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Toward a theory of language learning : sensory integration implications of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model

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Toward a theory of language learning : sensory integration implications of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model
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Walters, Florence L., 1923-
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xi, 133 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Foreign language education ( jstor )
Foreign language learning ( jstor )
Language ( jstor )
Language teachers ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Nonnative languages ( jstor )
Null hypothesis ( jstor )
Physiological stimulation ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Language and languages -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
Perceptual-motor learning ( lcsh )
Sensorimotor integration ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 106-119.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Florence L. Walters.

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TOWARD A THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING: SENSORY INTEGRATION
IMPLICATIONS OF THE DARTMOUTH INTENSIVE LANGUAGE MODEL










BY
FLORENCE L. WALTERS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1982




























Copyright 1982

by

Florence L. Walters














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Many people gave their time and support to the development of this study. Dr. Margaret Morgan, chairman of my doctoral committee, deserves my sincere appreciation forguiding my graduate education. I am grateful for the exceptional editorial skills and critical appraisals she applied to this dissertation. I offer heartfelt thanks to Professor Emeritus Dora Hicks for sharing hard-won time with me and for invaluable help as a committee member. My appreciation goes to Dr. James Hensel for serving on my committee and for answering my questions, both in class and out.

Dr. Helga Kraft, director of the intensive language program at

the University of Florida, served as a model of courage and creativity, and provided an open door to the hard-working, enthusiastic, and helpful students, tutors, graduate teaching assistants, faculty, and secretary in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages. Throughout the past twenty years, Kay Sieg, acting chairman of the Department of Occupational Therapy, provided personal and professional assistance toward the development of sensory integration theories expressed in this dissertation. I wish to convey special acknowledgment to Dr. Lela Llorens, chairman of the Department of Occupational Therapy from 1976 to 1982. She provided a luminous path for research.

Jim Flavin, television producer-director, Office of Instructional Resources, University of Florida, helped to perfect my videotaping










skills. Professor Raymond Johnson, director of the electronics communications laboratory, and Annette Lang, recipient of a fellowship to the University of TUbingen, Germany, are due special thanks for their assistance as "interobservers." I am also indebted to Carla Chesser, teacher of German, for the many hours she spent evaluating videotapes of student performances on the oral interview component of the "Zertifikat."

I thank Dr. Stephen Olejnik, assistant professor, Foundations of Education, for making statistics not only understandable but enjoyable. I would also like to recognize the voluntary contributions of Dr. Norman Markel, professor of speech, psychology, and anthropology. His spirited encouragement and acknowledgment of the possibilities of communicative body movements sustained my work.

My warmest appreciation goes to my friends, the Delonys, the

Johnsons, the Wessels, Mary Heisler, and Earl Blekking, for their gentle support and encouragement. Finally, I wish my children, Carolyn Kolar, Nancy Pollock, William Walters, and Cynthia Padgett, to know that their daily gifts of love were a source of support throughout this endeavor.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..... ... ............................ iii
viii
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION .... .... ........................... 1

Need for the Study ..... ... .. ................. 1
Rationale for the Study . ...... ............... 3
Dartmouth Intensive Language Model .... .. ...... 3
Neurophysiological Implications of the Model .... 5 Observation and Analysis of the Model .... ........ 7

II. BACKGROUND LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ....... .. 10

Review of Literature in Foreign Language Education . . . 10
Empirical Studies of Language Learning ... ... 12 Second Language Learner-Teacher Interaction Models . . 13
Neurophysiologically Oriented Studies of Language
Learning ...... ...................... ...17
Review of Studies Related to Underlying Concepts and
Assumptions ...... ...................... ...18
Supportive Studies from Anthropology ........... ...20
Supportive Studies from Linguistics .... ......... 21
Supportive Studies from the Bio-Behavioral Sciences . 23 Supportive Studies from the Neurosci-ences ....... .. 25 Supportive Studies from Psychology .... .......... 27
Supportive Studies from Education .. .......... ...28
Supportive Studies from Occupational Therapy ....... 32 Summary of Supportive Studies ... ............ ... 34
Theoretical Framework of the Study ... ........... ...34
Assumptions of the Study ...... ................ 35
Hypotheses ...... ....................... ... 37
Definition of Terms ..................... 39
Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation ... ...... 39
Student Foreign Language Communication Effectiveness . 41 Dynamic Teacher/Student Interaction .... ......... 41
Model .... .. .... ........................ 42
Intensive Language Program ... .............. ...42
Traditional Language Program ..... ............ 43









Page


Communication ............
Kinesics .... ................
Language .... ................
Foreign Language ..............
Limitations .... ................
Plan of the Dissertation ........


III. PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


The Sample ...............
Phase One: Subjects for Collection of
Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase Two: Subjects for Collection of Statistical Data ....... Instrumentation and Collection of Data .
Phase One: Instruments for Collection
tive Data .... ..............


Descriptive Inferential of Descrip-


Phase One: Collection of Descriptive Data .....
Phase One: Computations of Descriptive Data . .
Phase Two: Instruments for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data . . .
Phase Two: Collection of Inferential Statistical
Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analy ses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase One: Descriptive Data Analyses
Phase Two: Inferential Statistical Analyses . ...

IV. FINDINGS ....... .........................

Results of Descriptive Data Analyses .........
Null Hypothesis la ..... ................
Null Hypothesis lb ..... ................
Null Hypothesis lc .... ..................
Null Hypothesis ld ...... ................
Null Hypothesis 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results of Inferential Statistical Analysis ........
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) Results ......
Independent Chi-Square Test Results ........
Discussion of Descriptive Findings ..........
Rejection of Null Hypotheses la, lb, Ic, and ld . .
Rejection of Null Hypothesis 1 ..........
Discussion of Inferential Statistical Findings . ...
Rejection of Null Hypotheses 2, 2a, 2b, and 2c . .
Failure to Reject Null Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c . .
Rejection of Null Hypothesis 3d ..........
Rejection of Null Hypothesis 4 ... ...........

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............

Conclusions ....... ......................
Recommendations ...... ....................


49

49

49 50

50 51 52

52

56 60 60 61

64

64 65 67 67 67 69 72 72 79 87 87 89 91 92 93 94 95

98

98 100












REFERENCES ....... ... .............................

APPENDIX

A. SAMPLE PAGE FROM VIDEO BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION CHART FOR ONE
TEACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B. INTEROBSERVER RELIABILITY CHARTS ......... . ...

C. SAMPLE PAGE FROM VIDEO BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION CHART FOR ONE
TUTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D. STUDENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE DATA SHEET AND RATING FORM . ... BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Page 106




120 123 126 129 132













LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

I. Summary of Interobserver Reliability Data .... .......... 65

2. Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language
Behaviors by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers . . 66

3. Total Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Teacher-Directed
Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers ........ ....................... 68

4. Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language
Behaviors by Tutors ...... .. .................... 70

5. Total Mean Seconds of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Tutors ...... .. ....................... 70

6. Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation Provided
for Students in Intensive and Traditional Language Programs 71

7. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean
Foreign Language Communication Total Test Score ....... .. 73

8. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Foreign Language Communication Total Test Scores ....... ................... 74

9. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean
Grammar Structure-Vocabulary Test Score . .... ......... 75

10. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Grammar StructureVocabulary Test Scores ....... ................... 75

11. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of
Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on Mean Listening
Comprehension Test Score .... .................. ... 76

12. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Listening Comprehension Test
Scores by Groups ...... .. ...................... 77

13. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of
Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean
Speaking Proficiency Test Score .... .............. ...78


viii










Table Page

14. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Speaking Proficiency Test
Scores ...... .. ........................ ... 78

15. Self-Assessed Reading Comprehension Ratings by Student
Groups ....... .......................... ... 81

16. Self-Assessed Listening Comprehension Ratings by Student
Groups ....... .......................... ... 82

17. Self-Assessed Writing Proficiency Ratings by Student Groups 84

18. Self-Assessed Speaking Proficiency Ratings by Student
Groups ..... .. ......................... ... 85

19. Foreign Language Course Satisfaction Ratings by Student
Groups ...... .. ........................ ... 86














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


TOWARD A THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING: SENSORY INTEGRATION
IMPLICATIONS OF THE DARTMOUTH INTENSIVE LANGUAGE MODEL


By

Florence L. Walters

December 1982

Chairman: Margaret K. Morgan
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction

Concern for the current need for research in foreign language education to reverse American monolinguistic tendencies prompted this study. It was designed to determine if neurophysiological implications of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model could provide a basis for more effective language teaching.

The apparent effectiveness of teaching behaviors prescribed in the model was observed and analyzed in university beginning German classrooms. A review of related studies supported assumptions of relationships between Ayres's sensory integration theories and Rassias's emphasis on the teacher as transmitter of effective foreign language communication. The theory that teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation facilitates student foreign language communication effectiveness was tested in two procedural phases.

In the preliminary stage, descriptive data collected from 12 videotapes documented that whereas instructors who used the intensive










language model provided students with 4447.67 total mean seconds per contact hour of stimulation via gross body movement, hand gestures, and vocalized German, traditional language instructors provided 1138.00 seconds of such stimulation.

In the second phase, differences in achieving levels of two groups of students on grammar, listening comprehension, and speaking tests were analyzed with inferential statistics. Students provided higher levels of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved significantly (alpha .0001) higher test scores. Significantly (alpha < .01) greater percentages of students who were provided higher levels of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation rated their German-speaking skills "excellent" and their satisfaction with beginning German courses "high" than did students provided lower levels.

Findings suggested that neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias could provide a basis for more effective language teaching. Further research was recommended to reduce internal validity and generalizability limitations caused by nonrandomization. Studies are needed, not only in foreign language education, but in other aspects of education, to test the coherence of the theory that learning is a by-product of students' adaptive responses to sensory-motor stimulation provided by the kinesic and vocal language behaviors of teachers in an environment of dynamic teacher/student interaction.














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


The geographical location of the United States has long shielded Americans from the necessity of learning foreign languages. However, in today's shrinking world, where people of different nationalities are in close and constant contact, those who lack facility with foreign languages are culturally disadvantaged. Traditional instruction in foreign languages has been of limited value in reversing American monolinguistic tendencies. But as global changes have compelled a reversal of these tendencies, educators have had to learn how language learning can be facilitated and how to develop more effective teaching behaviors. This study was designed to determine if the neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model could provide instructors with a basis for effective teaching. The study was based on the belief that an understanding of how brain processes interact with the processes of language learning could help to explain how languages can be taught more effectively.


Need for the Study

Since 1965, foreign language teachers have struggled with the problems caused by sharp declines in the national regard for academic study of foreign languages (Brod, 1980). Critical self-examination revealed that most instructors operated with no specifically defined approach to teaching. The confusing array of eclectic approaches was found to be due, at least in part, to a lack of a coherent theory of










language learning and a lack of knowledge as to how to teach (Benseler & Schulz, 1980). In other words, language instructors could find no scientific foundation on which to base their teaching.

Lack of research in foreign language education forced instructors to depend on theories of language acquisition from psychology and linguistics, two fields dominated by stimulus-response theories of learning. Foreign language instructors accepted cognitive theories of learning from both psychology and linguistics, but acceptance of these theories did nothing to dispel "the continuing questioning of our [instructors'] efforts and the persistent dissatisfaction among learners" (Birkmaier, 1973, p. 1295). This dissatisfaction among learners was predictable from the results of a large-scale survey conducted in U.S. colleges and universities that showed the average college senior majoring in a second language to have a "limited working proficiency" in speaking and comprehending the foreign language (Carroll, 1967, p. 200).

Along with experiencing frustration over their students' lack of fluency with languages, instructors trying to teach students to enjoy languages had to contend with a lack of suitable training in teaching methodology offered by institutions of higher education (Rivers, 1975). Instructors who succeeded in teaching students to use and enjoy the cultural benefits of languages operated from intuitive bases rather than from a theoretical base or from formal training (Jorstad, 1980; Strasheim, 1971). Furthermore, informal learning methods used by children, refugees, immigrants, Europeans with close foreign-speaking neighbors, and Peace Corps volunteers often proved more effective than teaching and learning in academic settings (D'Anglejan, 1978). Yet










the creative and natural forms of language learning were seldom studied for their potential to provide a conceptual framework for language teaching. The President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies focused national attention on the need to reverse American monolinguistic tendencies (Office of Education, 1979). If instructors were to improve language teaching, they would need more research on teaching behaviors that might be effective.


Rationale for the Study

One approach to teaching languages that appears to have been

effective is the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model. In the present study, the investigator focused on neurophysiological implications for language learning as exemplified in that model. Dartmouth Intensive Language Model

Current concerns for foreign language teaching were presaged by John A. Rassias when he introduced an experimental model in 1967 to remedy low and declining student enrollments and uninspired teaching at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. Rassias (1970) developed the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model from his belief that teachers must strive to create environments that instill in the student a desire to communicate in a foreign language. The model was based on his contention that instructors must "learn how to communicate and learn how to teach others to communicate" (Effective Language Teaching, 1972).

Instructors who studied this approach to language teaching were exposed to the precepts of Rassias in workshops where they participated actively in exercises and drills devised to reduce inhibitions










to communication. They learned to use communication behaviors by mastering a choreographed rhythm and pace of verbal and nonverbal cues. These cues made use of chorals, finger-snaps, pointing gestures, acknowledging expressions, and large body movements. Teachers were instructed to speak to their students only in the target language and to move energetically, rather than stand still. Emphasis was placed on the communicative value of dramatization and animation for giving students positive feedback and sincere attention.

Instructors who applied these communicative teaching behaviors in their classrooms expressed exhilaration at having effected student learning. Their students expressed astonishment at how easily they began to communicate in foreign languages. Both teachers and students valued opportunities to interact and communicate without pretense in a learning environment that was far removed from more passive, traditional approaches to language teaching.

The effectiveness of teaching behaviors prescribed in the model was apparent from objective as well as subjective accounts. Rassias (1970) reported that after the model was implemented at Dartmouth, enrollments increased and students learned more easily to communicate effectively in languages other than their own. National recognition of the success of the model (U.S. Congress, 1974) prompted other colleges and universities with flagging language programs to adopt Rassias's precepts for teaching. These educational institutions reported an increase in enrollments and a rise in students' confidence in their oral communication skills and their enthusiasm for further language study (Byrd, 1980; Johnston, 1980; Stansfield and Hornor, 1981).






5



Rassias places emphasis on communication as a key element in the art of language teaching. This emphasis stems from humanistic theories of the need people have for sharing the experiences of life. Within the context of the classroom, Rassias (1970, 1972) believes that the student learns to communicate effectively through the use of language, not through the analysis of grammatical structure. The teacher strives to bring out the uninhibited child in each student, so as to recreate that state of sensitivity that permits native language learning. The teacher is expected to direct energy toward moving and speaking with native-like fluency while interacting dynamically with the student. The effectiveness of the teacher is explained by the "reality" of the teacher who through energy expended in communicative body movements and vocal language behaviors, transmits commitment to communicating in foreign languages and effects student learning through all of the senses.

Neurophysiological Implications of the Model

In the present study, the investigator attempted to relate the

humanistically based theories of Rassias to biological and neurophysiological theories of the efficacy of learning through all of the senses. Learning through all of the senses has proven to be the easy way that behavior evolves from one form of life to another through the development of the species and from one stage of life to another through the development of the individual. Coghill (1929) and Herrick (1956) discussed this phylogenetic and ontogenetic validity of learning through the senses and concluded that all forms of life require sensory stimulation to adapt and










learn. Ayres (1972b) went on to develop a theory of sensory integration that is based on the assumption that sensory information from the environment effects sensory integration processes throughout the nervous system that enable human beings to interact effectively with the environment. Sensory integration processes involve lower, less complex, subcortical structures of the brain as well as higher, more complex, cortical structures. Ayres developed these theories to show the effectiveness of organism-environment interaction and the resulting sensory-motor stimulation for subcortical as well as cortical learning. Although these neurophysiologically based theories were developed in special education and occupational therapy, in the present study these theories were assumed to contain concepts that relate to the humanistic theories of dynamic teacher/student interaction developed by Rassias.

Biological and neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors are seldom related by educational theorists to effective learning behaviors. Yet, throughout history, scholars (e.g., Bacon, Comenius, Dewey, James, Montessori, Ogden, Pestalozzi, Whitehead) have related the art of teaching to the development of human potential through the use of natural integrative learning processes of living, doing, and experiencing. More recently, biological and neurophysiological implications for developing human potential through multisensory stimulation were expressed by Coppola (1970), Edwards (1979), Montague (1978), and Nelson (1977). Several writers, including Chapple (1981), Gorman (1974), Holt (1967, 1981), Hyman (1974), and Suzuki (1969,










1973), have expressed a need for dynamic teacher/student interaction for the development of human potential.

Gage (1964) described the general educational need for fundamentally based theories of teaching as the desire to know "the ways in which a person influences an organism to learn" (p. 268). By reminding teachers of the role played by the central nervous system in learning, Pribram (1964) set a precedent in education that was later enunciated by Chall and Mirskey (1978) and by Wittrock (1978, 1980). This precedent in education, along with the precedent set by Ayres in occupational therapy, supported the theoretical framework for the present investigation.

Observation and Analysis of the Model

In the mid-1970s, the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages at the University of Florida faced declining enrollments in beginning German courses. Findings from a large-scale departmental study (Von Gal, 1974) indicated student dissatisfaction with the instructors' emphasis on grammatical structure; 70% of students queried were dissapointed by their inability to communicate in German after three quarters of study. These weaknesses in the established program prompted the experimental implementation of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model in 1978 in some sections of beginning German (Johnston, 1980). Since then, students who register for beginning German courses may elect to enter either the experimental program or the program using traditional instruction.

The investigator observed and analyzed aspects of the intensive beginning German experiment during 1980-1982. Teachers in intensive beginning German classrooms expended high levels of energy to create










optimum learning environments. Teachers moved about the classrooms constantly, usually using a choreographed pattern of communicative body movements and vocal language behaviors. Analysis of these behaviors differentiated communicative body movements into (a) gross body movements of the head, trunk, and appendages on both vertical and horizontal planes, and (b) gestures in the form of finger-snaps, pointing movements, acknowledging hand movements, and other nonverbal communicative hand movements. Vocal language behaviors were distinguished by (a) native or near-native German fluency, and (b) omission of English from speech-teachers spoke only in German and encouraged students to do likewise. Despite feelings of exhaustion after conducting class, instructors claimed that they were exhilarated by student learning effected by their efforts.

Observation and analysis of student behaviors in intensive beginning German classrooms showed students to be highly stimulated by the teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias. After the first few days of classes, most students lost fears of making mistakes and shed inhibitions to speaking in German. Students freely expressed enthusiasm for the teachers and methods that enabled them to communicate. Students made such positive comments as, "These classes are alive!" "You have to talk out loud in German-at first it's scary, but after a day or two, you realize you can do it!" "You can't help but learn."

Negative reactions were rare and usually suggested students' mistrust of nontraditional, nonliteral learning strategies. Typical comments were, "How do they expect me to know what to say if I can't see the words?" "They go too fast-I can't think that fast." "It takes too










much of my time-I've got a heavy load of reading for my other classes this term."

The alertness, attentiveness, and responsiveness noted in students in intensive beginning German class seemed to be related to the communicative body movement and vocal language behaviors of the instructors. Students appeared to be learning languages as children do in what Piaget (1926/1959) called the sensory-motor developmental stage. The importance of a developmental sequence for learning was noted by Ayres (1972b) as a need to develop the function of subcortical sensory integration processes in the brain before the higher cortical processes can be expected to function effectively. Stated simply, students appeared to be learning to communicate in a foreign language the easy way-subconsciously, through their senses.














CHAPTER II
BACKGROUND LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


The present study was prompted by a need for research in foreign language education to provide instructors with knowledge of how to teach, based on a coherent theory of language learning. The rationale for this study was based on the assumption that the neurophysiological implications for language learning in communicative body movements and vocal language behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model can explain how languages can be taught more effectively through teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. This chapter addressed

(a) a review of literature related to research in foreign language educatibn and to other concepts underlying the present study, (b) a theoretical framework, (c) assumptions on which the study is based, (d) hypotheses, (e) definitions of terms, (f) limitations of the study, and

(g) the plan for the dissertation.

Review of Literature in Foreign Language Education

Volumes have been written on foreign language education. Yet

Hosenfeld (1979) found the results of her literature review disappointing in that "language teachers still do not know which of the many available teaching approaches to select . . moreover, language learners do not appear to have achieved increased proficiency from the use of recommended techniques" (p. 51). Responding to a request from the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies to










assess the results of methodologies for foreign language education on the college and university level, Benseler and Schulz (1980) agreed with Hosenfeld. Their findings confirmed disturbing developments in the field which led the chairman of the President's Commission to write,

But the hard and brutal fact is that our programs and institutions for education and training for foreign language and international understanding are both currently inadequate and
actually falling further behind. (Perkins, 1979, p. 1)

The gravity of the educational problem was illustrated by data

showing that "only 8 percent of American colleges and universities now require a foreign language for admission, compared with 34 percent in 1966" (Office of Education, 1979, p. 7). Student enrollments in college and university foreign language programs were reported to have fallen 37.4% in German, 36.6% in French, and 31.7% in Russian since 1968 (Primeau, 1979). Figures showing an increase in enrollments at Dartmouth during these same years (Luxenberg, 1978), when coupled with evidence of inadequate teacher education (Warriner, 1979), influenced the President's Commission to state,

There is an urgent need for better-trained teachers and for extensive retraining of those already serving in the nation's classrooms, particularly in view of widespread agreement that the decline in enrollment is in large measure a response to poor
instruction. (Office of Education, 1979, p. 8)

Instructional problems instigated much of the foreign language

education research emanating from psychology and linguistics (Oller and Richards, 1973). Yet, the value of basing the teaching of language skills on Skinner's behavioristic theories or on Chomsky's transformational grammar theories was questioned by Chomsky himself. Addressing foreign language teachers, Chomsky (1973) warned "that suggestions from the 'fundamental disciplines' must be viewed with caution and skepticism"










(p. 29). Carroll (1976) restated this theme in wondering whether cognitive psychology could offer teachers a research base for methodology. Empirical Studies of Language Learning

Since the mid-1970s, researchers have begun to explore alternative theories of language learning on which to base teaching. Examples of empirical studies that indicate the trend away from unquestioned confidence in mechanistic stimulus-response experiments from psychology and the preoccupation with syntax in linguistics include: (a) an investigation of teaching behaviors in treating errors in oral work by Fanslow (1977), (b) a study by Galloway (1980) on the perceptions of native and non-native raters of student communication effectiveness, (c) an investigation of the effects of extended imitative speech practice on fluency (Hieke, 1981), and (d) dissertations suchasJackson's study (1979) of the effects of visual-aural versus aural methods of presenting interviews on listening comprehension and Dye's study (1977) of the use of the student's body movement to facilitate second language learning in secondary schools.

Chun (1980), surveying the literature, found growth in the number of empirical studies addressing first and second language relationships. Even though these researchers (e.g., Bailey, Madden, & Krashen, 1974; Olson & Samuels, 1973; Snow & Hoefnagel-H6hle, 1977) reported investigations of different affective, cognitive, and developmental aspects of language learning, their findings were similar in rejecting the popular assumption of a critical period of language learning which prevents older learners from achieving verbal fluency or native-like pronunciation.










Eckman and Hastings (1977) introduced a collection of such studies by stating that the similarities of first and second language learning are at least as important as any dissimilarities, "and our progress in understanding either may depend, in part, on our ability to identify, elucidate, and explain these similarities" (p. ix). Sheldon (1977), a contributor to this theme, argued for additional research designed to observe "the interaction of child and parent, or second language learner and teacher" (p. 11).


Second Language Learner-Teacher Interaction Models

A review of the foreign language literature reveals methodologies based on the interactive nature of first language learning and the need for teacher/student interaction. These methodologies are claimed to be based on psychologically oriented theories of behavior.

Total Physical Response. Asher was apparently the first psycholinguist to apply a theory of the interactive nature of first language learning in the classroom. Through a series of quasi-experimental studies, Asher (1969, 1977) demonstrated that it is possible to accelerate the rate at which adults and children acquire listening comprehension in a second language. The Total Physical Response approach was developed on the premise that in order to learn a foreign language "gracefully with a minimum of stress" a strategy is needed "that is in harmony with the biological program" (Asher, 1972, p. 134). Later, the concept underlying his strategy was described as the acceleration of the assimilation of information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system (Asher, 1977). The success of the approach in overcoming the often frustrating and traumatizing effects of










traditional teaching methods is explained by Asher (1981) as the result of its "sensorimotor method" and of "right-brain learning" (p. 54).

Counseling-Learning. Curran (1972), a priest and counselor who recognized that students have emotional investments and somatic reactions, developed the Counseling-Learning approach. The relationship of the affective domain to the cognitive domain as well as the human need to be understood, provides the theoretical foundation for methods prescribed to instill receptiveness, trust, and commitment between student and teacher. Grammar and vocabulary are considered to be less important than the interaction of persons.

Suggestopaedia. Suggestopaedia is a teaching method developed by Georgi Lozanov (Racle, 1979). An original feature of this method is that students are required to engage in relaxation exercises as the teacher reads new material with varying levels of loudness while baroque music is played in the background to aid in the unconscious absorption of the material. Racle (1979) reports results of experiments in Canada to confirm that the approach has "psychological advantages" for learning to use language as a natural communication process (p. 47).

Monitor Model. Although not developed as a specifically applied method of teaching, Krashen's Monitor Model (1979) has relevance for the present investigation of assumptions of subcortical learning. Krashen assembled empirical evidence suggesting that adults acquire language in the same subconscious manner as do children. He compares his rationale for distinguishing between acquisition strategies and classroom learning strategies with the rationale of Gallwey (1974) who teaches tennis by emphasizing the importance of subcortical sensory-integrative brain processes for learning a skill.










Formal and informal learning. D'Anglejan (1978) reviewed the

literature relating to the nature of formal and informal language learning from a variety of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives for teaching children in the schools of Quebec. Even though applications of D'Anglejan's findings may be beyond the limited scope of university teaching, their correspondence to the findings of researchers investigating adult foreign language learning indicates the significance of her conclusions to the conceptual framework of the present study.

The logic used in arriving at the conclusion that complex language skills can be acquired better in the absence of formal instruction is stated as follows:

Since language or communication is in fact behavior, and not a body
of knowledge, it seems normal that it should essentially be acquired as the result of communicative interaction between the
learner and a well-disposed native speaker. This is clearly the
case in native language acquisition, which is universally successful. . . . There is reason to believe that simply rubbing shoulders
with native speakers is not sufficient-the learner must receive
an input of the second language directed to him by a concerned
speaker. This input must be embedded in a context of social interaction. (D'Anglejan, 1978, pp. 233-234)

D'Anglejan called for a better understanding of learning and increased respect for the natural capacity for language acquisition which learners bring with themselves into the classroom.

Dartmouth Intensive Language Model. Respect for the natural capacity of the student to communicate in a foreign language is a foremost precept of the Dartmouth Language Model. The model was developed by Rassias, a professor of languages with a strong interest in drama who came to Dartmouth in 1964 after studying in France on a Fullbright Scholarship and earning a doctoral degree at the University of Dijon (Rassias, 1976). Humanistic concerns for the art of teaching that grew











out of close contact with trainees and volunteers in the Peace Corps, both in the United States and overseas, influenced Rassias to eschew scientific quantitative research in favor of the practical challenge of restoring vitality and humanity to foreign language education (Rassias, 1972). Preoccupation with the practical and qualitative aspects of teaching and a primary concern for the student's natural humanistic capacity for language learning may be among the reasons for the "strange" lack of scientific research to identify and explain the effectiveness of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model noted by Stansfield and Hornor (1981, p. 25).

Support for the Dartmouth model comes from a number of sources. Christensen (1979) in reviewing teaching behaviors that require "creativity, imagination, trust, humor, and acceptance of the student as a creative person" mentions Rassias as the developer of a "highly audiolingual approach which has gained wide recognition" (pp. 96, 127). While searching for instructional approaches that might be used to generate student interest and improve teaching and learning, Schulz (1978) included the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model in her extensive study of foreign language programs. Schulz reported that intensive courses "rate among factors for students with high positive attitudes toward language learning . . . and contribute to initial enrollment and retention of students" (p. 43). In reporting the advantages of intensive programs, Keilstrup (1981) included the "well-known Dartmouth model" as a successful example (p. 377).

In an article describing the history of the implemented DartmouthRassias model, Stansfield and Hornor (1981) reported (a) a fourfold










increase in the number of language majors at Dartmouth, (b) a rise of 86% in foreign language enrollments at Washington University, and (c) the spread of the model to at least 55 colleges and universities. The account of Stansfield and Hornor of the success of the model at the University of Denver coincides with accounts from Emory and Henry College (Byrd, 1980) and the University of Florida (Johnston, 1980).

Even though the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model is recognized

in education and even though social scientists see evidence of the effectiveness of the methods prescribed by Asher and Lozanov, little in the foreign language literature explains language learning from a neurophysiological perspective.

Neurophysiologically Oriented

Studies of Language Learning

Walsh and Diller (1978) made an attempt to link applied linguistic theory to the structure and function of language centers in the cerebral cortex of the human brain. Despite their recognition of "the possibility that language centers do far less than at first thought" (p. 3), Walsh and Diller neglected the contribution of subcortical sensory integration processes known to mediate brain functions. They limited their investigation to matching neurolinguistic pathways between Wernicke's Area, Broca's Area, and other cortical regions with cognitive strategies used in three different methods of language teaching.

Lamendella (1977) made a more comprehensive analysis of neurophysiological implications for language acquisition. The significance of Lamendella's work-an effort to clarify terminologies applied to various types of first and second language learning-lies in his recognition that "it is the neural systems that are responsible for










accomplishing learning of any sort" (p. 156). Lamendella also recognized the role of communication in language learning by distinguishing between "learning to communicate in the target language" at the natural level and "learning the target language" at the cognitive-translation level (p. 182). The general principles of neurofunctional organization presented in this treatise were derived from information-processing theories in psychology.

The perspectives of Lamendella and of Walsch and Diller are similar to those of Heilman (1978) who stated that his purpose in writing about language and the brain was "to provide the educator with some fundamental understanding of the neurophysiological processes underlying languages" (p. 143). The belief that the understanding of sensory integrative brain processes may provide educators with a conceptual framework for language teaching led to analysis of theoretical and empirical studies related to this belief.


Review of Studies Related to Underlying Concepts and Assumptions

The theory that learning to communicate in a foreign language is facilitated by teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation is supported by underlying concepts of human communication, human development, and language learning. These concepts emerge from interdisciplinary studies in the broad fields of anthropology, linguistics, the bio-behavioral sciences, the neurosciences, psychology, education, and occupational therapy.

Corroboration for assumptions that relate communicative body movement to communication and sensory integration theories derives from the work of the anthropoligist, Birdwhistell (1952, 1970, 1974), who created










the term "kinesics" to define body movement as related to the nonverbal aspects of interpersonal communication.* Birdwhistell stated,

Human communication is much broader than the exchange of words in discrete messages with silences between them. My premise is that communication is a continuous multisensory process. . . . Present research indicates that fascinating and complex relationships are
operative in the patterned activities of the various sensory
modalities utilized in the communication process. (1974, p. 203) The basis for these "fascinating and complex relationships" is found in the work of Ayres (1972b, 1981) to define the sensory integration process that organizes sensory information for use by human beings as they learn language as an adaptive response.

The pioneering study of Spitz and Wolf (1946), describing the

smiling response in babies, provided a focal point for the perspectives of researchers seeking a relationship among human developmental theories of communication, kinesics, and language learning. Spitz and Wolf, psychologists with a clinical interest in infant emotions and the psychosomatic effects of sensory deprivation, found that "emotional stimulation provokes a body response, and conversely somatic stimulation brings forth an emotional response" (p. 60). Additionally, they hypothesized reasons for the development of language throughout the history of the species, as well as for the development of language throughout the life of each individual. Spitz and Wolf believed that language develops phylogenetically and ontogenetically because the upright posture of humans permits face-to-face interaction and because the liberated hand in humans frees the mouth and facial muscles for purposes of speech and expressions of emotion.

A similar view of the interaction of motive and emotive aspects of behavior was later taken by Tomkins and Izard (1965) who suggested










that emotions manifested in "facial responses that communicate and motivate at once both publicly outward" and privately "backward and inward" (p. viii). The discovery that human beings are capable of interpreting an extraordinary amount of sensory information from momentary, slight facial responses prompted Tomkins and McCarter (1964) to suggest the existence of a "language of the face" (p. 125).


Supportive Studies from Anthropology

Birdwhistell (1970) considered facial expressions as one element of nonverbal communicative behavior that, along with speech, constistutes language learned culturally. Recent compilations of theoretical and empirical studies conducted in the field of nonverbal communication by Kendon, Harris, and Key (1975), Schiefelbusch & Hollis (1980), and Siegman and Feldstein (1978) emphasize the growing realization that body movement is not merely an accompaniment to speech. Researchers of body movement and its effects (e.g., Davis, 1975; Hall, 1959, 1966, 1968; Key, 1975, 1977; Mehrabian, 1967a, 1967b, 1972, 1976; Sarles, 1974, 1977; Scheflen, 1968) have found that verbal language does only part of the work it was previously thought to do as a function of meaning, learning, and communication. For example, Mehrabian reported "that the combined effect of simultaneous verbal, vocal, and facial attitude communications is a weighted sum of their independent effects-with the coefficients of .07, .38, and .55, respectively" (Mehrabian & Ferris, 1967a, p. 252). In her comprehensive study of the nonverbal communication literature, Key (1977) unequivocally stated that "human communication is body movement" (p. 5).










Supportive Studies from Linguistics

In linguistics, the emphasis on the cognitive functions of language tends to obscure the neurophysiological implications of body movements as they function in the use of language as a tool of communication. Nevertheless, abundant theoretical and scientific evidence in the literature supports the thesis that the expressive and receptive modes of language are dependent on the movement of the human anatomy and physiology as "man communicates through al-l his senses" (Ong, 1974, p. 166). In his classic treatise on human speech, Paget (1930) described the interaction among movements of sound, movements of speech, and movements of hearing by stating that

the repeated pressures which we normally "hear" are produced by
rhythmical variations of pressure of the air which is in contact with our ear drums. These rhythmical variations of air pressure are due to sound waves, which are themselves due to some rhythmical disturbance of the air at the source of sound. . . . The significant elements in human speech are the postures and gestures
which produced them. We lip-read by ear. . . . It will be no
disgrace to human speech if, after all, it should turn out to be
(as I believe it is) a branch of human gesture. (pp. 2, 174,
196)


Since this clear exposition of the interrelatedness of audition and articulation, researchers using spectrographic measurements and voice synthesizers have reached similar conclusions. In reviewing the literature on the perception of speech, Studdert-Kennedy (1974) cited numerous sources to defend his argument that "only through their articulatory origins can the temporally scattered and contextual variable acoustic. (and auditory) patterns of speech be understood" (p. 2371). Lieberman (1974) reviewed quantitative acoustical, anatomical, and physiological data on what linguists call the "suprasegmental










prosodic" features of language. These features include the tones, modulation, pitch, stress, and other "musical" qualities of vocal sounds that occur along with, or aside from, speech. The results of Lieberman's review of data on these features of language showed that the primary acoustic cue that signals the intonation of an utterance is the contour, or the spatial quality, of the vocal frequency measured by the human listening apparatus. In other words, the acoustical cues that enable our nervous system to use verbal information from the environment are not derived from the structure of the words of a language, but from their spatial and musical tonal qualities.

Of additional neurophysiological interest was the finding that the larynx assumes a different position in singing than in speech. In singing the larynx is insensitive to air pressure whereas in speaking the larynx is sensitive to "aerodynamic interactions" (Lieberman, 1974, pp. 2429-2433). Elsewhere Lieberman (1975) suggests that language skills are "automatized" skills that are similar to other aspects of motor activity, such as dancing, playing the violin, or driving a car (p. 92).

Jaffe (1978) investigated neurophysiological implications of verbal and nonverbal communication, arguing that "cerebral hemisphere specialization in man has evolved under the selective pressure of face-to-face interaction" (p. 61). His theory that the left hemisphere processes verbal time-sequenced language while the right hemisphere processes paralinguistic, kinesic, and spatially oriented aspects of language has implications for developmental theories of language learning.










Supportive Studies from the
Bio-Behavioral Sciences

In the study of human development, Piaget (1926/1959) considered the acquisition of language to be a by-product of the sensory-motor construction process whereby language and cognition develop organically through interaction with the environment. Bruner (1975a, 1975b, 1977) argued that the ontogenetic development of verbal language skills is rooted in earlier joint attention and joint activity behaviors observed when mother and child interact. Confirmation of these premises may be found in the observations of researchers conducting ethological or behavioral microanalysis of human interaction.

The discovery by Condon and Ogston (1966) that the body of a

speaker moves in a precise synchrony with the speech of the speaker led to a study by Kendon (1970) showing that the flow of movement in the listener may also be rhythmically coordinated with the speech and movement of the speaker. When this "interactional synchrony" was observed in neonates, Condon and Sander (1974) speculated that by the time these newly born infants begin to speak, they may have already laid down within themselves the form and function of a language system that encompasses "a multiplicity of interlocking aspects: rhythmic and synthetic 'hierarchies,' suprasegmental features, and paralanguage nuances, not to mention body motion styles and rhythms" (p. 101).

The premise that the first stages in language acquisition are already advanced stages in the child's neurophysiological development of vocal and kinesic behaviors is supported by the work of Trevathen (1974, 1977) who filmed the interactive behaviors of mothers and their babies. Using microanalytic techniques, Trevathen identified gestures and other










movement and vocal language behaviors performed reciprocally by mothers and babies to facilitate the exchange of motive and emotive information. By studying the speech available to children while they are learning language, Snow (1972, 1979) identified verbal patterns in the conversational mode of mothers' speech which showed that mothers believe that their babies are capable of reciprocal communication and interaction.

These observations signified a shift away from viewing language as an object of knowledge to be learned as syntax. Recent collections of studies representing similar observations of the emergence of language in children (e.g., Lock, 1978; Waterson & Snow, 1978) indicate an increasing consensus for the theory that language is a tool for the development of communicative competence learned as a by-product of natural biological processes.

Biological implications of language learning were first discussed by Lenneberg (1967) who found in the neurological mechanism of language "a natural extension of very general principles of organization of behavior which are biologically adapted to a highly specific ethological function" (p. 324). In addition to suggesting that language evolves from innate capacities for learning behavior, Lenneberg suggested that aphasic symptoms were a disorder of the brain's temporally patterned activities in interchange between cortical and subcortical structures. His conclusions lend support to sensory integration theories of subcortical language learning. In part, he concluded that

the neurological processes underlying language are not confined
to cortical areas. . . . In order to reconcile experimental
findings regarding the relationship between the cerebral cortex
and behavior in animals, and to relate these findings to our
clinical experiences with man, it appears reasonable to assume
that complex, species-specific behavior patterns, such as










language, result partly through subcortical, highly centralized
integrating mechanisms, and partly through interaction of activities on the most rostral levels. (Lenneberg, 1967, p. 222)

Further evidence of the biological foundation of language may be found in ethology, the comparative study of the character of behavior patterns across species. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1975) is one of the European ethologists whose recognition of phylogenetic adaptations has influenced sciences dealing with the biological bases of human behavior. Eibl-Eibesfeldt described observations suggesting that expressive movements between cultures lie not only in such basic expressions as smiling, laughing, crying, and facial expressions of anger, but in whole syndromes of physiological actions. For example, he observed that expressions of anger are characterized cross-culturally, as well as in those born deaf and blind, "by opening the corners of the mouth in a particular way and by frowning, and also by clenching the fists, stamping on the ground, and even by hitting at objects" (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1972, p. 299). Such evidence, augmented by similar evidence from the anthropologists, Ekman and Friesen (1971),.who describe face and emotion constants across cultures, indicates that common motor patterns and their neural substrates may be phylogenetic adaptions that are useful for communication and efficient for interaction with the environment.

Supportive Studies from the Neurosciences

The need for interaction with the environment in order to adapt and learn is a basic tenet in the neurosciences. Even the simplest forms of life behave and respond to changes in the environment for survival. To be alive is to be sensitive to the physical world (e.g., to










receive and measure vibrations, to calculate pressures, to detect levels of light and movement). The role of the sensory systems to detect and interpret spatial and temporal information is documented in the work of Sarnat and Netsky (1974) to trace the evolution of the nervous system and in the work of Jacobson (1978) to trace the development of the human nervous system throughout the life of the individual.

Knowledge of the human nervous system has been increasing since the classic studies of Sherrington (1906/1973) to map the functional tracts in the spinal column and brain. In the process of his studies, Sherrington discovered sensory organs in skeletal muscles, isolated the point of response in the synapse, and speculated on the integrative function of neuronal networks. More recent contributions to this knowledge of neurophysiology have come from neuromolecular studies such as those reported by Eccles (1966, 1967, 1977), Edelman and Mountcastle (1978), Hubel (1979), and Szentagothai and Arbib (1976).

The concept that "the brain is a complex of widely and reciprocally interconnected systems and that the dynamic interplay of neuronal activity within and between these systems is the very essence of brain function" was confirmed by the study of Mountcastle (1978, p. 7) to find organization patterns in the estimated 50 billion cortical nerve cells and their seemingly infinitely possible connections. Mountcastle's finding that neural organization occurs vertically as well as horizontally in the human cortex substantiates sensory integration theories; he concluded that "there is nothing intrinsically motor about the motor cortex, nor sensory about the sensory cortex" (p. 9).










Supportive Studies from Psychology

Gibson (1966), a psychologist, reached a similar conclusion about interdependency in sensory and motor organization in his classic study of the senses as perceptual systems. He described the senses as active, moving mechanisms for looking, listening, sniffing, tasting, and touching, rather than as previously described passive receptors for sensations. In realizing that sensory-motor responses are both affected and effected by changing patterns and transformations of energy that generate the information organized by sensory-integrative processes, he advanced the theory "that the senses can obtain information about objects in the world without the intervention of an intellectual process" (p. 2).

Gibson's theories have implications for reforming learning theories that are limited to concepts of static cortical cognitive structures and memory storage areas. Experimental support for the implied effectiveness of subcortical sensory-integrative brain processes for learning was provided by Lashley (1929, 1950/1974). His neurophysiological experiments on animal behaviors demonstrated the fallacy of the hypothesized engram, or memory trace in the brain, and the limitations of passive, mechanistic aspects of stimulus-response learning.

Three other psychologically oriented scientists who have given support to neurophysiological theory of languages-are (a) Hebb (1949, 1980) whose "cell assembly" theory suggests the unity of the brain's neural networks as a biological learning device requiring interaction with the environment for development; (b) Young (1971, 1978) who elucidates the biological foundations of the "programs of the brain"; and

(c) Pribram (1971, 1978) whose extensive neuropsychological studies











indicate the interrelatedness of all areas of the central nervous system that communicate in "the languages of the brain." Supportive Studies from Education

In education, the significance of neurophysiological approaches

to the explanation of learning was first recognized by those who applied perceptual-motor theories to promote motor skill learning and to remediate learning disorders in children (e.g, Barsch, 1967, 1968; Cratty, 1971, 1974, 1975; de Quiros & Schrager, 1978; Kephart, 1960; Le Winn, 1969). Until recently, however, educational psychologists have resisted defining learning according to neurophysiological principles (Goodman, 1979; Hilgard & Bower, 1966). Between the appearance of Pribram's "Neurophysiological Notes on the Art of Education" (1964) and the appearance of the volume Education and the Brain (Chall & Mirskey, 1978), the educational literature contained few references to the implications of neurophysiological research for language learning and teaching. However, the concepts of cerebral asymmetry derived from the works of Kimura (1973), Sperry (1964, 1974), and Geschwind (1965, 1970) were referred to by writers in education. For example, implications of splitbrain research for learning strategies and educational practices were addressed by Lutz (1978), McCallum and Glynn (1979), and Rennels(1976).

Recent publications of Teyler (1978) and Wittrock (1980) address the relationship between theoretical studies of human behaviors in educational psychology and theoretical studies of the structure and function of the brain in the neurosciences. The accumulation of information by researchers (e.g., Bechtereva, 1978; Luria, 1973; McGuiness & Pribram, 1980; and Trevathen, 1980) who are interested in the











neurophysiological correlates of mental activity is beginning to affect psychological views of cognition, memory, information processing, and learning styles. Educators are realizing that "the brain does not usually learn in the sense of accepting or recording information from teachers . . . [that] it actively constructs its own interpretation of information and draws inferences from it" (Wittrock, 1978, p. 101). After comparing recent findings about the brain with recent findings about the cognitive processes of learning, Wittrock (1980) concluded that in the future, it will be productive "to study how learners transform the environmental events of teaching and instruction into functional information" (p. 398).

A review of literature related to "how learners transform the

environmental events of teaching" neurophysiologically in liberal arts and sciences programs at the college or university level revealed no directly related empirical research. The literature contains studies of kinesic and nonverbal behaviors of both college and K-12 teachers. For example, Esp (1978) designed a study to guage the effects of college teacher nonverbal behavior during a period of instruction. Analysis of positive and negative cues exhibited by male and female teachers while presenting a lecture on the metric system indicated that only the nonverbal behavior of female teachers influenced student learning; however, the nonverbal behavior of both sexes had an effect on student attitude.

Although not conducted with college instructors, nor for the same purpose as the present study, Credell's descriptive study (1977) of nonverbal behaviors in teaching exemplifies the growing concern for










communication in educational programs. The purpose of the study was to determine if a group of teachers who had been subjectively labeled as likeable for displaying appropriate communication behaviors in their role as teachers differed in their evaluations of such behaviors from a group of teachers who had been labeled as being disliked. Credell videotaped 21 teachers to gather data for 10 diffusely defined nonverbal communication behaviors: physical appearance, facial expressions, use of time, gestures, voice tone, proxemics, body expression, expression of eyes, actions, and expressions of mouth. Credell reported indications of differences between the positive responses of the two groups as they reviewed videotapes: the likeable teachers noticed more positive nonverbal behaviors than were observed by the less liked teachers.

One study that approximates more closely the design of the present study was conducted by Wyckoff (1973). Teacher mobility, gesturing, and pausing while presenting a lecture were examined for their effect on student recall of factual information contained in the lecture. Data collected from videotapes of 12 teachers and from test scores of 48 students indicated that increases in the frequency of stimulus variation on the part of secondary school teachers resulted in improved student performances. Wyckoff noted the need for "research directed toward the observation and measurement of teacher-student behavior related to input or stimulus variables" and concluded that variables such as movement, gesture, voice variation, eye contact, and enthusiasm do affect student attitude toward instruction (p. 85).

Teaching effectiveness in explaining was explored in an early

large-scale study conducted by Gage, Belgard, Dell, Hiller, Rosenshine,










and Unruh (1968). Rosenshine (1968) contributed to the study by investigating specific behaviors, the frequencies of which were expected to be related to teacher effectiveness in explaining lecture material in social studies classes. According to Rosenshine, "the variables were the stimuli received by the pupils, that is, the verbal and nonverbal behavior of the teachers while they lectured" (p. 36). One variable that discriminated most significantly between the high-scoring and low-scoring groups for the two different lecture topics was the frequency and amount of time the teacher gestured and moved; the teacher of high-scoring groups moved and gestured more. Rosenshine hypothesized that

these gestures and movements may have the effect of arousing or focusing attention. However, verbal variables taken singly and
in combinations which might have been classified as attenionarousing variables did not discriminate between high and low groups. . . These verbal variables included phrases stating
the importance of material or recalling material, cognitive
reversal, and references to problems and conflicts. (Rosenshine,
1968, p. 39-40)

In a later and more comprehensive review of correlational and experimental studies of teacher enthusiasm, Rosenshine (1970) found evidence that ratings given teachers on such high-inference behaviors as
"stimulating," "energetic," "mobile,' "enthusiastic," and "animated"
related to measures of pupil achievement. The results of lowinference studies suggested that the frequencies of such variables
as movement, gesture, variation of voice, and eye contact are
related to pupil achievement. (p. 510)

Empirical research from education that is relevant to the investigation of neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors may be found in special education and physical education where perceptualmotor theories have been advanced and tested for learning and teaching effectiveness. Such research is collected in journals such as










Perceptual and Motor Skills and the Journal of Motor Behavior, as well as in volumes of studies such as those edited by Stelmach (1976, 1978, 1980). Although the scope of the present study does not include a review of such research, studies supporting the neurological concepts of perceptual-motor behavior developed by Williams (1969) and the closed loop theory of motor learning developed by Adams (1976, 1978) are indicative of the findings of Smith (1978) who concluded that "the potential for sensorimotor integration during motor programming is tremendous.

. . We must look at the capacities of the sensorimotor system and seek to define the optimal conditions for motor control" (p. 180).

The unifying concept in educational studies designed to determine how students learn from what Smith calls the "sensorimotor system" and what Wittrock calls the "environmental events of teaching" may be the concept of the need organisms have for interaction in order to adapt and learn.


Supportive Studies from Occupational Therapy

The assumption of organism-environment interaction is central to theories of sensory integration developed by Ayres in special education and occupational therapy. Ayres (1972b) stated,

Central to the concept of brain development and function is the action of the environment upon the organism and the reaction of
that organism upon the environment. This interaction constitutes
the essence of a sensory integrative and sensorimotor response.
The primary function of the brain is to translate sensory impulses into meaningful information and to organize an appropriate
motor response. The process is most direct and obvious in the
young child. The sensory and integrative aspect of the process,
being more subtle and covert than the motor, is often overlooked. (p. 22)

The published studies of Ayres (e.g., 1964, 1977, 1981) provided occupational therapists with concepts from the neurosciences to complement










those derived from the biological and behavioral sciences. These concepts underly the premise that therapist-directed sensory-motor stimulation has the potential to mitigate learning disabilities and to facilitate language acquisition (Clark & Steingold, 1982).

Empirical studies found in the occupational therapy literature may be relevant to the present investigation of neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors used to facilitate language acquisition. By studying the effects of sensory integration procedures on children with auditory-language disorders, Ayres (1972a) and Ayres and Mailloux (1981) found evidence to generate hypotheses that relate increases in sensoryintegrative stimulation to increases in language comprehension and expression. The results of a study by Magrun and associates (1981) showed an increase in spontaneous verbal language in developmentally delayed children immediately after stimulation of the sensory system that provides human beings with a sense of balance and movement in space. This sensory system, the vestibular system, provides human beings with important information as to whether they are the ones moving or whether the external environment is moving. The investigators suggested that vestibular stimulation may be an effective nonverbal intervention method for facilitating spontaneous language. Stilwell, Crowe, and McCallum (1978) explored the relationship between functioning of the vestibular system and specific communication disorders. Their findings supported the conclusion:

It seems logical to assume that the cortex cannot be considered as the sole processing center for speech and language. Rather,
it appears that the development of the language centers is in
some way dependent on previous, as well as ongoing, subcortical
sensory integration. This can be viewed as a pattern of continuous reciprocal interaction between the language centers and










the more primary subcortical structures, thereby making these
language centers neither fully dependent nor fully independent of
subcortical neural processing. (pp. 226-227)

Particularly related to the present study of college students is the finding by Angelo (1980) that the reading skills of low-achieving college students responded to sensory-integrative treatment. In discussion, Angelo stated that the results of the study undertaken to assess the use of a sensory-integrative approach to improve the academic performance of low-achieving college students "indicated that reading was significantly improved after students participated in a program of sensory-integrative activities" (p. 674).


Summary of Supportive Studies

Assumptions of neurophysiological need for interaction found in

the review of related studies served to unify concepts of human communication, human development, and language learning. Theoretical and empirical evidence found in related fields supported the assumption that languages may be learned easily through the natural capacity human beings have to learn through their senses. Ample theoretical evidence showed that learning to use a foreign language for effective communication may be dependent on sensory-integrative brain processes that are, in turn, dependent on organism-environment interaction. Such evidence supports the theoretical framework of the present study.


Theoretical Framework of the Study

According to Rassias (1972), "the teacher is the 'reality' of learning: his own commitment to communication must be experienced by his students" (p. 12). In the present study, the "reality" of the










teacher was conceptualized as the energy the teacher directs toward students in the form of communicative body movement and vocal language behaviors that neurophysiologically correspond to the foreign language communication skills of the teacher. Such teaching behaviors are theorized to stimulate students to respond adaptively through their own communicative body movement and vocal language behaviors that neurophysiologically correspond to foreign language communication skills in students. These concepts are fundamental to the theory that learning to communicate in a foreign language can be facilitated by teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.

The investigator attempted to test this theory through a quasiexperimentally designed study to determine the effects of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. The independent or treatment variable was sensorymotor stimulation as defined by the energy that teachers direct toward students through kinesic and vocal language behaviors. The dependent variable was student foreign language communication effectiveness as defined by test scores. The loci for the study were (a) the intensive and

(b) the traditional beginning German classrooms at the University of Florida, Gainesville.

Assumptions of the Study

The assumptions of this study were based on the theory of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation developed from the review of related studies and from direct observation of teaching behaviors in beginning German classrooms. These assumptions are as follows:










1. Instructors who use the intensive language model provide more kinesic and vocal language behaviors than do those who use traditional methods of instruction. These kinesic and vocal language teaching behaviors are measures of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.

2. Students who are provided teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation respond adaptively with behaviors that correspond to communication effectiveness. Therefore, students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieve a higher score on a test of foreign language communication effectiveness than do students provided a lower level.

a. Based on the second assumption, students whose instructors use traditional teaching methods and textbooks emphasizing English translation and grammatical analysis of the structure of a language achieve a higher score on a grammatical structure-vocabulary test than do students whose instructors use less English translation and grammatical analysis in the intensive language program.

b. Based on the second assumption, students whose instructors use more foreign language communicative body movements and vocalization in the intensive language program actieve a higher score on a listening comprehension test than do students whose instructors use fewer such movements and vocalizations in the traditional language program.

c. Based on the second assumption, students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation in the intensive language program achieve a higher speaking proficiency score on an oral interview test than do students provided a lower level in the traditional language program.










3. Students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation that is appropriate for the learning of the four basic language skills feel more confident of their ability to use these skills in foreign language communication than do students provided a lower level of such stimulation.

4. Students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation that is appropriate for the learning of effective foreign language communication skills express more satisfaction with the efficacy of their foreign language courses to increase these skills than do students provided a lower level of such stimulation.


Hypotheses

The assumptions to be tested in this study were formulated as statistical hypotheses stated in the null form as follows:

1. The total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the total mean provided by traditional language teachers.

a. The mean seconds per contact hour of gross body movement directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

b. The mean seconds per contact hour of hand gestures directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.










c. The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken German directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

d. The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken English directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

2. The mean foreign language communication total test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

a. The mean grammatical structure-vocabulary test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

b. The mean listening comprehension test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

c. The mean speaking proficiency test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

3. The self-assessed language skill performance ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor










stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

a. The self-assessed reading comprehension ratings of

students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

b. The self-assessed listening comprehension ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

c. The self-assessed writing proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

d. The self-assessed speaking proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

4. The course satisfaction ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students who are provided a lower level.

Definition of Terms

Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation

Conceptually, this term refers to the teachers' kinesic and vocal language behaviors that provide visual, auditory, and tactile sensory input to stimulate adaptive responses in students. In an environment of










dynamic teacher/student interaction, students' adaptive responses further stimulate sensory-integrative feedback processes that are neurophysiologically equivalent to language teaching for teachers, and to language learhing for students. These concepts derive from theories of sensory integration by Ayres (1972b).

Operationally, the term refers to the teachers' kinesic and vocal language behaviors differentiated into (a) gross body movements of the head, trunk, and appendages directed toward students while eye contact is given to at least one student; (b) hand gestures in the form of fingersnaps, pointing movements, acknowledging hand movements or signs, and other gestures made with the hands while eye contact is given to at least one student; (c) use of spoken German; and (d) omission of spoken English. Spoken English is considered to becontraindicated when teaching a foreign language to native English-speaking students. This assumption is supported in the literature by Warriner (1979) who listed the first prerequisite for effective language teaching as "the target language is used almost exclusively by both teacher and student" (p. 51). According to the theory of sensory integration, any information gained by the senses from the English spoken by the teacher constitutes sensory input that stimulates sensory-motor responses for the acquisition of English; and constitutes sensory input that inhibits sensory-motor responses for the learning of German. Thus, the term teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation is operationally defined as the combination of three kinesic and vocal language behaviors-appropriate for foreign language communication effectiveness: (a) gross body movement directed toward students,

(b) hand gestures directed toward students, and (c) spoken German.










Student Foreign Language
Communication Effectiveness

Conceptually, this term refers to the ability to use a foreign

language skillfully in the receptive (reading and listening) and expressive (writing and speaking) modes of verbal communication. Early in the twentieth century, Jesperson (1904) argued that to teach a language is to teach a student to communicate effectively in real-life situations. More recently, this premise has been confirmed in the literature (e.g., Bacheller, 1980; Lapan, 1980; Rassias, 1970, 1972). There is, however, still no consensus on how to test for foreign language communication effectiveness (Oller & Perkins, 1980; Valette, 1977; Woodford, 1980). Jones (1977) argued that "the most neglected skill in language testing is still that of speaking" (p. 243).

Operationally, the term student foreign language communication

effectiveness refers to students' achievements on three component test forms of the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache: (a) the grammatical structure-vocabulary component, (b) the listening comprehension component, and (c) the oral interview or speaking proficiency component. Dynamic Teacher/Student Interaction

Conceptually, this term is used as a substitute for the many concepts of humanistic teaching described in the literature and applied in the field of foreign language education under such rubrics as transactional analysis (Stevick, 1974b) and caring and sharing (Moskowitz, 1978; Stevick, 1974a). As used in this study, the term is antonymous to terms used to describe passive teaching methods, such as the "expository mode" described by Bruner (1962, p. 83).










Operationally, Rassias expects that teachers who "adopt" his

humanistically based communicative techniques will"adapt" them according to the dynamics of their ever-changing environment (Effective Language Teaching, 1972). Thus, the operational definition of the term dynamic teacher/student interaction implies an optimum learning environment of active participation, such as created by teachers who adapt behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model. Model

The term model includes references to the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model and to teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias. Intensive Language Program

Conceptually, this term includes all aspects of the experimental beginning German courses that implement the model in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages at the University of Florida.

Operationally, the term refers to an experimental beginning German program structured as two courses, each of which continues for one 15week semester. Each course requires students to attend four classes and four tutor groups each week for five semester hours of credit. Thus, the term intensive language program implies 120 teacher contact hours and 120 tutor contact hours to complete 10 semester credits and meet foreign language requirements of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Intensive language instructors are faculty members and graduate teaching assistants who use communicative techniques prescribed in the model to teach the four basic language skills. Tutors are students who complete one semester or more of German and meet selection criteria of good










pronunciation and skill in using the basic methodology prescribed by Rassias. Tutors assist teachers and conduct homework sessions for tutor groups composed of 6-12 students. The teaching behaviors of tutors are the same as the teaching behaviors of instructors and are included in the operational definition of the term, teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.


Traditional Language Program

Conceptually, this term includes all aspects of the established beginning German courses as traditionally taught in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages at the University of Florida.

Operationally, the term refers to an established beginning German program structured as three 15-week semesters. In the first semester, students attend classes 4 hours each week for 60 teacher contact hours to complete 4 semester hours of credit. In the second and third semesters, students attend classes 3 hours each week for 45 contact hours and 3 hours of credit each semester. Thus, the term traditional language program implies 150 teacher contact hours to complete 10 semester hours of credit to meet foreign language requirements of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Traditional language teachers are faculty members and graduate teaching assistants who use idiosyncratic methods and standard textbooks to teach the four basic language skills.


Communication

The term communication denotes the system used by all forms of life to share experiences. The essence of communication is said to "lie in the evolution of synergistic interplay between participants










committed to maximizing the efficiency of interchange" (Petrovich & Hess, 1972, p. 19). Within this definition there are neurophysiological implications of human communication's dependence on body movement. According to Key (1977),

human communication is body movement. Movement of the vocal apparatus results in speech, the verbal act, or paralanguage, the nonverbal act. Movement of the muscular and skeletal apparatus results in kinesic communication, another kind of nonverbal act.
(p. 5)


Kinesics

Birdwhistell (1952, p. 3) first used the term kinesics to define body movement as related to the nonverbal aspects of interpersonal communication. In the present study, the terms, kinesic, body language, nonverbal communication, and communicative body movement, are used interchangeably.


Language

Conceptually, language is considered to be a behavioral "tool" that is used by human beings for the purpose of communication (Bruner, 1978, p. viii). Operationally, the term language includes foreign languages. Foreign Language

The term foreign language refers to a language other than a native language. A recent trend in education is to use the term second language to include foreign language and bilingual learning and teaching issues (Richards, 1978).

Limitations

This study was limited to a quasi-experimental design because of the necessity of working within existing classrooms when attempting to










determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on foreign language communication effectiveness. Student selection and assignment to treatment groups was nonrandom; therefore, full experimental control of initial group differences was not feasible. In order to reduce this limitation to internal validity, covariance analysis was used to control statistically for initial group nonequivalences (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Although the use of naturally formed groups might have inferred that the findings in this study could be generalized to similar classroom teaching situations, the self-selection of students into these groups presented a threat to such external validity.

The self-selection of students into (a) intensive and (b) traditional language programs presented a threat to both the internal and external validity of results hypothesized to show no differences between the groups. No effort was made to remove these threats by seeking to identify preexisting differences in the two groups based on personality configurations, learning styles, and other related characteristics. An effort was made to reduce the severity of this limitation by seeking to identify differences between the groups according to previous educational and practical experiences with German. These differences were used as potential covariates to control statistically for initial group inequivalencies that might have been caused by the use of a nonrandomized sample of student subjects.

The inability to measure all possible student behaviors that may indicate student foreign language communication effectiveness presented a further limitation. Listening comprehension, speaking proficiency, and grammatical structure-vocabulary were directly measured










by performance on tests. Specific reading, writing, nonverbal, and paralinguistic skills were not measured because of time and endurance constraints.
Another limitation was imposed by the inability to measure all

possible nonverbal and verbal language teaching behaviors that might provide sensory-motor stimulation for students in an environment of dynamic teacher/student interaction. Facial expressions, voice tones, and a variety of other nonverbal paralinguistic acts were not measured because of constraints of time and measurement instruments.

Prior to the present study, the apparent effectiveness of teaching behaviors used in the experimental intensive German program had begun to influence the behaviors of teachers in the traditional program (Johnston, 1980). Although this influence might have combined with a Hawthorne effect created by the presence of video equipment to record observations of teacher behaviors, such a limitation was not expected to affect the outcome of the study.


Plan of the Dissertation
The statement of the problem and the rationale for the study were presented in the Introduction. Chapter II contains a review of studies related to the state of research in foreign language education and to the concepts and assumptions underlying the theoretical framework of this study. The assumptions, hypotheses, definition of terms, limitations, and plan of the dissertation are also presented in Chapter II. Chapter III contains a description of the procedures used to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. Chapter IV contains






47



results of data analyses and findings from the study. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are presented in Chapter V.














CHAPTER III
PROCEDURE


The present investigation was designed to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. The subjects were 6 instructors, 3 tutors, and 92 students enrolled in the final semester of beginning German courses at the University of Florida. The assumptions to be tested in this study were formulated as statistical hypotheses in Chapter II.

The study was conducted in two phases. The preliminary phase

involved procedures to collect descriptive data to document the actual duration of sensory-motor stimulation directed by two groups of language teachers toward their students. The second phase involved procedures to collect inferential statistical data to (a) document the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in beginning German programs, (b) quantify students' previous educational and practical experiences with German for use as covariate data, (c) quantify students' affective responses to their own ability to communicate in German and to their satisfaction with the efficacy of their courses to promote such abilities, and (d) measure student foreign language communication effectiveness from test scores. This chapter contains descriptions of the subjects, instruments, methods, and analyses used in the two phases of investigation.










The Sample

Phase One: Subjects for Collection of Descriptive Data

The subjects for this phase of the study were three instructors in the intensive language program and three in the traditional language program. Two of the intensive language teachers and two of those in the traditional language program were used because they were the only instructors who taught the final semester of beginning German during 19811982. The one additional intensive language teacher and the one additional traditional teacher were randomly selected from a pool of four teachers, two of whom taught first semester intensive beginning German courses and two who taught first semester traditional beginning German courses during 1981-1982.

Phase Two: Subjects for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data

In addition to the 6 teachers who served as subjects in the first phase of the study, 3 tutors and 92 students were subjects for the second phase. Two of the tutors were randomly selected from a pool of 7 who conducted tutor groups for students enrolled in the final semester of beginning German in the intensive language program. The other tutor was randomly selected from a pool of 6 who conducted first semester tutor groups.

The total number of student subjects originally included 55 intensive language students and 37 traditional language students who were enrolled in 4 sections of the final semester of beginning German, and who were the population who attended during the 14th week of the spring 1981-1982 semester. Bonus points were awarded at the discretion of the










instructors to all students who participated in the study and completed all instrumental procedures to measure communication effectiveness and affective responses. Although no student refused to participate, 4 students in the intensive language program and 5 students in the traditional language program were absent and did not complete all instrumental procedures.

Incomplete data obtained from these students were not used in the statistical analyses, nor were extreme data obtained fromonestudent in the intensive language program. This student reported extensive previous experience with the German language that was reflected in perfect test scores on all three components of the test used to measure student foreign language communication effectiveness. The data used in the statistical analyses, therefore, were obtained from 50 intensive language students and 32 traditional language students.

Instrumentation and Collection of Data Phase One: Instruments for
Collection of Descriptive Data

The instruments used in the first phase of the study included the following standard videotape equipment: a Sony 4200 camera, a Sony 3600 videotape recorder, a 9-inch Sony receiver monitor, 12 one-hour Scotch reel-to-reel videotapes, and an Odetics video timer. Video Behavioral Observation Charts were designed by the investigator to record the durations in seconds that teachers were observed directing four behaviors toward students. A sample page from a Video Behavioral Observation Chart for one teacher is included as Appendix A.










Phase One: Collection of
Descriptive Data

In order to collect data to document the actual duration of

sensory-motor stimulation directed by teachers toward students, teachers were videotaped. Each of 6 teachers selected as subjects was videotaped for a full 50-minute class period twice during one semester. These videotapes were assumed to record a representative sample of kinesic and vocal language teaching behaviors per contact hour.

A video timer signaling 10th-of-second, second, and minute durations was transposed onto each tape as a visual digital clock. From each videotape, four specific teaching behaviors were charted on Video Behavioral Observation Charts. The four behaviors, (1) gross body movement, (2) hand gestures, (3) spoken German, and (3) spoken English were charted for 2,700 seconds (45 minutes) starting with the first words spoken by the instructor to the students. The investigator observed the entire videotape for each teacher and charted 1-second durations for each behavior.

Two independent observers charted one identical 5-minute (300

second) randomly selected segment of four of the videotapes. The seconds counted by the two independent observers were correlated with each other and with the investigator's same 5-minute segment. Interobserver reliability was computed as the rate of agreement (the number of seconds in agreement divided by the total of agreements plus the total of disagreements). At least four interobserver reliability checks with at least 85% agreement for each behavior were made to ensure consistency of observation. According to Huck, Cormier, and Bounds (1974), such interobserver procedures avoid instrumental threats to applied









behavioral analysis designs (pp. 334-335). The interobserver Reliability Charts containing data for two randomly selected intensive language teachers and for two randomly selected traditional language teachers are included as Appendix B. Phase One: Computations of
Descriptive Data

The number of seconds counted for each teaching behavior during a 45-minute period was recorded and totaled on Video Behavioral Observation Charts. The totals on the six charts for the three intensive language teachers were averaged to compute the mean seconds per contact hour for each behavior. The same procedure was followed to compute the mean seconds per contact hour for each behavior by traditional language teachers.

In order to compute the total mean seconds per contact hour of

teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation, the behaviors were made consistent with the operational definition of the term. Thus, this variable was calculated as the total mean seconds of three behaviors: gross body movement directed toward students, hand gestures directed toward students, and spoken German.

Phase Two: Instruments for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data

The instruments used in the second phase of the study included

(a) standard videotape equipment and Video Behavioral Charts, (b) Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Forms, and (c) forms of three components of the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache battery of tests.










Videotape equipment and Video Behavioral Observation Charts. These instruments were the same as those described in the first phase, except that these were used to record teaching behaviors of the three tutor subjects. A sample page from a Video Behavioral Observation Chart for one tutor is included as Appendix C.

Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form. This instrument was designed by the investigator as a 5-item questionnaire to collect data for use as (1) covariates, (2) students' self-assessments of their ability to communicate in German, and (3) students' selfassessments of their satisfaction with courses to provide them with such communication effectiveness.

The first three items were constructed to collect covariate data from students' previous educational and practical experiences with German. The construction of these three items was accomplished through two field tests, using variations of these items with intensive and traditional language students in final semester beginning German classrooms during the fall semester 1981-1982. The responses of these 19 intensive language students and 28 traditional language students were used to improve the reliability of items employed to gather the information needed as covariate data in the present study.

The fourth and fifth items on the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form were designed as rating scales. The Performance Rating Scale and the Satisfaction Rating Scale were constructed according to guidelines for the construction and appropriate use of "numerical, graphic" scales as set forth by Dohner (1974, p. 21). The Performance Rating Scale was constructed with 5 points arranged along a










continuum from excellent (4) to poor (0). The Satisfaction Rating Scale was constructed with 5 points arranged along a continuum from high (4) to low (0). The scales were pilot tested with 19 intensive language students and 28 traditional language students in final semester beginning German courses during fall 1981-1982. Because the perceptions of the student may change over time, the Performance and Satisfaction Rating Scales designed for this study were not considered to be any more or less reliable than other rating scales for these data. A sample copy of the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form is included as Appendix D.

Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache (DaF). Three components of this battery of tests were used to collect data from test scores as measures of student foreign language communication effectiveness. The problem of finding a reliable and valid measure of foreign language communication effectiveness is recognized in the literature (e.g., Brod, 1980; Oiler & Perkins, 1980; Valette, 1977; Woodford, 1980). From a review of such literature, the consensus appeared to be that, except for the oral proficiency interview used by the Foreign Service institute, Americans have no commonly recognized yardstick to measure student ability to communicate in a foreign language. Valette's reference (1980) to the availability and appropriateness of the "Zertifikat" was the basis for selecting the DaF for this study. This decision was reached after consultation with intensive and traditional instructors in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and after securing permission from the authorities at the Goethe Institute, Atlanta, Georgia.

The rationale for including the grammar structure-vocabulary test form of the DaF was considered to be consistent with the inclusion of










grammatical structure-vocabulary exercises in standard textbooks used by teachers in traditional classroom instruction. Students in the traditional group in this study were expected to feel more familiar with a paper and pencil grammar test than with an oral interview test of grammar usage. The inclusion of this component was, therefore, an attempt to allay content validity bias toward the more real-life listening and speaking components.

Listening and speaking test forms of the DaF were included in the total test score because they were believed to be valid performance tests of communication effectiveness in real-life situations. The DaF also includes reading and writing tests that are designed to test these skills in real-life situations. These two test components were not, however, included in the tests administered in the present study because of constraints of time, cost, scoring, and attendant endurance. Moreover, the investigator assumed that elements of reading comprehension were inherent in the listening comprehension and grammar structurevocabulary test forms. These forms required the student to read directions and to choose answers printed on the forms in German.

The reliability and face validity of the DaF as an achievement test for adults are discussed in the manual (Deutscher Volkschochschul-Verband & Goethe-Institut, (1977). In addition, the reliability of the component tests was assured through correspondence with the Goethe Institutes in Atlanta and in MUnich, Germany. According to these sources, the Zertifikat was the result of a cooperative effort between the Goethe Institute, the Association of Educational Institutions for Adults in the Federal Republic of Germany, and the










Association of Educational Institutions for Adults of Switzerland to certify communication proficiency in basic German. The test batteries were prepared in Germany where item analysis was used to determine the adequacy of items to discriminate between the better and poorer students who took draft versions of the components in at least seven different schools.

Phase Two: Collection of Inferential Statistical Data

Computation of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation levels.

In order to convert the total mean seconds per contact hour of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation to the levels that comprised the statistics for the independent variable, the total mean seconds were multiplied by contact hours per (a) the intensive and (b) the traditional language program. Contact hours per program were calculated by multiplying the number of class periods per week by the number of weeks per semester, then adding these contact hours per semester according to the number of semesters required to complete each program. In the case of the traditional language program, the calculations for the first semester were made by multiplying 4 hours per week by 15 weeks to obtain 60 contact hours for the first semester. Contact hours for the second and third semesters were each calculated as 3 hours per week multiplied by 15 weeks to obtain a product of 45 contact hours each. The addition of the calculated contact hours for the three semesters provided the sum of 150 contact hours for the traditional language program.










In the case of the intensive language program, calculations for the two required semesters each involved 4 hours per week of classes and 4 hours per week of tutor groups for a total of 240 contact hours. The mean seconds per contact hour of kinesic and vocal language behaviors by tutors were computed in a similar manner to that used to compile data on teacher behaviors during the first phase. Three tutor subjects were each videotaped while conducting a tutor group once during the semester so as to collect a sample of behaviors by tutors. The mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation were computed and tabulated for use in computing the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in the intensive language program.

Collection and computation of covariate data. In order to collect quantifiable data on students' previous experiences with German, the investigator distributed the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form to the student subjects. The first three items on this questionnaire pertained to covariate data.

Students reported on the first item previous beginning German

courses taken at the University of Florida. This information was combined with data indicating current course status, and values of 1.5 and 1.0 weighted to intensive and traditional courses, respectively. The rationale for these weightings was based on the requirement of two intensive language courses and the requirement of three traditional language courses each for 10 semester hours. The resulting calculations for each student were designated as covariate 1 (COVI).









Respondents reported on the second item previous German courses

taken at schools other than the University of Florida. These data were quantified as school years. A school year was defined as two quarters or semesters at the postsecondary level or one September-June year at the K-12 level. Each student received a calculated score in terms of full, partial,or nil school years, designatedas:covariate 2 (COV2).

Respondents reported on the third item previous hearing and speaking experiences with the German language outside of formal schooling. These data were quantified in terms of calendar months, calculated as quarter-years, and weighted differently according to where the student had the experience. One quarter-year of experience with hearing German within Germany was weighted by a factor of 2, whereas one quarter-year of experience with hearing German outside of Germany was weighted by a factor of 1. One quarter-year of experience with speaking German within Germany was weighted by a factor of 3, whereas one quarter-year of experience with speaking German outside of Germany was weighted by a factor of 2. These weightings were consistent with findings in the foreign language literature (e.g., Balke, 1980; Brod, 1980; Keilstrup, 1981; Thiel, 1980) that suggested the value of experiencing a language in its native context. Each student received a calculated quarteryear score that was designated as covariate 3 (COV3).

Collection of test score data. In order to collect data on student foreign language communication effectiveness, three components of the battery of tests comprising the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache (DaF) were administered to all student subjects during the 14th week of classes at the end of the 1982 spring semester.










The investigator administered the grammatical structure-vocabulary component during regularly scheduled class periods of the two intensive and the two traditional beginning German classes that comprised the experimental and control groups in this study. The listening comprehension component was administered in the language lab by the investigator and by the language lab director together during four class periods in order to accommodate all student subjects. The speaking component was administered during individually scheduled 5-minute periods throughout the week. Native-German speaking interviewers administered the speaking component at the same time as the investigator videotaped the interviews for scoring at a later date by an independent scorer. Four statistically reliable variations of this "Communication in Everyday Situations" part of the DaF were alternated during the administration.

Scoring procedures were accomplished according to instructions in the DaF manual (Deutscher Volkschochschul-Verband & Goethe-Institut, 1977). Scoring of the grammatical structure-vocabulary and the listening comprehension components was accomplished by using a National Computor System scanner. The speaking component was scored by the nativeGerman speaking teacher who taught German at a local high school. This teacher independently viewed the videotapes and rated each student subject according to instructions in the DaF manual.

The 82 students who completed all three test components received

(a) a grammar structure-vocabulary score designated as GRAM, (b) a listening comprehension score designated-as HEAR, Cc) a speaking proficiency score designated as SPEAK, and (d) a total score comprising the three










component scores and designated as TOT. The component scores were each given equal weight (30 points) in computing a maximum total test score of 90 points.
Collection of data from rating scales. The fourth and fifth items of the questionnaire distributed to student subjects were designed as rating scales. The fourth item was a Performance Rating Scale designed to collect information about the student's self-assessed ability to use the German language. Each student assigned values ranging from 4 (excellent) to 0 (poor) to each of the four language skills.

The fifth item of the questionnaire was designed as a Satisfaction Rating Scale to collect information about students' satisfaction with intensive and traditional language courses at the University of Florida. Each student assigned a value ranging from 4 (high)to 0 (low) to current and previous courses.


Analyses
The analyses of data were completed in two phases. Data collected in the first phase were tabulated and described. Data collected in the second phase were subjected to inferential statistical analyses.


Phase One: Descriptive Data Analyses
The preliminary phase of this investigation involved descriptive data. The previously defined kinesic and vocal language behaviors were systematically observed, recorded,and counted in an attempt to document their character and duration in seconds per contact hour. Collected data were tabulated and used to test the first null hypothesis. These data were also used to establish the levels of teacher-directed










sensory-motor stimulation that were the independent variable for the second phase of the investigation.


Phase Two: Inferential Statistical Analyses

The design for testing the second null hypothesis was a nonequivalent control group design, described by Campbell and Stanley (1963) as a quasi-experimental design, and is represented as Y1 Xl Y2

Y l X2 Y2

Three potential pretest measures were identified as COVI, COV2, and COV3 to represent (a) previous beginning German courses taken at the University of Florida, (b) previous educational experience with German in schools other than the University of Florida, and (c) previous practical experience with German. The dependent variable was defined as the posttest measures of student foreign language communication effectiveness which were identified as GRAM, HEAR, SPEAK, and TOT representing test scores on three components of the DaF and the total test score for each student subject. The treatment or independent variable was defined as the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation measured as the total mean seconds of gross body movement, hand gestures, and spoken German directed toward students in 240 contact hours in the intensive language program and 150 contact hours in the traditional language program. The experimental group (Group INT) was comprised of 50 students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. The control group (Group TRAD) was comprised of 32 students who were provided a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.










Data collected from the two groups were subjected to an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to test for differences in foreign language communication effectiveness between the two groups. ANCOVA was used because of its ability to reduce error in the dependent variable by partialing out the effects of differences between the groups according to the pretest covariate measures.

Prior to using ANCOVA to test the second null hypothesis, the

Pearson product-moment correlation procedure was used to test the significance of the correlations between the covariates and the dependent variable.

The third and fourth hypotheses were designed to test the differences in affective responses between (a) students in the experimental and (b) students in the control group. In both these hypotheses, the variable, level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation, was measured as the total mean seconds of gross body movement, hand gestures, and spoken German directed toward students in 240 contact hours in the intensive language program and 150 contact hours in the traditional language program. Self-assessed ratings on four language skills comprised the variables measured by values on the Performance Rating Scale. Course satisfaction ratings were the variables measured by the combined values of current and previous intensive traditional language courses taken at the University of Florida as marked on the Satisfaction Rating Scale. The data for these variables were analyzed as frequencies in contingency tables. Independent chi-square tests were used to test the significance of differences in ratings between the (a) experimental and

(b) control groups.






63



The Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute Incorporated, 1979) was used in conjunction with computer facilities at the Northeast Regional Data Center to analyze data collected in this second phase of the study. The level of significance selected to test the hypotheses was alpha < .05. Results of the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses performed in the two phases of this study are presented in Chapter IV.














CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS


The specific purpose of this investigation of neurophysiological

implications for language learning identified in teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model was to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on foreign language communication effectiveness. Data resulting from two procedural phases of the study are presented, and findings are discussed in the present chapter.


Results of Descriptive Data Analyses

The purpose of the preliminary phase of the study was to document the actual number of seconds per contact hour that teachers directed sensory-motor stimulation to students in the intensive and the traditional beginning German programs at the University of Florida. Subjects for this phase of the study were three intensive and three traditional language teachers. Twelve videotapes of teacher behaviors were observed to record and count seconds per contact hour of four previously defined behaviors. Confidence in the reliability of these counts was strengthened through interobserver reliability procedures. Data from interobserver Reliability Charts are summarized in Table 1.

The data in Table 1 indicate that the rate of agreement per

behavior was high enough (above 85%) to justify the reliability of the investigator's counts for the six language teacher subjects.










Table 1

Summary of Interobserver Reliability Data


Rate of agreement per behavior

Gross body Spoken Spoken movement Gestures German English Language teacher (300 sec.) (300 sec.) (300 sec.) (300 sec.) Intensive teacher A 90% 92% 86% 100% Intensive teacher B 90 96 98 100 Traditional teacher A 96 98 97 97 Traditional teacher B 98 95 97 94



Data presented in Table 2 are the results of the investigator's

observations and counts of seconds per contact hour of kinesic and vocal language behaviors of intensive and traditional language teachers. These data were used to test the subsections of the first null hypothesis.


Null Hypothesis la

The mean seconds per contact hour of gross body movement directed toward students by instructors who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

Inspection of Table 2 indicates that the magnitude of difference

between the mean seconds per contact hour of gross body movement by intensive language teachers (1473.50) and the traditional language teachers (297.83; revised at 260.60) appears to be enough to reject Null Hypothesis la. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed more gross body movement toward students than did traditional language teachers.










Table 2

Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language
Behaviors by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers


Behavior

Gross body Hand Spoken Spoken movement gestures German English Language teachers Day (seconds) (seconds) (seconds) (seconds)


Intensive

Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C


Total Mean


Traditional

Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C


Total Mean

Revised total Revised mean


1026 1120 1831 1366 1683 1815

8841


1473.50


72 121 413 484b 260 437 1787 297.83


1303


260.60


1753 1189 1729 1335 1209 1159 8374 1395.67


1493 1472 1648 2042

1501 1315

9471


1578.50


317 202


872 b
1029


514 447 3381 563.50 2352 470.40


422 514 3867 644.50 2035 407.00


2.33


1779 2014

1556 1 58b


923
514 6944 1157.33 6786 1357.20


aDay 2 for Teacher B was atypical. Teacher B admitted to varying
from usual teaching methods on day 2 by singing and lecturing dramatically in German for at least 40 minutes.
bThese data were omitted in computations of the revised total and the revised mean.










Null Hypothesis lb

The mean seconds per contact hour of hand gestures directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

Inspection of Table 2 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of hand gestures by intensive language teachers (1395.67) and traditional language teachers (563.50; revised at 470.40) appears to be great enough to reject Null Hypothesis lb. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed more hand gestures toward students than did traditional language teachers.


Null Hypothesis lc

The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken German directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by teachers using traditional language instruction.

Table 2 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of spoken German by intensive language teachers (1578.50) and traditional language teachers (644.50; revised at 407.00) appears to be great enough to reject Null Hypothesis 1c. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed more spoken German toward students than did traditional language teachers.


Null Hypothesis ld

The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken English directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.










According to Table 2, the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of spoken English by intensive language teachers (2.33) and traditional language teachers (1157.33; revised at 1357.20) appears to be great enough to reject Null Hypothesis Id. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed less spoken English toward students than did traditional language teachers.

Data presented in Table 3 represent the total mean seconds per

contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation by intensive and traditional language teachers. These data were used to test the main section of the first null hypothesis.


Table 3

Total Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Teacher-Directed
Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers


Teacher-directed Language teachers sensory-motor
stimulation Intensive Traditionala


Gross body movement
(mean seconds) 1473.50 260.60 Hand gestures
(mean seconds) 1395.67 470.40 Spoken German 1578.50 407.00 (mean seconds)

Total mean 4447.67 1138.00

aRevised mean seconds per contact hour were used to calculate the total mean seconds per contact hour by traditional language teachers. The unrevised total mean calculated at 1505.83 was considered erroneous because of inclusion of extreme raw data reported in Table 2.










Null Hypothesis 1

The total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed

sensory-motor stimulation provided by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the total mean provided by traditional language teachers.

Inspection of Table 3 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided by intensive language teachers (4447.67) and traditional language teachers (1138.00) is great enough to reject Null Hypothesis 1. Teachers who used the intensive language model provided more teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than did traditional language teachers.

In addition to data collected for the six teachers in the intensive and traditional beginning German programs, data compiled from the Video Behavioral Observation Charts of three tutors were included in the computations to establish the level of teacher-directed sensory motor stimulation used as the independent variable in the second procedural phase of the study. Table 4 contains data on tutor behaviors.

The total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation by tutors is reported in Table 5.

Table 6 shows the levels of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in the intensive and traditional language programs.

Inspection of Table 6 indicates that a higher level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation is provided for students in the intensive language program than in the traditional language program. These higher and lower levels were used as the treatment or independent










variable in the quasi-experimentally designed test of the second null hypothesis.

Table 4

Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language Behaviors by Tutors Behavior

Gross body Hand Spoken Spoken
movement gestures German English Tutors (seconds) (seconds) (seconds) (seconds) Tutor A 1505 1006 l13 0 Tutor B 862 1230 1234 4 Tutor C 1323 897 973 2


Total 3690.00 3133.00 3320.00 6 Mean 1230.00 1044.33 1106.67 2



Table 5

Total Mean Seconds of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Tutors


Teacher-directed sensory-motor
stimulation Tutors Gross body movement
(mean seconds) 1230.00 Hand gestures
(mean seconds) 1044.33 Spoken German 1106.67 (mean seconds)

Total 3381.00









Table 6


Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation Provided for Students
in Intensive and Traditional Language Programs


Language programs

Intensive Traditional Teacher-directed
sensory-motor Total mean Contact Total mean Contact stimulation seconds hours Product seconds hours Product


Teacher 4447.67 x 120 = 533720.40 1138.00 x 150 : 170700.00


Tutor 3381.00 x 120 = 405720.00


Level 939440.40 170700.00











Results of Inferential Statistical Analyses

The second phase of the study involved the use of covariance

analysis of test score data and chi-square analysis of rating scale data. Subjects for this phase were 50 students in the intensive language program and 32 students in the traditional language program. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) Results

Prior to testing the second null hypothesis with ANCOVA, the potential covariates (COVI, COV2, COV3) were correlated (alpha < .05) with the dependent variable or posttest measure, TOT. The results of Pearson product moment procedures showed COV2 to be the most highly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of .28 significance at the alpha < .01 level. The other covariates were dropped because of lack of significant correlations at the alpha < .05 level. The second covariate (COV2) was kept as a pretest measure of previous educational experience with German at schools other than the University of Florida to covary with the posttest measures.

Tests of the homogeneity of slopes (alpha < .05) were also performed. No significant interaction was found between the covariate, COV2, and total test scores, TOT, or between COV2 and any of the component test scores (GRAM, HEAR, SPEAK). With the assumption of homogeneity of slopes met, ANCOVA was used to test the second main null hypothesis and the three subsections of the second null hypothesis. The 50 subjects in the intensive language program were the experimental group provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor










stimulation (Group INT). The 32 subjects in the traditional language program were the control group provided a lower level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation (Group TRAD). The results of the analyses (alpha 5 .05) of the test score data, adjusted for unequal Ns and adjusted according to the covariate to control for initial differences between the groups, are reported in Tables 7 through 14.

Tables 7 and 8 reflect the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean foreign language communication total test score.


Table 7

Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level
of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation
on the Mean Foreign Language Communication Total Test Score


Source df SS MS F


Previous educational
experience (COV2) 1 2365.31 2365.31 18.07* Level of stimulation
(Group) 1 6556.88 6556.88 50.09*


Error 79 10341.73 130.91
*Significant at alpha 5 .0001.


Table 8 presents the adjusted least squares means for foreign language communication total scores for students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation and those provided a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.











Table 8

Adjusted Least Squares Means for Foreign Language Communication Total Test Scores



Group TOT



INT 60.80 TRAD 42.31


Null Hypothesis 2. The mean foreign language communication test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

Inspection of Table 7 indicates that the F ratio of 50.09 was

statistically significant (alpha S .05) for difference between the groups. Therefore, the second main null hypothesis is rejected. As indicated by the means listed in Table 8, students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean foreign language communication total test score.

Tables 9 and 10 contain the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean grammar structure-vocabulary test scores.










Table 9

Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Grammar Structure-Vocabulary Test Score


Source df SS MS F Previous educational
experience (COV2) 1 98.94 98.94 7.63* Level of stimulation
(Group) 1 239.40 239.40 18.46** Error 79 1024.30 12.95


*Significant at alpha < .01.
**Significant at alpha 5 .0001.


Table 10 presents the adjusted least squares means for grammar

structure-vocabulary test scores for students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation and those provided a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.




Table 10
Adjusted Least Squares Means for Grammar Structure-Vocabulary Test Scores


Group GRAM


INT 14.76 TRAD 11.22










Null Hypothesis 2a. The mean grammatical structure-vocabulary test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

Inspection of Table 9 indicates that the F ratio of 18.46 was statistically significant (alpha 5 .05) for differences between the groups. Therefore, the first subsection of the second hypothesis is rejected. According to means listed in Table 10, students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean grammatical structure-vocabulary test score.

Tables 11 and 12 contain the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean student listening comprehension test score.



Table 11

Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of
Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation
on Mean Listening Comprehension Test Score


Source df SS MS F


Previous educational
experience (COV2) 1 232.76 232.76 8.89* Level of stimulation
(Group) 1 557.51 557.51 21.30** Error 79 2067.39 26.17

*Significant at alpha : .01.
**Significant at alpha < .0001.










Table 12 contains the adjusted least squares means for listening comprehension test scores for students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation and those provided a lower level of such stimulation.


Table 12

Adjusted Least Squares Means for Listening Comprehension Test Scores by Groups



Group HEAR


INT 21.30 TRAD 15.91


Null Hypothesis 2b. The mean listening comprehension score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

Inspection of Table 11 indicates that the F ratio of 21.30 was

statistically significant (alpha < .05) for differences between groups. Therefore, the second subsection of the second hypothesis is rejected. The means listed in Table 12 show that students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean listening comprehension test score.

Tables 13 and 14 represent the covariance analysis results for

the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean student speaking proficiency test score.










Table 13

Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Speaking Proficiency Test Score


Source df SS MS F


Previous educational experience (COV2) Level of stimulation (Group)


Error


511.58 1819.78 3053.09


511.58 1819.78


13.24* 47.09**


38.65


*Significance at
**Significance at


alpha < .01. alpha < .0001.


Table 14 reflects the adjusted least squares means for student

speaking proficiency test scores for students who are provided a higher and a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.



Table 14

Adjusted Least Squares Means for Speaking Proficiency Test Scores


Group SPEAK


INT 24.93 TRAD 15.19










Null Hypothesis 2c. The mean speaking proficiency test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level.

Inspection of Table 13 indicates that the F ratio of 47.09 was statistically significant (alpha < .05) for differences between the groups. Therefore, the third subsection of the second null hypothesis is rejected. The means listed in Table 14 show that students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean speaking proficiency test score. Independent Chi-Square Test Results

In order to test for significant (alpha .05) differences between groups in the third and fourth null hypotheses, data from rating scales were analyzed as frequencies in contingency tables. The 50 subjects in the intensive language program who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation were designated as Group INT. The 32 subjects in the traditional language program provided a lower level were designated as Group TRAD. These two groups constituted one variable in the 2 x 5 contingency tables used originally. The other variables were (a) self-assessed ability to use the German language as measured by 5 points on the Performance Rating Scale and (b) course satisfaction as measured by 5 points on the Satisfaction Rating Scale. Both rating scales are items on the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form included as Appendix D.

Collapsed Variables. Initial chi-square analyses were done with the original 5-point variables; however, in order to reduce the number










of low frequency cells, subsequent analyses reported in Tables 15 through 19 were done with collapsed variables. Points on the Performance Rating Scales with values above 2 were collapsed to a value of 3 and points with values below 2 were collapsed to a value of 1 in the 2 x 3 contingency tables used to test the third hypothesis. The combined points of previous and current course satisfaction ratings in the

2 x 3 contingency tables used to test the fourth hypothesis were collapsed as follows: (a) combined points with values above 5 were collapsed to a value of 3; (b) combined points with values of 3, 4, or 5 were collapsed to a value of 2; (c) combined points with values below

3 were collapsed to a value of 1.

Null Hypothesis 3a. The self-assessed reading comprehension ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

Table 15 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3a arranged in a 2 x 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD.

Inspection of Table 15 indicates that the chi-square value of .345 was not statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 3a is not rejected on the basis of the frequency with which the two groups of students self-assessed their reading comprehension skills according to three nominal ratings.

Null Hypothesis 3b. The self-assessed listening comprehension ratings of students who are provided higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.










Table 15

Self-Assessed Reading Comprehension Ratings by Student Groups


Self-assessed reading comprehension rating Poor Fair Excellent Student group 1 2 3


INT

Frequency 2 20 28 Percent 2.44 24.39 34.15 Row percent 4.00 40.00 56.00 Column percent 66.67 64.52 58.33


TRAD

Frequency 1 11 20 Percent 1.22 13.41 24.39 Row percent 3.13 34.33 62.50 Column percent 33.33 35.48 41.67


Chi square = 0.345*


*Alpha .8416.



Table 16 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3b arranged in a 2 x 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD.

Inspection of Table 16 indicates that the chi-square value of

3.435 was not statistically significant at alpha .05. Therefore Null Hypothesis 3b is not rejected on the basis of the frequencies with which










Table 16

Self-Asssessed Listening Comprehension Ratings
by Student Groups


Student group


Frequency

Percent

Row percent

Column percent TRAD

Frequency

Percent

Row percent

Column percent Chi square = 3.435*


Self-assessed listening comprehension rating
Poor Fair Excellent
1 2 3


3

3.66

6.00 42.86


15

18.29 30.00

51.72


4

4.88

12.50

57.14


32

39.02 64.00

69.57


14

17.07 43.75 48.28


14

17.07 43.75 30.43


*Alpha 5 .1795.










the two groups of students self-assessed their listening comprehension skills according to three nominal ratings.

Null Hypothesis 3c. The self-assessed writing proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

Table 17 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3c arranged in a 2 x 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD.

Inspection of Table 17 indicates that the chi-square value of

5.329 was not statistically significant at alpha:5.05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 3c is not rejected on the basis of the frequencies with which the two groups of students self-assessed their writing skills according to three nominal ratings.

Null Hypothesis 3d. The self-assessed speaking proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

Table 18 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3d arranged in a 2 x 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD.

Inspection of Table 18 indicates that the chi-square value of 9.254 was statistically significant at alpha 5 .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 3d is rejected. Students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation self-assessed their speaking proficiency higher than did students provided a lower level.











Table 17

Self-Assessed Writing Proficiency Ratings
by Student Groups


Student group


Frequency

Percent

Row percent

Column percent TRAD

Frequency

Percent

Row percent

Column percent Chi square = 5.329*


Self-assessed writing proficiency rating

Poor Fair Excellent
1 2 3


20

24.39 40.00 50.00


11

13.41 22.00 84.62


2

2.44 6.25

15.38


20

24.39 62.50 50.00


19

23.17 38.00

65.52


10
12.20 31.25 34.48


*Alpha < .0696.











Table 18

Self-Assessed Speaking Proficiency Ratings by Student Groups


Self-assessed speaking proficienty rating Poor Fair Excellent Student group 1 2 3


INT

Frequency 8 13 29

Percent 9.76 15.85 35.37 Row percent 16.00 26.00 58.00 Column percent 40.00 52.00 78.38 TRAD

Frequency 12 12 8

Percent 14.63 14.63 9.76 Row percent 37.50 37.50 25.00 Column percent 60.00 48.00 21.62 Chi square = 9.254*


*Alpha < .0098.




Null Hypothesis 4. The course satisfaction ratings of students who provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students who are provided a lower level.










Table 19 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 4 arranged in a 2 x 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD.



Table 19

Foreign Language Course Satisfaction Ratings by Student Groups


Course satisfaction rating

Low Moderate High Student group 1 2 3


INT

Frequency 2 5 43

Percent 2.44 6.10 52.44 Row percent 4.00 10.00 86.00 Column percent 33.33 26.32 75.44 TRAD

Frequency 4 14 14

Percent 4.88 17.07 17.07 Row percent 12.50 43.75 43.75 Column percent 66.67 73.68 24.56 Chi square = 16.529*


*Alpha < .0003.










Inspection of Table 19 indicates that the chi-square value of 16.529 was statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 4 is rejected. Students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation rated their satisfaction with foreign language courses higher than did students provided a lower level.

Discussion of Descriptive Findings

In the preliminary phase of this study, the investigator sought

documentation for the character and duration of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation provided for students in the intensive and traditional beginning German programs at the University of Florida. Twelve videotapes provided a means of charting and counting durations of four welldefined kinesic and vocal language behaviors that constituted the operational definition of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. The subjects were six teachers conducting two 50-minute classes each. Rejection of Null Hypotheses la, lb, 1c, and id

The results of counting seconds per contact hour for each of four well-defined kinesic and vocal language behaviors showed that teachers who used the intensive language model directed (a) 5.62 times as many seconds of gross body movement, (b) 2.97 times as many seconds of hand gestures, and (c) 3.88 times as many seconds of spoken German toward students as did traditional language teachers during each contact hour. Traditional language teachers directed 582.49 times as many seconds of spoken English toward students as did intensive language teachers during each contact hour.










These quantitative findings were consistent with qualitative findings described in the literature by Byrd (1980), Johnston (1980), and Rassias (1970) and with informal observations made by the investigator in beginning German classes during 1980-1982. Instructors who used the intensive language model spent high levels of energy in attempting to create optimum learning environments of dynamic teacher/student interaction. These teachers were constantly moving about the classroom, usually using a choreographed rhythm and pace of verbal and nonverbal cues prescribed by Rassias to reduce inhibitions to communication. The cues were in the form of chorals, finger-snaps, pointing gestures, acknowledging expressions, and large body movements on three axes of movement directed toward student-side to side, up and down, and back to front. The omission of spoken English prescribed by Rassias and noted during observations in intensive language classrooms was confirmed by the finding that only 14 seconds of English were spoken in the total of 16,200 seconds counted for teachers who used the intensive language program. This finding contrasted sharply with the finding that the traditional language teachers spoke English 50% of the counted time.

Except in one case (traditional teacher B, day 2), the six teacher subjects behaved as they had been observed informally by the investigator, in a manner students agreed was usual behavior during the entire semester. On the second day of videotaping, traditional teacher B departed from normal teaching behavior and from the scheduled grammar lesson by substituting a dramatic lecture about East Germany, including the singing of its national anthem in German. This admittedly atypical behavior was verified by students who commented verbally and










in writing on the Foreign Language Student Data Sheet and Rating Form to inform the investigator of an increase in the activity of the teacher when observed or videotaped. The extreme data from this teacher's Video Behavioral Observation Chart were deleted from the data used in this study. Had these data been included, however, the results would have been the same with respect to the rejection of the first null hypotheses.


Rejection of Null Hypothesis 1

The rejection of the main section of the first null hypothesis

indicated that instructors who use the intensive language model provide more teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than do traditional language teachers. This descriptive finding was consistent with quantitative findings from the rejection of the first subsectional null hypotheses. One of the assumptions of this study was that teachers direct sensory-motor stimulation toward students via their gross body movements, hand gestures, and vocalizations. It was further assumed in this study that these teaching behaviors have neurophysiological implications for learning to communicate in a language.

Although the neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors

are not addressed as such, comments made by Rassias in the film Effective Language Teaching (1972) reflect such implications for teaching and learning through multisensory stimulation and sensory-integrative brain processes. Rassias greets teachers who attend workshops with the statement that they will have their vitality and enthusiasm judged by their "ability to meet the class and to flow with it and get out of it maximum performance." He emphasizes the need for reality and for commitment




Full Text

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TOWARD A THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING: SENSORY INTEGRATION IMPLICATIONS OF THE DARTMOUTH INTENSIVE LANGUAGE MODEL BY FLORENCE L. WALTERS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1982

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Copyright 1982 by Florence L. Walters

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people gave their time and support to the development of this study. Dr. Margaret Morgan, chairman of my doctoral committee, deserves my sincere appreciation for guiding my graduate education. I am grateful for the exceptional editorial skills and critical appraisals she applied to this dissertation. I offer heartfelt thanks to Professor Emeritus Dora Hicks for sharing hard-won time with me and for invaluable help as a committee member. My appreciation goes to Dr. James Hensel for serving on my committee and for answering my questions, both in class and out. Dr. Helga Kraft, director of the intensive language program at the University of Florida, served as a model of courage and creativity, and provided an open door to the hard-working, enthusiastic, and helpful students, tutors, graduate teaching assistants, faculty, and secretary in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages. Throughout the past twenty years, Kay Sieg, acting chairman of the Department of Occupational Therapy, provided personal and professional assistance toward the development of sensory integration theories expressed in this dissertation. I wish to convey special acknowledgment to Dr. Lei a Llorens, chairman of the Department of Occupational Therapy from 1976 to 1982. She provided a luminous path for research. Jim Flavin, television producer-director. Office of Instructional Resources, University of Florida, helped to perfect my videotaping i i i

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skills. Professor Raymond Johnson, director of the electronics communications laboratory, and Annette Lang, recipient of a fellowship to the University of Tubingen, Germany, are due special thanks for their assistance as "interobservers." I am also indebted to Carla Chesser, teacher of German, for the many hours she spent evaluating videotapes of student performances on the oral interview component of the "Zertifikat." I thank Dr. Stephen Olejnik, assistant professor. Foundations of Education, for making statistics not only understandable but enjoyable. I would also like to recognize the voluntary contributions of Dr. Norman Markel, professor of speech, psychology, and anthropology. His spirited encouragement and acknowledgment of the possibilities of communicative body movements sustained my work. My warmest appreciation goes to my friends, the Delonys, the Johnsons, the Wessels, Mary Heisler, and Earl Blekking, for their gentle support and encouragement. Finally, I wish my children, Carolyn Kolar, Nancy Pollock, William Walters, and Cynthia Padgett, to know that their daily gifts of love were a source of support throughout this endeavor. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii LIST OF TABLES ^^^^ ABSTRACT ^ CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Need for the Study 1 Rationale for the Study 3 Dartmouth Intensive Language Model 3 Neurophysiological Implications of the Model .... 5 Observation and Analysis of the Model 7 II. BACKGROUND LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 10 Review of Literature in Foreign Language Education ... 10 Empirical Studies of Language Learning 12 Second Language Learner-Teacher Interaction Models . . 13 Neurophysiological ly Oriented Studies of Language Learning 17 Review of Studies Related to Underlying Concepts and Assumptions 18 Supportive Studies from Anthropology 20 Supportive Studies from Linguistics 21 Supportive Studies from the Bio-Behavioral Sciences . 23 Supportive Studies from the Neurosciences 25 Supportive Studies from Psychology 27 Supportive Studies from Education 28 Supportive Studies from Occupational Therapy 32 Summary of Supportive Studies 34 Theoretical Framework of the Study 34 Assumptions of the Study 35 Hypotheses 37 Definition of Terms 39 Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation 39 Student Foreign Language Communication Effectiveness . 41 Dynamic Teacher/Student Interaction 41 Model 42 Intensive Language Program 42 Traditional Language Program 43 V

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Page Communication 43 Kinesics 44 Language 44 Foreign Language 44 Limitations 44 Plan of the Dissertation 46 III. PROCEDURE 48 The Sample 49 Phase One: Subjects for Collection of Descriptive Data 49 Phase Two: Subjects for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data 49 Instrumentation and Collection of Data 50 Phase One: Instruments for Collection of Descriptive Data 50 Phase One: Collection of Descriptive Data 51 Phase One: Computations of Descriptive Data .... 52 Phase Two: Instruments for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data 52 Phase Two: Collection of Inferential Statistical Data 56 Analyses 60 Phase One: Descriptive Data Analyses 60 Phase Two: Inferential Statistical Analyses .... 61 IV. FINDINGS 64 Results of Descriptive Data Analyses 64 Null Hypothesis la 65 Null Hypothesis lb 67 Null Hypothesis Ic 67 Null Hypothesis Id 67 Null Hypothesis 1 69 Results of Inferential Statistical Analysis 72 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) Results 72 Independent Chi-Square Test Results 79 Discussion of Descriptive Findings 87 Rejection of Null Hypotheses la, lb, Ic, and Id . . 87 Rejection of Null Hypothesis 1 89 Discussion of Inferential Statistical Findings .... 91 Rejection of Null Hypotheses 2, 2a, 2b, and 2c .. . 92 Failure to Reject Null Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c . . 93 Rejection of Null Hypothesis 3d 94 Rejection of Null Hypothesis 4 95 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 98 Conclusions 98 Recommendations 100 vi

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Page REFERENCES 106 APPENDIX A. SAMPLE PAGE FROM VIDEO BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION CHART FOR ONE TEACHER 120 B. INTEROBSERVER RELIABILITY CHARTS .... 123 C. SAMPLE PAGE FROM VIDEO BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION CHART FOR ONE TUTOR 126 D. STUDENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE DATA SHEET AND RATING FORM .... 129 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 132 Vli

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LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Summary of Interobserver Reliability Data 65 2. Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language Behaviors by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers . . 66 3. Total Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers 68 4. Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language Behaviors by Tutors 70 5. Total Mean Seconds of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Tutors 70 6. Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation Provided for Students in Intensive and Traditional Language Programs 71 7. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Foreign Language Communication Total Test Score 73 8. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Foreign Language Communication Total Test Scores 74 9. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Grammar Structure-Vocabulary Test Score 75 10. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Grammar StructureVocabulary Test Scores 75 11. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on Mean Listening Comprehension Test Score 76 12. Adjusted Least Squares Means for Listening Comprehension Test Scores by Groups 77 13. Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Speaking Proficiency Test Score 78 viii

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Table Page 14. AdjustEd Least Squares Means for Speaking Proficiency Test Scores 15. Self-Assessed Reading Comprehension Ratings by Student Groups • 81 16. Self-Assessed Listening Comprehension Ratings by Student Groups 82 17. Self-Assessed Writing Proficiency Ratings by Student Groups 84 18. Self-Assessed Speaking Proficiency Ratings by Student Groups 85 19. Foreign Language Course Satisfaction Ratings by Student Groups 86 ix

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy TOWARD A THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING: SENSORY INTEGRATION IMPLICATIONS OF THE DARTMOUTH INTENSIVE LANGUAGE MODEL By Florence L. Walters December 1982 Chairman: Margaret K. Morgan Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction Concern for the current need for research in foreign language education to reverse American monol inguistic tendencies prompted this study. It was designed to determine if neurophysiological implications of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model could provide a basis for more effective language teaching. The apparent effectiveness of teaching behaviors prescribed in the model was observed and analyzed in university beginning German classrooms. A review of related studies supported assumptions of relationships between Ayres's sensory integration theories and Rassias's emphasis on the teacher as transmitter of effective foreign language communication. The theory that teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation facilitates student foreign language communication effectiveness was tested in two procedural phases. In the preliminary stage, descriptive data collected from 12 videotapes documented that whereas instructors who used the intensive X

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language model provided students with 4447.67 total mean seconds per contact hour of stimulation via gross body movement, hand gestures, and vocalized German, traditional language instructors provided 1138.00 seconds of such stimulation. In the second phase, differences in achieving levels of two groups of students on grammar, listening comprehension, and speaking tests were analyzed with inferential statistics. Students provided higher levels of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved significantly (alpha < .0001) higher test scores. Significantly (alpha < .01) greater percentages of students who were provided higher levels of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation rated their German-speaking skills "excellent" and their satisfaction with beginning German courses "high" than did students provided lower levels. Findings suggested that neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias could provide a basis for more effective language teaching. Further research was recommended to reduce internal validity and general izability limitations caused by nonrandomization. Studies are needed, not only in foreign language education, but in other aspects of education, to test the coherence of the theory that learning is a by-product of students' adaptive responses to sensory-motor stimulation provided by the kinesic and vocal language behaviors of teachers in an environment of dynamic teacher/student interaction. x1

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The geographical location of the United States has long shielded Americans from the necessity of learning foreign languages. However, in today's shrinking world, where people of different nationalities are in close and constant contact, those who lack facility with foreign languages are culturally disadvantaged. Traditional instruction in foreign languages has been of limited value in reversing American monol inguistic tendencies. But as global changes have compelled a reversal of these tendencies, educators have had to learn how language learning can be facilitated and how to develop more effective teaching behaviors. This study was designed to determine if the neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model could provide instructors with a basis for effective teaching. The study was based on the belief that an understanding of how brain processes interact with the processes of language learning could help to explain how languages can be taught more effectively. Need for the Study Since 1965, foreign language teachers have struggled with the problems caused by sharp declines in the national regard for academic study of foreign languages (Brod, 1980). Critical self-examination revealed that most instructors operated with no specifically defined approach to teaching. The confusing array of eclectic approaches was found to be due, at least in part, to a lack of a coherent theory of 1

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2 language learning and a lack of knowledge as to how to teach (Benseler & Schulz, 1980). In other words, language instructors could find no scientific foundation on which to base their teaching. Lack of research in foreign language education forced instructors to depend on theories of language acquisition from psychology and linguistics, two fields dominated by stimulus-response theories of learning. Foreign language instructors accepted cognitive theories of learning from both psychology and linguistics, but acceptance of these theories did nothing to dispel "the continuing questioning of our [instructors'] efforts and the persistent dissatisfaction among learners" (Birkmaier, 1973, p. 1295). This dissatisfaction among learners was predictable from the results of a large-scale survey conducted in U.S. colleges and universities that showed the average college senior majoring in a second language to have a "limited working proficiency" in speaking and comprehending the foreign language (Carroll, 1967, p. 200). Along with experiencing frustration over their students' lack of fluency with languages, instructors trying to teach students to enjoy languages had to contend with a lack of suitable training in teaching methodology offered by institutions of higher education (Rivers, 1975). Instructors who succeeded in teaching students to use and enjoy the cultural benefits of languages operated from intuitive bases rather than from a theoretical base or from formal training (Jorstad, 1980; Strasheim, 1971). Furthermore, informal learning methods used by children, refugees, immigrants, Europeans with close foreign-speaking neighbors, and Peace Corps volunteers often proved more effective than teaching and learning in academic settings (D'Anglejan, 1978). Yet

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3 the creative and natural forms of language learning were seldom studied for their potential to provide a conceptual framework for language teaching. The President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies focused national attention on the need to reverse American monolinguistic tendencies (Office of Education, 1979). If instructors were to improve language teaching, they would need more research on teaching behaviors that might be effective. Rationale for the Study One approach to teaching languages that appears to have been effective is the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model. In the present study, the investigator focused on neurophysiological implications for language learning as exemplified in that model. Dartmouth Intensive Language Model Current concerns for foreign language teaching were presaged by John A. Rassias when he introduced an experimental model in 1967 to remedy low and declining student enrollments and uninspired teaching at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. Rassias (1970) developed the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model from his belief that teachers must strive to create environments that instill in the student a desire to communicate in a foreign language. The model was based on his contention that instructors must "learn how to communicate and learn how to teach others to communicate" ( Effective Language Teaching , 1972). Instructors who studied this approach to language teaching were exposed to the precepts of Rassias in workshops where they participated actively in exercises and drills devised to reduce inhibitions

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4 to communication. They learned to use communication behaviors by mastering a choreographed rhythm and pace of verbal and nonverbal cues. These cues made use of chorals, finger-snaps, pointing gestures, acknowledging expressions, and large body movements. Teachers were instructed to speak to their students only in the target language and to move energetically, rather than stand still. Emphasis was placed on the communicative value of dramatization and animation for giving students positive feedback and sincere attention. Instructors who applied these communicative teaching behaviors in their classrooms expressed exhilaration at having effected student learning. Their students expressed astonishment at how easily they began to communicate in foreign languages. Both teachers and students valued opportunities to interact and communicate without pretense in a learning environment that was far removed from more passive, traditional approaches to language teaching. The effectiveness of teaching behaviors prescribed in the model was apparent from objective as well as subjective accounts. Rassias (1970) reported that after the model was implemented at Dartmouth, enrollments increased and students learned more easily to communicate effectively in languages other than their own. National recognition of the success of the model (U.S. Congress, 1974) prompted other colleges and universities with flagging language programs to adopt Rassias's precepts for teaching. These educational institutions reported an increase in enrollments and a rise in students' confidence in their oral communication skills and their enthusiasm for further language study (Byrd, 1980; Johnston, 1980; Stansfield and Hornor, 1981).

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5 Rassias places emphasis on communication as a key element in the art of language teaching. This emphasis stems from humanistic theories of the need people have for sharing the experiences of life. Within the context of the classroom, Rassias (1970, 1972) believes that the student learns to communicate effectively through the us£ of language, not through the analysis of grammatical structure. The teacher strives to bring out the uninhibited child in each student, so as to recreate that state of sensitivity that permits native language learning. The teacher is expected to direct energy toward moving and speaking with native-like fluency while interacting dynamically with the student. The effectiveness of the teacher is explained by the "reality" of the teacher who through energy expended in communicative body movements and vocal language behaviors, transmits commitment to communicating in foreign languages and effects student learning through all of the senses. Neurophysiological Implications of the Model In the present study, the investigator attempted to relate the humanistically based theories of Rassias to biological and neurophysiological theories of the efficacy of learning through all of the senses. Learning through all of the senses has proven to be the easy way that behavior evolves fromoneform of life to another through the development of the species and from one stage of life to another through the development of the individual. Coghill (1929) and Herrick (1956) discussed this phylogenetic and ontogenetic validity of learning through the senses and concluded that all forms of life require sensory stimulation to adapt and

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6 learn. Ayres (1972b) went on to develop a theory of sensory integration that is based on the assumption that sensory information from the environment effects sensory integration processes throughout the nervous system that enable human beings to interact effectively with the environment. Sensory integration processes involve lower, less complex, subcortical structures of the brain as well as higher, more complex, cortical structures. Ayres developed these theories to show the effectiveness of organism-environment interaction and the resulting sensory-motor stimulation for subcortical as well as cortical learning. Although these neurophysiologically based theories were developed in special education and occupational therapy, in the present study these theories were assumed to contain concepts that relate to the humanistic theories of dynamic teacher/student interaction developed by Rassias. Biological and neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors are seldom related by educational theorists to effective learning behaviors. Yet, throughout history, scholars (e.g. , Bacon, Comenius, Dewey, James, Montessori, Ogden, Pestalozzi, Whitehead) have related the art of teaching to the development of human potential through the use of natural integrative learning processes of living, doing, and experiencing. More recently, biological and neurophysiological implications for developing human potential through multi sensory stimulation were expressed by Coppola (1970), Edwards (1979), Montague (1978), and Nelson (1977). Several writers, including Chappie (1981), Gorman (1974), Holt (1967, 1981), Hyman (1974), and Suzuki (1969,

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7 1973) , have expressed a need for dynamic teacher/student interaction for the development of human potential. Gage (1964) described the general educational need for fundamentally based theories of teaching as the desire to know "the ways in which a person influences an organism to learn" (p. 268). By reminding teachers of the role played by the central nervous system in learning, Pribram (1964) set a precedent in education that was later enunciated by Chall and Mirskey (1978) and by Wittrock (1978, 1980). This precedent in education, along with the precedent set by Ayres in occupational therapy, supported the theoretical framework for the present investigation. Observation and Analysis of the Model In the mid-1970s, the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages at the University of Florida faced declining enrollments in beginning German courses. Findings from a large-scale departmental study (Von Gal, 1974) indicated student dissatisfaction with the instructors' emphasis on grammatical structure; 70% of students queried were dissapointed by their inability to communicate in German after three quarters of study. These weaknesses in the established program prompted the experimental implementation of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model in 1978 in some sections of beginning German (Johnston, 1980). Since then, students who register for beginning German courses may elect to enter either the experimental program or the program using traditional instruction. The investigator observed and analyzed aspects of the intensive beginning German experiment during 1980-1982. Teachers in intensive beginning German classrooms expended high levels of energy to create

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8 optimum learning environments. Teachers moved about the classrooms constantly, usually using a choreographed pattern of communicative body movements and vocal language behaviors. Analysis of these behaviors differentiated communicative body movements into (a) gross body movements of the head, trunk, and appendages on both vertical and horizontal planes, and (b) gestures in the form of finger-snaps, pointing movements, acknowledging hand movements, and other nonverbal communicative hand movements. Vocal language behaviors were distinguished by (a) native or near-native German fluency, and (b) omission of English from speech— teachers spoke only in German and encouraged students to do likewise. Despite feelings of exhaustion after conducting class, instructors claimed that they were exhilarated by student learning effected by their efforts. Observation and analysis of student behaviors in intensive beginning German classrooms showed students to be highly stimulated by the teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias. After the first few days of classes, most students lost fears of making mistakes and shed inhibitions to speaking in German. Students freely expressed enthusiasm for the teachers and methods that enabled them to communicate. Students made such positive comments as, "These classes are alive!" "You have to talk out loud in German— at first it's scary, but after a day or two, you realize you can do it!" "You can't help but learn." Negative reactions were rare and usually suggested students' mistrust of nontraditional , nonliteral learning strategies. Typical comments were, "How do they expect me to know what to say if I can't see the words ?" "They go too fast— I can't think that fast." "It takes too

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much of my time— I've got a heavy load of reading for my other classes this term." The alertness, attentiveness, and responsiveness noted in students in intensive beginning German class seemed to be related to the communicative body movement and vocal language behaviors of the instructors. Students appeared to be learning languages as children do in what Piaget (1926/1959) called the sensory-motor developmental stage. The importance of a developmental sequence for learning was noted by Ayres (1972b) as a need to develop the function of subcortical sensory integration processes in the brain before the higher cortical processes carv be expected to function effectively. Stated simply, students appeared to be learning to communicate in a foreign language the easy way— subconsciously , through their senses.

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CHAPTER II BACKGROUND LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The present study was prompted by a need for research in foreign language education to provide instructors with knowledge of how to teach, based on a coherent theory of language learning. The rationale for this study was based on the assumption that the neurophysiological implications for language learning in communicative body movements and vocal language behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model can explain how languages can be taught more effectively through teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. This chapter addressed (a) a review of literature related to research in foreign language educatibn and to other concepts underlying the present study, (b) a theoretical framework, (c) assumptions on which the study is based, (d) hypotheses, (e) definitions of terms, (f) limitations of the study, and (g) the plan for the dissertation. Review of Literature in Foreign Language Education Volumes have been written on foreign language education. Yet Hosenfeld (1979) found the results of her literature review disappointing in that "language teachers still do not know which of the many available teaching approaches to select . . . moreover, language learners do not appear to have achieved increased proficiency from the use of recommended techniques" (p. 51). Responding to a request from the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies to 10

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11 assess the results of methodologies for foreign language education on the college and university level, Benseler and Schulz (1980) agreed with Hosenfeld. Their findings confirmed disturbing developments in the field which led the chairman of the President's Commission to write. But the hard and brutal fact is that our programs and institutions for education and training for foreign language and international understanding are both currently inadequate and actually falling further behind. (Perkins, 1979, p. 1) The gravity of the educational problem was illustrated by data showing that "only 8 percent of American colleges and universities now require a foreign language for admission, compared with 34 percent in 1966" (Office of Education, 1979, p. 7). Student enrollments in college and university foreign language programs were reported to have fallen 37.4% in German, 36.6% in French, and 31.7% in Russian since 1968 (Primeau, 1979). Figures showing an increase in enrollments at Dartmouth during these same years (Luxenberg, 1978), when coupled with evidence of inadequate teacher education (Warriner, 1979), influenced the President's Commission to state. There is an urgent need for bettertrained teachers and for extensive retraining of those already serving in the nation's classrooms, particularly in view of widespread agreement that the decline in enrollment is in large measure a response to poor instruction. (Office of Education, 1979, p. 8) Instructional problems instigated much of the foreign language education research emanating from psychology and linguistics (Oiler and Richards, 1973). Yet, the value of basing the teaching of language skills on Skinner's behavioristic theories or on Chomsky's transformational grammar theories was questioned by Chomsky himself. Addressing foreign language teachers, Chomsky (1973) warned "that suggestions from the 'fundamental disciplines' must be viewed with caution and skeptici,sm"

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12 (p. 29). Carroll (1975) restated this theme in wondering whether cognitive psychology could offer teachers a research base for methodology. Empirical Studies of Language Learning Since the mid-1970s, researchers have begun to explore alternative theories of language learning on which to base teaching. Examples of empirical studies that indicate the trend away from unquestioned confidence in mechanistic stimulus-response experiments from psychology and the preoccupation with syntax in linguistics include: (a) an investigation of teaching behaviors in treating errors in oral work by Fanslow (1977), (b) a study by Galloway (1980) on the perceptions of native and non-native raters of student communication effectiveness, (c) an investigation of the effects of extended imitative speech practice on fluency (Hieke, 1981), and (d) dissertations such a:S Jackson' s study (1979) of the effects of visual -aural versus aural methods of presenting interviews on listening comprehension and Dye's study (1977) of the use of the student's body movement to facilitate second language learning in secondary schools. Chun (1980), surveying the literature, found growth in the number of empirical studies addressing first and second language relationships. Even though these researchers (e.g., Bailey, Madden, & Krashen, 1974; Olson & Samuels, 1973; Snow & Hoefnagel-H6"hle, 1977) reported investigations of different affective, cognitive, and developmental aspects of language learning, their findings were similar in rejecting the popular assumption of a critical period of language learning which prevents older learners from achieving verbal fluency or native-like pronunciation.

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13 Eckman and Hastings (1977) introduced a collection of such studies by stating that the similarities of first and second language learning are at least as important as any dissimilarities, "and our progress in understanding either may depend, in part, on our ability to identify, elucidate, and explain these similarities" (p. ix). Sheldon (1977), a contributor to this theme, argued for additional research designed to observe "the interaction of child and parent, or second language learner and teacher" (p. 11 ). Second Language Learner-Teacher Interaction Models A review of the foreign language literature reveals methodologies based on the interactive nature of first language learning and the need for teacher/student interaction. These methodologies are claimed to be based on psychologically oriented theories of behavior. Total Physical Response . Asher was apparently the first psycholinguist to apply a theory of the interactive nature of first language learning in the classroom. Through a series of quasi-experimental studies, Asher (1969, 1977) demonstrated that it is possible to accelerate the rate at which adults and children acquire listening comprehension in a second language. The Total Physical Response approach was developed on the premise that in order to learn a foreign language "gracefully with a minimum of stress" a strategy is needed "that is in harmony with the biological program" (Asher, 1972, p. 134). Later, the concept underlying his strategy was described as the acceleration of the assimilation of information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system (Asher, 1977). The success of the approach in overcoming the often frustrating and traumatizing effects of

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14 traditional teaching methods is explained by Asher (1981) as the result of its "sensorimotor method" and of "right-brain learning" (p. 54). Counsel ing-Learning . Curran (1972), a priest and counselor who recognized that students have emotional investments and somatic reactions, developed the Counseling-Learning approach. The relationship of the affective domain to the cognitive domain as well as the human need to be understood, provides the theoretical foundation for methods prescribed to instill receptiveness, trust, and commitment between student and teacher. Grammar and vocabulary are considered to be less important than the interaction of persons. Suggestopaedia . Suggestopaedia is a teaching method developed by Georgi Lozanov (Racle, 1979). An original feature of this method is that students are required to engage in relaxation exercises as the teacher reads new material with varying levels of loudness while baroque music is played in the background to aid in the unconscious absorption of the material. Racle (1979) reports results of experiments in Canada to confirm that the approach has "psychological advantages" for learning to use language as a natural communication process (p. 47). Monitor Model . Although not developed as a specifically applied method of teaching, Krashen's Monitor Model (1979) has relevance for the present investigation of assumptions of subcortical learning. Krashen assembled empirical evidence suggesting that adults acquire language in the same subconscious manner as do children. He compares his rationale for distinguishing between acquisition strategies and classroom learning strategies with the rationale of Gallwey (1974) who teaches tennis by emphasizing the importance of subcortical sensory-integrative brain processes for learning a skill.

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15 Formal and informal learning . D'Anglejan (1978) reviewed the literature relating to the nature of formal and informal language learning from a variety of psychol inguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives for teaching children in the schools of Quebec. Even though applications of D'Anglejan' s findings may be beyond the limited scope of university teaching, their correspondence to the findings of researchers investigating adult foreign language learning indicates the significance of her con elusions to the conceptual framework of the present study. The logic used in arriving at the conclusion that complex language skills can be acquired better in the absence of formal instruction is stated as follows: Since language or communication is in fact behavior, and not a body of knowledge, it seems normal that it should essentially be acquired as the result of communicative interaction between the learner and a well-disposed native speaker. This is clearly the case in native language acquisition, which is universally successful. . . . There is reason to believe that simply rubbing shoulders with native speakers is not sufficient— the learner must receive an input of the second language directed to him by a concerned speaker. This input must be embedded in a context of social interaction. (D'Anglejan, 1978, pp. 233-234) D'Anglejan called for a better understanding of learning and increased respect for the natural capacity for language acquisition which learners bring with themselves into the classroom. Dartmouth Intensive Language Model . Respect for the natural capacity of the student to communicate in a foreign language is a foremost pee cept of the Dartmouth Language Model. The model was developed by Rassias, a professor of languages with a strong interest in drama who came to Dartmouth in 1964 after studying in France on a Full bright Scholarship and earning a doctoral degree at the University of Dijon (Rassias, 1976). Humanistic concerns for the art of teaching that grew

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16 out of close contact with trainees and volunteers in the Peace Corps, both in the United States and overseas, influenced Rassias to eschew scientific quantitative research in favor of the practical challenge of restoring vitality and humanity to foreign language education (Rassias, 1972). Preoccupation with the practical and qualitative aspects of teaching and a primary concern for the student's natural humanistic capacity for language learning may be among the reasons for the "strange" lack of scientific research to identify and explain the effectiveness of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model noted by Stansfield and Hornor (1981, p. 25). Support for the Dartmouth model comes from a number of sources. Christensen (1979) in reviewing teaching behaviors that require "creativity, imagination, trust, humor, and acceptance of the student as a creative person" mentions Rassias as the developer of a "highly audiolingual approach which has gained wide recognition" (pp. 96, 127). While searching for instructional approaches that might be used to generate student interest and improve teaching and learning, Schulz (1978) included .the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model in her extensive study of foreign language programs. Schulz reported that intensive courses "rate among factors for students with high positive attitudes toward language learning . . . and contribute to initial enrollment and retention of students" (p. 43). In reporting the advantages of intensive programs, Keilstrup (1981) included the "well-known Dartmouth model" as a successful example (p. 377), In an article describing the history of the implemented DartmouthRassias model, Stansfield and Hornor (1981) reported (a) a fourfold

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17 increase in the number of language majors at Dartmouth, (b) a rise of 86% in foreign language enrollments at Washington University, and (c) the spread of the model to at least 55 colleges and universities. The account of Stansfield and Hornor of the success of the model at the University of Denver coincides with accounts from Emory and Henry College (Byrd, 1980) and the University of Florida (Johnston, 1980). Even though the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model is recognized in education and even though social scientists see evidence of the effectiveness of the methods prescribed by Asher and Lozanov, little in the foreign language literature explains language learning from a neurophysiological perspective. Neurophysiologically Oriented Studies of Language Learning Walsh and Diller (1978) made an attempt to link applied linguistic theory to the structure and function of language centers in the cerebral cortex of the human brain. Despite their recognition of "the possibility that language centers do far less than at first thought" (p. 3), Walsh and Diller neglected the contribution of subcortical sensory integration processes known to mediate brain functions. They limited their investigation to matching neurol inguistic pathways between Wernicke's Area, Broca's Area, and other cortical regions with cognitive strategies used in three different methods of language teaching. Lamendella (1977) made a more comprehensive analysis of neurophysiological implications for language acquisition. The significance of Lamendella's work— an effort to clarify terminologies applied to various types of first and second language learning— 1 ies in his recognition that "it is the neural systems that are responsible for

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18 accomplishing learning of any sort" (p. 156). Lamendella also recognized the role of communication in language learning by distinguishing between "learning to communicate in the target language" at the natural level and "learning the target language" at the cognitive-translation level (p. 182). The general principles of neurofunctional organization presented in this treatise were derived from information-processing theories in psychology. The perspectives of Lamendella and of Walsch and Diller are similar to those of Heilman (1978) who stated that his purpose in writing about language and the brain was "to provide the educator with some fundamental understanding of the neurophysiological processes underlying languages" (p. 143). The belief that the understanding of sensory integrative brain processes may provide educators with a conceptual framework for language teaching led to analysis of theoretical and empirical studies related to this belief. Review of Studies Related to Underlying Concepts and Assumptions The theory that learning to communicate in a foreign language is facilitated by teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation is supported by underlying concepts of human communication, human development, and language learning. These concepts emerge from interdisciplinary studies in the broad fields of anthropology, linguistics, the bio-behavioral sciences, the neurosciences, psychology, education, and occupational therapy. Corroboration for assumptions that relate communicative body movement to communication and sensory integration theories derives from the work of the anthropol igist, Birdwhistell (1952, 1970, 1974), who created

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19 the term "kinesics" to define body movement as related to the nonverbal aspects of interpersonal communication. .. Birdwhistell stated. Human communication is much broader than the exchange of words in discrete messages with silences between them. My premise is that communication is a continuous multi sensory process. . . . Present research indicates that fascinating and complex relationships are operative in the patterned activities of the various sensory modalities utilized in the communication process. (1974, p. 203) The basis for these "fascinating and complex relationships" is found in the work of Ayres (1972b, 1981) to define the sensory integration process that organizes sensory information for use by human beings as they learn language as an adaptive response. The pioneering study of Spitz and Wolf (1946), describing the smiling response in babies, provided a focal point for the perspectives of researchers seeking a relationship among human developmental theories of communication, kinesics, and language learning. Spitz and Wolf, psychologists with a clinical interest in infant emotions and the psychosomatic effects of sensory deprivation, found that "emotional stimulation provokes a body response, and conversely somatic stimulation brings forth an emotional response" (p. 60). Additionally, they hypothesized reasons for the development of language throughout the history of the species, as well as for the development of language throughout the life of each individual. Spitz and Wolf believed that language develops phylogenetically and ontogenetically because the upright posture of humans permits face-to-face interaction and because the liberated hand in humans frees the mouth and facial muscles for purposes of speech and expressions of emotion. A similar view of the interaction of motive and emotive aspects of behavior was later taken by Tomkins and Izard (1965) who suggested

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20 that emotions manifested in "facial responses that communicate and motivate at once both publicly outward" and privately "backward and inward" (p. viii). The discovery that human beings are capable of interpreting an extraordinary amount of sensory information from momentary, slight facial responses prompted Tomkins and McCarter (1964) to suggest the existence of a "language of the face" (p. 125). Supportive Studies from Anthropology Birdwhistell (1970) considered facial expressions as one element of nonverbal communicative behavior that, along with speech, constistutes language learned culturally. Recent compilations of theoretical and empirical studies conducted in the field of nonverbal communication by Kendon, Harris, and Key (1975), Schiefelbusch & Hollis (1980), and Siegman and Feldstein (1978) emphasize the growing realization that body movement is not merely an accompaniment to speech. Researchers of body movement and its effects (e.g., Davis, 1975; Hall, 1959, 1966, 1968; Key, 1975, 1977; Mehrabian, 1967a, 1967b, 1972, 1976; Sarles, 1974, 1977; Scheflen, 1968) have found that verbal language does only part of the work it was previously thought to do as a function of meaning, learn ing, and communication. For example, Mehrabian reported "that the combined effect of simultaneous verbal, vocal, and facial attitude communications is a weighted sum of their independent effects— with the coefficients of .07, .38, and .55, respectively" (Mehrabian & Ferris, 1967a, p. 252). In her comprehensive study of the nonverbal communication literature. Key (1977) unequivocally stated that "human communication is body movement" (p. 5).

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21 Supportive Studies from Linguistics • In linguistics, the emphasis on the cognitive functions of language tends to obscure the neurophysiological implications of body movements as they function in the use of language as a tool of communication. Nevertheless, abundant theoretical and scientific evidence in the literature supports the thesis that the expressive and receptive modes of language are dependent on the movement of the human anatomy and physiology as "man communicates through all his senses" (Ong, 1974, p. 166). In his classic treatise on human speech, Paget (1930) described the interaction among movements of sound, movements of speech, and movements of hearing by stating that the repeated pressures which we normally "hear" are produced by rhythmical variations of pressure of the air which is in contact with our ear drums. These rhythmical variations of air pressure are due to sound waves, which are themselves due to some rhythmical disturbance of the air at the source of sound. . . . The significant elements in human speech are the postures and gestures which produced them. We lip-read by ear. . . . It will be no disgrace to human speech if, after all, it should turn out to be (as I believe it is) a branch of human gesture, (pp. 2, 174, 196) Since this clear exposition of the interrelatedness of audition and articulation, researchers using spectrographic measurements and voice synthesizers have reached similar conclusions. In reviewing the literature on the perception of speech, StuddertKennedy (1974) cited numerous sources to defend his argument that "only through their articulatory origins can the temporally scattered and contextual variable acoustic, (and auditory) patterns of speech be understood" (p. 2371). Lieberman (1974) reviewed quantitative acoustical, anatomical, and physiological data on what linguists caTT the "suprasegmental

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22 prosodic" features of language. These features include the tones, modulation, pitch, stress, and other "musical" qualities of vocal sounds that occur along with, or aside from, speech. The results of Lieberman's review of data on these features of language showed that the primary acoustic cue that signals the intonation of an utterance is the contour, or the spatial quality, of the vocal frequency measured by the human listening apparatus. In other words, the acoustical cues that enable our nervous system to use verbal information from the environment are not derived from the structure of the words of a language, but from their spatial and musical tonal qualities. Of additional neurophysiological interest was the finding that the larynx assumes a different position in singing than in speech. In singing the larynx is insensitive to air pressure whereas in speaking the larynx is sensitive to "aerodynamic interactions" (Lieberman, 1974, pp. 2429-2433). Elsewhere Lieberman (1975) suggests that language skills are "automatized" skills that are similar to other aspects of motor activity, such as dancing, playing the violin, or driving a car (p. 92). Jaffe (1978) investigated neurophysiological implications of verbal and nonverbal communication, arguing that "cerebral hemisphere specialization in man has evolved under the selective pressure of face-to-face interaction" (p. 61). His theory that the left hemisphere processes verbal time-sequenced language while the right hemisphere processes paral inguistic, kinesic, and spatially oriented aspects of language has implications for developmental theories of language learning.

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23 Supportive Studies from the Bio-Behavioral Sciences In the study of human development, Piaget (1926/1959) considered the acquisition of language to be a by-product of the sensory-motor construction process whereby language and cognition develop organically through interaction with the environment. Bruner {1975a, 1975b, 1977) argued that the ontogenetic development of verbal language skills is rooted in earlier joint attention and joint activity behaviors observed when mother and child interact. Confirmation of these premises may be found in the observations of researchers conducting ethological or behavioral microanalysis of human interaction. The discovery by Condon and Ogston (1966) that the body of a speaker moves in a precise synchrony with the speech of the speaker led to a study by Kendon (1970) showing that the flow of movement in the listener may also be rhythmically coordinated with the speech and movement of the speaker. When this "interactional synchrony" was observed in neonates, Condon and Sander (1974) speculated that by the time these newly born infants begin to speak, they may have already laid down within themselves the form and function of a language system that encompasses "a multiplicity of interlocking aspects: rhythmic and synthetic 'hierarchies,' suprasegmental features, and paralanguage nuances, not to mention body motion styles and rhythms" (p. 101). The premise that the first stages in language acquisition are already advanced stages in the child's neurophysiological development of vocal and kinesic behaviors is supported by the work of Trevathen (1974, 1977) who filmed the interactive behaviors of mothers and their babies. Using microanalytic techniques, Trevathen identified gestures and other

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24 movement and vocal language behaviors performed reciprocally by mothers and babies to facilitate the exchange of motive and emotive information. By studying the speech available to children while they are learning language. Snow (1972, 1979) identified verbal patterns in the conversational mode of mothers' speech which showed that mothers believe that their babies are capable of reciprocal communication and interaction. These observations signified a shift away from viewing language as an object of knowledge to be learned as syntax. Recent collections of studies representing similar observations of the emergence of language in children (e.g.. Lock, 1978; Waterson & Snow, 1978) indicate an increasing consensus for the theory that language is a tool for the development of communicative competence learned as a by-product of natural biological processes. Biological implications of language learning were first discussed by Lenneberg (1967) who found in the neurological mechanism of language "a natural extension of very general principles of organization of behavior which are biologically adapted to a highly specific ethological function" (p. 324). In addition to suggesting that language evolves from innate capacities for learning behavior, Lenneberg suggested that aphasic symptoms were a disorder of the brain's temporally patterned activities in interchange between cortical and subcortical structures. His conclusions lend support to sensory integration theories of subcortical language learning. In part, he concluded that the neurological processes underlying language are not confined to cortical areas. ... In order to reconcile experimental findings regarding the relationship between the cerebral cortex and behavior in animals, and to relate these findings to our clinical experiences with man, it appears reasonable to assume that complex, species-specific behavior patterns, such as

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25 language, result partly through subcortical, highly centralized integrating mechanisms, and partly through interaction of activities on the most rostral levels. (Lenneberg, 1967, p. 222) Further evidence of the biological foundation of language may be found in ethology, the comparative study of the character of behavior patterns across species. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1975) is one of the European ethologists whose recognition of phylogenetic adaptations has influenced sciences dealing with the biological bases of human behavior. Eibl-Eibesfeldt described observations suggesting that expressive movements between cultures lie not only in such basic expressions as smiling, laughing, crying, and facial expressions of anger, but in whole syndromes of physiological actions. For example, he observed that expressions of anger are characterized cross-culturally, as well as in those born deaf and blind, "by opening the corners of the mouth in a particular way and by frowning, and also by clenching the fists, stamping on the ground, and even by hitting at objects" (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1972, p. 299). Such evidence, augmented by similar evidence from the anthropologists, Ekman and Friesen (1971 ), who describe face and emotion constants across cultures, indicates that common motor patterns and their neural substrates may be phylogenetic adaptions that are useful for communication and efficient for interaction with the environment. Supportive Studies from the Neurosciences The need for interaction with the environment in order to adapt and learn is a basic tenet in the neurosciences. Even the simplest forms of life behave and respond to changes in the environment for survival. To be alive is to be sensitive to the physical world (e.g., to

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26 receive and measure vibrations, to calculate pressures, to detect levels of light and movement). The role of the sensory systems to detect and interpret spatial and temporal information is documented in the work of Sarnat and Netsky (1974) to trace the evolution of the nervous system and in the work of Jacobson (1978) to trace the development of the human nervous system throughout the life of the individual. Knowledge of the human nervous system has been increasing since the classic studies of Sherrington (1906/1973) to map the functional tracts in the spinal column and brain. In the process of his studies, Sherrington discovered sensory organs in skeletal muscles, isolated the point of response in the synapse, and speculated on the integrative function of neuronal networks. More recent contributions to this knowledge of neurophysiology have come from neuromolecular studies such as those reported by Eccles (1966, 1967, 1977), Edelman and Mountcastle (1978), Hubel (1979), and Szentagothai and Arbib (1976). The concept that "the brain is a complex of widely and reciprocally interconnected systems and that the dynamic interplay of neuronal activity within and between these systems is the very essence of brain function" was confirmed by the study of Mountcastle (1978, p. 7) to find organization patterns in the estimated 50 billion cortical nerve cells and their seemingly infinitely possible connections. Mountcastle's finding that neural organization occurs vertically as well as horizontally in the human cortex substantiates sensory integration theories; he concluded that "there is nothing intrinsically motor about the motor cortex, nor sensory about the sensory cortex" (p. 9).

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27 Supportive Studies from Psychology Gibson (1966), a psychologist, reached a similar conclusion about interdependency in sensory and motor organization in his classic study of the senses as perceptual systems. He described the senses as active, moving mechanisms for looking, listening, sniffing, tasting, and touching, rather than as previously described passive receptors for sensations. In realizing that sensory-motor responses are both affected and effected by changing patterns and transformations of energy that generate the information organized by sensoryintegrative processes, he advanced the theory "that the senses can obtain information about objects in the world without the intervention of an intellectual process" (p. 2). Gibson's theories have implications for reforming learning theories that are limited to concepts of static cortical cognitive structures and memory storage areas. Experimental support for the implied effectiveness of subcortical sensory-integrative brain processes for learning was provided by Lashley (1929, 1950/1974). His neurophysiological experiments on animal behaviors demonstrated the fallacy of the hypothesized engram, or memory trace in the brain, and the limitations of passive, mechanistic aspects of stimulus-response learning. Three other psychologically oriented scientists who have given support to neurophysiological theory of languages are (a) Hebb (1949, 1980) whose "cell assembly" theory suggests the unity of the brain's neural networks as a biological learning device requiring interaction with the environment for development; (b) Young (1971, 1978) who elucidates the biological foundations of the "programs of the brain"; and (c) Pribram (1971, 1978) whose extensive neuropsychological studies

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28 indicate the interrelatedness of all areas of the central nervous system that communicate in "the languages of the brain," Supportive Studies from Education In education, the significance of neurophysiological approaches to the explanation of learning was first recognized by those who applied perceptual -motor theories to promote motor skill learning and to remediate learning disorders in children (e.g, Barsch, 1967, 1968; Cratty, 1971, 1974, 1975; de Quiros & Schrager, 1978; Kephart, 1960; Le Winn, 1969). Until recently, however, educational psychologists have resisted defining learning according to neurophysiological principles (Goodman, 1979; Hilgard & Bower, 1966). Between the appearance of Pribram's "Neurophysiological Notes on the Art of Education" (1964) and the appearance of the volume Education and the Brain (Chall & flirskey, 1978), the educational literature contained few references to the implications of neurophysiological research for language learning and teaching. However, the concepts of cerebral asymmetry derived from the works of Kimura (1973), Sperry (1964, 1974), and Geschwind (1965, 1970) were referred to by writers in education. For example, implications of splitbrain research for learning strategies and educational practices were addressed by Lutz (1978), McCallum and Glynn (1979), and Rennel s( 1976) . Recent publications of Teyler (1978) and Wittrock (1980) address the relationship between theoretical studies of human behaviors in educational psychology and theoretical studies of the structure and function of the brain in the neurosciences . The accumulation of information by researchers (e.g., Bechtereva, 1978; Luria, 1973; McGuiness & Pribram, 1980; and Trevathen, 1980) who are interested in the

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29 neurophysiological correlates of mental activity is beginning to affect psychological views of cognition, memory, information processing, and learning styles. Educators are realizing that "the brain does not usually learn in the sense of accepting or recording information from teachers . . . [that] it actively constructs its own interpretation of information and draws inferences from it" (Wittrock, 1978, p. 101). After comparing recent findings about the brain with recent findings about the cognitive processes of learning, Wittrock (1980) concluded that in the future, it will be productive "to study how learners transform the environmental events of teaching and instruction into functional information" (p. 398). A review of literature related to "how learners transform the environmental events of teaching" neurophysiological ly in liberal arts and sciences programs at the college or university level revealed no directly related empirical research. The literature contains studies of kinesic and nonverbal behaviors of both college and K-12 teachers. For example, Esp (1978) designed a study to guage the effects of college teacher nonverbal behavior during a period of instruction. Analysis of positive and negative cues exhibited by male and female teachers while presenting a lecture on the metric system indicated that only the nonverbal behavior of female teachers influenced student learning; however, the nonverbal behavior of both sexes had an effect on student attitude. Although not conducted with college instructors, nor for the same purpose as the present study, Credell's descriptive study (1977) of nonverbal behaviors in teaching exemplifies the growing concern for

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30 communication in educational programs. The purpose of the study was to determine if a group of teachers who had been subjectively labeled as likeable for displaying appropriate communication behaviors in their role as teachers differed in their evaluations of such behaviors from a group of teachers who had been labeled as being disliked. Credell videotaped 21 teachers to gather data for 10 diffusely defined nonverbal communication behaviors: physical appearance, facial expressions, use of time, gestures, voice tone, proxemics, body expression, expression of eyes, actions, and expressions of mouth. Credell reported indications of differences between the positive responses of the two groups as they reviewed videotapes: the likeable teachers noticed more positive nonverbal behaviors than were observed by the less liked teachers. One study that approximates more closely the design of the present study was conducted by Wyckoff (1973). Teacher mobility, gesturing, and pausing while presenting a lecture were examined for their effect on student recall of factual information contained in the lecture. Data collected from videotapes of 12 teachers and from test scores of 48 students indicated that increases in the frequency of stimulus variation on the part of secondary school teachers resulted in improved student performances. Wyckoff noted the need for "research directed toward the observation and measurement of teacher-student behavior related to input or stimulus variables" and concluded that variables such as movement, gesture, voice variation, eye contact, and enthusiasm do affect student attitude toward instruction (p. 85). Teaching effectiveness in explaining was explored in an early large-scale study conducted by Gage, Belgard, Dell, Hiller, Rosenshine,

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and Unruh (1968). Rosenshine (1968) contributed to the study by investigating specific behaviors, the frequencies of which were expected to be related to teacher effectiveness in explaining lecture material in social studies classes. According to Rosenshine, "the variables were the stimuli received by the pupils, that is, the verbal and nonverbal behavior of the teachers while they lectured" (p. 36). One variable that discriminated most significantly between the high-scoring and low-scoring groups for the two different lecture topics was the frequency and amount of time the teacher gestured and moved; the teacher of high-scoring groups moved and gestured more. Rosenshine hypothesized that these gestures and movements may have the effect of arousing or focusing attention. However, verbal variables taken singly and in combinations which might have been classified as attenionarousing variables did not discriminate between high and low groups. . . . These verbal variables included phrases stating the importance of material or recalling material, cognitive reversal, and references to problems and conflicts. (Rosenshine, 1968, p. 39-40) In a later and more comprehensive review of correlational and experimental studies of teacher enthusiasm, Rosenshine (1970) found evidence that ratings given teachers on such high-inference behaviors as "stimulating," "energetic," "mobile," "enthusiastic," and "animated related to measures of pupil achievement. The results of lowinference studies suggested that the frequencies of such variables as movement, gesture, variation of voice, and eye contact are related to pupil achievement, (p. 510) Empirical research from education that is relevant to the investigation of neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors may be found in special education and physical education where perceptual motor theories have been advanced and tested for learning and teaching effectiveness. Such research is collected in journals such as

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32 Perceptual and Motor Skills and the Journal of Motor Behavior , as well as in volumes of studies such as those edited by Stelmach (1976, 1978, 1980). Although the scope of the present study does not include a review of such research, studies supporting the neurological concepts of perceptual -motor behavior developed by Williams (1969) and the closed loop theory of motor learning developed by Adams (1976, 1978) are indicative of the findings of Smith (1978) who concluded that "the potential for sensorimotor integration during motor programming is tremendous. ... We must look at the capacities of the sensorimotor system and seek to define the optimal conditions for motor control" (p. 180). The unifying concept in educational studies designed to determine how students learn from what Smith calls the "sensorimotor system" and what Wittrock calls the "environmental events of teaching" may be the concept of the need organisms have for interaction in order to adapt and learn. Supportive Studies from Occupational Therapy The assumption of organism-environment interaction is central to theories of sensory integration developed by Ayres in special education and occupational therapy. Ayres (1972b) stated. Central to the concept of brain development and function is the action of the environment upon the organism and the reaction of that organism upon the environment. This interaction constitutes the essence of a sensory integrative and sensorimotor response. The primary function of the brain is to translate sensory impulses into meaningful information and to organize an appropriate motor response. The process is most direct and obvious in the young child. The sensory and integrative aspect of the process, being more subtle and covert than the motor, is often overlooked, (p. 22) The published studies of Ayres (e.g., 1964, 1977, 1981) provided occupational therapists with concepts from the neurosciences to complement

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33 those derived from the biological and behavioral sciences. These concepts underly the premise that therapist-directed sensory-motor stimulation has the potential to mitigate learning disabilities and to facilitate language acquisition (Clark & Steingold, 1982). Empirical studies found in the occupational therapy literature may be relevant to the present investigation of neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors used to facilitate language acquisition. By studying the effects of sensory integration procedures on children with auditory-language disorders, Ayres (1972a) and Ayres and Mailloux (1981) found evidence to generate hypotheses that relate increases in sensoryintegrative stimulation to increases in language comprehension and expression. The results of a study by Magrun and associates (1981) showed an increase in spontaneous verbal language in developmental ly delayed children immediately after stimulation of the sensory system that provides human beings with a sense of balance and movement in space. This sensory system, the vestibular system, provides human beings with important information as to whether they are the ones moving or whether the external environment is moving. The investigators suggested that vestibular stimulation may be an effective nonverbal intervention method for facilitating spontaneous language. Stilwell, Crowe, and McCallum (1978) explored the relationship between functioning of the vestibular system and specific communication disorders. Their findings supported the conclusion: It seems logical to assume that the cortex cannot be considered as the sole processing center for speech and language. Rather, it appears that the development of the language centers is in some way dependent on previous, as well as ongoing, subcortical sensory integration. This can be viewed as a pattern of continuous reciprocal interaction between the language centers and

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34 the more primary subcortical structures, thereby making these language centers neither fully dependent nor fully independent of subcortical neural processing, (pp. 226-227) Particularly related to the present study of college students is the finding by Angelo (1980) that the reading skills of low-achieving college students responded to sensory-integrative treatment. In discussion, Angelo stated that the results of the study undertaken to assess the use of a sensory-integrative approach to improve the academic performance of low-achieving college students "indicated that reading was significantly improved after students participated in a program of sensory-integrative activities" (p. 674). Summary of Supportive Studies Assumptions of neurophysiological need for interaction found in the review of related studies served to unify concepts of human communication, human development, and language learning. Theoretical and empirical evidence found in related fields supported the assumption that languages may be learned easily through the natural capacity human beings have to learn through their senses. Ample theoretical evidence showed that learning to use a foreign language for effective communication may be dependent on sensory-integrative brain processes that are, in turn, dependent on organism-environment interaction. Such evidence supports the theoretical framework of the present study. Theoretical Framework of the Study According to Rassias (1972), "the teacher is the 'reality' of learning: his own commitment to communication must be experienced by his students" (p. 12). In the present study, the "reality" of the

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35 teacher was conceptualized as the energy the teacher directs toward students in the form of communicative body movement and vocal language behaviors that neurophysiologically correspond to the foreign language communication skills of the teacher. Such teaching behaviors are theorized to stimulate students to respond adaptively through their own communicative body movement and vocal language behaviors that neurophysiologically correspond to foreign language communication skills in students. These concepts are fundamental to the theory that learning to communicate in a foreign language can be facilitated by teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. The investigator attempted to test this theory through a quasiexperimental ly designed study to determine the effects of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. The independent or treatment variable was sensorymotor stimulation as defined by the energy that teachers direct toward students through kinesic and vocal language behaviors. The dependent variable was student foreign language communication effectiveness as defined by test scores. The loci for the study were (a) the intensive and (b) the traditional beginning German classrooms at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Assumptions of the Study The assumptions of this study were based on the theory of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation developed from the review of related studies and from direct observation of teaching behaviors in beginning German classrooms. These assumptions are as follows:

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36 1. Instructors who use the intensive language model provide more kinesic and vocal language behaviors than do those who use traditional methods of instruction. These kinesic and vocal language teaching behaviors are measures of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. 2. Students who are provided teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation respond adaptively with behaviors that correspond to communication effectiveness. Therefore, students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieve a higher score on a test of foreign language communication effectiveness than do students provided a lower level. a. Based on the second assumption, students whose instructors use traditional teaching methods and textbooks emphasizing English translation and grammatical analysis of the structure of a language achieve a higher score on a grammatical structure-vocabulary test than do students whose instructors use less English translation and grammatical analysis in the intensive language program. b. Based on the second assumption, students whose instructors use more foreign language communicative body movements and vocalization in the intensive language program actii eve a higher score on a listening comprehension test than do students whose instructors use fewer such movements and vocalizations in the traditional language program. c. Based on the second assumption, students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation in the intensive language program achieve a higher speaking proficiency score on an oral interview test than do students provided a lower level in the traditional language program.

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37 3. Students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation that is appropriate for the learning of the four basic language skills feel more confident of their ability to use these skills in foreign language communication than do students provided a lower level of such stimulation. 4. Students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation that is appropriate for the learning of effective foreign language communication skills express more satisfaction with the efficacy of their foreign language courses to increase these skills than do students provided a lower level of such stimulation. Hypotheses The assumptions to be tested in this study were formulated as statistical hypotheses stated in the null form as follows: 1. The total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the total mean provided by traditional language teachers. a. The mean seconds per contact hour of gross body movement directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers. b. The mean seconds per contact hour of hand gestures directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

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38 c. The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken German directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers. d. The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken English directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers. 2. The mean foreign language communication total test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. a. The mean grammatical structurevocabulary test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. b. The mean listening comprehension test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. c. The mean speaking proficiency test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level . 3. The self-assessed language skill performance ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor

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39 stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level . a. The self-assessed reading comprehension ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level. b. The self-assessed listening comprehension ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level . c. The self-assessed writing proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level . d. The self-assessed speaking proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level. 4. The course satisfaction ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students who are provided a lower level. Definition of Terms Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation Conceptually, this term refers to the teachers' kinesic and vocal language behaviors that provide visual, auditory, and tactile sensory input to stimulate adaptive responses in students. In an environment of

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40 dynamic teacher/student interaction, students' adaptive responses further stimulate sensory-integrative feedback processes that are neurophysiologically equivalent to language teaching for teachers, and to language learning for students. These concepts derive from theories of sensory integration by Ayres (1972b). Operationally, the term refers to the teachers' kinesic and vocal language behaviors differentiated into (a) gross body movements of the head, trunk, and appendages directed toward students while eye contact is given to at least one student; (b) hand gestures in the form of finger snaps, pointing movements, acknowledging hand movements or signs, and other gestures made with the hands while eye contact is given to at least one student; (c) use of spoken German; and (d) omission of spoken English Spoken English is considered to be contraindicated when teaching a foreign language to native English-speaking students. This assumption is supported in the literature by Warriner (1979) who listed the first prerequisite for effective language teaching as "the target language is used almost exclusively by both teacher and student" (p. 51). According to the theory of sensory integration, any information gained by the senses from the English spoken by the teacher constitutes sensory input that stimulates sensory-motor responses for the acquisition of English; and constitutes sensory input that inhibits sensory-motor responses for the learning of German. Thus, the term teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation is operationally defined as the combination of three kinesic and vocal language behaviors appropriate for foreign language communication effectiveness: (a) gross body movement directed toward students, (b) hand gestures directed toward students, and (c) spoken German.

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41 Student Foreign Language Communication Effectiveness Conceptually, this term refers to the ability to use a foreign language skillfully in the receptive (reading and listening) and expressive (writing and speaking) modes of verbal communication. Early in the twentieth century, Jesperson (1904) argued that to teach a language is to teach a student to communicate effectively in real-life situations. More recently, this premise has been confirmed in the literature (e.g., Bacheller, 1980; Lapan, 1980; Rassias, 1970, 1972). There is, however, still no consensus on how to test for foreign language communication effectiveness (Oiler & Perkins, 1980; Valette, 1977; Woodford, 1980). Jones (1977) argued that "the most neglected skill in language testing is still that of speaking" (p. 243). Operationally, the term student foreign language communication effectiveness refers to students' achievements on three component test forms of the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache: (a) the grammatical structure-vocabulary component, (b) the listening comprehension component, and (c) the oral interview or speaking proficiency component. Dynamic Teacher/Student Interaction Conceptually, this term is used as a substitute for the many concepts of humanistic teaching described in the literature and applied in the field of foreign language education under such rubrics as transactional analysis (Stevick, 1974b) and caring and sharing (Moskowitz, 1978; Stevick, 1974a). As used in this study, the term is antonymous to terms used to describe passive teaching methods, such as the "expository mode" described by Bruner (1962, p. 83).

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42 Operationally, Rassias expects that teachers who "adopt" his humanistically based communicative techniques will "adapt" them according to the dynamics of their ever-changing environment ( Effective Language Teaching , 1972). Thus, the operational definition of the term dynamic teacher/student interaction implies an optimum learning environment of active participation, such as created by teachers who adapt behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model. Model The term model includes references to the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model and to teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias. Intensive Language Program Conceptually, this term includes all aspects of the experimental beginning German courses that implement the model in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages at the University of Florida. Operationally, the term refers to an experimental beginning German program structured as two courses, each of which continues for one 15week semester. Each course requires students to attend four classes and four tutor groups each week for five semester hours of credit. Thus, the term intensive language program implies 120 teacher contact hours and 120 tutor contact hours to complete 10 semester credits and meet foreign language requirements of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Intensive language instructors are faculty members and graduate teaching assistants who use communicative techniques prescribed in the model to teach the four basic language skills. Tutors are students who complete one semester or more of German and meet selection criteria of good

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43 pronunciation and skill in using the basic methodology prescribed by Rassias. Tutors assist teachers and conduct homework sessions for tutor groups composed of 6-12 students. The teaching behaviors of tutors are the same as the teaching behaviors of instructors and are included in the operational definition of the term, teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation . Traditional Language Program Conceptually, this term includes all aspects of the established beginning German courses as traditionally taught in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages at the University of Florida. Operationally, the term refers to an established beginning German program structured as three 15-week semesters. In the first semester, students attend classes 4 hours each week for 60 teacher contact hours to complete 4 semester hours of credit. In the second and third semesters, students attend classes 3 hours each week for 45 contact hours and 3 hours of credit each semester. Thus, the term traditional language program implies 150 teacher contact hours to complete 10 semester hours of credit to meet foreign language requirements of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Traditional language teachers are faculty members and graduate teaching assistants who use idiosyncratic methods and standard textbooks to teach the four basic language skills. Communication The term communication denotes the system used by all forms of life to share experiences. The essence of communication is said to "lie in the evolution of synergistic interplay between participants

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44 committed to maximizing the efficiency of interchange" (Petrovich & Hess, 1972, p. 19). Within this definition there are neurophysiological implications of human communication's dependence on body movement. According to Key (1977), human communication is body movement. Movement of the vocal apparatus results in speech, the verbal act, or paralanguage, the nonverbal act. Movement of the muscular and skeletal apparatus results in kinesic communication, another kind of nonverbal act. (p. 5) Kinesics Birdwhistell (1952, p. 3) first used the term kinesics to define body movement as related to the nonverbal aspects of interpersonal communication. In the present study, the terms, kinesic, body language, nonverbal communication, and communicative body movement, are used interchangeably. Language Conceptually, language is considered to be a behavioral "tool" that is used by human beings for the purpose of communication (Bruner, 1978, p. viii). Operationally, the term language includes foreign languages. Foreign Language The term foreign language refers to a language other than a native language. A recent trend in education is to use the term second language to include foreign language and bilingual learning and teaching issues (Richards, 1978). Limitations This study was limited to a quasi-experimental design because of the necessity of working within existing classrooms when attempting to

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45 determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on foreign language communication effectiveness. Student selection and assignment to treatment groups was nonrandom; therefore, full experimental control of initial group differences was not feasible. In order to reduce this limitation to internal validity, covariance analysis was used to control statistically for initial group nonequivalences (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Although the use of naturally formed groups might have inferred that the findings in this study could be generalized to similar classroom teaching situations, the self-selection of students into these groups presented a threat to such external validity. The self-selection of students into (a) intensive and (b) traditional language programs presented a threat to both the internal and external validity of results hypothesized to show no differences between the groups. No effort was made to remove these threats by seeking to identify preexisting differences in the two groups based on personality configurations, learning styles, and other related characteristics. An effort was made to reduce the severity of this limitation by seeking to identify differences between the groups according to previous educational and practical experiences with German. These differences were used as potential covariates to control statistically for initial group inequival encies that might have been caused by the use of a nonrandomized sample of student subjects. The inability to measure all possible student behaviors that may indicate student foreign language communication effectiveness presented a further limitation. Listening comprehension, speaking proficiency, and grammatical structure-vocabulary were directly measured

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46 by performance on tests. Specific reading, writing, nonverbal, and paral inguistic skills were not measured because of time and endurance constraints. Another limitation was imposed by the inability to measure all possible nonverbal and verbal language teaching behaviors that might provide sensory-motor stimulation for students in an environment of dynamic teacher/student interaction. Facial expressions, voice tones, and a variety of other nonverbal paral inguistic acts were not measured because of constraints of time and measurement instruments. Prior to the present study, the apparent effectiveness of teaching behaviors used in the experimental intensive German program had begun to influence the behaviors of teachers in the traditional program (Johnston, 1980). Although this influence might have combined with a Hawthorne effect created by the presence of video equipment to record observations of teacher behaviors, such a limitation was not expected to affect the outcome of the study. Plan of the Dissertation The statement of the problem and the rationale for the study were presented in the Introduction. Chapter II contains a review of studies related to the state of research in foreign language education and to the concepts and assumptions underlying the theoretical framework of this study. The assumptions, hypotheses, definition of terms, limitations, and plan of the dissertation are also presented in Chapter II. Chapter III contains a description of the procedures used to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. Chapter IV contains

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47 results of data analyses and findings from the study. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are presented in Chapter V.

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CHAPTER III PROCEDURE The present investigation was designed to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. The subjects were 6 instructors, 3 tutors, and 92 students enrolled in the final semester of beginning German courses at the University of Florida. The assumptions to be tested in this study were formulated as statistical hypotheses in Chapter II. The study was conducted in two phases. The preliminary phase involved procedures to collect descriptive data to document the actual duration of sensory-motor stimulation directed by two groups of language teachers toward their students. The second phase involved procedures to collect inferential statistical data to (a) document the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in beginning German programs, (b) quantify students' previous educational and practical experiences with German for use as covariate data, (c) quantify students' affective responses to their own ability to communicate in German and to their satisfaction with the efficacy of their courses to promote such abilities, and (d) measure student foreign language coimiunication effectiveness from test scores. This chapter contains descriptions of the subjects, instruments, methods, and analyses used in the two phases of investigation. 48

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49 The Sample Phase One: Subjects for Collection of Descriptive Data The subjects for this phase of the study were three instructors in the intensive language program and three in the traditional language program. Two of the intensive language teachers and two of those in the traditional language program were used because they were the only instructors who taught the final semester of beginning German during 19811982. The one additional intensive language teacher and the one additional traditional teacher were randomly selected from a pool of four teachers, two of whom taught first semester intensive beginning German courses and two who taught first semester traditional beginning German courses during 1981-1982. Phase Two: Subjects for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data In addition to the 6 teachers who served as subjects in the first phase of the study, 3 tutors and 92 students were subjects for the second phase. Two of the tutors were randomly selected from a pool of 7 who conducted tutor groups for students enrolled in the final semester of beginning German in the intensive language program. The other tutor was randomly selected from a pool of 6 who conducted first semester tutor groups. The total number of student subjects originally included 55 intensive language students and 37 traditional language students who were enrolled in 4 sections of the final semester of beginning German, and who were the population who attended during the 14th week of the spring 1981-1982 semester. Bonus points were awarded at the discretion of the

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50 instructors to all students who participated in the study and completed all instrumental procedures to measure communication effectiveness and affective responses. Although no student refused to participate, 4 students in the intensive language program and 5 students in the traditional language program were absent and did not complete all instrumental procedures. Incomplete data obtained from these students were not used in the statistical analyses, nor were extreme data obtained from one student in the intensive language program. This student reported extensive previous experience with the German language that was reflected in perfect test scores on all three components of the test used to measure student foreign language communication effectiveness. The data used in the statistical analyses, therefore, were obtained from 50 intensive language students and 32 traditional language students. Instrumentation and Collection of Data Phase One: Instruments for Collection of Descriptive Data The instruments used in the first phase of the study included the following standard videotape equipment: a Sony 4200 camera, a Sony 3600 videotape recorder, a 9-inch Sony receiver monitor, 12 one-hour Scotch reel-to-reel videotapes, and an Odetics video timer. Video Behavioral Observation Charts were designed by the investigator to record the durations in seconds that teachers were observed directing four behaviors toward students. A sample page from a Video Behavioral Observation Chart for one teacher is included as Appendix A.

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51 Phase One: Collection of Descriptive Data In order to collect data to document the actual duration of sensory-motor stimulation directed by teachers toward students, teachers were videotaped. Each of 6 teachers selected as subjects was videotaped for a full 50-minute class period twice during one semester. These videotapes were assumed to record a representative sample of kinesic and vocal language teaching behaviors per contact hour. A video timer signaling lOth-of-second, second, and minute durations was transposed onto each tape as a visual digital clock. From each videotape, four specific teaching behaviors were charted on Video Behavioral Observation Charts. The four behaviors, (1) gross body movement, (2) hand gestures, (3) spoken German, and (3) spoken English were charted for 2,700 seconds (45 minutes) starting with the first words spoken by the instructor to the students. The investigator observed the entire videotape for each teacher and charted 1 -second durations for each behavior. Two independent observers charted one identical 5-minute (300 second) randomly selected segment of four of the videotapes. The seconds counted by the two independent observers were correlated with each other and with the investigator's same 5-minute segment. Interobserver reliability was computed as the rate of agreement (the number of seconds in agreement divided by the total of agreements plus the total of disagreements). At least four interobserver reliability checks with at least 85% agreement for each behavior were made to ensure consistency of observation. According to Huck, Cormier, and Bounds (1974), such interobserver procedures avoid instrumental threats to applied

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52 behavioral analysis designs (pp. 334-335). The interobserver Reliability Charts containing data for two randomly selected intensive language teachers and for two randomly selected traditional language teachers are included as Appendix B. Phase One: Computations of Descriptive Data The number of seconds counted for each teaching behavior during a 45-minute period was recorded and totaled on Video Behavioral Observation Charts. The totals on the six charts for the three intensive language teachers were averaged to compute the mean seconds per contact hour for each behavior. The same procedure was followed to compute the mean seconds per contact hour for each behavior by traditional language teachers. In order to compute the total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation, the behaviors were made consistent with the operational definition of the term. Thus, this variable was calculated as the total mean seconds of three behaviors: gross body movement directed toward students, hand gestures directed toward students, and spoken German. Phase Two: Instruments for Collection of Inferential Statistical Data The instruments used in the second phase of the study included (a) standard videotape equipment and Video Behavioral Charts, (b) Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Forms, and (c) forms of three components of the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache battery of tests.

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53 Videotape equipment and Video Behavioral Observation Charts . These instruments were the same as those described in the first phase, except that these were used to record teaching behaviors of the three tutor subjects. A sample page from a Video Behavioral Observation Chart for one tutor is included as Appendix C. Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form . This instrument was designed by the investigator as a 5-item questionnaire to collect data for use as (1) covariates, (2) students' self -assessments of their ability to communicate in German, and (3) students' selfassessments of their satisfaction with courses to provide them with such communication effectiveness. The first three items were constructed to collect covariate data from students' previous educational and practical experiences with German. The construction of these three items was accomplished through two field tests, using variations of these items with intensive and traditional language students in final semester beginning German classrooms during the fall semester 1981-1982. The responses of these 19 intensive language students and 28 traditional language students were used to improve the reliability of items employed to gather the information needed as covariate data in the present study. The fourth and fifth items on the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form were designed as rating scales. The Performance Rating Scale and the Satisfaction Rating Scale were constructed according to guidelines for the construction and appropriate use of "numerical, graphic" scales as set forth by Dohner (1974, p. 21). The Performance Rating Scale was constructed with 5 points arranged along a

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54 continuum from excellent (4) to poor (0). The Satisfaction Rating Scale was constructed with 5 points arranged along a continuum from high (4) to low (0). The scales were pilot tested with 19 intensive language students and 28 traditional language students in final semester beginning German courses during fall 1981-1982. Because the perceptions of the student may change over time, the Performance and Satisfaction Rating Scales designed for this study were not considered to be any more or less reliable than other rating scales for these data. A sample copy of the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form is included as Appendix D. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache (DaF) . Three components of this battery of tests were used to collect data from test scores as measures of student foreign language communication effectiveness. The problem of finding a reliable and valid measure of foreign language communication effectiveness is recognized in the literature (e.g., Brod, 1980; Oiler & Perkins, 1980; Valette, 1977; Woodford, 1980). From a review of such literature, the consensus appeared to be that, except for the oral proficiency interview used by the Foreign Service institute, Americans have no commonly recognized yardstick to measure student ability to communicate in a foreign language. Valette's reference (1980) to the availability and appropriateness of the "Zertifikat" was the basis for selecting the DaF for this study. This decision was reached after consultation with intensive and traditional instructors in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and after securing permission from the authorities at the Goethe Institute, Atlanta, Georgia. The rationale for including the grammar structure-vocabulary test form of the DaF was considered to be consistent with the inclusion of

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55 grammatical structure-vocabulary exercises in standard textbooks used by teachers in traditional classroom instruction. Students in the traditional group in this study were expected to feel more familiar with a paper and pencil grammar test than with an oral interview test of grammar usage. The inclusion of this component was, therefore, an attempt to allay content validity bias toward the more real -life listening and speaking components. Listening and speaking test forms of the DaF were included in the total test score because they were believed to be valid performance tests of communication effectiveness in real-life situations. The DaF also includes reading and writing tests that are designed to test these skills in real -life situations. These two test components were not, however, included in the tests administered in the present study because of constraints of time, cost, scoring, and attendant endurance. Moreover, the investigator assumed that elements of reading comprehension were inherent in the listening comprehension and grammar structurevocabulary test forms. These forms required the student to read directions and to choose answers printed on the forms in German. The reliability and face validity of the DaF as an achievement test for adults are discussed in the manual (Deutscher Volkschochschul-Verband & GoetheInsti tut , (1977). In addition, the reliability of the component tests was assured through correspondence with the Goethe Institutes in Atlanta and in Munich, Germany. According to these sources, the Zertifikat was the result of a cooperative effort between the Goethe Institute, the Association of Educational Institutions for Adults in the Federal Republic of Germany, and the

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56 Association of Educational Institutions for Adults of Switzerland to certify communication proficiency in basic German. The test batteries were prepared in Germany where item analysis was used to determine the adequacy of items to discriminate between the better and poorer students who took draft versions of the components in at least seven different schools. Phase Two: Collection of Inferential Statistical Data Computation of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation levels . In order to convert the total mean seconds per contact hour of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation to the levels that comprised the statistics for the independent variable, the total mean seconds were multiplied by contact hours per (a) the intensive and (b) the traditional language program. Contact hours per program were calculated by multiplying the number of class periods per week by the number of weeks per semester, then adding these contact hours per semester according to the number of semesters required to complete each program. In the case of the traditional language program, the calculations for the first semester were made by multiplying 4 hours per week by 15 weeks to obtain 60 contact hours for the first semester. Contact hours for the second and third semesters were each calculated as 3 hours per week multiplied by 15 weeks to obtain a product of 45 contact hours each. The addition of the calculated contact hours for the three semesters provided the sum of 150 contact hours for the traditional language program.

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57 In the case of the intensive language program, calculations for the two required semesters each involved 4 hours per week of classes and 4 hours per week of tutor groups for a total of 240 contact hours. The mean seconds per contact hour of kinesic and vocal language behaviors by tutors were computed in a similar manner to that used to compile data on teacher behaviors during the first phase. Three tutor subjects were each videotaped while conducting a tutor group once during the semester so as to collect a sample of behaviors by tutors. The mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation were computed and tabulated for use in computing the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in the intensive language program. Collection and computation of covariate data . In order to collect quantifiable data on students' previous experiences with German, the investigator distributed the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form to the student subjects. The first three items on this questionnaire pertained to covariate data. Students reported on the first item previous beginning German courses taken at the University of Florida. This information was combined with data indicating current course status, and values of 1.5 and 1.0 weighted to intensive and traditional courses, respectively. The rationale for these weightings was based on the requirement of two intensive language courses and the requirement of three traditional language courses each for 10 semester hours. The resulting calculations for each student were designated as covariate 1 (COVl).

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58 Respondents reported on the second item previous German courses taken at schools other than the University of Florida. These data were quantified as school years. A school year was defined as two quarters or semesters at the postsecondary level or one SeptemberJune year at the K-12 level. Each student received a calculated score in terms of full, partial, or nil school years, designated ascovariate 2 (C0V2). Respondents reported on the third item previous hearing and speaking experiences with the German language outside of formal schooling. These data were quantified in terms of calendar months, calculated as quarter-years, and weighted differently according to where the student had the experience. One quarter-year of experience with hearing German within Germany was weighted by a factor of 2, whereas one quarter-year of experience with hearing German outside of Germany was weighted by a factor of 1. One quarter-year of experience with speaking German within Germany was weighted by a factor of 3, whereas one quarter-year of experience with speaking German outside of Germany was weighted by a factor of 2. These weightings were consistent with findings in the foreign language literature (e.g., Balke, 1980; Brod, 1980; Keilstrup, 1981; Thiel, 1980) that suggested the value of experiencing a language in its native context. Each student received a calculated quarteryear score that was designated as covariate 3 (C0V3). Collection of test score data . In order to collect data on student foreign language communication effectiveness, three components of the battery of tests comprising the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache (DaF) were administered to all student subjects during the 14th week of classes at the end of the 1982 spring semester.

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59 The investigator administered the grammatical structure-vocabulary component during regularly scheduled class periods of the two intensive and the two traditional beginning German classes that comprised the experimental and control groups in this study. The listening comprehension component was administered in the language lab by the investigator and by the language lab director together during four class periods in order to accommodate all student subjects. The speaking component was administered during individually scheduled 5-minute periods throughout the week. Native-German speaking interviewers administered the speaking component at the same time as the investigator videotaped the interviews for scoring at a later date by an independent scorer. Four statistically reliable variations of this "Communication in Everyday Situations" part of the DaF were alternated during the administration. Scoring procedures were accomplished according to instructions in the DaF manual (Deutscher Vol kschochschul -Verband & Goethe-Institut, 1977). Scoring of the grammatical structure-vocabulary and the listening comprehension components was accomplished by using a National Computer System scanner. The speaking component was scored by the nativeGerman speaking teacher who taught German at a local high school. This teacher independently viewed the videotapes and rated each student subject according to instructions in the DaF manual. The 82 students who completed all three test components received (a) a grammar structure-vocabulary score designated as GRAM, (b) a listening comprehension score designated as HEAR, (c) a speaking proficiency score designated as SPEAK, and (d) a total score comprising the three

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60 component scores and designated as TOT. The component scores were each given equal weight (30 points) in computing a maximum total test score of 90 points. Collection of data from rating scales . The fourth and fifth items of the questionnaire distributed to student subjects were designed as rating scales. The fourth item was a Performance Rating Scale designed to collect information about the student's self-assessed ability to use the German language. Each student assigned values ranging from 4 (excellent) to 0 (poor) to each of the four language skills. The fifth item of the questionnaire was designed as a Satisfaction Rating Scale to collect information about students' satisfaction with intensive and traditional language courses at the University of Florida. Each student assigned a value ranging from 4 (high) to 0 (low) to current and previous courses. Analyses The analyses of data were completed in two phases. Data collected in the first phase were tabulated and described. Data collected in the second phase were subjected to inferential statistical analyses. Phase One: Descriptive Data Analyses The preliminary phase of this investigation involved descriptive data. The previously defined kinesic and vocal language behaviors were systematically observed, recorded, and counted in an attempt to document their character and duration in seconds per contact hour. Collected data were tabulated and used to test the first null hypothesis. These data were also used to establish the levels of teacher-directed

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61 sensory-motor stimulation that were the independent variable for the second phase of the investigation. Phase Two: Inferential Statistical Analyses The design for testing the second null hypothesis was a nonequivalent control group design, described by Campbell and Stanley (1963) as a quasi-experimental design, and iS) represented as Three potential pretest measures were identified as COVl , C0V2, and C0V3 to represent (a) previous beginning German courses taken at the University of Florida, (b) previous educational experience with German in schools other than the University of Florida, and (c) previous practical experience with German. The dependent variable was defined as the posttest measures of student foreign language communication effectiveness which were identified as GRAM, HEAR, SPEAK, and TOT representing test scores on three components of the DaF and the total test score for each student subject. The treatment or independent variable was defined as the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation measured as the total mean seconds of gross body movement, hand gestures, and spoken German directed toward students in 240 contact hours in the intensive language program and 150 contact hours in the traditional language program. The experimental group (Group INT) was comprised of 50 students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. The control group (Group TRAD) was comprised of 32 students who were provided a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.

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62 Data collected from the two groups were subjected to an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to test for differences in foreign language communication effectiveness between the two groups. ANCOVA was used because of its ability to reduce error in the dependent variable by partial ing out the effects of differences between the groups according to the pretest covariate measures. Prior to using ANCOVA to test the second null hypothesis, the Pearson product-moment correlation procedure was used to test the significance of the correlations between the covariates and the dependent variable. The third and fourth hypotheses were designed to test the differences in affective responses between (a) students in the experimental and (b) students in the control group. In both these hypotheses, the variable, level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation, was measured as the total mean seconds of gross body movement, hand gestures, and spoken German directed toward students in 240 contact hours in the intensive language program and 150 contact hours in the traditional language program. Self-assessed ratings on four language skills comprised the variables measured by values on the Performance Rating Scale. Course satisfaction ratings were the variables measured by the combined values of current and previous intensive traditional language courses taken at the University of Florida as marked on the Satisfaction Rating Scale. The data for these variables were analyzed as frequencies in contingency tables. Independent chi-square tests were used to test the significance of differences in ratings between the (a) experimental and (b) control groups.

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63 The Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute Incorporated, 1979) was used in conjunction with computer facilities at the Northeast Regional Data Center to analyze data collected in this second phase of the study. The level of significance selected to test the hypotheses was alpha < .05. Results of the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses performed in the two phases of this study are presented in Chapter IV.

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CHAPTER IV FINDINGS The specific purpose of this investigation of neurophysiological implications for language learning identified in teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model was to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on foreign language communication effectiveness. Data resulting from two procedural phases of the study are presented, and findings are discussed in the present chapter. Results of Descriptive Data Analyses The purpose of the preliminary phase of the study was to document the actual number of seconds per contact hour that teachers directed sensory-motor stimulation to students in the intensive and the traditional beginning German programs at the University of Florida. Subjects for this phase of the study were three intensive and three traditional language teachers. Twelve videotapes of teacher behaviors were observed to record and count seconds per contact hour of four previously defined behaviors. Confidence in the reliability of these counts was strengthened through interobserver reliability procedures. Data from interobserver Reliability Charts are summarized in Table 1. The data in Table 1 indicate that the rate of agreement per behavior was high enough (above 85%) to justify the reliability of the investigator's counts for the six language teacher subjects. 64

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65 Table 1 Summary of Interobserver Reliability Data Rate of agreement per behavior Language teacher uruoc) uuujf movement (300 sec.) Gestures (300 sec.) Spoken German (300 sec.) Spoken English (300 sec.) inLensive ueacner n 92% 86% 100% Intensive teacher B 90 96 98 100 Traditional teacher A 96 98 97 97 Traditional teacher B 98 95 97 94 Data presented in Table 2 are the results of the investigator's observations and counts of seconds per contact hour of kinesic and vocal language behaviors of intensive and traditional language teachers. These data were used to test the subsections of the first null hypothesis. Null Hypothesis la The mean seconds per contact hour of gross body movement directed toward students by instructors who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers. Inspection of Table 2 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of gross body movement by intensive language teachers (1473.50) and the traditional language teachers (297.83; revised at 260.60) appears to be enough to reject Null Hypothesis la. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed more gross body movement toward students than did traditional language teachers.

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66 Table 2 Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language Behaviors by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers Behavior Gross body Hand Spoken Spoken movement gestures German English Language teachers Day (seconds) (seconds) (seconds) (seconds) Intensive Teacher A 1 2 1026 1120 1753 1189 1493 1472 8 0 Teacher B 1 2 1831 1366 1729 1335 1648 2042 0 3 Teacher C 1 2 1 CO o 1 boo 1815 1 <:09 1159 1 cm 1 501 1315 3 0 Total 8841 8374 9471 14 Mean 1473. 50 1395.67 1578.50 2.33 iditional Teacher A 1 2 72 121 317 202 235 550 1779 2014 Teacher B 1 2a 413 484b 872, 1029° 314. 1832° 1556 158b Teacher C 1 2 260 437 514 447 422 514 923 514 Total 1787 3381 3867 6944 Mean 297.83 563.50 644.50 1157.33 Revised total 1303 2352 2035 6786 Revised mean 260.60 470.40 407.00 1357.20 Day 2 for Teacher B was atypical. Teacher B admitted to varying from usual teaching methods on day 2 by singing and lecturing dramatically in German for at least 40 minutes. bThese data were omitted in computations of the revised total and the revised mean.

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67 Null Hypothesis lb The mean seconds per contact hour of hand gestures directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers. Inspection of Table 2 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of hand gestures by intensive language teachers (1395.67) and traditional language teachers (563.50; revised at 470.40) appears to be great enough to reject Null Hypothesis lb. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed more hand gestures toward students than did traditional language teachers. Null Hypothesis Ic The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken German directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by teachers using traditional language instruction. Table 2 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of spoken German by intensive language teachers (1578.50) and traditional language teachers (644.50; revised at 407.00) appears to be great enough to reject Null Hypothesis Ic. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed more spoken German toward students than did traditional language teachers. Null Hypothesis Id The mean seconds per contact hour of spoken English directed toward students by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the mean seconds directed toward students by traditional language teachers.

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68 According to Table 2, the magnitude of difference between the mean seconds per contact hour of spoken English by intensive language teachers (2.33) and traditional language teachers (1157.33; revised at 1357.20) appears to be great enough to reject Null Hypothesis Id. Teachers who used the intensive language model directed less spoken English toward students than did traditional language teachers. Data presented in Table 3 represent the total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation by intensive and traditional language teachers. These data were used to test the main section of the first null hypothesis. Table 3 Total Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Intensive and Traditional Language Teachers Teacher-directed Language teachers sensory-motor rstimulation Intensive Traditional Gross body movement (mean seconds) 1473.50 260.60 Hand gestures (mean seconds) 1395.67 470.40 Spoken German (mean seconds) 1578.50 407.00 Total mean 4447.67 1138.00 Revised mean seconds per contact hour were used to calculate the total mean seconds per contact hour by traditional language teachers. The unrevised total mean calculated at 1505.83 was considered erroneous because of inclusion of extreme raw data reported in Table 2.

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69 Null Hypothesis 1 The total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided by teachers who use the intensive language model does not differ from the total mean provided by traditional language teachers. Inspection of Table 3 indicates that the magnitude of difference between the total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided by intensive language teachers (4447.67) and traditional language teachers (1138,00) is great enough to reject Null Hypothesis 1. Teachers who used the intensive language model provided more teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than did traditional language teachers. In addition to data collected for the six teachers in the intensive and traditional beginning German programs, data compiled from the Video Behavioral Observation Charts of three tutors were included in the computations to establish the level of teacher-directed sensory motor stimulation used as the independent variable in the second procedural phase of the study. Table 4 contains data on tutor behaviors. The total mean seconds per contact hour of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation by tutors is reported in Table 5. Table 6 shows the levels of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in the intensive and traditional language programs. Inspection of Table 6 indicates that a higher level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation is provided for students in the intensive language program than in the traditional language program. These higher and lower levels were used as the treatment or independent

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70 variable in the quasi-experimental ly designed test of the second null hypothesis. Table 4 Mean Seconds per Contact Hour of Kinesic and Vocal Language Behaviors by Tutors Behavior Gross body movement Tutors (seconds) Hand gestures (seconds) Spoken German (seconds) Spoken Engl ish (seconds) Tutor A 1505 1006 1113 0 Tutor B 862 1230 1234 4 Tutor C 1323 897 973 2 Total 3690.00 3133.00 3320.00 6 Mean 1230.00 1044.33 1106.67 2 Table 5 Total Mean Seconds of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation by Tutors Teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation Tutors Gross body movement (mean seconds) 1230.00 Hand gestures (mean seconds) 1044.33 Spoken German (mean seconds) 1106.67 Total 3381.00

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r— Hv» •M C a> -a 3 *> to so Ma ra •rS> CD o o ssQ. a. SZ (U o 01 •In3 I— c 3 ea E -I •r4J I— oo (O c so 0 •+-> •(-> O -r2: XI 1 ta o (/) -o £1 C > -a O) -r»-> (/) o c O) 01 S_ -M •rC Q 1-1 I sc: u ra c +-> o 3 o o sO I/) to s+J 3 C O O ^ O 1^ _ o o +J s00c O SO o I S(U ^3 O E 1/1 •!O C 4-> (0 0)01 O) 1/1 o o o o r>s o r>. o IT) O O 00 CO o "53O CO CO in o OJ to o fO 0) o o o o o o o o CSJ uo o o o o «^ 01 CO o o C30 CO CO i. o +-> 3 > cu

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72 Results of Inferential Statistical Analyses The second phase of the study involved the use of covariance analysis of test score data and chi-square analysis of rating scale data. Subjects for this phase were 50 students in the intensive language program and 32 students in the traditional language program. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) Results Prior to testing the second null hypothesis with ANCOVA, the potential covariates (COVl, C0V2, C0V3) were correlated (alpha < .05) with the dependent variable or posttest measure, TOT. The results of Pearson product moment procedures showed C0V2 to be the most highly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of .28 significance at the alpha < .01 level. The other covariates were dropped because of lack of significant correlations at the alpha < .05 level. The second covariate (C0V2) was kept as a pretest measure of previous educational experience with German at schools other than the University of Florida to covary with the posttest measures. Tests of the homogeneity of slopes (alpha < .05) were also performed. No significant interaction was found between the covariate, C0V2, and total test scores, TOT, or between C0V2 and any of the component test scores (GRAM, HEAR, SPEAK). With the assumption of homogeneity of slopes met, ANCOVA was used to test the second main null hypothesis and the three subsections of the second null hypothesis. The 50 subjects in the intensive language program were the experimental group provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor

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73 stimulation (Group INT). The 32 subjects in the traditional language program were the control group provided a lower level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation (Group TRAD). The results of the analyses (alpha < .05) of the test score data, adjusted for unequal Ns and adjusted according to the covariate to control for initial differences between the groups, are reported in Tables 7 through 14. Tables 7 and 8 reflect the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean foreign language communication total test score. Table 7 Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Foreign Language Communication Total Test Score Source df SS MS F Previous educational experience (C0V2) 1 2365.31 2365.31 18.07* Level of stimulation (Group) 1 6556.88 6556.88 50.09* Error 79 10341.73 130.91 *Significant at alpha < .0001. Table 8 presents the adjusted least squares means for foreign language communication total scores for students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation and those provided a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation.

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74 Table 8 Adjusted Least Squares Means for Foreign Language Communication Total Test Scores Group TOT INT 60.80 TRAD 42.31 Null Hypothesis 2 . The mean foreign language communication test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. Inspection of Table 7 indicates that the F ratio of 50.09 was statistically significant (alpha < .05) for difference between the groups. Therefore, the second main null hypothesis is rejected. As indicated by the means listed in Table 8, students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean foreign language communication total test score. Tables 9 and 10 contain the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean grammar structure-vocabulary test scores.

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75 Table 9 Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Grammar Structure-Vocabulary Test Score Source df SS MS F Previous educational experience (C0V2) 1 98.94 98.94 7.63* Level of stimulation (Group) 1 239.40 239.40 18.46** Error 79 1024.30 12.95 *Significant at alpha < .01. **Significant at alpha < .0001. Table 10 presents the adjusted least squares means for grammar structure-vocabulary test scores for students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation and those provided a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. Table 10 Adjusted Least Squares Means for Grammar Structure-Vocabulary Test Scores Group GRAM INT 14.76 TRAD 11.22

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76 Null Hypothesis 2a . The mean grammatical structure-vocabulary test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. Inspection of Table 9 indicates that the F ratio of 18.46 was statistically significant (alpha < .05) for differences between the groups. Therefore, the first subsection of the second hypothesis is rejected. According to means listed in Table 10, students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean grammatical structure.-vocabulary test score. Tables 11 and 12 contain the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean student listening comprehension test score. Table 11 Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on Mean Listening Comprehension Test Score Source df SS MS F Previous educational experience (C0V2) 1 232.76 232.76 8.89* Level of stimulation (Group) 1 557.51 557.51 21.30** Error 79 2067.39 26.17 *Significant at alpha < .01. *Significant at alpha < .0001.

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77 Table 12 contains the adjusted least squares means for listening comprehension test scores for students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation and those provided a lower level of such stimulation. Table 12 Adjusted Least Squares Means for Listening Comprehension Test Scores by Groups Group HEAR INT 21.30 TRAD 15.91 Null Hypothesis 2b . The mean listening comprehension score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. Inspection of Table 11 indicates that the F ratio of 21.30 was statistically significant (alpha < .05) for differences between groups. Therefore, the second subsection of the second hypothesis is rejected. The means listed in Table 12 show that students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean listening comprehension test score. Tables 13 and 14 represent the covariance analysis results for the effect of level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on the mean student speaking proficiency test score.

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78 Table 13 Summary of Covariance Analysis for Effect of Level of Teacher-Directed Sensory-Motor Stimulation on the Mean Speaking Proficiency Test Score Source df SS MS Previous educational experience {C0V2) 1 511.58 511.58 13.24* Level of stimulation (Group) 1 1819.78 1819.78 47.09** Error 79 3053.09 38.65 *Signif icance at alpha < .01. **Significance at alpha < .0001 Table 14 reflects the adjusted least squares means for student speaking proficiency test scores for students who are provided a higher and a lower level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. Table 14 Adjusted Least Squares Means for Speaking Proficiency Test Scores Group SPEAK INT TRAD 24.93 15.19

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79 Null Hypothesis 2c . The mean speaking proficiency test score of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation does not differ significantly from that of students provided a lower level. Inspection of Table 13 indicates that the F ratio of 47.09 was statistically significant (alpha < .05) for differences between the groups. Therefore, the third subsection of the second null hypothesis is rejected. The means listed in Table 14 show that students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved the higher mean speaking proficiency test score. Independent Chi-Square Test Results In order to test for significant (alpha < .05) differences between groups in the third and fourth null hypotheses, data from rating scales were analyzed as frequencies in contingency tables. The 50 subjects in the intensive language program who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation were designated as Group INT. The 32 subjects in the traditional language program provided a lower level were designated as Group TRAD. These two groups constituted one variable in the 2x5 contingency tables used originally. The other variables were (a) self-assessed ability to use the German language as measured by . .5 points on the Performance Rating Scale and (b) course satisfaction as measured by 5 points on the Satisfaction Rating Scale. Both rating scales are items on the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form included as Appendix D. Collapsed Variables . Initial chi-square analyses were done with the original 5-point variables; however, in order to reduce the number

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80 of low frequency cells, subsequent analyses reported in Tables 15 through 19 were done with collapsed variables. Points on the Performance Rating Scales with values above 2 were collapsed to a value of 3 and points with values below 2 were collapsed to a value of 1 in the 2x3 contingency tables used to test the third hypothesis. The combined points of previous and current course satisfaction ratings in the 2x3 contingency tables used to test the fourth hypothesis were collapsed as follows: (a) combined points with values above 5 were collapsed to a value of 3; (b) combined points with values of 3, 4, or 5 were collapsed to a value of 2; (c) combined points with values below 3 were collapsed to a value of 1. Null Hypothesis 3a . The self-assessed reading comprehension ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level. Table 15 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3a arranged in a 2 X 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD. Inspection of Table 15 indicates that the chi-square value of .345 was not statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 3a is not rejected on the basis of the frequency with which the two groups of students self-assessed their reading comprehension skills according to three nominal ratings. Null Hypothesis 3b . The self-assessed listening comprehension ratings of students who are provided higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level.

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81 Table 15 Self -Assessed Reading Comprehension Ratings by Student Groups Student group Self-assessed reading comprehension rating Poor 1 Fair 2 Excellent 3 INT Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent TRAD Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent Chi square = 0.345* 2 2.44 4.00 66.67 1 1.22 3.13 33.33 20 24.39 40.00 64.52 11 13.41 34.33 35.48 28 34.15 56.00 58.33 20 24.39 62.50 41.67 *Alpha < .8416. Table 16 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3b arranged in a 2 X 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD. Inspection of Table 16 indicates that the chi-square value of 3.435 was not statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore Null Hypothesis 3b is not rejected on the basis of the frequencies with which

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82 Table 16 Self-Asssessed Listening Comprehension Ratings by Student Groups Student group Self-assessed listening comprehension rating Poor Fair Excellent 1 2 3 INT Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 3 3.66 6.00 42.86 15 18.29 30.00 51.72 32 39.02 64.00 69.57 TRAD Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 4 4.88 12.50 57.14 14 17.07 43.75 48.28 14 17.07 43.75 30.43 Chi square = 3.435* *Alpha < .1795.

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83 the two groups of students self-assessed their listening comprehension skills according to three nominal ratings. Null Hypothesis 3c . The self-assessed writing proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level. Table 17 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3c arranged in a 2 X 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD. Inspection of Table 17 indicates that the chi-square value of 5.329 was not statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 3c is not rejected on the basis of the frequencies with which the two groups of students self-assessed their writing skills according to three nominal ratings. Null Hypothesis 3d . The self-assessed speaking proficiency ratings of students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensorymotor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students provided a lower level. Table 18 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 3d arranged in a 2 X 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD. Inspection of Table 18 indicates that the chi-square value of 9.254 was statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 3d is rejected. Students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation self-assessed their speaking proficiency higher than did students provided a lower level.

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84 Table 17 Self-Assessed Writing Proficiency Ratings by Student Groups Student group Self -assessed writing proficiency rating Poor 1 Fair 2 Excellent 3 INT Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 11 13.41 22.00 84.62 20 24.39 40.00 50.00 19 23.17 38.00 65.52 TRAD Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 2 2.44 6.25 15.38 20 24.39 62.50 50.00 10 12.20 31.25 34.48 Chi square = 5.329" Alpha < .0696.

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85 Table 18 Self -Assessed Speaking Proficiency Ratings by Student Groups Student group Self-assessed speaking proficienty rating Poor 1 Fair 2 Excellent 3 INT Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 8 9.76 16.00 40.00 13 15.85 26.00 52.00 29 35.37 58.00 78.38 TRAD Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 12 14.63 37.50 60.00 12 14.63 37.50 48.00 8 9.76 25.00 21.62 Chi square = 9.254* *Alpha < .0098. Null Hypothesis 4 . The course satisfaction ratings of students who provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation do not differ significantly from those of students who are provided a lower level .

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86 Table 19 represents the variables in Null Hypothesis 4 arranged in a 2 X 3 contingency table. Group INT was provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than was Group TRAD. Table 19 Foreign Language Course Satisfaction Ratings by Student Groups Student group Low 1 Course satisfaction rating Moderate 2 High 3 INT Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 2 2.44 4.00 33.33 5 6.10 10.00 26.32 43 52.44 86.00 75.44 TRAD Frequency Percent Row percent Column percent 4 4.88 12.50 66.67 14 17.07 43.75 73.68 14 17.07 43.75 24.56 Chi square = 16.529^ *Alpha < .0003.

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87 Inspection of Table 19 indicates that the chi-square value of 16.529 was statistically significant at alpha < .05. Therefore, Null Hypothesis 4 is rejected. Students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation rated their satisfaction with foreign language courses higher than did students provided a lower level Discussion of Descriptive Findings In the preliminary phase of this study, the investigator sought documentation for the character and duration of teacher-directed sensory motor stimulation provided for students in the intensive and traditional beginning German programs at the University of Florida. Twelve videotapes provided a means of charting and counting durations of four welldefined kinesic and vocal language behaviors that constituted the operational definition of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. The subjects were six teachers conducting two 50-minute classes each. Rejection of Null Hypotheses la, lb, Ic, and Id The results of counting seconds per contact hour for each of four well-defined kinesic and vocal language behaviors showed that teachers who used the intensive language model directed (a) 5.62 times as many seconds of gross body movement, (b) 2.97 times as many seconds of hand gestures, and (c) 3.88 times as many seconds of spoken German toward students as did traditional language teachers during each contact hour. Traditional language teachers directed 582.49 times as many seconds of spoken English toward students as did intensive language teachers during each contact hour.

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88 These quantitative findings were consistent with qualitative findings described in the literature by Byrd (1980), Johnston (1980), and Rassias (1970) and with informal observations made by the investigator in beginning German classes during 1980-1982. Instructors who used the intensive language model spent high levels of energy in attempting to create optimum learning environments of dynamic teacher/student interaction. These teachers were constantly moving about the classroom, usually using a choreographed rhythm and pace of verbal and nonverbal cues prescribed by Rassias to reduce inhibitions to communication. The cues were in the form of chorals, finger-snaps, pointing gestures, acknowledging expressions, and large body movements on three axes of movement directed toward student— side to side, up and down, and back to front. The omission of spoken English prescribed by Rassias and noted during observations in intensive language classrooms was confirmed by the finding that only 14 seconds of English were spoken in the total of 16,200 seconds counted for teachers who used the intensive language program. This finding contrasted sharply with the finding that the traditional language teachers spoke English 50% of the counted time. Except in one case (traditional teacher B, day 2), the six teacher subjects behaved as they had been observed informally by the investigator, in a manner students agreed was usual behavior during the entire semester. On the second day of videotaping, traditional teacher B departed from normal teaching behavior and from the scheduled grammar lesson by substituting a dramatic lecture about East Germany, including the singing of its national anthem in German. This admittedly atypical behavior was verified by students who commented verbally and

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89 in writing on the Foreign Language Student Data Sheet and Rating Form to inform the investigator of an increase in the activity of the teacher when observed or videotaped. The extreme data from this teacher's Video Behavioral Observation Chart were deleted from the data used in this study. Had these data been included, however, the results would have been the same with respect to the rejection of the first null hypotheses. Rejection of Null Hypothesis 1 The rejection of the main section of the first null hypothesis indicated that instructors who use the intensive language model provide more teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than do traditional language teachers. This descriptive finding was consistent with quantitative findings from the rejection of the first subsectional null hypotheses. One of the assumptions of this study was that teachers direct sensory-motor stimulation toward students via their gross body movements, hand gestures, and vocalizations. It was further assumed in this study that these teaching behaviors have neurophysiological implications for learning to communicate in a language. Although the neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors are not addressed as such, comments made by Rassias in the film Effective Language Teaching (1972) reflect such implications for teaching and learning through multisensory stimulation and sensory-integrative brain processes. Rassias greets teachers who attend workshops with the statement that they will have their vitality and enthusiasm judged by their "ability to meet the class and to flow with it and get out of it maximum performance." He emphasizes the need for reality and for commitment

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90 to communication, stating, "If it is to have any validity today, the entire process of communication must shape our awareness of ourselves and our awareness of others. Nothing is real unless it touches me and I am aware of it" ( Effective Language Teaching . 1972). Without referring to teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation as such, Johnston (1980) described the vitality of teachers and tutors in an intensive language program as "the enthusiasm and objectified 'hard work' of instructors" who motivate the student to learn (p. 99). Johnston further described teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias as economical because they effectively eliminate the need for expensive audio-visual equipment. He stated. The intensive language model relies on interpersonal contact between teacher and language learner. . . . The Master and Apprentice Teachers serve as models for the learner; they drill by means of a four-part technique, including (a) voice modulation, (b) snapping the fingers, (c) pointing at designated responders, and (d) intense eye contact. Through "surprise" and personal involvement, teachers motivate students to share in the unique experiences a foreign language can transmit, (p. 103) Byrd (1980) reiterated a similar theme in reporting the successful implementation of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model that "exceeds by far that of traditional techniques previously employed at Emory and Henry" (pp. 297-298). He gave credit to the stimulation provided by apprentice teachers (tutors) when he stated. Using techniques developed by John Rassias (which require the drill leaders to move about constantly, never follow any set pattern, and punctuate the drill cues with a lively finger snap), the apprentice teachers conduct classes so that students remain alert, never knowing when they will be called on to respond. Not only are the techniques effective, but the apprentice teachers' enthusiasm and animation also turn out to be highly contagious; all at once the students begin to enjoy the fruits of their effort and, therefore, to profit from an al 1 -important intrinsic motivation, (p. 299)

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91 The terms used by Rassias, Johnston, and Byrd in reference to such concepts and behaviors as vitality, animation, enthusiasm, motivation, awareness, eye contact, movement, voice modulation, finger-snapping, and finger-pointing are analogous to the "high and low inference" teaching concepts and behaviors hypothesized to be related to student achievement by Rosenshine (1970, p. 510). In the present study, the application of the neurophysiological implications of these teaching behaviors to the term teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulatio n provided the theoretical framework for the quasi-experiment designed to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. Interpretations of the results of this study were based on the significance of inferential statistical analyses. Discussion of Inferential Statistical Findings In the second phase of the study, the independent variable was computed as levels of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. The results of computations showed that whereas the combined teacher and tutor hours in two required semesters of the intensive language program were 1.6 times as many as in three required semesters of the traditional program, the level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation provided for students in the intensive language program was 5.5 times as high as that provided in the traditional language program. These results were interpreted as documentation that teachers who used selected kinesic and vocal language behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model provide a higher level of sensory-motor stimulation for students than do traditional language teachers, regardless of contact time.

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92 Rejection of Null Hypotheses 2, 2a, 2b, and 2c The rejection of these hypotheses at highly significant (alpha < .0001) probability levels verified the second assumption that students who are provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieve a higher level of foreign language communication effectiveness. This was the major finding in the present study to determine the effects of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation on student foreign language communication effectiveness. One of the assumptions based on the second main assumption of the study suggested that students in the intensive language program would have lower scores on the grammatical structure-vocabulary test than would students whose instructors used traditional teaching methods and textbooks emphasizing English translation and grammatical analysis of the structure of German. Analysis of data pointed in the opposite direction. Students in the intensive language program, where grammar was taught only incidently through the use_ of language, scored significantly higher on the grammar test than did students in the traditional language program. A further assumption of the study was that students in the intensive language program would have higher listening and speaking test scores than would students who were provided a lower level of teacherdirected sensory-motor stimulation in the traditional language program. Analysis of data confirmed this. The mean listening comprehension test score for the intensive (experimental) group was 21.30, whereas the mean for the traditional (control) group was 15.91. Even more indicatively, the mean speaking proficiency test score for the intensive group was 24.93, whereas the mean for the traditional group was 15.19.

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93 The rejection of the second main and subsectional null hypotheses substantiates findings noted by Hosenfeld (1979) to indicate the inadequacy of learning through passive reading-grammar tasks. Additionally, the rejected hypotheses in the present study support the assumption of Rassias (1970) that students learn to communicate effectively in foreign languages through us£ of the language, not through analysis of the language. These findings suggest congruence with empirical findings in occupational therapy (e.g.. Angel o, 1980; Ayres, 1972a, 1981) that showed academic and language performances improving following sensory-motor stimulation. Failure to Reject Null Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c Results of chi -square analyses of data from rating scales showed no significant (alpha < .05) difference between the traditional and intensive groups on their self-assessments of their reading comprehension, listening comprehension, and writing proficiency. The frequencies with which the two groups of students self-assessed their reading comprehension skills were fairly proportional. The frequencies with which the two groups self-assessed their listening comprehension skills indicated that a higher, not significant, percentage (64%) of students in the intensive group than in the traditional group (43.75%) felt confident about their listening comprehension of German. The frequencies with which the two groups self-assessed their writing proficiency skills showed that a higher, not significant, percentage (22%) of intensive language students than of traditional language students (6.25%) felt their writing skills to be nominally poor.

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94 These findings were consistent with previous reports of beginning German student attitudes by Von Gal (1974) and Johnston (1980). Von Gal's large-scale study revealed that students in the established traditional beginning German program felt less than satisfied with their ability to use the language functionally in real-life situations. Johnston reported that students in the experimental intensive language program, when asked for suggestions to improve the program, suggested that they be given more reading and writing assignments. The failure to reject hypotheses formulated to test the significance of differences between the groups of students on the selfassessments of their reading, listening, and writing skills showed that the majority of students in both groups felt that their ability to use the German language in these communication modes was at least "fair." In the case of reading comprehension, the majority of students in both groups felt their ability to perform this skill to be "excellent." In the case of listening comprehension, the majority of students in the intensive group self-rated this skill as "excellent." Writing appeared to be the only skill in which the majority in neither group felt highly proficient. These results reflect the objectivity with which the student subjects self -assessed their skills—students appeared to try to use the rating scale conscientiously, so as to provide the investigator with undistorted, nonsubjecti ve data. Rejection of Null Hypothesis 3d The results of chi -square analysis of the frequency with which the two groups of students rated their speaking proficiency showed that a significantly (alpha < .01) higher percentage {58%) of students in

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95 the intensive group than in the traditional group (25%) rated their ability to speak the German language as "excellent." Conversely, a significantly (alpha < .01) higher percentage (37.5%) of students in the traditional group than in the intensive group (16%) rated their speaking proficiency as "poor." These results might have been anticipated from numerous accounts of the success of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model in increasing students' oral communication confidence (e.g., Byrd, 1980; Effective Language Teaching , 1972; Johnston, 1980; Luxenberg, 1978; Rassias, 1970, 1972). Observations of students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation in intensive beginning German classrooms showed the spontaneity and exuberance with which these students discoursed in a foreign language. Anecdotal evidence from intensive language students at the University of Florida and at Dartmouth attests to the phenomenon of beginning language students speaking a foreign language without inhibition within a few days after enrollment in an intensive language program. In addition, the rejection of Null Hypothesis 3d was consistent with the rejection of Null Hypothesis 2c that indicated the significantly higher ability of students in the intensive language program to speak proficiently as measured by test scores. Rejection of Null Hypothesis 4 The fourth null hypothesis was concerned with students' satisfaction with their beginning German courses at the University of Florida. The results of chi-square analysis of data from the Satisfaction Rating Scale showed that a significant (alpha < .001) percentage (86%) of

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96 intensive language students assigned a high value to their satisfaction with their courses in the intensive language program. This finding was consistent with the statistically significant lower percentage (4%) of intensive language students than of traditional language students (12.50%) who rated their courses in the lowest category. Observations of students in intensive classrooms indicated that students enjoyed the dynamic teacher/student interaction generated by teachers who used the intensive language model. Anecdotal evidence revealed that students were enthusiastic about the intensive language program and appreciative of the energy expended by teachers and tutors to stimulate learning through all of the senses. The rejection of the fourth null hypothesis in the present study substantiated informally observed affective responses of students in the intensive language program and supplemented evidence in the literature (e.g., Byrd, 1980; Johnston, 1980; Schulz, 1978; Stansfield & Hornor, 1981). Further substantiation was found in student comments on the Student Foreign Language Data Sheet and Rating Form. Both at the pilot testing and the later collection of data, students voluntarily wrote favorable comments regarding the intensive language model and instruction in the intensive language program. Although an analysis of these comments was not included in the scope of the study, a count of 129 forms showed that 37 out of 69 intensive language students voluntarily wrote in a section designated for "comments." Of these 37 writings, 29 were favorable comments about the instructors and the model. In contrast, of the 12 out of 60 traditional language students who voluntarily wrote a message on the form, only 3 commented favorably about the study of German.

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97 Another indication of the high regard students displayed for the efforts of instructors who used the intensive language model to help them learn to use and enjoy the German language was the announcement ("Three Graduate Students," 1982) that intensive language teacher A had been selected by a "University-wide selection committee" as one of three "outstanding teaching assistants for 1981-1982" (p. 14). The finding that students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation were more satisfied with their intensive language instruction than were students who were provided a lower level of such stimulation was consistent with findings of Esp (1978) and Wyckoff (1973). Both Esp and Wyckoff reported that the nonverbal mobility and gesturing behaviors of teachers positively affected student attitude toward instruction.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study arose from a need for educational research to improve the teaching of foreign languages in the United States, It was based on the belief that an understanding of how brain processes interact with language learning may help to explain how languages can be taught more effectively. The study was designed to determine if the neurophysiological implications of teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model could provide a basis for effective teaching. Conclusions Within the limitations stated in Chapter II, and on the basis of data collected and analyzed for this study, the following conclusions evolved: 1. Instructors who use the intensive language model provide more teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation than do teachers who use traditional language instructional methods in beginning German classrooms at the University of Florida. This conclusion was based on descriptive findings from data collected from videotapes to measure the total mean seconds per contact hour of three selected kinesic and vocal language behaviors: (a) gross body movement, (b) hand gestures, and (c) spoken German. Instructors who used the intensive language model directed a mean of 4447.67 seconds per contact hour of these behaviors toward 98

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99 students, whereas traditional language instructors directed a mean of 1505,83 seconds per contact hour, at most, toward students. 2. Beginning German students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation achieved a higher level of foreign language communication effectiveness than did students provided a lower level of stimulation. This conclusion was based on evidence from scores on three test forms of the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache administered to two groups of student subjects. Students in the final semester of the intensive language program who comprised the experimental group achieved a significantly (alpha < .0001) higher mean total test score of 60.80 than did students in the traditional program, who comprised the control group, and who had a mean of 42.31. 3. Beginning German students who were provided a high level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation in the intensive language program were more confident of their ability to communicate in German through speech than were students who completed the traditional language program. This conclusion was positively supported by the significantly (alpha < .01) higher percentage of students in the intensive language program who self-assessed their speaking proficiency as "excellent"; and was inversely supported by the significantly higher percentage of traditional language students who rated this ability as "poor." 4. Beginning German students who were provided a higher level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation were significantly (alpha < .001) more satisfied with their foreign language courses than were students who were provided a lower level. This conclusion was suggested by the fact that 86% of students in the intensive group were highly

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100 satisfied with the efficacy of intensive language courses to enable them to communicate effectively in German. This evidence of "high" satisfaction was absent in the responses of 56.25% of students in the traditional language program. The conclusions based on inferential statistics are not claimed to have resulted solely from the treatment variable, teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation, as defined in this study. Instead, conclusions are presented with the suggestion that they may have been caused, at least partially, by the teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model— behaviors that were assumed to have neurophysiological implications for language learning. Recommendations for further study of the problem posed by the need for a coherent theory of language learning on which to base language teaching behaviors were derived from consideration of the acknowledged limitations of the present study and from implications of the findings. Recommendations The present study grew out of a need for improved foreign language learning and more effective language teaching. It centered on the apparent effectiveness of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model with prescribed teaching behaviors that appeared to stimulate students to learn more easily to communicate in a foreign language. A review of literature in related fields provided support for the neurophysiological implications for language learning found in teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias to increase foreign language communication effectiveness.

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101 Evidence corroborated the theory that human beings learn through their sensory systems as a natural consequence of the processes of living. Support was found for the premise that those who wish to influence the learning behaviors of other human beings must somehow stimulate the senses of the learner. According to sensory integration theories developed by Ayres (1972b), the learning organ called the brain develops and functions through "the action of the environment upon the organism and the reaction of that organism upon the environment" (p. 22). Although Ayres developed her theories of the need for sensory-motor stimulation from her experiences as an occupational therapist working to mitigate learning dysfunctions in children, her concepts may be applied to all types of learning dysfunction— in the present study, the lack of facility with foreign languages. Thus the present study was based on the theory that the teacher is the reality of learning whenever the teacher behaves so as to interact with the student to elicit an adaptive sensory-motor response from the student. In an environment of dynamic teacher/student interaction, both teacher and student teach and learn through teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation. One of the major limitations of the present study was the inability to measure all possible student and teacher behaviors that might indicate the extent of interaction observed in intensive beginning classrooms at the University of Florida. The three kinesic and vocal language behaviors that were measured for their effectiveness in promoting student achievements on three tests measuring knowledge of grammar, listening comprehension, and speaking proficiency in German do not tell the whole story of the phenomenon of learning that appeared to happen in these classrooms.

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102 Despite the highly significant results of this study, further research is required to substantiate the creative teacher's intuitive feelings about the art of teaching, and to elucidate the biological and neurophysiological implications of the relationship of effective teaching behavior to effective learning behavior that have been hinted at throughout history. Such scholars as Bacon, Comenius, Dewey, James, Montessori , Ogden, Pestalozzi, and Whitehead related the art of teaching to the art of developing human potential through the natural integrating learning processes of living, doing, and experiencing. The potential of multisensory stimulation described in the recent writings of Coppola (1970), Edwards (1979), Montague (1978), and Nelson (1977) must be studied. The need for dynamic teacher/student interaction for the development of the natural capacity to learn has been hypothesized recently by numerous concerned educators (e.g.. Chappie, 1981; Gorman, 1974; Holt, 1967, 1981; Hyman, 1974; Suzuki, 1969, 1973). Perhaps these hypotheses can be tested through research designed to reduce the acknowledged limitations to the conclusions of the present study, not only for the improvement of foreign language education, but for the benefit of education in general. Specific suggestions for such research include: 1. Follow-up studies designed to reduce limitations of (a) nonrandomization, (b) lack of information about the personality factors of students, and (c) constraints that prevent the measurement of all possible student and teacher behaviors that might indicate the extent of interaction observed in beginning German classrooms at the University of Florida.

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103 a. To remove limitations of nonrandomization, follow-up studies may take the form of true experiments in which students are randomly selected and randomly assigned to treatment groups that are differentiated by higher and lower levels of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation as measured in the present study. b. To reduce the influence of personality factors, followup studies may attempt to measure personality configurations and learning styles that tend to influence the behaviors of students (Llorens & Adams, 1976). The anecdotal evidence of positive comments made by students in the intensive language program suggested that students who self-selected this program had personalities and learning styles conducive to less passive, less verbal, less linear, and less literal instructional methods than are traditionally used in the American educational system (Rennels, 1976). Conversely, the rare negative reactions from students in the intensive language program pointed to learning styles more suited to what Rennels calls "education's emphasis on analytical/ linear functions considered desirable in Western society" (p. 471). According to Rothbart (1972), everyone is born with the potential for a creative, global learning style— a style he described as "the product of intense interaction between inborn abilities and propensities and favorable environmental conditions" (p. xi). Research is needed in general education, as in foreign language education, to confirm or to deny speculations that analytical/linear methods of instruction condition students to inhibit their natural neurophysiological capacity to gather information through their senses while actively participating, experiencing, doing, and communicating.

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104 c. To alleviate constraints to the measurement of all possible nonverbal and vocal language teaching behaviors, follow-up studies should allow more time and more sophisticated instruments and notational systems to record and count these behaviors. In future studies, more time and better instrumentation may be employed to measure facial expressions, voice tones, eye contact, and a myriad of other paralinguistic acts and communicative body movements defined most comprehensively by Key (1975, 1977) and discussed most intuitively by Sarles (1974, 1977). 2. Studies of a more naturalistic or ethnographic nature designed to capture the qualitative rather than the quantitative aspects of teaching behaviors, communication effectiveness, and dynamic teacher/ student interaction observed in beginning German classrooms. Such studies may amplify the use of videotape equipment used in the present study through the use of high speed or low speed cinematography for behavioral microanalysis of classroom interactions. The works of Condon (1966, 1974), Eibl -Eibesfeldt (1972, 1975), and Trevathen (1974, 1977) exemplify the work being done to discover the ways we human beings learn through communication, language, and the interactive experiences of life. Such work has been documented in a film (Wolff, 1971) showing the ways that babies naturally depend on their sensory systems to gather information from the environment through the phenomenon of the movement of bodies through time and space. A film such as this is needed to document the dependence of students on the movements of their instructors, not only in foreign language classes, but in all classes designed for the exchange of information from teacher to student.

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105 3. Studies designed to apply the teaching behaviors prescribed in the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model to other areas of teaching and learning. The major conclusion reached in the present study suggests that not only were the receptive and expressive language skills significantly improved by a high level of teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation, but also the grammatical skills. Students who were taught grammar only incidently through the us£ of the language scored significantly (alpha < .0001) higher on a test of grammatical structurevocabulary than did students in a traditional program that emphasized structural analysis and English translation of syntax. This finding points to the need for more research to substantiate the effectiveness of subcortical sensory-integrative processes for the facilitation of learning. Such research is needed not only by foreign language educators, but by all instructors who understand that the effectiveness of a formal plan of curriculum and instruction is contingent on what Snyder (1970) called the more effective "hidden curriculum" that is taught and learned with subconscious ease through the medium of nonverbal communication. In summary, if the conclusions of the present study have to any extent determined that the neruophysiological implications of teaching behaviors prescribed by Rassias can provide teachers with a basis for effective language teaching, there is much need for continued research to test the theory that teacher-directed sensory-motor stimulation effects student learning.

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APPENDIX A SAMPLE PAGE FROM VIDEO BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION CHART FOR ONE TEACHER

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a: LU CO o cm o CO o UJ o o $.-H U " I— o CU •!^ r— o cn a. c 00 LU ^ E O SCO O T3 +-> O C ^ (U E to O O SE CD +-> O to E O U (U to O) -D SC 3 03 !-> rc lo CO M o to o c o o O) oo o I/) o c: o (J o CO c o o QJ 00 to 3 o O O I O o C\J <— I 00 cvj CO c» ^ ro ^ I I I O CM o O ro CO 00 in to ^ o rH O I I I CO VD LT) O CM LT) «D VO CNJ to CM o cri 1— I Lft tn I I I I o CO 'do CM «3tn r— I i-H r-H 1— I ^ i— I i-H rocTicooto>— tt— icno orocM <— i.-iCMrocoLr)0<— iLD cm^lo I I I I I I I I I III cMCJDCMCTiLnoococri vocMr-i 1— i.-HCMCMrotnO'— ^^Lo 1— lO"*"— I"— li— ''— ICMLDi— 1 I— lOOtOOCMtni— 1^1 — LDt-H O"— 'cooo'^^'d-LnLnLnO'— I I I I I I I I I I I I I OCTlOCMCTli— l O •— I CM t3CO I I I I I CO CO ^ O CO O -I CM ^ CO o o CM I o o o CM o o o o o o • • • • CM CO CM 1 CM CM o 1 o O o o O • • r-H CM CO CM CM CM 121

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122 ^ I — O CD Q. C 1/1 UJ ra +-> o (/) CO cn o T3 t— 1 CO «^ o C o 1 1 1 o IT) CM ai OJ t— t CO CO o CO o c o o 1/5 (U -o iC 3 fO +-> 3r l/l O) rc M O o c o o 1 o c E 1/1 O) 1/1 > o o SE CD 03 O I/) T3 o o 00 l/> +-> C t-H t— I o ro <— I 00 CM •— I CVI •— I 1— I o r-N. en t-H CO O CM CM CO LD ID 00 Lf) I CO LO CO CO I CO U3 en LO 1— I r~. cT> IT) O CM O in CM CO CO t— I CO «ao o o o o o o o tn o LO CM CM CM CM O 1 1 o o 1 o O o o o o o o CM CM O o

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APPENDIX B INTEROBSERVER RELIABILITY CHARTS

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INTEROBSERVER RELIABILITY CHARTS Intensive language teacher A Observer UlOSS Douy movement Hand gestures Spoken German opuiscll Engl ish R.C.J. 129 104 106 0 F.L.W. 133 1 1 L lUdi 0 A N 1 1 OA 1 Uf 129 145 Disagreements 29 25 42 0 Total of agreements plus disagreements 300 300 300 300 Percentage of agreement 90% 92% 86% 100% Intensive language teacher B Observer Gross body movement Hand gestures Spoken German Spoken English R.C.J. 159 139 147 0 F.L.W. 166 152 146 0 A.N.L. 135 147 142 0 Disagreements 31 13 5 0 Total of agreements plus disagreements 300 300 300 300 Percentage of agreement 90% 96% 98% 100% 124

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125 Traditional language teacher A Observer Gross body movement Hand gestures Spoken German Spoken Engl ish R.C.J. 25 30 69 189 F.L.W. 23 26 70 197 A.N.L. 13 23 62 187 Disagreements 12 7 8 10 Total of agreements plus disagreements 300 300 300 300 Percentage of agreement 96% 98% 97% 97% Traditional language teacher B Observer Gross body movement Hand gestures Spoken German Spoken Engl ish R.C.J. 31 91 55 210 F.L.W. 36 106 52 193 A.N.L. 32 91 45 206 Disagreements 5 15 10 17 Total of agreements plus disagreements 300 300 300 300 Percentage of agreement 98% 95% 97% 94%

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APPENDIX C SAMPLE PAGE FROM VIDEO BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION CHART FOR ONE TUTOR

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> o +J O E E (/) OJ V) > o o SE CO o +-> 3 •»-> o T3 c o u 1T3 -(-> o 10 c o o 0} 00 O c o (J CM — < i-H CO Ln ^ V£) Lf) 00 "— I CM O CM t-H CM CO ^ O I I I I I I I CO o 00 "— < 00 CM o r-H ro n ^31— ir-~cMLf)OLnovoo^i*>-o<— iLDOvocTiLni^ oorH.— icMCMnn^^^ooO"— 1<— ii— «*coloctii— i<^oo^cy»unr^ojcT> oo-— ii— ir-icMCvJcooo«a-«=rLnooOi— i>-^cnocMCOCMOLni-— <<;JOi— iCMrO";3-LnoO'— ICMCMCO^LO vf I— I i-H cr> •— t cvj Lo O •— I •— ' o o o >— I CO ^ Lo o I I I I I I I o Lo cyi 00 o en 1X3 O O O CM ^ tn cM'^a-cM'ia-in .-hooi— icolocovd>* o I CO cn CO CM r-. •— I c-j CO un I I I I I 1— I Ln I— I CO CM t— 4 CM CO CO Ln CMI^CMi— IC7lU3<=J-0 oOf-o I I I I I I I I <— l'=^rHOO«=fCOOOVO ooi— ii-HCM^-vfir) o o O o o o .— 1 CM CO CM CM CM OJ 1 1 1 +-> o o o o o o C •ro r— 1 CM s: CM CM CM CM LO CM CM CM CM CTi O 00 CM Ln O o o CO CO «^ un o I I I I I I I O ^ CO
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O CO o O o O) ra +-> o hO o 00 t-H CO <— I CM (NJ CO ocMr^ocMOuncM.— I «;j-tnLnoocM— ir-» ro^Lnunoooococo PO C^J I— I ro CO vo to o c o u O) 00 o CO o c: o u ID C/7 CO CO o IX) 1—1 o CO o CM CM CO ^ ^ tn i I I I I I I o CO «do o o o CM CO CO 'aur) CM >-H CM CO "^a i-H CO 1—1 IT) CO r«-. cTi CO o ^ uo 1—1 CO ^ o o o o o o un o LD CM CM CM 1 1 o o O o o O o o O CM O O

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APPENDIX D STUDENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE DATA SHEET AND RATING FORM

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FLW Dissertation Name Course # Date STUDENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE DATA SHEET AND RATING FORM Previous Exposure to German 1. Have you previously taken a GERMAN course at UF? Yes No If yes, check spaces that apply: INTENSIVE GERllZO 1121 1122 1130 TRADITIONAL GER1120 1121 1122 2. Have you previously taken a GERMAN course at another school? Yes No If yes, indicate number of school years* in spaces that apply: *0ne school year is defined as two quarters or semesters at the postsecondary level or one Sept.June year at the K-12 level. Indicate parts of school years as 1/4, 1/2, etc. Elementary or Middle School yrs. H.S. yrs. College yrs. Military yrs. Peace Corps yrs. 3. Have you previously had experience with GERMAN outside of school? Yes No If yes, indicate number of months in spaces that apply: Heard GERMAN spoken by native speakers in Germany mos. Heard GERMAN spoken by native speakers outside of Germany mos. Spoke GERMAN in Germany mos. Spoke GERMAN outside of Germany mos. Student Ratings 4. Student's assessment of ability to use the German language: Performance Rating Scale (circle numbers that apply) Excellent Fair Poor Reading Comprehension 4 ^3 2 ^1 0 Listening Comprehension 4 3 2 ^1 0 Writing Proficiency 4 ^3 2 1 0 Speaking Proficiency 4 3 2 ^1 0 130

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131 5. Student's satisfaction with UF courses to increase German communication skills: Satisfaction Rating Scale (circle numbers that apply) High Moderate Low Current Course 4 ^3 2— 1 0 Previous INTENSIVE 4 ^3 2 1 0 Previous TRADITIONAL 4 ^3 2 ^1 0 Student Data: Male Female Reason for taking German: Required Not Required Comments :

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Florence L. Walters, n^e Reinhard, began life in New York City on May 12, 1923. She attended the city's public schools and graduated from Walton High School in 1940. On the basis of New York State Regents Examinations, she was admitted to an honors program at Hunter College where she pursued lower division courses in the arts and sciences to qualify for admission to the Philadelphia School of Occupational Therapy, affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. She was graduated with a diploma in occupational therapy in 1944. After passing the registration examination administered by the American Occupational Therapy Association, she served in two Army hospitals, Crile General at Cleveland and Walter Reed in Washington, D.C. Following her marriage to James H. Walters in 1946, she accompanied her husband to Gainesville, where he entered the University of Florida, graduating with degrees in electrical and industrial engineering. Between 1946 and 1958 they became the parents of four children. During this time, Florence began the first professional department at the Florida Farm Colony— later named Sunland Training Center at Gainesville— and from 1950 to 1967 administered the Department of Occupational Therapy at Sunland, except for brief leaves to take care of family responsibilities. During 1957-1958, Florence also served as consultant to Dr. Darrel Mase, the first dean of the College of Health Related Professions, who 132

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133 planned the Occupational Therapy Department at the J, Hill is Miller Health Center, University of Florida. After some part-time work, providing occupational therapy for patients on the psychiatric unit of Shands Teaching Hospital, she began the first official occupational therapy program at Alachua General Hospital in 1968. She left this growing program in 1973 to become a work evaluator for the Association for Retarded Citizens. In this capacity, she administered a program for the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, contracting to provide counselors with comprehensive evaluations of their clients' capacity for work-related industries. This position led to a similar position at Exceptional Industries, a sheltered workshop for the handicapped in Gainesville. In 1978, after her four children had obtained higher education degrees, Florence entered the University of Florida to obtain a Bachelor of Health Science degree, a goal she accomplished in December of that year. A year later she obtained the degree of Master of Education in a program designed for health-related educators. She has since been engaged in meeting requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy within the Division of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education. Her future plans are to continue studying the sensory integration implications of nonverbal communication toward the goal of developing a coherent theory of learning on which educators can base their teaching.

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I certifiy that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Division of Curriculum and Instruction in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December 1982 Margaret 1^ Morgart,' Chairman] Professor of Instructional readership and Support ilames wV Hensel Professor of Instructional Leadership and Support Dora A. Hicks Professor Emeritus of Health Education and Safety Dean for Graduate Studies and Research