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A study of peer interaction and its effect upon cognitive development

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A study of peer interaction and its effect upon cognitive development
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Peer interaction and its effect upon cognitive development
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Rardin, Donald Roger, 1942-
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English
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viii, 59 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

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Child development ( jstor )
Cognition ( jstor )
Cognitive development ( jstor )
Correlation coefficients ( jstor )
Egocentrism ( jstor )
Friendship ( jstor )
Grade levels ( jstor )
Infants ( jstor )
Peer relations ( jstor )
Socialization ( jstor )
Cognition ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Social interaction ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis -- University of Florida.
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Bibliography: leaves 56-58.
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Manuscript copy.
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Vita.

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A STUDY OF PEER INTERACTION AND ITS EFFECT UPON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT














By
DONALD ROGER RARDIN














A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1970



















I~ .V : V , r s his apprecl at. o of tVie cadvlce ho tco hl : by the r~~e~of hs surprx ov ; c~1 : " , D. hipsrry A. Gnater, ire,














TABLE OF CO- TTiTS




ACKNOWLEDGEP1ENTSCo* * .** 0 .Bo* o�0 000 0 �0005 0 00000, 0 O 0 0 ii LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES. .. .0.... � 00 0 Bo.� o..B ��., 00,.,0 vi
A B S T RA\C T . o . . o�...+ � � .�* * *� +* * �* , , . *o* * B 000 0 o0 'i il CHAPTER

I, INTRODUCTION� 9 .��0.,00 �.+00 . B 0 . ..C C 0 1

Theory. 00 B 0 0 B 0 a B0 0a00 6 000 00000 000a0 B 0 1

Cognitive Prog r C.L; 0 BGa 00.0 B B 00 * 00 B a& 5 Stage of Cognitive Da 1op met ,*.+.000 7

Social hilieu as an Independent


Social D'velopmcnit. 000 1, O a* c e0 00 Bvvaveaa 10

Purpose of Study .. .0 . . . o 0 ,0 � 00. 0 14

Related Pesearh0 Co0Co o000.0000�000 15 II. METHOD * .*.00�.,*�..,��* 0.���...0.0.,., . 18
S coring 0 ��B.0 B B000.00 0 , 50 .00 .00 0 0 ..,. 2). III. RnESULTI.. 00�..0.000 000000 .00o00.�.00000 �0�0060 25 Hypothesis I� . 5 � oo � �.0oo0*o 33 Hypot h1 esi.3 I10oo0 o 0o0 B.000 000 0 C 0 6 �00 34. IV, D1SC'U.1:+3++ 000*0 OCDO C00 00 00 000 0 �0000000000000 35 V, SU4 , "- !*>Y o 00*&,s c 0 o e e s a v c 0 c. C 43


. ii











A ........ �... ................... .. .......... 45

................... . . . . . . . . ... 56
BT]I O~i P ......... . . . . . . . .............. 59














LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 KRUSKAL-WALLIS COMPARISONS OF POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION FOR ALL RANKINGS ACROSS
GRADE LEVEL .................................. 26

2 NEAN RANKS FOR EACH MEASURE AT EACH
GRADE LEVEL ............................. ..... 27

3 NEAN RANKS FOR EACH GRADE OF THE
SOCIALIZATION MEASURE ...................... 28

4 COMPARING GRADE LEVEL MEANS TO ADJACENT
GRADE LEVEL MEANS FOR EACH MEASURE ........ V.. 30

5 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR THE
THREE COGNITIVE EASURES ..................... 30

6 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS COMPARING
COGNITIVE MEASURES WITH GRADE IN SCHOOL ...... 31

7 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR RELATIONS
AMONG COGNITIVE MEASURES WITHIN GRADES ....... 32

8 KENDALL'S TAU WITHIN GRADE COEFFICIENTS
FOR POPULARITY RANKINGS AND THREE COGNITIVE
ASURES .............. 33













LIST OF FIGURES



Figure Page

1. A Schematic Diagram of the Cognitive
Mechanisms.. .. ........... . ....... ........ 4

2. Mean Ranks of the Three Cognitive Measures
for the Four Grades................... ..... 29





















C:> Ir; q .; w%9 ; ViT' Yo rj :-





on~~~1 measures 0of P:~u. #-', . �w C "k; O&'d;O!
Dcr 0 .i -a >,s 3",





2jc~~:co LY:pz:K 0211 ?',fyLK r




on ic~llcsof~ populuvalty tm n(4o'
dc c o~mentv , h 1(~ , o u:.e of io-,, 1 .. - C" 'de heop foor n f" ox. f .... "..o, b > ,'a.". , s'b bi){ - ... v Of" frie] dchip r ' ;:-:: r~ot , .A )>no g~xJa co wr a,


o1 'i getfJ1i 'p opos tX tO d2Y' rini ~ S th,_."' C;" .,,) studi' rphy: iC J.,Uz:.(. , ,' .. oone'J c rc{ c~o~iciy :L

ijtm: :ca;Dri1c, d . 3:'Al iS th'ii ,VCJ X.o 3. L,, " - ,~co


vi 11 '









is a causal force ht-prx o brl-h& 1.1out this qul)t.,t chmiZe in cojnition.
11%,io hyp-o'tr '- ..... S .:::: on ) - .,. s for IuI t Ions,

were examined. The i L. p'ptie~ r; i. that peer reltions develop in a nann:r p:iA)lei to the develpi-nt of physical concepts, This 1, Is u significantly supported in tLe present stt Both c~ognitwive an social skills proress frcom kirer t through tho third grade in a simtilarn~ro

The sccon1 hpot! , theft a child's cognitive development would bc di.c.ly vffecte1 by th1 quality of a child-Is peer rolatons, PopulAi4.:LJItIy .,i e use. 1o judge the quality of a cW.Ji v peer Plopio o oularit y was found to b,, -,o].o1y related3 to solm doe.J opint but its. rci tiol to phrc
Impllcation re- mr ] i.gn tht~oriz s of cognitive develop. ent, educ.rti o n - pv;3,c-IltYercn>: v ,re briefly discussed.














CHAPTE I

I fTHODUCTI Oi



FIny developmental theorists propose that cognitive processes are highly interrelated and interdcpendent. On the other hand, learning theorists generally propose processes which are con.paratlvely independent anrid propose tha.t relatedness is an exp,.iential function.

This study prim ,arily concerns the former position and in parJ culrr cognitive development as proposed by Jean Pir .et.

The pres nen rt ppr exam.ines structure chnge s which Piasret and other theor sts infer to tade p1pce, at abon seven years of age. PIP.-et proposes that peer intermction is a major factor influencing these cognitive ch-nges. Ee also proposes that the social development of the child progresses in a manner par.1,'lel to and. reflectire of cognitive development. The interrelation of

cognitive developson t, social deelopment, and. peer irt1action in the first four years o school is the focus of this study.





Tiere x re sevcral tc-r:s f:row: P 'et's wol'.








which are necessary for a clear understanding of his theory and these are described in the following paragraphs: Structure. The term structure refers to organizational properties of intelligence and Piaget's primary interest is in the qualitative genesis of intellectual structure. Content. This is the raw external behaviors from which structures are inferred. Piaget's use of content in his experiments has come to epitomize his work and consists of the study of systematic errors occurring in a setting which permits the child to display his natural cognitive orientation.

Function. By the term function Piaget refers to the biological substrate upon which intelligence is founded and it consists of organization and adaption. This biological substrate is a manner of interacting with the environment. This mode of interaction generates structures and never varies despite structures it creates. Its properties (organization and adaption) are referred to as functional invariants.

0 anization and Adption. All living organisms adapt and have ornanimv-i;i onal property es which allow this adaption. Adaption Is the outer aspect of functioning and always presupposes an underlying organization.

Adaptive behavior cannot proceed from an undifferentiated source. Thus, the adaptive processes furnish the material for the structures while it is the organizational process which builds them (Flavell, 1963). Adaption consists of








t.o proc c e oS s: s o.''




the organicr such th'at f"J *'r t enh nced. Ass:ind ......tioni is So ....ntiwc . . "i

consists of 1-YtvQJ!y Oha:2 1i)g c:i I i, of tl(. enlVII011ment so they beco io-_ into the struoovaie of tte ... oraflis12. AccorAtion on the, "4..i. hmr-, is similar to di ;crinln .tion and co i,-,.st of I c;.r , Asri -justInZ to the ele flt2 (l'la 1i! .963)� ,cuif, i of buUio. S c rotturc is do ve~oQ:mfnta!)y itvar .nt , hie the tlp' of stx-acturcs buil .. are Stage dependent a S nc, ,A i.t.... t e by the hierarchij~ jicanvithclmi~' i structnires. TMe development of a %>tcV' .. is d eribbed as ooinig into equilibrivu-o conist of P_ a" betcn a "i ".tion a ,loc ,o .on lrea real'sc (aoconmodation) cand me ,nfir'gfu! (aso r!Ilation) relation between subject and object is ..... . 3J. object refers to a par'ticular object, a ra atioxvi, a thougj1i or vhatcv.r is co-nitively aCted u!:on. This balance is a forCtionm: rc. tionship between nciv realism and autisn ("l ... J, 963),

1&gocenl.ri!,Z S While aC,;zCA atiO on and accom L.odation always occur thxo'ov-jout dcco:'2nt, the relation bt_ on th two varies� of priay in rtne, for t.& pre se nt paper is thei-r cyclical ye,tlnh] -V"'... ec. e e








of cognitive g'A. t. At bco p t undifferenitiate~d c-th t. e,, : oC, icy separated ano. co3". .:.t..... ' .....

differentiation o(7 C' the 9 :J)j co'noept of Vg~eiI~( 3:K: 7~ . ' descrzibes th,: dc&L3ine of c~ U

Figure C. . sche]d ,

relative positions of the i








Y qu il b c u I.. bx 1.; r,. ri - I . ,: C 11.


I Ifl~ the

V ~cri ~


Li i oIn


Figwre I. A Sel :t . PL &�i of the Coitive ie chani sns.

Pic t 1 pr11 ;1(:cy ii1- ,rc6t hait: bcon in st.'iuct : J development. $tr~cture is seonu in Piagets theorii, s being interposed bet !,-en conta-t c r'i fiunction Vard sCres to mediate betwcen the two. Briefly, funcztLio efLr to the Lmianner of cognItive prog'e, conti~. fers to c ternzl behavior Di struture rJccr t~o i12Tf : ,ecI o0iz iorial properties i-hich explain ihy pr.:xtieA:. content ouo urs (Flavell, 1963) o









Coit~ Ti -v c) b.,
Co , nIn i ' e a )'od9 .. '6 1. a a... .


dati-. e acts aro L ys b-A 11, tend i to 7i, .: n' D. l fCture's of th" sarJo.>J L f,. !:o tthe c:iv t':. t S rmJ 1 a(",oo:rm tcd fvtiume C, 1n fi . . in t e. strncu iiur. , it ': .tLl b2 ms= :.. ...* h o~ h ": - i iio the strnotture i chane-Cd adr furtlhir co,1o.c.tiv 1;.tn si(oYS avc oo;~bc on .... ....
~ic'~ ~'opcv~Abl, :x j',oc., ' of s. t.btionq 12 bc):A co.:p].x and1 l:oitent rd fu :thor doso.ri p4;on fo!] cK 2



As t ted in the defj1J.ion of cgo&, U


oeo , nc~ la, of ccn.ytiv c;i ,1op :,,; c fi s un i f ::e~ ~ ted a'fld p,3,-, is~ ly SIC p ;*'. .. -,. ' ,& .:d , cooo cd : i n (! O . of the w x' ;tx: a1 r' ,t~':tem: of icV ,:': !:,% action first tY!e pl:ca in i1fnor1, , i i terr. of s noly- xotor tions, c- vr1 1. - p- -c f.- pIofou,- j egocent2isP to a final , :'ot:. of oL~ 'etiv1%'y In cqu2) ibric:



an6. aovdt~on beingj urtff::nntnd. r ... yt rn,-urlly ant: C cls tr iu ti'" Luv-,io- i-i- T ji -'ant, t lr f ,c o ., o T -� the a, ,e u d

-o~ ;~C ~ : c'.itud by the fctht .a objc c. 1;. thec tvlty to Xiich the object I. ,,sin ilted ,r an ineiv1..b h o:or.,.once the inLu['iit bzi ~ vnmoC to di -inhis cots f. t' events ua'iicn. tce :.ots prodi'or0 th? object ui:: vr h thc.y arc , ted, T'd. earyn








of a < :iilVU t:[ a&i] aoco - tion ste)-Ir from thcir unon bJ au: oA Vi bcc tW ch i1d n n~o t re p -rat e h I C

W' ir - i>3 coll Sqr 7. Thc. inece"sJtZ for no;w Fco t lAorc in order to aso iJtlate tie new objects is ~cw-]oureed fru1tratin . Aw self and world becore

sprt, thc aComyJ coordination of assinilation

d c c&odtion lcad to the f'oremcntioned state of objectivity r'ud cqu1.librivm; the ass.llatory sohemnatasare so orga ;ed that they e eily incorporate the products which

ton presets to them (Piaget, 1954).

Thu;:, - ith ifret alon there Is siultanoous.ly can out.irJprrcess of thi establ!. K;ent of external reality and an in;ard proess of self-amrenes and this diffczraitiati� pross is wvere cognition begins. Cognition begins not with knowlecdge of self or object but of their interacrti on. "...and it is by orienting itself silW1 t neously toverd two poles of thrat interaction that intell*,enoe organizes itself by organizing the world" (Flavell, 1963, p. 62).

The whole ontog-c.itic de-velopinent is a series of

equilibrium ceveiints, of evolution from undifferentiation of assiniletion and accommodation to differentiation (equilibrium). The achievement of equilibrium discussed here was in regard to sensory- otor acts but the same process taee place with symbolic iianipulations for the prcn C"o! child who is not aware of' the distortions of his representator-s of reality due to an inability to see








things froi a pont, of infant, hi- cU4-j ep<:t-, ... n -,



at several le-,s)s of dclop < t ecs" ... . procec8 i c i iri r o ut:........ ...... K .cf rm

milieu 11' -e l ].963; -P4.,! . i '',,

The ccc coc,.* ohil3o, . less he knows, of himself ,: "a-' .c . o:- 'ijI't ys The obJeiAJficVtion of to:.iy p;.oi o y L: i to the acquisition of self-pareJV.or,, Ot'v and emi ooentrism vary i rive3 c. 1i I,-) --1- to eit'. self o xzorld Wherea;s functionirg i c......... baIin e free structure is discussed in t-rixis of .of develop.


St.e s of .... xc ....2c

The t.urw , o. ov o e' the -co'vrse of

development has beer, partitioncd into qualitative stages. If intcllectu.l developent 170re Jju' a Vatter of continuous de elop ~nt where sili,2 sim ply becmetter and better ritil no quf't.itn,:tive c s of structure, there would be no need for stages. However, the qualitative heterogeneity of intelectual develop ent is sufficient to warrant suc:h nri y.is. A further property Ohich a useful........ 522-102 JAust possesse to ,it stagewise dessiption is th at of invaricnt quences of stege ..ttain.r. c pOSJ ts t1,7O 0 . z ',.,,-s for his stages. First, tbe otfci.u':e,4,. of :. s,',e, become








noororacte into those,," th (. fob. w,:S u, seoond, the proprtic e of the J of a &Y. Seye fornt




which Piarct )pooes, ac' .� :jnso? :.:, colojete o.eration,8 and fo, j . ..... . i....l of

opert oio2 . eont Ans t-o majos ..Tho o fir~t Is that of preoperat~ onl represent ,.tji n (aw, 2- 7) and second is that of ocoretei operatioi.L; (e 7oIl). Further, ithin thin perlod of preope intiLo-.c! rpx1ht:. ons, hL presents three nooe div!! ions, the ]4.. , l t:' s beng c. of articulated re;ec>he, tio, or intK:5ttoi: (5~o7). rihe present pallr p ila-ity conoers ' t frrll . U !.b b.(;}.. t( C!Of'c K�d' . op [,2w. tS Ox h Tihe L. jor stae called cohre'beK opertions,

which exte1s fromi1 ,cs 2--I ic concerr,_- with constructing :eality in terIs of represent ors au. freeing thought from perception and action. Fir:t the child constructs symbols and coma:12n. c' tAic-, -xT t the end of the period the child's central pic ... s bccm. progressively wore &utonovuus, Piaget doeesrbes this t-utonomy as a decenterin- proc z. .Iio division is transitional betT,!een the sy co] co-:v,;fubion and the autonomy frot prception and. action. Intuitive operations represent the first eager -tte-,,-, at d,-utcrinS and. achieving reversibility of tho'}t, thqus allow,,rng the rigid static structu> n typical of.yr &e,.tior I- thought








to b'-:!, to ~ ~ :Ux~~ec s&~I tra;' ~cti 0') intuitive




(Pivel,1963 CaS Cc, 9 51
. 1 ~ ~1 goi th ~d cmpx et2on o


--,t all 3 I! th Oil of

actions to the 111eu. At t. e ory-2otor ].e'ulc3 the actions are ci.:ci d observable a. tarouxgh the course
o'ctor ....b-cprgessively of~ dmrelop nb tiie cogniiv ei ct oc n pr, .... intcx-n1aIzed .... 2oss coa:,tlos Further, in -mst iuo- portzn1t f(-- the! pesent al:.r the., C ac o radually form cs oo,: coriaret! opertions




c-.t state that he i not intexest'd in the independent vau-i blbs affecting t!,c course of cognitive growth Pd he professes so- doubt tha. th2 rapd progre-s which. ia people arc, tteins to -oheve is beneficial (Piaget, 1964), citing, the fact t. LniTal progress much fastr through ro . , of the t2O- co ; tive. staes Bruner (1966) vn1 Vygotsiky (1962) consider this problem in more detail in their investigations of' various social agencies and their effect upon cognitive growth One result was ttat Prnu" also ro ,)'c cautions conCrnring the effects of r-,)IW p r'. T' : on through cognitive developed t (1966). A frte1or result of studying idependent rIabbces rather than qua litative structures appears to bs a snf" in tho ) rn~ of the termi stage.









For Brunit arn for cgu o n y i&any cL the ,oc phenom -,nr as Pinyet, .' .v, , .y........ .... .



operator eaplco, htc c) , _, ih "v >uwA Piaget defines each st%. by . : . , c'r1-ll within a period of dev ,elo':: m, r] -,-.. 8 t I pY. rod between transition!-,o.,' . the ta rsit.o2.1 periods are nore sensitive to the itfLi e o wl riables and this would hvwe t>" effct of ihing effects more noticeable. FL1rther ,rJ o " of relatively rapid change the _eaaoyr; *-w ... -if .. i*c~cs bec sic&. T'he curc ient in'cstigition is c.. K� uth n ind c picnt variable and focuses upon a ,r .ioi1. sta e of (7eVeopme nt.

Ste--ing fron th - vc , of hL nr rY Vigotsky is a contention t4 , h1, soz"< iA ,3 -,A 1.. a i,.at nfluence upon cognition tht uiajct's ,yu..,i purports. This statemnt nust be quaIified by tTo points. First, Piaget proposes that cogritive and social dcvc1op.nt are inseparable and parallel." Seoond, he claii s he is not interested in independent w'triable (Paget, 1969). Thus, all three theorists envisionj the social lieu as closely iriter .utng nith cognition. lw? Piaget, it is a coherent insre~ient of a poreun'.s conpuc3.. fr .evo)rk aB3 for Brunar and Vygotsky it functions outside their syste j



SoInal Db do tSnt
In crjorto ul'......ircA the p ,ocess of








s1)i li:, -.1, t:hin S '2:s 'bs< syst; x:, it is noessary to

0L S~ tl'i. lych~ J,,, nt of s 1,2



Api ......._o 4 sosci (expltdIned that Infants

re11 o- 'r'C C . ouno esocenrisi to objcrtivity, from a . i .W ~n ci"s, , and rc lf arct undif ferentiated to a

J-rt~ - c bjot. tr~e crz~vdt~b,-Jr inrtependcrnt of v I 'Lty (P'Jrg .t 1952) - Whilo the young infaU ..., . i,.t on t ..... . =,', , r cir.ct tion plane

of tf'p . . .K , r oo 2.I'.o2 child opel'tes on a



be : C,.-. :.... y d'iy, ct-f.. , 10 a point of equil~~~~~~~~~~ b '!; ,u b- i~ 2 I I 2ch.4~~~.1ctOn. The Con-~ S.... ....... . .. ; a io Z; on the plane of rethn Eo c. s il A, a t.. (Pisser, l954; Ircihelder & Pi-get,



,c- , cUn. t> omc.l child has an integrated

~yix~.f~~:WI~Uto o~~ac iAt>" r003t is thtthe coP~tntsL of hi vorld, th-rouh thc impositi on of his

,, wp2oi thcjm. Vko pla~ed in~ V 1>KLC..-O v,,which

ta8es iinc. : cco'.t the~ vr'ino:s f ..o"ts of the sy.3c)on.

On thle t-):' xthe o 'vtion child considers only the cogn.ci'c point of viw ol th2 obvious chrIacteristics of the obJ.-, hcrICr S world at this stage c s not acceptd a v- b;Xi<_ jusb asit & .s but seen in light








of the system,and the chil d iso:e.'s xularities :)rd la-s in his world (ineder & 19A5t, 1958),

In terms of actions, the concrete o crato
child behaves for the first tine in terms of an integrated network of possible actions, The iorld is now begiicrAn to be lawfully and predictably organized and thought Is achieving primacy over perception. On the plane of representational thought seeal reJattmnshims or coordination among idividual minds evolve in the ce anmcr as do space relations , object relations and, In fact, these all evolvs in the vo an't,, r as the action -uorld of the soisory-motor infant. In 1. of tlaso p sgintlation and accon.cIation begin chaotically undiX.rentiated and progress toWard ha nony and balance.

For the sensori-y-otor infant there .re no social relationships just as there is no object rran~ce, awareness of self nor internal subjective lie. By ;:ans of sensory-motor coordi.na.tion the Infan's o:n eSo becowis differentiated :nd his body situated in a spaiu-laly arnd causally organized field of permanent obJecits and other
_ql s .... 2. T is f irst U.C C_-nt* c :ng persons similar" to h, if. h- frs cn -n process is ont.ogenotically follo-ued by sy2bolic functioning, language representation and co... - t th t-2P.d the differentiation of symbol and y _boltzed is wrl th'decenterirg process occurs. 1ith the advent of concL'ert operations gnd the concomtitant cleconterig, it becomes possible for the child to obJcoi;vely s trhctu:cc i3lation-








ships bctv;een cl.z:;ue relations, . nurbc:d; socially, he acquires s?,ill in ~n:tvJu1 chin in ~a Cooperative frnr --ork. r r'n~~o rci 1 uzxt1r



of tri0 E T,~C .1v ;t~ ),~
The ruycirv:r'c > 'o iir

vas said to be the groui... of orzi.tlons. Socially, the pre op,-,rati oiind. chV16 I s u of c cl~ints of view, only later ducrig c.ooetc opcro-iUon--, p].oiug his view ar-ong other points of vie;:. "replaCEs orson 1 perspective (cgorent_'icity,) as a result of th rcconc!:liv tion of assimilation of reality to the self vith scco:,ioc.htion to the thought of othcrs.

One of tho most pro -.n, nt chf: ctrlstlcs of the preoperational child is his sociral egcentriu. The replacmnft of SUb~ct~ fiurlci~ ~clIib reflection an . an objective pocr'cfctivc is one of th i .ost important achieveinznts of the concrete ojirationl stage (Piaget, 1964). With decentration, on .,;s on thoughts are placed in ptrsj,*ctive i.er, tey xswy be seen s thoughts among other:* thowujts. The egocentric child with his subjective persp,:ctive is by definition unable to recognize other possibilities and cannot recogwhe n.hen he is wrorg. Often obvious cont:e'dictions have no effect and corriccting acco rodatior, a~ not nide and the ass.1Jlation is subjective. "l-e" of ;itro spection, its rigidity, Its l.h of lo!ic.l jvtiUfication









is overoolme not simply by e px o b .t events but 7 l ~o~h~e ;K'w . A In the course of peer nsterc oto et, .e< .:y colfU a, d arguments, the child is for'ec.c to ct :u hs oi, coxe nt ion s (P " i h ec , - a c t , 1 92 8 ). 011..." 0 eIeTie c � e p o ! : ]y with peocr-0t is YveC'ed to brc~plQ do,-, the c;!-.t;! rCf "the prcpe:'atincl child in ordo.r to cK].o; hin: to coeiCc,other pe'pPeti.~es, This dec-ai ioi is the be9ii.i.;S of groivpinq which eventually enab e ',1.aj ' tu c . the
imi:: odiate Ii oiluS. Comoep
i C e. !) o.q in txnc .e oi of the mostpSiO:_.. sOu:3es of 0o0[w0c ].s, 11 e cooperatio and. its verifyin; jun: 'ei ~





The cur4 ezit std.ctc~zto Voco pce:I oo

exposure nd. soc:1izo.tion as they ro.late to oojiiitiwi cicve]opm o t, Pcer eoOcure 1:7 consideeJ as iarepcu denl varlc.b3c , If Pialet's propos,-l 8 are er'�ot, 1;r,,. into colioret operations should ve:,-diy.eol;:l. wi tshc amount of p-z exosu:ce a .C1. c . .... con*. cognitive ana .ffective reactions .o i:OOc , je}c two arc ptralcl.1 but interdeen ,ei fc ,l1s e _CC;s the value and the interest of auizy nc;on, either do-:..,iinin( the other, as each Is a pert, of th s-'ce b hnv'1.o. (Piaget, 1969). Therefore', h " .e < s ve that the child's peer interaction -o... o:, th , ,h w1l].








seek and the greater his progress toward mastery of concrete operations will be. This study assumes, then, that the more popular children will receive more peer exposure.

Socialization was considered in two ways. First, socialization was considered as a dependent variable directly related to the effects of popularity. Second, the development of socialization was compared to the development of cognitive structures. The interpersonal relations of the pre-operational child are, as are his object relations, egocentric, transitory and field dependent rather than persisting relations based on reciprocity and individual autonomy which occur with the attainment of concrete operations. Thus, social development is an integral part of cognitive development and its course of development should parallel that of cognitive

development.

Related Research.

Direct support for the hypothesis of popularity and cognitive development comes from a study by Goldschmid (1968) in which she studied the relation between conservation ability and emotional and environmental aspects of development. She found popular peers to be more adept at
conservation. Secondary support comes from another study by Goldschmid (1967) and a study by Neale (1966) who both found emotionally disturbed and institutionalized children to be slower in achieving conservation (Goldschmid) and

slower at overcoming egocentrism (Neale).







A few studies not conducted for the purpose

of testing Piaget's proposals show the predicted trend of social development. The present study will attempt to demonstrate this trend more comprehensively. A series of studies by J.E. Horrocks, Mae E. Buker and G.G. Thompson (1946, 1947 and 1951) demonstrate the trend of greater stability of friendships as the children advance in school. R.C. Challman (1932) was unable to establish that friendships among school children were based on similarities of the children involved while in 1927 P.H. Furfey had found similarities such as age, height, weight and intelligence determining the selection of school "chums". These studies demonstrate some progress toward friendship based on autonomy since the preoperational child sees all people as being the same and just like him and there is no reason to expect choosing of particular friends. Further, Rosalind Dymond, Anne J. Hughs and Virginia L. Raabe in 1952 found that second graders place more value on externals for friendship while sixth graders more often emphasize personality factors. This is congruent with the establishment of peer autonomy and with rising above the field dependency and surface characterization as the older children should do. A later study by Byrne and Griffett (1966) found that similarity of attitudes and consensual validation help determine interpersonal attraction in fourth grade children. Their developmental testing did not extend below the fourth








grade. This is consistent with Piaget's propositions and it would be expected that this effect would progressively decline as the children were in earlier grades.

Thus, relevant studies indicate some support for the expected course of social development In relation to cognitive development.

The following hypotheses, based on the proposals and experimentation of Jean Piaget, were investigated.


Hypothesis I Hypothesis II


The development of peer relations will, through the age range tested, parallel that of physical concept

development.

The individual's progress in cognitive development will vary directly with the affective quality of his peer relations.


These hypotheses were pursued by obtaining

measures of popularity, socialization and physical concept development. Evidence for direct effects of popularity upon socialization and cognition was examined. The relationship between social development and cognitive development was also examined.













CHAPTER II

MITHOD


The problem explored in this investigation concerns the achievement of concrete operations when the child is about seven years of age. It was proposed that both social and cognitive skills are integral and inseparable parts of this achievement and parallel development would be demonstrable. The progress in social and cognitive skills should be parallel since they both reflect the amount of progress toward concrete operations. Thus, interpersonal relations were studied as both a dependent and an independent variable and the more traditional skills were studied as dependent variables. Subjects. Eighty-one subjects from the first four grades of school wiere used in the study. There was a kindergarten class of 20 children, a first grade class of 19, a second rade class of 21 and a third grade class of 21. The school was located in a relatively small town in Wyoming and the population is quite stable and homogeneous. Of the subjects used in the experiment, there was one Indian and eighty Caucasion students. Procedure. The data collection proceeded in three parts. There were two measures of physical concept development








and. a odlficd zociu wio The tir-.. " ... asse s the child's r ,b 31. t to c].C:1. -11 .. ability to co.srve whi 1).(" the socL. , child's social decentration and. tie clhi6's: p. :

1. The first tmrcof ~ gk

thr oi ix h tie u se of thu On-p -P~ 'C' ~is becn dvloc by 1-i~rcell. 1,A. odT.1& Pt I; Bachtler an' aessea ohiiVd' abili; ... ., iotion (the ability to realize that p:c, sr)- s x >. gt, volme, etc., rcnain constant despite tr i -Ls such as shepe or pos tion). The m 1 f rt. (n in detail the 1sycho ntrios of tlie to ....o the test am! texmihble and foi A I rse n , p. t " study. This consI s ts, of six On ervir1 jf, cob I:,s itlh1ci include; t-,o -di-cnsionalsp-ce, number, 001t1-nre, con�� tinuou- quantity , weight and dicon'in .cil,'.: , uii,2.t.

2. Thec sc. conrid ii ssu of c~1t~~

was taken fro, the work of i len aor.v a:i., conocirns inclusion or classfl.f tion skills. Inhelc;e and Piaget postulated ].1 pa rtially ordered steps tco;: ,r lering this skill which ranme froni 4 to 9 years of e Kof-sky used tests v'ich dcmonstrated six dMiffe ' i; e-e s of difficulty of olassific,.to.:-y loic (t ,e t c , ato t step s.nifica.;ntly different, at p of ,05, f.Lo1 the preccdin- st"ep). Threce of these steps occut':- ej the age levels of the p'esert study .nd. ere used aswof cognitive p-o:e ss This Inodr cs t1e folowlug.









a;aCi itr 0. OSrs Sof objects CaYnd cl;eses i C. .s i9 ~ ?. 1h(LOC3Joe that an object Coi.o lu :: , ' i-i ... cso , , which was deicor~str ated byr -, (2 :' o< it.y o:P tU : ,&i voEtr olds"') b, "cov >erv.t o (. . P ,...c . , ,, (.rd ico le2Qmi cio fl, be nrr7 rea :: 1 ci ca Iciir onhwz.



apperent in.
1 irh thic> ' " < D;L"c st~ Pc oP pproxij1ately 4suG n ,, Ts:c pcI , sur'faces weare either sqare, ciuL- 7- o-r ti,"L- - - - th" colors of the blocks were "osu. ... , d g:aler: c:< ydli.:Z . r the testing prooe A ....ch t 3:s :C .hi administered in raat 'r to c. ot I to C.t..... for th effects of lea-, (Konr " (I 'y, p. 191') Tlie actual alblrnistration was the s , e s -):(evcnted by Kof's- ox t of " .I e cept e.11 of the tasks were pro, J..ed i n the .. ,,., o:.,r to each subject,

3, The fiwal , given. to tc.ih s1 bect wes

a sociometric , pdOCOc similar to that employed by McCandless in 1957 with v retest after sire weeks. This procedure involves c ',r ecl hild a picturi) of his class aird 1'~v hin to sho. uhich throe childr on he l.ikes most an3. lihes lest, This procclu was vC'd supplemented by quetLonc rt...,.-,. to � e-r, , on to present field, the bu is of frln eJship in t<:'m








o: ;I~> I , . i d d ua - 61' , -- I " y. " The f l m n
ti .,..t~ : ;5 v tii to the other oh~ 'dren u;ouxJ rce :z en i, lnslr. -11r1:0. 'Ao, . tn ti of friendship-.,

t~ ~~1
, bi xs n dividu1ly anr shown pictures of hio

s . .> ~c pe~. enc- then' sa d: "These are

pietuie, C:. yo"I I!CCs, do you recognize them? Can you

r,-' ou r fr'eelds?" TEacn for scoxrliil-u~os

' C.1 yoh >o t thre~ fiends you like the best?

1,11- 1:1 toe n do you 1ice the -very best? Why? How o1C. h-:. c you 1 on hii (or her)? here did you yeet hi (ox I c. )? .,i you n'Ice Jl: the il1drcn in the pI ? hboy do you thik neost of the kid-- 1i'c tb. t? ;yJ etich gtrl dCo you think o st kids lilze the

L3;? 'i :itr[ q'c< ';ton (f1:"Cma you shout me the three fri o~e> vc Let?") w related in a retest after



of -.. S.. sC' ud, the coneCnrrai '5 tb~ Le ub j.;t's v corri~ to te ' ~~br of c:7iox.:

c:.ttdo ehof t he to , aih o h of th-e sub~jeck/' rece.vzed tw.o ranr!Jings, os fox, tie numer of errors oi the coxwc V:tlon tossc and ons for tL" nu-r of' on tin task. Foe ties 8 I.'>1 rt nk vas








asLg~cJ for :rh gcu-, o t.ed J, i:duals.

The popu ari, ure w obtained by countin , ho often a ohild '' chosen Ily th1e subjects as one of the three children in toe class they lihed the best. Scoi 3s asA'1gcI to each subject according to how ofte ,n ho x c.& eo Te scores i;wero then ranked as with the oth-Uer i,'1.a sure,-,.

Prom the questions Coooerning socialization each subject was ranl ed five ties� The criteria for ranking were as folloJ2:

1. Reas for choosing best friend (Reason).

2. Sto, iity of friLlendships (Stability).

3. Ih~foy-s of nans of the children in the class

that w not :nown (Iaic xnr t Kno-vn).

4. L.tchins of friends chosen i.th each other



5. Ability to choose childrcn vhich other children

like t1 best. (Popularity Perception.)

The scorin. ethods for th~ze five measures is described in the folloi ng paragraphs.

1. Scores in the reason criteria were achieved by groupin- the reRasons F.iven by the children into three categorics; inpersonal 1, persorial, and interpersonal. The 1mpeoron category was usually a fact of circumstance such as being a cousin or living on ) farm. The personal category includes person 1 action s-cob as playing" with another child and the inter lysoil.a category imnludes







reasons which show awareness of the other child, e.g., he's nice or he's fun to play with. The subjects were given scores of 1, 2, or 3 depending upon which group they were placed into.
2. For the stability measure scores, the subjects

were grouped according to the number of friends on retest which were the same as on the initial testing, 0, 1, 2, or 3.
3. The scoring for the names not known item was

achieved by grouping the children according to the number of children in their individual classes whose names were not known and assigning a score equal to the number not known. A correction was made for the small differences in classroom size.

4. The congruency scoring was obtained by counting the number of matches between the six friends chosen by an individual and the friends which chose that individual as one of their six friends (three on initial testing and three on retesting). The individuals were then socred according to the number of matches (0-6).

5. The CCOzi� f Or the populariity perception measure was achieved from the answers to the questions concerning

which boy and which girl a subject thought the other children in the class liked the best. A subject's choices for

this question were coiapared with the actual popularity rankings. Ran/ings then proceeded according to the differences between the most popular and the one perceived








as most popular for each subject. The highest ranking was accorded to the subjects whose choices for being most popular were in fact the most popular.

It was planned, originally, to rank the subjects according to how they stated they met the child which they liked the best but almost every child replied that they simply met at school. The same applies to the length of the friendship. These criteria were not included in the data analysis.

In each of the five scored categories the subjects were ranked according to their scores. As before, a mean rank was assigned to tied individuals.




















The d-te for analysis consist of several

rankrin-t, of sty~om subjects in four classes of school (kinderg .r'ni, first, second, anO. third grade). There is th2 ranking on th2 populhiAty Ynasure, the conservation task, the clussifiw.tion task, and the five measures of sociali:tOno It was proposed theft the subjects' perfomances for all. rzesures should improve in a similar mnner as a factor of age throughout the five to nine year ageranige, In order to e: rne this hypothesis, the folloing procedures verc follow-ed. First the population distributions for eauh easure except popularity were compared across cres. The KruskeNl-Lll s test, a non-parametric "analysis of variance by ranks" as described in Hays, 1963, V-s used to compare the population distribution of the various ranklIns in four cltissroos. This is shovm in Table 1 where H is referred to a chi-square distribution with 3 clegree of freedom (Hays, 1963).



-* * p .01 ** P c2 �.05 * PK .10
These iepst sigIifeiclcC lCves for all tables used in thi s study.








TABLE I

KRUSKAL-WALLIS COMPARISONS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION FOR

ALL RANKINGS ACROSS GRADE LEVEL.



Classification H = 34.52*** Stability H = 4.95 Conservation H = 29.18*** Names Not Known H = 22.19*** Reason H = 16.77*** Congruency H.= 9.49**

Popularity
Perception H = 24.80***



Thus, all measures ecept tho measure of stability are significant and suggest that the distributions of the various measures are not the same for each group. Stability approached significance with p < .25. Further, the comparison of grade means, as shown in Table 2, demonstrate progressive gains from kindergarten through the third grade for all means except popularity perception and congruency. All other rankings become progressively higher with successive grades (the rank of 1 being the highest possible).










f'1~ FO7 IA C AT Vd GTADE LEVEL.



K 1 2 3

C1'-2fic .tiGo 63.0 46.6 34.4 21.6 C o , CtA. on 63.8 41,7 33.4 26.2 Stbbitv,, 51.1 37.9 37.6 37.5 N&"os Not Kno.M 62.2 36.3 35.2 30.9 Reason 56.1 43.0 39.7 26.0 C o, 1 3., .,:*' "47.9 48.3 40.3 28.6 Popu.la1rity1 -1 Pz-ception 54.1 23.7 32.1 53-0




For cowgruency, the deviation is that in kindergarten ancJ first 'rnde the kindergarten nean is .4 of a ranV above the rr)pr, for the, firm ;t rrcle. Essentis11y, this reasu-e procg :::'cscs as expected. A possible explanation for the unexpected ireans for popularity perception is presented in the discussion section of the paper.

At this point, it has been shor:n that all of the

mcansures ex7mined, except popularity perception, generally prc lev2 front grae to grade and thnt the distribution of thl, scores coiup-red across grades are not equal.

In order to obtain a iiieasur of socialization

which would havc a larger base, of inforiation, the rankings for stability, names rot kno77,, reason and congruency were combined into a siniCjc T-:asurc. The four ranks for each








indivi~uJa. were s -0e rl the remiltin-t cor.bl.nicd scores were themselves rvnke)o. The ef scclalization ranks for each grade ro sho:.ri in T..ble 3. Popularity perception was not included In the ofurcf socialization since it wis obviously m-asuriyJi soi-thrin& different than the four measures which were used.



TAB!IS 3

IIENRA f-1N 0S O1 EPC- GRAI12] OF TI31 SOCIALIZATION IrRASUR, .



Grade

i 2 3

Sociliztion 64.20 41.47 36.26 23.21





As car be seen from the rean scores for socialization, conservation and clhsification, the measures progress in a similar manner from grade to grade. Figure 2 below illustrates this similarity.








F.IC
ITEAN RANKS OF TiITi TF2 CX}N!1?V i&.U{ FOi TKJ FOUR





60

50 --- C SI Aficc~-tion I4 3AN RANTK 40 I

30

0-20

K 1 2 3

GIRLD3




For each measure (c"nser tJon, clans1.ficat.on,

an. socialization) there is a pio esive i ovexent from kindergarten through the third gradOe Util! tion of1 Dunn's technique of '2ilultiple Copxi~o~ Usin Rank Sunm " demonstrates that the majority of the Iffere;r.cs b:twecn successive grades, for each ueaisure, rc
Kendall's tau with ties P,-&* c; ~oyc. as ara order correlation method and i,-as ul:d to cx-c: Thz the relations amon. the coaerv:'tion, olar f cation aid








TABLE 4

COMPARING GRADE LEVEL MEANS TO ADJACENT GRADE LEVEL MEANS FOR EACH MEASURE.


Kl

Conservation 3.13v Classification 2.21-9 Socialization 3.06m


Grades Compared

12 23

** 1.17 1.04

1.65** 1.78**

.67 1.80**


for z-scores sig. *** .01
** .05


socialization measures. (Hays, 1963). Table 5 shows the significance of the relationships among the three cognitive measures. All three coefficients are significant at the o01 levol on a normal distribution.



TABLE 5
KENDALL' S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR THE THREL"E COGNITIVE 111ASURES.


Socialization-Conservation Socialization-Classification Conservation-Classification


.26**
� 39*** .47***







While these tau coefficients are all significant, the meaning of this significance may be artificial because comparisons of the three measures with grade in school also have very significant tau coefficients as shown in Table 6.

TABLE 6
KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS COMPARING COGNITIVE MEASURES WITH GRADE IN SCHOOL


Socialization and Grade .48*** Classification and Grade 47** Conservation and Grade .50**




While this once again shows the similarity in
function of the three measures, it also suggests that the correlation coefficients of their interrelations may only reflect their mutual relations with grade in school. If the rank-order correlations among measures are considered, within grade level rather than across grade level, the levels of correlations are much smaller. This is .showm in Table 7. Here, the coefficients among measures are smaller and only in the first grade do they consistantly reach significance. For the children in the first grade classroom socialization correlates with a coefficient of .25 with conservation and with a coefficient of .31 with classification. The former is significant at .05 and the latter is significant at .01.







TABLE 7

KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR RELATIONS AMONG COGNITIVE

MEASURES WITHIN GRADES.



Grade Level Cognitive Measures

Socialization & Classification Socialization
Conservation & Conservation & Classification

K .046 .31* �035

1 .25** � 36*** 1**

2 -.017 .21 .080 3 �37*** .10 -.081





Socialization appears to function similarly to

conservation and classification throughout the preceding statistical procedures. However, their actual relationships to each other are relatively minimal when measures are compared within each grade.

Kendall's tau was also used in order to examine the hypothesis that cognitive development would vary directly with popularity. Table 8 lists the rank-order coefficients for popularity compared with each of the cognitive measures in each of the four grades. The levels of significance were determined by z-scores corrected for continuity as suggested by Hays in 1963. As can be seen, all the coefficients are in the predicted direction but the relation of popularity to conservation or classifica-








tion appears to be relatively minor. The relation between socialization and popularity is consistant and reaches significance. During the first grade the correlation coefficient reaches a high of .60.


TABLE 8

KENDALL'S TAU WITHIN GRADE COEFFICIENTS FOR POPULARITY

RANKINGS AND THREE COGNITIVE MEASURES.


Grade Measure with Popularity

Socialization Conservation Classification

K .11 .13 .27* 1 .60*** .29* .13 2 .47"** .07 .05 3 .25* .16 .15




Hothesis I. It was stated that the development of peer relations would parallel that of physical concept development. A socialization measure was constructed from four measures to reflect the course of social development. Each of the four measures (stability, congruency, names not known, and reason) which were combined for the socialization measure showed significantly different distributions (using the Kruskal-allls "analysis of variance") across grade level and their means demonstrated progressively higher rankings from kindergarten through the third grade.







The two physical concept measures are also significant when submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Further, using Dunn's method of multiple comparisons to compare rank sums between grades, six of nine comparisons are significant when comparing groups one grade apart and all comparisons are significant if the groups are two or three grades apart. Thus, the progressive gain in skill as a result of age, for each measure, is significantly shown.



Hypothess II. The affective quality of a subject's peer relations was hypothesized to be an independent variable directly affecting his progress- in cognitive development. Ranking by popularity was used as a measure of the affective quality of a subject's peer relations. Kendall's tau was used to compute rank-order correlations between popularity and the three measures of cognition. Popularity appeared closely related to socialization but minimally related to conservation or classification. Rank-order correlations between the measures of cognition and the measure of socialization are significant if taken across grades but other than the coefficients of the first grade, significance is limited.
















D! S C"; i --) S 3, 0i



The soci".izatio.O .1 !m ,.,u o study was

derive froii th. oo~ir.t~on of foI@ veo,-!, n each of which con .' c of one piece of i,'ul','ti,.l (r- -oIn for frienidship, stability of frieA.:,, , n .,_-s of children in class not knon, and roeclty cc congruency of friendships). Originall)y, v fifCh *:iu. popularityy perception) WA been plrim.md for 5i. 1mioe in te socia z tion measure. Koevcr, VChi> the.r ;t gi-dc subjects received a higher mean rankirg t1v,Y1 the Linergfrrter class (23.7 to 54.:), the second arnd tiliot-6 grz:!.c' received progreosively lo;-cr rankin-'s thsa the fnrst grae (32.1 and 53.0). The !over the nuibcr is, the LJivr the ran.,

A possible expl1 n tion fo: the unexpected results concerning popularity perception vcold be aht osr children become rore adept rit intcrjio.:;e,-'1l prception, they become mox d-indin3 of reciprocity in friendship. Thus, as the data in Appendix A s1ou, there is uch ],ore grecmont as to which children are liled the best in the first grade. Thl declines in the ,ecoyx c and third giades, possibly b',v w the children -vtho tSo p ain the first eLpAbee 0c1. ot f Yo f ' eA recipnocally with all








the children who like them. Therefore, in these later grades "best friend" choices are spread-out over more children. The measure of popularity in the present study does not reflect this interaction correctly for inclusion in the socialization measure.

The first hypothesis, that the development of socialization would closely parallel that of physical concept development, received very significant support from the present study. All three measures rise progressively from kindergarten through the third grade and show significant differences from grade to grade. Further, as Figure 1 has shown, the mean ranks of the three measures are extremely similar from grade to grade.

The second hypothesis that cognitive progress

will vary with quality of a subject's peer relations, is not as clearly supported by the data. Rank-order correlations are quite significant when popularity and socialization are considered. However, when the rank-order correlations between popularity and conservation or classification are considered two of the six resulting coefficients shoa; a sii ii-lcant but minimal result. Indirect effects of popularity by way of its effects upon socialization might be derived from correlations between socialization and conservation and classification. The correlations

between the three measures themselves are highly significant if taken across grades but significant results are primarily limited to the first grade if the correlations

are taken within grades. All three measures, as would be







expected, correlate highly with grade in school and the relationship between the measures, across grades, may result from each of their relationships with age.

Therefore, it might be concluded that social awareness appears quite significantly related to this measure of popularity but that neither popularity nor socialization have an important relation with the development of physical concepts. However, this latter statement must be modified in view of the tau correlations of .25 between socialization and conservation and of .31 between socialization and classification--both at the first grade level. The latter coefficient is significant at .01 on the table of normal probabilities and the former is significant at .05.

There are other considerations affecting these

correlations which should be considered. First administrative differences are important. The three measures of this study obtained their information in different manners. The conservation measure contained forced choice questions, the classification measure contained both forced choice and open-ended questions, and tho socialization questions simply solicited information rather than presenting problems and asking questions. Further, if the data in Appendix A are examined, it can be seen that only in the first grade is there a wide distribution of scores within each measure--particularly the measure for conservation. In kindergarten nearly all the children miss every item







of the conservation measure and already in the second grade the subjects are successfully answering most of the items. Thus, the comparisons of socialization and classification measures, which appear to span a broader age range, with conservation are possibly distorted because at any but the first grade they are being compared with the extreme ends of the conservation measure where there is a very narrow range of differences.

Thus, it would be expected that the most likely grade for significant correlations would be the first grade and such is the case. The importance of these correlations is that Piaget proposes that the various cognitive skills gained in this age range reflect an underlying whole which, in part, determines these cognitive changes. The learning principles of behaviorism would predict more independent development. An argument might be put forth that only in the first grade are the correlations among measures significant and that even then the coefficients are small. An answer in support of a Piagetian view would be that first, the fact that the significant results are found only at the first grade may be partially an artifact of the measures employed and that second, the interrelations among socialization, conservation and classification should decline after about the age of eight. These are circumscribed skills which can be learned in their totality at this age and not open-ended skills which will be continually extended for years. Thus, the independent








variables and t., e rel-ti o- -mong t-' .Tl ihs]vos will function as such only i!:-ile tl), -, IL . r: co !ng into being.

Thus, the hypothesis that o d2 Lop~;~nl will vary directly with the ffe ot1ve (ality ( , peer relations receives varyirin a ourFs of ., cLp .iupon how the question is approa~Kd) If the current measure of socialization is accepted C. e f.tive e .are of cognition (which the data coieeinLn- the f irst hypothesis appear to support), then at Ieast oT this paticular rmeasure the second hypothesis s receives significant support with the follo ing correr tlrjm 1 t-n populrity and. socialization: kindergarten, .11; first grde, .6o*'*; second grade, ,47" ; and third g3,de, P-5* (fi::st ,nd second grades s3gnificent at .01 arnd thii grd e sigrrfio cant at .10). Direct evidence foi the ierelationship of popularity with either conservation or classification was limited.

Age appears to show much greater influence as a

common denorilnator with KenIall' s tnu correat1ons between grade and cognitive measures being .48 ior grad and socialization, d47 for grade and. classif2Icati on and . 50 for grade and conservation. All are sig-lific'nt at .01 on the tables of normal probabilities. The cos eness of these figures also lenh further support to the first hypothesis.

There are two other possible artifacts itich have









not been mentionsd at tils point, I.4i st, the order in which the tashs were prc 3e,)Lbd : ;ln.rld constant for all subjects. This may have a2owed oi g effects to affect the data. Second., use of irorc or best occurred in all three measures walich could lend E. certain amount of CoMmonl. lity to th scorch,

There are several inpliC tiolls in this study which occur to the aluthor

First, in the aree of theories of child developm.ent, what arc the implications of the present finding-s? There does indeed appsar to be a quE litativ-e Gh ,n-e at about 7 years of age in the Inet in which a child thinks. rurthem this nc .nye de.onstrates r oI' the qualitics which Piaeot h-,s described as grouping of structure. Age was the ooi :Oon stronest co;-mnon factor with the three measur s in the present study, Popularity appeared significantly related to the three measures in the

first grade but in gener-al the effects on conservation and classifica-ion of popularity were slight. Tiro possible conclusions would be either that (1) the popularity measure was not indicative of the amount of peer interaction a child experiences or that (2) the amount of peer interaction, which forces a child to examine his own contentions, affects physical development in only a ninor capacity. I believe the popularity measure was consistent with riaget's proposals and the latter conclusion is eonsistent with the prescnt dat. -nd with Piaget's theories,








The for) coc!i loi ;.:'oi'! b, o to experimental



S' co ,L in t. vc. ' of educa.tion, it appi nrs that the best way to lear.i.i re of oihcrs is by having active e po..... .ith o.icrso If in fact this is something that is ler.mn2 it is ezuv- a tha.t forxi.t education is often av-cuse of Lamp rino Ifighly structured non-interactive cl.sres durig tKe eU ly ages would appear to discourage this type of grih At later ages ard different levels of cou,:tiv grol .th thi~s would be expected to also hold true. On thu oU. r hand, currently popular exercises such as "shc mn. tell" vould appct -r to encourage individual autonol.ly r n ness Furtier, currently popular schools such as poto't ,pss of SufS1rhill would develop socializ.tion to the fu.ithest degree. Ho;:ever, it also appears that the effects of pepr interaction upon other areas of cocgnitionare l1rilted and for learning these other concepts, it appJ- rs thsat direct exposure to ther is nocessE-ry.

Tho third area for ws-htch the present data has inplication; is that of psychotherapy, It would appear that group thm:,. .py before the age of six would not have therapeutic ad- ubageso During the ages when concrete operations are being g-tined, carofuj] con.,ideration might be given to the use of peer groups in which peer interactions weM:aronec'urLgedo N'ny children are seen in clinics duing thLa ege rg,-, becamuFe of difficultics





42


experiences d in drpti, to t1;h pupil. icolc The socialization prvocscs n hch pceer Ivteraction ,ppUrs to aid (from dato. in the prese;ont cxpor mct) wovuId appear to be a benefit to the child at this age. The social skills learned at this nge ro-tid. obi ously be very useful with rczark to the child fitting. into a classroom situation.













CHAPTER V

SUMMARY



Eighty-one children from one classroom each of kindergarten, first, second and third grades were ranked on measures of popularity and cognitive and social development. The measure of social development was developed for this study and consisted of combined ratings from the following four measures: reason for friendship, stability of friendship, names not known, and congruency of friendships. The two measures of physical concept development were measures of conservation and classification.

Piaget proposes that during the grades studied,

physical and social concepts are closely related to each other and are parallel in their development. He also proposes that various systems of cognition are becoming Interoonnected during this period and that peer interaction is a causal force helping to bring about this qualitative change in cognition.

Two hypotheses, based on Piaget's formulations, were examined. The first hypothesis was that peer relations develop in a manner parallel to the development of physical concepts. This hypothesis wjas significantly








_~ ~ 111 contive Sand Socia.l supported in thevn, Ct . ,� skills prop @es frov I,:. .xt th1o~'h th. third grade in a siril . nlarr

The scon bypr hcL! -s that a child's cognitive development rould be dCL7ctJy offeci d by the quality of a child's peer ral atons Pc rty rrnhings ve-ere used to judge the quality of ti eild's jocr relations� Popularity was found to bc clo-elyv- :elad to social development but its relitio to ph l concept dcwlopment was relatively mi no::

Irnplic~tl s lrrdi thcoruie; of cognitive develop;.nt, education 'n i l thcmy were briefly discusdc.












APPENDIX A


Scored Data For Each Grade


Kindergarten:


Scores


Conservation


Classification


Socialization


47 80
51 78 52.5
71
65.5
63 70
56
67.5
76 67.5 73.5
58
75 6o.5 29
64 79


Subject







Scores


First Grade: Subjects


Conservation Classification Socialization


65.5 73.5 35
36 60.5
24
54 48.5 69 23 25 17
77
12 3o
3
10.5
43.5 81







Scores


Second Grade: Subjects

1
2

3
4

5
6
7
8

9
10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21


Conservation


Classification Socialization


28 52.5
20

37 31

39 22 62 57
45 42 4o
43.5

5
2

55
15 48.5

33 46 38







Scores


Third Grade: Subjects


Conservation Classification Socialization


14

7.5
41

9
1
21

26.5

32 72

7.5
19
4

6

13 50
10.5 34 18
26.5

16

59











score 2


Kindergarten:


SubJocts


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12 13 14
15 16
17 18 19 20


18 18 10
14 13 19
13 13 11
5
11
8
15 .9
10 11
4
3
12 16


11.5
5.5 12 12
8
5
8
5,5 j.6.5
11,5
5
8
16.5
14,5 16.5 11.5
5
5
9
6


5
4
9
6
12
8
8
9
2
2 10
5
3
4
2
9
5
7
10
4











S o r ,:;


First Grade:


Subjects


6
4
6
4
2
3 11.5
3
2
3
4
3
3
3
3
8
2
2 11.5














Second Grade:





�
�C)


Subjects


2.5 2.5 15.5
4
8
8
13.5 2.5 2.5 6.5 6.5
5
2.5 5.5
2.5 2.5 13
4
2.5 5.5
8











Scores


Third Grace t


Subjeots


7
9.5
7 12 12.5
9
6 ?.5
14 10.5
9
9 14
6
6
12
4
9.5
4
6 10.5














APPEh, DX.OT B


Three sta[tistial procedures were employed in the present




1. Ir, s)a! 1js Pimlysis of Variance" by rank:s The procedure is czr !nccd in 8' .,!,icg for Psyoooists by Hys il 1(63, It is cescribed as boing a gencr1.lization of thc i--hitny iethocd. The nl-'1l hypothesis is that J popu-il',ion distributions vrc not iden ttUJ. T-ha entire set of scores tae rankdc. and "... the suml of ranks for each pai- i1cult: grouo j is founa, r nd designed Tj. The value of T is the suo i of these rank sums ..(thnn)#- (p. 638, Hays, 1963)
T = (mN+i).
2


"For large sMaples, a fairly good aRPro iPl'ate test for identicl populations is given by.,," (p. 638, Hays, 1963)

=.2 Sum of -72 - 3(n+l) N (h- -: .1 Nj









If ties are involved In L'i n tic. proelt study, the value of II b- ,,..


C 1.- 1.3


H is referred to as Chi, dist: bton with Jl degrecs of freedorm�



2. Kenall's Tau with Tices mis rocedure is also explained in Hays (1963), lticr tY' finding a correlation coefficient, such a,, the,: . '. ' m rou'. order correlation coefficient, the cojput't.L-o of tu depends upon "the number of Inversions In o.O.r for p,-i of individuals in the two rankin-s ., Whcn tro :i 2L are i(lentica!, no inversions in order exis'G. 0: the otheLr hand, when one ranking is exactly the reverse of the othcr, and inversion exists for each pair of ind .ls;.o If the two rankings agree. ,for as me7ny p ~irs as they disf< ae about (, ) the tendency for the tuto n Cnrers Go .or disagree should be exactly zero" (p,, 647v I th.ys 1963).


t~ =~~2(iqy;. of. 1ivrons)
nuL;'-'! 0., x o, objects

Hays (1963) considers this iothod .� dvan..eous when ties exist in the data..." (p. 650). When ties exist, Kendall suggests using the fol]on.Hrg 1,nmtor

Sug r


-T1 ) (y )







The test for significance involves finding a z-score which must be corrected for continuity as described in Kendall (1962). Specific instructions for finding the numerator in the above equations and the equations for the significance test with ties are extensive and Hays should be consulted (Hays, 1963).



3. Multiple Comparisons Using Rank Sums. This procedure is described in volume 6 of Technometrics (Dunn, 1964). This procedure involves finding the average rank for the two groups being compared, and dividing the differences between the two ranks by the standard deviation corrected for ties. This yields a z-score. The formula for the variance is


variance12 = N Sum (t3-t) 1 + .
12 12(N-l) n1 n2














BLfLI OG PY


Anthony, J., SYo Iak-rs Pl.get and Freud,"
Brit. J. L[;oPsVh,29. 1950P pp. 20-34�

Anthony, g ificancc of Pirtget for Psychiatry,"
Br t J a ?-.
Bruner, J, S,, StuMe; Tn Cor, tive Growth, John Wiley
m. .....~ ic:' York, 1(.J6
and 1,.9,j .� . ..... 615 .. ..

Byrne,, LVo-:n tnd W11amt "A Developmential
Jive.::b2gction o.' the L.u of Attraction," J. of
Pro-r'
Challii.n, R, Co.. "Pc~>, Infucne.ing Friendships Among
PrchoolC)~b " Child l 1932p 2, pp. 145-158.

Davies, J. A,, I "C-r' ,.. of Soci.owictric Status JArong
9P' rs , , c% -ho, 1957, LS0,, p. 561-569.

Dunn, C), J., 5 72 mYlson Usitng D.F'Mn Stums,"
Tec, -,:,:.,, (g i'o,' 3i Au ust, 1964. p 2414
Dymon(ld, 11o2 aiirl. P,, Hh, Anne So, and laaba, Virginia L., i . With . j, Consult., Psyoho, ))92, 25 pp. 20-206,

Elkind, D.vid, "&nili.&s Discovery of the Conservation
of r Vsc:, ght, and Voluie,~" J, of Genetic Psychology,
1961, 2 , . 219-227.

Elkind, Da.vid, "Egocentrism in Adolescenoe," Child Dav,,
1967t 2,., pi - 1025-1034.

Furfey, P. H., #:Somo Fsotors ln.fucnciy)g the Selection of
hoys' Chnu, ," - " J. o p 11)h . 27, 1, PI). 47-51.

Flavell, J. HThgiopritatP .ho o,7 o^ Jean
Lj ?.. Th, ''r 1'>;�s nd Co , !nO,, Priroeton1, ienW
Jersey, 1963,

Goldscht.idk I"rc': L., of Cono.- aion arid
Nonconservr�.tion anJ Tkicl.L Re),aticn to Age, ;- y, IQ, A,
end Vooa.bul-ry," U!I n. 1967l '38, pp. 1229-1246a








Goldschmid, Iaroel 1, , "h' helation of ........ c vm to
E",o t io nai I n .. .. n- 0,.. 't_ . 'I uli! < x, . co . 1-1 <� J al A ''l. ..
Ch. Dev,., 1968, )9, pp, 579-59,
Golds oh-mid, I-arcel L., and! ,3ontlr, P. I,!, 'The
Dimensions of CuIAb Conervcdioi" . C X� , 1968,
232, PP. 195-205o

Hays, Willim I,,, Statistics for Psycbo.o Rinehrt , and;wLInston, Inc>, LJC, YY .963,

Horrocks, J. E., and Buker, Ya'e E.,, "A Study of .i I
Fricn.c.hip Fluctuations of Proadole .,.t.. , Gst
Psyohs 1951, 78, pp. 131-144.

HorjodIcJ.,_:, J. T. , and Thompson, G. G. , "A, S L.y of Tri2Len.dship Fluctutions of plural Boys Fanl j. Gent.
Psych,, l95!,6, 69, PP. 187-198.

Hunt, J. NoV., Intellipence and Expericp"Co o hrtc Press
Co., New York, 1f61.Inhelder, B., anid Pirigct, J, The Gouth of 3,orgice'l
Thinid !n f'ror Childhood to Ac [dolc>T"o--ooks,
NcYor,198.

Kendall, N. G., Rank Correlation Griffon
and Co., London, 196",

Kofsky, E., "A Sclon Study of Clithsificatory
Developr.,-nnt " Ch, D'ev, 1966r 2Z., pp, 391-204.

Lovell, Kr,, l-'hcyo D., und Rowland, A, D,, 'Grcubh of
Some Geometrical Concoepts,' Ch. Dcv., 1962,3,
pp. 751-767.

McCandless, Boyd Re, "Peer Popularity and Dcpcndcirw'cc On
Adults in Preschool-Age Chil-rcnV Ch. Bo, 3?,
1957, pp. 511-518.

Moore, S., and Updigrff, R., "Sociomotric Status of
Preschool Children Related to Agc, Sex, YurturanceGiving, and Dopendency," Ch. Dev., 196'4; 5, pp. 519524.

Nealo, John M., "Egooentrism in Institutonlized and
Noninstitutionalized Children," Oh, Dcv,, 3., 1966,
pp, 97-101.

Pia3et, 5,, Ju'c>:ment and Reasoning in the Child, Harcourt,
Brace, H: Yo'k: 1:j8,

PiaetJ DrJ.,s ad Imitation in Clo Norton
New York ,991 7









Piaget, J, Thc Of l P . in CiJ d n It
Univ. P:~fs, ] W vc 7
P i g et,,t th Jo s xu t o f ll . t , t n . C c

Pagot, J., and Inhelder, B., mh Ch. Coc.' tAom of

S} ', oRouticage vn Kegkn PauJ , ] ," 1T Prss Y -hlet, Pi;tviet, J., r'rico liAoid-tr, B. C o tw
--C .. .. B OOLS Now yor' ) 1 IJgo

Siegal, Irving E,, and looser, Franh H,, L i . 1Ihin0
In Chil e-n, Holt, hinclhC:xrL, a e I


hOvpson, G. G,, d orrocks, JB.E, "A Study o!
Friendship Piuotuations Among Urbn .n Boys r
J. Genet. PsYohl, 191179 70, pp. 53-63.
Vygotslky, L. J., Thought P-ncl IW~{u : , i].e ,:, . Yori
1962.

Winer, Gor _d. A,, "Irduoeod Set rind AcquisItic, of b
Conservation," Ch. !Dv., 1968, 39, pp 1 9 ?O,5














BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Donald Roger Rardin was born December 15, 1942,
at Laramie, Wyoming. In June 1961, he was graduated from Laramie High School and the following September enrolled in the University of Wyoming. In June of 1965 he received his Bachelor of Arts degree and began graduate study at the University of Florida. In December of 1966 he received his Master of Arts degree from the University of Florida.













This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of the committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



August, 1970

NTn Coleg -of-K and Sciences



Dean, Graduate School SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE




R1






9




Full Text

PAGE 1

A STUDY OF PEER INTERACTION AND ITS EFFECT UPON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT By DONALD ROGER RARDIN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTLU. FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1970

PAGE 2

ACK NOI JLEDGE M8 ms The writer wishes to express his appreciation of the advice and help extended to him by the members of his supervisory corjiaittee; Dr. Harry A. Grater, Jr., ChalrHan, Dr. Karvin E. Shaw, Dr. K.S. Pennypacker, Dr. J.R. Goldman and' Dr. Ira J. Gordonil

PAGE 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS c o 1 i LXST Or TAHLES •••••••e»oe«(tORGr*»««c*«c*ece*ieoee>»** V LXST OF FXGUHES •••••••(••••••«cc*ec»ei>**c«e«**«ci>i««t« vl. A5STHACJ?* •»»*e»ai«*(*a*s«t***ie*t»*«»3*(»stc»(ee«s«sc(i VijL CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION. « 1 Tll603ry ••••••soctc*(Cc>«»»»(o***eftGoe«(«««o»»a I Cognitive ProgresG 0 , , t . i ....... . 5 Stage of Cosnitive Deifc-lopment <,...,,,,, . 7 Social Milieu as an Independent . Variable .«......,. r ... « 9 Social Development 10 Purpose of Study . ... 1^ Related Research o 15 II. METHOD.. e 18 Scorins r 21 III. RESULTS.,.. , 25 Hypothesis I....,....,...,,,..,.,.,,, 33 liypothssis 11. <,«...,....,,.,,.,.,,,, . "^k IV. DISCUSSION. 0 ..... c o ...... o 35 V. SUMMARY , l^j iii

PAGE 4

Pap; e APPENDICES A ^5 B o 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 BIOGRAPFICAJ, SKETCH , , 59 iv

PAGE 5

LIST OP TABLES Table Page 1 KRUSKAL-WALLIS COMPARISONS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION FOR ALL RANIilNGS ACROSS GRADE LEVEL 26 2 MEAN RANKS FOR EACH I-iEASURE AT EACH GRADE LEVEL 2? 3 MEAN RANKS FOR EACH GRADE OF THE • SOCIALIZATION MEASURE 28 k C0I4PARING GRADE LEVEL FlEANS TO ADJACENT GRADE LEVEL FIEANS FOR EACH MEASURE . . 30 5 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR THE THREE COGNITIVE MEASURES 30 6 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS C0r4PARING COGNITIVE MEASURES WITH GRADE IN SCHOOL 31 7 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR RELATIONS AMONG COGNITIVE MEASURES V/ITHIN GRADES 32 8 KENDALL'S TAU WITHIN GRADE COEFFICIENTS FOR POPULARITY RANKINGS AND THREE COGNITIVE MEASURES 33

PAGE 6

LIST OF FIGURES Fl£ure Page 1. A Sohematic Diagram of the Cognitive Mechanisms , , Jlf 2. Mean Ranks of the Three Cognitive Measures for the Four Grades 29 vi

PAGE 7

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council in Partial Pulf il'imeixt of the Requirements for the Degree of DDotoi of Philosophy A STUDY OF PEER IMTERACTIOM AND ITS IKFLUEl-JCS UPON COGNITIVE DEVSLOPMSHT 3y Donald Roger Hardin August, 1970 Chaii-roant Dr. Harry A, Grater Major Dspartmentz Psychology Eighty-one children from one classroom each of kindergarten, first, second and third grades v/ere ranked on measures of popularity and cognitive and social development. The measure of social development was developed for this study and consisted of combined ratings from the following four measures: reason for friendship, stability of friendship, names not known, R.nd congruenoy of friendships. The tvro measures of physical concept development were measures of conservation and classification. Piaget proposes that during the grades studied, physical and social concepts are closely related to each other and are parallel in their development. He also proposes that various systems of cognition are becoming Interconnected during this period and that peer interaction

PAGE 8

is a causal force helping; to bring sibout this qualitative change in cognition. Two hypotheses, based on Piaget's formulations, vrere examined. The fir&t hypothesis vras that peer relations develop in a manner parallel to the development of physical concepts. This hypothesis was significantly supported in the present study. Both cognitive and social skills progress from kindergarten through the third grade in a similar manner. The second hypothesis vjas that a child's cognitive development would be directly affected by the quality of a child's peer relations. Popularity rankings vrere used to judge the quality of a child's peer relations. Popularity was found to be closely related to social development but its relation to physical concept development was relatively minor. Implications regarding theories of cognitive development, education arid psychotherapy T'?ere briefly discussed. . viii

PAGE 9

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Kany developmental theorists propose that cognitive processes are highly interrelated and interdepeisient. On the other hand, learning theorists generally propose processes vrhich are comparatively Independent and propose that relatedness is an experiential function. This study primarily concerns the former position and in particular cognitive development as proposed by Jean. Piaget. The present paper examities structure changes which Piaget and other theorists infer to take place at about seven years of age. Piaget proposes that peer interaction is a major factor influencing these cognitive changes. He also proposes that the social development of the child progresses in a manner parallel to and reflecti-!?e of cognitive development. The interrelation of cognitive development, social development, and peer interaction in the first four years of school is the focus of this study. ' , Theory There are several terms from Piaget' s work. 1

PAGE 10

which are necessary for a clear understanding of his theory and these are described in the follovring paragraphs: Structure . The term structure refers to organizational properties of intelligence and Piaget's primary Interest is in the qualitative genesis of intellectual structure. Content . This is the raw external behaviors from which structures are inferred. Piaget's use of content in his experiments has come to epitomize his work and consists of the study of systematic errors occurring in a setting which permits the child to display his natural cognitive orientation. Function . By the term function Piaget refers to the biological substrate upon vrhich intelligence is founded and it consists of organization and adaption. This biological substrate is a manner of interacting with the environment. This mode of interaction generates structures and never varies despite structures it creates. Its properties (organization and adaption) are referred to as functional invariants. Org anization and Adapti on . All living organisms adapt and have organlr^ati onal properties T^hich allow this adaption. Adaption is the outer aspect of functioning and always presupposes an underlying organization. Adaptive behavior cannot proceed from an undifferentiated source. Thus, the adaptive processes furnish the material for the structures v;hile it is the organizational process V7hlch builds them (Flavell, I963). Adaption consists of

PAGE 11

3 two processes: assimilation and accoirrsiodation. Assimilation and Ao22SS£|^^PJl« Adaption is said to ha^e occurred vrhen an interaction with Uie environment modifies the organism such that further favorable interchanges are enhanced. Assimilation is slBiilar to generalization end consists of cognitively changing elements of the environment so they become incorporated into the structure of the organism. Accommodation, on the other hand, is similar to discrimination and consists of the organism adjusting to the elements (Flavell, I963), EguiJ^i^rium. The manner of building structures is developmentally invariant v^hile the types of structures built are stage dependent as necessitated by the hierarchical organization v/hich comprises the structures. The development of a particular structure is described as coming into equilibrium. This consists of a balance betvreen assimilation and accommodation irhere a realistic (accommodation) and meaningful (assimilation) relation between subject and object is reached. Here, object refers to a particular object, a relationship, a thought or T?hatever is cognitively acted upon. This balance is a functional relationship betvreen naive realism and autism (Flavell, I963). Egocentrism . V/hlle assimilation and accommodation always occur throughout development, the relation between the two varies. Of primary importance for the present paper is their cyclical relationship vvhich occurs at each level

PAGE 12

of cognitive growth. At each stage they are at first i-* undifferentiated and then they "beccme progi:-essiVBly separated and coordinated. The initial state of undif ferentiation of the functional iirv..:. io-nos defines the concept of egocentrisn (Piaget, 1952). De centra t Ion describes the decline of egocentrism with growth. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram showing the relative positions of the terms vhlch. have been described. Pigiire 1. A Schematic Diagram of the Cognitive Mechanisms. Piaget 's primary interest has been in structural development. Structure is seen, in Piaget «s theorizing, as being interposed between content and function and serves to mediate betx^een the two. Briefly, function refers to the manner of cognitive progress, content refers to external behavior and structure refers to inferred organizational properties which explain why particular content occurs (Plavell, 1963). Structure

PAGE 13

Coffnltl-ge Progress . , Cognitive progress is possible through the interaction of assimilation and accoKmodation. Accommodative acts are always being extend' ^ ' ^ : '\ different features of the surround and to the extent that a newly accommodated feature can fit somevrhere in the existing structure, it vfill be assimilated. Through assiiallation the structure is changed and further accojaiaodative extensions are possible. This process of adaption is both complex and important and further description follows (Flavell. 1963). As stated in the definition of egocentrisrii, a??similation and accommodation have a cyclical relationship recurring at each level of cognitive development; at first u.ndif ferentiated and progressively separated and coordinated. One of the repeated ps<.tterns of th??ir interaction first takes place in infancy. Here, in terms of sensory-motor actions, development proceeds from profound egocentrism to a final state of objectivity and equilibrium. The initial egocentrism is characterized by assimilation and accommodation being undifferentiated yet mutually antagonistic in their functioning. That they are undifferentiated is demonstrated by the fact that an object and the activity to vjhich the object is assimilated are an indivisible experience, the infant being unable to distinguish his acts from the events which these acts produce or the object upon which they are directed. The early antagonism

PAGE 14

of nssiiailatlon and accomodation stews frora their undifferentiation because the child cannot separate his action from its consequences. The necessity for new accommodations in order to assimilate the new objects is experienced as frustrating. As self and world become separated, the accompanying coordination of assimilation and accommodation lead to the forementioned state of objectivity and equilibrium; the assimllatory schemata are so organised that they easily incorporate the products which accommodation presents to them (Piaget, 195^) • Thus, v^ith differentiation there is simultaneously an outward process of the establishment of external roality and an inward process of self -awareness and this differentiation process is vrhe re, cognition begins. Cognition begins not with knowledge of self or object but of their interaction, "...and it is by orienting itself simultaneously tovrard t\jo poles of that interaction that intelligence organizes itself by organizing the world" (Flavell, 1963, p. 62). The v?hole ontogenetic development is a series of equilibrium achievements, of evolution from undif ferentiation of assimilation and accommodation to differentiation (equilibrium). The achievement of equilibrium discussed here was in regard to sensory-motor acts but the same process takes place with symbolic manipulations for the preschool child who is not avjare of the distortions of his representations of reality due to an inability to see

PAGE 15

things from a point of vievr other ths,n his ov?-..^ Like the infant, his reality representations are distorted by oneperspecti-ve assimilations which he hv,c to int.-srpret. Thus, at se^reral levels of developmont ccgiiitlon siifiu.l taneously proceeds Inward and outward frosa the boundary of self ana milieu (Flavell, I963; Piasst» 195^!-). The more egocentric the child, tho less he knows of himself and the less ob^JoctlTlty he shov?s. The objectlfication of real-ity pi'ocecds parallel to the acquisition of self-perception. Ob;5Qctivity and egocentrism varj-inversely wheni s-.pplied to either self or world. Whereas functioning is characterized as bein^ stage free, structure Is discussed in terms of three major stages of development. Stap es of Cogni tive Deyeloj)ment The structural evolution over the course of development has been partitioned into qualitative stages. If intellectual development were Just a matter of continuous development where skills simply became better and better vrith no qualitative changes of structure, there would be no need for stages. Hovjever, the qualitative heterogeneity of intellectual development is sufficient to warrant siich analysis, A further property which a useful developmental series must possess to permit stagewise description is that of invariant sequences of stage attainment. Piaget posits two other properties for his stages. First, the structures of earlier stages become

PAGE 16

8 incorporated into those of the fol^otjlng and, second, the properties of the structure of a given. stage always form an integrated whole (Flavell, I963). The three major stages of cognitive development which Piaget proposes are: sensory-motor, concrete operations and formal operations. The period of concrete operations contains t-ijo major substages; first is that of preoperational representations (ages 2-7) and second is that of concrete operations (ages 7-11). Further, within the period of preopei*ational representations, he presents three more divisions, the last of these being one of articulated representations or intuitions (5l~7)» The present paper primarily concerns the trans i ti on . from preoperational representatio ns, tp _ c oncrete operations . The major stage, called concrete operations, which extends from ages 2-11 is concerned tfith constructing reality in terms of representations and freeing thought from perception and action. Firtct the child constructs symbols and communications, and at the end of the period the child's central processes become progressively more autonomous, Piaget describes this autonomy as a decentering process. The intuitive division is transitional between the syrabol construction and the autonomy from perception and action. Intuitive operations represent the first meager attempts at decentering and achieving reversibility of thought, thus allowing the rigid static structures typical of preoperational tho\ight i

PAGE 17

to becoKS aore flexible. This transitional intuitive stage represents a reasonably goal-directed bv.t still impressionable and unsystematic manner of thinking (Flavell, 1963*. Piaget, 195'*-). Cognition at all levels is the application of actions to the milieu. At the sensory-raotor levels the actions are external and observable and through the course of development the cognitive actions become progressively internalized and less concrete. Further, and most im• portant for the present paper, these actions gradually form systems of actions: concrete operations. • . Social Milieu as an Independent Variable Piaget states that he is not interested in the independent variables affecting the course of cognitive grovxth and he professes soma doubt that the rapid progress which many people are attempting to achieve is beneficial (Piaget, 1964), citing the fact that animals progress much faster through some of the same cognitive stages, Bruner (I966) and Vygotsky (196?-) consider this problem in mors detail in their investigations of various social agencies and their effect upon cognitive growth. One result was that Br-uner also raises cautions concerning the effects of rapid progression through cognitive development (I966). A further result of stvidying independent variables rather than qualitative structures appears to be a shift in the meaning of the term stage.

PAGE 18

10 For Bruner and for Vygotsky, v/ho study many of the same phenomana as Piaget, stages ai*e defined by periods of change (for example, the transitional period between preoperations and concrete operations is the "stage"). Piaget defines each stage by the most advanced skill within a period of development and a stage is the period between transitions c Possibly, the transitional periods are more sensitive to the inf licence of Independent variables and this vrould have the effect of iralcing effects more noticeable. Further, during periods of relatively rapid change the measurements of differences become easier. The current Investigation is concerned with an independent variable and focuses upon a transitional stage of development. Steaming from the work of Bruner and vygotsky Is a contention that the social milieu exerts a greater influence upon cognition than Piaget' s system purports. This statement must be qualified by two points. First, Piaget proposes that cognitive and social development are "inseparable and parallel." Second, he claims he Is not Interested in independent variables (Piaget, I969). Thus, all three theorists envision the social milieu as closely interacting vrlth cognition. For Piaget, it is a coherent Ingredient of a person's conceptual framework and for Bruner and Vygotsky it functions outside their systems. ' ,
PAGE 19

socialization vrithln Plaget's system it is necessary to exanrin-:: more closely what the achievement of stages represents--particularly concrete operations. A previous discussion explained that infants proceed frosi profound egocentrism to objectivity, from a state in vjhich objects and self are undifferentiated to a state in ifhich objects are conceived as being independent of personal activity (Piaget, 1952). V/hile the young infant operates on a sensory-motor or direct action plane of representation, the preoperational child operates on a plane of representation where symbol and symbolized become progressivsly differentiated to a point of equilibrium bet'vjeen assimilation and accommodation. The concrete operational child also operates on the plane of representation but the primary characteristic of this stage is the grouping of structure, the ability to utilize more than one skill at a time (Piaget, 195^^-; Inlielder & Piaget, 1958). The concrete operational child has an integrated system from which to operate and the result is that the contents of his vorld, through the imposition of his structures wpon them, are placed in a perspective which takes into account the various facets of the system. On the other hand the preoperational child considers only the cognizer's point of view or the obvious characteristics of the object. The cognizer's world at this stage is not accepted as being Just as it appears but is seen in light

PAGE 20

12 oi" the system, and the child discovers regularities and laws in his vrorld (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). In terms of actions, the concrete operational child behaves for the first time in terms of an integrated network of possible actions. The vforld is now beginning to be lawfully and predictably organized and thought is achieving primacy over perception. On the plane of representational thought social relationship s or coordination among individual minds evolve in the same manner as do space relations, object relations and, in fact, these all evolve in the sane manner as the action world of the sensory-motor infant. In all of these examples assimilation and accommodation begin chaotically undifferentiated and progress toward harmony and balance. For the sonsor^-motor infant there are no social relationships just as there is no object permanence, awareness of self nor internal subjective life. By seans of sensory -motor coordination the infant's own ego becomes differentiated and his body situated in a spatially and causally organized field of permanent objects and other persons similar to himself . This first dccGntoring process is ontogenetically folloT-red by symbolic functioning, language representation and communication x^lth others and the differentiation of symbol and symbolized is where the decentering process occurs. V/ith the advent of concrete operations and the concomitant decentering, it becomes possible for the child to objectively structure relation-

PAGE 21

ships bstv.-een classes, relations, and numbers; socially, he acquires skill in interindivldiial relations in a cooperative framework. The acquiring social cooperation jand structuring^ of cop^nitive operations are two aspects of the same developmental processes . The primary achievement of concrete operations was said to be the grouping of operations. Socially, the preoperational child is unaware of other points of view, only later during concrete operations placing his vievf among other points of view. Reciprocity replaces personal perspective (egocentricity ) as a result of the reconciliation of assimilation of reality to the self with accommodation to the thought of others. One of the most prominent characteristics of the preoperational child is his social egocentrism. The replacemsnt of subjective and unreflective egocentrism by reflection and an objective perspective is one of the most important achievements of the concrete operational stage (Piaget, 1964). V/ith decentration, one's own thoughts are placed in perspective where they may be seen as thoughts among other thoughts. The egocentric child with his subjective perspective is by definition unable to recognize other possibilities and cannot recognize when he is virong. Often obvious contradictions have no effect and correcting accommodations are not made and the assimilation is subjective. Egocentrism vrith its lack of introspection, its rigidity, its lack of logical justification

PAGE 22

is overcome not simply by experience with objects and events but primarily through s ocial in teraction vrith peers , In the course of peer interaction» especially conflicts and arguments, the child is forced to examine his own contentions (Piaget, 1928), Therefore, experience, especially with peerv^, is needed to break down the egocentrisw of the preoperational child in order to allov; him to consider other perspectives. This decentration is the beginnins of grouping which eventually enables thought to escape the immediate and obvious. Conceptual thought derives from laws and commonalities as in true generalization and one of the most primary sources of common laws is interpersonal cooperation and its verifying judgements. Purpose of Study The current study attempts to focus upon peer exposure and socialization as they relate to cognitive development. Peer exposure is considered as an independent variable. If Piaget's proposals are correct, progress into concrete operations should vary directly v;ith the amount of peer exposure a child experiences. He coiisiders cognitive and affective reactions as indiw^sociable. The two are parallel but interdependent and feelings express the value and the interest of any action, neither determining the other, as each is a part of the same behavior (Piaget, 1969). Therefore, the more affectively positive that the child's peer interactions are, the more he v;ill

PAGE 23

-'•,-[.?, , . 15 seek and the greater his progress toward mastery of concrete operations v;ill be. This study assumes, then, that the more popular children will receive more peer exposure. Socialization was considered in tvjo ways. First, socialization was considered as a dependent variable directly related to the effects of popularity. Second, the development of socialization was compared to the development of cognitive structures. The interpersonal relations of the pre-operational child are, as are his object relations, egocentric, transitory and field de• pendent rather than persisting relations based on reciprocity and individual autonomy vjhlch occur with the attainment of concrete operations. Thus, social development is an integral part of cognitive development and its course of development should parallel that of cognitive development. Related Research . Direct support for the hypothesis of popularity and cognitive development comes from a study by Goldschmid (1968) in which she studied the relation between conservation abll Ity and emotional and environmental aspects of development. She found popular peers to be more adept at conservation. Secondary support comes from another study by Goldschmid (196?) and a study by Neale (I966) who both found emotionally disturbed and institutionalized children to be slower in achieving conservation (Goldschmid) and > slower at overcoming egocentrism (Neale).

PAGE 24

16 A few studies not conducted for the purpose of testing Piaget's proposals shovr the predicted trend of social development. The present study will attempt to demonstrate this trend more comprehensively, A series of studies by J.S. Horrocks, Mae S. Buker and G.G. Thompson (19^6, 19^7 and 1951) demonstrate the trend of greater stability of friendships as the children advance in school. R.C. Challman (1932) was unable to establish that friendships among preschool children were based on similarities of the children Involved while in 192? P.H.Furfey had found similarities such as age, height, v/eight and intelligence determining the selection of school "chums". These studies demonstrate some progress tovxard friendship based on autonomy since the preoperational child sees all people as being the same and Just like him and there is no reason to expect choosing of particular friends. Further, Rosalind Dymond, Anne J. Hughs and Virginia L. Raabe in 1952 found that second graders place more value on externals for friendship while sixth graders more often emphasize personality factors. This is congruent with the establishment of peer autonomy and with rising above the field dependency and surface characterlza tlon as the older children should do. A later study by Byrne and Griff ett (I966) found that similarity of attitudes and consensual validation help determine interpersonal attraction in fourth grade children. Tiieir developmental testing did not extend below the fourth

PAGE 25

17 grade. This is consistent with Piaget*s propositions and it would be expected that this effect would progressively decline as the children were in earlier grades. Thus, relevant studies indicate some support' for the expected course of social development in relation to cognitive development. The following hypotheses, based on the proposals and experimentation of Jean Piaget, were investigated. Hypothesis I The development of peer relations will, through the age range tested, ... parallel that of physical concept development. Hypothesis II The individual's progress in cognitive development will vary directly with the affective quality of his peer relations. These hypotheses were pursued by obtaining measures of popularity, socialization and physical concept development. Evidence for direct effects of popularity upon socialization and cognition was examined. The relationship between social development and cognitive development was also examined.

PAGE 26

CHAPTER II . '. \ ' . METHOD The problem explored In this investigation concerns the achievement of concrete operations when the child is about seven years of age. It vras proposed that both social and cognitive skills are integral and inseparable parts of this achievement and parallel development xvould be demonstrable. The progress in social and cognitive skills should be parallel since they both reflect the amount of progress toward concrete operations. Thus, interpersonal relations were studied as both a dependent and an independent variable and the more traditional skills were studied as dependent variables. Sub.jects . Eighty-one subjects from the first four grades of school vxere used in the study. There was a kindergarten class of 20 children, a first grade class of 19, a secorjd grade class of 21 and a third grade class of 21. The school was located in a relatively small town in Wyoming and the population is quite stable and homogeneous. Of the subjects used in the experiment, there v;as one Indian and eighty Caucaslon students. Procedure . The data collection proceeded in three parts. There were two measures of physical concept development 18

PAGE 27

and a modified sociogram. The two cognltire measures assessed the child's ability to classify and the child's ability to conserve while the sociogram measured the child's social decentration and the child's popularity. 1. The first measure of cognitive growth was through the use of the Concept Assessment Kit. This has been developed by 1-Iarcell M. Goldsohmid and Peter K. Bentler and assesses a child's ability for conservation (the ability to realize that properties such as vreight, volume, etc., remain constant despite transformations such as shape or position). The manual for the kit explains in detail the psychometrics of the test. Three forms of the test are available and form A was used in the present study. This consists of six conservation problems vrhich include; tx.'o-dimensional space, number, substance, continuous quantity , weight and discontinuous quantity. 2. The second measure of cognitive development was taken from the work of Ellen Kofsky and concerns inclusion or classification skills. Inhelder and Piaget postulated 11 partially ordered steps tovxard learning this skill vjhich range from ^ito 9 years of age. Kofsky used tests which demonstrated six different levels of difficulty of classif icatory logic (the tasks at each step significantly different, at p of .0^, from the preceding step). Three of these steps occur dui'ing the age levels of the present study and were used as measures of cognitive progress. This includes the following:

PAGE 28

ao ".oca grasp of the elemontaTj relations among objects and classes in a hierarchy Includln,? the knowledge that an object can bslong to more than one class , , . which v;as demonstrated by (a inajoritj'of the six-year olds") J b, "consearvation of hierarchy and reclassification, which were perforriied successfully by most of the seven• year olds"; anrl c. "Imovrledge of inclusion v/hich was apparent in most of the nine-year olds" (Kofsky, p, 199)* The actual tasks involve a subject's ability to correctly manipulate a set of geometric blocks, "The blocks were 1 inch thick and hc-.d b, plane surface of approximately 4 square inches in area. The plane surfaces were either square s circular, or triangular and the colors of the blocks were usually blue, red, green or yellot-r, . , , During the testing procedure each of the 11 tasks was administered in random order to individual subjects to control for the effects of learning." (Kofsky, p. 19^-). The actual administration tms the same as presented by Kofsky except all of the tasks were presented in the same order to each subject, 3. The final measure given to each subject ^^as a sociometrlc status procedure similar to that employed by KcCandless in 1957 Vvith a retest after six weeks, T)iis procedure involves shovring each child a picture of his class and asking him to show vrhich three children he likes most and likes least. Tliis procedure was modified and supplemented by questions attempting to ascertain reaction to present field, the basis of friendship in terms

PAGE 29

21 of reciprocity, and individual autonomy. The following r conditions relative to the other children would represent imiiiatuxe socialization: Instability of friendships (based on retest), lack of interpersonal awareness or ego~ centricity (based on hoi'? v^ell aware the child is of others feelings), and lack of individual autonomy (determined by basis of friendship and vrhether it is reciprocal). Each child was seen individually and shown pictures of his classmates. The experimenter then said: "These are pictures of your class, do you recognize them? Can you show me some of your friends?" Then for scoring purposes: "Can you show me the three friends you like the best? Which one of those do you like the very best? VTny? How long have you knovm him (or her)? Where did yo^^ meet him (or her)? Can you name all the children in the pictaire? V/hich boy do you think most of the kids like the best? And vxhich girl do you think most kids like the best?" The first question ("Can you show me the three friends you like best?") was repeated in a retest after six weeks. SccTin2_. For the purpose of the present study the conservation and the classification measures were scored by ranking the subjects according to the number of errors committed on each of the tasks. Thus, each of the subjects received tv?o rankings, one for the number of errors on the conservation task and one for the number of errors on the classification task. For ties a mean rank was

PAGE 30

22 assigned for each group of tied indiTiduals. : • . The popularity measure was obtained by counting ho'v'7 often a child vras chosen by the subjects as one of the three children in the class they liked the best. Scores were assigned to each subject according to how often he v?as chosen. These scores were then ranked as vj-ith the other measures. From the questions concerning socialization each subject vas ranked five times. The criteria for ranking were as follows: 1. Reason for choosing best friend (Reason). 2. Stability of friendships (Stability). 3« Numbers of names of the children in the class that vfere not knovm (Names Not Knovm). 4. Matching of friends chosen with each other (Con^ruency ) . 5» Ability to choose childi-en which other children like the best. (Popularity Perception, ) The scoring methods for these five measures is described in the follovjing paragraphs. 1. Scores in the reason criteria were achieved by grouping the reasons given by the children into three categories; impersonal, personal, and interpersonal. The impersonal category was usually a fact of circumstance such as being a cousin or living on a farm. The personal category includes personal action such as playing with another child and the interpersonal category includes

PAGE 31

23 reasons which show aviareness of the other child, e.g., he's nice or he*s fun to play with. The subjects were given scores of 1, 2, or 3 depending upon which group they were placed into. 2. For the stability measure scores, the subjects were grouped according to the number of friends on re test which were the same as on the initial testing, 0, 1, 2, or 3. 3. The scoring for the names not knom item was achieved by grouping the children according to the number of children in their individual classes whose names were not known and assigning a score equal to the number not known. A correction was made for the small differences In classroom size. 4. The congruency scoring was obtained by counting the number of matches between the six friends chosen by an individual and the friends v/hich chose that Individual as one of their six friends (three on initial testing and three on retesting). The Individuals vrere then scored according to the number of matches (0-6), 5. The scoring for the popularity perception measure was achieved from the answers to the questions concerning vrtiich boy and which girl a subject thought the other child ren in the class liked the best. A subject's choices for this question were compared with the actual popularity rankings. Rankings then proceeded according to the differences between the most popular and the one perceived

PAGE 32

as most popular for each subject. The highest ranking was accorded to the subjects v;hose choices for being most popular were In fact the most popular. It was planned, originally, to rank the subjects according to how they stated they met the child which they liked the best but almost every child replied that they simply met at school. The same applies to the length of the friendship. These criteria were not included in the data analysis. In each of the five scored categories the subjects were ranlced according to their scores. As before, a mean rank was assigned to tied individuals.

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CHAPTER III BSSULTS The data for analysis consist of several rankings of eighty-one sub;jects in four classes of school (kindergarten, first, second, and third grade). There is the ranking on the popularity msas\ire, the conservation task, the classification task, and the five measures of socialization. It vms proposed that the subjects' performances for all measures should improve in a similar manner as a factor of age throughout the five to nine year agerange. In order to examine this hypothesis, the following procedures were followed. First the population distributions for each measure except popularity were compared across grades. The Kruskal-Wallls test, a non-parametric "analysis of variance by ranlcs" as described in Hays, I963, was used to compare the population distribution of the various rankings in four classrooms. This is shovm in Table 1 where H is referred to a chi-square distribution with 3 degrees of freedom (Hays, I963). • ' . . i , « . , . *** p < .01 ** p < .05 • * p< .10 These represent significance levels for all tables used in this study.

PAGE 34

26 TABLE I KRUSKAL-WALLIS COI-IPARISONS OP POPULATION DISTRIBUTION FOR ALL RANKINGS ACROSS GRADE LEVEL. Classification H = 'B^.'iE*** n — Conservation H = 29. 18*^** Names Not Known H = 22.19*** Reason H = 16.77*** Congruency H = 9.^9** PopularityPerception H = 2i}..80*** Thus, all measures crccpt the nsasure of stability are significant and suggest that the distributions of the various measures are not the same for each group. Stability approached significance vjith p < .25. Further, the comparison of grade means, as shown in Table 2, demonstrate progressive gains from kindergarten through the third grade for all means except popularity perception and congruency. All other rankings become progressively higher with successive grades (the rank of 1 being the highest possible).

PAGE 35

; . TABLE 2 ' _ MEAN RANKS FOR EACH MEASURE AT EACH GRADE LEVEL. K 1 2 3 Classification 63.0 21.6 Conservation 63.8 33.^ 26.2 Stability 51.1 37.9 37.6 37.5 Names Not Known 62.2 36.3 35.2 30.9 Reason 56.1 ^3.0 39.7 26.0 Congruency ^7.9 ^8.3 ^0.3 28.6 Popularity Perception 5k. 1 23.7 32.1 53.0 For congruency, the deviation is that in kindergarten and first grade the kindergarten mean is ,k of a rank above the mean for the first grade. Essentially, this Eieasure progresses as expected. A possible explanation for the unexpected means for popularity perception is presented in the discussion section of the paper. At this point, it has been shovm that all of the measures examined, except popularity perception, generally progress from grade to grade and that the distribution . of the scores compared across grades are not equal. In order to obtain a measure of socialization which vrould have a larger base of information, the rankings for stability, names not known, reason and congruency xrere combined into a single measure. The four ranks for each

PAGE 36

28 Individual v/ere summed and the resulting combined scores were themselves ranked. The mean socialization ranks for each grade are sho^m in Tabic 3. Popularity perception was not included in the measure of socialization since it vras obviously measuring something different than the four measures v;hich were used. TABI^; 3 MEAN RANKS FOR EACH GRADE OF THE SOCIALIZATION MEASURE. Grade K . 1 2 3 Socialization 6^.20 ^1.^? 36.26 23. 21 As can be seen from the mean scores for socialization, conservation and classification, the neasures progress in a similar manner from grade to grade. Figure 2 belov; illustrates this similarity.

PAGE 37

.FIGURE 2 MAN RANKS OF THE TliREE C03NITIVE GRADES I^EASURBS FOR THE FOUR 60 \ --Conservation 50 — ' Classification I'EAN RANK ^0 •••• Sooialization 30 G-20 X K 1 2 3 GR/lDS For each measure (conservation, classification, and socialization) there is a progressive improvement from kindergarten through the third grade « Utilization of Dunn's technique of "Multiple Comparisons Using Ranlc Sums" demonstrates that the majority of the differences between successive grades, for each measure, reach significance (Dunn, 1964). V/hen classes which are two grades apart, rather than one, are compared, the differences are all significant. For example, the rank sums for the conservation measure in kindergarten and first grade are significantly different (Table , . Kendall's tau with ties was employed as a rankorder correlation method and was used to examine the relations among the consei-vation, classification and

PAGE 38

. . 30 TABLE k COMPARING GRADE LEVEL MEANS TO ADJACENT GRADE LEVEL MEANS FOR EACH MEASURE. Grades Compared Kl 12 23 Conservation 3.13*** 1.17 l.OJ^ Classification 2.21** 1.65** 1.78** Socialization 3.06-!*** .67 1.80** • for zscores slg. *** .01 .05 socialization measures. (Hays, I963). Table 5 shows the significance of the relationships among the three cognitive measures. All three coefficients are significant at the lOl level on a normal distribution. TABLE 5 KENDALL'S TAU GOEPPICIENTS FOR THE THREE COGNITIVE MEASURES. Socialization-Conservation Socialization-Classification Consen/ation-Classiflcatlon ,26** ,47***

PAGE 39

31 While these tau coefficients are all significant, the meaning of this significance may "be artificial because comparisons of the three measures with grade in school also have very significant tau coefficients as shown in Table 6. TABLE 6 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS COMPARING COGNITIVE MEASURES WITH GRADE IN SCHOOL Socialization and Grade ,2j,8«** Classification and Grade Conservation and Grade .50*** V/hile this once again shows the similarity in function of the tliree measures, it also suggests that the correlation coefficients of their interrelations may only reflect their mutual relations with grade in school. If the rank-order correlations among measures are considered, within grade level rather than across grade level, the levels of correlations are much smaller. This is shovm in Table ?. Here, the coefficients among measures are smaller and only in the first grade do they conslstantly reach significance. For the children in the first grade classroom socialization correlates with a coefficient of .25 with conservation and with a coefficient of .31 with classification. The former is significant at .05 and the latter is significant at .01.

PAGE 40

32 TABLE 7 KENDALL'S TAU COEFFICIENTS FOR RELATIONS AMONG COGNITIVE MEASURES WITHIN GRADES. Grade Level Cognitive Measiires Socialization & Classification Socialization Conservation & Conservation & Classification K .046 .31** .035 1 .25** .36*** .31*** 2 -.017 .21 .080 3 .37*-*» .10 -.081 Socialization appears to function similarly to conservation and classification throughout the preceding statistical procedures. However, their actual relationships to each other are relatively minimal when measures are compared within each grade. Kendall's tau was also used in order to examine the hypothesis that cognitive development would vary directly with popularity. Table 8 lists the rank-order coefficients for popularity compared with each of the cognitive measures in each of the four grades. The levels of significance were determined by z-scores corrected for continuity as suggested by Hays In I963. As can be seen, all the coefficients are in the predicted direction but the relation of popularity to conservation or classlflca-

PAGE 41

33 tion appears to be relatively minor. The relation between socialization and popularity is consistant and reaches significance. During the first grade the correlation coefficient reaches a high of .60. TABLE 8 KENDALL'S TAU WITHIN GRADE COEFFICIENTS FOR POPULARITY RANKINGS AND THREE COGNITIVE IffiASURES. Grade Measure with Popularity Socialization Conservation Classification K .11 .13 .27* 1 .60*** .29* .13 2 .Zf7«** .07 .05 3 .25* .16 .15 Hypothesis I . It was stated that the development of peer relations would parallel that of physical concept development. A socialization measure was constructed from four measures to reflect the course of social development. Each of the four measures (stability, congruency, names not known, and reason) which vrere combined for the socialization measure shovred significantly different distributions (using the ICcuskal-Wallls "analysis of variance") across grade level and their means demonstrated progressively higher rankings from kindergarten through the third grade.

PAGE 42

3^ The two physical concept measures are also significant when submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Further, . using Dunn's method of multiple comparisons to compare rank sums "between grades, six of nine comparisons are significant when comparing groups one grade apart and all comparisons are significant if the groups are two or three grades apart. Thus, the progressive gain in skill as a result of age, for each measure, is significantly shown. Hypothesis II . The affective quality of a subject's peer relations was hypothesized to be an independent variable directly affecting his progress in cognitive development. Ranking by popularity was used as a measure of the affective quality of a subject's peer relations. Kendall's tau was used to compute rank-order correlations between popularity and the three measures of cognition. Popularity appeared closely related to socialization but minimally related to conservation or classification. Rank-order correlations between the measures of cognition and the measure of socialization are significant if taken across grades but other than the coefficients of the first grade, significance is limited.

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CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION The socialization msasure of this study was derived frora the combination of four measures, each of which consisted of one piece of information (reason for friendship, stability of friendships, names of children in class not knovm, and reciprocity or congruency of friendships). Originally, a fifth measure (popularity perception) had been planned for inclusion in the socialization measure. However, while the first grade subjects received a higher mean ranking than the kindergarten class (23.7 to 5^.1), the second and third grades received progressively lower rankings than the first grade (32.1 and 53^0 ). The lovjer the number is, the higher the rank. A possible explanation for the unexpected results concerning popularity perception would be that as children become more adept with interpersonal perception, they become more demanding of reciprocity in friendship. Thus, as the data in Appendix A shovr, there is much more agreement as to which children are liked the best in the first grade. This declines in the second and third grades, possibly because the children v/ho are so popular in the first grade cannot be close friends reciprocally with all 35

PAGE 44

36 the children who like them. Therefore, in these later, grades "best friend" choices are spread-out over more children. The measure of popularity in the present . study does not reflect this interaction correctly for inclusion in the socialization measure. The first hypothesis, that the development of socialization v^ould closely parallel that of physical concept development, received very significant support from the present study. All three measures rise progressively from kindergarten through the third grade and • show significant differences from grade to grade. Further, as Figure 1 has shoxm, the mean ranks of the three measiires are extremely similar from grade to grade. The second hypothesis that cognitive progress will vary with quality of a subject's peer relations, is not as clearly supported by the data. Rank-order correlations are quite significant when popularity and socialization are considered. However, x^hen the rank-order correlations betv;een popularity and conservation or classification are considered two of the six resulting coefficients show a significant but minimal result. Indirect effects of popularity by v/ay of its effects upon socialization might be derived from correlations between socialization and conservation and classification. The correlations betvreen the three measures themselves are highly significant if taken across grades but significant results are primarily limited to the first grade if the correlations are taken within grades. All three measures, as would be '

PAGE 45

37 expected, correlate highly with grade in school and the relationship between the meastJres, across grades, may result from each of their relationships with age. Therefore , it might be concluded that social awareness appears quite significantly related to this • measure of popularity but that neither popularity nor socialization have an important relation with the development of physical concepts. However, this latter statement must be modified in view of the tau correlations of .25 betvreen socialization and conservation and of .31 between socialization and classification— both at the first grade level. The latter coefficient is significant at .01 on the table of normal probabilities and the former is significant at .05. There are other considerations affecting these correlations which should be considered. First administrative differences are important. The three measures of this study obtained their information in different manners. The conservation measure contained forced choice questions, the classification measure contained both forced choice and open-ended questions, and the socialization questions simply solicited information rather than presenting problems and asking questions. Further, if the data In Appendix A are examined, it can be seen that only in the first grade is there a wide distribution of scores within each measure — particularly the measure for conservation. In kindergarten nearly all the children miss every item

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38 of the conservation measure and already in the second grade the subjects are successfully ansv^erlng most of the items. Thus, the comparisons of socialization and classification measures, vfhich appear to span a broader age range, with conserration are possibly distorted because at any but the first grade they are being compared with the extreme ends of the conservation measure where there is a very narrow range of differences. Thus, it viould be expected that the most likely grade for significant correlations would be the first grade and such is the case. The importance of these correlations is that Piaget propose's that the various cognitive skills gained in this age range reflect an underlying whole which, in part, determines these cognitive changes. The learning principles of behaviorism would predict more independent development. An argument might be put forth that only in the first grade are the correlations among measures significant and that even then the coefficients are small. An answer in support of a Piaget ian view would be that first, the fact that the significant results are found only at the first grade may be partially an artifact of the measures employed and that second, the interrelations among socialization, conservation and classification should decline after about the age of eight. These are circumscribed skills \7hich can be learned in their totality at this age and not open-ended skills vrhich will be continually extended for years. Thus, the independent

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, . / ' ^ 39 variables and the relations among the skills the mse Ives will function as such only while the skills are coming into "being. Thus, the hypothesis that cognitive development will vary dlrect3.y with the affective quality of peer relations receives varying amounts of support depending upon hovi the question is approached. If the current measure of socialization is accepted as a reflective measure of cognition (vjhich the data concerning the first hypothesis appear to support), then at least on this particular measure the second hypothesis receives significant support with the follovjing correlations between popularity and socialization: kindergarten, .11; first grade, ,60*'-^* second grade, .^l?^:^-'"^---; and third grade, .25* (first and second grades significant at .01 and third grade significant at .10). Direct evidence for the interrelationship of popularity with either conservation or classification was limited. Age appears to show much greater influence as a common denominator with Kendall's tau correlations between grade and cognitive measures being .^8 for grade and . socialization, .^7 for grade and classification and .50 for grade and conservation. All are significant at .01 on the tables of normal probabilities. The closeness of these figures also lends further support to the first hypothesis. There are two other possible artifacts v/hich have

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not been mentioned at this point. First, the order in which tho tasks vrere presented regained constant for all subjects. This nay have raiowed ordering effects to affect the data. Second, tise of more or best occurred in all three measures which could lend a certain amount of coinmonality to the scores. There are several implications in this study vjhich occur to the author. First, in the area of theories of child development, what are the iraplications of the present findings? There does indeed appear to be a qusilitative change at about 7 years of age in the manner in which a child thinks. Further this change demonstrates many of the qualities which Piaget has described as grouping of structure. Age was the common strongest common factor with the three measures in the present study. Popularity appeared significantly related to the three measures in the first grade but in general the effects on conservation and classification of popularity were slight, TT'To possible conclusions would be either that (1) the popularity measure was not indicative of the amount of peer interaction a child experiences or that (2) the amount of peer interaction, which forces a child to examine his o^m contentions, affects physical development in only a minor capacity, I believe the popularity measure was consistent with Piaget's proposals and the 3.atter conclusion is consistent vrith the present data and with Piaget's theories.

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'fhe tormer conclusion would be open to experinsntal investisatlon and could be checked. . ' Second, in the area of education, It appears that the best v/ay to learn awareness of others is by having active exposure with others. If in fact this is something that is learned, it is an area that foraial education is often accused of hampering. Highly structured non-interactive classes during the early ages would appear to discourage this typs of growth c At later ages and different levels of cognitive grovrth this would be expected to also hold true. On the other hand, cin'rently popular exercises such as "show anil tell" v?ould appear to encourage individual autonoioy and avrareness. Further, currently popular schools such as prototypes of Summerhill would develop socialization to the furthest degree. However, it also appears that the effects of peer interaction upon other areas of cognition are limited and for learning these other concepts, it appears that direct exposvire to them is necessary, , The third area for vrhich the present data has implication& is that of psychotherapy. It would appear that group therapy before the age of six would not have therapeutic advantages. During the ages when concrete operations are being gained, careful consideration might be given to the use of peer groups in which peer interactions were encouraged. Ifeny children are seen in clinics during this age range because of difficulties

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experienoed in adapting to the pupil role. The socialization process which peer interaction appears to aid (from data in the present experiment) vrould appear to be a benefit to the child at this age. The social skills learned at this age would obviously be very useful vrith regard to the child fitting into a classroom situa.tion.

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY Eighty-one children from one classroom each of kindergarten, first, second and third grades were ranked on measures of popularity and cognitive and " social development. The measure of social development was developed for this study and consisted of combined ratings from the following four measures: reason for friendship, stability of friendship, names not known, and congruency of friendships. The tvxo measures of physical , concept development were measures of conservation and classification. Piaget proposes that during the grades studied, physical and social concepts are closely related to each other and are parallel in their development. He also proposes that various systems of cognition are becoming Interconnected during this period and that peer interaction is a causal force helping to bring about this qualitative change in cognition. Tv70 hypotheses, based on Piaget 's formulations, were examined. The first hypothesis was that peer relations develop in a manner parallel to the development of physical concepts. This hypothesis was significantly 43

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supported in the present study. Both cognitive and social skills progress from kindergarten through the third grade in a similar manner. The second hypothesis v.-as that a child's cognitive development would he directly affected by the quality of a child's peer relations. Popularity rankings were used to Judge the quality of a child's peer relations. Popularity was found to be closely related to social development but its relation to physical concept development was relatively minor. ^ Implications regarding theories of cognitive development, education and psychotherapy were briefly discussed. .

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] APPENDIX A Scored Data For Each Grade Kindergarten: Scores Subject Conservation Classification Socialization 1 12 9 4? 2 12 10 80 3 10 9 51 k 12 . 8 78 5 12 9 52.5 6 12 10 -71 7 12 3 65.5 8 ^ 12 10 63 9 12 10 70 10 12 8 56 11 12 8 67.5 12 12 10 76 13 12 . 10 67.5 1^ 12 11 73.5 15 12 9 58 16 2 7 75 17 12 8 60.5 18 2 9 29 19 12 6 6^ 20 0 5 79 ^5

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46 Scores First Grade: Subjects Conservation Classification Socialization 1 2 2 65.5 2 0 5 73.5 3 0 5 35 k 12 10 36 5 8 . 9 60.5 6 0 2 24 7 0 7 54 8 12 8 48.5 9 2 10 69 10 0 9 23 11 10 3 25 12 0 2 17 13 10 10 77 14 4 8 12 15 10 7 30 16 0 3 3 17 2 6 10.5 18 12 5 43.5 19 12 9 81

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k7 Scores Second Grade : Subjects Conservation Classification Socialization 1 7 3 CO 2 0 2 52.5 3 2 7 «»' 12 5 37 5 0 0 31 6 0 39 7 2 6 22 8 2 5 62 9 2 7 57 10 0 3 11 12 O 42 12 0 4-0 13 2 9 43.5 0 2 5 15 0 8 2. 16 0 5 55 17 2 if 15 18 0 5 ^8.5 19 8 1 33 20 2 5 46 21 0 6 38

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it|.8 Scores Third Grade: Subjects Conservation Classification Socialization 1 2 6 1^ 2 0 7 7.5 3 0 5 41 0 3 9 5 0 ^ 1 6 2 0 21 7 1 0 26.5 . 8 0 1 32 . 9 0 1 72 10 0 3 .7.;; 7.5 11 2 5 19 12 0 3 13 0 2 6 1^ 0 0 13 15 12 i^ 50 16 0 1 10.5 1? 0 1 18 5 18 19 2 2 26.5 20 0 3 16 21 6 6 59

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Scores Kindergarten J o o in © Subjects 1 18 2 18 10 I \k 1 13 19 7 13 8 13 9 11 10 5 11 11 12 8 13 15 19 10 16 11 17 18 3 19 12 20 16 rc! CO O « G) o G O W (tJ 0^ o On o >-l o +> •H M rd H O +> «s o 3 1 2 11.5 0 2 3 5.5 ' 3 1 3 12 1 1 3 12 1 3 2 8 12 1 2 2 5 8 1 ^ 3 8 8 0 3 2 9 2 1 3 16.5 ^ 2 1 3 11.5 2 1 3 3 5 10 1 1 3 8 5 2 2 3 16.5 2 2 3 1^.5 1 2 2 3 16. 5 2 1 2 3 11.5 9 0 1 2 5 5 2 3 5 7 1 3 9 10 0 2 3 6

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First Grade -. Scores 50 Subjects ^ 1 s. >1 +J o o .o n •ff a r~I 0} Ti o rQ to . (ti c P 0 CO o o •rl •!-) o Pi >i 4-! •H U r-I o >1 •H u T-i a, o 1 2 1 1 3 6 2 9 . 2 0 3 3 1 3 2 6 0 3 0 3 11 2 2 3 2 1 6 2 2 1 3 7 0 3 11.5 8 2 2 2 3 9 0 2 3 2 10 4 2 3 2 3 11 0 2 3 12 9 2 1 3 13 14 .2-^ . 0 3 3 li^ 0 2 2 1 3 8 2 2 1 3 16 2 3 2 5 2 8 17 2 3 1 2 18 2 • 3 0 3 2 19 15 1 0 3 11.5 1 0 14 1 4 2 21 3 4 5 8 4 2 12 3 19 6 5 0

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Scores Second Grade j c o +> o . C O S . -rl W >-) , H P5 C fu W -ri U O r-" r-'. g
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Scores Third Grade i o •r-i o > CI >-l u 1 1 •l' o -P a •r-l u 0 rJ n (Ci Pa •!-' o o O $3 CO u Subjects 1 3 1 5 1 7 2 3 2 1 9.5 14 2 2 1 7 I 6 2 5 1 12 1 1 3 6 2 12,5 0 1 2 1 9 7 5 2 3 2 6 8 7 2 5 3 7.5 9 8 1 2 3 Ik 10 3 2 if 1 10.5 11 9 2 6 2 9 12 0 2 1 9 0 2 3 1 14 0 2 3 2 6 l\' 1 1 2 6 il 2 2 3 1 12 17 5 2 3 18 10 3 2 9.5 19 1 1 2 1 20 0 3 1 2 6 21 18 1 3 2 10.5

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APPENDIX B Statistical Prooeduros Three statistical procedures were employed in the present study, 1, Kruskal-Wallis "Ajaalysis of Variance" by ranks. The procedure is explained in Statistics for Psychologists by Hays in 19^3 » It is described as being a generalization of the Kann-Whltney method. The null hypothesis is that j population distributions are not identical. The entire set of scores are ranked and ",,,the sum of ranks for each particular group j is found, and designated Tj, The value of T is the sum of these rank sums ,,, (then) " (p. 638, Hays, 1963) T = N(N-H), "For large samples, a fairly good approximate test for identical populations is given by,,," (p. 638, Hays, 1963) 53

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5^ If ties are involved in the ranljs, as in the present study, the value of H "be divided bySura of i\f3 " w H is referred to as Chi-squared distribution with j-1 degrees of freedom. 2, Kendall's Tau with Ties, 'Phis procedure is also explained in Hays (1963). Rather than finding a correlation coefficient, such as the Spearman rank-»order correlation coefficient, the computation of tau depends upon "the number of inversions in order for pair of individuals in the two rankings,,,. When tvio ranlvings are identical, no inversions in order exist. On the other hand, when one ranking is exactly the reverse of the other, and inversion exists for each pair of individuals},,. If the two rankings agree,,, for as many pairs as they disagree about (,) the tendency for the tvro rank orders to agree or disagree should be exactly zero" (p. 6'4? ^ Hays, I963), tau = 1 ^(^^^TP^Q^r of Inveraions) number of pairs of objects Hays (1963) considers this method ",, .advantageous when ties exist in the data..." (p, 650), When ties exist, Kendall suggests using the follovjing denominator ( WOi ) ( Bfll. T^ )

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^ 55 The test for significance involves finding a z-score which must be corrected for continuity as described in Kendall (1962). Specific instructions for finding the numerator in the above equations and the equations for the significance test with ties are extensive and Hays should be consulted (Hays, I963), 3. Multiple Comparisons Usir^ Rank Sums. This procedure is described in volume 6 of Technome tries (Dunn, 1964), This procedure involves finding the average rank for the two groups being compared, and dividing the differences between the two ranks by the standard deviation corrected for ties. This yields a z-score. The formula for the variance is variance-j^2 = N(M+1) Sum (t3-t) 1 ^ 12 12(N-1) ^1'^ no'

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BIBLIOGRAPHy Anthony, J., "The System Makers Placet and Freud," Brit. J. K&d. Psych., 29, 1950, pp. 20-3i^. Anthony, J., "The Significance of Piaget for Psychiatry," Brit. J. Ifed. Psych., 20.1 1957, PP. 225-263. Bruner, J. S., St udi es In Cognitive Gi^ov rth, John V/iley and Sons, Inc., New York, 195^. Byrne, Donn and Grlffett, William, "A Developmental Investigation of the Law of Attraction, " J. of Personality and Social psychology, 19^6, pp. 699702. Challipan, H, C, "Factors Influencing Friendships Among Pi-esohool Children," Child Dev., 1932, 2, pp. 1^5-158. Davies, J, A,, "Correlates of SocioTaetric Status Among Peers," J. Educ. Res., 1957, ^0, pp. 561-5^9 . Dunn, 0, J,, "Eultiple Comparisons Using Rank Sums," TechnometrioSi 6, No. 3, August^ 1964, p. 24l» Dymond, Rosalind P., Hu.ghs, Anne 3,, and Raabe, Virginia L, , "Measurable Clianges in Empathy V/ith Age," J, Consult. Psycho., 1952, 16, pp. 202-206. Elkind, David, "Children's Discovery of the Conservation of Mass, Weight, and Volui.is," J. of Genetic Psychology, . 1961, PP. 219-227. Elkind, Da.vid, "Sgocentrism in Adolescence," Child Dev., 1967, 21* PP« 1025-1034. Purfey, P. H. , "Some Factors Influencing the Selection of Boys' ChiiKis," J. Appl. Psych., 1927, 11, pp. 47-51. Flavell, J. H. , Thje Developmental Psjcholcgy of Jean ^» Van No strand Co., Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, I963. Goldschiiild, Karcsl L., "Different Types of Conservation and Nonconservation and Their Relation to Age, Sex, IQ, MA, and Vocabulary," Ch. Dev., I967, 21* PP» 1229-.1246. 56

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5? Goldschmld, Marcel L. , "The Relation of Conaervation to Emotional and Environmental Aspects of Development," Ch. Dev., 1968, 21, pp. 579-5^9 » Goldsohmid, Marcel L, , and Bentler, P, M, , "The Dimensions of Number Conservation," CIti. Dev., I968, ^, pp. 195-205. Hays, Williara L. , Stays tics^ for Psvchplog^ Kolt, Rinehart, and WinsTon7"lnc.",~Kie'w "iorlc," I963. Horrocks, J, E., and Buker, Mae E., "A Study of the Friendship Fluctuations of Preadolescents , " J<, Genet, Psych., 1951, 28, pp. 131-1^/4. Horrocks, J, E,, and Thompson, G, G,, "A Study of Friendship Fluctuations of Rural Boys and Girls," J, Genet, Psych., 19-'!'6, 69, pp. 187-198. Hunt, J, HcV. , Intjdli;p;ence_ and Experience , Ronald Press Co., New York,'l9"5l."' Inhelder, B. , and Plage t, J,, ^e_ Grovith of Logical Thln.king from Childhood to " Adolescence , Basic Books, New York, 1958. ^ Kendall, M. G. , Rank Correlation Methods, Charles Griff en and Co., London, '"1962, Kofsky, E, , "A Soalogram Study of Classif icatory Development." Ch. Dev.. I966, 21' PP' 191-20^5-. Lovell, Kc, Healey, D. , and Rowland, A. D, , "Growth of Some Geometrical Concepts," Ch, Dev., I962, 33, pp. 751-767. KcCandless, Boyd R. , "Peer Popularity and Dependence On Adults in Preschool-Age Children," Ch. Dev., 32, 1957, pp. 5II-518. Moore, S., and Updigraff, R, , "Sociometric Status of Preschool Children Related to Age, Sex, KurturanceGiving, and Dependency," Ch. Dev., 196^-, 35, r>p. 51952i}', ^ Neale, John M. , "Egocentrlsm in Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Children," Ch, Dev., 37, I966, pp. 97-101, Plage t, J,, Ju^^meJlt and Reasoning in the Child , Harcourt, Brace, New York, l9'5"8. " " Piaget, J., Play D reams and Imitati on in Childhood . Norton, New York ,""19517' " '

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58 Piaget, J., The Orlp;lns bl* Intelllfcgnoe In Chil dren, Int. Univ. Press /Tiew York,""l932*r." Piaget, J., The Con struct ion of Realltg-_ in the Child. Basic Books, New York, T95^. Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B. , The Cl iild*s Conception of Space , Routledge and Kegan VB.nl, London, i95o7 Piaget, J., "Comments," MIT Press Pamphlet, 196^-, Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B, , The Psychology of the Child, Basic Books, New York, 19^7 Siegal, Irving E, , and Hooper, Frank H,, I xjgloal Thinking In Children, Holt, Bine hart, and Winston, New York, T96Hr" " Thompson, G, G,, end Horrocks, J, E,, "A Stiidy of Friendship Pli;ctuations Among Urban Boys and Girls," J. Genet, Psych., 19^-.'-7, Z0.» PP« 53-63. Vygotsky, L. J,, Th ought and Lg,ngua ge, Wiley, New York, 1962 . ^~ ' " ^ Winer, Gerald A,, "Induced Set and Acquisition of Number Conservation," Ch. Dev., I968, 29, PPe 195-205.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Donald Roger Rardln was born December 15, 19^2, at Laramie, Wyoming. In June I96I, he was graduated from Laramie High School and the following September enrolled In the University of Wyoming. In June of I965 he received his Bachelor of Arts degree and began graduate study at the University of Florida. In December of I966 he received his blaster of Arts degree from the University of Florida. 59

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This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of the committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August, 1970 Dean, Graduate School SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE