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A comparative study of value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students

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A comparative study of value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students
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Spoto, Elizabeth Josephine, 1946-
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English
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ix, 143 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Cultural values ( jstor )
Customers ( jstor )
Ethnic groups ( jstor )
Flat rates ( jstor )
Frequency distribution ( jstor )
Hispanics ( jstor )
Psychological counseling ( jstor )
Self esteem ( jstor )
Statistical median ( jstor )
White people ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Ethnic groups ( lcsh )
Junior college students -- Florida ( lcsh )
Values ( lcsh )
City of Tampa ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 135-141.
General Note:
Microfilm. Ann Arbor,MI:University Microfilms International,1978. -- 1 reel ; 35mm.
General Note:
Vita.
General Note:
Typescript.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Elizabeth Josephine Spoto.

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VALUE SYSTEMS AMONG
BLACK, HISPANIC, AND WHITE COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS











By

ELIZABETH JOSEPHINE SPOTO


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1978































Copyright 1978

by

Elizabeth Josephine Spoto












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


My appreciation goes first and foremost to my parents, Dick and

Betty Spoto, who with patience, acceptance, and love have given me the moral and emotional support which has helped me to pursue a doctoral program and write a dissertation. I wish to especially thank Dr. E. L. Tolbert, chairman of my doctoral committee, who has provided not only ti-e and assistance over the years, but also warm encouragement and support which has given me confidence in my abilities and potential. I appreciate the help, friendship, and professional guidance of my committee members: Dr. Richard J. Anderson, Dr. Larry C. Loesch, and Dr. Robert D. Myrick. My appreciation also goes to Dr. John Nickens, Caroi Dawley, Sherry Friedlander, and Patti Camaratta who have assisted re in tlhe final stages of writing and compiling the dissertation and to Hamilton Stirling and Myrna Marshall who have provided emotional support and understanding. I am thankful for Carol C. White and Rose Mary !1. Patterson for their long and loving friendship, Mary Jo Ciccarello for her limitless loyalty and support, Dr. Carol Klopfer for her warmth and encouragement, and Dr. Daniel J. Sprehe for being my wise and loving mentcr. Lastly, I am thankful for my family, friends, colleagues, students, and clients who, in their own way, have helped me- to develop an open, positive, and humanistic approach to life and a healthy belief in my potential for growth and experience.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................ iii

ABSTRACT ........................................................ viii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION .............................................. 1

Need for the Study ........................................ 1

Purpose of the Study ...................................... 2

Major Concepts and Definition of Terms .................... 4

Organization of the Study ................................. 5

11 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ............................. 7

Historical Development of Value Theory .................... 7

Value Theory in the Behavioral Sciences ................... 9

Measurement of Values ..................................... 18

Milton Rokeach: The Nature of Human Values ............... 23

Relevance of Values to Counseling ......................... 26

Differentiating Variables of Ethnic Groups ................ 29

Implications: Values, Counseling, and Ethnic Groups ...... 37 Conclusion: Rationale for the Study ...................... 39

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...................................... 40

Hypotheses Tested ....................................... 40

Population and Sample ..................................... 41

Research Design ........................................... 42









Instruments ...............................................
Collection of Data ........................................
Analysis of Data ..........................................

Limitations of the Study ..................................

IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY ......................................

Ethnic Group ..............................................

Sex.....................................................

Interaction of Ethnic Group and Sex .......................

V SUMMARY ...................................................

Interpretation of Results .................................

Limitations of the Study ..................................

Implications and Recommendations ..........................

Conclusion ................................................


APPENDICES

A INFORMATION SHEET ....................................

B INTRODUCTION .........................................

C VALUE SURVEY .........................................

D ETHNIC GROUP: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS,
COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES ..................

E ETHNIC GROUP: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS,
COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES ..............

F SEX: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE
RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES ...........................

G SEX: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE
RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES ........................

H BLACK MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES .........


Page

42 44 45 47 49 51 55 59 70 73

78 79

81



85

87 89 94


96


98 100


102









BLACK MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES..... 104

J HISPANIC MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES ......... 106

K HISPANIC MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES..... 108

L WHITE MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES ......... 110

M WHITE MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES..... 112

N MALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL
VALUES ............................................... 114

0 MALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR
INSTRUMENTAL VALUES .................................. 116

P FEMALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL
VALUES ............................................... 118

Q FEMALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR
INSTRUMENTAL VALUES .................................. 120

R TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF
IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACKS, HISPANICS, AND
WHITES ............................................... 122

S TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR MALES AND FEMALES .........124

T TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF
IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK MALES AND BLACK
FEMALES .............................................. 126

U TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR HISPANIC MALES AND
HISPANIC FEMALES ..................................... 128

V TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR WHITE MALES AND WHITE
FEMALES .............................................. 130







Page


W TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF
IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK MALES, HISPANIC
MALES, AND WHITE MALES ............................... 132

X TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF
IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK FEMALES, HISPANIC
FEMALES, AND WHITE FEMALES ........................... 134


REFERENCES ..................................................... 135


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................ 142







Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VALUE SYSTEMS AMONG
BLACK, HISPANIC, AND WHITE COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS

By
Elizabeth Josephine Spoto

August, 1978

Chair-ren: E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education

This study is a response to concern about the effectiveness of

co!ifseli-c with ethnic minorities and the current lack of research data regarding differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups. The study investigates the similarities and differences in value s-ystems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. Comparisons of value systems by sex and the interaction of ethnic group and sex are also explored. Research findings indicat significant differences in value systeis among all subgroups compared in the study.

The sample for the study consists of 323 students enrolled at

Hi1isboroughi Community College, Tampa, Florida. Subjects are assessed by means of Rokeach's 'alue Survey, a measure in which respondents rank each set cf IS terminal and 18 instrumental values in order of their importance. Responses on the Value Survey are classified according to ethnic group and sex and comparisons are made based on research hypotheses. The nonparametric Median Test is used as the rain test of statistical significance at the .01 level. Results


viii







of the study are presented utilizing frequency distributions, median ranks, and composite ranks.

Statistical analysis of ccmparisons based on research hypotheses

yields the following results: (a) Blacks, Hispanics, and whites differ significantly in the ranking of 12 values. (b) Males and females differ significantly in the ranking of six values. (c) Black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females differ significantly in the ranking of 19 values. (d) Black males and fe iaes differ s nni~iantly in. th,. ranking of four values.

(e) Hispanic males and females differ significantly in the ranking of six values. (f) White males and females differ significantly in the ranking of four values. (g) Black males, Hispanic males, and white males differ significantly in the ranking of 12 values. (h) Black females, Hispanic females, and white females differ significantly in the ranking of 18 values.

Results of the study support the general premise that culture and socialization are important determinants of behavior. This study provides descriptive data about value systems of blacks, Hispanics, and whites. Values and value systems constitute a very important set of client characteristics which need to be considered in developing more effective approaches and treatments in counseling. Results of the study can be utilized by counselors to better understand and accept differing values of minority group clients. Knowledge of value systems provides a framework for clarifying counselor and client goals in the counseling relationship.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


One of the major issues facing the counseling profession today is the recognition of and responsibility to the distinctive ethnic minorities within our society. Too often, related literature is simply a call to action rather than a systematic approach to the differences and basic conflicts which face individuals within ethnic subgroups. It is apparent that there are special needs and unique characteristics of ethnic minorities. However, the nature and extent of these differences have not been adequately explored. Counselors have a professional responsibility to be understanding of and responsive to the unique needs and values of ethnic minorities.


Need for the Study

This study was developed in response to a concern about the

effectiveness of counseling with ethnic minorities and the current lack of research data regarding differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups. The study gathered and analyzed descriptive data which can be utilized by counselors to develop a greater understanding of their minority group clients.

To be effective, counseling must be sensitive to the cultural

characteristics of clients. Both blacks and Hispanics make up sizeable minority groups within the United States. Therefore, this study







investigates value systems of black, Hispanic, and white Americans. Although the study sought to identify and compare differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups, caution should be taken to guard against stereotyping as a result of the research findings. Counselors need to be aware of both counselor and client values in counseling and allow the culturally different client recognition and respect as a unique and worthwhile individual. Knowledge of value systems can provide a conceptual framewcrk for the development of counseling techniques and therapeutic models matched to ethnically different lifestyles and value orientations.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the similarities and

differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students in the United States. The concepts of value and value system are chosen because they are considered to be the central organizing framework for human behavior (Rokeach, 1968, 1973). According to Rokeach's conceptual framework, values are enduring beliefs about preferred modes of behavior or end-states of existence. Values are interrelated and internalized into value systems. A value system

is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance concerning preferred modes of conduct or end-states of existence. Values and value systems serve several functions as the central organizing framework for human behavior. Values function as standards that guide ongoing activities and act as general plans for conflict resolution and decision-making. Values serve a motivational function by giving expression to human needs. Therefore, knowledge







aboiit values, value differences, and value conflicts is essential in unde-taninc ethnic 1inorities.

A review of the literature indicated that there may be differences in the relative importance of values (i.e., value systems) among blacks, hispanics, and whites. The sample in this study was controlled for educational level (i.e., community college students) and city of residence, so results should not be interpreted as indicative of all socioeconomic and educational levels within each ethnic subgroup. The Hispanic sample was weighted toward Cuban ethnic extraction, and research has indicated that the Cuban cultural/psychological makeup is unique from other Hispanic groups that have traditionally been studied (i.e., Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans). Therefore, other comparative studies of Hispanics did not provide predictive data directly relevant to the sample population of Hispanics in this study.

Similarities and differences in value systems among blacks,

Hispanics, and whites were investigated in the study. In addition, since it is generally held that socialization leads to sex role differentiation, comparisons by sex and the interaction between ethnic croup and sex were also explored. The following research hypotheses were tested:

liull Hypotheses:

1l -- There are no significant differences in value systems

among blacks, Hispanics, and whites, as measured by

Rokeach's Value Survey.

H 2 -- There are no significant differences in value systems

between males and females, as measured by Rokeach's

Value Survey.







Ho3 There are no significant differences in value systems

resulting from the interaction of ethnic group and sex

(i.e., among black males, black females, Hispanic males,

Hispanic females, white males, white females), as measured

by Rokeach's Value Survey.

A. There are no significant differences in value systems between black males and black females. B. There are no significant differences in value

systems between Hispanic males and Hispanic females. C. There are no significant differences in value systems between white males and white females. D. There are no significant differences in value systems among black males, Hispanic males, and white males.

E. There are no significant differences in value systems among black females, Hispanic females, and white females.


Major Concepts and Definition of Terms

Rokeach (1968, 1973) developed a theory of values which seems to be the most comprehensive and pragmatic approach to studying and understanding the basis of human behavior. According to Rokeach, the value concept occupies a central position across all the social sciences.

A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct (i.e., instrumental value) or end-state of existence (i.e., terminal value) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach, 1973). Values are interrelated and organized into a values hierarchy or value system. A








value system is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance, concerning preferred modes of conduct or endstates of existence.

Rokeach proposes five assumptions regarding the nature of human values: (a) The total number of values a person possesses is relatively small. (b) All men everywhere possess the same values to different degrees and express them in different ways. (c) Values are organized into value systems. (d) The antecedents of human values can be traced to culture, society and its institutions, and personality.

(e) The consequences of human values will be manifested in virtually all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and understanding.

Following Rokeach's assumptions of the limited number and universality of values, it is possible to develop and implement a comparative cross-cultural study of value systems. Values and value systems, with their many manifestations, account for rich differences among cultures, societies, institutional arrangements, and individual personalities. Black, Hispanic, and white community college students were administered Rokeach's Value Survey (1967), an instrument which measures the relative importance of 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in an individual's value system. Similarities and differences in value systems among the various subgroups are determined through statistical analysis of the

data.


Organization of the Study

A review of the literature providing a rationale of the study is presented in Chapter II. Chapter II includes (a) Historical Development of Value Theory, (b) Value Theory in the Behavioral Sciences,







(c) Measurement of Values, (d) Milton Rokeach: The Nature of Human Values, (e) Relevance of Values in Counseling, (f) Differentiating Variables of Ethnic Groups, (g) Implications: Values, Counseling, and Ethnic Groups, (h) Conclusion: Rationale for the Study.
The research methodology of the study is presented in Chapter III. Chapter III includes an explanation of (a) Hypotheses Tested, (b) Population and Sample, (c) Research Design, (d) Instruments, (e) Collection of Data, (f) Analysis of Data, (g) Limitations of the Study.
Results of the study are reported in Chapter IV. Chapter IV

includes research findings based on comparisons of value systems by
(a) Ethnic Group, (b) Sex, (c) Interaction of Ethnic Group and Sex.
Chapter V concludes with the summary of the study and includes

(a) Interpretation of Results, (b) Limitations of the Study, (c) Implications and Recomnendations, (d) Conclusion.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Historical Development of Value Theory

Interest in the concept of value runs throughout many disciplines. The meaning, application, and measurement of value varies to a great extent even within the distinct fields of the social and behavioral sciences. Scheibe (1970) presents an excellent review of the history and development of value theory.

According to Scheibe (1970) the concept of value was first

differentiated by Plato when he presented his philosophical ideas on the components of the human soul and his thoughts in ethics. Plato ccntended that there were three distinct functions of the human soul and that wanting and willing (i.e., valuing) were different from the third function of knowing. In more modern times, British empiricism attempted to link experience with knowledge and science. Empiricism emphasized the rigorous empirical investigation of the content of experience and the relation of experience to physical reality.

With the growth of industrialization and drastic changes in the nature of society, utilitarian concerns came to the forefront. Utilitarianism attempted to determine which course of action produced the greatest good for the greatest number of people (i.e., goodness is value). Under this orientation, basic values were considered (a) rooted in the nature of man and (b) related to his ability to survive as a species. German analytic structuralism, specifically beginning








with the scientific methods of Wilhelm Wundt, was not directly concerned with knowledge, wants, motives, or behavior. However, structuralism did bring experimental methods to psychology, which eventually influenced efforts at differentiating and measuring psychological concepts, such as values.

American fiinctionalism viewed man as an active constructor of truth. Man's ideals and judgments of values are important and are determiners of his behavior (Scheibe, 1970). The functionalist approach helped explain, for example, the hard-headed determination of the American pioneer and entrepreneur. More recently, psychoanalysis has provided a new framework from which to study man and his behavior. Psychoanalysis views human values or needs as the shapers of experience and action. In contrast, behaviorism, with its widespread acceptance, generally denies the importance of "mind and soul" in psychology and is therefore net concerned with the concept of value. However, the more recent growth of humanistic psychology and concern with human rights has again placed the concept of value at the forefront.

The concept of value involves different meanings, methods of

measurement, and application from one discipline to another. Philosophy, economics, anthropology, sociology, and psychology are all concerned with different aspects of value. Perry's (1926) philosophical approach presented the basic dichotomy of value theory: (a) value as intrinsic in an object or (b) value as in the meaning and interpretation of the observer. Varying interpretations of the concept of value raise such questions as (a) Is value an adjective or adverb, or is value a verb?

(b) Does a phenomenon have value because it is valuable or because it is valued?








Peterson (1970) summarized the problem inherent in value theory when he stated that value was not one of the "careful" words. It was neither specifically defined nor universally accepted. Dewey and Bentley (1949) distinguished between concepts of knowing and known. Their transactional approach viewed values as systems of description and phases of action rather than attributes of elements, entities, and realities. Perry (1926) emphasized the interdependence of interest and cognition and viewed value as a function of society. The Austrian valuists of the early twentieth century viewed value as meaning and interpretation, not the object (Werkmeister, 1973). It was the concept of value as the meaning and importance of phenomenon for an individual or group that related the concept of value to the behavioral sciences.

Value Theory in the Behavioral Sciences

The concept of value has been defined and utilized in a variety of ways within the behavioral sciences. A multi-disciplinary approach to value has been presented by several behavioral scientists (Dukes, 1955; Handy, 1970; Maslow, 1959; von Mering, 1961; Morris, 1956; Parsons & Shils, 1951). Parsons and Shils (1951) contended that systems of action have psychological, sociological, and cultural aspects. A group of anthropologists, psychologists, and sociologists met together in 19491950 in an effort to develop an interdisciplinary theory of value (i.e., Harvard Values Project). The terms values, motives, and systems of action were used interchangeably. The concept of value orientation patterns was developed, and it defined (a) the patterns of role expectation and sanction and (b) the standards of cognitive and appreciative judgments. Value patterns, institutionalized in the social structure, through the operation of role mechanisms, and in combination with other







elements, organize the behavior of adult members of society (Kluckhohn, 1951). Parsons and Shils (1951) stressed the dynamic interaction of value patterns, social structure, and personality as determinants of behavior.

Dukes (1955) presented a historical view of studies of values

related to the growth and acceptance of social psychology beginning in the 1930's. Dukes discussed the problem of measurement in value theory resulting from the widely varied conceptualizations of the term. Morris' study (956) took a multidisciplinary approach based on the concept that values reflect the culture in which an individual lives and interacts. This was a field conception of values much like that of Lewin and Grable (1945) who viewed experience as the totality of psychological influence acting on a person at a given point of time. Morris (1956) saw values as objectively relevant preferences and developed a cross-cultural interval scale for measuring values which support his field conception of values.

Maslow (1959) chaired a conference with the purpose of defining

and establishing values for positive growth and development. The interdisciplinary conference attempted to define and develop a science of values, establishing a naturalistic and universal value system. Again, the problem of multi-conceptualizations and applications developed.

Von Mering (1961) took a biosocial approach to the concept of value, describing values as motives for conduct. Values emerge in a situation of social interaction and become formulated and elaborated into a more enduring system to guide behavior. Von Mering's hierarchical system of personalized values was termed a "grammar of values" and was used as a tool in the processes of choosing and selecting courses of action. According to Handy (1970), von Mering discussed








supported Cantril and Allport's conclusion that evaluative attitudes are pervasive, enduring, and generalized traits of personality.

Within the behavioral sciences, value is generally viewed as a

psychological construct which is somehow utilized by the individual and expressed as preferences, evaluations, beliefs, attitudes, or desires. Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson and Sanford (1950) provide an indepth study of the organizing structure of personality. They conclude that all aspects of an individual's attitudes and values are part of an organized structure and are related in psychologically meaningful ways. Personality is viewed as a more or less enduring organization of forces in the individual. These forces or convictions are not responses, but a readiness to respond. Convictions are viewed as broad patterns or clusters of opinions, attitudes, and values and are an expression of deep-lying trends in personality. Adorno et al.'s study establishes the concept of value as an integral part of personality dynamics.

Cattcn (1954) reviewed techniques for measuring human values. He concluded! that desires are fundamental to values. Catton defined value patterns as the ends desired by a group, the conditions under which those ends are desired, and the relative intensity with which they are desired. Inlow (1972) viewed values as determiners of behavior which include the motivational component of desire.

Maslow's (1954) conception of value refers to intrinsic human

needs. He proposes a naturalistic value system based on a hierarchical structure of human motives or values. According to Maslow, higher-order values emerge spontaneously as more fundamental values are fulfilled.








supported Cantril and Allport's conclusion that evaluative attitudes are "pervasive, enduring, and, above all, generalized traits of personal ity."

Within the behavioral sciences, value is generally viewed as a

psychological construct which is somehow utilized by the individual and expressed as preferences, evaluations, beliefs, attitudes, or desires. Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson and Sanford (1950) produced an indepth study of the organizing structure of personality. They conclude that all aspects of an individual's attitudes and values are part of an organized structure and are related in psychologically meaningful ways. Personality is viewed as a more or less enduring organization of forces in the individual. These forces or convictions are not responses, but a readiness to respond. Convictions are viewed as broad patterns or clusters of opinions, attitudes, and values and are an expression of deep-lying trends in personality. Adorno et al.'s study establishes the concept of value as an integral part of personality dynamics.

Catton (1954) reviewed techniques for measuring human values. He concluded that desires are fundamental to values. Catton defined value patterns as the ends desired by a group, the conditions under which those ends are desired, and the relative intensity with which they are desired. Inlow (1972) viewed values as determiners of behavior which include the motivational component of desire.

Maslow's (1954) conception of value refers to intrinsic human

needs. He proposes a naturalistic value system based on a hierarchical structure of human motives or values. According to Maslow, higher-order values emerge spontaneously as more fundamental values are fulfilled.








Much of Maslow's work has been directed toward the development of a dynamic motivation theory based upon the healthy self-actualizing human being. This humanistic approach links intrinsic needs or values to motivation (i.e., fulfilling one's potential).

Smith (1969) reviewed the history and conceptual development of human values in sccial psychology. The major focus of social pscyhology in the 1920's and 1930's was on the concept of attitude; the 1930's and 1940's saw the development of sampling techniques, surveys and polling, and concern with public opinion; the 1940's and 1950's produced studies in small group research and the development of interdisciplinary approaches to personality theory (e.g., Adorno et al., 1950). Smith defined attitudes as inferred dispositions, attributed to an individual, according to which his thoughts, feelings, and, perhaps, action tendencies are organized with respect to a psychological object. Values or valuing is comprised of persons engaging in processes of selection or choice with respect to objects. Smith viewed personal values as general, hierarchical, important attitudinal components of a personal philosophy of life. Personal values act as standards of the desirable and account for regularities in behavior. The value system of the individual is best described as a multifactor spiral or behavioral bias which molds and dominates the decision-making power of the individual (Smith, 1969).

Handy (1970) contended that behavior is a product of the organism and its environment. This transactional approach is based upon a needs theory. The organism aims at restoring equilibrium, including selective or preferential responses. According to Handy, the selective-rejective behavioral characteristic of a need satisfaction sequence is just what many behavioral scientists have focused on in their study of values.








Scheibe (1970) considers the study of beliefs and values to be a psychology of motivation. Behavior is a result of the interaction of beliefs and values. aeliefs are like a cognitive map, expectancies of what leads to what, and are guides to action. Values refer to what is wanted, best, desirable or preferable, what ought to be done, and what is "good" among available alternatives. Defining values does not explain behavior but can be used to make behavioral predictions. According to Scheibe, man is a maximizer, always choosing the option that offers the best hope of the highest payoff, maximum behavior potential, or maximum expected value. Most complex decisions involve an array of apparently separate but interacting values. What a person does (i.e., behavior) depends upon what he wants (i.e., values) and what he considers to be true or likely (i.e., beliefs) about himself and the world (i.e., psychological ecology).

Recent concern with human growth and potential and human rights has led to the application of value theory in education and personal development (Kohlberg, 1966 and 1969; Simon et. al., 1972). Kohlberg (1966) presents a cognitive-developmental approach to moral development. Kohlberg contends that moral values are the "oughts" and "shoulds" of human behavior and that moral values develop in orderly stages related to cognitive development aid are universal in sequence. The levels or stages of moral development are determined by assessing sophistication in thinking or ways of problem-solving. "Better" or higher stages of moral development are attained when a person does a better job of problem-solving (Kohlberg, 1969).

A study by Bruner and Goodman (1947) represents many studies which demonstrate the pervasive effect of values and needs on motivation and








learning. The authors focus on value as related to perception and sensation and found that the effect of the money value of coins influences the perception of size (i.e., the higher the money value of the coin, the larger the size perception of the coin). Numerous related studies have dealt with the effect of valuing on perception. Bruner and Goodman (1947) conclude that value and need act as organizing factors in perception. A value orientation serves as a "sensitizer," lowering thresholds for acceptable stimuli and raising the thresholds for unacceptable stimuli.

K6hler (1938) proposes that valuing was really an expression of

the phenomenological world of the experiencing person. Khler's concept of valuing seems to be of popular interest at present. Simon, Howe, and Kirschenbaum (1972) present an experiencial approach to the development of a personal value system through the process of values clarification. Simon et al. (1972) contend that a value system is a way to systematically handle confusion and conflict. An individual's values and value orientation will determine what he perceives, why he is motivated, and how he will learn, grow, and develop.

A group of anthropologists, primarily working with the Harvard

Values Project which began in 1950, have developed a comprehensive theory of value, culture, and human behavior (Kluckhohn, 1951, 1962; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961; Taylor, Fisher, & Vogt, 1973). Value is considered the key concept for integrating the various social sciences (Kluckhohn, 1951). Kluckhohn defined values as a conception, explicit or implicit, distinctive of an individual or characteristics of a group, of the desirable which influences the selection from available modes, means, and ends of action. A value is a way of acting and can often only be inferred from observation or study. Values are conceptions of what is, what ought to








be, and what is desirable. Values are learned elements in behavior where feelings are attached and which involve a commitment to action. Values have an affective as well as cognitive dimension (Kluckhohn, 1951; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961).

The above-mentioned anthropologists view values as both products

of and determinents of culture. Situations of choice or selection offer the opportunity to study values. Differences in values or value orientation explain why various cultures adapt differently to the same problems or choice situations (Taylor, et al., 1973).

Culture is defined as a way of thinking, feeling, and believing. It is that part of human life learned by people as the result of belonging to some particular group shared by others.

Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and
for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting
the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products
of action and on the other as conditioning influences upon
further action. (Kluckhohn, 1962, p. 103)

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) developed a theory of variation in value orientation between cultures and attempted to develop a method for cross-cultural testing of this theory. Their basic assumption was that there is a systematic variation in the realm of cultural phenomena which is both as definite and as essential as the demonstrated systematic variations in physical and biological phenomena. This systematic variation between cultures can be attributed to differences in value orientations. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck defined value orientations as . complex and definitely patterned (rank-ordered) principles, resulting from the transactional interplay of three analytically
distinguishable elements of the evaluative process . the








cognitive, affective, and directive elements . which give order and direction to the ever-flowing stream of human acts and thoughts as these relate to the solution of common human
problems. (p. 148)

Value orientations are general and organized principles influencing man's behavior and assumptions about life, a kind of philosophy of life.

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's study (1961) investigated five problems which they considered crucial to all human groups or cultures. These problems were (a) character of human nature, (b) man's relationship to nature, (c) time orientation or focus of life, (d) modality of human activity, (e) man's relationship to other men. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck developed research methodology to test the differences and similarities in the rank ordering of the value orientation alternatives of the five crucial problems and applied this methodology to five cultures in the southwest United States. They found significant within-culture regularities and significant between-culture differences in value orientations regarding the five crucial problems considered to be coion to all cultures at all times.

Milton Rokeach (1968, 1973) has developed a theoretical framework for understanding the nature of human values. Because this theory is the basis for the proposed study, Rokeach's theory of values and value systems will be discussed in detail in a separate section.

Values and value orientations are preferences of an individual, socialized in one cultural tradition as opposed to another, subtly built into a total apperceptive mass through role expectations imposed upon him, and are an extremely important aspect of total personality (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961). While values can explain consistencies in personality, value orientations can explain generalized consistencies or organizing principles within cultures and ethnic groups.








Measurement of Values

The measurement of values continues to be a difficult problem and major criticism of value theory. The basis of the problem is the lack of consensus on the meaning and definition of value. It is a question of conceptualization, for value measurement is a measure of conceptual qualities or expressions of psychological phenomena. Values cannot be measured directly but must be inferred or differentiated deductively.

Friedman (1946) traced the development of the measurement of values in the early stages. Friedman stated that the major distinction separating value theories is (a) whether or not value exists independently of persons or (b) whether value is considered to arise because of human beings. Friedman discussed the problem of definition and concluded that the validity of a value measure lies in its ability to fulfill tile purpose for which it was designed. This approach could include a variety of instruments, each attempting to measure a variety of conceptual qualities. At present, this seems to be the status of measurement in value theory.

Thurstone (1954) is generally credited with the extension of measurement into the field of attitudes and values. Thurstone viewed human values as essentially subjective and proposed that a subjective metric be developed. Objective measures cannot be used. Hull (1944), on the other hand, contended that values (i.e., striving behavior) can be objectively measured and subjected to progressive empirical rectification and validation. Processes involved in values and valuation can be treated objectively by the quantitive methodology of natural science (Hull, 1944). Whatever the approach, a variety of instruments has been developed to measure a variety of conceptualizations of value.








The Allport-Vernon Study of Values, with later revisions (Allport,

Vernon & Lindzey, 1960), has continued to be the most widely-used measure of values. This instrument attempts to measure the relative prominence of six basic interests in personality (i.e., general evaluative attitudes or value orientations). The six basic interests are (1) theoretical,

(2) econcmic, (3) aesthetic, (4) social, (5) political, (6) religious. This measure is based on Spranger's (1928) theoretical model.

Adorno et al. (1950) developed the F Scale, an instrument designed

to measure clusters of opinions, attitudes, and values (i.e., convictions or expressions of deep-lying trends in personality). The major focus of their study was to identify those patterns of forces or attitudes correlated with prejudice or fascism. A major contribution of this in-depth study was the demonstration of the superficiality of many other studies and the illustration of difficulties and problems encountered when trying to construct a scale to measure something in the value realm.

Morris (1956) developed The Way of Life Questionnaire in which 13 conceptions of the "good life" or alternative ways to live were rated from one to seven. The alternatives were what Morris believed to be positive, normal, constructive, and beneficial rather than negative, abnormal, or destructive. Morris used Thurstone's scaling techniques, factor analysis, and comparisons with other data. Results implicated three basic value profiles. The major findings of Morris's studies tended to support a field conception of values and the attainment of a cross-cultural interval scale for measuring values. However, Handy (1970) contended that what is measured by The Way of Life Questionnaire is not really clear. Again, there is the problem of validity.








Carter (1956) developed the Koloman Technique for exploring values. Koloman was the name of a "mythical new country" for which subjects were asked to express their views on social values (e.g., birth control, labor unions, etc.). Carter's research was sponsored by the United States Information Agency and was viewed as a fairly painless instrument to investigate culturally different beliefs about social values. Carter's instrument attempted to measure expressed beliefs. Kohlberg (1966, 1969) presented hypothetical dilemmas involving moral values and measured the sophistication of the subject in thinking and problemsolving to determine the level and stage of moral development.

Von Mering (1961) developed a procedure called the Theme-ControlledDiscussion-Technique which attempts to account for psychological and situational variables in the field-work conditions of the anthropologist. Subjects are presented with conflict situations in which a variety of conflicting values are inherent. Von Mering contends that individuals respond and choose courses of action according to a hierarchy of personalized values. These systems of valuation are at the core of a culture and evolve into enduring systems that guide conduct. Von Mering's research has indicated significantly different value orientations (i.e., processes of choosing and selecting courses of action) for different cultures. His in-depth work illustrates the type of problem involving many current investigations of value (Handy, 1970). The concept of value can be expressed in infinite ways. Differentiation and classification are difficult.

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) developed a theory of variation in value orientations between cultures and a method of cross-cultural testing of the theory. Value orientation was defined as a generalized








and organized principle concerning basic human problems which pervbsively and profoundly influences man's behavior. They also developed a classification of value orientations based on assumptions that

(a) There is a limited number of common human problems for which all people at all times must find possible solutions. (b) While there is variability in solutions of problems, it is neither random nor limitless but definitely variable within a range of possible solutions. (c) All alternatives of all solutions are present in all societies at all times but are differentially preferred.

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) investigated five problems which they considered crucial to all human groups or cultures: (a) What is the character of innate human nature? (b) What is the relation of man to nature? (c) What is the temporal focus of human life? (d) What is the modality of human activity? (e) What is the modality of man's relationship to other men? Subjects were interviewed according to field-study methods and were presented a schedule of 22 items, each delineating a type of life situation which is believed to be common to all cultures and alternative solutions based on the theoretically postulated value orientation in question (i.e., time: solutions presenting past, present, and future-oriented preferences; activity: solutions presenting being or doing modes of behavior). Research methodology tested the differences and similarities in the rank ordering of value orientation alternatives to the five crucial problems between five cultures in the southwest United States. The researchers found signficant within-culture regularities and significant betweenculture differences in value orientations. A recent study (Szapocznik, Scopetta, & Aranalde, in press) has applied the Value Orientation Scale








and methodology of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck in an investigation of the Cuban immigrant's value structure.

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) expressed several concerns about testing and research of values and value orientations: (a) Items may be contaminated by other interacting value orientations. (b) There may be a loss in translation or misinterpretation of meaning on the instrument in cross-cultural research. (c) Defensiveness may be involved in considering crucial life situations and personal choices. (d) Circularity of reasoning can occur. In spite of these concerns, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's study represents a comprehensive and in-depth study of value orientations and culture.

There are many criticisms about methods of measurement of values. A basic criticism is that values in principle cannot really be measured because they are not entities (Handy, 1970) but hypothetical constructs. Messick (1975) raised a question on the conceptualization of value. He questioned what was really being measured. The validity of value measurement can be likened to that of intelligence tests, with valididy differing according to the different concept of value which it attempts to measure. Messick discussed concepts of construct and content validity, requirements of convergent and discriminant evidence, and norm and criterion-referenced interpretations. He suggested the use of counter-hypotheses and the identification of bias in value measurement. This approach would help clarify assumptions and ideologies implicit in many measurement and evaluation activities.

Kitwood and Smithers (1975) criticized current methods available

as inadequate for studying values within a socio-psychological framework.







however, they contended that Milton Rokeach's Value Survey is the latest and most impressive of value measures. Although they believe that the Value Survey still suffers from an inadequate conceptualization of human values, its simplicity and ready appeal make it a practical and useful instrument in the measurement and study of human values. The conceptual basis and research instrument for the proposed study is based upon Rokeach's theoretical framework. A review of Milton Rokeach's theory and reasearch follows.

Milton Rokeach: The Nature of Human Values

Rokeach (1968, 1973) has developed a theory of values which

presents a comprehensive and pragmatic approach to studying and understanding the nature of human values and the basis for human behavior. Rokeach emphasizes the importance of value, stating that the concept of value is more central, dynamic, economical, and more encouraging to interdisciplinary collaboration than any other concept in social psychology (1973). The study of value broadens the range of social psychology's traditional concerns to include studies of education and persoiality development and change.

According to Rokeach (1968), beliefs, attitudes, and values are organized together to form a functionally integrated cognitive system. Beliefs are inferences made by an observer about underlying states of expectancy. An attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs about an object or situation predisposing one to respond in some preferential manner. Value is a type of belief centrally located within one's total belief system about how one ought or ought not to behave or about some end-state of existence worth or not worth obtaining.








A belief has cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. An attitude is an organization of beliefs and a predisposition to respond. A value is an expressive function of beliefs and attitudes. Value seems to be a more dynamic concept since it has a strong motivational component. Value is a determinant of attitude as well as behavior. Once internalized, consciously or unconsciously, values become a standard or criterion for guiding action, developing and maintaining attitudes, justifying action, moral judgment, and comparing self with others (Rokeach, 1968).

Rokeach's (1973) theory of values is based upon five assumptions regarding the nature of human values: (a) The total number of values a person possesses is relatively small. (b) All men everywhere possess the same values to different degrees and express them in different ways.

(c) Values are organized into value systems. (d) The antecedents of human values can be traced to culture, society and its institutions, and personality. (e) The consequences of human values will be manifested in virtually all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and understanding.

According to Rokeach, the value concept should occupy a central position across all the social sciences. Rokeach defines value as an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct (i.e., instrumental value) or end-state of existence (i.e., terminal value) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of behavior or end-state of existence. Instrumental values are beliefs about the "oughtness," morality, and competency of behavioral style (e.g., courageous, honest, obedient, etc.). Terminal values are a kind of "super goal" or desired life style (e.g., family security, salvation, a sense of accomplishment, etc.).








Instrumental and terminal values are internalized, interrelated in a values heirarchy (i.e., value system) and become determiners of behavior. According to Rokeach (1973), a value system is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance, concerning preferred modes of conduct or end-states of existence. People tend to value a given belief or system of beliefs in proportion to the degree of congruence with their own belief-value system; and they tend to value people in proportion to the degree to which they exhibit beliefs or value systems congruent with their own. The congruity principle, as it is called, is a basic premise in social psychology (Osgood & Tannenbaum, 1955) and explains one theory of cognitive interaction in new learning and changes in previously held beliefs, attitudes, and values.

Values and value systems serve several functions as the central organizing framework of human behavior: (a) Values function as standards that guide ongoing activities. (b) Value systems act as general plans for conflict resolution and decision-making. (c) Values serve a motivational function by giving expression to human needs.

The relevance of values to counseling is obvious. If an individual's values and value system are considered the basis for his behavior, knowledge and understanding of his unique values and value conflicts are essential to the counseling relationship. Rokeach has developed the Value Survey (1967), an instrument which measures the relative importance of values (i.e., value system) for an individual. The small number of values, with their many manifestations, can account for rich differences among cultures, societies, institutional arrangements,








and individual personalities. Counselors should be aware of the interaction of values in counseling and be sensitized to the unique value system oF their clients.

Relevance of Values to Counseling

Values are inherent in the counseling relationship just as they are in all human behavior. Dukes (1955) stated that psychotherapy is a study of values. "The sheer existence of psychotherapy, moreover, implies the application of a value system, mental disease being defined as undesirable and mental health as good" (p. 32). Rogers (1951) stated that one cannot engage in psychotherapy without operational evidence of an underlying value orientation and view of the nature of man. Both the client and the counselor enter the counseling relationship with certain preconceived beliefs and values about themselves and their world.

The chilosophy of counseling is an organized system of values,

affecting counselor goals and techniques (Patterson, 1958). Goals of counseling can be considered value questions concerning what is desirable in behavior and behavior change. Patterson suggested that the American Personnel and Guidance Association, through its philosophy and ethics, holds such values as dignity, freedom, worth, and individualism. Patterson emphasized the right of the client to hold different values than those held by the counselor. Williamson (1958) also contended that counseling is not neutral or value-free. In addition, however, Williamson believed that the counselor should take an active role by modeling the "best" values and helping the client to clarify his own values.








"Counseling is a relationship in which the counselor provides the client with a communicating atmosphere that gives the client an opportunity to become involved in the discovering, processing, and synthesizing of values" (Boy & Pine, 1972, p. 192). Every facet of counseling presupposes moral and human values. Counseling, as one aspect of living, is an expression of values. Counseling is a process in which the counselor gives a fairly clear picture of his own personal concept of man's nature and his function on earth (Boy & Pine, 1972). Counseling should offer the same opportunity for the client.

Peterson (1970) states that the nature of work in counseling

involves a confrontation with value questions and presents a philosophic examination of the value questions which a counselor faces daily. He describes our society as a "crisis culture," one of change, transiticn, dissention, and resulting anxiety. In a period of crisis, values come into sharper focus. In a time when the quest for purpose, meaning, and identity is of major concern, the counselor must become aware of and concerned with values in the counseling process. Therefore, every psychotherapist is a philosopher. Peterson describes therapy as a search for values because the search for identity is, in essence, a search for one's own intrinsic authentic values.

Counseling is an exploration of values and related behaviors.

Values determine the meanings assigned to client behavior and characteristics (Biggs et al., 1976). The interplay of counselor and client values is complex, and the roles are subtle. The way a client is perceived and treated (i.e., valued) by a counselor suggests to the client his worth and potential and feeds into his own self-perception and evaluation (Biggs et al., 1976). Studies by Schrier (1953) and Rosenthal [1955) demonstrate the effect of counselor values on the








behavior of clients and counseling outcomes. Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) classic experiment documents the pervasive effect of one's expectations and prior beliefs on other individuals' behavior and potential.

What a person does (behavior) depends upon what he wants (values) and what he considers true or likely (beliefs) about himself and his world. Values are determiners that influence choices in life and behavior. To understand human behavior, we need to be aware of the values at play (Inlow, 1972; Rokeach, 1968, 1973; Scheibe, 1970). A person can be defined by his beliefs and values. If counseling is viewed as a search for self, then counseling can be defined as an exploration of values.
The interaction of values and behavior of clients and counselors is very complex. Both the client and counselor enter the counseling relationship with his/her own value system. The values of the counselor may be subtle, but counseling is not value-free (Ajzen, 1973). Effective counseling relationships depend upon personality characteristics of both clients and counselors (Arbuckle, 1969; Finn, 1976; Boyd & Pine, 1972). When both counselor and client have established a meaningful and loving relationship, when the client has confidence in the counselor and ongoing mutual trust exists, then both can benefit from the open and honest sharing of values (Biggs et al., 1976).

Counselors must recognize, understand, and accept the existence of differing values in the counseling process. If values function as standards to guide action, general plans to resolve conflict and make decisions, and as expression of human need, it is essential that the counselor understand his client's phenomenological frame of reference (e.g., value system). Values are a part of functioning








people, and developing a sensitivity to their existence and their influence on behavior is a worthy investment for the counselor who desires to bring a greater meaning and awareness to the dimensions of counseling (Boy and Pine, 1972). The following section reviews research on various ethnic and cultural groups and should provide useful data for counselors desiring to be more understanding of and sensitive to their ethnically-different clients.

Differentiating Variables of Ethnic Groups

Several studies have attempted to differentiate and measure unique characteristics of various ethnic groups. This section includes studies in fields of anthropology, sociology, and psychology and will be limited primarily to studies involving black, Hispanic, and white Americans. Special effort was made to collect data on Cuban immigrants since Cubans make up a sizeable proportion of the Hispanic sample in the study.

A study by Parsons and Shils (1951) investigated cultural aspects of action systems or systems of value and attempted to differentiate value orientation patterns for several cultures. Their findings indicated that Spanish-Americans tend toward what they classify as the "imnuinent quality perfection ideal." That is, they, on the average, value harmonious and accepting adaptation to a given situation, "making the most of it," or a kind of fatalism. Anglo-Americans, in contrast, favor the "transcendent achievement ideal" which values directional activity toward achievement of universally-defined goals and the requisite performance.
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's study (1961) found important

differences in the rankings of value orientation alternatives between








five sub-cultures in the United States (i.e., Spanish-American, Mormon, Texan-Farmer, Zuni Indian, and Rimrock Navaho). Their research indicated that Spanish-Americans were significantly more individualistically oriented in their time reference, subjugated to nature in their beliefs, and "being" rather than "doing" in their activity orientation. Schwartz's study (1971) compared values, value orientations, and achievement among Mexican-American and Anglo youth. Findings indicated that low educational attainment was related to a "mirror image" of the dominant Anglo culture (i.e., present, not future oriented; being rather than doing; subjugation, not mastery over situation). These were the dominant value orientations of the Mexican-Americans in the study. Anglos expressed a faith in mankind and optimism in the future whereas Mexican-Americans were more expressive, particularistic, and fatalistic. However, Schwartz cautioned not to generalize to all members of a subgroup.

Manaster and Ahumada (1971) compared cultural values of adolescents in Argentina, Puerto Rico, and Chicago by mcans of the Uses Test. They found that Argentinians scored significantly higher on hedonistic and benevolent response patterns; Puerto Ricans scored higher on instrumental and malevolent responses, and adolescents in Chicago scored significantly higher on status and aesthetic response patterns.

Castafteda, James, and Robbins (1974) describe the value clusters of Mexican-Americans. They maintain a strong identification with the family, community, and their ethnic group. The focus is on pride for the family and not for the individual, cooperation and not competition. Mexican-Americans tend to personalize interpersonal relationships. They have a commitment and sensitivity to others and seldom ask for








help but expect to be intuitively understood. Mexican-Americans maintain an extended and supportive kinship pattern within a differentiated social environment. Thcre are extensive and clear status and role definitions within the Mexican-American subculture. Age and sex roles demand specific responsibilities and expectations. Identification with the Mexican-Catholic (i.e., Mestizo) ideology reinforces certain values (e.g., convention, fatalism, and guilt). The differentiating variables are many, resulting in a uniquely different value system and perceptual world for an individual of this ethnic minority.

Padilla and Ruiz (1973) describe normative behaviors of Hispanic Americans. They emphasize that what the dominant American culture may view as deviant (and therefore bad or wrong) may very well be encouraged and valued behavior within a subgroup (e.g., hearing voices, Machismo, etc.). Padilla and Ruiz conclude, however, that many behavior patterns of ethnic minorities are related to a subculture of poverty rather than to ethnic background (e.g., job insecurity, low educational achievement, etc.).

Studies by Azacarate (1970), Balbona (1970), Casal (1970), Fagen, Brody, and O'Leary (1968), and Lopez (1968) provide sociological data on the status of Cuban exiles in the United States. More than 700,000 Cuban immigrants have come to the United States since the communist government takeover in 1959, with an estimated 500,000 residing in Florida, predominantly in the Dade County area. Many were self-imposed exiles, believing that they would return to their homeland in the near future. The socio-economic background of Cuban immigrants has changed over the years from a predominantly professional and white-collar segment of Cuban society in the early years of immigration to the








predominantly low-income and unskilled immigrants at present. Many exiles have expressed anxiety and helplessness when confronted with the American culture, listing language and communication and economic pressures as their greatest problems. Levels of acculturation or assimilation vary depending upon the size of the Cuban community and degree of social interaction with other groups.

Acculturation seems slowest where there are large groups to support and reinforce cultural values and traditions (Casals, 1970), for example, in Miami, Florida. Assimilation takes place faster for imigrants from pre-exile urban residences and those with more children. In summary, the data indicate that Cubans comprise a large ethnic group in the United States and have tended to remain in the south Florida area. Their socioeconomic makeup has become more stratified over the years.

Dowd (1966) conducted a comparative study of attitudes, goals, and values between Negro-American, white-American, and Cuban refugee groups in Miami, Florida. He used a self-anchoring scaling technique which included open-ended interviews and a 10-point assessment scale. He found significant sub-cultural differences in attitudes and values related to (a) family, (b) neighborhood, (c) school, (d) peers, and

(e) future. White Americans were more concerned with material aspects of neighborhood and school (e.g., physical appearance, air conditioning, etc.). Cubans valued interpersonal relationships with neighbors and friends as more important. Negroes were more concerned with quiet neighborhoods and clean streets. Both whites and blacks were concerned with "school spirit" while Cubans were not. White Americans desired high salaries and success in the future while Cubans stressed having children and family ties. According to Dowd, Cubans seemed to








be more positive and optimistic in their views and had more positive self-concepts and perceptions of their families. The findings of this study could be seriously questioned due to the date of the research and the changing socioeconomic characteristics of more recent Cuban immigrants.

Britain and Abad (1974) investigated field independence-dependence of Cuban-American high school students. Instruments for the study included Hidden Figures, Draw-a-Person Test, and Rotters InternalExternal Locus of Control Scale. Results indicated that Cuban students were basically field dependent; therefore, Britain and Abad concluded that Cuban society does not foster autonomy or field independence. A study by Concha, Garcia, and Perez (1975) investigated cooperative and competitive modes of behavior among Cuban and Anglo-American 10-, 13-, and 17-year olds. They found a significant effect for nationality. Cubans demonstrated significantly more competitive behavior while Arglo-Americans tended toward cooperation. This is in contrast with many studies which infer the cooperative nature of Hispanic subcultures. It was suggested that social reinforcement from the Cuban community for competitive or aggressive behavior might be an expression of the pash for acculturation.

Klovekorn, Madera, and Nardone (1974), three school counselors,

discussed values and characteristics of the Cuban child. They describe Cuban students as out-going, warm, expressive, talented, versatile, resourceful, eager to learn, respectful toward authority, and striving for attention. This indicates an affective orientation toward life.








Therefore, they recommend new techniques and approaches for dealing with this ethnic group (e.g., guidance-learning centers and milieu counseling).

Szapocznik et al. (in press) have conducted a recent study to differentiate the Cuban value structure. Their investigation was based on the conceptual framework of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961). Results indicated that Cubans were oriented toward the present time and toward lineality in relationships and subjugation of nature. Anglo-Americans favored individuality, mastery over nature, futuretime orientation, and endorsed idealized human values. Cubans expressed a greater need for approval, field dependence, and a sensitivity to social pressure. They tended to accept present situations (i.e., fatalism) and favored doing over being. The results in the activity realm (i.e., doing vs. being) are in contrast to the Hispanic value orientation indicated by the Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck study. Further research is needed which includes comparative studies of the distinct ethnic groups within the overall Hispanic population in the United States.

Inlow (1972) identified Western (i.e., American) values as

(a) the rationalist tradition or value of the intellect; (b) the JudeoChristian Ethic of belief in ultimate purpose; (c) the Anglo-Saxon tradition of individuality, liberty, and equality; and (d) pragnatic faith, confidence in success and achievement. Results from a study by Rokeach (1973) indicated that adult Americans rank a world at peace, family security, freedom, happiness, and self-respect as their most important terminal values or desired end-states of existence. Americans also ranked being honest, ambitious, responsible,







forgiving, and broad-minded as their most important instrumental values or desired modes of conduct. The national sample was composed of 665 males and 744 females who were adminstered Rokeach's Value Survey. Rokeach and others have made many other comparisons using the Value Survey (e.g., sex, nationality, occupation, race, socioeconomic status, etc.). A study by Feather and Hutton (1974) found significant differences in value systems between New Guineans and Australians. Feather (1972) compared value systems and school achievement of Australian students. Australian value systems were similar in most ways to Western or American values. Nhu Chuong (1976) compared value systems between Americans and Vietnamese and subgroups within these cultures and found that Vietnamese were more concerned about security while Americans were more concerned about individual freedom.

Sikula and Lemlech (1976) conducted a study which compared black and white teachers' value systems using Rokeach's value theory and method of measurement. Results indicated significant differences between the two groups on seven of the terminal values and 10 of the instrumental values. Blacks, more than whites, valued the termina! values of a comfortable life, equality, and family security. Whites, on the other hand, valued a sense of accomplishment, a world of peace, pleasure, and salvation more highly than did blacks. Blacks, more than whites, valued the instrumental values of courage, honesty, independence, intelligence, and self control. Whites valued logic, obedience, politeness, responsibility, and loving more than blacks. The most outstanding difference concerned the value ranking of courage; blacks ranked it fourth, and whites ranked it 17th. Sikula and Lemlech concluded that blacks still struggle for what whites take for granted and that they








believe that they must be courageous, intelligent, and independent to obtain what they want. The value profile of blacks seems to reflect the traditional kmerican ideals of the past.

The counselor must, if he is to be effective, make a concerted

effort to understand the cultural makeup of his clients. This must not be merely affectual understanding but accurate cognitive understanding of the total milieu of different cultural groups (Wittmer, 1971). Stone and Shertzer (1971) emphasized the importance of recognizing cultural and value differences between ethnic minorities. Each subculture fosters the development of its own characteristic patterns of attitudes, values, and personality traits. Kupferer and Fitzgerald (1971) discussed the influence of culture and society on behavior and attitudes. However, they also stressed the importance of individual and situational differences and influences in relation to behavior.

Palomares' (1971) definition of culture includes the following aspects of behavior: language, diet, ethics, costuming, and social patterns. He believed that counselors should experience and familarize themselves with the "Fagic components" that make a culturally diverse society exciting and productive. Castafeda, James, and Robbins (1974) state that one's ethnic makeup helps determine his language, heritage, cognition, motivation, and values. An individual's culture is a real and solid world which tells him how to think, feel, and how to learn. We need to recognize and accept differing cultural values not as a disadvantage but as a unique component of the personality of an individual.








Implications: Values, Counseling, and Ethnic Groups

Members of ethnic minorities are caught between two worlds with

colliding values. Differences in values and value systems among various ethnic minorities are infinite, especially when considering individual differences as well. Ethnic minorities experience rejection, frustration, futility, and alienation as they attempt to survive in the predominantly white, middle-class society of the United States.

However, ethnic minorities are beginning to demand respect and acceptance as unique and worthy individuals. The needs of ethnic minorities are obvious, implications for counseling clear. Counselors should be aware and accepting of differing values, recognizing values as unique, basic characteristics of clients.

Minority group views are often that counseling is a waste of time; that counselors are deliberately shunning minority students into dead-end, non-academic programs regardless of potential, preferences cr ambitions; that counselors are insensitive to the needs of students and the community; that counselors do not seem to give the sane amount of energy and time in working with minorities; that c-inseiors are sometimes arrogant and contemptuous; that counselors do not accept, respect, and understand cultural differences; that counselors do not know themselves and how to deal with their own hang-ups (Pine, 1970; Vontress, 1969). In short, many counselors are viewed as insensitive and unaware and do not seem to understand the client or themselves.

Most counseling approaches reflect a middle-class or possible upper-class bias. Counseling theories have evolved from experiences and studies with middle-class and upper-class clients in therapy.








This raises a serious question as to the relevance and appropriateness of many current counseling processes. However, Pine (1970) contends that if counselors simply "practiced what they preached" about human relationships (e.g., openness, honesty, and acceptance), then the number of legitimate complaints about counseling would be markedly reduced. Effective counseling of minority group members requires that the counselor be aware and understanding of both himself and his client, their values and value conflicts, and that the counseling process be reexamined and, if necessary, redefined and restructured.

Counselors must first of all know and accept themselves before they can be free to accept and understand their client's world (Arbuckle, 1959; Rousseve, 1969; Berdie, 1976). There is a need for counselor self-appraisal ard awareness (Vontress, 1969; Pine, 1970; Palomares, 1975). Counselors must become more sensitive and aware of their own cultural life style or value system and be able to sense the unique potentialities in those clients who differ.

Kupferer and Fitzgerald (1971), McGraw (1971), Adkins (1972), and a symposium sponsored by the American Personnel and Guidance Association (1974) are representative of the concern and respect for ethnic minorities on the part of the counseling profession. Divergent backgrounds and conflicting values often make it difficult for individuals of ethnic subgroups to decide who they are, what they are, and where they fit. Aragon and Ulibarri (1975) view cultural differences not as disadvantages but as alternative life styles and values. Perrone (1973) calls for "cultural pluralism" and personalization in our society. He believes that we should accept and encourage valuing diversity, emphasizing diversity with dignity.







The importance of values in counseling ethnic minorities is

obvious. Counselor and client values are inherent in the counseling relationship as in any human interaction although the interaction may be complex and often subtle. The counseling process itself is an exploration of values (i.e., needs and behaviors of the client). To be effective, counselors must first authenticate themselves (i.e., be real and genuine). They must differentiate and clarify their own system of values which facilitates awareness and sensitivity to differing values of clients. This, then, allows the counselor to maintain a sense of psychological oppenness, allowing the client recognition and respect as a unique and worthwhile human being.

Conclusion: Rationale for the Study

To be effective, counseling must be sensitive to the cultural

characteristics of clients. This study deals specifically with clients of ethnic subgroups. Values and value systems constitute a very important set of client characteristics which need to be considered in developing more effective approaches and treatment in counseling. Knowledge of value systems can provide a conceptual framework for the development of therapeutic models matched to particular life styles or value systems.













CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Hypotheses Tested

Three major and five minor hypotheses were tested in the study to investigate the similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white Americans. Comparisons by sex and the interaction of sex and ethnic group were also explored. The following null hypotheses were tested in the investigation:

H 1-- There are no significant differences in value systems

among blacks, Hispanics, and whites, as measured by

Rokeach's Value Survey.

HoL -- There are no significant differences in value systems

between males and females, as measured by Rokeach's

Value Survey.

H3 -- There are no significant differences in value systems

resulting from the interaction of ethnic group and sex

(i.e., among black males, black females, Hispanic males,

Hispanic females, white males, white females), as

measured by Rokeach's Value Survey.

A. There are no significant differences in value systems between black males and black females. B. There are no significant differences in value

systems between Hispanic males and Hispanic females. C. There are no significant differences in value systems between white males and white females.








D. There are no significant differences in value systems among black males, Hispanic males, and white males.

E. There are no significant differences in value systems among black females, Hispanic females, and white females.


Population and Saople

The population for the study consisted of students enrolled at

Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, Florida. Hillsborough Community College is an open-door post-secondary education institution in an urban center. It has several campuses locatea throughout the county. The population of the college is composed of many ethnic groups, predominantly Anglo-American, black-American, and Hispanic-American. Hillstorough Conunity College offers an Associate of Arts degree (university parallel or transfer curriculum), Associate of Science degree (technical-occupational curriculum), and a Certificate of ProFiciency program.

The sample population identified for the study was composed of

students enrolled in English communication or writing courses at Hillsborough Ccamunity College. Since all three curricula have English requirements, English classes comprised a representative cross-section of all degree-seeking students enrolled at the college. Subjects for the study consisted of students enrolled in 15 classes randomly selected from a listing of all English course offerings for all campus locations for the Winter, 1978, school term. The course listing included all levels and areas of required English courses (i.e. developmental English, business English, and college-parallel English).








A total of 330 students participated in the study of which 134 were males and 196 females. The ethnic composition was as follows:

(a) black: 121 or 36.7%; (b) Hispanic: 74 or 22.4%; (c) white: 128 or 38.8%; (d) Indian, Oriental, other: 7 or 2.1%. There were 24 black males and 97 black females, 34 Hispanic males and 40 Hispanic females, and 72 white males and 56 white females. Responses from black, Hispanic, and white ethnic groups (total = 323) were used in the study.


Research Design

The study was a descriptive (Isaac and Michael, 1971) or exploratory method of research. The purpose of this study was to accumulate a data base or to describe phenomena rather than explain relationships or make predictions. This study attempted to systematically describe the similarities and differences in values and value systems among blacks, Hispanics, and whites; males and females; and the interaction between ethnic group and sex.


Instruments

Subjects participating in the study were assessed through the use of Rokeach's Value Survey (1967), a simple method for measuring human values. It consists of two lists of values, 18 terminal values (i.e., end-states of existence) and 18 instrumental values (i.e., modes of behavior). Respondents ranked each set of 18 values in order of their importance. The Value Survey required approximately 15-20 minutes to complete. Form D of the Value Survey, which employed a gummed label technique, was used in the study. This technique gave the Value Survey a highly motivating, game-like quality that was superior to







the usual paper-and-pencil tests of values due to a higher completion rate (Rokeach, 1973).

Reliability of the instrument (i.e., total value systems as

measured by the Value Survey) was determined by correlating the rankings from test-retest data. The median reliabilities obtained for various college-age samples ranged from .65 to .80 (Rokeach, 1973). The validity of Rokeach's theory of values and the Value Survey has been investigated in several studies.

Mahoney and Katz (1976) analyzed the factor structure of the Rokeach Value Survey. College students' value structures were subjected to rank correlation and factor analysis. Thirteen factors emerged which, when subjected to varimax rotation, yielded polar value clusters demonstrating significant congruence with findings from previous research on values and value systems. Mitchell (1976) used an erpirical model of the organization of Rokeach's value-attitude system to determine the internal consistency of the system, its structure and components. Correlational, factor, and multiple regression analysis indicated appreciable evidence for the internal consistency of the value-attitude system and a factorial structure congruent with Rokeach's theoretical conceptions. Kitwood and Smithers (1975) have concluded that the Rokeach Value Survey is the latest and most impressive measure of human values.

An Information Sheet (Appendix A) was designed to provide the

data necessary to classify the participants according to ethnic group and sex. Other demographic data were included on the Information Sheet in order to (a) desensitize subjects' reactions to classification by ethnic group and (b) provide data for other categories of classification







should other studies and additional research be desired. The Introduction (Appendix B) was designed to openly and honestly explain the purpose of the study and the procedure for collection of data. The Introduction also includes the student's consent to participate in the study.

Collection of Data

The procedures for collecting data for the study were carried out in the following order:

1. The need, purpose, and methodology of the study were presented to appropriate administrators at Hillsborough Community College.

2. After administrators approved the study, a meeting was conducted to explain the study to counselors and student services staff members who had been selected to go into classes and collect data.

3. Fifteen English classes were randomly selected using a table

of random numbers (Lindgren, 1975) and according to the method described in the previous section on population and sample. Classes were randomly assigned to counselors and staff members who particpated in the study.

4. The following procedures were implemented in each class:

(a) Students were given the Introduction to the study (Appendix B) by a counselor or staff member. Students signed the space indicating their consent if they were going to participate in the study. (b) Students completed the Information Sheet (Appendix A). (c) Students completed the Rokeach Value Survey, Form D (Appendix C). When finished, students placed the Introduction and Information Sheet inside the survey booklet.

(d) When everyone had finished the Value Survey, the counselor or staff member collected survey booklets and thanked the class for their participation.








5. Data were collected from all 15 classes and classified according to ethnic group and sex.


Analysis of Data

Nonparametric procedures were used in the analysis of data based on the use of rank-ordered responses on the Value Survey. No notion of eq idistance between points or categories on the scale was assumed, onlya notion of rank-order. Nonparametric techniques require far fewer assuirptions about population data (Popham & Sirotnik, 1967). Since subjects were classified according to the broad categories of ethnic group and sex and ordinal rank-order data were used for analysis, nonparametric statistics were utilized in the study.

The rank-order listing of the 18 instrumental values and 18 terminal values on the Rokeach Value Survey was used for analysis. A value system is the hierarchical system or rank-ordering of the values according to their relative importance. It was the value systei (i.e., rank order of values) of (a) blacks, Hispanics, and whites, (b) males and females, and (c) black males, black females, Hispani: fnales, Hispanic females, white males, white females that were compared to determine similarities and differences in value systems among the subgroups.

Responses on the Rokeach Value Survey were classified according to ethnic group and sex. Comparisons were made based on the research hypotheses. A rmedian score for the ranking of each value was determined for each of the subgroups in the sample. Median scores were used as the measure of central tendency in order to account for the often skewed responses to be expected with ranking data. It was the







median rank score of each value (i.e., 18 terminal values and 18 instrumental values) for each of the subgroups that was used in the statistical analysis of data.

The nonparametric Median Test (Siegle, 1956) was used as the main test of statistical significance. The median test is a x2 test of the significance of difference between the numbers of persons in two or more subgroups who score above and below the group median. It is a procedure for testing whether it is probable that two or more independent groups (not necessarily the same size) have beeh drawn from populations with the same median. In this study the median test was used to test agreement among subgroups in the rank-order of values (i.e., value systems) and to detect any difference in the distribution of each value for each of the subgroups in the sample. A two-tailed test of significance was used to determine the level of significance. The level of significance designated for this study was the .01 level of significance.

Statistical analysis of the data utilized computer programming methods from the statistical package developed by Nie, Hull, Jenkins, Steinbrenner, and Bent (1975). Subprogram crosstabs computed and displayed the variables according to the designated subgroup being investigated (e.g., sex, ethnic group). Each cross-tabulation was a joint frequency distribution of cases according to two or more classificatory variables. The joint frequency distributions of value rankings were statistically analyzed by several tests of significance to determine whether or not the subgroups were statistically independent. Other descriptive data (e.g., measures of central tendency) were also computed. As stated previously, the median rank







score of each value for each subgroup was used for analysis. A composite rank was also determined which indicated the relative position of a particular value in the total hierarchy of the value system.

A program designed to compute the Median Test as a test of

statistical significance was also utilized (Nie et al., 1975). This determined whether or not the median rank of each value of two groups being compared was the same. This method combined the two groups, and the overall median was determined. A 2 X 2 contingency table of scores above/at or below the median vs. the groups was obtained. From the cell totals and marginals, a test statistic was computed. When the total number of cases was greater than 30, a x2 statistic was computed; otherwise, Fisher's exact procedure was used to compute the significance level.

Results of the study will be presented and explained utilizing

frequency distributions, median ranks, composite ranks, and a statistical test of significance (i.e., Median Test) for each of the 18 terminal values and 18 instrumental values. These statistics are based on comparisons of subgroups as previously stated in the research hypotheses.


Limitations of the Study

It is hoped that this study will establish a data base for a

better understanding of the three ethnic groups included in the study. However, results of the study should be applied with caution. Since the sample was controlled for educational level and place of residence, results may not be truly indicative of the overall ethnic groups. Rokeach (1973) has found in some studies that there are greater differences between eductional levels and socioeconomic status than are found







when comparing different ethnic groups matched for these variables. Therefore, some differences may not be as extensive as when comparing the entire population or a representative sample of each ethnic group. The Hispanic sample is weighted toward Cuban ethnic extraction (i.e., 45 of the 74 Hispanics were Cuban), and it is hypothesized that the Cuban cultural/psychological makeup is different than other Hispanic groups in the United States that have traditionally been studied (i.e., Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans). Therefore, results of this study should be used with caution and may not b2 applicable to other distinct groups within the Hispanic population.

To be effective, counseling must be sensitive to the cultural characteristics of clients. Results of this study could be used by counselors to develop counseling procedures and treatment compatible with life-styles and value systems of clients.














CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this chapter is to systematically describe the results of the study which compared the similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. The selection of community college students for the population and sample is an attempt to derive a representative cross-section of individuals from all areas and levels of American culture. The use of Rokeach's Value Survey (1967) provides the means to quantify and measure value systems and to statistically analyze and compare data from various subgroups. Research findings are presented relative to the research hypotheses presented in Chapter III (i.e., comparisons of value systems according to ethnic group, sex, and interaction of ethnic group and sex). Results provide descriptive data on the relative importance of values (i.e., value systems) for American blacks, Hispanics, and whites.

Results of the study are presented using median scores and composite ranks of values to describe and quantify the data. The nonparametric ddjian Test, described in Chapter III, is used as the main test of statistical significance in comparing value systems of various subgroups in the study. Frequency distributions of terminal and instrumental value rankings for all subgroups compared in the study are presented in Appendices D Q. The frequency distributions are useful in observing the irregular or heavily skewed nature of the nonparametric ranked data. For exanple, in Appendix F the distribution of rankings for both males







and females on the value salvation is bimodal. That is, males and females tend to rank salvation as very high or very low in importance rather than near the middle in the hierarchy of terminal values even though salvation has a median score of 13.906 for males and 10.385 for females.

In comparing value rankings it should be noted that the median score and composite rank of a value may not always be consistent. The composite rank is used to simplify the description of data and does not enter into the statistical analysis of the data. However, the composite rank serves to show the relative position of a particular value in the total hierarchy of values and is useful in comparing the relative importance of a value across groups. Overall comparisons of terminal and instrumental value rankings in order of importance for all subgroups are presented in Appendices R X. These charts give a visual presentation of each group's value hierarchy.

The .01 level of significance is used to determine whether or not groups differ significantly in their ranking of a particular value. Many values appear to have a relative difference in ranking when comparing group medians and composite ranks and are indeed near the .01 level, but only those values which are statistically significant at the .01 level are considered to be relatively different in importance for the groups being compared. Both similarities and differences in value systems are explored since it is an understanding of the total value system that helps explain the motivation, needs, and desires of a particular group.








Ethnic Group

This section suT-arizes similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. When comparing all three ethnic groups, 12 terminal and instrumental values show statistically significant differences among blacks, Hispanics, and whites. Tables 1 and 2 present the terminal and instrunmental value rankings for the three ethnic groups.

When comparing ethnic groups, the terminal values of a sense of accomolishment, a world at peace, family security, happiness, inner harmony, pleasure, and wisdom discriminate significantly among blacks, Hispanics, and whites. Using composite ranks for comparisons, the largest difference in terminal value rankings is found in family security which blacks rank (1) and Hispanics and whites rank (5) and (6), respectively. Other major discriminators are a sense of accomplishment which Hispanics rate higher (8) than do blacks (10) and whites (13) and inner harmony which Hispanics (7) and whites (8) rank higher than do blacks (12).

The instrumental values of clean, honest, imaginative, independent, and obedient discriminate significantly among blacks, Hispanics, and whites. The largest difference in instrumental values is found for the value clean, which blacks rank (1) and Hispanics and whites rank (16) and (15), respectively. Another major difference between ethnic groups is with the ranking of independent, which blacks rank (7) while both Hispanics and whites rank independent (12). A 2 X 2 comparison of value rankings and ethnic groups yields the following results:







Table 1

Terminal Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and
Statistically Significant Differences
for Blacks, Hispanics, Whites


Value Blacks Hispanics Whites


A Comfortable Life

An Exciting Life

A Sense of Accomplishment A World at Peace A World of Beauty Equality Family Security Freedom Happiness Inner Harmony Mature Love National Security Pleasure Salvation Self-Respect Social Recognition True Friendship Wisdom


9.136 (9) 13.500 (15) 9.944 (10) 10.738 (11)


12.188 6.350 3.818 6.889

6.714 11 .278 8.357 15.479

14.100 12.333 5.233 14.333

8.111 4.469


9.200 (10) 12.563 (15)


9.000 (8)


11.063 (12)


(13)

(4)

(1)

(6)

(5)

(12)

(8)

(18)

(16)

(14)

(3)

(17)

(7)
(2)


13.750 9.875

6.538 5.214 5.429 8.708 9.143 15.500 1 1.400 13.864

4.417 12.083 7.409

4.417


9.682 (10)


12.500 (15)


11.250 (13) 8.714 (9)


(16)
(11)

(5)

(3)

(4)

(7)

(9)

(18)

(13)

(17) (1,2)


(14)

(6)

(1,2)


12.115 10.885

7.857 5.429

7.125 8.167 8.071


14.875 13.000

10.833 6.100 14.800 7. 389 7.227


(14)

(12)

(6)
(1)

(3)

(8)

(7)

(18)

(16)

(11)

(2)


(17)

(5)

(4)


Note: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses.


.004 .002


.000


.007 .004


.002


.004







Table 2

Instrumental Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and
Statistically Significant Differences
for Blacks, Hispanics, Whites


Value Blacks Hispanics Whites


Ambi tious Broadmi nded Capable Cheerful

Clean Courageous

Forgiving Hel ful Honest

imacirative Independent

Intel 1 ectual Logical

Lov i ng Obedient Polite Responsible Self-Controlled


6.000 7.714 10.350 9.875 3.607 9.200 8.000

9.400 5.611 14.292 7.719

11.875 13.250 6.400 15.679 9.679 7.542 9.850


(3)

(6)

(14)

(13)

(1)

(9)
(8)

(10)

(2)

(17)

(7)

(15)

(16)

(4)

(18)

(1)

(5)

(12)


8.833 7.167

10.250 8.500 12.000 11.000 9.500

10.786 3.278 11.750

10.500 10.143 13.367 6.214 13.333 9.300 6.273 8.786


(7)

(4)

(11)

(5)

(16)

(14)

(9)
(13)

(1)

(15)

(12)

(10)

(18)

(2)

(17)

(8)

(3)

(6)


7.700 (4) 8.217 (5) 9.700 (8) 10.125 (10,11) ---11.333 (15) .000 10.833 (13)

9.833 (9) 10.125 (10,11) ---2.786 (1) .000 12.833 (17) .000 10.500 (12) .000 9.643 (7) ---12.500 (16)

4.667 (2) ---15.038 (18) .000 10.944 (14)

6.000 (3) ---8.500 (6)


Note: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses.







Blacks and Hispanics

Blacks place a higher value than do Hispanics on family security

and being clean and independent. On the other hand, Hispanics consider inner harmony, pleasure, and being imaginative, obedient, and honest significantly more important than do blacks. A total of eight value rankings differentiate blacks and Hispanics when comparing the relative importance of values within their value systems. Blacks and Whites

Blacks value family security, wisdom, and being clean ana independent more highly than do whites. Whites, however, consider a world at peace, inner harmony, and being honest significantly more important than do blacks. Blacks and whites differ significantly on their rankings of seven values.

Hispanics and Whites

Hispanics rank the values of family security and happiness significantly higher than do whites. It should be noted that even though the median rank of happiness for Hispanics (5.429) is significantly higher than that of whites (7.125), the composite ranks show that it is also important to whites (3) as well as Hispanics (4). The ranking of only two of the 36 values differentiates Hispanics and whites.

Understanding similarities as well as differences in value systems among blacks, Hispanics, and whites is also of importance. Ranking at or near the top of the terminal value hierarchy of all three ethnic groups are the values wisdom, self respect, freedom, and happiness. Ranking at or near the bottom of the terminal value hierarchy are the values national security, social recognition, pleasure, and an exciting







life. The instrumental values honest, loving, and responsible are at or near the top of the value hierarchy. Obedient, logical, and imaginative are at or near the bottom of the instrumental value hierarchy.

When comparing value systems of blacks, Hispanics, and whites,

research findings indicate relative similarities in the ranking of 24 out of a possible 36 values. However, there are significant differences in the ranking of 12 values among the three ethnic groups. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 1), as presented in Chapter III, is rejected on the basis of research findings. Interpretation of results will be presented in Chapter V.


Sex

This section summarizes the similarities and differences between male and female community college students. When comparing males and females, six terminal and instrumental values show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Tables 3 and 4 present the terminal and instrumental value rankings for males and females.

According to comparisons by sex, the terminal values of savalation and self-respect discriminate between males and females. Females rank self-respect (1) with a median of 4.500 as compared to males who rank it (7) with a median of 8.200. Females also rank salvation higher than do males, with a composite rank of (11) for females as compared to (17) for males. The similarity in rankings of terminal values is interesting. When comparing males and females, 16 of the 18 values have composite ranks that coincide within three levels of the value hierarchy. Therefore, when ethnic group is not differentiated, there seems to be a high correlation between males and females for terminal values.







Table 3
Terminal Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and
Statistically Significant Differences
for Males and Females


Value Males Females P A Comfortable Life 9.094 (8) 9.800 (10) An Exciting Life 11.850 (14) 13.300 (15) A Sense of
Accomplishment 9.188 (10) 11.000 (13) A World at Peace 9.182 (9) 10.595 (12) A World of Beauty 13.556 (15) 12.060 (14) Equality 10.000 (12) 9.500 (9) Family Security 6.400 (2) 5.143 (3) Freedom 5.700 (1) 5.571 (4) Happiness 6.893 (3) 6.083 (5) Inner Harmony 9.818 (11) 8.929 (8) Mature Love 7.677 (6) 8.763 (7) National Security 14.607 (18) 15.792 (18) Pleasure 11.750 (13) 13.326 (16) Salvation 13.906 (17) 10.385 (11) .010 Self-Respect 8.200 (7) 4.500 (1) .000 Social Recognition 13.750 (16) 13.722 (17) True Friendship 7.600 (5) 7.865 (6) Wisdom 7.500 (4) 4.708 (2) Note: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses.







Table 4
Instrumental Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and
Statistically Significant Differences
for Males and Females


Value Males Females P Ambitious 5.289 (2) 8.423 (6) .004 Broadminded 9.000 (6) 7.500 (5) Capable 10.500 (12) 9.947 (12) Cheerful 11.625 (15) 9.025 (8) .000
Clean 9.611 (8) 9.500 (11) Courageous 10.944 (13) 9.444 (9) Forgiving 11.667 (16) 7.435 (4) .002 Helpful 9.929 (11) 10.409 (14) Honest 3.143 (1) 4.708 (1) Imaginative 11.423 (14) 13.733 (17) .008 Independent 9.583 (7) 8.550 (7) .... Intellectual 9.865 (9) 11.643 (15) ---Logical 13.237 (17) 12.550 (16) Loving 6.400 (3) 5.462 (2) Obedient 15.094 (18) 14.789 (18) Polite 9.900 (10) 10.321 (13) Responsible 6.577 (4) 7.000 (3) Self-Controlled 7.500 (5) 9.462 (10)


medians, with composite ranks in parentheses.


Note: Figures shown are







The instrumental values of ambitious, cheerful, forgiving, and

imaginative discriminate between males and females. Males rank ambitious
(2) significantly higher as compared to females (6) also imaginative (14) higher than do females (17). Females, however, believe being frivn

(4) is more important than do males (16) as well as cheerful (8) when compared to males (15). It should be noted that although the Median Test did not indicate significant differences at the .01 level, a comparison of the composite ranks of intellectual and self-controlled indicates a difference of 6 and 5 levels, respectively, between males and females in their value hierarchy. Males rank intellectual (9) while females rank it (15). Males also rank self-controlled (5) as more important than do females (10).

There appears to be great similarity in value systems between males and females when ethnic group is not differentiated. Ranked at or near the top of the terminal value hierarchy for both males and females are the values family security, wisdom, and freedom. Ranked at or near the

bottom of the terminal value hierarchy are the values national security and social recognition. Comparing instrumental values of both males and females, honest, loving, and responsible are at the top of the value hierarchy and obedient and logical at the bottom of the value hierarchy.

Although males and females are in relative agreement on the importance of 30 values, research findings indicate significant differences in six of the value rankings. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 2), as presented in Chapter III, is rejected. Interpretation of results will be presented in Chapter V.








Interaction of Ethnic Group and Sex

This section reviews research findings which investigate the

interaction of ethnic group and sex when comparing value systems of various groups. Six subgroups are identified in the study (i.e., black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, white females), and comparisons of value systems are made based on the research hypotheses presented in Chapter III. When comparing all six subgroups, 10 terminal values and nine instrumental values (i.e., a total of 19, or over half of the values under study) show statistically significant differences among the value hierarchies of the six subgroups. Table 5 and Table 6 present the terminal and instrumental value rankings for the six subgroups.

The terminal values of a sense of accomplishment, a world at peace, equality, family security, happiness, inner harmony, pleasure, salvation, self-respect, and wisdom are ranked significantly different in importance among black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females. Composite ranks for a sense of accomplishment range from (3) for black males to a rank of (14) for white females. A world at peace is ranked highest by white males (5) and lowest by Hispanic males (14) and black males and black females (13). Equality is considered significantly more Important by black females

(4) than by the other five subgroups. Family security is most important to black females (1), black males (2), and Hispanic males (2). Hispanic males rank happiness (1) significantly higher than do the other subgroups. The value inner harmony ranges from (3) for white females down to (15, 16, 17) for black males. Pleasure, which ranks rather low with all groups, is ranked highest by black males (10)












Table 5
Terminal Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and Statistically Significant Differences
for Black Males, Black Females, Hispanic Males, Hispanic Females, White Males, White Females


A Comfortable Life A. fxcitng L!fe A Sense of AccompIshment A World at Peace A World of Beauty Equality Family Security Freedom Happiness Inner Harmony Mature Love National Security

Pleasure Salvation Self-Respect Social Recl"Ition True Friendship Wisdrna


U_.7 .


2Note: FI'ures sOov are medlAns, with composite ranks in parentheses.


_eL


013ck IMoalos
6.500(6)

9.167(11) 3.500(3) 10.750(13)

8.500(8,9)
11.900(14)
3.000(2)
5.500(4)
8.000(7)

14.500(15,17,17)

6.000(5) 15.167(18)

8.900o(10) 14.500(15.10617) 10.000(12) 14.500(15.76.!7)

0.500(8.9)

2.500(l)


U1.ck Fcm.3s

9.500(9)
14.100(15) 10.389(11) 10.731(13)

12.180(14) 6.250(5) 3.909(l) 7.083(6)

5.786(4)
10.500(12)
8.722(8) 15.636(18)

14.6505(17)

10.250(I0)

4.833(2)

?4.250(16)

8.063(7)

5.14303)


8.0c'0(9)

13.063(15) 8.000(6)

12.500(14)

15.333(18) 8.700(s)
4.417(2)

4.833(3)
4.333(1) 8.333(7)

6.750(4) 14.667(17) 12.33.1(13)

13.r47(16)

10.600(11) 11.750(12)

7.500(5)

9.750(10)


flis!1ntc Females
10.500(9,10)

11.000(12)
9.833(n)

10.500(9,10)

12.900(16) 11.250(13) 7.300(5)

5. 500(3) 5.C25(4) 9.000(7)

72.643(15) 16. 125(08)

10.900o(11) 13.A1S(17)

2.643(1) 12.250(14) 7.333(6) 3.722(2)


WVhite F"Ales

9. 643 (9) 11.250(17) 10.955011)

7.000(5) 13. 500(16)
11.500(14) 7.333(6) 5: 900(l)

6.929(4) 9.722(10)

0.500(8) 13.667(17)

12.167(lS)

11.333(13) 6.300(2) 14.700(18) 6.500(3) 7.929(7)


White Females

9.750(9) 13.000(5) 11.786(14)

10.300(11) 11.200(13) 10.611(12)
8.250(8)

4.7fl6(1) 7.400(6) 5.075(3)

7.167(5) 15.833(10) 13.277(16) 9.13(10)

r'.9"0(4) 14.900(17)

7.611()
5. 500 (2 )













Table 6
Instrumental Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and Statistically for Black Males, Black Females, Hispanic Males, Hispanic Females,


Significant Differences White Males, White Females


value AmbIt ous Proaduinded Capable Cheerful Clean Courageous Forgiving
I elpful Honest Imaginative Indlopendent

Intellectual Lagical
Loving Obadieit

Polite Responsible Self-Controlled


No : Figures show" are med4ans, with composite ranks is parentheses.


J __


BIack Males
7.000(8) 11.750(16)
6.400(5) 8.833(10) 6.500(6)
9.033(11,12) 11.167(15)
10.500(13.14)

4.500(2.3) 6,900(7)
8.500(g)
4.500(2.3)

15.000(17) 2.500(l) 17.750(18)
9.833(1,.12)

4.833(4) 10.500(13,14,%


unck Fentles
5.250(2)
6.917(5) 10.667(14) 10.091(13) 2.708()
8.813(9) 7.583(7)
9.100(11) 5.611(3) 15.036(17)
7.s13(6) 12.375(15)

12.474(16) 6.400(4) 15.125(!0) 9.636(2) 7.777(il)
9.000010)


IfSpnc ['d!!s
3.900(7) 8.500(8)
7.500(6.7) 12.000(15)
5.214(3) 11.167(12,13)
12.833(17) 11.167(12,13)

3.500(1) 12,071(16)
9.643(10) 7A.214(11)

13.500(18)
6.033(4) 11.750(14)

8.833(9) 7.000(5'
7.500(6.7)


hISpanic Fen:ales
10.250O(9)
6.375(4)
13.500(16)
6.500(5) 14.667(18) 10.033(13) 8.500(7)

10. (82 (11)
2.433(l) 10.500(10)
12.167(14)

0.003(6)
12.500(15) 2.667(2)

13.700(17) 10. 70G(72) 5.700(3)
0.00(e)


W te P-1 I
5.278(7)
8.900(6)
12.00005)
11.833(14) 10.750(1) 11.167(12) 11.602(13)

9.214(7) 2.700(1) 12.5OO(17)

9.500(a)
10.250(g) 12.357(16) 5..333(3) 5.000018)


White [F'rn Tel
9.750(10) 7.969(6) A.955 (8) 8.625(7)
12.000(14) 9.500(9)
7.000(4) 10.875(11) 3.000() 13.250(17)
11.250012)

7.33C04)
12.667(16)

4.16"(?)


1.507(1S)

5.000(3)
11.643(13)







and Hispanic females (11) and lowest by black females (17). Black and white females rank salvation at (10) as compared to ranks of (15),

(16), (17) for black males, Hispanic males, and Hispanic females. The value self-respect demonstrates great variation, ranging from (1) for Hispanic females and (2) for both black females and white males down to a rank of (11) for Hispanic males and (12) for black males. Wisdom is considered much more important by black males (1) and Hispanic females

(2) than it is to male Hispanics (10). In summary, the relative importance of 10 terminal values desmonstrates significant difference among the six subgroups classified by ethnic group and sex.

The instrumental values of ambitious, capable cheerful, clean, honest, imaginative, independent, obedient, and self-controlled are ranked significantly different among black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females. Ambitious is ranked highest (2) by Hispanic males, white males, and black females and significantly lower by the other groups. Black males (5) and Hispanic males (6, 7) consider the value capable as more important than do the other groups. Cheerful is ranked highest by Hispanic females (5) and lowest by Hispanic males (15). The value clean is ranked significantly more important by black females (1) than by any other group. Although being honest is considered important by all groups, it receives a significantly higher ranking by Hispanic females (1) with a median rank of 2.433. Imaginative ranges from (7) for black males to (17) for black females, white males, and white females. Black females rank independent significantly higher (6) than do the other five groups. Although obedient is ranked low by all six groups, it is considered the significantly more important by Hispanic







males (14). White males consider the value self-controlled as significantly more important (4) than do the other five groups. In summary, the six subgroups classified by ethnic group and sex compared in the study vary significantly on the ranking of nine of the 18 instrumental values.

It is important to understand similarities as well as differences

in value systems when comparing various groups. The terminal values considered important by all six subgroups are freedom, family security, happiness, wisdom, and true friendship. In contrast, national security, social recognition, salvation, pleasure, and a world of beauty are ranked consistently lower by all six subgroups. The instrumental values considered most important by all six subgroups are honest, loving, and responsible. The least desirable instrumental values are obedient, imaginative, and logical.

Although 17 values are ranked somewhat similarly in importance by the six subgroups in the study (i.e., black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, white females), over half of the values (i.e., 19) are ranked significantly different among the six subgroups. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 3), as presented in Chapter III, is rejected on the basis of research findings.
There are many significant differences in value systems resulting from the interaction of ethnic group and sex. Comparisons were made to determine exactly where the significant differences occurred in the value systems and specifically between which groups. Following are research findings summarized according to the five minor hypotheses designed to investigate the interaction of ethnic group and sex and the effect on value systems.







Black Males and Black Females

There are significant differences in the ranking of four values

when comparing the terminal and instrumental value systems of black males and black females. The greatest difference between black males and black females appears in the ranking of the instrumental value imaginative, which males rank (7) and females rank (17). Other significant differences result from the ranking of the terminal values inner harmony, salvation, and self-respect. Black females consider all three values to be significantly more important than do black males. Comparing black females to black males, the composite ranks for each of the values are (12) to (15, 16, 17) for inner harmony, (10) to (15, 16, 17) for salvation, and (2) to (12) for self-respect. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 3A) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems between black males and black females.


Hispanic Males and Hispanic Females

There are six value rankings which are significantly different

between Hispanic males and Hispanic females. This is a greater number of differences than when comparing black males and females or white males and females who only differed significantly on four value rankings. Hispanic males rate ambitious as relatively more important (2) than do Hispanic females (9). Males also rate independent higher (10) than do females (14). Hispanic females, on the other hand, rate self respect, wisdom, a world at peace, and cheerful significantly higher than do Hispanic males. Comparing Hispanic females to Hispanic males the composite ranks of the differentiating values are (1) to (11) for self-respect, (2) to (10) for wisdom, (9, 10) to (14) for a world at peace, and (5) to (15) for the instrumental value cheerful. Research







findings reject the null hypothesis (H 3B) since there are significant differences in value systems between Hispanic males and Hispanic

fenalcs.


White Males and White Females

White males and white females differ significantly in their

ranking of four values. Males rank the terminal value a world at peace significantly higher (5) than do females (11). Males also consider the instrumental value of self-controlled as relatively more important

(4) than do females (13). Females rank the instrumental values capable and cheerful significantly higher than do males. Females have a composite rank of (8) for capable as compared to (15) for males, and (7) for cheerful as compared to (14) for males. The null hypothesis (Ho 3C) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems between white males and white females. Black Males, Hispanic Males, and White Males

Twelve value rankings differentiate black males, Hispanic males, and white males. The terminal values an exciting life, a world at peace, inner harmony, a sense of accomplishment, family security, and self-respect have significantly different rankings among the three subgroups. Significant differences also occur in the ratings of the instrumental values obedient, imaginative, and self-controlled. Two by two comparisons of value rankings and sex/ethnic groups are made to determine exactly where significant differences occur and between which groups.

Comparing black males and Hispanic males the terminal values an exciting life, a world at peace, inner harmony and the instrumental







value obedient are ranked significantly different by the two subgroups. Black males consider an exciting life relatively more important (11) than do Hispanic males (15), and blacks rank a world at peace significantly higher (13) than do Hispanics (14). Although the composite ranks of the two groups for a world at peace appear to be almost the same, it is the analysis utilizing median ranks that determine statistical significance (i.e., median rank of 10.750 for blacks compared to 12.400 for Hispanics). Hispanic males rank inner harmony significantly higher

(7) than do black males (15, 16, 17), and the instrumental value obedient is higher for Hispanics (14) than for blacks (18). In summary, four value rankings demonstrate significant differences in value systems between black males and Hispanic males.

Comparing black males to white males the terminal values a sense of accomplishment, a world at peace, inner harmony, and self-respect are significantly different in rankings. The instrumental values imaginative and self-controlled are also ranked significantly different by black and white males. Black males rank a sense of accomplishment significantly higher (3) than do white males (11). Blacks also rank imaginative higher (7) than do whites (17). White males consider being self-controlled as significantly more important (4) than do black males (13, 14). Whites also rank self-respect higher (2) than blacks (12), a world at peace higher (5) to (13), and inner harmony higher (10) as compared to blacks (15, 16, 17). A total of six value rankings differentiate black males and white males.

There are only two significant differences in value rankings when comparing Hispanic males and white males. Hispanic males rank family security significantly higher (2) than do white males (6). White males,








on the other hand, consider self-respect relatively more important (2) than do Hispanic males (11). It appears that value systems of Hispanic and white males are more congruent than among other sex/ethnic groups.

Although black males, Hispanic males, and white males are relatively similar in their rankings of 27 terminal and instrumental values, the three subgroups differ significantly in the ranking of nine values. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 3D) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems among black males, Hispanic males, and white males. Black Females, Hispanic Females, and White Females

Eighteen value rankings differentiate black females, Hispanic females, and white females. The terminal values family security, equality, pleasure, self-respect, and inner harmony have significantly different rankings among the three subgroups. Significant differences also occur in the ratings of the instrumental values ambitious, capable, cheerful, clean, honest, imaginative, and independent. Two by two comparisons of value rankings and sex/ethnic groups are made to determine exactly where significant differences occurred and between which groups.

Ten value rankings differentiate black females and Hispanic females. The terminal values equality, family security, pleasure, and selfrespect are ranked significantly different by the two subgroups. The instrumental values ambitious, cheerful, clean, honest, imaginative and independent are also ranked significantly different by black and Hispanic females. Black females rank equality (5), family security

(1), ambitious (2), clean (1), and independent (6) significantly








higher than do Hispanic females who rank equality (13), family security

(5), ambitious (9), clean (18), and independent (14). Hispanic females, on the other hand, consider pleasure (11) and self-respect (1) significantly more important than do black females who rank them (17) and (2), respectively. Even though comparisons of median scores yield a significant difference in the ranking of self-respect for the two subgroups, the composite ranks demonstrate a difference of only one level. Hispanic females rank being cheerful (5), honest (1), and imaginative
(10) significantly higher than do black females who rank them (13), (3), ard (17). It should be noted that the greatest number of differences in value systems among sex/ethnic groups occur when comparing black females and Hispanic females.

Black females and white females differ in their rankings of six values. Significant differences occur in the ranking of the terminal value family security and the instrumental values ambitious, able, clean, imaginative, and independent. Black females rank family security significantly higher (1) than do white females (8). Black females also consider being ambitious (2), clean (1), and independent (6) significantly more important than do white females who rank them (10), (14), and (12), respectively. In comparison, white females rank being capable

(8) and imaginative (17) significantly higher than do black females who rank them (14) and (17). Although the composite rank for imaginative

(17) is the same for both groups, the medians differ significantly with 13.250 for white females and 15.036 for black females. Black and white females differ more in their beliefs about desired behavior than in desired life goals.







There are only two value rankings which differentiate Hispanic

females and white females. Hispanic females rank self-respect (1) significantly higher than do white females (4). White females, on the other hand, value inner harmony (3) more highly than do Hispanic females (7). When comparing females as well as males, it appears that the value systems of Hispanics and whites are more congruent than among other sex/ethnic groups.

Although black females, Hispanic females, and white females are relatively similar in their rankings of 24 terminal and instrumental values, the three subgroups differ significantly in the ranking of 12 values. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 3E) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems among black females, Hispanic females, and white females.

Investigating the interaction of ethnic group and sex and the relationship to value systems differentiates additional and varied significant differences among subgroups as contrasted with comparisons based only on ethnic group or sex. It can be determined that both sex and ethnic group are important when attempting to understand the value systems of the six subgroups in the study (i.e., black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, white females). Results of the study are interpreted in Chapter V. Limitations of the study, implications, and recommendations of the study are also presented in Chapter V.













CHAPTER V
SUMMARY


The purpose of the study was to investigate the similarities and

differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white comnunity college students. Comparisions of value systems by sex and the interaction of ethnic group and sex were also explored. The study was developed in response to a concern about the effectiveness of counseling with ethnic minorities and the current lack of research data regarding differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups. The study gathered and analyzed descriptive data about black, Hispanic, and white value systems which can be used by counselors to develop a greater sensitivity to and understanding of minority group clients.

Values and value systems constitute a very important set of client characteristics which need to be considered in developing more effective approaches and treatments in counseling. Values and value systems form the central organizing framework for human behavior (Rokeach, 1968, 1973). A value is an enduring belief that an end-state of existence (i.e., terminal value) or specific mode of behavior (i.e., instrumental value) is personally or socially preferable to converse end-states of existence or modes of behavior. Terminal and instrumental values are internalized and interrelated in a hierarchy of values (i.e., value system). A value system is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance concerning preferred end-states of existence or preferred modes of behavior.







Values and value systems function as standards that guide ongoing activities or behavior and act as general plans for conflict resolution and decision-making. Values serve a motivational function by giving expression to human needs. Knowledge of value systems among various ethnic groups provides a conceptual framework for the development of therapeutic models matched to particular life-styles or value systems.

Three major and five minor hypotheses were tested in the study to investigate the similarities and differences in value systems among blacks, Hispanics, and whites. Comparisons by sex and the interaction between ethnic group and sex were also explored. All null hypotheses were rejected based on the following research findings:

H0 -- There are significant differences in the ranking of 12

values when comparing value systems of blacks, Hispanics,

and whites.

H 0 -- There are significant differences in the ranking of six

values when comparing value systems of males and females.

H 0 -- There are significant differences in the ranking of 19

values when comparing value systems of black males, black

females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males,

and white females.

H03A -- There are significant differences in the ranking of four

values when comparing value systems of black males and

black females.
H03B -- There are significant differences in the ranking of six

values when comparing value systems of Hispanic males

and Hispanic females.








H03C -- There are significant differences in the ranking of

four values when comparing value systems of white males

and white females.

H3D -- There are significant differences in the ranking of 1?

values when comparing value systems of black males,

Hispanic males, and white males.

H 03E -- There are significant differences in the ranking of I-,

values when comparing value systems of black fermales,

Hispanic females, and white females.

The population for the study consisted of students enrolled in Hi borough Community College, Tampa, Florida. A total of 330 students participated in the study, of which 134 were males and 196 were femro Responses from black, Hispanic, and white ethnic groups (total 323: used in the study. The sex/ethnic composition was as follows: 24 b) ma es and 7 lack f emats-, 34 +spanic -nies an' 40 MInsptc- f~ewla znd 72 white males and 56 white females. Subjects were assessed by t4 u e of Roikeach's Value Survey (1967) in which respondents ranked eac& set of 18 terminal values and 18 instrumental values in order of the: importance.

Responses on the Value Survey were classified according to ethnir group and sex and comparisons were made based on the research hypothfu, The nonpararnatric Median Test (Siegle, 1956) was used as the main te2. of statistical significance at the .01 level. Results of the study were presented and explained utilizing frequency distributions, r-edia", ranks, and composite ranks. Research findings indicated significant differences in value systems among all subgroups compared in the study. interpretation of results follows.








Interpretation of Results

Results of the study support the general premise that culture and socialization are important determinants of behavior. Comparisons of value systems provide statistical data which identify differentiating variables (i.e., values) among various groups. Value systems of (a) blacks, Hispanics, and whites; (b) males and females; (c) black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females; (d) black males and black females; (e) Hispanic males and Hispanic females; (f) white males and white females; (g) black males, Hispanic males, white males; (h) black females, Hispanic females, white females are compared in the study. Findings idicate that each subgroup is unique, with its own system of valu and differs significantly from each of the other subgroups.

Twelve terminal and irstrunental values show statisically significant differences among blacks, Hispanics, and whites. The prime discriminator is the instrumental value clean which blacks rank (1) and Hispanics and whites rank (16) and (15), respectively. The high ranking for the value clean is assumed to be a reflection of the low-income status of many blacks participating in the study. Individuals who live in inadequate housing or experience financial insecurity strive for a safe, secure, and organized home and life; thus, they give a high priority to the value clean. This need also explains why blacks rank the values family security and independent (i.e., self-reliant or self-sufficient), and wisdom significantly higher than do Hispanics or whites.

Hispanics seem to place a higher value on aesthetic goals and modes of behavior as evidenced by their significantly higher ranking of the values inner harmony, pleasure, imagination, and happiness. This supports research which indicates that the Hispanic value orientation








is focused on the present and an accepting adaptation to a given situation (i.e., "making the most of it").

Value systems of whites are more similar to value systems of

Hispanics than value systems of blacks. Statistical analysis yields only two significant differences in value rankings between whites and Hispanics, compared to seven significant differences between whites and blacks. Hispanics place a higher priority on family security and happiness than do whites. Whites as compared to blacks consider the values of a world at peace and inner harmony significantly more important, indicating a desire for a world free from conflict.

Since it is generally held that socialization leads to sex role

differentiation, comparisons by sex are made which indicate significant effect of sex on value systems both within and between ethnic groups. When comparing all males and females in the study, regardless of ethnic group, findings demonstrate relatively few significant differences. Two terminal values and four instrumental values differentiate males and females. In general, males and females seem to differ most in their concepts of desired or expected behavior rather than goals in life. Males consider being ambitious (i.e., hard-working and aspiring) and imagnative (i.e., daring and creative) more important than do females. Both of these values reflect an individualistic orientation to life. Females, on the other hand, value self-respect and being cheerful and forgiving which indicates a field-dependent approach to life and an emphasis on interpersonal relationships. Results of the study support other research identifying differentiating variables between males and females.

Different cultures or ethnic groups reinforce varying sex roles, responsibilities, and expectations for males and females. Therefore,








comparisons are made to investigate the interaction of ethnic group and sex as determinants of values and value systems. Six subgroups are identified in the study (i.e., black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females). Results indicate significant differences among all the subgroups.

Sex as well as ethnic group is important when attempting to understand the value system of a particular subgroup. When comparing all six subgroups, ten terminal values and nine instrumental values (i.e., a total of 19, or over half of the values under study) have statistically significant differences in rankings among the value hierarchies of the six subgroups. The greatest differences in value systems between sex/ ethnic groups occur when comparing black males and white males, and black females and Hispanic females. When comparing value systems of males and females within ethnic groups, the greatest difference in value systems occurs between Hispanic males and females.

Black males consider a sense of accomplishment, family security,

and wisdom significantly more important when compared to other subgroups. Pleasure, although significantly higher for black males, is ranked 10th in their values hierarchy. Ambitious, capable, and imaginative are also ranked significantly higher by black males. This evidence seems to support the assumption that black males desire to achieve success and believe that hard work, competence, wisdom, and daring will help them accomplish their goals.

The high priority given to three values differentiates black females from all the other subgroups. Equality, independent, and clean are ranked significantly higher by black females. This reflects their concern for improving their environment and their belief that they








should be ambitious in order to gain self-respect and insure family security. Again, within the black ethnic group, values supportive of advancement and improvement are evident.

Significantly higher rankings for values obedient and happiness differentiate male Hispanics from all the other subgroups. Hispanic males value family secruity, ambitious, and capable significantly higher when comparpd to other males or Hispanic females. Inner harmony and freedom are also more important to Hispanic males than to all the other subgroups except white females. The Hispanic male seems to have a combination of desires related to a need for achievement and success blended with aesthetic or philosophical desires of freedom, happiness, and inner harmony. Their relatively higher value on obedient reflects the Hispanic culture's emphasis on respectfulness and courtesy in interpersonal relationships, a group orientation rather than individualistic orientation.

Hispanic females rank self-respect as first in their hierarchy, differentiating them from all other subgroups. Pleasure, wisdom, cheerful, and honest are significantly more important to Hispanic females than to the other subgroups with which they are compared. Inner harmony is also considered important by Hispanic females as well as Hispanic males. Only white females rank it higher. The high priority by Hispanic females for self-respect is interpreted as a reflection of their desire for higher self-esteem due to the more distinctive sex-role differentiation in their culture (i.e., 10 values are ranked significantly different by Hispanic males and females, suggesting relatively different life-styles).







White males value self-controlled and a world at peace more than any other subgroup. They also rank freedom first on their list of terminal values and ambitious higher than any other subgroup. These values suggest a humanitarian orientation for white males, reflecting a desire for a world free of conflict and a belief that mankind must be self-disciplined to achieve this goal. The value system of white males seems to suggest a global view of life.

Inner harmony differentiates white females from the other five

subgroups. Inner harmony is ranked significantly higher as is cheerful and capable. These values reflect a desire on the part of white females for peace and tranquility in their lives. They also value freedom more than any other group. This indicates a desire for independence and free choice, perhaps an outgrowth of the human potential movement and growing concern for women's rights or a reaction to the traditionally restrictive sex-role expectations of their culture.

Sex as well as ethnic group is important in identifying and understanding various subgroups within our culture. Results of the study can be used as diagnostic data to identify needs, goals, desires, and conflicts within and between various ethnic groups. Care should be taken to guard against stereotyping as a result of research findings since individual differences account for great variation within ethnic groups. Any attempt to interpret results is inherently limited by the culture, personal experiences, and value system of the interpreter. The results of the study should be applied with caution. Limitations of the study are discussed in the following section.








Limitations of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate similarities and

differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. Since the sample and population was controlled for educational level and place of residence, results may not be truly indicative of the overall ethnic groups. Rokeach (1973) found that there were greater differences in value systems between groups with different educational levels and socioeconomic status than between different ethnic groups matched for these variables. Therefore, some differences may not be as extensive as when comparing the entire population or a representative sample of each ethnic group.

The Hispanic sample was predominately of Cuban descent. If the assumption that the Cuban cultural/psychological makeup is different than other Hispanic groups in the United States (e.g., Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans), then descriptive data about the Hispanic sample may not be applicable to other distinct groups within the Hispanic population. Further analysis of data should involve comparisons between Cuban-born Hispanics and other Hispanic groups.

Many behavior patterns of ethnic minorities are related to a

subculture of poverty. Therefore differentiating variables apparently attributed to the interaction of ethnic group and sex might be correlates of socioeconomic status as well. Further research is needed to determine the effect of socioeconomic status on values and value systems.

Other limitations of the study and cautions about interpretation and application of research findings stem from the very nature of the measurement of values. Values cannot be directly measured but must








be inferred by a subjective measure. The Value Survey provides a means to quantify and measure value systems and to analyze and compare value systems from various subgroups. However with a ranking system the various levels are not equidistant and it cannot be assumed that a specific rank has the same amount of importance for all individuals or groups who assign the same rank to a value. Further, what is ranked low in the value system of an individual or group is not necessarily unimportant or undesirable. The importance of a value is dependent upon the order and position of the other values in the value system and the meaning it has for the individual who completed the survey.

Further limitations of the study are related to the application of research findings. Additional research is needed to determine the relationships of values and behavior. The question arises as to whether or not values can predict or describe behavior. In many instances, habits or demands of the environment may override value priorities, or equally important values may be in conflict in a given situation. It is difficult to differentiate the intervening variables influencing an individual's perceptual world and behavior. A final caution regarding results of the study concerns the philosophical and ethical issues involved in the application of results. These issues are discussed in the following section.

Implications and Recommendations

Differences in values and value systems among various ethnic minorities are infinite, especially when considering individual differences as well. Effective counseling of minority group members requires that the counselor be aware and understanding of both himself and his client,








their values and value conflicts. The counseling process should be reexamined and, if necesary, restructured. Most counseling approaches have developed as a result of experiences and studies with upper or middle-class clients in therapy. This raises a serious question as to the relevance and appropriateness of many counseling processes for ethnic minorities. Knowledge of value systems could provide a conceptual framework for the development of counseling techniques and therapeutic models matched to ethnically different life-styles and value orientations.

Rokeach (1973) reviews studies on values relevant to the counseling process. Similarity of value systems between clients and counselors is positively correlated with the continuation of the client-counselor relationship. The client's values and value orientation determines what he perceives, why he is motivated, and how he will learn and grow. The counselor, as well, is limited by his own perceptions and his beliefs or expectations of the healthy personality. Values are inherent in the counseling relationship just as they are in all human behavior.

The relevance of values to counseling is obvious. If an individual's values and value system are considered the basis for his behavior, knowledge and understanding of his unique values and value conflicts are essential to the counseling relationship. Culture and ethnic makeup largely determine an individual's language, cognition, motivation and values. An individual's culture is real and solid. It tells him how to think, feel, and how to learn. What the dominant American culture views as devient, in fact, may be accepted and valued behavior within other cultures or ethnic subgroups. In other words, what a counselor may see as a value conflict or problem for a client may be








based on the counselor's own phenomenological world, not that of the client.

Interpretation of results implies that values are related to needs. Values that describe immediate needs are considered most important and are placed higher in the values hierarchy. Conversely, values that define achieved life goals and behavior are taken for granted and placed lower in the values hierarchy. Maslow's theory of motivation (1954) provides a framework for this premise. Further research is needed to clarify and define this hypothesis before applications are made in the areas of educational and social reform.

Ethical and philosophical questions are raised simply by the nature and purpose of counseling (i.e., what is desirable in behavior and behavior change). The philosophy of counseling is an organized system of values emphasizing the dignity, freedom, and worth of the individual. Therefore, counseling is not neutral or value free. The counseling process is based on implied ideals of what is good or effective for an individual's happiness and growth. Different ethnic groups hold varying concepts of the nature of man and life goals. Ethical concerns develop when conflicting values arise in the counseling relationship which the counselor may not be aware of. Both the client and counselor do not always desire the same outcomes. The issue of informed consent is important in deciding which goals are implemented. Recognition and acceptance of differing client-counselor values are essential for effective counseling.


Conclusion
This study provides descriptive data about value systems of blacks, Hispanic, and whites. Research findings indicate significant differences




82



in value systems among all subgroups compared in the study. Results of the study can be utilized by counselors to better understand and accept differing values of minority group clients. Knowledge of value systems provides a framework for clarifying counselor and client goals in the counseling relationship. This knowledge forms a basis for allowing ethnically different clients recognition and respect as unique and worthwhile individuals.




























APPENDICES






























APPENDIX A
INFORMATION SHEET







Information Sheet


Male Female


Ethnic Group:


Black

_ Hispanic

Indian Explain:


Place of Birth: What was the first language you learned to speak? How many years have you lived in this city? Do you have a job outside of school? yes; hours per week _--no


Please check the economic level (average yearly income) for your family according to the following categories:

Upper Income Level

Upper-Middle Income Level Lower-Middle Income Level

Lower Income Level


Marital Status:

Age:


Oriental White Other






























APPENDIX B INTRODUCTION








introduction


You have been selected to participate in a study designed to gather information about student ideas and values. Your interest and assistance will be greatly appreciated.

We hope to gather information that will help increase our understanding of students' needs and desires. The results of this study will be utilized by counselors, college staff members, and teachers in an effort to help them be more sensitive to student values.

You are asked to fill out an information sheet. Then please complete the Value Survey in which you rank a list of values according to their importance for you. The survey should take about fifteen to twenty minutes to complete. Place the information sheet inside the survey booklet when you are finished.

Your participation in this study is voluntary. Therefore if you do not want to complete the survey, simply place the information sheet and this consent form inside the survey booklet. Your booklet will be collected when everyone else has finished.


Your ideas and values lowing surveys as honestly mous. Be sure to complete ability.


are important! Therefore, complete the folas you can. Your identity will remain anonyeach item in the surveys to the best of your


Are there any questions? Please sign your consent to participate, and BEGIN.


Your Signature Witness Researcher






























APPENDIX C VALUE SURVEY














UgAN. 0


VALUE SURVEY


BIRTH DATE SEX:


MALE _FEMALE_


CITY and STATE OF BIRTH fliAME IFILL IN ONLY IF REQUESTEO


Reprinted by permission of Halgren Tests.


-.~% f1 on "i ..


























IflSTRUCTIOfS




On the next page are 19 values listed in alphabetical order. Your task is to arrange them in ordej of their importance to YOU, as guiding principles in YOUR life. Each value is printed on a gummed label which can be easily peeled off and pasted in the boxes on the left-hand side of the page.


Study the list carefully and pick out the one value which is the most important for you. Peel it off and paste it in Box 1 on *he left.


Then pick out the vlue which is second most important for you. Peel it off and paste it in Box 2. Then c the same for each of the remaining values. The value which is least important goes in Box 18.


Work slowly and think carefully. If you change your minJ, feel free to change your answers. The labeis pee, off easily and can br moved from place to place. The end r,sult should truly show how you really feel.





WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED, GO TO THE NEXT PAGE.


1.

ii


A COMFORTABLE LIFE
(a prosperous life)

AN EXCITING LIFE
(a stimulating, active life)

A SENSE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT
(lasting contribution)

A WORLD AT PEACE
(free of war and conflict)

A WORLD OF BEAUTY
(beauty of nature and the arts)

EQUALITY (bwotherhood.
equal opportunity for all)

FAMILY SECURITY
(taking core of loved ones)

FREEDOM
(Independence. free choke)

HAPPINESS
(contentedness)

INNER HARMONY
(freedom from inner conflict)

MATURE LOVE
(sexual and spiritu i;ntimacy)

NATIONAL SECURITY
(Protection from attack)

PLEASURE
(on enjoyable, leisuroly life)

SALVATION
(soved. etornal life)

SELF-RESPECT (self-esteem)

SOCIAL RECOGNITION (respect. odmlration)

TRUE FRIENDSHIP (close companionship)

WISDOM
(a mature understanding of life)




Full Text

PAGE 1

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VALUE SYSTEMS AMONG BLACK, HISPANIC, AND WHITE COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS By ELIZABETH JOSEPHINE SPOTO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1978

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Copyright 1978 by Elizabeth Josephine Spoto

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My appreciation goes first and foremost to my parents, Dick and Betty Spoto, who with patience, acceptance, and love have given me the nioral and emotional support which has helped me to pursue a doctoral prograr! and write a dissertation. I wish to especially thank Dr. E. L. Tolbert, chairman of my doctoral committee, who has provided not only tire and assistance over the years, but also warm encouragement and support which has given me confidence in my abilities and potential. I appreciate the help, friendship, and professional guidance of my coiTinlttee members: Dr. Richard J. Anderson, Dr. Larry C. Loesch, and Dr. Robert D. Myrick. .My appreciation also goes to Dr. John Nickens, Carol Dawley, Sherry Friedlander, and Patti Cammaratta who have assisted re in the final stages of writing and compiling the dissertation and to Han:iltcn Stirling and Myrna Marshall who have provided emotional support and understanding. I am thankful for Carol C. White and Rose Mary M. Patterson for their long and loving friendship, Mary Jo Ciccarello for her li-itless loyalty and support. Dr. Carol Klopfer for her warmth and encouragement, and Dr. Daniel J. Sprehe for being my wise and loving nentcr. Lastly, I am thankful for my family, friends, colleagues, students, and clients who, in their own way, have helped me to develop an open, positive, and humanistic approach to life and a healthy belief in my potential for growth and experience.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Paae ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii ABSTPj\CT viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ] Need for the Study 1 Purpose of the Study 2 Major Concepts and Definition of Terms 4 Organization of the Study 5 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 7 Historical Development of Value Theory 7 Value Theory in the Behavioral Sciences 9 Measurement of Values 18 Milton Rokeach: The Nature of Human Values 23 Relevance of Values to Counseling 26 Differentiating Variables of Ethnic Groups 29 Implications: Values, Counseling, and Ethnic Groups.. 37 Conclusion: Rationale for the Study 39 III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 40 Hypotheses Tested 40 Population and Sample 4-1 Research Design 42 Iv

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Instruments 42 Collection of Data 44 Analysis of Data 45 Limitations of the Study 47 IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY 49 Ethnic Group 51 Sex 55 Interaction of Ethnic Group and Sex 59 V SUMMARY 70 interpretation of Results 73 Limitations of the Study 78 Implications and Recommendations 79 Conclusion 81 APPENDICES A INFORMATION SHEET 85 B INTRODUCTION 87 C VALUE SURVEY 89 D ETHNIC GROUP: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES 94 E ETHNIC GROUP: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES 96 F SEX: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE R.ANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES 98 G SEX: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES 100 H BLACK MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES 102 V

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Page I BLACK MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE PJ\NKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES.... J HISPANIC MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES K HISPANIC f^ALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES.... L WHITE MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES M WHITE f^LES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES.... N MALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES 0 HALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES P FEflALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES Q FEMALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES S TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR MALES AND FEMALES TERMINAL AN IMPORTANCE) WHITES 122 T TERMirWL AN IMPORTANCE) FEMALES.... 126 TERMINAL AND I IMPORTANCE) A.N HISPANIC FEMAL 128 130 vi

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Page W TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK MALES, HISPANIC MALES, AND WHITE mLES 132 X TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (Ifl ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK FEMALES, HISPANIC FEMALES, AND WHITE FEMALES 134 REFERENCES I35 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 142 Vii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VALUE SYSTEMS AMONG BLACK, HISPANIC, AND WHITE COMI'^UNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS Elizabeth Josephine Spoto August, 1978 Chainnan: E. L. Tolbert Major Dapartment: Counselor Education This study is a response to concern about the effectiveness of counsslipg with ethnic minorities and the current lack of research data regsrding differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups. The study investigates the siniilarities and differences in value systems among blackj Hlspcnic, and vjhite ccrn-iunity college students. Comparisons of value systems by sex and the interaction of ethnic group and sex are also explored. Research findings indicat2 significant differences in valce sy5t2:ns arnong all subgroups compared in the study. The sanipla for the study consists of 323 students enrolled at Hillsborough CcrriJTjunity College, Tampa, Florida. Subjects are assessed by means of Rokeach's Value Survey, a measure in which respondents rank each set of 13 terrfiinal and 18 instrumental values in order of \ their i.^portance. Responses on the Value Survey are classified according to ethnic group and sex and comparisons are made based on research hypotheses. The nonparametric Median Test is used as the m\n test of statistical significance at the .01 level. Results viii

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of the study are presented utilizing frequency distributions, median ranks, and composite ranks. Statistical analysis of comparisons based on research hypotheses yields the following results: (a) Blacks, Hispanics, and whites differ significantly in the ranking of 12 values, (b) Males and females differ significantly in the ranking of six values, (c) Black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white fenieles differ significantly in the ranking of 19 values, (d) Black males and females differ significantly -^n th^. ranking of four values, (e) Hispanic males and females differ significantly in the ranking of six values, (f) White males and females differ significantly in the ranking of four values, (g) Black males, Hispanic males, and white males differ significantly in the ranking of 12 values, (h) Black females, Hispanic females, and white females differ significantly in the ranking of 18 values. Results of the study support the general premise that culture and socialization are important determinants of behavior. This study provides descriptive data about value systems of blacks, Hispanics, and whites. Values and value systenis constitute a very important set of client characteristics which need to be considered in developing more effective approaches and treatments in counseling. Results of the study can be utilized by counselors to better understand and accept differing values of minority group clients. Knowledge of value systems provides a framework for clarifying counselor and client goals in the counseling relationship. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION One of the major issues facing the counseling profession today is the recognition of and responsibility to the distinctive ethnic minorities within our society. Too often, related literature is simply a call to action rather than a systematic approach to the differences and basic conflicts which face individuals within ethnic subgroups. It is apparent that there are special needs and unique characteristics of ethnic minorities. However, the nature and extent of these differences have not been adequately explored. Counselors have a professional responsibility to be understanding of and responsive to the unique needs and values of ethnic minorities. Need for the Study This study was developed in response to a concern about the effectiveness of counseling with ethnic minorities and the current isck of research data regarding differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups. The study gathered and analyzed descriptive data which can be utilized by counselors to develop a greater understanding of their minority group clients. To be effective, counseling must be sensitive to the cultural characteristics of clients. Both blacks and Hispanics make up sizeable minority groups within the United States. Therefore, this study T

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investigates value systems of black, Hispanic, and white Americans, Although the study sought to identify and compare differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups, caution should be taken to guard against stereotyping as a result of the research findings. Counselors need to be aware of both counselor and client values in counseling and allow the culturally different client recognition and respect as a unique and worthwhile individual. Knowledge of value systems can provide a conceptual franiewcrk for the development of counseling techniques and therapeutic models matched to ethnically different lifestyles and value orientations. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to investigate the similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students in the United States. The concepts of value and value system are chosen because they are considered to be the central organizing framework for human behavior (Rokeach, 1968, 1973). According to Rokeach's conceptual framework, values are enduring beliefs about preferred modes of behavior or end-states of existence. Values are interrelated and internalized into value systems. A value system is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance concerning preferred modes of conduct or end-states of existence. Values and value systems serve several functions as the central organizing framework for human behavior. Values function as standards that guide ongoing activities and act as general plans for conflict resolution and decision-making. Values serve a motivational function by giving expression to human needs. Therefore, knowledge

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5bo'.it vsTiies, voiue differences, and value conflicts "Is essential in unde -standinc ethnic nlnorities. A review of the literature indicated that there may be differences in the relative importance of values (i.e., value systems) among blacks, Hispcnics, and whites. The sample in this study was controlled for educational level (i.e., community college students) and city of residence, so results should not be interpreted as indicative of all socioeccnoniic and educational levels within each ethnic subgroup. The Hispanic sample was weighted toward Cuban ethnic extraction, and research has indicated that the Cuban cultural/psychological makeup is unique from other Hispanic groups that have traditionally been studied (i.e., Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans). Therefore, other comparative studies of Hispanlcs did not provide predictive data directly relevant to the sample population of Hispanlcs in this study. Similarities and differences in value systems among blacks, Hispanlcs, and whites were investigated in the study. In addition, since it is generally held that socialization leads to sex role differentiation, comparisons by sex and the interaction between ethnic grou'p and sex were also explored. The following research hypotheses were tested: Hull Hypotheses : Hgl — There are no significant differences in value systems among blacks, Hispanlcs, and whites, as measured by Rokeach's Value Survey. H^2 — There are no significant differences in value systems between males and females, as measured by Rokeach's Value Survey.

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4 H^3 There are no significant differences in value systems resulting from the interaction of ethnic group and sex (i.e., among black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, white females), as measured by Rokeach's Value Survey. A. There are no significant differences in value systems between black males and black females. B. There are no significant differences in value systems between Hispanic males and Hispanic females. C. There are no significant differences in value systems between white males and white females. D. There are no significant differences in value systems among black males, Hispanic males, and white males. E. There are no significant differences in value systems among black females, Hispanic females, and white females, Major Concepts and Definition of Terms Rokeach (1963, 1973) developed a theory of values which seems to be the most comprehensive and pragmatic approach to studying and understanding the basis of human behavior. According to Rokeach, the value concept occupies a central position across all the social sciences. A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct ,\\ vi.e., instrumental value) or end-state of existence (i.e., terminal value) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach, 1973). Values are interrelated and organized into a values hierarchy or value system. A

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value system is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance, concerning preferred modes of conduct or endstates of existence. Rokeach proposes five assumptions regarding the nature of human values: (a) The total number of values a person possesses is relatively small, (b) All men everywhere possess the same values to different degrees and express them in different ways, (c) Values are organized into value systems, (d) The antecedents of human values can be traced to culture, society and its institutions, and personality, (e) The consequences of human values will be manifested in virtually all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and understanding. following Rokeach' s assumptions of the limited number and universality of values, it is possible to develop and implement a comparative cross-cultural study of value systems. Values and value systems, with their r;-any manifestations, account for rich differences among cultures, societies, institutional arrangements, and individual personalities. Black, Hispanic, and white community college students were administered Rokeach's Value Survey (1967), an instrument which measures the relative importance of 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in an individual's value system. Similarities and differences in value systems among the various subgroups are determined through statistical analysis of the data, Organization of the Study A review of the literature providing a rationale of the study is presented in Chapter II. Chapter II includes (a) Historical Development of Value Theory, (b) Value Theory in the Behavioral Sci ences >

PAGE 15

Cc) Measurement of Values, (d) Milton Rokeach: The Nature of Human Values, (e) Relevance of Values in Counseling, (f) Differentiating Variables of Ethnic Groups, (g) Implications: Values, Counseling, and Ethnic Groups, (h) Conclusion: Rationale for the Study. The research methodology of the study is presented in Chapter III. Chapter III includes an explanation of (a) Hypotheses Tested, (b) Population and Sample, (c) Research Design, (d) Instruments, (e) Collection of Data, (f) Analysis of Data, (g) Limitations of the Study. Results of the study are reported in Chapter IV. Chapter IV includes research findings based on comparisons of value systems by (a) Ethnic Group, (b) Sex, (c) Interaction of Ethnic Group and Sex. Chapter V concludes with the summary of the study and includes (a) Interpretation of Results, (b) Limitations of the Study, (c) Implications and Recommendations, (d) Conclusion.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Historical Development of Value Theor y Interest in the concept of value runs throughout many disciplines, The rr.eaning, application, and measurement of value varies to a great extent even within the distinct fields of the social and behavioral sciences. Scheibe (1970) presents an excellent review of the history and development of value theory. According to Scheibe (1970) the concept of value was first differentiated by Plato when he presented his philosophical ideas on the components of the human soul and his thoughts in ethics. Plato ccntendad that there were three distinct functions of the human soul and that wanting and willing (i.e., valuing) were different from the third function of knowing. In more modern times, British empiricism attempted to link experience with knowledge and science. Empiricism emphasized the rigorous empirical investigation of the content of experience and the relation of experience to physical reality. With the growth of industrialization and drastic changes in the nature of society, utilitarian concerns came to the forefront. Utilitarianism attempted to determine which course of action produced the greatest good for the greatest number of people (i.e., goodness is value). Under this orientation, basic values were considered (a) rooted in the nature of man and (b) related to his ability to survive as a species. German analytic structuralism, specifically beginning 7

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'with the scientific methods of Wilhelm Wundt, was not directly concerned with knowledge, wants, motives, or behavior. However, structuralism did bring experimental methods to psychology, which eventually influenced efforts at differentiating and measuring psychological concepts, such as values. American functional ism viewed man as an active constructor of truth. Man's Ideals and judgments of values are important and are determiners cf his behavior (Scheibe, 1970). The functionalist approach helped explain, for example, the hard-headed determination of the American pioneer and entrepreneur. More recently, psychoanalysis has provided a new framework from which to study man and his behavior. Psychoanalysis views human values or needs as the shapers of experience and action. In contrast, behaviorism, with its widespread acceptance, generally denies the importance of "mind and soul" in psychology and is therefore not concerned with the concept of value. However, the more recent growth of humanistic psychology and concern with human rights has again placed the concept of value at the forefront. The concept of value involves different meanings, methods of measurement, and application from one discipline to another. Philosophy, economics, anthropology, sociology, and psychology are all concerned with different aspects of value. Perry's (1926) philosophical approach presented the basic dichotomy of value theory: (a) value as intrinsic in an object or (b) value as in the meaning and interpretation of the observer. Varying interpretations of the concept of value raise such questions as (a) Is value an adjective or adverb, or is value a verb? (b) Does a phenomenon have value because it is valuable or because it is valued?

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Peterson (1970) summarized the problem inherent in value theory when he stated that value was not one of the "careful" words. It was neither specifically defined nor universally accepted. Dewey and Bentley (1949) distinguished between concepts of knowing and known. Their transactional approach viewed values as systems of description and phases of action rather than attributes of elements, entities, and realities. Perry (1926) emphasized the interdependence of interest and cognition and viewed value as a function of society. The Austrian valuists of the early twentieth century viewed value as meaning and interpretation, not the object (Werkjneister, 1973). It was the concept of value as the meaning and importance of phenomenon for an individual or group that related the concept of value to the behavioral sciences. Value Theory in the Behavioral Sciences The concept of value has been defined and utilized in a variety of ways within the behavioral sciences. A multi-disciplinary approach to value has been presented by several behavioral scientists (Dukes, 1955; Handy, 1970; Maslow, 1959; von Mering, 1961; Morris, 1956; Parsons & Shi Is, 1951). Parsons and Shi Is (1951) contended that systems of action have psychological, sociological, and cultural aspects. A group of anthropologists, psychologists, and sociologists met together in 19491950 in an effort to develop an interdisciplinary theory of value (i.e., Harvard Values Project). The terms values, motives, and systems of action were used interchangeably. The concept of value orientation patterns was developed, and it defined (a) the patterns of role expectation and sanction and (b) the standards of cognitive and appreciative • judgments. Value patterns, institutionalized in the social structure, through the operation of role mechanisms, and in combination with other

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elements, organize the behavior of adult members of society (Kluckhohn, 1951). Parsons and Shils (1951) stressed the dynamic interaction of value patterns, social structure, and personality as determinants of behavior. Dukes (1955) presented a historical view of studies of values^ related to the growth and acceptance of social psychology beginning in the 1930's. Dukes discussed the problem of measurement in value theory resulting from the widely varied conceptualizations of the term. Morris study (1956) took a multidiscipl inary approach based on the concept that values reflect the culture in which an individual lives and interacts. This was a field conception of values much like that of Lewin and Grable (1945) who viewed experience as the totality of psychological influence acting on a person at a given point of time. Morris (1956) saw values a objectively relevant preferences and developed a cross-cultural interval scale for measuring values which support his field conception of values. Maslow (1959) chaired a conference with the purpose of defining and establishing values for positive growth and development. The interdisciplinary conference attempted to define and develop a science of values, establishing a naturalistic and universal value system. Again, the problem of multi-conceptualizations and applications developed. -Von Mering (1951) took a biosocial approach to the concept of value, describing values as motives for conduct. Values emerge in a situation of social interaction and become formulated and elaborated into a more enduring system to guide behavior. Von Mering's hierarchical system of personalized values was termed a "grammar of values" and was used as a tool in the processes of choosing and selecting courses of action. According to Handy (1970). von Mering discussed

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supported Cantril and Allport's conclusion that evaluative attitudes are pervasive, enduring, and generalized traits of personality. Within the behavioral sciences, value is generally viewed as a psychological construct which is somehow utilized by the individual and expressed as preferences, evaluations, beliefs, attitudes, or desires. Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson and Sanford (1950) provide an indepth study of the organizing structure of personality. They conclude that all aspects of an individual's attitudes and values are part of an organized structure and are related in psychologically meaningful ways. Personality is viewed as a more or less enduring organization of forces in the individual. These forces or convictions are not responses, but a readiness to respond. Convictions are viewed as broad patterns or clusters of opinions, attitudes, and values and are an expression of deep-lying trends in personality. Adorno et aj.'s study establishes the concept of value as an integral part of personality dynamics. CattC!i Cl954) reviewed techniques for measuring human values. He concluded that desires are fundamental to values. Catton defined value patterns as the ends desired by a group, the conditions under which those ends are desired, and the relative intensity with which they are desired. Inlow (1972) viewed values as determiners of behavior which include the motivational component of desire. Kaslow's (1954) conception of value refers to Intrinsic human needs. He proposes a naturalistic value system based on a hierarchical structure of human motives or values. According to Maslow, higher-order values emerge spontaneously as more fundamental values are fulfilled.

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12 supported Cantril and Allport's conclusion that evaluative attitudes are "pervasive, enduring, and, above all, generalized traits of personal ity." Within the behavioral sciences, value is generally viewed as a psychological construct which is somehow utilized by the individual and expressed as preferences, evaluations, beliefs, attitudes, or desires. Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson and Sanford (1950) produced an indepth study of the organizing structure of personality. They conclude that all aspects of an individual's attitudes and values are part of an organized structure and are related in psychologically meaningful ways. Personality is viewed as a more or less enduring organization of forces in the individual. These forces or convictions are not responses, but a readiness to respond. Convictions are viewed as broad patterns or clusters of opinions, attitudes, and values and are an expression of deep-lying trends in personality. Adorno et al.'s study establishes the concept of value as an integral part of personality dynamics. Catton (1954) reviewed techniques for measuring human values. He concluded that desires are fundamental to values. Catton defined value patterns as the ends desired by a group, the conditions under which those ends are desired, and the relative intensity with which they are desired. Inlow (1972) viewed values as determiners of behavior which include the motivational component of desire. Maslow's (1954) conception of value refers to intrinsic human needs. He proposes a naturalistic value system based on a hierarchical structure of human motives or values. According to Maslow, higher-order values emerge spontaneously as more fundamental values are fulfilled.

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Much of Maslow's work has been directed toward the development of a dynamic TiOtivation theory based upon the healthy self-actualizing human being. This humanistic approach links intrinsic needs or values to motivation (i.e., fulfilling one's potential). Smith (1959) reviewed the history and conceptual development of huma values in social psychology. The major focus of social pscyhology in the 1920's and 1930's was on the concept of attitude; the 1930's and 1940's saw the development of sampling techniques, surveys and polling, and concern with public opinion; the 1940's and 1950's produced studies in small group research and the development of interdisciplinary approaches to personality theory (e.g., Adorno et ai, 1950). Smith defined attitudes as inferred dispositions, attributed to an individual, according to which his thoughts, feelings, and, perhaps, action tendencies are organized with respect to a psychological object. Values or valuing is comprised of persons engaging in processes of selection or choice with respect to objects. Smith viewed personal values as general, hierarchical, important attitudinal components of a personal philosophy of life. Personal values act as standards of the desirable and account for regularities in behavior. The value system of the individual is best described as a multifactor spiral or behavioral bias which molds and dominates the decision-making power of the individual (Smith, 1969). Handy (1970) contended that behavior is a product of the organism and its environment. This transactional approach is based upon a needs theory. The organism aims at restoring equilibrium, including selective or preferential responses. According to Handy, the selective-rejective behavioral characteristic of a need satisfaction sequence is just what many behavioral scientists have focused on in their study of values.

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Scheibe (1970) considers the study of beliefs and values to be a psychology of motivation. Behavior is a result of the interaction of beliefs and values. Beliefs are like a cognitive map. expectancies of what leads to what, and are guides to action. Values refer to what is wanted, best, desirable or preferable, what ought to be done, and what is "good" among available alternatives. Defining values does not explain behavior but can be used to make behavioral predictions. According to Scheibe, man is a maxinizer, always choosing the option that offers the best hope of the highest payoff, maximum behavior potential, or maximum expected value. Most complex decisions involve an array of apparently separate but interacting values. What a person does (i.e., behavior) depends upon what he wants (i.e., values) and what he considers to be true or likely (i.e., beliefs) about himself and the world (i.e., psychological ecology). Recent concern with human growth and potential and human rights has led to the application of value theory in education and personal development (Kohlberg. 1966 and 1969; Simon et. ai. 1972). Kohlberg (1966) presents a cognitive-developmental approach to moral development. Kohlberg contends that moral values are the "oughts" and "shoulds" of human behavior and that moral values develop in orderly stages related to cognitive development and are universal in sequence. The levels or stages of moral development are determined by assessing sophistication in thinking or ways of problem-solving. "Better" or higher stages of moral development are attained when a person does a better job of problem-solving (Kohlberg, 1969). A study by Bruner and Goodman (1947) represents many studies which demonstrate the pervasive effect of values and needs on motivation and

PAGE 24

learning. The authors focus on value as related to perception and sensation and found that the effect of the money value of coins influences the perception of size (i.e., the higher the money value of the coin, the larger the size perception of the coin). Numerous related studies have dealt with the effect of valuing on perception. Bruner and Goodman (1947) conclude that value and need act as organizing factors in perception. A value orientation serves as a "sensitizer," lowering thresholds for acceptable stimuli and raising the thresholds for unacceptable stimuli. Kohler (1938) proposes that valuing was really an expression of the phenomenological world of the experiencing person. Kohler' s concept of valuing seems to be of popular interest at present. Simon, Howe, and Kirschenbaum (1972) present an experiencial approach to the development of a personal value system through the process of values clarification. Simon et al_. (1972) contend that a value system is a way to systematically handle confusion and conflict. An individual's values and value orientation will determine what he perceives, why he is motivated, and how he will learn, grow, and develop. A croup of anthropologists, primarily working with the Harvard Values Project which began in 1950, have developed a comprehensive theory of value, culture, and human behavior (Kluckhohn, 1951, 1962; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1951; Taylor, Fisher, & Vogt, 1973). Value is considered the key concept for integrating the various social sciences (Kluckhohn, 1951). Kluckhohn defined values as a conception, explicit or implicit, distinctive of an individual or characteristics of a group, of the desirable which influences the selection from available modes, means, and ends of action. A value is a way of acting and can often only be inferred from observation or study. Values are conceptions of what is, what ought to

PAGE 25

be, and what is desirable. Values are learned elements in behavior where feelings are attached and which involve a commitment to action. Values have an affective as well as cognitive dimension (Kluckhohn, 1951; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961). The above-mentioned anthropologists view values as both products • of and determinents of culture. Situations of choice or selection offer the opportunity to study values. Differences in values or value orientation explain why various cultures adapt differently to the same problesns or choice situations (Taylor, et al. 1973). Culture is defined as a way of thinking, feeling, and believing. It is that part of human life learned by people as the result of belonging to some particular group shared by others. Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and .or behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting ..he distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products 0. action and on the other as conditioning influences upon further action. (Kluckhohn, 1962, p. 103) Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) developed a theory of variation in value orientation between cultures and attempted to develop a method for cross-cultural testing of this theory. Their basic assumption was that there is a systematic variation in the realm of cultural phenomena which is both as definite and as essential as the demonstrated systematic variations in physical and biological phenomena. This systematic variation between cultures can be attributed to differences in value orientations. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck defined value orientations as . .complex and definitely patterned (rank-ordered) Drincioles resu ting from the transactional interp ay of [hree ana^ica ly* distinguishable elements of the evaluative process ..tJe

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cognitive, affective, and directive elements . which qive order and direction to the ever-flowing stream of human acts problems! (p^'usf ''^'^^ ^ ^ Value orientations are general and organized principles influencing man's behavior and assumptions about life, a kind of philosophy of life. Kljckhohn and Strodtbeck's study (1961) investigated five problems which they considered crucial to all human groups or cultures. These problens were (a) character of human nature, (b) man's relationship to nature, (c) time orientation or focus of life, (d) modality of human activity, (e) man's relationship to other men. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck developed research methodology to test the differences and similarities in the rank ordering of the value orientation alternatives of the five crucial problems and applied this methodology to five cultures in the southwest United States. They found significant within-culture regularities end significant between-culture differences in value orientations regarding the five crucial problems considered to be corrxnon to all cultures at all times. Milton Rokeach (1968, 1973) has developed a theoretical framework for understanding the nature of human values. Because this theory is the basis for the proposed study, Rokeach's theory of values and value systems will be discussed in detail in a separate section. Values and value orientations are preferences of an individual, socialized 1n one cultural tradition as opposed to another, subtly built into a total apperceptive mass through role expectations imposed upon him, and are an extremely important aspect of total personality (Kluckhohn i Strodtbeck. 1961). While values can explain consistencies in personality, value orientations can explain generalized consistencies or organizing principles within cultures and ethnic groups.

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18 Measurement of Values The measurement of values continues to be a difficult problem and major criticism of value theory. The basis of the problem is the lack of consensus on the meaning and definition of value. It is a question of conceptualization, for value measurement is a measure of conceptual qualities or expressions of psychological phenomena. Values cannot be measured directly but must be inferred or differentiated deductively. Friedman (1946) traced the development of the measurement of values in the early stages. Friedman stated that the major distinction separating value theories is (a) whether or not value exists independently of persons or (b) whether value is considered to arise because of human beings. Friedman discussed the problem of definition and concluded that the validity of a value measure lies in its ability to fulfill the purpose for which it was designed. This approach could include a variety of instruments, each attempting to measure a variety of conceptual qualities. At present, this seems to be the status of measurement in value theory. Thurstone (1954) is generally credited with the extension of measurement into the field of attitudes and valu.s. Thurstone viewed human values as essentially subjective and proposed that a subjective metric be developed. Objective measures cannot be used. Hull (1944). on the ether hand, contended that values (i.e.. striving behavior) can be objectively measured and subjected to progressive empirical rectification and validation. Processes involved in values and valuation can be treated objectively by the quantitive methodology of natural science (Hull. 1944). Whatever the approach, a variety of instruments has been developed to measure a variety of conceptualizations of value.

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The Allport-Vernon Study of Values, with later revisions (Allport, Vernon S Lindzey, 1950), has continued to be the most widely-used measure of values. This instrument attempts to measure the relative prominence of six basic interests in personality (i.e., general evaluative attitudes or value orientations). The six basic interests are (1) theoretical, (2) econcnic, (3) aesthetic, (4) social, (5) political, (6) religious. This measure is based on Spranger's (1928) theoretical model. Adorno et ai. (1950) developed the F Scale, an instrument designed to measure clusters of opinions, attitudes, and values (i.e., convictions or expressions of deep-lying trends in personality). The major focus of their study was to identify those patterns of forces or attitudes correlated with prejudice or fascism. A major contribution of this in-depth siudy was the demonstration of the superficiality of many other studies and the illustration of difficulties and problems encountered when trying to construct a scale to measure something in the value realm. Morris (1956) developed The Way of Life Questionnaire in which 13 conceptions of the "good life" or alternative ways to live were rated from one to seven. The alternatives were what Morris believed to be positive, normal, constructive, and beneficial rather than negative, abnornal, or destructive. Morris used Thurstone's scaling techniques, factor analysis, and comparisons with other data. Results implicated three basic value profiles. The major findings of Morris's studies tended to support a field conception of values and the attainment of a cross-cultural interval scale for measuring values. However. Handy (1970) contended that what is measured by The Way of Life Questionnaire is not really clear. Again, there is the problem of validity.

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Carter (1956) developed the Koloman Technique for exploring values. Koloman was the name of a "mythical new country" for which subjects were asked to express their views on social values (e.g., birth control labor unions, etc.). Carter's research was sponsored by the United States Information Agency and was viewed as a fairly painless instrument to investigate culturally different beliefs about social values. Carter's instrument attempted to measure expressed beliefs. Kohl berg (1966, 1969) presented hypothetical dilemmas involving moral values and measured the sophistication of the subject in thinking and problemsolving to determine the level and stage of moral development. Von Mering (1961) developed a procedure called the Theme-Control ledDiscussion-Technique which attempts to account for psychological and situational variables in the field-work conditions of the anthropologist. Subjects are presented with conflict situations in which a variety of conflicting values are inherent. Von Mering contends that Individuals respond and choose courses of action according to a hierarchy of personalized values. These systems of valuation are at the core of a culture and evolve into enduring systems that guide conduct. Von Bering's research has indicated significantly different value orientations (i.e., processes of choosing and selecting courses of action) for different cultures. His in-depth work illustrates the type of problem involving many current investigations of value (Handy, 1970). The concept of value can be expressed in infinite ways. Differentiation and classification are difficult. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) developed a theory of variation In value orientations between cultures and a method of cross-cultural testing of the theory. Value orientation was defined as a generalized

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and organized principle concerning basic human problems which pervasively and profoundly influences man's behavior. They also developed a classification of value orientations based on assumptions that (a) There is a limited number of common human problems for which all people at all times must find possible solutions, (b) While there is variability in solutions of problems, it is neither random nor limitless but definitely variable within a range of possible solutions, (c) All alternatives of all solutions are present in all societies at all times but are differentially preferred. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) investigated five problems which they considered crucial to all human groups or cultures: (a) What is the character of innate human nature? (b) What is the relation of man to nature? (c) What is the temporal focus of human life? (d) What is the modality of human activity? (e) What is the modality of man's relationship to other men? Subjects were interviewed according to field-study methods and were presented a schedule of 22 items, each delineating a type of life situation which is believed to be common to all cultures and alternative solutions based on the theoretically postulated value orientation in question (i.e., time: solutions presenting past, present, and future-oriented preferences; activity: solutions presenting being or doing modes of behavior). Research methodology tested the differences and similarities in the rank ordering of value orientation alternatives to the five crucial problems between five cultures in the southwest United States. The researchers found signficant within-culture regularities and significant betweenculture differences in value orientations. A recent study (Szapocznik, Scopetta. & Aranalde, in press) has applied the Value Orientation Scale

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22 and methodology of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck in an investigation of the Cuban immigrant's value structure. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) expressed several concerns about testing and research of values and value orientations: (a) Items may be contaminated by other interacting value orientations, (b) There may be a loss in translation or misinterpretation of meaning on the instrument in cross-cultural research, (c) Defensiveness may be involved in considering crucial life situations and personal choices, (d) Circularity of reasoning can occur. In spite of these concerns, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's study represents a comprehensive and in-depth study of value orientations and culture. There are many criticisms about methods of measurement of values. A basic criticism is that values in principle cannot really be measured because they are not entities (Handy. 1970) but hypothetical constructs. Messick (1975) raised a question on the conceptualization of value. He questioned what was really being measured. The validity of value measurement can be likened to that of intelligence tests, with valididy differing according to the different concept of value which it attempts to measure. Messick discussed concepts of construct and content validity, requirements of convergent and discriminant evidence, and norm and criterion-referenced interpretations. He suggested the use of counter-hypotheses and the identification of bias in value measurement. This approach would help clarify assumptions and ideologies implicit in many measurement and evaluation activities. Kitwood and Smithers (1975) criticized current methods available as inadequate for studying values within a socio-psychological framework.

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23 However, they contended that Milton Rokeach's Value Survey is the latest and most impressive of value measures. Although they believe that the Value Survey still suffers from sn inadequate conceptual i/'ation of human values, its simplicity and ready appeal make it a practical and useful instrument in the measurement and study of human values. The conceptual basis and research instrument for the proposed study is based upon Rokeach's theoretical framework. A review of Milton Rokeach's theory and reasearch follows. Milton Rokeach: The Nature of Human Values Rokeach (1968, 1973) has developed a theory of values which presents a comprehensive and pragmatic approach to studying and understanding the nature of human values and the basis for human behavior. Rokeach emphasizes the importance of value, stating that the concept of value is more central, dynamic, economical, and more encouraging to interdisciplinary collaboration than any other concept in social psychology (1973). The study of value broadens the range of social psychology's traditional concerns to include studies of education and personality development and change. According to Rokeach (1968), beliefs, attitudes, and values are organized together to form a functionally integrated cognitive system. Beliefs are inferences made by an observer about underlying states of expectancy. An attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs about an object or situation predisposing one to respond in some preferential manner. Value is a type of belief centrally located within one's total belief system about how one ought or ought not to behave or about some end-state of existence worth or not worth obtaining.

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24 A belief has cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. An attitude is an organization of beliefs and a predisposition to respond. A value is an expressive function of beliefs and attitudes. Value seems to be a more dynamic concept since it has a strong motivational component. Value is a determinant of attitude as well as behavior. Once internalized, consciously or unconsciously, values become a standard or criterion for guiding action, developing and maintaining attitudes, justifying action, moral judgment, and comparing self with others (Rokeach, 1968). Rokeach's (1973) theory of values is based upon five assumptions regarding the nature of human values: (a) The total number of values 6 person possesses is relatively small, (b) All men everywhere possess the same values to different degrees and express them in different ways, (c) Values are organized into value systems, (d) The antecedents of human values can be traced to culture, society and its institutions, and personality, (e) The consequences of human values will be manifested in virtually all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and understanding. According to Rokeach, the value concept should occupy a central position across all the social sciences. Rokeach defines value as an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct (i.e., instrumental value) or end-state of existence (i.e., terminal value) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of behavior or end-state of existence. Instrumental values are beliefs about the "oughtness," morality, and competency of behavioral style (e.g., courageous, honest, obedient, etc.). Terminal values are a kind of "super goal" or desired life style (e.g., family security, salvation, a sense of accomplishment, etc.).

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Instruir.ental and terminal values are internalized, interrelated in a values heirarchy (i.e., value system) and become determiners of behavior. According to Rokeach (1973), a value systeni is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance, concerning preferred modes of conduct or end-states of existence. People tend to value a given belief or system of beliefs in proportion to the degree of congruence with their own belief-value system; and they tend to value people in proportion to the degree to which they exhibit beliefs or value systems congruent with their own. The congruity principle, as it is called, is a basic premise in social psychology (Osgood & Tannenbaum. 1955) and explains one theory of cognitive interaction in new learning and changes in previously held beliefs, attitudes, and values. Values and value systems serve several functions as the central organizing fran:ework of human behavior: (a) Values function as standards that guide ongoing activities, (b) Value systems act as general plans for conflict resolution and decision-making, (c) Values serve a motivational function by giving expression to human needs. The relevance of values to counseling is obvious. If an individual's values and value system are considered the basis for his behavior, knowledge and understanding of his unique values and value conflicts are essential to the counseling relationship. Rokeach has developed the Value Survey (1967), an instrument which measures the relative importance of values (i.e.. value system) for an individual. The small number of values, with their many manifestations, can account for rich differences among cultures, societies, institutional arrangements.

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and individual personalities. Counselors should be aware of the interaction of values in counseling and be sensitized to the unique value systeii of their clients. Relevance of Values to Counseling Values are inherent in the counseling relationship just as they are in all human behavior. Dukes (1955) stated that psychotherapy is a study of values. "The sheer existence of psychotherapy, moreover, implies the application of a value system, mental disease being defined as undesirable and mental health as good" (p. 32). Rogers (1951) stated that cne cannot engage in psychotherapy without operational evidence of an underlying value orientation and view of the nature of man. Both the client and the counselor enter the counseling relationship witn certain preconceived beliefs and values about themselves and their world. The Dhilosophy of counseling is an organized system of values, affecting counselor goals and techniques (Patterson. 1958). Goals of ccunseling can be considered value questions concerning what is desirable in behavior and behavior change. Patterson suggested that the American Personnel and Guidance Association, through its philosophy and ethics, holds such values as dignity, freedom, worth, and individualIsm. Patterson emphasized the right of the client to hold different values than those held by the counselor. Williamson (1958) also contended that counseling is not neutral or value-free. In addition, however. Williamson believed that the counselor should take an active role by modeling the "best" values and helping the client to clarify his own values.

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"Counseling is a relationship in which the counselor provides the client with a communicating atmosphere that gives the client an opportunity to beconie involved in the discovering, processing, and synthesizing of values" (Boy & Pine, 1972, p. 192). Every facet of counseling presupposes moral and human values. Counseling, as one aspect of living, is an expression of values. Counseling is a process in which the counselor gives a fairly clear picture of his own personal concept of man's nature and his function on earth (Boy & Pine, 1972). Counseling should offer the same opportunity for the client. Peterson (1970) states that the nature of work in counseling involves a confrontation with value questions and presents a philosophic examination of the value questions which a counselor faces daily. H£ describes our society as a "crisis culture," one of change, transition, dissention, and resulting anxiety. In a period of crisis, values come into sharper focus. In a time when the quest for purpose, rneaning, and identity is of major concern, the counselor must become aware of and concerned with values in the counseling process. Therefore, every psychotherapist is a philosopher. Peterson describes therapy as a search for values because the search for identity is, in essence, a search for one's own intrinsic authentic values. Counseling is an exploration of values and related behaviors. Values determine the meanings assigned to client behavior and characteristics (Biggs etai.. 1976). The interplay of counselor and client values is complex, and the roles are subtle. The way a client is perceived and treated (i.e., valued) by a counselor suggests to the client his worth and potential and feeds into his own self-perception and evaluation (Biggs etal., 1976). Studies by Schrier (1953) and Rosenthal [1955) demonstrate the effect of counselor values on the

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behavior of clients and counseling outcomes. Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) classic experinent documents the pervasive effect of one's expectations and prior beliefs on other individuals' behavior and potential. What a person does (behavior) depends upon what he wants (values) and what he considers true or likely (beliefs) about himself and his world. Values are determiners that influence choices in life and behavior. To understand human behavior, we need to be aware of the values at play (Inlow, 1972; Rokeach, 1963, 1973; Scheibe, 1970). A person can be defined by his beliefs and values. If counseling is viewed as a search for self, then counseling can be defined as an exploration of values. The interaction of values and behavior of clients and counselors is very complex. Both the client and counselor enter the counseling relationship with his/her own value system. The values of the counselor may be subtle, but counseling is not value-free (Ajzen, 1973). Effective counseling relationships depend upon personality characteristics of both clients and counselors (Arbuckle, 1969; Finn, 1976; Boyd & Pine, 1972). When both counselor and client have established a meaningful and loving relationship, when the client has confidence in the counselor and ongoing mutual trust exists, then both can benefit from the open and honest sharing of values (Biggs et al_. 1976). Counselors must recognize, understand, and accept the existence of differing values in the counseling process. If values function as standards to guide action, general plans to resolve conflict and make decisions, and as expression of human need, it is essential that the counselor understand his client's phenomenological frame of reference (e.g., value system). Values are a part of functioning

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people, and developing a sensitivity to their existence and their influence on behavior is a worthy investment for the counselor who desires to bring a greater meaning and awareness to the dinensions of counseling (Boy and Pine, 1972). The following section reviews research on various ethnic and cultural groups and should provide useful data for counselors desiring to be more understanding of and sensitive to their ethnically-different clients. Differentiating Variables of Ethnic Groups Several studies have attempted to differentiate and measure unique characteristics of various ethnic groups. This section includes studies in fields of anthropology, sociology, and psychology and will be limited primarily to studies involving black, Hispanic, and white Americans. Special effort was made to collect data on Cuban immigrants since Cubans make up a sizeable proportion of the Hispanic sample in the study. A study by Parsons and Shils (1951) investigated cultural aspects of action systems or systems of value and attempted to differentiate value orientation patterns for several cultures. Their findings indicated that Spanish-Americans tend toward what they classify as the "imr.inent quality perfection ideal." That is, they, on the average, value harmonious and accepting adaptation to a given situation, "making the most of it," or a kind of fatalism. Anglo-Americans, in contrast, favor the "transcendent achievement ideal" which values directional activity toward achievement of universally-defined goals and the requisite performance. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's study (1961) found important differences in the rankings of value orientation alternatives between

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five sub-cultures in the United States (i.e., Spanish-American, Mormon, Texan-Farmer, Zuni Indian, and Rimrock Navaho). Their research indicated that Spanish-Americans were significantly more individual istically oriented in their time reference, subjugated to nature in their beliefs, and "being" rather than "doing" in their activity orientation. Schwartz's study (1971) compared values, value orientations, and achievement among Mexican-American and Anglo youth. Findings indicated that low educational attainment was related to a "mirror image" of the dominant Anglo culture (i.e.. present, not future oriented; being rather than doing; subjugation, not mastery over situation). These were the dominant value orientations of the Mexican-Americans in the study. Anglos expressed a faith in mankind and optimism in the future whereas Mexican-.Americans were more expressive, particularistic, and fatalistic. However, Schwartz cautioned not to generalize to all members of a subgroup, Hanaster and Ahumada (1971) compared cultural values of adolescents in Argentina, Puerto Rico, and Chicago by means of the Uses Test. They found that Argentinians scored significantly higher on hedonistic and benevolent response patterns; Puerto Ricans scored higher on instrumental and malevolent responses, and adolescents in Chicago scored significantly higher on status and aesthetic response patterns. Castaneda. James, and Robbins (1974) describe the value clusters of Mexican-Americans. They maintain a strong identification with the family, community, and their ethnic group. The focus is on pride for the family and not for the individual, cooperation and not competition. Mexican-Americans tend to personalize interpersonal relationships. They have a commitment and sensitivity to others and seldom ask for

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help but expect to be intuitively understood. nexican-Americans maintain an extended and supportive kinship pattern within a differentiated social environment. There are extensive and clear status and role definitions within the Mexican-American subculture. Age and sex roles demand specific responsibilities and expectations. Identification with the Mexican-Catholic (i.e.. Mestizo) ideology reinforces certain values (e.g., convention, fatalism, and guilt). The differentiating variables are many, resulting in a uniquely different value system and perceptual world for an individual of this ethnic minority. Padilla and Ruiz (1973) describe normative behaviors of Hispanic Ajuericans. They emphasize that what the dominant American culture may view c3 deviant (and therefore bad or wrong) may very well be encouraged and valued behavior within a subgroup (e.g., hearing voices, Machis-o, etc.). Padilla and Ruiz conclude, however, that many behavior patterns of ethnic minorities are related to a subculture of poverty rather than to ethnic background (e.g., job insecurity, low educational achieverr.ent, etc.). Studies by Azacarate (1970), Balbona (1970), Casal (1970), Fagen, Brody, and O'Leary (1968), and Lopez (1968) provide sociological data on the status of Cuban exiles in the United States. More than 700,000 Cuban immigrants have come to the United States since the communist governnient takeover in 1959, with an estimated 500,000 residing in Florida, predominantly in the Dade County area. Many were self-imposed exiles, believing that they would return to their homeland in the near future. The socio-economic background of Cuban immigrants has changed over the years from a predominantly professional and white-collar seg;-ent of Cuban society in the early years of immigration to the

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predominantly low-income and unskilled immigrants at present. Many exiles have expressed anxiety and helplessness when confronted with the American culture, listing language and communication and economic pressures as their greatest problems. Levels of acculturation or assimilation vary depending upon the size of the Cuban community and degree of social interaction with other groups. Acculturation seems slowest where there are large groups to support and reinforce cultural values and traditions (Casals. 1970), for example, in Miami, Florida. Assimilation takes place faster for immigrants from pre-exile urban residences and those with more children. In summary, the data indicate that Cubans comprise a large ethnic group in the United States and have tended to remain in the south Florida area. Their socioeconomic makeup has become more stratified over the years. Dowd (1966) conducted a comparative study of attitudes, goals, and values between Negro-American. white-American, and Cuban refugee groups in Miami. Florida. He used a self-anchoring scaling technique which included open-ended interviews and a 10-point assessment scale. He found significant sub-cultural differences in attitudes and values related to (a) family, (b) neighborhood, (c) school, (d) peers, and (e) future. White Americans were more concerned with material aspects of neighborhood and school (e.g., physical appearance, air conditioning, etc.). Cubans valued interpersonal relationships with neighbors and friends as more important. Negroes were more concerned with quiet neighborhoods and clean streets. Both whites and blacks were concerned with "school spirit" while Cubans were not. White Americans desired high salaries and success in the future while Cubans stressed having children and family ties. According to Dowd. Cubans seemed to

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be rrore positive and optimistic in their views and had more positive self-concepts and perceptions of their families. The findings of this study could be seriously questioned due to the date of the research and the changing socioeconomic characteristics of more recent Cuban i^TTiigrants. Britain and Abad (1974) investigated field independence-dependence of Cuban-American high school students. Instruments for the study included Hidden Figures, Draw-a-Person Test, and Rotters InternalLxternal Locus of Control Scale. Results indicated that Cuban students were basically field dependent; therefore, Britain and Abad concluded that Cuban society does not foster autonomy or field independence. A study by Concha, Garcia, and Perez (1975) investigated cooperative and cor^petitive modes of behavior among Cuban and Anglo-American 10-. 13-, and 17-year olds. They found a significant effect for nationality. Cubans demonstrated significantly more competitive behavior while Anglo-Ajnericans tended toward cooperation. This is in contrast with mny studies which infer the cooperative nature of Hispanic subcultures. It was suggested that social reinforcement from the Cuban community for competitive or aggressive behavior might be an expression of the pash for acculturation. Klovskorn, Madera, and Nardone (1974), three school counselors, discussed values and characteristics of the Cuban child. They describe Cuban students as out-going, warm, expressive, talented, versatile, resourceful, eager to learn, respectful toward authority, and striving for attention. This indicates an affective orientation toward life.

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Therefore, they recommend new techniques and approaches for dealing with this ethnic group (e.g.. guidance-learning centers and milieu counseling), Szapocznik et al. (in press) have conducted a recent study to differentiate the Cuban value structure. Their investigation was based on the conceptual framework of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961). Results indicated that Cubans were oriented toward the present time and toward lineal ity in relationships and subjugation of nature. Anglo-Americans favored individuality, mastery over nature, futuretime orientation, and endorsed idealized human values. Cubans expressed a greater need for approval, field dependence, and a sensitivity to social pressure. They tended to accept present situations (i.e., fatalism) and favored doing over being. The results in the activity realm (i.e., doing vs. being) are in contrast to the Hispanic value orientation indicated by the Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck study. Further research is needed which includes comparative studies of the distinct ethnic groups within the overall Hispanic population in the United States. Inlow (1972) identified Western (i.e., American) values as (a) the rationalist tradition or value of the intellect; (b) the JudeoChristian Ethic of belief in ultimate purpose; (c) the Anglo-Saxon tradition of individuality, liberty, and equality; and (d) pragmatic faith, confidence in success and achievement. Results from a study by Rokeach (1973) indicated that adult Americans rank a world at peace, family security, freedom, happiness, and self-respect as their most important terminal values or desired end-states of existence. Americans also ranked being honest, ambitious, responsible.

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forgiving, and broad-minded as their most important instrumental values or desired modes of conduct. The national sample was composed of 665 males and 744 females who were adminstered Rokeach's Value Survey. Rokeach and others have made many other comparisons using the Value Survey (e.g., sex, nationality, occupation, race, socioeconomic status, etc.). A study by Feather and Hutton (1974) found significant differences in value systems between New Guineans and Australians. Feather (1972) compared value systems and school achievement of Australian students. Australian value systems were similar in most ways to Western or American values. Nhu Chuong (1976) compared value systems between Americans and Vietnamese and subgroups within these cultures and found that Vietnamese were more concerned about security while Americans were more concerned about individual freedom. Sikuia and Lemlech (1976) conducted a study which compared black and white teachers' value systems using Rokeach's value theory and method of measurement. Results indicated significant differences between the two groups on seven of the terminal values and 10 of the instrumental values. Blacks, more than whites, valued the terninai values of a comfortable life, equality, and family security. Whites, on the other hand, valued a sense of accomplishment, a world of peace, pleasure, and salvation more highly than did blacks. Blacks, more than whites, valued the instrumental values cf courage, honesty, independence, intelligence, and self control. Whites valued logic, obedience, politeness, responsibility, and loving more than blacks. The most outstanding difference concerned the value ranking of courage; blacks ranked it fourth, and whites ranked it 17th. Sikuia and Lemlech concluded that blacks still struggle for what whites take for granted and that they

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believe that they must be courageous, intelligent, and independent to obtain what they want. The value profile of blacks seems to reflect the traditional American ideals of the past. The counselor must, if he is to be effective, make a concerted effort to understand the cultural makeup of his clients. This must not be merely affectual understanding but accurate cognitive understanding of the total milieu of different cultural groups (Wittmer, 1971). Stone and Shertzer (1971) emphasized the importance of recognizing cultural and value differences between ethnic minorities. Each subculture fosters the development of its own characteristic patterns of attitudes, values, and personality traits. Kupferer and Fitzgerald (1971) discussed the influence of culture and society on behavior and attitudes. However, they also stressed the importance of individual and situational differences and influences in relation to behavior. Palomares' (1971) definition of culture includes the following aspects of behavior: language, diet, ethics, costuming, and social patterns. He believed that counselors should experience and familarize themselves with the "niagic components" that make a culturally diverse society exciting and productive. Castaneda, James, and Robbins (1974) state that one's ethnic makeup helps determine his language, heritage, cognition, motivation, and values. An individual's culture is a reel and solid world which tells him how to think, feel, and how to learn. We need to recognize and accept differing cultural values not as a disadvantage but as a unique component of the personality of an individual.

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37 Implications: Values, Counseling, and Ethnic Group s .Members of ethnic minorities are caught between two worlds with colliding values. Differences in values and value systems among various ethnic minorities are infinite, especially when considering individual differences as well. Ethnic minorities experience rejection, frustration, futility, and alienation as they attempt to survive in the predominantly white, middle-class society of the United States. However, ethnic minorities are beginning to demand respect and acceptance as unique and worthy individuals. The needs of ethnic minorities are obvious, implications for counseling clear. Counselors should be aware and accepting of differing values, recognizing values as unique, basic characteristics of clients. Minority group views are often that counseling is a waste of time; that counselors are deliberately shunning minority students into dead-end, ncn-academic programs regardless of potential, preferences or ambitions; that counselors are insensitive to the needs of students and the community; that counselors do not seem to give the sar,e amount of energy and time in working with minorities; that counselors are sometimes arrogant and contemptuous; that counselors do not accept, respect, and understand cultural differences; that counselors do not know themselves and how to deal with their own hang-ups (Pine, 1970; Vontress. 1969). In short, many counselors are viewed as insensitive and unaware and do not seem to understand the client or themselves. Most counseling approaches reflect a middle-class or possible 'jpper-class bias. Counseling theories have evolved from experiences and studies with middle-class and upper-class clients in therapy.

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This raises a serious question as to the relevance and appropriateness of many current counseling processes. However, Pine (1970) contends that if counselors simply "practiced what they preached" about human relationships (e.g., openness, honesty, and acceptance), then the number of legitimate complaints about counseling would be markedly reduced. Effective counseling of minority group members requires that the counselor be aware and understanding of both himself and his client, their values and value conflicts, and that the counseling process be reexamined and, if necessary, redefined and restructured. Counselors must first of all know and accept themselves before they can ba free to accept and understand their client's world (Arbuckle, 1969; Rousseve. 1969; Berdie, 1976). There is a need for counselor self-appraisal and awareness (Vontress, 1969; Pine, 1970; Palcmares, 1975). Counselors must become more sensitive and aware of their own cultural life style or value system and be able to sense the unique potentialities in those clients who differ. Kupferer and Fitzgerald (1971), McGraw (1971), Adkins (1972), and a symposium sponsored by the American Personnel and Guidance Association (1974) are representative of the concern and respect for ethnic minorities on the part of the counseling profession. Divergent backgrounds and conflicting values often m.ake it difficult for individuals of ethnic subgroups to decide who they are, what they are, and where they fit. Aragon and Ulibarri (1975) view cultural differences not as disadvantages but as alternative life styles and values. Perrone (1973) calls for "cultural pluralism" and personalization in our society. He believes that we should accept and encourage valuing diversity, emphasizing diversity with dignity.

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The importance of values in counseling ethnic minorities is obvious. Counselor and client values are inherent in the counseling relationship as in any human interaction although the interaction may be complex and often subtle. The counseling process itself is an exploration of values (i.e., needs and behaviors of the client). To be effective, counselors must first authenticate themselves (i.e., be real and genuine). They must differentiate and clarify their own system of values which facilitates awareness and sensitivity to differing values of clients. This, then, allows the counselor to maintain a sense of psychological oppenness, allowing the client recognition and respect as a unique and worthwhile human being. Conclusion: Rationale for the Study To be effective, counseling must be sensitive to the cultural characteristics of clients. This study deals specifically with clients of ethnic subgroups. Values and value systems constitute a very important set of client characteristics which need to be considered in developing more effective approaches and treatment in counseling. Knowledge of value systems can provide a conceptual framework for the deveiopnient of therapeutic models matched to particular life styles or value systems.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Hypotheses Tested Three major and five minor hypotheses were tested in the study to investigate the similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white Americans. Comparisons by sex and the interaction of sex and ethnic group were also explored. The following null hypotheses were tested in the investigation: H^l — There are no significant differences In value systems among blacks, Hispanics, and whites, as measured by Rokeach's Value Survey. Hq2 — There are no significant differences in value systems between males and females, as measured by Rokeach's Value Survey. Hq3 — There are no significant differences in value systems resulting from the interaction of ethnic group and sex (i.e., among black males, black females, Hispanic rr.ales, Hispanic females, white males, white females), as measured by Ro
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D. There are no significant differences in value systems among black males, Hispanic males, and white males. E. There are no significant differences in value systems among black females, Hispanic females, and white females. Population and San.ple The population for the study consisted of students enrolled at Hillsborough Cotmiunity College, Tampa. Florida. Hillsborough Corrimunity College is an open-door post-secondary education institution in an urban center. It has several campuses located throughout the county. The population of the college is composed of many ethnic groups, predonr.inantly Anglo-^^jnerican, black-Am.erican, and Hispanic-American. Hillsborough Community College offers an Associate of Arts degree (university parallel or transfer curriculum), Associate of Science degree {technical-occupational curriculum), and a Certificate of Proficiency program. The sample population identified for the study was composed of students enrolled in English communication or writing courses at Hillsborough Cc^unity College. Since all three curricula have English requirements, English classes comprised a representative cross-section of all degree-seeking students enrolled at the college. Subjects for the study consisted of students enrolled in 15 classes randomly selected from a listing of all English course offerings for all campus locations for the Winter. 1978, school term. The course listing included all levels and areas of required English courses (i.e. developmental English, business English, and college-parallel English).

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42 A total of 330 students participated in the study of which 134 were males and 196 females. The ethnic composition was as follows: (a) black: 121 or 36.7%; (b) Hispanic: 74 or 22.4%; (c) white: 128 or 38.8%; (d) Indian, Oriental, other: 7 or 2.1%. There were 24 black males and 97 black females, 34 Hispanic males and 40 Hispanic females, and 72 white males and 56 white females. Responses from black, Hispanic, and white ethnic groups (total = 323) were used in ths study. Research Design The study was a descriptive (Isaac and Michael, 1971) or exploratory method of research. The purpose of this study was to accumulate a data base or to describe phenomena rather than explain relationships or make predictions. This study attempted to systematically describe the similarities and differences in values and value systems among blacks, Hispanics, and whites; males and females; and the interaction between ethnic group and sex. Instruments Subjects participating in the study were assessed through the use of Rokeach's Value Survey (1967), a simple method for measuring human values. It consists of two lists of values, 18 terminal values (i.e., end-states of existence) and 18 instrumental values (i.e., modes of behavior). Respondents ranked each set of 18 values in order of their importance. The Value Survey required approximately 15-20 minutes to complete. Form D of the Value Survey, which employed a gummed label technique, was used in the study. This technique gave the Value Survey a highly motivating, game-like quality that was superior to

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43 the usual paper-and-pencil tests of values due to a higher completion rate (Rokeach, 1973). Reliability of the instrument (i.e., total value systems as measured by the Value Survey) was determined by correlating the rankings from test-retest data. The median reliabilities obtained for various college-age samples ranged from .65 to .80 (Rokeach, 1973). The validity of Rokeach's theory of values and the Value Survey has bsen investigated in several studies. Mahoney and Katz (1976) analyzed the factor structure of the Rokeach Value Survey. College students' value structures were subjected to rank correlation and factor analysis. Thirteen factors e-erged which, whan subjected to varimax rotation, yielded polar value clusters demonstrating significant congruence with findings from previous research on values and value systems. Mitchell (1976) used an enpirical model of the organization of Rokeach's value-attitude system to detennine the internal consistency of the system, its structure and conpcnents. Correlational, factor, and multiple regression analysis indicated appreciable evidence for the internal consistency of the value-attitude system and a factorial structure congruent with Rokeach's theoretical conceptions. Kitwood and Smithers (1975) have concluded that the Rokeach Value Survey is the latest and most impressive rreasure of human values. An Information Sheet (Appendix A) was designed to provide the data necessary to classify the participants according to ethnic group and sex. Other demographic data were included on the Information Sheet in order to (a) desensitize subjects' reactions to classification by ethnic group and (b) provide data for other categories of classification

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44 Should other studies and additional research be desired. The Introduction (Appendix B) was designed to openly and honestly explain the purpose of the study and the procedure for collection of data. The Introduction also includes the student's consent to participate in the study. Collection of Data The procedures for collecting data for the study were carried out in the following order: 1. The need, purpose, and methodology of the study were presented to appropriate administrators at Hillsborough Community College. 2. After administrators approved the study, a meeting was conducted to explain the study to counselors and student services staff members who had been selected to go into classes and collect data. 3. Fifteen English classes were randomly selected using a table of random numbers (Lindgren, 1975) and according to the method described in the previous section on population and sample. Classes were randomly assigned to counselors and staff members who particpated in the study. 4. The following procedures were implemented in each class: (a) Students were given the Introduction to the study (Appendix B) by a counselor or staff member. Students signed the space indicating their consent if they were going to participate in the study, (b) Students completed the Information Sheet (Appendix A), (c) Students completed the Rokeach Value Survey, Form D (Appendix C). When finished, students placed the Introduction and Information Sheet inside the survey booklet, (d) When everyone had finished the Value Survey, the counselor or staff member collected survey booklets and thanked the class for their participation.

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5. Data were collected from all 15 classes and classified according to ethnic group and sex. Analysis of Data Nonparametric procedures were used in the analysis of data based on the use of rank-ordered responses on the Value Survey. No notion of equidistance between points or categories on the scale was assumed, only .a notion of rank-order. Nonparametric techniques require far fewer assumptions about population data (Popham & Sirotnik, 1967). Since subjects were classified according to the broad categories of ethnic group and sex and ordinal rank-order data were used for analysis nonpara.-Tietric statistics were utilized in the study. The rank-order listing of the 18 instrumental values and 18 terminal values on the Rokeach Value Survey was used for analysis. A value system is the hierarchical system or rank-ordering of the values according to their relative importance. It was the value systen (i.e., rank order of values) of (a) blacks, Hispanics. and whites, (b) males and females, and (c) black males, black females, Hispanic nales, Hispanic females, white males, white females that were co!!ipared to determine similarities and differences in value systems among the subgroups. Responses on the Rokeach Value Survey were classified according zo ethnic group and sex. Comparisons were made based on the research hypotheses. A median score for the ranking of each value was determined for each of the subgroups in the sample. Median scores were used as the measure of central tendency in order to account for the often skewed responses to be expected with ranking data. It was the

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medicin rank score of each value (i.e., 18 terminal values and 18 instrumental values) for each of the subgroups that was used in the statistical analysis of data. The nonparametric Median Test (Siegle. 1956) was used as the main test of statistical significance. The median test is a test of the significance of difference between the numbers of persons in two or more subgroups who score above and below the group median. It is a procedure for testing whether it is probable that two or more independent groups (not necessarily the same size) have beert drawn from populations with the same median. In this study the median test was used to test agreement among subgroups in the rank-order of values (i.e., value systems) and to detect any difference in the distribution of each value for each of the subgroups in the sample. A two-tailed test of significance was used to determine the level of significance. The level of significance designated for this study was the .01 level of significance. Statistical analysis of the data utilized computer programrning methods from the statistical package developed by Nie. Hull. Jenkins. Steinbrenner, and Bent (1975). Subprogram crosstabs computed and • displayed the variables according to the designated subgroup being Investigated (e.g., sex. ethnic group). Each cross-tabulation was a joint frequency distribution of cases according to two or more classificatory variables. The joint frequency distributions of value rankings were statistically analyzed by several tests of significance to determine whether or not the subgroups were statistically independent. Other descriptive data (e.g.. measures of central tendency) were also computed. As stated previously, the median rank

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score of each value for each subgroup was used for analysis. A composite rank was also determined which indicated the relative position of a particular value in the total hierarchy of the value system. A program designed to compute the Median Test as a test of statistical significance was also utilized (Nie et al., 1975). This determined whether or not the median rank of each value of two groups being compared was the same. This method combined the two groups, and the overall median was determined. A 2 X 2 contingency table of scores above/at or below the median vs. the groups was obtained. From the cell totals and marginals, a test statistic was computed. When the total number of cases was greater than 30, a y} statistic was computed; otherwise. Fisher's exact procedure was used to compute the significance level. Results of the study will be presented and explained utilizing frequency distributions, median ranks, composite ranks, and a statistical test of significance (i.e.. Median Test) for each of the 18 terminal values and 18 instrumental values. These statistics are based on comparisons of subgroups as previously stated in the research hypotheses. Limitations of the Study It is hoped that this study will establish a data base for a better understanding of the three ethnic groups included in the study. However, results of the study should be applied with caution. Since the sample was controlled for educational level and place of residence, results may not be truly indicative of the overall ethnic groups. Rokeach (1973) has found in some studies that there are greater differences between eductional levels and socioeconomic status than are found

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when comparing different ethnic groups matched for these variables. Therefore, some differences may not be as extensive as when comparing the entire population or a representative sample of each ethnic group. The Hispanic sample is weighted toward Cuban ethnic extraction (i.e., 45 of the 74 Hispanics were Cuban), and it is hypothesized that the Cuban cultural/psychological makeup is different than other Hispanic groups in the United States that have traditionally been studied (i.e., Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans). Therefore, results of this study should be used with caution and may not ba applicable to other distinct groups within the Hispanic population. To be effective, counseling must be sensitive to the cultural characteristics of clients. Results of this study could be used by counselors to develop counseling procedures and treatment compatible with life-styles and value systems of clients.

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CHAPTER IV I*. RESULTS OF THE STUDY The purpose of this chapter is to systematically describe the results of the study which compared the similarities and differences in value systems among black. Hispanic, and white co.irnunity college students. The selection of community college students for the population and sample is an attempt to derive a representative cross-section of individuals from all areas and levels of American culture. The use of Rokeach's Value Survey (1967) provides the means to quantify and measure value systems and to statistically analyze and compare data from various subgroups. Research findings are presented relative to the research hypotheses presented in Chapter III (i.e.. comparisons of value systems according to ethnic group, sex. and interaction of ethnic group and sex). Results provide descriptive data on the relative importance of values (i.e., value systems) for American blacks. Hispanics. and white Results of the study are presented using median scores and composite ranks of values to describe and quantify the data. The nonparametric f^-eaian Test, described in Chapter III. is used as the main test of statistical significance in comparing value systems of various subgroups in the study. Frequency distributions of terminal and instrumental value rankings for all subgroups compared in the study are presented in Appendices D Q. The frequency distributions are useful in observing the irregular or heavily skewed nature of the nonparametric ranked data. For example, in Appendix F the distribution of rankings for both males 49

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50 and females on the value salvation is bimodal That is, males and females tend to rank salvation as very high or very low in importance rather than near the middle in the hierarchy of terminal values even though sajvation has a median score of 13.906 for males and 10.385 for females. In comparing value rankings it should be noted that the median score and composite rank of a value may not always be consistent. The composite rank is used to simplify the description of data and does not enter into the statistical analysis of the data. However, the composite rank serves to show the relative position of a particular value in the total hierarchy of values and is useful in comparing the relative importance of a value across groups. Overall comparisons of terminal and instrumental value rankings in order of importance for all subgroups are presented in Appendices R X. These charts give a visual presentation of each group's value hierarchy. The .01 level of significance is used to determine whether or not groups differ significantly in their ranking of a particular value. Many values appear to have a relative difference in ranking when comparing group medians and composite ranks and are indeed near the .01 level, but only those values which are statistically significant at the .01 level are considered to be relatively different in importance for the groups being compared. Both similarities and differences in value systems are explored since it is an understanding of the total value system that helps explain the motivation, needs, and desires of a particular group.

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Ethnic Group This section summarizes simlarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. When ccir.paring all three ethnic groups, 12 terminal and instrumental values show statistically significant differences among blacks. Hispanics, and whites. Tables 1 and 2 present the terminal and instrun-ntal value rankings for the three ethnic groups. When comparing ethnic groups, the terminal values of a sense of '^^ accomolishnent a world at peace, family security happiness inner Mmony.. £leasure, and wisdom discriminate significantly among blacks, Hispanics. and whites. Using composite ranks for comparisons, the largest difference in terminal value rankings is found in family security which blacks rank (1) and Hispanics and whites rank (5) and (6), respectively. Other major discriminators are a sense of accomp l i.hmpnf which Hispanics rate higher (8) than do blacks (10) and whites (13) and inn er harmony which Hispanics (7) and whites (8) rank higher than do blacks (12). The instrumental values of clean, honest, imaginative independent and obedient discriminate significantly among blacks. Hispanics, and whites. The largest difference in instrumental values is found for the value clean, which blacks rank (1) and Hispanics and whites rank (16) and (15), respectively. Another major difference between ethnic groups is with the ranking of independent, which blacks rank (7) while both Hispanics and whites rank independent (12). A 2 X 2 comparison of value rankings and ethnic groups yields the following results:

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Table 1 Terir.inal Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and Statistically Significant Differences for Blacks, Hispanics, Whites ^ Value Blacks n 1 o |Ja 11 1 C5 Whi tes P A Comfortable Li fe 9.136 (9) 9.200 (10) 9.682 (10) An Exciting Life 13.500 (15) 12.563 (15) A Sense of Accompl ishment 9.944 (10) 9.000 (8) 11.250 (13) .004 A World at Peace 10.738 (11) 11.063 (12) 8 714 ^Ql A World of Beauty 12.188 (13) 13.750 (16) 12.115 (14) Equality 6.350 (4) 9.875 (11) 10.885 (12) Family Security 3.818 (1) 6.538 (5) t O J/ y Freedom 6.889 (6) 5.214 (3) •> HC)i \ i j Happiness 6.714 (5) 5.429 (4) / I CO \-J J uu/ Inner Harmony 11.278 (12) 8.708 (7) 0.10/ \^o) uU4 ^5ature Love 8.357 (8) 9.143 (9) 8.071 (7) National Security 15.479 (18) 15.500 fl8^ 14.6/0 \\o) Pleasure 14.100 (16) 11.400 (13) 13.000 (16) ,002 Salvation 12.333 (14) 13.864 (17) 10.833 (11) Self -Respect 5.233 (3) 4.417 (1,2) 6.100 (2) Social Recognition 14.333 (17) 12.083 (14) 14.800 (17) True Friendship 8.111 (7) 7.409 (6) 7.389 (5) Wi sdom 4.469 (2) 4.417 (1,2) 7.227 (4) .004 Note: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses

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53 Table 2 Instrumental Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and Statistically Significant Differences for Blacks, Hispanics, Whites Value D 1 ac K b Hispanics Whites P Ambitious 6.000 (3) 8.833 (7) 7.700 (4) Brcadminded 7.714 (6) 7.167 (4) 8.217 (5) Capable 10.350 (14) 10.250 (11) 9.700 (8) Cheerful 9.875 (13) 8.500 (5) 10.125 (10,11) Clean 3.607 (1) 12.000 (16) 11.333 (15) .000 Courageous 9.200 (9) 11.000 (14) 10.833 (13) Forgiving 8.000 (8) 9.500 (9) 9.833 (9) HelDful 9.400 (10) 10.786 (13) 10.125 (10,11) Honest 5.611 (2) 3.278 (1) > 2.786 (1) .000 Imaginative 14.292 (17) 11.750 (15) 12.833 (17) .000 Independent 7.719 (7) 10.500 (12) 10.500 (12) .000 Intellectual 11.875 (15) 10.143 (10) 9.643 (7) Logical 13. 357 (18) 12.500 (16) Loving 6.400 (4) 6.214 (2) H. DO/ \c ] Obedient 15.679 (18) 13.333 (17) 15.038 (18) .000 Polite 9.679 (11) 9.300 (3) 10.944 (14) Responsible 7.542 (5) 6.273 (3) 6.000 (3) Self-Controlled 9.850 (12) 8.786 (6) 8.500 (6) Note: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses.

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54 Black s and Hispanics Blacks place a higher value than do Hispanics on family security and being clean and independent On the other hand, Hispanics consider inner harmony pleasure, and being imaginative obedient and honest significantly more important than do blacks. A total of eight value rankings differentiate blacks and Hispanics when comparing the relative importance of values within their value systems. Blacks and Whites Blacks value family security, wisdom and being clean ana Independent more highly than do whites. Whites, however, consider a world at peace inner harmony and being honest significantly more important than do blacks. Blacks and whites differ significantly on their rankings of seven values. Hispanics and Whites Hispanics rank the values of family security and happiness significantly higher than do whites. It should be noted that even though the median rank of happiness for Hispanics (5.429) is significantly higher than that of whites (7.125), the composite ranks show that it is also important to whites (3) as well as Hispanics (4). The ranking of only two of the 36 values differentiates Hispanics and whites. Understanding similarities as well as differences in value systems among blacks, Hispanics, and whites is also of importance. Ranking at or near the top of the terminal value hierarchy of all three ethnic groups are the values wisdom, self respect freedom, and happiness Ranking at or near the bottom of the terminal value hierarchy are the values nationaljec^ social recognition, pleasure and an exciting

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Tvfe. The instrumental values honest loving and re sponsible are at or near the top of the value hierarchy. Obedient logical and imaginative are at or near the bottom of the instrumental value hierarchy. When comparing value systems of blacks, Hispanics, and whites, research findings indicate relative similarities in the ranking of 24 out of a possible 36 values. However, there are significant differences in the ranking of 12 values among the three ethnic groups. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H^l), as presented in Chapter III, is rejected on the basis of research findings. Interpretation of results will be presented in Chapter V. Sex This section summarizes the similarities and differences between male and female community college students. When comparing males and females, six terminal and instrumental values show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Tables 3 and 4 present the terminal and instrumental value rankings for males and females. According to comparisons by sex, the terminal values of savalation and self-respect discriminate between males and females. Females rank self-respect (1) with a median of 4.500 as compared to males who rank it (7) with a median of 8.200. Females also rank salvation higher than do males, with a composite rank of (11) for females as compared to (17) for males. The similarity in rankings of terminal values is interesting. When comparing males and females, 16 of the 18 values have composite ranks that coincide within three levels of the value hierarchy. Therefore, when ethnic group is not differentiated, there seems to be a high correlation between males and females for terminal values.

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56 Table 3 Terminal Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and Statistically Significant Differences for Males and Females Value Males r cujd 1 es P M LomtortaDie Lite 9.094 (8) 9.800 (10) Mn txciting Life 11.850 (14) 13.300 (15) n ociibc UT Accompl ishment 9.188 (10) 11.000 (13) A World at Peace 9.182 (9) 10.595 (12) World of Beauty 13.556 (15) 12.060 (14) Equality 10.000 (12) • 9.500 (9) Family Security 6.400 (2) 5.143 (3) Freedom 5.700 (1 ) 5.571 (4) Happiness 6.893 (3) 6.083 (5) Inner Harmony 9.818 (11) 8.929 (8) Mature Love 7.677 (6) 8.763 (7) National Security 14.607 (18) 15.792 (18) Pleasure 11.750 (13) 13.326 (16) Salvation 13.906 (17) 10.385 (11) .010 Self-Respect 8.200 (7) 4.500 (1) .000 Social Recognition 13.750 (16) 13.722 (17) True Friendship 7.600 (5) 7.865 (6) Wisdom 7.500 (4) 4.708 (2) Note: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses

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Table 4 Instrumental Value Medians, Composite Ranks, and btatistically Significant Differences for Males and Females i/alue Males Females P Ambitious 5.289 (2) 8.423 (6) .004 Broadminded 9.000 (6) 7.500 (5) Capable 10.500 (12) 9.947 (12) Cheerful 11.625 (15) 9.025 (8) .000 Clean 9.611 (8) 9.500 (11) Courageous 10.944 (13) 9.444 (9) Forgiving 11.667 (16) 7.435 (4) .002 Helpful 9.929 (11) 10.409 (14) Honest 3.143 (1) 4.708 (1) Imaginative 11.423 (14) 13.733 (17) .008 Independent 9.583 (7) 8.550 (7) Intellectual 9.865 (9) 11.643 (15) Logical 13.237 (17) 12.550 (16) Loving 6.400 (3) 5.462 (2) Obedient 15.094 (18) 14.789 (18) Polite 9.900 (10) 10.321 (13) Responsible 6.577 (4) 7.000 (3) Self-Controlled 7.500 (5) 9.462 (10) fjote: Figures shown are medians, with composite ranks in parentheses.

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8 The Tnstruinental values of ambitTous cheerful forgTving, and ^'"^^^^'"^^^'^^ discriminate between males and females. Males rank ambitious (2) significantly higher as compared to females (6) also imaginative (14) higher than do females (17). Females, however, believe being forgiving (4) is more important than do males (16) as well as cheerful (8) when compared to males (15). It should be noted that although the Median Test did not indicate significant differences at the .01 level, a comparison of the composite ranks of intellectual and self-controlled indicates a difference of 6 and 5 levels, respectively, between males and females in their value hierarchy. Males rank intellectual (9) while females rank it (15). Males also rank self-controlled (5) as more important than do females (10). There appears to be great similarity in value systems between males and females when ethnic group is not differentiated. Ranked at or near the top of the terminal value hierarchy for both males and females are the values famiiv^^ec^ wisdom, and freelom. Ranked at or near the bottom of the terminal value hierarchy are the values national security and sociaW^ecoani^ Comparing instrumental values of both males and females, honest, loving., and responsible are at the top of the value hierarchy and obedient and lo^ at the bottom of the value hierarchy. Although males and females are in relative agreement on the importance of 30 values, research findings indicate significant differences in six of the value rankings. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H 2). as presented in Chapter III. is rejected. Interpretation of results will be presented in Chapter V.

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Interaction of Ethnic Group and Sex This section reviews research findings which investigate the interaction of ethnic group and sex when comparing value systems of various groups. Six subgroups are identified in the study (i.e.. '^"^ black nales. black females. Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white rales, white females), and comparisons of value systems are made based on the research hypotheses presented in Chapter III. When comparing all six subgroups, 10 terminal values and nine instrumental values (I.e., a total of 19, or over half of the values under study) show statistically significant differences among the value hierarchies of the six subgroups. Table 5 and Table 6 present the terminal and instrumental value rankings for the six subgroups. The terminal values of a sense of accomp! i.hmpn^ a world at peace eouam:^, family security happiness, inner harmonv pleasure salvation self-respect and wisdom are ranked significantly different in importance among black males, black females. Hispanic'males. Hispanic females, white males, and white females. Composite ranks for a sense of accom£lishment range from (3) for black males to a rank of (14) for white fen^ales. A world at peace is ranked highest by white males (5) and lowest by Hispanic males (14) and black males and black females (13). Imlltx is considered significantly more important by black females (4) than by the other five subgroups. Family security is most important to black females (1). black males (2). and Hispanic males (2). Hispanic males rank happiness (1) significantly higher than do the other subgroups. The value jnnerjia^ females down to (15. 16. 17) for black males. Pleasure which ranks rather low with all groups, is ranked highest by black males (10)

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and Hispanic females (11) and lowest by black females (17). Black and white females rank salvati on at (10) as compared to ranks of (15), (16). (17) for black males, Hispanic males, and Hispanic females. The value self-respecfc demonstrates great variation, ranging from (1) for Hispanic females and (2) for both black females and white males down to a rank of (11) for Hispanic males and (12) for black males. Wisdom is considered much more important by black males (1) and Hispanic females (2) than it is to male Hispanics (10). In summary, the relative importance of 10 terminal values desmonstrates significant difference among the six subgroups classified by ethnic group and sex. The instrumental values of ambitiou s, capable cheerful clean, honest, imaginative independent, obedient and self-controlled are ranked significantly different among black males, black females, Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females. Ambitious is ranked highest (2) by Hispanic males, white males, and black females and significantly lower by the other groups. Black males (5) and Hispanic males (6, 7) consider the value capable as more important than do the other groups. Cheerful is ranked highest by Hispanic females (5) and lowest by Hispanic males (15). The value clean is ranked significantly more important by black females (1) than by any other group. Although being honest is considered important by all groups, it receives a significantly higher ranking by Hispanic females (1) with a median rank of 2.433. Imaginative ranges from (7) for black males to (17) for black females, white males, and white females. Black females rank independent significantly higher (6) than do the other five groups. Although obedient is ranked low by all six groups, it is considered the significantly more important by Hispanic

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63 males (14). White males consider the value self-controlled as significantly more important (4) than do the other five groups. In surr,ary. the six subgroups classified by ethnic group and sex compared in the study vary significantly on the ranking of nine of the 18 instrumental values. It is important to understand similarities as well as differences in value systems when comparing various groups. The terminal values considered important by all six subgroups are freedom, family securjtv harness, wisdom, and true frie_ndshi£. m contrast, national securitv social recoqnition salvation, pleasure and a world of beauty are ranked consistently lower by all six subgroups. The instrumental values considered most important by all six subgroups are honest. loviM. and r:es£onslbJe. The least desirable instrumental values are obedient imaginative and logical Although 17 values are ranked somewhat similarly in importance by the six subgroups in the study (i.e. black males, black fernles. Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, white females), over half Of the values (i.e.. 19) are ranked significantly different among the Six subgroups. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H„3), as presented in Chapter III, is rejected on the basis of research findings. There are many significant differences in value systems resulting from the interaction of ethnic group and sex. Comparisons were made to determine exactly where the significant differences occurred in the value systems and specifically between which groups. Following are research findings summarized according to the five minor hypotheses designed to investigate the interaction of ethnic group and sex and the effect on value systems.

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64 Black Males and Black Females There are significant differences in the ranking of four values when comparing the terminal and instrumental value systems of black males and black females. The greatest difference between black males and black females appears in the ranking of the instrumental value imaginativ e, which males rank (7) and females rank (17). Other significant differences result from the ranking of the terminal values inner harmony salvation and self-respect Black females consider all three values to be significantly more important than do black males. Comparing black females to black males, the composite ranks for each of the values are (12) to (15, 16, 17) for inner harmony (10) to (15, 16. 17) for salvation, and (2) to (12) for self-respect. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H^3A) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems between black males and black females. Hispanic Males and Hispanic Females There are six value rankings which are significantly different between Hispanic males and Hispanic females. This 1s a greater number of differences than when comparing black males and females or white .nales and females who only differed significantly on four value rankings. Hispanic males rate ambitioja as relatively more important (2) than do Hispanic females (9). Males also rate independent higher (10) than do females (14). Hispanic females, on the other hand, rate self respect Wisdom, aj^^orldjt.^. and cheerful significantly higher than do Hispanic males. Comparing Hispanic females to Hispanic males the composite ranks of the differentiating values are (1) to (11) for sejf::res£ect. (2) to (10) for wisdom. (9. lo) to (14) for a world at E^... and (5) to (15) for the Instrumental value cheerful. Research

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65 findings reject the null hypothesis (H^3B) since there are significant differences in value systems between Hispanic males and Hispanic fena'ies. White Males and Wh ite FemalP^ WHite males and white females differ significantly in their ranking of four values. Males rank the terminal value a world at peace significantly higher (5) than do females (11). Males also consider the instrumental value of self-controlled as relatively more important (4) than do females (13). Females rank the instrumental values capable and cheerful significantly higher than do males. Females have a composite rank of (8) for capable as compared to (15) for males, and (7) for cheerful as compared to (14) for males. The null hypothesis (H^SC) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems between white males and white females. Black Male s. Hispanic Males, and White Males Twelve value rankings differentiate black males, Hispanic males, and white males. The terminal values an exciting life a world at £eace, inner harmony, a sense of accomplishment family security and s elf-respect have significantly different rankings among the three subgroups. Significant differences also occur in the ratings of the instrumental values obedient imaginative and self-controlled Two by two comparisons of value rankings and sex/ethnic groups are made to determine exactly where significant differences occur and between which groups. Comparing black males and Hispanic males the terminal values an excninaJjfe, a world at peace, inner harmonv and the instrumental

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66 value obedient are ranked significantly different by the two subgroups. Black males consider an exciting life relatively more important (11) than do Hispanic males (15), and blacks rank a world at peace significantly higher (13) than do Hispanics (14). Although the composite ranks of the two groups for a world at peace appear to be almost the same, it is the analysis utilizing median ranks that determine statistical significance (i.e., median rank of 10.750 for blacks compared to 12.400 for Hispanics). Hispanic males rank inner harmony significantly higher (7) than do black males (15, 16, 17), and the instrumental value obedient is higher for Hispanics (14) than for blacks (18). In summary, four vslue rankings demonstrate significant differences in value systems between black males and Hispanic males. Comparing black males to white males the terminal values a sense of_a ccomplishment a world at peace, inner harmony and self-respect are significantly different in rankings. The instrumental values ima£inative and self-controlled are also ranked significantly different by black and white males. Black males rank a sense of accom pli. hmPnt significantly higher (3) than do white males (11). Blacks also rank inLa^inatlve higher (7) than do whites (17). White males consider being self-control led as significantly more important (4) than do black males (13, 14). Whites also rank self-respect higher (2) than blacks (12). a world at .jeace higher (5) to (13), and inner harmony higher (10) as compared to blacks (15, 16, 17). A total of six value rankings differentiate black males and white males. There are only two significant differences in value rankings when comparing Hispanic males and white males. Hispanic males rank family security, significantly higher (2) than do white males (6). White males.

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on the other hand, consider self-respect relatively more important (2) than do Hispanic males (11). It appears that value systems of Hispanic and white males are more congruent than among other sex/ethnic groups. Although black males, Hispanic males, and white males are relative similar in their rankings of 27 terminal and instrumental values, the three subgroups differ significantly in the ranking of nine values. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H^3D) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems among black males, Hispanic males, and white males. Black Females, Hispanic Females, and White Females Eighteen value rankings differentiate black females, Hispanic females, and white females. The terminal values family security pleasure, self-respect and inner harmon y have significantly different rankings among the three subgroups. Significant differences also occur in the ratings of the instrumental values ambitious caeable, cheerful clean, honest imaginative and independent Two by two comparisons of value rankings and sex/ethnic groups are made to determine exactly where significant differences occurred and between which groups. Ten value rankings differentiate black females and Hispanic females The terminal values equality family security pleasure and selfres^ect are ranked significantly different by the two subgroups. The instrumental values ambitious, cheerful clean honest, imaginative and independent are also ranked significantly different by black and Hispanic females. Black females rank equality (5), family security (1). ambitious (2), clean (1), and independent (6) significantly

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68 higher than do Hispanic females who rank equality (13), family security (5), ambitious (9), clean (18), and independent (14). Hispanic females, on the other hand, consider pleasure (11) and sel f-respect (1) significantly more important than do black females who rank them (17) and (2), respectively. Even though comparisons of median scores yield a significant difference in the ranking of self-respect for the two subgroups, the composite ranks demonstrate a difference of only one level. Hispanic females rank being cheerful (5), honest (1), and imaginative (10) significantly higher than do black females who rank them (13), (3), and (17). It should be noted that the greatest number of differences in value systems among sex/ethnic groups occur when comparing black females and Hispanic females. Black females and white females differ in their rankings of six values. Significant differences occur in the ranking of the terminal value family security and the instrumental values ambitious capable clean, imaginative and independent. Black females rank family security significantly higher (1) than do white females (8). Black females also consider being ambitious (2), c:iean (1), and independent (6) significantly more important than do white females who rank them (10), (14), and (12), respectively. In comparison, white females rank being capable (8) and imaginative (17) significantly higher than do black females who rank them (14) and (17). Although the composite rank for imaginative (17) is the same for both groups, the medians differ significantly with 13.250 for white females and 15.036 for black females. Black and white females differ more in their beliefs about desired behavior than in desired life goals.

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69 There are only two value rankings which differentiate Hispanic ferr^ales and white females. Hispanic females rank self-respect (1) significantly higher than do white females (4). White females, on the other hand, value inner harmony (3) more highly than do Hispanic females (7). When cofrparing females as well as males, it appears that the value systems of Hispanics and whites are more congruent than among other sex/ethnic groups. Although black females, Hispanic females, and white females are relatively similar in their rankings of 24 terminal and instrumental values, the three subgroups differ significantly in the ranking of 12 values. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H^3E) is rejected since research has shown there are significant differences in value systems a.mong black females, Hispanic females, and white females. Investigating the interaction of ethnic group and sex and the relationship to value systems differentiates additional and varied significant differences among subgroups as contrasted with comparisons based only on ethnic group or sex. It can be determined that both sex and ethnic group are important when attempting to understand the value systems of the six subgroups in the study (i.e., black males, black females. Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, white females). Results of the study are interpreted in Chapter V. Limitations of the study, implications, and recommendations of the study are also presented in Chapter V.

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CHAPTER V SUMf^RY The purpose of the study was to investigate the similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. Comparisions of value systems by sex and the interaction of ethnic group and sex were also explored. The study was developed in response to a concern about the effectiveness of counseling with ethnic minorities and the current lack of research data regarding differentiating variables of ethnic subgroups. The study gathered and analyzed descriptive data about black, Hispanic, and white value systems which can be used by counselors to develop a greater sensitivity to and understanding of minority group clients. Values and value systems constitute a very important set of client characteristics which need to be considered in developing more effective approaches and treatments in counseling. Values and value systems form the central organizing framework for human behavior (Rokeach, 1968. 1973). A value is an enduring belief that an end-state of existence (i.e.. terminal value) or specific mode of behavior (i.e.. instrumental value) is personally or socially preferable to converse end-states of existence or modes of behavior. Terminal and instrumental values are internalized and interrelated in a hierarchy of values (i.e.. value system). A value system is an enduring organization of beliefs along a continuum of relative importance concerning preferred end-states of existence or preferred modes of behavior. 70

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71 • Values and value systems function as standards that guide ongoing activities or behavior and act as general plans for conflict resolution and decision-making. Values serve a motivational function by giving expression to human needs. Knowledge of value systems among various ethnic groups provides a conceptual framework for the development of therapeutic models matched to particular life-styles or value systems. Three major and five minor hypotheses were tested in the study to investigate the similarities and differences in value systems among blacks, Hispanics. and whites. Comparisons by sex and the interaction between ethnic group and sex were also explored. All null hypotheses were rejected based on the following research findings: HqI There are significant differences in the ranking of 12 values when comparing value systems of blacks. Hispanics, and whites. Hq2 There are significant differences in the ranking of six values when comparing value systems of males and females. %3 There are significant differences in the ranking of 19 values when comparing value systems of black males, black females. Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females. Hq3A There are significant differences in the ranking of four values when comparing value systems of black males and black females. H^3B There are significant differences in the ranking of six values when comparing value systems of Hispanic males and Hispanic females.

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^ H^3C There are significant differences m the ranking of four values when comparing value systems of white males and white females. ii, H^3D There are significant differences in the ranking of 1? values when comparing value systems of black males, Hispanic males, and white males. Hq3E — There are significant differences in the ranking of i:> values when comparing value systems of black females, Hispanic females, and white females. The population for the study consisted of students enrolled in Hi borough Community College, Tampa, Florida. A total of 330 students participated in the study, of which 134 were males and 196 were femal:Respcnses from black, Hispanic, and white ethnic groups (total = 323; used -;r. the study. The sex/ethnic composition was as follows: 24 bl scales ar,6 97 fe^T^ck iem^es-, U hH^artic nrsTes ard 40 ftisT^.TtcfenialtT, 2nd 72 white males and 56 white females. Subjects were assessed by l; ute of Roi-.each's Value Survey (1967) in which respor.dents ranked each set of 18 terminal values and 13 instrumental values in order of theiImportance. Responses on. the Value Survey were classified eccording to cthnir group and sex and comparisons were made based on the research hypothc-. The nonparametric Median Test (Siegle, 1956} was used as the main ler.t. of statistical significance at the .01 level. Results of the study were presented and explained utilizing frequency distributions, r.:edi5n ranks, and composite ranks. Research findings indicated significant differences in value systems among all subgroups con-oared in the study. Interpretation of results follows.

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Interpretation of Results Results of the study support the general premise that culture and socialization are important determinants of behavior. Comparisons of value systems provide statistical data which identify differentiating variables (i.e.. values) among various groups. Value systems of (a) blacks. Hispanics. and whites; (b) males and females; (c) black males, black females. Hispanic males. Hispanic females, white males, and white females; (d) black males and black females; (e) Hispanic males and Hispanic females; (f) white males and white fem,ales; (g) black males. Hispanic males, white males; (h) black females. Hispanic females, white females are compared in the study. Findings Indicate that each subgroup is unique, with its own system of values, and differs significantly from each of the other subgroups. Twelve terminal and instrumental values show ntatis"ic3lly sinnificant differences among blacks, Hispanics. and whites. The prime discriminator is the instrumental value clean which blacks rank (1) and Hispanics and whites rank (16) and (15). respectively. The high ranking for the value clean 1s assumed to be a reflection of the low-income status of many blacks participating in the study. Individuals who live in Inadequate housing or experience financial Insecurity strive for a safe, secure, and organized home and life; thus, they give a high priority to the value clean. This need also explains why blacks rank the values lanillxjecuntx an^ indegendent (I.e.. self-reliant or self-sufficient), and wisdom significantly higher than do Hispanics or whites. Hispanics seem to place a higher value on aesthetic goals and modes Of behavior as evidenced by their significantly higher ranking of the values Im^erJiar^ pleasure, imagination, and happiness. This supports research which indicates that the Hispanic value orientation

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74 is focused on the present and an accepting adaptation to a given situation (i.e., "making the most of it"). Value systems of whites are more similar to value systems of Hispanics than value systems of blacks. Statistical analysis yields only two significant differences in value rankings between whites and Hispanics, compared to seven significant differences between whites and blacks. Hispanics place a higher priority on family securitv and hae£lnesi than do whites. Whites as compared to blacks consider the values of a world at peace and jruLer harmony significantly more important, indicating a desire for a world free from conflict. Since it is generally held that socialization leads to sex role differentiation, comparisons by sex are made which indicate significant effect of sex on value systems both within and between ethnic groups. When comparing all males and females in the study, regardless of ethnic group, findings demonstrate relatively few significant differences. Two terminal values and four instrumental values differentiate males and females. In general, males and females seem to differ most in their concepts of desired or expected behavior rather than goals in life. Males consider being ambitious (i.e., hard-working and aspiring) and imaai" native (i.e., daring and creative) more important than do females. Both Of these values reflect an individualistic orientation to life. Females, on the other hand, value self::res£ect and being cheerful and forgiving Which indicates a field-dependent approach to life and an emphasis on interpersonal relationships. Results of the study support other research identifying differentiating variables between males and females. Different cultures or ethnic groups reinforce varying sex roles, responsibilities, and expectations for males and females. Therefore,^

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comparisons are made to investigate the interaction of ethnic group and sex as detemiinants of values and value systems. Six subgroups are identified in the study (i.e., black males, black females. Hispanic males, Hispanic females, white males, and white females). Results indicate significant differences among all the subgroups. Sex as well as ethnic group is important when attempting to understand the value system of a particular subgroup. When comparing all six subgroups, ten terminal values and nine instrumental values (i.e., a total of 19, or over half of the values under study) have statistically significant differences in rankings among the value hierarchies of the six subgroups. The greatest differences in value systems between sex/ ethnic groups occur when comparing black males and white males, and black feirales and Hispanic females. When comparing value systems of Tales and females within ethnic groups, the greatest difference in value systems occurs between Hispanic males and females. Black males consider a sense of accompli.hmpnt family security and wisdom significantly more important when compared to other subgroups. Pleasure, although significantly higher for black males, is ranked 10th in their values hierarchy. Ambitious capable and imaginative are also ranked significantly higher by black males. This evidence seems to support the assumption that black males desire to achieve success and believe that hard work, competence, wisdom, and daring will help them accomplish their goals. The high priority given to three values differentiates black females from all the other subgroups. Equality independent and clean are ranked significantly higher by black females. This reflects their concern for improving their environment and their belief that they

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should be ambitious in order to gain self-respect and insure family security. Again, within the black ethnic group, values supportive of advancement and improvement are evident. Significantly higher rankings for values obedient and happiness differentiate male Hispanics from all the other subgroups. Hispanic "lales value family secruity amb_ltiou_s. and capable significantly higher when compared to other males or Hispanic females. Inner hannonv and freedom are also more important to Hispanic males than to all the other subgroups except white females. The Hispanic male seems to have a combination of desires related to a need for achievement and success blended with aesthetic or philosophical desires of freedom, happiness and inner harmo ny. Their relatively higher value on obedient reflects the Hispanic culture's emphasis on respectfulness and courtesy in interpersonal relationships, a group orientation rather than individual istic orientation. Hispanic females rank self^res£ect as first in their hierarchy, differentiating them from all other subgroups. Pleasure, wisdom, cheerful, and honest are significantly more important to Hispanic females than to the other subgroups with which they are compared. ImrJl^^ is also considered important by Hispanic females as well as Hispanic males. Only white females rank it higher. The high priority by Hispanic females for self,res£ect is interpreted as a reflection of their desire for higher self-esteem due to the more distinctive sex-role differentiation in their culture (i.e.. 10 values are ranked significantly different by Hispanic males and females, suggesting relatively different life-styles).

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White niale-, value self-controlled and a world at pea.P more thar> any other subgroup. They also rank freedom first on their 11st of ternlnal values and ambitious h-;oher than any other subgroup. These values suggest a humanitarian orientation for white males, reflecting a desire for a world free of conflict and a belief that mankind must be self-disciplined to achieve this goal. The value system of white males seems to suggest a global view of life. I nner harmony differentiates white females from the other five subgroups. Inner harmon ), is ranked significantly higher as Is cheerful and cabbie. These values reflect a desire on the part of white females for peace and tranquility In their lives. They also value freedom more than any other group. This indicates a desire for independence and free Choice, perhaps an outgrowth of the human potential movement and growing concern for women's rights or a reaction to the traditionally restrictive sex-role expectations of their culture. Sex as well as ethnic group is important in identifying and understanding various subgroups within our culture. .Results of the study can be used as diagnostic data to identify needs, goals, desires, and conflicts within and between various ethnic groups. Care should be taken to guard against stereotyping as a result of research findings Since individual differences account for great variation within ethnic Sroups. Any attempt to interpret results is Inherently limited by the culture, personal experiences, and value system of the interpreter The results of the study should be applied with caution. Limitations of the study are discussed in the following section.

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78 Limitations of the Study The purpose of the study was to investigate similarities and differences in value systems among black, Hispanic, and white community college students. Since the sample and population was controlled for educational level and place of residence, results may not be truly indicative of the overall ethnic groups. Rokeach (1973) found that there were greater differences in value systems between groups with different educational levels and socioeconomic status than between different ethnic groups matched for these variables. Therefore, some differences may not be as extensive as when comparing the entire population or a representative sample of each ethnic group. The Hispanic sample was predominately of Cuban descent. If the assumption that the Cuban cultural/psychological makeup is different than other Hispanic groups in the United States (e.g., Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans). then descriptive data about the Hispanic sample may not be applicable to other distinct groups within the Hispanic population. Further analysis of data should involve comparisons between Cuban-born Hispanics and other Hispanic groups. Many behavior patterns of ethnic minorities are related to a subculture of poverty. Therefore differentiating variables apparently attributed to the interaction of ethnic group and sex might be correlates of socioeconomic status as well Further research is needed to determine the effect of socioeconomic status on values and value systems. Other limitations of the study and cautions about interpretation and application of research findings stem from the very nature of the measurement of values. Values cannot be directly measured but must

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be inferred by a subjective measure. The Value Survey provides a means to quantify and measure value systems and to analyze and compare value systems from various subgroups. However with a ranking system the various levels are not equidistant and it cannot be assumed that a specific rank has the same amount of importance for all individuals or groups who assign the same rank to a value. Further, what is ranked low in the value system of an individual or group is not necessarily unimportant or undesirable. The importance of a value is dependent upon the order and position of the other values in the value system and the meaning it has for the individual who completed the survey. Further limitations of the study are related to the application of research findings. Additional research is needed to determine the relationships of values and behavior. The question arises as to whether or not values can predict or describe behavior. In many instances, habits or demands of the environment may override value priorities, or equally important values may be in conflict in a given situation. It is difficult to differentiate the intervening variables influencing an individual's perceptual world and behavior. A final caution regarding results of the study concerns the philosophical and ethical issues involved in the application of results. These issues are discussed in the following section. Implications and Recommendations Differences in values and value systems among various ethnic minorities are infinite, especially when considering individual differences as well. Effective counseling of minority group members requires that the counselor be aware and understanding of both himself and his client.

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their values and value conflicts. The counseling process should be reexamined and, if necesary. restructured. Most counseling approaches have developed as a result of experiences and studies with upper or middle-class clients in therapy. This raises a serious question as to the relevance and appropriateness of many counseling processes for ethnic minorities. Knowledge of value systerr,s could provide a conceptual framework for the development of counseling techniques and therapeutic models matched to ethnically different life-styles and value orientations. Rokeach (1973) reviews studies on values relevant to the counseling process. Similarity of value systems between clients and counselors is positively correlated with the continuation of the client-counselor relationship. The client's values and value orientation determines what he perceives, why he is motivated, and how he will learn and grow. The counselor, as well, is limited by his own perceptions and his beliefs or expectations of the healthy personality. Values are inherent in the counseling relationship just as they are in all human behavior. The relevance of values to counseling is obvious. If an indivi" dual's values and value system are considered the basis for his behavior, knowledge and understanding of his unique values and value conflicts are essential to the counseling relationship. Culture and ethnic makeup largely determine an individual's language, cognition, motivation and values. An individual's culture is real and solid. It tells him how to think, feel, and how to learn. What the dominant American culture views as devie.nt, in fact, may be accepted and valued behavior within other cultures or ethnic subgroups. In other words, what a counselor may see as a value conflict or problem for a client may be

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81 based on the counselor's own phenomenological world, not that of the client. Interpretation of results implies that values are related to needs. Values that describe immediate needs are considered most important and are placed higher in the values hierarchy. Conversely, values that define achieved life goals and behavior are taken for granted and placed lower in the values hierarchy. Maslow's theory of motivation (1954) provides a framework for this premise. Further research is needed to clarify and define this hypothesis before applications are made in the areas of educational and social reform. Ethical and philosophical questions are raised simply by the nature and purpose of counseling (i.e., what is desirable in behavior and behavior change). The philosophy of counseling is an organized system of values emphasizing the dignity, freedom, and worth of the individual. Therefore, counseling is not neutral or value free. The counseling process is based on implied ideals of what is good or effective for an individual's happiness and growth. Different ethnic groups hold varying concepts of the nature of man and life goals. Ethical concerns develop when conflicting values arise in the counseling relationship which the counselor may not be aware of. Both the client and counselor do not always desire the same outcomes. The issue of informed consent is important in deciding which goals are implemented. Recognition and acceptance of differing client-counselor values are essential for effective counseling. Conclusion This study provides descriptive data about value systems of blacks, Hispanic, and whites. Research findings indicate significant differences

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c • 82 in value systems among all subgroups compared in the study. Results of the study can be utilized by counselors to better understand and accept differing values of minority group clients. Knowledge of value systems provides a framework for clarifying counselor and client goals in the counseling relationship. This knowledge forms a basis for allowing ethnically different clients recognition and respect as unique and worthwhile individuals.

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APPENDICES

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t ' APPENDIX A INFORMATION SHEET

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Information Sheet Male Ethnic Group: Black Oriental Hispanic White Indian Other Explain: Place of Birth: What was the first language you learned to speak? How many years have you lived in this city? Do you have a job outside of school? yes; hours per week no Please check the economic level (average yearly income) for your family according to the following categories: Upper Income Level Upper-Middle Income Level Lower-Middle Income Level Lower Income Level Marital Status: Age: 85

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APPENDIX B INTRODUCTION

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Introduction infnJl^i',-^^''^''^!" selected to participate in a study designed to gather information about student ideas and values. Your interest'and assistance will be greatly appreciated. .... v. cf.nH^'n information that will help increase our underbe u? 7i.PH "^^^^ ^P? desires. The results of this study will p?fnrt ifj; "'^"^^^o^^' college Staff members, and teachers in an ettort to help them be more sensitive to student values. the U^lxplnf.!!!"^-^" V-^l information sheet. Then please complete Znn rfll Z ^ ^'^^ ^ ^^^^^ according to their itesln rnm^?Itr"-D/^' Survey should take about fifteen to twenty minTel Jou'aTe"?in;shed!" ''''' '''''' ^^^^ ''^''^^ nJ'''' participation in this study is voluntary. Therefore if you and ^hifrrMJT^''' 'Z'''' ^^'"P'^ P'^" the information sheet rniin^IV J S"^^ey booklet. Your booklet will be collected when everyone else has finished. ^^<^>-^ .vm Your ideas and values are important! Therefore, complete the following surveys as honestly as you can. Your identn^ w 11 remain anonvabnity '''^ ''''' surveys to ihe bes? Sf ^oSr Are there any questions? Please sign your consent to participate, and BEGIN. Your Signature Witness Researcher 87

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APPENDIX C VALUE SURVEY

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VALUE SURVEY "'"HOATE ^SEX: MALE. -FE^^ALE. CITY and STATE OF BIRTH. NAME IFILLINONLYIr REOUESTEOI Reprinted by permission of Halgren Tests. 89

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INSTRUCTIONS On the next page are 18 values listed in alphabetical order. Your task is to arrange them in ordei of their importance to YOU, as guiding principles in YOUR life. Each value is printed on a gummed label which can b easily peeled off and pasted in the boxes on the left-hand side of the page. Study the list carefully and pick out the one value v/hich is the most important for ycu. Pael it off and paste it in Box 1 on tha left. Then pick out the value which is second most important for you. Peel it off and paste it in Box 2. Then do the same for each of the remaining values. The value which is least important goes in Box 18. Work slowly and think carefully. If you change your minJ, feel free to change your answers. The labels peel off easily and can be moved from place to place. The end result should truly show how you really feel. 90

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ACOMFORTABtELIFE (a proiprou< AN EXCITING LIFE (o itimuloting. octiv* lif) A SENSE OF ACCOMPIISHMENT (lasting contribution) A WORLD AT PEACE (lr of wor and con(licl) A WOIMO OF BEAUTY (bauty of nofuro ond h ort*) EQOAUTY (brothorhood. •quol opportunity for oil) FAMIIY SECUfttTY (taking
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Below is another list of 18 valuei. Arrange them in order of importance, the same as before. AMBITIOUS (hard-worfcing, expiring) 8ROAOMINDED (open-minded) CAPABIE (compt*nt. effective) CHEERFUL (lightheorled, ioyful) CLEAN (naof. My) COURAGEOUS (standing up for your beliefs) FOROIVING (wilting to pardon ethers) HELPFUL (working for the welfare of ottiers) HONESf (sincere, truthful) IMAGINATIVE (daring, creative) INDEPENDENT (self-reliant. seK-sufficient) INTELLECTUAL (intelligent, reflective) LOGICAL (consistent, rotienol) LOVING (affectionate, tender) OBEDIENT (dutiful, respectful) POLITE (courteous, well-mannered) RESPONSIBLE (dependable, relioble) SELF
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APPENDIX D ETHNIC GROUP: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES

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Ethnic Group: Frequency Distribution. Medians, Composite Ranks for Terminal Values in Ucilirj Life Urst 3f Eth'^tc Grp. a "T" Slacic itizk aiack '•ttltl later -^r^ny Seciji 7r^ ^ricna^-iip 11 i s 0 4 iO ( 6 S 4 0 w.nfte 0 Sl3ck 13 2 2 5;f1S3J.Mc a wi;-.s 3 0 a Whits 6 Black 0 0 WIlfM 3 3Iar 0 2 Ulitc C ?lac 17 Hlipanlc 7 'J*ite 3) alack !9 H.533!>-.-^ 7 3 7 10 I 6 1? 6 i S 3 11 3 2 10 22 1 'S J 11 4 9 3 1 4 3 0 3 e ! 11 18 12 16 7 4 < 9 0 2 20 10 11 4 t 2 '9 to 3 4 9 3 0 9.1;! 9.2^ i.ScZ I3.;0! 12.5;: IZ.SCj 9.544 9.CCJ 11.250 9 10 10 13 8 13 *c 10.753 11 2 6 11.:63 12 11 1 S..14 9 5 4 12.133 13 4 u 12.750 13 11 3 12.1'S 14 4 7 6.350 4 S n i t 11 11 10.3f-5 .2 9 3.?11 1 4 4 .£j3 S 2 2 7.35' i < 0 6 4 5.2; 3 3 4 5.4£3 i C 5.7-.' 5 0 C S.429 4 0 s y "-^ 3 1 6 11.2^3 i; 4 0 3 4 3.;57 3 J 5.357 3 5 9.112 5 c 3 3.071 23 15.479 18 9 20 15.500 13 16 23 14.375 13 12 4 14.1:3 16 11 4 I1.4C0 13 11 0 i:.oca 15 10 12 12.333 14 6 3 13.364 17 £ 25 10. .1 4 0 5.233 3 9 4.417 12 2 0 6.m 1.! 19 17 ;4.j;3 17 7 12.e33 14 16 JO 14. iX 17 y 9 s.ii: a 0 7.-i;9 6 2 9 7.389 9 s 5 2 i 9 4.4T? 12 2 C 7.:27 a 94

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* — wjrrt -w™1.5-=^ APPENDIX E ETHNIC GROUP: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

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Ethnic Group: Frequency Distribution, Medians, Composite Ranks for Instrumental Values 3 6 (l>rk 3 3 10 1! u t; COiTX;^' t* :3 13 c i n 12 5 2 3 1 18 4 9 7 6 S 5 3 S 9 4 !C 9 15 12 17 3 0 3 2 5 lo 4 0 3 Ii 0 5 3 1 3 0 (.Ml 8.S23 7.7:: 3 7 4 31 3"^ i ^ Z 1 3 12 S 3 3 8 9 2 7 3 g 7 3 3 3 27 5 10 0 a S 2 14 12 S 5 4 C £ 0 4 0 2 0 7.714 7. ;7 8.217 s 4 5 y^i *• 0 6 3 Q 6 9 15 7 4 4 12 2 15 1 0 12 12 10 4 10 4 0 3 13 7 9 9 5 i 8 3 4 9 4 5 e 5 3 1C'.;3C 10.2SC 5.7:3 14 e Vh. ^ c 3 S 2 6 14 z 3 7 4 3 S 6 9 12 9 0 7 15 12 6 8 9 1 3 I 14 15 4 5 S 4 1? 5 4 5 IC 7 3 3 3 i.Vi 8.5.>3 10. '^5 13 IC.ll 3T i"k 4 13 8 0 • 4 4 11 2 12 3 3 3 3 2 2 S < 7 1 7 e 5 0 15 3 0 12 1 1 11 1 3 3 3 $ 3 1 0 4 12 0 12 9 0 3 24 3.W7 12. X5 i:.3.'3 IS is iih^ te C 3 2 0 0 12 0 6 14 7 i ;o 0 11 % 15 14 12 11 5 3 3 3 < 9 9 a •J 13 S 19 3 7 4 4 i; 9 1 5 3 9. ire 11 .oco i:!i23 9 14 !•, 3 0 0 c B 14 I! 7 7 1 3 '8 S 3 ;7 6 8 7 4 3 1 2 7 2 3 5 8 I 4 1 0 17 7 3 8 0 s 2 S 0 y. s i-i 2 1 1 3 17 3 12 8. ceo 9.500 9!S33 5 t i Sis 14"*. 1c • (C • 3 • 3 1 10 2 0 0 11 S I 3 12 10 1 4 S 7 5 13 e 8 14 11 5 4 i 9 0 10 3 S 4 4 14 14 0 5 5 i 10 4 1 9.4"!^ io.i:< IC 1 j '2,11 honest 9 !3 44 "e :4 21 e i s 9 0 0 8 7 1 1 0 S 4 8 2 2 10 3 5 15 7 Z 7 3 0 4 S 0 2 2 0 5 C 0 0 c 0 I 5.5** 3!z7s 2!;:5 2 : • *CK Hi jzini; 0 S G i 2 1 1 4 6 5 3 4 4 2 14 11 4 7 12 1€ 14 J" i3 0 3 ] 5 1 i 2 5 3 9 9 ;2 5 9 9 0 9 0 16 2 3 3 IS 8 9 ll!*:3 12.6:3 15 17 Independent vn-.t 33 3 C 3 1 11 11 4 3 1£ 7 5 0 4 11 2 3 3 7 2 9 (• 6 7 14 3 '4 IC 1 1 3 11 7 11 0 8 4 0 3 0 10 7.719 10 -r. io.5:a 7 12 Ints!lctu4l C 0 4 12 14 H<:;>f>'c ) c 4 4 S 3 3 3 5 10 < n 11 u 11.375 13 s 3 t 14 8 1 0 6 3 7 7 3 6 1 9 s 2 9 IS 6 4 2 3 10. u; 9.543 IC T lUck 3 1 5 e 19 A : 1 9 4 2 6 12 2' 13 13.2;3 16 3 3 1 2 1 5 3 E 0 2 5 12 1 13 5 8 13.337 12 3 7 10 17 5 S 15 12. ;x 13 Lcving 8U:k WhUt i: r. u i: 3 2" 12 10 18 12 15 7 9 14 8 8 4 17 3 9 3' 2 2 2 ? 0 4 0 0 2 1 0 13 C 0 0 2 3 G 0 0 2 <.4:o 0.214 4.657 4 2 3 4 Z I 5 2 7 0 2 0 2 5 5 7 12 4 n 13 13 39 15.735 2 ini't" e 2 i 5 4 5 3 4 5 2 7 tc 7 5 7 13.?:3 17 0 5 2 5 12 13 2 Zt 23 1S.C13 n rick 10 c 0 t 2 3 t 14 7 5 1 7 9 14 / X 0 9. £7? J3 3 5 li a IC 1 14 6 8 2 3 2 0 2 9. -CO 9 3 9 10 4 13 21 d 0 2 10.944 4 B 11 15 3 2 3 10 11 I! !1 $ 9 12 i 4 5 5 2 14 8 9 Q y 3 2 6 5 3 5 5 I 2 6 4 9 0 0 1 4 1 c 0 0 0 7.54; 6.2/9 5 3 1 Slici 3 0 S 14 c 17 7 7 1 5 10 (• 8 10 3 7 12 ( 0 9.850 12 7 i 8 7 4 1 < 0 12 12 4 i.'U 9 1^ 3 3 7 8 8 4 11 1 8 3 2 i.'.y) £ • 121 5l4C, 74 Xljpani;, 128 Wnue 96

PAGE 106

APPENDIX F FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES

PAGE 107

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PAGE 108

APPENDIX G FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

PAGE 109

01 c 03 (U 4> to o Q. E o o (/I •> a S3 +-) JI) (/) •C 5HH +J (/) S•rO Q f>> o c OJ 3 oX (U 00 s;3 s§ a < ton T 0 ts; p o*x -ia o*— R 0 O-JW Or^ .rtfSi o. V — OtM (e-^ ^ O OS n ^ A. — — r OO ^ „^ 2S a: C a: b £ — tt— -~ o.^ i'^ •' <.i i| ij i| i| i| s| 51 |i '1 '^i s s. s i I J 100

PAGE 110

APPENDIX H BLACK MALES AMD FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. MEDIANS. COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES

PAGE 111

(/I tz en •ro Q. E o o c o •rto +J 0) 3 3 J3 1— •I(O s> I/) I— •r(O Q C •r— P o sc cu a; (— 3 cr s= -3 O O O OO -sr o*r o c O 01 o m O O o . o 4 Li I I I W Ota oc o OO o o Or.O O V>fM --I— 12 ""2 ""2 "''^ — CI— e O ^ c. •~ cfi eo o ^ oo*M OO ocn *0 0 CO O O Of0 o wo* O i C; r. o O o ss o o ^ O O o
PAGE 112

APPENDIX I BLACK MALES AND FEriALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS. COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES "-^MKUMih

PAGE 113

C c -o •> to O 3 4-> (C 3 > ^ 1o 10 £ •1^ SU 4-> E (/) (U C 3 I— I cr 2 S3 fs H I?: §f ?S 55 |§ ^2 oo. aov oo o CO CO 0 oo O*^ .>*c 0*rt o> oo oc^ eo o Orj Oan oiA ~v o C <-> — o rs. o 0CSV CJ 0 *W COW O' CO o— Otf> o r> lats, o inot eo oo o t i ^"^ ''^^ oa ; OCO — on cw w-.^ o =3 .v,^ o<-) o> o ox on o ^ oo o IC3 oo c. c — — o*. OC O kr> ^ ="2? '="T c CM c V oo C* c — f^. o. >.0 Of^ ^, oar r^u ^ e>oc rw'-<•-' o f^o o o^ o0.0 o- oo C>-. 0v „^ OV O^; O— o-w o- ^ C oo 0.^4 o — 0 — IS.— o CO CI— r 50 ^r. o.s .-o '*Z *^ Z^ ^ ^ r> > *-lif> OCN, Ovj — co o-r c— oj^ 00 esT oO". or*. r>o ocw* o c.-, ^r. o^ o; cts; on --o cv ovD 00 oe so 00 00 3 CCi A. 00 s;^, 00 00
PAGE 114

APPENDIX J

PAGE 115

10 en ft! o= J ... „ Ti ^= i! b! !i !! ^! !! si 5! si gs h s§ ^ ii ii n n n II ii II II If ii ii ii i| i| jj ij hill? I. 'niiiihiiih!!!!, c a. 106

PAGE 116

APPENDIX K SPANIC MALES AND FE.MALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. MEDIANS COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES ^^""'"''^^ COMrOSITE

PAGE 117

108

PAGE 118

APPENDIX L WHITE MALES AND FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, MEDIANS COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES i.;

PAGE 119

110

PAGE 120

APPENDIX M Whii. MmLES and FEMALES: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION. MEDIANS. COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

PAGE 121

ta a: cu 4J (/) O Q. E O o 10 so Li_ q(/I -iC gg 30 OS f^,^ 55 =s ^ 1/-V.-. ofvj CO E O) O 3 +J to S(O I +J +J j CO c I •IdJ I Q E >> s: U -> ; C to (U £ wo Oia ift o V 1^ >-' 00 -MO — Oir. OC t-*^ 2~ 00 u.c 00 ^ 00 O ct ejcNi ^rw Or. ""^ ""^ fK.O 0 •^O W 1-1^ >0 OC r-J C or •00 (MO t>. V • O wo —CI 10 (no '^fv o W.O w>r-. *^ o (MO \.— Z= t*.M v> tMO '^O otn 00 00 00 *ft C 0 CO O OC 00 (M t. ,-c>. ^oo^. o^ ^cw on o^ 1— M-r>0 <^(M 0 00 00 — J 5| ii il z: X . Si •= s T i 4-> 5 2 5 S £ 112

PAGE 122

APPENDIX N MALES (BLACK, HISPANIC. WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES

PAGE 123

Medi.'n: ^r'P'"'"': ^^^'^"^^ ^^^^"^"^y Distribution, Medians, Composite Ranks for Terminal Values 2 3 A Ccfflfortabia ili'.k 6 2 5 5 An Ewitlnj Life Blick 9 0 Q 2 A Sns :f 51:t t 0 *it 7 a A 'MQrId St 0 1 'H a 3 9 A l*)rl!! if Slack 3 Kfspmlc C •hits a auck 2 a 2 Kte J a Fiafly Sac.rliy 3!2:k 6 6 4 2 1 5 liCi-j 3 7 "J 4 J s Ir.ner Vir-r-/ S!!ck 0 n 1 -ti'li i 3 Usturs L?5 BIa:k a 0 0 2 4 bclonal Slack a c Secant/ 0 3 Wniu Q 3 Slack 0 Hispanic 2 5 Uh'te C Slack 0 i Hijparic 3 3 U 3 Slack 4 Hts3aa1c a 2 5 Secia! ftacogniiicR >js rrie-cinip Slack Hissanfc ai'ci HIssa'Tic a lack wiscanic >j";ci 0 10 1 5 fi 1 0 0 c 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 II 0 2 J 5 I 8 S 3 a 3 4 3 1 0 s 3 3 a 2 C 0 4 7 0 0 14 3 4 4 6 I 7 0 0 2 0 a 4 0 1 9 a 0 5 0 0 2 3 0 3 a 0 a 2 0 3 2 0 a 4 2 4 I a 0 6 a 4 4 0 7 3 11 a S £ 3 I 0 0 5 3 3 0 2 Q a a 2 a 0 a 4 1 3 6 Q a 0 3 a s 4 4 4 a 0 4 a 2 a 3 1 0 a 0 s 3 5 3 a 0 0 0 2 s 9 4 4 5 S 1 7 2 2 0 2 4 6 7 4 a 1 9 3 6 1 3 3 4 9 9 0 a 3 2 0 c 3 3 9 s 10 a 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 7 1 s 0 9 1 s 3 c 0 0 4 0 7 6 c 4 0 3 0 9 3 3 9 0 a 1 5 6 4 a 4 2 0 1 a s 1 4 1 4 0 0 c 3 3 3 1 3 7 S 2 4 3 2 4 a 0 3 2 7 3 1 a s 1 2 4 6 7 2 4 2 1 1 7 13 9 rr 9 3 9 9 1 3 3 4 0 0 2 3 0 4 4 9 9 3 9 3 1 9 11 S 3 9 9 9 5 9 0 a 9 3 4 0 9 0 2 3 3 7 S 3 1 9 0 3 5 1 C 9 0 9 9 6 2 2 9 0 9 9 9 9 9 4 9 9 9 9 0 6 1 s 7 9 9 7 9 a 2 S 3 12 9 9 0 S 9 2 4 "eata n ;3n< 0 9 9 1 a 9 1 5 0 10 3 4 a 2 0 2 I 17 9 0 3 8 0 8 11 11 0 1 7 9 5 3 1 4 9 S 0 3 a 3 9 C 2 5 9 0 a 0 4 9 0 c a 9 4 3 0 2 2 2 9 a 0 9 0 9 0 4 9 0 9 9 9 9 0 2 9 9 3 9 s 9 C 5 0 1 a 9 3 4 9 3 9 0 9 4 9 0 9 9 0 1 1 2 S i a C -* 3 3 4 2 8 3 7 4 15 3 9 3 9 1 0 7 0 13 9 2 0 3 ; 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 a Q 15 9 0 0 0 9 9 0 2 2 2 2 9 1 7 9 4 a 1 4 9 s 6 13 13 0 9 9 0 9 4 9 n 4 3 2 9 3 0 y 9 0 9 4 2 a 0 9 1 24 Slack. 34 rfiscaric. 72 Wlit. 6.:CC 15 8.SM i 3.a43 ) 9> ia7 11 13. :6] 13 11. 250 12 3.1^.9 J 8.909 i 10.9i3 '9.
PAGE 124

.... / APPENDIX 0 H^IES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

PAGE 125

Males (Black Hispanic. White): Frequency Distribution I'ledians, Composite Ranks for Instrumental Values Ethnic Sro 0 t r — T fAmbitious Slack i 0 — 3 I 0 htssanic 7 t 2 s 1 Uliiti 12 4 4 2 18 Broa(talr.dM 3 4 3 2 3 Hispanic 6 4 1 9 2 W)1t IS 4 5 2 4 Cacabit Slack C 3 3 3 3 Hispanic t 1 S 1 White a 3 2 7 ] Clwerful Slack a 2 0 0 5 HUpanIc a 0 9 9 3 WHIce 3 Q 1 am Slack 0 g I 3 1 Hispanic 5 3 a 4 7 Kliite 4 Q J ] 1 Couragsous Slack 0 J 9 9 1 Hispanic g 3 2 9 2 WMte 2 2 ^ Fo'3lving Slack 0 3 4 3 Ktsoanic 3 0 6 1 •Hi:e 2 4 3 Slack 0 3 ; 2 3 Hispan*c 3 3 1 9 3 wm ce 3 3 s 3 ^ Honest Slack < I 5 2 9 Hispanic 4 3 1 2 White 2: 15 3 7 Iwiiraci/e Slack 3 0 3 9 4 Hispanic C 0 3 3 White C 3 9 4 5Uc 4 3 G 0 3 Hiscjnic 3 C 4 3 3 •h1:e 5 3 2 3 2 Intllec:,a: 3!acx 0 13 2 3 Hispanic 4 C 3 S 4 White 3 5 6 I 3 Logical Slack 3 3 3 G 9 Hispanic 3 9 4 3 C White 3 5 9 1 4 Lovlnj Slack 2 3 g 0 Hispanic 3 9 s 2 ^1ie 7 12 3 9 ( Otwdle-it Slack 1 3 0 3 9 Hispanic 3 2 1 White C 3 9 1 MIM Black 'C 9 3 9 9 Hispanic 9 1 S White C 3 0 3 2 Kesocf slola Slack 3 i 4 3 Hispanic S 0 I 2 White s 1! s 3 Slack 3 J z 3 4 HI spanic 5 3 White 3 3 s 5 1 1 2 2 3 5 3 3 4 I 3 S 3 2 3 9 3 9 9 5 3 1 5 0 3 4 3 3 5 1 2 5 3 3 0 3 1 2 ; 4 2 9 3 S 3 4 ? 3 3 3 3 I 3 9 0 5 3 9 5 5 9 3 4 3 1 6 6 2 1 3 3 2 4 9 9 9 4 1 1 3 1 .' 9 7 5 3 3 2 3 9 S 3 3 4 9 2 0 9 3 7 2 7 3 9 ; 4 3 9 0 9 2 2 9 2 3 3 1 1? T3 0 TT 9 r? 9 '6 9 9 9 9 3 4 1 4 3 ^ 8 1 0 9 3 2 S 2 9 3 2 4 T 1 9 0 9 0 2 9 ( 5 1 4 19 s s 9 9 9 a 4 4 1 S 3 0 12 6 3 7 s 3 4 1 9 I 1 '., 0 Q 2 ^ 1 1 9 1 5 9 3 1 S 1 4 S 1 IS 3 g 1 9 0 9 9 3 a 4 4 11 4 3 9 3 3 0 $ s 3 3 1 4 4 2 7 2 3 Q 5 1 4 3 9 6 0 9 2 2 0 3 2 Q 9 9 4 2 0 7 4 3 3 2 1 5 3 3 S 9 3 i e c 9 3 1 4 5 3 9 I S 9 9 9 0 9 3 9 9 0 3 4 4 2 s 7 9 9 0 4 S 9 13 2 5 4 7 6 1) e S 9 9 3 3 I 3 9 9 3 9 4 9 3 0 2 9 4 3 3 4 2 9 2 3 9 3 7 13 < 3 7 9 9 4 1 S 4 1 4 6 G 9 9 1 9 3 9 6 9 9 1 3 9 4 3 3 2 9 2 3 1 3 9 3 2 9 4 3 S a 3 i TT" 9 73" 9 !*fr31in 7.309 Pl.lk e 9 4 3.5C3 2 5 C 5.278 2 9 3 11.753 16 1 9 8. SCO 9 9 9 8. 909 6 G 9 S.439 3 9 4 7.;C3 5.7 9 5 12.330 9 8. as 9 6 9 12.30 15 4 3 11.83 U 9 9 6.503 7 9 5.214 i 5 7 10.750 )l 9 3 9.333 n ,;2 3 9 11 .167 12,13 6 3 11 .167 12 2 8 11.167 13 4 3 12.833 17 C S 11 .632 13 9 3 10.500 13, U 9 4 11.167 12.13 7 1 9.214 7* 3 3 a.Eoo 2.3 3 3 3.530 1 3 0 2.7CO 1 9 <.3C0 7 3 9 12.071 16 12 8 12.500 17 4 9 8. 500 10 0 9 •0.2;4 19 4 S 10.250 a 6 9 4.500 2.3 2 4 10.214 11 1 S 10.259 9 4 9 12.CCC 17 2 3 13.530 13 2 e 12.350 16 0 3 2.500 1 9 9 <.835 4 9 2 5.335 3 9 15 17.759 13 4 0 11.750 14 15 13 IS. GOO IS 4 3 9.833 11.12 9 2 3.S33 8 9 2 10.313 13 3 3 4.333 4 1 3 7.0C0 5 5 9 5.611 4 5 3 19. SCO 13.14 9 4 7.500 6.7 1 2 6.278 5 i • :4 3I,c... 34 :^|5p,„ic_ 72 116

PAGE 126

APPENDIX P FEMALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIDM MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR TERMINAL VALUES

PAGE 127

Females (Black, Hispanic, White): Frequency Distribution, rledians. Composite Ranks for Terminal Values 8l4ck ;j 7 Q ; 2 4 0 0 W)i ] 2 81s. • 0 2 0 a 3 < 0 c 0 3 4 0 0 0 g n s 0 9 Uhl £e 0 3 Vic't 19 2 1 g 3Uc a 30 Hfsrai'c I! 3 1 CP 7 6 9l9C 4 4 MIspjn'c 4 a 4 2 Irrer Harrf-r:* 2 0 4 0 |h;ts 1 J 0 5 0 2 UlUt 4 0 >i-.iv.t: SU':': 0 0 0 U^iu 3 0 f'ti%j'i 3Is:< 0 0 0 0 WMU 0 4 SUc< 17 4 ( 4 toil's :7 5 31
PAGE 128

APPENDIX Q FE.-1ALES (BLACK, HISPANIC, WHITE): FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTin MEDIANS, COMPOSITE RANKS FOR INSTRUMENTAL VALUES

PAGE 129

Females (Black, Hispanic, White): Frequency Distribution, Medians, Composite Ranks for Instrumental Values 31 ac?-. 9 12 3 2 31a.;lt 13 2 H < ^^Nin 1 c 3 2 B1a:k 3 13 J kitu 0 3 SUck 4 HI SSM i c W! 3 S Vi:f 2j 0 aHlte a 3 13 0 i
PAGE 130

APPENDIX R '^iln^i!rI?n'''^^"^^L ^^""^^ RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE^ AND MEDIANS FOR BLACKS, HISPANICS, AND WHITES ^

PAGE 131

CO c to -a c (0 (U (J (0 +J so cs. E 1— 1 (/) 0) 3 O <— (O (O 1— > 03 I— 1ea o -(-> c: O) SM to c I — I o I— Ii £ o in 00 1. 4o ^ 3 iO O 01 I L C ^ ^ -c o; o E o C w— ca. H_ a -O o > *n o a; -J c: ^^ m C\J CO r-^ r-. r-! = a= D -.^ 5S U3: u3 ^ o "o o e. *- CI f — I — o 01 — o 00 g >> c o o o CD — D lO oO)^ -o c•->> c = 1. i. 0)0 O =1 U Oi C CJ o> O o 00 o 0,= o TO 4J c. O •r3 *-* U .136 00 m 00 CO a? n tn *n d cJ CJ u TO c: Ci > Of a. c o forta -J 0 i/t 01 >~ i/ CI •M TO "D E _TO %o c o E O HI C E 01 o to (J u k. L. O c Mi TO > < Zj < < c v <: ea TO to O PO o n *-> r-~ TO ^ c c cn O L. o -rrj u u -* O &' TO Of 122

PAGE 132

APPENDIX S ERMI.NAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR MALES AND FEMALES

PAGE 133

124

PAGE 134

APPENDIX T TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK MALES AND BLACK FEr-lALES

PAGE 135

126

PAGE 136

APPENDIX U TERMINAL AMD INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR HISPANIC MALES AND HISPANIC FEMALES

PAGE 137

128

PAGE 138

APPENDIX V TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR WHITE MALES AND WHITE FEMALES ''^'^"''^^

PAGE 139

130

PAGE 140

APPENDIX W TERMirWL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK MALES. HISPANIC MALES. AND WHITE MALES

PAGE 141

O O in O rn to c 10 •ro Ol T3 C n3 o C (/) +J r03 O S Q. E Ol 1 — 1 -l-> •ro •o to io c (U 1 — 1 o c •r— (0 Q. fO to Ol O) 3 to (O > to SI (0 c u (U E 3 CO Jsto o c ^ O _J ^ ^. o ^ ^ ^ O 2: irt (J o ,— o f— V in Q. C E V O Q} *rt (J C tJ C 5 t 1/1 ^ +* ft, *— C 3 3 O t/) O 10 (J U ft; Oft] cs: c. 12 Of 1 ^' 0£ •— 3 132

PAGE 142

APPENDIX X TEHMiriAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUE RANKINGS (IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) AND MEDIANS FOR BLACK FEMALES, HISPANIC FEMALES, AND WHITE FEMALES

PAGE 143

e — ^ (U (J 1 — fO <0 E +-> 0) so £3. 1— 1 <43 O o Sc O) ta a s#1 o 10 (U c: l-H (C E cu Li. O •rc IB Q. cc: 10 (U 3: 3 IB CO > O O O \n j% J3 CT* C U 41 C > ^ ^ ^ "iJJ & o c s: Lio o O rs. o W) o § = ~ 4f f— o cc — — CI ^ ^. S E O -rE ID O O) > 3: hL. (O E +J O) C U0) E ^ 3 O S(O +-) r— (/) ca c o -a M"D ^ E C o *n O or o C 1/1 o 3 Or^ ^ ^ E o O 3 ? g V W -M (J *— c aCJ — CO p— a c= — r5 I >>^ U. I5? c o 1. 134

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REFERENCES Adkins, P. G Socio-cultural factors in educating disadvantaged children. Educatio n. 1972, 93, 32-35. ^ Adorno, T. W Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson. D. J., and Sanford, ^•^[jThe MUthontanan Personality. New York: Harper and Row, "^"^'^'"1973, 52r77-8l"^' ^""^ counseling. Personnel and Guidance Journal -^llport. G. W. Attitudes. In Murchison, C. (Ed.) Handbook o f Social P|^cnolo2j^. Worchester. Massachusetts: ClarkUHi^ erslty P Fiif: Allport, G. W., Vernon, P. E. and Lindzey, G. A Study of Values 3rd edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1950. vaues 3rd ''''"'^IJI^'!^''?},^''^ ^^^'^^"^^ Association. Counseling the culturally M^eJ^ ^^^90. Learn. Pers^n^ '^"'i1l;,%,'^'?8-5V"'"''''' counselor. P_erspnneLan^^^ dl! l§7o:"' Psychological Association, Miam' BeachrPloriCausal_XactorLilLi^ Exodus. Paper presented at thp ^^'^i.^?;:^^^^ PsycKolo^i!irJ:^o??a??^n, ^ Berdie.^R. .^nterdependency^f.^^^^^^ I Biggs D. A.. Pulvino,.C. J., and Personnel and-QiJidrnnVs-^ETf^ ^Washington, D. C: American ^'^'^'wash^Qton'^^'"?* C. J., and Beck. C. E. Counsel inc^ ^ndv.l.. p. l^asn.ngton, 0. C. : American Personnel and-GUTdiHHiAii^B^^ 135

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Eoy, A. V. and Pine, G. J. Values in the counseling relationship Counseling and Values 1972, 16, 192-201. Britain, S. D. and Abad, M. Field independence: A function of sex and socialization in a Cuban and American group. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 1974, 319-320. Sruner, J. S. and Goodman, W. Value and need as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 1947, 42, 33-44. Cantril H. and Allport, G. W. Recent applications of the study of values, vjournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 1934, 23, Carter. R. E., Jr. An experiment in value measurement. American Sociol ogical Revie w, 1956, 21, 44-52. C'^-sal. L Cub^q^ Social-Psychological Studies Paper presented at tne 8th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Miami Beach, Florida, 1970. 'v^yi^-ai Castaneda, A., James, R. L., and Robbins. W. The Education al Needs of ^'^''1959; 24: 226-240^^''^ ^ ^"^^^^'C^" Sociological Ro.i.u Christiansen, E. W. Counseling Puerto Ricans: Some cultural considerations. Personnel and Guidance Journal 1975, 53, 349-355 Concha, P., Garcia. L., and Perez, A. Cooperation vs. competitionA comparison of Anglo-American and Cuban-American youngsters iS* Miami Journal of Social PsvchnW, 1975, 95, 273-274. ^'"''^'Pre;3!l949"'^'^' ^' ^'""^ Boston: Beacon ^Oith,j:rLCltz. ta.u. Ulssertation. University o f Florida. 19 667^ Duffy E. A critical review of investigations employing the Alloort Vernon Study of Values and other tests of eva 1 2a l??e attitude Ps ychological Bulletin 1940, 37, 597-612. attituae. "'''l955.'52.1i'5r''"' ''''''' ''''''' Pj^chological Bulletin

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Fagen,_ R. Brody, R., and O'Leary, T. Cubans in Exile Stanford, CaliTorma: Stanford University Press, 1968. Feather. [|._T. Value similarity and school adjustment. Australian Journ al of Psychology 1972, 24, 193-208. Feather, fl. T. and Hutton, M. A. Value systems of students in Papua. .^ew^Gu.nea and Australia. International Journal of Psy chology. 1974 '''"'"and t-J^r """'^'^"^ 'l^ super-sponge. In Biggs, D. A., Pulvino, C PerJ-nPl /r/'cJAT^'V'''^ and Values. Washington. D. C: American r'ersonnel and Gu-idance Association, 1976. Friedrnan, B. 8 Foundation s of the Measurement n f Values. New Yorkieacners College, Columbia Ul^V^'ty, Bureau-^fTUbl i cations 71946. Gladstein, G. A. Counselor role and client values. In Biqqs D A "T"'Aneri:an'S'Jr'*i'h'v "ing_aniil51i'^ 0. I.. American Personnel and Guidance Association. 1976. Handy, R. yal^g Th eory and the Behav ioral Sciences. Springfield Illinois: Cnarles C. Ihomas. Publ isl^iFrT969: ^^-^i^gTieia. nn ^''"""^^hrle.M^^fl^^^ Warren H. Hull, C. L. Values, valuation, and natural-science methodoloav Phil cs ophy of Science 1944, If 130-138. metnoaoiogy. PhTj_Inlow.^G^^M. yajues in Transition. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc. ^"^^DiL:1a?i?S?^Ja:%^iTS^^S^^ ^''^''^?:J:..^A. G. Measurement of human values^n iK'u, m-Tvsl'"' iducationaXR^^ Klovekorn, M. R. Nadera, M.. Nardone, S. Couselinq the Cuban fhiiH il^HieilLa/JLSchMJM^ 255-25^ ''"'5s^Par^o.s!ti.tdij??3rr^;^s^ i" r r7 of.A^. Cambridge,tJ:;c£us5u^"^HLJHmf^^ Kluckhohn. C. CuUur^anlBel^ Macmil Ian Company, ---^;?i?J-?-S; ^et^;so^-^f^^^

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Kohlberg, L. Moral education in the schools: A developmental view Scnooi Review. 1966. 74, 1-30. Kohlberg, L. Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization In Goslin, D. (Ed.) Handbook o f Socialization I heory and Rese arch. Chicago: Rand McNaT ly. 1969. '^^"''lllgjj-^ jhe^Place of Value in a World of F.rt. New York: Live^''^'%rllr'ih"^ ""^'i^a^rjld, T. K. Culture, Society, and Guidance Boston, Massachusetts: Houghto n Mifflin Company, 1971. ~ Lewin, K. and Grable P. Conduct, knowledge, and acceptance of new values. Journal of Social 1..,,^. iglg; 53-64 Lindgren.,B^W.^^3an^^ New York: Mac.il Ian PubLcpez-Blanco,_K.. Montiel, P. and Suarez, L. A Study of Attitudes of Cubar^^Reru^^ M.S.^TlTi^llfl^l^^ "''"Sni: 19ir|,"62-65: ^"^^^^^"^^ £l^icaOeMahoney, J and Katz, G. M. Value structures and orientations to .nri.l institutions. Journal of Psvchnlnr^. 1975, 93, 203-211 Manaster, G. J. and Ahumada, I. Cultural values in Latin and Mnrth Arnerican cities. Journal^.Cr^^ Maslow._A. H. fjotivation and Personality^. New York: Harper & Row. '"'ind^Ro^:;; pi^?;le^fH^^ NewYor.: Harper ^aiioS^^r^i^LJ^^ in search "''''U^lr^^^^^ Pittsburg. Pennsylvania: ^valSti^-1^^,^^ "''''^lk^'of'ihe'^a^ue^'att1[ud^t.^'''^^''^^^ '''''''y ^" empirical IH-en^^^ Mea-

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^^orr\s, C. Varieties of Human Value Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1955. tihu Chuong T. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Vietnamese and American va^^e_S:s^stem^^ Kh.U. Dissertation, University of South FToTTdiT" Nie. N., Bent, D. H., and Hadlai, C. Statistical Pack age for the Social Sciences^. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970. n' u" cdU' ^c.":'^^"'^J"^, J. G., Steinbrenner, K. and Bent. 0. H. IPSSj^ Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. Osgood, C. E and Tannenbaum, P. H. The principle of congruity in the prediction of attitude change. Psychological Review^ 1955, 62. ^''M^'^'J' ^' Latino Mental Health: A Review of the U^erature. Washington, D. C: Institu te of Mental Healt hTwI. '''"IM: ?97"'5p:"i9-i29!^" Personn^^ ^''"'Sclw ^"'-^ lo ward a General Theory of ^^.L9SiCambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1951. Patterson. C. H. The place of values in counseling and psvcholoov Jour nal of Counseling Psychology 1958, 5, 216-223. Dpjwiox. Hh.D. Dissertation, Michigan State Uni vers ityTl 969: Valuing diversity. Chijdhood Educa'"^';ard lnUW0pl^W:^^^^''''''''''' Massachusetts: Har'""i:?io'nal^exfS^^ Pennsylvania: Inter''"'cL^eli^^ 0^ the literature.

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140 Popham, W. J. and Sirotnik, K. A. Educational Statistics : Use and Interoretation (2nd edition). Ni^^York: Harper & Row, Publishers, ^"^^^""igsi' ^^^'^"^'^^"^^"^^^ Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Rokeach, M. Value Survey.. Sunnyvale, California: Halgren Tests, 1967. ^"'"'^o^co: gg.^X^-li.-Attitudes, and Values. San Francisco, California: •Jossey-Bass, inc. 1968. Rokeach, M. The Nature of Human VaJ^. New York: The Free Press, 1973. Rosenthal, D. Changes in some moral values following psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psy chnlnny. 1955, 19, 431-436". '"^"^^P^* Rosenthal, R and Oacobson L. Pygmalion in th e Classroom. New York: Holt, Rmehart, and Winston? 1968. '"^'"'1969,^47 ^62^-633'* ^g^^i^nnel a nd Guidance Journa l. ''''•5i;stc.n^Inf^7^'^^^ "^"-^^^^^^ Holt, Rinehart, and ^ ^'^"''A^';ic;n^;nd\nnr''^jr 'c^^^ f ^^^^^^ achievement: Mexican438-462 ^ ^ Sociology of Educ ation, 1971, 44, '"''lork; ^IS^ISfffj^^ New ^'^""H-J-J: ^^''l^^^A ^ ^D b'^ck and white teachers have different values? Prn Delta Kap pan. 1976, 57, 623-624. ^"'''"New>o;^'^XVkh?;l'^'''r^'"'''""'' MiLes_Clarification. new York. Hart Publishing Company, Inc., T972T '""'Pu^i IsMn f £^:U;ri96g?^ anditea^Values. Chicago: Aldine

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^''^^rp''L^;'-^'-^'^^'' Aranalde, M. Cuban value structure: Si oSjress) '-^^^rn^LoLC^^ Clinical Psvchol^^^'^kJtr!^-! Vogt. E. Z. (Eds.) Culture and Life CarbOHGdle. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press! 19 73 '"""'Ms!: ii,^74S! '"'^^'^^^"'^"^ ^^1""Psychological Review Vontress, C. E. Cultural barriers in the counseling relationshio Personnel and Guidance Journal 1969, 48, f];j9^'^^'^^iO"Ship. Wasserman, S. A. Values of Mexican-American, Negro and Analn hi.,o collar^and white-collar children. OuA^^^^tlU^ Werkneister, W. H. Historical Sp ectrum of v.t.,^ ThnrrirVnin-.o tt fi^braskir-^^h?iii?[^^^ '^"l^it^.s!^Sh^^^ ^erican sub-

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Elizabeth Josephine Spoto was born in Tampa, FTorida, October 25, 1946. to Richard C. Spoto and Elizabeth H. Spoto. She was educated in the Hillsborough County. Florida, public school system and graduated from Hillsborough High School in 1964. She entered Florida State University in the Fall of 1964 then transferred the following year to the University of South Florida where she graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Science Education. She taught geography at Sligh Junior High School. Tampa, from 1968-70. then entered the graduate program in Counselor Education. University of Florida. Gainesville. While pursuing her graduate studies, she was a teacher of contemporary issues at Gainesville High School and the following year became a school counselor at Buccholz High School. In 1972. she received both a Master of Education degree and Educational Specialist degree in Counselor Education with a specialization in community college counseling and an emphasis on counseling minorities and women. She began her doctoral program 1n Counselor Education. University of Florida in 1973. After completing required coursework for the doctoral program, she returned to Tampa and became Project Director and counselor for the Special Services Project. Hillsborough City College. Special Services is a federally-funded program providing support services and activities for lcw-inca.e. minority, and academically disadvantaged students. At present, she is working in the same capacity 142

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at Hillsborough Cooanunity College and also teaches courses in the area of psychology. Her professional interests include individual and group counseling, human relations skills, career development and decision-making, values clarification, curriculum development, consultation, and community mental health. Physical activities and the out-of-doors are important to her, and she enjoys snow skiing, tennis, sailing, scuba diving, and swimming. Her plans for the future include additional research in the area of values and value systems as they relate to motivation and individual needs, research on differentiating variables of ethnic groups, program and course development at the community college level, and private practice in counseling and psychotherapy. 143

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. f ( ;^ki E. L. Tolbert, Chairman Associate Professor of Counselor Education I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Richard J. Anderson Professor? of Psychology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Counselor Education

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1978 Professor of Counselor Education Dean, Graduate School


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MODELING THE CLASS OF SERVICE CHOICE OF RESIDENTIAL TELEPHONE CUSTOMERS BY STEVEN BRENT CAUDILL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1982

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A dissertation is such a large project that to thank all the deserving individuals would be an enormous task in itself. Though many deserve thanks, a few individuals merit special consideration. I would like to thank my chairman, G.S. Maddala, for all of his guidance. Sanford V. Berg provided much encouragement and support, and without his assistance writing a dissertation would have been a more formidable task. I would like to thank Stephen R. Cosslett for his many helpful suggestions. My friends, Martin F. Grace, Barry E. Lewine, Thomas G. Seeberger, Marlene A. Smith, James L. Swofford, and Robert P. Trost, lent their advice and support during the course of research. Finally, I am grateful to Katherine B. Williams for typing my dissertation. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii LIST OF TABLES iv LIST OF FIGURES V ABSTRACT vi CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES 8 CHAPTER III. THE MODEL 20 The Theoretical Model 20 The Estimable Model 23 Multinomial Logit Model 24 Multinomial Probit Models 28 Elimination by Aspect Models 28 The Nested Multinomial Logit Model 32 Important Variables 36 Notes 4 3 CHAPTER IV. RESULTS 4 4 The Low-Use Versus Standard-Use Choice 44 The Flat Versus Measured Choice 57 The Effect of Increasing the Flat Rate 66 Selected Elasticity Estimates 71 Uncontrolled Influences 72 Note 75 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS 76 The Attractiveness of LMS 76 Major Findings 78 Comments on the Experimental Design 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY 83 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 86 iii

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1. RESULTS OF THE NESTED LOGIT ESTIMATION 45 2. NET IMPACT OF VARIABLES ON THE FLAT VS. MEASURED CHOICE 47 3. RESULTS OF THE 2-CHOICE LOGIT ESTIMATION 48 4. RESULTS OF THE 3-CHOICE LOGIT ESTIMATION 50 5. SELECTED ELASTICITY ESTIMATES CALCULATED AT THE MEANS 51 iv

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1. Tree Diagram for the Grade of Service Decision Modeled by Mahan 10 2. Tree Diagram for the Rate Choice Decision 30 3. Bill as a Function of the Number of 3-minute Calls 70 V

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Philosophy MODELING THE CLASS OF SERVICE CHOICE OF RESIDENTIAL TELEPHONE CUSTOMERS By Steven Brent Caudill August 1982 Chairman: G.S. Maddala Major Department: Economics There are two major public utility industries in the United States today: telecommunications and electricity production. The pricing schemes of the two have not been very similar. Electric utilities have always charged separate prices for access and usage. That is to say that electric utilities have charged a fee for connection to the system and also a fee based on the consumption of electricity. Most telephone companies have combined local charges for access and usage into a single fee or flat rate. There is currently a strong movement under way in the telephone industry to unbundle access charges and usage charges for local telephone service. Pricing schemes with separate access and usage charges are called measured service options. The Bell System decision to make local measured service or, LMS, optional presents some special prediction problems vi

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if revenues are to be estimated. Predicting which option a household will choose involves analyzing a selection problem, referred to as the choice of class of service. The percent choosing measured service is known as the "take rate" in the vernacular of the telephone industry. This study will focus on predicting the "take rate." The choice of class of service is modeled in a logit framework. The nested logit procedure is employed as the estimation method because of its utility maximizing basis, its relative computational simplicity, and its ability to model choice processes in which some decisions are more similar than others, as is presumed to be the case in the Southern Bell experiments. The two measured options may be viewed by customers much less distinctly than the flat rate option versus either measured option. The three major findings of this study are that the measured options are perceived as being very similar, many personal calls may originate from businesses if the pricing structure is changed, and that the flat rate price will have to be nearly doubled before the "take rate" for flat rate pricing is significantly diminished. vii

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There are two major public utility industries in the United States today: telecommunications and electricity production. The pricing schemes of the two have not been very similar. Electric utilities have always charged separate prices for access and usage. That is to say that electric utilities have charged a fee for connection to the system and also a fee based on the consumption of electricity. Most telephone companies have combined local charges for access and usage into a single fee or flat rate. There is currently a strong movement under way in the telephone industry to unbundle access charges and usage charges for local telephone service. Pricing schemes with separate access and usage charges are called measured service options. This chapter presents several reasons for the attractiveness of local measured service, along with the special problems it creates. Before discussing the advantages of local measured service (or LMS) it is necessary to understand an important objective which constrains the decisions of the telephone industry, namely the universal service goal. One of the objectives of the telephone industry has been to provide 1

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2 local service in such a way as to make the service affordable to as many people as possible. More than simply industry propaganda, the universal service goal is implied in the Communications Act of 1934 which states that its purpose was to . make available, so far as possible, to all people of the United States a rapid, efficient, nationwide, and worldwide wire and radio communication service with adequate facilities at reasonable charges . The universal service goal has been implied more recently in the Van Deerlin committe bill, HR 3333, the Rollings committee bill, S. 611, the Communications Act of 1979, and the Communications Act Amendments of 1979."'" Although the Communications Act of 1979 and its Amendments did not become law, they stated, along with the committee bills, the current legal endorsement of universal service. Any changes in pricing policies by the telephone industry must be made in the context of the universal service goal. With this understanding one may proceed to examine the circumstances which make LMS desirable. LMS has recently become an attractive alternative to flat rate service due to changes occurring in the regulation of the telecommunications industry. As Garfinkel and Linhart (1979) point out, the FCC has recently encouraged competition in the intercity and terminal equipment markets. Execunet and Graphnet now provide long distance services outside the Bell System's Long Lines division. Additionally, in April of 1980 the FCC handed down the Computer II ruling

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which forced the unbundling and detariffing of customer 2 provided equipment by March, 1982. Revenues from the inter city and terminal equipment markets have traditionally been used to subsidize local telephone service. Without this subsidy, local service will require other sources of revenue The simple solution to this problem under a flat rate pricing scheme would be an increase in the flat rate. This solution could, however, price some customers out of local service which would be a step away from the goal of universal service. LMS provides an alternative solution to the problem of increased local revenue requirements By charging separate access and usage charges, the telephone industry can offer pricing schemes with lower access charges to promote universal service. With a usage charge, increased calls result in increased revenues making subsidies unnecessary. Current economic conditions have led to increased local calling for two reasons. Recent increases in energy prices have increased the price of local travel relative to local calling. This has resulted in increased local calling since some of the search activities previously handled by 3 travel are now being done by telephone. A similar problem has arisen in the cities. As urban areas have become larger customers in those areas have insisted upon larger local service areas. This increase in local service in cities like Houston, Minneapolis, and Denver has been achieved by increasing the flat rate prices. Increasing flat rates for

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4 either reason could make local service too expensive for some. Once again LMS provides a possible solution. LMS is desirable because as Garfinkel and Linhart (1979) indicate it will promote a more efficient allocation of resources for both telephone companies and telephone customers. By bringing prices more in line with marginal costs, telephone companies' investment decisions and telephone customers' usage decisions will be improved. The current flat rate pricing scheme takes no account of peaks and valleys in local calling patterns. From the standpoint of economic efficiency, those customers impinging on capacity should be given some pricing signals related to the costs in order to allow them to cast their dollar votes in an intelligent manner. Those customers desiring greater capacity will pay for that capacity. Garfinkel and Linhart (1979) also cite inflation as another reason for examining LMS. Flat rate prices have risen recently, which may price some individuals out of telephone service. Those customers on fixed incomes have been especially affected. LMS once again can alleviate the problem. Finally, LMS has recently become practical because technology now permits local usage to be monitored for $5 per year per line, down from $60-$75 per line in 1970."^ It seems that many convincing arguments can be made for LMS so it is not suprising that telephone companies have responded favorably to such structures. According to

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Schmidt (1979), G.T.E. plans to switch to mandatory LMS while the Bell System intends to offer LMS options to its residential customers. The Bell System plans to offer two measured options: a standard measured service option, and a low-use measured service option in addition to the current flat rate option. Residential customers in some areas may also choose a combined flat/measured option with an expanded local calling area. The decision by the Bell System to implement measured service as an option appears to be motivated by marketing considerations. The introduction of measured options may be acceptable to the public without much controversy. The Bell System decision to make LMS optional presents some special prediction problems if revenues are to be estimated. Predicting which option a household will select involves analyzing a selection problem, referred to as the choice of class of service. The percent choosing measured service is known as the "take rate" in the vernacular of the telephone industry. This study will focus on predicting the "take rate. It is important to be able to predict the percentages of customers selecting each rate option because this information is essential for predicting changes in costs and revenues resulting from the implementation of optional LMS. According to Cosgrove and Linhart (19 79) the Bell System ultimately intends to increase the flat rate price by enough to cover the costs of offering the measured options. This

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6 will certainly affect the number of people subscribing to each option. A model flexible enough to make predictions on an individual basis in light of these kinds of changes would certainly be useful. Examined in this dissertation are the factors influencing the decision to choose a pricing option. The data result from several LMS experiments conducted by Southern Bell ifi Florida. The areas participating in experiments include Jupiter, Delray Beach-Main, Delray Beach-Kings Point, Miami Metro-CGO, Miami Metro-CGl, Orange Park, and Pembroke Pines. The method will be developed and tested on the data from the Jupiter experiment. The choice of class of service will be modeled in a logit framework. The nested logit procedure will be employed as the estimation method because of its utility maximizing basis, its relative computational simplicity, and its ability to model choice processes in which some decisions are more similar than others (as is presumed to be the case in the Southern Bell experiments) The two measured options may be viewed by customers much less distinctly than the flat rate option versus either measured option. The following chapter presents a review and critique of other approaches to modeling telephone decisions.

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Notes For a more thorough discussion of this legislation see, "The Transition to Local Measured Telephone Service," by Lawrence Garfinkel and Peter B. Linhart, 104 Public Utilities Fortnightly 17, August 16, 1979. In the matter of Amendment of Section 64-702 of the Commissions Rule and Regulations (Second Computer Inquiry) FCC Docket No. 20828 at 163. Garfinkel and Linhart, op. cit. ^Ibid.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES Very little research has been done on the selection of telephone service; furthermore, the existing studies model the choice process quite differently. The purpose of this chapter is to present a critique of the methodologies used in these studies. To facilitate the review, it is convenient to consider the selection of telephone service as emerging from two sequential decisions. First the customer decides whether or not to purchase telephone service, and then those electing telephone service must choose either flat rate local service or measured local service. Perl (1975, 1978) and Mahan (1979) have analyzed the first decision, while Infosino (1977, 1979)''" has analyzed the second decision. The methods used to model these two decisions have been very different. Perl (1975, 1978) worked on the phone/no phone decision, estimating linear probability models, logit models, and 2 probit models. Perl's results indicate that the probability of a household having a telephone increases with the income, age, and education of the head of the household. Perl found that urban households were more likely to have telephones than rural households, and that white households 8

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9 were more likely to have telephones than black households. Welfare families were found to be less likely to have telephones than non-welfare families. Perl's results also indicated that single males and male heads of households were less likely to have telephones than their counterparts of the opposite sex. Many of these relations were found to be non-linear. The study done by Mahan (197 9) is the only analysis of the grade of service decision within a statistical choice framework. In the analysis, choice of grade of service implies the selection of either a one-party, a two-party, or a four-party line. The customers also chose whether or not to purchase telephone service. No measured service options were available to the customers, so the class of service decision is not addressed by Mahan. The data analyzed were obtained from individual households in North Carolina. Mahan modeled the household decision about grade of service in a sequential, decision tree framework. This decision process is illustrated in Figure 1. At the first stage, the household must decide whether or not to purchase telephone service. Next, those households purchasing telephone service must decide between purchasing a oneparty line or a multi-party line. Finally, those households purchasing multi-party lines must choose whether to purchase a two-party line or a four-party line.

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10 stage 1 2 telephone service 1 no telphone service Stage 2 4 multi-party line 3 one-party line Stage 3 6 four-party line 5 two-party line Figure 1. Tree Diagram for the Grade of Service Decision Modeled by Mahan.

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11 Individual household data were used to estimate the probabilities of choosing each alternative at each stage. Linear probability models were estimated for each decision, but were rejected because some of their predicted probabilities fell outside the unit interval. Binary logit analysis was used as the primary estimation method. Although Mahan suggests that polychotomous logit analysis is the proper way to estimate the model, he rejected it because of its expense. Thus, instead of estimating the selection probabilities of all choices simultaneously, Mahan estimates each stage of the decision process individually. At the first stage, all of the data were used to estimate the phone/no phone decision. At the next stage the data on those households purchasing telephone service were divided into single-party and multi-party groups, and the single/multi decision was modeled. The data on those households without phones were not used to estimate stage two. In stage three only data on those households choosing multi-party were used. These data were divided into a "two-party" group and also a "four-party" group and then binary logit model was estimated. There is a problem with estimating sequential decision models on a decision-by-decision basis. There are only four choices a household can make, and some of these choices are more closely related than others. This being the case, the estimation method employed should account for the simi3 larities of the choices. Sequential logit estimators do

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12 not take account of these similarities. Logit estimation does not permit differential substitution among the choices. This is a consequence of logit estimation which is known as the independence of irrelevant alternatives assumption. This consequence will be discussed at length in Chapter III. The examination of Mahan's results will be confined to the phone/no phone decision since this choice has the most bearing on the present study. In the phone/no phone equation, the coefficients of many variables were significant and had the expected sign. Income, the number of people in the household sixty or over, the head of the household completing college, and the head of the household completing high school all had the anticipated positive sign and were signf leant. Dummy variables for the number of people in the household eighteen or over, and a dummy for race defined to be one for black families, zero otherwise, were significant and had a negative sign. The likelihood ratio index, a measure of goodness of fit, for the binary logit models is near .2, and 80% of the houeholds' decisions to purchase telephone service were correctly predicted. Although Mahan covered many topics in telephone demand in his dissertation, his estimation methods are suspect. Infosino (19 77, 1979) has developed a model which predicts the percentage of customers choosing each class of

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telephone service. This model bases its predictions on the fraction of customers choosing measured service at each of several calling rates. The following is an outline of what Infosino refers to as the "basic" model. Initially it is assumed that when a consumer is faced with a class of service choice, the consumer estimates his usage level, and then chooses the class which is cheapest at that usage level. The estimated usage level is referred to as the adjusted usage estimate. It is further assumed that for customers with the same actual usage, the distribution of adjusted usage is lognormal.^ The next task is to estimate the parameters, a and 3, of the lognormal distribution for each calling rate. This estimation is achieved by analyzing the breakpoints at each calling rate. The breakpoint is the number of calls which yield equal bills under two classes of service. Fewer calls lead to lower bills under one option while more calls lead to lower bills under another option. The breakpoint may thus be thought of as the dividing line between choices, if a consumer behaves in a bill-minimizing fashion. There may be several breakpoints depending on the number of options available. To illustrate the framework, consider the breakpoint corresponding to the lowest niomber of calls, and call it B^. This means that from 0 calls to calls, the selection of some option A resulted in the lowest bill. Suppose that for some calling rate 2 0% of the customers choose option A. The model suggests that 20% of the adjusted usage estimates for

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14 that calling rate fall between 0 and call's. Continue until the next breakpoint Suppose that between and B2 calls, the selection of some option B results in the lowest bill. Now, for the given calling rate suppose 50% of the customers choose option A or option B. The model suggests that 50% of the adjusted usage estimates must fall between 0 and calls. This process has determined, for a given calling rate, two points on the cumulative distribution function of the lognormally distributed adjusted usage rate estimates. These two points are sufficient to determine a and 3, the parameters of the lognormal distribution. This process of identifying a and 3 is then extended to each average calling rate, ultimately yielding several a and 3 pairs. The 6 values are then plotted as a function of the calling rate. The line of best fit is then determined, and then the values are redetermined using the fitted 3 values at each calling rate. The new a values are plotted as a function of the calling rate, and then they too are approximated by a line. With equations for a and 3, the model may be used to predict the fraction of customers choosing each class at a given calling rate. There are several problems with the procedure outlined above. Some of the problems are not too significant, and will not be discussed here. Others are large and render the model inappropriate for investigating the effects of an increased flat rate on the class of service choice.

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15 First the model is not grounded in economic theory. Infosino suggests that customers choose the class of service which minimizes their expected bills. Essentially the idea behind the model is that customers choose the quantity of telephone calls, and then they select the price. There is no mechanism whereby the price can affect the quantity. Utility functions and prices are not mentioned by Infosino. The model is not useful for identifying individual characteristics which influence the choice. No indication is given as to how economic and demographic variables relate to the choice. The model is unable to suggest how various groups of consvuners will be affected by having various class of service options available. This is a matter of great concern to regulators. Thus, the model cannot be generalized to other geographic areas or areas with different socio-economic characteristics. The model seems to be little more than a descriptive device. The basic model outlined above is applied to data from several different experiments. When the model does not work well it is adjusted. These modifications eventually enable the model to predict well for all of the experiments. The problem is that all of these checks are really only model validation: all checking is after the fact. One does not know initially which model to use if the customers have not yet chosen, and there are no results indicating how to adjust the model. The "basic" model may be used to reproduce existing results, but problems arise when the

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16 model is extended to other data sets. One does not know which version of the model will be the proper one to use. As has been discussed previously. Southern Bell intends to increase the flat rate charge after implementing the measured options. The model developed by Infosino will be of little use for predicting the effects of changes in the flat rate because the data analyzed by Infosino included calling rate data after customers had switched to measured options. The calling rates were then assumed to be unaffected by the choice of class of service. Since measured options employ, after a usage allowance, a marginal price for calling, this assumption contradicts economic theory. However, the problem may not be too serious for the data analyzed by Infosino because, as he suggests, the flat rate charges in each of the experiments were not too high, so that most customers switching to measured were lowuse customers. Infosino suggests that if the flat rate were increased substantially, customers switching to measured options would decrease or repress their usage. This usage repression contradicts Infosino 's model of the customer's class of service choice. In his model, the customer estimates his "usage" and then chooses the option yielding the lowest bill for the "usage." The problem is simply that "usage" is endogenous, since selection of an option with a very high marginal calling price will cause usage to be less. Usage depends on the pricing scheme chosen. There is not

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17 a single "usage" for all pricing options. The existence of these repression effects invalidates the assumption that calling rate is independent of choice, especially if, as Southern Bell intends, the flat rate were to be increased. Infosino was not unaware of these repression effects and their impact on his conclusions. He suggested that increases in the flat rate would probably cause some customers to avoid large bills by switching to measured options, and then repressing their usage. At the time of his writing, there had been no research on the repression effects of a change in class of service. Since then, Mitchell and Park (1981) have investigated the problem of repression. Their study examined the differences in repression for mandatory versus optional measured devices. Repression effects are much smaller for optional measured service because the customers switching to measured options are typically low usage customers and are able to maintain their calling rates with lower monthly bills. Again it is concluded that only high usage customers will repress calls. Mitchell and Park (1981) present results which indicate that if the charges for flat rate service are increased, repression effects do occur. The existence of these repression effects suggests that Infosino 's assumption that a customer's calling rate is independent of the class of service selected is not correct. In fact, customers modify their usage patterns depending on the pricing system under which they are billed.

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18 As an aside, it is interesting to note that Infosino's model has been applied to data on Jupiter, Florida, which is the primary data set under study in this dissertation. Those results are presented in Garfinkel and Linhart (1980) A summary of the model's predictions are presented below. CLASS OF PREDICTED ACTUAL SERVICE SELECTIONS SELECTIONS Flat Rate 87.45% 88% Standard Measured 7.22% 2% Low-use Measured 5. 33 % 10 % Total 100.00% 100% Once again, the model performs well at replicating the existing data. The model did have some trouble discriminating between the measured options In this study, aspects of each of the studies previously reviewed will be combined into a single framework. The decision tree framework will be employed, and a variation of logit analysis will be used to estimate the model. The variables in the model will include some estimate of the expected bill under each of the class of service choices, thus retaining some vestiges of the "bill-minimizing" behavior presented by Infosino, along with several economic and demographic variables to permit the assessment of the attractiveness of optional measured service to various groups of cons\imers.

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19 Notes ^The author is grateful to Southern Bell for making these articles available. 2 The linear probabilty model expresses estimated probabilities as linear functions of important variables or, P = 6'X. In the logit model the estimated probabilities are of the form ; exp [B'X] 1 + exp [3'X] In the probit model the estimated probabilities are of the form P = (27T)~^/£'^ exp -lY^/2] dy 3 This point IS discussed in detail in Chapter III of this dissertation. 4 . 2 2 '"-'^ ^2 The likelihood ratio index p is given by p = = — — where L2 is the value of the likelihood function 1 at the maximiim likelihood estimates, and is the value of the likelihood function when only the constant is used. ^If X and Y are random variables and Y = In X is a normal random variable, then X is lognormally distributed. 2 The parameters u and a of the normal distribution Y also uniquely specify the lognormal random variable X. What is actually fit is the minimum of two lines, so a kink is present.

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CHAPTER III THE MODEL The Theoretical Model There have been two frameworks developed to model the decision to purchase access to the telephone system. The first models decisions of individual decision-making units in a consumer's surplus framework. The second approach models the decision in the context of simple utility maximization. Both of these frameworks may be extended to model the local rate choice decision, but the utility maximizing framework is selected for this study. Both of the procedures are outlined below, and some questions are raised as to the applicability of the consumer s surplus approach for modeling the access decision. The consumer's surplus approach to the decision to purchase access has been used by Squire (1973) Mitchell (1978) and Taylor (1980). Their models link the demand for access to the demand for usage in the following fashion. First, the demand for calls is determined based on income, prices of other goods, and the utility function. After the demand for calls has been determined, and a usage price is set, the resulting consiamer's surplus may be calculated. If the consumer's surplus exceeds the access price, access 20

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21 is purchased. If the access price exceeds the resulting consumer's surplus, access is not purchased. The consumer's surplus concept used is the area to the left of the demand curve as in Taylor (1980) There are some problems with this approach to the decision due mostly to the consumer's surplus concept. The first problem is that the area to the left of the demand curve, either compensated or uncompensated, may exceed income. Unless very great care is taken in the form of some very restrictive assumptions about the utility function,"^ the benefits from access will exceed the cost in most cases. Access cannot be purchased however, if the access price exceeds income. Thus, the decision rule is too naive. In addition, it is not clear that consumer's surplus as it is traditionally defined is the proper measure in this case. Layard and Walters (1978) define consumer's surplus as the difference between the maximum amount a consumer is willing to pay for this current consumption of a good, and the amount actually paid. The key word in the definition is "current" since a consumer who does not possess a telephone has no current consumption. The concept that seems more appropriate in this instance is the compensating variation. This is defined by Layard and Walters as the maximum amount a consumer is willing to pay to purchase the option of buying any amount of a good at some given price. It should be noted that under certain

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22 strict conditions (see note 1) the consumer's surplus measure and the compensating variation measure of the benefits of access are equal. Artie and Averous (1973) and Rohlfs (1974) address the access decision in a utility maximizing framework. With slight modifications, this approach lends itself to the choice of class of service. Ultimately, the household chooses the utility maximizing pricing option. To implement this method, the assumption is made that each household possesses an indirect utility function U which depends on household income M, the price of a composite good P and the price parameters reflecting the choice of class of service made by the household. Each pricing option will be represented by three parameters: the access charge P^, the usage charge or charge per call P^, and A, the usage allowance. The consumer's indirect utility function may then be denoted by U = U (P^, P^, A, tA, P^) Now assume that each household chooses a pricing option from a set of options offered by the local telephone authority. Each pricing option or price vector P"^ is composed of an access charge, a usage charge, and a calling allowance, thus P^ = (p^, p^, a^) If P^ = 0 and the a c c calling allowance A""" is infinite or very large, the traditional flat rate pricing scheme is produced.^ If each household is faced with m price vectors from which to choose, the household should choose the combination of

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23 prices and allowances that permits the most utility to be obtained. Since income and the prices of other goods do not vary across choices, the utility function above may be simplified for the choice process: U = U (P P A) If the maximum utility attainable given price vector P"*" is denoted by U"^ the household's task is to choose the maximiom maximorum, that is to select k so that = max [U-*-, U^, . U™] k k k k and then P = (P P A ) would be the pricing scheme a c selected. The Estimable Model The utility maximizing model of class of service choice can be very easily modified for use empirically. The problem will now be cast as an expected utility maximization problem. Let U''"-' represent the perceived attractiveness of price vector P"^ to the jth household. Let V"^^ denote the actual attractiveness of price vector P""" to the jth household. Since the perceived attractiveness may not equal the actual attractiveness due to some lack of foresight, a stochastic component e^^ is introduced to denote the errors between the two. Thus, 13

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24 and the perceived attractiveness of each choice is a random variable. This is the classic random utility model (see Da Ganzo (1980) or Maddala (1982) for a discussion) Since random elements have been introduced, questions about choices must now be answered in terms of probabilities. In terms of the above, the probability that price vector P is chosen by household j is given by Pr(P ) = Pr[U^'^ > max (U^'^ U^'^'^*, U^"*"^'^, u'"'^')]. (1) Multinomial Logit Model The familiar multinomial logit model may be developed from the above if some assumptions about U''"-' are made. Recall that U''"-' = V''"-' + e^^. Assume that the nonstochastic component V'''-' is a linear function of variables and parameters so that V^^ = e X. + a? Z . (2) In this representation, X^^ is a vector of choice-specific variables which shall henceforth be called attributes. Attributes, like the expected bill under each class of service, vary from choice to choice. The vector of parameters for these attributes, 3, does not vary from choice to choice. In the above, is a vector of individual specific variables such as income, age of head of household, number of telephones, and others which do not vary across choices. They will be henceforth referred to as characteristics.

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25 and they do not vary from choice to choice. The vector of parameters for these characteristics, a^, does vary from choice to choice. If additionally, the disturbance term e^^ is assiamed to have an extreme value distribution whose cumulative distribution function is F(e^j) = exp [-e~^ij] the solution of (1) yields selection probabilities of the familiar logit form. If P^^ denotes the probability that individual j makes choice i, then P, exp [V^^ ] 13 m Z exp [V^^] k=l where V"""^ is defined as (2) If a normalization is applied, the probabilities may be written p exp [V^^] Pij fpi — 1-1. m-l (3) 1 + Z exp [V^^] k=l and P^^ = 1/D, where D is the denominator in the expression above. To examine the effects of changes in either attributes or characteristics the probabilities above can be differentiated. If the probabilities are differentiated with respect to attributes, the following is obtained: 3P. dT^ = 6P. (1-P. .) i J -"-J

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26 Upon differentiating with respect to the characteristics, the following results: 9P . m-1 = P . la.' Z a' P, ] The parameters of the logit model presented above can be estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. The likelihood function is in this case of product of several probabilities. If Y^^ is a dummy variable taking on the value 1 if the j th household makes the ith selection, and zero otherwise, the likelihood function may be written ^ Y Y Y L = n P I3 P 2j . P mj j=l Ij 2j mj • The probabilities above are of the form given in (3) above. Differentiating the logarithm of the likelihood function leads to several nonlinear equations in a| and 6. The values of a| and 6 which maximize the likelihood function may be found using an iterative procedure presented in Berndt, Hall, Hall, and Hausman (1974) and discussed in Maddala (1977). This logit model may be used to estimate the rate choice problem, but there is a difficulty with using this formulation of the problem. One of the consequences of using logit analysis is that it implies the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) The odds of making one

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choice over another do not depend on the size or composition of the choice set. As one can easily observe, ratios of probabilities of the type given by (3) are not influenced by variables affecting the remaining probabilities The problem created by the IIA assumption is best illustrated by an example, the classic one being the "red bus-blue bus" example due to Debreu and discussed in Domencich and McFadden (1975) Suppose that an individual is selecting a mode of transportation. Assume that the individual is indifferent between choosing bus or automobil and that the two buses are identical except for their color 3 one being red and the other being blue. Thus, Pr[R(R,A)] Pr[BCB,A)j = PrlR(R,B)] = 1/2, but PrlR(R,B,A)] = Pr[BtR,B,A)] = 1/4, and PrlA(R,B,A)] = 1/2. The odds of choosing automobile over red bus depend on the presence or absence of the blue bus as an alternative. The difficulty is that the buses are very similar alternatives. Logit models typically do not yield reasonable predictions when there is a large disparity in the degree of similarity between the alternatives. This may be the case in the price choice decision being analyzed. Each customer is faced with choosing between either the familiar, "old" flat rate, and the two "new" measured options. The newness of the measured options may, in the perceptions of the consumers, link them together. They may be viewed as being very similar since they are "new," but both are very

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28 different from the "old" flat rate. This interaction should be accounted for, but this logit formulation cannot handle the problem. There have recently been developments in decision modeling which relax the assumption of the independence of irrelevant alternatives. There are multinomial probit models, or MNP, and an entire class of "aspects" models which predict well when choice sets contain similar alternatives. These models will be reviewed in turn. Multinomial Probit Models Multinomial probit assumes that the error terms e^^ are multivariate normally distributed. In contrast with multinomial logit, the variances need not be assumed constant, and covariance terms may be specified. As McFadden (1980) suggests, this augmented covariance structure eliminates the IIA assumption. The difficulty with MNP lies in its computational difficulty. MNP has been applied successfully in the three-choice case by Hausman and Wise (197 8) using the method of maximum likelihood in conjunction with numerical approximation techniques. Due to the computational difficulties, MNP is not employed to estimate the class of service model. Elimination by Aspect Models Another way to take care of the similarity of the alternatives is the elimination by aspects (EBA) models

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29 developed by Tversky (1972) These EBA models portray the choice process as one in which some aspect is selected upon, and then all alternatives without that aspect are disregarded. Then some new aspect is used as the basis to screen the remaining alternatives. Those alternatives without this new aspect are cast aside. This process continues covertly until only one alternative remains. Consider the following case of a young man looking for a suit. He may covertly consider the aspects price, color and style, although not necessarily in that order. If the young man first decides to select on color, and considers blue suits, all suits that are not blue are immediately rejected. He next selects on either style or price. The EBA model implies nothing about the order in which the aspects are addressed. Aspects common to all of the alternatives in a choice set have no effect on the decision of the consumer. Because of the large number of possible paths to an alternative in the EBA model, Tversky and Sattath (19 79) examined a special case of the EBA model in which the alternatives can be represented by a tree-like graph. When this is possible the EBA model reduces to a simpler eliminationby-tree or EBT model. In the EBT model an individual selects a branch and then continues making choices down the branch until a decision has been made. For the rate choice problem the tree diagram looks like Figure 2. Again, the

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Figure 2. Tree Diagram for the Rate Choice Decision.

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EBT model suggests nothing about where in the tree the process begins. The EBT model, although still an EBA model, suggests another decision scheme which utilizes the ordering reflected by the tree. This model is referred to as the hierarchical elimination by aspects or HEBA model. The model simply uses the order which arises naturally from the tree structure. There are two levels of choice in the HEBA model. At the first level the individual decides whether to subscribe to a flat rate or a measured rate, and at the second level the individual selects the measured rate to which he will subscribe. To see how this model works, suppose that the (utility) values associated with different aspects of the rate choice decision are as follows: LMS #1 V 1 LMS #2 V 2 Flat Rate V 3 Measured Service V 4 and assume that ZV. = 1. Then in the HEBA model, Pr (LMS #1) = Pr (Measured Service is chosen) Pr (LMS #1 is chosen I Measured) (V^ + V2 + V^) (V^ + V2 + V3 + V4)

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32 The Nested Multinomial Logit Model An easy computational method for estimating choice models with similar alternatives is the nested multinomial logit or NMNL procedure. The estimation of the NMNL models only requires the repeated use of multinomial logit, and thus NMNL is computationally feasible. To apply NMNL to the class of service problem, one must first examine the choice between the low-use measured option and the standarduse measured option. These selection probabilities and the implied a's and 3's can be estimated using MNL which has been outlined previously. To illustrate how the NMNL procedure accounts for the similarity between the two measured options, one may develop the NMNL procedure from the MNL models previously discussed. Let V^^ denote the linear combination of variables and parameters affecting the probability of the selection of the flat rate, and let '^21 ^22 "^^^^^^ corresponding linear combinations for the selection of the low-use measured option and the standard-use measured option, respectively. If the MNL procedure were used to estimate the selection probabilities, they would have the familiar form exp [V ] PrCFlat rate) = ..7 ^ ^ ttt — i — ; m — r (4) exp[V^J + exp[V2^] + exp[V22J in the case of the flat rate, for example. The NMNL procedure attempts to take account of the similarity in the

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33 two measured options by combining their impact into a single new variable called the inclusive value. This inclusive value may be denoted by I and defined: The inclusive value depends on parameters that must be estimated, namely the a's and 3's in V2-j^ and ^22' parameters may be estimated using MNL, and only information on the customers who chose measured service. The probabilities in this first stage of estimation may be written: The probability is a conditional probability because the estimation is performed for only those individuals choosing measured service. After the parameters have been estimated using only information on those individuals who chose measured service, the inclusive value may be generated for all individuals, even those who selected the flat rate. Thus, the inclusive value is included as a variable in the second stage, and by substituting (5) into (4) an algebraically equivalent expression is I = log(exp[V2^J + exp[V22])(5) Pr (Low-use | Measured) = exp [V2-l] exp[V23^] + exp[V22] exp [V, J Pr(Flat rate) = exp[V^] + exp [I] • (6)

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34 In order to allow the measured branch to be discounted, the inclusive value is assigned a coefficient of 1-a in the second stage. The above expression becomes exp [V ] Pr(Flat rate) = expEVj^] + exp [(1-a) I] or, in the form in which the estimation occurred explV (1-a) I] Pr(Flat rate) = exp [V^ (l-a)I] ^ 1 The value of a allows the contributions of the measured options to be discounted if customers do not view them as separate choices. For example, the two polar cases are a=0 and a=l. If a=l for instance, the above expression becomes exp [V ] Pr(Flat rate) = exp[V^] + 1 this is exactly the form the probabilities would take in a two choice MNL model. In this case the two measured options have been "fully" discounted in the sense that consumers are either choosing flat or measured, and have been unable to discriminate between the two measured options. At the other extreme a=0 implying that consumers view the measured options distinctly. In this case equation (7) becomes

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35 Pr(Flat rate) = exp rv^] explV^] + expLV^^] + exp[V22J which is actually equation (4) Consumers view the measured options distinctly so that no discounting occurs and MNL models could be justified. The coefficient of the inclusive value, 1-a is an index of the similarity between the low-use measured service option and the standard measured service option. As 1-a increases, or a gets smaller, the options are viewed as being less similar. As a increases, or 1-a gets small, the choices are being viewed by households much less distinctly. The NMNL formulation allows the class of service choice problem to be analyzed in a decision tree framework. There are many reasons why it is appropriate to estimate such a model here. First, the NMNL procedure is computationally easy, involving only repeated application of the MNL estimation procedure outlined previously. McFadden argues that numerical experiments indicate that NMNL models give nearly identical fits as HEBA models which allow the use of a decision tree framework. McFadden (1978) has shown that if the coefficient of the inclusive value lies between 0 and 1, the NMNL is consistent with random utility maximization, making it again well founded theoretically. Additionally, it will be very useful to examine the magnitude of a, the approximate correlation'* between the two measured options. This coefficient will give an indication as to how customers view these options, which may provide

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36 information on whether measured service has been successfully marketed. If the coefficient indicates that the choices are viewed as being quite similar, perhaps measured service is not well understood by the public, at least not to a degree which permits discrimination of different measured options. Furthermore, the NMNL approach will permit concentration on the measured/flat decision which is primary for predicting revenues. Bills do not differ as much between measured options as they do between either measured option and the flat rate. Thus, revenues will be much more greatly affected by the measured/flat decision. It is apparent that the NI4NL has much to commend it as the technique used to evaluate the class of service decision. Important Variables In order to discuss the impact of various attributes and characteristics used in the model, one may consider each stage of the decision individually. The first decision is whether to choose the flat option or a measured option. Several economic, demographic and attitudinal variables may explain this decision. The next choice made by households electing a measured option is whether to select the low-use measured option or the standard-use measured option. This decision may be much more difficult to model than the first one. Some very basic hypotheses about how variables affect the selection probabilities will be presented.

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37 Before beginning, an important point should be made. As the names "low-use" and "standard-use" imply, the choice of class of service is expected to be related to the calling rate. Households making few calls should frequently select the low use option. Households making many calls should most frequently select the flat rate option, and the standard use measured option should appeal to households making moderate quantities of calls. These simple rules for choosing class of service certainly do not hold absolutely, but they represent an initial approximation. The reason this relationship between choice of class of service and calling rates is important is simple; there has been no previous empirical research using individual choice theory to model the class of service decision. Thus, there is no empirical basis for determining which variables belong in the model, and for determining their expected direction of impact on the selection probabilities. However, research has been done on the impact of various socioeconomic variables on the calling rate. It is hoped that by using the relationship between the socioeconomic variables and the calling rate, and by using the relationship between the calling rate and the rate choice that some predictions may be made as to how socioeconomic variables affect the selection probabilities. By exploiting this connection, one can speculate about the impact of many variables

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38 The first and most important decision the household faces is the choice between measured local service, and the traditional flat rate pricing of local service. Economic theory, along with the results of previous research [most notably that of Perl (1975, 1978), Mahan (1979), Infosino (1979), and Brandon (1981)] will be used to predict the influence of various economic and demographic variables on the selection probabilities. Economic theory will be used in order to assess the impact of variables on the probabilities of choosing the options. Again, there has been no research done on how various variables affect the choice of class of service. Economic theory will be relied upon to predict the influence of these variables on the quantity of calls made by a household. This relationship will in turn be used to predict the influence of the variables on the choice of class of service. An important variable used in the model is the expected bill for local calls under both measured and flat rates. This variable is expected to exert a negative effect on the probability of an option's selection. If the expected bill under an option increases, that pricing option is less likely to be chosen. Economic theory suggests that income should be an important variable in the model. Several studies of local residential demand for telephone calls indicate that the income elasticity of demand for calls is positive. This

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39 positive income elasticity suggests that increases in income should increase the probability of the flat rate being selected, because the flat rate permits increased calling without increased expenditures. Brandon (1981) found a positive relationship between income and the median number of calls. Total conversation time, however, was found to be highest for the $15,000 to $19,999 group. Since billing is related to total conversation time, Brandon's results suggest that income's relation to the choice of rate may be less clear than previously suggested. Economic theory suggests that price should exert a negative influence on the quantity of calls demanded. There was not sufficient variation in the price variables to include them in the model, although the expected bill in a sense represents the price of each option. Economic theory also says that the quantity demanded is related to the prices of substitutes. The price of substitute calls is lower for some customers than for others. Some customers may easily make calls from their worksites, while other customers may find this alternative to residential calling difficult or impossible. Customers working in office surroundings, such as professors, secretaries, and business people may be able to originate personal calls from the worksite, and thus avoid payment. These customers may easily shift the origin of some of their residential local calls to the worksite. Other customers not employed in office oriented occupations such

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40 as factory workers and manual laborers do not have the option of shifting some calls to the worksite. These workers must rely more heavily on the household for their local calling needs. Thus, those customers working in and around offices will find it easier to avoid large bills by switching to measured options without sacrificing calls, because many calls can be made from the office. Other things equal, the number of people in a household should exert a positive effect on the quantity of calls, thereby increasing the probability of the selection of the flat rate. This relationship is suggested by Mahan (1979), and also noted by Brandon (1981), who finds that the age and sex distribution of individuals within a household has an important effect on the calling rate. Specifically, Brandon noted that the largest positive influence on the calling rate could be attributed to the presence of young teenage girls. Calling rates tended to be higher for households with teenagers of either sex present. Brandon (1981) has also found lower calling rates for two age groups of the head of the household: 55 to 64, and 65 or over. Mahan' s (1979) study indicates that these age groups are more likely to have a telephone. The results of these studies suggest that more elderly households possess telephones, but use them less frequently. Perl's hypothesis that increased age implies decreased mobility and increased dependence on telephone access seems supported

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41 by these results. Given these two tendencies it then seems logical that the increased age of the head of the household should increase the probability of measured service being selected. Brandon's study also indicated that black households tend to have much higher calling rates than whites. This suggests that blacks will be more likely to purchase the flat rate option than whites, other variables equal. Many other variables may be used to estimate the flat versus measured choice. There are various measures of neighborhood tenure which may exert a positive effect on the calling rate. The numbers of years that a household has remained in a neighborhood probably increases the quantity of calls and the probability of choosing the flat rate. Home ownership may indicate how long a household intends to remain in a neighborhood. Households intending to remain in neighborhoods for long periods of time have vested interests in making contacts, and generally learning the neighborhood. This variable may also exert a positive influence on the calling rate. Other variables — like employment category, educational level of the head of household and many others — have been used with varying success in other models. The second decision for those households initially choosing measured is whether to choose the low-use measured option, or the standard-use measured option. The variables discussed previously should be important in determining

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42 these selection probabilities as well. Variables indicative of high calling rates will exert positive effects on the probability of selection of the standard-use measured option. Variables indicative of low calling rates will positively influence the selection of the lowuse option. In summary, no individual class of service choice model has been estimated prior to this study. There are no previous empirical or theoretical works upon which hypotheses about variables may be based. Economic theory has little to say about which variables affect a multi-part price choice. However, the connection through the demand for calls provides a basis for evaluating the impact of various variables on the choice of class of service. One of the purposes of this study is to explore the relations between key variables and selection probabilities.

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43 Notes For the consumer surplus measure to be finite and less than income, and in order to make the decisions consistent with a utility maximizing framework, some very strict conditions are necessary. First, if the quantity of calls is measured on the horizontal axis, the indifference curves need to be vertically parallel. This assumption implies that the quantity of calls is unaffected by changes in income. Studies by Dobell et al. (1970), NYT (1976), and SNET (1977) have found small but non-zero income elasticities. The indifference curves must also cross the vertical axis. In this case, the consumer surplus and the compensating variation measures are equivalent. 2 When the marginal price is zero for additional calls, there is still a time cost. The time related cost component of the price of a call may result for several reasons. It may partially be due to opportunity cost factors related to foregone earnings or foregone household consumption. This interpretation is somewhat tempered by the fact that possibly several individuals in the household have access to the telephone, and some customers, like children, may have to forego little in order to use the telephone. This component may also refer to the excludability of telephone use. If one individual is using the telephone, no others may use the phone. In addition, no incoming calls may be received. All of these factors relate cost to length of call. 3 In this notation, Pr[R(R,A)] means the probability that a red bus is chosen from a set consisting of a red bus and an automobile. 4 McFadden has informed my chairman. Professor Maddala, that he was unable to prove that o is the correlation. By numerical methods he did find the relation, o<_p

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS In this chapter the empirical results are presented along with some discussion of their interpretation. In Table 1 the results of the estimation of the nested logit model are presented. In Table 2 the net impacts of variables on the flat versus measured decision are given. This table is necessary because a variable may influence the flat versus measured choice directly, or through the inclusive value. Exactly how this occurs will be demonstrated in a later section. Tables 3 and 4 present the results of estimating 2-choice and 3-choice logit models respectively. They are presented for comparison with the results of the nested logit estimation in Table 1. Finally, Table 5 gives a summary of selected elasticities based on parameter estimates given in Tables 1, 3 and 4. The results will now be discussed in some detail. The Low-Use Versus Standard-Use Choice The estimated coefficients in the low-use measured versus standard-use measured decision are presented in column one of Table 1. The logarithm of the odds of choosing low-use measured over standard-use measured may be 44

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45 TABLE 1 RESULTS OF THE NESTED LOGIT ESTIMATION VARIABLE Estimated bill (lowstandard in equation 1 and flat-standard in equation 2) Intercept EQUATION LOW-USE VS. FLAT VS. STANDARD USE MEASURED -0.822 -0.006 (0. 242)* (0.012) [0.012]** 0.078 -2.286 (0.758) (0.683) [0. 799] 0.201 (0.050) [0. 067] Number of years in present 0.18 5 home (0.058) Number of telephones 0.880 (0.217) [0.220] Estimated average -0.058 0.032 lenth of call (0.045) (0.036) [0. 042] Dummy variable =1 -0.818 if person feels he/she (0.326) is low caller [0.364] Dummy variable =1 -0.395 if some social activity (0.397) by household member Age of household head 0.133 0.056 (0.092) (0.085) [0. 112] Dummy variable = 1 0.067 if person is professional (0.379) or technical worker [0.472] Dummy variable = 1 0.202 0.624 if person is manager, (0.467) (0.421) official, or proprietor [0.587] Dummy variable = 1 0.897 0.049 if person is sales or (0.574) (0.491) clerical worker [0.698] Continued

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46 TABLE 1 CONTINUED EQUATION VARIABLE LOW-USE VS. STANDARD USE FLAT VS. MEASURED Dummy variable = 1 if person is craft worker or foreman Dummy variable = 1 if person is semiskilled worker Dummy variable = 1 if person is service worker Income category Interaction (high educational level x low local calls) Inclusive value 1. 442 (0.618) -2.211 (0.923) -1.338 (0. 719) -0.042 (0. 017) 0.881 (0.380) 0. 869 (0. 525) [0.613] 1.147 (0. 942) [0.955] -0.932 (0. 645) [0. 693] -0.022 (0.013) [0. 016] -0. 570 (0.280) [0.413] log likelihood 106.315 131.995 Figures in parentheses are standard errors. **Figures in brackets are the adjusted standard errors. For discussion refer to note 1.

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47 TABLE 2 NET IMPACT OF VARIABLES ON THE FLAT VS. MEASURED CHOICE ADJUSTED VARIABLE COEFFICIENT Intercept -2.322 Number of years in present home 0.117 Number of telephones 0.880 Estimated average length of call 0.058 Dummy variable = 1 if person -0.818 feels he/she is low caller Dummy variable = 1 if some social 0.180 activity by household member Age of household head -0.004 Dummy variable = 1 if person is 0.067 professional or technical worker Dummy variable = 1 if person is 0.532 manager, official, or proprietor Dummy variable = 1 if person is -0.360 sales or clerical worker Dummy variable = 1 if person is 0.211 craft worker or foreman Dummy variable = 1 if person is 2.155 semi-skilled worker D\immy variable = 1 if person is -0.322 service worker Income category -0.002 Interaction (high educational -0.402 level X low local calls)

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48 TABLE 3 RESULTS OF THE 2-CHOICE LOGIT ESTIMATION (a=l) VARIABLE FLAT VS. MEASURED Estimated bill -0.022* (0. 012) Intercept -2.462 (0. 681) Number of years in present home 0.134 (0.039) Number of telephones 0.837 (0. 216) Estimated average length of call 0.037 (0. 033) Dummy variable = 1 if person -1.000 feels he/she is low caller (0.297) Age of household head 0.002 (0. 079) Dummy variable = 1 if person is 0.051 professional or technical worker (0.376) Dummy variable = 1 if person is 0.364 manager, official, or proprietor (0.396) Dummy variable = 1 if person is -0.491 sales or clerical worker (0.411) Dummy variable = 1 if person is 1.460 craft worker or foreman (0.458) Dummy variable = 1 if person is 0.949 semi-skilled worker (0.971) Dummy variable = 1 if person is -0.695 service worker (0.641) Continued

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49 TABLE 3 CONTINUED VARIABLE FLAT VS. MEASURED Income category -0.010 (0. 012) log likelihood 132.007 Figures in parentheses are standard errors.

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50 TABLE 4 RESULTS OF THE 3-CHOICE LOGIT ESTIMATION (a=0) EQUATION VARIABLE LOWUSE VS. FLAT VS. STANDARD USE STANDARD USE Estimated bill Intercept Number of years in present home Number of telephones Estimated average length of call Dimuny variable = 1 if person feels he/she is low caller Dummy variable = 1 if some social activity by household member 0.002 (0.013) 1.462 (0.742) -0.065 (0.043) -0.787 (0.208) -0.119 (0.036) 1.485 (0.315) 0. 046 (0. 082) 0.002 (0.013) 2.699 (0. 812) -0.238 (0.052) -0.851 (0.261) -0.031 (0.038) 0.659 (0. 367) -0. 040 (0.091) Age of household head Dummy variable = 1 if person is professional or technical worker -0. 025 (0. 381) -0.193 (0.414) 0.239 (0.424) -0. 501 (0.476) Dummy variable = 1 if person is manager, official, or proprietor Dummy variable = 1 if person is sales or clerical worker 0. 796 (0.466) -1. 986 (0.719) 0. 000 (0.465) -0. 884 (0.495) log likelihood 307.976 Figures in parentheses are standard errors.

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51 TABLE 5 SELECTED ELASTICITY ESTIMATES CALCULATED AT THE MEANS VARIABLE NMNL ESTIMATION METHOD 2-CHOICE MNL 3-CHOICE MNL Estimated bill -0.021 -0.035 Number of years in 0.098 0.113 present home Number of telephones 0.226 0.215 Dummy variable = 1 -0.071 -0.087 if person feels he/she is low caller Income category -0.007 -0.034* 0. 003* 0.105 -0. 027 0.083 ** *These elasticities were calculated using coefficients whose t-ratios were less than one in absolute value. **No coefficient for income category was estimated using 3-choice logit analysis due to the inability of the maximum likelihood estimation technique to converge for a large number of parameters.

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52 interpreted as a linear function of these variables. A positive sign on a coefficient indicates that an increase in the corresponding variable will lead to an increase in the likelihood that the customer subscribes to the low-use option. A negative sign on a coefficient implies the opposite. Each variable will be discussed in turn. The first estimated coefficient is that of the estimated bill. The estimated bill was determined by using the customer's perceptions of his average number of calls per day, and his average call length. These numbers were then used to construct an approximate bill under each of the three pricing schemes. The estimated bill was used to represent customer perceptions of each option, or the relative attractiveness of each option to a customer. In a sense the idea of using the customer's perceived calling patterns rather than actual calling patterns may make this variable a more useful measure. Several studies have found that customers do not tend to be very accurate in their estimation of their calling frequency. Most customers tend to overestimate their telephone usage. However, as far as selecting a pricing structure, the perceived amount of calling rather than the actual seems to be the appropriate measure. As a consequence of normalizations required by the estimation, the variable is actually the difference between the customer's perceived bill under the low-use measured option, and the perceived bill under the standard-use

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53 measured option. Due to some special problems the estimation of this coefficient creates, it will be discussed in a later section of this chapter. The next variable to be discussed is the number of years in the present home. This variable has a positive impact on the probability of the low-use measured option being selected. Although the connection between calling rates and numbers of years in present home was established in the previous chapter, the positive sign of this coefficient may not be a contradiction. For only those customers choosing measured options, an increase in the number of years in the home may lead to diminished calling rates, and thus increase the probability of the selection of the lowuse option. Those customers selecting measured options typically generate lower calling volumes than customers choosing the flat rate option. Those customers have fewer people in the household, fewer telephones, and are generally employed in occupations which permit substitution for local telephone service. In this group an increase in the number of years in the present home may lead to fewer individuals in the household, and eventually, lower calling rates. Thus, for those households choosing measured options, an increase in the number of years in the home may decrease calling rates, and increase the probability of the selection of the low-use measured option. The estimated average length of a phone call seems to provide useful information about the selection of

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' 54 class of service. As is to be expected, those individuals who believe that their calls are long are less likely to choose the low-use measured option. The estimated length of call provides some information as to an individual's perception of himself as a caller. The next variable to be discussed is a dummy variable which has the value one if a member of the household is engaged in some social activity. As anticipated, this social activity may lead to increased telephone usage, and a decreased probability of choosing the low-use option. This expectation seems realized since the estimated coefficient has a negative sign. The next variable is the age of the head of the household. Increases in this variable are seen to have the effect of increasing the probability of the low-use option being chosen. For many of the same reasons that were discussed under the effects of the number of years in the present home, the increased age should lead to decreased calls, and an increased probability of the low-use option being selected. Before proceeding to the next six variables, a preface may be useful. The next six variables to be discussed are all dummy variables for various employment categories. At first glance their inclusion in a class of service choice model may not seem justified. This is not the case, however, because economic theory suggests that the demand

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55 function for a commodity depends on the price of substitutes, among other things. This may be the case with the demand for local telephone calls. Various occupations, specifically office-type jobs, provide much greater possibilities for substituting local calls that normally would be made in the household. Individuals in occupational categories enjoying the option of free local telephone service may exercise this option, and subsequently reduce the number of local calls originating in the household. This implies that individuals in occupations with business telephones may be more likely to choose a measured option. Individuals in occupations without access to business telephone service may be expected to lean toward a flat rate service, other factors being held equal. This substitution just described certainly occurs now in the market for long distance calls, which are frequently made from the office. The evidence about to be presented suggests \ that to a degree the same phenomenon occurs in the market for local calls. The first variable to be discussed from the set of occupational dummies takes on the value one if the person is a manager, an official, or a proprietor. As suggested previously, these individuals may be able to make considerable local calls from their work sites, and thus need not call from the home. Such a circumstance permits subscription to the relatively inexpensive low-use measured option. This is indicated by the positive sign or the estimated coefficient of this variable.

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56 The next occupational dummy has the value one if the individual is a sales or clerical worker, Once again due to the possibilities for substitution at work, these individuals are more likely to subscribe to the low-use measured option. The positive sign on the estimated coefficient reflects the anticipated effect. The next dummy variable has the value one if the individual is a craft worker or foreman. At first glance this coefficient should have a negative sign; however, some occupations in this category are more office oriented than others, and the actual mix of occupations is unknown. The possibility that the office oriented occupations occurred with greater frequency could account for this result. The next occupational dtimmy is that of semi-skilled workers. This group is not office oriented, and one would not anticipate that this group had substantial substitution possibilities. This expectation is reflected in the negative sign of the estimated coefficient. The final occupational dummy variable is for the service worker category. This group also is not generally office oriented, and must thus place the local calls from the household. The estimated negative sign of the coefficient of this variable suggests that this is indeed the case. The negative sign of the estimated coefficient of the income category variables indicates that increases in

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57 income decrease the probability of the low-use measured option being selected. Once again, due to the optional nature of the experiment, measured service was selected if it was less expensive. The lowuse measured option has the potential to be the least expensive choice of the three rates, so it is not surprising that increases in income diminish its selection probability. The final variable included in the equation is an interaction variable which includes those individuals who are highly educated low callers. These individuals may have the easiest time understanding measured service, and measured service may afford them more benefits than moderate or heavy callers. The result that membership in this group greatly increases the probability of the lowuse measured option being selected is not surprising. The Flat Versus Measured Choice The estimated coefficients in the flat versus measured decision are presented in column two of Table 1. In Table 2 the adjusted coefficients are given. These adjustments account for the fact that a change in a variable in the first stage, or the low-use versus standard-use decision, wi affect the selection probabilities in the second stage, or flat versus measured decision. The logarithm of the odds of choosing flat over measured is a linear function of the variables in Table 2.

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58 The following discussion will show how the influence of characteristics may occur through the inclusive value. As was indicated in Chapter III, the probability of selecting the flat rate in stage two is given by exp[V^ (l-a)I] Pr(Flat rate) = explV^(1-a) I] + 1 where I = log (exp[V2j_J + exp[V22])The odds in favor of choosing the flat rate are then Pr(Flat rate) r.. „^t-, l-Pr(Flat rate) = ^^1 d"^)^!' The natural logarithm of the odds is thus logn (odds) = V^^ (l-a)I. The above expression may be differentiated with respect to the characteristics Z to yield 3^21 ^^22 , ^^Pf^2l]3Z— + ^^Pf^22^9Z— 91ogn (odds) ^ 1 j 2_ 9Z. exp[V2^] + exp[V22l but ^22 = 0 due to a normalization necessary in order to identify the parameters. Thus, the above can be written 9 logn (odds ) ^^1 ^^21 „ ,^ 12 ~ "92" ~ "9Z — (Pr (Low-use measured | Measured) ) j j j

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59 where represents the estimated coefficient of some characteristic in the flat versus measured column of Table 1, teristiC/ if one exists, presented in the low-use versus standard-use column of Table 1. The results of these calculations are given in Table 2. With this knowledge the impacts of the explanatory variables can be discussed. The first variable is the difference between the bill under the flat rate option and the standard-use measured option. This coefficient will be discussed in a later section of this chapter. The next variable to be examined is the number of years in the present home. The coefficient of this variable is significant, and adjusted coefficient indicates a positive effect on the likelihood of choosing the flat rate, which is the expected direction of influence. The longer a family remains in one location, the more interaction occurs between the family and the neighborhood. This interaction is both social and business related. Households remaining in areas longer have more people to call, and thus for those households a greater advantage results from subscribing to the flat rate. The number of telephones in a household seems to exert a significant positive influence on the probability of the and 21 is the estimated coefficient of the same characZ 3

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60 flat rate being chosen. This direction of impact seems correct, and may be substantiated by either of two arguments, both of which suggest that larger numbers of telephones are related to larger numbers of calls. Originally, all customers participating in the study were subscribing to flat rate service. Consider a customer's decision to purchase a second telephone. The cost of making a telephone call must include some valuation of the individual's time to get to the telephone, though the marginal price of a telephone call is zero under the flat rate pricing scheme. The cost of answering the telephone should also include this time cost. An increase in the number of telephones will decrease the time spent traveling to the telephone. If this time saving is valued more than the price of an additional telephone, the customer is better off with additional telephones. The cost of not having additional phones is directly related to telephone usage, since more trips are required. Thus, customers with several telephones must on average be more frequent users of the telephone than customers with fewer telephones. The direction of the effect may also be defended on the grounds of privacy. Individuals may desire separate lines for reasons of confidentiality. These individuals perhaps move in different social circles, and thus the n;amber of potential calls is greatly multiplied. The average length of a call estimated by the subscriber has a significant positive effect on the probability of choosing the flat rate. One might suspect that

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61 those individuals who believe their average call length is large are heavy callers. This plausible hypothesis is substantiated by the empirical results. The next variable is a dummy variable which equals one if the customer feels he is a low caller. The coefficient of this dummy variable is negative and significant. This is precisely to be expected since low callers may benefit from choosing one of the measured options instead of the flat rate. The next variable included via the inclusive value is a dummy variable which equals one if some household member is involved in some social activity such as club membership or church groups. Engaging in social activities probably increases telephone use. Increased telephone usage should lead to an increased likelihood of choosing the flat rate. This suggestion is borne out by the positive sign of the adjusted coefficient for this variable. The next variable to be examined is the age of the household head. The estimated coefficient is positive, but not significant, and the adjusted coefficient is negative. The direction of impact of this variable cannot be ascertained. As age increases, more social contacts are made thereby suggesting they should make more calls increasing the probability of choosing the flat rate. However, as previously suggested, the work of Brandon and Mahan indicates that the elderly make fewer calls, which thus

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62 increases the probability of their choosing a measured option. The results of the analysis of the Jupiter data are inconclusive. The first coefficient estimated for the group of employment dummies is that for the "professional or technical worker group." Included in this category are occupations like engineer, scientist, doctor, teacher, and clergy. These occupations are office oriented, and thus one might expect the estimated coefficient to be negative. It is positive, although not significant, as is the adjusted coefficient. It is not possible to determine the frequencies with which various occupations are present in the group. The possibilities for substituting local calls is not the same for all occupations within a group, and the results could have been influenced by a disproportionate representation of some occupation with relatively little office substitution possibilities. Another possible explanation of this employment group result may lie in the fact that the opportunity cost of calling from the office may be very large for some occupations. For example, lawyers and doctors certainly have telephones available for use during their workdays, but the cost of their use in terms of foregone earnings may be too large. This certainly does not preclude the use of secretaries by doctors and lawyers for some local calls, however some calls may be of a type that must be made by the doctor or lawyer — calling one's spouse, for example. The

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63 composition of the employment category and the foregone earnings may account for the estimated coefficient. The next occupational dummy variable is for the "manager, official, or proprietor" group. Included in this category are occupations like executives, store managers, farm owner or manager, postmaster, and other supervisory personnel. The positive sign for this coefficient is unexpected, but this category may include many self-employed people whose residential and commercial telephone use may be combined to a degree. This could account for the fact that workers in this category had a greater tendency to select the flat rate. The next category to be examined is that of "sales or clerical workers." Included in this category are secretaries, bookkeepers, bank tellers, cashiers, postal workers, telephone operators, and sales people. One might expect that this group has some possibility for siabstituting local calls at the worksite. This tendency is reflected in the negative adjusted coefficient for this variable. The next coefficient estimated for the group of employment dummies is that of the "craft worker or foreman" group. Included in this employment group are carpenters, plumbers, engravers, line installers and repairers, radio and TV repairers, mechanics, bakers, upholsterers, and other similar occupations. Most of the occupations listed above are not office oriented, and thus do not present possibilities for the substitution of local calls. The fact that the

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64 bulk of local calls must originate in the household is reflected in the positive sign of the adjusted coefficient of the "craft worker or foreman" employment dummy. The next employment category is the "semi-skilled worker" group. Occupations like deliveryman, brakeman, factory worker, welder, parking attendant, textile weaver, mineworker, and others are included in this group. These occupations are also in general not office oriented, and thus customers in these occupations may have larger home calling burdens. These large home calling burdens should be reflected by an increased probability of choosing the flat rate. This hypothesis is again substantiated by the positive sign of the adjusted coefficient of this income group. The final employment dummy used is for individuals in the "service-worker" category. Included in this group are barbers, police officers, practical nurses, airline flight attendants, janitors, cooks, housekeepers, and others. The adjusted coefficient of this variable is negative. The negative sign may be justified because many of these occupations provide opportunities for free local telephone use. Those individuals using business phones for personal calls may be able to save by choosing one of the measured options. The next coefficient is that of income category. The estimated coefficient is negative, and so is the adjusted coefficient. It seems that over the range of incomes in the sample, increase in income primarily affect

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65 measured users. Additional income causes these individuals to switch from low-use measured to standard-use measured. The flat versus measured choice is unaffected, and this is reflected in the very low adjusted coefficient. Another variable which has an effect through the inclusive value is a dummy interaction variable. This variable is the product of high educational level and low local calls. Membership in this group should predispose one toward either of the measured options. This is equivalent to saying that membership in the group should decrease the probability of the flat rate being selected. This is again evident in the negative sign of the adjusted coefficient estimate. The final coefficient estimated is that of the inclusive value. The value of the estimated coefficient, -0.570 corresponds to a value of a equal to 0.430, which approximately measures the correlation between the two measured options. This value provides much useful information. First, the fact that the value lies in the unit interval indicates that the nested model estimated is consistent with random utility maximization, and thus firmly theoretically based. Second, the fact that the correlation is large indicates that customers are not easily discriminating the two measured options, and that customers view the options as being very similar. The inability of the customers to distinguish the measured options can be explained in several ways. The measured

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66 options may not have been successfully marketed or sold to the public, due to insufficient effort by the marketing department of the telephone company, or it may be simply that the public finds measured service a difficult subject to comprehend. The impact of the marketing of measured service or its acceptance rate may not be as large as the effect of the expense of the flat rate. In the data analyzed herein the flat rate remained at its previous, relatively low, level. Thus, the cost of not understanding measured service, or the flat rate price, was really not very great. It seems logical that when the flat rate is increased, the cost of not understanding measured service will increase, and customers will begin to seriously examine the measured options. After the flat rate is increased, the price incentive to investigate measured service will have been established. The perceived similarity of the measured options should diminish under the condition of increasing flat rates. The Effect of Increasing the Flat Rate It is Southern Bell's intention to increase the flat rate when measured service is implemented for general residential use. In this section some predictions based on the results in the first two sections will be made concerning the impact of this increase or the subscription or "take rate" of flat rate pricing. Following this discussion an analysis of customer decisions based on the break points will be presented.

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67 The coefficient of the estimated bill is critical in determining what effect an increase in the flat rate will have on the number of customers choosing an option. As was noted in Chapter III, there is a single estimated coefficient for each attribute, thus there should be a single estimate of the coefficient of the estimated bill. This is not the case. The nested logit procedure yields multiple estimates of the coefficients of attributes. The "estimated bill" coefficient in the first stage, or B^, was -0. 822. The second stage estimate was = -0.006. These estimates must be resolved if the model is to used for prediction. Three possible solutions to the problem of multiple estimates will be discussed. First, the model could be jointly estimated by full information maximum likelihood, or FIML, which would yield single estimates for the coefficients of attributes. Although a statistically superior solution, FIML requires more sophisticated programming procedures since the estimation cannot be achieved by repeated use of MNL techniques. A single estimate for the "estimated bill" coefficient may also be obtained from 3-choice logit estimation. However, as Table 4 indicates, the coefficient is not significant and has the wrong sign. The 3-choice model implicitly assumes that all choices are independent which clearly is not the case in the class of service choice problem.

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68 The final solution, and the one employed in this dissertation, is to combine the two estimates and 62 into a single estimate B by finding the variance-minimizing linear combination of B-^ and ^ linear combination is chosen so that the estimator B will be consistent. Thus, the task is to choose a new estimate 3/ so that, B = XB^L + (1-X) B2. The variance of B is then var(B) = A^a^ + (1-X)^a2 + 2X{l-\)o^2 2 2 where is the variance of B-^^, is the variance of B2/ and a^2 is covariance between B-j^ and 32* Minimization of the 2 2 expression leads to a solution for A. in terms of a^, and 0^2' Application of this procedure implies that B = -0.013. In order to assess the impact of increases in the flat rate one must examine the derivative of the probability of choosing the flat rate with respect to the price of the flat rate. Previously in Chapter III the following was shown 9P. ^ = BP. (1-P. ) 9X^ ij^" ij

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69 If the above expression is evaluated with P = .85 to reflect the probability of selecting the flat rate from the entire 3P . sample, j^-^ = -0.002. This result indicates that, at i least for some range around the current flat rate price, changes in the flat rate have a negligible effect on the number of subscribers. Further evidence of this lack of sensitivity of the "take rate" to price of flat service is found in Figure 3. This graph illustrates bill-minimizing behavior in terms of number of calls where each call is of length three minutes. Survey results obtained by Peter Merrill Asssociates, Inc. indicates that the average number of monthly calls by households subscribing to the flat rate is in the vicinity of 175 calls per month. As Figure 3 illustrates, at this number of calls the flat rate would have to increase nearly 100% to make its price comparable to the bill under either of the measured options. Thus, it seems clear that increases in the flat rate would have to be very large to affect behavior at the typical 175 call level. Of course it is also possible that customers might elect to switch to measured service and "repress" or cut down their usage in order to avoid large bills under the flat rate pricing scheme. As Figure 3 suggests, the current flat rate expenditure on either measured option would only purchase about 75 calls each month, less than half the number of calls usually made

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Figure 3. Bill as a Function of the Number of 3 -Minute Calls.

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71 by flat rate subscribers. This represents a great compromise in the number of local calls made each month. The truth may lie somewhere between these scenarios. The empirical results suggest that the flat "take rate" will not be influenced by price increases of a moderate type. Increases of 50% in flat rate price, normally a large increase, probably will not affect the "take rate." The empirical results and the analysis of the bill-minimizing customer behavior both suggest that this insensitivity is the case. Selected Elasticity Estimates Table 5 gives some selected elasticities calculated at the means of the variables. These elasticities reflect the impact a 1% change in each variable would have on the proportion of customers subscribing to the flat rate option. The table is based primarily on variables that were of special importance or highly significant. These results suggest that the number of telephones in the household greatly increases the flat rate subscription. It is also apparent that the length of time one spends in a neighborhood increases the probability of choosing flat rate. Thus, one might expect flat rate subscription to be high in older neighborhoods. Another obvious result is the striking similarity between the elasticities estimated by NMNL and the 2-choice logit method. This is consistent with the presumption that the measured options are similar, and could

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72 be pooled into a single measured category with little loss of information. Uncontrolled Influences There are some factors which influence the class of service choice that could not be accounted for in this analysis due to data deficiencies. It is useful, however, to discuss these influences and speculate as to how they affect the choice of service class. One factor that cannot be controlled is risk averse behavior on the part of customers. One trait of the bill under flat rate pricing is consistency. The bills do not change. Under measured service the bill certainly will vary from month to month. Some customers will be willing to pay a premium to avoid this uncertainty. For those risk averse individuals, increases in the flat rate will have to be even more substantial to cause a shift to a measured option. Another factor that could not be controlled due to the lack of data is the customer's location within the calling area. Local calls in the Jupiter experiment were also differentiated by distance. There were two tiers around the Jupiter calling areas, and calls placed to the farther tier were more expensive. One might expect that most calls placed by a customer are to the surrounding neighborhood. If this is the case then those individuals living near the tier borders will have to make a large number of calls to other tiers, since their neighborhood emcompasses the other

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73 tiers. Thus, these border dwelling customers will find measured service more expensive since calling across the street could be calling another tier. Those individuals who are located centrally in the Jupiter exchange may not have this problem, and for this reason may be more disposed toward measured service. Data were not available to determine where in the Jupiter area each customer lived. Certainly, this issue is important for any pricing policy. Another frequent criticism of class of service choice models is that calling patterns differ greatly from month to month, and the danger of observing these patterns for too short a time period may make the relation between calls and rate choice less precise. This problem may have been side-stepped in this study. The actual calling patterns of the customers were not used, and the choice was modeled in terms of the perceived calling patterns. If the perceived calling patterns are independent of the rate choice, and it seems they should be, this problem has been avoided. One final difficulty occurs with the fact that measured service is now optional. Since some customers will have measured service, while others will not, it will be in the interest of the measured customers to always be called by their friends who subscribe to the flat rate. One can envision signalling procedures among these local callers not unlike those procedures currently used by college students for toll calls. Households on measured service could signal their friends who subscribe to flat service by ringing their

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74 telephones a specified nxoinber of times, after which the flat rate subscriber would place the call. The extent to which this could occur in the local market is difficult to ascertain, but it will somewhat lessen calling revenues since some measured calls will now be priced under a flat rate scheme at a marginal price of zero. These represent some of the data deficiencies of this study. The effects of these variables on balance seems to be to reinforce the previous findings that the flat rate would have to be increased substantially if its "take rate" were to be expected to fall.

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75 Note The correction of the covariances in the second stage is given by Amemiya (1978) If 1^ denotes the estimated variance-covariance matrix in the second stage, Y.^ denotes the variance-covariance matrix in stage one, and '^2\ ^s^^^es the covariance matrix between the first and second stage estimates, the adjusted variance-covariance matrix of stage two or Z* is thus. ^2 ^2 ^2 ^21 ^1 ^12 2

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS The Attractiveness of LMS The implementation of measured service at some time in the near future is certain. There are several reasons why measured service looks like the trend of the future in the pricing of local telephone calls. There have been regulatory changes occurring in the telecommunications industry. Competition has been allowed in the toll market, reducing revenues from which local service had previously been subsidized. The loss or reduction of market power in the toll and terminal equipment markets will lessen subsidies available for local service. Local service could be salvaged by simply increasing the flat rate, but this would price some customers out of the market for a telephone. Since universal service at reasonable prices is one of the goals of the telephone industry, this solution is not satisfactory. LMS could be used, in the absence of subsidies from the toll and terminal equipment markets to provide low cost local telephone service. By offering low access charges, LMS still provides service at a low connection fee, thereby still permitting the attainment of a universal service goal. 76

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77 By charging separately for usage, LMS will bring customers' bills more in line with their calling costs. Customers who make excessive numbers of local calls would, under LMS, have large bills. Infrequent callers would have low monthly bills. This would eliminate the subsidy from low callers to high callers which occurs under a flat-rate pricing scheme. LMS could solve the revenue problem caused by the subsidy loss without making telephone service too expensive for some to afford. Another problem connected to the above occurs because the telephone industry is subject to rate of return regulation. It has been shown by Averch and Johnson (1962) that this constraint leads to overcapitalization. This capital has accumulated due to the subsidies available for local service. There are also peaks in telephone usage over time. LMS will permit revenues to be generated for capital if it is necessary. Those customers requiring additional capital will be paying for it. Rising energy prices have made the telephone more prominent in household search activities. This has led to increased telephone traffic, but under flat rate pricing no additional revenues are generated. LMS would cause additional traffic to generate additional revenues. Increased urbanization has also increased the demand for local calls, with no increase in revenues under a flat rate pricing scheme. LMS provides a solution.

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78 LMS has now become practical because the costs of monitoring a line have dropped to only $5 per line per year. Increased technology has made LMS a possibility that can be explored. Ilurphy (1977) gives a different view of the implementation of LMS options. He argues that the provision of LMS options is actually a form of price discrimination. It is well known that a monopolist could perfectly price discriminate if enough information on individual demands was available and arbitrage was expensive. In the case of local telephone service, arbitrage would be relatively expensive, and the collection of information on individual demands would be very costly. The provision of LMS options then provides an explicit metering system for local calls. The consumers essentially identify themselves. This metering system also provides a hedge against shift in the demand for local calls in the future. Proper selection of these LMS options would permit a discriminating monopolist to increase profits without gathering data on individual demands. Thus, LMS options may well enhance the profitability of the telephone company. Major Findings LMS will soon become a reality, but there has been no previous empirical research on the implementation of LMS options. The following section provides a summary of the findings of this dissertation.

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79 This research provided some insight into what customer groups preferred measured service. One of the strongest empirical results was that LMS appealed to well-educated low callers. Due to the pricing schedules presented in the measured options, low callers nearly always chose LMS because they could reduce their bills. The well-educated group is composed of individuals who are able to understand the more complex LMS price schemes. Because of the pricing options offered, only low callers switched to LMS in order to reduce their bills. Another finding of this study is the perceived similarity between the low-use measured option, and the standard use measured option. The approximate correlation coefficient between the two was .43. In light of the pricing schedules offered, this is really no surprise. Based on the number and duration of calls customers believed they made each month, the average bills for the Jupiter sample were as follows: low-use, $20.73; standard-use, $20.29; and flat rate, $10.65. The difference between the low-use and standard use bills was only 44 cents. In addition to not differing monetarily, the measured options were both new, and presented very similar pricing schemes. The similarity of the measured options was certainly enhanced by the low charge under the flat rate. If the flat rate were substantially increased, possibly 50%, customers would carefully examine LMS options in order to avoid large bills. This careful examination would lead to increased

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80 discrimination between the two measured options. Thus, the high similarity is probably only a manifestation of the experimental design. A tendency was also found for customers who have telephones available at their worksites to select measured service, and shift some calls to the worksite, thereby reducing their bills. This tendency is reflected in the estimated coefficients of some of the occupational category dummy variables. It is not possible to assess the amount of traffic that might be switched to businesses based on the results of this dissertation. The matter should be explored further. Mitchell and Park (1981) also note that substitution of local calls to businesses represents another possibility caused by offering optional measured service. Comments on the Experimental Design Finally, the experiment itself must be discussed. The experiment was poorly designed from the standpoint of gathering information about customers' responses to various price schedules. First of all, participation in the experiment was voluntary. Those individuals who did not care to find out about measured service simply did not participate. Secondly, there were only three pricing options offered, and one of those was the same flat rate to which all participants in the experiment had previously subscribed. The limited number of options offered did not allow the participants to react to a variety of different

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81 options. Elasticities could not be calculated. The pricing options were composed of three parts: The access charge, the call allowance, and the usage charge. These price parameters were not varied so customer responses to changes in them could not be determined. The flat rate was not increased in the experiment, so most customers had no incentive to thoroughly explore the LMS options. As noted in Chapter IV, if most customers maintained the calling habits under the flat rate, and then switched to LMS, their bills would more than double. Thus, only the low callers had an incentive to switch to LMS and participate in the experiment. Any attempt to increase the flat rate would simply be met by a large portion of the sample quitting the experiment. The voluntary participation makes it impossible to obtain any information by increasing the flat rate. There are a few suggestions for further empirical research on optional classes of measured service which are implied by the previous comments. The experiment would yield useful results if the pricing parameters involved, that is the access charge, the call allowance, and the usage charge all were varied. Participation in the experiment should be mandatory, but some incentive system, such as compensation could be paid to each participant based on their previous calling history. The pricing option then would consist of an access charge, a call allowance, a usage charge, and some monetary compensation. These compensations would differ from participant to participant, and the impact

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82 of the compensation could be netted out of the statistical analysis to yield customer responses to the three pricing parameters mentioned above. These results would indicate how various customer groups react to different combinations of access charge, call allowance, and usage charge, which is exactly the information desired.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Amemiya, T., (1978). "On a Two-step Estimation of a Multivariate Logit Model," Journal of Econometrics 8^: pp. 13-21. Artie, R. and Averous, C. (1973). "The Telephone System as a Public Good: Static and Dynamic Aspects," Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science 4^(Spring): pp. 89-100. Averch, H., and Johnson, L.L. (1962). "Behavior of the Firm Under Regulatory Constraint," American Economic Review, 15 (December 1962): pp. 1052-1069. Berndt, E.R., Hall, B.H., Hall, R.E., and Hausman, J.H., (1974) "Estimation and Inference in Non-linear Structural Models," Annals of Economic and Social Measurement _3' PP* 653-665. Brandon, B. (1981) The Effect of the Demographics of In dividual Households on Their Telephone Usage Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Company. Cosgrove, J.G., and Linhart, P.G. (1979). "Customer Choices Under Local Measured Telephone Service," Public Utili ties Fortnightly 104(5): August 30, 1979. Da Ganzo, C. (1980). Multinomial Probit New York: Academic Press. Dobell, A.R., Taylor, L.D., Waverman, L. Liu, T.H., and Copeland, M.D.G. (1970). Communications in Canada : A Statistical Summary study prepared for the Department of Communications, Ottawa, by the Institute for Policy Analysis, University of Toronto, September, 1970. Domencich, T.H., and McFadden, D. (1975). Urban Travel Demand, Amsterdam: North-Holland. Garfinkel, L. and Linhart, P.B. (1979). "The Transition to Local Measured Service," Public Utilities Fort nightly 104(4): August 16, 1979. 83

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84 (1980) "The Revenue Analysis of Local Meaured Telephone Service," Public Utilities Fortnightly 1^(8): October 9, 1980. Hausman, J. A., and Wise, D.A. (1978). "A Conditional Probit Model for Qualitative Choice: Discrete Decisions Recognizing Interdependence and Heterogeneous Preferences," Econometrica 46 ; 403-426. Infosino, W.J. (1977) "Optional Classes of Service: A Model to Estimate the Percent of Customers Who Choose Each Class," Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J., October 1977. (1979) "Class of Service Choice Among Residence Telephone Customers," Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N. J. July 1979. Layard, P.R.G., and Walters, A. A. (1978). Microeconomic Theory New York: McGraw-Hill. Maddala, G.S. (1977). Econometrics New York: McGraw-Hill. Maddala, G.S. (1982-forthcoming) Qualitative and Truncated Variable Models in Econometrics^ Cambridge University Press Mahan, G.P. (1979) The Demand for Residential Telephone Service, East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Public Utility Papers. McFadden, D. (1978). "Modeling the Choice of Residential Location," in A. Karlquist, L. Lundquist, F. Snikers, J. Weibull, Spatial Interaction Theory and Residential Location Amsterdam: North-Holland: pp. 75-96. McFadden, D. (1980) Qualitative Response Models: Handout, Econometric Society World Congress, Aix-en-Province, August 28, 1980. Mitchell, B.M. (1978) "Optimal Pricing of Local Telephone Service," American Economic Review 68 (September) : pp. 517-537. Mitchell, B.M. and Park, R.E. (1981). Repression Effects of Mandatory vs. Optional Local Measured Telephone Service The Rand Corporation, N-1636-NSF, March 1981; also forthcoming in H. Trebing (ed. ) New Challenges for the 198Qs East Lansing, Michigan: Institute of Public Utilities.

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85 Murphy, M.M. (1977). "Price Discrimination, Market Separation, and the Multi-part Tariff," Economic Inquiry 15 (October 1977): pp. 587-599. New York Telephone Company (1976) Testimony and exhibit of S.F. Cordo, Docket No. 27100, November 17. Perl, L.J. (1975) "Economic and Demographic Determinants of Telephone Availability," FCC Docket 20003, Bell Exhibit No. 21, April 15, 1975. Perl, L.J. (1978) "Economic and Demographic Determinants of Residential Demand for Basic Telephone Service," National Economic Research Associates, Inc., March 28, 1978. Rohlfs, J. (1974) "A Theory of Interdependent Demand of a Communications Service," Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science 5^(Spring) : pp. 16-37. Schmidt, L.W. (1979). "Local Measured Service: A Telephone Industry Perspective," in J. A. Baude (ed.). Perspectives on Local Measured Service Kansas City, Missouri: Telecommunications Industry Workshop Organizing Committee. Southern New England Telephone Company (1977) Curtailment testimony by J. Jeske, Connecticut Docket No. 77052-, June 2 7 Squire, L. (1973) "Some Aspects of Optimal Pricing for Telecommunications," Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science 4^ (Autumn ) : pp. 515-525. Taylor, L.D. (1980) Telecommunications Demand: A Survey and Critique Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Company. Tversky, A. (1972). "Elimination by Aspects: A Theory of Choice," Psychological Review 79 : pp. 281-299. Tversky, A., and Sattath, S. (1979). "Preference Trees," Psychological Review 86 ; pp. 542-573.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Steven Brent Caudill was born October 4, 19 54, in Portsmouth, Ohio, the first child of Donal Caudill and Nona Justine Stuitibo. He graduated from Marion-Franklin High School in Columbus, Ohio, in June, 19 72. He then attended Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio, and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics in June, 19 76. He received a Master of Arts degree in economics from the University of Florida in June, 1978. A doctoral degree is expected from the University of Florida in August, 1982. 86

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. G.S. Maddala, Chairman Graduate Research Professor of Economics RogirrT! Blair Professor of Economics Senford' V. Berg Associate Professo Economics

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Robert D. Emerson Associate Professor of Food and Resource Economics This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Economics in the College of Business Administration and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August 1982 Dean for Graduate Studies and Research