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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHODS By MARK A. WEAKLEY SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. DAVID C. EDMUND, CHAIR DR. TIMOTHY S. BROPHY, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to than k my wife Jessica without whose love and support this would not have been possible. Also, I would like to thank Bill Bailey, Chuck Weirich, Ken Bettinger , Jim Garee, Dr. Larry Griffin, Bill Carmichael, Roy Poper, Robert Ã”Bahb' Civiletti, Nick Drozdoff, Wayne Cameron and Je rome Callet. These teachers have taught me so many things about being a musician, person and a trumpet player . W ithout their guidance and direction, I would not be the musician I am today. Also, I would like to thank Dr. David Edmund and Dr. Timothy Brophy who helped me in preparing this document. Finally, I would like to thank God for the gifts and talents with which he continues to bless me.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰..2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . 5 2 REVIEW OF LITERATUREÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 8 Band method pedagogical trend s ............................... ............................. . ..8 Band Method Pedagogical Trends ChartÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . ..9 Embouchure definition Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰. 11 Muscles of the FaceÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... 11 Embouchure types Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . 14 Relaxed embouchureÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ .17 Tongue archÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... 19 ConclusionÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ .22 3 INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIESÃ‰.. Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ .23 Puffing the cheeksÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ ..24 Using too much pressureÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 24 Aperture sizeÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... 25 Beginning embouchure formationÃ‰Ã‰ Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... 27 Air/Embouchure balanceÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ .31 Tongue positionÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... 34 Other devices and methodsÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ ..35 4 DISCUSSIONÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ ..37
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 4 Mouthpiece placementÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . .37 BreathÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 38 SyllablesÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 38 Pucker and SmileÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . Ã‰ ..39 Pivot systemÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . ..39 Mouthpiece pressureÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . .40 Lip apertureÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 40 Pressurized airÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 41 Pedal tonesÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ .42 Ã”Res t' as long as you playÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ ..42 ConclusionÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ .43 5 INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLEMENTATIONÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . Ã‰ ..45 BeginnerÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . Ã‰ 45 IntermediateÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . Ã‰ ..46 AdvancedÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰... 46 ConclusionsÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰. . .. 47 6 REFERENCE LIST. Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ . Ã‰Ã‰ .49 7 APPENDIX AÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 54 APPENDIX BÃ‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰Ã‰ 55
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 5 INTRODUCTION " E ffortless trumpet playing is the result of effective, reliable performance habits and a clear, musical vision. Young players deemed Ã” naturals ' are students who simply formed a set of reliable habits at an early age " ( Bhasin, 2006, p. 69). It has always bee n an endeavor for this author as an educator and as a performer to understand the intricac ies of trumpet performance . As a beginner, this author was blessed with a great private teacher that smoked unfiltered Camel cigarettes while in the lesson , in a room with no windows! As the author got older, he changed teachers. Unfortunately, the pedagogical ability of those teachers was less than desirable. Specifically, certain eleme nts such as range development and musical style were not properly addressed and sub sequently , poor habits developed in this author's ability. Unfortunately, the author was not aware of the importance of finding the best teacher, just the most available. One teacher was a recent college graduate who was attempting to change his embouchure, which resulted in his desire to practice being reduced to ten to fifteen minutes per day! The lack of pedagogical knowledge made the author question everyth ing about putting the horn to his face and destroyed his self confidenc e. It took years for the author to overcome the damage that his deficient teacher caused. Years later, the author saw that forme r teacher at a conference and the teacher openly admitted that he di dn't know what he was doing while teaching the author and knew that he cause d great problem s for his playing. Fortunately, the author stumbled upon one of the best pedagogical teachers he ever had , who corrected many of the bad h abits he had developed from years of poor instruction. It was then that the author realized that t he de sire to be a virtuosic musician, to constantly hone one's craft, or to achieve greatness is not enough. There needs to be an understanding of the mechanics of how to play one' s instrument; moreover, how to develop one's skill alone in a practice room .
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 6 As music educators, it is incumbent t ha t the students entrusted to them have the best available knowledge in order to teach specific skills. After all, n ot everyone is a "natural" player. O ften times it is those "natural" players that rarely know how they ca n perform the way that they do (Bhasin, 2006 ) . T his study is designed to explore a very specific and integral skill about playing the trumpet : T he embouchure. Instrumental music teachers understand that teaching beginning brass embouchure s presents a variety of challenges . Children who are beginning to form the embouchure are still developing the musculature required to do so. Subsequently, they compensate by usin g more muscles than needed and that habit is often not replaced with the correct technique s . This leads to an inefficient use of the musculature surrounding the trumpet embouchure. Matthias Bertsch (2001) demonstrated the physiological differences using infrared technology that showed how an inefficient embouchure looks , when compared to an eff icient embouchure. It is that inefficiency that causes many beginning or intermediate band students to plateau in their ability before they really develop their emb ouchure properly. Many teachers have been taught ineffective methods on how to instruct begi nning band students, stressing working more musculature than necessary (McLaughlin, 2013). Additionally, there is a lack of effective embouchure instructions within the current beginning band methods. These two major concerns have hindered brass students a nd have inhibited their degree of success on their ch osen instrument. T hose students potentially could forego band in their later years because they believe that their ability is not good enough to continue , when in fact, it is only inefficient and causing them problems. Thus, students are working much harder in order to achieve success in honing and working their musicianship (McLaughlin, 2011 ) .
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 7 There are a few basic skills that every trumpet player must possess. Some of these skills are: "free, unimpeded air support in all registers; a strong, flexible embouchure; and coordination between tongue l evel and air flow" (Bhasin, 2006, p. 69). The purpose of this paper was to provide a resource for fellow trumpet pedagogues and teachers that will empower their s tudents with the proper information and embouchure diagnosis, so that those students do not face the same deficiencies that were caused from this author's experience with poor pedagogical instruction. As Bhasin (2006) states , students should, " develop a co nsistent, reliable set of performance habits a t an early age" so that they will not be hindered by the lack of their embouchure skills, thus setting the stage for their continued growth as a trumpet player (p. 69) . Details of trumpet embouchure were inves tigated , such as embouchure formation, types of embouchures, air to embouchure balance, tongue arch, compression, mouthpiece placement, use of syllables, lip aperture, use of pedal tones, breath, and the concept of resting as much as one plays. These aspec ts were examined by researching different trumpet method texts and comparing the pedagogical approaches unique to each one of the different embouchure types. Each text was chosen because the method book's author endorsed, used or developed their own approa ch that they found to be most efficient in trumpet playing.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 8 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Certain themes developed t hrough an explor ation of the literature on the topic of embouchure development and use. First, it was necessary to conduct a chronological examin ation of embouchure development in band method texts. B and method texts have shown how embouchure methods have developed differently over time. Band directors and instructors generally use the most current literature for their teaching, as everyone wants to have the most current information available. However, this author wanted to examine the band method books for potential trends that might have developed. It was also necessary to develop a working definition of what the trumpet embouchure actually is , in order to effectively compare the different embouchure types according to one definition. Finally, examining those individuals who seemed to have success using different embouchure types, such as relaxed embouchure, buzzing, pressure, non pressure and t he use of tongue arch. These embouchure types were then compared through examining methodological texts and conclusions and teaching strategies were developed. B and Method Pedagogical T rends Detailed information about brass pedagogy is lacking in modern band metho d literature. Hullet (2006) continues, "brass pedagogues disagree about how to teach the mechanics of embouchure formation and development" (p. 8). This lack of in formation available is evident through an examination of band methods. Hulett (2006 ) states, " research studies on brass pedagogy are scarce in the literature" (p. 5). Wright (2009) further postulates, "most pedagogical theories are based on an incomplete understanding of the specific interaction that take place between the lungs, the li ps and the horn," ( p. 33). Hunt (2000) makes a n observation, "the Ã”mass' of early band literature, which includes most group instruction books, does not allow beginning
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 9 brass players sufficient time for embouchure development and range and endurance development" (p.5). Hunt expands on this point by saying , "the beginning trumpeter is all too often left to her own devices the only instruction being to "smile and blow," (p. 5). The trend within current band method literature about pedagogical embouchu re development is that it is vague and does not effectively address the development of the embouchure. Specifically, Texter (1975) examined 66 band method books and found that only 11 made any reference to embouchure development. Hulett (2006) examined 11 method books published after 1975 and found that eight included some pedagogical instruction in embouchure formation . This chronological examination of methods suggests an increasing trend in pedagogical band method literature , showing an emphasis on embo uchure development without specific details to the techniques involved with forming and maintaining the embouchure. Figure 1 Robinson ' s (1934) Rubank Elementary Method only made one reference to embouchure formation ; s pecifically, "the student must not get in the habit of Ã”forcing ' or using extreme pressure in playing the higher notes" (p. 3). Weber ' s (1962) First Division Band Method says, Band Method Pedagogical Trends RUBANK ELEMENTARY METHOD ONLY MADE ONE REFERENCE TO EMBOUCHURE FORMATION. FIRST DIVISION BAND METHOD 'TIGHTEN THE LIPS A LITTLE TO GET HIGHER TONES AND LOOSEN TO GET LOWER TONES' BAND: THE INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTOR Ã "TO PRODUCE A TONE, TAKE A NORMAL BREATH AND BLOW EASILY AND EVENLY. MAINTAIN PROPER POSTURE AND DO NOT FORCE OR OVERBLOW" ALFRED'S NEW BAND METHOD BOOK Ã "YOUR TEACHER WILL SHOW YOU ! HOW TO PRODUCE A TONE." INTRODUCING THE INSTRUMENTS: THE INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTOR Ã INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH ALFRED'S BASIC BAND METHOD INCLUDES ONLY TWO PICTURES OF A PERFORMER WITHOUT ANY PEDAGOGICAL EXPLANATION. BAND TODAY Ã INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH YAMAHA BAND STUDENT Ã DID NOT INCLUDE ANY PEDAGOGICAL INFORMATION ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH STEP-BY-STEP INCLUDES NO PHOTOGRAPHS OR EMBOUCHURE PEDAGOGICAL INFORMATION (AS IN HOW TO FORM EMBOUCHURE, OR EXAMPLES OF PROPER EMBOUCHURE FORMATION) STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH DO IT! PLAY IN BAND: A WORLD OF MUSICAL OF MUSICAL ENJOYMENT AT YOUR FINGERTIPS INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH ACCENT ON ACHIEVEMENT INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS 2000 INTRODUCE THE Ã”M' APPROACH OR THE CLOSED-EMBOUCHURE APPROACH 1934 1962 1970 1973 1976 1977 1977 1988 1991 1992 1993 1997 1997 1999
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 10 "Tighten lips a little to get higher tones and loosen to get lower tones" (p. 8). In Band: The Individualized I nstr uctor , by Froseth (1970), it states, "To produce a tone, take a normal breath and blow easily and evenly. Maintain proper posture and do not force or overblow" (p. 2). Some method books gave little or no explanation, such as Felstein ' s (1973) Alfred ' s New Band M ethod that stated, "Your teacher will show you . . . how to produce a tone" (p. 2). Another book lacking in explanation was Feldstein and O ' Reilly ' s (1977) second method, Alfred ' s Basic Band Method , which includes only two pictures of a performer without any note or pedagogical explanation. Feldstein & O ' Reilly 's ( 1988) l ater publication, Yamaha Band Student , did not include any embouchure pedago gical information . Elledge and Haddad ' s (1992) Step by Step in cludes no photographs or embouchure pedagogical instruction at all , which suggests that the instructor or teacher should be able to provide competent instruction . There are many methods (Dvorak & Froseth, 2006; Froseth, 1997 ; Lautzenheiser et al., ; O ' Reilly & Williams, 1997 ; 1999; Pearson, 1982; Pearson, 1993 ; Ployhar, 1977 ; Rhodes, Bi erschenk, & Lautzenheiser, 1991 ) t hat specifically introduce the embouchure using the Ã”m ' approach, or closed embouchure approach . Specifically, students are to form thei r lips as if saying the letter Ã”m, ' then asked to blow through them to create a sound (Hulett, 2006). Band method texts refer to techniques without fully explaining the techniques and without taking into account the age and musculature of beginners over the course of the methods. Subsequently, it has been noted that t here has been very little difference within the standard methodology over the past few decades . As summarized in Figure One , early trends indicated little detailed information, instead referr ing to instructor explanation. Later, the trend became more unified , as many books recommended using the Ã”m ' approach or the closed embouchure approach. Barrow (2010) s uggested that in the late 19 th
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 11 century into the 20 th century, the embouchure was frequently defined using the words "stretch" or "smile" (p. 62). Barrow (2010) continues that the early method texts of O.A. Peterson in 1924 and John Victor in the 1930's also used the same references and it wasn't until later that the trend changed. Irons (1938) wrote, "I recommend placing the mouthpiece firmly to the lips with mouth in a natural position. Do not stretch the part of the lips that are inside the mouthpiece" (p. 15) This trend away from the "smile" or a " tension " approach has evolved through the current method books until today. Subsequently, there is a need for f urther examination about the different types of embouchures within modern trumpet pedagogy in order to provide a greater resource for modern educators w ho might not be as proficient in brass pedagogy as the current band method books suggest. Embouchure D efinition Before progressing, it should be noted what is the actual definition of an embouchure. O f the 23 facial muscles , three the orbicularis oris (a heavy sphincter muscle that surro unds the mouth), the mentalis ( a v shaped muscle in the chin), and the buccinators (a muscle in the cheek with four fibrous bands flowing forward into the lip muscle) form the trumpet embouchure ( Banschbach, 2009 ). Figure 2 Muscles of the face (2014 )
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 12 When forming the brass embouchures, the mentalis is used to push the lower lip up against the upper lip. Additionally, the upper lip does not push downward, as there is no musculature that works to do that in a brass e mbouchure. The orbicularis oris is used to contract or relax on the airstream as it makes contact with the mouthpiece, which is where the vibration is setup. Finally, the b uccinator muscle s hold the cheeks against the teeth, keeping air out of the cheeks ( Banschbach, 2009 ). For the purpose of this paper, the embouchure will be defined as the total formation of the tongue, lips and horn angle as the instrument is prepared for playing. The aperture begins with the preparation of the vibrational channel of th e lips and how the body is prepared beforehand. Beginners naturally default to adding pressure to the embouchure with the mouthpiece in order to achieve a higher pitch. This pressure then begins to restrict the blood flow to the muscles in the embouchure, which hinders vibration and chokes off the sound. By continually adding pressure to the embouchure to achieve temporary results, the fibers of the orbicularis oris will require rest, ice and warm compresses (Banschbach, 2009). Strieder (2013) makes an interesting observation about the stressors to trumpet playing, stat ing that, "teaching students to overcome these stressors (range, dy n amics, endurance, articulation, technique, rehearsals and auditions) is a challenge because every student is unique " (p. 47). Different texts explain embouchure in different ways because the actual definition can have multiple elements within the definition. For example, acc ording to Carmine Caruso (2002), " The whole embouchure consists of five definite movements: 1.) Put ting the mouthpiece in contact with the lips; 2.) Putting tension on the lips for the note to be played; 3.) Positioning the jaw properly; 4.) Angling the in strument properly; 5.) The blow " (p. 7) . Another definition of a proper embouchure comes from Arban (1982):
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 13 The mouthpiece should be placed in the middle of the lips, two thirds on the lower lip, and one third on the upper lip. At any rate, this is the position which I have adopted, and which I believe to be the best. (p. 7) Yet another pedagogue, Claud e Gordon (1968), states: There is always much discussion as to the placement of the mouthpiece on the lips, and different players have played successfully with different positions. However, for freer vibration and more endurance in all registers and for mo re power and control, the mouthpiece should be placed more on the upper lip. This gives the advantage of more lip in the mouthpiece or more vibrating surface. The lower the mouthpiece is placed, the more it tends to shut off the vibrationÃ‰(p. 5) Callet and Civiletti (2002 ) de scribe the embouchure as follow s : When forming a correct tongue lip position, you can build super endurance with musical flexibility of a clarinet or violin. Your tongue should curl over so that the top of the tongue presses against the top, inside of your lower lip. The tongue will thicken and widen, all across the mouth, as you play higher. To further strengthen the tongue, bring the top lip down on top of the tongue. To descend, simply relax the tongue very gradually. (p. 10) Civilett i (2005) clarified his embouchure, known as the TCE, or Tongue Controlled Embouchure: Place the downward pointing tongue tip one the top, inside of the bottom lip. Arch the tongue so the top surface of the tongue touches the cutting edge of the top teeth and the bottom inside of the top lip. Ã‰Do not squeeze the lips together or pull them in tightly against the teeth. Do not push the top lip upward with the bottom lip as if to form a sneer.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 14 Avoid tightening the mouth corners as in a smile. Relax the shoulders, arms and neck. Keep the teeth wide open so the full width of the tongue can remain between the teeth. Maintain a think and fleshy feel in the lips in all registers. (p. 1) Callet (2007) revised his thinking to this: With teeth wide open, place the tip of your tongue lightly against the back of your lower teeth. Then, curl your tongue ov er fully so it is between your upper and lower teeth and up against your lips. Draw your bottom lip in against the wedge of your tongue in order to hold the tongue firmly in its full curl. Feel the cutting edges of BOTH your upper and lower teeth against t he TOP side of your tongue! (p. 1) Macbeth (1985) defined the embouchure , according to Louis Maggio, as follows : A fast and sure way of checking the proper position of the lip is as follows: 1. Whistle. 2. Retain the forward position of the lips. 3. With t he index finger, push the center of the bottom lip up and behind the top lip so as to close the opening. 4. Place mouthpiece under nose. 5. Move down to 2/3 upper and 1/3 lower. 6. Keep the chin up. 7. Aim the bell of the horn slightly down. 8. Pump air. 9 . Buzz down towards the cleft in the chin. (p. 5) Embouchure T ypes Embouch ure description has been a subject of popularity with trumpeters. Starting in the late 19 th century, embouchure explanations frequently use the words, "stretch" or "smile" to describe lip positioning. F or example, Saint Jacome (2002) instructs players to "place the lips tog ether in a smiling position" (p. 3) . According to Gardner (1990), "identifying the physical characteristics of expert performance and attempting directly to apply those characteristics to the playing process of less skilled players has been a dominant pedagogical focus" (p. 30). Hence, it is of great importance to understand how to best instruct beginners on techniques that will
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 15 provide them with the basics of embo uchure development. Johnson (2010) states two important fact ors with embouchure development: "the first principle involves the muscles required to control the vibrating portion of the embouchure...The second principle involves the vibrating portion it self" (p. 34 35). The vibration, or buzz, of the embouchure has been touted as an integral pedagogical tool over the past few decades. Rafael Mendez, James Stamp, Max Schlossberg, Ronald Romm; and Fred Elias stressed buzzing on the mouthpiece (Pugh, 2003) . Eric Wright (2009) noted that, "very few works in the performance literature require buzzing the mouthpiece as a musical application" (p. 31) . However, Wright (2009) added that the pedagogy of Jame s Stamp was geared towards the "development of independen t control of the facial muscles as an antidote to the excessive use of mouthpiece pressure" (p. 31). Specifically, James Stamp (1978) speaks of setting up the buzz via the following: Playing the mouthpiece alone, hold it in the left hand with thumb and fo refinger. Keep the fingers loose and do not clench them. Hold the mouthpiece an inch from the small end. This is to lessen the pressure on the lips. What pressure is needed is added after the breath. This applies also when playing the instrument. This has proven t o be a most important point in my teaching. (p. 3) James Zigara (2006) states that , "the energized airstream is focused and directed by the muscles that surround the lip aperture, causing the lips to buzz inside the mouthpiece. The instrument amplifies the sound and the note is executed " (p. 56) . Given that, the embouchure will remain relaxed enough to produce a sound while remaining efficient. Fred Elias (1925) touted the Ã”Non pressure system,' which he figured out through working with Herber t Clarke. Elias heard about Clarke, "taking his cornet, tying it on a string
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 16 and striking high C" (p. 2) . This is the impetus with which he began his development using the buzzing method. Elias (1925) wrote : The first thing the pupil must do is to produce a buzz on the mouthpiece. This is done with vibration of the lips. Take the mouthpiece in the left hand, let it rest on your thumb and against your lips. Let your lips in a natural position, never stretch lips across teeth. Place mouthpiece on lips where it feels most natural, near the center as much as possible. You will have to experiment with this buzz until the knack is learned. Remember the finer the buzz the better the tone. Pronounce the syllable Hoo. Do not use tongue. (p. 3) \ In keeping with the non pressure idea, William Adam (1975) spoke of buzzing the lips and mouthpiece, but cautioned against having tension in the lips and the buzz. It is this tension that needs to be treated with great caution and foresight. As the embouchure develops, muscle s become stronger and the educator must understand how to approach this physical strength and continue to direct the student towards an embouchure that is not tense. Hickman (2006) explains that o ther embouchure pedagogies stress mouthpiece pressure, "as a viable method for note changing, but at great expense to the trumpeter's tone quality and lip health" ( p. 113). Too much pressure is counter productive to endurance and sust aining a functioning embouchure . Hunt (2002) postulates , "too much mouthpiece pressure on the lips, via mashing the lips between the mouthpiece and the teeth, is the brass players nemesis. The teeth and lips can't tolerate the pressure, and the high mouthpiece pressure "shuts off" the tiny vibrations which mak e the high register possible " (p. 6). Many beginning brass players use the pinky ring located on the lead pipe as an aid to Ã”pull' the trumpet towards their mouthpiece in an attempt to squeeze out notes that they cannot reach using correct techniques, inst ead Ã”mashing'
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 17 the embouchure. Bhasin (2007) elaborates, " t he muscles of the arms and hands tighten as players ascend, and the added pressure creates a slightly more secure feeling and li p firmness, which unfortunately does not last long before the li ps suc cumb to swelling and pain " (p. 68) . Banschbach (2009) details this point, as the "restriction of fibrous blood flow," (p. 18) from adding too much pressure, which can lead to atrophy, a condition where the muscle fibers in the embouchure lose volume. However, frequently taking the mouthpiece away from the mouth permits new blood flow (p. 18 19). This technique contradicts what Arban (1982) states: In order to produce the higher notes, it is necessary to press the instrument against the lips, so as to p roduce an amount of tension proportionate to the needs of the note to be produced; the lips being thus stretched, the vibrations are shorter, and the sounds are consequently of a higher nature. (p. 7) The use of pressure will need to be overcome with prope r playing techniques in order to develop a lifelong ability to play the trumpet. Bhasin (2007) summarizes : W ithout pressure, the other playing habits or airflow, aperture control, and tongue position will have to coordinate to produce higher tones. Over time, a more efficient habit set will emerge (even under stress in performance) especially if music is used as the primary source of practice material during habit shifting sessions . ( p. 68). Rela xed E mbouchure Elias (1927) stated , "do not use any pressu re on the lips. The blood must circulat e through the lips at all times " (p. 5). Hunt clarified the meaning of Ã”no press ure' by stating that the player: M ust learn to substitute a tightly compressed m m m m m embouchure and highly pressurized airstream, to replace mouthpiece pressure which is exerted upon the Ã”chops'
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 18 for the purpose of Ã”stretching' or Ã”thinning' the lips, in order to produce ever smaller (higher) vibrations. The only mouthpiece pressure required is that which is sufficient to prevent air lea king from around the mouthpiece, while playing . (p. 11) Johnson (2010) explained that, "for lower pitches, the aperture is wider creating a bigger space in the lips and therefore a higher flow rate. For higher pitches, the aperture is smaller creating a l ower flow rate" (p. 28). Shuebruk (1923) realized how the relaxed embouchure worked: Interval practice trains the lips to slacken and tighten, (to make the opening between the lips larger or smaller) for low or high tones. A low tone is made by loosening the lips a little, and the high tones are not obtained by blowing harder but by pinching the lips tighter together. The difference of high and low in the scale is of course assisted by a relaxing and tensing of the body generally, but the lips mak e the who le difference in pitch (p. 23) . Ultimately, according to Barth (2013), "An efficient embouchure has several characteristics, perhaps the most obvious being that it is capable of functioning with little muscular effort" (p. 30). In order to achieve the high er registers with brass instruments, the embouchure needs to operate with as little tension as possible. McLaughlin (2013) states that t oo much tension "tires the embouchure, hinders the lips and makes it hard for them to vibrate which prevents resonance a nd harms range" ( p. 4). Barth (2013) states, "an efficient embouchure will vibrate freely and easily in response to a player's breath, allowing for clear attacks, clean articulation , and a vibrant, colorful sound " (p. 30). So, in order to play the higher pitches on the trumpet, something else is required. Since added mouthpiece pressure is counter productive to lip vibration and the stretching of the
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 19 embouchure musculature limits higher lip vibrations, the velocity of the air must be increased. As Jerome Callet (2007) states in, Master Superchops , " t rumpet players have been taught to increase range by tightening the lips, (and) blowing more air" (p. 2). As children are taught to use their lips in order to develop their initial sound, their technique result s in a thinner sound, with less resonance (Callet, 2007). To counter this resonance issue, the lip needs to remain supple , allowing it to vibrate freely. In order to increase pitch, the tongue position arches to increase the air speed before it approaches the apertu re tunnel . Tongue arch Through videofluorographic equipment, researchers viewed the tongue and oral cavity shape of professional trumpeters, such as Maurice Andre. The results demonstrated that the "various sh apes of the oral cavity are vital to pitch selection and the changing of registers" (Winick, 1983, p. 25). Aside from genetics, the easiest method for changing the shape of the oral cavity inside the mouth is with the use of the tongue arch. As Claude Gord on noted in his commentary in Arban (1983) , "for years it was the opinion that the lips produced the higher notesÃ‰ It is now known that this is not true the tongue controls the pitch changes" ( p. 7) . Bhasin (2007) describes the correlation between air spe ed and tongue position, "w hile playing, the tongue position determines the speed and path of the air by adjusting the shape of the oral cavity. The shape of the space inside your mouth (oral cavity) must be appropriate to the register you are playing in " ( p. 65). Less pressure coupled with tongue position will aid in manipulating the pitch changes necessary in a relaxed and controlled embouchure. Callet and Civiletti (2002) note that: The higher you play, the thicker and wider the tongue becomes. You should feel your top lip curling inward, cross the entire width of your mouth, on top of the tongue. Ã‰your
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 20 st r onger and more pliable tongue can be placed between both lips. Your lips will curl inward against the tongue to ascend. To descend you will slightly rel ax the lip's grip of your tongue. Ã‰You r lips should always remain thic k and vibrant as your tongue acts as a buffer between the lips and the front of your teeth. The lips and tongue in this forward position can easily control the air into pure sound in every range. I call this the tongue lip isometric. This very simple secre t is the most powerful method that c an be used in all brass playing . (p. 13 15) Continuing, Callet and Civiletti (2002) state that, "learning how to keep your lips from losing their ability to vibrate, with ease in the upper register, will give you additio nal flexibility in your playing once you develop thi s technique " (p. 13) . Callet (2007) also explains that, "the control of air is moved away from the unstable lips to the stable tongue, a much more powerful and controllable muscle " (p. 2) . Callet's (200 7) over emphasis on the use of the tongue in the embouchure is a shift from current pedagogies. He speculates that his observations are a rediscovered technique that was " taught during the baroque era and rediscovered by the select few truly great players of our time " (p. 2) . When using the tongue arch, the lip functions in the manner as Claude Gordon (1968) suggests, "when ascending to the higher register the lips should contract toward the mouthpiece . When descending to lower notes, the lips should relax." (p. 5) Walter Smith (1935) , a renowned trumpet pedagogue, states the following in Lip Flexibility on the Cornet or Trumpet: Forty One Studies for E mbouchure D evelopment : The followingÃ‰studies are designed solely to develop the action of the lips a nd the back of the tongue until the utmost flexibility and control of these members is attained.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 21 Ã‰The sole object is to build a movement of the lips an d tongueÃ‰The back of the tongue should rise slightly toward the roof of the mouth with each successive s tep upward, as though pronouncing the letter E, and the lower lip should be at the same time drawn upward and into the mouthpiece very slightly, while the wind force is also increased to make up for the narrowed opening between the lips. These muscles shou ld of course be relaxed again in descending . (p. 3) The movement towards the mouthpiece can be described as a pucker shape because the embouchure moves forward towards the mouthpiece when forming the embouchure. As defined by Sanborn (1997): The puckered embouchure is the opposite of a smile. Pucker is not a completely accurate term, as the lips are not pouted forward as if to receive a kiss. They are still rolled inwards, as when saying the letter Ã”M'. The entire embouchure area contracts for ward towards the rim of the mouthpiece, as if to grip it. The mouth corners tighten down firmly, though not rigidly, against the sides of the teeth. This forms them into a natural pucker, which acts as a cushion between the mouthpiece and your teeth, the b etter to counteract the pressure from the mouthpiece. It allows the lips to continue vibrating further up into the range. As your tongue and jaw move during playing, your facial muscles are also constantly moving, adjusting your lips so that they can conti nue to vibrate on the airstream that is being sent through them . (p. 30) The Ã”m' shape that Sanborn describes is mentioned in band method books and demands further explanation. Philip Farkas (1989) , a brass pedagogue, described his embouchure using the syllable Ã”m' , "l ining up the upper teeth and lower teeth with one another through proper jaw positioning will result in the air stream traveling straight through into the shank of the
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 22 mouthpiece and provide better results " (p. 8 9). Adding, Banschbach (200 9) states to set the lips , "firmly (as in) pronouncing the letter, "m" to establish the feeling of the embouchure musculature " (p. 18). Conclusion T his study will be applicable to any trumpet player wherever they may be in their development, from beginner to professional. As long as there is a definite emphasis on resonant and centered sound production, trumpet players and educators will be able to glean something from this study. Air support coupled with eff icient embouchur e formation can effectively produce a sound on the trumpet. This research suggests that there is an apparent consistency among pedagogues about proper embouchure formation. The depth of material available about specific embouchure types and embouchure development is far too great for it not to be included with more detail in the current band method pedagogy. As such, there is a definite need for further development on the subject of embouchure development and its subsequent integration in th e classroom via texts and personal instruction. This stud y will further investigate and compare different embouchure types and suggest effective teaching strategies in order to aid music educators and performers alike.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 23 INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Because there is little pedagogical embouchure information in the c urrent band literature about different embouchure types, t he need for instructional material is evident. Existing information is deficient in detailing any problems that might occur or reco mmendations for improvement in forming a more suitable embouchure for beginners. Millican (2013) states, "to be effective instrumental music instructors, teachers need to possess certain highly developed, integrated skills that build on their own initial m astery of music content and performance skill" (p. 51). Subsequently, students will learn more effectively when their teachers can demonstrate the proper techniques. Many educators teach by demonstration along with explanation (Millican, 2013). I n conclusi on, White (1972 ) noted that: 1) Advanced trumpeters have more muscle activity o utside rather than inside the lips, while beginners show no difference in activity. 2) Beginning trumpeters have greater activity in the upper rather than lower lip, while advanced players show no difference in degree of activity. 3) Advanced trumpeters employ more constant em bouchure muscle activity than beginners when performing slurred and tongued arpeggios, small interval lip slurs, and short spaced repeated notes. 4) Advanced players demonstrate less differenc e in magnitudes of embouchure muscle activity between the last one half secon d of preparation for the tone attack and during the tone than beginning trumpeters . (p. 84) The ultimate goal of the trumpet embouchure is to keep the embouchure as efficient as possible , while using as little musculature as possible in order to achieve any demands placed on the player by the literature that they are playing.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 24 Puffing The C heeks As the beginner develops their embouchure, there should be no air in the cheeks. As Banschbach (2009) states: Beginners should be told to fill their cheeks with air and then forcibly suck the cheeks against the teeth. Repeating this over and over give s a stu dent the feel of the buccinator muscle s action. If not stopped, the buccinators bands pull at the corners of the mouth, prohibiting the full function of another . (p. 19) While many people can remember Dizzy Gillespie's over inflated cheeks, this is a poor habit to develop for trumpet players. The expanded cheeks will counter the effectiveness of the buccinators ' fibers by expanding the cheeks and pulling the embouchure away from the buccinators . Those fib ers will tire and will need to recuperate by rest ing the embouchure ( Banschbach, 2009 ). Using Too Much P ressure There are certain characteristics that are caused by improper embouchure formation. The symptoms of a player using too much pressure include : lip pa in , cuts, dramatic lip swelling, and/or littl e endurance (Bhasin, 2007 ). Strieder (2013) explains how mouthpiece pressure can develop: A s students, we learn early that a little bit of mouthpiece pressure helps get the next harmonic to come out. For example, we may press a little to go from low C to middle G. We use a little more pressure to get to the next C out. We use even more pressure to get E. The next thing you know, we don't need braces anymore! The embouchure works in balance with the air. As the air blows, our lip muscles grip the air and we get the air oscillating to create the sound. As the lip muscles tire, the air blows them out and apart.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 25 We use the mouthpiece to help hold the aperture togethe r by using mouthpiece pressure . (p. 49) First , players need t o determin e where added pressure is added. Next, they should begin to use light pressure and "resist the temptation to add more as they ascend" (Bhasin, 2008, p. 68). Also, players should remove the right pinky finger from the ring, as the main purpose for that ring is to enable the player to place a mute into the instrument or turn pages of sheet music. Players should play a scale and discern where it is that they need to add pressure as they ascend. This will provide the player with the specific note (or notes) in their range where they need to focus their attention as they utilize the following practice strategies. S imple melodies by Getchell, Arban and Concone work very well for alleviating the pressure and learning the proper pressure/air balance. These exercises focus on slurring ascending scale lines that do not have large harmonic intervals (additional technical exercises from Clarke would work as well, while stressing light pressure, fast fingers and s low air stream) . The process of implementing these into a p ractice routine should be a cons istent daily approach. The aforementioned exercises will aid in their development away from too much pressure to a more even, light pressure approach . Results may come within a matter of months. Aperture S ize Aperture size is a nother embouchure issue that can hinder tone production . An aperture that is either too focused (closed) or not focused enough presents problems for proper embouchure development and efficiency (Bhasin, 200 7) . Some specific symptoms of an aperture that is too closed are: missing notes from above , sound is sharp, Ã”anemic , ' and/or high tones are difficult to center. Symptoms of an open aperture are: massive mouthpiece pressure , lip pain, and
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 26 little high register response (as in a student needs a "good day" to play high) . One final symptom is that unusually large mouthpieces feel comfortable despite poor response (Bhasin, 2007 ) . As the concept of mouthpiece pressure has already been discussed , in addition to changing mouthpieces to a smaller size, the a perture that is too open can be remedied by the following strategies . One way to address an open embouchure is to buzz the lips alone. Strieder (2013) believes that t he free b u zz helps " strengthen the embouchure muscles to withstand the ai r pressure blowing against them" (p. 49) . Bhasin (2007) concurs with buzzing the lips alone to establish resonance with the open aperture. He elaborates this technique thusly : Practicing buzzing the lips alone for five minutes a day can be enlightening fo r players with a prohibitively open settingÃ‰practice buzzing ascending five note scales, using plenty of air. While ascending, imagine focusing the lips together as if saying the syllable "mmm" or holding a grain of rice in place with your lips. Over a per iod of weeks, the higher pitches will come, even if just a step or two. The minor adjustments made are very similar to the adjustments needed when playing the trumpet! The next step is to gradually incorporate what you have learned: alternate buzzing upwar d with playing soft scales on the instrument. Gradually you will learn to focus the aperture in the same way, and high register play ing will prove easier. ( p. 66) The Ã”mmm' mnemonic on the embouchure is a useful factor in creating a deliberate focus on how the embouchure feels as the player ascends. The feel of the embouchure is what is necessary in order to replicate the behavior from day to day as players overcome these poor habits. Musicians are usually alone in their practice room and they need to be a ble to cognitively recall specific techniques their teacher has taught them . T his mnemonic is one such example. Bhasin (2007) states the following r egarding an embouchure setting that is too closed:
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 27 P layers should try simple scales, softly and slowly, keepin g the tone rich and full. As players ascend, they should concentrate on pointing the chin downward while keeping it flat and firm. This playing concept wi ll gradually repair the "crus hing" of the aperture while s till allowing for some focusing . ( p. 6 6) These strategies need to be diligently implemented and critically examined as the player progresses. After a short while, the player's sound will open and their tone will become fuller with more overtones, while the ir embouchure response will be more a utomatic. Bhasin (2007) adds, "a benefit to this approach is that the lips usually move less as a player ascends; overcompensating, "pinching" settings usually are accompanied by large, ineffective lip movements" ( p. 66) . Thus, the embouchure begins to function more efficiently as it adopts these new playing techniques. Beginning Embouchure F ormation Streider (2013) suggests using an interesting strategy to teach the beginning trumpet embouchure. He notes that "t here are g enerally two types of embouchures: embouchures formed by the muscles (free buzz) and embouchures form ed by the mouthpiece (pressure)" (p. 48). Instead of forming the embouchure without the mouthpiece, or buzzing without the mouthpiece, he suggests using a coffee stir straw placed between the lips and then say the letters "m & m" as in the candy. This helps set up the correct aper ture and embouchure. The player should hold the "m" and blow. As he/she does this, Streider slide s the mouthpiece ov er the straw to the lips. A s the student continues to blow, he gently pull s the straw from the mouthpiece. This motion creates a buzz within the aperture of the embouchure in a very natural and relaxed manner. He remarks that m ost students are successful wit h just a li ttle coaching. If one do es this approach con currently with free buzzing, it will maximize the beginner's chance for success . Griffin
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 28 (2007) also uses the Ã”mm' approach. He instructs the beginner to have their corners firm and set as they push air rapidly through the opening, "as though they are trying to blow a pi e ce of rice of f their lip" (p. 47). There are characteristics that one should be aware of in order to help make the trumpet player as successful as possible. After all, each player's embouchure and dentition are unique and as such, instructors need to set their students up for success as muc h as possible. As Griffin (2007) states so eloquently, "ignoring students' p hysique is ultimately selling them short, since they will experience the most success when their ins trument is a good match for them" (p. 46). Examining a beginner's dental structu re will aid in determining their success with the trumpet; specifically, if the beginner has any "front teeth that are protruded, side ways or missing, the student may be limited in their comfort and embouchure development if they are unable to make the ne cessary adjustments" (Griffin, 2007, p. 46). Another trait to be aware of is if the beginner has an overbite or underbite, which will also greatly hinder their progress. If the beginner chooses to play the trumpet, the jaw will need to be either pushed fo rward or receded in order to align the teeth properly for the embouchure to work easily (Griffin, 2007 ) . This is not to say, that a beginner with protruding teeth or a huge overbite cannot be successful; however, it will require greater effort, which might discourage beginners more so than those with more aligned dentition. Hunt (2 0 00) describes the lips and the dentition as well: A. The lips should be neither too fleshy nor too thin. Heavier lipped players might be steered toward the low brass mouthpiece. B. The mouthpiece will seek a high point on the teeth, whether in the middle or off to one side. Don't interfere.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 29 C. Most peop le have an overbite, but if it is too pronounced it will either cause the trumpet to be held like the clarinet, or the head will be thrown back because of the teacher's insistence upon "keeping the bell up." You might suggest that the child consider a bari tone or French horn, as an alternative. D. Increasingly, we (instructors) are having to deal with orthodontics. In some instances, the writer feels that the braces actually contributed to the development of the "decreased pressure" embouchure (p. 6 7). Gr iffin (2007) also addresses lip size as Hunt did . H owever, he suggests that instead of dir ecting the beginner to a low brass instrument, he suggests having slightly larger cup size mouthp ieces available for them. He continues with the observation that, "a large inner rim will allow the student's lips to vibrate, while an inner rim that is too narrow will pinch into the fleshy part of their lips, causing issues in tone, aperture flexibility, and endurance" (p. 46). Conversely, those beginners with thin lips should use a mouthpiece with a narrower rim; otherwise, the beginner might a pply too much pressure. Occasionally, there might be beginners who have a Ã”teardrop' lip, in which the front part of the lip comes down f urther than the rest of the top lip. This trait leads to an "unreliable response, fluttering in the sound, a downward air stream, and aperture control issues" which is not well sui ted to trumpet playing. Griffin (2007) recommends a Schilke 13C4 mouthpiece for students with a teardrop lip as it has more "rim surface area and is slightly more flat, helping to stabilize the teardrop portion of the lip" (p. 46). Once the mouthpiece has been chosen, embouchure development is contingent on the vibration of the l ips, or Ã”buzz.' Hunt (2000) details his teaching strategy with the following attention to the buzz :
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 30 A. Demonstrate the "buzz" without the mouthpiece. Have the student do the same, while encouraging her to match your pitch. At this time, it will often be noted that the lips will be pressed together too much too loosely. This will result in a horse like "f lapping" of the lips. Urge the student to press their lips together more firmly, which will result in a finer "mosquito like buzz," but not so tightly that the airstream can't break through. B. Demonstrate the "buzz" with the mouthpiece only. Attempt to p lace the mouthpiece in the center of the child's lips (left to right) with one third on the upper lip and two thirds on the lower lip. If any high points on the teeth preclude the above placement, the player will alter it. Do not insist upon "the" correct formula for mouthpiece placement. C. Encourage the stu d ent to match pitches with you. Have him "buzz like a siren," which will cause a gradual tension and loosening of the embouchure. Also, urge them to "buzz" tunes of their choice. D. Finally, place the mouthpiece in the trumpet and remind the student of the "mosquito buzz," and that they should touch the mouthpiece to the lips, with just enough pressure to insure that the air doesn't leak from around the lips. (p. 7) Schlabach (1999) states that when bu zzing, "it is very important to produce a large, resonant, Ã”buzzy' sound on the mouthpiece using a relaxed air stream " (p. 67). He continues, stating: I t must be stressed that the mouthpiece alone should be approached with the same free blowing that one would use to make a full trumpet sound in a concert hall. The student will learn to expect a full, vibrant sound even on the mouthpiece because the ear will improve its control of the quality of sound, as well as pitch and accuracy. (p. 67) Schlabach (1999 ) details how he approaches the use of buzzing the mouthpiece in a few simple steps:
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 31 1) Students can use any repertoire, exercise or warm up, but simplicity must be stressed foremost. 2) Begin with long tones, slow and easy lip slurs, tonguing patterns and scale patterns with mixed articulations. (Clarke's Technical Studies are recommended) 3) If students have trouble moving between notes of slurs, they are over adjusting their embouchure or compromising the air stream instead of using a constant flow of air. a. It is recommended that the student at this point should slide up and down between notes to learn the most efficient way to move from note to note. b. Then the Ã”slides' should be gradually sped up over time until moving between the notes becomes easier. 4) After the player improves, more challenging material can be added such as arpeggios, multiple tonguing or more challenging repertoire. 5) Students might have a Ã”blank spot' on the mouthpiece where the sound will disappear, but this will improve with patient practice. 6) Alternating between mouthpiece practice and instrument practice will produce the greatest results, too. (p. 67). The next stage in the development of the embouchure is the balance between the air flow and the embouchure. Air/Embouchure B alance Breathing is an integral part of the trumpet embouchure. Streider (2013) suggests that t he best approach is to teach beginners , " to use Ã” quality ' air while encouraging them to free buzz t he full range of the instrument " (p. 49) . T he importa nce of free buzzing is beneficial to students , but it is not the same as playing the trumpet, as it is har der than playing the trumpet. Specifically,
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 32 buzzing is a function of the embouchure within the mouthpiece. Practicing buzzing alone will aid in develo ping the resonance of the tone while using the proper air support to regulate the buzz. Streider (2013) continues to suggest that there are certain buzzing exercises, which are designed for a specific purpose. However, these exercises are not for actual pe rformance or musical applications . Instead, t hey are designed to help the body respond to various stressors. For example, football players use weight lifting , but those exercises are not always directly about the techniques of playing football itself . The specific technique of free buzzing only works on one function of the total embouchure , but i s integral in the entire formation of embouchure and production of tone. Streider (2013) cautions that students should start with small increments of time and gradually increase over a period of months . To that end, Strieder focuses on three specif i c areas when working with beginners : 1) The correct usage of air. 2) The center of pitch. 3) The supple ness of lips. (p. 47) Strieder (2013) continues, "the embouchure should be the only thing creating resistance. The resistance increases as we ascend into the upper register and decreases as we descend into the lower register. The air has to be buoyant agai nst this changing resistance and needs to be able to respond to the different registers of a piece of music. This is why we often have problems with flexibility." (p. 48). Griffin (2007) states, "the air should be fast and centered, (if their lips do not v ibrate, the student may be holding or stretching them too tightly, or they may need to blow faster air)" (p. 47). When using air in order to be most efficient, Campos (1995) states:
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 33 You can play without destructive tension by remaining as relaxed as possible at the moment of inhalationÃ‰Players who take a full breath will use less energy to expel a given quantity of air than players who take a partial breath. (p. 89). Continuing with this reasoning, McLaughlin (2001) comments that there are only five simple things needed for proper breath: "relax, breathe, stay relaxed, blow, project" (p. 6). McLaughlin (2001) further expounds on his instruction by insisting that each octave has a dif ferent feel as the air is released. Namely, he writes: For the bottom octave and a half of the horn you just LET the air out. Do NOT tense anything. Tension only tires you out. For the next half an octave you pull your stomach in about 1 inch. This makes the chest cavity smaller and adds some compression. For the next octave to 2 octaves you continue to pull your stomach in farther for each higher note. As you reach your top note you life your stomach up toward the lungs. This creates a great deal of compr ession with NO tension. (p. 6) However, Campos (1995) contends that, "if you just focus on blowing, the body will contract the proper muscles you do not have to think about it" (p. 89) . To that end, it seems that McLaughlin is writing about the compressio n required to pe rform in the upper register and, as Campos states, only using as much body movement as is needed. McLaughlin has only put the practice into words that can be used in instruction. In another article, Campos (1998) suggests a method that can be used to rid the body of excess tension caused by forcing air support: One of the most effective ideas to eliminate excessive tension is Cat Anderson's 20 minute Ã”G.' Ã‰Used consistently over a period of time, it can overcome problems ranging from excess ive mouthpiece pressure to poor response and lack of endurance. It also greatly enhances breath capacity, control of dynamic range, and helps clarify the tone.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 34 Cat instructed the reader to play a second line g "like a whisper" for 20 minutes. (Ã‰the player can take the horn off the embouchure for a few seconds between tones.) Ã‰.It is through constant repetition of a new, more relaxed and efficient way of playing that we eventually overcome excessive tension in our performance. (p. 44, 51) T he abdomen affect s compression of the air ; but compression is also affected by the tongue position . Specifically, the higher the tongue arch, the faster the air velocity. I f the tongue is not in the correct position, problems with the sound production can result. Tongue P os ition Some i dentifiable symptoms of inappropriate tongue positioning are: " a dull sound , poor intonation, missing notes from below, in ability to lip trill, and/or poor flexibility, especially from low to hig h registers " (Bhasin, 2007 , p. 66 ). For preliminary practice in overcoming the habit of poor tongue position, simple scales are best. Bhasin (2007) states: W ork upwards, softly, and experiment with focusing the space inside your mouth with your tongue for optimum tone and response. Try whistling, intermittently for a practice model: if you watch yourself whistling an ascending scale in a mirror, you'll notice that the aperture does not change size much. This is because as the tongue rises, the air pressure increases (you also blow a litt le harder), and pitch raises. This principle is the same as a teapot whistling; the aperture does n ot change in size, but pitch ris es nonetheless! (p. 66) Bhasin (2007) lists a dditional tongue position exercises that are found in the following method books :
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 35 1) Arban p. 39, #5 . To be performed s lowly and softly. Reverse the dynamics, so as you ascend you do not force out high tones by simply blowing harder. Try to affect pitch change primarily with the tongue, just as if you were whistling. 2) Schlossberg #18. I gnore printed dynamics and play softly, channeling the air with your tongue position, and keep a ringing sound. 3) Arban p. 44 #22. To be performed s lowly and softly. 4) Arban p. 41 # 14. Upward leaps should be the result of syllable changes as well as i ncrease d airflow. Playing softly will isolate this techniq ue. Repeat with frequent rests. (p. 66) Other Devices And M ethods Trumpet players usually begin in the 5 th or 6 th grade as part o f their evolution into trumpet playing. During this time, their body is still growing ; namely the jaw, while their tendons and ligaments are more flexible than when they are adults (McLaug hlin, 2011 ). Subsequently, children are using more effort to achieve basic results. For example, the muscles are weaker and these beginners need to use approximately 50% 60 % of their strength to play lower notes. This becomes problematic because as they grow older, they continue to use the same effort to play the lower, most ba sic of notes (McLaughlin, 2011 ). Because of this tension in begin ning embouchures, McLaughlin (2011) recommends using a didgeridoo to relax th e embouchure that has tightened over years and years of playing with too much tension. His methodology is as follows : B low into the didgeridoo with your lips centered in the mouth piece, say Ã” paaa ' and blow air. You want to relax the face and lips until you get a lout tone. It will be below our pedal c (B flat trumpet) and LOUD when it finally pops out. (p. 8)
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 36 The reason that this is effective over a long period of time is that it works well in conjunction with other non pressure methodologies, discussed earlier, to effectively retrain the embouchure in a more relaxed manner. T he end result is a more focused ton e , centered pitch throughout the range of the instrument , and longevity of technique.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 37 DISCUSSION The chart located in Appendix A is a graphic organizer of specific embouchure methods that were examined in this study . These methods were chosen because of their different approaches to the formation of the embouchure and how each one is used in practice. It should be noted that each method specializes in training th e embouchure according to the author's recommendation. As the texts were exa mined, exercises were engineered to address strengths and weaknesses inherent in each embouchure method. It was the intention of this author to understand each embouchure method's formation according to mouthpiece placement, breath, use of syllables, pucke r, smile, pivot system, mouthpiece pressure, lip aperture, pressurized airstream, use of pedal tones and resting as long as one plays. Mouthpiece Placement Many of the trumpet method books that were examined shared the same recommendation about where to p lace the mouthpiece on the embouchure. Callet, Civiletti, Maggio and Gordon suggest placing the mouthpiece more on the upper lip than the lower lip. This is an advantageous position in that it allows for more potential lip tissue to vibrate as the air move s through the aperture tunnel and causes the top lip to vibrate, thus establishing the sound wave. However, Caruso, Smith, Hunt and Meregilliano do not suggest one position over another. Their stance suggests that the mouthpiece should be placed on the emb ouchure in the most natural way possible. As noted earlier by Hunt (2000), the mouthpiece will seek a high point on the teeth upon which to rest. This author recommends that if the lips do not present issues such as a Ã”teardrop' shape or are really thick, then wherever the mouthpiece lays naturally on the embouchure is the most efficient location for the student. In the case of thick lips or the
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 38 Ã”teardrop' shape, this author would recommend testing out larger diameter mouthpieces for those students in order to compensate for their physical traits. Breath All of the authors recommended taking a breath either through the nose, as in Callet and Civ iletti , or through the sides of the mouth as in Caruso, Gordon, Hunt, Maggio, Meregilliano, and Stamp . Callet and Civiletti endorse an anchored tongue approach to the embouchure that stresses little air intake , so as to not overblow the embouchure. Instead , the pressurized air stream caused by the tongue in conjunction with the bottom lip causes a large mass of vibrational tissue that does not require a large volume of air to produce a resonant pitch. This differs from intaking air through the sides of the mouth , which means that the embouchure needs to be reset each time a breath is taken. Subsequently, using an anchored approach is a more efficient use of the air stream as opposed to taking in air through the sides of the embouchure itself. Also, it should be noted that the concept of breath control refers to taking in only as much air as needed for the specific passage that is to be played. Any excess air becomes stale in the lungs and will need to be expelled instead of withholding it while playing. Ultimately, the breath should be as relaxed and as energized with oxygen as possible and should be completely used up during each phrase that is played. Finally, as was practiced in the Stamp (1978) method, the breath should be taken in temp o with the music. It is the opinion of this author that even though the other method texts did not implicitly mention taking a breath in tempo, this is a good practice to employ. Syllables The use of syllables is recommended with almost all of the methods , except Civiletti and Callet. There is a difference in using syllables for range development, as in the case of narrowing the oral cavity in order to compress the air stream further before it enters the horn. The other use
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 39 of syllables comes into play whe n there is a requirement to play music in different contexts , such as bright playing or chamber music. Performers might employ syllables to use in different genres of music, depending on how focused on their sound they are and how they can emote using syll ables to do so. In these method books however, the use of syllables covered both topics. Some mentioned using them for range development and some mentioned using them for enhancing acoustical properties. It is the opinion of this author to use syllables to achieve whatever goal is necessary while playing. Pucker and Smile Approach These two topics were put together because they both address how the lips are formed in the embouchure. First, it should be noted that none of the method books recommend using the Ã”smile' approach to forming the embouchure. This is not recommended as stretching the lip tissue across the lips by pulling the corners of the mouth back limits the vibrational sur face area of the lips. Subsequently, the sound becomes very thin and the embouchure is inefficient. Conversely, all of the method books (except Caruso, which did not mention it) recommend using the Ã”pucker,' or Ã”bunched chin' approach. The Ã”smile' approach does the opposite from the previous setup because it contracts the orbicularis oris to push the lip tissue into the mouthpiece. When using the Ã”bunched chin' approach, the mentalis muscle moves up and again brings more lip tissue into the mouthpiece. Both approaches increase the amount of lip tissue in the mouthpiece and allow for a greater vibration in the aperture tunnel , which produces a fuller, more resonant sound. Pivot System Stamp, Civiletti, Callet and Hunt all agreed that using a pivot to aid th e embouchure in changing registers is acceptable. Maggio, Caruso and Meregilliano did not advocate or
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 40 recommend using a pivot. The use of the pivot, according to McLaughlin (2001) , is to maintain a more open airway and clearer tone. The concept is simple: As you play higher and lower notes the air stream will slightly move in the mouthpiece. If we can keep it lined up with the throat hole the sound is better. The SLIGHT bell movement will produce an opposite movement or realignment of our lips to the mouthp iece. (McLaughlin, 2001, p. 10). This concept is used to help the air stream throughout the horn. It is this author's opinion that one should embrace the most natural position of the horn angle to the face. If that means moving the horn slightly up to des cend in pitch and moving the horn down to ascend in pitch, then it is acceptable. However, the motion should not be drastic and should not do anything more than push or pull the lips into the airstream to keep everything lined up (McLaughlin, 2001). Mout hpiece Pressure Mouthpiece pressure is something that al l of the method books agreed up on. Specifically, players should use as little pressure as possible while playing the instrument. The only pressure should be for sealing the mouthpiece to the embouch ure so that no air leaks. Also, not having pressure allows for the embouchure to remain supple, flexible and able to vibrate in the cup of the mouthpiece. I t has already been discussed that too much pressure eliminates the vibration of the lip tissue and crushes the aperture tunnel, which is where the air passes through the embouchure. This author also concurs with using as little pressure as possible, as thi s is a beneficial habit, which adds to an efficient embouchure. Lip Aperture The lip aperture is the opening in the embouchure where the vibration begins and causes the sound wave to begin before it travels into the instrument. As stated earlier, it is beneficial to
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 41 have an aperture that is more closed than open. All of the authors recommend a closed aperture over an open aperture, except Hunt, who did not comment on lip aperture. It is the opinion of this author that a more closed approach lends itself to a more efficient embouchure as the closer the orbicularis oris muscle is, the more natural the feeling. Specifically, it requires more e ffort to maintain an open aperture than relaxing into a closed aperture setting. Also, the sound quality of a closed aperture is more resonant than an open aperture setting (McLaughlin, 2001) . Pressurized Airstream All of the authors agreed that having a pressurized airstream is effective in embouchure development and execution. This author would add that a pressurized airstream is more charged with energy and oxygen. Also, the pressurized airstream is a result of a relaxed blow, proper compression with t he lungs and the tongue and a focused orbicularis oris muscle contracting on the airstream , thus creating an aperture tunnel for a fast stream of air. As McLaughlin (2001) elaborates, "t he aperture controls your tone quality, range and endurance. Apertures fall in 3 types: flat, causing a thin, shrill sound; oval, causing the full sound we all seek and round , causing a dull too dark sound" (p. 26). Once again, it is the vibration from the lips touching each other that causes the sound, the more lip tissue t hat is vibrating , the greater and more resonant the sound quality. As Callet (1987) stated, "both lips touch each other all across the mouth" (p. 6). An interesting concept brought up by McLaughlin (2001) is that : When we play in the pedal register the li p aperture is huge. For the sake of ease of numbers let's say that the aperture size for a double pedal C is 64 inches. Every octave higher that we play the size of the aperture is cut in half. Double pedal C = 64 inches Pedal C = 32 inches
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 42 Low C = 16 inches Middle C = 8 inches High C = 4 inches Double High C = 2 inches Triple High C Ã 1 inch (p. 28). This is an example of the width of the aperture and how it relates to pedal tone production. Pedal Tones Pedal tones are integral in relaxing the embouchure and keeping the aperture open while blowing a slow and full air stream. Additionally, McLaughlin (2001) states that playing pedals "teaches us to make BIG lip movements" (p. 29). All of the authors of the method books recommend using pedal tones . It allows for fresh oxygenated blood to invigorate the muscles of the embouch ure in order to rest them after use. Additionally, it moves the embouchure muscles in the opposite direction from contracting upon the airstream which is highly beneficial to ma intain embouchure flexibility and longevity. Ã”Rest' As Long As You Play Finally, most authors agree to rest as much as one plays. The main benefit from this is that i t provides the embouchure a period of rest , which aids in keeping the embouchure resilient which is what will help to ensure proper efficiency while performing the repertoire. Also, the concept of resting allows the performer to maintain focus on their material that they are practicing. Keep in mind, this is a concept that is used primarily in practice setting as the opportunity to rest while playing is not always available. Conversely, Callet and Civiletti's method books do not establish a policy of resting while one plays. The main reason for this is because the anchor ton guing involved in their embouchure types are efficient in using little ai r
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 43 across a large lip mass. Subsequently, the large vibration caused from the tongue in contact with the lips does not tire as quickly because of the little volume of air that goes thr ough the embouchure. So, according to this characteristic, the anchor tongue embouchure is very efficient and does not succumb to as much fatigue as other embouchure types. Conclusion The evaluation of the different trumpet method books provided a few in teresting conclusions: 1) There is no Ã”all encompassing' embouchure type for trumpet players. Each trumpet player is individual and should be approached as such with their unique strengths and deficiencies. 2) One method might work with someone for a period of time; however, there are other techniques that can be implemented, or borrowed, from another method that would progress the student through their challenges. 3) The main thing that students and educators must default to is their sense of hearing. Specificall y, is the sound that is being produced a good tone with resonance, proper support and an efficient use of their embouchure ? If it is not, then hearing is the first indicator that something needs to change. 4) This study is not all inclusive in its scope . I t merely is a resource for educators to use and it is the hope of the author that this study will be of great use for those educators who need more information about embouchure development. To that end, the author recommends the above strategies to be used whenever applicable in any teaching situation. Many of these techniques would best be used in a one on one situation, such as private lessons or brass sectionals during school hours. It is also recommended that when
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 44 implementing these strategies, that some form of tracking the student's practice be used. Perhaps the educator could write a practice plan incorporating these strategies along with a section for noticing improvements in the stude nt's playing. It is important for the student to have a tangible record of their accomplishments since many of these strategies will take weeks to months of diligent work and the results might not be as easily evident from day to day. To continue this research further, seeking information from professional trumpet performers and educators could be used to find out how they use and teach embouchure techniques. Issues such as private teaching experience ; high and low range; effectiveness of teaching the upper tessitura; use of syllables; use of embouchure mechanics in instruction; tension; compression; breathing; mouthpiece construction; density of sound; intonation and the ideal trumpet sound could be surveyed. The proposed survey is loca ted in Appendix B. The survey data could then be analyzed to see how other trumpet professionals use their embouchure and how certain embouchure issues are addressed. Also, further research on other trumpet methods could be investigated . Additionally, inv estigating any development of new information that continues to present itself. Researching current and past issues of the International Trumpet Guild Journal would provide a history of pedagogical information that has been published , as it relates to embouchure. It is the hope of this author to continue this research and to write a blog where these ideas can be shared with other educational professionals.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 45 INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLEMENTATION Many different strategies have been examine d with regards to different problems with embouchure development and how to effectively influence s tudents' embouchures in order to make them more efficient. Differentiation of techniques is necessary in order to address different skill levels and ability levels of the students. As stated earlier, the best case scenario to implement these strategies would be in a one on one setting. If that is not available, this author recommends that teachers giv e the students what instruction is possible in the time frame allotted , and then implement a written plan for the most effective strategy according to student needs. Then, as in all cases, regular checking up on the student's progress should be given , along with praise and additional recommendation s for progress. Beginner For relaxed embouchure development, this author recommends lip buzzing without the mouthpiece. Begin with buzzing easy tones, in whatever range is most comfortable to the beginner. Demons trate a pitch in their range, and then ask them to mimic your sound. A tool that is beneficial is a mouthpiece visualizer and a mirror , to show the student what their embouc hure looks like as it vibrates. Educators should look for lip cushion, pinched lips , collapsing lips and if the embouchure is touching. Any of these might be causing an issue with the buzz and should be addressed immediately. Students should practice buzzing simple melodies according to their ability . The teacher should meet them where t hey are. If the student cannot buzz higher than C4, then that is where they should begin. Begin buzzing pitches and focusing on maintaining a consistent, rich buzz . Instructors should trust their own ears and be diligent to address any inconsistencies they hear. Finally, teachers should require students to buzz for a few minutes then gradually exten d the time .
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 46 Additionally, focus on breathing in tempo for buzzing. This is a crucial component in ensuring that students will maintain air focus while they are buzzing. If the student is playing in time, ask that they take a relaxed breath one beat before the buzz begins. This concept should be mastered over a period of a few weeks and then students should move on to using the mouthpiece to buzz in a simila r mann er, beginning with simple long tones followed by simple scalar melodies. Intermediate After the students have mastered buzzing basic long tones and simple scale melodies with and without the mouthpiece, it is recommended that process continue with progressively more difficult material. Additionally, the student should focus on playing softly. The student should train their embouchure to play softly ; so softly that the sound begins to breakup. Students should practice so softly to the point of uncomf ortability. Effort should be placed on students spending time playing soft ly and buzzing the mouthpiece every da y during their practice regimen; p referably, spending 20% of their total practice time working on buzzing and soft practice. Advanced Advan ced students should be able to buzz with a relaxed setting for extended periods of time ; 10 20 minutes at least. Continuing, these students should be ale to buzz complex melodies on the mouthpiece , as well as single and multiple tonguing. These students sh ould be focused on trying to extend their resonant buzzing as long as possible with more complex literature. Additionally, they should be able to focus on listening to the sound of their buzz with and without the mouthpiece and continually maintain ing a re laxed embouchure set.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 47 Conclusions These strategies are to be used concurrently , or in place of embouchure issues that the students might have. If there are recommendations that were previously made, then the educator should address those issues before beginning a regimen of relaxed buzzing. It is paramount that the student be able to buzz with a good relaxed breath and focused sound. Additionally, if there are changes that need to be made to certain embouchures, it is highly recommended by this author that slow, deliberate instructional strategies be implemented before progressing ont o more challenging material. This author advocates subtle changes to the embouchure, especially for beginners, as they will need constant supervision to ensure that those changes take effect. Making changes too quickly, without time to absorb the changes , will likely sabotage a player's development. Additionally, there are wrong ways to approach embouchure development. Namely, using too much pressure or too much air to produce pitches. Too much pressure introduces a concept that will choke the vibration of the player and will severely limit their range, as they will tend to use more pressure as they ascend and their endurance will suffer greatly. S tudents that overblow their embouchure will be confronted with an aperture that is too open . E ven though they might be able to overblow the partials of the instrument and achieve a modicum of success in the upper register, eventually their range will top out . This is because their embouchure has not been trained to focus the airstream , which is necessary in the u pper register. These two main issues will sabotage the desires of any player who wishes to play the trumpet effectively. T rumpet players who appear to be squeezing out their notes while they play in the upper register are not forcing the air out of their lungs ; nor are they pinching the embouchure. Those players are focusing all their energies on playing relaxed and maintaining a secure aperture
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 48 tunnel while they perform that specific part. In order to become successful on the trumpet, players need to addr ess fundamental issues such as embouchure formation and air support. It is not enough to rely on innate natural ability, as a challenge will always present itself to playing. How one reacts to those challenges and overcome those deficiencies are paramount in becoming a talented musician. This requires attention and deliberate focus . After all, playing the trumpet is as much about finesse as it is about strength and it requires more mental acuity than physical strength. If players are not where they envision themselves to be, then they should seek out qualified instruction and not be satisfied until they achieve their own goals as a musician. The knowledge is out there to be found and it is this author's hope that this study will provide assistance with that search.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 49 Reference List Adam, W. (1975). Clinic Address. Retrieved from http://everything trumpet.com/ BillAdam/articles/ClinicAddress Arban, J. B. (1983). Complete conservatory method for trumpet. E. F. Goldman and W. M. Smith (Eds.). Annotated by Claude Gordon. New York, NY: Carl Fischer, Inc. Barth, M. (2013) Embouchure concepts. Canadian Musician, 34 (3) . Retrieved from http://g o.galegroup.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE %7CA298854220&v=2.1&u=gain40375&it=r&p=ITOF&sw=w Banschbach, D. (2009). To your health: Brass embouchure: The glory and the pain. International Musician, 107 (4), 18 19. Barrow, G. (2010) Thoughts on the history of trumpet pedagogy. International Trumpet Guild Journal, 34 (3), 62 63. Bertsch, M. (2001). Visualization of brass player ' s warm up by infrared thermography. Brass Bulletin , 114, 26 33. Bhasin, P. (2006). Efficient playing part I: Self awareness and habit shifting. International Trumpet Guild Journal, 39 (1), 69 70. Bhasin, P. (2007). Efficient playing part II: Application/exercises and examples. Internatio nal Trumpet Guild Journal, 39 (2), 64 68 . Callet, J. (1986). Trumpet yoga: a revolutionary approach to embouchure development. New York, NY.: Charles Colin. Callet, J. (1987). Superchops: The virtuoso embouchure method for trumpet and brass. New York, NY.: Charles Colin. Callet, J. (2007). Master superchops. New York: NY.: Charles Colin.
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 53 Schlabach (1999). The case for mouthpiece practice. International Trumpet Guild Journal , 23 (1), 67 . Shuebruk, R. (1923). The complete S huebruk lip trainers for trumpet. New York, NY.: Carl Fischer Inc. Stamp, J. (1978). Warm ups and studies. Vuarmarens, SUI : Editions, BIM . Smith, W. M. (1935). Lip flexibility on the cornet or trumpet: Forty one studies for embouchure development. New York, NY. : Carl Fischer, Inc. Strieder, W. (2013). Trumpet fundamentals: A comprehensive guide to starting them right and keeping them right. International Trumpet Guild Journal, 37, (4), 47 50. Texter, M. E. (1975). A Historical and analytical investigation o f the beginning band m ethod book. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (7526675) Weber, F. (1962). First division band method. New York: First Division White, E. R. (1972). Electromyographic potentials of selected facial muscles and labial mouthpiece pressure measurements in the embouchures of trumpet players. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (7302634). Winick, S. (1983). Tongue arch: The missing link in brass instrument pedagogy and performance. International Trumpet Gu ild Journal, 8, (2), 25. Wright, E. D. (2009) Physics, pedagogy, and the art of trumpet playing. International Trumpet Guild Journal, 33 (2), 31. Zingara, J. (2006). Help your student trumpeters scale the heights. Teaching Music, 13 (5). 56.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 54 Appendix A Method Book Author Callet/ Civiletti (Trumpet Secrets) Callet (Superchops) Civiletti (TCE) Caruso Hunt Maggio Meregilliano Gordon Stamp Elements Lip Position 2/3 Upper Lip 2/3 Upper Lip 2/3 Upper Lip NA Any 2/3 Upper lip Any 2/3 Upper lip Any Breath As needed As neededthrough nose As neededthrough nose Full Full Full As neededthrough nose or not Full Full (in tempo) Syllables No No No NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pucker Yes Bunched Bunched NA Bunched Yes Yes Yes Slight Smile No No No NA No No No No No Pivot System Yes Yes Yes NA Ok NA NA No Yes Mouthpiece Pressure Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Little as Possible Lip Aperture Closed Closed Closed Closed NA Closed Closed Higher, More Closed Closed Pressurized Airstream Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pedal Tones Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Rest' As Long as you play Not needed Not needed Not needed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 55 Appendix B
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 56
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 57
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRUMPET EMBOUCHURE METHOD 58