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The effect of peer mediation training on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators

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The effect of peer mediation training on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators
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Ethnic identity ( jstor )
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Mediation ( jstor )
Multiculturalism ( jstor )
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by Shelly Frazier Sheperis.

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THE EFFECT OF PEER MEDIATION TRAINING ON THE ETHNIC IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
OF PEER MEDIATORS









By

SHELLY FRAZIER SHEPERIS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2003





























Copyright 2003

by

Shelly Frazier Sheperis














To my husband, Carl. I could not have done this without you.














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to express gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Larry Loesch, chair of my

doctoral committee. Sincere appreciation also goes to the other members of my doctoral committee: Dr. Sondra Smith Adcock, Dr. Silvia Echevarria-Doan, and Dr. David Miller. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Joe Wittmer for serving on my committee prior to his retirement.

I thank Dr. Bob Myrick for introducing me to peer helping and the process of peer mediation.

I thank my parents, Mr. A. Lee Frazier and Mrs. Susan Frazier, for their unconditional support in my academic endeavors.

Finally, I thank my husband, Carl, whose guidance and editorial commentary helped shape this project. His continual support helped turn my goals into reality.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................................. ii

A B ST R A C T ......................................................................................... ............................ vii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................1...

E ffects of M ediation on M ediators .............................................................................................9
P urp ose ......................................................................................... ............................ 14
R ationale.......................................................................................... ............................ 15
N ull H yp otheses.............................................................................................................16
Definitions of Terms ...................................................................................................17

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ....................................................................19

Models of Mediation.................... ....... .......................19
C lub M odel ...............................................................................................................20
Elective Course Model ..................... .........................................................20
Total School Model ...............................................................................................21
Efficacy of Mediation Interventions on School Climate............................................21
Impact of Mediation Training on Mediators.........................................................22
Impact on Reduction of Discipline Referrals........................................................23
Peer Relationships and Social Status ....................................................................24
Index of Peer Relations ...............................................................................................25
Socioeconomic Level and Race/Ethnicity .................................................................26
Multicultural Competence ..................... .... .........................28
E thnicity as a V ariable ...................................................................................................29
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure ......................................................................33
Sum m ary ......................................................................... ...... ..... ......................34

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ........................................................................................................ 36

Statistical Analyses .....................................................................................................38
Split-plot Analyses of Variance . ...................................................38
Factorial Analyses of Variance............................................................................... 39
P o p u latio n .......................................................................................................................4 0



V















Sampling Procedures ..................................................................................................40
P ow er.................................. .......................................................... ............................... 4 2
Experimental Procedures ............................................................................................42
M ediation T raining ..................... . ......................... .......................... ..................43
P M T rain ers...................................................................... ..............................................44
Assessment Instruments ..............................................................................................45
S u m m ary ..................................................................................... ...................................4 6

4 R E S U L T S .................................... .. .... .......................................................................4 7

Split Plot Analysis of Variance ..................................................................................48
Factorial Analysis of Variance ...................................................................................52

5 DISCUSSION ..............................................................................................................58

L im itation s .............................. .......... .................... ..................................................60
Recommendations for Training and Practice ..............................................................62
Recommendations for Future Research ......................................................................63
C o n clu sio n s .....................................................................................................................64

APPENDIX

A PARENT CONSENT FOR CHILD TO PARTICIPATE...........................................66

B PARTICIPANT ASSENT FORM .............................................................................68

C PROJECT TIMELINE...................... .. .....................................70

D DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY .....................................................................................71

E MEIM.........................................................................72

F MEIM SCORE SHEET .................................................................................................73

G IP R ................................................................................................................................. 7 4

H PEER MEDIATION TRAINING PROGRAM........................................................75

R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................................................... 76

BIO G R A PH ICA L SK ETC H ...............................................................................................83



vi














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School Of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE EFFECT OF PEER MEDIATION TRAINING
ON THE ETHNIC IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT OF PEER MEDIATORS

By

Shelly Frazier Sheperis

October, 2003


Chair: Larry C. Loesch
Major Department: Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of peer mediation (PM) training and the process of mediation on the ethnic identity development (EID) of peer mediators. In this study, a pretest-posttest-follow-up, control group experimental mixed design with split plot and factorial ANOVA analyses was employed to identify any changes in EID among mediators. Mediators were assigned to a group trained in the Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine model, a group trained in the same model with additional components related to multiculturalism and diversity, and a control group of individuals selected for future PM training. Individuals participating in this study (n = 148) were categorized according to two demographic variables (i.e., race and gender).














Mediators were trained in a two-week intensive format using a six-step approach:

(a) agree to mediate, (b) gather points of view, (c) focus on interests, (d) create win-win options, (e) evaluate options, and (f) create an agreement. The schools participating in this project adopted a club model for the operation of their mediation programs.

The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEI) were administered to participants at pretest, posttest, and follow up. Results of the analyses supported the notion that Black and White adolescents differ with regard to EID. However, results did not support the hypotheses that PM training or participation in the process of mediation impact EID.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A critical problem for adolescents in the United States is interpersonal conflict.

Unfortunately, this problem often manifests as what may be called crimes against society. For example, according to the Surgeon General's Study on Youth Violence (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000), by 1999 overall arrest rates for homicide, rape, and robbery had all dropped below the 1983 rates, but arrest rates for aggravated assault by youth were nearly 70 percent higher. This problem and its manifestations are clearly reflected in the nation's schools (Ferrara, 1992; Hill & Drolet, 1999). School shootings, such as those at Colombine High School in Colorado and Pearl High School in Mississippi, and then a copycat attempt of the Colombine plot that was discovered at a New Hampshire high school, demonstrate the seriousness of school violence. School violence can be defined generally as any act of aggression in a school setting. This act of aggression could involve bodily harm or emotional distress on the part of the victim. Although school violence is typified in the media as involving guns or shootings, it can also involve less serious issues such as teasing, bullying, or simply fighting or arguing at recess or between classes.

The traditional method of addressing interpersonal conflicts in schools has been "punishment based" (e.g., parent conferences, detentions, suspension, or expulsion) (Johnson & Johnson, 1995a). However, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of








these methods to reduce interpersonal conflict in schools. Further, researchers usually have concluded that punishments do not resolve interpersonal problems among studentsor produce the desired result of increased positive behavior. Therefore, education professionals still seek new methods to address aggressive behavior and conflict among and by students. One popular and frequently endorsed potential solution for today's schools is conflict resolution (CR) programs (D'Andrea & Daniels, 1996; Sherman et al., 1997).

Conflict resolution as a therapeutic intervention is a potentially constructive

approach to interpersonal and/or intergroup conflict. It was originally intended to mean to help people with opposing positions work together to arrive at mutually acceptable (e.g., compromise) solutions. However, the term now also refers to the body of knowledge and practice developed to implement the approach. Conflict resolution programs can encompass any or all of a variety of components, but usually they fall into two categories:

(a) programs in which the disputants work among themselves to settle their differences and (b) programs in which a mediator (i.e., an uninvolved, impartial "third party") helps the disputants reach agreement.

The major elements of CR programs include facilitative communication,

cooperative activities among disputants, acceptance of each disputant's differences, and creative problem-solving. These programs also emphasize learning from experience and typically involve teachers serving as facilitators and/or coordinators. Through roleplaying and a variety of team projects, students involved in mediation training learn how to deal with anger and how to work with others to arrive at "win-win" solutions (i.e., in which all involved are satisfied with the outcomes).









The use of conflict resolution techniques in schools has grown rapidly. For

example, the National Association for Mediation in Education (NAME) estimated that in 1984, the year of its founding, there were approximately 50 school-based CR programs. More recently, NAME estimated the number of programs at well over 8,500 (Cornell, 1999). One of the earliest programs was known as the Responding to Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP). It was sponsored by the Educators for Social Responsibility organization, which now operates in approximately 300 schools nationwide. Other programs have increased and expanded similarly. For example, the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution has conducted a statewide school mediation program for ten years and its programs currently involve over 30,000 students. Similarly, through the Community Board Program, three-fourths of San Francisco's schools have peer conflict managers (Inger, 1991; National Institute for Dispute Resolution, 1993).

Conflict resolution programs implemented in schools, by school counselors and/or other educational professionals, exist in many formats. In general, these programs are designed to infuse learning of cooperative and problem resolution skills into school curricula, peer mediation (PM) programs, school-wide CR programs, and communitybased programs. They also have been and are implemented across all school levels. Among the variations of CR programs in schools, peer-mediation programs have been among the most strongly recommended (Johnson & Johnson, 1995a). Therefore, the focus of this research is on the implementation and evaluation of a PM program.

Peer mediation is a form of CR often used in school settings that involves use of a third-party, presumably an impartial person, to assist in resolving a dispute between two or more other people. As used here, it is a form of a facilitated interpersonal








communication through use of a process focused upon applying problem-solving methods to achieve agreement between or among disputants. Typically, there are three stages in the implementation of a school-based PM program. The introductory stage involves making operational decisions, introducing the program to the school staff, and gaining support for its implementation from a variety of interested parties. The next stage, training, involves selecting and training the peer mediators, while the third operational stage involves implementing the program, evaluating its effectiveness, and planning for its future.

Peer mediation is a potentially positive and significant resource for schools,

students, and education professionals. The benefits of PM are numerous, including that PM programs foster a cooperative and comfortable atmosphere in which students can learn more efficiently and teachers can spend more and better time teaching (Lane & McWhirter, 1992). In addition, typically, students involved in PM programs develop feelings of empowerment and learn to take responsibility and attain constructive solutions for interpersonal problems (Maxwell, 1989). Peer mediation programs also often reduce violence, vandalism, chronic school absence, and student suspensions in schools (Araki, 1990; Koch, 1988; McCormick, 1988). Further, peer mediation often reduces the time teachers spend involved in resolving conflicts in their classrooms; therefore, more time is focused upon student learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). In general, then, students engaged in PM programs learn responsible behavior and teachers benefit from the improved behavior.

Although there is adequate research to show that PM programs have positive effects in schools by decreasing the need for traditional methods of punishment and






5


improving school climate, and also that the majority of mediation agreements remain intact, there is relatively little empirical research evidence to demonstrate the effects of participation in PM programs on the peer mediators themselves. Presumably, the process of being involved in a PM program allows students opportunities to become more responsible for themselves, to increase their social awareness, to increase their self awareness, and to develop more positive peer relationships. However, there has been scant empirical investigation of these effects.

Before addressing the effects of mediation involvement on peer mediators, it is important to clarify the process of mediation and the nature of PM programs. The introductory stage of developing and implementing a successful PM program in a school involves gaining support from teachers, parents, staff, students, community, and (especially) school administrators (Hill & Drolet, 1999). Several methods can be used to obtain this support, one of which is to create an advisory committee comprised of representatives from each of the major factions from which support is needed.

Administrative support is essential for a program's success (Koch, 1988; LuptonSmith & Carruthers, 1996). Therefore, an advisory committee must include a supportive representative of the school's administration, and one who can provide concrete assistance with issues associated with a PM program (Eisler, Lane, & Mei, 1995).

Educating school staff members about mediation also is an important component of a successful program (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Stichter, 1986). The entire school staff benefits from understanding the purposes and benefits of the program, how the program operates, and their roles and functions relative to the PM program. Thus, for example, an advisory committee can be beneficial in deciding how school staff members









will be educated and/or trained relative to the PM program. The advisory committee participants should reflect (i.e., include representatives of) parents, students, and members of the community.

The next stage in developing a PM program is selection and training. Resolution of logistical issues related to the establishment and operation of a PM program occurs during this stage as well, as does development of methodologies for referrals, assignment of mediators, training schedules, and program protocols. At this stage, the student mediators can assist with program planning and implementation.

Several methods for nominating students for training (e.g., self-nomination, peer nomination, and/or teacher nomination) have been suggested in the literature. The nomination process can generate an extensive list of students, which then must be "pared" to a manageable group of 15 to 30 students. Mediators should be selected to represent the student population by gender, race, achievement level and placement (e.g., special education or ESOL) (DeJong, 1994; Schrumpf, Crawford, & Usadel, 1991). DayVines (1996) suggested that participant diversity should be a program objective in order for all members of the student body to be able to see themselves reflected in the group of mediators. Other selection factors might include that student mediators should have the respect of their peers and teachers, speak in the language of their peers, and be known for neutral diplomacy among various peer groups. Academic proficiency is not an automatic indicator of good mediators, but should be used in conjunction with other criteria (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996). Attendance record also should be a factor in selecting students for training.








Selection of mediators should not be limited to exemplary students. Some students who have minor behavior problems may prove to be good mediators given proper encouragement and support from the school staff. Other attributes that should be considered in the selection of mediators are that the individual is confident, directive, caring, and a good listener (Araki, 1990). Sensitivity, maturity, self-confidence, trustworthiness, and respect of other students also are attributes that coordinators should seek in mediators (Eisler et al., 1995). Coordinators should use an interview process to make the final selection of students (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996).

When training student mediators, community or school resources can be utilized. In the community, dispute resolution centers that work with the court systems may have resources available to assist in the training of the peer mediators. According to LuptonSmith and Carruthers (1996), using two to three trainers, a school counselor, and teachers, along with someone else who has experience in conducting a PM program (if available), is best practice.

The time spent to train mediators varies according to many factors, but tends to

range between 10 and 20 hours and is dependent on the grade level and complexity of the program. Middle and high school students require more time than elementary school students for training because the nature of the conflicts they will encounter are more complicated (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996).

Topics addressed in training include discussion of purpose followed by a review of basic principles and practices, description of negotiation and mediation models, practice with communication skills, and role plays of the different stages of mediation. Training programs should include both a cognitive component, (i.e., impart information),








and an experiential component to practice and develop skills (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996).

Training in communication skills should address facets of the facilitative

continuum (e.g.. nonverbal and verbal behaviors, reflective listening, "I-messages," paraphrasing, open-ended questions, and summarizing). Other activities may help trainees to develop empathy, appreciate differences, and understand the significance of striving for balance and neutrality in the mediation process.

A thorough understanding of the stages of PM also is necessary. However, developmental considerations allow flexibility in regard to the number of stages a mediator must master. The most complex model of mediation has six stages, with 21 steps to complete. However, most models are more simplistic. At a minimum, a PM training model should contain four stages: (a) introductions and ground rules, (b) determining facts and feelings (as mediators gain maturity with the mediation process, this stage can be expanded to include clarifying interests, common grounds, and identifying possible solutions), (c) identifying possible solutions, and (d) making an agreement. Depending on the developmental level of the mediators, this stage can be expanded to include feeling-focused responses. However, regardless of the model used, each stage must be explained thoroughly to students and they must have the opportunity to practice through role plays.

The operational stage of training is designed to help maintain the efficiency and flow of the PM program. During this stage, issues related to pairing mediators, scheduling mediations, record keeping, and follow-up interviews with disputants are addressed. Additionally, addressed in this stage are issues related to troubleshooting,








ongoing support and training for staff, students, and mediators, and evaluation of the program's effectiveness.

Often, the most difficult transition in the training process for both mediators and coordinators is from role-play to implementation. The operational stage of mediation training teaches mediators how to promote the program effectively and therefore there must be an ongoing public relations component to a successful mediation program. Effective public relations informs staff and administration about successes related to the program and ensures that staff and administration continue to utilize the mediation program.

Effects of Mediation on Mediators

Training programs are designed to affect par licipants in many ways, but the range of these effects is not always clear. For example, PM training is designed to hone participants' communication and CR skills. However, researchers (e.g., Lupton-Smith, 1996) have demonstrated that ancillary benefits, such as improved academic performance, greater problem-solving skill, and transfer of learning to situations outside of school, occur as a result of participation in mediation training.

Although some ancillary benefits have been identified, it is likely that others exist. Self-awareness and social awareness have been ancillary benefits that some proponents of PM programs argue occur as a result of training. These proponents argue that through enhanced self-awareness and enhanced social awareness, peer mediators may develop an appreciation for the similarities and differences among people. Should this argument be supported through empirical evidence, it would be an especially important benefit in consideration of the increasing population diversity in schools in the United States.








Unfortunately, however, there is no current evidence to support the notion that benefits transcend cultural differences or whether there is a training effect on mediator attitudes in regard to racial and cultural sensitivity.

With the increasing changes in minority and majority populations in schools in

the United States, it becomes increasingly important to examine the nature of CR and PM training programs with specific attention toward the inclusion of culturally relevant materials. For example, most CR and PM programs teach participants that eye contact is a key component of effective communication(Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Myrick & Emey, 1985; Schrumpf et al., 1991). Yet although eye contact is acceptable and helpful in many situations, it is important to recognize that some cultures view prolonged eye contact as a sign of disrespect (e.g., African-American and Asian-American cultures). Thus, some attention is needed to identify the impact of mediation training on a mediator's ability to manage conflicts successfully with individuals from different races, cultures, or ethnicities. One way to do this is to examine the mediator's attitudes about race and ethnicity.

When comparisons are made within a cultural system (i.e., by examining the culture itself), the result is referred to as an emic or culturally specific perspective. By contrast, etic is a term used to describe how a culture is examined in terms of similarities and dissimilarities to other cultures. This is often referred to as the universal perspective. Both approaches can be seen in school systems in which multiculturalism is taught as a curriculum component in the classroom or through school-wide cultural awareness activities. Importantly, these approaches also can be targeted specifically within PM training programs.








In regard to the changing nature of race in the United States, in April 1991, the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) approved a document outlining the need and rationale for a multicultural perspective in counseling. The Professional Standards committee of AMCD proposed 31 multicultural counseling competencies that the (parent organization) American Counseling Association (ACA) formally adopted in 1994. These actions were taken to improve the training of counselors. They now have become an important part of the counseling literature and a central aspect of counselors' work. Inasmuch as PM is a part of the counseling field, it also should be held to include similar competencies. At the very least, there should be an enhanced cultural sensitivity among peer mediators and discussion of and awareness about multiculturalism throughout PM training. Several authors (Schmidt, 1999; Schrumpf, Crawford, & Bodine, 1997) have recently discussed the inclusion of multicultural activities in PM training as well as within school-wide CR programs. However, no systematic evaluation of the results of such inclusion has yet been done.

Training mediators should involve a balance of etic and emic approaches. Further, culturally-specific goals could be attained through intentional inclusion of (a) antibias and antiprejudice training and (b) learning about cultural differences and similarities in values and communication styles. Prospective mediators must challenge their own culturally-influenced perceptions and expectations, practice inclusiveness, and learn to respect differences. Understanding how diversity issues affect each mediation helps mediators address and confront bias and inequality. Therefore, training for diversity awareness must facilitate self-understanding, understanding of others, and action for








social justice (Schrumpf et al., 1997). It follows that the mediator's own racial, cultural, or ethnic identity likely would be enhanced through this type of multicultural training.

Racial identity development can be defined as a complex construct relating to

how and when individuals come to understand themselves as racial/ethnic beings (Helms, 1990). It is a process experienced by all individuals regardless of race, culture, gender, or social status (Helms, 1994b). Originally, research on racial identity development was focused primarily on differences according to categorical classification (e.g., skin color). However, racial identity development theorists now suggest that individuals develop racial attitudes based on environment, exposure to prejudice and discrimination, and historical evidence of hostility toward their culture. Because these attitudes have been shown to impact interactions among individuals across cultures and at different racial identity statuses within their own culture, it is logical to consider the impact of racial, cultural, and ethnic identity development on mediators in a growing multicultural pool of PM applicants. To ensure consistency and clarity, the term multicultural/ethnic identity (MEI) will be used hereafter to denote issues related to race, culture, or ethnic identity.

In addition to the importance of identifying an MEI model from which to examine the effects of peer mediation training on multicultural/ethnic identity of mediators, it is important to recognize the social forces that impact an individual's MEI development (Helms, 1989). According to the theory of the collective unconscious, human beings are affected by their personal histories as well as the history of the human race (Berger, 1988; Carver & Scheier, 1992; Liebert & Spiegler, 1990; Stone & Church, 1984). Thus, historical maltreatment against a race or cultural group may impact a person's identity development (Vontress & Epp, 1997). Archetypes, or the psychological traces of








previous generations, have a direct impact on a human being's lifelong development. Within this framework, it is plausible that individuals are impacted by potent experiences such as racism and oppression that may have occurred in past. Vontress (1997) offered that this "historical hostility" differs from common negative emotionality (e.g., anger, rage, or hostility). Much like an archetype, historical hostility is imbedded in the collective "cultural" unconscious, and an automatic transgenerational transmission of the message occurs. However, presumably this collective message lies dormant within each individual until it is activated by a powerful emotional experience.

Evidence that historical hostility may be an important consideration in regard to mediation training lies in the United States' relatively recent experiences with school segregation and the continuing legal battles for equality in public schools. An example is evidenced within school districts that are mandated to bus Black students to schools that have predominately White students in order to meet the federal regulations for desegregation of schools. Thus, even if an individual student has not experienced an issue with "busing." many parents have had direct experience with segregation. Therefore, the likelihood that historical messages (e.g., segregation) are transmitted across generations is great.

Diversity conflicts are complex because they involve bias and prejudice related to cultural and social differences, and often unequal distribution of assets, privileges and opportunities. Diversity and violence are closely related, especially in institutions in which people react to diversity with discriminatory behavior (Schrumpf et al., 1997). The American Psychological Association (1993) reported that there are detrimental effects from prejudice and discrimination on the self-confidence and self-esteem of those








discriminated against. In other words, prejudice and discrimination lay the foundation for anger, discontent, and violence (Schrumpf et al., 1997). Thus, considering the volatile nature of diversity conflicts, it is also important to investigate the nature of mediators' relationships among their peers. Some proponents of PM programs argue that the process of mediation has a positive ancillary effect on the perception that other students have of the mediators. This effect would be important for the success of the mediation process and the recruitment of successful mediators. In other words, mediators who are viewed positively by their peers may have better abilities to manage the anger, discontent, and violence that evolve from diversity related conflicts.

Purpose

Peer mediation has become a popular form of CR in schools across the United

States. More importantly here, mediation training and the process of mediation have been found to affect mediators positively. Presumably, they enable mediators to recognize and value similarities and differences among all mediation participants, including themselves. Subsequently, mediation training should have an effect on the types of relationships that mediators have with their peers. However, there is no research that has evaluated the effects of mediation training on mediators' self and social awareness levels. Although some researchers have investigated the effects of mediation training on the quality of relationships that mediators have with their peers, the evidence has been contradictory. Thus, the purpose of this study was two-fold. First, it was to examine the effects of PM training and the subsequent process of mediation on the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators. Second, the purpose was to examine the effects of peer mediation training on the quality of relationships maintained by mediators with their peers.








Rationale

At present, PM programs are generally accepted as "best practice" methods for dealing with conflict within school districts. However, the effects of mediation training and process on MEI development and quality of peer relationships are unclear, and therefore further research is needed. Such research can be approached in a variety of ways. The method of choice here was to use an experimental approach in which the MEI of peer mediators was examined prior to and after completion of a mediation training program and again after being involved in the mediation process for two months. Changes in mediator MEI were assessed with Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure.

MEI development is not a static process. Thus, it was important to examine

mediator attitudes related to ethnicity over an extended period of time. Further, because multicultural issues (e.g., discrimination, prejudice, or historical hostility) have been found to be key aspects of the identity development process, it is important to examine these issues among a growing multicultural population of peer mediators in today's schools. The specific method chosen for this study was a mixed experimental design in which observed differences in mean scores were differentiated between chance occurrences and systematic differences in means among the population (Shavelson, 1996). In other words, by examining the effects of peer mediation prior to, immediately after, and again two months following peer mediation training, it was possible to determine if changes in the mediator's ethnic identity levels were due to chance or treatment effect.








Because the secondary purpose of this research was to examine the quality of

relationships that peer mediators have with their peers, the Index of Peer Relations (IPR) was used to assess differences in peer relationships across experimental and control groups two months after mediation training occurred. More specifically, changes in scores on the IPR were evaluated to determine if they were due to treatment condition, race, gender, or a combination of the factors.

Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were addressed in this study:

1. There is no difference in MEI as a result of participation in PM training with
additional units on multiculturalism.

2. There are no effects of PM training on the MEI of peer mediators prior to,
immediately following, and at a two-month interval after training.

3. There are no interaction effects of PM training among level of participation, time of
assessment, or race.

4. There is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators by race.

5. There is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators by gender.

6. There is no difference in quality of peer relations among levels of participation in PM
training.

7. There are no interaction effects related to quality of peer relations among level of
participation, gender, or race.

8. There is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators by
race.

9. There is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators by
gender.








Definitions of Terms

Culture is the set of commonalities around which people develop values, norms, family life-styles, social roles, and behaviors in response to historical, political, economic, and social realities (Pigler Christensen, 1989).

Disputant is any student who is involved in a conflict with any other person and who has been referred to the PM program.

Emic is a perspective on cultures in which comparisons are made within a

particular cultural system by examining the culture itself. It is often referred to as the cultural-specific approach.

Ethnic minority is a group who shares common characteristics, customs, and traditions that are different from those of the majority (white) culture.

Etic is a perspective on a culture in which comparisons are made in terms of similarities and dissimilarities with other cultures. This is often referred to as the universal approach.

Historical hostility is a theme suggested by Vontress (1997) derived from the theory of collective unconscious espoused by Carl Jung. Vontress (1997) claimed that historical hostility differs from common day-to-day anger, hostility, rage, or other episodic, or negative events. Much like an archetype, historical hostility remains part of the collective, "cultural" unconscious and is automatically passed from generation to generation.

Peer mediation is the process in which peer mediators guide two or more

disputants to develop and implement solutions that will resolve the disputants' conflict.

Peer mediator is a student who has been trained in mediation skills.








Prejudice is an emotional response, usually based on fear, mistrust, and/or ignorance, directed at a racial, religious, national, or other cultural group.

Race is "an arbitrary classification of population using actual or assumed genetic traits to classify populations of the world into a hierarchical order" (Pigler Christensen, 1989 p.10).

Racial identity is the quality or manner of personal identification with a racial group.

Racial identity status is comprised of attitudes, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward self as a member of a racial group and toward members of the dominant or nondominant racial group(s) (Carter, 1995).














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Understanding the impact of peer mediation training on the cultural and ethnic

identity (MEI) of peer mediators in turn requires understanding the professional literature related to mediation and ethnicity. Because the relationship between mediation and MEI has not been examined specifically through previous research, it is necessary to review literature related to development of peer mediation as a conflict resolution tool in schools, psychological effects of mediation on both disputants and mediators, and MEI as a psychological construct.

Models of Mediation

Johnson and Johnson (1995b) claimed that peer mediation programs can be

implemented in either cadre or total school approaches. The cadre approach, which has two models (elective course or student club), involves training a small number of students to serve as peer mediators and is based on the assumption that a few specially trained students can defuse and constructively resolve interpersonal conflicts among other students. This type of training usually occurs in an intensive workshop or a semester-long course.

Although the approaches and models of peer mediation implementation have theoretical distinctions, they actually overlap in practice. For example, some schools establish both club and elective course models simultaneously, while other schools have a








total school program that has evolved from a cadre approach (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Ripley, 2003).

Club Model

The student club model of peer mediation involves selecting students from the

entire student body and bringing them together at a time and place outside of their regular curricula. Training times may occur while school is in session (e.g., during club periods, study halls, or specific class periods) or outside of school hours (e.g., weekends, before or after school, or during the summer). An advantage to this model is the ability of the coordinator to select mediators from the school population who will represent the total student body, thus ensuring diverse perspectives and representation among mediators. Some disadvantages to this model include less depth in training, decreased access to support systems as compared to the elective course model, and difficulty with supervision for mediations (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Ripley, 2003). Elective Course Model

Graham and Cline (1989) suggested that an elective course model, that is, a

course focused on conflict resolution and peer mediation training, usually is implemented as a general elective or a part of a social studies curriculum. This model provides more consistency with regard to training conditions (e.g., training, supervision, debriefing, and further leadership development) and flexibility for scheduling mediations. However, a considerable weakness in this model is that selection of mediators is limited to those students who can and/or do enroll in the course. Thus, diversity within the mediator pool is limited by nature of the model and is restricted by class size and scheduling factors (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Ripley, 2003).








Total School Model

Johnson and Johnson (1994) advocated for the total school approach in which all students are taught the principles and practices of conflict resolution and peer mediation, and are encouraged to serve as mediators. This approach usually is infused into a language arts or social studies curriculum (Ripley, 2003). The total school approach ensures that the entire student body is exposed to conflict resolution concepts, which results in developmental learning opportunities within each student's educational experience. However, this approach requires considerable time, personnel, and resource commitments from school staff and administration. This approach may be more applicable in elementary schools in which teachers are with the same students for most of the school day (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996).

Although there are several models of mediation, all tend to follow the same

general process in which mediators (a) provide a non-threatening environment in which disputants can tell their side of the story, (b) focus disputants on mutually identified problems and identify "common ground," (c) help disputants develop possible solutions and rationales for each solution, (d) assist disputants to take each other's perspective, (e) guide disputants to mutually agreed upon resolutions, and (f) formalize each agreement (Johnson & Johnson, 1991; Smith & Daunic, 2002).

Efficacy of Mediation Interventions on School Climate

Peer mediation has been characterized as a "peace virus" spreading its effects beyond the individuals involved in the process and the walls of schools to the families and communities that maintain the programs (Casella, 2001). However, there is little evidence to substantiate this claim. Johnson, Johnson, Dudley, Ward, and Magnuson








(1995) examined the types of conflicts that occurred in school and home settings before and after conflict resolution training. They sampled 144 students in grades three through five and provided nine hours of training focused on creating mutually satisfactory agreements between the students and individuals with whom they were in dispute. They also had a control group of 88 students. They found a significant difference in strategies utilized for resolving conflict between the experimental and control groups. This difference transcended the setting in which the conflicts occurred (i.e., home or school), even though the natures of the conflicts differed across settings.

Although the results of the Johnson, et al. study are promising, the sample size was small and limited to one school district. Also, the training utilized was developed specifically by the researchers and has not been validated further. The sampling procedures and instrumentation also are limits to the generalizability of their results. More specifically, the researchers created a form to assess types of conflicts and had a relatively homogeneous sample of students; ethnicity and race were not given consideration.

Impact of Mediation Training on Mediators

A number of studies have examined changes in the abilities and social status of student mediators following implementation of a peer mediation program. The findings have been interesting, but far from consistent. Generally, the results have been positive in regard to mediator skills and abilities. For example, Roush and Hall (1993) found that following implementation of a peer mediation program, teachers reported positive changes in peer mediators in listening and problem-solving skills. Lane-Garon (1998) also demonstrated that mediation training may benefit mediators by increasing cognitive









and affective perspective taking. Some researchers also have suggested that mediation training may have a positive effect on academic performance (Araki, 1990; Johnson & Johnson, 1994).

There also is evidence that the conflict resolution skills derived from training at school may generalize to other settings (Johnson, Johnson, & Dudley, 1992). For example, Gentry and Benenson (1992) reported that following participation in peer mediation, mediators perceived a decrease in the frequency and intensity of conflicts with their siblings at home. Parents of these mediators also reported a decrease in conflicts between their children. Unfortunately, there is less evidence in regard to how well the skills are maintained over time. Studies have shown that mediators retain conflict resolution skills immediately after training (Johnson et al., 1992), but no studies have demonstrated maintenance over a longer period of time. Impact on Reduction of Discipline Referrals

One of the most common findings in research literature on peer mediation is the high percentage of disputants who reach agreement after having their conflict mediated by a peer. Most evaluations (Johnson & Johnson, 1994; Johnson et al., 1992; Johnson, Johnson. & Dudley. 1994; Schrumpf et al., 1991) report agreement rates of over 80%. Using this factor, among others, as criteria for success, Daunic, Smith, Robinson, Landry, and Miller (2000) and Smith and Daunic (2002) also reported positive results in three middle schools. Over the course of several years, over 95% of mediated conflicts resulted in solutions acceptable to both parties. However, in each of the three schools, peer mediation was used in conjunction with a school-wide conflict resolution program. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude about the effects of peer mediation alone in their








works. Lupton-Smith and Carruthers (1996) discussed peer mediation programs used in an elementary school, a middle school, and a high school. Although each program was different, the authors reported that each of the three programs resulted in at least 95% of mediated disputes resolved successfully. However, they cautioned that program evaluation should be based on additional factors beyond the number of disputes successfully mediated.

Some reports claim that peer mediation programs have reduced the numbers of discipline events or referrals. For example, Thompson (1996), reporting on the effectiveness of one peer mediation program, found that over the course of two years, student suspensions were reduced by 50%. While this claim is one of the most powerful arguments for implementing peer mediation programs, there is lack of strong empirical evidence for such claims. Carruthers and Sweeney (1996) noted that reductions in discipline referrals may simply be the result of different classifications for incidents that go to mediation as opposed to incidents referred to administration. For example, Tolson, McDonald, and Moriarty (1992) reported on a peer mediation program in a suburban high school that showed a significant reduction in the number of discipline referrals for interpersonal problems; however, there was no change in the total number of discipline referrals.

Peer Relationships and Social Status

In regard to mediator social status, there has been far less agreement. It can be hypothesized that there would be positive changes in how peer mediators are perceived by other students (based on presumed better interpersonal skills). In examining students' methods of dealing with conflict and social status apart from a mediation program,









Bryant (1992) found that students who were generally regarded more favorably by peers were viewed as more likely to use a calm approach to conflict resolution. Thus, it should not be surprising that most mediators report enjoying being mediators (Humphries, 1999; Schrumpf et al.. 1991).

Some mediators report on negative aspects to the experience. Humphries (1999) interviewed peer mediators at an elementary school program and found that although all mediators stated that they enjoyed being a peer mediator and a large majority viewed the process as favorable overall, many also reported negative reactions. For example, some mentioned being antagonized by non-peer mediators and having a "negative popularity status." It is impossible to establish empirically a causal relationship between participation as a peer mediator and negative experiences, but these reports raise concerns among school counselors. Self-concept change is another area that has yet to be fully understood fully. For example, Roush and Hall (1993) found a significant increase in the self-concept of junior high students enrolled in a conflict resolution course, but no increase in the self-concept of elementary school peer mediators.

Index of Peer Relations

The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) is a self-report, 25-item scale that measures quality of relationships and intensity of problems that individuals have with their peers. The IPR was developed for individuals 12 years of age and older who have the capacity to provide valid self-report data. Respondents are asked to rate questions related to their peer groups on a Likert-type scale having response values from 1-7. Resulting scores on the IPR range between 0 and 100. Higher scores on the IPR indicate a greater magnitude of problems with peer relationships. More specifically, a cut-off score of 30 (+/-5) or less









suggests the absence of peer relationship struggles. Scores above 30 indicate significant problems and scores above 70 indicate extreme stress and the possibility of violence.

Hudson, Nurius, Daley, and Newsome (1990) found the construct, discriminant, and factorial validity of the IPR to be consistently over .60. The researchers also reported the IPR to have a mean coefficient alpha of .94. However, much of the original research on the IPR was conducted on adult populations. More recently, Coots (1999) conducted a validation study of the IPR for an adolescent sample. Coots found strong support for the concurrent and construct validity of the IPR with adolescents. Coots found correlations between syndrome scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR) form of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and IPR scores among a clinical sample of adolescents. Coots also found correlations between competence scales on the YSR and IPR scores among a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Thus, the IPR appears appropriate as a tool to measure quality of relationships and severity of problems with peers for peer mediators.

Socioeconomic Level and Race/Ethnicity

Although peer mediation programs have become an integral part of United States' school culture, little attention has been paid to specific cultural differences in these programs (Avruch & Black, 1991). What is evident is that racial and cultural differences remain a part of today's school system. Opffer (1997) wrote that, "Despite the Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, segregation lives, shaped in part by the choices students make through voluntary association and partly through the way in which schools structure students' interactions with each other" (p. 46). Tatum (1999) claimed that segregation is a reality in today's school system, but stated that the segregation was often self-imposed and a healthy aspect of adolescent racial identity development. Sheperis'









(2001) Tri-status model of racial identity development supports this notion in positing that as adolescents become aware of themselves as racial beings, they self-segregate and immerse themselves into aspects of their own ethnic or racial cultures.

Regardless of the reasons for segregation among adolescent groups, the end result is the propagation of stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and increased racial tension due to lack of intimate contact across cultures (Opffer, 1997). Presumably, mediators are trained to resolve conflicts among their peers stemming from a variety of sources. However, little attention has been paid to culturally specific aspects of conflict resolution in PM training programs (Casella, 2001; Posner, 1996). Webster (1993) has been especially critical of PM programs in claiming that they serve as fodder for political vistas and detract attention from the factors contributing to youth violence. Other critics claim that mediation, because of its monocultural nature, promotes racism within schools (Opffer, 1997). In other words, some cultures resolve conflict in different, often contrasting methods to those emphasized in many PM training programs (Casella, 2001). Thus, the potential arises for mediators to misinterpret or ignore cultural aspects of conflict resolution and their prospective impact on the mediation process in cross-cultural situations.

Mediation training curricula are often created and managed by school counseling professionals and thus have an inherent attention to facilitative communication, a key aspect of the counseling process. In many ways, mediation can be likened to counseling (e.g., is goal directed, focuses on communication, and seeks conflict resolution). In recent years, the counseling profession has given much attention to the fourth force in counseling, (i.e., multiculturalism) (Arredondo et al., 1996; Helms, 1994a; Parham &








Williams, 1993; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). In turn, experts in mediation are beginning to call attention to multicultural factors in the mediation process (Carruthers & Sweeney, 1996; Casella, 2001; Day-Vines et al., 1996; Opffer, 1997).

Multicultural Competence

School personnel are constantly seeking ways to decrease violence and increase positive behavior within schools. They also must deal with increasing racial and cultural diversity within the schools (Opffer, 1997). With this increased diversification, the possibility of conflicts grounded in cultural difference rises dramatically (Casella, 2001). As a result, many school districts are using CR methods, including PM, as a tool to improve school climate and to reduce violence (Angaran & Beckwith, 1999; Araki, 1990; Daunic et al., 2000; Johnson & Johnson, 1995b; Johnson et al., 1995; Maxwell, 1989; McCormick, 1988; Tolson et al., 1992).

Unfortunately, no investigations of the relationship between the availability of peer mediation in a school and reductions in race-related conflicts have been found (Casella, 2001). There also have not been efforts to ensure that peer mediations are reaching adequate levels of cultural competence to handle racially charged conflicts (Casella, 2001). On an anecdotal level, some authors have called for inclusion of multicultural awareness activities in PM and CR programs, but there is no evidence that supports the use of these activities (Casella, 2001; Day-Vines et al., 1996; Opffer, 1997). Not only do schools need more evidence of effective PM programs, they need evidence of the effectiveness of peer mediators with greater cultural sensitivity. There is evidence that participation in mediation programs effects mediators (Carruthers & Sweeney, 1996); therefore, it is important also to examine the multicultural aspects of this effect.









One way to do this is to focus on the MEI development of the mediators. Vinson and Neimeyer (2000) sampled 87 incoming doctoral students in counseling psychology programs and found significant correlations between racial identity development and multicultural competency (e.g., multicultural competence was positively correlated with higher racial identity development statuses). These findings, which were consistent with previous research on the relationship between racial identity development and multicultural competence (Ottavi, Pope-Davis, & Dings, 1994), lend credence to the investigation of the relationship between MEI development and mediation training.

Ethnicity as a Variable

Effective identity formation is a crucial factor in effective psychosocial

development during adolescence. Erikson, who first coined the term "identity crisis" during his treatment of World War I1 veterans, sparked development of a wealth of research and theoretical concepts related to identity development (Carter, 1995). His ideas have evolved across research and years of study. However, the majority of Erikson's work was focused on white, middle-class males. Later. Gilligan (1993) generated a theory of identity development that included women. Neither theorist directly addressed identity development from a multicultural standpoint, but both theorists viewed adolescence as a critical time in the process of identity formation. According to Adams (1992):

Identity is conceptualized as an internalized, self-selected regulatory system that
represents an organized and integrated psychic structure that requires the
developmental distinction between the inner self and outer social world. Identity
formation is seen as an evolutionary process of differentiation and integration,
synthesis and resynthesis, and increasing cognitive complexity. (p.1)









The goal for adolescents is to achieve a positive, coherent identity. To achieve this goal, adolescents must accomplish various psychosocial tasks (Harris, 1995). In the process, adolescents are bombarded with information about values, morals, and ideals through interactions at various levels of personal environment. They must sift through these experiences of ideals and pick and choose the ones that have the "best fit" for who they are and who they want to become. Dependent upon the individual and his/her experiences, the information received may have inherent messages related to race and culture.

Building upon Erikson's theories, Marcia (1966) conducted research on identity development and generated a four-status theory (i.e., achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion). According to Marcia's model, achievement relates to resolution of the identity crisis and commitment to an identity, moratorium occurs when an individual remains uncommitted after having explored options, foreclosure occurs when an individual prematurely ceases exploration, and diffused status occurs when, after exploration, the individual is unable to reconsolidate the ego (Spencer & MarkstromAdams, 1990).

Marcia (1966) discovered that minority adolescents tend to score higher in

foreclosure than White adolescents. He also found that male minority adolescents had significantly higher scores on ideological diffusion than did minority females and White males and females. These results indicate possible developmental problems related to socio-ecological experiences with discrimination and prejudice.

In an attempt to understand the socio-ecological experiences of adolescents in their pursuit of identity development, Phinney and her associates (Phinney, 1989, 1990,








1992, 1996; Phinney & Alipuria, 1996; Phinney, DuPont, Espinosa, Revill, & Sanders, 1994; Phinney, Horenczyk. Liebkind, & Vedder, 2001; Phinney & Kohatsu, 1997; Phinney, Lochner. & Murphy, 1990; Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992) conducted extensive research and reviews of existing research on MEl development. Phinney (1990) found that previous researchers had focused primarily on White ethnic groups and Blacks, and that many other groups had been neglected. She also concluded that while research on ethnicity was being conducted over a wide variety of fields and disciplines (e.g., sociology, anthropology, psychology, and social work), there was a lack of integration across these areas. The result was a duplication of effort in many areas of MEI research. To make matters more complex, Phinney found a wide array of definitions for MEI (e.g., links to social identity theory, acculturation, and culture conflict). For the purposes of this study, MEI is defined as a dynamic and complex construct that occurs throughout an individual's life and relates to an individual's process of identification with his/her own ethnic group. MEI, as a developmental process, is similar to that described by Erikson (1968) and Marcia (1966) and appears to be an issue that is agreed upon by researchers across disciplines.

Phinney (1989) developed a three-stage process similar to Cross' (1977) model of nigrescence that moved from unexamined notions about ethnicity and lack of an adolescent's attachment to an ethnic group, through a stage of discovery about ethnic notions and personal ethnic awareness, and finally to a commitment toward an achieved MEI. According to Parham (1989), rather than becoming static once the third stage of MEI development is achieved, individuals continue to examine their attitudes and revise








their thought processes throughout their lives. The model developed by Phinney (1989) will serve as a basis for this study.

According to Phinney (1989), the initial stage of MEI development is

characterized by a lack of attention to ethnicity and its role in an individual's life. Phinney postulated that this phenomenon might be due to a lack of awareness and absent conscious examination of race and ethnicity. However, Phinney also theorized that children might come to have strong identification with an ethnic group if a family models appropriate behavior.

The second stage of MEI development is similar to Marcia's (1966) concept of moratorium and Cross' (1977) and Helms'(1994b) concept of immersion. Through encounters with different cultures, whether through media or live interaction, individuals entering the second stage become more curious about their own ethnicity and begin to seek information. Attitudes about an individual's own ethnic group are likely to be highly positive at this stage and issues related to ethnicity are likely to be highly salient (Phinney, 1996).

The final stage of Phinney's model includes a range of behaviors from selfsegregation to universal acceptance and valuing of other ethnic groups. Individuals develop attitudes in the last stage dependent upon the experiences they have had with society-at-large. Individuals who have experienced less prejudice and discrimination are likely to see more hope for cooperation and improvement of relations across ethnic groups and thus move more toward universal acceptance. Conversely, those who have experienced more prejudice and discrimination are likely to see less hope and move toward self-segregation.








In attempting to validate this model, Phinney (1989) conducted a qualitative

research project using a structured interview with 91 American-born tenth graders. The results of the study supported Phinney's three-stage model. Individuals from three ethnic groups demonstrated an equal distribution across the three stages, indicating the appropriateness of the model across cultures and ethnicities. In fact, there were no significant differences in assignments to stages by gender, socio-economic level, or ethnic group affiliation (Phinney, 1989). Although the sample was small and localized, the results provided impetus for Phinney to create a scale to assess MEI.

Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure

In 1992, Phinney constructed on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and conducted research on it using a sample of 417 high school students and 136 college students. The result was a 14-item scale having a coefficient alpha of .81 for the high school sample and .90 for the college sample. However, factor analysis revealed a twofactor solution instead of the three-factor (stage) model proposed by Phinney. These two factors accounted for 29% of the variance in the high school sample and 42% of the variance in the college sample. The first factor contained all of the items related to ethnic identity while the other factor contained items related to other-group orientation. This two-factor scale was used to assess the MEI of peer mediators in this study.

Because the sample was small for the initial test of the MEIM, Roberts and

Phinney (1999) conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the MEIM using a sample of 5,423 adolescents from diverse backgrounds. The participants were from schools in one urban area in the Southwest and were enrolled in grades six through eight. Again, factor analysis resulted in a two-factor solution. However, item distribution was different in this









analysis and two items from the original 14-item scale were eliminated. The new 12-item scale accounted for 51% of the variance. Although MEIM scores on the 12-item scale were found to have only modest correlations with psychological well-being, there was a highly significant correlation (r = .40) between MEIM scores and ethnic salience (i.e., importance attached to ethnic background). This correlation provides evidence of the concurrent validity of the instrument. It should be noted that although the sample size for this research added to the power of the results, there is some question about the method with which the sample was obtained. The researchers utilized a "passive consent" process in which they sent home letters asking for permission to conduct research with children in the school district. Parents were instructed to do nothing if they consented and to return the letter or call if they objected. Although there is a concern about the sampling procedure, the results of Roberts' and Phinney's (1999) study support the use of this instrument, in its revised form, in future research on MEI.

Summary

With further research, a clearer picture regarding the impact of peer mediation on schools, mediators, and disputants will emerge. At present, it appears that peer mediation can be a positive and significant resource for professional school counselors. Although a number of authors have questioned the effectiveness and/or the utilization of peer mediation programs for adolescents, others have described successful high school programs. The claims related to benefits of peer mediation are numerous, including that peer mediation programs foster a cooperative and comfortable atmosphere in which Ostudents can learn more efficiently and teachers can spend more and better time teaching. In addition, there is some evidence that students involved in peer mediation








programs develop feelings of empowerment, learn to take responsibility, and develop constructive solutions for interpersonal problems. Evidence also exists that peer mediation programs offer potential reductions in violence, vandalism, chronic school absence, and student suspensions in schools. Finally, some authors have asserted that peer mediation reduces the time teachers spend involved in resolving conflicts in their classrooms, thus focusing more time on student learning.

Although more research needs to be conducted in order to substantiate these

claims further, it appears that peer mediation programs overall have a positive impact on school systems, mediators, and disputants. However, the degree of the impact is unclear. Because there is evidence that mediation programs have the greatest impact on mediators, it is important to examine closely the impact that becoming a peer mediator has on the mediators themselves. One area of focus is the quality of relationships maintained by mediators and the level of conflicts experienced by these individuals. It is clear that school administrators are encountering increasing racial and cultural diversification within schools. Some authors claim that there is a rise in cultural-related conflict due to increases in diversity. Thus, it is important to explore the impact of mediation (i.e., training and exposure to mediations) on the ethnic identity attitudes of mediators.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Peer mediation programs have become a popular form of conflict resolution in today's schools. Evident in the literature is the effect that peer mediation programs have on mediators, as much as any other facet of school environment. However, there has been only anecdotal attention to multicultural facets of mediation and the effects of mediation training and process on the quality of peer relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mediation training and participation in the mediation process on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators and the quality of relationships between mediators and their peers. Because ample criticism exists related to past research efforts in the field of PM, it was essential that considerable attention to research design be given to this investigatory effort.

Several components of PM make it a difficult subject for empirical analyses (e.g., variations in training programs, methods of training, and/or trainer modifications). Therefore, a research design that accounted for variations in treatment was necessary. For the purposes of this study, a pretest-posttest-follow-up, control-group experimental mixed design was indicated. This design allowed for causal inferences about the effect of the independent variable (peer mediation training, with and without additional multicultural units) on the dependent variable (ethnic identity development) through use of a control group and random assignment.








Because cadres of mediators from specific schools were examined, random selection of schools for both experimental and control groups occurred in lieu of assignment of individual participants. However, participants in the control group received (delayed) exposure to peer mediation training at the conclusion of the experiment. The use of both random assignment and a control group counteracts many of the problems with previous PM research in that the design controls for most threats to internal validity.

The mixed design is a combination of both within-subjects and between-subjects designs. Separately, there are advantages and disadvantages to both the within- and between-subjects designs. For example, between-subjects designs require that a participant be assigned to only one treatment condition and be observed solely under that condition. Conversely, within subjects designs allow for multiple observations of a participant. By combining these designs, it was possible to assign schools to either the experimental ( i.e., peer mediation training or peer mediation training with a multicultural component) or control groups (between-subjects) and to observe each participant prior to treatment, directly after treatment, and after a two-month delay (within-subjects).

In an effort to categorize differences in treatment effects in the most efficient manner, two additional between-subjects variables were included in the design (i.e., gender and race). Because diversity was a central theme in this research and because the population of schools in the United States is becoming increasingly diverse, it was important to recognize the potential for differences in ethnic identity development (EID) by gender. In addition, because EID was a dependent variable in this research, it was important to consider the differences in EID by race. For the purposes of this study, race included self-identification into one of two categories: (a) white or (b) black. These








categories were chosen based on the demographic characteristics of the state Mississippi (in which the research was conducted). An overwhelming majority of students in Mississippi's public schools are either black or white. Although there are representatives from various other ethnic origins, the limited representation from each group prohibited individual analyses. Thus, the structure of this experiment was a 3 x 3 x 2 x 2 (group x time of assessment x race x gender) mixed design.

Statistical Analyses

Split-plot Analysis of Variance

An appropriate statistical method to analyze data from a mixed experimental

design containing one or more between-subjects factors and one or more within-subjects factors is the split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA). According to Shavelson (1996), results of a SPANOVA determined the nature of differences in mean scores on the between-subjects variables (i.e., control vs. experimental group, racial identification, and gender identification) and the within subjects variable (i.e., treatment occasion). The results of a SPANOVA also determined the nature of interactions among the betweensubjects variables and the within-subjects variable. Further, the use of a SPANOVA allowed categorization of variability due to the various factors, their interaction, and error. Shavelson provided a list of four assumptions in the use of SPANOVA:

1. Independence: Subjects are randomly sampled from their respective populations and
their scores are independent.

2. Normality: The populations from which the subjects were sampled are normally
distributed.

3. Homogeneity of variances: The populations from which subjects were sampled have
equal variances.








4. Homogeneity of covariances: The population covariances for all pairs of the levels of
the within-subjects factor...are equal at each level of the between-subjects factor. If
assumption 3 is true, assumption 4 can be restated as follows: The population
correlations for all pairs of the levels of the within-subjects factor are equal at each
level of the between-subjects factor (p. 489). Factorial Analyses of Variance

Because the Index of Peer Relations (IPR) was administered two months after peer mediation training occurred, it was necessary to conduct a separate analysis of the data related to this instrument. Because there was only one treatment occasion related to the IPR, only between-subjects variables remained for analyses (i.e., control vs. experimental groups, racial identification, and gender identification). According to Shavelson (1996), the factorial analysis of variance, (i.e., three-way ANOVA), is a method for determining the strength of association between each independent variable (and combination of independent variables) and the dependent variable (i.e., score on the IPR) in a between-subjects factorial design. Thus, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with three levels of treatment (peer mediation training, peer mediation training with additional units on multiculturalism, and control group), two levels of gender (male and female), and two levels of race (Black and White) was established. Like the SPANOVA, the three-way ANOVA. Shavelson provided a list of four design requirements in the use of a three-way ANOVA:

1. There are at least two independent variables (factors), each with two or more levels
(e.g., treatment group, gender, and race).
2. The levels of the factors exhaust the possible levels of interest to the researcher (i.e.,
fixed-effect ANOVA).

3. The levels of the factors differ either quantitatively or qualitatively (e.g., differences
between males and females).

4. Each subject appears in only one cell of the design and represents a random sample
from the population defined by that cell (e.g., Black male peer mediators).








Population

The population for this study consisted of adolescents from the State of

Mississippi, ranging in age from 15 to 18, who were attending school. Participation in this study was voluntary. Because the sample for this study was voluntary, it is important to note that the differences between volunteers and non-volunteers may have complicated the interpretation of results. In general, volunteers are self-perceived as "helpers." This factor may be even more salient among individuals training to become peer mediators. Therefore, it was important to attempt to sample as much of the population as possible in order to account for differences in participation motivation.

Sampling Procedures

Representatives of school districts throughout the state of Mississippi (i.e., superintendents and principals) were contacted via phone or email to ascertain the presence of peer mediation programs within their respective districts. Each representative was given information about the nature of this research project and the potential for selection as a participating school district. Schools currently operating peer mediation programs were randomly selected for potential participation in the experimental group. Schools without peer mediation programs were randomly selected for potential participation in the control group. All participants in the control group received delayed treatment (i.e., peer mediation training) at the completion of this experiment.

Upon selection and agreement to participate by a school district official,

information about the objectives of the research, sampling procedures, MEIM, analyses, and dissemination of results was presented to the members of each participating school








board. Permission to access schools within a district ultimately rested with these elected boards of representatives.

Because the control group received delayed treatment, a potential pool of peer mediators was identified by each school's professional counselor or PM program coordinator (schools in the experimental group may have had an existing pool of potential mediators). Although identification of potential mediators for each school was not directly linked to this research project, it was important to note that each potential mediator was asked to complete an application and interview process with their individual school counselor or PM coordinator. All students identified for peer mediation training within each participating school was asked to participate in this research.

For both experimental and control groups, once the interview process was

completed and students were identified for eventual PM training, the researcher provided potential individual participants with parental consent forms (Appendix A) that explained the research process. Parents had an opportunity to ask questions and to see the instruments prior to administration if they so desired. Once the consent forms were returned and the participants were selected, they were asked to sign an assent form (Appendix B) that explained the research process. The assent forms were read aloud to the participants by the researcher or PM coordinator and the students had an opportunity to ask questions about the process.

Participation in this investigation was voluntary and there was no penalty if

individuals choose not to participate; they also had the opportunity to withdraw at any time and/or refuse to answer any of the questions without penalty. Individuals were not paid for their participation. All information was held as confidential within the limits of








law. Only the counselor or peer mediation coordinator and the researcher saw the questionnaires. Participation or non-participation in this study did not affect participants' grades.

Power

For the purposes of this study, it was determined that a large effect size (.75)

would be adequate to determine the effects of PM training and the subsequent process of mediation on the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators. In order to reduce the probability of a Type I error, a conservative level of significance was established (c = .01). Because the inclusion of additional multicultural components in peer mediation training could prove costly to school districts, it was determined that the risk of a Type I error was greater than that of a Type II error. Even though a conservative approach was utilized, it was still important to maintain a reasonable probability of detecting experimental differences should they exist. Thus, power was set at .80. Through the establishment of desired effect size, significance level, and power, it was determined that a sample size of 36 was necessary for each group in the study. The overall resulting sample was 148.

Experimental Procedures

Once access to the schools was obtained and prior to the commencement of peer mediation training in the experimental group, the MEIM was administered by the researcher, in group situations, to all participants. A timeline for each component of the experimental procedures is presented in Appendix C. The instruments were read aloud to the group in order to compensate for any physical disability and/or low level of ability to read. Problems regarding administration or completion of the instruments were addressed








at the time of the administration. However, discussion of individual items was avoided. Instruments were visually scanned upon completion and participants were asked to complete any items omitted if they so desired.

Each of the participants was asked to complete the instruments on two additional occasions (i.e., at the completion of peer mediation training and after two months of mediation practice). Thus, each participant also was asked to include a name on the forms. Once the participants completed the instruments after the two-month delay, the names were removed and replaced with a code. The code sheet was kept in a locked file cabinet within the investigator's office. After completion of the data analyses, the code sheet was destroyed via a document shredder.

Mediation Training

All participants in the experimental group received peer mediation training directly after the initial MEIM assessment. Based on Smith's and Daunic's (2002) recommendations, the basic components of the mediation program included (a) providing a non-threatening environment in which disputants can tell their side of the story, (b) focusing disputants on mutually identified problems and identifying "common ground,"

(c) helping disputants develop possible solutions and rationales for each solution, (d) assisting disputants to take each other's perspective, (e) guiding disputants to mutually agreed upon resolutions, and (f) formalizing each agreement.

For the purposes of this study all participants received training that followed the Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine (1997) model of peer mediation training. All schools participating in this project utilized a club-model approach to peer mediation and initially used an after-school training approach. The initial training program occurred in daily,








one-hour meetings over a two-week period. Additional training occurred in weekly PM club meetings. The researcher was present for several mediation training sessions in order to ensure consistency in implementation of PM training across schools. The Schrumpf, et al. model of training includes (a) an introduction to the definition and process of mediation; (b) introduction to the nature and origins of, and responses to, conflict; (c) review of the process of peacemaking and conflict resolution; (d) introduction to facilitative communication skills; (e) training related to a six-step mediation process; (f) mediation role-play; and (g) an introduction to the PM program operating procedures within each individual school.

The six-step model of mediation that each school utilized had the following

components: (a) establishment of an agreement to mediate, (b) solicitation of participant points of view, (c) a search for mutual interests among participants that will help toward establishing an agreement, (d) a search for possibilities of win-win scenarios, (e) evaluation of all generated possible solutions, and (f) creation of a mediation agreement.

PM Trainers

For the purposes of this research, all individuals assisting in the development of peer mediation programs or the training of peer mediators had attained a minimum of a master's degree in a counseling related field. Trainers also held a valid Educator License from the State of Mississippi. All trainers received a copy of the Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine (1991) Peer Mediation Program Guide and copies of the Schrumpf, Crawfod, and Bodine (1997) Peer Mediation Student Manual. The principal investigator met with each PM coordinator and conducted a two-hour training session on the use of the peer mediation manuals. PM coordinators had the opportunity to ask questions about the








program and received ongoing consultation throughout the implementation of this research project.

Assessment Instruments

Phinney (1992) attempted to assess both culture specific and universal issues related to ethnic self identification and ethnic identity development, in creating the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The MEIM was designed to assess individual attitudes toward their own ethnic status as well as identification and interactions with members of ethnic groups other than their own.

The MEIM is a 12-item instrument assessing three aspects of ethnic identity.

Items on the instrument are rated on a four-point, Likert-type scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The instrument was developed and revised over a five-year period. Five pilot studies were used to revise the instrument and included undergraduate subjects from several institutions. In efforts to establish reliability of the instrument, Phinney (1992) administered the MEIM to 417 high school students at an urban school with "an ethnically diverse student body" (p.163) as well as with 136 college participants at one university.

Cronbach's alpha for the 12-item scale ranged between .81 and .89 across ethnic groups. The results of extended research on the MEIM indicate a two-factor solution (i.e., affirmation, belonging, and commitment; and exploration of and active involvement in group identity) that explained 51% of the variance (Roberts & Phinney, 1999).

Hudson, Nurius, Daley, and Newsome (1990) developed The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) to measure the quality of relationships and intensity of problems that individuals have with their peers. The IPR is a self-report, 25-item Likert scale for








individuals 12 years of age and older. Scores on the IPR range between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating a greater magnitude of problems with peer relationships. More specifically, a cut-off score of 30 (+/-5) or less suggests the absence of peer relationship struggles. Scores above 30 indicate clinically significant problems and scores above 70 indicate extreme stress and the possibility of violence.

Summary

Investigation of the effects of peer mediation training on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators required careful attention to a variety of issues (e.g., research design, instrument selection, sampling procedures, and general operational procedures). The use of a mixed, experimental design controlled for many of the ambient factors that affected past research efforts. Attention to issues such as instrument selection, sampling procedures, and general operational procedures corrected errors inherent in other studies related to peer mediation, ethnic identity development, and the quality of peer relationships. Thus, the resulting effort was a valid investigation of the effects of mediation training and participation in the mediation process on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators and the quality of relationships between mediators and their peers.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PM training and the

subsequent process of mediation on the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators. An additional purpose was to examine the effects of peer mediation training on the quality of relationships maintained by mediators with their peers. In order to accomplish the purposes of this research, two separate statistical analyses were employed. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) was used to examine the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators and a factorial analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was employed to examine the quality of relationships among mediators. In this chapter, the results of the SPANOVA and two-way ANOVA are presented, as are the demographic characteristics of the resulting sample.

One hundred and forty-eight high school students in grades nine through twelve participated in this study. The sample included Black (45.9%; n = 68) and White students (54.1%; n = 80). The sample contained a disproportionate ratio of females (73%; n = 108) to males (27%; n = 40). The experimental condition was divided into two equal groups; peer mediation with additional units on multiculturalism (24.3%; n = 36) and peer mediation training only (24.3%; n = 36). The control group (51.4%; n = 76) contained the remainder of the sample and received peer mediation training after the completion of the study








In order to evaluate students' ethnic identity development (EID), participants were asked to complete the MEIM on three occasions (pre-training, post-training, and two months after training). The means and standard deviations on the MEIM for all participants are presented by participant characteristics in Table 1.

Split Plot Analysis of Variance

A SPANOVA was used to determine the nature of differences in means on the between-subjects variables (i.e., [control vs. experimental] group, racial identification, and gender identification) and the within subjects variable (i.e., treatment group). The design used for this study was a 3 x 3 x 2 x 2 combination of within- and betweensubjects variables. This design included the within-subjects factor, which was three levels of treatment occasion (i.e., pre-training, post-training, and two months post-training), and the between-subjects factors which were the three levels of test occasion (i.e., peer mediation training, peer mediation training with additional components on multiculturalism, and a control group that received delayed training), two levels of racial identification (i.e., Black or White), and two levels of gender (male or female). The SPANOVA also was employed to determine the nature of the interactions among the between-subjects variables and the within-subjects variable. The alpha level for statistical analyses was p =.01.

Results for the SPANOVA are presented in Table 2. The first hypothesis stated

that there is no difference in MEI participation group (i.e., PM, PM & MC, and group). In regard to the first hypothesis, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean scores [F(2, 136) = 2.10, ns]. This hypothesis was not rejected.









Table 1

Means and Standard Deviations for Scores on the MEIM by Time of Assessment, Experimental Group, Gender, and Race


Post 1I


Race Gender Group Black Male PM & MCa PMb Controlc Totald Black Female PM & MC PM

Control Total Total PM & MC PM

Control Total White Male PM & MC PM

Control Total White Female PM & MC PM


Post 2L


Pre-Training M SD

3.55 .319 3.56 .080 3.24 .211 3.42 .278 3.52 .252 3.35 .389 3.40 .422 3.42 .368 3.53 .268 3.40 .352 3.35 .379 3.42 .343 3.25 .212 3.26 .392 3.13 .502 3.20 .406 3.04 .445 3.10 .419


M

3.33 3.67 3.18 3.34 3.49 3.36 3.39 3.41 3.44 3.44 3.33 3.39 3.08 3.33 2.94 3.09 3.12 3.24


SD M

.728 3.55 .068 3.65 .273 3.21 .492 3.42 .333 3.48 .456 3.39 .487 3.49 .431 3.46 .481 3.50 .417 3.45 .445 3.41 .446 3.45 .349 3.42 .435 3.32 .478 3.00 .451 3.19 .441 3.16 .414 3.26


SD

.408 .249 .260 .360 .377 .367 .294 .336 .378 .354 .309 .341 .144 .399 .626 .506 .436 .372









Table 1. Continued


Pre-Training


Post 1I


Post 2


aPM & MC = Peer Mediation Training plus additional Multicultural units bPM = Peer Mediation Training CControl = Control Group dTotal = all subjects combined


Race Gender Group Control Total Total PM & MC PM

Control Total Total Male PM & MC PM

Control Total Total Female PM & MC PM

Control Total Total Total PM & MC PM

Control Total


M SD

3.20 .370 3.15 .391 3.11 .383 3.15 .408 3.18 .396 3.16 .393 3.42 .309 3.38 .334 3.18 .393 3.30 .365 3.34 .405 3.22 .417 3.27 .398

3.27 .402 3.37 .373 3.26 .398 3.25 .396 3.28 .392


M 3.15 3.17 3.12 3.27

3.11 3.15

3.23 3.47 3.05 3.21

3.35 3.30 3.24 3.28

3.31

3.35

3.19 3.26


SD M SD

.492 3.22 .435 .463 3.22 .416 .397 3.25 .374 .411 3.28 .371 .491 3.17 .483 .458 3.21 .438 .591 3.49 .321 .369 3.45 .371 .407 3.09 .497

.481 3.30 .453 .410 3.36 .422 .431 3.32 .368 .499 3.32 .409 .463 3.33 .399 .473 3.40 .392 .416 3.36 .368 .484 3.26 .439 .468 3.32 .413








The second hypothesis, which related to the within-subjects variable assessment occasion, stated that there is no difference in the MEI of peer mediators prior to, immediately following, and at a two-month interval after training. There were no statistically significant differences among the mean scores [F(2, 272) = 2.61, ns]. Thus, this hypothesis was not rejected.

The third hypothesis stated that there is no interaction effect for PM training with level of participation, time of assessment, or race. The results for this particular hypothesis were reflected in several aspects of the SPANOVA (i.e., race x gender, F(1, 136) = .027, ns; race x group, F(2, 136) = .175, ns; gender x group, F(2, 136) = 2.72, ns; race x gender x group, F(2, 136) = .343, ns; TO x race, F(2, 272) = .214, ns; TO x gender, F(2, 272) = 1.49, ns; TO x group, F(4, 272) = 1.81, ns; TO x race x gender, F(2. 272) = .374, ns; TO x race x group, F(4, 272) =.836, ns; TO x gender x group, F(4, 272) = 1.38, ns and TO x race x gender x group, F(4, 272) = .067, ns). There were no significant interactions among these variables. Therefore, the third hypothesis was not rejected.

The fourth null hypothesis, which was related to EID, stated that there is no

difference in MEI among trained peer mediators based on race. The split-plot analysis of variance resulted in a significant main effect for race [(F(1, 136) = 12.44, p < .001, eta2 .084)]. Black participants reported higher levels of ethnic identity development than did White participants. Therefore, this hypothesis was rejected.

The final hypothesis related to EID stated that there is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators by gender. There was not a statistically significant difference in the mean scores [F(1, 136) = .062, ns]. Therefore, this hypothesis was not rejected.








Factorial Analysis of Variance

A factorial analysis of variance was employed to determine the nature of the

associations between the independent variables and dependent variable IPR score. The design used for this aspect of the study was a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with three levels of treatment (peer mediation training, peer mediation training with additional units on multiculturalism, and control group), two levels of gender (male and female), and two levels of race (Black and White).

In order to evaluate students' quality of peer relationships, all participants in the experimental group were asked to complete the IPR two months after peer mediation training. The means and standard deviations for their scores on the IPR are presented in Table 3.

The results of the factorial ANOVA are presented in Table 4. The sixth

hypothesis stated that there is no difference in quality of peer relations based on level of participation in PM training. There was no statistically significant difference in the means [F(2, 136) = .810, ns]. Therefore, this hypothesis was not rejected.

The seventh hypothesis was related to the IPR and stated that there is no

interaction effect for level of participation, gender, or race. This particular hypothesis was addressed by several parts of the factorial ANOVA (race x gender, F(1, 136) = .693, ns; race x group, F(2, 136) = 1.58, ns; gender x group, F(2, 136) = 2.79, ns; and race x gender x group, F(2, 136) = .170, ns). There were no significant interactions. Thus, this hypothesis was not rejected.

The eighth null hypothesis, which was related to peer relations, stated that there is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators based on race.





53


Based on the results of the analysis [F(1, 136) = 5.412, ns] this hypothesis was not rejected.

The ninth null hypothesis related to the IPR stated that there is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators by gender. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean scores [F(1, 136) = .663, ns]. Therefore, this hypothesis was not rejected.









Table 2 SPANOVA Summary Table

Source of Variation Between Subjects

Race

Gender Group

Race x Gender Race x Group

Gender x Group Race x Gender x
Group Error

Within Subjects

Treatment Occasion
(TO)
TO x Race

TO x Gender TO x Group

TO x Race x Gender TO x Race x Group

TO x Gender x
Group
TO x Race x Gender
x Group
Error (TO)


Total


**p<.O1


Sum of Squares df Mean Squares F


5.04

2.49 x 102

1.70

1.07 x 102

.142 2.20 .278 55.09



.263

2.15 x 10-2

.150

.364

3.76 x 10-2

.168 .278

1.35 x 10-2

13.66 79.453


5.04

2.49 x 10-2

.851

1.07 x 10-2 7.09 x 10-2

1.10 .139 .405



.131

1.07 x 10-2 7.49 x 10.2 9.09 x 10.2 1.88 x 10-2 4.20 x 10.2 6.95 x 102 3.37 x 10.2 5.02 x 10-2


12.44** .062 2.10 .027 .175 2.72 .343





2.61 .214 1.49 1.81

.374 .836 1.38 .067








Table 3

Means and Standard Deviations for scores on the IPR by group, gender, and race. Race Gender Group M SD Black Male PM & MC 21.43 12.41 PM 12.33 3.87 Control 18.75 9.82 Total 18.38 10.16 Black Female PM & MC 9.78 8.59 PM 14.92 6.78 Control 16.32 7.95 Total 15.19 8.95 Total PM & MC 13.48 11.14 PM 14.31 6.21 Control 16.99 8.40 Total 15.19 8.95 White Male PM & MC 29.33 14.45 PM 18.00 16.57 Control 15.60 13.54 Total 19.55 15.01 White Female PM & MC 21.19 15.70 PM 21.54 11.24 Control 20.33 14.15 Total 20.73 13.59









Table 3. Continued


Race Gender Group

Total PM & MC PM

Control Total Total Male PM & MC PM

Control Total Total Female PM & MC PM

Control Total Total Total PM & MC PM

Control Total


M

24.10 20.42 19.33 20.42 24.72 15.73 17.00 19.00 14.05 18.23 18.88 17.65 17.61 17.54 18.43 18.02


SD

15.24 12.78 14.01 13.89 13.29

12.89 11.81 12.79 12.74 9.70 12.34 11.91

13.72 10.54 12.17 12.12








Table 4

Index of Peer Relations Three-Way ANOVA Summary Table Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Squares F


Race

Gender Group

Race x Gender Race x Group

Gender x Group Race x Gender x
Group Error Total

*p<.05


757.833

92.878 226.905 97.065 443.484 781.549 47.621 19042.689 21610.119


757.833

92.878 113.453 97.065

221.742 390.775 23.811 140.020


5.412* .663

.810 .693 1.584 2.791 .170














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Validity of research results is dependent on meeting the assumptions of a particular research design. As noted in Chapter III, Shavelson (1996) listed four assumptions that should be verified in the use of SPANOVA: (a) independence, (b) normality, (c) homogeneity of variances, and (d) homogeneity of covariances. The score of any particular subject in this project was independent of the scores of all other subjects, thus meeting the criteria for independence.

ANOVAs are often robust to violations of normality (Shavelson, 1996). In order to test for normality, George and Mallery (2002) stated that the normality assumption for an ANOVA is met when the skewness of the sample ranges between +/- 1. Skewness of the sample for this research ranged between -.581 and -.644. Thus, the requirements for normality were met.

The homogeneity of variances assumption requires that the variances of scores in the populations underlying all the cells of the design are equal. If cell sizes are equal in all groups, then ANOVAs are robust to this violation (Shavelson, 1996). However, because cell sizes were unequal and the normality assumption was met, it was necessary to test this assumption through statistical analysis; Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances was employed. Levene's formula tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups (i.e., pre, post, and two month follow up). In order to meet the homogeneity of variance assumption for the Levene's








test, all levels of significance should be p>.01. The significance levels for Levene's in this research ranged between .044 and .186. Thus the homogeneity of variances assumption was met.

The final assumption relates to homogeneity of covariances. Mauchly's test of sphericity tests the null hypothesis that the error covariance matrix of the orthonormalized transformed dependent variables is proportional to an identity matrix. Mauchly's test of sphericity was employed to test the assumption of equal correlations across the levels of the within-subjects variable (i.e., treatment group) and equalcorrelation matrices across the levels of the between subjects variables (i.e., control vs. experimental groups, racial identification, and gender identification). Mauchly's test failed to produce statistically significant results (p > .01). Thus the assumption for homogeneity of covariances was met and no adjustment to degrees of freedom was necessary.

Shavelson (1996) stated that a research design utilizing a factorial ANOVA should meet assumptions of independence, normality, and homogeneity of variances. These assumptions, as explained in the assumptions for the SPANOVA, also were met. As in the SPANOVA, the score of any particular subject in this project was independent of the scores of all other subjects, thus meeting the criteria for independence. Skewness of the sample for this research ranged between -.581 and -.644. Thus, the requirements for normality were met. Finally, Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances produced significant results (p> .01). Thus the homogeneity of variances assumption was met.

As indicated in Chapter IV, the application of SPANOVA in the pre-, post-, postexperimental design resulted in only one main effect (p < .01). Black participants (M =








3.45) reported higher levels of ethnic identity development than did White participants (M = 3.15). These findings are reasonable in light of the definition of MEI. For the purposes of this study, MEI is defined as a dynamic and complex construct that occurs throughout an individual's life and relates to an individual's process of identification with his/her own ethnic group. MEI moves from unexamined notions about ethnicity and lack of an adolescent's attachment to an ethnic group, through a stage of discovery about ethnic notions and personal ethnic awareness, and finally to a commitment toward an achieved MEI. Researchers have documented the various differences in socio-ecological experiences between children and adolescents of the majority culture and those from minority cultures. These socio-ecological experiences have direct impact on MEI development. Thus differences in MEI between Black and White adolescents could be predicted.

Limitations

Investigation of the effects of peer mediation training on the ethnic identity

development of peer mediators requires attention to inherent and potential limitations. These limitations are specifically related to sampling, procedures, instrumentation, and response errors. Although many of these potential ambient factors are controlled through experimental design, it is important to discuss them and their possible effects.

A potential limitation in experimental research is derived from the nature and characteristics of the sample. Because participants were recruited on a voluntary basis, the possibility of selection bias arose. As stated, individuals who volunteer for research activities may be different from those who do not. Although participation in this research was voluntary, individuals who may not be typical volunteers had the potential for









inclusion. Many mediation theorists have called for a greater diversity among peer mediators, including students with a history of behavioral problems. The inclusion of this type of participant pool increased the possibility of equalizing the potential differences between volunteers and non-volunteers.

The sampling procedures also introduced potential limitations. Because peer

mediators were trained in a cohort within a school district, the use of individual random selection was precluded. However, participating school districts were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Thus, the sampling procedure was expected to compensate for the lack of individual random selection.

The general procedures for data collection also presented potential limitations.

Instruments administered in large groups may have produced different results than if they had been administered individually. In order to alleviate this potential problem, trained research aides assisted in the administration of the instruments.

Additional limitations relate to the general procedures. The MEIM is an

instrument that identifies ethnic attitudes and the questions might have been considered threatening by some respondents. Likewise, the IPR, which measures problems with peer relationships, also might have been considered threatening by some respondents. Bradburn and Sudman (as cited in Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996) stated that assurance of confidentiality increases response rates when threatening questions are present. Thus. confidentiality of information was clearly stated in the parent consent form, participant assent form, and instructions read to the participants.

All of the instruments included in this research were paper-and-pencil, self-report measures. Thus, a potential existed for response effect, which is "the tendency of the









respondent to give inaccurate or incorrect responses" (Gall et al., 1996 p.448). This type of error may be related to predispositions of the respondent. According to Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996 ), the following are examples of respondent predispositions that can lead to errors: The respondent

1. Is suspicious of or hostile to the research.
2. Is indifferent or not motivated to cooperate.
3. Lacks the information the interviewer is seeking.
4. Wants to please the interviewer or be accepted by the interviewer.
5. Wants to present him or herself in favorable terms (p. 448).

Through carefully developed procedures for administration of the instruments, these potential effects were controlled.

Recommendations for Training and Practice Adolescence is a dynamic stage of development in which individuals seek to solidify identity through values, peer relations, and separation from parental authority. Phinney and Rosenthal (1992) posited that adolescence also is a critical developmental stage for exploration of ethnic identity. EID theorists have argued that environmental factors, including peer relationships, affect the process of EID (e.g., family and community values, spiritual and religious involvement, and socioeconomic status). However, results of this study lend support to the notion that EID is not easily malleable and that structured activities related to culture and diversity neither increase nor decrease awareness of personal ethnic identity.

This study was also based on the premise that EID and multicultural competence is reciprocal and that making changes to one would in turn change the other. The results of this study suggest that this relationship may not be reciprocal and that this is an area in need of further research.









Many school districts are using CR methods, including PM, as a tool to improve school climate and to reduce violence (Angaran & Beckwith, 1999; Araki, 1990; Daunic et al., 2000; Johnson & Johnson, 1995b; Johnson et al., 1995; Maxwell, 1989; McCormick. 1988; Tolson et al.. 1992). Although there is evidence that participation in mediation programs affects mediators (Carruthers & Sweeney, 1996), there exists little evidence of the effects in relation to multicultural issues. This study had two focal points: to identify the differences between typical PM training, PM training with multicultural components, and no PM training and to identify the effects of these trainings on the EID of participants. Although some authors have called for inclusion of multicultural awareness activities in PM and CR programs, the results of this study did not support such recommendations. Furthermore, the results of this study failed to provide conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of PM programs in providing peer mediators with greater cultural sensitivity. Thus, any adaptations to PM curriculum to include specific focus on multicultural issues should be approached with caution.

Recommendations for Future Research

As noted in Chapter II, several components of PM make it a difficult subject for empirical analyses (e.g., variations in training programs, methods of training, and/or trainer modifications). Although the results of this study did not support the notion that mediation training affects the EID of mediators, further research should be conducted before eliminating multicultural aspects of training. First, it should be noted that generalization of results from this study is limited by the geographic restriction of the sample to a rural population in the Southeastern United States. Because of this restriction, it may be important to investigate the impact of multicultural components in peer








mediation training on mediator's EID in various other geographic regions (e.g., the Northeast, the West, or the Southwest). In addition, the sample for this research study was limited to a dichotomous racial population (i.e., Black and White). Thus, it also may be important to investigate potential changes in EID of mediators of more diverse populations.

Future researcher also should consider various other training configurations that may have more impact on the EID of mediators. For example, time dedicated to training activities can range between 10 and 20 hours and can take place in an intensive format or over the course of a semester. In this case, the training was limited to a two-week intensive format. Also, Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine's (1997) model of CR was employed in this study. It is possible that other models may have different effects on EID. Models can range between 4 and 6 stages, with the most complex model containing 21 steps. Thus variations in stages and steps also may produce different effects. In addition, PM programs are enacted in either a cadre (i.e., elective course or student club) or a total school model. Because a club model was employed in this study, it may be important to investigate the effects of other training models of EID. Finally, researchers should consider variations in the time of assessment. It is possible that further exposure to mediation processes could have an impact on the EID of mediators.

Conclusions

Mediation is a popular tool used by school districts as an addition to conventional methods for dealing with conflict in schools. Through both anecdotal report and empirical analysis, researchers have documented some successes for mediation programs. Because of the increasing diversity among the school age population in the United States,








some mediation theorists have called for multicultural training materials to be included in PM training to assist with cultural identity and cultural competence of peer mediators. However, demands for inclusion of multicultural components of mediation training have been made without evidence of their necessity. Because the majority of empirical evidence related to mediation suggests that the greatest impact is on the mediators who participate in the program, this study was designed to investigate those effects in regard to the inclusion of multicultural components. Specifically, it was hypothesized that multicultural training components and subsequent participation in mediations would affect the ethnic identity of mediators. EID is a dynamic process in which an individual seeks identification with his/her own ethnic group. While the results of this research indicated that Black adolescents are more aware of issues of cultural diversity than are White adolescents, there was no evidence that supports the notion that mediation training and participation in the process directly affects ethnic identity development. Thus, modification of mediation training programs to include multicultural aspects should be approached with caution especially if the cost of this modification is significant to school districts.

In sum, this study failed to support the notion that participation in PM training and the process of mediation would affect the EID of mediators. Furthermore, the inclusion of multicultural components in PM training produced no statistically significant effects. However, it was determined that Black and White peer mediators differ in regard to EID. Finally, because of the limitations of this study, future research should be conducted before any changes in the structure or delivery of PM programs are implemented.








APPENDIX A
PARENT CONSENT FOR CHILD TO PARTICIPATE


Dear Parent or Guardian:

I am a graduate student in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida, conducting research on ethnic identity development under the supervision of Dr. Larry C. Loesch. The purpose of this project is to discover if ethnic identity development changes due to training and participation in a peer mediation program. The results of this study may help determine if more effective methods of preparing peer mediators for working with diverse populations of students is needed.

Students who participate will be asked to spend a total of about 20 minutes completing a questionnaire. The questionnaire focuses ethnicity and ethnic groups, and on how important their ethnicity is to them. Typical questions that your might answer are about how your child feels about being a member of their ethnic group or how your child participates in activities with other ethnic groups.

Although we will schedule completing the questionnaires so that your child does not miss important lessons, he or she may have to make up missed work. A possible benefit of participation is that the questionnaires encourage adolescents to become more aware of the diverse ethnic identity of others and their own ethnic identity.

Mrs. Sheperis has been approved to conduct this research by your child's school. However, your child's participation in this study is completely voluntary. There will be no penalty if you do not wish your child to be in this study, and your child may withdraw at any time during the study and/or refuse to answer any of the questions. Individuals will not be paid in any way for their participation in this research project.

All information obtained will be held as confidential as is legally possible. Only the counselor or peer mediation coordinator and the researcher will see the questionnaires. Results will only be reported in the form of group data. Participation or non-participation in this study will not affect your child's grades.








We would appreciate it if you would return the form on the second page of this letter whether or not you would like your child to participate, so that we know this information has reached you. You may keep the first page of this letter for your records. If you have any questions, please feel free to call Mrs. Shelly Sheperis at (662) 325-1759 or (662) 324-9127. I can arrange for you to see the questionnaires in advance if you wish. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Florida can also answer questions about the rights of participants in this research. They can be reached at the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433.


Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely,


Shelly F. Sheperis, Ed.S., N.C.C., N.C.S.C. Graduate Student
Department of Counselor Education

Please check the appropriate boxes and send this form back to your child's school:
= I have read the procedures described above, and I voluntarily give consent for my
child to participate in Shelly Sheperis' research study.
= I have received a copy of Mrs. Sheperis' letter for my records.
= I would like more information before giving consent for my child to participate in
this study. Call me at
- I do not wish my child to participate in this study.


Parent's Signature/Date


2nd Parent or Witness


Child's Name


Please send this form back to the school with your child.

Thanks!!!








APPENDIX B
PARTICIPANT ASSENT FORM

Study Title: The Effect of Peer Mediation Training on the Ethnic Identity Development of Peer Mediators

Investigator: Shelly F. Sheperis, Ed.S., N.C.C, N.C.S.C. I am being asked to help Mrs. Sheperis in a project. The goal of this project is to find out if peer mediation training affects ethnic identity development. If I decide to participate, my part in the project will take no more than 20 minutes total. I will be asked to fill out one questionnaire. If I miss part of a class, I may have to make up the work I miss. I also understand that thinking about the way I understand my ethnicity may help me to understand others and myself better.

This project has been explained to me and I have been allowed to ask questions about it. I understand that I do not have to fill out the questionnaire if I do not want to and no one will treat me badly because of my choice. I can stop part way through if I want to and skip questions I don't want to answer. I further understand that I will not be paid in any way for my participation I this project. I have read this form and agree to participate.


Student Date


I have read this form and do not wish to participate.


Student Date



Investigator Date



























APPENDIX C
PROJECT TIMELINE











August September October November December Week 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 Contact Schools and Meet with
1 11 Superintendents & Principles ..... ....
Train
Coordinators 1 Distribute PM 2 2 Applications ..............
Identify PM Pool 2 Distribute Parent Consent Forms Read & Collect Student Assent 1 Form
Administer Initial MEIM
.... . ..... ............... M .. . ... ........... ....... . . . . ... .. ... ..... . ... ..... . .. ..

Train Students & & & 222 2 2 2 " A d m in is te r P o s ........... ..... ........ . ... ...... . .. ...... . ...... ..... .. .. ... ...... .
Administer Post MEIM Administer Follow-up MEIM & IPR


1 = Researcher


2 = PM Coordinator








APPENDIX D
DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY


MEIM
Student Demoqraphics
Instructions: Please mark the answer that fits best for you.

1. Name

2. My age is

3. My race is Black __ White _ Other

4. My gender is Male __Female For office use only: Code DEM MEIM








APPENDIX E
MEIM


In this country, people come from a lot of different cultures and there are many different words to describe the different backgrounds or ethnic groups that people come from. Some examples of the names of ethnic groups are MexicanAmerican, Hispanic. Black, AsianAmerican, American Indian, AngloAmerican, and White. Every person is born into an ethnic group, or sometimes two groups, but people differ on how important their ethnicity is to them, how they feel about it, and how much their behavior is affected by it. These questions are about your ethnicity or your ethnic group and how you feel about it or react to it.


Please fill in:

In terms of ethnic group, I consider myself to be


Use the numbers given below to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement.


4: Strongly
Agree


3: Somewhat
Agree


2: Somewhat 1: Strongly
Disagree Disagree

1. I have spent time trying to find out
more about my own ethnic group, such as its history, traditions, and
customs


2. I am active in organizations or social
groups that include mostly members
of my own ethnic group.

3. I have a clear sense of my ethnic
background and what it means to me.

4. I think a lot about how my life will
be affected by my ethnic group
membership.

5. I am happy that I am a member of
the ethnic group I belong to.

6. I have a strong sense of belonging to
my own ethnic group.

7. I understand pretty well what my
ethnic group membership means to me, in terms of how to relate to my
own group and other groups.

8. In order to learn more about my
ethnic background, I have often talked to other people about my
ethnic group.

9. I have a lot of pride in my ethnic
group and its accomplishments

10. I participate in cultural practices of
my own group, such as special food,
music, or customs.

11. I feel a strong attachment towards
my own ethnic group.

12. I feel good about my cultural or
ethnic background.









APPENDIX F
MEIM SCORE SHEET


1.



2.


7.



8.



9.



10. 11. 12.


4.



5.



6.








APPENDIX G
IPR


Name:


Date


PEER GROUP

This questionnaire is designed to measure the way you feel about the people you work, play, or associate with most of the time; your peer group. It is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers. Place the name of your peer group at the top of the page in the space provided. Then answer each item as carefully and as accurately as you can by placing a number beside each one as follows.


1 = None of the time
2 = Very rarely
3 = A little of the time
4 = Some of the time


5 = A good part of the time
6 = Most of the time
7 = All of the time


1. _ I get along very well with my 2. __ My peers act like they don't care

peers. about me.

3. __ My peers treat me badly. 4. __ My peers really seem to respect me.

5. __ I don't feel like I am "part of the 6. __ My peers are a bunch of snobs.

group.

7. __ My peers understand me. 8. My peers seem to like me very much.

9. __ 1 really feel "left out" or my peer 10. __ I hate my present peer group.

group.

11. _ My peers seem to like having me 12. __ I really like my present peer group.

around.

13. __ I really feel like I am disliked by 14. I wish I had a different peer group.

my peers.









15. __ My peers are very nice to me. 16. __ My peers seem to look up to me. 17. __ My peers think I am important to 18. __ My peers are a real source of

them. pleasure to me.

19. __ My peers don't seem to even 20. __ I wish I were not part of this peer

notice me. group.

21. My peers regard my ideas and 22. __ I feel like I am an important

opinions very highly. member of my peer group.

23. __ I can't stand to be around my 24. __ My peers seem to look down on

peer group. me. 25. _ My peers really do not interest
















Basic Training
Activity I Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6 Activity 7 Activity 8 Activity 9
Activity 10 Activity 11 Activity 12 Activity 13 Activity 14 Activity 15 Activity 16

Advanced Training
Activity 17 Activity 18 Activity 19 Activity 20 Activity 21 Activity 22 Activity 23 Activity 24 Activity 25 Activity 26 Activity 27 Activity 28 Activity 29 Activity 30


APPENDIX H
PEER MEDIATION TRAINING PROGRAM

Welcome and Overview Introduction to Peer Mediation Understanding Conflict Origins of Conflict Understanding Peace and Peacemaking Communication Skills Qualities and Role of the Peer Mediator Overview of the Peer Mediation Process Step 1: Agree to Mediate Step 2: Gather Points of View Step 3: Focus on Interests Step 4: Create Win-Win Options Step 5: Evaluate Options Step 6: Create an Agreement Co-Mediation Practice Support for Peer Mediation and Peer Mediators


Social and Cultural Diversity Bias Awareness Cultural Diversity and Cliques Stereotypes
Resolving Cross-Cultural Conflicts Confronting Prejudice Caucusing
Uncovering Hidden Interests Understanding Anger Advanced Communication Skills Negotiation
Group Problem Solving Promoting Peace Focusing on Conflict and Peace














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Shelly F. Sheperis was born in Ancon, Panama Canal Zone on October 1, 1969. After graduating from Leland High School in May 1987, she attended Mississippi State University where she received a bachelor's degree in Elementary Education in 1991. Following her undergraduate degree, Dr. Sheperis began working as a teacher in the public school system. Dr. Sheperis moved to Gainesville to pursue Master's and Specialist's degrees in school counseling at the University of Florida in 1992. After completion of these degrees in 1994, Dr. Sheperis worked again in the public school system as an elementary school guidance counselor. She returned to Gainesville to pursue a doctoral degree in school counseling at the University of Florida in 1998. After finishing the formal coursework and proposing her dissertation, Dr. Sheperis worked as an adjunct professor at Mississippi State University in the Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education while completing research for her dissertation. She has since accepted a position as a high school counselor at East Webster High School in Mississippi and continues to teach graduate courses in school counseling at Mississippi State University. Dr. Sheperis enjoys outdoor activities, sports, and spending time with her family.







I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Larry C. /esch, Chair
Professor of Counselor Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Sandra Smith Adcock
Professor of Counselor Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Mary AmfClark
Professor of Counselor Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


David Miller
Professor of F..ucational Psychology

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

December. 2003


Dean, Graduate School




Full Text

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THE EFFECT OF PEER MEDIATION TRAINING ON THE ETHNIC IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT OF PEER MEDIATORS By SHELLY FRAZIER SHEPERIS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2003

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Copyright 2003 by Shelly Frazier Sheperis

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To my husband, Carl. I could not have done this without you.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Larry Loesch, chair of my doctoral committee. Sincere appreciation also goes to the other members of my doctoral committee: Dr. Sondra Smith Adcock, Dr. Silvia Echevarria-Doan, and Dr. David Miller. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Joe Wittmer for serving on my committee prior to his retirement. I thank Dr. Bob Myrick for introducing me to peer helping and the process of peer mediation. I thank my parents, Mr. A. Lee Frazier and Mrs. Susan Frazier, for their unconditional support in my academic endeavors. Finally, I thank my husband, Carl, whose guidance and editorial commentary helped shape this project. His continual support helped turn my goals into reality. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Effects of Mediation on Mediators 9 Purpose 14 Rationale 15 Null Hypotheses 16 Definitions of Terms 17 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 19 Models of Mediation 19 Club Model 20 Elective Course Model 20 Total School Model 21 Efficacy of Mediation Intei"ventions on School Chmate 21 Impact of Mediation Training on Mediators 22 Impact on Reduction of Discipline Referrals 23 Peer Relationships and Social Status 24 Index of Peer Relations 25 Socioeconomic Level and Race/Ethnicity 26 Multicultural Competence 28 Ethnicity as a Variable 29 Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure 33 Suinmary 34 3 METHODOLOGY 36 Statistical Analyses 38 Split-plot Analyses of Variance 38 Factorial Analyses of Variance 39 Population 40 V

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Sampling Procedures 40 Power 42 Experimental Procedures 42 Mediation Training 43 PM Trainers 44 Assessment Instruments 45 Summary 46 4 RESULTS 47 Split Plot Analysis of Variance 48 Factorial Analysis of Variance 52 5 DISCUSSION 58 Limitations 60 Recommendations for Training and Practice 62 Recommendations for Future Research 63 Conclusions 64 APPENDIX A PARENT CONSENT FOR CHILD TO PARTICIPATE 66 B PARTICIPANT ASSENT FORM 68 C PROJECT TIMELINE 70 D DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY 71 E MEIM 72 F MEIM SCORE SHEET 73 G IPR 74 H PEER MEDIATION TRAINING PROGRAM 75 REFERENCES 76 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 83 vi

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to tlie Graduate School Of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECT OF PEER MEDIATION TRAINING ON THE ETHNIC IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT OF PEER MEDIATORS By Shelly Frazier Sheperis October, 2003 Chair: Larry C. Loesch Major Department: Counselor Education The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of peer mediation (PM) training and the process of mediation on the ethnic identity development (EID) of peer mediators. In this study, a pretest-posttest-follow-up, control group experimental mixed design with split plot and factorial ANOVA analyses was employed to identify any changes in EID among mediators. Mediators were assigned to a group trained in the Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine model, a group trained in the same model with additional components related to multiculturalism and diversity, and a control group of individuals selected for future PM training. Individuals participating in this study (n = 148) were categorized according to two demographic variables (i.e., race and gender). vii

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Mediators were trained in a two-week intensive format using a six-step approachi: (a) agree to mediate, (b) gather points of view, (c) focus on interests, (d) create win-win options, (e) evaluate options, and (f) create an agreement. The schools participating in this project adopted a club model for the operation of their mediation programs. The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEI) were administered to participants at pretest, posttest, and follow up. Results of the analyses supported the notion that Black and White adolescents differ with regard to EID. However, resuhs did not support the hypotheses that PM training or participation in the process of mediation impact EID. vni

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A critical problem for adolescents in the United States is interpersonal conflict. Unfortunately, this problem often manifests as what may be called crimes against society. For example, according to the Surgeon General's Study on Youth Violence (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000), by 1999 overall arrest rates for homicide, rape, and robbery had all dropped below the 1983 rates, but an-est rates for aggravated assault by youth were nearly 70 percent higher. This problem and its manifestations are clearly reflected in the nation's schools (Ferrara, 1992; Hill & Drolet, 1999). School shootings, such as those at Colombine High School in Colorado and Pearl High School in Mississippi, and then a copycat attempt of the Colombine plot that was discovered at a New Hampshire high school, demonstrate the seriousness of school violence. School violence can be defined generally as any act of aggression in a school setting. This act of aggression could involve bodily harm or emotional distress on the part of the victim. Although school violence is typified in the media as involving guns or shootings, it can also involve less serious issues such as teasing, bullying, or simply fighting or arguing at recess or between classes. The traditional method of addressing interpersonal conflicts in schools has been "punishment based" (e.g., parent conferences, detentions, suspension, or expulsion) (Johnson & Johnson, 1995a). However, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of 1

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2 these methods to reduce interpersonal conflict in schools. Further, researchers usually have concluded that punishments do not resolve interpersonal problems among studentsor produce the desired result of increased positive behavior. Therefore, education professionals still seek new methods to address aggressive behavior and conflict among and by students. One popular and frequently endorsed potential solution for today's schools is conflict resolution (CR) programs (D'Andrea & Daniels, 1996; Sherman et al., 1997). Conflict resolution as a therapeutic intervention is a potentially constructive approach to interpersonal and/or intergroup conflict. It was originally intended to mean to help people with opposing positions work together to arrive at mutually acceptable (e.g., compromise) solutions. However, the term now also refers to the body of knowledge and practice developed to implement the approach. Conflict resolution programs can encompass any or all of a variety of components, but usually they fall into two categories: (a) programs in which the disputants work among themselves to settle their differences and (b) programs in which a mediator (i.e., an uninvolved, impartial "third party") helps the disputants reach agreement. The major elements of CR programs include facilitative communication, cooperative activities among disputants, acceptance of each disputant's differences, and creative problem-solving. These programs also emphasize learning from experience and typically involve teachers serving as facilitators and/or coordinators. Through roleplaying and a variety of team projects, students involved in mediation training learn how to deal with anger and how to work with others to arrive at "win-win" solutions (i.e., in which all involved are satisfied with the outcomes).

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3 The use of conflict resolution techniques in schools has grown rapidly. For example, the National Association for Mediation in Education (NAME) estimated that in 1984, the year of its founding, there were approximately 50 school-based CR programs. More recently, NAME estimated the number of programs at well over 8,500 (Cornell, 1999). One of the earliest programs was known as the Responding to Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP). It was sponsored by the Educators for Social Responsibility organization, which now operates in approximately 300 schools nationwide. Other programs have increased and expanded similarly. For example, the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution has conducted a statewide school mediation program for ten years and its programs currently involve over 30,000 students. Similarly, through the Community Board Program, tliree-fourths of San Francisco's schools have peer conflict managers (Inger, 1991; National Institute for Dispute Resolution, 1993). Conflict resolution programs implemented in schools, by school counselors and/or other educational professionals, exist in many formats. In general, these programs are designed to infuse learning of cooperative and problem resolution skills into school curricula, peer mediation (PM) programs, school-wide CR programs, and communitybased programs. They also have been and are implemented across all school levels. Among the variations of CR programs in schools, peer-mediation programs have been among the most strongly recommended (Johnson & Johnson, 1995a). Therefore, the focus of this research is on the implementation and evaluation of a PM program. Peer mediation is a form of CR often used in school settings that involves use of a third-party, presumably an impartial person, to assist in resolving a dispute between two or more other people. As used here, it is a form of a facilitated interpersonal

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4 communication through use of a process focused upon applying problem-solving methods to achieve agreement between or among disputants. Typically, there are three stages in the implementation of a school-based PM program. The introductory stage involves making operational decisions, introducing the program to the school staff, and gaining support for its implementation from a variety of interested parties. The next stage, training, involves selecting and training the peer mediators, while the third operational stage involves implementing the program, evaluating its effectiveness, and planning for its future. Peer mediation is a potentially positive and significant resource for schools, students, and education professionals. The benefits of PM are numerous, including that PM programs foster a cooperative and comfortable atmosphere in which students can learn more efficiently and teachers can spend more and better time teaching (Lane & McWhirter, 1992). In addition, typically, students involved in PM programs develop feelings of empowerment and learn to take responsibility and attain constructive solutions for interpersonal problems (Maxwell, 1989). Peer mediation programs also often reduce violence, vandalism, chronic school absence, and student suspensions in schools (Araki, 1990; Koch, 1988; McCormick, 1988). Further, peer mediation often reduces the time teachers spend involved in resolving conflicts in their classrooms; therefore, more time is focused upon student learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). In general, then, students engaged in PM programs learn responsible behavior and teachers benefit from the improved behavior. Although there is adequate research to show that PM programs have positive effects in schools by decreasing the need for traditional methods of punishment and

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5 improving school climate, and also that the majority of mediation agreements remain intact, there is relatively little empirical research evidence to demonstrate the effects of participation in PM programs on the peer mediators themselves. Presumably, the process of being involved in a PM program allows students opportunities to become more responsible for themselves, to increase their social awareness, to increase their self awareness, and to develop more positive peer relationships. However, there has been scant empirical investigation of these effects. Before addressing the effects of mediation involvement on peer mediators, it is important to clarify the process of mediation and the nature of PM programs. The introductory stage of developing and implementing a successful PM program in a school involves gaining support from teachers, parents, staff, students, community, and (especially) school administrators (Hill & Drolet, 1999). Several methods can be used to obtain this support, one of which is to create an advisory committee comprised of representatives from each of the major factions from which support is needed. Administrative support is essential for a program's success (Koch, 1988; LuptonSmith & Carruthers, 1996). Therefore, an advisory committee must include a supportive representative of the school's administration, and one who can provide concrete assistance with issues associated with a PM program (Eisler, Lane, & Mei, 1995). Educating school staff members about mediation also is an important component of a successful program (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Stichter, 1986). The entire school staff benefits from understanding the purposes and benefits of the program, how the program operates, and their roles and functions relative to the PM program. Thus, for example, an advisory committee can be beneficial in deciding how school staff members

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6 will be educated and/or trained relative to the PM program. The advisory committee participants should reflect (i.e., include representatives of) parents, students, and members of the community. The next stage in developing a PM program is selection and training. Resolution of logistical issues related to the establishment and operation of a PM program occurs during this stage as well, as does development of methodologies for referrals, assignment of mediators, training schedules, and program protocols. At this stage, the student mediators can assist with program plamiing and implementation. Several methods for nominating students for training (e.g., self-nomination, peer nomination, and/or teacher nomination) have been suggested in the literature. The nomination process can generate an extensive list of students, which then must be "pared" to a manageable group of 15 to 30 students. Mediators should be selected to represent the student population by gender, race, achievement level and placement (e.g., special education or ESOL) (DeJong, 1994; Schrumpf, Crawford, & Usadel, 1991). DayVines (1996) suggested that participant diversity should be a program objective in order for all members of the student body to be able to see themselves reflected in the group of mediators. Other selection factors might include that student mediators should have the respect of their peers and teachers, speak in the language of their peers, and be known for neutral diplomacy among various peer groups. Academic proficiency is not an automatic indicator of good mediators, but should be used in conjunction with other criteria (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996). Attendance record also should be a factor in selecting students for training.

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7 Selection of mediators should not be limited to exemplary students. Some students who have minor behavior problems may prove to be good mediators given proper encouragement and support from the school staff. Other attributes that should be considered in the selection of mediators are that the individual is confident, directive, caring, and a good listener (Araki, 1990). Sensitivity, maturity, self-confidence, trustworthiness, and respect of other students also are attributes that coordinators should seek in mediators (Eisler et al., 1995). Coordinators should use an interview process to make the final selection of students (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996). When training student mediators, community or school resources can be utilized. In the community, dispute resolution centers that work with the court systems may have resources available to assist in the training of the peer mediators. According to LuptonSmith and Carruthers (1996), using two to three trainers, a school counselor, and teachers, along with someone else who has experience in conducting a PM program (if available), is best practice. The time spent to train mediators varies according to many factors, but tends to range between 10 and 20 hours and is dependent on the grade level and complexity of the program. Middle and high school students require more time than elementary school students for training because the nature of the conflicts they will encounter are more complicated (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996). Topics addressed in training include discussion of purpose followed by a review of basic principles and practices, description of negotiation and mediation models, practice with communication skills, and role plays of the different stages of mediation. Training programs should include both a cognitive component, (i.e., impart information).

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8 and an experiential component to practice and develop skills (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996). Training in communication skills should address facets of the facilitative continuum (e.g.. nonverbal and verbal behaviors, reflective listening, "I-messages," paraphrasing, open-ended questions, and summarizing). Other activities may help trainees to develop empathy, appreciate differences, and understand the significance of striving for balance and neutrality in the mediation process. A thorough understanding of the stages of PM also is necessary. However, developmental considerations allow flexibility in regard to the number of stages a mediator must master. The most complex model of mediation has six stages, with 21 steps to complete. However, most models are more simplistic. At a minimum, a PM training model should contain four stages: (a) introductions and ground rules, (b) determining facts and feelings (as mediators gain maturity with the mediation process, this stage can be expanded to include clarifying interests, common grounds, and identifying possible solutions), (c) identifying possible solutions, and (d) making an agreement. Depending on the developmental level of the mediators, this stage can be expanded to include feeling-focused responses. However, regardless of the model used, each stage must be explained thoroughly to students and they must have the opportunity to practice through role plays. The operational stage of training is designed to help maintain the efficiency and flow of the PM program. During this stage, issues related to pairing mediators, scheduling mediations, record keeping, and follow-up interviews with disputants are addressed. Additionally, addressed in this stage are issues related to troubleshooting.

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9 ongoing support and training for staff, students, and mediators, and evaluation of the program's effectiveness. Often, the most difficult transition in the training process for both mediators and coordinators is from role-play to implementation. The operational stage of mediation training teaches mediators how to promote the program effectively and therefore there must be an ongoing public relations component to a successful mediation program. Effective public relations informs staff and administration about successes related to the program and ensures that staff and administration continue to utilize the mediation program. Effects of Mediation on Mediators Training programs are designed to affect pai '^^icipants in many ways, but the range of these effects is not always clear. For example, PM training is designed to hone participants' communication and CR skills. However, researchers (e.g., Lupton-Smith, 1996) have demonstrated that ancillary benefits, such as improved academic performance, greater problem-solving skill, and transfer of learning to situations outside of school, occur as a result of participation in mediation training. Although some ancillary benefits have been identified, it is likely that others exist. Self-awareness and social awareness have been ancillary benefits that some proponents of PM programs argue occur as a result of training. These proponents argue that through enhanced self-awareness and enhanced social awareness, peer mediators may develop an appreciation for the similarities and differences among people. Should this argument be supported through empirical evidence, it would be an especially important benefit in consideration of the increasing population diversity in schools in the United States.

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10 Unfortunately, however, there is no current evidence to support the notion that benefits transcend cuhural differences or whether there is a training effect on mediator attitudes in regard to racial and cultural sensitivity. With the increasing changes in minority and majority populations in schools in the United States, it becomes increasingly important to examine the nature of CR and PM training programs with specific attention toward the inclusion of culturally relevant materials. For example, most CR and PM programs teach participants that eye contact is a key component of effective communication(Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Myrick & Emey, 1985; Schrumpf et al., 1991). Yet although eye contact is acceptable and helpful in many situations, it is important to recognize that some cultures view prolonged eye contact as a sign of disrespect (e.g., African-American and Asian-American cultures). Thus, some attention is needed to identify the impact of mediation training on a mediator's ability to manage conflicts successfully with individuals from different races, cultures, or ethnicities. One way to do this is to examine the mediator's attitudes about race and ethnicity. When comparisons are made within a cultural system (i.e., by examining the culture itself), the result is referred to as an emic or culturally specific perspective. By contrast, etic is a term used to describe how a culture is examined in terms of similarities and dissimilarities to other cultures. This is often referred to as the universal perspective. Both approaches can be seen in school systems in which multiculturalism is taught as a curriculum component in the classroom or through school-wide cultural awareness activities. Importantly, these approaches also can be targeted specifically within PM training programs.

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11 In regard to the changing nature of race in the United States, in April 1991, the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) approved a document outlining the need and rationale for a multicultural perspective in counseling. The Professional Standards committee of AMCD proposed 31 multicultural counseling competencies that the (parent organization) American Counseling Association (ACA) formally adopted in 1994. These actions were taken to improve the training of counselors. They now have become an important part of the counseling literature and a central aspect of counselors' work. Inasmuch as PM is a part of the counseling field, it also should be held to include similar competencies. At the very least, there should be an enhanced cultural sensitivity among peer mediators and discussion of and awareness about multiculturalism throughout PM training. Several authors (Schmidt, 1999; Schrumpf, Crawford, & Bodine, 1 997) have recently discussed the inclusion of muhicultural activities in PM training as well as within school-wide CR programs. However, no systematic evaluation of the results of such inclusion has yet been done. Training mediators should involve a balance of etic and emic approaches. Further, culturally-specific goals could be attained through intentional inclusion of (a) antibias and antiprejudice training and (b) learning about cultural differences and similarities in values and communication styles. Prospective mediators must challenge their own culturally-influenced perceptions and expectations, practice inclusiveness, and learn to respect differences. Understanding how diversity issues affect each mediation helps mediators address and confront bias and inequality. Therefore, training for diversity awareness must facilitate self-understanding, understanding of others, and action for

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12 social justice (Sclirumpf et al., 1997). It follows that the mediator's own racial, cultural, or ethnic identity likely would be enhanced through this type of multicultural training. Racial identity development can be defined as a complex construct relating to how and when individuals come to understand themselves as racial/ethnic beings (Helms, 1990). It is a process experienced by all individuals regardless of race, culture, gender, or social status (Helms, 1994b). Originally, research on racial identity development was focused primarily on differences according to categorical classification (e.g., skin color). However, racial identity development theorists now suggest that individuals develop racial attitudes based on environment, exposure to prejudice and discrimination, and historical evidence of hostility toward their culture. Because these attitudes have been shown to impact interactions among individuals across cultures and at different racial identity statuses within their own culture, it is logical to consider the impact of racial, cultural, and ethnic identity development on mediators in a growing multicultural pool of PM applicants. To ensure consistency and clarity, the term multicultural/ethnic identity (MEI) will be used hereafter to denote issues related to race, culture, or ethnic identity. In addition to the importance of identifying an MEI model from which to examine the effects of peer mediation training on multicultural/ethnic identity of mediators, it is important to recognize the social forces that impact an individual's MEI development (Helms, 1989). According to the theory of the collective unconscious, human beings are affected by their personal histories as well as the history of the human race (Berger, 1988; Carver & Scheier, 1992; Liebert & Spiegler, 1990; Stone & Church, 1984). Thus, historical maltreatment against a race or cultural group may impact a person's identity development (Vontress & Epp, 1997). Archetypes, or the psychological traces of

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13 previous generations, have a direct impact on a human being's Ufelong development. Within this framework, it is plausible that individuals are impacted by potent experiences such as racism and oppression that may have occurred in past. Vontress (1997) offered that this "historical hostility" differs from common negative emotionality (e.g., anger, rage, or hostility). Much like an archetype, historical hostility is imbedded in the collective "cultural" unconscious, and an automatic transgenerational transmission of the message occurs. However, presumably this collective message lies dormant within each individual until it is activated by a powerful emotional experience. Evidence that historical hostility may be an important consideration in regard to mediation training lies in the United States' relatively recent experiences with school segregation and the continuing legal battles for equality in public schools. An example is evidenced within school districts that are mandated to bus Black students to schools that have predominately White students in order to meet the federal regulations for desegregation of schools. Thus, even if an individual student has not experienced an issue with "busing," many parents have had direct experience with segregation. Therefore, the likelihood that historical messages (e.g., segregation) are transmitted across generations is great. Diversity conflicts are complex because they involve bias and prejudice related to cultural and social differences, and often unequal distribution of assets, privileges and opportunities. Diversity and violence are closely related, especially in institutions in which people react to diversity with discriminatory behavior (Schrumpf et al., 1997). The American Psychological Association (1993) reported that there are detrimental effects from prejudice and discrimination on the self-confidence and self-esteem of those

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14 discriminated against. In other words, prejudice and discrimination lay the foundation for anger, discontent, and violence (Schrumpf et al., 1997). Thus, considering the volatile nature of diversity conflicts, it is also important to investigate the nature of mediators' relationships among their peers. Some proponents of PM programs argue that the process of mediation has a positive ancillary effect on the perception that other students have of the mediators. This effect would be important for the success of the mediation process and the recruitment of successful mediators. In other words, mediators who are viewed positively by their peers may have better abilities to manage the anger, discontent, and violence that evolve from diversity related conflicts. Purpose Peer mediation has become a popular form of CR in schools across the United States. More importantly here, mediation training and the process of mediation have been found to affect mediators positively. Presumably, they enable mediators to recognize and value similarities and differences among all mediation participants, including themselves. Subsequently, mediation training should have an effect on the types of relationships that mediators have with their peers. However, there is no research that has evaluated the effects of mediation training on mediators' self and social awareness levels. Although some researchers have investigated the effects of mediation training on the quality of relationships that mediators have with their peers, the evidence has been contradictory. Thus, the purpose of this study was two-fold. First, it was to examine the effects of PM training and the subsequent process of mediation on the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators. Second, the purpose was to examine the effects of peer mediation training on the quality of relationships maintained by mediators with their peers.

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15 Rationale At present, PM programs are generally accepted as "best practice" methods for dealing with conflict within school districts. However, the effects of mediation training and process on MEI development and quality of peer relationships are unclear, and therefore further research is needed. Such research can be approached in a variety of ways. The method of choice here was to use an experimental approach in which the MEI of peer mediators was examined prior to and after completion of a mediation training program and again after being involved in the mediation process for two months. Changes in mediator MEI were assessed with Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. MEI development is not a static process. Thus, it was important to examine mediator attitudes related to ethnicity over an extended period of time. Further, because multicultural issues (e.g., discrimination, prejudice, or historical hostility) have been found to be key aspects of the identity development process, it is important to examine these issues among a growing multicultural population of peer mediators in today's schools. The specific method chosen for this study was a mixed experimental design in which observed differences in mean scores were differentiated between chance occurrences and systematic differences in means among the population (Shavelson, 1 996). In other words, by examining the effects of peer mediation prior to, immediately after, and again two months following peer mediation training, it was possible to determine if changes in the mediator's ethnic identity levels were due to chance or treatment effect.

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16 Because the secondary purpose of this research was to examine the quaUty of relationships that peer mediators have with their peers, the Index of Peer Relations (IPR) was used to assess differences in peer relationships across experimental and control groups two months after mediation training occurred. More specifically, changes in scores on the IPR were evaluated to determine if they were due to treatment condition, race, gender, or a combination of the factors. Null Hypotheses The following null hypotheses were addressed in this study: 1 . There is no difference in MEI as a result of participation in PM training with additional units on multiculturalism. 2. There are no effects of PM training on the MEI of peer mediators prior to, immediately following, and at a two-month interval after training. 3. There are no interaction effects of PM training among level of participation, time of assessment, or race. 4. There is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators by race. 5. There is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators by gender. 6. There is no difference in quality of peer relations among levels of participation in PM training. 7. There are no interaction effects related to quality of peer relations among level of participation, gender, or race. 8. There is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators by race. 9. There is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators by gender.

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17 Definitions of Terms Culture is the set of commonalities around which people develop values, norms, family life-styles, social roles, and behaviors in response to historical, political, economic, and social realities (Pigler Christensen, 1989). Disputant is any student who is involved in a conflict with any other person and who has been referred to the PM program. Emic is a perspective on cultures in which comparisons are made within a particular cultural system by examining the culture itself It is often referred to as the cultural-specific approach. Ethnic minority is a group who shares common characteristics, customs, and traditions that are different from those of the majority (white) culture. Etic is a perspective on a culture in which comparisons are made in terms of similarities and dissimilarities with other cultures. This is often referred to as the universal approach. Historical hostility is a theme suggested by Vontress (1997) derived from the theory of collective unconscious espoused by Carl Jung. Vontress (1997) claimed that historical hostility differs from common day-to-day anger, hostility, rage, or other episodic, or negative events. Much like an archetype, historical hostility remains part of the collective, "cultural" unconscious and is automatically passed from generation to generation. Peer mediation is the process in which peer mediators guide two or more disputants to develop and implement solutions that will resolve the disputants' conflict. Peer mediator is a student who has been trained in mediation skills.

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18 Prejudice is an emotional response, usually based on fear, mistrust, and/or ignorance, directed at a racial, religious, national, or other cultural group. Race is "an arbitrary classification of population using actual or assumed genetic traits to classify populations of the world into a hierarchical order" (Pigler Christensen, 1989 p.lO). Racial identity is the quality or manner of personal identification with a racial group. Racial identity status is comprised of attitudes, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward self as a member of a racial group and toward members of the dominant or nondominant racial group(s) (Carter, 1995).

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Understanding the impact of peer mediation training on the cultural and ethnic identity (MEI) of peer mediators in turn requires understanding the professional literature related to mediation and ethnicity. Because the relationship between mediation and MEI has not been examined specifically through previous research, it is necessary to review literature related to development of peer mediation as a conflict resolution tool in schools, psychological effects of mediation on both disputants and mediators, and MEI as a psychological constmct. Models of Mediation Johnson and Johnson (1995b) claimed that peer mediation programs can be implemented in either cadre or total school approaches. The cadre approach, which has two models (elective course or student club), involves training a small number of students to serve as peer mediators and is based on the assumption that a few specially trained students can defuse and constructively resolve interpersonal conflicts among other students. This type of training usually occurs in an intensive workshop or a semester-long course. Although the approaches and models of peer mediation implementation have theoretical distinctions, they actually overlap in practice. For example, some schools establish both club and elective course models simultaneously, while other schools have a 19

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20 total school program that has evolved from a cadre approach (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Ripley, 2003). Club Model The student club model of peer mediation involves selecting students from the entire student body and bringing them together at a time and place outside of their regular curricula. Training times may occur while school is in session (e.g., during club periods, study halls, or specific class periods) or outside of school hours (e.g., weekends, before or after school, or during the summer). An advantage to this model is the ability of the coordinator to select mediators from the school population who will represent the total student body, thus ensuring diverse perspectives and representation among mediators. Some disadvantages to this model include less depth in training, decreased access to support systems as compared to the elective course model, and difficulty with supervision for mediations (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1 996; Ripley, 2003). Elective Course Model Graham and Cline (1989) suggested that an elective course model, that is, a course focused on conflict resolution and peer mediation training, usually is implemented as a general elective or a part of a social studies curriculum. This model provides more consistency with regard to training conditions (e.g., training, supervision, debriefing, and further leadership development) and flexibility for scheduling mediations. However, a considerable weakness in this model is that selection of mediators is limited to those students who can and/or do enroll in the course. Thus, diversity within the mediator pool is limited by nature of the model and is restricted by class size and scheduling factors (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1996; Ripley, 2003).

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21 Total School Model Johnson and Johnson (1994) advocated for the total school approach in which all students are taught the principles and practices of conflict resolution and peer mediation, and are encouraged to serve as mediators. This approach usually is infused into a language arts or social studies curriculum (Ripley, 2003). The total school approach ensures that the entire student body is exposed to conflict resolution concepts, which resuhs in developmental learning opportunities within each student's educational experience. However, this approach requires considerable time, personnel, and resource commitments from school staff and administration. This approach may be more applicable in elementary schools in which teachers are with the same students for most of the school day (Lupton-Smith & Carruthers, 1 996). Although there are several models of mediation, all tend to follow the same general process in which mediators (a) provide a non-threatening envirormient in which disputants can tell their side of the story, (b) focus disputants on mutually identified problems and identify "common ground," (c) help disputants develop possible solutions and rationales for each solution, (d) assist disputants to take each other's perspective, (e) guide disputants to mutually agreed upon resolutions, and (f) formalize each agreement (Johnson & Johnson, 1991; Smith & Daunic, 2002). Efficacy of Mediation Interventions on School Climate Peer mediation has been characterized as a "peace virus" spreading its effects beyond the individuals involved in the process and the walls of schools to the families and communities that maintain the programs (Casella, 2001). However, there is little evidence to substantiate this claim. Johnson, Johnson, Dudley, Ward, and Magnuson

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22 (1995) examined the types of conflicts that occurred in school and home settings before and after conflict resolution training. They sampled 144 students in grades three through five and provided nine hours of training focused on creating mutually satisfactory agreements between the students and individuals with whom they were in dispute. They also had a control group of 88 students. They found a significant difference in strategies utilized for resolving conflict between the experimental and control groups. This difference transcended the setting in which the conflicts occurred (i.e., home or school), even though the natures of the conflicts differed across settings. Although the results of the Johnson, et al. study are promising, the sample size was small and limited to one school district. Also, the training utilized was developed specifically by the researchers and has not been validated further. The sampling procedures and instrumentation also are limits to the generalizability of their results. More specifically, the researchers created a form to assess types of conflicts and had a relatively homogeneous sample of students; ethnicity and race were not given consideration. Impact of Mediation Training on Mediators A number of studies have examined changes in the abilities and social status of student mediators following implementation of a peer mediation program. The findings have been interesting, but far from consistent. Generally, the results have been positive in regard to mediator skills and abilities. For example, Roush and Hall (1993) found that following implementation of a peer mediation program, teachers reported positive changes in peer mediators in listening and problem-solving skills. Lane-Garon (1998) also demonstrated that mediation training may benefit mediators by increasing cognitive

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23 and affective perspective taking. Some researchers also have suggested that mediation training may have a positive effect on academic performance (Araki, 1990; Johnson & Johnson, 1994). There also is evidence that the conflict resolution skills derived from training at school may generalize to other settings (Johnson, Johnson, & Dudley, 1992). For example. Gentry and Benenson (1992) reported that following participation in peer mediation, mediators perceived a decrease in the frequency and intensity of conflicts with their siblings at home. Parents of these mediators also reported a decrease in conflicts between their children. Unfortunately, there is less evidence in regard to how well the skills are maintained over time. Studies have shown that mediators retain conflict resolution skills immediately after training (Johnson et al., 1992), but no studies have demonstrated maintenance over a longer period of time. Impact on Reduction of Discipline Referrals One of the most common findings in research literature on peer mediation is the high percentage of disputants who reach agreement after having their conflict mediated by a peer. Most evaluations (Johnson & Johnson, 1994; Johnson et al., 1992; Johnson, Johnson, & Dudley. 1994; Schrumpf et al., 1991) report agreement rates of over 80%. Using this factor, among others, as criteria for success, Daunic, Smith, Robinson, Landry, and Miller (2000) and Smith and Daunic (2002) also reported positive results in three middle schools. Over the course of several years, over 95% of mediated conflicts resulted in solutions acceptable to both parties. However, in each of the three schools, peer mediation was used in conjunction with a school-wide conflict resolution program. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude about the effects of peer mediation alone in their

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24 works. Lupton-Smith and Carruthers (1996) discussed peer mediation programs used in an elementary school a middle school, and a high school. Although each program was different, the authors reported that each of the three programs resulted in at least 95% of mediated disputes resolved successfully. However, they cautioned that program evaluation should be based on additional factors beyond the number of disputes successfully mediated. Some reports claim that peer mediation programs have reduced the numbers of discipline events or referrals. For example, Thompson (1996), reporting on the effectiveness of one peer mediation program, found that over the course of two years, student suspensions were reduced by 50%. While this claim is one of the most powerful arguments for implementing peer mediation programs, there is lack of strong empirical evidence for such claims. Carruthers and Sweeney ( 1 996) noted that reductions in discipline referrals may simply be the result of different classifications for incidents that go to mediation as opposed to incidents referred to administration. For example, Tolson, McDonald, and Moriarty ( 1 992) reported on a peer mediation program in a suburban high school that showed a significant reduction in the number of discipline referrals for interpersonal problems; however, there was no change in the total number of discipline referrals. Peer Relationships and Social Status In regard to mediator social status, there has been far less agreement. It can be hypothesized that there would be positive changes in how peer mediators are perceived by other students (based on presumed better interpersonal skills). In examining students' methods of dealing with conflict and social status apart from a mediation program,

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25 Bryant (1992) found that students who were generally regarded more favorably by peers were viewed as more likely to use a calm approach to conflict resolution. Thus, it should not be surprising that most mediators report enjoying being mediators (Humphries, 1999; Schrumpfet al.. 1991). Some mediators report on negative aspects to the experience. Humphries (1999) interviewed peer mediators at an elementary school program and found that although all mediators stated that they enjoyed being a peer mediator and a large majority viewed the process as favorable overall, many also reported negative reactions. For example, some mentioned being antagonized by non-peer mediators and having a "negative popularity status." It is impossible to establish empirically a causal relationship between participation as a peer mediator and negative experiences, but these reports raise concerns among school counselors. Self-concept change is another area that has yet to be fiilly understood fully. For example, Roush and Hall (1993) found a significant increase in the self-concept of junior high students enrolled in a conflict resolution course, but no increase in the self-concept of elementary school peer mediators. Index of Peer Relations The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) is a self-report. 25-item scale that measures quality of relationships and intensity of problems that individuals have with their peers. The IPR was developed for individuals 1 2 years of age and older who have the capacity to provide valid self-report data. Respondents are asked to rate questions related to their peer groups on a Likert-type scale having response values from 1 -7. Resulting scores on the IPR range between 0 and 100. Higher scores on the IPR indicate a greater magnitude of problems with peer relationships. More specifically, a cut-off score of 30 (+/-5) or less

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26 suggests the absence of peer relationship struggles. Scores above 30 indicate significant problems and scores above 70 indicate extreme stress and the possibility of violence. Hudson, Nurius, Daley, and Newsome (1990) found the construct, discriminant, and factorial validity of the IPR to be consistently over .60. The researchers also reported the IPR to have a mean coefficient alpha of .94. However, much of the original research on the IPR was conducted on adult populations. More recently, Coots (1999) conducted a validation study of the IPR for an adolescent sample. Coots found strong support for the concurrent and construct validity of the IPR with adolescents. Coots found correlations between syndrome scales of the Youth Self Report ( YSR) form of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and IPR scores among a clinical sample of adolescents. Coots also found correlations between competence scales on the YSR and IPR scores among a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Thus, the IPR appears appropriate as a tool to measure quality of relationships and severity of problems with peers for peer mediators. Socioeconomic Level and Race/Ethnicity Although peer mediation programs have become an integral part of United States' school culture, little attention has been paid to specific cultural differences in these programs (Avruch & Black, 1991). What is evident is that racial and cultural differences remain a part of today's school system. Opffer (1997) wrote that, "Despite the Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, segregation lives, shaped in part by the choices students make through voluntary association and partly through the way in which schools structure students' interactions with each other" (p. 46). Tatum (1999) claimed that segregation is a reality in today's school system, but stated that the segregation was often self-imposed and a healthy aspect of adolescent racial identity development. Sheperis'

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27 (2001) Tri-status model of racial identity development supports this notion in positing that as adolescents become aware of themselves as racial beings, they self-segregate and immerse themselves into aspects of their own ethnic or racial cultures. Regardless of the reasons for segregation among adolescent groups, the end resuh is the propagation of stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and increased racial tension due to lack of intimate contact across cultures (Opffer, 1997). Presumably, mediators are trained to resolve conflicts among their peers stemming from a variety of sources. However, little attention has been paid to culturally specific aspects of conflict resolution in PM training programs (Casella, 2001; Posner, 1996). Webster (1993) has been especially critical of PM programs in claiming that they serve as fodder for political vistas and detract attention from the factors contributing to youth violence. Other critics claim that mediation, because of its monocultural nature, promotes racism within schools (Opffer, 1997). In other words, some cultures resolve conflict in different, often contrasting methods to those emphasized in many PM training programs (Casella, 2001). Thus, the potential arises for mediators to misinterpret or ignore cultural aspects of conflict resolution and their prospective impact on the mediation process in cross-cultural situations. Mediation training curricula are often created and managed by school counseling professionals and thus have an inherent attention to facilitative communication, a key aspect of the counseling process. In many ways, mediation can be likened to counseling (e.g., is goal directed, focuses on communication, and seeks conflict resolution). In recent years, the counseling profession has given much attention to the fourth force in counseling, (i.e., multiculturalism) (Arredondo et al., 1996; Helms, 1994a; Parham &

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28 Williams, 1993; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). In turn, experts in mediation are beginning to call attention to multicultural factors in the mediation process (Carruthers & Sweeney, 1996; Casella, 2001; Day-Vines et al., 1996; Opffer, 1997). Multicultural Competence School personnel are constantly seeking ways to decrease violence and increase positive behavior within schools. They also must deal with increasing racial and cultural diversity within the schools (Opffer, 1997). With this increased diversification, the possibility of conflicts grounded in cultural difference rises dramatically (Casella, 2001). As a result, many school districts are using CR methods, including PM, as a tool to improve school climate and to reduce violence (Angaran & Beckwith, 1999; Araki, 1990; Daunic et al., 2000; Johnson & Johnson, 1995b; Johnson et al., 1995; Maxwell, 1989; McCormick, 1988; Tolson et al., 1992). Unfortunately, no investigations of the relationship between the availability of peer mediation in a school and reductions in race-related conflicts have been found (Casella, 2001). There also have not been efforts to ensure that peer mediations are reaching adequate levels of cultural competence to handle racially charged conflicts (Casella, 2001). On an anecdotal level, some authors have called for inclusion of multicultural awareness activities in PM and CR programs, but there is no evidence that supports the use of these activities (Casella, 2001; Day-Vines et al., 1996; Opffer, 1997). Not only do schools need more evidence of effective PM programs, they need evidence of the effectiveness of peer mediators with greater cultural sensitivity. There is evidence that participation in mediation programs effects mediators (Carruthers & Sweeney, 1 996); therefore, it is important also to examine the multicultural aspects of this effect.

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29 One way to do this is to focus on the MEI development of the mediators. Vinson and Neimeyer (2000) sampled 87 incoming doctoral students in counseling psychology programs and found significant correlations between racial identity development and multicultural competency (e.g., multicultural competence was positively correlated with higher racial identity development statuses). These findings, which were consistent with previous research on the relationship between racial identity development and muhicultural competence (Ottavi, Pope-Davis, & Dings, 1994), lend credence to the investigation of the relationship between MEI development and mediation training. Ethnicity as a Variable Effective identity formation is a crucial factor in effective psychosocial development during adolescence. Erikson, who first coined the term "identity crisis" during his treatment of World War II veterans, sparked development of a wealth of research and theoretical concepts related to identity development (Carter, 1995). His ideas have evolved across research and years of study. However, the majority of Erikson's work was focused on white, middle-class males. Later, Gilligan (1993) generated a theory of identity development that included women. Neither theorist directly addressed identity development from a multicultural standpoint, but both theorists viewed adolescence as a critical time in the process of identity formation. According to Adams (1992): Identity is conceptualized as an internalized, self-selected regulatory system that represents an organized and integrated psychic structure that requires the developmental distinction between the inner self and outer social world. Identity formation is seen as an evolutionary process of differentiation and integration, synthesis and resynlhesis, and increasing cognitive complexity, (p.l)

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30 The goal for adolescents is to achieve a positive, coherent identity. To achieve this goal, adolescents must accomplish various psychosocial tasks (Harris, 1995). In the process, adolescents are bombarded with information about values, morals, and ideals through interactions at various levels of personal environment. They must sift through these experiences of ideals and pick and choose the ones that have the "best fit" for who they are and who they want to become. Dependent upon the individual and his/her experiences, the information received may have inherent messages related to race and culture. Building upon Erikson's theories, Marcia (1966) conducted research on identity development and generated a four-status theory (i.e., achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion). According to Marcia's model, achievement relates to resolution of the identity crisis and commitment to an identity, moratorium occurs when an individual remains uncommitted after having explored options, foreclosure occurs when an individual prematurely ceases exploration, and diffused status occurs when, after exploration, the individual is unable to reconsolidate the ego (Spencer & MarkstromAdams, 1990). Marcia (1966) discovered that minority adolescents tend to score higher in foreclosure than White adolescents. He also found that male minority adolescents had significantly higher scores on ideological diffusion than did minority females and White males and females. These results indicate possible developmental problems related to socio-ecological experiences with discrimination and prejudice. In an attempt to understand the socio-ecological experiences of adolescents in their pursuit of identity development, Phinney and her associates (Phinney, 1989, 1990,

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31 1992, 1996; Phinney & Alipuria, 1996; Phinney, DuPont. Espinosa, Revill, & Sanders, 1994; Phinney, Horenczyk, Liebkind, & Vedder, 2001; Phinney & Kohatsu, 1997; Phinney, Lochner, & Murphy, 1990; Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992) conducted extensive research and reviews of existing research on MEI development. Phinney (1990) found that previous researchers had focused primarily on White ethnic groups and Blacks, and that many other groups had been neglected. She also concluded that while research on ethnicity was being conducted over a wide variety of fields and disciplines (e.g., sociology, anthropology, psychology, and social work), there was a lack of integration across these areas. The result was a duplication of effort in many areas of MEI research. To make matters more complex, Phinney found a wide array of definitions for MEI (e.g., links to social identity theory, acculturation, and culture conflict). For the purposes of this study. MEI is defined as a dynamic and complex construct that occurs throughout an individual's life and relates to an individual's process of identification with his/her own ethnic group. MEI, as a developmental process, is similar to that described by Erikson (1968) and Marcia (1966) and appears to be an issue that is agreed upon by researchers across disciplines. Phirmey (1989) developed a three-stage process similar to Cross' (1977) model of nigrescence that moved from unexamined notions about ethnicity and lack of an adolescent's attachment to an ethnic group, through a stage of discovery about ethnic notions and personal ethnic awareness, and finally to a commitment toward an achieved MEI. According to Parham (1989), rather than becoming static once the third stage of MEI development is achieved, individuals continue to examine their atfitudes and revise

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32 their thought processes throughout their Uves. The model developed by Phinney (1989) will serve as a basis for this study. According to Phinney (1989), the initial stage of MEI development is characterized by a lack of attention to ethnicity and its role in an individual's life. Phinney postulated that this phenomenon might be due to a lack of awareness and absent conscious examination of race and ethnicity. However, Phinney also theorized that children might come to have strong identification with an ethnic group if a family models appropriate behavior. The second stage of MEI development is similar to Marcia's (1966) concept of moratorium and Cross' (1977) and Helms'( 1994b) concept of immersion. Through encounters with different cultures, whether through media or live interaction, individuals entering the second stage become more curious about their own ethnicity and begin to seek information. Attitudes about an individual's own ethnic group are likely to be highly positive at this stage and issues related to ethnicity are likely to be highly salient (Phinney, 1996). The final stage of Phinney' s model includes a range of behaviors from selfsegregation to universal acceptance and valuing of other ethnic groups. Individuals develop attitudes in the last stage dependent upon the experiences they have had with society-at-large. Individuals who have experienced less prejudice and discrimination are likely to see more hope for cooperation and improvement of relations across ethnic groups and thus move more toward universal acceptance. Conversely, those who have experienced more prejudice and discrimination are likely to see less hope and move toward self-segregation.

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33 In attempting to validate this model, Phinney (1989) conducted a qualitative research project using a structured interview with 91 American-bom tenth graders. The results of the study supported Phinney' s three-stage model. Individuals from three ethnic groups demonstrated an equal distribution across the three stages, indicating the appropriateness of the model across cultures and ethnicities. In fact, there were no significant differences in assignments to stages by gender, socio-economic level, or ethnic group affiliation (Phinney, 1989). Although the sample was small and localized, the resuhs provided impetus for Phinney to create a scale to assess MEI. Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure In 1 992, Phinney constructed on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and conducted research on it using a sample of 417 high school students and 136 college students. The result was a 14-item scale having a coefficient alpha of .81 for the high school sample and .90 for the college sample. However, factor analysis revealed a twofactor solution instead of the three-factor (stage) model proposed by Phinney. These two factors accounted for 29% of the variance in the high school sample and 42% of the variance in the college sample. The first factor contained all of the items related to ethnic identity while the other factor contained items related to other-group orientation. This two-factor scale was used to assess the MEI of peer mediators in this study. Because the sample was small for the initial test of the MEIM, Roberts and Phinney (1999) conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the MEIM using a sample of 5,423 adolescents from diverse backgrounds. The participants were from schools in one urban area in the Southwest and were enrolled in grades six through eight. Again, factor analysis resulted in a two-factor solution. However, item distribution was different in this

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34 analysis and two items from the original 14-item scale were eliminated. The new 12-item scale accounted for 51% of the variance. Although MEIM scores on the 12-item scale were found to have only modest con-elations with psychological well-being, there was a highly significant correlation (r = .40) between MEIM scores and ethnic salience (i.e., importance attached to ethnic background). This correlation provides evidence of the concurrent validity of the instrument. It should be noted that although the sample size for this research added to the power of the results, there is some question about the method with which the sample was obtained. The researchers utilized a ''passive consenf process in which they sent home letters asking for permission to conduct research with children in the school district. Parents were instructed to do nothing if they consented and to return the letter or call if they objected. Although there is a concern about the sampling procedure, the resuhs of Roberts' and Phinney's (1999) study support the use of this instrument, in its revised form, in future research on MEI. Summary With further research, a clearer picture regarding the impact of peer mediation on schools, mediators, and disputants will emerge. At present, it appears that peer mediation can be a positive and significant resource for professional school counselors. Although a number of authors have questioned the effectiveness and/or the utilization of peer mediation programs for adolescents, others have described successful high school programs. The claims related to benefits of peer mediation are numerous, including that peer mediation programs foster a cooperative and comfortable atmosphere in which Ostudents can learn more efficiently and teachers can spend more and better time teaching. In addition, there is some evidence that students involved in peer mediation

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35 programs develop feelings of empowerment, learn to take responsibility, and develop constructive solutions for interpersonal problems. Evidence also exists that peer mediation programs offer potential reductions in violence, vandalism, chronic school absence, and student suspensions in schools. Finally, some authors have asserted that peer mediation reduces the time teachers spend involved in resolving conflicts in their classrooms, thus focusing more time on student learning. Although more research needs to be conducted in order to substantiate these claims further, it appears that peer mediation programs overall have a positive impact on school systems, mediators, and disputants. However, the degree of the impact is unclear. Because there is evidence that mediation programs have the greatest impact on mediators, it is important to examine closely the impact that becoming a peer mediator has on the mediators themselves. One area of focus is the quality of relationships maintained by mediators and the level of conflicts experienced by these individuals. It is clear that school administrators are encountering increasing racial and cultural diversification within schools. Some authors claim that there is a rise in cultural-related conflict due to increases in diversity. Thus, it is important to explore the impact of mediation (i.e., training and exposure to mediations) on the ethnic identity attitudes of mediators.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Peer mediation programs have become a popular form of conflict resolution in today's schools. Evident in the literature is the effect that peer mediation programs have on mediators, as much as any other facet of school environment. However, there has been only anecdotal attention to multicultural facets of mediation and the effects of mediation training and process on the quality of peer relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mediation training and participation in the mediation process on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators and the quality of relationships between mediators and their peers. Because ample criticism exists related to past research efforts in the field of PM, it was essential that considerable attention to research design be given to this investigatory effort. Several components of PM make it a difficult subject for empirical analyses (e.g., variations in training programs, methods of training, and/or trainer modifications). Therefore, a research design that accounted for variations in treatment was necessary. For the purposes of this study, a pretest-posttest-foUow-up, control-group experimental mixed design was indicated. This design allowed for causal inferences about the effect of the independent variable (peer mediation training, with and without additional multicultural units) on the dependent variable (ethnic identity development) through use of a control group and random assignment. 36

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37 Because cadres of mediators from specific schools were examined, random selection of schools for both experimental and control groups occurred in lieu of assignment of individual participants. However, participants in the control group received (delayed) exposure to peer mediation training at the conclusion of the experiment. The use of both random assignment and a control group counteracts many of the problems with previous PM research in that the design controls for most threats to internal validity. The mixed design is a combination of both wi thin-subjects and betweensubjects designs. Separately, there are advantages and disadvantages to both the withinand between-subjects designs. For example, between-subjects designs require that a participant be assigned to only one treatment condition and be observed solely under that condition. Conversely, within subjects designs allow for multiple observations of a participant. By combining these designs, it was possible to assign schools to either the experimental ( i.e., peer mediation training or peer mediation training with a multicultural component) or control groups (between-subjects) and to observe each participant prior to treatment, directly after treatment, and after a two-month delay (within-subjects). In an effort to categorize differences in treatment effects in the most efficient manner, two additional between-subjects variables were included in the design (i.e., gender and race). Because diversity was a central theme in this research and because the population of schools in the United States is becoming increasingly diverse, it was important to recognize the potential for differences in ethnic identity development (EID) by gender. In addition, because EID was a dependent variable in this research, it was important to consider the differences in EID by race. For the purposes of this study, race included self-identification into one of two categories: (a) white or (b) black. These

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38 categories were chosen based on the demographic characteristics of the state Mississippi (in which the research was conducted). An overwhelming majority of students in Mississippi's pubUc schools are either black or whhe. Although there are representatives from various other ethnic origins, the limited representation from each group prohibited individual analyses. Thus, the structure of this experiment wasa3x3x2x2 (group x time of assessment x race x gender) mixed design. Statistical Analyses Split-plot Analysis of Variance An appropriate statistical method to analyze data from a mixed experimental design containing one or more between-subjects factors and one or more within-subjects factors is the split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA). According to Shavelson (1996), results of a SPANOVA determined the nature of differences in mean scores on the between-subjects variables (i.e., control vs. experimental group, racial identification, and gender identification) and the within subjects variable (i.e., treatment occasion). The results of a SPANOVA also determined the nature of interactions among the betweensubjects variables and the within-subjects variable. Further, the use of a SPANOVA allowed categorization of variability due to the various factors, their interaction, and error. Shavelson provided a list of four assumptions in the use of SPANOVA: 1 . Independence: Subjects are randomly sampled from their respective populations and their scores are independent. 2. Normality: The populations from which the subjects were sampled are normally distributed. 3. Homogeneity of variances: The populations from which subjects were sampled have equal variances.

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39 4. Homogeneity of covariances: The population covariances for all pairs of the levels of the within-subjects factor. . .are equal at each level of the between-subjects factor. If assumption 3 is true, assumption 4 can be restated as follows: The population correlations for all pairs of the levels of the within-subjects factor are equal at each level of the between-subjects factor (p. 489). Factorial Analyses of Variance Because the Index of Peer Relations (IPR) was administered two months after peer mediation training occurred, it was necessary to conduct a separate analysis of the data related to this instrument. Because there was only one treatment occasion related to the IPR, only between-subjects variables remained for analyses (i.e., control vs. experimental groups, racial identification, and gender identification). According to Shavelson (1996), the factorial analysis of variance, (i.e., three-way ANOVA), is a method for determining the strength of association between each independent variable (and combination of independent variables) and the dependent variable (i.e., score on the IPR) in a between-subjects factorial design. Thus, a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with three levels of treatment (peer mediation training, peer mediation training with additional units on multiculturalism, and control group), two levels of gender (male and female), and two levels of race (Black and White) was established. Like the SPANOVA, the three-way ANOVA. Shavelson provided a list of four design requirements in the use of a three-way ANOVA: 1 . There are at least two independent variables (factors), each with two or more levels (e.g., treatment group, gender, and race). 2. The levels of the factors exhaust the possible levels of interest to the researcher (i.e., fixed-effect ANOVA). 3. The levels of the factors differ either quantitatively or qualitatively (e.g., differences between males and females). 4. Each subject appears in only one cell of the design and represents a random sample from the population defined by that cell (e.g.. Black male peer mediators).

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40 Population The population for this study consisted of adolescents from the State of Mississippi, ranging in age from 15 tol8, who were attending school. Participation in this study was voluntary. Because the sample for this study was voluntary, it is important to note that the differences between volunteers and non-volunteers may have complicated the interpretation of results. In general, volunteers are self-perceived as "helpers." This factor may be even more salient among individuals training to become peer mediators. Therefore, it was important to attempt to sample as much of the population as possible in order to account for differences in participation motivation. Sampling Procedures Representatives of school districts throughout the state of Mississippi (i.e., superintendents and principals) were contacted via phone or email to ascertain the presence of peer mediation programs within their respective districts. Each representative was given information about the nature of this research project and the potential for selection as a participating school district. Schools currently operating peer mediation programs were randomly selected for potential participation in the experimental group. Schools without peer mediation programs were randomly selected for potential participation in the control group. All participants in the control group received delayed treatment (i.e.. peer mediation training) at the completion of this experiment. Upon selection and agreement to participate by a school district official, information about the objectives of the research, sampling procedures, MEIM, analyses, and dissemination of results was presented to the members of each participating school

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41 board. Permission to access schools within a district ultimately rested with these elected boards of representatives. Because the control group received delayed treatment, a potential pool of peer mediators was identified by each school's professional counselor or PM program coordinator (schools in the experimental group may have had an existing pool of potential mediators). Ahhough identification of potential mediators for each school was not directly linked to this research project, it was important to note that each potential mediator was asked to complete an application and interview process with their individual school counselor or PM coordinator. All students identified for peer mediation training within each participating school was asked to participate in this research. For both experimental and control groups, once the interview process was completed and students were identified for eventual PM training, the researcher provided potential individual participants with parental consent forms (Appendix A) that explained the research process. Parents had an opportunity to ask questions and to see the instruments prior to administration if they so desired. Once the consent forms were returned and the participants were selected, they were asked to sign an assent form (Appendix B) that explained the research process. The assent forms were read aloud to the participants by the researcher or PM coordinator and the students had an opportunity to ask questions about the process. Participation in this investigation was voluntary and there was no penalty if individuals choose not to participate; they also had the opportunity to withdraw at any time and/or refuse to answer any of the questions without penalty. Individuals were not paid for their participation. All information was held as confidential within the limhs of

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42 law. Only the counselor or peer mediation coordinator and the researcher saw the questionnaires. Participation or non-participation in this study did not affect participants' grades. Power For the purposes of this study, it was determined that a large effect size (.75) would be adequate to determine the effects of PM training and the subsequent process of mediation on the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators. In order to reduce the probability of a Type I error, a conservative level of significance was established (a = .01). Because the inclusion of additional multicultural components in peer mediation training could prove costly to school districts, it was determined that the risk of a Type I error was greater than that of a Type II error. Even though a conservative approach was utilized, it was still important to maintain a reasonable probability of detecting experimental differences should they exist. Thus, power was set at .80. Through the establishment of desired effect size, significance level, and power, it was determined that a sample size of 36 was necessary for each group in the study. The overall resulting sample was 148. Experimental Procedures Once access to the schools was obtained and prior to the commencement of peer mediation training in the experimental group, the MEIM was administered by the researcher, in group situations, to all participants. A timeline for each component of the experimental procedures is presented in Appendix C. The instruments were read aloud to the group in order to compensate for any physical disability and/or low level of ability to read. Problems regarding administration or completion of the instruments were addressed

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43 at the time of the administration. However, discussion of individual items was avoided. Instruments were visually scanned upon completion and participants were asked to complete any items omitted if they so desired. Each of the participants was asked to complete the instruments on two additional occasions (i.e., at the completion of peer mediation training and after two months of mediation practice). Thus, each participant also was asked to include a name on the forms. Once the participants completed the instruments after the two-month delay, the names were removed and replaced with a code. The code sheet was kept in a locked file cabinet within the investigator's office. After completion of the data analyses, the code sheet was destroyed via a document shredder. Mediation Training All participants in the experimental group received peer mediation training directly after the initial MEIM assessment. Based on Smith's and Daunic's (2002) recommendations, the basic components of the mediation program included (a) providing a non-threatening environment in which disputants can tell their side of the story, (b) focusing disputants on mutually identified problems and identifying "common ground," (c) helping disputants develop possible solutions and rationales for each solution, (d) assisting disputants to take each other's perspective, (e) guiding disputants to mutually agreed upon resolutions, and (f) formalizing each agreement . For the purposes of this study all participants received training that followed the Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine (1997) model of peer mediation training. All schools participating in this project utilized a club-model approach to peer mediation and inifially used an after-school training approach. The initial training program occurred in daily,

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44 one-hour meetings over a two-week period. Additional training occurred in weekly PM club meetings. The researcher was present for several mediation training sessions in order to ensure consistency in implementation of PM training across schools. The Schrumpf, et al. model of training includes (a) an introduction to the definition and process of mediation; (b) introduction to the nature and origins of, and responses to, conflict; (c) review of the process of peacemaking and conflict resolution; (d) introduction to facilitative communication skills; (e) training related to a six-step mediation process; (f) mediation role-play; and (g) an introduction to the PM program operating procedures within each individual school. The six-step model of mediation that each school utilized had the following components: (a) establishment of an agreement to mediate, (b) solicitation of participant points of view, (c) a search for mutual interests among participants that will help toward establishing an agreement, (d) a search for possibilities of win-win scenarios, (e) evaluation of all generated possible solutions, and (f) creation of a mediation agreement. PM Trainers For the purposes of this research, all individuals assisting in the development of peer mediation programs or the training of peer mediators had attained a minimum of a master's degree in a counseling related field. Trainers also held a valid Educator License from the State of Mississippi. All trainers received a copy of the Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine (1991) Peer Mediation Program Guide and copies of the Schrumpf, Crawfod, and Bodine (1997) Peer Mediation Student Manual. The principal investigator met with each PM coordinator and conducted a two-hour training session on the use of the peer mediation manuals. PM coordinators had the opportunity to ask questions about the

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45 program and received ongoing consultation throughout the implementation of this research project. Assessment Instruments Phinney (1992) attempted to assess both culture specific and universal issues related to ethnic self identification and ethnic identity development, in creating the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). The MEIM was designed to assess individual attitudes toward their own ethnic status as well as identification and interactions with members of ethnic groups other than their own. The MEIM is a I2-item instrument assessing three aspects of ethnic identity. Items on the instrument are rated on a four-point, Likert-type scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The instrument was developed and revised over a five-year period. Five pilot studies were used to revise the instrument and included undergraduate subjects from several institutions. In efforts to establish reliability of the instrument, Phinney (1992) administered the MEIM to 417 high school students at an urban school with "an ethnically diverse student body" (p. 163) as well as with 136 college participants at one university. Cronbach's alpha for the 12-item scale ranged between .81 and .89 across ethnic groups. The results of extended research on the MEIM indicate a two-factor solution (i.e., affirmation, belonging, and commitment; and exploration of and active involvement in group identity) that explained 51% of the variance (Roberts & Phinney, 1999). Hudson, Nurius, Daley, and Newsome (1990) developed The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) to measure the quality of relationships and intensity of problems that individuals have with their peers. The IPR is a self-report, 25-item Likert scale for

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46 individuals 12 years of age and older. Scores on the IPR range between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating a greater magnitude of problems with peer relationships. More specifically, a cut-off score of 30 (+/-5) or less suggests the absence of peer relationship struggles. Scores above 30 indicate clinically significant problems and scores above 70 indicate extreme stress and the possibility of violence. Summary InvesUgation of the effects of peer mediation training on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators required careful attenUon to a variety of issues (e.g., research design, instrument selection, sampling procedures, and general operational procedures). The use of a mixed, experimental design controlled for many of the ambient factors that affected past research efforts. Attention to issues such as instrument selection, sampling procedures, and general operational procedures corrected errors inherent in other studies related to peer mediation, ethnic identity development, and the quality of peer relationships. Thus, the resulting effort was a valid investigation of the effects of mediation training and participation in the mediation process on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators and the quality of relationships between mediators and their peers.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PM training and the subsequent process of mediation on the cuhural and social attitudes of peer mediators. An additional purpose was to examine the effects of peer mediation training on the quality of relationships maintained by mediators with their peers. In order to accomplish the purposes of this research, two separate statistical analyses were employed. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) was used to examine the cultural and social attitudes of peer mediators and a factorial analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was employed to examine the quality of relationships among mediators. In this chapter, the results of the SPANOVA and two-way ANOVA are presented, as are the demographic characteristics of the resulting sample. One hundred and forty-eight high school students in grades nine through twelve participated in this study. The sample included Black (45.9%; n = 68) and White students (54.1%; n = 80). The sample contained a disproportionate ratio of females (73%; n = 108) to males (27%; n = 40). The experimental condition was divided into two equal groups; peer mediation with additional units on multiculturalism (24.3%; n = 36) and peer mediation training only (24.3%; n = 36). The control group (51.4%); n = 76) contained the remainder of the sample and received peer mediation training after the completion of the study 47

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48 In order to evaluate students' ethnic identity development (EID), participants were asked to complete the MEIM on three occasions (pre-training, post-training, and two months after training). The means and standard deviations on the MEIM for all participants are presented by participant characteristics in Table 1. Split Plot Analysis of Variance A SPANOVA was used to determine the nature of differences in means on the between-subjects variables (i.e., [control vs. experimental] group, racial identification, and gender identification) and the within subjects variable (i.e., treatment group). The design used for this study was a3x3x2x2 combination of withinand betweensubjects variables. This design included the wi thin-subjects factor, which was three levels of treatment occasion (i.e., pre-training, post-training, and two months post-training), and the between-subjects factors which were the three levels of test occasion (i.e., peer mediation training, peer mediation training with additional components on multiculturalism, and a control group that received delayed training), two levels of racial identification (i.e.. Black or White), and two levels of gender (male or female). The SPANOVA also was employed to determine the nature of the interactions among the between-subjects variables and the wi thin-subjects variable. The alpha level for statistical analyses was p = .01. Results for the SPANOVA are presented in Table 2. The first hypothesis stated that there is no difference in MEI participation group (i.e., PM, PM & MC, and group). In regard to the first hypothesis, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean scores [F(2, 136) = 2.10, ns]. This hypothesis was not rejected.

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49 Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for Scores on the MEIM by Time of Assessment, Experimental Group, Gender, and Race Pre-Training Post 1 Post 2 Race Gender Group M SD M SD M SD Black Male PM & MC" PM" Total White Male Control'^ Totar Black Female PM & MC PM Control Total PM&MC PM Control Total PM&MC PM Control Total White Female PM & MC 3.55 .319 3.56 .080 3.24 .211 3.42 .278 3.52 .252 3.35 .389 3.40 .422 3.42 .368 3.53 .268 3.40 .352 3.35 3.25 579 3.42 .343 .212 3.26 .392 3.13 .502 3.20 .406 3.04 .445 3.33 3.67 3.18 3.34 3.49 3.36 3.39 3.41 3.44 3.44 3.33 3.39 3.08 3.33 2.94 3.09 3.12 .728 .068 .273 .333 .431 .481 .478 3.55 .408 3.65 .249 3.21 .260 .492 3.42 .360 3.48 .456 3.39 .487 3.49 .417 3.45 .445 3.41 .446 3.45 .349 3.42 .435 3.32 .451 3.19 .377 .367 .294 3.46 .336 3.50 .378 .354 .309 .341 .144 .399 3.00 .626 .506 .441 3.16 .436 PM 3.10 .419 3.24 .414 3.26 .372

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50 Table 1 . Continued Pre-Training Post 1 Post 2 Race Gender Group M SD M SD M SD Control 3.20 .370 3.15 .492 3.22 .435 Total 3.15 .391 3.17 .463 3.22 .416 Total PM&MC 3.11 .383 3.12 .397 3.25 .374 PM 3.15 .408 3.27 .411 3.28 .371 Control 3.18 .396 3.11 .491 3.17 .483 Total 3.16 .393 3.15 .458 3.21 .438 Total Male PM&MC 3.42 .309 3.23 .591 3.49 .321 PM 3.38 .334 3.47 .369 3.45 .371 Control 3.18 .393 3.05 .407 3.09 .497 Total 3.30 .365 3.21 .481 3.30 .453 Total Female PM&MC 3.34 .405 3.35 .410 3.36 .422 PM 3.22 .417 3.30 .431 3.32 .368 Control 3.27 .398 3.24 .499 3.32 .409 Total 3.27 .402 3.28 .463 3.33 .399 Total Total PM&MC 3.37 .373 3.31 .473 3.40 .392 PM 3.26 .398 J.J J .416 3.36 .368 Control 3.25 .396 3.19 .484 3.26 .439 Total 3.28 .392 3.26 .468 3.32 .413 ^PM & MC = Peer Mediation Training plus additional Multicultural units ''PM = Peer Mediation Training '^Control = Control Group ''Total = all subjects combined

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51 The second hypothesis, which related to the within-subjects variable assessment occasion, stated that there is no difference in the MEI of peer mediators prior to, immediately following, and at a two-month interval after training. There were no statistically significant differences among the mean scores [F(2, 272) = 2.61, ns]. Thus, this hypothesis was not rejected. The third hypothesis stated that there is no interaction effect for PM training with level of participation, time of assessment, or race. The results for this particular hypothesis were reflected in several aspects of the SPANOVA (i.e., race x gender, F(l, 136) = .027, ns; race x group, F(2, 136) = .175, ns; gender x group, F(2, 136) = 2.72, ns; race x gender x group, F(2, 136) = .343, ns; TO x race, F(2, 272) = .214, ns; TO x gender, F(2, 272) = 1.49, ns; TO x group, F(4, 272) = 1.81, ns; TO x race x gender, F(2, 272) = .374, ns; TO x race x group, F(4, 272) = .836, ns; TO x gender x group, F(4, 272) = 1 .38, ns and TO x race x gender x group, F(4, 272) = .067, ns). There were no significant interactions among these variables. Therefore, the third hypothesis was not rejected. The fourth null hypothesis, which was related to EID, stated that there is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators based on race. The split-plot analysis of variance resulted in a significant main effect for race [(F(l, 136) = 12.44, p < .001, eta^ = .084)]. Black participants reported higher levels of ethnic identity development than did White participants. Therefore, this hypothesis was rejected. The final hypothesis related to EID stated that there is no difference in MEI among trained peer mediators by gender. There was not a statistically significant difference in the mean scores [F(l, 136) ^ .062, ns]. Therefore, this hypothesis was not rejected.

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52 Factorial Analysis of Variance A factorial analysis of variance was employed to determine the nature of the associations between the independent variables and dependent variable IPR score. The design used for this aspect of the study was a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with three levels of treatment (peer mediation training, peer mediation training with additional units on multiculturalism, and control group), two levels of gender (male and female), and two levels of race (Black and White). In order to evaluate students' quality of peer relationships, all participants in the experimental group were asked to complete the IPR two months after peer mediation training. The means and standard deviations for their scores on the IPR are presented in Table 3. The results of the factorial ANOVA are presented in Table 4. The sixth hypothesis stated that there is no difference in quality of peer relations based on level of participation in PM training. There was no statistically significant difference in the means [F(2, 136) = .810, ns]. Therefore, this hypothesis was not rejected. The seventh hypothesis was related to the IPR and stated that there is no interaction effect for level of participation, gender, or race. This particular hypothesis was addressed by several parts of the factorial ANOVA (race x gender, F(l, 136) = .693, ns; race x group. F(2, 136) = 1.58, ns; gender x group, F(2, 136) = 2.79. ns; and race x gender x group, F(2, 136) = .170, ns). There were no significant interactions. Thus, this hypothesis was not rejected. The eighth null hypothesis, which was related to peer relations, stated that there is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators based on race.

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53 Based on the results of the analysis [F(l, 136) = 5.412, ns] this hypothesis was not rejected. The ninth null hypothesis related to the IPR stated that there is no difference in quality of peer relations among trained peer mediators by gender. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean scores [F(l, 136) = .663, ns]. Therefore, this hypothesis was not rejected.

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54 Table 2 SPANOVA Summary Table Source of Variation Sum of Squares d/ Mean Squares r Between Subjects Race 5.04 1 5.04 12.44** Gender 2.49 X 10'^ 1 2.49 X 10"^ .062 Group 1 70 2 .851 2.10 Race X Gender 1.07 X 10"^ 1 1.07 X 10'^ .027 Race X Group .142 2 7.09 X 10"^ .175 vjenuer x vjruup 1 10 2 72 Race X Gender x .278 2 .139 .343 Group Error 55.09 136 .405 Within Subjects Treatment Occasion .263 2 .131 2.61 (TO) TO X Race 2.15 X 10"^ 2 1.07 X 10"^ .214 1 yj A vjciiiici 1 SO 7 49 Y 1 0"^ 1 49 Til V IrlTMlt^ 1 yj A vji uup 3M A 9 09 Y 1 0'^ y ,\jy A i\j 1 R1 TO X Race x Gender 3.76 X 10"^ 2 1.88 X 10'^ .374 TO X Race x Group .168 4 4.20 X 10"^ .836 TO x Gender x .278 4 6.95 X 10"^ 1.38 Group TO X Race x Gender 1.35 X 10"^ 4 3.37 X 10-^ .067 X Group Error (TO) 13.66 272 5.02 X 10'^ Total 79.453 443 **p<.01

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55 Table 3 Means and Standard Deviations for scores on the IPR by group, gender, and race. Race Gender Group M Black Male PM&MC PM Control Total PM Control Total Total PM Control Total PM Control Total PM Control SD 21.43 12.41 12.33 3.87 18.75 9.82 18.38 10.16 Black Female PM&MC 9.78 8.59 14.92 6.78 16.32 7.95 15.19 8.95 PM&MC 13.48 11.14 14.31 6.21 16.99 8.40 15.19 8.95 Wliite Male PM&MC 29.33 14.45 18.00 16.57 15.60 13.54 19.55 15.01 White Female PM&MC 21.19 15.70 21.54 11.24 20.33 14.15 Total 20.73 13.59

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56 Table 3. Continued Race Gender Group M SD Total PM & MC PM Control Total 24.10 15.24 20.42 12.78 19.33 14.01 20.42 13.89 Total Male PM & MC 24.72 13.29 PM 15.73 12.89 Control 17.00 11.81 Total 19.00 12.79 Total Female PM & MC 14.05 12.74 PM 18.23 9.70 Control 18.88 12.34 Total 17.65 11.91 Total Total PM&MC 17.61 13.72 PM 17.54 10.54 Control 18.43 12.17 Total 18.02 12.12

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57 Table 4 Index of Peer Relations Three-Way ANOVA Summary Table Source of Variation Sum of Squares Mean Squares F Race 757.833 1 757.833 5.412* Gender 92.878 1 92.878 .663 Group 2 113.453 .810 Race X Gender 97.065 1 97.065 .693 Race X Group 443.484 2 221.742 1.584 Gender x Group 781.549 2 390.775 2.791 Race X Gender x 47.621 2 23.811 .170 Group Error 19042.689 136 140.020 Total 21610.119 147 *p<.05

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Validity of research results is dependent on meeting the assumptions of a particular research design. As noted in Chapter III, Shavelson (1996) listed four assumptions that should be verified in the use of SPANOVA: (a) independence, (b) normality, (c) homogeneity of variances, and (d) homogeneity of covariances. The score of any particular subject in this project was independent of the scores of all other subjects, thus meeting the criteria for independence. ANOVAs are often robust to violations of normality (Shavelson, 1996). In order to test for normality, George and Mallery (2002) stated that the normality assumption for an ANOVA is met when the skewness of the sample ranges between +/1 . Skewness of the sample for this research ranged between -.581 and -.644. Thus, the requirements for normality were met. The homogeneity of variances assumption requires that the variances of scores in the populations underlying all the cells of the design are equal. If cell sizes are equal in all groups, then ANOVAs are robust to this violation (Shavelson, 1996). However, because cell sizes were unequal and the normality assumption was met, it was necessary to test this assumption through statistical analysis; Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances was employed. Levene's formula tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups (i.e., pre, post, and two month follow up). In order to meet the homogeneity of variance assumption for the Levene's 58

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test, all levels of significance should be p>.01. The significance levels for Levene's in this research ranged between .044 and .186. Thus the homogeneity of variances assumption was met. The final assumption relates to homogeneity of covariances. Mauchly's test of sphericity tests the null hypothesis that the error covariance matrix of the orthonormalized transformed dependent variables is proportional to an identity matrix. Mauchly's test of sphericity was employed to test the assumption of equal correlations across the levels of the within-subjects variable (i.e., treatment group) and equalcorrelation matrices across the levels of the between subjects variables (i.e., control vs. experimental groups, racial identification, and gender identification). Mauchly's test failed to produce statistically significant results (p > .01). Thus the assumption for homogeneity of covariances was met and no adjustment to degrees of freedom was necessary. Shavelson (1996) stated that a research design utilizing a factorial ANOVA should meet assumptions of independence, normality, and homogeneity of variances. These assumptions, as explained in the assumptions for the SPANOVA. also were met. As in the SPANOVA, the score of any particular subject in this project was independent of the scores of all other subjects, thus meeting the criteria for independence. Skewness of the sample for this research ranged between -.581 and -.644. Thus, the requirements for normality were met. Finally, Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances produced significant results (p > .01). Thus the homogeneity of variances assumption was met. As indicated in Chapter IV, the application of SPANOVA in the pre-, post-, postexperimental design resulted in only one main effect (p < .01). Black participants (M = 59

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3.45) reported higher levels of ethnic identity development than did White participants (M = 3.15). These findings are reasonable in light of the definition of MEI. For the purposes of this study, MEI is defined as a dynamic and complex construct that occurs throughout an individual's life and relates to an individual's process of identification with his/her own ethnic group. MEI moves from unexamined notions about ethnicity and lack of an adolescent's attachment to an ethnic group, through a stage of discovery about ethnic notions and personal ethnic awareness, and finally to a commitment toward an achieved MEI. Researchers have documented the various differences in socio-ecological experiences between children and adolescents of the majority culture and those from minority cultures. These socio-ecological experiences have direct impact on MEI development. Thus differences in MEI between Black and White adolescents could be predicted. Limitations Investigation of the effects of peer mediation training on the ethnic identity development of peer mediators requires attention to inherent and potential limitations. These limitations are specifically related to sampling, procedures, instrumentation, and response errors. Although many of these potential ambient factors are controlled through experimental design, it is important to discuss them and their possible effects. A potential limitation in experimental research is derived from the nature and characteristics of the sample. Because participants were recruited on a voluntary basis, the possibility of selection bias arose. As stated, individuals who volunteer for research activities may be different from those who do not. Although participation in this research was voluntary, individuals who may not be typical volunteers had the potential for 60

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inclusion. Many mediation theorists have called for a greater diversity among peer mediators, including students with a history of behavioral problems. The inclusion of this type of participant pool increased the possibility of equalizing the potential differences between volunteers and non-volunteers. The sampling procedures also introduced potential limitations. Because peer mediators were trained in a cohort within a school district, the use of individual random selection was precluded. However, participating school districts were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Thus, the sampling procedure was expected to compensate for the lack of individual random selection. The general procedures for data collection also presented potential limitations. Instruments administered in large groups may have produced different results than if they had been administered individually. In order to alleviate this potential problem, trained research aides assisted in the administration of the instruments. Additional limitations relate to the general procedures. The MEIM is an instrument that identifies ethnic attitudes and the questions might have been considered threatening by some respondents. Likewise, the IPR, which measures problems with peer relationships, also might have been considered threatening by some respondents. Bradburn and Sudman (as cited in Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1 996) stated that assurance of confidentiality increases response rates when threatening questions are present. Thus, confidentiality of information was clearly stated in the parent consent form, participant assent form, and instructions read to the participants. All of the instruments included in this research were paper-and-pencil, self-report measures. Thus, a potential existed for response effect, which is "the tendency of the 61

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respondent to give inaccurate or incorrect responses" (Gall et al., 1996 p.448). This type of error may be related to predispositions of the respondent. According to Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996 ), the following are examples of respondent predispositions that can lead to errors: The respondent 1 . Is suspicious of or hostile to the research. 2. Is indifferent or not motivated to cooperate. 3. Lacks the information the interviewer is seeking. 4. Wants to please the interviewer or be accepted by the interviewer. 5. Wants to present him or herself in favorable terms (p. 448). Through carefully developed procedures for administration of the instruments, these potential effects were controlled. Recommendations for Training and Practice Adolescence is a dynamic stage of development in which individuals seek to solidify identity through values, peer relations, and separation from parental authority. Phinney and Rosenthal (1992) posited that adolescence also is a critical developmental stage for exploration of ethnic identity. EID theorists have argued that environmental factors, including peer relationships, affect the process of EID (e.g., family and community values, spiritual and religious involvement, and socioeconomic status). However, resuhs of this study lend support to the notion that EID is not easily malleable and that structured activities related to culture and diversity neither increase nor decrease awareness of personal ethnic identity. This study was also based on the premise that EID and multicultural competence is reciprocal and that making changes to one would in turn change the other. The results of this study suggest that this relationship may not be reciprocal and that this is an area in need of further research. 62

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Many school districts are using CR methods, including PM, as a tool to improve school climate and to reduce violence (Angaran & Beckwith, 1999; Araki, 1990; Daunic et al, 2000; Johnson & Johnson. 1995b; Johnson et al., 1995; Maxwell, 1989; McCormick. 1988; Tolson et al., 1992). Although there is evidence that participation in mediation programs affects mediators (Carruthers & Sweeney, 1996), there exists little evidence of the effects in relation to multicultural issues. This study had two focal points: to identify the differences between typical PM training, PM training with multicultural components, and no PM training and to identify the effects of these trainings on the EID of participants. Although some authors have called for inclusion of multicultural awareness activities in PM and CR programs, the results of this study did not support such recommendations. Furthermore, the results of this study failed to provide conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of PM programs in providing peer mediators with greater cultural sensitivity. Thus, any adaptations to PM curriculum to include specific focus on multicultural issues should be approached with caution. Recommendations for Future Research As noted in Chapter III, several components of PM make it a difficult subject for empirical analyses (e.g., variations in training programs, methods of training, and/or trainer modifications). Although the results of this study did not support the notion that mediation training affects the EID of mediators, further research should be conducted before eliminating multicultural aspects of training. First, it should be noted that generalization of results from this study is limited by the geographic restriction of the sample to a rural population in the Southeastern United States. Because of this restriction, it may be important to investigate the impact of multicultural components in peer 63

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mediation training on mediator's EID in various other geographic regions (e.g., the Northeast, the West, or the Southwest). In addition, the sample for this research study was limited to a dichotomous racial population (i.e.. Black and White). Thus, it also may be important to investigate potential changes in EID of mediators of more diverse populations. Future researcher also should consider various other training configurations that may have more impact on the EID of mediators. For example, time dedicated to training activities can range between 10 and 20 hours and can take place in an intensive format or over the course of a semester. In this case, the training was limited to a two-week intensive format. Also, Schrumpf, Crawford, and Bodine's (1997) model of CR was employed in this study. It is possible that other models may have different effects on EID. Models can range between 4 and 6 stages, with the most complex model containing 21 steps. Thus variations in stages and steps also may produce different effects. In addition, PM programs are enacted in either a cadre (i.e., elective course or student club) or a total school model. Because a club model was employed in this study, it may be important to investigate the effects of other training models of EID. Finally, researchers should consider variations in the time of assessment. It is possible that further exposure to mediation processes could have an impact on the EID of mediators. Conclusions Mediation is a popular tool used by school districts as an addition to conventional methods for dealing with conflict in schools. Through both anecdotal report and empirical analysis, researchers have documented some successes for mediation programs. Because of the increasing diversity among the school age population in the United States, 64

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some mediation theorists have called for multicultural training materials to be included in PM training to assist with cultural identity and cultural competence of peer mediators. However, demands for inclusion of multicultural components of mediation training have been made without evidence of their necessity. Because the majority of empirical evidence related to mediation suggests that the greatest impact is on the mediators who participate in the program, this study was designed to investigate those effects in regard to the inclusion of multicultural components. Specifically, it was hypothesized that multicultural training components and subsequent participation in mediations would affect the ethnic identity of mediators. EID is a dynamic process in which an individual seeks identification with his/her own ethnic group. While the resuhs of this research indicated that Black adolescents are more aware of issues of cultural diversity than are White adolescents, there was no evidence that supports the notion that mediation training and participation in the process directly affects ethnic identity development. Thus, modification of mediation training programs to include muhicultural aspects should be approached with caution especially if the cost of this modification is significant to school districts. In sum, this study failed to support the notion that participation in PM training and the process of mediation would affect the EID of mediators. Furthermore, the inclusion of multicultural components in PM training produced no statistically significant effects. However, it was determined that Black and White peer mediators differ in regard to EID. Finally, because of the limitations of this study, future research should be conducted before any changes in the structure or delivery of PM programs are implemented. 65

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APPENDIX A PARENT CONSENT FOR CHILD TO PARTICIPATE Dear Parent or Guardian: I am a graduate student in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Florida, conducting research on ethnic identity development under the supervision of Dr. Larry C. Loesch. The purpose of this project is to discover if ethnic identity development changes due to training and participation in a peer mediation program. The results of this study may help determine if more effective methods of preparing peer mediators for working with diverse populations of students is needed. Students who participate will be asked to spend a total of about 20 minutes completing a questionnaire. The questionnaire focuses ethnicity and ethnic groups, and on how important their ethnicity is to them. Typical questions that your might answer are about how your child feels about being a member of their ethnic group or how your child participates in activhies with other ethnic groups. Although we will schedule completing the questionnaires so that your child does not miss important lessons, he or she may have to make up missed work. A possible benefit of participation is that the questionnaires encourage adolescents to become more aware of the diverse ethnic identity of others and their own ethnic identity. Mrs. Sheperis has been approved to conduct this research by your child's school. However, your child's participation in this study is completely voluntary. There will be no penalty if you do not wish your child to be in this study, and your child may withdraw at any time during the study and/or refuse to answer any of the questions. Individuals will not be paid in any way for their participation in this research project. All information obtained will be held as confidential as is legally possible. Only the counselor or peer mediation coordinator and the researcher will see the questionnaires. Results will only be reported in the form of group data. Participation or non-participation in this study will not affect your child's grades. 66

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We would appreciate it if you would return the form on the second page of this letter whether or not you would like your child to participate, so that we know this information has reached you. You may keep the first page of this letter for your records. If you have any questions, please feel free to call Mrs. Shelly Sheperis at (662) 325-1759 or (662) 324-9127 I can arrange for you to see the questionnaires in advance if you wish. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Florida can also answer questions about the rights of participants in this research. They can be reached at the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 1 12250, Gainesville, FL 3261 1, (352) 392-0433. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, Shelly F. Sheperis, Ed.S., N.C.C., N.C.S.C. Graduate Student Department of Counselor Education Please check the appropriate boxes and send this form back to your child's school: I — I I have read the procedures described above, and I voluntarily give consent for my child to participate in Shelly Sheperis' research study. I — I I have received a copy of Mrs. Sheperis' letter for my records. I — I I would like more information before giving consent for my child to participate in this study. Call me at I — I I do not wish my child to participate in this study. Parent's Signature/Date 2"" Parent or Witness Child's Name Please send this form back to the school with your child. Thanks!!! 67

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APPENDIX B PARTICIPANT ASSENT FORM Study Title: The Effect of Peer Mediation Training on the Ethnic Identity Development of Peer Mediators Investigator: Shelly F. Sheperis, Ed.S., N.C.C, N.C.S.C. I am being asked to help Mrs. Sheperis in a project. The goal of this project is to find out if peer mediation training affects ethnic identity development. If I decide to participate, my part in the project will take no more than 20 minutes total. I will be asked to fill out one questionnaire. If I miss part of a class, I may have to make up the work I miss. I also understand that thinking about the way I understand my ethnicity may help me to understand others and myself better. This project has been explained to me and 1 have been allowed to ask questions about it. I understand that I do not have to fill out the questionnaire if I do not want to and no one will treat me badly because of my choice. I can stop part way through if I want to and skip questions I don't want to answer. I further understand that I will not be paid in any way for my participation I this project. I have read this form and agree to participate. Student ^ Date I have read this form and do not wish to participate. Student Date Investigator Date 68

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APPENDIX C PROJECT TIMELINE

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o o o I-! Administer Follow-up MEIM & IPR Administer Post MEIM Train Students Administer Initial MEIM Read & Collect Student Assent Form Distribute Parent Cnnsent Forms I Identify PM Pool Distribute PM Annlications Train Coordinators Contact Schools and Meet with Superintendents & Principles Week to -ti. August K) K) K) UJ 4^ September K> Bp — to J?p — M 55p ^ K) 4^ Lf\ October | K) U) 4^ November K) l^J -P^
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APPENDIX D DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY MEIM Student Demoaraphics Instructions: Please mark the answer that fits best for you. 1 . Name 2. My age is 3. My race is Black _ White _ Other 4. My gender is Male Female For office use only: Code DEM MEIM 71

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APPENDIX E MEIM In this country, people come from a lot of different cultures and there are many different words to describe the different backgrounds or ethnic groups that people come from. Some examples of the names of ethnic groups are MexicanAmerican. Hispanic. Black, AsianAmerican. American Indian, AngloAmerican, and White. Every person is born into an ethnic group, or sometimes two groups, but people differ on how important their ethnicity is to them, how they feel about it, and how much their behavior is affected by it. These questions are about your ethnicity or your ethnic group and how you feel about it or react to it. Please fill in: In terms of ethnic group, I consider myself to be Use the numbers given below to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. 4: Strongly 3: Somewhat Agree Agree 2: Somewhat 1: Strongly Disagree Disagree 1 . I have spent time trying to find out more about my own ethnic group, such as its history, traditions, and customs 2. I am active in organizations or social groups that include mostly members of my own etlmic group. 3. I have a clear sense of my ethnic background and what it means to me. 4. I think a lot about how my life will be affected by my ethnic group membership. 5 . I am happy that I am a member of the ethnic group I belong to. 6. 1 have a strong sense of belonging to my own ethnic group. 7. I understand pretty well what my ethnic group membership means to me, in terms of how to relate to my own group and other groups. 8. In order to learn more about my ethnic background, I have often talked to other people about my ethnic group. 9. I have a lot of pride in my ethnic group and its accomplishments 10. 1 participate in cultural practices of my own group, such as special food, music, or customs. 1 1 . 1 feel a strong attachment towards my own ethnic group. 12. 1 feel good about my cultural or ethnic background. 72

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APPENDIX F MEIM SCORE SHEET 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 73

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APPENDIX G IPR Name: Date PEER GROUP This questionnaire is designed to measure the way you feel about the people you work, play, or associate with most of the time; your peer group. It is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers. Place the name of your peer group at the top of the page in the space provided. Then answer each item as carefully and as accurately as you can by placing a number beside each one as follows. 1 = None of the time 5 = A good part of the time 2 = Very rarely 6 = Most of the time 3 = A little of the time 7 = All of the time 4 = Some of the time 1 . 1 get along very well with my peers. 2. My peers act like they don't care about me. 3. My peers treat me badly. 4. My peers really seem to respect me. 5. I don't feel like 1 am "part of the group". 6. My peers are a bunch of snobs. 7. My peers understand me. 8. My peers seem to like me very much. 9. 1 really feel "left out" or my peer group. 10. I hate my present peer group. 1 1 . My peers seem to like having me around. 12. I really like my present peer group. 13. 1 really feel like I am disliked by my peers. 14. I wish I had a different peer group. 74

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75 15. My peers are very nice to me. 16. My peers seem to look up to me. 17. My peers think I am important to 18. My peers are a real source of them. pleasure to me. 19. My peers don't seem to even 20. I wish I were not part of this peer notice me. group. 21. My peers regard my ideas and 22. 1 feel like I am an important opinions very highly. member of my peer group. T ran't stand to be around mv 24. My peers seem to look down on peer group. me. 25. _ My peers really do not interest

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Basic Training Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6 Activity 7 Activity 8 Activity 9 Activity 10 Activity 1 1 Activity 12 Activity 13 Activity 14 Activity 15 Activity 16 Advanced Training Activity 17 Activity 18 Activity 19 Activity 20 Activity 2 1 Activity 22 Activity 23 Activity 24 Activity 25 Activity 26 Activity 27 Activity 28 Activity 29 Activity 30 APPENDIX H PEER MEDIATION TRAINING PROGRAM Welcome and Overview Introduction to Peer Mediation Understanding Conflict Origins of Conflict Understanding Peace and Peacemaking Communication Skills Qualities and Role of the Peer Mediator Overview of the Peer Mediation Process Step 1 : Agree to Mediate Step 2: Gather Points of View Step 3 : Focus on Interests Step 4: Create WinWin Options Step 5: Evaluate Options Step 6: Create an Agreement Co-Mediation Practice Support for Peer Mediation and Peer Mediators Social and Cultural Diversity Bias Awareness Cultural Diversity and Cliques Stereotypes Resolving Cross-Cultural Conflicts Confronting Prejudice Caucusing Uncovering Hidden Interests Understanding Anger Advanced Communication Skills Negotiation Group Problem Solving Promoting Peace Focusing on Conflict and Peace 76

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Graham, T., & Cline. P. C. (1989). Mediation: An alternative approach to school discipline. The High School Journal, 72(2), 73-76. Harris, S. M. (1995). Psychosocial development and black male masculinity: Implications for counseling economically disadvantaged African American male adolescents. Journal of Counseling & Development, 7J(3), 279-287. Helms, J. E. (1989). At long last-Paradigms for cultural psychology research. The Counseling Psychologist, 17, 98-101. Helms, J. E. (1990). An overview of Black racial identity theory. In J. E. Helms (Ed.), Black and White racial identity: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 9-31). New York: Greenwood Press. Helms, J. E. (1994a). The conceptualization of racial identity and other "racial" constructs. In E. J. Trickett & R. J. Watts & e. al (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 285-31 1). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers. Helms, J. E. (1994b). Helms' racial identity theory. Paper presented at the Armual Muhicultural Winter Roundtable, Teacher's College, Columbia University, New York. Hill, S. C, & Drolet, J. C. (1999). School-related violence among high school students in the united states, 1993-1995. Journal of School Health, 69(7), 264-273. Hudson, W. W., Nurius. P. S., Daley, J. G., & Newsome, R. D. (1990). A short form scale to measure peer relations dysfunction. Journal of Social Science Research{\3), 57-69. Humphries, T. L. (1999). Improving peer mediation programs: Student experiences and suggestions. Professional School Counseling, i(l), 13-21. Inger, M. (in press). Conflict resolution programs in schools. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1991). Teaching students to be peacemakers. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). Teaching students to be peacemakers: Results of five years of research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1995a). Conflict resolution, Reducing school violence through conflict resolution (pp. 19-23). Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 79

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Opffer, E. (1997). Toward cultural transformation: Comprehensive approaches to conflict resolution. Theory Into Practice, 5(5(1), 36-43. Ottavi, T. M., Pope-Davis, D. B., & Dings, J. G. (1994). Relationship between white racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 149-154. Parham, T. (1989). Cycles of psychological nigrescence. The Counseling Psychologist, 17, 187-226. Parham, T. A., & Williams, P. T. (1993). The relationship of demographic and background factors to racial identity attitudes. Journal of Black Psychology, 79(1), 7-24. Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1-2), 34-49. Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156-176. Phinney, J. S. (1996). Understanding ethnic diversity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(2), 143-153. Phinney, J. S., & Alipuria, L. L. (1996). At the interface of cultures: Multiethnic/multiracial high school and college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 136(2), 139-159. Phinney, J. S., DuPont, S., Espinosa, C, Revill, J., & Sanders, K. (1994). Ethnic identity and American identification among ethnic minority youths. In A. Bouvy & F. J. R. van de Vijver (Eds.), Journeys into cross-cultural psychology (pp. 167-183). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Aeitlinger. Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 493-510. Phinney, J. S., & Kohatsu, E. L. (1997). Ethnic and racial identity development and mental health. In J. Schulenberg & J. L. Maggs (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 420-443). New York: Cambirdge Unviersity Press. 81

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Smith S. W., & Daunic, A. (2002). Using conflict resolution and peer mediation to ' support positive behavior, hi R. Algozzine & P. Kay (Eds.), Preventing problem behaviors: A handbook of successful prevention strategies (pp. 142-161). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. Spencer, M. B., & MarkstromAdams, C. (1990). Identity processes among racial and ethnic minority children in America. Child Development, (57, 290-310. Stichter, C. (1986). When tempers flare: Let trained student mediators put out the flames. The American School Board Journal, 752(4), 41-42. Stone, L. J., & Church, J. (1984). Childhood and adolescence: A psychology of the growing person (5 ed.). New York: Random House. Sue, D. W.. Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 477-486. latum, B. D. (1999). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? And other conversations about race. New York: Basic Books. Thompson, S. M. (1996). Peer mediation: A peaceful solution. School Counselor, 44{2), 151-155. Tolson, E. R., McDonald, S., & Moriarty, A. R. (1992). Peer mediation among high school students: A test of effectiveness. Social Work in Education, 14(2), 86-93. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Surgeon general's report on youth violence. Retrieved December 10, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www^surgeongeneral.gov/librarv/vouthviolence/sgsummarv/summarv.htm Vinson, T. S., & Neimeyer. G. J. (2000). The relationship between racial identity development and multicultural counseling competency. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 25(3), 177-193. Vontress, C. E., & Epp, L. R. (1997). Historical hostility in the African American client: Implications for counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 25, 170-183. Webster, D. (1993). The unconvincing case for school-based conflict resolution programs for adolescents. Health Affairs, 72(1), 126-141. 83

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Shelly F. Sheperis was bom in Ancon, Panama Canal Zone on October 1, 1969. After graduating fi-om Leland High School in May 1987, she attended Mississippi State University where she received a bachelor's degree in Elementary Education in 1991. Following her undergraduate degree. Dr. Sheperis began working as a teacher in the public school system. Dr. Sheperis moved to Gainesville to pursue Master's and Specialist's degrees in school counseling at the University of Florida in 1992. After completion of these degrees in 1994, Dr. Sheperis worked again in the public school system as an elementary school guidance counselor. She returned to Gainesville to pursue a doctoral degree in school counseling at the University of Florida in 1998. After finishing the formal coursework and proposing her dissertation. Dr. Sheperis worked as an adjunct professor at Mississippi State University in the Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education while completing research for her dissertation. She has since accepted a position as a high school counselor at East Webster High School in Mississippi and continues to teach graduate courses in school counseling at Mississippi State University. Dr. Sheperis enjoys outdoor activities, sports, and spending time with her family. 84

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Larry C.Aj6esch, Chair Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Sandra Smith Adcock Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. (CL^ C/^.jt Mary Ami Clark Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. David Miller Professor of Educational Psychology This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy December. 2003 \\\ College of Education Dean, Graduate School