Art Integration: Making Connections between Standards

Material Information

Art Integration: Making Connections between Standards
Wall, Rebecca
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Tillander, Michelle
Committee Co-Chair:
Roland, Dennis


Subjects / Keywords:
Art education ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Classrooms ( jstor )
Curriculum design ( jstor )
Curriculum standards ( jstor )
Integrated curricula ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Visual arts ( jstor )


Creating an integrated art curriculum can be a difficult task for any educator. An enormous amount of research must take place, along with collaboration among teaching peers. Although challenging, a curriculum that ties a variety of subject matter together can benefit students by supporting several concepts simultaneously and providing various avenues through which they can gain meaningful understanding. Within this capstone project, I explored art integration through my research, which includes a literature review, a study of curriculum development methods, and observations within action research. I also developed and implemented an integrated art curriculum for my own second grade art students that made connections between Alabama’s state standards for the second grade classroom and the visual arts. My results show that designing an integrated art curriculum can be done through research, collaboration, and a willingness to strive for more impactful lessons that benefit students.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Rebecca Wall. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1047962330 ( OCLC )


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!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ * $ UF Summary Page Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of the Art s of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Art ART INTEGRATION: MAKI NG CONNECTIONS BETWEEN STANDARDS By Rebecca Wall December 2014 Chair: Michelle Tillander Member: Dennis Roland Major: Art Education $ $ Abstract $ Creating an integrated art curriculum can be a difficult task for any educator. An enormous amount of research must take place, along with collaboration among teaching peers. A lthough challenging, a curriculum that ties a variety of subject matt er together can benefit students by supporting several concep ts simultaneously and providing various avenues thro ugh which they can gain meaningful understanding. With in this capstone project, I explored art integration through my research, which includes a literature review, a study of curriculum development methods, and observations within action research. I also d eveloped and implemented an integrated art curriculum for my own second grade art students that made connections between Alabama's state standards for the second grade class room and the visual arts. My r esults show that designing an integrated art curricul um can be done through research, collaboration, and a wil lingness to strive for more impactful lessons that benefit students. $


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ + $ Table of Contents !"#$%&'()% & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ***************** & + $ ,-&./00(12&'()% & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** * & 3 $ 45#167/8#"65 & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************ & 9 $ Problems and Goals & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********** & : $ Research Questions & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** *********** & : $ Assumptions and Limitations & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************************* & ; $ Key Terms Defined & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** *********** & ; $ <"#%1(#/1%&=%>"%? & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** * & @ $ Misconceptions That Educators Have in Regards to Art Integration & ******************************** ******************* & A $ Effective Ways to Design an Integrated Curriculum & ******************************** ******************************** ************* & +B $ Art Integration Examples an d Approaches & ******************************** ******************************** ****************************** & +3 $ The Benefits of Art Integration and How They Connect to My Project & ******************************** ************ & +C $ Summary & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************************** & +9 $ D%#E676$6)2 & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******** & +; $ Action Research in Action & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** **************************** & +; $ Building the Curriculum & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ****************************** & +@ $ Implementation of the Curriculum & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************ & 3+ $ A Quick Look at an Integrated Lesson & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ***** & 33 $ Interviews, Focus Groups, and Observations & ******************************** ******************************** ************************** & 3: $ Utilizing a Website & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********* & 3; $ .")5"F"8(58% & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********** & 3A $ -"57"5)G & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ***************** & 3A $ Observing the Students & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** * & HB $ Collaborating With the Teachers & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** *************** & H+ $ Personal and Professional Findings & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** *********** & HH $ Moving Forward & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************* & H9 $ I658$/G"65 & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************ & H: $ =%F%1%58%G & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ************ & H; $ <"G#&6F&-")/1%G & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ****** & HA $ JKK%57" 8%G & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** *********** & CB $


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ , $ Appendix A & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********************** & CB $ Appendix B & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********************** & CH $ Appendix C & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********************** & C: $ J/#E61&L"6)1(KE2 & ******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ****************************** & 9+ $ & & $


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ $ Introduction A silent gr oup of second grade students is lined up outside the art room door. As I break the threshold to welcome them into my art room , their little bodies start to wiggle with excitement. Al though their voices are quiet, t heir body language says that t hey are happy that it's time for art . E ach smiling child passes by me asking , " What are we going to make today?" I kindly tell them that they will see soon enough. Going to their seats , they all chat with each other , discussing what they hope we are going to do . Some students ex press that they want to use oil pastels again, while others want to paint . B ut when their eyes meet the new art material on their table s, they instantly know that they will be l earning something new. A s the Power P oint presentation is displayed on the Smart B oard, the students begin to view images of different animals. A girl raises her hand and tells me tha t they ar e studying animals in their regular classroom. I smile and expla in that we will be studying that science standard in art as well. W hy integrate that science stand ard in to my art curriculum ? The answer is simple: I can make a connection between the science standard and my art standard . Making connections b etween different subjects allow s students to re inforce prior knowledge and enables for deeper comprehension . Lynch (2007) s tates, " integrating the arts with classroom content consistently supports all kinds of learners " (p. 36) . A student who nor mally struggle s in science might gain a better understanding by experiencing it in a new way . By making a connection be tween subjects , the student is not simply learning facts ; he or she is bridging a gap between what is often perceived as t w o separate worlds : science and art . " Arts i ntegration facilitates new ways of thinking in and through curriculum and encourages educators (and students) to make meaningful connection s" (LaJevic, 2013, p. 6) . So the question shouldn't be , "W hy integrate art ? " The question should be , "W hy not integrate art ? "


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ . $ Problem s and Goals The art standards can be connected to many different disciplines . There are similarities within ideas and subject focus that can connect , support, and reinforce learning . So why aren't teachers integrating the art curriculum ? Perhaps because building a cur riculum for just one subject is hard enough; so building one that incorporates multiple standards from vari ous disciplines requires an understanding of multiple disciplines . An integrated art curriculum take s more effort and resources ; r esearch must be don e, collaboration among teachers , and meaningful connections between subject standards are all necessary . And although the task certainly isn't easy, the benefit to the students is well worth the effort. It's important for all educators to explore different avenues when attempting to reach their stude nts. Art integration can be one of those avenue s . Through this study , I investigate d how an art educator such as myself can integrate Alabama's second grade classroom standards into the second grade a rt curriculum ( ) . The goal was to find a practical way to integr ate the second grade classroom standards with my art curriculum by researching best practices, benefits, an d examples of previously integra ted curriculums. I observe d a variety of reactions from my students during the implementation of this curriculum and I was pleased to see both my student s and the se cond grade teachers, respond well to the project. As a result of this capstone project , I have a well designed and successfully implemented curriculum that can be used as an examp le for future integrated curriculums . Research Questions The principal quest ion, Ho w can I integrate Alabama's second grade classroom standards into the second grade art curriculum ? guided this capstone project . S ub questions


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ / $ helped narrow my research information and pinpoint the solution to my principal question. My sub questions included: What are the benefits and challenges of art integration?! What are some effective ways of integrating other subjects with art ? ! What are some examples of previously integrated curriculums? Assumptions and Limitations During the beginning stages of this research, I assume d the second grade classroom teachers would not only be excited to work with me on designing an integrated art curriculum but they also would seek my input and resources in order to integrate art into their classroom curriculum. I also assumed that they were aware of some of the benefits of art integration and would understand the need for it within our school. Fina lly, I assumed that my new curriculum could be an effective e xample of art integration that educators could use as a resource. One of the larg est lim itations of this study was time. Ideally, I would have like d to create and implement a n art integrated curriculum for all grade levels in my school and include a connection between art and a majority of classroom standards. U nfortunately, time did not allow this type of exploration , so I had to limit my research to the second gr ade and only a selection of subject standards . The second grade teachers and I looked at which standard s made the best connections and des ign ed the curriculum based on those particular standards. Key Terms Defined ! Art Integration: "A dynamic process of merging art with another discipline in an attempt to open up a space of inclusiveness in teaching, learning, and experiencing" (LaJevic, 2013, p. 2) . Collaboration: Two or more people working together to create or design something. Teachers from different disciplines sharing their knowledge and perspectives on subject matter in


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 0 $ order to deepen the scope of an idea. (Krug & Cohen Evron, 2000) . Regular Classroom: I use this term to describe the student's classroom where the students spen d the majority of their time with their homeroom teacher. This is where they learn the core subjects such as language arts, math, social s tudies, and s cienc e . Visual Thinking Strategies: A group setting where students share personal ideas and gain the ability to observe, reason with evidence, and think critically while viewing art images that have been strategically selected and sequenced (Franco & Unrath, 2014) . Literature Review "If you search the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words creative, innovative, and original Ñ and any associated terms, you will find scant mention of the words and the ideas they represent" (Ohler, 2013, p. 42) . Why is this? In the 1920's , the correlation be tween art and other studies was being explored because o f the arts ' ability to make other subjects stronger and more relatable to children (Freyberger, 1985) . Since that time, art integration has been explored and implemented by many educa tors and researchers. And it is just as imp ortant to education today , even though it is often pushed to the back burner in f avor of test scores and student achievement. Art integration has many positive effects. "I ntegration provides more meaningful experiences than can be achieved through separat e study of narrowly defined subjects" (Freyberger, 1985, p. 6) . So why has art i ntegr ation slipped away? This review explore s some of t he misconceptions that scare educators away from integration. It also share s effective ways to develop a curriculum and examples from educators who brought art integration back into the curriculum. Fina lly, this literature review provide s evidence of the possibilities of art inte gration and how research is relevant to my own project cen tered on integrating art into the second grade


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 1 $ curriculum. Misconceptions That Educators Have in Regards to Art Integration $ Misconceptions can be relevant information to have before developing any lesson or project. One misconception in art integration is that the simple act of cutting and pasting or coloring a print out is consi dered an integration of art . "Arts Integration is often treated as "doing," rather than a way of thinking through and knowing, and focus is often placed on the finished static product, in effect dismissing what was learned through its planning and creation" (LaJevic, 2013, p. 3 ) . This is when art take s a backseat to the oth er subject(s) and are not fully utilized. In a case study produced by LaJevic (2013), she interviewed regular classroom teachers about their experiences when integrating the arts. Her findings revealed a devaluing of the arts and their actual benefits. "The teachers often reduced the significance/meanings of the arts by using them primarily for decorative purposes and diluting the arts component" (LaJevic, 2013, p. 6) . It's not fair to say that the majority of regular classroom teachers view art education this way but it' s evident when walking down t he hallways of an elementary school. The "crafty" projects are not individualized ; rather they are a step by step process where the student's final products are identical to their peers ' . LaJevis (2013) noticed these so called art projects and was surprised to find that even though the teachers felt that the students were producing art, they could not state the actual connection between the project and art. They felt that the act of making something was considered art in tegration. By the end of LaJ evic's (2013) interviews , it was clear that the teachers had misconceptions about the true definition of art integration and blame d the fact that they were never taught how to successfully integrate the arts . She stated, "M any teachers seem to hang onto an tiquated views of schooling, since their teacher education programs did not guide


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 23 $ them to reflect critically on their own schooling. Thus, they lack confidence in trying something new and unfamiliar to them" (LaJevic, 2013, p. 15) . Art has so much to offer and can stretch in many different directions. It has the potential to enrich meaning in all subjects and can provide the opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge through new perspectives, visual representat ions, and critical thinking (Lynch, 2007) . If art integration can do all of these things and more, then why not at least attempt to integrate it and not just treat it as a substandard? A nother misconception is that art has no c onnection to other disciplines , or as Poldberg, Trainin, and Andrzejczak (2013) explains, "A rt, science, and social studies are often seen as Ônice but not necessary' components of the primary curriculum to be addressed later after students have mastered t he Three R's (reading, writing and Ôrithmetic) " (p. 3). Art is connected to all disciplines, some more identifiable than others such as history, because of its ability to visual record time, but art is also present in the less obvious subjects such as math , science, and language arts . Efland (2002) explains that art is the location where subjective and cultural interpretation is practiced and celebrated and can be a hub for int egrating multiple disciplines. Because the arts encompass so many disciplines, school officials and researchers suggest art integration as a way to promote students learning and explain art as a natural fit in the classroom curriculum (Luftig, 2000) . "Learni ng in the arts, learning through the arts, and learning integrated with the arts are both time efficient, motivational and simply make academic sense" (Poldberg, Trainin, & Andrzejczak, 2013, p. 4) . The co nnections between art and other subjects are present; an educator just has to be willing to look for them . Effective Ways to Design an Integrate d Curriculum $ When building a cu rriculum that integrates art with other subjects , it is essential to learn from educators who have previous experiences in the field . An educator does not have to start


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 22 $ from a blank canvas but can look to others for tips and advice. Building a curriculum can be intimidating, even more so when incorpor ating multiple subject s . Popovich (2006) encourages art teachers to move beyond traditional teaching methods and attempt to develop their own pedagogical approaches by gaining inspiration from best practices and contemporary curriculum research. A great place to start is by building a tea m of teachers that are willing to collaborate to develop an integrated curriculum. Teachers will work together when constructing their combined lessons and will support each other during implementation. By collaborating, the teachers will form connections between disciplines by finding the common denominator and central theme, and then begin to add the relevant knowledge from the multiple subjects (Krug & Cohen Evron, 2000) . After creating the team of teachers, the next best pr actice is to brainstorm. Walling (2006) explains that brainstorming is an essential part of developing a well rounded curriculum. By brainstorming , the team is able to share ideas and concepts and then begin to focus those idea s on the desired result. "Tak ing an idea and examining it from an artistic point of view can generate thematic starting points to help teachers and students connect the visual arts to ideas that ripple across the school curriculum" (Walling, 2006, p. 22) . Whi le brainstorming, the team begin s to notice a common theme or idea; this is when one of the most important pieces of a well designed curriculum develop s . Popovich (2006), like many others, suggests developing a big idea that will reach many discipl inary standards. By having a big idea, it provides a context for understanding the content; it also connects ideas across subject matter, which builds a deeper and lasting knowledge (Popovich, 2006) . Othe r authors and researchers agree: "T he first component, unit foundation, includes big ideas, key concepts and essential questions, the first step in developing integrated


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 2* $ curricula is to identify a big idea" (Daniel, Stuhr, & Ballengee Morris, 2006, p. 6) . Once the big idea is developed, it assist s in the organization of standards and lesson ideas. "Teachers and students alike can use a central ideaÉ as a theme around which to build one or a series of lessons or projects. And teachers of v arious subjects can use the same starting points to structure different learning journeys" (Walling, 2006, p. 22) . The big idea serves as the starting point for all lessons within the curriculum ; it need s to be broad in or der to connect to art standards and the standards of other disciplines. Art Integration Examples and Approaches $ As teachers begin to design their own integrated curriculum, it might be useful to look at examples of previously taught lessons by other educ ators and researchers. These examples provide information that will not only inspire a possible lesson idea but also can describe a layout that can be emulated. There are numerous ways to integrate art with other subjects. Julia Marshall (2005, 2006, 2010) has written several articles about art integration. She suggests starting with one of the easiest ways t o integrate: depiction . Depiction is when students render images from obse rvation; it works best with subjects such as science and social studies. It " requires! a learner to observe something closely ! and then reproduce the object [while attaining] skills in observation, analysis and applyin g what one sees" (Marshall, 2010 , p. 1 9). Marshall also suggests projection as a way to integrate; projection is the process of taking an idea, analyzing it, and the n taking it from what it is now, to what it might become (Marshal, 2010). An example would be taking a historical figure and imag ining, discu ssing, and illustrating how that person would react to today's world. Reformatting is another way to integrate art: it refers to taking a subject from art and placing it in a new context, such as arranging artists like specimens in a natural hi story exhibit with artifacts that relate to their life and work (Marshall, 2010).


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 2+ $ Franco and Unrath (2014) offer another approach to integrating art with other subjects by using Visual Thinking Strategies. "Visual Thinking Strategies offer a powerful means for enacting the kinds of evocative and substantive art encounters that will situate art education at the center of a standards based education for all students" (Franco & Unrath, 2014) . During this type of lesson, the student s view images in a certain order, observe each image for an efficient amount of time , and then respond to questions while justifying their reasoning. Through this discussion of visual imagery, the studen ts think critically, verbal ly articulate interpretati on, and reason with evidence in a group setting (Franco & Unrath, 2014) . During this process , student s do not create a physical product ; rather, they become analytical thinkers th rough art and relate this method to other discipl in es. One example of a lesson that implements some of these ideas was developed by Lee Yuen Lew and John Mclure (2005) ; entitled "The Dragon Project." It involves multiple disciplines being integrated through a process of observation, critical think ing, anal ysis, and project development. The curriculum began w ith a trip the museum where students observed East Asian art that including images of dragons that were hybrids of other animals. The students openly discussed the artwork and its history. When returning to school they explored a variety of literature about dragons and mythical creatures. They explored the anatomy/physiology of humans vs. dragons by labeling body parts and their function. The students then began researching design possibilities f or their own dragon 's creation by utilizing technology , and then created illustrations of their dragon s while incorporating their research on history, mythical creatures and anatomy (Lew & Mclure, 2005) . When t he preliminary wo rk was complete , they moved to the construction of their dragon s in three dimensions . In t he end, the students created a PowerP oint presentation about their dragons and the process of developing them. This project


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 2, $ incorpor ated art, history, science, and la nguage arts, while allowing the student to determine their own path s through exploration. Their underlying philosophy i s grounded in constructivism; "W e think that a conception makes more lasting sense to students if they construct most of the meaning themselves based on personal experience" (Lew & Mclure, 2005, p. 7) . This curriculum design incorpo rated many different su bjects while providing an enriching experience that will last a lifetime. Before educator s begin developing an integrated art curriculum, it is important to research what has already been explored in the field of educa tion. They should consider existing mi sconceptions and how to avoid promoting such stereotypes. It also will be of great benefit educators to consider effective ideas offered by other teachers and researchers, who can not only offer tips on integrating art but who can also provide positive exa mples of implemented curricula . Educators who don't bother to look at what has already b ee n investigated and applied will design their curriculum blindly and might unfortunately give up before they even begin. The Benefi ts of Art Integration and How They Connect to My Project $ Integrating art with other disciplines is not an easy task. It takes collaboration, research, and planning to create a productive curriculum that is effective for students and stay s true to the subj ect standards. Although it is a lot of work, the enormous benefits of art integration outweigh the risk. Booth (2013) explains that within the arts, "teachers specialize in creating environments that encourage learners to set aside the usual ground rules o f schooling and invest themselves intrinsically" (p. 23). Art allow for spontaneous action and experiences that are ever changing. By combining art with other disciplines, students can explore those discipl ines in the same way they explore art. Art integra tion not only teaches multiple ideas at once but also "foregrounds the similarities between and among disciplines by locating resemblances between knowledge,


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 2$ practice, beliefs and assumptions in multiple areas of inquiry" (Marshall, 2005, p. 232). Art has the ability to be adaptable to other subjects and therefore has the ability to fit in wit h different learning styles. Integrating art facilitates new ways of thinking and encourages educators and students to make connec tions between multiple subjects while embodying the curriculum and what it has to offer (LaJevic, 2013) . This literature review enabled me to better prepare for the design and implementa tion of my own second grade art integrated curriculum. It guided me by presenting what has already been explored in art in tegration and provided examples of what I can do to develop a curriculum th at integrates multiple disciplines , while enhancing the integrity of each area of study. By exploring the information provi ded by authors and researchers such as Popovich (20 06), Marshall (2005, 2006, 2012 ), Walling (2006), as well as previously implemented curriculums su ch as the "The Dragon Project," I discovered what will work best for the collaborating teac hers, students, and myself. Many idea s suggested within this literature review were applied in the begin ning stages of my own integrated art project , such a s Krug and Cohen Evron (2000) suggestion to develop a team of collaborating teacher s. I also researched effective ways to develop and implement curriculum design and gathered examples that I can use to create my curriculum. By exploring what other educators and researches have done and are doing, I can better prepare and implement an art int egrated curriculum for my second grade students. Summary $ As art integration is explored further, it can be assumed that more and more information will support the idea that art integration is a positive way to make connections betw een multiple subject matter . Future teachers will s eek resources and ideas to help their students reach the standards required by their district/state. They will find what they are looking for with the


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 2. $ integration of art . The research presented in t his review demonstrates some misconceptions , how and why art integration should take place, examples of productive curriculums, and how a teacher like myself can use this knowledge for my own art integrated curriculum project. $


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 2/ $ Methodology In the fall of 2014, I began my capstone project, which involved the integration of my school's second grade classroom curriculum into my art curriculum. During this project, I utilized the action research method and the curriculum research and development method. Within these methodologies , I st udied many aspects of art integration, how to best implement it in my art room, and how to evaluate its results. Action Research in Action $ When determining what methods I should use for my capstone p roject I thought about what type of information I was after. I did not want to focus solely on finding research information; I wanted to see whether that information would actually work in my art room . I cho se action research as a way to evaluate a large amount of information within a short amount of time. Fo r this action research method , I chose to utilize Ferrance's (2000) Themes in Education: Action Research . Within this booklet, Ferrance (2000) shares five phases of inquiry when deve loping an action research plan: identification of the problem, gathering data, interpreting the data, acting on the evidence, and evaluating the results. I also used the Action Research Toolkit: Art Education created by Dr. Richard A. Disharoon (n.d. ). This toolkit follows steps similar to Ferrance's (2000) guide and encourages art educators to take action and create change in the cl assroom based on their findings instead of just researching and reporting their findings (Disharoon, n.d.) . This toolkit helped org anize my information and focus my research. I began my research wit h Ferrance's (2000) first phase: identification of the problem. This problem stems from my principal research question, How can I integrate Alabama's second grade classroom standards into the second grade art curriculum? I wanted to know how to build an art integrated curriculum for an entire semester (18 weeks) of school. I asked myself


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 20 $ questions such as these: W hat are the benefits an d challenges of art integration? W hat are some effecti ve ways of inte grating other subjects with art? W hat are some examples of previously integrated curriculums? These questions moved me into the second phase: gathering data . I researched information about misconceptions th at art educators have in regard to ar t integration, effective ways to design an integrated curriculum, and examples and approaches that art educators have used in the past. I t hen interpreted the data that I had collected ( third phase) and moved into the fourth phase, which was acting on th e evidence. I utilized the curriculum research and development method for this phase and developed an 18 week art integrated curriculum that included five units of study. These units connected the Alabama standards for the second grade regular classroom (s cience, social studies, and language arts) with the visual art standards. I then began implementing the curriculum with my own second grade students. As I taught the units of study, I continued to gather information through further research, observations, and interviews. The fifth phase of Ferrance's (2000) action research began to merge with the fourth. Although I was still teaching the units , I began to evaluate some of the results. These results were separated into categories and then evaluated deeper to find common trends. The information and evidence was shared through a website, oral defense, and this manuscript. Building the Curriculum $ Within the forth phase of action research, I acted on the evidence and designed an art integrated curriculum for my second grade art students. The curriculum research and development metho d was supported by the backward design model within Wiggins and McTighe's (2005), Understanding by Design. This model focu ses on teaching for understanding and contains three stages of development: identify desired results, determine acceptable evidence, and plan learning experiences and instruction (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005) . I knew


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ 21 $ coming into thi s project that I wanted an integrated curriculum that not only made connections with sub ject matter other than art but also was meaningful. Designing a curriculum that teaches the standard is great ; however , the focus should not only be on what you're teac hing but also on what the students are actually learning. Are the students just repeating facts that th ey memorized , or do they truly understand the content? While building this curriculum, I focused on the meaningful lessons that reached for deeper unders tanding. Stewa rt and Walker (2005) suggest, "A rt teachers and teachers of other school subjects would focus on an agreed upon enduring idea, common theme, or issue, and have abundant planning and instructional time to reach the instructional goals. " A ma jor part of building the curriculum came from collaboration with the second grade teachers. My school has eight teachers in the second grade , and they meet weekly to plan. These teachers welcomed the idea of an integrated art curriculum and were happy to assist and support me during my research. During th e summer, we sat down and looked over the second grade regular classroom curriculum map. This map shows what t he students will be learning in each subject throughout the year. During the 2013 2014 school year , the second grade received a new reading series called Wonders. The series contains stories for the entire school year along with assessments. T he teachers d ecided to plan their curriculum around the reading series and began making connections between the s tories and other subject standards that they covered throughout the curriculum . As they were forming their own integrated curriculum among their cl assroom s ubjects, I listened, observed their connections , and began making connections between their standards and mine . We then decided to break the standards up into units of study focusing on an enduring idea. Stewart and Walker (2005) state, "Meaningful integra ted curriculum requires a focus, such as an enduring id ea, theme, or issue " (p. 109). Each unit of study encompassed an


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *3 $ enduring idea and lasted approximately two to three weeks. I then started to plan my art curriculum with stage one of Wiggins and McTigh e's (2005) three stages of backward design, which is to identify desired results. My desired results were based on the Alabama state standards that I chose for that unit of study (including the visual art standard and regular classroom standard). I though t about what I wanted my students to know, understand , and be able to do, as Wiggins and McTig he (2005) suggested based on the enduring idea. I then moved to stage two , where I determined the type of acceptable evidence. This evidence would s how and demons trate the student s ' understanding. The majority of my assessments involved art production with a rubric, self assessments, and writing reflections. Once I determined how the students were going to relay their understanding, I moved to stage three: planning learning experiences and instruction. My unit plan consisted of overarching understandings a nd essential questions, broken into 45 minute lessons. For each individual lesson, I planned objectives, resources, and procedures. Many of the resources were foun d through research and recommendations from fellow educators; they included activities, artwork, websites, games, and videos. Each lesson also contained questions, which guided the whole group discussions. These lessons were adjusted periodically , as new r esources and informat ion became available. In some cases, I modified lesson s ri ght in the middle of teaching them and then change d the lesson plan (if it w as a positive change). After each unit was implemented, I would evaluate its success and alter any se ctions of the lesson that needed adjustment. I feel that lesson plans are a fluid component of teaching; t hey change an d grow every time they're taught and should not remain static. While creating my integrated curriculum , I also applied recommendations f rom the fifth edition of Curriculum and Aims by Walker and S oltis (2009). The authors state, "The curriculum


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *2 $ is not a separate thing written down somewhere that teacher s may or may not consult. It is the process, content, activities, and organization inherent in the educational program of the school and in what teachers offer in their classrooms" (Walker & Soltis, 2009, p. 1) . I took these words to heart. I did not want my curriculum to be something I just designed and used for the purpose of this capstone project . Instead, I wanted it to be strong enough to use in future years and serve as an example for fellow art educators. Implementati on of the Curriculum $ The lessons within the curriculum were designed over several weeks of study , and implementation began the s econd week of school. Eight second grade classes come to art once a week for 45 minutes each . Each class was introduced to the idea of art integration and was made aware that their art lessons this year were going to include standards from their regular classroom. These standards, along with essential questions and art terms , were displayed on the white board for reference. Eac h lesson started with an introduction and a whole group discussion. These discussions last ed approximately 10 20 minut es and were based on the objectives and standards. I asked a lot of questions, including the essential and discussion questions for that d ay. My students pay attentio n and participate more when I ask questions rather than just providing the information. The students were interested in hearing what their peers had to say and were anxious to express their own opinion s . I would then flow into t he introduction of new information, which occasionally came from videos, art images, or websites. After sharing the new information, students could then ask questions or share something else that related to the lesson topic. These discussions helped students focus their thinking, share ideas, and gain new knowledge.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ** $ After the intro duction and discussion, I explain ed the procedures for the day, and the students perform ed the task using th e appropriate mat erials. I observe d them and off ered guidance as needed. I took notes of things I noticed in my teaching journal , including any comments I overhear d regarding the lesson. I often end ed the day's lesson with a quick overview and expectations for the next cla ss and/or the stu dents would share their work. Student self ass essments generally were given at the end of each unit; many times they were taken back to their regular class and completed during writing time, which wa s directly after art . This w as very help ful because we regularly ran very close on time. A Quick Look at an Integrated Lesson $ The art integrated curriculum that I designed was broken down into five units of study. Each unit connected second grade visual a rt standards with regul ar classroom st andards such as science, social studies, and language arts. A quick look at one of my integrated units follows . ( Fo r the complete lesson plan, overview of the curriculum, or the entire art inte grated c urriculum, please see Appendix B and C and/ or visit this website . ) Unit 3 was one of my students' favorites. We made connections between the science standard that they were learning in their regul ar classroom and ceramics , while also exploring three dimensional art making skills. This unit covered the following standards, overarching understandings , and essential questions: Standards: Art • 2VA1.1 Producing three dimensional works of art. • 2VA1.2 Demonstrating appropriate safety, care, and use of printmaking and sculptural materials and equipment. Science • 2S6.0 Identify characteristics of animals, including behavior, size, and body covering.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *+ $ Overarching understandings • Students will unders tand that animals have different characteristics including body shape and coverings. • Students will understand the techniques and procedures of producing a three dimensional work of art using clay. • Students will understand that there are appropriate proced ures within ceramics to ensure safety. Overarching essential questions • What are some different animal characteristics? • What is cera mics, and what is the process for producing three dimensional works of art using clay? • How can we ensure our safety when usi ng ceramic materials and tools? Note: The students were studying animals in their re gular classroom during the timeframe in which this les son took place. Each student chose an animal to research. The students completed this research in their class room , in the art room and in the computer lab. They were required to bring their findings with them to art (s ee Figure 1 ). This unit spanned 3 weeks (one day per week, for a total of 3 days). Each day consisted of a whole group discussion and activity. On Day 1, the students reviewed the ceramic process, watched a short video about ceramics and began creating their ch osen animal in three dimensions. They took notice of the animal's body characteristics , such as size, shape, form, texture, and color. They created the animal's body using different three dimensional forms Figure 1 . Research Recording Sheet


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *, $ (cylinder, sphere, cone) and wrapped it in light plastic to keep it moist for the following week (see Figure 2 and 3) . $ $ On Day 2, the class discussed different animal bo dy coverings such as fur, feathers, scales, and skin. The students then viewed the ceramic artwork of Christine Anderson Tupper. They took notice of her attention to detail when creating her clay animals and the different texture s that she used to illustrate each animal's body covering s. We then discussed some new ceramic tools and how t o use them safely. The students used the new ceramic tools to work on their thre e dimensional animals, adding details and body coverings (see Figure 4) . The y then placed the animals on the drying racks and once the p ieces were bone dry, they were fired in the kiln. $ Figure 2. Using the Research Figure 3. Ceramic Horse


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *$ On Day 3 the class reviewed body coverings and discussed the coloring of each of their animals. Some students shared their animal and its body covering type, including its coloring , with the class . They talked about how their animal's body covering is reflective of the environment i n which it lives. Example: "An arc t ic hare is small, furry, and white. It can fit into tight space s bene ath the snow. Its fur is thick to keep it warm , and it is white to blend in with the environment." I then reviewed the glazing techniques and how to saf ely use the materials. The st udents glazed their animals in appropriate colors, while r eferencing their research (see Figure 5 and 6) . Once dry, the glazed animals where fired for a second time . At the end of this unit the students completed a self asses sment . I also used a rubric to evaluate their completion of the unit. I used the rubric along with the self assessment to evaluate what they learned. Figure 4. Chameleon with Body Covering


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *. $ Interviews, Focus Groups, and Observations D uring the weekly grade level meetings with the second grade teachers , we discuss ed both the art curriculum and the regul ar classroom curriculum. T his discussion typically le d into the progress that was taking place. We talked about what worked and what did n't, and what changes we could make for the following school year. Informal interviews took place as I asked questions about what the teachers noticed in their own classrooms , and they share d their experiences. They also offered ideas that could support what I wa s doing in the art room. I took notes in my teaching journal and applied some of the ideas to my lessons. My journal was also useful while observing the students during their art ti me. I kept it nearby just incase a stu dent said something that was relevant to my research. I also took time after each class to record what I observed , including the success of the lesson, how it varied from previously taught classes, any struggles that my students encountered, the appropriat eness of the Figure 5. Glazed Zebra Figure 6 . Glazed Bald Eagle


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ */ $ materials , and how the lesson could be improved for the next class or the following year. These observations took place during every class period and were conveyed in my weekly blog. Midway through my capstone research, I sat down with the se cond grade teac hers to do a focus group . During this session , I asked a series of preapproved questions (Appendix A) . The six questions focused on curriculum integration as a whole and with visual art. While discussing these main q uestions with the teacher s, sub questions naturally followed. Many times, these sub questions dug deeper into the teachers ' answers and uncovered more details. The informal interviews, observations , and focus group produced a n adequate amount of information that not only helped me evaluate my action research , but also helped me develop future art integrated lessons. Utilizing a Website $ While building my curriculum, implementing it in my classroom, and observing its effects, I felt the need to create a website to organize and display the large amount of information that I gathered (see Figure 7) . I created my website us ing and organized the information into categories ( ). Within these catego ries , I provided inform ation about my capstone project as well as information about myself. My c ompleted curriculum is posted , alo ng with resources for each unit and a gallery of photographs display ing student work. My site also includes a blog that I upda ted weekly (see Figure 8) . This blog wa s used to share my experiences while creati ng the curriculum and teaching the lessons to my students. I discussed the challenges and successes that I encountered, along with some of the reactions I noticed in my stude nts and the second grade re gular classroom teachers. The website was created to display my research experiences and is ava ilable for fellow art educators who are looking for an example of an integrated art curriculum.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *0 $ $ $ $ Figure 7. Website Homepage Figure 8. Blog Sample


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ *1 $ Significance I have had the pleasure of teaching art in elementary schools for a couple of years ; however, in 2011 my school district suffered major budget cuts that included the art and music program s. Because of this , I was moved from the art room to a regular classroom where I taught early childhood education in first and second grade. During my time as a regular classroom teacher, I frequently applied art content and knowledge into my students' regular classr oom subjects. I found that art was an effective way to help my students gain understanding more easily and make connection s between subjects for deeper meaning. Many of my students wer e visual and kinetic learners; t hey needed to see and touch in order to comprehend . Integrating t he art standards with their regular classroom standards also made the lessons exciting and fun. The lessons allowed for play and ex plo ration in order to build comprehension . This capstone project explores art integrat ion even further. It provides an opportunity for intense research that hopefully will become a n example for future integrated curriculums. This example will contribute to the art education community and will be relevant to educators of multiple disciplines because it will demonstrate how art can be a pat hway between different subjects. Findings Throughout this process of researching, developing, and implementing an art integrated curriculum, I found interesti ng information that helped me better unde rstand art integration as a whole , and its impact on my previous assumpt ions. These findings came from many different areas of the project : while observing the students, while collaborating with the teachers, and even while reflecting on my own role. This process ha s lead to seve ral discoveries about the act of


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +3 $ integrating an art curriculum and will continue to influence the future choices I make as an art educator. Observing the Students When starting this school year, I was a more anxious than in previous years. I wanted my new integrated curriculum to be a positive experience for myself , but mainly I wanted it to benefit my students. I had created integrated lessons in the past but never an entire curriculum. I feared that the s tudents wo uld become bored with it and maybe even frustrated that they were covering the same topics in art as they were in their other subjects. This fear quickly slipped away. The students were still just as excited to come to art as ever before. They enjoyed the fact that I knew what they were learning in their regular classroom. They also loved to tell me what they had learned from their regular teacher and were anxious to see if we were going to talk about it in art too. They soon started sharing how they did on the ir test s and what their science project s were about. Many times , I hear d them talking about how cool it was that I knew the story they were reading in class or how they liked it when I asked how their animal research was going in the computer lab. As t he integrated lesson s went on , I began to notice the students making connections between different subjects and art on their own . Figure 9. Group Work


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +2 $ The students responded well to the lessons and were always excited to see what they would be l earning about or making . They enjoyed the group work that some of the lessons included and responded well to the majority of the tasks. The only negative I fo und was the assessment portion; t hey didn't care too much for the self assessments. If it was a basic question such as , "W hat do es you r community picture show?" they could answer it , but if it was a more complex question such as , "Why do you think it is important to look at artwork from the past?" they seemed to struggle and give up qui ckly. When I verbally asked the question, they could tell me their answer , but writing it down seemed overwhelming. In speaking with the second grade teachers, they conveyed that some students at that age still struggle with putting their ideas and what they want t o say down on paper. Since the assessment was designed to gauge understanding of content rather than judge writing skills , I was confortable with asking the questions and writing the answers down for my students who struggled or required special assistance. Overall, I found the c urriculum to be a success for my students. I feel that they learned the objectives, made connections, and gained meaningful understanding. I enjoyed observing their excitement about a certain project or artwork and loved hearing them convey their learning to other students and to their teachers. Collaborating W ith the Teachers I had many assumptions coming into this capstone project. I assumed that the second grade teachers would be willing to collaborate with me on the integrated curriculum , but I thought that their enthusiasm would slowly fade as the semester progressed. Their workload is very heavy , and they are constantly planning, teaching, and assessing. I fe lt as if my little project might be quietly swept to the side as other priorities arose, b ut I ' m happy to report that this assumption was wrong. The second grade team began this curriculum project with an upbeat and


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +* $ productive attitude and remained that way throughout the semester. They were alw ays willing to answer questions and share resources an d ideas, and they were anxious to see the results of each integrated unit. They continually communicated the positive response s that my lessons had in their classroom and would even ask for my assistance with their regular classroom lessons. The teachers also were open and honest with the informal interview questions and du ring the focus group. When referring to the first unit about communities , one teacher stated, "When we did start reading about communities, they were just good to go. I didn't get any o f those blank stares like, I don't know what you're talking about. They were just putting it together from the beginning with you." Another said, "They had the background knowledge. I mean, I was able to just jump right in and apply the reading skills of the story to the community ideas, without having to go back and spend 15 minutes on building that background knowledge. They already had been introduced." I was excited to hear that what we were doing in the art room was having such a positive effect on the regular classroom. The teache rs expressed that the students were eage r to share what they learned or created and that t hey regularly add ed comments during the regular classroom discussions that had to do with art or an art concept . I did find some interesting information during the focus group sessio n. When discussing whether they had integrated visual art in the c lassrooms prior to this project, they all explained that they had. W hen I f ollowed up with "D o you feel that you should use the art s tandard when integrating art?" t hey stated that they did n't look at it that way. A rt was a way for them to help their students reach an understanding. They didn't focus on an actual art standard, ju st the act of making. One t eacher expressed, "I literally don't even know what the art standards are because I figureÉyou've got that handled. That is one less thing that I have to teach them." I f ound it interesting that none of them had ever even glanced at the art standards. It was not their


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ++ $ responsibility , so they left it to me. I'm not surprised that they don't use the standards in class , but I thought at least one of them would have viewed the art standards at one time or another. I am glad to repor t that working with these teachers was a true honor. We are already continuing our collaboration as we plan lessons for the spring semester. I found these teachers to be easy to work with and very supportive. I feel that this project is a good example of a successful collaboration between educators of different subject matter. Personal and Professional Findings When I chose to base my capstone project on art integration, I knew that I had a great deal of work to do. I didn't want just a set of lessons that grazed other disciplines ; rather, I wanted a curriculum that blends and merges art with the other subjects in an almost seamless way. I wanted each discipline to be fairly represented and not overtaken by the other. I also required the lessons within the curriculum to be meaningful for my students and beneficial for other educators to use as an example. I found that buildi ng an art integrated curriculum that encompassed all of these goals took an enormous amount o f work. The majority of my time was spe nt researching information, resources, ideas, and examples that support ed the curriculum. Another major portion of time was spent implementi ng the lessons and observing their success. One of the largest findings during this process was the amount of time I spent collaborating with the second grade teachers. T he tremendous amount of knowledge that they offered and t heir willingness to share valuable ideas and opinions with me w ere both very beneficial to this project. Although I do feel that this project was successful, there were some struggles along the way. Time was a huge barrier. T he second grade classes co me to art only once a week for 45 minutes. This time frame is very slim when trying to fit in so much information and so many


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +, $ activities. I often asked the regular classroom teachers whether their class could come early o r stay a little later so I could fit everythin g in. Another struggle was en suri ng that my lessons were evenly integrated between the visual art standards and the classroom standard s. At times, I felt that I lean ed more toward the cl assroom standards and had to redirect my planning to make sure that my art standards were well represented. I also found a cha llenge in assessing my student's progress. I am not a huge fan of testing, especially when my stud ents are constantly being tested in their classrooms. I wanted to be sure that the lessons were meaningful and that the students gained the intended knowledge , but assessing it was a struggle . Self assessments worked well , but a number of students struggl ed with putting their ideas on paper. I discovered that just having a simple conversation was a great way to see what they had learned. I found making connection s between the second grade's visual art standards and the class room standards an interesting experience. Many of the Alabama visual art sta ndards for the second grade, are fairly broad. For example, standard 1: Apply a variety of procedur es, methods, and subject matter in the production of two dimensional works of art, including landscapes, still lifes, and relief prints. This standard has the ability to connect to several topics from other disciplines and is open to a wide range of conten t. I also noticed that so me of the subjects were slightly easier to connect than others. An example o f this is connecting the visual arts with science and social stud ies. These subject s' standards included , ideas of nature, community, culture, and historic al figures, which are ideas that are also within the art standards. The language art s and math standards seemed to pose more of a challenge , although integrating them was certainly possible. I felt that having the enduring idea for the unit kept my ideas f ocused and prevented the lessons from jumping from one extreme to the other.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +$ In the end, I feel t hat this capstone project was a success. I was able to create an art integrated curriculum that spanned an entire fall semester. This curriculum integrated the second grade regular classroom standards into my second grade art curriculum. The lessons within this curriculum engaged student s and provided meaningful understanding. I was also able to record and document my experiences while researching and creating my integrated curriculum and my students' reactions through observations. I shared these findings and other resources through my w ebsite, which can be utilized by fellow educators. I feel that this was a positive experience. I built stronger relationships with the second grade teachers and with my students. Although the process of designing an integrated curriculum is more difficult than a standard art curriculum, I found it s success worth the work. Moving Forward Moving forward, I want to continue integrating my art curriculum for the spring semester . I have already been working on ideas for future lessons with the second grade teac her s and have made connection s between s tandards that will be covered during that time. I then want to look at the curriculum maps of the oth er grade levels in my school to see whether connection s can be made there as well. T eachers from kindergarten and f irst grade have expressed an interest in working with me because they have heard about the project and its positive results . I also want to further my research on art integration to see what new ideas and information develop s . I would like to continue shar ing my lessons and findings with fellow educators and hope that I can be an avenue of support when it comes to integrating the visual arts . Finally, I would like to research other assessment strategies and techniques in order to gage my students ' understanding. I want to move beyond paper and pencil, and find a more effective wa y of assessing younger students.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +. $ Conclusion $ During the design of this project I asked, How can I integrate Alabama's second grade classroom standards into the second grad e art curriculum? Although it was a long and challenging process, I found the answer to this question through research, collaboration, implementation, and an analysis of my find ings. I sought a curriculum that not only integrated the second grade and vis ua l art standards but also serve d as an example for fellow teachers to examine, when exploring art integration. Through the action research and curriculum development methods, I feel that I have reached my intended goals. This project not only opened my eyes to art integration and intense research, but it also made me a more confident art educator.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +/ $ $ References Booth, E. (2013). A recipe for artful schooling. Educational Leadership , 70 (5), 22 27. Daniel, V. A., Stuhr, P. L., & Ballengee Morris, C. (2006). Suggestions for intergrating the arts into curriculum. Art Education, 59 (1), 6 11. Disharoon, R. A. (n.d.). Action research toolkit: Arts education. Retrieved March 28, 2014, from Arts Education in Maryland Schools Alliance: h ttp://www.aems Efland, A. (2002). Art and cognition, intergrating the visual arts in the curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press. Ferrance, E. (2000). Themes in education: Action research. Northeast and Is land Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University. Providence: Brown University. Franco, M., & Unrath, K. (2014). Carpe diem: Seizing the common core with visual thinking strategies in the visual arts classroom. Art Education, 67 (1), 28 32. Freyberg er, R. M. (1985). Integration: Friend or foe of art education. Art Education, 38 (6), 6 9. Johnson, A. P. (2002). Methods of analyzing data. In A. P. Johnson, A guide to action research (pp. 71 82). Boston, MS: Allyn & Bacon Inc. Krug, D. H., & Cohen Evron, N. (2000). Curriculum integration positions and practices in art education. Studies in Art Education, 41 (3), 258 275. LaJevic, L. (2013). Arts integration: What is really happening in the elementary classroom? Journal for Learning through the Arts, 9 (1), 1 28. Lew, L. Y., & Mclure, J. W. (2005, July). Chinese dragons in an american science unit . Art Education , 6 12.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +0 $ Luftig, R. (2000). An investigation of an arts infusion program on creative thinking, academic achievement, affective functioning, and arts appreciation at three grade levels. Studies in Art Education, 41 (3), 208 227. Lynch, P. (2007). Making meaning many ways: An exploratory look at integrating the arts with classroom curriculum . Art Education, 60 (4), 33 38. Marshall, J. (2005). Connecting art, learning, and creativity: A case for curriculum integration. Studies in Art Education, 46 (3), 227 241. Marshall, J. (2006). Art integration = Exemplary art education. Art Education, 59 (6), 17 24. Marshall, J. (2010). Five ways to integrate: Using strategies from contemporary art. Art Education, 63 (3), 13 19. Ohler, J. (2013). The uncommon core. Educational Leadership, 70 (5), 42 46. Poldberg, M. M., Trainin, G., & Andrzejczak, N. (2013). Rocking you writing program: Integration of visual art, language arts, & science. Journal for Learning through the Arts , 9 (1), 1 20. Popovich, K. (2006). Designing and imple menting exemplary content, curriculum, and assesment in art education. Art Education, 59 (6), 33 39. Stewart, M. G., & Walker, S. R. (2005). Rethinking Curriculum in Art. Worcester, MA, USA: Davis Publication Inc. Walker, D. F., & Soltis, J. F. (2009). Curr iculum and aims. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Walling, D. R. (2006). Brainstorming themes that connect art and ideas across the curriculum. Art Education , 59 (1), 18 23. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Backward Design. In G. Wiggins, & J. McTigh e, Understanding by Design (pp. 13 34). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. $


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ +1 $ List of Figures $ $ Figure 1: Research Recording Sheet ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..23 Figure 2: Using the Research ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.24 Figure 3: Ceramic Horse ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ24 Figure 4: Chameleon with Body Covering ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ25 Figure 5: Glazed Zebra ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. .26 Figure 6: Glazed Bald Eagle ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..26 Figure 7: Website Homepage ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.28 Figure 8: Blog Sample É ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...28 Figure 9: Group Work ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ30 $ $ $ $ $ $ $


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ,3 $ Appendices Appendix A UFIRB 02 Ð Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Art Integration: Making Connection Between Standards Principal Investigator: Rebecca Wall UFID #: 40008176 Degree / Title: Masters in Art Education Mailing Address: $ 000$456575$89:;< $ !=7=9>?$!@$+.0+3 $ Email : Department: School of Art and Art History Telephone #: 770 317 0519 Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Dr. Tillander UFID# :1449 1870 Degree / Title: PhD Mailing Address: AB6CCD$ CE$!9F$G$!9F$H:IFC9J?$ K>:;<9I:FJ$CE$LDC9:M5 $ N)$OCP$22-032?$ (5:>

!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ,2 $ Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the research participant. ) Action Research methods will be used for this study. I will be collaborating and informally interviewing $ the second grade teachers about their curriculum standards and maps, which will help in the development of my art curriculum. During my meetings with them, I will be audio recording our conversations. This recording is for transcription purposes only and will be deleted after review. I will also be observing and photographing second grade students during the implementation of the curriculum lessons. I will observe how the students make connections between th eir regular classroom subjects and art. I will also be looking for signs that my developed curriculum is effective and beneficial. I will record my observations and findings in a dedicated journal. The photographs will be used in my research paper and dele ted after the research is over. Student artwork will be used as examples of curriculum work and will be returned to the students, after the research is over. The teachers and students identity will be protected by the use of code names. $ Describe Potential Benefits: The results of this study may help art educators and regular classroom teachers better understand the benefits that art integration offers and how to develop an integrated curriculum. The study will also help students make conn ections across the curriculum, which will hopefully foster deeper understanding of the art and common core standards. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect par ticipant.) All students and teachers who wish to volunteer for this study , will be protected by keeping their identity anonymous with the use of pseudonyms . There are no r isks associated with this study as it is part of the regular art class activity. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited : The second grade teachers and students (and their parents) will be asked if they wish to volunteer to be part of the research study. Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 7 Teachers 15 Students Age Range of Participants: 30 45 adults 7 8 children Amount of Compensation/ course credit: No Compensation Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document . See for examples of consent.) Second grade teachers will be asked if they would like to volunteer, if they accept, they will be provided with a description of the researc h and a consent form to sign. The second grade students will be asked to volunteer. If they wish to do so, I will gain permission from their parent(s) or legal guardians. The parents will sign a consent form and the students will sign an assent form. (S IGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date:


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!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ,. $ Appendix C Unit 3 Title: 3D Animals Grade Level: 2 nd Grade 1 . Overarching understandings • Students will understand that animals have different characteristics including body shape and coverings. • Students will understand the techniques and procedures of producing a three dimensional work of art using clay. • Students will understand that there are appropriate procedures within ceramics to ensure safety. 2. Overarching essential questions • What are some different animal characteristics? • What is ceramics, and what is the process of producing three dimensional works of art using clay? • How can we ensure our safety when using ceramic materials and tools? 3. Students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of: • Animals have different characteristics such as behavior, size, and body covering. • C eramic techniques and procedures. • Safety when using ceramic materials and tools. 4. Essential and unit questions that this unit will focus on • How can we create a three dimensional animal (including the animals characteristics) using ceramics? • How can we remain safe when using ceramic materials and tools? Standards: Art: 2VA1.1 Producing three dimensional works of art. 2VA1.2 Demonstrating appropriate safety, care, and use of printmaking and sculptural materials and equipment. Science: 2S6.0 Identify characteristics of animals, including behavior, size, and body covering. Resources: Artwork: Sculptor, Christine Andersen Tupper Video:


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ,/ $ Dropping in onÉseries, Puffer Learns About Ceramics DVD by Crystal Productions p?minisite=10206&item=325 5342 Body Covering: Worksheets and Assessments: Unit 3 Rubric Y/edit My research animal self assessment O5wcCSF wdof2YLXLZsQ4gz7zomBw/edit Day 1 Overview : The students will review what ceramics are and begin creating a three dimensional animal, based on the animal they chose to research and write abou t in their regular classroom. Discussion Questions: What is ceramics? What will happen if your clay animal has an air bubble in it? Why do we need to fire the clay? What does three dimensional mean? What is form and how can we use form to create three di mensional animals? Materials: Animal research (completed in their regular classroom) Clay Ceramic tools (bucket, water, light plastic bags) DVD Puffer Learns about Ceramics Introduction: The teacher will ask the question "What is ceramics?" and allow the students to provide their answers. The teacher will then play the DVD Puffer Learns About Ceramics (if you have time, show the entire 30). After the movie, the teacher will ask questions about the movie and the information it provided. The teacher will then reference the research and writing that the students did on their chosen animal in their regular classroom. The teacher will explain that the students will use their research to create a three dimensional animal using clay. The teache r will then review what three dimensional and form means and talk about how the students can use different forms to create three dimensional artwork. Procedures: The students will review the research they did on their specific animal. They will take noti ce of the animal's body characteristics such as size, shape, form, texture, and color. They will begin to recreate their animal's body using clay. The students will be sure not to allow


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ,0 $ air bubbles in their sculpture. At the end of the class period the stu dents will wrap their clay in light plastic to keep it moist until the next class. Day 2 Overview : The students will view the ceramic artwork of Christine Anderson Tupper. They will continue working on their three dimensional animals adding texture and d etail with new ceramic tools. Discussion Questions: What are animal body coverings and give examples? What is texture? How can we add texture to clay to represent the body covering? What are some details/textures you noticed about Tupper's sculptures? Wha t are some rules that will keep us safe while using ceramic tools? Materials: Animal research (completed in their regular classroom) Images of Christine Andersen Tupper's animal sculptures Clay Ceramic tools (bucket, water, sponges, models tools, plastic bags) Introduction: The class will review what they did the previous lesson, including how forms can be combined to make three dimensional artworks and review what texture is. The teacher will ask the students what body covering means and the students wil l explain and give examples such as fur, scales, skin, shell, and feathers. The teacher will then show the short video of body coverings to show the different types and then show the artwork of sculptor, Christine Andersen Tupper. The students will view a nd talk about the different animal forms that the artist created and will point out the different textures and details of each animal's skin/fur and facial features. The class will talk about how each animal has unique characteristics that make them differ from other animals. The teacher will then explain that the students will once again refer to their research in order to finish forming the animals body and then will use modeling tools to create the body covering texture and details. The teacher will intr oduce the new modeling tools and will explain how to use them safely. Safety Tips: • Never walk around with a sharp tool (all tools remain on the tables) • When digging into the clay or cutting pieces, cut away from your body. • Be sure to pick up any tools th at fall on the floor and wipe up any spills, immediately. • Never place ceramic tools in your pockets. • When carrying your clay artwork, use both hands and ask for help when you need it. • Tell the teacher immediately if you are injured. Procedures: The students will review their previous research on the specific animal and then continue forming the animal body. They will then safely use different modeling tools to create


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ ,1 $ the animal's body covering texture and features. When the animal is complete, t hey will place it on the drying shelf. (The teacher will fire the bone dry clay on the correct Cone setting. Day 3 Overview: The students will review glazing techniques and then glaze their three dimensional animals to resemble their real life characteri stics. Discussion Questions: What are some different animal body covering colors? How does an animals body covering and coloring impact its survival? What is a glaze and how do we use it? What are some rules to keep us safe when glazing? Materials: Anim al research (completed in their regular classroom) Images of various animal body coverings Glaze Glazing tools (bucket, water, sponges, brushes, wax resist) Fired clay animals Introduction : The class will review animal body coverings. The students will sh are different types of coverings such as fur, scales, hair, quills, etcÉThe teacher will then start a discussion about the animals body coloring and ask the discussion questions. The students will view images of their animals within their research and with online images. The students will point out the color of their animal bodies and how their animal's survival is impacted by its covering and coloring. Example: "My animal is the artic hare. It has thick fluffy fur to keep it warm in the snow and its fur is white so that it can blend in with the snow, so that the artic fox doesn't see it and eat it." The teacher will explain that the glazing of the clay animals is the final step. The teacher will review what glaze is and how artists can use it. The teacher will review the glazing techniques such as painting the glaze on, using sponges, or dipping the piece in the glaze. The teacher will also review why it is important not to get glaze on the part of the animal's body that will sit on the kiln shelf (because it will cause the piece to stick to the kiln shelf). The teacher will review the safety tips when using glaze and glazing tools. Safety Tips: • When painting the glaze on, be sure not to splatter it in anyone direction or in your eyes. • Clean up any spills immediately. • Close any unused containers. • Carry your ceramic pieces with both hands and ask for help if you need it. • Tell the teacher immediately if you are injured.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ -3 $ Procedures : The students will review their research and notice the color of the animal' s body covering. The students will then choose the glazes that will work best for their animal and choose a technique to apply it. They will begin applying the glaze onto the animal's body using a generous amount and adding multiple layers. When finished t hey will wipe off the bottom of the animals body (where it would touch the kiln shelf) and place their artwork on the drying shelf. The teacher will load the kiln and fire to the correct Cone. (The finished product will serve as a formative assessment) As sessment: The students will complete the student self assessment.


!"#$%&#'("!#%)& $ -2 $ Author Biography $ Rebecca Wall is an elementary art teacher in Auburn, Alabama. She received her Bachelors degree in Art Education from Columbus State University in 2006 and is currently working on her Masters degree in Art Education from the University of Florida. She is married a nd has a sweet spaniel puppy. Rebecca has taught art in public schools , art museums, and private venues. She has also tau ght Early Childhood Education in first and second grade . In the past seven years she has had the opportunity to live and travel all ov er the United States including living in New York City, Seattle, and Atlanta. Her experiences in education and her adventures traveling , have shaped her into the teacher she is today. She believes in the power of play and experimentation in the classroom , and encourages her students to become explore r s and researchers in art and in everyday life. Rebecca 's medium of choice is photography and ceramics, but has begun the intensive process of writing and illustrating her own children's book. She enjoys nature and incorporates it into most of her artwork. Her future goals include more domestic and international travel, publishing her own children's book, and becoming more actively involved in her new art community. &

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