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Indian

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Indian
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9 9&


Vol. V, No. 5 U. S. Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Saturday, 25 March 19.50


MORE ABOUT FENCES

There seems to be an idea prevalent that whenever a quarters occupant is annoyed by trespassing by his neighbor's children or dog, or even the neighbor himself, the Navy is obligated to construct a fence. Entirely to the contrary, the obligation is upon the individuals concerned to resolve their difficulties properly through firm understanding.
Mutual consideration a m o n g neighbors is especially important in a small naval community like Guantanamo Bay, and annoyances to neighbors cannot be tolerated. Children will act according to the restraints demanded by their parents. Pets which are nuisances make nuisances of their owners and are a credit to no one. Individuals who are nuisances are treated accordingly and can expect scant consideration.
Obstructs Lawn Mowers
In general, fences and walls are provided only where necessary to protect life and limb, and have been constructed where need was apparent. When individuals seek to erect them in other locations such construction is costly and wasteful. In addition to the initial cost of the fence (with more than 700 quarters to be considered! !), the cost of painting and replacement in this area of rapid deterioration is prohibitive, and the cost of grounds maintenence is exhorbitant. The latter is especially true because power mowers cannot be used to cut grass which is segregated in small plots, and extra trimming and cutting close to fences is necessitated. In general therefore, where fences have been authorized for private construction, the builders deny themselves public maintenance of their grounds but are responsible for maintenance of lawns, shrubs, and fences at the same high standards which the Navy would provide. Unfortunately at Newtown, the maintenance of the grounds rests with the individuals due to the low 'rental rates of this Lanham Act housing. However, fences detract from the basic services provided by the government at no cost.


BRITISH AND CANADIAN' SHIPS SLATED
TO ARRIVE IN GUANTANAMO TOMORROW

USS Albemarle With Top Portrex Umpires Embarked.*
Arrives Tomorrow; British Units Depart Thuf'sday
By Allen Collier, Editor
Two Canadian ships, HMCS Magnificent and HMCS Micmac in company with the Royal Navy ships, HMS Glasgow, HMS Snipe, and the Gold Ranger, a Royal Navy Auxiliary tanker arrive here early tomorrow morning for a four day stay.
PRIZES LEND STATESIDE Embarked in HMS Glasgow wilL AIR TO SPANISH MAIN be Vice Admiral R.V. SymondsTaylor, C.B., D. S. C., CommanderPirate treasure, pieces of eight in Chief, American West Indies; and bars of glittering bullion h Squadron. A national salute will nothing on the variety and glitter be fired by his flagship at 0800 of the prizes to be given away to Monday, 27 March. The salute will lucy ners t te idway con- be returned by this Base. lucky winners at the midway Sparcessions at the Guantanamo Bay
Spanish Main Carnival. From roul- row, arrives Tuesday, 28 March to ette to the wheel of fortune, from join the other Royal Navy units the weight-guessing booth to bingo here. The Snipe and Sparrow are everybody will win the prizes ac, both patrol frigates similiar to the British sloop Amethyst which made
quired by the Carnival committee's international headlines last year recently returned purchasing party Inter runnin last year to New York. in her running gunfight with
Other Prizes Chinese Communist shore batteries.
Prizes too, will be the lot of those The Glasgow is a 12,000 ton light who sell the greatest number of cruiser. raffle tickets on the convertible, Also slated to arrive Guandefraeetanamo tomorrow is the USS Aldeep-freeze and scooter being of- bemarle, (AV-5) with LTGEN L. P. fered- for the most cleverly con-bmre A-)wt TE ,P ceived and for the most beautiful Hunt, USMC, Chief umpire at the loaseivedrnd fo the mlost baet recent "Portrex" operations, his floats entered in the float parade - Chief of Staff, BGEN G. F. Schilt, and for the kids whose costumes USMC and the Navy's Chief umare adjudged the most striking, in pire, RADM F. D. Kirtland, USN,
Not all the prizes are desirable Commander, Training Command, for their estheticbeauty of course. U. S. Atlantic Fleet embarked. If, like most folks, you get a The Albemarle is scheduled to kick out of balloons, monkeys-on- leave Tuesday, 28 March while the
kickoutof bllonsmonky son- British-Canadian units will remain a-stick, celluloid false teeth that he un ts w0 main click, ringmasters' whips, and the here until Thursday, 30 March. rest of the things that make a Last Friday, carrier air groups carnival a carnival, then the Span- operating in' this area "celebrated" ish Main Carnival is the place for St. Patrick's Day by "blowing ish. MGuantanamo off the map". The first you. s simulated strike against the Base
If your sweet tooth or appetite came just as the sun was beginning demands Coney Island red hots, to make its appearance over the home-made cakes, soft drinks or a contains. All through the morncold Hatuey - all those too will, be in t ai A roug ate ornavailable. ing, one air group after another
In short, the Spanish Main Mid- contacted McCalla Field for'dlearway will be a treasure chest of fun, ance to "attack your installation,".
I Leeward Point field also was under excitement, and enjoyment for all, attackduring the morning as Firewith a pot of gold at the endof fly aircraft from the Canadian.-careach personal rainbow. rier Magnificent carried out a simuSee ya at the Carnival! (Continued on Page Five) -








~&Paze Two THE INDIAN Saturday, 25 March 1950


Editorial Office, NOB Administration Bldg.,
Room 205 - Phone 254
Saturday, 25 March 1950
U. S. NAVAL OPERATING BASE
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
Rear Admiral W. K. Phillips, USN
Commander
Allen Collier, JOS ---------------- Editor
P. H. Teeter, LCDR ------ Staff Advisor THE INDIAN is published weekly, financed by appropriated funds, printed on government equipment, for free distribution on the U. S. Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, by order of the Base Commander.
THE INDIAN is published in compliance with the provisions of NAVEXOS-P-35 (Rev) 1945.
THE INDIAN uses Armed Forces Press Service material which may be reprinted with the credit line: AFPS.

LETTERS OF THANKS
!RECEIVED BY COMNOB

Letters of appreciation for services rendered by this Base to visiting ships were received early this week by the Base Commander and are printed below for the information of all hands.
From the Commander, Destroyers, Atlantic Fleet came this word, "Efficient and timely delivery (of) U.S. Mail to Kingston by VU-10 (was) much appreciated."
From the Commander of the First Dutch Task Fleet came this message. "Upon leaving Guantanamo Bay I wish to express my sincere thanks to you and the officers and men of the Base for the hospitality during the short period we stayed at the Base under your command. We hope our joint exercises will be repeated and that we may enter Guantanamo Bay again."
"Many thanks for services provided DesDiv 202 and MinDiv 6, my staff and me during our short but enjoyable visits to Gtmo." was the message received from Commander DesFlot 4.

L. A. F. R. A.

How's about it gals? Let's have a big turnout for an evening of fun, Tuesday March 28th, in the "Caribbean Terrace Room" at the C. P. 0. Club. The social will start at 7:00 p.m. as there is to be an open discussion on our plans for the Auxiliary's cake booth for the Carnival next month. Also think over ideas of how to enlarge our membership.
The Hostess for the evening will be Mrs. Hart, our president. During Bingo, refreshments will be served. So come on gals, new members and old of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Fleet Reserve Association, let's all turn out and make the social\ a "good time had by all".


EDITORIAL

Picture a pair of dirty greasy hands with long dirt-encrusted fingernails.
Do you want that person to handle the food that enters your mouth?
Bacteria do not walk. They are hitchhikers. Everywhere they go they are carried by some person or object. Bacteria on hands contaminate any object they touch.
Now do not get bacteria phobiaall bacteria is not harmful; in fact, without bacteria, there would not be any growth or decay. However we do not want harmful bacteria in our food.
The food handler who does not wash his hands after a trip to the bathroom is a criminal in every sense of the word.
By washing the hands, often one of the biggest links in the chain of transmission is broken from sick persons and disease carriers to well persons.
It is also well to remember that well persons can infect themselves with their hands unless they keep their hands away from their mouths. Most communicable diseases that affect mankind gain entrance by way of the mouth.
The wise parents will teach their children to wash their hands often, especially before eating their meals and after going to the bathroom.
Esthetically, it is important to insist that they keep their hair combed and their shoes shined but for their health, teach them to keep their hands away from their mouth and teach them the importance of washing their hands. Bacteria get away with murder because they are so small. They live in a world hidden from view. All public toiletrooms should have plenty of hot and cold running water, and they should be well stocked with soap and individual towels. A little extra money expended for this very personal hygenic purpose is money WELL spent. You could call this "Community Health Insurance".
Wherever you go insist on this service. It is your right to have good health. Managers and proprietors will see that this service is provided if enough people bring it to their attention and demand it. It is good citizenship to warn managers of public eating establishments if their food handlers or general service is not up to sanitary standards. Remember it's your health and the health of your family which is at stake!
(Reprinted from the Norfolk, NAS, Dope Sheet.)

Six year old Mary woke up about two in the morning. "Tell me a story mamma," she pleaded.
"Hush darling," said mother, "Daddy will be home soon and tell us both one."


Catholic Masses 0700-Naval Base Chapel 0900-Naval Base Chapel 1745-Naval Base Chapel Daily Mass - 0630 Confessions before all Masses Protestant Services 0930-Sunday School at Schoolhouse 1100-Naval Base Chapel Protestant Choir rehearsal each Thursday at 1930
Chaplains at this Activity CDR R. W. FAULK. USN
(Protestant)
LT P. J. Marron, USN
(Catholic)

TEEN-AGE ROUNDUP


By Eunice Besse
Peggy Claar and Pat Besse spent Friday night together. Saturday morning at 0700 they took a hike to Cable Beach and back. The sunburns were done to a beautiful turn.
Bennet Richards had a birthday party Saturday but we haven't been able to find out how old he is. Anyway we wish you "many happy returns of the day".
Plans for graduation are getting well underway. Dr. Permenter, Mrs. Souders (representing the 8th grade) and the Senior Class had a meeting and discussion. The graduates are now turning ideas over in their minds to find out whether they want a traditional ceremony or something new.
The 8th grade took a field trip under the supervision of Mr. Fife.
Mrs. Holweck has been transferred from the High School to the Elementary Faculty. Mrs. Machtolff is leaving school for an operation and Mrs. Holweck is taking her place as teacher of the 6th grade. Mrs. D. Permenter is replacing Mrs. Holweck and already we know we like her and will enjoy having her as our librarian.
Plans for the Monogram banquet are also getting a thorough going over. The cheerleaders who are being held responsible for the decorations, held a meeting this week.
G. A. A. Girls keep an eye on those unexcused absences. Tentative plans for meeting on Wednesday after school, instead of Thursday morning have been made.
We're all glad to see Ramona Moses back at school smiling and healthy once more. Welcome back to the Coral Pit, Ramona.
"Whoopee" cried the drunk as he crashed into the gas station; "I've struck oil".

The prisoner didn't want to be pardoned in the winter because it was warmer in the cooler.

It's fifty-fifty-women have their beauty secrets and men have their secret beauties.


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t~ar'e Two


THE INDIAN


SaturdaYv 25 March 1950








Saturday. 25 March 1950 TTE ONDIAN BA

THE BRITISH OCCUPATION OF GUANTANAMO BAY


(Editor's Note: The article reprinted below was written many years ago by one of our recent distinguished visitors to NOB Guantanamo, Admiral (then LieutenantCommander) Forrest P. Sherman. In his reminiscing about Guantanamo Bay, the Admiral mentioned his earlier work and offered to forward a copy to the Base Commander. Originally printed in Vol. 57, No. 4, Whole No. 338 of the United States Naval Institute Proceedings, the article is re-printed for the information of Base residents.).
Familiar as most officers of the United States Navy are with the vicinity of Guantanamo, the fact that Guantanamo Bay was a British Naval Base in the year 1741 is little known. The commanding position of Guantanamo with relation to the strategy of the Caribbean, and to Windward Passage in particular, is well appreciated. The fact that the British once occupied Guantanamo and attempted the seizure of Santiago for the purpose of safeguarding British trade furnishes an interesting exposition of certain problems of trade defense as applied to so well-known an area.
In the years 1739-1748 Great Britain's total annual revenue was in the neighborhood of ten million pounds. At the same time imports from the West Indies alone ran to one. and -one-third millions and by 1800 had increased to seven million pounds annually. The West Indies trade was, therefore, of vital importance to the British merchants and the heavy import duties formed a large proportion of the government's income. The greater part of this lucrative trade came from Jamaica and consisted for the most part of sugar and its by-products. Exports to the West Indies consisted of the many various articles .needed in a rapidly growing .colony*.
� In times of peace the homewardbound trade from Jamaica passed along. two routes; one west of .Cuba and into the -Atlantic past Havana, and the other past Santiago and into the Atlantic through
-the Windward Passage. In times of hostilities with Spain, the western route was impracticable and the Windward Passage route was rendered difficult by -the activities of the Spanish cruisers, guarda-costas, and privateers.
Although Spain and England were at peace during the years ,prior to 1739, their commercial rivalry and conflicting ambitions
-with respect to colonial trade had led to many clashes. Spain denied to English subjects trading privileges .with Spanish colonies except those allowed to the old South Sea -Company by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). British" vessels cotnmefeed Smuggling and, trading in defiance of the Spanish naviga6n' laws: Spanish coast . guard vessels. and privateprs. retaliated

high seas: thie :innocent, among the


By Lieutenant Commander Forrest Sherman, U. S. Navy
guilty. In some cases British seamen were brutally maltreated by their captors. In 1739 Great Britain determined on reprisals, demanded indemnities for the Spanish depredations, and prepared for hostilities which soon followed.
Edward Vernon, Vice-Admiral of the Blue, commanding the West Indies Squadron, had taken Porto Bello on November 22, 1739, with a force of only six ships and had become the hero of the hour. In 1740 lack of reinforcements and supplies and the presence of a superior French squadron of doubtful neutrality at Martinique had caused Vernon's operations to be limited mainly to maintaining cruising vessels on the stations necessary for trade protection and to the escorting of important convoys clear of the danger from Spanish. cruisers. In Match 1741, after being heavily reinforced for the purpose of offensive operations, he undertook an attack on Cartagena with thirty heavy ships, numerous frigates, fire ships, bomb vessels, and transports, in all 124 sail carrying a landing force of fifteen thousand troops. . Vernon had written to the Duke of Newcastle in October, 1739t, "I can never be the adviser of land expeditions, especially into this country, that may drain the royal treasury, and, in case of a French war, disable His Majesty from keeping a superiority at sea, on which, in my apprehensions, both the security and the prosperity of the Kingdom depend." In January, 1740, he wrote further, "In my judgment, I shall limit all expeditions to this country to be entered upon immediately on their arrival, and to be executed within the first six weeks, before their men would begin to fall sick." The soundness of these judgments was soon to be proved in spite of his wishes in the matter. The Cartagena expedition was a failure due to delays, differences of opinion between Vernon and General Wentworth, who commanded the troops, and, on the military side, absolute lack of realization of the necessity for speed, dash, and intelligent acceptance of the risks incident thereto, in operations in a climate where continued exposure meant almost certain sickness to the European.
On May 26, 1741, Vernon, Wentworth, and.Governor Trelawney of Jamaica, decided to attempt to capture Santiago in pursuance of the. home government's policy of offensive warfare against the Spanish colonies. The selection of Santiago as. an objective was. governed by threo-reasons.- Firsti it would be valuable. -as.; a Base: for further operation . ,g , tnt .':Q ouba. . 'Such operations: ,Were: under considera-


tion and Governor Shirley of Massachusetts was already offering land grants to:,propective settlers: in Cuba. Second, Santiago was strategically located between the Spaniards in Cuba and the French in Haiti whose entry into the war was imminent Third, and most important of all, it was urgently necessary to check the depredations of Spanish privateers operating from Santiago.
Vernon sailed from Port Royal on July 1 in his flagship Boyne, eighty guns, with eight ships of the line, -one intermediate ship, eight frigates, and some forty transports, carrying 3,400 troops under Wentworth. Eight additional heavy ships of which three were refitting, were left at Port Royal. Among the troops was the remnant of the American Regiment, in which served Lawrence I Washington who later -named his estate Mount Vernon after his commander. On July 18 the fleet arrived at Guantanamo, which had recently been reconnoitered and found undefended, and which was at that time known to the English as "Walthenham Harbour". Hervey, int 1779, described Guantanamo as "a large and - secure haven, which protects the vessels that ride in it from the hurricanes which are so frequent in the West Indies.
The Ripon, sixty guns, Captain Rentone, had been sent ahead, leaving Port Royal on June 25, to reconnoiter Santiago. After receiving Rentone's report, a council of war was held on July 20 which decided to attack Santiago from the shore side, marching the troops overland from Guantanamo, and delaying the attempt to force entrance until the troops had attacked the city from the weakest side. Accordingly the disembarkation was commenced..The bay was at this time renamed Cumberland Harbour.
Vernon apparently foresaw very little difficulty in a rapid march to Santiago against the slight resistance to be expected from the Spaniards. Wentworth, on the other hand, was greatly. impressed by the difficulties of the Cuban jungle and the unusual effort required for the construction of roads and clearing away of obstructions to, the passage of guns and heavy equipment. He was not the type of commander .to push forward without deliberate and careful reconnaisances, construction of defended camps, or without his heavy equipment. He halted his advance short of Santa Catalina de Guantanamo (Guantanamo City), saying that -advance. :to. that point was impracticable. ...After.. strong -repesentations from the:naval Comnander,::he wgain' advanced and.
(Continidu,4!A -Pagte 'Four)


Paze Threr:


T.HE (INDI








Pav FourTH NIN auda.2 arh15


(Continued from. Page Three)
reached Catalina without resistance. In its vicinity he went into camp and there remained. To a force of Europeans, such a slow protracted campaign was bound to be fraught with danger. The disadvantages of Wentworth's delays can be appreciated when we consider the difficulties experienced by the American Aimy in a much shorter advance under much more enlightened conditions of sanitation. Shafter's 5th Army Corps landed on June 22, and Santiago capitulated on July 14, 1898. On August 3, the troops having been ashore six weeks, the general officers commanding divisions and brigades present subscribed to the famous "Round Robin" stating in part:
"The Army is disabled by
malarial fever to such an extent that its efficiency is destroyed, and it is in a condition to be practically entirely destroyed by the epidemic of yellow fever sure to come in the near future. This army must be moved at once or it
will perish.
"The chief surgeon of the
army corps and all the surgeons of the divisions stated
further:
"There is imminent danger
that the yellow fever now sporadic and of mild type, may any day assume a virulent type and became epidemic."
Vernon openly criticized Wentworth's conduct. For over a month a most energetic correspondence ensued between the admiral and the general while operations ashore were limited to foraging and scouting parties from the camp on the river bank near the present Guantanamo City. Hervey$ records the farthest advance as being that of a reconnoitering party under a Major Dunster which reached the village of Elleguava supposed to have been situated about sixteen miles from Santiago. This unit consisted of about 150 Americans and Negroes. Meanwhile the main body of the troops was succumbing rapidly to disease.
By the end of September, all thought of offensive operations on shore had ceased. Over a hundred men died of sickness in one week and the effective strength of the army had dwindled to little or nothing. One member of the expedition wrote:
"Our men are very sickly and
die fast, more from want of necessaries than the inclemencies of the climate I fear.
Some die from their own excesses in drink."
As soon as the army was disembarked, light vessels had been sent to watch the Spanish fleet of twelve of the line under Don Rodrigo de Torres in Havana; the transports had been sent to the upper bay; a blockade of Santiago


had been instituted; and the six heaviest British vessels were anchored in line across the entrance to Guantanamo to guard against surprise attack from the sea. On September 2, Vernon went around to Santiago to make a personal examination looking forward to forcing the entrance with his ship, but decided it to be impossible because of the heavy batteries, narrow entrance closed by a boom, and the uncertain, shifting offshore winds. The correctness of his decision was supported by the experience of Sir Charles Knowles who commanded a naval attack on Santiago in 1748 and had to withdraw because of a boom in the entrance, fire ships, the unexpected strength of the batteries and the shifting wind.
While the forces on shore remained inactive, the fleet, in spite of the threat of the Spanish squadron at Havana, operated extensively against the enemy privateers and cleared them from the Windward Passage. A number of valuable prizes were taken, including three regular Spanish men-o'-war. While a nucleus of heavy ships remained at Guantanamo at all times, from which strong units could be detailed for convoy duty, cruising vessels were distributed on various stations. One unit was maintained on blockading station off Santiago, one to windward of Cape Bacca to protect trade passing along the south shore of Haiti. Meanwhile, other cruisers operated offensively against enemy trade to windward of La Hacha on the route from Spain to Cartagena and Porto Bello, on the north coast of Cuba on the route through the old Bahama channel, and off Cape Corrientes on the important enemy route from Cartagena and Porto Bello to Vera Cruz and Havana.
Richmond� says:
T h e Spanish privateers,
driven by Vernon's cruising ships from the favorable areas like the Windward Passage and the track south of Hispaniola, had extended their operations further north and were even meeting ships as far away as lat. 30, to the south of Bermuda, entailing a far greater effort upon the British cruisers.
Spread over a greater area, the privateers were more difficult to deal with by cruising methods, and the only satisfactory method of securing the trade was by convoying it through the whole of the danger zone.
The smaller ships, sloops and lesser craft, were scattered in the channels used by the trade, the more powerful ships were employed in the convoys, and the bulk of the ships of the line was massed in a squadron to cover the operations of the army. The defeat of this squadron, Vernon remarked, would overthrow all other objects; for


the ring would then be broken and the whole organization would fall to the ground, a very good example on a small scale of the complementary duties of ships of the line and
cruisers.
During October, orders arrived requiring the return to home waters; of a large portion of the fleet preparatory to operations in the Mediterrean. By the latter part of October, over 2,000 troops were down with fever. Meanwhile the Spaniards had strengthened the defenses, of Santiago to such an extent that all chance of a successful attack had disappeared. On October 5, Wentworth had written to say that nothing further could be done and on November 7 a military council resolved that the surviving troops should be re-embarked. Accordingly on November 20, re-embarkation commenced and the four months' occupation came to an end. Vernon, in his rage at the outcome of the expedition, asked to return to England to avoid further operations with a general whom he termed "more changeable than the moon."
Hervey's account reads:
"Thus ended the operations
in the West Indies during the year 1741, in which the lives of many brave men were sacrificed through the misconduct
of their commanders."
General Shafter stated after the war, that while en route to Cuba in June, 1898, he read an account of Wentworth's failure and that it convinced him that his sole chance of success would lie in the impetuosity of his attack.11
The operations sketched above are of unusual interest since they were undertaken as a direct measure of trade defense in an area where trade protection has been and may again be a matter of concern. Although the attack on Santiago was unsuccessful and the occupation of Guantanamo Bay so, terminated, they serve, together with the attendant operations at sea, to emphasize the importance of the capture of the enemy bases as a measure of trade defense. Mahan speaks of "the enemies' colonies, the foreign bases of their sea power and, in the absence of' great fleets, the only possible support upon which commerce destroying can depend." And again, when 'the enemy confines himself to commerce destroying by crowds of small privateers, then the true military policy is to stamp out the nests where they swarm."
* Bryan Edwards, History of the West Indies.
H. W. Richmond, The Navy in the War of 1739-48.
Hervey, Naval History of Great Britain, 1779.
� H.W. Richmond, The Navy in the War" of 1739-48.
Alger, The Spanish American War. Mahan, Influence of Sea Power on theFrench Revolution and Empire.


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THE INDIAN


Saturday. 25 March 1950:








Saturday. 25 March 1950 TEIDA aeFv


GIRL SCOUT NOTES

By Adeline Irwin
Our Troop Committee were "Busy as Beavers" at the last meeting, squaring away all the details for the Brownie Meeting of March 21.
There was also the business of changing Transportation Director for the Intermediates. Unfortunately we are losing Mrs. McDonald and family as they are leaving for the West Coast on April 17. Mrs. Parnell has relieved Mrs. Mac of her duties, to enable her to get all ready to go. We shall miss Mrs. Mac and Patsy, but we join together in wishing them, Bon Voyage.
At the regular scout meeting Friday, the girls put on impromptu skits using miscellaneous articles brought by the leaders., They even had an audience of wide-eyed little tots who live in the vicinity of the lyceum.
The cookies, this week, were supplied by Gloria McKuin, and were they dee-lush!
Mrs. L. R. Smith, who is the Brownie Leader, wishes to express her appreciation to the mothers who cooperated so grandly at the
-irst Brownie meeting, last Tuesday. The little scouts went home, excited and happily singing "Goodnite Brownies."

SHIP ARRIVALS
(Continued from Page One)
lated attack on the outpost across the bay. In addition, Army jet fighters were departing Leeward enroute to the States from their recent Portrex operations.
Early Saturday morning, carrier aircraft again appeared in the skies over Guantanamo and the air around McCalla field was filled with a drone of the single engine craft as fifty-five planes landed at McCalla to remain until late afternoon. The planes were from the carriers, Philippine Sea, Wright, and Mindoro.


HOSPITAL NOTES

Nursery News: Christopher Manke born 20 March to LCDR and Mrs. W. C. Manke, DC, USN; Baby Boy Davis born 22 March to AF1 and Mrs. J. S. Davis.
The entire staff of the hospital this week extended sincere sympathy to CAPT and Mrs. Robbins upon the death of CAPT Robbins' father, 18 March in Worcester, N. Y. He was 92 years old.
LT and Mrs. Shapard depart on the Hodges today for thirty days leave in the States. Dr. Shapard is looking forward to some good ole bass fishing in Oklahoma.
An event which shall no doubt go down in hospital history was held at Windmill Beach last Sunday and Monday. The Commissary Department is to be commended on serving the best picinc chow this side of heaven. Everyone says this was the best picnic and beach party we've ever had.
Bobby Doyle, HM3, LeRoy Gibson, SN and G. A. Templeton, HMC are getting first-hand knowledge as to what makes the hospital tick. Hope you will be back on the job soon, fellows.
R. E. Stapleton, HA returned this week from Stateside leave.

THRIFT SHOP

Well into its second year of service to all hands is the Thrift Shop, under the auspices of the Navy Relief Auxiliary and unique in that it both buys and sells merchandise.
Let's 'take a trip through the Thrift Shop with that crib your baby has outgrown from your house to its new home. It has been cleaned and scrubbed, and is in the car enroute to the Thrift Shop where there are many items of clothing and furniture and perhaps a stroller to take the place of your crib. At the Thrift Shop you will be met by one of the many volunteer workers who will help you, place a reasonable price on your crib, since the Thrift Shop is not established for individual profits but rather as a service to Base personnel.
There your crib will remain for all to see until one day someone just its size will need a crib and off it will go to its new home. The transaction is noted in the Thrift Shop records and the selling price given to you less ten per cent which is given to the Navy Relief Society.
Each month the stock in the Thrift Shop is checked and prices reduced ten per cent but at any time you may withdraw or donate your merchandise and on leaving the Base all items must be withdrawn or they are automatically donated. All items of small value should be donated and all items must be, clean and ready for use when delivered to the shop.
That's the story of your crib. You


O'ER THE TEA CUPS
By Betty Radcliffe
I read this in a magazine the other day; "Be friendly with the folks you know. If it weren't for them, you'd be a total stranger". That's pretty good advice.
Mrs. J. M. Player gave her daughter, Andrea Alice a birthday party Tuesday, March 20.
Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Ernest entertained the Protestant Choir with a garden party last Friday evening. The party was given as a farewell to Mrs. Tommie Murray. With all the talent present there was, of course, an evening of music and songs.
Mrs. R. E. Beattie was hostess to the sewing club Friday Mar. 17.
There seem to be several sewing clubs on the Base and I suppose that is the reason I see so may smart new dresses around. Keep up the good work girls.
Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Cole entertained with a card party at their home last Saturday night. The "gang" hadn't had their usual weekly card party for a couple of weeks, but they are back in the swing of things now.
The Ladies Camera Club went to the Hobby Shop Photo Lab. last week and was instructed on the fundamentals of making contact prints. They proudly went home bearing pictures they had made themselves.
The Photo Lab. in the Hobby Shop is quite well equipped and the ladies are just as welcome to use it as the men. Shopping around: The Navy Exchange Family Restaurant has something new and good to offer . . . T-bone steaks! These steaks are fresh Armour's or Cudahy's meat from Miami and are served on big steak platter with french fries, onions, vegetable and salad. There is a lovely and very competent waitress to serve you. The waitress and the new steak cook make sure that your steak is cooked just as you order it. I have had one of these steaks and it was good . . . but good.
Mrs. Colleen Jones is certainly doing a splendid job as shopper's guide in the Navy Exchange. If you have something special you'd like to buy through the exchange all you have to do is talk to Mrs. Jones and she will give you all the information available and try to get your order for you.
See ya' next week.

"Phew", said one of our average readers as he passed the stockyards, "that must be where all the Indian jokes are written.

are happy in the knowledge that you have helped someone. We will be surprised if you do not find something you will want to take its place.


THE INDIAN


Pave Five







Saturday. 25 March 1950TH ININGm.B-2Ma5O5O)


EISENHOWER TELLS
U. S. NOT TO
FEAR SUPER BOMBS

Philadelphia (AFPS) - General of the Army, Dwight D. Eisenhower said recently that Americans should not be afraid of the hydrogen or atom bomb.
The Columbia University president, Commander of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, spoke at Temple University where he received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree.
General Eisenhower said that there is no need for concern that
the United States might become an "armed nation or a police state".
"There is no absolute security in arms," he continued. They wear out. People get tired of carrying them, and the other follow can develop arms, too."
However, General Eisenhower said that America must maintain its Armed Forces "to protect our way of life, not just territory." He urged that the nation "stand before the world with moral rectitude" which would alleviate many foreign problems. But he said Americans should not be "naive".

HOUSE COMMITTEE TO STUDY DEPENDENTS
HOSPITAL FACILITIES

Washington (AFPS)-Additional hospital beds for dependents of Armed Forces personnel may be made available following an inspections of facilities by a special House Armed Services Subcommittee.
Representative L. Mendel Rivers was recently appointed chairman of the committee that will "look over" recent Defense Department recommendations regarding the closing of military hospitals.
The appointments of Rep. Rivers and other committee members were made by Rep. Carl Vinson, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee.

Lost-a fountain pen by a young lady half full of ink.

SMALL LEAKS ARE COSTLY!
SIZE " A leak this size
will waste 62,000
gallons a year.*
OF j~i A leak this size
will waste 354,000
gallons a year.*


LEAK '


A leak this size will waste over 1,314,000 gallons a year.*


* At average water pressure.
Report plumbing troubles
promptly (Dial 637)


HOTEL ROOM BUILT FOR
"ROOM SERVICE"
By Don Stuck
The Stage Manager and his crew of carpenters, painters and electricians are busy these days transforming the stage of the Little Theatre into a hotel room (complete with twin beds) where the three-act comedy "Room Service" will be presented on April 11th, 12th and 13th.
When the curtain goes up, you'll look into Room No. 920 of the White Way Hotel, somewhere in Times Square, occupied at that time by Gordon Miller, a shifty theatrical producer and his entire cast of hungry actors, all of whom have acquired the habit of calling for "Room Service", while the bill and the manager's temperature zoom upwards in equal proportion.
Joseph Gribble, the manager, is beside himself trying to hide Miller's tremendous bill, having been victimized by Miller (his brotherin-law) into accepting a ten per cent share in a "sure-hit" and thus, can't very well evict Miller and his company of actors. On the other hand, Gribble is having his books examined by Gregory Wagner, a blustery executive who wants to be a vice president. Wagner has a great deal of difficulty trying to find a loose screw in the management of the nearly bankrupt White Way Hotel.
Just how Miller finds his backer, and how his play "Godspeed" is finally staged, must remain a secret for now. Be assured, however, that you'll scream with laughter as the many screwball situations unfold.
All members of the cast of "Room Service" are putting a lot of effort into portraying the characters they represent and spend four nights each week polishing lines and situations into refinement.
Tickets for "Room Service", costing a mere 350 each, will go on sale at the Navy Exchanges at the Naval Station and Naval Air Station, and at the Marine Post Exchange, next Saturday, 1 April. It is strongly recommended that you plan to buy your tickets early to make sure that you get to see this uproariously funny play, "Room Service".
A naval Base bus was unusually crowded one morning. A passenger sitting next to the window suddenly buried his head in his arms. The man next to him asked, "Are you sick? Can I do anything for you?"
"It's nothing like that" the other assured him. "I just hate to see old ladies standings.

Santa Claus is the only man who can run around all night with a bag and not get talked about.

We point with pride to the purity of the white space between our jokes.


VU-10 NOTES
By C. P. Dougias, PNI
We don't seem to be able to gather much information from the squadron this week, for some reason or other. It's probably because most of the men are boning up on course books for the forthcoming examinations for advancement to third, second, and first class petty officer to be held on 31 March.
It's our guess that all concerned are going to make a concerted effort to be advanced this time, rather than wait for the next examinations, which will be Navywide.
The squadron officers' softball team played host to the Naval Air Station officers' team Tuesday evening and came out on the lesser end of an eight to six score. Whitey Jones did the tossing for the VU-10 gang, and was charged with the defeat. Whitey informed us, however, that he was definitely not beaten-he just lost. It was the unanimous opinion of the VU-10 team that LTJG Tougas should have been performing in a circus. instead of on the softball field.
Incidentally, we've just been informed by "Rembrandt" Matherson that LT Tougas now spells his. name "Two-Goose".
Operations just gave us the word that during a recent drone operation, it was the same old British story "One of our aircraft is missing". Only this time it was three of the little red dogs. LT Jones mourns their loss very sorrowfully. Our eminent leading chief, Pat Cleary, says that so far as he's concerned, unification is working one hundred percent within the squadron. We now have a platoon of foot sloggers working out evenings under the questionable name of "Combat Infantry Platoon". This worthy organization is currently under the able hand of our own "White Horse" Deitch.
All will be interested to know that the winning float for the forthcoming carnival is now well under construction within the squadron
--wait 'n see.


This Coupon C

"NOVEl
F

At the SPAN ISH


i
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I


MAIN

CARNIVAL I
April 21 and 22 I Fleet Recreation Center


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....... I? 7 ..............


THE INDIAN


Gtmo. Bay-23 Mar 50-250t




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PAGE 1

Vol. V, No. 5 U. S. Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Saturday, 25 March 1950 MORE ABOUT FENCES There seems to be an idea prevalent that whenever a quarters occupant is annoyed by trespassing by his neighbor's children or dog, or even the neighbor himself, the Navy is obligated to construct a fence. Entirely to the contrary, the obligation is upon the individuals concerned to resolve their difficulties properly through firm understanding. Mutual consideration a m o n g neighbors is especially important in a small naval community like Guantanamo Bay, and annoyances to neighbors cannot be tolerated. Children will act according to the restraints demanded by their parents. Pets which are nuisances make nuisances of their owners and are a credit to no one. Individuals who are nuisances are treated accordingly and can expect scant consideration. Obstructs Lawn Mowers In general, fences and walls are provided only where necessary to protect life and limb, and have been constructed where need was apparent. When individuals seek to erect them in other locations such construction is costly and wasteful. In addition to the initial cost of the fence (with more than 700 quarters to be considered! !), the cost of painting and replacement in this area of rapid deterioration is prohibitive, and the cost of grounds maintenence is exhorbitant. The latter is especially true because power mowers cannot be used to cut grass which is segregated in small plots, and extra trimming and cutting close to fences is necessitated. In general therefore, where fences have been authorized for private construction, the builders deny themselves public maintenance of their grounds but are responsible for maintenance of lawns, shrubs, and fences at the same high standards which the Navy would provide. Unfortunately at Newtown, the maintenance of the grounds rests with the individuals due to the low rental rates of this Lanham Act housing. However, fences detract from the basic services provided by the government at no cost. BRITISH AND CANADIAN SHIPS SLATED TO ARRIVE IN GUANTANAMO TOMORROW USS Albemarle With Top Portrex Umpires Embarked Arrives Tomorrow; British Units Depart Thursday By Allen Collier, Editor Two Canadian ships, HMCS Magnificent and HMCS Micmac in company with the Royal Navy ships, HMS Glasgow, HMS Snipe, and the Gold Ranger, a Royal Navy Auxiliary tanker arrive here early tomorrow morning for a four day stay. PRIZES LEND STATESIDE Embarked in HMS Glasgow will AIR TO SPANISH MAIN be Vice Admiral R. V. Symonds________Taylor, C. B., D. S. C., Commander Pirate treasure, pieces of eight in Chief, American West Indies and bars of glittering bullion had Squad A nioal at wil0 nothing on the variety and glitter bordy hi aghi at 0800 of the prizes to be given away to 27 March th e sa w lucky winners at the midway conThe Bthisae. cessions at the Guantanamo Bay ris frigate 2M arSpanish Main Carnival. From rouljo arrie tesda 2 arc to ette to the wheel of fortune, from join The othe al Navy unt the weight-guessing booth to bingo, h te Snipe and iSparo are everybody will win the prizes a quired by the Carnival committee's international headlines last year recently returned purchasing party to New York. Other Prizes CieeCmuitsoebteis Prizes too, will be the lot of those The Glasgow is a 12,000 ton light who sell the greatest number of Ao a t rv. raffle tickets on the convertible, tanamo slatedotoiarrie UAldeep-freeze and scooter being ofbemarle, (AV-5) with LTGEN L. P. feared -for the most cleverly conHu ceived and for the most beautiful ntUMCCheumieate flat ad ntre fr n h te lot os bauiflrecent "Portrex" operations, his floats entered in the float parade -F. Schilt, and for the kids whose costumes USMC and the Navy's Chief umare adjudged the most striking, in pire, RADM F. D. Kirtland, USN, the kiddies' costumes. Cmadr riigCmad Not all the prizes are desirable U. S. Atlantic Fleet embarked. for their esthetic beauty of course. The Albemarle is scheduled to If, like most folks, you get a leave Tuesday, 28 March while the kick out of balloons, monkeys-onB u a-stick, celluloid false teeth that click, ringmasters' whips, and the rest of the things that make a ast Friday, carrier air groups carnival a carnival, then the Spanoperang in his area elebrated" ish MainGuantanamo off the map". The first you. simulated strike against the Base If your sweet tooth or appetite came just as the sun was beginning demands Coney Island red hots, to make its appearance over the home-made cakes, soft drinks or a mountains. All through the morncold Hatuey -all those too will be available. ing, one air group after another In short, the Spanish Main Midcontacted McCalla Field for clearwill be a ra chest of fn dance to "attack your installations. way til easienomtchsofu, Leeward Point field also was under excitement, and enjoyment for all, attack during the morning as Firewith a pot of gold at the end of fly aircraft from the Canadian careach personal rainbow. river Magnificent carried out a simuSee ya at the Carnival! (Continued on Page Five)

PAGE 2

Pare Two THE INDIAN Saturday, 25 March 1950 Editorial Office, NOB Administration Bldg., Room 205 -Phone 254 Saturday, 25 March 1950 U. S. NAVAL OPERATING BASE Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Rear Admiral W. K. Phillips, USN Commander Allen Collier, JO -----------------Editor P. H. Teeter, LCDR -Staff Advisor THE INDIAN is published weekly, financed by appropriated funds, printed on government equipment, for free distribution on the U. S. Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay. Cuba, by order of the Base Commander. THE INDIAN is published in compliance with the provisions of NAVEXOS-P-35 (Rev) 1945. THE INDIAN uses Armed Forces Press Service material which may be reprinted with the credit line: AFPS. LETTERS OF THANKS RECEIVED BY COMNOB Letters of appreciation for services rendered by this Base to visiting ships were received early this week by the Base Commander and are printed below for the information of all hands. From the Commander, Destroyers, Atlantic Fleet came this word, "Efficient and timely delivery (of) U.S. Mail to Kingston by VU-10 (was) much appreciated." From the Commander of the First Dutch Task Fleet came this message. "Upon leaving Guantanamo Bay I wish to express my sincere thanks to you and the officers and men of the Base for the hospitality during the short period we stayed at the Base under your command. We hope our joint exercises will be repeated and that we may enter Guantanamo Bay again." "Many thanks for services provided DesDiv 202 and MinDiv 6, my staff and me during our short but enjoyable visits to Gtmo." was the message received from Commander DesFlot 4. L. A. F. R. A. How's about it gals? Let's have a big turnout for an evening of fun, Tuesday March 28th, in the "Caribbean Terrace Room" at the C. P. 0. Club. The social will start at 7:00 p.m. as there is to be an open discussion on our plans for the Auxiliary's cake booth for the Carnival next month. Also think over ideas of how to enlarge our membership. The Hostess for the evening will be Mrs. Hart, our president. During Bingo, refreshments will be served. So come on gals, new members and old of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Fleet Reserve Association, let's all turn out and make the social a "good time had by all". EDITORIAL Picture a pair of dirty greasy hands with long dirt-encrusted fingernails. Do you want that person to handle the food that enters your mouth ? Bacteria do not walk. They are hitchhikers. Everywhere they go they are carried by some person or object. Bacteria on hands contaminate any object they touch. Now do not get bacteria phobiaall bacteria is not harmful; in fact, without bacteria, there would not be any growth or decay. However we do not want harmful bacteria in our food. The food handler who does not wash his hands after a trip to the bathroom is a criminal in every sense of the word. By washing the hands, often one of the biggest links in the chain of transmission is broken from sick persons and disease carriers to well persons. It is also well to remember that well persons can infect themselves with their hands unless they keep their hands away from their mouths. Most communicable diseases that affect mankind gain entrance by way of the mouth. The wise parents will teach their children to wash their hands often, especially before eating their meals and after going to the bathroom. Esthetically, it is important to insist that they keep their hair combed and their shoes shined but for their health, teach them to keep their hands away from their mouth and teach them the importance of washing their hands. Bacteria get away with murder because they are so small. They live in a world hidden from view. All public toiletrooms should have plenty of hot and cold running water, and they should be well stocked with soap and individual towels. A little extra money expended for this very personal hygenic purpose is money WELL spent. You could call this "Community Health Insurance". Wherever you go insist on this service. It is your right to have good health. Managers and proprietors will see that this service is provided if enough people bring it to their attention and demand it. It is good citizenship to warn managers of public eating establishments if their food handlers or general service is not up to sanitary standards. Remember it's your health and the health of your family which is at stake! (Reprinted from the Norfolk, NAS, Dope Sheet.) Six year old Mary woke up about two in the morning. "Tell me a story mamma," she pleaded. "Hush darling," said mother, "Daddy will be home soon and tell us both one." Catholic Masses 0700-Naval Base Chapel 0900-Naval Base Chapel 1745-Naval Base Chapel Daily Mass -0630 Confessions before all Masses Protestant Services 0930-Sunday School at Schoolhouse 1100-Naval Base Chapel Protestant Choir rehearsal each Thursday at 1930 Chaplains at this Activity CDR R. W. FAULK. USN .(Protestant) LT P. J. Marron, USN (Catholic) TEEN-AGE ROUNDUP By Eunice Besse Peggy Claar and Pat Besse spent Friday night together. Saturday morning at 0700 they took a hike to Cable Beach and back. The sunburns were done to a beautiful turn. Bennet Richards had a birthday party Saturday but we haven't been able to find out how old he is. Anyway we wish you "many happy returns of the day". Plans for graduation are getting well underway. Dr. Permenter, Mrs. Souders (representing the 8th grade) and the Senior Class had a meeting and discussion. The graduates are now turning ideas over in their minds to find out whether they want a traditional ceremony or something new. The 8th grade took a field trip under the supervision of Mr. Fife. Mrs. Holweck has been transferred from the High School to the Elementary Faculty. Mrs. Machtolif is leaving school for an operation and Mrs. Holweck is taking her place as teacher of the 6th grade. Mrs. D. Permenter is replacing Mrs. Holweck and already we know we like her and will enjoy having her as our librarian. Plans for the Monogram banquet are also getting a thorough going over. The cheerleaders who are being held responsible for the decorations, held a meeting this week. G. A. A. Girls keep an eye on those unexcused absences. Tentative plans for meeting on Wednesday after school, instead of Thursday morning have been made. We're all glad to see Ramona Moses back at school smiling and healthy once more. Welcome back to the Coral Pit, Ramona. "Whoopee" cried the drunk as he crashed into the gas station; "I've struck oil". The prisoner didn't want to be pardoned in the winter because it was warmer in the cooler. It's fifty-fifty-women have their beauty secrets and men have their secret beauties. Nare Two THE INDIAN Saturday. 25 March 1950

PAGE 3

S THEINDIANT THE BRITISH OCCUPATION OF GUANTANAMO BAY (Editor's Note: The article reprinted below was written many years ago by one of our recent distinguished visitors to NOB, Guantanamo, Admiral (then LieutenantCommander) Forrest P. Sherman. In his reminiscing about Guantanamo Bay, the Admiral mentioned his earlier work and offered to forward a copy to the Base Commander. Originally printed in Vol. 57, No. 4, Whole No. 338 of the United States Naval Institute Proceedings, the article is re-printed for the information of Base residents.) Familiar as most officers of the United States Navy are with the vicinity of Guantanamo, the fact that Guantanamo Bay was a British Naval Base in the year 1741 is little known. The commanding position of Guantanamo with relation to the strategy of the Caribbean, and to Windward Passage in particular, is well appreciated. The fact that the British once occupied Guantanamo and attempted the seizure of Santiago for the purpose of safeguarding British trade furnishes an interesting exposition of certain problems of trade defense as applied to so well-known an area. In the years 1739-1748 Great Britain's total annual revenue was in the neighborhood of ten million pounds. At the same time imports from the West Indies alone ran to one and one-third millions and by 1800 had increased to seven million pounds annually. The West Indies trade was, therefore, of vital importance to the British merchants and the heavy import duties formed a large proportion of the government's income. The greater part of this lucrative trade came from Jamaica and consisted for the most part of sugar and its by-products. Exports to the West Indies consisted of the many various articles needed in a rapidly growing colony*. In times of peace the homewardbound trade from Jamaica passed along two routes; one west of Cuba and into the Atlantic past Havana, and the other past Santiago and into the Atlantic through the Windward Passage. In times of hostilities with Spain, the western route was impracticable and the Windward Passage route was rendered difficult by the activities of the Spanish cruisers, guarda-costas, and privateers. Although Spain and England were at peace during the years prior to 1739, their commercial rivalry and conflicting ambitions with respect to colonial trade had led to many clashes. Spain denied to English subjects trading privileges with Spanish colonies except those allowed to the old South Sea Company by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). British vessels coinmenced smuggling and trading in defiance of the Spanish navigation laws: Spanish coast guard vessels, and .privateers .retaliated .by seizing I)ritish.,vessels on~ thp high seas,: the innocent among the By Lieutenant Commander Forrest Sherman, U. S. Navy guilty. In some cases British seamen were brutally maltreated by their captors. In 1739 Great Britain determined on reprisals, demanded indemnities for the Spanish depredations, and prepared for hostilities which soon followed. Edward Vernon, Vice-Admiral of the Blue, commanding the West Indies Squadron, had taken Porto Bello on November 22, 1739, with a force of only six ships and had become the hero of the hour. In 1740 lack of reinforcements and supplies and the presence of a superior French squadron of doubtful neutrality at Martinique had caused Vernon's operations to be limited mainly to maintaining cruising vessels on the stations necessary for trade protection and to the escorting of important convoys clear of the danger from Spanish cruisers. In March 1741, after being heavily reinforced for the purpose of offensive operations, he undertook an attack on Cartagena with thirty heavy ships, numerous frigates, fire ships, bomb vessels, and transports, in all 124 sail carrying a landing force of fifteen thousand troops. Vernon had written to the Duke of Newcastle in October, 1739.1, "I can never be the adviser of land expeditions, especially into this country, that may drain the royal treasury, and, in case of a French war, disable His Majesty from keeping a superiority at sea, on which, in my apprehensions, both the security and the prosperity of the Kingdom depend." In January, 1740, he wrote further, "In my judgment, I shall limit all expeditions to this country to be entered upon immediately on their arrival, and to be executed within the first six weeks, before their men would begin to fall sick." The soundness of these judgments was soon to be proved in spite of his wishes in the matter. The Cartagena expedition was a failure due to delays, differences of opinion between Vernon and General Wentworth, who commanded the troops, and, on the military side, absolute lack of realization of the necessity for speed, dash, and intelligent acceptance of the risks incident thereto, in operations in a climate where continued exposure meant almost certain. sickness to the European. On May 26, 1741, Vernon, Wentworth, and Governor Trelawney of Jamaica, decided to attempt to capture Santiago in pursuance of the. home government's policy of offensive warfare against the Spanish colonies. The selection of Santiago as. an objective was governed by three reasons.First, it would be valuable as at Base for further operations -:against :.Cuba. Such operations: ver, under consideration and Governor Shirley of Massachusetts was already offering land grants to -propective settlers in Cuba. Second, Santiago was strategically located between the Spaniards in Cuba and the French in Haiti whose entry into the war was imminent. Third, and most important of all, it was urgently necessary to check the depredations of Spanish privateers operating from Santiago. Vernon sailed from Port Royal on July 1 in his flagship Boyne, eighty guns, with eight ships of the line, one intermediate ship, eight frigates, and some forty transports, carrying 3,400 troops under Wentworth. Eight additional heavy ships of which three were refitting, were left at Port Royal. Among the troops was the remnant of the American Regiment, in which served Lawrence Washington who later named his estate Mount Vernon after his commander. On July 18 the fleet arrived at Guantanamo, which had recently been reconnoitered and found undefended, and which was at that timeknown to the English as "Walthenham Harbour". Hervey, in 1779, described Guantanamo as "a large and secure haven, which protects the vessels that ride in it from the hurricanes which are so frequent in the West Indies. The Ripon, sixty guns, Captain Rentone, had, been sent ahead, leaving Port Royal on June 25, to reconnoiter Santiago. After receiving Rentone's report, a council of war was held on July 20 which decided to attack Santiago from the shore side, marching the troops overland from Guantanamo, and delaying the attempt to force entrance until the troops had attacked the city from the weakest side. Accordingly the disembarkation was commenced. The bay was at this time renamed Cumberland Harbour. Vernon apparently foresaw very little difficulty in a rapid march to Santiago against the slight resistance to be expected from the Spaniards. Wentworth, on the other hand, was greatly impressed by the difficulties of the Cuban jungle and the unusual effort required for the construction of roads and clearing away of obstructions to the passage of guns and heavy equipment. He was not the type of commander to push forward without deliberate and careful reconnaisances, construction of defended camps, or without his heavy equipment. He halted his advance short of Santa Catalina de Guantanamo (Guantanamo City), saying that advance. to that point was impracticable. After strong representations from the. naval Cominander,.he. again advanced and. (Continiid!Ait Page Four) Saturday, 25 M~arch 1950 Page Three THEtlNDIAN

PAGE 4

~Pa Forri. THE INDIANStuay25Mrh90 (Continued from Page Three) reached Catalina without resistance. In its vicinity he went into camp and there remained. To a force of Europeans, such a slow protracted campaign was bound to be fraught with danger. The disadvantages of Wentworth's delays can be appreciated when we consider the difficulties experienced by the American Army in a much shorter advance under much more enlightened conditions of sanitation. Shafter's 5th Army Corps landed on June 22, and Santiago capitulated on July 14, 1898. On August 3, the troops having been ashore six weeks, the general officers commanding divisions and brigades present subscribed to the famous "Round Robin" stating in part: "The Army is disabled by malarial fever to such an extent that its efficiency is destroyed, and it is in a condition to be practically entirely destroyed by the epidemic of yellow fever sure to come in the near future. This army must be moved at once or it will perish. "The chief surgeon of the army corps and all the surgeons of the divisions stated further: "There is imminent danger that the yellow fever now sporadic and of mild type, may any day assume a virulent type and became epidemic." Vernon openly criticized Wentworth's conduct. For over a month a most energetic correspondence ensued between the admiral and the general while operations ashore were limited to foraging and scouting parties from the camp on the river bank near the present Guantanamo City. Herveyl: records the farthest advance as being that of a reconnoitering party under a Major Dunster which reached the village of Elleguava supposed to have been situated about sixteen miles from Santiago. This unit consisted of about 150 Americans and Negroes. Meanwhile the main body of the troops was succumbing rapidly to disease. By the end of September, all thought of offensive operations on shore had ceased. Over a hundred men died of sickness in one week and the effective strength of the army had dwindled to little or nothing. One member of the expedition wrote: "Our men are very sickly and die fast, more from want of necessaries than the inclermencies of the climate I fear. Some die from their own excesses in drink." As soon as the army was disembarked, light vessels had been sent to watch the Spanish fleet of twelve of the line under Don Rodrigo de Torres in Havana; the transports had been sent to the upper bay; a blockade of Santiago had been instituted; and the six heaviest British vessels were anchored in line across the entrance to Guantanamo to guard against surprise attack from the sea. On September 2, Vernon went around to Santiago to make a personal examination looking forward to forcing the entrance with his ship, but decided it to be impossible because of the heavy batteries, narrow entrance closed by a boom, and the uncertain, shifting offshore winds. The correctness of his decision was supported by the experience of Sir Charles Knowles who commanded a naval attack on Santiago in 1748 and had to withdraw because of a boom in the entrance, fire ships, the unexpected strength of the batteries and the shifting wind. While the forces on shore remained inactive, the fleet, in spite of the threat of the Spanish squadron at Havana, operated extensively against the enemy privateers and cleared them from the Windward Passage. A number of valuable prizes were taken, including three regular Spanish men-o'-war. While a nucleus of heavy ships remained at Guantanamo at all times, from which strong units could be detailed for convoy duty, cruising vessels were distributed on various stations. One unit was maintained on blockading station off Santiago, one to windward of Cape Bacca to protect trade passing along the south shore of Haiti. Meanwhile, other cruisers operated offensively against enemy trade to windward of La Hacha on the route from Spain to Cartagena and Porto Bello, on the north coast of Cuba on the route through the old Bahama channel, and off Cape Corrientes on the important enemy route from Cartagena and Porto Bello to Vera Cruz and Havana. Richmond says: T h e Spanish privateers, driven by Vernon's cruising ships from the favorable areas like the Windward Passage and the track south of Hispaniola, had extended their operations further north and were even meeting ships as far away as lat. 30, to the south of Bermuda, entailing a far greater effort upon the British cruisers. Spread over a greater area, the privateers were more difficult to deal with by cruising methods, and the only satisfactory method of securing the trade was by convoying it through the whole of the danger zone. The smaller ships, sloops and lesser craft, were scattered in the channels used by the trade, the more powerful ships were employed in the convoys, and the bulk of the ships of the line was massed in a squadron to cover the operations of the army. The defeat of this squadron, Vernon remarked, would overthrow all other objects; for the ring would then be broken and the whole organization would fall to the ground, a very good example on a small scale of the complementary duties of ships of the line and cruisers. During October, orders arrived requiring the return to home waters. of a large portion of the fleet preparatory to operations in the Mediterrean. By the latter part of October, over 2,000 troops were down with fever. Meanwhile the Spaniards had strengthened the defenses of Santiago to such an extent that all chance of a successful attack had disappeared. On October 5, Wentworth had written to say that nothing further could be done and on November 7 a military council resolved that the surviving troops should be re-embarked. Accordingly on November 20, re-embarkation commenced and the four months' occupation came to an end. Vernon, in his rage at the outcome of the expedition, asked to return to England to avoid further operations with a general whom he termed "more changeable than the moon." Hervey's account reads: "Thus ended the operations in the West Indies during the year 1741, in which the lives of many brave men were sacrificed through the misconduct of their commanders." General Shafter stated after the war, that while en route to Cuba in June, 1898, he read an account of Wentworth's failure and that it convinced him that his sole chance of success would lie in the impetuosity of his attack. The operations sketched above are of unusual interest since they were undertaken as a direct measure of trade defense in an area where trade protection has been and may again be a matter of concern. Although the attack on Santiago was unsuccessful and the occupation of Guantanamo Bay so terminated, they serve, together with the attendant operations at sea, to emphasize the importance of the capture of the enemy bases as a measure of trade defense. Mahan speaks of "the enemies' colonies, the foreign bases of their sea power and, in the absence of great fleets, the only possible support upon which commerce destroying can depend."% And again, when "the enemy confines himself to commerce destroying by crowds of small privateers, then the true military policy is to stamp out the nests where they swarm." Bryan Edwards, History of the West Indies. ? H. W. Richmond, The Navy in the War of 1739-48. t Hervey, Naval History of Great Britain, 1779. H. W. Richmond, The Navy in the War of 1739-48. Alger, The Spanish American War. Z Mahan, Influence of Sea Power on theFrench Revolution and Empire. S I S THE INDIAN Saturday, 25 March 1950 Page Four

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Saturday, 25 March 1950 GIRL SCOUT NOTES By Adeline Irwin Our Troop Committee were "Busy .as Beavers" at the last meeting, squaring away all the details for the Brownie Meeting of March 21. There was also the business of changing Transportation Director for the Intermediates. Unfortunately we are losing Mrs. McDonald and family as they are leaving for the West Coast on April 17. Mrs. Parnell has relieved Mrs. Mac of her duties, to enable her to get all ready to go. We shall miss Mrs. Mac and Patsy, but we join together in wishing them, Bon Voyage. At the regular scout meeting Friday, the girls put on impromptu skits using miscellaneous articles brought by the leaders. They even had an audience of wide-eyed little tots who live in the vicinity of the lyceum. The cookies, this week, were supplied by Gloria McKuin, and were they dee-lush! Mrs. L. R. Smith, who is the Brownie Leader, wishes to express her appreciation to the mothers who cooperated so grandly at the first Brownie meeting, last Tuesday. The little scouts went home, excited and happily singing "Goodrite Brownies." SHIP ARRIVALS (Continued from Page One) lated attack on the outpost across the bay. In addition, Army jet fighters were departing Leeward enroute to the States from their recent Portrex operations. Early Saturday morning, carrier aircraft again appeared in the skies over Guantanamo and the air around McCalla field was filled with a drone of the single engine craft as fifty-five planes landed at McCalla to remain until late afternoon. The planes were from the carriers, Philippine Sea, Wright, and Mindoro. T SEA 'The Command 'Uncover' does NOT in,elude the toupe." HOSPITAL NOTES Nursery News: Christopher Manke born 20 March to LCDR and Mrs. W. C. Manke, DC, USN; Baby Boy Davis born 22 March to AF1 and Mrs. J. S. Davis. The entire staff of the hospital this week extended sincere sympathy to CAPT and Mrs. Robbins upon the death of CAPT Robbins' father, 18 March in Worcester, N. Y. He was 92 years old. LT and Mrs. Shapard depart on the Hodges today for thirty days leave in the States. Dr. Shapard is looking forward to some good ole bass fishing in Oklahoma. An event which shall no doubt go down in hospital history was held at Windmill Beach last Sunday and Monday. The Commissary Department is to be commended on serving the best picine chow this side of heaven. Everyone says this was the best picnic and beach party we've ever had. Bobby Doyle, HM3, LeRoy Gibson, SN and G. A. Templeton, HMC are getting first-hand knowledge as to what makes the hospital tick. Hope you will be back on the job soon, fellows. R. E. Stapleton, HA returned this week from Stateside leave. THRIFT SHOP Well into its second year of service to all hands is the Thrift Shop, under the auspices of the Navy Relief Auxiliary and unique in that it both buys and sells merchandise. Let's take a trip through the Thrift Shop with that crib your baby has outgrown from your house to its new home. It has been cleaned and scrubbed, and is in the car enroute to the Thrift Shop where there are many items of clothing and furniture and perhaps a stroller to take the place of your crib. At the Thrift Shop you will be met by one of the many volunteer workers who will help you place a reasonable price on your crib, since the Thrift Shop is not established for individual profits but rather as a service to Base personnel. There your crib will remain for all to see until one day someone just its size will need a crib and off it will go to its new home. The transaction is noted in the Thrift Shop records and the selling price given to you less ten per cent which is given to the Navy Relief Society. Each month the stock in the Thrift Shop is checked and prices reduced ten per cent but at any time you may withdraw or donate your merchandise and on leaving the Base all items must be withdrawn or they are automatically donated. All items of small value should be donated and all items must be clean and ready for use when delivered to the shop. That's the story of your crib. You O'ER THE TEA CUPS By Betty Radcliffe I read this in a magazine the other day; "Be friendly with the folks you know. If it weren't for them, you'd be a total stranger". That's pretty good advice. Mrs. J. M. Player gave her daughter, Andrea Alice a birthday party Tuesday, March 20. Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Ernest entertained the Protestant Choir with a garden party last Friday evening. The party was given as a farewell to Mrs. Tommie Murray. With all the talent present there was, of course, an evening of music and songs. Mrs. R. E. Beattie was hostess to the sewing club Friday Mar. 17. There seem to be several sewing clubs on the Base and I suppose that is the reason I see so may smart new dresses around. Keep up the good work girls. Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Cole entertained with a card party at their home last Saturday night. The "gang" hadn't had their usual weekly card party for a couple of weeks, but they are back in the swing of things now. The Ladies Camera Club went to the Hobby Shop Photo Lab. last week and was instructed on the fundamentals of making contact prints. They proudly went home bearing pictures they had made themselves. The Photo Lab. in the Hobby Shop is quite well equipped and the ladies are just as welcome to use it as the men. Shopping around: The Navy Exchange Family Restaurant has something new and good to offer ...T-bone steaks! These steaks are fresh Armour's or Cudahy's meat from Miami and are served on big steak platter with french fries, onions, vegetable and salad. There is a lovely and very competent waitress to serve you. The waitress and the new steak cook make sure that your steak is cooked just as you order it. I have had one of these steaks and it was good ...but good. Mrs. Colleen Jones is certainly doing a splendid job as shopper's guide in the Navy Exchange. If you have something special you'd like to buy through the exchange all you have to do is talk to Mrs. Jones and she will give you all the information available and try to get your order for you. See ya' next week. "Phew", said one of our average readers as he passed the stockyards, "that must be where all the Indian jokes are written. are happy in the knowledge that you have helped someone. We will be surprised if you do not find something you will want to take its place. Saturday 25 March 19 0 THE INDIAN Page Five

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Saturday, 25 March 1950 EISENHOWER TELLS U. S. NOT TO FEAR SUPER BOMBS Philadelphia (AFPS) -General of the Army, Dwight D. Eisenhower said recently that Americans should not be afraid of the hydrogen or atom bomb. The Columbia University president, Commander of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, spoke at Temple University where he received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree. General Eisenhower said that there is no need for concern that the United States might become an "armed nation or a police state". "There is no absolute security in arms," he continued. They wear out. People get tired of carrying them, and the other fellow can develop arms, too." However, General Eisenhower said that America must maintain its Armed Forces "to protect our way of life, not just territory." He urged that the nation "stand before the world with moral rectitude" which would alleviate many foreign problems. But he said Americans should not be "naive". HOUSE COMMITTEE TO STUDY DEPENDENTS HOSPITAL FACILITIES Washington (AFPS)-Additional hospital beds for dependents of Armed Forces personnel may be made available following an inspections of facilities by a special House Armed Services Subcommittee. Representative L. Mendel Rivers was recently appointed chairman of the committee that will "look over" recent Defense Department recommendations regarding the closing of military hospitals. The appointments of Rep. Rivers and other committee members were made by Rep. Carl Vinson, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Lost-a fountain pen by a young lady half full of ink. SMALL LEAKS ARE COSTLY! SIZE A leak this size will waste 62,000 gallons a year.* OF a A leak this size will waste 354,000 gallons a year.* LEAK g" A leak this size will waste over 1,314,000 gallons a year.* At average water pressure. Report plumbing troubles promptly (Dial 637) HOTEL ROOM BUILT FOR "ROOM SERVICE" By Don Stuck The Stage Manager and his crew of carpenters, painters and electricians are busy these days transforming the stage of the Little Theatre into a hotel room (complete with twin beds) where the three-act comedy "Room Service" will be presented on April 11th, 12th and 13th. When the curtain goes up, you'll look into Room No. 920 of the White Way Hotel, somewhere in Times Square, occupied at that time by Gordon Miller, a shifty theatrical producer and his entire cast of hungry actors, all of whom have acquired the habit of calling for "Room Service", while the bill and the manager's temperature zoom upwards in equal proportion. Joseph Gribble, the manager, is beside himself trying to hide Miller's tremendous bill, having been victimized by Miller (his brotherin-law) into accepting a ten per cent share in a "sure-hit" and thus, can't very well evict Miller and his company of actors. On the other hand, Gribble is having his books examined by Gregory Wagner, a blustery executive who wants to be a vice president. Wagner has a great deal of difficulty trying to find a loose screw in the management of the nearly bankrupt White Way Hotel. Just how Miller finds his backer, and how his play "Godspeed" is finally staged, must remain a secret for now. Be assured, however, that you'll scream with laughter as the many screwball situations unfold. All members of the cast of "Room Service" are putting a lot of effort into portraying the characters they represent and spend four nights each week polishing lines and situations into refinement. Tickets for "Room Service", costing a mere 354 each, will go on sale at the Navy Exchanges at the Naval Station and Naval Air Station, and at the Marine Post Exchange, next Saturday, 1 April. It is strongly recommended that you plan to buy your tickets early to make sure that you get to see this uproariously funny play, "Room Service". A naval Base bus was unusually crowded one morning. A passenger sitting next to the window suddenly buried his head in his arms. The man next to him asked, "Are you sick? Can I do anything for you?" "It's nothing like that" the other assured him. "I just hate to see old ladies standings. Santa Claus is the only man who can run around all night with a bag and not get talked about. * We point with pride to the purity of the white space between our jokes. VU-10 NOTES By C. P. Dougias. PN1 We don't seem to be able to gather much information from the squadron this week, for some reason or other. It's probably because most of the men are boning up on course books for the forthcoming examinations for advancement to third, second, and first class petty officer to be held on 31 March. It's our guess that all concerned are going to make a concerted effort to be advanced this time, rather than wait for the next examinations, which will be Navywide. The squadron officers' softball team played host to the Naval Air Station officers' team Tuesday evening and came out on the lesser end of an eight to six score. Whitey Jones did the tossing for the VU-10 gang, and was charged with the defeat. Whitey informed us, however, that he was definitely not beaten-he just lost. It was the unanimous opinion of the VU-10 team that LTJG Tougas should have been performing in a circus instead of on the softball field. Incidentally, we've just been informed by "Rembrandt" Matherson that LT Tougas now spells his name "Two-Goose". Operations just gave us the word that during a recent drone operation, it was the same old British story "One of our aircraft is missing". Only this time it was three of the little red dogs. LT Jones mourns their loss very sorrowfully. Our eminent leading chief, Pat Cleary, says that so far as he's concerned, unification is working one hundred percent within the squadron. We now have a platoon of foot sloggers working out evenings under the questionable name of "Combat Infantry Platoon". This worthy organization is currently under the able hand of our own "White Horse" Deitch. All will be interested to know that the winning float for the forthcoming carnival is now well under construction within the squadron -wait 'n see. This Coupon Good for One "NOVELTY PRIZE" At the SPANISH MAIN I CARNIVAL I April 21 and 22 I Fleet Recreation Center U S I Saturday 25 March 1950 THE INDIAN Gtmo. Bay-23 Mar 50-2500.


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