacher certification; and (2) the development of the standards for the approval of teacher education programs and institutions. Contributions to interinstitutional understanding and cooperation have been made by other groups who have met to discuss certain as* pects of programs of teacher education. The Association for Student ^Section 231.10, Florida Statutes.

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10 Teaching, a small group consisting of voluntary members, meets yearly at the time and place of the state meeting of the Florida Education Association, There have also been voluntary groups comprised of staff members from two or more Institutions who have met to discuss common problems. In most oases the major concerns have been problems related to the internship programs. While a comprehensive study of all aspects of the preparation of all teachers in the state of Florida would be extremely valuable at this time, the present study will not attempt to do the complete task. For the type of analysis being made, consideration of the preparation of elementary school teachers only is most profitable. The extreme diversity in the preparation of secondary school teachers makes the consideration of programs in this area sufficient content for another and separate study. In the state of Florida there have been no evaluative follow-up studies of beginning teachers that have had significant feed-back aspects for program change In teacher education curricula at the pre-service level. For these studies to be made, cooperation and understanding among school personnel is essential. If such studies are to include the graduates from a number of Institutions, then Intercollege cooperation and understanding are also to be desired. The present study should satisfy a need in the state of Florida by providing a basis for the needed inter-college relationship. It should also provide a sound basis for proceeding with evaluative assessments of curricula that are now under way or are being planned for the near future. The Purpose It is the purpose of this study to investigate and analyze the

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11 status of selected aspects of undergraduate programs provided by eleven Florida colleges and universities for the preparation of elementary school teachers, and to determine major problems in the programs as seen by personnel of these Institutions, Criteria pertinent to the aspects investigated, stated as Guiding Principles, will be formulated, these Guiding Principles will provide a basis for the drawing of meaningful implications for the improvement of undergraduate elementary teacher education programs. The Problem The problem for this study, therefore, is to seek answers to a cluster of questions that will serve, within the limitations established, the purposes stated. These questions aret 1. Within the limitations of those aspects investigated, what is the current status of the preparation of elementary school teachers in eleven institutions in Florida? 2. To what degree do the aspects studied meet the criteria for the pre-service preparation of elementary school teachers as established by the Guiding Principles? 3. What are the major problems in the preparation of teachers for the elementary school as identified by personnel in the participating colleges and universities? km Do the institutions have long-range programs for the evaluation of -those aspects investigated? 5. Are there evident and discernible impediments to program change in the institutions studied? 6. What implications for the improvement of the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers can be drawn?

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12 Delimitations 1. The study will be limited to those Florida institutions that have four-year programs that qualify students for a Florida Graduate State Certificate. 2. The study will be limited to those programs that enable the student to be certified to teach the "Elementary School Course, " 3. The study will be limited to those aspects of the teacher education programs listed under "Scope of the Study. w Definition of Terms 1. Student Teaching or Internship is that period of guided teaching when the student takes an increasing responsibility for the work of learners, normally in a classroom, over a period of consecutive weeks. 2. Participation is that phase of laboratory experience in which the prospective teacher, under direction, has limited contact with pupils in a class, but does not have full responsibility for teaching. 3. Teacher Education is the total educational program whereby a student is prepared to teach. U. Professional Courses refers to work in education especially designed to prepare teachers. f>. Department of Education designates the division of the institution (department, school, college) which gives work in education. 6. Cooperating Schools are those public schools used by the institution for providing student teaching, internship, and participation experiences , 7. University Supervisor is the member of the college or university staff who supervises student teachers, interns, or participants.

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13 8. Combination Programs refers to those programs wliich, In addition to preparing students to teach in the elementary school, also develop another competence. The other competence developed may or may not be such that enables the student to receive state certification to teach In another special field. The following aspects of teacher education programs will be investigated* 1. Extent of offerings 2. Course requirements for students in elementary education a* General education requirements b. Professional education requirements c. Elementary school course requirements 3. Screening and selection of students a. Procedure and organisation c. diagnosis of deficiencies in preparation and qualifications of students d. Placement services hm Counseling of students a. Procedure and organization b. Provision for remediation Scope of the Study a. lypes of positions for which certification is obtained Criteria for admission of students to teacher education programs

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5. Direct experiences with children and youth a. Tvpe* b. Administration and organization c. Relation to the instructional program d. Functions of the supervisory staff e. Arrangements with cooperating schools f . Arrangements with cooperating teachers 6, Program evaluation a. Techniques employed 7* Combination programs a, Extent of the use of combination programs b. Factors influencing the use of combination programs o. Staff reactions to the practice of providing combination programs 8. Problems in the preservice education of elementary school teachers as seen by personnel in the institutions studied a. Combination programs of preparation b. Areas of most concern in meeting state certification requirements c. Screening and selection of students d. Counseling of students e. Direct experiences with children f • Evaluation of preservice education Criteria for the Selection of Aspects Studied This study is not a comprehensive survey and analysis of all of the aspects and important facets of preservice teacher education in the state of Florida. It is comprehensive in that all of the Florida institutions providing four-year programs for the preparation of elementary

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15 school teachers are included. While the aspects studied are not allinclusive, they are representative of those areas of major concern. The selection of the aspects included in the study was based on the following criteria: 1« The separate aspects must be of national concern and interest. This concern must be reflected in publications having wide circulation. 2. The separate aspects must have relevancy to the programs preparing elementary school teachers in all of the institutions. 3. The aspects studied must have relevancy to the organization and administration of teacher education programs. Methods and materials of instruction* the details of course content, and the personal qualities of instructors will not be considered. While these are of obvious significance, their investigation and evaluation are best accomplished at the local level, by personnel directly concerned and most intimately familiar with all their ramifications. The inclusion of the aspect of combination programs is not fully justified if considered solely in the light of the above. However, in addition to its partial justification by the criteria, it is included here because: (a) there exist great extremes in the state in both its use and in the reactions to the practice; and (b) consideration of this aspect of the preparation of elementary school teachers may result in bringing to light a "hidden problem" in preservice education programs. Procedures Used in Collecting Data A comprehensive study of the literature in the field of teacher education provided the bases for selection of significant aspects in the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers and for the formu-

PAGE 24

16 lation of the Quiding Principles. Further investigation of the statuB of teacher education in the state of Florida confirmed the need for a comprehensive survey and critical analysis of certain aspects and practices relative to this preparation. As the format of the study evolved, techniques for the collecting and treatment of the data -ware selected. Visits were made to each campus, key personnel were interviewed, and bulletins and all other available printed or mimeographed materials pertaining to the various programs for the preparation of elementary school teachers ware collected. These sources provided the data relative to current practices and policies in the institutions studied. For the data relative to problems and problem areas, a questionnaire was devised. This questionnaire was directed to personnel in the institutions studied who had a major responsibility in the programs of pre -service preparation of elementary school teachers. A one hundred per cent response to this questionnaire was realized. Follow-up interviews -were held for the purpose of clarification or for obtaining information that had Inadvertently been omitted. The data are presented through the use of tables, figures, and descriptions, Common features and divergences are pointed out in the analysis, Flan of Presentation Chapter I presents background information showing the importance of the general area of teacher education, highlights the need for the present study, and projects its significance to teacher education in the state of Florida. The problem for the study is posed in a series of questions. The framework within which the investigation was conducted

PAGE 25

17 is presented in a statement of delimitation, and is further clarified by the presentation of criteria that formed the basis for the selection of specific aspects and practices. Definitions of terms, procedures used in collecting data, and the plan for presentation of the study are included. Chapter II presents a review of the literature related to the present study. From the presentation and analysis, significant trends in teacher education are pointed up. Chapter III describes the procedures employed in collecting and analyzing the data and presents descriptions of all the institutions included in the study. Chapter IV presents and analyzes the data assembled relative to the eight aspects of teacher education programs investigated. The presentation of the data includes tabular, figurative, and descriptive methods. Its analysis points up commonalities and divergences within each of the areas investigated. Chapter V offers a series of guiding principles for the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers. They were established in the light of stated criteria that assure consistency in basic philosophy, and are designed for specific application to those aspects and practices of the programs investigated. Following the statement of each principle, evaluative statements are formulated which reflect the degree to which the practices and aspects studied are in accord with the stated principle. These statements are not uniquely applicable to any single institution, but reflect a global consideration of practices in all of the institutions studied. Chapter VI summarizes the findings of the study by formulating

PAGE 26

18 answers to those questions posed in the statement of the problem. Implications of the study for the improvement of the pre -service preparation of elementary school teachers are drawn. These take the form of recommendations for changes in existing programs and recommendations for further study and research.

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CHAPTER n REVIEW OP RELATED LITERATURE A careful analysis of several hundred research studies, professional books, and articles in professional periodicals revealed the fact that most of the studies of teacher education programs for undergraduate students have been of the survey type. Only a few studies were experimental. Some studies of teacher education programs were rather comprehensive in scope; some were intensive studies of a single phase of teacher education. Many of them cut across two or more of the aspects of the current investigation of teacher education. Many of the studies examined proved to be primarily concerned with phases of teacher education that lay outside the scope of the current study and were, therefore, excluded from this review. In presenting this material, the following categories, based upon the scope and content of the studies, will be used; A. Comprehensive Studies in Teacher Education; B. Studies of Selected Phases of Teacher Education; C. Studies of Teacher Education in Florida; D. Trends and Issues in Teacher Education. Studies that are pertinent to the present problem reflect two major emphases i (l) description and appraisal of practices in teacher education programs; and (2) recommendations proposed for overcoming problems either specifically stated or inherent in the practices cited. -19-

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A. Comprehensive Studies in Teacher Education TWo studies in teacher education, because of their scope and importance, are of particular significance. The first of these, The National Survey of Teacher Mucation^ represents the most extensive factfinding study in teacher education.* The basic motivation for the initiation of this study was the growing surplus of teachers, By 1929, concern over this problem had been voiced by most state superintendents, deans of schools of education, and presidents of normal schools and teacliers colleges. The lack of available data needed for the solution of this basic problem led to a unified front in voicing the need for a thorough study of the whole field of teacher education on a national scale. Representatives appointed by the National Association of State Superintendents of Instruction and Commissioners of Education, the National Association of Deans of Schools of Education, and the American Association of Teachers Colleges presented the desirability of a national survey of teacher education to the United States Office of Education* The United States Commissioner of Education, with the aid of these three representatives secured congressional authorization for a three-year study of "the qualifications of teachers in the public schools, the supply of available teachers, the facilities available and needed for teacher training, including courses of study and methods of teaching. "2 An appropriation of $200,000 was authorised, and the Survey was begun In July, 1930. The listed purposes of the Survey were as follows^ • ^Na tional Survey of the Education of Teachers, United States Office of Education, Bulletin 1933, No. 10, 6 Volumes. National Survey . Vol. VI, p. 7. hp, cit .. pp. 10-16.

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21 1. Nation-wide picture cf present conditions and practices in the education of teachers, 2. The discovery and clarification of problems and controversial issues, 3. Indication of trends in the education of teachers, U* The solution of problems or proposals for improving present practices. Data for the Survey were collected through the use of extensive questionnaires, sent to large samples of the populations studied. These data are presented and analyzed in the six volumes published by the United States Office of Education, While the chief value of the Survey lies in the analytical picture given of contemporary conditions and practices, the recommendations derived from the treatment of the data by the Survey staff are also significant in that they reflect continuing problem areas in the preparation of teachers. Some of the recommendations made were along the following lines i* 1, There is a basic need for more emphasis upon recruitment, selection, and follow-up guidance programs, 2, Traditionally set standards or practices on such matters as required courses, majors, minors, and electives should be challenged, 3, Greater emphasis should be placed on a functional general education, U, Desirable professional attitudes should be inculcated, S, A better professionaltechnical education is needed. 3 Op. cit .. pp. 2U2-253.

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22 The second major study vas the project of the Commission on Teacher Education which followed by a few years the report of the National Survey , The Ooramisaion was created by the American Council on Education in 1938 and was formally dissolved in 19Wu During the period of its existence, most of its facilities were devoted to an extensive field program. This program included a national cooperative study involving a large number of representative school systems, colleges, universities, and a series of statewide cooperative studies involving teacher education interests in ten states. Data were provided through careful records of experience, evaluations of outcomes, and periodical reports prepared on the local level and presented to the Commission. Commission staff members kept in close touch with developments in the field and formulated their individual judgments as to the effectiveness of the various experimental projects. The basic task of the Commission was to promote action on the local level. Hence it was not concerned with controlled experiments or with advancing frontiers of knowledge concerning teacher education. Guides for this work came primarily from the authoritative concepts of leaders in the field of teacher education. The Commission felt that its function should rest in testing hypotheses already developed. It was felt that deliberative pronouncements would be less valuable than a series of reports based on experiences in the field. The contribution made by the work of the Commission on Teacher Education is twofold) first, its published reports-^have added valu^Commission on Teacher Education, Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, Teachers for Our Times (l9hh) t 178 pp. J Commission on Teacher Education, Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, Helping teachers Understand Children (19U£)» U68 pp.; Commission on

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23 able materials to the literature in the field of teacher education, providing source material and offering guide-lines to those involved in Implementing programs In teacher education; and, secondly, the published reports tend to prove the validity of the frame of reference which guided tlie Conrniasion' s work. Anderson and Peik 1 sumarized the framework within which the Commission functioned along tho following lines s 1. The Commission emphasised Institutional responsibility for determining eorriculuras relevant to the institution's purposes. Hence it made no prescriptions concerning the curriculum most desirable for teacher education for universal application. 2. It emphasized the civic-social role of teachers. 3. It held that the organization of the teachereducation program and the instructional procedures should reflect contemporary understanding of the best educational practices. U. It held that constant evaluation should play a major role in teacher education and the improvement of the curriculum. Both of these major studies in teacher education were made during periods of great concern for the quality of education provided in our schools. Each was in part a reflection of concern over the inequality between teacher supply and teacher demand. The former study encompassed a period of serious teacher surplus, the latter a period of Teacher Education, Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, The Improvement of Teacher Education (191*6), 283 pp.j Maurice E. Troyer and Robert C. Pace, Evaluation in Teacher Education (Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, 19hh), 366 pp.; W. Earl Armstrong, Ernest V. Hollis, and Helen E. Davis, The College and Teacher Education (Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, 19hh), 311 pp. •'•Kenneth E. Anderson and Wesley E. Peik, "Teacher Education," Encyclopedia of Educational Research (19&), p. 1398.

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teacher shortage. Both studies were deeply concerned with the quality of teacher education throughout the nation, and both resulted in recommendations for its improvement. Both Involved the services of a large sample of leading authorities in the field of teacher education throughout the country. The National Survey was largely a status study, seeking a comprehensive picture of teacher education in the United States at the tint* The work of the Commission on Teacher Education was primarily concerned with the implementation of program change at the local level. Both studies have been criticized for not including experimental research techniques in their work. It would be impossible to provide accurate and objective measurements of the total Impact of these two studies on teacher education in the United States. let few would deny their value int (1) confirming the importance of teacher education in the total educational picture; (2) stimulating the up-grading of teacher education programs j (3) providing guidelines for the implementation of program change in teacher education at the local level; (U) providing impetus to the projection of concern in teacher education to a national level; (5) providing sources of informative data necessary to the clarification of issues in teacher education, and to the identification of problems to be solved. There have been several studies that have surveyed the programs of large samples of institutions that prepare teachers. These studies have been largely the work of individual investigators, and have been primarily concerned with aspects of organisation and evaluation. Stiles, 1 ^Lindsey J. Stiles, "Teacher Education » An All University Function," School and Society. LXII (October, 19U£), 220-22.

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25 In • study of 8U representative institutions, sought to discover the extent to which teacher education was an all-universiiy function. In addition to the data obtained from the institutions regarding their practices, he polled a jury of authorities in the field of teacher education as to the desirability of and the means for accomplishing universi1y-wide cooperation in the task of teacher education. Stiles reports that the following conclusions are indicated by his study t 1, Universities do not make adequate administrative provisions for close cooperation between the department or college of education and other departments of the universities, 2, Few universities have recognised the education of prospective teachers as an all-university function, 3, Authorities on teacher education believe that the responsibility for the planning of the program of education for prospective teachers should rest largely with the department of education with cooperation from the various subject-matter departments, Irwin 1 surveyed opinions of educators in 1937 as to what type of school or organization in a university would make for the most effective selection, preparation, and placement of teachers. He reports a unified stand for a college of education in a university. But with few exceptions they stress the belief that relatively few members of university faculties or departments are sufficiently interested or informed on the work and problems of public education to determine wisely the policy, program, or services of the university in teacher education. The responsibility for this determination must, in their minds, rest primarily in a professional unit, in a school, faculty, or committee of education, . , .2 H. N. Irwin, "The Organisation of Teacher-Preparation in a University," Educational Administration and Supervision, 20LIII (1932), U5U-60. Ibid ., p. 1*60,

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26 O'Leary*investigated certain changing concepts underlying the growth and development of the broader purposes and functions basic to the university study of education. These concepts were formulated from an intensive study of six institutions, selected on the basis of prestige and geographical location. The availability of published aims, functions, and organization of the university schools was a further factor in selection. The data were derived from official university publications and documents such as general histories, reports of presidents and deans, minutes of faculty meetings, and annual registers or catalogs. O'Leary found that while there was great diversity in practice, there were certain trends observable in all the institutions. From his historical analysis, 2 O'Leary identified some of the major forces which conditioned their origin and which determined their character. 1. The influence of the democratic ideal. 2. The influence of the founding of chairs and professorships of pedagogy in American institutions* 3. The influence of a growing body of knowledge. U. The influence of state certification of teachers. 5>. The influence of accrediting secondary schools. 6. The influence of the demand for graduate work in teacher education. In pointing up common trends, O'Leary found that all institutions 1 Timothy F. O'Leary, "An Inquiry into the General Purposes, Functions, and Organization of Selected University Schools of Education with Special Reference to Certain Aspects of their Growth and Development' 1 (Ph.D. dissertation, Catholic University of America Press, Washington* D, 6., 191*1), U29 pp. 2 0jj a __cit., Chapter I, "Some Conditioning Factors Influencing the Growth of Education as a University Subject," pp. 1-33.

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27 studied had been constantly revising and evaluating their purposes and functions. While this In itself is a caramon trend, it has had, in addition, the effect of producing more or less common results. O'Leary concludes that combined scholarship and training are emphasized today more than in the past. Philosophic and scientific points of view, as well as methods and highly specific research aims, are becoming increasingly evident. The most significant tendency, common to all these university schools of education, is the more desirable objective of developing the powers of students to deal constructively with educational problems. This is a definite advance over the policy of earlier years when the stress was placed on the accumulation of credits, narrow training in craftsmanship, the mechanics of teaching, and the mere administration of schools. Clark? studied the course offerings in both professional and nonprofessional fields in 68 teachers colleges that were selected from member institutions of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. He reports that teachers colleges announcing curriculum changes seem to favor integrated programs both in the general education and in the professional sequences. let in most aspects he found wide variations in practices: . . the typical teachers college does not exist. Divergence in practice seems to be the rule rather than the exception. "3 1 Op. cit ., p. I4I2. ^Leonard H. Clark, "The Curriculum for Elementary Teachers in Sixty-Eight State Teachers Colleges," The Journal of Teacher Education. VI, No. 2, (June, 1955), 11U-17. 3 0p» cit .. p. 117.

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Byte^ studied the stated aims and functions of divisions of education In forty-one representative universities. He reports a wide variation in these statements. Bosever, some uniformityis noted. Paramount in the statement of objectives is the concept that divisions of education, whether they are departments, schools, or colleges, have been developed to render educational service. This point is specifically stated or obviously implied in 75 per cent of the 1*1 published announcements .2 Kyte also reports that while one hundred per cent of the published purposes made specific references to secondary education, only eighty-nine per cent of them made specific reference to elementary education. 3 In a recent study, Engleman^ sought common elements in teacher education programs. In a nationwide survey of 87 institutions listed by state school officials as superior in teacher education, Engleman found mrnffirm areas in professional preparation, but considerable deviation in the subject matter fields or disciplines considered essential for the elementary school teacher. He found that three basic professional areas were required in all colleges: educational psychology or human growth and development, curriculum materials and methods, and student teaching. To select the institutions for his investigation, Engleman wrote to each state school officer requesting that he and his associates indicate two institutions in the state considered superior in training teachers. All state officials responded, but 13 of them named only one institution. The 87 institutions studied represent all 1*8 states and •kx. C. Kyte, "Stated Aims and Functions of Divisions of Education in Forty-One Representative Universities," School and Society. L (1939), 378-81*. ^QP* dt .. p. 378. 3 Ibid. k?. E. Engleman, "Common Elements in Teacher Education Programs," School and Society. 7HI (August, 195U), 1*0-1*1,

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29 the District of Columbia. Engleman concluded that there was sufficient similarity of requirements set forth in the 87 colleges and universities to suggest that within the institutions reported as superior for teacher education there existed certain common concepts relative to teacher competencies and to a program most suitable for developing these competencies. He held that the existence of these common concepts should provide leads which will help in establishing sound teacher education programs. 3 There have been several studies, comprehensive in scope, but limited to a state or region. These have been largely of the survey type. While they have contributed little to enlarging understandings of principles, needs, objectives, or problems of teacher education on a global basis, they have considerable value in: (1) providing sound bases for local change j (2) supplying data for comparative analyses on a larger scale; and (3) providing guide lines for similar studies in other regions. A sampling of these studies, selected as being typical, are cited below. Lawson 2 reported the findings of a two-year survey study of teacher-training practices in five Illinois state teachers colleges. Four phases of the student's preparation were studiedi (1) preparation for student teaching; (2) practices in student teaching; (3) supervision of student teaching; and (U) administration of student teaching. The survey was the work of a committee whose membership included repre1 0p. cit ., p. la. D. E. Laws on, "Implications of a Survey in Teacher Training Practices in Illinois," Educational Administrat ion and Supervision. XXV (October, 1939), $2£3T. — 12 ~'

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sentatives from each of the institutions studied and for which Laws on served as chairman. The principal findings listed under the four phases studied were i 1* None of the five colleges offered any significant coordination of professional and academic courses taken by the student prior to student teaching. 2. A chief characteristic of actual practice teaching was found to be its routine nature. Traditional classroom presentation was found to be the most common type of teaching. 3. There was great variation in the supervisory practices of the cooperating teachers, and in the procedures followed relative to specific performances required of their student teachers. Iw Considerable variation in specific practice in administering the student teaching program was found, but in all cases a strongly democratic type of control was indicated. Gates^ sought to determine the optimum supervisory load for college supervisors of student teachers. The value and frequency of activities of the supervisors were considered, as was the time factor in the supervisor's scheduling problem. Data were obtained through the use of questionnaires, interviews, and diaries kept by supervisors. One hundred one supervisors in teacher education institutions in the State of California, and 32 supervisors at Colorado State College of Education were included in the study. Samuel Gerald Gates, "Professional Activities Performed by College Supervisors of Student Teachers" (Ed.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1953), 721; pp. j Dissertation Abstracts. XIV (195U), 309-10.

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31 Gates concluded that the maximum number of student teachers that one supervisor can supervise effectively is 18, if supervision constitutes a full load. He further concluded that supervisors receiving three-fourths supervisory load credit may supervise 1U.8 student teachers, and supervisors receiving half-load credit may supervise 5.U student teachers adequately. Davis* sought to determine the effectiveness of the teacher-education program at ""syne University. For this study, data were obtained from questionnaire responses and self-rating scales obtained from 16 h graduates, and evaluations of their teaching success from school administrators. The findings and conclusions reported by Davis seem pertinent only to the program at Wayne University. The following are cited aa illustrative of these findings and conclusions t 1. Many graduates were dissatisfied with the guidance service offered throughout their college preparation. 2. Educational orientation courses received low ratings. 3. Considerable overlapping and duplication in course content exist. tu Student teaching has the most practical value of any specific course in the program. 5« Personality and character are considered to be more vital to successful teaching than academic preparation. *Don E. Davis, "An Evaluation of a Pre-Service Program of Teacher Education Based upon the Opinions of In-eervice Teachers" (Ed.D. dissertation, Wayne University, 1952), 272 pp.| Dissertation A bstracts. XIII. Mo. 1 (1953), 36. ' '

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32 Schroeder 1 sought to determine placement and follow-up practices that might best be used by the Department of Elementary Education, Teachers College, University of Nebraska. The primary sources of data were the responses to a questionnaire from 7 hi former students. This questionnaire Included inquiries relative tot preservice education, placement and follow-up, no-teaching and teaching experiences, and ins er vice education. The following are significant findings reported by Schroeder : 1. Former students at the University of Nebraska considered the weaknesses of their preservice education to have been a lack of (1) enough directed observations, (2) opportunities to work with children, and (3) specific procedures and techniques in methods courses. 2. The majority of students reported that they had not used the services of the University Placement Bureau either before or after accepting their initial teaching position. 3. , Approximately half of the former students believed that they would have been helped by field visitations from an Elementary Education staff member during the first year of teaching. h* During their first teaching experience, more former students have difficulty with instructional materials than with understanding of children 1 s problems or human relationships. Hendrix 2 studied eight multi-purpose universities to obtain ^Raymond Michael Schroeder, "Placement and Follow-Up of Elementary Teachers" (Ed J), dissertation, University of Nebraska, 195h), 217 pp. j Dissertation Abstracts. XIV, No. 12, 2288. 2 Holbert Howard Hendrix, "Elementary School Student Teaching in Selected Multi-Pur pose Universities" (Ph.D. dissertation, State University of Iowa, 195h), 6b£ pp.j Dissertation Abstracts. XIV, No. 10, 1632-33.

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33 information about elementary school student teaching which might have implications for the expansion of the undergraduate elementary education program at the State University of Iowa. Data were gathered by visitations and study of available literature at each institution* Interviews rare also used aixl tiic po.vsu is Inter viewed Mil asked rhat they liked beet about their programs of elementary school student teaching, how they would like to improve their programs, and what suggestions they had for expanding the elementary program at the University of Iowa. From e synthesis of all the data on the eight institutions, Hendrix projected recommendations for expanding the elementary teacher training program at the University of Iowa. His recommendations weret (1) the first two years should consist of general education as required by the College of Liberal Arts, excepting 6 semester hours of introductory professional courses ; and (2) 30 semester hours of professional requirements should be taken in the last two years, including 8 semester hours of full-tiiBB, off -campus student teaching in the senior year for eight weeks. The balance of this split semester's work would be devoted to workshops in elementary school science, art, and physical education. B. Studies of Selected Phases of Teacher Education There have been several studies made of selected phases or aspects of the total programs in teacher education. They are primarily fact-finding, survey studies. They rely heavily on questionnaires to provide data, and they have as their principal foci the identification of trends and the identification of Implications for program improvement.

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Brink-*gad* an extensive study of the administration of student teaching In universities -which use the public schools. Forty institutions were studied, 22 of them large state universities and 18 of them privately endowed universities with enrollments of more than li,000 students. The investigation dealt with: (1) the facilities for student teaching; (2) the supervisory organization far student teaching; and (3) the organization of the course in student teaching. The outstanding fact disclosed by this study of current practices in the administration of student teaching is the wide diversity of practices. Differences in institutional environment, the metier of students preparing for teaching, the size of the supervisory staff, and the number and accessibility of schools unquestionably influence the policies and practices of particular universities. 2 In a similar study, Sanded surveyed the off-campus student teaching practices in 112 institutions. These institutions were selected from Briber institutions of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education which had off-campus student teaching as an integral part of their program in teacher education. Great variations in practices were found. Significant among the specific findings reported were j 1. Sixty per cent of the institutions studied paid cooperating teachers for student teaching privileges. Payment per student teacher per semester ranged from twenty-five to four hundred and fifty dollars. In some cases flat payments were made to Boards of Education for the privilege of placing student teachers in the schools. These payments ranged from five hundred dollars to ten thousand dollars. G. Brink, "The Administration of Student Teaching in Universities Ihich Use the Public Schools," Educational Administration and Supervision, XXXI (1915), 39Wj02. 2 9p. clt ., p. IjOl. 3j. E. Sands, "Off-Campus Student Teaching Practices in 112 Institutions," Education. LXXIII (June, 1953), 6364»lu

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3* 2, Binety-onQ and seven-tenths per cent of the institutions listed certain professional courses as prerequisite to student teaching. 3. Seventy-five per cent of the institutions offered opportunity for student +^"H»e at the end of the junior year or during the entire senior year. k. Tests employed in the selection of student teachers varied widely. Forty-nine and four-tenths per cent reported tests of some description were used. Fifty and six-tenths per cent reported that no tests were used for the specific purpose of determining admission to the student teaching program.* Baugher 2 studied the organization and administration of practice teaching in privately endowed liberal arts colleges. It was found that the length of the practice teaching course ranged from zero -weeks to 5U weeks, and that the clock hour requirements ranged from zero hours to 180 hours. Stiles 3 found that student teaching is most often done near the university. Of the 8U institutions in his study, eighty-eight per cent reported the use of public schools in the city of the university. Thirtynine per cent of the universities had the cooperation of public schools in other cities. Davis, in a study limited to institutions in the State of 1 rbld. 2 Jacob i. Baugher, "Organization and Administration of Practice Teaching in Privately Endowed Colleges of liberal Arts," Contributions to Education. No. Wl (New York: Teachers College, 1931). Bindley J. Stiles, "Organization of Student Teaching in Universities, Journal of Educational Research, XL (May, 19U7), 706-02. kjohn E. Davis, "Professional Education Laboratory Practices in Selected Colleges in Pennsylvania Preparing Teachers for the Public Schools" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 19$h), 186 pp.

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Pennsylvania, analyzed the iraplene ntation of Standard VI of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Thirty selected teacher education institutions in Rmnsylvanla were included, sixteen of them liberal arts colleges, fourteen of them state teachers colleges. The programs in the liberal arts colleges and in the teachers colleges were compared. The major differences in the implementation of the mix major aspects of Standard VI ware: Id Professional laboratory experiences were Included as an integral part of all four years in the teachers colleges, but only in the last two years of preparation in the liberal arts colleges. 2. Professional laboratory experiences were largely limited to student teaching in the liberal arts colleges, but in the teachers colleges, because of the laboratory schools, they 'mere common to all four years of work. 3. In the teachers colleges, the student teaching period was of eighteen weeks 1 durations in the liberal arts colleges it did not exceed nine weeks in most cases. Seeking to determine the nature and extent of pre -service first-hand experiences, exclusive of student teaching and teacher internship, Callahan! analyzed questionnaire responses from 237 institutions throughout the United States. These experiences fell into three major categories. In the order in which they received emphasis, they are: (1) study of the child; (2) classroom instruction and procedures; and (3) study of the school comaunity. ^Sterling Grundy Callahan, "The Role of Non-Student Teaching First Hand Experiences in Selected Teacher Education Institutions" (unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1953), 522 pp.

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37 Frail* indicated that off -campus activities of all kinds have come to the front in recent educational thinking as a result of the efforts to bring theory and practice more closely together in teacher preparation. However, in their questionnaire survey of 125 member institutions of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Glennon, Weeks, and Ulrich2 report that opportunities for readiness experiences prior to student teaching ware rare, with admission to student teaching being largely automatic upon the completion of prerequisite courses. Several studies have been made concerning success in student teaching. Some of these have sought to find predictive factors in experiences prior to the student teaching. Others have sought to relate factors in the student teaching experience to teaching success. Bach3 investigated relationships between success in student teaching and success in the first year of teaching. Little relation between measures of student teaching ability and success in the field was found. It was concluded that critic teachers and principals emphasize different abilities. RobbU investigated the association of several factors with student ^Charles E. frail, State Programs for the Improvement of Teacher Education (Washington, D. C.t Commission on Teacher Education, American Council on Education, 19hU), p. 228* 2 Vincent J. Glennon, Edwin E. Weeks, and William Ulrich, "The Administration of Programs of Off-Campus Student Teaching," Off -Campus Student Teaching . Thirtieth Yearbook of the Association for Student Teaching, Chapter IV (Lock Haven, Pa.i The Association, 1951). 3jacob 0. Bach, "Practice Teaching in Relation to Other Measures of Teaching Ability," Journal of Experim ental Education, XXI (September. 1952), 57-90. 9 ^George P. Robb, "Relationship Between Interests and Student Teaching Achievement" (Ed.D, dissertation, Indiana University, 1953), 116 pp.j Dissertation Abstracts. XIV (July, 195b), 1050.

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38 teaching success. The research revealed that little relationship existed between success in student teaching and the expressed interests of students, their scholastic records, or their intelligence. Bond 1 identified good disciplinarians among student teachers, and discovered that they ranked higher on 32 traits thought to be related to teaching effectiveness. Nearly 90% of the good disciplinarians received A's in stutent teaching, but only 30% of the unselected group received this grade. Carlile 2 examined relationships between grades in student teaching aptitude, proficiency in the basic skills, scholastic achievement, and personality traits. College grades correlated .246 with student teaching grades, the highest correlation reported. In general, there was little relationship found between student teaching grades and the 23 measures used. Leavittb found no appreciable relationship between course grades in college and student teaching success. No basis for predicting success in student teaching was found, either by the application of a single index or a combination of indexes. Personnel services, including recruitment, selection, retention, guidance, and follow-up have received considerable attention in the literature. The interrelatedness of these services and the desirability of continuous and coordinated implementation of their various aspects have general acceptance. Their significance to the total program in teacher 1 Jesse A. Bond, "Analysis of Observed Traits of Teachers Who Were Rated Superior in School Discipline,* Journal of Educational Research. XLV (March, 1952), 507-16. 2 Amos B. Carlile, "Predicting Performance in the Teaching Profession," Journal of Educational Research. XL VII (May, 19$h), 6J4I-68. 3 Jerome E. Leavitt, "Personnel Data and Prediction of Success of Student Teachers," Journal of Teacher Edu cation. IV (September. 1953). 19U-97. m ' '

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39 education has long been recognized. In the rational Survey summary volume the following is stated as a "Principle of Teacher Education"! derived from the survey t 1, The importance of the work of the teacher, particularly in a democracy, Justifies securing the strongest recruits possible for the teachers' curricula. This end will be assisted byt (a) Admission requirements aimed to select the most capable of the applicants as shown by all known prognostic measures including health and personality. (b) Programs of "selective recruiting" to interest exceptionally capable high-school graduates in teaching. (c) Systems of student personnel and guidance service which will start at admission to a teacher's curriculum and continue through a period of adjust* merit following graduation. (d) A rigid system of elimination of students who, during their preparation, show themselves to be unsuited or unfit for teaching. C. Studies of Pre -Service Teacher Education in Florida Laboratory experiences, including student teaching or internship, have received major emphasis in the studies of teacher education in Florida. All of the studies have been limited to a single institution or to a sampling of the institutions within the state. Most of them have sought to derive implications for the improvement of the program in teacher education at a specific institution. Lastinger 2 evaluated the student teaching program at Florida Southern College. The criteria used for this evaluation were those listed in Standard 71, Revised Standards and Policies for Accrediting Colleges S. Evenden, "Summary and Interpretation," National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin 1933, No. 10, VI (Washington, fi. C.i U. S. Government Printing Office, 1935), 2U3. ^Samuel Thomas Lastinger, "An Evaluation of the Student Teaching Program at Florida Southern College" (unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Hew York University, 1952), 175 pp.

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far Teacher Education, adopted by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Factual Information was obtained from the dean of instruction, •ad judgments were secured from responses to a questionnaire from 208 school officials, super-vising teachers, student teachers, and college personnel representing fifty schools in fourteen county school systems. Data ware validated by the interview technique and by a composite rating given by the Administrative Council of the college. Lastinger reports that 80 per cent of the respondents rated the nature of the professional laboratory experiences above average. This «as the highest rating recorded. The lowest evaluations were given to the assignment and length of the laboratory period and the cooperative relationships in the guidance of the experiences. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents rated these two sections average or below average, Maglel evaluated certain aspects of student growth during an internship at the University of Florida. Sixty-one students were studied during their internship experience. The objectives of the program within the areas of emotional maturity and professional attitudes defined the limits of the investigation. Data were obtained through the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, and the Professional Attitudes Measure, an instrument developed by Nagle. In addition, questionnaires, interviews, and student logs were utilized to provide data relative to student growth in the selected goals. Other data were provided by personal data sheets H. Marshall Hagle, Jr., "An Evaluation of Student Growth During fnt-J? P " (unpunished Ed.D. dissertation, University of Florida, 1952), 2/3 pp.

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la submitted by the interns, and rating sheets on intern attitudes were submitted by their directing teachers. From his study, Nagle found that the score changes of the interns toward the goals of mental health and emotional maturity were in the desired direction. He found that the greatest change in attitudes ware in the area of school-community relationships* HUn chard 3 studied the development of the internship program in Florida from 1939 to 19l£. She described the conditions under which the program came into existence and presented a picture of the functioning of the program in each of the eight unite institutions of higher learning in Florida included in the study. Data were obtained by interviews, campus visits, and examination of documents including records of the State Department of Education, Included in the materials provided by the State Department were returns from forty states to an inquiry regarding state-wide internship programs. This latter document formed the basis for a comparative analysis of internship practices in the State of Florida, Blanchard concluded that three cliaracteristics of the statewide internship program in Florida were apparent t 1, The Florida internship program is a unique program* 2, The Florida internship program is a practical program, 3, The Florida internship program is an expanding program, 2 Blanchard noted great diversity among the state programs for ^Helen TS. Blanchard, "The Development of the Florida Internship Program frcm 1939 to 19h9 n (unpublished Master's thesis, College of Education, University of Florida, 19l$), *0p, cit ., pp. 7£-76.

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n internship from the forty states for which she had reports. She concluded: "in summarizing there is so little uniformity that no valid conclusions can be dram from the diversified programs used by the several states."^ Beaty 2 developed criteria for the selection of directing teachers at Florida State University. He sought to give definition to a good directing teacher. By categorizing supervisory relations between directing teacher and intern as cooperative, directive, or laissez-faire, he sought to identify personal-professional qualities possessed by directing teachers in each of the three assigned categories. Situational descriptions by interns were the bases for assigning directing teachers to these categories. Data for the study were gathered through the use of: (1) interviews of interns and their directing teachers; (2) a personal data sheet completed by the directing teachers; and (3) check-lists and rating scales. The effectiveness of each type of relationship was gauged by satisfaction ratings from interns and directing teachers. It was found that a significant relationship existed between the type of supervisory relationship and satisfaction derived by interns. The cooperative relationship was found to be more satisfying than either the directive or the laissez-faire relationship. The satisfaction derived by directing teachers was not related 1 0p. cit .. p. 95. 2 Edgar Beaty, "Developing Criteria for the Selection of Directing TeacherB with Particular Reference to a Secondary Program of Off -Campus Internship at Florida State University" (unpublished Ed.D. dissertation. Florida State University, 1955), 21k pp.

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to the category in which they were placed. Nor was any relation found between satisfaction derived by the intern and satisfaction derived by his directing teacher. From these and similar findings, Beaty derived twelve criteria for the selection of directing teachers. Because of restrictions inherent in the sample used, they may or may not have universal application. The following are stated as illustrative of these criteria. Criterion 1 . Directing teachers who maintain cooperative supervisory relationships with their interns should be selected as supervisors for interns .1 Criterion 2 . Directing teachers who maintain directive relationships with their interns should not be selected as supervisors for interna. ^ Criterion 3 . Directing teachers who maintain laissez-faire relationships with their interns should not be selected as supervisors for interns .3 Black* 1 investigated several aspects in the provision for laboratory experiences for undergraduates in secondary education in six institutions in Florida that prepare teachers. She surveyed the present practices in the use of laboratory experiences in the teacher education institutions in Florida which prepare the greatest number of teachers. These institutions were: two state universities, the University of Florida, and Florida State University} two private church-supported institutions, the John B. Stetson University, and Florida Southern College; and two private institutions not church-supported, the University of Miami and the University of Tampa. 1 0P« clt .. p. 179. 2 Qp. dt. , p. 180. 3 pp. cit .. p. 181. ^Marian W. Black, "Laboratory Experiences for Undergraduates in Secondary Education in Selected Teacher Education Institutions" (unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, New York University, 1952), 175 pp.

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Data for this study were secured from an examination of printed materials, such as catalogs, from interviews with administrators, teachers and instructors, and from questionnaires. Practices were described and an evaluation of them was made with reference to the criteria developed by the American Association of Teachers Colleges, The conclusions drawn from this study were along the following lines: 1, There is a need for facilities for laboratory experiences, in both the school and the community, 2, Students at times arrange their own out-of -school experiences and they may be unrelated to specific course work, 3, There is considerable concern with the development of the student as teacher-to-be, but not with his development as a citizen, D. Trends and Issues in Teacher Education Review and analyses of research in teacher education have done much in pointing up problems, in indicating neglected research areas, and in reflecting current trends. Barr and Singer 1 surveyed evaluative studies of teacher education for the eleven year period, 19l0-f>l, They report that most of the studies related to professional education of teachers or to areas of specialization. Few studies of the general education of teachers were found. Two criticisms of the studies as a group were indicated i 2 1, Many of the studies were of the survey type which supply information at a certain level but leave much to be done in the way of 1 A. S. Barr and A. Singer, "Evaluative Studies of Teacher Education," Journal of Teacher Education . IV (March, 19$3), 6£-?2. g 0p. cit .. p. 6?,

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systematic evaluation. 2. The findings in the various areas are somenhat in conflict with one another. Basing his analysis on the interpretation of a very large body of research studies in teacher education, Peik^ indicates means of improving the education of teachers. If one were to act on the best clues from carefully interpreted research of the last fifteen years to date, he would upgrade the selection of teachers on scholarship and personality as fast as possible; give them an improved, broad, functional, and somewhat professionalized general education; specialize them for teaching by broad fields rather than by subjects; increase the amount of well-supervised practice teaching or add a year of supervised internship; and lengthen the period of training. He would be much concerned about their attitudes, their social and cultural activities. 2 Anderson and Smith, 3 after reviewing the literature on both preservice and inservice education over the three year period 1952-55, concluded that much of the material published was of a non-research character, involving opinion, speculation, and reports of practices. "Of considerable significance and basic to the whole area, have been the repeated failures of investigators to identify various factors of preservice education which are intimately related to inservice success. "k Archer reviewed 26 research studies concerned with recruitment, selection, and guidance. From an analysis of these studies, he concluded* "Evidence seems to support the view that selection for teacher Lesley E. Peik, "The Preservice Preparation of Teachers,* Review of Educational Research. XIII (June, 1?1|3), 228-I<0. 2 0p. cit ., pp. 23i*-35. %enneth E. Anderson and Herbert A. Smith, "Preservice and Inservice Education of Elementary and Secondary Teachers," Review of Educational Research. XXV (June, 1955), 213-26. — — ^P. cit .. p. 213.

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1*6 education should continue beyond the time of entrance to college and not be concluded until after a short period of teaching in the schools. "^ Ellas sen and Martin 2 reviewed the research in selection for a four-year period and found a trend toward the use of a combination of techniques. "What seems to the reviewers to be the most significant trend in pre— training selection of teachers is the realization that neither objective techniques nor subjective techniques are adequate. We need a wholesome combination of both," 3 Definition of teacher characteristics and competencies Is basic to the implementation of personnel services. After an exhaustive resume of research in teacher personnel, Fulkersonb concluded: "Research deal* ing with teacher characteristics, competencies, and effectiveness over the last several years has suggested that teaching ability is probably a complex of abilities rather than a unitary trait or behavior pattern. "5 Fulkerson warns, however, that . • many of the studies are concerned with local problems somewhat limited in scope which may or may not have value for more general application. "6 That guidance programs must be geared to supply and demand has been repeatedly emphasized. Typical of conclusions derived from studies ^Clifford P. Archer, "Recruitment, Institutional Selection and Guidance of Teachers," Review of Educational Research. XVI (June, 19 1*6). 209-16. 2 Fueben H. ELiaasen and Robert L. Martin, "Pre -Training Selection of Teachers During 19lj0-li3," Journal of Educational Re search. XXXVIII (May, 1915), 666-77. 3pp. dt .. p. 669. ^Glen FulkBrson, "A Resume of Current Teacher Personnel Research," Journal of Educational Research. XL VII (May, 195U), 229-81. £qp. cit .. p. 678. 6 Ibld .

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hi in this area is that advanced by LovingerA "The imbalance between elementary and secondary teachers has placed upon teacher education another responsibility -which cannot be overlooked! namely, that of gearing recruitment and guidance programs to supply and demand." 2 Anderson, 3 in preparation for a survey of teacher education in the state of Oregon, identified trends in teacher education in the United States, He lists these under the two major headings of administrative trends and curriculum trends . The following are listed as administrative trends: 1* Toward the preparation of elementary and secondary school teachers in the same institutions. 2. Toward offering liberal arts and master's degree programs in institutions formerly limited to undergraduate teacher education programs. 3. Toward mere active recruitment of prospective teachers. U. Toward greater democratic cooperation between administrators and staff members in teacher education. The following are listed as curriculum trends t 1. Toward more effective general education for prospective teachers. 2. Toward increase in number and length of student leadership contacts with public schools and with youth and adults. 3* Toward more concern for guidance of students. barren C. Lovinger, "Teacher Education in the United States," Education. IZXI, So. 3 (November, 1$50), 170-71*. 2 0p. cit .. p. 173. ^Earl W. Anderson, A Survey of Some Phases of Teacher Education in the Oregon State System of Higher Education. Prepared for and published by the Oregon State Board of Higher Education, Eugene, Oregon (1953), 116 pp.

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1*8 lu Toward more emphasis upon factors influencing human developmt« 5. Toward organizing professional education offerings in larger and more comprehensive units rather than in small segmented courses* 6. Toward the inclusion of more elements common to the program of preparation of elementary and secondary school teachers in the sane institution* 7* Toward expansion of in-service aid to teachers. 1 The identification and statement of basic problems and issues in the preservice education of teachers has received considerable attention. Maaske 2 cites ten problems for solution in teacher education! 1. The need for visualising more clearly the desirable end product. 2. The problem of the recruitment, selection, and retention process. — 3. Closer cooperation between teacher-preparing officers and teaching-employing officer b. h* Redirecting the teacher education curriculum, 5. Making general education more functional in educating teachers. 6. Vitaliaation of laboratory experiences and the internship period. 7. The length of the preservice preparation period. 8. Placement, follow-up, and inservice education. 9. Research and experimentation in teacher education. *Cp. clt ., pp. 9-15. 2 Roben J. Maaske, "Some Basic Problems for Solution in Teacher Education," Education . LXX (November, 19U9), Ih2-4j6. *

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10, Continuous evaluation of teacher-education programs, Goodlad 1 has pointed out basic issues that underlie many of the problems in educating elementary school teachers. These are stated as follows: 1« The purpose of the professional sequence — understanding of foundation disciplines or induction into the profession? 2 , The purpose of laboratory experiences prior to student teaching—to clarify fundamental concepts or to constitute the focal point of the curriculum from which the fundamental concepts emerge? 3, In directed student teaching — what degree of control should be exercised by the college over the placement position? lu What should be the program in special fields for prospective teachers in elementary schools? 5. Where shall the authority and responsibility for elementaryschool teacher education rest? Is it a university wide reaponsibility? Or does it rest with the college or school of education? Trends relative to student teaching are rather well-defined. In 1920, Mead 2 reported that the prevalent practice was for persons to enter the teaching profession without having had supervised student teaching* In a studs'of practices in student teaching during the twenty year period 1532-52, Rucker^ noted the following significant trends in practices | 1. Clock hour requirements for student teaching doubled over Ijohn I. Goodlad, "Some Frontier Issues in Educating Elementary School Teachers," Elementary School Journal. LIV (November, 1953) > 139-UU* 2 A. E. Head, "The Ethics of Student Teaching," Educational Administration and Supervision, VI (October, 1920), 393-&7I Ray Ruclser, "Trends in Student Teaching, 1932-1952," Journal of Teacher Fxiucation, IV (December, 1953), 261-63 •

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So the twenty year period. 2. Mare academic credit was awarded for the student teaching experience. An ararage of two semester hours acre was noted. 3. There was a trend toward requiring student teaching experiences on more than one grade level. U« There wis a decline in the use of laboratory schools for student teaching* Tyler,-*in reporting over -all trends in the field of teacher education during the ten year period ending in 19 13, noted three emphases which gave promise of raising the level of the entire profession! (1) in personnel services; (2) in educational programs; and (3) in the organization of the educational programs. Lafferty 2 cites as a basic need in teacher education the formulation and clarification of objectives. This limited amount of research particularly in the case of teacher-education objectives, is an admission that teacher-training institutions are uncertain of themselves and of their function or functions. Until definite lines are drawn delimiting the scope of teacher education institutions, both teacher in training and society stand to suffer. Something besides precedence and common practice is needed to give substance to the program of educating teachers .3 E, Summary Prom the foregoing survey of the literature in the preservice education of elenentary-school teachers, certain common elements are evident. Trends are indicated by action, by the numerous descriptions •'•Ralph Tyler, "Trends in the Preparation of Teachers," The School Review. LI (April, 19li3), 207-12. 2 H. M. Lafferty, "Determining Objectives in Teacher Education," Educational Administration and Supervision. XX7 (January, 1939), 1-17. ^Op. cit .. p. 3.

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51 of programs, surveys of practices, reports of program change and revision. : .j ,^.is are the projiMftAMi pNfttiMM i&l JfiMbM IMNHi ! Imifli education. They are derived from the findings of surveys, the implications of research, and the thinking of leaders in the field. The following trends ware evident | 1. Toward the lengthening of the period of preservice training of elementary school teachers. 2. Toward the integration of general and professional education. 3. Toward the extension and enrichment of pre-internship laboratory experiences. lu Toward uniformity in the programs of preservice preparation of elementary-school teachers. 5. Toward greater selectivity in admission and retention policies. 6. Toward greater faculty participation in guidance. 7* Toward the organization of offerings in professional education in comprehensive units rather than in small, segmented courses. The following problems and problem areas ware found to be common concerns: 1. The role of laboratory experiences in the preparation of elementary school teachers. 2. The formulation and clarification of objectives and goals in the over-all program of preparation of elementary school teachers. 3. The amount, kind, and extent of general education for elementary school teachers. U. The prediction of teaching success and its implications for program change.

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5. The nature and amount of experimental research in teacher education, 6. The nature of, and the provision for, follow-up services for graduates. 7. The role of the college in effecting a balance between teacher supply and demand. 8. Provision for the continuous evaluation of total in teacher education*

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CHAPTER IU PROCEDURES USED IN COLLECTING AND ANALYZING THE DATA AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE INSTITUTIONS INCLUDED IN THE STUDI Procedures Used in Collecting the Data In the formative stages of the present study, members of the State Department of Education and of the Teacher Education Advisory Council were contacted. It was felt that these organizations would be interested in the present study and could be of assistance in providing background as well as contributory data for the research. The Director of the Division of Teacher Education,. Certification, and Accreditation of the State Department of Education expressed interest in the study, agreed to make his files available for investigation, and assured his assistance in any other ways possible. The Executive Committee of the Teacher Education Advisory Council endorsed the study, expressed interest in its findings, and assured their cooperation. Initial investigation was made by examining the files in the Division of Teacher Education, Certification, and Accreditation in the State Department of Education. This examination, together with Informal interviews with key personnel in the State Department, provided a rich background for understanding the present status of teacher education in the state. Specific data were obtained relative to the courses listed by personnel of institutions studied when they applied for state approval of their programs in the preparation of elementary school teachers. These

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51* data ware recorded and were later re checked in the interviews held at each institution. The remainder of the data for this study were obtained through the use of three principal procedures: examination of documents) interviews with key personnel j and the administration of a questionnaire. Each of these procedures will be described in detail* The examination of documents .— During visits to the campuses of each of the institutions studied, the writer gathered all printed and mimeographed materials that could be obtained relative to the programs in elementary education. These included: (1) current catalogs and bulletins j (2) explanatory or instructional materials issued to students in elementary education] (3) standard forms used in the various phases of the programs under investigation; (U) reprints of articles that had been published in educational journals) (5) reports of evaluations that included descriptions of programs. Information pertinent to the aspects included in the study were tabulated from these sources. These data were checked for internal consistency and were also checked against information obtained in the interviews. Whenever information was incomplete or somewhat contradictory, clarification and verification were obtained through follow-up interviews. Interviews with key personnel . —The persons interviewed are listed by institution in Appendix C. Those persons were selected whose status positions clearly indicated that they had major responsibility for programs in elementary education or who were recommended by administrators as being well qualified to provide the information desired. In the latter instance, the administrator making the recommendation was either the president of the institution or the dean responsible for the

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55 administration of programs in education. The interviews were conducted on an informal basis. The interviewer kept before him an outline of the phases of the program under study, and the interviewee's voluntary reactions were guided into these phases. Thus, the interview was semi* structural but encouraged free responses. Copious notes were taken, and were later written up following an outline that had been predetermined. For consistency, the write-up of the interview was checked against all other materials gathered. A follow-up interview was arranged for further clarification and for additional information that had inadvertently been missed during the first interview. The procedures used in Interviewing varied slightly from institution to institution. These variations were in the length of time spent in interviewing, the number of persons interviewed, and the types of positions held by the persons interviewed. Changes in procedures were necessitated by the following factors : (1) the institutions varied in size; (2) the number of persons involved in the preparation of teachers was not constant j (3) there were varying degrees of complexity in the programs j (It) there were variations in the type and complexity of original data that necessitated a greater number of visits to some institutions. The questionnaire .— It was the original intent to obtain data relative to problems in the preparation of elementary school teachers as seen by the staff members involved in the implementation of such programs. These data were to have been obtained through interviews. This procedure was attempted, but the responses so obtained regarding problems and problem areas were not always consonant with the purposes of the study. Interviewees" responses were duly recorded, but their

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56 analysis revealed such variance that the need for additional information was evident. In order to provide a more thorough and meaningful source of data for the consideration of problems in the pre -service preparation of elementary school teachers, a questionnaire was designed. This questionnaire was structured to elicit responses relative to the problems that lay within the scope of the study* Respondents were asked to describe their most pressing current problem in each of the major areas being investigated. To provide further structure, those specific aspects being investigated in the study were listed under the major area headings as being potential problem areas. These problem areas were as follows: (1) Course requirements for students in elementary education; (2) Screening and selection of students; (3) Counseling of students; (U) Direct experiences with children; (5) Program evaluation; and (6) Combination programs. Space was provided for the addition of other aspects of the teacher education program. Respondents were asked to rank each of the aspects of their program under a major heading in the order in which they were presenting problems. The respondents were then asked to describe only those problems that were considered most pressing. A final ranking of the six general areas of the investigation in the order of concern was requested. The questionnaire was mailed or delivered to the person in each institution who was responsible for the administration of the program in elementary education. A letter was attached to each questionnaire, requesting that the questionnaire be referred to that staff msmber who could best reflect the thinking of their group. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. The writer made from one to four visits to each of the institu-

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$7 tions studied. In those cases where only one visit was aade, two full days were spent on the campuses. In those cases where a number of visits were made, the minimum length of time spent was five hours. These visits served the following purposes t (1) to observe the college in operation} (2) to inspect, in a gross way, the physical plant relative to teacher education; (3) to interview key personnel in the education programs) (U) to collect current catalogs, bulletins, and any other printed or mimeographed materials that related in any way to those phases of programs in teacher education that were being investigated. In nine of the eleven institutions, the writer made the campus visits alone. Appointments were made, interviews were conducted, data were assembled. This procedure presented the difficulty of fitting many busy schedules together. As many as four visits were necessary in some oases before all Icey persons were contacted and all pertinent data collected and confirmed. In two of the institutions, campus visits were made with evaluating committees from the State Department of Education. With the permission and cooperation of both the evaluating committee and the personnel of the institutions being evaluated, it was possible for the writer to gather the necessary data while serving as a member of the committees. Interviews were held, documents examined, and discrepancies re-checked during the time when the evaluating committee* were functioning. The data obtained through interviews and through the analysis of the documents were combined to form the basis far comprehensive descriptions of each institution's program. These descriptions, in turn, became the source of data for the presentation and analysis in Chapter IV. Follow-up procedures assured the writer that a valid picture of

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the aspects of the preparation of elementary school teachers was obtained. Since some changes in programs are currently being made, the status presentation obtains only for the school year 1955-56. Procedures Used in Analyzing the Data The data assembled are presented and analyzed in Chapter IV. Two techniques were utilized in this presentation. These were tabulation and description. In most cases both techniques were tried out and final decisions on the method to be employed made in the light of the clarity of presentation. In some cases the data seemed to lend themselves to one method more readily than the other, and this choice was easily made. In other cases it seemed that either method of presentation would have been equally clear. With the exception of the data relative to the course requirements established by the institutions in meeting state certification > standards in the preparation of teachers, no criteria or norms were predetermined for comparison to the practices and aspects revealed. Norms of behavior in the aspects studied may be implicit in the presentation of data, but they are not to be interpreted as criteria of good practice. Nor are the 0010*86 requirements as established by the state certification standards to be so construed. They were used in this study in the presentation and analysis of the data because | (1) their inclusion simplified the presentation by providing usable categories for the analysis of courses ; and (2) all of the institutions studied have designed programs that meet the minimum requirements they set forth. Common features and diversities in the aspects investigated

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are highlighted in both the tabular and descriptive presentations. Summary statements were presented vihere their inclusion gave needed clarification. The Institutions Studied There are eleven institutions of higher learning in the state of Florida with four-year programs in teacher preparation. All of them grant Bachelor's degrees; all are accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools j all have programs in teacher education that have been approved by the State Department of Education, All but one are co-educational. All prepare teachers for both the elementary and the secondary schools. Three of the institutions are state-supported universities, two being White, one Negro. Fifty-five per cent of the total student enrollment of the eleven institutions studied are enrolled in these three state universities. Of the remaining eight privately controlled institutions, five are church affiliated. Two of the church affiliated group are Negro colleges. With the exception of the University of Miami, whose total enrollment exceeds 10,000 students, all of the private institutions are relatively small, enrolling less than 2,000 students each. The range of the enrollment in these schools is from 291 to 1856 students. The total enrollment of all eleven institutions studied is ii0,U67 1 (1955). In 1956, as reported by Haul, 2 a total of 1693 students were ^Raymond Walter, "Statistics of Attendance in American Universities and Colleges, 1955," School and Society , Vol. 82, Ho. 207U (December, 1955). 2 NEA Research Division, "The 1956 Teacher Supply and Demand Report," The Journal of Teacher Education. V ol. VII, No. 1 (March, 1956), 33-79. (This report was under the supervision of Ray C. Maul, Assistant Director of the Research Division of the National Education Association.)

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60 completing certification requirements to teach. Of this total, 909 -ware In secondary, 78li were in elementary. Florida State University Florida State University is located in Tallahassee, the capital city of Florida. Its beginnings can be traced to 1851, in which year the legislature passed an act establishing two seminaries of higher learning in Tallahassee. The Florida Institute, located on the present site of the Florida State University, was offered as a gift to the state. In its subsequent history, the institution was known as the West Florida Seminary, the Florida University, Florida State College, the Florida State College for Women, and finally, Florida State University. The Buckman Act of 1905 abolished the existing six small institutions and provided for the establishment of two new institutions, one of which was the Florida State College for Women. This institution operated as a college for women until 19U7, when, by an act of the Legislature, the University system of Florida was redefined. The institution was then renamed Florida State University, and it was once more made co*educational. Florida State University »s holdings in land area total 295 acres. The total value of buildings, grounds, and equipment is $25, 000,000. Florida State University ranks third among the institutions of higher learning in the state in total enrollment. Its 195U-55 enrollment was 6,897 students. The total teaching staff for the same period was 57 U, the education staff 27. The 195 U summer session enrolled 3375 students. For the 195k«55 school year the Extension Division enrolled

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ft 1810 students in off-campus courses, 239 students in correspondence courses. Work in education is administered by the School of Education, which has the responsibility for the professional education of teachers, the School of Education does not have complete autonomy In the administration of programs that prepare teachers. Of the twenty-one curricula for teachers listed in the 1956 Bulletin, fourteen were administered wholly by the School of Education and seven were administered wholly or in part by other Schools and Departments, Both the Bachelor of Science and the Bachelor of Arts degrees are offered by the School of Education. To qualify for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the student must meet the requirements in one foreign language and take certain additional hours in humanities. Of those students graduating during 195>K, the great majority elected the Bachelor of Science degree. For either degree, a total of 12h semester hours is required for graduation. The Graduate School is administered by a Graduate Dean. The Master's, Advanced Master's, Ph. D. and Ed, D. degrees are offered. A campus Demonstration School is maintained, extending frc» kindergarten through high school in its offerings. Its primary function in relation to the curricula in undergraduate teacher education is to provide facilities for observation and participation for students enrolled in professional courses, Florida State University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.

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62 The University of Florida Hie University of Florida is located in Gainesville, a city with a population of about U0,000. It is a combined state university and land-grant college. Ihe University of Florida's holdings in land area total 1800 acres. The total value of its buildings, grounds, and equipment is #£8,713#l6U. While its beginnings may be traced to l8h$, its first college — the College of Arts and Sciences— did not open until 1855. In 1905, the Florida Legislature, by passing the Buckman Act, abolished the existing six state institutions and provided for the establishment of two new institutions, one of which was the University of Florida. It was established for men and was operated as an institution for men until 19U7. In that year it was made coeducational. Ihe University of Florida ranks first in the state in total enrollment. Its 195U-55 enrollment was 10,852. The total teaching staff for the same period numbered 965, the education staff 66. The 19& summer session enrolled 3867 students. The Extension Division of the University of Florida, in the 19&-55 school year, enrolled 1957 students in off-campus courses and 2k3k students in correspondence courses. The governing board of the University of Florida, as well as of Florida State University and of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, is the State Board of Control, comprised of seven members appointed by the Governor for four-year terms. One member is chosen from each congressional district and one from the state at large. Appointees must have been residents of the state for at least ten years. Jn its present organization, all of the work of the freshman and sophomore years is administered by the University College. Its program includes basic comprehensive courses in major areas of knowledge and

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63 courses prerequisite to advanced work in the ten colleges and three schools which comprise the Upper Division. Upon completion of the Lower Division work In the University College, the student receives the Certificate of Associate of Arts. Students In education register in the College of Education, where their programs are administered by the College through different departments. The degrees Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts are offered by the College of Education. Students whose first area of specialization is in science, mathematics, business education, agricultural education, or industrial arts are granted the Bachelor of Science degree) other curricula lead to the Bachelor of Arts In Education degree. For either degree, the student is required to complete 12U semester hours credit with a general average of "C" and an average of "C" in his field of specialisation. The Graduate School is administered by a Graduate Dean, the Graduate Council, and the Graduate Faculty, In Education, the nonthesis degrees of Master of Education, Master of Physical Education and Health, and Specialist in Education, and the thesis degrees of Master of Arts in Education and Doctor of Education are offered. The College of Education includes the P. K. Tonga Laboratory School, located on the campus. The program of the school extends from the kindergarten through the twelfth grade. Its primary function in relation to the curricula in undergraduate teacher education at the University of Florida is to provide facilities for observation and participation.

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Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University is located in Tallahassee, Florida. It is a state university for Negroes, Its origin dates to 1887* vben, by constitutional provision and legislative action, the Colored Normal School was founded. In 190$ the direct management of the institution was transferred from the State Board of Education to the State Board of Control. This move gave the School recognition as an institution of higher learning. 2h 1909 the name of the institution was changed to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, and in 1913 the first four-year degree was conferred. In 19U5 the first graduate courses were offered, and in 1953 > by Act of the Florida Legislature, the institution became a state university. Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University's holdings in land area total 381 acres. The total value of buildings, grounds, and equipment is §8,293,Uo6» Florida A. and M. ranks fourth among the institutions of higher learning in the state in total enrollment. Its 195U-55 enrollment was 26U9. The total teaching staff for the same period numbered 195, the education staff 70. The 195& summer session enrolled 2211 students. The Extension Division, in the school year 195U-55, enrolled 8U5 students in off-campus courses. Programs in the School of Education are administered through three departments— Elementary Education, Secondary Education, and Health and Physical Education. 3h addition to the curricula that fall3 within the scope of these departments, special courses are offered in AudioVisual Instruction, Driver and Safety Education, Adult Education, and the Education of Exceptional Children,

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The degree of Bachelor of Sciences is offered by the School of Education In the fields of concentration as indicated by the departments which comprise the School of Education. The student is required to complete 120 semester hours credit to qualify for the degree and must maintain a general average of "C, " as well as an average of W C Plus," or a 2.5 honor point average, in his field of specialization* The Graduate School is administered by a Graduate Dean, 2h Education, the degree of Master of Education is offered. There are no programs leading to the doctorate. A campus school, the Lucy Moten Demonstration School, is maintained. It is used by students in education for observation and participation. • Florida Southern College Florida Southern College is located in Lakeland, Florida, a city of about 1*0,000 population. It originated in 1885 in Leesburg as The Florida Conference College, operated by the Florida Methodist Conference. The college remained in Leesburg until 1902, when it was opened in Sutherland, now Palm Harbor, on the Gulf coast, as The Florida Seminary. In 1906 the name of the school was changed to Southern College. During subsequent years, dramatic events in the life of the college, including its partial destruction by two fires and two storms, caused it to move on two occasions— from Sutherland to Clearwater Beach, and later to Lakeland. In 1921 Lakeland was chosen as the permanent site of Southern College. A program of expansion was launched in 1925, but because of the depression it was delayed for ten years. In 1935 an extensive

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building program was begun, and the name of the institution was changed to Florida Southern College, The present campus encompasses 87 acres of land. The total value of its buildings, grounds, and equipment is $7,000,000. Expansion in enrollment and facilities is continuing. Of the privately controlled institutions in Florida, Florida Southern College is second only to the University of Miami in total enrollment . Its 195U-55 enrollment totaled 1856. The total teaching staff for the same period numbered 13 lu The 19$k summer session enrolled 600 students. Work in education is not administered by any specified department or division of the college. Counselors are designated from the Education staff according to the area in which the student wishes to be certified to teach. Twelve staff members devote their full time to work in Education. Both the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science degrees in Education are offered. There is no graduate program. The governing board of Florida Southern College is a board of trustees, comprised of 22 members elected by the Florida Methodist Conference. Rollins College Rollins College is located in Winter Park, Florida. A privately controlled, coeducational college of liberal arts and conservatory of music, it is the oldest institution in Florida offering work of collegiate grade. Rollins was founded in 1885 under the auspices of the Congregational Church, Although now undenominational, threefourths of the membership of the governing board of Rollins Collegs must be graduates of Rollins, This governing board is a self -perpetuating board of trustees, comprised of from 19 to 21* members.

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67 The campus encompasses 50 acres of land, and the total value of buildings, grounds, and equipment is $3,090,000. The total enrollment during 19£i*-£f> was 828 students; the total teaching staff for the same period was 69. Offerings are limited to the undergraduate level. No summer sessions are conducted. Teacher education is a relatively minor function at Rollins College. Only one staff member, the Director of Teacher Education, devotes full time to mark in this area. This person teaches all the courses in education, counsels students who major in education, and coordinates the internship program. Rollins College offers a major in elementary education for students preparing to teach in the elementary school. Those preparing to teach in the secondary school must major in a subject-matter field and select courses in education as a part of their elective work. The program for the preparation of elementary school teachers is relatively new at Rollins, having been initiated in 1951. The degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Music are offered. Students majoring in elementary education are awarded the Bachelor of Science degree. John B. Stetson University The Main Campus of Stetson University is located in DeLand, a city with a population of about 9,000. Its College of Law is located in St. Petersburg. Stetson University is a privately controlled, coeducational university, related to the Baptist Church. Its governing body is a self -perpetuating board of trustees of 2h members. Threefourths of the membership of this board must be members of the Baptist Church.

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Stetson Universitywas founded in 1883 and became a college bearing the name of DeLand Academy in 1885. In 1889 the name of the institution was changed to John B. Stetson University in honor of the well-known hat manufacturer. The present campus encompasses U3 acres of land, and the total value of its buildings, grounds, and equipment is $3,500,000, The University is comprised of four colleges. The oldest of these is the College of Liberal Arts. The College of Law, organized in 1900, was Florida's first law school. The School of Music became a college of the University in 1936, and in 19l0 the School of Business was organized. The total enrollment in the University for 195U-05 was 1,617, and the total teaching staff for the same period was 112, A summer session is conducted, in 195>U enrolling Ui2 students. Work in education is administered by the Division of Education in the College of Liberal Arts. Included in this Division are Teacher Education, Psychology, Health and Physical Education, Internship, and Field Services, Seven staff members devote full time to work in this Division, Students preparing to teach receive the Bachelor of Arts or the Bachelor of Science degree in the College of Liberal Arts. The graduate degrees of Master of Arts in Education and the Master of Science in Education are also offered in the College of Liberal Arts. These programs are administered by the Division of Graduate Studies, a division of the College of Liberal Arts. The University of Miami The University of Miami is located in Coral Gables, Florida.

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69 It is a private, non-sectarian, co -educational institution* Chartered by the State of Florida in 1925, the University of Miami enrolled its first students in the fall of 1926. Founded as a private institution, it has received most of its revenue from gifts and tuition. In addition, the City of Coral Gables and Dade County make annual gifts to its support. The University of Miami has grown rapidly. Originally housed in a boom-time hotel in Coral Cables, its Main Campus, since 19 U6, has been in the southern part of Coral Gables, on a 260-acre tract. Most of the buildings are on the Main Campus, and most of the activities of the University are conducted aere. However, in addition to the Main Campus and the original site of the University, now known as the North Campus, the University has acquired a tract of 2,01+8 acres about thirteen miles south of the Main Campus. Once a naval air station, it is now used as a research center. The buildings, grounds, and equipment of the University are valued at $17,9U6,8oU« The University of Miami is second only to the University of Florida in total enrollment. Its 195U-55 enrollment totaled 10,778. The total teaching staff for the same period numbered 569. Two summer sessions are offered. In 195U the first session enrolled 2539 students, the second session, 1185 students. The enrollment in the evening divisions in 195U-55 totaled 31*32 students. Work in education is administered by the School of Education, which has the major responsibility for the professional education of teachers. The School of Education does not have complete autonomy in the administration of programs that prepare teachers. Students may enroll in other schools or colleges in the University and qualify for teaching by meeting state certification requirements. In such cases,

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70 the School of Education functions as a service department, keeping a pre-teaching file on the student and advising him so that he will be qualified to meet the state certification requirements. The Bachelor of Education degree is offered through the School of Education. The Bachelor of Arts degree is offered through the College of Arts and Sciences. Students graduating with this degree must enroll in the College of Arts and Sciences, major in a subject-matter field, and carry a minor in education. This minor involved carrying sufficient work in education to qualify for state certification to teach. The Graduate School is administered by a Graduate Bean. In the field of education, the Master of Arts in Education and the Master of Education degrees are offered. A doctorate in education is not offered at the present time, but plans are under way to provide for a doctoral program in the very near future. Two elementary schools serve the School of Education at the University of Miami. The Merrick Demonstration School, a public elementary school in Coral Gables, is operated jointly by the Dade County Public Schools and the School of Education. Students in elementary education take pre -internship work in this school. The Henry S. West Laboratory School, located on the Main Campus, is also operated jointly by the Dade County Public Schools and the School of Education. It also is designated as a public school. Its function is to provide facilities for laboratory try-out and experimentation on problems of concern to both the University and the Dade County schools. The governing board of the University of Miami is a self -perpetuating board of trustees made up of 26 active members selected by the board for three-year terms. One honorary member is named, and

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the university president is also an ox-officio member. University of Tampa The University of Tampa, founded in 1931, is a privately con* trolled, non-sectarian co-educational college of liberal arts located in the city of Tampa, Florida. Since 1933 it has occupied the building formerly known as the Tampa Bay Hotel. This property is occupied under a 99-year lease from the City of Tampa at $1.00 per year. The campus encompasses 26 acres of land, and the total value of grounds and equipment is $\H$ 9 9hh, The governing board of the University is a selfperpetuating board of trustees comprised of 2$ members. Five members are elected each year for five-year terms. In size of student body, the University ranks fourth among the private institutions of higher learning in the state. In 195U-55 the total enrollment was 1353 students. A summer session is conducted, the enrollment for the summer of 195k being £1|2. Responsibility for all academic programs at the University of Tampa is vested in the Dean of Administration. Fields of study are delegated to the four divisions of the University j Humanities, Pure and Natural Sciences, Social Studies, and Education. In the Division of Education, majors are offered in elementary education, physical education, and psychology. Students seeking certification in secondary education major in the appropriate field in one of the other divisions. The Division of Education has three full-time staff members. There are, in addition, several part-time instructors in education, their number varying from three to six. The University offers curricula leading to both the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science degrees. All who meet state certi-

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72 fication requirements to teach receive the Bachelor of Science degree. Ho graduate work is offered, Barry Collega Barry College, located in Miami Shores, Florida, is a private, liberal arts college for women. Controlled by the Roman Catholic Church and conducted by the Sisters of St. Dominic of Adrian, Michigan, it is Florida's only Catholic college for women. The governing board of Barry College is a board of control comprised of five elected members. Its campus encompasses 85 acres of land, and the total value of the buildings, grounds, end equipment is $2,500,000. It was opened in 19l0 as a college of liberal arts, and in 1953 it inaugurated a School of Nursing with a program of studies leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing. In 195 h a Graduate School was established with the Master of Arts and the Master of Science degrees in Education and English being offered. Next to the smallest institution in number of students, Barry College had a total enrollment in 195U-55 of 5!i0. Sumner sessions are held, the enrollment for the summer of 1955 being 1*68. Barry College offers both the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science degrees. The Bachelor of Science degree is awarded students whose major field of study is education. A student taking a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in education must have three academic minors, one of which should be science or mathematics. The Graduate School, in its offerings leading to the Master of Arts in Education or the Master of Science in Education, provides for sequences of courses that lead to state certification in Elementary and Secondary Administration and Supervision, and Guidance and Counseling. Education is considered ae a major field of study and hence is

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73 not administered through a division or department of education. Administrative functions relative to the student's work in education are performed by the student's major professor. Bethune-Cookman College Bethune-Cookman College is a co -educational institution located In Baytona Beach. Its campus includes 32 acres of land, and its buildings, grounds, and equipment are valued at $1,398, 1*72. Although it is generally referred to as a Negro college, it is in policy interracial, both faculty and students being selected without consideration of race. The College is controlled by the Methodist Church through the governing board of the College, a Board of Trustees, comprised of UU member b. The majority of its members must be members of the Methodist Church, and new members are nominated by the Board of Education of the Methodist Church. The present college traces its beginnings to the merger of Cookman Institute, Jacksonville, Florida, and the Day torn Normal and Industrial Institute for Girls, Daytona Beach, Florida. Cookman Institute was a Methodist school, founded in 1872, the first institution in Florida for the higher education of Negroes. Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Girls was founded in 190lu These two institutions were combined in 1923 to form the co-educational school known as the Day to na -Cookman Collegiate Institute, a name later changed to BethuneCookman College. In I9I4I a four-year curriculum in teacher education was offered. In I9h3 the first graduates received the Bachelor of Science degree in Elementary Education. The enrollment for the 195U-55 school year was 806. For the summer session of 195U, 355 students were enrolled. The total teaching staff for this period numbered U3, the

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7U education staff being 5 of this number. In its present organization, the curricular offerings are made through ten major departments. These departments are grouped into four Divisions of Instruction— Humanities, Science, Social Science, and Education. For the first tuo years the student's work is primarily general education. At the end of the sophomore year he must select a major field from one of these ten departments. If the student elects secondary education, he becomes an advisee in the division that includes his subjectmatter major field of study. Only if the major field of study is elementary education does the Division of Education have autonomy. The Bachelor of Science in Education degree is conferred when the student's major field of study is elementary education. With few exceptions, Bethune-Cookman graduates are certified to teach in some subject area. The majority of the graduates major in elementary education and receive the Bachelor of Science degree in Elementary Education. No graduate degrees are conferred. • Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College is located on the western outskirts of the city of St, Augustine. The campus include* a tract of land that encompasses 885 acres. The total value of buildings, grounds, and equipment is $819,05?. it is a privately controlled, co-educational college of liberal arts and teacher training for Negroes. The governing board of the institution is a self -perpetuating board of trustees of 27 members. Florida N. and I., as it is popularly known, traces its beginning to the founding of the KLorida Baptist College in the Bethel Baptist Church in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1892. In 1918 the institution

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7* was moved to its present site. In 1931 it was accredited tgr the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools as a junior college, A four-yes r program was later added, the first students completing it being graduated in 19\£, It is now the smallest of toe Florida institutions having four -year programs leading to the Bachelors degree. Its 195h-f>$ enrollment totaled 291 students. The enrollment for the summer session of 19$h was 186. Work in education is administered by a Director of Teacher Education. However, since teacher education is a major function of the institution, all staff members are involved directly in the teacher education program. Of the 12 members of the teaching staff, six devote full time to work in education* The Bachelor of Science degree is offered in elementary education, physical education, and religious education. Certificates in vocational training are awarded those completing training in industrial courses. The areas covered by such certificates are auto mechanics, carpentry, printing, electricity, masonry, and shoe repair. t one-room, six-grade, rural elementary demonstration school is maintained on campus. This school is used for observation and for practice teaching. Summary This chapter has explained the procedures used in collecting and analyzing the data for this study. It has also presented pertinent background information about each of the institutions included in the study. Chapter IV will be devoted to a presentation and analysis of the data collected.

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CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The purpose of this chapter is to present an analysis of the data gathered regarding the pre-eervice preparation of elementary school teachers in the eleven institutions studied in the state of Florida. In this presentation, the order presented in the Scope of the Study will be followed. Extent of Offerings It was the original intent of the writer to include in the data some reflection of the extent of the offerings of the various institutions that were open to those students whose preparation qualified them to be certified to teach in the elementary school in the state of Florida. This "extent" was to have been given operational definition by showing the exact number of students in each institution whose preparation qualified them for certification to teach in the elementary schools of Florida, and in addition to show the configuration of other preparations achieved by these same students. Such data was to have covered the five-year period prior to the time the investigation was made. This would have provided reliable data regarding the total potential supply of elementary teachers prepared in Florida institutions as well as providing a basis for determining trends in their preparation relative to the aspect of combination programs. •76-

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77 Complete and exact data for this aspect of the study were not obtainable. Data intimately related to this aspect is presented under "Combination Programs," but in this instance estimates offered by the personnel interviewed were found to be satisfactory. The exact data needed to satisfy the writer's requirements for considering the aspect "Extent of Offerings" could not be obtained for the following reasons t 1, Graduates from the Institutions studied are not required to obtain certification in the state of Florida, This condition made examl nation of certification records fruitless in the light of the objective of complete data, 2, Records kept at the individual institutions did not lend themselves to the derivation of the desired data. In some cases reliable estimates were available, but in no case was it possible to obtain the complete data for the five-year period* For these reasons, no attempt has been made in presenting data relative to this aspect. The conditions seen as being responsible for necessary data not being obtainable are held to be of sufficient significance to warrant the inclusion in Chapter VI of a recommendation far changes in the record-keeping procedures in the institutions studied. Course Requirements for Students in Elementary Education Table 1 presents a composite picture of semester hours work in programs that prepare elementary school teachers in the institutions studied. The distribution is shown by the categories of general, professional, and specialization education set up by the State Department and used as a guide by all of the institutions. The m — state certification requirements are shown as a basis for comparison.

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TABLE 1 SEMESTER HOURS WORK IN THREE AREAS IN PROGRAMS THAT PREPARE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Area of Preparation & Minimum Requirement for Certification A B C Institutions D E F 0 H I J K Means General Preparation (16 sem. hours) u 16 16 U7 62 50 U8 16 50 Itf 55 If Prof ftfisi nnfll Preparation (20 earn, hours) 29 20 27 2U 26 25 23 26 21* a 2U 2U.5 Specialization (Elementary School Course) (27 sem. hours) 27 32 30 26 31 27 27 27 31 29 27 28.5 TOTAL (92 sem. hours) 101 97 102 97 119 102 98 98 105 97 106 102.0 All of the institutions studied place their course requirements in programs in teacher preparation in the three categories of general education, professional education, and specialization. Within these three categories some slight variations in sub-categories exist. Since all of the institutions studied present programs for the preparation of elementary school teachers that meet state certification requirements, and since the variations in categorization vary only slightly from those used by the State Department, those categories used by the State Department of Education 1 are also employed here in order to present a uniform ^tate Department of Education, "State Board Regulations Relating to Florida Requirements for Teacher Education and Certification," State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida. Revised and Adopted July 21, 1953. (Mimeographed.)

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basis for comparison and analysis. The questionnaire data indicate that in the institutions studied concern over general education is greater than concern over professional education or the elementary school specialization. Item 2 of the questionnaire (Appendix A) asked: "In your program for the preparation of elementary school teachers, how do the following areas of preparation rank in the order of the seriousness of the problems they represent? (l— of most concern} 2— of less concern; 3— of least concern)" G eneral Education Requirements P rofessional Education Requirements E lementary Education Requirements The following table, Table 2, shows the responses given to this item. TABLE 2 ORDER OF SERIOUSNESS OF PROBLEMS PRESENTED IN THREE AREAS OF THE PREPARATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions Requirements ABCDEFQHIJK General Education 11111232213 Professional Education 21332313122 Elementary School Course 11223121331 Codei l-«of most concern 2— of less concern 3 — of least concern It should be noted that the respondent for Institution A marked both General Education Requirements and Elementary School Course Requirements

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80 as being of most concern and that the respondent for Institution B marked all three areas as being of most concern. General Education occupies a major role in the first two years of the student's work in all of the institutions studied. 2h five of -the institutions, professional education is begun in the freshman year, and hence both general and professional education parallel each other. The courses in professional education offered in these institutions, however, represent but a minor portion of the students* total work load. In the remaining six institutions, no professional course work is offered during the freshman year. In all of the institutions, general education is the major function of the first two years, and the meeting of state certification requirements in general preparation the major goal realized in this period of the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers. Qeneral Jducation .—For certification of all teachers, the State Department requirements demand a total of not less than 1*5 semester hours in general preparation. Five groups of courses are set up, defining five areas of general education. To meet certification requirements in each area of general education, not less than six semester hours of credit, and not more than twelve semester hours of credit, for a minimum total of h$ semester hours must be earned. These five groups are: (1) The Arts of Communicationj (2) Human Adjustment; (3) The Biological and Physical Sciences, and Mathematicsj (k) The Social Studiesj and (5) Humanities and Applied Arts. 1 The full text of the General Preparation Requirement is stated in Appendix D. Table 3 presents a composite picture of general education requirements in the institutions studied, categorized by the grouping criteria 1 Op. cit ., p. 2U7

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81 TABLE 3 SEMESTER HOURS REQUIRED IN GENERAL PREPARATION (CATEGORIZED ACCORDING TO AREAS OF PREPARATION USED BY THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION) IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Semester Hours in Institutions Means Area of ABCDEFQHIJK (l) The Arts of Communication 8 9 9 9 9 8 12 9 9 12 9 9J» (2) Human Adjustment 6 8 6 8 18 12 12 9 10 6 1U 9.9 (3) Biological and Physical Sciences and Mathematics 15 12 11 12 9 16 6 9 8 8 Hi 10.9 (It) The Social Studies 8 6 9 9 15 12 9 9 15 15 9 10.5 (5) Humanities and Applied Arts 8 8 6 9 11 8 9 9 8 6 9 8.4 Electivos 2 i Total US U5 hi 62 5b U8 U5 5o 1*7 55 49 listed above. In those instances where there are possibilities of variations for adjustments to individual students' needs, the minimum number of semester hours required by the institution is listed. In no case, of course, is this number of semester hours below the minimum of six as required by the State Department for certification. From the foregoing, it is apparent that in seven of the institutions the minimum requirements in general preparation, as established by the State Department of Education for the certification of teachers, are exceeded. The range in the total number of semester hours credit in general education required by the institutions studied is from U5 to 62. The mean of the total requirements is h9 semester hours. These data indicate

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82 that Area 2, Biological and Physical Sciences and Mathematics, receives the greatest emphasis in general preparation requirements of the institutions studied. The mean of the institutions' requirements in this area is 10.9 semester hours. It should be noted here that certification requirements in this area of general preparation can be met with all the credit being received in the sciences. The data indicate that Area k» The Social Studies, also receives major emphasis in the general education of the institutions studied. The mean of the institutions' requirements in this area is 10.5 semester hours. Area $ $ Humanities and Applied Arts, receives least emphasis* The mean of the institutions' requirements in this area is 8.U semester hours. Professional Education .— The professional preparation requirement for the preparation of teachers for the state of Florida is defined as follows! Professional preparation includes courses designed to acquaint the prospective teacher with the instructional task. The requirements for professional preparation include "Course Requirements in Education " and requirements regarding "Practical Experience in Teaching " totaling no less than 20 semester hours. These requirement3 apply to elementary teachers, secondary teachers, and administrative and supervisory personnel.* The full text of this requirement is stated in Appendix E. Four areas of course work are established in this Requirement, the areas and the minimum number of credits required in each area being* (1) Foundations of Education— 6 semester hours; (2) Teaching in the Elementary and/or Secondary School— 6 semester hours j (3) Special Methods— 2 semester hours j and (h) Practical Experience in Teaching— 6 semester hours. The requirement in Area 3 is clarified for specific application to the preparation of elementary school teachers by the followingj k)p. cit ., p. 2U8.

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83 (Unless the comprehensive course above Includes adequate attention to methods of teaching reading, a separate course is required. In case the techniques of teaching reading have been presented in general course, this special requirement of 2 semester hours may be met through a course dealing with evaluation or with organization of schools from the viewpoint of a classroom teacher.)'' Table U presents a composite picture of professional preparation requirements in the institutions studied, categorized by the grouping TABLE k DISTRIBUTION OF REQUIREMENTS IN PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION IN THE INSTITUTIONS STUDIED BT GROUPING ESTABLISHED BY STATE DEPARTMENT CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Area Min. State Req. A B C D Institutions E F G H* I J Means 1 (1) Foundations of Education 6 6 6 8 6 9 6 6 6-2/3 6 6 6 6.5 (2) Teaching in the Elementary School 6 6 6 7 9 9 6 6 6-2/3 6 6 6 6.7 (3) Special Methods 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3-1/3 3 3 3 2.7 (h) Practical Experience in Teaching 6 15 6 10 6 6 10 8 10 9 6 9 8.6 Totals 20 29 20 27 2U 26 25 23 26-2/3 2h 21 2U 2U.5 ^Quarter hours have been expressed in semester hour equivalents. criteria listed above. In those instances where some variations were possible, the minimum number of semester hours required by the institution is listed. In no case is this number of semester hours below the minimum required by the State Department for certification. Op. cit .. p. 2U9.

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8U Credit required in Area h tends to exceed the minimum requirement for state certification. More detailed treatment of this aspect of the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers is given later in this chapter under Direct Experience with Children and Youth. The analysis in Table 5 is designed to show how the requirements are being met in Area 1 (Foundations of Education) of the professional TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF COURSES USBD ID MEET STATE CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS IN PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AREA 1 (FOUNDATIONS) IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions Courses ABCDEFGHIJK Social Foundations of Education XX XX Psychological Foundations of Education X Educational Psychology X* X* X X* X XX School and Society X I Introduction to Education XXX X XXX Child and/or Adolescent Psychology X* X X* Growth and Development of the Individual XX* X Alternatives * education requirement by the Institutions studied. Table 5 shows the configuration of course content used by the Institutions studied. The categories used are those employed in the state certification bulletin, Area 1.

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85 The most cannon practice for meeting the requirement in this area was found to be through a course in Introduction to Education and a course in Educational Psychology. This combination was made in six of the eleven institutions* Seven of the institutions used Introduction to Education as the first or second course in education for those preparing to teach. Certification requirements in Area 2 of the professional education requirement may be met by either a comprehensive course presenting an overview of the entire school program or by a separate course covering essentially the same material. In the institutions studied, this requirement is met in the following ways* 1. A comprehensive course carrying six semester hours credit nay be taken during the internship semester. One institution follows this plan. 2. Separate courses may be offered in a designated sequence. One institution uses this plan. 3. Separate courses may be offered without a designated sequence. This plan is employed by seven institutions* U. The requirement may be met by designated portions of certain comprehensive courses which Include other content and experiences. One institution follows this plan. 5. The requirement may be met by a combination of 2 and h above, wherein a separate course plus a portion of a comprehensive course including other content and experiences are used. This plan applies to one institution. The state certification requirement in Area 3 of the professional preparation requirement may be satisfied either by a comprehensive course that Includes adequate attention to the teaching of reading, or by a

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separate course in the teaching of reading. In the institutions studied, a variety of approaches in meeting this requirement was observed. In one institution two semester hours of a l£semester-hour preinternship comprehensive course are designated. In another institution two semester hours of a 6-semester-hour comprehensive course taken during the internship semester are assigned to meeting this requirement. The remaining nine institutions offer separate courses. Two of these nine institutions provide courses of "two semester hours credit. The remaining seven institutions offer courses carrying three semester hours credit. Exact data on the content of these courses were not available. However, interviews indicated that wide variations exist, ranging from a broad approach that includes all of the language arts in its scope to a restricted methodological limitation of a phonics approach to the teaching of reading. Area h of the certification requirements in the professional preparation of teachers will be given consideration later in this chapter under the heading "Direct Experience with Children and louth." Elementary School Course Preparation .— To be certified to teach in the elementary schools in toe state of Florida, students must, in addition to meeting the certification requirements in general education and in professional education as set forth and analyzed above, meet course requirements in the area of their specialization, as set forth in the certification bulletin. 1 The full text of this requirement is stated in Appendix P. The bases for the analysis that follows are contained in the structure of Plan Two, as established by the State Department regulations.

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87 Plan Two. He (the student) must present a program of 27 semester hours in elementary education which must include credit in each of the five areas listed below with a minimum of 6 Bemester hours in each of areas h and 5>. The above program must include credit in health education, physical education, art, and music to meet the needs of the elementary school child.l . The five areas referred to above are; (1) Introduction to materials for use with children; (2) Exploring the child is physical environment ; (3) Exploring the child's social and economic environment j (U) Exploring the child's personal-social environment; and ($) Creative arts and materials for use with children. Table 6 presents a composite picture of the distribution of course content employed in the institutions studied. The area categories described above are used in the table. It would appear from these data that Area f>, Creative arts and materials for use with children, receives more emphasis than the other areas of professional preparation because! (1) nine of the elsven institutions studied exceed the minimum semester hour requirement in this area; and (2) the mean of the semester hours in excess of the requirement for the area (2.$ semester hours) is greater than in the other four areas. Mo minimum in semester hours credit is established for areas 1, 2, and 3, although credit must be earned In each of these three areas. The number of semester hours required of students is decided by each institution; Table 6 indicates that Area 3, Exploring the child's personal-social environment, receives greater emphasis than Areas 1 and 2. The mean of the semester hours devoted to this area is 5.3. Area 1, Introduction to materials for use with children, receives next greatest emphasis. The mean of the semester hours devoted to this area is 3.6. Area 2, Exploring the child's physical ^Ibld.

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89 environment, receives least emphasis* The mean of the semester hours devoted to this area is 3.1. Five of the institutions include courses that are applicable to the general area of elementary school specialization, but do not fall within any of the specific categories. In one of these an elective course rounds out the 27 semester hour requirement. In three institutions, a course in The Teaching of Arithmetic is included in this area of preparation. One assigns six hours of a 15 -semester hour comprehensive course to this area. Courses in the Teaching of Arithmetic are not specifically mentioned in any of the areas established by the state certification requirements for Elementary School Course certification. The three institutions mentioned above provide for both content and method in arithmetic through these courses, shown in Table 6 as not falling within the categories used. This does not mean that arithmetic is entirely omitted from the curricula of the other institutions in preparing elementary school teachers. Arithmetic concepts, and methods of teaching them in the elementary school, may be included to some extent in all of the institutions. Their inclusion may be provided in courses falling in cotegory (1) Introduction to materials for use with children, in courses offered as electives, or through experiences provided in the internship and comprehensive courses -where content emphases may vary. A majority of the persons interviewed expressed concern over the exclusion of arithmetic in the professional preparation of elementary school teachers. This concern is due to the fact that state certification requirements do not specifically demand either mathematics content in general education, or methods in teaching arithmetic in the profes-

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90 sional preparation requirement. It is possible, therefore, for a student to meet state certification requirements to teach in the elementary schools ia the state of Florida with little or no preparation in the area of mathematics. Screening, Selection, and Placement of Students In the organization and implementation of procedures in the screening of students, wide variations were found. The size of the institution seemed to influence the degree of the complexity of organization. The descriptive data compiled from the interviews and from examination of catalogs and other printed and mimeographed materials furnished by the institutions studied were examined to ascertain common elements in the procedures and organization relative to the screening and selection of students in elementary education, the criteria for admission of students to programs in teacher education, and the diagnosis of deficiencies in the preparation and qualifications of students. In addition, placement services for prospective teachers are also included here, as they represent the culmination of screening and selection functions. The data relative to the aspects of the screening and selection of students for programs in teacher education are presented below. A descriptive presentation is given, as these data did not lend themselves to tabular presentation. Institution A. The student makes formal application for admission to the College of Education at the mid-point of his fourth semester's work. This application initiates the compilation of a folder of materials concerning the student which is used by the Comittee on Admissions for

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91 the College of Education. This folder of materials includes the following items: (1) conments and recommendations fron all faculty members in the College of Education with whom the student has taken work; (2) personal data and autobiography; (3) the student's academic record ; (It) the student's high school placement scores, college entrance examination scores, and other test results; (5) the student's health report j and, (6) a report of the student's speech diagnosis* The basic file is a cumulative record with instructors' evaluative comments being added to it until the student graduates. These materials are also used as aids in diagnosing deficiencies in the student's qualifications and preparation* An Educational Placement Office provides service for graduates and public school administrators relative to employment. The Director of Undergraduate Counseling serves also as Director of this office. Students must register in the Educational Placement Office, filling out all necessary forms as a prerequisite to graduation. Institution B . There is no formal admission to the program in teacher education. Students may declare their intentions of pursuing * program in teacher preparation at the initial registration in college or in the orientation program following this registration. Students must select their Field of Concentration for their Major by the end of the sophomore year. This means that elementary education cannot be chosen later than this point in the student's preparation, fence, this is considered a major screening point at this institution, and while the screening procedure may not be interpreted as one being unique to teacher training, students are screened for speech and general physical condition. The criteria for such screening are not specifically spelled out, but are left to the judgment of the Head of the Elementary Education Department.

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92 At this institution, elementary education constitutes a Major Field, and hence the major responsibility for the diagnosis of deficiencies in the preparation and qualifications of students of teaching rests with the Head of the Department of Elementary Education, Data provided by the entrance examinations, physical examinations, and the Cooperative English Test are made available. The Testing Center, administered by the Division of Education, provides additional test data upon request. Students preparing to teach must pass comprehensive examinations constructed and administered by the various departments prior to serving their internship. The Head of the Department of Elementary Education performs the placement function for students in Elementary Education, There is no formally organized placement bureau on campus. Institution C , It is not necessary to enroll in the School of Education to secure certification in the Elementary School Course, A variety of curricula are presented that enable students to secure this certification. These may be divided into three categories: (1) those administered wholly by the School of Education^ (2) those administered jointly with other Schools or Divisions of the Universityj and (3) those administered wholly by a School or Division other than the School of Education, In all cases, however, the prerequisites for courses in the professional sequence are enforced. This diversity in offerings makes entry into programs leading to certification to teach in the elementary school possible at a number of points. At his initial registration each freshman is assigned an adviser. If at that time he enrolls in the School of Education, then his freshman adviser is selected from the School of Education, Students may enter upon a program of teacher

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93 preparation from this point to the mid-point of his junior Tear. No student can enter the professional sequence later than the second semester of the junior year. The School of Education reserves the right to refuse to any student entrance to any of its curricula or reject a student at any time if such is recommended by the Committee on Qualifications of Students. This Committee passes judgment on physical, mental, or personality factors, rejecting those having handicaps that would be detrimental to the 'welfare of children. A student may be rejected at any point in his work. Materials used in the diagnosis of students are assembled in a cumulative file. This folder of materials includes the following which are used as aids in diagnosis! (1) the student's academic record; (2) the high school placement and college entrance test results; and (3) the student's health record. The following examinations are required for all students, and the results of these are included: (a) American Council on Education Psychological Test; (b) The Minnesota Personality Test; (c) The General Culture Test; and (d) the Junior English Test. The report of a speech screening is also included. Upon the recommendation of counselors, other diagnostic, psychological, aptitude, or vocational tests will be administered. The results of these additional tests are made available to those faculty members responsible for the guidance and counseling of the student. The Office of Vocational Guidance and Placement is maintained to serve as a liaison between the graduate and prospective employers in business, industry, and government, as well as in education. These services are available to all graduates and alumni of the institution without charge, but registration is not mandatory.

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9U Institution D , Students are admitted to programs in teacher education at their initial registration in the University, if, at that time, they enroll in the School of Education. Admission may be achieved at a later point in their program by transferring from the school In •which they are enrolled to the School of Education. This transfer is governed by the following provisions: (1) the student must present an academic average of or better in the courses already completed} and (2) he must have the permission of the Dean of the School of Education and the Dean of the school from which he is transferring. A screening procedure common to all divisions of the university, but of especial significance to teacher education, is the determination of competency in written English. Every student beyond the sophomore level must pass a written examination demonstrating his proficiency in the use of written English. This English Qualifying Examination may be taken any number of times. No student is qualified to receive a degree unless he has satisfactorily passed this examination. The student »s adviser in education is primarily responsible for interpretation of the data relative to diagnosis. Data available include! (1) Reports of physical examinations, given at entrance to the institution and again just prior to the Internshipj (2) Report of a speech screening] (3) Results of the English Qualifying Examination} (h) Academic records, including the high school record. Additional test data may be secured at the request of the adviser. Placement services of this institution are provided oh an informal basis. They are neither organized nor centrally located. Institution E. There is no formal admission to the program in teacher education. However, since the General Education Core is con-

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9S centra ted in the first two years, the acceptance of a student for junior standing is, in effect, admission to the teacher education program. At the end of the first semester of their sophomore year, all students must takes the Comprehensive English Examination j the Cooperative General Culture Test; and the Cooperative Contemporary Affairs Test for College Students, These represent the two major points in the screening procedure at this institution. An extensive testing program furnishes the bulk of the data used in the diagnosis of deficiencies in the preparation and qualifications of students. This testing program includes the following provisions j (1) Entering freshmen are given entrance examinations. Particular emphasis is given to English and mathematics j (2) at the end of the first semester, sophomores are given the Comprehensive English Examination, the Cooperative General Culture Test, and the Cooperative Contemporary Affairs Test for College Students; (3) the Comprehensive English Examination must be successfully passed during the second semester of the junior year as a prerequisite to student teaching; (h) all seniors must pass the locally prepared Senior Comprehensive Examinations j ($) all prospective graduates in teacher education must take the National Teachers Examination, The placement function is performed by the Director of Teacher Education, and the data necessary to its performance are filed in his office. Institution F. There is no formal admission to the program in teacher education. If entering freshmen elect elementary education, then their adviser is selected from the Division of Education. Transfer to the Division of Education may be made at any point in the student •«

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96 preparation. Achievement tests are given all students at the end of the sophomore year. This may be considered as a screening point. However, there are no special provisions for unique application to students in elementary education. The following procedures, institution-wide, are applicable: (1) a series of tests is administered to all freshmen, designed to gain understanding of their abilities, aptitudes, and interests; (2) the faculty advisory system is coordinated by the Director of Guidance, who supplements the adviser conferences with vocational, educational, and personal counseling; (3) achievement tests are given near the end of the sophomore year. An institution-wide Placement Bureau is maintained. Seniors fill out standard forms which are kept on file to send to prospective employers. The Director of the Placement Bureau also coordinates the placement tl interns for their field experience . Institution G . There is no formal admission to the teacher education program. Since at this institution elementary education constitutes a major field, the rule applicable to all major fields is in effect. This provides that the student may select the major field at any time prior to the end of the sophomore year, but must select it at that time. Ho special screening policies are formulated. Each course is regarded as a screening device. Students who are Judged unfit for teaching by the instructors are not permitted to intern. The function of diagnosis of deficiencies in the preparation and qualification of students preparing to teach rests primarily with the student's adviser. The following features of the program show the main aspects of the function, and the primary sources of data: (1)

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97 students majoring In elementary education are assigned an adviser in the elementary education department j (2) each student must undergo a comprehensive examination in the major field as a prerequisite to graduation; (3) the Graduate Record Examination is administered to all students at the close of the sophomore and the senior years; (U) each course is viewed as a device in diagnosis and screening* The function of placement is provided through the Registrar's and the Dean's offices. NO placement bureau, as such, is maintained. Institution H. There is no formal admission to the program in teacher education. Since elementary education constitutes a Major Field of study, the ruling for all major fields is applicable. This rule states that a student is expected in the first two years to do the introductory work in his major subject which will give him the fundamental knowledge necessary for advanced work. This implies an early selection of a Major Field, and places advisers in a position to do initial, informal screening. There are no unique screening devices or techniques. The judgment of the adviser, the Dean, and the Director of Teacher Education, and the application of the following college policies define the screening and continuous selection procedure: (1) an overall average of better than "C M is a prerequisite to internship; and (2) a "B'» average in education courses is required for graduation. In this institution the preparation of elementary school teachers is a relatively minor function. Elementary education constitutes a Major Field, and the student must elect his major near the end of the sophomore year, and a major adviser is assigned. The Director of Teacher Education serves as the Major Professor for all Elementary Education students. TTith this person rests primary responsibility for diagnosis

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98 of students preparing to teach. No entrance examinations are required, but a health report and the student »s high school record are among the available data. Unique to this institution, and a valuable source of data is the evaluation made for each student in each course taken. Each instructor fills out a rating sheet that considers not only academic achievement, but other factors that reflect the development of the whole person. The placement function is centralized in an institution-wide Placement Bureau to assist seniors and alumni in finding employment. Institution I . There is no formal admission procedure for entrance to programs of teacher preparation. Admission may take place at any time in the student's undergraduate preparation from freshman to senior year. No means of selectivity is employed other than admission to the institution. To achieve certification to teach, students may enroll in the School of Education, or they may enroll in another division and elect Education as a minor. The latter course is more common to those who seek certification in the secondary field than it is for students pursuing certification in the Elementary School Course. let the course is open, and a few students elect to do it. This is a possibility in spite of the fact that the requirements for certification in Elementary School Course constitute a much heavier load than a typical academic minor. The major screening point in the program at this institution is Immediately prior to student teaching. The criteria applicable at this point arei (1) an overall "C" average; (2) freedom from speech defect; (3) freedom from physical defect; and (U) proficiency in English as Judged by the faculty.

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n There is little evidence of formal organisation or procedures prior to application for internship. This is probably due to the institution's policies oft (1) admitting students to programs of teacher education at any point in their undergraduate preparation; and, (2) permitting students to enroll in other departmens of the institution, minor ing in education, and achieving certification to teach. Major diagnose* occur upon the application for internship. Data relative to diagnosis includes the following: (1) the high school record; (2) placement examinations, which include a speech test; (3) a cumulative file, initiated in the introductory education courses. This device assures a cumulative record of all students seeking certification to teach, regardless of the department or college of their enrollment; (h) judgmental statements by the faculty as to the student's competence in English. There is an institution-wide Placement Bureau on campus. However, this service is not used by students in education. Data relative to the placement function are filed in the office of the Dean of the School of Education. This office handles all requests for placement information on an individual basis. Institution J . Requirements for initial admission to the institution are dependent upon the student's place of residence. For those students residing in the county of the institution, graduation from high school is all that is required. For those applicants residing outside the county, a "C average over his four years of high school work is required. There is no formal admission procedure for entrance into the teacher education program. An academic average of "C" must be maintained to continue in the program. The major screening occurs when the

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100 student applies for internship. The factors of age and physical condition are given consideration. Students h$ years of age or physically handicapped tend to be eliminated. There are no definite standards or procedures, unique to students of education, prior to the internship. At this point judgment is passed by the Head Professor in Elementary Education. Data available for diagnosis includes: (1) the high school recordj (2) the student's college academic re cord j (3) reactions of other staff members regarding the student's characteristics. Placement is effected on an informal basis. There is no formal organization for providing placement services, no delegation of this responsibility is made, and the data necessary for its operation are not centrally located. Institution K . Admission to teacher education programs may take place at any time in the student's undergraduate preparation. No special means of selectivity are used other than admission to the institution. Those who express intentions to teach in the elementary school in their initial registration are advised to take "Introduction to Education," and are at this point assigned an adviser from the elementary education department, since elementary education will become their Major Field. The major screening point occura when the student applies for internship. IThile there are no special provisions for students in education, all students benefit from the general guidance program. One aspect of this program is especially designed for the upgrading of students with below »C" grades in their high school preparation. Data relative to the diagnosis of deficiencies are provided for the education division through this program. The major point of diagnosis occurs upon appli-

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101 cation for the internship. The placement function for students in education is performed through the office of the Head of the Education Department -where all data pertinent to its implementation are filed. Characteristics descriptive of all programs. The screening devices and policies of the eleven institutions 'were examined to reveal those characteristics descriptive of all the pro grans. The following features yrere found to exist in common: 1. Initial admission to the institution is considered to be the first point of screening for students in education. 2. A cumulative file is kept on all students in elementary education, in which information is recorded that is considered to be related to the success of prospective teachers. 3. Students in elementary education are assigned to a faculty adviser from the department of elementary education. This adviser assumes the responsibility of counseling out of elementary education those students failing to meet the institution's requirements. U. Some type of speech screening for students in elementary education is employed by all the institutions studied, usually early in the student's program, never later than the beginning of the internship period, 5. An overall grade-point average of "C" is required for graduation. 6. An overall grade-point average of "C is a prerequisite to internship. 7. A grade of "C" or better must be earned in the internship. 8. Students may be withdrawn from internship at any point.

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102 This is rarely done, but It is general policy. The underlying criteria for the selection of prospective teachers reflect a common core of agreements on principles relative to the qualities, characteristics, and competencies of a teacher in the elementary school. Their bases on the local level may be: (1) specifically stated; (2) reflected in practice and/or (3) implicit in documents. They are stated below in terms of desired student characteristics i 1* The student must ^ave good command of the fundamental tools of oral and written expression, 2, The student must exhibit academic competence. 3* The student must be free from mental and physical defects. lu The student must exhibit competence in teaching in an actual classroom situation. $, The student must be free from psychological or personality defects that would be detrimental in his establishing a professional relationship with children. 6. The student »s overall fitness to enter teaching must be established. Evaluations by both objective measures and subjective ratings are used. There were wide variations, however, in the interpretation as well as the Implementation of screening policies in the institutions studied, both in regard to the kinds of data collected and the use made of these data. TOiile data on students were available, the function of these data in the screening process was not clearly defined in many institutions. In a few cases there were sincere attempts to interpret this information in relation to screening and selection processes.

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103 In the area of personality and psychological characteristics, the greatest difficulty in implementing screening procedures was encountered in all institutions. In the consideration of the procedures and techniques employed in the diagnosis of deficiencies in the preparation and qualif icatione of students, the total of the pre-eervice preparation was included. The following means of diagnosis v/ere found to be common to all programs i 1. A physical examination 2. Interviews and conferences 3* Analysis of speech k* High school record S>. Instructors' evaluations 6. Objective test data. All of the institutions studied make some provision for serving their graduates in their quest for teaching positions. The investigation sought to determine the nature of the placement function rather than to analyze the details of organisation and procedures. The descriptions above (pp. 90-101) point up the wide variations in practices employed in the institutions in providing this service. The following variations were noted. %$ There was a wide range in the complexity of organization to provide placement services far graduates. In some cases a staff member, usually from the department of elementary education, supplied the necessary services on a more or less informal basis. In other cases there were formal organizations, with several persons devoting full time to the provision of placement services, 2. The extent of the use of the placement services provided

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varied vddely from institution to institution. In some institutions registration far placement is compulsory and its use by graduates extensive. In others registration is optional and its use by graduates quite limited. Counseling of Students Procedure and organization .— In providing for the counseling of students, the institutions studied showed wide variation in procedures and organization. The degree of complexity of organization and the extent to which procedures were specified were directly related to the size of the institution. In the smallest, there was no formulation of procedures relative to the counseling of students. In the largest, procedures were specified in detail, and the implementation of the total program was delegated to a Coordinator or Director of counseling services. Yet in all of the programs, whether finely organized or wholly informal, certain common features were evident. These common aspects or features are: 1. Academic counseling is provided for each student from his initial registration in the institution. A counselor, or faculty adviser, as he is typically referred to, provides guidance in the choice of courses to be taken. 2. Cumulative records are kept on each student and are made available to the counselors or advisers. 3. The counselor or adviser can initiate action that will provide additional data about a specific student. The data on counseling procedures were examined to determine the point in a student's program at which the division or department of education assumed major reeponsibility for the counseling of students

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seeking certification in Elementary School Course. The determination of such a point in all of the institutions was not possible because: (1) in two of the institutions Elementary School Course certification may be obtained as a minor field of study; (2) in some of the institutions the point at -which the student was assigned to an adviser from the education department was subject to variation. Figure 1 was devised to show the range within which the assurapFigure 1 RESPONSIBILITX FOR THE COUNSELING OF STUDENTS IN EI£M£NTARY EDUCATION ASSUMED EI THE DEPARTMENT OR DIVISION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION AND HI OTHER DEPARTMENTS OR DIVISI0N5 IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA InstiFresliaan Sophomore Junior Senior tution Tear Year Year Year A 2 c D E F G H I J • i _______ By the division or department of elementary education. By a division or department other than elementary education. » -» Either is possible.

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L)6 tion of major responsibility for the counseling of students in elementary education typically occurred in the institutions studied, Provisions for remediation.— Provisions for the remediation of deficiencies in the qualifications and in the preparation of students preparing to teach in the elementary school varied -widely. Data were examined, not for facilities that T/ere available or night be presumed to be applicable, but for those that were actually used. The following common elements in the programs of remediation trere found: (1) regular courses >Tere considered to be remedial devices in all of the institutions; (2) academic proficiency, as reflected by grades i*as a major concern; (3) the physical well-being of students is a common concern, and some attention to remediation is given in all institutions. Table 7 presents TABLE 7 PROVISIONS FOR THE REMEDIATIONS OF DEFICIENCIES IN THE PREPARATION AM) QUALIFICATIONS OF STUDENTS PREPARING TO TEACH IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institution Provisions ABCDEFGHIJJC Speech Clinic X X Reading Clinic X X . Psychological Clinic X English Clinio X X Non-credit, remedial course in Reading X lion-credit, remedial course in English Usage X X Non-credit, remedial course in i&tiiematics X

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107 the provisions among the institutions studied far remediation of deficiencies in the preparation and qualifications of students preparing to teach in the elementary school. In addition, the following variations Y?ere noted, 1. The area of major emphasis in remediation varied from institution to institution. In some, clinical services played a major role; in others the general background of the student, particularly in the realm of English usage, received major emphasis. 2. There was variation in the degree of concern over remediation of deficiencies in academic achievement. While all of the institutions share a common concern over academic proficiency as reflected by grades, in two of the institutions this concern seemed significantly greater than in the remaining nine institutions. Direct Experiences with Children and Youth Types.— Direct experiences -with children and youth are provided in all of the institutions studied. They are of three major types: (1) observation] (2) participation; and (3) student teaching or internship. From the standpoint of their administration, they include: (1) experiences that are integral parts of regular courses; and (2) thoM experiences which lie outside the scope of the regular courses. This latter category includes primarily observation and participation in the pre-echool planning sessions of the public schools. The data were examined to determine the extent to which the preschool planning sessions and the opening weeks of school are employed to provide direct experiences for students in the public schools. Certain reactions, common to all the institutions, were expressed in the interviews. These were as follows* (1) the experience is a valuable

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108 and desirable one in the pre service education of elementary school teachersj (2) its inclusion in the program of preparation is administratively difficult because the institutions are not in regular session when the experience is available. All but one of the institutions placed the experience on a voluntary basis. In this institution the experience was mandatory. Three of the institutions reported that while some of their students had the experience, no record was kept of the number involved, and no estimate of the extent of its use was given* Table 8 shows the estimated percentage of students in elementary education participating in pre-echool planning sessions. Since in all but TABLE 8 THE REPORTED PERCENTAGE OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION STUDENTS OBSERVING OR PARTICIPATING IN PRE-SCHOOL PLANNING SESSIONS AND/OR OPENING OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions ABCDEFGHIJK Percentage of total number of students achiaving certification iu Elementary School Course 80 100 8£ 3 $0 2£ 0 « * -» ltO * Some use reported, but no accurate estimate possible. one of the institutions the experience is on \ voluntary basis, the percentages expressed are probably indicative of the emphasis placed on the experience by staff personnal involved. Extreme variation in the use of the pre-echool planning sessions and/or the opening of the public schools in providing direct experience

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109 is evident. One institution required all students in elementary education to observe and participate in these sessions prior to their internship. One institution makes no use of these experiences in its program. Two Institutions, -while placing the experience on a voluntary basis, encourage students to participate to the extent that 80# or more of their students have the experience. In the remaining five institutions, the number of students having the experiences range from 3% to $0% of the total number who intern. Host of the institutions studied provided for some contact with children prior to the internship experience. One index of the extent of this provision is the number of courses taken before internship that include such experience as an integral part of course content. Table 9 shows the number of such courses in the programs preparing elementary school teachers in the institutions studied. TABUS 9 THE NUMBER OF COURSES OFFERED PRIOR TO INTERNSHIP THAT INCLUDE DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH CHILDREN AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF COURSE CONTENT IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions A B C D E F G H I J K Number of Courses 3 2 1 2 0 3 3 3 I 0 2 Table 10 presents the types of experiences used in the institutions studied to provide direct experiences with children for students in elementary education prior to the internship. Only those experiences which are provided as integral parts of courses are included.

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110 TABLE 10 TYPES CF DIRECT EXPERIENCES TTITH CHILDREN PRIORTO THE INTERNSHIP INCLUDED IN COURSE CONTENT FOR PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institution Types of Experiences ABCDEFGHIJK Observation of children in a classroom XX X XX X Field trips X X Participation in community activities X X Community surveys X Observation of one child in school setting for case study X X Participation in Laboratory School X X Group observation of a classroom X X Total class visitation to a school Individual teaching of one or mors lessons to a class The most frequently mentioned direct experience with children that is provided prior to the student »s internship is the observation of children in a classroom. Seven institutions listed this experience as being provided for students in elementary education* Three institutions provide for participation in the laboratory school for prospective elementary teachers. None of the other means of providing for direct experi-

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Ill ences with children was listed by mare than two institutions. The number of means of providing for direct experiences with children listed by any one institution ranged from 0 to 6. The organization and administration of direct experiences with children, other than those in the internship, were found to be similarly handled in all of the institutions studied. They were included as an integral part of course content, and provisions for them were under the direction of the instructors of the courses involved. The internship represents the period in the student's preservice training wherein greatest emphasis is placed on direct experiences with children. All of the institutions studied offer the internship experience. Similarities and differences in the programs of internship were noted. The following brief descriptions of the internship course in the institutions studied will serve to point up these similarities and differences. Institution A . Elementary education students have one semester of internship for which they receive 15> semester hours credit. No other work is permitted during the semester. Thirteen weeks are spent in a selected elementary classroom and three weeks in seminar sessions on campus. The on-campus seminars are three in number, of one week's duration each, and are held before the field experience, at the raid-point of the field experience, and after the completion of the field experience. No breakdown of the total 15 semester hours credit is made, the experience being viewed as a unified whole. The course carries a single course number, and a single grade is awarded for the semester's work. Institution B . The internship is divided into three major parts i (a) $ weeks* preparation or pre-internship, which is scheduled for one

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112 period a day; (b) 9 weeks in an elementary classroom devoted to fulltime student teaching; (c) h weeks' post internship on the campus, which again is scheduled for one period a day. This combined work is awarded 6 seaester hours credit. During the $ weeks preceding and the h weeks following the field experience, special 9-weeks courses are taken which bring the total of the semester's work to 35 or 17 semester hours. Courses are selected from the following areas: Teaching Exceptional Children— 3 semester hours; Teaching the Slow Learner— 3 semester hours; Guidance— 3 semester hours; Art— 2 semester hours; Anthropology— 3 s ea ee— ter hours. Institution C . The internship semester is divided into three major parts: (a) the pre-field experience workshop of 5 weeks duration; (b) 8 weeks in an elementary classroom devoted to full-time student teaching; (c) 3 weeks on campus following the field experience. The field experience is awarded 10 semester hours credit. The combined preand post-field experience workshops offer 6 semester hours credit. These workshops are devoted to the general areas of principles of teaching, curriculum, and evaluation, and to the specific areas of the teaching of reeding and the teaching of arithmetic in the elementary school. Participation and observation in the Campus Laboratory School are also included in this course. Institution D . The internship semester is divided into three periods i (a) the pre -internship period of 5 weeks; (b) the field experience of 8 weeks; and (c) the post-internship period of h weeks. The field experience is awarded 6 semester hours credit. Nine semester . hours of credit are received during the preand post-field periods. This credit is assigned for three courses: Teaching of Arithmetic and

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113 Social Studies, 3 semester hours; Teaching Language Arts, 3 ienester hours; and The Elementary School Curriculum, 3 semester hours. Institution E . Student Teaching is awarded 6 semester hours credit. The field experience varies from 9 to Ih -weeks depending on the location of the school. If the small Campus Laboratory School is used, the time varies from 9 to lU weeks. If the local public schools are used, a period of from 12 to lh weeks applies. For students placed in public schools at a distance, the minlraim of 9 weeks applies. Short courses are arranged to bring the total work load of the student to lf> semester hours* Institution F . The internship semester is divided into three major parts j (a) an on-campus period of 2 weeks duration; (b) 10 weeks in an elementary classroom in full-time student teaching; (c) li weeks on campus following the field experience. The field experience is awarded 10 semester hours credit. The combined on-campus sessions lasting 6 weeks offer 6 semester hours credit. These periods are devoted to principles of teaching, curriculum, evaluation, organization, and administration. Institution G . The internship semester is divided into two major par et (a) 7 weeks on campus devoted to special courses in education relating to preparation for the field experience, and (b) 9 weeks in the field devoted to full-time student teaching. One of the courses given during the time spent on campus, Introduction to Internship, is devoted to observation and participation in actual classroom situations. This course is optional, but it was reported that about 3A of the students take it. Eight semester hours credit is earned during student teaching. For a month or two after the field experience, weekly con-

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Ill; ferences are continued for the purpose of clearing up problems that hare been presented. Institution H . The internship quarter is divided into three major parts t (a) on-campus work of two weeks duration^ (b) full-time student teaching for 8 weeks j and (c) on-campus sessions for one week following the field experience. While some time during the on-campus sessions is devoted to lesson-planning, subject organization, and evaluation, the major portion of the three weeks is devoted to arithmetic methods for elementary teaching. The total experience of the internship quarter is equivalent to three full courses, for which 15 quarter hours (ID semester hours) credit is given. No credit breakdown for the parts of the internship is made. Practice Teaching is provided for those who cannot fit the internship into their schedules. This provides for a minimum of 160 hours (clock hours) of observation and practice teaching. This experience maybe either t (a) distributed for 16 weeks at two hours per day; or (b) distributed for 8 weeks at h hours per day. Ten quarter hours credit is assigned to this course, which is equivalent to 6 2/3 semester hours. Institution I , The Internship semester is divided into three major parts. Instructional Materials for Use with Children, a 3 semester hour course of h to 5 weeks duration, is offered in a Demonstration School to provide access to materials used with children and opportunities for participation experiences. Internship in the Elementary School, offering 9 semester hours credit, includes 10 weeks experience in an elementary school and 1 week on campus for a seminar reviewing this participation. Teaching in the Elementary School is a weekly seminar that runs concurrently with the intern's field experience. It carrier 3

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u5 semester hours credit. Institution J . The internship covers a full semester's •work and offers 12 semester hours credit. Students are advised to take no other work during this semester. However, about l/h of them carry one additional three-hour course. The breakdown of the 12 semester hours credit is as follows: directed student teaching"— 6 semester hours j Teaching of Arithmetic— -2 semester hours; Teaching of Science — 2 semester hours; Teaching of Social Studies — 2 semester hours. The internship is comprised of four major parts: (a) a period of 6 consecutive 7/eeks on campus with approximately 3 hours per day spent in seminar; (b) ° weeks full-time student teaching in a public school; (c) a weekly lj hour conference with the director of interns on campus; (d) a two weeks on-campus seminar following the field experience for review and appraisal of classroom experiences. Institution K . The internship semester is divided into three major parts: (a) on-campus work of three weeks duration, devoted to the preparation of the intern for work in his selected school; (b) 12 weeks spent in full-tine student teaching in a public school; and (c) one week again spent on campus in evaluation of the classroom experience. Fifteen semester hours credit is awarded for the total semester's work. Ho breakdown of specific credit allocation is made. Figure 2, On-Campus and Field Experience During the Internship Semester, shows the time distribution of campus and field experiences in the institutions studied. Administration and organization of the internship . — In analyzing the organization and administration of the internship programs, the following aspects were considered: (a) the placement of interne

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117 In the public schools; (b) the coordination of the Internship pro grans; (c) visitations to the interns; (d) procedures relative to application for internsMp; (e) placement of the intemsliip in the total pro {-ran of preparation. Ihese aspects are presented below in this order. Jh all of the institutions studied, major responsibility for tbo placement of the intern with a cooperating teacher in a public school was assigned or delegated to a person or department of the institution. This function in no case represented the total load or sole function of the person or persons involved. Table 11 lists by institution the person, persons or department responsible for the placement of interns. TABLE 11 ALLOCATION OF PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PLACEMENT OF INTERNS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN ELEVEN DESTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institution Title of Person or Department Responsible Coordinator of the Intern Program in Elementary Education B Head of the Division of Education C Intern Supervisors who visit interns in the field D Coordinator of the Internship Teaching Program E, H Director of Teacher Education F The Placement Bureau of the Institution 0 Dean of the College 1 Coordinator of the Intern Program J Head of the Elementary Education Department ^ K Head of the Education Department

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118 In all the institutions studied, persons are designated whose re sponaibility it is to coordinate the internship program for students in elementary education. In five of the institutions, the coordination of the internship program represents all, or the major portion of, the work load of one person. This person is designated as the Head, Coordinator, or Director of the Intern Program, In five of the institutions, the person serving as administrator of the total program in elementary education is also responsible for coordinating the internship program for prospective elementary teachers. In the remaining institution, the Dean of the College serves also as the Coordinator of the intern program. These categories seem to be related to the size of the institution. The first group included those institutions in the state having the largest enrollments, the last has one of the smallest enrollments. Procedures for applying for Internship were found to be similar in all of the institutions studied. Common features in these procedures are: 1, Formal application or request to intern is filed during the semester preceding, or the year preceding the internship semester, 2, Data assembled are referred to the person responsible for the placement of the intern for his field experience, 3, Conferences and/or interviews are used to supplement and confirm the data assembled, k. The applications to internship provide the basic data used in compiling information about the intern which is sent to the cooperating school. Visitations to cooperating schools for the purpose of observing the intern at work or conferring with the intern and his cooperating

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119 teacher are made by staff personnel in all of the Institutions studied. The number of these visits varies from institution to institution, and in most cases varies from time to time within each institution. Figure 3a shows the minimum to maximum number of visits made by intern supervisors to the cooperating schools during an internship, and the duration of the internships in weeks. Seven of the institutions allow for some variation in the number of visits. One provides for variation in the length of the field experience, depending on the location of the cooperating school (see p. 113). Figure 3b also shows the minimum to maximum number of visits made in the eleven institutions. In this instance, however, the field experiences are equated to a base of 10 weeks duration. The internship semester is typically allocated to the senior year. However, one institution encourages interning in the final ter of the junior year, and another permits the use of the summer session. The designation of the semester used for the internship is shown in Table 12. The data were examined to determine the relation of the experiences in the internship to the instructional programs in the institutions studied. Certain elements were found to be common to allt 1. The completion of several courses in education was prerequisite to admission to the internship. 2. Competence as reflected by a grade of n C M or better was required in all cases. 3. Interns participate for full school days in the cooperating schools. In those few cases where additional course work was permitted, the courses were scheduled after school hours or on Saturday. The semester hour credit value of the field experience was

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0 c o o U jC u H C. a CO o U CO 0 (0 £ X c u c SOU -H 3 ;.. c ^ -u 'H ce i4 KB O 4 > .c to a

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TABLE 12 122 SEMESTER DESIGNATED FOR THE INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Junior Tear Senior Tear Summer Institution 1st 3 em. 2nd sem. 1st sea, 2nd sem. Session determined for each of the institutions studied. In seven of the institutions the student teaching experience carried a course number different from the other experiences or courses that are included in the internship semester. In three of the institutions, while a single course number designates the total of the experiences provided during the internship, a breakdown of credit allocation for specific portions of the total experience was obtained. The remaining institution makes no breakdown of credit, interpreting the internship as a unit experience. Figure h shows the length of the field experience in the internship programs in relation to the semester hour credit allocation indicated.

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123 © E — £ H b > B H « b B a 0 rH 0 0 o o c o •rl CQ 42 •H TJ c t, u '75 b 3 0 I £i 42 If t £ a c I rH b O 0) O I I 42 e b © 10 £ 4) to 3 -P .\o rf H O •P 0 1 M V) H 4) 43 S5 •c c © a H 1 1) — c U l> b © "C fcf c H © o -p s n S •p CS •H IT to to o to ,c b © b 0 c t £ 3 H 1) 13 a © 0 r© X % o .c iH r: O © -P • 0 B C rH •rl (0 © -c P

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12U In all of the institutions but one, grades awarded for the field experience are comparable to those awarded In other courses. That is, they are given the sans symbol designation and have the same value in the computation of quality or honor points. In one institution an evaluation of Satisfactory or Unsatisfactory is made and no honor or quality points may be earned* Several features relative to the functions of the supervisors of interns were found to be common to all of the institutions! 1. the Interns were observed in teaching situations. 2. The supervisor held conferences with the intern, the cooperating teacher, and the principal in the cooperating school. 3. The supervisor of interns was a staff member of the institution. k. The supervisor had either full or partial responsibility for the preparation of the intern for the field experience. 5>. fiie supervisor played the major role in recommending a grade for the field experience. 6. The supervisor served as an interpreter of institutional policies regarding the intern program to the personnel of the cooperating schools. The number of visits to the cooperating schools made by the intern supervisor varies. This variation has been shown above in Figures 3a and 3b. The number of interns assigned to one supervisor varied widely. In most cases, the supervision of interns represented a portion of the supervisor's duties during a given semester. In order to determine the number of interns considered as a full load for one supervisor, a

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125 typical teaching and supervisory schedule was examined at each institution. These included both teaching and intern supervision duties. Assuming a full teaching load to be 15 semester hours, projection to a full load of interns was made. The spring semester, 1955-56 was used in all cases. This projection is presented in Figure 5» Figure 5 Intern Field Supervision Projection to full load equivalent based on 15 semester hours as full teaching load No. of interns supervised School 10 20 30 UO 50 60 The range of full load equivalents in intern supervision was from 15 to 60 interns. Implicit in this projection is the institutions' time allocations for the supervision of one intern. The range here is from

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126 the supervision of one intern being equivalent to the teaching load of one semester hour to the supervision of four interne being equivalent to the teaching load of one semester hour. Wide variations exist in the distance from the campus of the cooperating public schools used for the field experience in the intern programs. Policies regarding the establishment of centers for the placement of interns range from a restriction to the local corrmunlty of the institution to the use of centers throughout the state. Four institutions «*ploy statewide placement of interns. In five of the institutions, intern placement is restricted to nearby schools, principally in the county in which the institution is located. In one institution, intern centers are restricted to locations within 120 miles of the campus. In one institution, intern placement is restricted to four counties in the state, the greatest distance from the campus being 170 miles. One of the institutions practicing state-wide placement of interns uses the campus laboratory school for a limited number of interns. In ten of the eleven institutions studied, placement of the intern for his field experience involves the signing of a contract of agreement by the cooperating teacher, the principal of the cooperating school, the county supervisor and/or the county superintendent, and a representative of the college or university. In one institution, no formal or written contract is used. In that institution, placement of the intern is effected by contacting the county school administrator; the schools and teachers to be used are selected by him. All of the institutions provide the cooperating schools with printed or mimeographed materials which contain information concerning the intern program. These materials include both descriptive material

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127 and also any forms that are to be used by tlie cooperating schools in reporting on the interns 1 work. No financial compensation is given to the cooperating teachers by any of the institutions in Florida, Some recognition for the services rendered is provided as follows: 1. la the state universities, cooperating teachers are issued a waiver of fees certificate entitling them to one registration in university courses without payment of the registration fees, 2. In one institution the directing or cooperating teachers are listed in the annual catalog, 3. In three institutions, annual banquets are held in honor of those who have served as cooperating teachers during that year. Table 13 presents information relative to the training and selection of cooperating teachers. It should be noted that while criteria for the selection of cooperating teachers may be implicit in the practices^ or are informally agreed upon at each institution, they are explicitly formulated, in only two of the institutions. Program Evaluation The evaluation of programs preparing elementary school teachers is apparently a concern in all of the institutions studied. The means of continuous implementation of programs of evaluation varied widely. In some cases there were specified techniques and designated comraitteesj in others, techniques were not formulated nor was the responsibility designated. The following statements indicate the kinds and extent of evaluative activity carried on in the institutions studied!

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128 TABLE 13 CERTAIN ASPECTS RELATIVE TO HE SELECTION AND TRAINING OF COOPERATING TEACHERS IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions Aspects A 3 c D E F 0 H I J t Criteria for selection Of cooperating teachers not formally specified X x x X X X X I x Course in the supervision of interns offered for cooperating teachers X X X X X Selection of cooperating teachers made jointly bylocal school personnel and representative from institution X X X XXX X x Selection of cooperating teachers made wholly bylocal school personnel X X X 1* Four of the institutions are members of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. This membership requires periodic evaluation and accreditation by the organization. 2. The Division of Teacher Education of the State Department of Education accepts the evaluation of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education as a basis for the approval of programs of teacher preparation in the member institutions. For the other seven institutions in the state, the Division of Teacher Education assembles evaluating committees which visit the institutions and evaluate their programs in teacher education according to criteria formulated by the State Department. 3. Evaluative activities by the local staff of the institutions

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12<5 precede the visitations by the evaluating committees in (l) and (2) above, h. All of the institutions included in this study are members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 5>. Five of the institutions en© ha size the use of staff committees in program evaluation* 6. Two of the institutions make special provisions for the evaluation of the total program by students* 7* Two institutions make special provisions for program evaluation by the cooperating teachers. Combination Programs In the initial consideration of the practice of combining the preparation of elementary school teachers with the preparation in some other area, the term "dual certification" was used* It had been assumed that all preparations combined with Elementary School Course programs would result in additional certification. This terminology was used in the questionnaire* Study of the data subsequent to the return of the questionnaire revealed that the assumption was in error* for in two of the institutions it was possible to combine a program of study that would qualify the student to be certified to teach in the elementary school with another major field of study that did not lead to additional certification* For this reason the terminology was changed to "combined" or "combination" programs in order to be accurate and descriptive* Extent of the use of combination programs *— In five of the eleven institutions, combination programs that include preparation to teach in the elementary school with some other competence or special teaching field are offered. In all cases these combination programs qualify the student for state certification in Elementary School Course. The other prepara-

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130 tions combined with Elementary School Course specialization fall into three general categories: (1) Programs leading to qualification for certification to teach special phases or aspects of the education of elementary school children; (2) programs leading to certification to teach a special field in the secondary school; and (3) programs that develop competences other than teaching. The interr elatedness of the separate phases of these combination programs is implied by the categories used above. In category (1), both preparations are concerned with elementary school children. Programs in this category qualify the student to be certified to teach in a special area that provides for the education of atypical children of elementary school age. In category (2), the students* preparations qualify them to teach on both the elementary and the secondary levels. In categary (3), the student becomes eligible for certification in Elementary School Course only. The other competence developed in this typo of combined program does not represent a certification area and is not necessarily related to teaching. For example, at one institution, certification in the Elementary School Course may be acquired by students who major in Social Welfare or Social YJork. Examination of the data relative to such combined programs repealed variation among the institutions int (1) the extent of the use of combined programs; (2) the areas or competences combined with Elementary School Course programs; and (3) feelings of the staffs involved regarding the desirability of the practice. Five of the eleven institutions studied make provisions for the combination of the preparation for teaching in the elementary school with some other certification area or competence within the limitation of the

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semester hours required for graduation. Of these five institutions, three make provisions for the acquisition of additional certification through course work beyond graduation requirements. This additional work is usually accomplished by attendance in one summer session or one regular semester. Of the six institutions not making specific provisions for the combination, one reports that due to its own graduation requirements, a student majoring in Elementary Education may add certification in Secondary Science or Mathematics by attending an additional summer session. It was reported that several students have done this. Factors influencing the use of combination programs .— -Due to the limitations of the records kept at the institutions studied, accurate and comparable data relative to the extent of the use of combined programs, or the degree to which they are encouraged, were not available. However, both the interviews and the questionnaire responses indicated that the practice was in general favor. While only five institutions reported the current use of such programs, all but two of them favored the practice. It was further indicated that several factors are operative in the state which place limitations on the implementation of combined programs. These factors are as follows j 1. Certification regulations make no provisions for combined programs, hence such programs must be "tailored" to fit two or more sets of requirements. 2. The administration of combination programs is difficult under existing Institutional organizations. 3. Counseling of students for such programs requires more time than for regular programs. U. Cross-departmental cooperation is necessary for the effec-

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132 tive ijmolamentation of combination programs. 5. Because of the added burden of content in course requirements, programs are usually limited to students of superior ability. 6. Placement of interns or student teachers becomes a more involved process, since field experience in two levels is required. 7. Variations among institutions, such as in the number of ••ester hours required for graduation, makes uniform programs impractical. 8. Combination programs usually eliminate electives in a student's program. Table Ik shows the extent to which the institutions studied have implemented programs leading to certification to teach in the elementary school combined with another preparation. The number of semester hours required for graduation is shown, as this factor places a limitation on the number of courses that can be included in a given program of study. The attitude of the staff at each institution, as revealed by both questionnaire and interview, is also shown. In addition to those combination programs shown in Table lii, three of the institutions offer combination programs that require work in addition to graduation requirements for their completion. In one instituti.on, the additional work leads to certification in one of the following sub-areas of the education of the exceptional child: (1) Education of the child who learns s lowly j (2) Education of the child with physical disabilities or special health problems^ or (3) Education of the child with speech irregularities. In another institution the additional v.ork leads to comprehensive coverage in the education of the exceptional child. In the third institution, the additional work leads

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133 TABLE 1U SEMESTER HOURS REQUIRED FOR GRADUATION, COMBINED PROGRAMS OFFERED WITHIN LIMITATIONS OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PRACTICE OF PROVIDING COMBINED PROGRAMS IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institution Semester Hours Required for Graduation Combinations within Limitations of Graduation Requirements Elementary scnooi course Certification andt Attitude Toward Practice A 12U Early Childhood Education riot ravored a 191. Liorary science, Art, music, Physical Education, Science, Home Economics ravorea 0 XcU education ox exceptional uniid (one sub-area), Recreation Education, social none, social Welfare, Child Development ravored D 120 None Favored E 120 None Favored F 121* None Favored a 128 None Favored R 128 None Favored i 120 Early Childhood Education Favored J 12U None Not Favored K 130 Early Childhood Education, one high school subject Favored to certification to teach science or mathematics at the secondary level. To aid in the determination of the extent to ishich combination programs are used in the institutions studied, the following item was included in the questionnaire (Appendix A) t "Please check the dual certification programs that are offered in your institution. Use the follow-

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13U ing oodei (1) Frequently used} (2) Seldom used; (3) Never usedj (U) To be offered in the near future) (5) Recently discontinued. ______ Elementary School Course and Early Childhood Education _____ Elementary School Course and Education of the Exceptional Child (one sub-area) _____ Elementary School Course and Education of the Exceptional Child (comprehensive coverage) _____ Elementary School Course and one Special Field in Secondary." (Space was provided for the addition of other combinations.) Examination of the returned questionnaires revealed that two of the respondents used a simple x mark rather than the code Indicated. Followup interviews revealed that in these cases the extent to which the checked combinations were used varied, and hence it was felt that the categories listed were not descriptive. Table 15 shows the responses to this item of the questionnaire. It should be noted that only in the case of the combination of Elementary School Course with Early Childhood Education is there indication of frequent use. From the data shown in Table 1$ and from information obtained in the interviews, the writer concludes that the probable order of frequency of the four combination programs most often used is as follows i (1) Elementary School Course and Early Childhood Education; (2) Elementary School Course and Education of the Exceptional Child (one sub-area)} (3) Elementary School Course and one special field in secondary} and (h) Elementary School Course and Education of the Exceptional Child (comprehensive coverage). Staff reactions to combination programs .— .Item 1 of the questionnaire stated, "In many of our colleges it is possible, within the limits of the four-year program leading to a Bachelor's degree, for

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15$ TABLE 15 TYPES OF COMBINATION PROGRAMS THAT INCLUDE MEETING CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COURSE AND THE EXTENT OF THEIR USE IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Combination Programs Used— Element axv School Course and t A B c D Institutions E F 0 H I J I Early Childhood Education x 1 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 1 Education of the Exceptional Child ( one sub-area } 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 | Education of the Exceptional Child (comprehensive coverage) X 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 h One Special Field in Secondary 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 Music X 2 Art x Physical Education X aocxax ouuaies * Social Work 2 Library 2 History 2 Mathematics 2 Biology 2 Code j 1 — Frequently used 2— Seldom used 3 — Never used li — To be offered in the near future x— Variable use students to achieve certification in Elementary School Course plus certification in some other area, (a) What is your general feeling regarding this practice? Do you favor it? Why or mfay not?" Two of the respondents did not approve of the practice, eight were in favor of it, one did

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136 not express a reason for favoring the practice, although the interview revealed that it was in favor. One of the respondents who held the practice of providing combination program within the limits of graduation requirements in disfavor represented an institution that provides such programs. The responses were similar in Intent, and the following excerpt from one of them typifies both: "I believe that individuals need to concentrate on becoming well-rounded elementary teachers— four years is not enough for that. Specialization should be in a fifth year." Of the eight responses indicating approval of combination programs, three of them represented institutions that had such programs, five of them represented institutions that do not have combination programs. Of the former group, one respondent favored combination programs only if the second area of concentration were an extension of elementary education, one felt that such programs made teachers more useful and proficient, and the third, while favoring the practice, expressed no strong feelings concerning it. Of the latter group, one respondent felt that some change in certification requirements regarding practical experience should be made to facilitate combination programs; two of the respondents felt that combination programs added to a teacher *s competences, one of them seeing particular value in this for teachers in small schools; one stated that many administrators want teachers who are certified in more than one area. Problems in the pre-eervice education of elementary school teachers as seen by personnel in the institutions studied i In oocbination programs.— Item 1 (c) of the questionnaire (Appendix A) asked respondents to describe what they considered to be their

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137 most pressing current problem in programs that led to dual certification that were frequently used in their institutions. There were six responses to this item, since in only six of the institutions were such dual or combination programs frequently used. In these six responcer the following problems were identified! 1. while students are acquiring specialization areas, their time and interest seem to be concentrated on the area other than the total elementary program. 2. The additional course work required in combination programs places a burden on both students and staff* 3. Dual internships are difficult to work out satisfactorily. U. A problem is presented in seeking agreement on modifications and yet protecting vital learnings with fewer hours. 5. In combining Elementary School Course and one special field in secondary, the state requirements for certification demand special methods and practical experience on both levels. This additional burden of course work limits such combined programs. In area of most concern in meeting state certification requirements . —Item 2 of the questionnaire! asked respondents to describe their most pressing problem in that area of preparation of elementary school teachers that in their opinion presented problems of most concern in their total programs. The areas presented for their choice were i general education requirements; professional education requirements; and elementary school course requirements. One of the respondents indicated that all three areas were of equal concern. One respondent listed general education requirements and elementary school course requirements as !see Table 2, p. 79.

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138 being of equal concern. One respondent indicated that the area of elementary school course requirements was of most concern, but did not describe the nature of problems faced in relation to this area of preparation. Five responses pointed up general education as the area of most concern. The problems identified were as follows t 1. There is a lack of articulation between general and professional preparation. 2. Giving priority to certain areas and assuming other areas like skills in music, skills in art, and mastery of plain arithmetic are not worthy of being included restricts, limits possibilities in the other phases of teacher education, 3. There is need for the organization of a General Education program that would make teachers more effective. U. There is a need for providing greater competence in the communicative arts in the general education courses. 5. There should be more emphasis on general education in order to produce better informed students with well rounded personalities before specialisation in elementary school preparation. Two of the respondents indicated that the area of professional education requirements was of prime concern. In their responses the following problems were identified: 1. In their field experiences, students may encounter a philosophy of education in complete contradiction to that which is presented in campus courses. 2. There is danger of duplication in the courses in the professional sequence due to lack of proper coordination.

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139 Three of the respondents indicated that the area of elementary school course requirements -was of most concern. One of these did not describe a specific problem. From the two remaining responses the following problems were identified t 1, Due to scheduling problems, it is difficult to have students take courses in what is felt to be the most desirable sequence. 2, The requirements set up too many individual areas of preparation. Too much is offered in the nature of "professionalized" subjects. In providing for screening and selection . —Item 3 of the questionnaire asked respondents to indicate that aspect of screening and selection that was presenting the greatest problems in their overall program, and then to describe their most pressing problem in this designated category. Four areas were presented for choice: (1) The initial selective admission of students to elementary education; (2) The continuous appraisal of students in elementary education; (3) Placement services for graduating seniors and graduates; (U) Follow-up services for your graduates in their Initial teaching. Space was provided for the addition of other aspects, but none was listed. Table 16 shows the responses to Item 3 in itoich respondents were asked to rank the aspects listed in the order in which they were presenting problems in their overall programs. Six of the respondents selected "The initial selective admission of students to elementary education" as the area of greatest concern. In their responses the following problems were identified: 1, There is a need for means of selecting high caliber students in the initial stages of training, 2. There is a problem in getting sufficisnt staff to make more

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TABLE 16 THE ORDER IN WHICH CERTAIN ASPECTS OF SCREE MIND AND SELECTION CF STUDENTS ARE PRESENTING PROBLEMS IN OVER-ALL PROGRAMS AS RANKED HY SELECTED PERSONNEL IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions Aspects ABCDEFGHIJK The initial selective admission of students to elementary education The continuous appraisal of students in elementary teacher education Placement services for graduating seniors and graduates Follow-up services for graduates in their initial teaching 31123131113 2U2113U3221 33UU2hlit30U 1233U222L32 Code: 0— Presenting no problems in overall program 1 — Presenting most problems in over-ell program 2, 3, h — Descending order of problem presentation in over-all program direct contacts and to evaluate evidence. 3. No selectivity is exercised for those students who indicate a desire to teach at the elementary level. U. There is a lack of cooperation from other departments in advising early choice and enrollment in elementary education. 5. There is no control over admission to elementary education program other than general admission to the institution. 6. Since there is no generally accepted procedure adopted by the colleges and universities of the state, it is difficult for one college to maintain a thoroughly selective admissions plan. Three of the respondents selected "The continuous appraisal of

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lill students in elementary teacher education" as the area of greatest concern. Prom their responses the following problems were identified: 1. Many of the students reaching the senior level are misfits in the program. 2. Appraisal does not lead to action. Students in whom deficiencies are identified are neither dropped from the program nor given remediation. 3. Means are not provided to keep check on student development. One respondent selected "Placement services for graduating seniors and graduates" as the area of greatest concern. The problem identified was the preparation of placement papers. One respondent selected "Follow-up services for your graduates in their initial teaching" as the area of greatest concern. The lack of budget and staff necessary for an adequate follow-up program was given as the most nressing current problem, 3h counseling of students in education.— Item k of the questionnaire asked respondents to indicate that aspect of counseling that was presenting the greatest problems in the overall program, and then to describe their most pressing problem in the designated category. Seven aspects or sub-areas were presented for choice t (l) Progressive retention of students in elementary teacher education; (2) Counseling of lower division students} (3) Counseling of upper division students; (U) Measuring students' abilities and aptitudes; (5>) Formulation and review of policies for guidance and counseling procedures; (6) Remediation of students' deficiencies in preparation or qualifications; (7) Guidance of student choice in electives. Space was provided for the addition of other asoects or areas but none was added. The problems described were limited to three of these areas. Three respondents cited

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problems in the progressiva retention of students in elementary teacher education, three cited problems in the counseling of lower division students, and five cited problems in the remediation of students' deficiencies in preparation or qualifications. Table 17 shows the responses TABLE 17 THE ORDER IN WHICH CERTAIN ASPECTS OP PROGRAMS IN COUNSELING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ARE PRESENTING PROBLEMS AS RANKED ST SELECTED PERSONNEL IN ELEVEN INSTITUTION IN FLORIDA SMtitatltN Aspects A B c D I r G H I J K Progressive retention of students in elementary teacher education 3 7 1 1 7 6 1 $ 2 0 1 Counseling of lower division students 1 h 2* 2 1 6 1 it 0 I Counseling of upper division students 3 6 $ 2* 3 3 $ 6 0 3 Measuring students' abilities and aptitudes 2 2 6 6 1 2 3 3 3 0 6 Formulation and review of policies for guidance and counseling procedures 3 h 2 1 6 k h k 6 2 7 Remediation of students' deficiencies in preparation or qualifications 3 1 7 $ 1 $ 2 2 1 1 1 Guidance of student choice in el actives 3 3 3 7 h 7 7 7 7 0 2 Code i 0 — Presenting no problems 1— Presenting most problems 2» 3> U, 5, o, 7— Descending order of problem presentation to Item h in which respondents were asked to rank the aspects listed in the order in which they were presenting problems in their overall The problems described as pertaining to the progressive retention of students in elementary teacher education were identified as follows t

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1U3 1. The problem is to get the facilities, staff, and know-how to accomplish progressive retention. 2. There is need for the formulation of a system for accomplishing progressive retention, 3. Faculty members present other desirable fields that encourage the student to transfer to them. Three respondents cited problems in the counseling of lower division students* These problems werei 1, There are differences in faculty viewpoint about counseling students into education. Hence, many may be encouraged to enter other fields. 2, Counselors in the loner division, in general, have not had professional training In counseling, 3, Faculty members of the department of Education have little opportunity to counsel lower division students. h» There is a lack of cooperation from other departments in advising early choice and enrollment in education. Five of the respondents described problems in the remediation of students' deficiencies in preparation or qualifications. From the responses the following problems ware identified! 1, Large numbers of students present deficiencies in background knowledge, and in skills in oral communication, 2, The problem lies in arriving at an effective program for the remediation of students' deficiencies. 3, There is need for remediation, or at least more systematic detection, in motional adjustment areas. k. In order to lessen the problem in this area, a more selective

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xliU admissions program is needed. J> # There is need for means of securing the students' cooperation in remedial measures. In providing for direct experiences with children . — Item $ of the questionnaire asked respondents to describe what they considered to bo their moat pressing current problem in their selection of an area of their programs relative to the provisions for direct experiences with children w dch presented most problems. Six aspects or sub-areas Here presented for* CO Direct experiences with children as an integral part of professional courses; (2) Use of the Lab school in providing opportunity for direct experiences; (3) Arranging with off-campus schools for direct experiences; (U) Arranging with teachers in cooperating schools; (5) Staff supervision of direct experiences; (6) Relating direct experiences to the total instructional pro .gram. Space was provided for the addition of other aspects or areas but none was added. The problems listed were limited to three areas. Six respondents cited problems in the area of direct experiences with children as an integral part of professional course work. One respondent cited a problem In the use of the Lab school in providing opportunity for direct experiences. Two respondents listed problems in arranging with offcampus schools for direct experiences. One respondent cited problems in both of the two latter areas. Table 18 shows the responses to Item $ in which respondents were asked to rank the aspects listed in the order in which they were presenting problems. Six response I pointed tip the provisions for direct experiences with children as an integral part of professional courses as the ares of most concern. The problems identified weret 1. There is need for providing flexible time and necessary

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3*5 TABLE 18 THE ORDER IN WHICH CERTAIN ASPECTS RELATIVE TO THE PROVISION FOR DIRECT EXPERIENCES WITH CHILDREN ARE PRESENTING PROBLEMS IN THE OVERALL PROGRAMS FOR THE PREPARATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AS RANKED B£ SELECTED PERSONNEL IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Institutions Aspects A* B c D E F a H I E Direct experiences with chil• dren as an integral part of professional courses 2 h l 1 1 1 l 1 3 0 5 Use of the Lab school in providing for direct experiences 1 0 k h 6 2 6 0 1 X 6 Arranging with off-campus schools for direct experiences 1 l $ 6 1 3 3 3 2 0 1 Arranging with teachers in cooperating schools 1 2 6 U It h 5 0 2 Staff supervision of direct experiences 2 3 3 3 2 6 5 $ k 0 3 Relating direct experiences to the total program 3 5 2 2 3 2 2 6 X h Code: 0 — Presenting no problems 1— Presenting most problems 2* 3, it* 5» 6-Descending order of problem presentation * The respondent for Institution A grouped the aspects in three orders ratlier than six, placing three of them in the first order, two in the second, one in the third* ** The respondent for Institution J considered none of the aspects as presenting "pressing" problems. Two aspects were marked *x" to signifythat some problems were manifest in these areas. facilities and staff to tie in the experiences with the professional sequence. 2. There is no unified approach to the matter of having prospective teachers come in contact with children. Provision for direct experiences is left entirely to individual instructors.

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1U6 3. Suitable arrangements with nearby schools cannot be made. k» The scheduling of other on-campus classes makss planned observation in local schools most difficult. 5>. The amount of direct experience that it is possible to provide is not adequate. 6. Arranging for individual participation below the internship level is difficult. Two responses cited the use of the Lab school in providing direct experiences with children. From these several problems ware indicated: 1. There is a lack of space far the increasing number of prospective elementary teachers. 2. There is a lack of understanding on the part of certain laboratory school teachers of their role in the teacher education program. 3. There is a lack of understanding on the part of the laboratory school administration of the role of the laboratory school in teacher education. )u The role of the laboratory school in providing direct ex' periences is not clearly defined. The question as to whether or not the presence of observers and limited participants will interfere with the experimental function of the school is unresolved. Three responses cited arranging with off-campus schools for direct experiences as the area of greatest concern. From their responses the following problems were identlf iedi la The budget is inadequate to provide staff and travel for increasing student experiences and contacts with interns and cooperating schools.

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1U7 2. It is difficult to arrange for direct experiences with children other than those directly associated with classroom teaching, 3, The schools are hesitant about admitting students as observers. In evaluation of pre-service education . —Item 6 of the questionnaire as ted respondents to indicate that aspect of evaluation of preservice education that was presenting the greatest problems in the overall program, and then to describe their most pressing problem in the designated aspect. Three aspects were presented for choice: (1) Participation of the education staff in program evaluation; (2) staff participation college-wide or university-wide in program evaluation; and (3) Student participation in program evaluation. Space was provided for the addition of other aspects, but none was added by the respondents. Three of the respondents selected the participation of the education staff in program evaluation as the area presenting the greatest problems, Six selected staff parti cipation college-wide as the greatest problem area. One respondent listed these two areas as being of equal weight in presenting problems. One respondent selected student participation in program evaluation as the area of greatest problems, but did not cite or describe a specific problem. Two of the respondents selecting staff participation college-wide as the area of greatest problems did not describe specific problems in their selected area. Table 19 shows the responses to Item 6 in which respondents were asked to rank the aspects listed in the order in which they were presenting problems. From the responses selecting participation of the education staff in program evaluation as the area of greatest problems, the following problems were identified:

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TABLE 19 THE ORDER IN TJHICH CERTAIN ASPECTS OP PROGRAM EVALUATION IN THE PRE-6ERVTCE EDUCATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE PRESENTING PROBLEMS IN OVERALL P ROGRAMS AS RANKED BY SEIECTED PERSONNEL IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA ... i, i i i, , I, i . i i ii . ..... . . Institutions Aspects ABCDEFGHIJK Participation of the education staff in program evaluation 13121330301 Staff participation college wide or university-wide in program evaluation 12213111103 Student participation in program evaluation 21332222202 Cede: 0 — Presenting no problems 1 —Presenting most problems 2, 3 — Descending order of problem presentation 1« Budget limits the ability of staff to participate in evaluation except as it is done rather superficially with students and other staff members. 2, The problem lies in getting the staff to clarify and document values before judgment is passed. 3. Staff turnover and limited experience of faculty members limits interest in, and organization for, evaluation* lu The greatest need is that education instructors "re-think" their own courses. From the six responses selecting staff participation collegewide as their greatest problem area in program evaluation, the following problems were identified!

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in 1. Too few faculty members outside the department of education are brought In to evaluate the elementary program. Each department should be aware of Its responsibility or share in the pre -service education of elementary teachers. 2. The general colloge-vdde faculty are not intrinsically aware of the need for continuous evaluation in the teacher education field. 3. There is a lack of both time and interest in the collegewide faculty for the performance of this function* h* The problem is to provide means of stimulating interest in the faculty in the program for preparing elementary teachers. Item 7 of the questionnaire asked respondents to rank certain general aspects in the programs of pre -service education of elementary school teachers in the order in which they were presenting problems. These general aspects coincided with the major aspects in the study. The tabulation of their responses is presented in Table 20. Five of the respondents ranked the aspect of providing for direct experiences with children as the area of greatest problem presentation in the pre -service preparation of elementary school teachers in their institutions. Four of the respondents ranked the aspect of providing for screening and selection of students as presenting the greatest problsn area. The mean of the rank orders assigned each of these aspects by the respondents was 2.U, It is apparent that these two aspects of programs in the pro-ear vice preparation of elementary school teachers are held to be the areas presenting the most problems in the overall pro gran in the institutions studied. Next in order of problem presentation ware the aspects of providing for guidance and counseling and providing for program evaluation. Each of these aspects was assigned a mean rank order

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150 TABUS 20 THE ORDER IN MICH CERTAIN GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE PRE-SERVICE EDUCATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE PRESENTING PROBLEMS AS RANKED BI SELECTED PERSONNEL IN ELEVEN INSTITUTIONS IN FLORIDA Aspects A* B C D E F Q H I J K Mean of Bank Orders Provision for dual certification 2 5 5 6 6 6 1 5 0 2 U.3 Meeting course requirements for state certification 3 6 6 6 5 % h 6 6 0 1 U.8 rx \J V lO X \Jl js iUi s> coilXXlg and selection of students 3 1 1 l U 3 3 U 2 1 3 tit Pro vis ions for guidance and counseling 3 2 h 2 3 2 5 3 U 0 U 3.2 Provisions for direct experiences with children 1 h 2 3 1 1 l 5 1 0 5 2.U Provisions for program evaluation 1 3 3 h 2 U 2 2 3 2 6 3.2 Code i 0— Presenting no problems 1— Presenting most problems 2, 3, U, 5, 6— Descending order of problem presentation * The respondent for Institution A grouped the aspects in three orders rather than six, placing two of them in the first order, one in the second order, three in the third order. In problem presentation of 3.2. The aspect of providing for dual certification was next in order of problem presentation, being assigned a mean rank order of U.3. The aspect of meeting course requirements for state certification was considered as presenting the least number of problems, being so indicated by most of the respondents and receiving the lowest mean rank order of U.8.

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151 Summary This chapter has presented and analyzed the data collected relative to the purposes of the study. The presentation has followed the outline that was formulated in Chapter I. The analysis has pointed up divergences and common features in practices relative to those aspects of the programs investigated. Chapter V will offer a series of Guiding Principles for the pre-eervice preparation of elementary school teachers, and the composites of the practices found in the institutions studied will be evaluated in the light of these principles.

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CHAPTER V GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE PRE-SEKVICE PREPARATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS In order to provide a meaningful basis for drawing implications for the improvement of the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers in the state of Florida, it was necessary first to establish the viewpoint from which the practices investigated would be considered. This frame of reference was defined by the formulation of certain guiding principles. In deriving these principles the literature was examined until repetition of ideas inherent in the documents assured the writer that an exhaustive examination had been made. The documentation offered in partial support of these principles is not, therefore, comprehensive, but represents only those sources which: (l) are representative of an amalgamation of concepts found in many sources} and (2) are consistent with and applicable to the criteria for the formulation of the guiding principles as stated below. The following criteria were guides in the formula tion and statement of the principles j 1. The established principles will be limited to those aspects of the preservice preparation of elementary school teachers that have been investigated, 2. The philosophy implied by the composite of these principles must present internal consistency, i.e., all could conceivably be incorporated in a single program without conflict in basic ideas, 3. The principles will be presented on a level of 152

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generalization that will make possible the equivalent consideration of variations In specific practices. h. The stated principles will be designed to present bases for the comprehensive consideration of the aspects of programs and the practices relative to them in the preparation of elementary school teachers. They will not be used to evaluate the total program in any single institution, 5. The principles set forth could have universal application, i.e. , they will not be uniquely applicable to the institutions Included in the study* The Guiding Principles are consecutively numbered, but are divided into groups of one or more so that their consideration may parallel the presentation of the major aspects of the study. Documentation of sources contributing to the formulation of the Guiding Principles follows each of the groups. Subsequent to the presentation of each group of Guiding Principles, evaluative statements are made designating the degrees of conformity to these Principles as evidenced by thB data presented in Chapter IV, Course requirements for students in elementary education The total preparation of teachers is typically organized into three major categories of course work and other experiences. These are as follows: general preparation, providing a common core of knowledge and competences necessary for the student's needs as an individual and as a citizen; professional preparation, providing knowledge and competences essential to members of the teaching profession! and specialization preparation, providing those competences and skills necessary to teaching a particular subject or age group. This divisional framework is used by the State Department of Education in its certification requirements. It also forms the organizational guide for the institutions included in this study. In order to assure clarity, the following group of Guiding Principles parallel the

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%3k common organization. Principle I The program of general preparation should be comprehensive, and should be organized around the common needs, interests, and problems of students and of society* Since these needs, interests, and problems do not remain constant, the program of general preparation should be distributed over the four-year period. Principle II The professional preparation of elementary school teachers should be distributed over the four years of study, TO assure unity and continuity of program, the courses should be planned with reference to each other and presented in sequence. To provide for integration, continuity, and flexibility, much of the program should be presented in large blocks of time rather than in separate, specialized, short courses. Principle III Courses and other experiences designed to meet the specialization requirements in the elementary field should, in their organization and implementation, be consistent with the ideas expressed in Principles I and n. Principle IV The needs of the elementary school child should be the primary focus of courses and other experiences designed to meet the specialization requirements in the elementary field. In the area of general education, many conflicting points of view were found. However, regarding the Importance of student needs there was general agreement. Four significantly different viewpoints on general education came to expression in the deliberations of these teachers colleges. It should be added that all of them were based on an acceptance of student needs as the guide to curriculum planning.* The need for integration, for continuity, and for the sequential presentation of courses and experiences in the total preparation of teachers is reflected in the following excerpts t So far as possible all educational experiences provided as elements in a program of teacher preparation should be planned with reference to each other so that they may combine to meet effectively the perCommission on Teacher Education, The College and Te acher Edncatinn (Washington, D. C.i American Council on Education, 1^}, p. 65.

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155 sonal, social, and vocational needs of students .1 Present programs are out of balance in that they fail to recognize the three-fold needs of prospective teachers— their needs as individuals, as citizens, and as members of the teaching profession.^ The following statement expresses the conviction that both general and professional courses should be included in each of the four years of pre— service preparation: It is undesirable that this part of a student's work should be concentrated in the freshman and sophomore years on the assumption that general education may be "completed" during this period, or with the consequence that attention to professional concerns must be postponed until a later time. 3 The data presented in Chapter 17 seem to warrant the following conclusions relative to Principles I through IV. 1. Little evidence was found indicating that the general preparation of elementary school teachers was organized around the needs, interests, and problems of students and of society. Far tlie most part, general preparation finds definition in a list of required courses. The priority given the area of general preparation in the questionnaire, and the nature of the stated problems indicate that there is rather a widespread dissatisfaction with this area in the preparation of elementary school teachers. Soma notable changes are being made that should tend to make practices and organisation of programs more nearly consistent with the stated principles: (a) mare freedom in the choice of electives is being given; (b) the role of the individual instructor in meeting and ^Commission on Teacher Education, The Improvement of Teacher Education (Washington, D. C: American Council on Education, 19i^), p. Hi;. ^he National Society of College Teachers of Education, The Education of Teachers (Chicago: The University of Chicago PressTT" learbook XXIH, p. 12. * Commission on Teacher Education, loc. cit.

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1S6 recognizing student needs, interests! and problems is being stressed} and (c) guidance services are providing an integrative force in curricular organization . 2. In all the institutions studied general preparation is the major function of the first two years. Further, there seems to be a trend to decrease the number of hours in professional preparation now being offered during this period, particularly in the freshman year. Both the current practice and the apparent trend are in opposition to the stated principles , 3f The comprehensiveness of the student's general preparation, weighed in the light of his needs as an individual, as a citizen, and as a member of the profession is questionable. Two conditions revealed by the data indicate this to be a valid Judgment: (a) the concern for this element in the student's preparation as reflected in the questionnaire responses; and (b) the fact that a student can qualify for state certification to teach in an elementary school with no preparation in mathematics, k* The professional preparation of elementary school teachers in the majority of the institutions studied is achieved through a number of individual courses designed to provide the necessary skills and knowledge and to enable the student to meet the requirements in this area to qualify for state certification. While the use of prerequisites for certain courses in professional preparation more or less force a certain order in which students must take them, little evidence was found that the individual courses had been planned with reference to each other. Since both order and interrelatedness are implied in the foregoing group of principles, no more than three of the institutions studied may be said to present practices which are in agreement with them.

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157 5>« Comprehensive courses, presented in large blocks of time, have little representation in the professional preparation of elementary school teachers In the institutions studied. In the preparation prior to the internship semester, only one institution offers such a comprehensive course. 6. Courses and other experiences designed to meet specialisation requirements in the elementary field tend to be more consistent with the foregoing principles than do either of the areas of general preparation or professional preparation. Although here again separate, specialized short courses remain the predominant pattern of organisation, there is an apparent trend toward comprehensive courses, and an attempt to plan courses with reference to each other. An obvious reason for the latter is the fact that in most of the institutions studied many of the specialisation courses were taught by one person. The content and method in all such courses and experiences seen to have as their primary focus the needs of the elementary school child. Screening and Selection of Students The following group of principles relates to the screening and selection of students preparing to teach in the elementary school. The placement of students following graduation from the institution is also given consideration here because the services relative to the placement function are held to be an extension of those services concerned with the screening and selection functions. Principle V In the screening and selection of students preparing to teach in the elementary school, provisions should be made for both initial admission to the professional program and for the continuous retention and screening of students throughout its course. The criteria for screenings should be clearly stated and the procedures for their administration should be simple.

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158 Principle VI There should be provisions for the diagnosis of deficiencies in the preparation and qualifications of students, and such provisions should be specifically related to desirable qualities in the teachertobe. Diagnoses should extend beyond the consideration of one or two factors such as academic grades, speech, or proficiency in English, Principle VII The placement of graduates involves the same facilities that are needed for screening and selection, and hence should be construed as an extension of these same facilities and services. It follows then, that at', materials, records, and information necessary for the performance of these related functions will be administratively unified. The importance of the ideas inherent in these principles has long been stressed by those involved in the education of teachers. In the suggestions for principles to guide those engaged in teacher preparation, the National Survey of the Education of Teachers emphasized the importance of recruiting the best qualified persons for programs in teacher education. It was pointed out that this end could best be realized byt Admission requirements aimed to select the most capable of the applicants as shown by all known prognostic measures including health and personality} Systems of tudent personnel and guidance service which will start at admission to a teacher's curriculum and continue through a period of adjustment following graduation} A rigid system of elimination of students who, during their preparation, show themselves to be unsuited or unfit for teaching.l The idea that many factors should be included in the screening process is emphasized by Prank E, Baker in his suggested principles for selective admission and selective promotion in teacher education institutions. No single factor offers a sufficiently broad basis for the intelligent selection of candidates for teacher education institutions. S, Evenden, "Sunmary and Interpretation," National Survey of the Education of Teachers (Washington, D. C.i U. S. Government Printing Office, 1935), Vol. Vl, p. 2li3.

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159 Accordingly, a program of selective admission must include several factors.* The aspect of unity in the functions of admission, selection, and placement is emphasised in the following! Placement begins with admission, and is inseparable from it. Guidance culminates in placement — although it does not cease there. Knowledge of the candidates gained through counselling is the prerequisite of discerning placement." In the light of Principles V through VII the following conclusions based upon the data of Hiis study are presented. 1. In only one of the institutions studied is there formal initial admission to programs preparing students to teach that attempts to differentiate between students who would pursue teaching as a profession and students who would pursue any other curriculum offered by the institution. The prevailing practice assumes that any student who qualifies to enter the institution is also acceptable for entry into teacher preparation. This practice Implies a policy inconsistent with the stated principles. 2. All of the institutions studied have rather clear cut criteria for screening out students having gross physical defects or possessing inadequate academic competence. The administration of the screening procedures relative to these areao is also clearly defined. 3. While all of the Institutions studied employ •one type of screening with regard to speech and English proficiency, the criteria used are seldom clearly stated, and the administration of the process is not ^-The National Society of College Teachers of Education, op. cit. , p. 55» ~ 2 Evan R. Collins, "Coordination of Selection, Admission, and Guidance with Teacher Placement, " Current Practices In Institutional Teacher Placement, p. 31. (Written by thirty-five members of the National Institutional Teacher Placement Association; The Association, 19U.) •

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m clear to all the personnel involved. U. Social, psychological and personality factors are given consideration in many of the screening procedures in the institutions studied. For the most part, however, administrative policies and procedures relative to their application appear to be in the formative stages, £• AH of the institutions studied make some provisions for the diagnosis of deficiencies in tlie students* preparation and qualifications. Most of them are devices universally applicable to the entire student body. Feu of them are uniquely applicable to the diagnosis of the students 1 preparation and qualifications to become a member of the teaching profession. 6, In only two of the institutions studied do the procedures for the placement of graduates and the administrative organization for the coordination of these procedures coincide with the stated principles. Bi most cases the placement function is apparently conceived as an answering service to requests for teachers, and this function is typically performed by one who has many other administrative or teaching responsibilities. 7* In all of the institutions studied cumulative files are kept on students preparing to teach in the elementary school. These files are typically initiated when the student enrolls for his first course in education. Wide variations were found in the content of these cumulative records and in their application to screening and selection procedures. The physical location of such records and the administrative status of the person or department responsible for them varied from institution to institution* Counseling of Students The following group of principles are concerned with practices and procedures relative to the counseling of students preparing to teach

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161 In the elementary school. They include reference to the remediation of deficiencies in the student *s preparation and qualifications as well as follow-up services after graduation. Principle VIII The procedures for the counseling of students should be clearly understood by all who are involved— staff, faculty, counselors, and students. Principle IX The organization of the total program of guidance and counseling should be such that a unified and sequential treatment of student needs, interests, and abilities is assured. Such organization should fix responsibility for both the administration and the implementation of the program. Principle I Continuity in the guidance program should be assured, beginning with the initial admission of the student, continuing through the undergraduate years to job placement provisions, and culminating in follow-up services in the field. Principle XI Provisions for the treatment of remediable deficiencies in the student's preparation and qualifications should be administratively integrated with the counseling function so that the roles of all involved in referrals, remediation, and evaluation are clearly defined. These principles are consistent with, and derived in part from, the State Board Regulations used by the Florida State Department of Education in approving programs ahich prepare teachers in Florida institutions. A portion of these Regulations states t The responsibility of the college for student guidance begins with a well-organized program of introducing new students to the purposes and problems of college life, continues throughout the undergraduate years, and Includes an effective placement service assisting the young graduates to find their proper places in the teaching profession. This responsibility includes the recommendation of graduates for certification, for placement in teaching positions and follow-up on the effective work of those students in their new positions .1 S 'State Department of Education, State Board Regulations Relating to Standards for Appro ving Programs of Teacher Education and Institut ions Which Prepar e Teachers (Adopted July 2L r l^V MU^«*«p J fr^rU) pp. 291-92. (Mimeographed.) '

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162 That the many facets of the guidance processes, including facilities far the remediation of deficiencies in students* preparation and qualifications, are interrelated and should be administratively integrated is a conviction shared by most authorities in the field. Smith points this up in a plea for more descriptive terminology. The use of the term guidance program rather than simply guidance suggests the need for binding together as a related whole the many services which comprise the guidance program* The integration of these services must be the recognized function of a responsible Individual who possesses knowledge of the nature and function of each.* McDaniel reflects a similar viewpoint, pointing up both the importance of efficient administration and the interrelatedness of the several functions of a guidance program* The need that guidance fills cannot be met efficiently by haphazard planning; it requires an organisation of functions as carefully planned as those of any business venture. • • an organizational structure for the achievement of guidance purposes in education involved a plan for relating the activities of guidance workers to one another and to those of other members of the educational team, 2 The data for this study seem to support the following statements. 1, Procedures for the academic counseling of students seem to be well defined in all of the institutions studied, and clearly understood by all involved. In this area the role of the counselor seems to be well defined and his access to assembled data regarding counselees indicates organizational structures that make possible the unified and sequential treatment of students* academic needs, 2. In the institutions studied the responsibility for academic 'tllenn E. Smith, Principles and Practices of the Guidance Program (New York i The Macmillan Company), p. 17. — 2 Henry B. McDaniel, with 0. A. Shaftel, Guidance in the Modern School (Hew York! The Dryden Press, 1956), p. 29,

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163 counseling of those students majoring in elementary education typically shifts from staff members responsible for the student »s general preparation to staff members responsible for the professional preparation of the teacher-to-be. In most cases this transfer of major academic counseling responsibility seems to be poorly defined. 3. All of the institutions studied profess to give consideration to social, psychological, and personality factors in their guidance programs. While no index as to the efficacy of this consideration ms found, there is apparent in these areas a need for better coordination of the various services necessary for the best use of the facilities available. Diagnosis, remediation, and evaluation often involve as many as three separate administrative units. Problems in communication arise, and the full realization of an effective program becomes difficult. Direct Experiences with Children The following group of principles apply to those practices and procedures which provide opportunity for students who are preparing to teach in the elementary school to have direct experiences with children. These principles have application not only to student teaching or internship, but to all those contacts with children provided for the student during his undergraduate years, and considered to be integral parts of his preparation for teaching. Principle XII There should be adequate provision for the inclusion of c irect experiences with children throughout the student »s preservice preparation. Contacts with children prior to the internship should be integral parts of course work, consistent with the over-ell purposes inherent in the total curriculum. Full-time student teaching or internship should represent vhe culmination of a planned sequence of direct experiences. Principle XIII All the direct experiences with children

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that are included in the student's preparation should be guided by the college instructor, planned with him in the light of agreed upon objectives designed to make direct contribution to the student »s understandings, and evaluated in relation to these objectives* They should be planned in terms of the individual student's level of readiness and require his involvement and interaction with children. Principle XIV Student teaching or internship should re pre— sent full-time, uninterrupted participation by the student in a public school* The period of this student teaching or internship should be of sufficient length to assure the student's participation in representative activities of a teacher* Principle XV The selection of the school in which the student is to intern or participate, and the selection of the cooperating teacher who assumes direction of the student's participation should be made in accordance with established principles and policies which are consistent with the institution's objectives in their programs of preparation of elementary school teachers. The ultimate responsibility for these selections must rest with the institution in which the student is enrolled* This group of principles was derived from, and are consistent with, the ideas expressed in significant sources pertaining to the development of laboratory experiences in teacher education programs .1-^ When Principles XII through XV are applied to the findings of this study, the following conclusions seem pertinent. ^Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council, Introduction to Internship (Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, I9I48), 12? pp. Donald P. Cottrell (ed), Teacher Education for a Free People. (Oneonta, New Yorki The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1956), lOS pp. ^American Association of Teachers Colleges, The Sub-Committee of The Standards and Surveys Committee, School and Connunlty Labo ratory Experiences in Teacher Education (The Association, $W pp. ^State Department of Education, State Board Regulations Relating to Standards for Approvi ng Programs of Teacher Education and Institutions Which Prepa re Teachers (Ifellahassee. Florid* ; frW^ a nh>lj> r^p^^a °™J*«J«f 1953), Sections 231.11 and 231.12, pp. 288^7. (Mimeographed

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165 1. In most of the pre -eer vice programs for the preparation of elementary school teachers in the institutions studied there are few provisions for direct experiences with children prior to the internship semester. Three of the institutions make no provisions for such contacts with children; two of them provide for experiences on a participation * level. In seven, the experiences consist primarily of the observation of groups of children or of a particular child. 2. In only a few cases does the internship represent the culmination of a planned sequence of direct experiences with children. For the most part such pre-internship contacts are not planned in terms of the individual student »s level of readiness, nor do they bear a sequential relationship to the preparation for internship. , 3« A major portion of the pre-internship direct experiences with children listed by personnel in the institutions studied do not provide for any great degree of the student »s involvement in interaction with children. Most of them may be placed in the category of observation, and while some participation by the student may be achieved, there is little evidence that this aspect is either emphasized or evaluated. h» The pre-internship contacts with children provided in the institutions studied are typically parts of specific single courses in education. They are usually cooperatively planned by instructors and students, and are evaluated in terms of course objectives. 5, All of the institutions studied offer the internship. Perhaps it would be more accurate to say that the term "internship" is in common usage. The wide range in practices in all aspects relative to this experience indicates that the derivation of an operational definition of internship from current practices that would be acceptable to

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166 all the institutions studied would be an impossible task, 6. All of the institutions offer the full-time internship rather than part-time student teaching, thus presumably providing opportunity for students to assume all of the roles of the elementary school teacher. There is common concern, however, that those teacher activities in preschool planning sessions before the opening of school and during the first weeks following the opening of school are not adequately represented. Most of the institutions studied are currently working toward the greater inclusion and better use of these experiences in their programs. 7. Both the nature of the internship experiences and their duration are contingent upon the objectives established for them. Many of the objectives that could conceivably be realized through an internship could also be realized by other means. Far this reason no exact period of time for the internship was formulated in the Guiding Principles. The length of the internship should be determined at the local level, based upon an evaluation of the program of preparation, with especial consideration for the unique objectives the internship is to fulfill. 8. In all of the institutions, major responsibility for the selection of the cooperating school and the selection of the cooperating teacher is assumed by personnel in these institutions. In most cases, however, this responsibility is wholly or partially delegated to administrative personnel in the local school systems. Policies relative to the selection of both cooperating schools and cooperating teachers are based on criteria that are more often implied than clearly stated. Implementation of such policies is rarely fully realized. The

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167 best placement situations are apparently in those public schools wherein many interns have been placed by a particular institution. Over a period of years a spirit of cooperation and mutual understanding evolves. Such schools are usually referred to by the institutions using thca as "intern centers.'* Program Evaluation The following group of principles apply to practices and procedures in the evaluation of the pre -service preparation of elementary school teachers. These principles were not designed for the consideration of all of the evaluative processes employed in the preparation of teachers. They have reference only to those processes which relate to the improvement of the program of preparation for elementary school teachers. Principle XVI Evaluation of programs of pre-eervice Reparation of elementary school teachers s'nould be continuous, planned in the light of established techniques, and designed to measure progress toward established and stated objectives consistent with a recognized set of values. Principle IVxi Evaluation of programs of pre-eervice preparation of elementary school teachers should include the totality of the preparation for which the institution assumes responsibility. Principle XVIII There should be involvement in the evaluative processes of representative members of all groups directly involved in any phase of the total program. Students, staff, faculty, public school teachers and administrators, and the community should be represented in these processes. Although many sources were reviewed before the final statement of the foregoing principles was made, the writer is primarily indebted to the several publications of the Commission of Teacher Education. The evaluative processes, and their importance in teacher education,

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I, l£C are stressed in these publications. The formulated principles are consistent with the ideas advanced in them. The over-all importance of evaluation as a process is emphasized in the following. Evaluation should play an important role in pre -service teacher education. Prospective teachers should learn to evaluate their own strengths and weaknesses and to help children and young people to do the same. They should learn to appraise the effectiveness of teaching procedures as a means to the continuous improvement of their own work. And college staffs should be constantly employing evaluative techniques for the same reason. 1 The fundamental necessity for the careful planning of evaluative processes, recognizing the interrelatedness of the constituent elements of the complete process, is emphasized by the following. Techniques are related to procedures, and procedures are related to purposes. In fact, all three are closely interrelated. One of the reasons we have paid so much attention in the cooperative study to the procedures of evaluation has been our conviction that such considerations have been too often ignored. 2 The viewpoint that the university or college as a whole is responsible for the total preparation of teachers is commonly advocated. Typical of the expressions found is the following. We have consistently maintained in our treatment of all narratives that teacher education can be adequately handled only by the entire institution acting as one organic group. 3 The need for student participation in evaluation is expressed in the following. ^American Council on Education, The Improvement of Teacher Education , A Final Report by the Commission on Teacher Education (Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, 19b6), pp. U6-U7» 2 Maurice E. Troyer and C. Robert Pace, Evaluation in Teacher Education, Prepared for the Commission on Teacher' Education (Washington, B, C.j American Council on Education, 19hk), p. 357. Earl Armstrong, Ernest V. Hollis, and Helen E. Davis. The College and Teacher Education, Prepared for the Commission on Teacher Education (Washington, D. C: American Council on Education. 19U0, P. 299.

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16? • . • we maintain that students will need to share more actively than they ordinarily have in the past in planning and appraising their education as they go along. J• The following statements seen pertinent in the light of Principles XVI through XVIII. 1. Hone of the institutions studied have programs of evaluation that are wholly In accord -with the stated principles. The techniques used vary widely, their application tends to be sporadic, and objectives are often not explicit. 2. About half of the institutions studied use staff committees in program evaluation. Here the primary emphasis is on the student's professional preparation. The evaluations may project into the student 's general preparation, but only rarely is there involvement of personnel directly responsible for this portion of the student's preparation. 3. The internship receives major attention in the evaluative procedures being employed in the institutions studied. The continuous aspect of evaluation, however, does not seem to be emphasized, as many of the processes and procedures find initiation rather than culmination during the internship experience. Combination Programs In many of the institutions studied, it is possible, within the limitations of the requirements for graduation, to qualify for certification to teach in the elementary school and at the same time to combine with this preparation another preparation in some related field or in some specialized field. In most, but not all, cases the additional competency developed qualifies the student for certification in an area cit .» p. 302.

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170 of teaching additional to Elementary School Course. The following principle is designed to form a basis for the consideration of such programs regardless of -whether or not they are intended to prepare the student for such additional certification. Principle XIX All programs of pre-eervice education that qualify graduates to obtain certification to teach in the elementary school should be organized in such a my that the preparation for teaching in the elementary school becomes the central, major focus. All other purposes should be auxiliary and related to this major aim. If a second competency is to be developed, then this competency must be one that is readily identified as being necessary to meeting needs, fostering interests, or developing abilities of the elementary school child. The relevancy of the initial statement in this Principle is emphasised by the following* Advanced subjectHnatter instruction for teachers should exhibit the highest standards of scholarship. Offerings in a particular field should, however, be planned and conducted with informed reference to the tasks that prospective teachers eventually will be called upon to perform.^ Principle X3X was derived in part from a consideration of the point of view expressed in the following t However, the prospective elementary-school teacher, in addition to study in each major field of knowledge, should have some area of concentration so that he may serve as a resource to his fellow teachers and thereby help to meet the needs of children having special interests and abilities. 2 Essentially the same idea was expressed in an earlier work* It Is also recommended that the elementary teacher carry on intensive study in at least one area of specific interest while continuing advanced work in each of the fields represented in general education. ... Each member of the staff may serve as a specialist in a given area for other members of a given school group, a ^Commission on Teacher Education, T he Improvement of Teacher Education (Washington, D. C.i American Council on Education, 1°U6), p. HU. ^Donald P. Cottrell (ed.), Teacher Education for a Free People, (Oneonta, New Torkt American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 19^6), p. 67.

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171 factor of very real importance in integrating the -work of the school as well as in providing that type of help from the specialist so often needed by the elementary teacher -gener all et. 1 In the institutions studied combination programs are provided for only a small percentage of the total number of elementary school teachers prepared. For the combination programs offered, the following conclusions seem warranted, 1, Most of the programs currently in effect violate wholly or partially the stated principle. That is, the purposes implicit in the additional preparation are not always obviously auxiliary to the major aim of preparation to teach in the elementary school. 2, In some cases the descriptive materials relative to combination programs imply that the preparation for teaching in the elementary school is relegated to a secondary position in the student's total preparation. Certification to teach in the elementary school is achieved "in addition to" sood other basic preparation, 3, In some of the combination programs provided, one of the components is obviously not readily identified with the needs, interests, and abilities of the elementary school child. This applies especially in those instances where it is possible to achieve certification in the elementary school course plus certification to teach a special field on the secondary level. Summary This chapter has set forth certain guiding principles in the preservice education of elementary school teachers. The frame of "h?he National Society of College Teachers of Education, The Education of Teachers (Chicago » The University of Chicago Press, 1935). Yearbook fflH, pp. 87-88.

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172 reference for these principles was defined by the statement of criteria which served as guides in the formulation of the principles. These Guiding Principles were further limited in that they considered only those areas in the preparation of elementary school teachers that fell within the scope of the current study. The Guiding Principles were presented and documented in groups. Following the presentation and documentation of each group of Principles evaluative statements were drawn which were based on a consideration of the totality of practices in the institutions studied. In no case was an evaluation of the complete program of a single institution attempted. In none of the aspects investigated did universal practices reflect complete compliance with the Guiding Principles. Practices relative to providing for the counseling of students preparing to teach in the elementary schools were found to conform most nearly with the Guiding Principles concerned with this aspect. Host divergence from the Guiding Principles were revealed in the practices relative to prograi evaluation and combination programs.

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CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND RECCMfflfflDATIONB It was the major purpose of this study to investigate and analyze the status of selected aspects of undergraduate programs provided by eleven Florida colleges and universities for the preparation of elementary school teachers, and to determine major problems in these programs as seen by personnel of these institutions. To achieve this purpose, the assembled data were presented and analyzed in Chapter IT. In order to provide a basis for the drawing of meaningful implications for the improvement of undergraduate programs for the preparation of elementary school teachers, Guiding Principles were formulated, and overall evaluative statements were made. These were presented in Chapter V. The problem for this study, as stated in Chapter I, was to seek answers to a cluster of questions designed to serve, within the limitations established for the study, the purposes stated above. These questions are restated below, and following each of them is presented a eerie 8 of statements in answer to them. Within the limitations of those aspects investigated, what is the current status of the preparation of elementary school teachers in eleven institutions in Florida? 1. The exact number of students prepared in all of the institutions studied who are qualified to teach in the elementary school could not be determined. In some cases reliable estimates were available, but records kept at the individual institutions did not lend themselves to 173

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17U obtaining complete data. Since graduates from these institutions are not required to obtain certification in the state of Florida, examination of certification records was fruitless. 2. State certification requirements in general, professional, and specialization seem to be the most influential single factor in curriculum construction as it relates to the preparation of elementary school teachers in the institutions studied. 3. The area of preparation of elementary school teachers defined as general preparation or general education is currently of greater concern to the personnel interviewed in the institution studied than is either the area of professional preparation or specialization, that is, elementary school teaching preparation. U. There is a tendency for the institutions' course requirements in all three areas of preparation to exceed wrir^ni requirements for state certification. The range of variation in semester hours required for professional and elementary specialization preparation is not as great as in the area of general preparation. 5>. The organization of the total program for the preparation of elementary school teachers varies from institution to institution. While in some instances, comprehensive courses offering from 6 to 35 semester hours of credit are included, the predominant pattern of organization is that of presenting single, isolated courses. 6. Clear-cut and well-defined screening practices, uniquely applicable to students preparing to teach in the elementary schools, are rare. Institution-wide policy regarding academic competence and proficiency in written and oral expression typically provide the basis for criteria for screening applicable to prospective elementary teachers.

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In the area of personality and psychological characteristics, screening criteria are either oerely Implied or stated in broad and general terns. Responsibility for the elimination of students for deficiencies in these areas lies primarily in recommendations from student counselors. 7. In most of the institutions studied the major emphasis of the organization for counseling lay in provisions for the academic guidance of students. In all of the institutions studied an academic counselor or adviser was provided for each student from his initial registration to his graduation. 8. The assumption of major responsibility for the counseling of students in elementary education typically shifts from a division or department other than elementary education to the department of elementary education during the student's undergraduate preparation. The point at which this responsibility lies wholly within the division or department of elementary education staff is usually poorly defined. Further, in most of those cases involving combination programs, autonomy by the elementary education staff with regard to counseling is not achieved. 9* Most of the provisions for remediation of deficiencies in the preparation and qualifications of students preparing to teach in the elementary school deal primarily with academic proficiency of the students. 10. In all of the institutions studied the internship provided the major opportunity for direct experiences with children for students preparing to teach in the elementary school. In seven of the institutions it provides the only opportunity for interaction between children and the teacher-to-be. 11. Most of the contacts with children prior to the internship tend to be on the observation level and are planned in the light of

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objectives inherent in specific courses* In most cases there is no evidence of their being planned as a continuum of direct experiences that find culmination in the internship. In two institutions no provision la aade in courses prior to the internship for direct experiences with children, 12. There is almost universal agreement among the institutions' personnel directly concerned with the internship programs that participation by their students in the pre -school planning sessions and opening wales of public schools would be desirable. Extreme variation in the extent of provision for this experience exists in the institutions studied. In only one institution is this experience required for all students. In other institutions participation is on a voluntary basis, ranging from a very small percentage of students to as high as 85 per cent. There is common agreement that under existing conditions the inclusion of this experience as an integral part of undergraduate programs is administratively very difficult. 13. While the internship for students preparing to teach in the elementary schools is common to all of the institutions studied, variations In specific practices within the larger framework of the internship imply that many basic disagreements exist. Those areas in which practices reflect most disagreement appear to bej (a) objectives to be realised by the total internship experience; (b) the place of the internship in the rest of the preparation program; (c) the role of the intern supervisor or coordinator; (d) the structure and content of the internship semester; (e) the interrelatedness of the component parts of the internship; and (f ) the designated responsibility of public schools and colleges or institutions in the guidance of the interns 1 experiences.

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i77 111. The selection of cooperating teachers is based primarily on the judgments of either university personnel, administrative personnel in the public school systems, or a combination of the two. Criteria for their selection, on which the judgments are presumably made, are more often implied than formally stated. 15. No special training is mandatory for cooperating teachers. Four of the institutions offer a course designed to provide instruction in the supervision of interns. In these institutions it is general policy to select cooperating teachers from those teachers nho have had such a course. This policy is not absolutely enforced. 16. No tangible compensation is given to the public school teachers under whose direction the students serve their internship. Two of the state universities issue a waiver of fees* certificate to cooperating teachers which entitles them to one registration. J=y reciprocal arrangement this certificate can be used at either university. In no cas3 is direct financial payment made to cooperating teachers. 17. m the institutions studied program evaluation of the preparation of elementary school teachers is most often conducted through the use of staff committees. The students 1 professional preparation receives most attention in these evaluative activities, and much of the data used is collected during the internship, or during activities related to the internship* 18. For the most part the evaluative activities relating to the programs for the preparation of elementary school teachers in the institutions studied do not reflect continuity or comprehensiveness. This may account in part for there being little evidence of a feed-back relationship between evaluative activity and program change.

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173 IP, The interview and questionnaire responses revealed that the practice of combining preparation to teach in the elementary school with some other preparation is held in general favor. TJhile its current use affects only a small percentage of the total number of students preparing to teach in the elementary school, the approval of personnel involved may indicate that there will be a trend in this direction in the future. 20. There are several factors that tend to deter the extensive use of combination programs in the preparation of elementary school teachers. These were reported to be: (a) such programs are difficult to administer; (b) the burden of content is greater for the student) and (c) facilities needed for such programs are often not available. To what degree do the aspects studied meet the criteria for the pre-eervice preparation of elementary school teachers as established by the Guiding Principles? 1. In the institutions studied the courses designed to meet the student's general preparation do not operate in accordance with the Guiding Principles. In the area of professional preparation no more than three of the institutions present practices which operate upon the criteria stated. In the area of specialization preparation the institutions studied tend to be mare consistent with the principles stated although some variations in practices were found to exist. 2. Practices relative to the screening, selection, and placement of students preparing to teach in the elementary school are in part operating upon the stated principles but fall short of being clearly defined or comprehensive. 3. Practices and procedures relative to the counseling of students preparing to teach in the elementary school show a high degree of

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179 consistency with the stated principles. However, some inconsistency with them was found with regard to continuity in responsibility far counseling and in over-all administrative organization for the efficient utilisation of all available facilities relative to the counseling function. lu "Rhen viewed in totality the practices relative to the aspect of direct experiences in the institutions studied tend to fall short of the standards set forth in the stated principles. This is not to imply that the quality of those direct experiences with children that are provided is inferior. The evidence indicates that the quality of these experiences is probably of a high order. The inconsistency of these practices with the stated principles is a result of the following conditions: (a) most of the pre -internship direct experiences with children are primarily on an observational level, are not fitted to individual needs, and do not bear a sequential relationship to the preparation for internship; (b) while the institutions studied assume responsibility for the selection of both the cooperating school and the cooperating teacher, this responsibility is usually wholly or partially delegated to administrative personnel in the local school systems j and (c) the criteria by which selection of cooperating schools and cooperating teachers is made are neither explicit nor rigidly enforced. 5. Practices in program evaluation relating to the preparation of elementary school teachers do not meet the stated principles in the institutions studied. Underlying values are often not recognized, and the objectives to be achieved are usually not clearly stated. Evaluative activities tend to exclude a major portion of the staff responsible for the students' preparation, and the procedures used

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180 tend to be concentrated near the end of the preparation. These factors make it difficult for the continuous nature of evaluation to be illustrated in action* 6. Only a small percentage of the total number of students prepared to teach in the elementary school have combined this preparation with another area of competence or certification. Programs that include such preparation present a range of compliance with the stated principles from complete agreement to complete disagreement. Most of the pro— grams currently in effect, however, violate wholly or partially the stated principles. The primary reason for this violation lies in the tendency to present the preparation to teach in the elementary school as a secondary rather than a primary area within the total preparation. what are the major problems in the preparation of teachers for the elementary school as identified by personnel in the participating colleges and universities? 1. The general preparation of the student preparing to teach in the elementary school was seen by key personnel who responded to the questionnaire as constituting the area of more serious problem presentation than either the professional or the specialization areas of preparation. 2. In the programs far the screening and selection of students preparing to teach in the elementary school, the aspect of initial selective admission of students to elementary education was listed by more than half of the respondents to the questionnaire as the area of greatest problem presentation in their over-all programs for screening and selection. 3. In the programs for the counseling of undergraduate students in elementary education, the aspect of remediation of students* deficiencies in preparation or qualifications presented the greatest problem,

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181 according to questionnaire responses. h. The questionnaire responses indicated that in providing for direct experiences with children the inclusion of such experiences a* integral parts of professional courses presented the greatest problem. 5. The questionnaire responses indicated that in the area of program evaluation the most common problem was that of securing staff participation on a college-wide or university .-wide basis, 6. The limited use of combination programs in the institutions studied, and the variety of the combinations employed provide little basis far deriving common problems. The problems in this area are apparently unique to the institution and directly related to the number of students pursuing such preparation and the number of such combinations made possible in each Institution. Do the institutions have long-range programs for the evaluation of those aspects investigated? 1. Little evidence was found that the institutions studied employ comprehensive, long-range programs for the evaluation of the overall preparation of elementary school teachers. 2. The major portion of the evaluative activity reported was motivated by subsequent evaluations made by visiting committees whose function was to provide bases for the accreditation or approval of the total program in teacher education. 3. The evaluative activities reported tended to be sporadic, the techniques used varied widely, their application tended to concentrate on the students* professional preparation. They were used most often near the end of the students' preparation rather than being distributed over the four years of preparation.

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182 Are there evident and discernible impediments to program change in the institutions studied? 1. The data Indicated that most of the evaluative activities in the institutions studied were neither comprehensive nor continuous. Hence much of the data obtained through the evaluative procedures that were employed did not provide reliable bases for program change. 2. State certification requirements in general, professional, and specialization preparation for a framework in relation to which program change must operate. All current programs of preparation for elementary school teachers in the state conform to these requirements . 3. The area of general preparation is the responsibility of departments other than education and satisfactory cooperation or even adequate channels of communication are rarely found. U. The complexity of problems involved in teacher education and the limited resources available make it difficult to design and conduct experiments which will provide sound bases for program change. What implications for the improvement of the pre-eervice preparation of elementary school teachers can be drawn? The implications for the improvement of the pre-eervice preparation of elementary school teachers in the institutions studied are presented in the form of recommendations. These recommendations are presented later in this chapter under two headings — "Re comme ndat ions for Action," and "Recommendations for Further Study." Limitations of the Study The conclusions presented above are, of necessity, influenced by the design of the study, by the procedures employed, and by the data compiled. It is Important, therefore, that certain limitations of this

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183 study be boras in mind in interpreting the data and in erainlnlng the recommendations for action. Major conditions affecting the generalization of results are presented below as limitations of this study. 1. in the consideration of the course requirements for students preparing to teach in the elementary school, course content was not analyzed. While course content may be implied by course title, it is realized that such titles are not absolute indices to course content. 2. Methods and materials of instruction, and the personal qualities of instructors were not investigated. 3. The data obtained from the questionnaire is limited in objectivity. Every effort possible was made to select from the personnel directly involved in elementary school preparation programs those who would best reflect the consensus of staff opinion. These selected persons were administered the questionnaire. It is possible, however, that some of the responses reflect a personal bias. k* The study is limited because of the extensive scope of the investigation. More time spent on each campus would no doubt have been profitable, but the personal resources of the investigator were limited. 5. The nature and organization of the records kept at the institutions studied limited the scope of the study. One of the areas of investigation originally planned for inclusion in this study was abandoned because the necessary data were not available. Recommendations for Action Within the scope of the present study it seems clear that certain recommendations can be formulated for the improvement of existing practices utilized by eleven institutions in the state of Florida for

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18U the preparation of teachers for the elementary school. The recommendations that follow are made on the assumption that changes in existing practices and procedures toward conformity with the standards set forth in the Guiding Principles are desirable. In order to achieve this conformity it is recommended j 1. That programs designated to provide general education background for prospective elementary school teachers be so organized that greater recognition will be given to the needs, interests, and problems of students and of society. Greater freedom in the choice of electives, the inclusion of comprehensive courses, and the extension of general preparation to include the last two years of preparation as well as the first two years are some of the means to this end. 2. That the professional preparation of the prospective elementary school teacher be distributed over the four years of preparation rather than being concentrated in two or three semesters. 3. That the courses and other experiences comprising the professional preparation of the elementary school teacher be offered in a designated sequence. Both the order and interrelatedness of these offerings should be determined in relation to carefully formulated and clearly stated objectives. U. That courses and other experiences designated to provide the specialization preparation for prospective elementary school teachers be planned with reference to one another, and that much of this work be presented in comprehensive courses. Such consideration and organization would prevent overlapping, and provide opportunity for the unification of closely related content. A trend toward the use of comprehensive courses has been noted, and some of the institutions studied

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185 now include courses offering from 6 to 15 semester hours of credit. However, the predominant pattern of organisation remains that of presenting separate, specialized short courses* 5>. That the individual institutions define the point of initial admission to those programs of preparation that terminate in the student's becoming certified to teach in the elementary school and that in this definition the relation of initial admission to other screening points be made clear. In most of the institutions the initial admission of the student to the institution is considered as an initial screening for those students who -would become elementary school teachers. Yet little attention is given at this point to the consideration of the student as a prospective teacher. In many cases this places an undue burden on screening devices used later in the student's program, and in sons cases makes it difficult if not Impossible to eliminate those who give evidence of not becoming good teachers. It is recommended that the point of initial admission to those programs of preparation that terminate in the student's becoming certified to teach in the elementary school be established no later than the student's first registration of his sophomore year. 6. That the individual institutions clarify the procedures for the placement of graduates and make provisions for the administration of such placement so that the integration of the placement function with both the guidance program and follow-up procedures is assured. This recommendation is necessarily somewhat general in order that it may apply to all the institutions included in the study. Details of its Implementation are dependent upon the size of the institution and the relative importance of its teacher training function. However, the principle

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186 implicit in the foregoing recommendation is applicable to all the institutions* 7. That the individual institutions clearly define that point in the student's preparation when the major responsibility for the student's academic counseling is aB mimed by the department, school, or college of education* This point should coincide vdth the student's initial admission to the program of preparation designed for prospective elementary school teachers, and should be no later than his first registration of the sophomore year* 8. That provision for direct experiences with children be made an integral part of the content of professional and specialization courses prior to the internship, and further, that such provision stress the factors of sequence, interaction with children, and the individual student's level of readiness. 9* That the minimum preparation for cooperating teachers be determined and incorporated in the Florida Statutes as an area of certification, and further, that after a specified date no intern be placed with a cooperating teacher who does not have this certification* 10* That in the individual institutions techniques and procedures be adopted and stabilized that would assure long-range and comprehensive programs of evaluation of teacher education, and further, that in such programs the general preparation of the prospective elementary school teacher be given initial priority. U. That there be records kept in each of the institutions that will readily indicate not only the total number of students whose preparation qualifies them to be certified to teach in the elementary schools of Florida, but would also indicate the number of students

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187 who have combined the preparation to teach in the elementary school with some other competence or area of certification. 12. That effective follow-up services be provided for the graduates of the institutions in their Initial year of teaching. To do this it would be necessary* (a) to extend entries in the student 1 s cumulative record beyond the point of his graduation; (b) to allocate staff time to these services $ (c) to provide adequate funds for such services $ and (d) to maintain cooperative relationships with the public school personnel involved. Recommendations for Further Study During the processes of collecting and analyzing the data for the current study, needs for further study and research relative to those aspects of teacher education comprising the scope of the present study were noted. A list of such studies that would conceivably lead to the ultimate improvement of teacher education in the state of Florida followst 1, A comprehensive, evaluative study of the programs of general education or general preparation for prospective elementary school teachers in the institutions included in this study. Such a study should first determine the objectives to be realized in these programs and would probably have implications for the revision of the state certification requirements with regard to the general preparation of prospective teachers. 2. Experimental studies at the local level to determine the efficacy and desirability oft (a) the sequential presentation of courses and other experiences in the professional preparation of elementary school teachers versus the presentation of such courses and experiences in a random order j and (b) the offering of courses and other experiences

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188 relative to the professional and specialisation preparation of elementary school teachers in comprehensive courses versus the presentation of single, isolated courses. 3. An evaluative study of practices in relation to the placement of graduates in teaching positions. Such a study should seek to clarify the administrative relationship between the placement function and follow-up services provided for teachers in their initial teaching experience. U. A follow-up study of those students whose preparation combined qualifying them to teach in the elementary school with some other competence. Such a study would conceivably have implications for revisions in those combination programs now in effect. 5. A study to determine the objectives to be realized in the internship. Such a study could conceivably include recommendations of optimum length for an internship that would be consistent with the formulated objectives. 6. A study to determine the training and qualification* necessary for cooperating teachers. 7. A study of the effectiveness of institution-wide staff cooperation in program planning, policy formation, curriculum revision, and program evaluation. Such a study would seek factors that tend to promote the desired cooperation. Conversely, it would seek to reveal those forces and conditions that constitute impediments to a full realisation of effective cooperation. 8. A study or studies to determine the roles of the intern, the intern supervisor, the cooperating teacher, the principal of the cooperating school, and others in an effective internship program.

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BIBLICGRAPHT Books and Pamphlets American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Eighth Yearbook . Oneonta, New Torkt The Association, 1955. 310 pp. . Heeded Research in Teacher Education . The Committee on Studies and Standards of the AACTE, Report of the Joint Committee of the AACTE and the American Educational Research Association. Oneonta, New Yorki The Association, 19$h, 62 pp. • Ninth Yearbook . Oneonta, New Yorki The Association, 1956. 207 PP. . "Recommended Standards Governing Professional Laboratory Experiences and Student Teaching and Evaluative Criteria, 1 ' Report of the Sub-Comnittee to the Committee on Standards and Member Institutions . Oneonta, New York: The Association, 191*9. 38 pp. . Revised Standards and Policies for Accrediting Teacher Education of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education . Oneonta, New York: The Association, 1951, I|0 pp. . Student Personnel Services . The Subcommittee of the Committee of the Committee on Studies and Standards. Oneonta, New Yorki The Association, 19 h9 . 2U0 pp. American Association of Teachers Colleges. Schoo l and Community Laboratory Experiences in Teacher Education . The Sub-Committee of the Standards and Surveys Committee. Oneonta, New Yorki The Association, 19U8. 31*0 pp. American Council on Education. The Improvement of Teacher Education . A Final Report by the Commission on Teacher Education. Washington, D. C.t The Council, 19^6. 283 pp. Major Issues in Teacher Education . Report of the Sub-Committee on Teacher Education. Washington, D. C.t The Council, Series I, Vol, H, No. h, 1938. hh pp. » Teachers for Our Times . A Statement of Purposes by the Commission on Teacher Education, National Education Association. Washington, D. C.t The Council, 1914. 178 pp. 189

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190 Anderson, Earl W. A Survey of Some Phases of Teacher Education In the Oregon State System of Higher Education . Prepared for and Published by the Oregon state Board of Higher Education, Eugene, Oregon, 1953. 1«5 pp. Armstrong, W. Earl, Hollis, Ernest V., and Davis, Helen E. The Collegi and Teacher Education . Prepared for the Commission on Teacher Education. Washington, D. C.t American Council on Education, 19hh» 186 pp. The Association for Higher Education. Current Issues in Higher Education . The Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual National Conference on Higher Education. Washington, D. C.t National Education Association, 1956. 363 pp. The Association for Student Teaching. The Evaluation of Student Teaching . Twenty-eighth Annual Yearbook. Lock Haven, Pa. r The AssociaTlon, 19h9, 290 pp. . Off «Campus Student Teaching . Thirtieth Annual Yearbook. Lock Haven, Pa.t The Association, 1951. 190 pp. Bathhurst, Effie Q,, and Granseth, Jane. Following Graduates into Teaching . Bulletin 195U, No. 6, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education. Washington, D. C.t U. S. Government Printing office, 19$h. 16 pp. Bigelow, Karl W. Cooperation in the Inmrovement of Teacher Education . From the National Education Association Proceedings. Washington, D, C,t American Council on Education, 1939. pp. 115-117. Cottrell, Donald P. (ed.), Teacher Education for A Free People . Oneonta, New Yorkt American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1956. 205 pp. Florida Teacher Education Advisory Council. Introduction to Internshi p. Tallahassee, Florida t The Advisory Committee on Revision, State Department of Education, 19WJ. 129 pp. Graves, Frank Pierrepont. The Administration of American Education. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932. 631 pp. Gross, Chalmer A. "Implementing Programs of General Education for Teachers," AACTE Study Series No. 1 . The Sub-Committee of the Committee on Studies and Standards of Ihe American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Oneonta, New Yorkt The Association, 1953. 60 pp. McDaniel, Henry B., with Shaftel, G. A. Guidance in the Modern School . New Yorkt The Dryden Press, 1956. 526 pp. Mcrphet, E. L. "Providing Better Teachers for Florida Schools," Bulletin fcutf * Tallahassee, Florida j The State Department of Education, 19W>. 123 pp. (Prepared at the University of Florida Work-Conference on School Administration Problems, Edgar L. Morphet, Director.)

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National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards. The Education of Teachers—As Viewed by the Profession. Official Group Reports of the Bending Green Conferences. Washington, D. C. t National Education Association, I9I48. 275 PP. Teacher Education! The Decade Ahead . The DeKalb Conference lie port. Washington. D. C.t National Education Association, 1955. 363 pp. National Institutional Teacher Placement Association. Current Practices in Institutional Teacher Placement . The Association, 191iL. 186 pp. National Society of College Teacher b of Education. The Education of Teachers . Yearbook No. XXIII. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935. §66 pp. Prall, Charles E. State Programs for the Improvement of Teacher Education. Washington, D. C.s Commission on Teacher Education, America* Council on Education, 19liU. 379 pp. The Reports of the White House Conference on Education. Washington, D. C, November 29 December 1, 1955. 19 pp. Smith, Glenn E. Principles and Practices of the Guidance Program . New Torkt The Macmillan Company, 1951. 379 pp. Troyer, Maurice E,, and Pace, Robert C. Evaluation in Teacher Education . Prepared for the Commission on Teacher Education. Washington, D. C: American Council on Education, 19144.. 369 pp. U. S. Department of the Interior. National Survey of the Education of Teachers. Bulletin 1933, No. 10, In Six Volumes. Washington, t>. C. 1 Office of Education, 1932-1935. Zirbes, Laura. Teachers for Today's Schools . A Pamphlet Prepared for the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Washington, D. C.» National Education Association, 195l. 81 pp. Articles Anderson, Kenneth E., and Smith, Herbert A. "Pre-Service and In-Service Education of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers," Review of Educational Research. XXV (June, 1955), 213-26. Anderson, Vernon E. "The Place of Books in the New Teacher Education Program," Education. LXXI (November, 1950), lUWtf. Archer, Clifford P. "Recruitment, Institutional Selection and Guidance of Teachers," Review of Educational Research . XVI (June, 19U6), 209-16. Bach, Jacob 0. "Practice Teaching Success in Relation to Other Measures of Teaching Ability," Journal of Experimental Edu cation. XXI (September, 1952), 57-80.

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192 Barr, A. S., and Singer, A* "Evaluative Studies of Teacher Education," Journal of Teacher Education, IV (March, 1953), 65-72. Black, M. 77, "Development of a State-Wide Program of Teacher Education, " Educational Administration and Supervision, XL ( No ve riser, 195U), li20-25. Blyler, Dorothea. "Student Teaching in the American Association of Teachers Colleges," Educational Administration and Supervision, XXXIII (February, i9'47),"75^2: . Bond, Jesse A. "Analysis of Observed Traits of Teachers Iho Were Rated Superior in School Discipline," Journal of Educational Research, XLV (March, 1952), 507-16. Brink, W. 0, "The Administration of Student Teaching in Universities Which Use The Public Schools," Educational Administration and Supervision, XXXI (October, 19b$), 39l^W, Campbell, R. F, "University of Utah Program in Elementary Education," Educational Administration and Supervision , XXXIII (January, 19U7), U9-52. Carlile, Amos B. "Predicting Performance in the Teaching Profession," " of Educational Research. XLVH (May, 195k) , 6I4I-68. Car others, M. W. "Florida Program of Internship," Curriculum Journal, XIII (January, 19li2), 31-33. Caswell, Hollis L. "The Professional Sequence in Teacher Education," Teachers College Record. LII (March, 1951), 333-Ja. Clark, Leonard H. "The Curriculum for Elementary Teachers in Sixty-Eight Teachers Colleges," The Journal of Teacher Education. VI (June, 1955), 11U-17. Eliassen, Rueben H., and Martin, Robert L. "Pre-training Selection of Teachers During 19bO-ii3," Journal of Educational Research. XXXVIII (May, 19U5), 666-77. Engleman, F. E. "Common Elements in Teacher Education Programs," School and Society. LXXX (August, 1951i), IjO-lil* Evenden, Edward S. "Twenty-Five Years of Teacher-Training, " Educational Record. XXIV (October, 19U3), 33U-lih. — Eyster, E. S. "How the AACTE Evaluation Schedules TTere Developed," National Business Education Quarterly, XXII (December, 1953), 5-10. Fulkerson, Glen. "A Resume of Current Teacher Personnel Research," Journal of Educational Research. LVII (May, 195U), 669-81. Oans, Roma. "Changing Concepts of Teacher Status," Teachers College Record. XLVH (November, 19ll5), 103-109.

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Goodlad, John I. "Some Frontier Issues in Educating Elementary-School Teachers," Elementary School Journal, LIV (November, 1953), 139-144. , "Some Problems and Programs in Improving Pre service Teacher Education," Elementary School Journal, LIV (March, 195U), 391-96. , "Authority In, and Responsibility For, Teacher Education in the Liberal Arts College," Elementary School Journal, LI? (May, 195U), 517-22. Hasksw, Laurence D, "Pre service Preparation of Teachers," Review of Educational Research, XH (June, T&1&), 201-209. . "Selection, Guidance, and Preservice Preparation of Students for Public-School Teaching," Review of Educational Research, XXII (June, 1952), 175-61. Henderson, Leon V. "The Teacher Educator's Understanding of General Education," Journal of Teacher Education, IV (June, 1953), l22-2lu Hoff, Arthur G. "Guidance in Teachers Colleges," Educational Administrat^ on and Supervision. XXX (April, 19hh), 225-34. Irwin, H, N« "The Organisation of Teacher -Preparation in a University," Educational Administration and Supervision , XXIII (September, 1937), l^U-60« ' Kyte, G, C, "Stated Alms and Functions of Divisions of Education in Forty-One Representative Universities," School and Society. L (September, 1939), 378-81u Lafferty, H. M. "Determining Objectives in Teacher Education," Educational Administration and Supervision, XXV (January, 1939), 1-577 Laroon, D. E. "Implications of a Survey in Teacher-Training Practices in Illinois," Educational Administration and Supervision . XXV (October, 1939), 523-53~n Leavitt, Jerome E. "Personnel Data and Prediction of Success of Student Teachers," Journal of Teacher Education, IV (September, 1953), 19U-97. Lovinger, Warren C. "Teacher Education in the United States," Education, LXXI (.November, 1950), 170-71, McGrath, G. D. "Ossification Dangers in Teacher Education," Education, LXX (November, 19&), lltf-ltf. "Philistine Deluders in Teacher Education," Education, LXXI (November, 1950), 135-38. Maaske, Roben J. "Some Basic Problems for Solution in Teacher Education," Education, LXX (November, 19 I42-J46. Mead, A. R., "The Ethics of Student Teaching," Educational Administration and Supervision. VI (October, 1920), 393-ho5I

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19U National Education Association Research Division. "The 1956 Teacher Supply and Demand Report," The Journal of Teacher Education, VII, Kb. 1 (March, 1956), 33-79. (This report was under the supervision of Ray C. Maul, Assistant Director of the Research Division of the National Education Association.) Qlsen, Edward 0. "National Survey of Teacher Education in Conraunity Study Techniques," Educational Record, XXIV (October, 19k3), 121-35. Park, J. "Other Disciplines in Teacher Education," School and Society , LXXXI (May, 1955), 165-67. Peik, Wesley E. "The Preservice Preparation of Teachers," Review of Educational Research, XIII (June, 19U3), 228-i|0. . "The Preservice Preparation of Teachers," Review of Educational Research, XVI (June, 19U6), 217-27. Rucker, W. Ray. "Student Teaching in Universities, Teachers Colleges, and General Colleges, M Journal of Educational Research. XLVIII (May, 1918), 679-85. . "Trends in Student Teaching, 1932 to 1952," Journal of Teacher Education. IV (December, 1953), 261-63. Sands, J. E. "Off-Campus Student Teaching Practices in 112 Institutions," Education. LXXIII (June, 1953), 636-1^. Stiles, Lindley J. "Organization of Student Teaching in Universities," Journal of Educational Research. XL (May, 19U7), 702-12. "Teacher Education: An All University Function," School and Society, LXII (October, 19h5), 220-22. « "Responsibility for Teacher Education," Education. LXXI (Eovesfcer, 1950), 163-69. — — Stout, R. A. "Admissions and Retention Practices in College Programs of Teacher Education," Personnel and Guida nce Journal, XXXIV (December. 1955), 208-12. ~ * Thomas, Lawrence G. "Using Grade Point Averages in Selecting Teachers," Journal of Educational Research. XXXVII (May, 19liU), 681i-90. Tyler, Ralph. "Trends in the Preparation of Teachers," The School Review. LI (April, 19li3), 207-12. Walters, Raymond. "Statistics of Attendance in American Universities and Colleges, 1955," School and Society. Vol. LXXXH, No. 207U, December. 1955. 1 Woodring, P. "Basic Agreements in Teacher Education," Journal of Teacher Education. VI (June, 1955), 93-99.

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195 University and College Catalogs and Bulletins Barry College, Miami, Florida (Catalog), 195U-55, 1955-56, 91 pp. Bethune-Cookman College Bulletin, Catalog For 1955-56— 1956-57, Daytona Beach, Florida, 123 pp. Bulletin Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida, Annual Catalog Issue, 195U-£5, Announcements, 1955-56, vTCI, No. 2, June, 1955. 267 pp. Bulletin Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida. Catalogue and Announcements, 1955-£7, LXXI, No. 1, January, 1955. 161* pp. Bulletin 1956 Florida State University, Catalog Issue, XLIX, No. 1, January, 1956, Tallahassee, Florida. 365 pp. Bulletin of the University of Miami, General Announcements for the Academic Tear 1956-57, Catalogue Issue, XXX, No. 5, Coral Gables, Miami, Florida, April 15, 1956. 3i»l pp. Bulletin of the University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida, Announcements, 195556, XXV, No. 3, June, 1955, 121 pp. Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College, College Bulletin, 195U-55, Catalogue No. 20, Saint Augustine, Florida. 6k pp. Rollins College Bulletin, Catalogue No. 1956-57, LI, No. 2, Winter Park, Florida, April, 1956. 136 pp. Stetson University Annual Catalogue, DeLand, Florida, 1956-1957. Stetson University Bulletin, LVI, No. 1, January, 1956. IhU pp. The University Record of the University of Florida, Catalog Issue, 1955-56, I, Series 1, No. h, April 1, 1955, Gainesville, Florida. 600 pp. Dissertations and Theses Atherton, Audrey. W A Study of the Undergraduate Educational Counseling Services in the School of Education, Florida State University," Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, 1955. 256 pp. Baugher, Jacob I. "Organization and Administration of Practice Teaching in Privately Endowed Colleges of Liberal Arts," Contributions to Education. No. 1ST, Teachers College, New York, 1931. 372 pp. Beaty, Edgar. "Developing Criteria for the Selection of Directing Teachers with Particular Reference to a Secondary Program of Off -Campus Internship at Florida State University." Doctoral dissertation. Florida State University, 1955. 2l!i pp. Black, Marian W, "Laboratory Experiences for Undergraduates in Secondary Education in Selected Teacher Education Institutions." Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1953. 28U pp.

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m Blanchard, H. W. "The Development of the Florida Internship Program from 1939 to 1SW» " Hastens thesis, University of Florida, 19li9. 89 pp. Callahan, Sterling Grundy. "The Role of Non-Student Teaching First Hand Experiences in Selected Teacher Education Institutions 9 " Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, 1953. 552 pp. Davis, Don E. "An Evaluation of a Pre-Service Program of Teacher Education Based upon the Opinions of In-Service Teachers." Doctoral dissertation, Wayne University, Detroit, Michigan, 1952. 272 pp. Davis, John E. "Professional Education Laboratory Practices in Selected Colleges in Pennsylvania Preparing Teachers for the Public School." Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 195U. 186 pp. Gates, Samuel Gerald. "Professional Activities Performed by College Supervisors of Student Teachers." Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 1953. 721* pp. Gross, Chalmer Andrew. "Some Obstacles in Implementing Programs of General Education in Colleges for Teacher Education." Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 1952. U5U pp. Hamilton, Marshall. "An Evaluation of the Florida State University Internship Program." Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, 1953. 2JU8 pp. Bendrix, Holbert Howard. "Elementary School Student Teaching in Selected Multi-Purpose Universities." State University of Iowa, Doctoral dissertation, 195^4. 61j6 pp. Lasting er, Samuel Thomas. "An Evaluation of the Student Teaching Program (K Florida Southern College." Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1952. 175 pp. Macy, Edbrin Ellis. "The Rise and Development of Secondary and Higher Education in Florida." Master's thesis, 1911-12. 65 pp. Nagle, L. Marshall. "An Evaluation of Student Growth During an Internship." Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1952. 273 pp. O'Leary, T. F. "An Inqiiry into the General Purposes, Functions, and Organisation of Selected University Schools of Education." Doctoral dissertation, Catholic University, 19k3. 1j29 pp. Robb, George P. "Relationships Between Interests and Student Teaching Achievement." Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1953, 116 pp. Schroeder, Raymond Michael. "Placement and Follow-up of Elementary Teachers." Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska, 195U. 217 PP.

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Mimeographed and Planographed Materials National Commission on Toacher iDducation and Professional Standards* The Crucial Years . 1955 Annual Report to the Profession. Washington, D. C.: Rational Education Association, 19$$ • 29 pp. (Planographed.) Southern Council on Teacher Education. Teacher Education in the Southern States . A Symposium, Issued by the Southern Council on Teacher Education, March, 19$$, 18 pp. (Mimeographed.) State Board of Education. State Board Regulations Relating to Standards for Approving Programs of Teacher Education and Institutions Which Prepare Teachers . Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State Department of Education, 1953. Sections 231.11 and 231.12 of the State Department Regulations, pp. 288-297. (Mimeographed Bulletin.) Stinnett, T. Li. Teacher Education at the Crossroads . An address delivered before the Southern Council on Teacher Education, Memphis, Tennessee, December 2, 1953. Distributed by the Southern Council on Teacher Education, 195U. 26 pp. (Mimeographed.)

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APFEHDHJB

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APPENDIX A THE QUESTIONNAIRE 1. In many of our colleges it is possible, within the limits of the fouryear program leading to a Bachelor's Degree, for students to achieve certification in Elementary School Course plus certification in some other area. (a) What is your general feeling regarding this practice? Do you favor it? Why or -why not? (b) Please check the dual certification programs that are offered in your institution. Use the following code: (1) Frequently used; (2) Seldom used; (3) Never used; (h) To be offered in the near future j (5>) Recently discontinued. i Elementary School Course and Early Childhood Education _______ Elementary School Course and Education of the Exceptional " Child (one sub-area) _______ Elementary School Course and Education of the Exceptional Child (comprehensive coverage) ______ Elementary School Course and one Special Field in Secondary Elementary School Course and Elementary School Course and Elementary School Course and (c) For any of the above that you have marked (1) describe what you consider your most pressing current problem. 2. In your program for the preparation of elementary school teachers, how do the following areas of preparation rank in the order of the seriousness of the problems they present? (1— of most concern; 2— of less concern; 3— of least concern) ______ General Education Requirements . Professional Education Requirements _______ Elementary School Course Requirements For the area that you have marked (1) describe what you consider to be your most pressing current problem. 3« Listed below are certain aspects of or provisions for the screening and selection of students in programs for the preparation of elementary 199

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200 school teachers. Please rank these (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the order in which they are presenting problems in your overall program. i The initial selective admission of students to elementary education The continuous appraisal of students in elementary teacher education i Placement services for graduating seniors and graduates Follow-up services for your graduates in their initial teaching Add other aspects if you wish. From the area that you have marked (1) describe what you consider your most pressing current problem. Listed below are certain aspects of a program of counseling for undergraduate students in elementary education. Please rank these in the order in which they are presenting problems in your overall program. (1, 2, 3, U, etc.) _______ Progressive retention of students in elementary teacher education ________ Counseling of lower division students _______ Counseling of upper division students Measuring students' abilities and aptitudes Formulation and review of policies for guidance and counseling procedures Remediation of students' deficiencies in preparation or qualifications Guidance of student choice in electives Add other aspects if you wish.

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201 From the area that you have marked (1) describe what you consider your most pressing problem. Listed below are certain aspects relative to the provision for direct experiences with diildren. Please rank these (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the order in which they are presenting problems in your overall program in preparing elementary school teachers. _____ Direct experiences with children as an integral part of professional courses r Use of the Lab school in providing opportunity for direct experience* _____ Arranging with off -campus schools for direct experiences i Arranging with teachers in cooperating schools ______ Staff supervision of direct experiences i Relating direct experiences to the total instructional program Add other aspects if you wish For the item you have marked (1) describe what you consider your most pressing current problem. Listed below are certain aspects of program evaluation in the pre* service education of elementary school teachers. Please rank these (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the order in which they are presenting problems in your overall program. ______ Participation of the education staff in program evaluation ______ Staff participation college-wide or university-wide in program evaluation ______ Student participation in program evaluation Add others if you wish

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202 From the area you have marked (1) describe what you consider your most pressing current problem. Rank the following general areas in the order in t/fcieh you feel they are presenting problems in your program of pre-eervice education of elementary school teachers, i Provision for dual certification mmmmmmm Meeting course requirements for state certification mmmmmmmm Provisions for screening and selection of students Provisions for guidance and counseling ________ Provision for direct experiences with children ________ Provisions for program evaluation

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APPENDIX B FLORIDA COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES STUDIED State Supported (White) Florida State University, Tallahassee University of Florida, Gainesville State Supported (Negro) Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee Not state Supported (White) Florida Southern College, Lakeland Rollins College, Winter Park Stetson University, DeLand University of Miami, Coral Gables University of Tampa, Tampa Barry College, Miami Not State Supported (Negro) Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College, St. Augustine 203

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PERSONS INTERVIBBBD University of Florida Dr. Eleanor K. Green, Assistant Professor of Education. Dr. Joseph W. Fordyce, Assistant Professor of Education. Bethune-Cookaan CollegB Dr. John S. Smith, Dean of the College. Mrs. Florence L. Small, Chairman of the Division of Education. Florida State University Dr. W. T. Edwards, Professor of Education. Dr. Robert L. Goulding, Professor of Education. Dr. Sam Lastinger, Associate Professor of Education. Dr. Edna E. Parker, Associate Professor of Education. Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Dr. Melvin 0. Alston, Dean, College of Education. Dr. A. A. Abraham, Professor of Education* Mr. Paul W. Butler, Assistant Professor of Education. Dr. Elsie H. Wallace, Professor of Education. Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College Dr. Royal W. Puryear, President. Mr. Bradley 0. Moore, Associate Professor of Education. Stetson University Dr. Ray V. Sowers, Professor of Education. Mr. Rupert J. Longstreet, Professor of Education* Mr. Bar land C. Merriam, Assistant Professor of Education. Barry College Sister M. Dorothy, Dean, and Professor of Education. Rollins College Audrey Lillian Packham, Professor of Education. University of Miami Dr. John R. Beery, Professor of Education, and Dean, School of Education. Dr. Ruby H. Warner, Professor of Education. 20U

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205 University of Tampa Dr. M. C. Rhodes, Dean of Administration. Dr. Zoe Cowen, Associate Professor of Education, Dr. Robert L. Mohr, Professor of Education. Florida Southern College Dr. Janes C. Peel, Dean, and Professor of Education. Dr. Jean A. Battle, Dean of Students, and Professor of Education. Mrs. Julia Snook, Assistant Professor of Education. Mr. James G. Ogden, Jr., Professor of Education.

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APPENDIX D GENERAL PREPARATION REQUIREMENT FROM FLORIDA STATUTES 1 General Preparation Rec A broad general background Is considered essential in the preparation of teachers, Comprehensive courses covering the areas listed below are most desirable. Where such a plan has not been followed, the transcript of the applicant will be reviewed to ascertain the extent to which the scope and purposes of general education have been met. With the exception of area 2, methods courses may not bo used to meet the requirements set forth in general preparation* A total of not less than hS semester hours in general preparation is required including not less than 6 and not more than 12 ister hours in each of the five groups listed belowi (1) The Arts of Communication t (Minimum requirement, 6 semester hours in English composition, rhetoric, grammar. Speech, journalism and elementary foreign languages may also be counted.) (2) Human Adjustment | (Health, physical education^ psychology, religion, philosophy, logic, ethics, nutrition^ problems of living in home and family, "Ity living.) (3) The Biological and Physical Sciences; Mathematics t (Comprehensive courses or separate subject arrangement are acceptable, but in no case may the entire amount be presented from mathematics.) (h) The Social Studies t i (Comprehensive courses or separate subject credit in at least two of the following j geography, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, economics.) NOTEt Credit in American history, U. S. government, and geography is jMH^icularly desirable under the separate course arrangement. (5) Humanities and Applied Artsi (Comprehensive course in the humanities or separate subject credit in at least two of the following t literature ((English, American, world)); literature written in a foreign language; technological arts; constructive design and fine arts; art as applied to personal and family living; nusic.) ^State Board Regulations Relating to Florida Requirements for Teacher Education and Certification, Revised and Adopted July 21, 1953. Tallahassee, Florida* State Department of Education, p. 2ltf. (Mimeographed.) 206

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APPENDIX E PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENT FROM FLORIDA STATUTES 1 Profess ional Preparation Requirement Professional preparation includes courses designed to acquaint the prospective teacher with the instructional task. The requirements for professional preparation include "Cours e Requirements in Education" and requirements regarding "P ractical Experience in TeacEing" totaling no less than 20 semester hours. These requirements apply to elementary teachers, secondary teachers, and administrative and supervisory personnel* Course Requirements in Education (1) Foundations of Education 6 semester hours (Such a comprehensive course should provide the social and psychological bases of an instructional program* Separate courses such as those dealing with school and society) introduction to education} history, principles and philosophy of education; educational psychology} child and/or adolescent psychology} and growth and development of the individual will count toward meeting this requirement but are not as desirable as a comprehensive course} however, in all cases both social and psychological areas must be represented*) (2) Teaching in the Elementary School and/or Secondary School 6 semester hours (Such a comprehensive course should present an overview of the entire school program and give specific help with respect to the principles of teaching, methods, curriculum, evaluation, school organization, and administration needed by teachers in the public schools* Separate courses covering essentially the same material are also permissible*) In all areas vhere certification for grades one through twelve is given, the training in area 2 must Include a comprehensive course covering grades one through twelve or at least 3 semester hours at the elementary level and at least 3 semester hours at the secondary level* A teacher who wishes only elementary certification may take all 6 semester hours in elementary education} a teacher t&io wishes only secondary certification may take all 6 semester hours in secondary education* ^tate Board Regulations Relating to Florida Requirements for Teacher Education and Certification, Revised and Adopted July 21, 1S&3. Tallahassee. Florida: State Department of Education, pp. 2lt8-50. (Mimeographed*) 207

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208 (3) Special Methods 2 semester hours for Elementary Teachers ^Unless the comprehensive course above includes adequate attention to methods of teaching reading, a separate course is required. In case the techniques of teaching reading have been presented in general course, this special requirement of 2 semester hours may be met through a course dealing with evaluation or with organization and administration of schools from the viewpoint of a classroom teacher*) for Secondr.jy Teacliers (Such a course should give specific help with reference to teaching materials, content, and techniques in at least one of the subject fields to be shown on the certificate.) NOTE 1: A course in special methods which carried credit either in "ESScStion" or in the "Special Subject Field" may be counted. NO TE 2 1 Institutions may provide a reorganization (subject to approval or the State Department of Education) of items "Teaching in the Elementary and/or Secondary School" and "Special Methods" provided 8 semester hours are required. Practical Experience in Teach The applicant must have fulfilled one of the following plans for obtaining actual classroom experience: Plan 1. He must have served in a college internship program approved "the* Department. The internship should carry not less than 6 semester hours. The internship must have been done in the field(s) and at the age level(s) which the applicant intends teaching. Plan 2. He must have at least 6 semester hours of observation and practice teaching in the field(s) and at the age level(s) which the applicant intends teaching. (The 6 semester hours interpreted to include not less than 160 clock hours with the student in full charge of the class for at least 200 clock hours. Plfn 3* He must have had not less than three years of successful teaching experience in public schools or other accredited elementary or secondary schools CR a combination of 3 semester hours in observation and practice teaching and two years of successful teaching experience. (So other combination may be accepted to meet this requirement.) NDTJU Mien successful teaching experience is substituted in any of the above cases, such experience must be attested to by responsible school officials under whom the applicant taught. In every instance, at least 20 semester hours in education must be presented for satisfaction of" the professional preparation requirement . mmmm —————— —

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AFHEM>JX f ELEMENTARY SCHOOL COURSE REQUIREMENTS FROM FLORIDA STATUTES' Elementary School Course (The training in this section may be provided in separate courses, or in comprehensive courses as the training institutions may determine on approval of the State Department of Education. When comprehensive courses are developed the total program shall reflect to the satisfaction of the State Department of Education at least the relative minim in the various areas, except as they are cared for in separate courses.) Plan One. The applicant must hold a degree based on four years of work from a "standard institution and must have a major in elementary education approved by the State Department of Education. OR Plan Two . Be oust present a program of 27 semester hours in elementary ecfucation which must Include credit In each of the five areas listed below with a minimum of 6 semester hours in each of areas h and 5>. The above programs must include credit in health education, physical education, art, and music to meet Mre needs of the elementary school child. Area 1. Introduction to Materials for Use With Children (This in, eludes familiarity witJTtextbooks, library materials, literature for children, visual aids, etc.) Area 2. Exploring the Child's Physical Environment (This includes content from the field of science for use with elementary pupils and some experience with simple machines and tools.) Area 3. Exploring the Child's Social and Economic Environment (This includes content giving particular emphasis to school-community study, to ways of living of different people, to human and natural resources of Florida, to living in home and family, to man's primary economic needs— food, shelter, clothing.) IgPEx Credit in geography may be substituted for this area. Area h. Explorinn the Child's Personal-Social Environment (This includes content in physical education, health, safety, and home arts with proper emphasis on nutrition, clothing, shelter.) ^State Board Regulations Relating to Florida Requirements for Teacher Education and Certification, Revised and Adopted July 21, 1953. Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, pp. 2$7-$B. (Mimeographed.) 209

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210 NOTE : Unless a comprehensive course is developed, not less than 2 semester hours in physical education and 2 semester hours in health education must have been earned. It is presumed that a comprehensive course will cover both of these subjects. Area $, Creative Arts and Materials for Use With Children (This includes content from both the area of constructive design and that of music for use with the elementary pupil.) NOTE* Applicants who are eligible for a Provisional Graduate (or higher) Certificate covering any other teaching field may have "Elementary School Course" placed on the certificate provided they havet (1) Three (3) semester hours in teaching in the elementary school as described in paragraph (2) under "Course Requirements in Education" on page 21j8 # (2) Two (2) semester hours in special methods in the elementary school as described in paragraph (3) under "Course Requirements in Education" on page 210, (3) Twenty (20) semester hours from the specialization requirement for Elementary School Course as described on pages 2£7-2«J8, including the full requirements in areas 1, h, and 5, OR for Restricted Certification 10 semester hours from the spec ial iaation require ments for Elementary School Course as described on pages 2£7-2£8 with some credit from each of areas 1, U, and 5.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Roy E. Dwyer -was born in Tfeet Brcnmsville, Pennsylvania, on May 31, 19lH. He received the Bachelor of Science degree in Education from State Teachers College, California, Pennsylvania, in 1937. For two years following his graduation, he served a3 an elementary school teacher in Center ville Borough schools in Pennsylvania. Prom the fall of 1939 until his induction into the army in December, l$hD, he served as a teacher in the Miami Country Day School in Miami, Florida. Following his discharge from the army in 191*1, he worked for three and one-half years for Consolidated Aircraft Corporation in Miami, Florida, serving as Project Coordinator in the Department of Production Control. For two years following the termination of the war, he was co-owner of a candy manufacturing establishment known as Tropic House. From 19h& to 1952 he was a sixth grade teacher in the Little River Elementary School, Dade County, Florida. During this period he attended the University of Miami in Coral Cables, Florida, and in June, 1951 was awarded the Master of Education degree. In June, 1952 he entered the University of Florida as a full-time graduate student. For the summer session of 1953 he served as visiting instructor in elementary education at Tulane University, Hew Orleans, Louisiana. From September, 1953 to December, 1953, he taught seventh grade at the Stephen Foster School in Gainesville, Florida. In December, 1953, he went to Atlanta, Georgia, to serve for two quarters as interim instructor in the Emory University-Agnes Scott College joint education program. For the school year 195U-55, the summer session of 1955, and the fall semester of the 1955-56 school year, he held an interim instructor ship in elementary education at the University of Florida. He is a 211

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212 member of Phi Delta Kappa and Kappa Delta Pi, honorary education societies, the Association far Supervision and Curriculum Development, the Association for Childhood Education International, the Association for Student Teaching, and the National Society for the Study of Education.

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate* s supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of the committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council and was approved as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education, June, 1#7 SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE 1 Chairman 7 Dean, Graduate School