Citation
Integrating Popular Music in the Choral Music Curriculum

Material Information

Title:
Integrating Popular Music in the Choral Music Curriculum
Creator:
Smith, Chasity R
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Webster, Peter R.
Committee Co-Chair:
Webb, Richard S.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Music appreciation ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Music notation ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical improvisation ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Musical rudiments ( jstor )
Popular music ( jstor )
Singing ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
This curriculum project presents a balanced look at the challenges and advantages of implementing popular music in the choral curriculum through a review of literature. Various topics addressed are: the listening preferences of the adolescent, the educational relevance of popular music in the choral curriculum, the challenges involved when implementing popular music in the choral curriculum, vocal health concerns of the popular music style, and the advantages of implementing popular music in the choral curriculum. Using this information, several suggestions were presented for integrating popular music in the choral curriculum. These suggestions are categorized into two contrasting groups: the traditional ensemble, designed for the educator who mostly performs traditional western art music and is looking to expand their repertoire; and the non-traditional ensemble, which is intended for the educator who is open to creating a separate ensemble that not only performs popular music, but studies it as an art form as well. The structural overview and relevancy of these two types of ensembles are discussed in detail. Further, two nine-week sample units are included: one for both the traditional and nontraditional teaching situation. Several activities, personal experiences, and learning activities are embedded throughout the curriculum sections of the project to serve as a guide for current chorus teachers who aspire to include popular music in their curriculum. Additionally, daily lesson plan samples and accompanying materials (e.g. worksheets, music score excerpts) are included in the appendices.
General Note:
Music Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Chasity R. Smith. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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!"##$#%&'()*+&,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546& & & & INTEGRATING POPULAR MUSIC IN THE CHORAL MUSIC CURRICULUM SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. PETER R. WEBSTER, CHAIR DR. RICHARD S. WEBB, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9 & © 2 0 1 4 C h a s i t y R . S m i t h

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & : & AC KNOWLEGEMENTS To my husband, DeMarcus and my darling son, Bryson: thank you for being so understanding and suppo rtive of the long nights and weekends. To my parents: thank you for always encouraging me to pursue my dreams and for being supportive of all my endeavors. I love you all dearly. To my advisor, Dr. Peter Webster and committee member, Dr. Richard S. Webb: thank you for your scholarly support and guidance. The dedication you show to education is truly inspiring.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ; & TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 Chapter One: Introduction Purpose . . ............... 6 Definiti ons ... .............. 8 Delimitati . ... 9 Need for Curricu 9 Chapter Two: Review of Literature 13 Relevanc . . 14 Challenges/Dissent Notation an . 18 19 Advantages/Assent Addition of New Ensemb .. 21 Multicu 22 23 Chapter Three: Curriculum Suggestions 5 Tr ..... 2 5 Non 2 7 Curriculum Overview 31 Non 40 Chapter Four : Conclus ions . . 49 ......... 5 3 Appendix 1 5 6 Appendix 2 57 Ap pendix 3 58 Appendix 59 Appendix 60

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & < & Abstract This curriculum project presents a balanced look at the challenges and advantages of implementing popular mu sic in the choral curriculum through a review of literature. Various topics addressed are: the listening preferences of the adolescent, the educational relevance of popular music in the choral curriculum, the challenges involved when implementing popular m usic in the choral curriculum, vocal health concerns of the popular music style, and the advantages of implementing popular music in the choral curriculum. Using this information, several suggestions were presented for integrating popular music in the chor al curriculum. These suggestions are categorized into two contrasting groups: the traditional ensemble, designed for the educator who mostly performs traditional western art music and is looking to expand their repertoire; and the non traditional ensemble, which is intended for the educator who is open to creating a separate ensemble that not only performs popular music, but studies it as an art form as well. The structural overview and relevancy of these two types of ensembles are discussed in detail. Fur ther, two nine week sample units are included: one for both the traditional and non traditional teaching situation. Several activities, personal experiences, and learning activities are embedded throughout the curriculum sections of the project to serve as a guide for current chorus teachers who aspire to include popular music in their curriculum. Additionally, daily lesson plan samples and accompanying materials (e.g. worksheets, music score excerpts) are included in the appendices.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & = & C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N In a time when the school age student has a plethora of extra curricular options, the topics of validity and relevance come into question for each viable choice. Where the performing arts program stands when compared with other programs depends enti rely on the perception of the student and their assessment of these areas. Popular music is more than a single music genre; it is a cultural phenomenon that engages and represents the majority of the student populati on in terms of their music interests. Unfortunately, a substantial amount of literature on honoring popular music within the choral art form and its actual use in performance settings to educate students has yet to be seen. In the interest of effective program build ing, student recruitment, a nd for the sake of existing student retention, this issue was selected as the topic of a curriculum writing project on the incorporation of popular music in the choral music program . !"#$%&' ( The gap between the music preferences of children outside of s chool and the music actually offered in school music programs seems to expand as they progress in school (Hargreaves, Comber, & Colley, 1995). Since this realization, MENC published, T h e G u i d e t o T e a c h i n g w i t h P o p u l a r M u s i c , on its website (MENC, 2002). The book, B r i d g i n g t h e G a p : P o p u l a r M u s i c a n d M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , (Rodriguez, 2004) includes information on how popular musicians learn, examples of educational programs that incorporate popular music, as well as suggestions for changes in how students and fu ture teachers are taught. More recently, educators like, Allsup (2003) explored ways in which programs could include more opportunities for cultural relevance, self expression, and creativity. With talented music educators and with information like this av ailable, there is an assured hope that popular music can be successfully integrated in the music classroom.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & > & The purpose of this project was to investigate the integration of popular music in to the choral curriculum and to address the issues of assent an d dissent surrounding that merger. Further, a goal was to provide some suggestions for current choral music educators who sought to expand their music repertoire and curriculum in this way. It was suggested by Dunbar Hall and Wemyss (2000 ), that the infus ion of popular music in the Australian music classroom brought about challenges in methodology for the music educators. Th e y concluded that these challenges indicated the need for change within their teaching, learning strategies and theories of music educ ation. One of the noteworthy points of their research was that many educators felt ill prepared to teach popular music in their classroom, however, after working to amend some of their practices, they were able to find success. This curriculum writing proj ect will shed light on a missing piece that is essential in fueling the movement of successful, effective choral music programs in public education: teacher preparation for educating the modern student. Within this curriculum guide there are several topi cs discussed, namely: the listening preferences of the adolescent; the educational relevance of popular music in the choral curriculum; the challenges involved when implementing popular music in the choral curriculum; vocal health concerns of the popular m usic style; and the advantages of implementing popular music in the choral curriculum. These topics are all addressed in chapter two through a review of researched, peer reviewed literature. Chapter three utilizes the information discussed in the previous chapter to offer suggestions for integrating popular music in the choral curriculum. These suggestions are based on the comparison of two options that serve as models for use in the choral program: the traditional ensemble and the non traditional ensemble. The beginning section of the chapter gives a structural description of the similarities and differences between the traditional ensemble and non traditional ensemble. The latter part of the chapter offers

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ? & specific examples of curriculum design within the traditional and non traditional ensemble. Chapter Four concludes by highlighting the main points of the curriculum guide and presenting supportive literature for the inclusion of popular music in the choral curriculum. D e f i n i t i o n s For the sake of clarity , important terms are defined below. These are provided to make the materials clear. Elem ents of Music: a term that describes pitch, rhythm, harmony, dynamics , timbre, texture, and form Enduring Understandings: a term coined by Wiggins and McTighe (2005 ) to refer to the content and focus of the main objectives in a lesson/curricular unit. Ensemble: a group of singers who perform together; members generally have the same amount of responsibility within the group Expression: the performance of music wi th dynamics, phrasing, style and i nterpretation Genre: a type of category of music (e.g. Madrigal, Opera, Gospel, Rock and Roll) Improvisation: a musical experience that is performance based and in which creation of music in the moment is stressed

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & @ & Notat ion: a system of figures or symbols used to represent duration, pitches or other values that represent music so that it can performed by others Popular music: music that has many genres, appeals to popular tastes, and has wide distribution to mass audienc considered a separate genre within popular music. Other genres include wide varieties of African, blues, country, easy listening, electronic, folk, hip hop, and many others D e l i m i t a t i o n s This project will not deal with: 1. Assessment methods for popular music ensembles 2. Accommodations for students with special needs N e e d f o r C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t In 1967 , music educators and other professionals assembled in Lenox, Mas sachusetts to discuss changes in music teaching and learning . One of the primary goals of this gathering was to discuss ways to teach students the necessary skills and knowledge needed for dealing with the ever changing world around them . The meeting becam e known as the Tanglewood Symposium and resulted in an important document to become know as the Tanglewood Declaration (Choate,

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & AB & 1967) . Attendees of the gathering felt that there was a growing disconnection between the adult music experience and the musica l experiences of students in public school. They began to discuss ways in which to close this gap and make the school music experience more applicable to life outside of the school setting. Although this influential development occurred some four decade s ago , this disengaging factor has impacts student participation in the school music program today . Reasons for discontinuing participation in school music programs have included: lack of interest, poor repertory and content choices by school ensemble dir ectors, insufficient connection with local ethnicities and cultures, and a lack of relevance of the music curriculum (Hope, 2004). Boespflug (1999) used a college ensemble to show how music educators could teach musicianship and skills using student music composed in popular music styles. According to Boespflug, audiences have declined for traditional Western music due to cultural changes. He believes that pop ular music ensembles are capable of teaching skills that are essential to musi cianship. According to Rodriguez (2004), as long as band, chorus, and orchestra are the Dunbar Hall and Wemyss stated: Music educators at primary (elementary) level s eem to have fewer methodological and philosophical problems than secondary music educators with the use of popular music in the classroom. This may be because music teachers in primary schools rely o n tapping into the music which children listen to and int eract with o n a daily basis and because at that level music education is experimental, rather than targeted at the study of specific historic periods, or the learning of compositional, perform ance and musicological skills which form the basis of much secon dary music teaching and learning maintain that music

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & AA & education is a site of continual development, and that this is partly su stained in our context by reactions to the shifting nature of popular music; the influence of the teaching of popular music on music education is seen as both an initial impetus for rethinking processes of t eaching and learning and an on going means by which music education evolves. (2000 , p. 23 ) To implement the suggestions for curricular improvement noted at the Tanglewood Sympo sium, we must be mindful to utilize the appropriate ensembles. To move forward, music teacher education programs would need to be updated and expanded. Such changes would need to occur within the halls of higher education , in the minds and practices of cur rent music educations, and in the publication of resources available to current choral educators. The suggestion of including popular music in the choral curriculum does not exclude the importance of maintaining the literature of Western art music. The f ocus of the proposed project is to enlighten choral directors as to the educational opportunities that come with weaving popular music in to the choral music program and to provide practical methods for doing so. Perhaps then, music education programs will be better capable of reaching a more diverse student population in more meaningful and relevant ways.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A9 & C H A P T E R T W O : R E V I E W O F L I T E R A T U R E When researching the use of popular music in the music classroom, Morrison (2007) found that an overall resistant att itude was a continual theme among teachers. Statements such as, "Yes, I introduce children to classical music. Pop music they listen to anyway, there seems to be little point in teaching it therefore (Green, 2002, p. 138). Morrison stated that teachers f elt ill prepared by their specific musical experiences and university education to handle such a task. In the absence of knowledge, apprehension seems un avoidable. Grier (1991) suggested that specialized training and preparation is needed for those wantin g to teach pop music styles. Her book, H o w p o p u l a r m u s i c i a n s l e a r n : a w a y a h e a d f o r m u s i c e d u c a t i o n , includes several pointers specifically for those who are not as familiar with the popular genre of music. One such suggestion is to have meaningful listen ing exercises during which imitation of phrasing and riffs are practiced (Green, 2002), while researchers like, Kuzmich (1991) state that authenticity should be preserved by those who teach popular music by not using written scores since genuine Rock/P op m usicians typically do not use them. Morrison (2007) admits to being a teacher with little popular music experien ce when seeking to incorporate p op ular music in her classroom but decided to start her journey in a very practical manner: simple observation. She notes : I noticed that students would look forward to the opportunities that I gave them to choose their own solos or small ensemble pieces and would invariably choose popular music songs. They were often reserved or restrained when singing folk songs, choral ensemble pieces or Italian art song, but would enter or exit my class belting out a pop tune with no

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A: & experienced helped to increase her vocal technique in terms of st ylistic devices. I was fascinated by the intrinsic motivation that occurred when students were given the choice to sing something that clearly meant something to them. I had always used a mix of what I judged to be "good music" from all genres, including p opular music, in my classes for listening and analysis purposes. ..(b) ut in spite of all of my good intentions, up to this point a few years ago, I had never really incorporated popular music in the areas of performance and composition, (Morrison, 2007, p. 53) L i s t e n i n g C o n t e x t Hargreaves, Comber, and Colley (1995); Isbell (2007); Lamont, Hargreaves, Marshall, and Tarrant (2003), express ed the disparity between school music and what music students find relevant. This healthy debate is probably the most si gnificant reason this discussion needs to occur in an open, well supported academic forum (Springer & Gooding, 2013). Add itionally, Woody (2007) supported the notion that the study of popular music may be the gateway to experiencing various musical styles. In 1996, composer Libby Larsen expressed concern for the occurring may be as significant as that of the mid eighteenth century (Boespflug, 1999). She referen ced noticeable changes in technology such as the home entertainment center, television, radio, and m obile technology like, the Walk man (Larsen, 1996). Electronic keyboards and guitars replace the piano in homes seemingly giving the music to the every day p erson (Larsen, 1996). While this has contributed to the advancement of society, it ha s also taken emphasis off of live performance, which directly affects the art of traditional Western European music (Larsen, 1996). Traditional musicians have fought to stay a float in the entertainment industry

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A; & understand it and its popular styles if they hope to maintain an audience ( Larsen, 1996). Hargreaves and North (1997 ) give a descriptive summary of the effect that age has on listening preference : ( a ) young children up to the age of 8 years or so are prepared to listen to and expres s liking for a wide range of musical styles, (b) as they move into adolescence, there is a decline in this "open earedness": the variety of preferred styles decreases, and there is a marked increase in liking for "popular" styles, largely rock and pop musi c, (c) with further progress into early adulthood, the range of tolerance for different styles widens once again; and (d) there is a further decline in "open earedness" as the listener mat ures to old age, ( 1997, p.1). Various educators and researchers ha ve concurred that popular mus ic is the musical preference of a dolescents (North, Hargreaves, and 1994). Certain scholars (Davis and Blair, 2011; Hebert and Campbell, 2000) have reported that students may have a better platform for add ressing social issues and other educational forums due to this style of music . . R e l e v a n c e i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n Without question, one of the greatest points of discussion in academia is the relevance of popular music in music teaching and learning . The mo st poignant aspect of questioning the pop ular music relevance in education has been its seemingly missing elements of intellectual rigor and lack of dependence on traditional support activities, such as like sight singing and music theory analysis. If pop ular music styles were taught in the public classroom, how would those aspects of musicianship be nu rtured? Boespflug (1999) writes: The question often raised whe Should we include pop

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A< & music study Although m y experience has been with college students, I am confident that pop ensembles would thrive at the high school and the junior high levels. It is often in junior high that young people first develop a passion for popular music and buy their first guitars or join their first bands. A junior high pop ensemble would create an environment where a newfound passion for music could be channeled. encouraging sensitivity to text, "t ight" ense mble playing, and aural skill. (p. 37) Ponick (2 000) wrote that the inclusion of popular music in the classroom can help the teacher more thoroughly address the National Standards for Music Education. Composition, improvisation, and arranging m usic are all musical skills that could be developed through these more contemporary mus ic styles (Green, 2002; Hebert and Campbell, 2000) . Still others support the notion that popular music can be effectively used to develop and enhance transferable skill s that can be used in other music styl es, including Western art music . Two such skills are cr eative thought in music , which can lead to better self expression (Allsup, 2003), and aural skills, which can be stimulated through the pect o f the popular music style (Green, 2002; Woody, 2007). Additonally, Boespflug (1999) stated: appetite to explore many styles of music and are often acutely aware of the cult ural and social significance of popular music and its conspicuous absence from school music programs. I believe that students involved in a school pop ensemble might be more likely to join a group activity like chorus than those who must search on their ow n for mu sic that is meaningful to them, (p. 37).

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A= & He believed that popular music has an improvisatory compone nt that relies on the performer identifyi ng the moments where that type of music expression m ay be appropriate moments that may later become compo sition insp iration. The style also involves several other musical skills including exploration of style, phrasing, and rhythm with a significant amount of emphasis placed on memory, aural skills, and creativity (Boespflug, 1999). Popular music engagement may also lead to more authentic music learning. Not all performers use notation however, it is expected that their creative moments fall within the general scope of the piece in other ways . This leads to rehearsals that are very student centered and stude nt led. Students seem to feel more at ease for sharing and exchanging musical ideas in traditional methodology he discovered that students who were not currently enro lled in a music course found a way to make time for the extra work outside of the normal curricular hours. An educator might infer that given this information, students may also meet outside of class to edit compositions. They might also collaborate with other students and work on options for items like bass motifs, as in the case of Larse traditional ensemble, or riff choices and background vocal parts. Independent work on recordings can be used in place of written scores and can also serve as effective tools for measurable growth and assessment. Larsen (1996) notes that most of the recordings with her non traditional ensemble are done away from her direction . This not only creates a more student centered environment, but also allows them to become more proficient at recording software and editing practices. Boespflug (1999) admits that the products of the non traditional pop ular ensembles in his study are not as harmonically or analytically as dense as that of traditional western art ensem bles. Still, recognition is given to the benefits that these types of ensembles can give such as, developing

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A> & aural, improvisational , and com position skills, which he stated are all essential to holistic musicianship . The process in which these ensembles engage are reflections of those used by musicians who have impacted the popular music culture for the past forty years (Boespflug, 1999). He stated Although it should not replace the traditional ensemble, a pop ensemble may serve as a unique avenue, bu t by no means the only avenue, for students to express themselves less common ensemble practices such as collaborative, creation and recording , members of the non traditional groups may develop skills that would prove useful in more traditionally offered ensembles such as band, chorus or orchestra . C h a l l e n g e s / D i s s e n t The in clusion of popular music into traditional music education presents several challenges and dissenting opinions. One such concern relates to the lack of a notated score. N o t a t i o n a n d M u s i c S c o r e s One concern sometimes expressed by music teachers is the lack of appropriate published music scores for including popular music in the curriculum. T he research of Boespflug (1999) pointed out that the question s of notation and music scores may stem from a fundamental misunderstanding of the popular music style. The prominent improvisatory nature of the popular music style that has been leading the mu performer not just a musician or singer, but a composer as well. The performers do not rely on the written score or conductor for choices of phrasing, dynamics, melody, rhythm or other expressive ele ments (Boesp flug, 1999). As such, the typical music score familiar in the music educator community, may not be the best tool to help explore or perform these styles . Boespflug smitted tradition.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A? & Pop music has evolved primarily via musicians who have listened to recordings and live performances and, in turn, have re created and experimented with what they have heard. As a result, many pop musicians are more adept at playing by ea r than reading music; many never . The latter statement may prove most troubling for music educators. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r S c h o o l s Years after the previously noted Tanglewood Symposium in 1967, Springer and Gooding (2013) iter ated three dissenting views about popular music engagement: (1) other styles of music such as , Western art music are superior to r ock music; (2) rock music can affect the morals of adolescents; and (3) instructional time should not be used to teach vernacu lar music. Hebert and Campbell (2000) concurred and added three views of their own. They reported are not many resources available for music teachers using popular music in America; American music educators are ill prep ared for teaching popular music; R oc k music can foster a spirit of rebellion and defiance in the adolescent. Still others express concern for the equal emphasis placed on popular music as opposed to other genres (Mark, 1994). Mark (1994) raised question as to the validity of teaching popula r styles of music in the school if institutions of learning are supposed to enlighten students about concepts and topics they woul d not readily be exposed to outside of the institutionalized learning environment. In addition, he questioned if funds should be dedicated to learning such a topic riddled with trends and faddish ways. Further complicating the arguments about popular music integration, Woody (2007) noted that m any teachers use what is described sic is performed but only used as a way to transition students into performing more traditional forms of music . Clearly, this is not an acceptable approach to effective methods of integration.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & A@ & V o c a l H e a l t h C o n c e r n s Another topic of dissention, specifi cally for choral music educators is the issue of vocal health. Maintaining good vocal health points to the importance of understanding physiological matters related to the voice . It is considered common knowledge that while singing utilizes the same mecha nisms as speech and other able bodied tasks, like speaking and eating, the actual process of singing demands another level of coordination. For example, the task of silently renewing the breath requires a high level of synergism between the laryngeal and b reathing mechanisms. The adduction and abduction of the outer folds of the larynx are responsible for allowing the glottis to open adequately, while simultaneously the feature devices of the breathing process (e.g. d iaphragm, lungs, rib cage) are working to produce sufficient support for breathing (Smith Vaughn, Hooper, and Hodges, 2013). In a study done by Smith Vaughn, Hooper, and Hodges (2013), twenty middle and high school adolescent performing arts students , were assessed on the effects of singing st yles on the adolescent voice. The students were ages 11 17 and included 13 female and 7 male participants. The procedure included two stations where participants completed a vocal health questionnaire at the first station and vocal phonation parameters we re tested at station two by a KayPentax Digital Video Stroboscopy System (LVES) . One of t he results of that study was that laryngeal tension was associated with singing different styles of m usic . The KayPentax Digital Video Stroboscopy System (LVES) indic ated that more tension was found in those participants who sang music theat er style. According to these researchers, the type of singing performed can affect this process. They report that during adolescence, children develop enduring vocal habits that gui dance and training may be appropriate for as long a s the instructor is discerning. These same

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9B & researchers have found that sedulous training can assist the adolescent in avoiding potential voice disorders . Given the nature of popular music singing styles, t his information is of particular interest. A voice disorder is a result of a combination of physiological activities, including poor respira tion, phonation, and resonance unconscious habit and is often challenging tessitura that is too high or too low for continual vocal performance, can cause vocal fatigue and swelling that may lead to vocal fold nodules. (Smith Vaughn, Hooper, and Hodges, 2013, p. 403) When the topics of adolescent voices and singing style are introduced to the study, the following findings were recorded: Certain styles of singing appear to develop vocal nodules in adults and put excessive pressure on vocal fold vibration. These styles include rock, ja zz, gospel, and most popular music styles where the singing is similar to shouting. The most sensitive period for adolescents and vocal development appears to be during the "growth spurt" of puberty, generally occurring between the ages of 10 18 in females and 12 20 in plays a role in vocal health. Three typical styles of music sung in middle and high schools are Broadway (music theater), gospel music, and classical choral music. The degree to which each can be abusive to the adolescent voice likely depends on the singer and muscle tension scores (less vocal/laryngeal work) than those who ha d non e. (Smith

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9A & Vaughn, Hooper, and Hodges, 2013, p. 403) The se findings place substantial responsibility on the choral teacher to educate students on the importance of maintaining vocal health and most importantly, teaching them the necessary skills to do so. A d v a n t a g e s / A s s e n t As with every change in practice, challenges are to be expected, however, one cannot make an informed opinion about a matter without sufficient evidence and research from opposing views. In like fashion, there are several writers who re port innovative approaches to hurdling over potential roadblocks of integrating popular music styles into the music curriculum. A d d i t i o n o f N e w E n s e m b l e s Larsen (1996) offered a n alternative approach. In her band program, she specifically sought out diff erent instrumentation. She did not feel the need to replace her traditional ensemble. Within the non traditional ensemble, students composed and performed original songs. Implementing this procedure maintained stylistic authenticity. The rehearsal practice s were also non traditional and include activities, such as: recording, improvisation, composition, and performing. N e w T h i n k i n g A b o u t N o t a t i o n Employing skeletal music scores, or the minimal use of standardized notation for music, has been shown to be ben eficial for students learning popular music in schools. This type of part writing requires students to utilize skills other than sight rea ding in order to perform music. Dunbar Hall and Wemyss (2 000) wrote that this would also be a huge push toward transi tioning the learning environment from one that is teacher centered to one that places students in the

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 99 & that would require the students to have knowledge of mu sic theory, voice r ange and associated limitations. T his would allow the student to g o beyond performance to exercise compositional, ensemble, and artistic skills. As such, this would place using popular music in the classroom at the cutting edge of p edago gical trends (Dunbar Hall and Wemyss, 2000) . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m The study of popular music can also offer fresh perspective on multiculturalism. To date, music educators have argued for increased awareness of the cultures that make up our world and have str ategized on how to successfully teach this in the classroom as authentically as possible (Dunbar Hall and Wemyss, 2000). Dunbar Hall and Wemyss (2000) wrote : At the same time, popular music provides music educators with alternative ways of interpreting top ics set for study, thus allowing students access to increased perceptions of music, its materials, processes and construction, and ways it is used in different cultural and geographic contexts . (p. 26) Later they conclude d : Developments in teaching method s, increased applications of multiculturalism, and the need to keep abreast of musical and technological trends, are all areas of influence and to have been responsible for reshaping thinking about music teaching and learning. Music education in which popu lar music can be shown to have exerted influence and to have been responsible for reshaping thinking about music teaching In this fashion, advances in music education through the acceptance of popular music are emblematic of a music education futurism and a period in which philosophies of music education continue

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9: & to evolve. (p. 29 31) S u m m a r y Given this compilation of information, one is more equipped to develop an informed opinion of the use of popular music in the choral classroom. We have heard from educators and researchers who identified positive contributions that popular music can bring to a choral program, recognized the potential challenges involved with this integration, and more importantly, offered practical options for overcoming those challenges. The next step in successful integration is designing the framework and structure for the curriculum.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9; & C H A P T E R T H R E E : C U R R I C U L U M S U G G E S T I O N S Based on the topics raised in the chapters above, the material presented in Chapter Three is designed as a set of suggestions for teachers of choral music to consider in designing ensembles and overall curriculum. Since one of the afore mentioned dissentions is lack of preparation of the music educator, the next logical step would involve creatin g opportunity for teachers to receive the necessary support and information to include popular music styles in their music curriculum. Boespflug wrote the traditional approach to ensembles does not address the improvisational, collaborative nature of pop music composition or the musician's role as 1999, p. 34). Dunbar Hall, P. and Wemyss, K. (2000) Teachers quickly deduced that methods for teaching art music, which relied at that time on score read ing, historical information and theory driven exercises in melodic and harmonic little to offer ways that popular music could be (p. 24). Morrison state d: It is possible for educators to incorporate aspects of popular music and informal music practices such as listening and imitating into traditional music classrooms. Music educators need to embrace programs or techniques that have been adapted to include popular music in a way that allows it to have musical integrity and authen 2007, p. 54) Embracing the suggested viewpoints of the se writers would imply that infusing popular music in the music curriculum does not have to include dismissing the traditional choral

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9< & ensemble. It does, however, imply that the methodology us ed in these traditional music ensembles needs a makeover. G e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The first part of Chapter Three is devoted to general considerations for both traditional and non traditional ensembles. The second section considers the overall curriculum i n more detail and is also divided into subsections on traditional and non traditional ensembles. Specific examples of curriculum design are included throughout and appendices contain sample lesson plans as further help in considering curriculum redesign T r a d i t i o n a l e n s e m b l e One option for integration is employing purposeful listening activities in the traditional choral rehearsal. Aural skills are certainly one item that the choral teacher strives to develop, and listening and imitation could be a way t o enhance t approach to popular music in her chamber choir. I began by introducing the piece "Accidentally in Love" by the Counting Crows to my grade 10 vocal class. I confess that I did purchase a vocal arrangement of the piece, but we combined reading the harmony from the score with purposeful listening and imitation of the original sound file and we added guitar, bass and drums to the suggested piano part. Much of the performance preparation for this ensemble piece was done in s maller groups (peer directed learning) with teacher guidance and input when required, but not with complete teacher direction. The following year, my chamber choir collaborated with members of our guitar club in a performance of "Bohemian Rhapsody" lots of fun! I continue to incorporate popular music into the performance program and have found success and improvement in areas such as improvisation, imitating, and harmonizing by

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9= & ear. I also created a popular music composition unit in my senior vocal class, which allowed the students to be introduced to devices of popular music writing and create in this area. Perhaps, most importantly, I learned to let go a little bit and allow creativity, artistic decision making in rehearsals, and leadership to become muc h more student centered, ( 2007, p.54) The next option offers variation on the choral rehearsal might not be ideal for the larger ensemble; a more select ensemble may do well with this sort of challeng e. If one began with a general outline of the popular song print ed on a lead sheet and then created an original interpretation, this would not only exercise music theory skills, expression, and ensemble skills but would also prove a meaningful experience f or all involved. Undoubtedly, the students would take more ownership of the repertoire and the musical process leading to more of a student directed environment in the choral classroom. Dunbar Hall & Wemyss Among popular music performers music n otation is not a universal practice. What notation exists commercially is often produced by recording companies as a means of production, and presents only the basics of a piece of popular music, most often the lyrics, melody line and chord ( 2000, p. 24) . The writers do suggest caution regarding this strategy saying: Using these forms of popular music notation ( symbols, such as letters of the alphabet or pictograms of guitar fingerings ) in music classrooms produced a number of dilemmas for te achers. The utilization of forms of notation other than standard stave notation required teachers and students to come to terms with the notion that not all music could be, or needed to be, written in the notation used for art music of the common practice period, ( 2000, p.24).

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9> & Boespflug concurred: distinctive sound is often difficult to capture in notation . 1999, p. 34) Yet another useful method to use in traditional ensemble is improvi sation. In fact, with structure in place (established tonal center, time signature, or even chord progression), Improvisation allows students to creatively explore various styles, ti (Boespflug, 1999, p. 35). Dunbar Hall and Wemyss (2000) mentioned that the repetitive nature of popular music makes it easier for these types of skill building activities. Usually in a popular music selection there is ostinti in the bass line and looped chords in the guitar or piano part (Dunbar Hall and Wemyss, 2000). Structurally, the song often adheres to the ABABA or ABACA form with little variation. Incorporating improvisation into the choral rehearsal would p otentially be a successful merger of aural skills and music theory Dunbar Hall and Wemyss (2000). N o n T r a d i t i o n a l E n s e m b l e A contrasting choice for choral educators wanting to broaden their curriculum is to create a completely different ensemble. The ob jective of this extra curricular group would be to focus on the study and performance of popular genres of music. We have already established that a traditional ensemble may not be the best option for investigating these types of styles, (Boespflug, 1999; Davis and Blair, 2011; Green, 2002; Woody, 2007). The rehearsal practices of traditional ensembles would not allow for much exploration to be done, which is essential to authentic popular music (Boespflug, 1999). In light of this information, there must be a response of intentional brainstorming as to what this non traditional ensemble should look like. Examples of non traditional ensembles include show choir, pop ensemble, glee club, or even a singer/song

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9? & writer club. Determining the criterion for mem be rship is another essential item. Will the choir be a co ed or same sex ensemble? Will students need to be comfortable with solo singing to be a member? Will students need to meet before or after school for rehearsals? Answering these types of questions be fore hand will increase lead to a more successful start for the ensemble. Boespflug (1999) stated that, our curricula, we new wine into old wine skins (p. 35). For the choral educator who is m ore fluent in Western Art form, this task may seem a bit adventurous at first glance; however, one must keep in mind that new peda gogies help to keep the learning environment fresh . One note worthy concept in creating a non traditional ensemble is that the approach to studying and performing popular music has to go beyond rhythm, melody and harmony. One must also consider texture and various expressive elements (Boespflug, 1999). Analytical li stening experiences will be key . The benefits of developing p erceptual hearing an d strengthening aural skill would be significant. In contrast to the way in which this approach would be used in the traditional ensemble, consider having students do more than imitate melodic lines and rhythmic patterns. Instead have s ingers focus on the phrasing of the line. This will be one way to practically establish focus on texture and timbre as opposed to pitches and rhythm, (Boespflug (1999). Other factors contrasting traditional and non traditional performance ensembles sho uld be considered. Although not exclusively so, in non traditional ensembles : Students experience autonomy in terms of musical choice Students listen to recordings frequently and copy musical ideas by ear as a primary learning mechanism The role of mus ical notat ion is diminished and notation often occurs after the music

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & 9@ & is learned, composed, or arranged. Creative processes such as composition, improvisation, and arranging are often integrated throughout the learning process Musical material used in pra ctice sessions usually includes learning new songs, tunes, or licks that the performers have heard, rather than scales, arpeggios, and other out of context technique exercises Learning often occurs through collaboration with peers in small groups, like co operative learning environments Students often watch and imitate behaviors modeled by their peers Students are more intrinsically motivated throughout the learning process Instruction requires the teacher to take a nontraditional role as a guide or fac ilitator, rather than as an autocrat or dictator (Springer and Gooding, 2013, p.26 27) Ginocchio (2001) is a music educator who successfully implemented the study of popular music in his curriculum. His journey provides practical application to previousl y mentioned approaches. When I began planning a curriculum for the class, I became concerned that, without specific units and projects, the class could regress into chaos. The ideas came slowly, but only at the outset. Transcription projects led me into rock history, which led me to music stress the importance of accuracy in technique and style. But they would also serve to improve students' abilities to work together in g roups, as well as to cement student interest the groups would have to work together in picking pieces to play and in learning their

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :B & parts. This format also had the pote ntial to provide leadership opportunities for many students. Popular music performance/artists can be an overwhelming subject. In order to make it more manageable, I planned to let the students choose the artists that they would like to would then give reports to the class so that the entire class could share in the research of each student. To engage them, I would ask students to choose a particular artist about whom they would be expected to present both written and oral reports. They w ere to examine how that artist became famous, what type of music he or she performed, how the artist's musical style could be recognized (using musical examples), what influences had shaped the artist's development, and how the artist had mastered these in itial ideas and progressed beyond them. By the end of the year, transcriptions were being put together much faster than earlier in the year. The compositions performed showed that the students had put a lot of effort, thought, and understanding into thei r creations. It was also interesting to see this class provide some students with opportunities for leadership roles that they were not likely to have anywhere else in school. As the year ended, it became clear that the excitement that students had for the class had rubbed off on others. Despite losing almost half of this class to graduation, the following year approximately the same number of students registered for the class. Five returned for a second year of study, and I ended up with several students f rom each grade level instead of only juniors and seniors. This has created a strong basis on to communicate. It does not really matter what style of music we choose to teach, whether

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :A & baroque, romantic, avant garde, jazz, or rock. We can teach madrigals, oratorios, or big band vocals. We can teach about Bach, Beethoven, Dizzy Gillespie, or Led Zeppelin. Even as we are teaching music, we are teaching students about lif e and about the world in which they live. The more different ways we approach music education, the more students we can touch with all the things that music has to offer. Through traditional music study, coupled with the study of popular music, every stude nt can be a musician. Isn't that what we as music educators are striving for? (Ginocchio, 2001, p. 40 44) . C u r r i c u l u m O v e r v i e w To design a choral program inclusive of popular music styles, one must examine what the framework of the curriculum might incl ude. For consistency, this overview will be built in part National Standards for Music Education as adapted in 1994 ( http://musiced.nafme.org/resources/national standards for music education/ ) . It should be noted that currently, a new adoption process is underway and a transition into the new National Core Music Standards is in process as of this writing. Although based on the older Standards, the material below can be easily adapted to the new language once the transition has occurred T r a d i t i o n a l E n s e m b l e C o n c e p t u a l b a s e . Meeting the sta ndards in a traditional ensemble will look somewhat different from that of alternative groups. In the more traditional groups emphasis would be placed on advanced choral techniques, which would likely include multi part singing, accurate and artistic musical technique, rigorous literature, formal rehearsal etiqu ette and music vocabulary. The lea rning and understanding of skills would culminate in meaningful performances that would be a significant component of the class. For example, in the case of an

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :9 & advanced middle school choir that might be using popular music material in performance , appropriate identifying behaviors for understanding the music standards addressed may look something like this when working with popular literature : 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. Meeting the standard: Sings variety of popular music in three part harmony 2. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. Meeting the standard: Sings pieces a cape l la and with accompaniment from the popular music literature 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments. Meeting the standard: Improvises melody on voice over a simple accompaniment 4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines. Meeting the standard: Creates two part harmony given a simple melodic line 5. Reading and notating music. Meeting the standard: sight read an individual voice part in major and minor keys and attempt to notate using notation common in popular music 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music. Meeting the standard: Identifies and analyzes meter and texture in more challenging popular music repertoire 7. Evaluating music and music performances.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :: & Meeting the standard: critically eva luate popular music performances given specific criteria 8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts. Meeting the standard: recognizes and articulates connections between popular music repertoire and other important popular art forms 9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture. Meeting the standard: recognizes and articulates connections between popular music repertoire and other historical and cultural artifacts and symbols of current popul ar culture Examples of enduring understandings (Wiggins and McTighe , 2005) that could be used in this type of ensemble are: How can the quality of a performance be improved? How can instrumental accompaniment enhance performance as opposed to more popul ar forms ? What criteria are used to evaluate traditional choral art music? What is performance etiquette in terms of popular and more traditional music ? Since here the use of popular music is used as a means to achieve the types of behaviors mentioned for ea ch standard of learning, one way of structurally integrating popular music is through multi purposed, overarching, concepts for understanding and essential questions . For example, in the concept , M u s i c m a k i n g i s o n e o f t h e o l d e s t a n d i n t i m a t e f o r m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n , the focus could be the placed on the expressive nature of the music as opposed to its historic nature. Shifting the emphasis would allow the same objective to be met in a more complete manner. Other possible examples of these concepts that could serve this purpose are: t h r o u g h c o m p o s i n g a n d i m p r o v i s i n g , p e o p l e l e a r n t o c o n n e c t i d e a s

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :; & w i t h s o u n d a n d m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s ; e d u c a t e d m u s i c l i s t e n e r s l e a r n t o d e s c r i b e a n a l y z e a n d e v a l u a t e m u s i c a n d m u s i c p e r f o r m a n c e s a s a n e x p r e s s i v e a r t f o r m ; m u s i c i s a n i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f c u l t u r e . S a m p l e U n i t . Let us propose a nine week popular music unit in a traditional middle school choral ensemble . With this model, a 50 minute class period in which the director is able to teach the same ensemble everyday. In keeping with the generally accepted ensemble description of an advanced middle school choir, we will use a 2 part arrangement of popular songs used in the hit television show, G l e e entitled, W e A r e Y o u n g : ( T h e B e s t o f G l e e , S e a s o n 3 ) . This par ticular arrangement by Adam Anders and Peer Astom, was adapted for publication by Mark Brymer (Anders, 2012) . It consists of ten popular style songs: W e A r e Y o u n g , W e F o u n d R u m o r and T h e E d g e o f G l o r y . As mentioned in the opening section of this chapter , there are several approaches one may take when incorporating popular music in the choral music curriculum. For t his sample unit, we will use standardized notation in a written score for rehearsal purposes; however, special attention will be given to exploration and student driven practices to preserve authenticity. This unit will include students working in rehearsa ls to develop genuine expression through a blended pop ular singing style, while maintaining balance, intonation, supported tone, and energized sound. The selection will in clude challenging rhythms and me lismatic phrasing. This will dually serve as a motiv ational piece laced with rhythmic intensity and singable melodies, as well as a way to make interdisciplinary connections. The National Standards addressed within this unit are: singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music; improvising melo dies, v ariations, and accompaniments; r eading and notating music; listening to, analyzing, and describing music;

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :< & evaluating music and music performances; understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts; understan ding music in relation to history and culture. After this unit students will be able to identify, recognize and apply the elements of rhythm, phrasing, harmony, and the principles of texture, genre, balance and contrast. They will be able to rehearse colla boratively to achieve a unified sound and blend. The evidence of learning will be present in summative and formative assessments. The summative assessment will consist of a group performance indicative of the work done to develop tone, intonation, blend, balance, phrasing, accurate notes and rhythms. The formative assessments will occur during rehearsals in the form of teacher evaluation by questioning, sectional performance, written response and reflection, and evaluation of class performance. The mater ials needed are fairly minimal: Clavinova, computer, amplification system, CD accompaniment, recordings, and a class set of scores. The timeframe of the lessons will be one nine week grading period. For organizational purposes, the nine weeks will be divid ed in the following categories: Lesson Sequence One Introduction of piece, p itches, and rhythm (two weeks) Lesson Sequence Two Critical listening/compar ing and contrasting (two weeks) Lesson Sequence Three Rehearse expressive and s tylistic difference (tw o weeks) Lesson Sequence Four Record and Evaluate (one week) Lesson Sequence Fiv e Modify and record (two weeks) The distinguishing factor for this unit will be the activities used for student engagement, especially since the level of engagement will dire ctly affect the spirit of the popular music style. For example, one suggestion fo r introducing the piece during Lesson O ne is to begin with an

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & := & excerpt of a music video of one of the ten pieces compiled in the arrangement. Following the video with discuss ion could open the door for more student interaction. For example, if an excerpt from the G l e e video of, W e A r e Y o u n g were to be shown an appropriate prompt for sh ould happen when you are young? What stereotype feelings are associated with being young? Are their consequences when you are young? Dividing student into small, manageable groups for these prompts would not only make for easier classroom management but it would begin the collaborative process necessary for the popular music style. After giving students an opportunity to share their responses (and maybe even engage in a little, healthy banter), the platform would be primed for the introduction of the new music. The central theme of this arrangement will likely include many of the responses heard in the class discussion. Further, each song selected for this arrangement is a reflection of youth, which is yet another platform for cultural and interdiscipli nary connections. In Lesson Sequence T wo, the traditional mold would definitely be altered, as students would spend time analyzing excerpts of the original recordings. For this guided listening exercise an organizational chart of some sort should be used ( see Figure 1 ). Also, see the Appendix 1 for a sample lesson plan.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :> & G u i d e d L i s t e n i n g C h a r t D i r e c t i o n s : Listen to the excerpt of the listed songs then circle the appropriate responses in the boxes. S o n g H o w w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e H o w w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e H o w w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e W e A r e Y o u n g Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back W e F o u n d L o v e Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Lig ht Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back S t o p t h e B e a t Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back M o v e s L i k e J a g g e r Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Roun d Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back H o w W i l l I K n o w Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back R u m o r H a s I t / S o m e o n e L i k e Y o u Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Lig ht Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back M a n i n t h e M i r r o r Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back T h e E d g e o f G l o r y Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back Table 1. Guided Listening Chart (Traditional Ensemble). This table illustrates an organi zational chart for listening to popular music selections. After accumulating the information, the next step is to make a decision as to how that information can be practically used in the choir. For example, in this arrangement H o w W i l l I K n o w as performe R u m o r H a s I t . In the written score

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :? & there is no expressive marking that could accurately indicate the essence of the stylistic differences between these two songs. H o w W i l l I K n o w , is a playful p op dance song that e R u m o r H a s I t is a soulful mid tempo song with a deep grove undergirding heavier lyrical content. The timbre and singing styles of the singers Whitney Houston and Adele are also equally as distant. This lesson co uld even include a composition aspect with suggestions of added harmonies of other vocal parts. Lesson three is the time set aside for addressing those noted differences in rehearsal. This would also be a good time to address healthy, safe singing practi ces. Remembering that the choral educator is one of the most significant figures in the development of the young singer will be important during this time. At the same time, efforts should be made to ensure that the tone is not too technical or mechanical , as this would produce the opposite results of what the popular music styles call for. Lesson Sequence Four and F ive are essentially two phases designed to meet the same objective refined performance. It would be advisable to also have an evaluation guid e for students although this guide may be more open ended to allow for discussion ( see Table 2 ). Policies should be established before students begin sharing responses. Additionally, students should be reminded at some point in the unit that solo singing a nd ensemble singing are quite different. Likewise, the goal is not to sound like the recording artist but to successfully perform the medley with the appropriate pop ular music style and expression.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & :@ & E v a l u a t i o n C h a r t ( T r a d i t i o n a l E n s e m b l e ) D i r e c t i o n s : Check the box you feel most accurately evaluates each category. Table 2 . Evaluation Chart (Traditional Ensemble). This table illustrates an organizational chart for evaluating popular music selections. It should be stressed that this u nit and its implementation does not necessarily preclude the inclusion of more traditional music as part of the preparation for a concert performance later. C a t e g o r y W e A r e Y o u n g W e F o u n d L o v e W e G o t t h e B e a t / Y o u M o v e s L i k e J a g g e r P i t c h Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correc t Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct R h y t h m Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct E x p r e s s i o n Ap propriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style C o m m e n t s C a t e g o r y H o w W i l l I K n o w / R u m o r H a s I t M a n I n t h e M i r r o r T h e E d g e o f G l o r y P i t c h Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct R h y t h m Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct C orrect Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct E x p r e s s i o n Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not App ropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style C o m m e n t s

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;B & Also, if traditional Western concert music is considered as part of the total cycle, the above les son plans can be integrated into more traditional work with other literature. N o n T r a d i t i o n a l E n s e m b l e C o n c e p t u a l b a s e . In the non traditional ensemble the outlining objectives shift to a more contemporary focus more completely . This choir should be desig ned to give students an opportunity to study and perform music on an advanced level of popular music that might include the genres of in Pop, Music Theater, Rock and J azz styles. Emphasis should be placed on the continuing development of good stage presen ce, choreography, proper vocal production, improvisation within a given context, and composition of both melody and lyric. This curriculum should demonstrate challenging, relevant literature and utilize appropriate vocabulary to evaluate performances and c reate interdisciplinary connections to subjects such as, history and culture. For example, a nine week curriculum for a non traditional high school ensemble may identify successful learning by the these types of responses: 1. Singing, alone and with other s, a varied repertoire of music. Meeting the standard: Sings various repertoire representing popular styles in three and four part harmony while demonstrating correct vocal production, expression and style. 2. Performing on instruments, alone and with othe rs, a varied repertoire of music. Meeting the standard: Sings with traditional and non traditional accompaniment. 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments. Meeting the standard: Improvises using melody and lyric over accompaniment

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;A & 4. Com posing and arranging music within specified guidelines. Meeting the standard: Creates three part harmony when given a melodic line 5. Reading and notating music. Meeting the standard: sight read an individual voice part in major and minor keys 6. Listenin g to, analyzing, and describing music. Meeting the standard: Identifies and analyzes meter and texture in popular music repertoire 7. Evaluating music and music performances. Meeting the standard: create criteria ba sed on appropriate style to evaluate popu lar music performances and traditional music performances 8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts. Meeting the standard: creates and performs original choreography to various popular music styles 9. Un derstanding music in relation to history and culture. Meeting the standard: performs music and choreography from different cultures with appropriate expression and style . Examples of essential understandings that could be used in this type of ensemble ar e: How can singers gain confidence in improvisation? How can singers perform with correct

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;9 & singing technique while singing independently and in a group? How do musicians and singers distinguish melody from harmony? What criteria are used to evaluate a perfo rmance and how do they change based on style? How does music and dance correlate? Here popular music is not only used as a means to achieve the types of behaviors mentioned for each standard of learning, but attention is also placed studying the structure, composition and elements of the popular music genre. Examples of enduring understandings that could suit the non traditional choir are: M u s i c s h a p e s a n d r e f l e c t s c u l t u r e ; M u s i c i s a n a r t i s t i c f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n ; T h r o u g h p e r f o r m i n g a n d i m p r o v i s i n g p e o p l e l e a r n t o e x p r e s s t h e i r e m o t i o n s a n d i d e a s t h r o u g h s o u n d p a t t e r n s a n d m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s . U n i t S a m p l e . Let us examine what a nine week, popular music unit in a non traditional, high school choral ensemble may look like. With this model, a d aily 50 minute class period will McCartney. For this sample unit, we will use standardized notation written in lead sheet format for rehearsal and compositional purp oses. After exploration and student directed compositional changes, however, the final product will not be a direct performance of the written music. This unit will include students working in rehearsals to develop genuine artistic interpretation and expre ssion of a classic popular song. Students will arrange the given selection to fit their artistic style and ensemble needs. They will sing utilizing a healthy tone and blended p op singing style, while maintaining balance, intonation, supported tone, and ene rgized sound within t he ensemble. The selection will present a challenge that will require the application of a great many of their musical skills: improvisation, arranging/composition, ensemble skills, aural skills, theory skills, and performance skills. The greatest motivating factor with this unit will be the opportunity for students to create

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;: & and perform their original work. The National Standards addressed within this unit are: singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music; improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments; Reading and notating music; listening to, analyzing, and describing music; evaluating music and music performances; understanding music in relation to history and culture. After this unit, students will be able t o create an arrangement for a small ensemble when given a simple song; they will be able to identify, recognize and apply the elements of rhythm, phrasing, harmony, and the principles of texture, genre, balance and contrast to ensemble singing. They will b e able to rehearse collaboratively to achieve a unified sound and blend. The evidence of learning will be present in summative and formative assessments. The summative assessment will consist of a group performance indicative of the work done to create an original arrangement, demonstrate a healthy tone, and execute intonation, blend, balance, phrasing, accurate notes and rhythms in solo and ensemble singing. The formative assessments will occur during rehearsals in the form of teacher evaluation by quest ioning, sectional performance, written response and reflection, and evaluation of class performance. The materials needed are: Clavinova, computer, amplification system, CD accompaniment, recordings, class set of digital recording software (students may use their electronic devices to satisfy this requirement), and a class set of lead sheets. The timeframe of the lessons will be one nine week grading period. For organizational purposes, the nine weeks will be divided in the following categories: Lesson S equence One Introduction of piece, pitches, and rhythm (one week) Lesson Sequence Two Critical listening/comparing and cont rasting arrangements

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;; & (two week) Lesson Sequence Three Compose and arrange piece for ensemble (two weeks) Lesson Sequence Four Record and Evaluate (one week) Lesson Sequence Five Modify and Edit Arr angements (one week and a half) Lesson Sequence Six Rehearse and Perform (one week and a half). which will s erve as one of the most engaging factors of this song with the ense mble. Starr and Waterman stated: a distinctive and expressive melodic line, a line that fits the wor ds beautifully. The melody is accompanied by equally expressive harmonies, which explore a wider range of honored theme of broken romance in a gentle, general, and straightforward mann er, such that virtually anyone could understand and empathize, and virtually nobody could take offence. One specific situation remains vague enough to stimulate the im ag ination of different listeners. ( 2014, p. 308 309) That stimulation of the imagination, which Starr and Waterman mention, will be the bridge that leads to musical creativity for the students. In this unit, students will be divided into small ensembles. This will offer the students a

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;< & better environment for interaction with their peers, allow them to experience versatility at the culminating performance, and will assist the teacher wit h classroom management. Lesson O ne will be the introduction of the piece . Beginning with a brief overview of the Beatles and their music will be a good starting point. Suggestions for this include a compilation of historical clips that depict the band and the cult ure in American (and Great Britai n) at the time. This will give the students a chance to visually experience the climate of the culture when the song was written. Video is not the only option. Consider having students enter the room and divide themselves into small groups. When they are settled, hand each group a fold er with an assortment of album covers and pictures of the Beatles. Next, have them answer a few questions about the pictures, such as: Which one do you think is the lead singer and why? What do you think their music sounds like? What genre would you place audience do you think listens to their music? Have the stud ents record their answers on a sheet of paper. Next, allow students to share their answers in an open forum. Conclude this portion of the lesson by playing one of their hit songs and beginning your overview of the Beatles and their impact in popular music. See Appendix 2 for a sample lesson plan. Lesson Sequence T wo will include critical listening, comparing, and contrasting like, YouTube are very helpful for this. Adam Levine, Carrie Underwood, and Marvin Gaye have all performed cover versions of the hit song. My personal favorite is the cover version rec orded by Boyz II Men. It is one of the few a capel l a, four part harmony versions I have heard. follows the original form until the end at which time they add an original section. For this reason, this particular version is

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;= & highly recommended. Students will have two weeks to listen to cover versions, take notes, and discuss ideas for their own arra ngement. Lesson Sequence T hree will be the time set aside for students to begin the creative capabilities of the ensemble they are in. For example, if five girls are in a group, they could arrange relatively close, tight knit harmonies because of the similar ranges. In contrast, if there were a mixed group of girls and boys, they would first need to know the classification for each member before composing and arranging. Students are allotted two weeks for this. In Lesson Sequence F our students will record and evaluate their arrangement. The school policy in my current s chool is that students are allowed to bring their electronic devices. Student should be allowed to record their original composition. This will allow students to have direct access to their recording for editing purposes. Since my students are accustomed to working in this way, I would have one student record and then text or e mail the recording to the group members. Students would then use their headphones to listen to their recording and take notes. I understand that the situation described is not the case for most educators. For those who do not have this option , modifications should be made. For example, the teacher may bring their personal computer or che ck one out form the library for student use. Most modern computers have built in recording software, even if it is a video application. Consider having students record their arrangements one group at a time and save their work. The teacher could then e mai l the mp3 to the students and/or burn the recording on to a CD and have students use CD players and headphones for listening evaluations instead. In my past teaching situations I have

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;> & successfully used this modification as well. An organizational chart wi ll be helpful here as well (See Table 3 ). This lesson lasts for one week. E v a l u a t i o n C h a r t ( N o n T r a d i t i o n a l E n s e m b l e ) F o r m M e l o d y H a r m o n y L y r i c S t y l e Was there a clear form to the song? Yes No Is the form easy to follow? Yes No Is the melody clear an d easy to recognize? Yes No Are you satisfied with the implementation of your ideas? Yes No Are the harmonies clear and balanced against the melody? Yes No Are you satisfied with the implementation of your ideas? Yes No Do the lyrics paint a clear pict ure for the audience? Yes No Are you satisfied with the implementation of your ideas? Yes No Do the lyrics, harmonies, melody and form reflect the appropriate popular style selected? Yes No Comments: Comments: Comments: Comments: Comments: Tabl e 3. Evaluation Chart (Non t raditional Ensemble). This table illustrates an organizational chart for evaluating an original popular music arrangement . Lesson Sequence F ive is designed to allow students to modify and edit their arrangements based on the evaluation results of their recording. Discussing the results in groups will allow students to have a creative exchange of ideas. The teacher should be clear with

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;? & guiding the discussion as this phase could have the potential to be a bit overwhelming to stu dents who are not use to the process. This lesson will last for a week and a half. The final lesson, Lesson Sequence S ix, is designed to give students an opportunity to rehearse their newly modified arrangement. This lesson will last for a week and a half and the unit should culminate with a performance of all group arrangements. An extension option to the unit is to have students decide on how to program the collection of arrangements. This would demonstrate a deeper understanding of the stylistic similari ties and differences of the new arrangements.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & ;@ & C H A P T E R F O U R : C O N C L U S I O N S & The purpose of this project was to investigate the integration of popular music in the choral curriculum and to address the issues of assent and dissent surrounding that merger. Fu rther, the goal was to provide a resource for current choral music educators who sought to expand their music repertoire and curriculum in this way. The conclusion of this study gives way to significant realizations. First, there is an undeniable need to be relevant to the students of the millennium. This is not to say that all repertory must change since that would not offer students all the tools they need to be successful in the subject of music. Neither would such a move contribute to their holistic ed ucation as readily as a program that is as diverse as the used in the choral program has to decrease in order to effectively reach the student of today. Rece ntly, in my 8 th grade chorus there sat a quiet, seemingly shy young girl in the top riser. Since she was new to the school, I figured she would need a while to adjust to the choir before she felt comfortable singing louder and contributing to the ensemble , however, her disposition continued throughout the semester. In order to engage, and possibly recruit, more students in the performing arts, the band director and I sponsored a school talent show. To my surprise, not only did this student participate in t by Taylor Swift while playing her pink guitar. She won the show that night, and I could not help never showed that considered to be o u r chorus music was really m y chorus music. Perhaps in all of my planning I had neglected to consider the most important factor in education the student. Resear chers such

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & &
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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & &
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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & <9 & outdated philosophy. Including popular music within the curriculum is a viable option for closing the gap of this disparity.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & <: & R e f e r e n c e s Allsup, R. A. (2003). Mutual learning and democratic action in instrumental music education. J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 5 1 (1), 24 37. Anders, A., Astom, P., & Brymer M. Glee. (2012). W e a r e y o u n g : T h e b e s t o f g l e e , s e a s o n 3 [Glee cast]. Nashville, Tennessee: Sony/ATV music publishing. Boespflug, G . (1999). Popular music and the instrumenta l ensemble. M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 8 5 (6), 33 37. Choate, R., Fowler, C., Brown, C. , & Wersen L. The Tanglewood Symposium: Music in American s ociety. M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 54 (3), 49 80 . Davis, S. G., & Blair, D. V. (2011). Popular music in American te acher education: A glimpse into a secondary methods course. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 2 9 , 124 140. doi:10.1177/0255761410396962 Dunbar Hall, P. , & Wemyss, K. (2000). The effects of the study of popular music on music education. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 3 6 , 23 34. Ginocchio, J. (2001). General music: Popular music performance class. T e a c h i n g M u s i c , 8 (4), 40 44. Green, L. (2002). H o w p o p u l a r m u s i c i a n s l e a r n : A w a y a h e a d f o r m u s i c e d u c a t i o n . Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate . Grier, G. (1991). A heritage of popular styles. M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 7 7 (8), 35 39. Hargreaves, D. J., Comber, C., & Colley, A. (1995). Effects of age, gender, and training on musical preferences of British secondary school students. J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 4 3 (3), 242 250. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3345639 .

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & <; & Hargreaves, D. J., & North, A. C. (1997). T h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f m u s i c . Oxford , UK: Oxford University Press. Hebert, D. G., & Campbell, P. S. (2000). Rock music in American s chools: Positions and practices since the 1960s. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 3 6 , 14 22. doi:10.1177/025576140003600103. Hope, S. (2004). Creating a positive future for P 12 music education. Paper presented at the National Association of Schoo ls of Music Annual Meeting, San Diego: CA. Isbell, D. (2007). Popular music and the public school music curriculum. A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 2 6 (1), 53 63. doi:10.1177/87551233070260010106. Kuzmich, J. (1991). Popular music in your prog ram: growing with the times. M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 7 7 (8), 50 52. and out of school. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 2 0 , 229 241. doi:10.1017/ S026505170300 5412 . speech presented to the National Association of Schools of music. November 1996. Dallas, Texas. Paraphrased/used by permission. Mark, M. L. (1994). Youth music: Is it right for the schools? Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f M u s i c T e a c h i n g a n d L e a r n i n g , 5 (2), 76 82. Morrison, S. (2007). Music makers: Popular culture in music education popular music in the classroom: Where to begin? C a n a d i a n M u s i c E d u c a t o r , 4 9 (2), 53 54.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & << & Music Educato rs National Conference. (2002). The guide to teaching with popular music. Retrieved October 201 4 from www.menc.org/guides/nsync/open.htm . North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., A. (2000). The importance of music to adolescents. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 7 0 , 255 272. doi:10.1348/000709900158083 . Ponick, F. S. (2000). Bach and rock in the music classroom. T e a c h i n g M u s i c , 8 (3), 22 29. Rentz, E. (1994). Music opinion s and preferences of highschool students in select and nonselect choruses. B u l l e t i n o f t h e C o u n c i l f o r R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 1 2 1 , 16 28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40318664. Rodriguez, C. X. (2004). B r i d g i n g t h e g a p : P o p u l a r m u s i c a n d m u s i c e d u c a t i o n . Reston, VA: MENC. Smith Vaughn, B., Hooper , C., & Hodges , D . (2013). Laryngeal tension in adolescent choral singing. J o u r n a l o f S i n g i n g , 6 9 (4), 403. Springer, D. G., es toward popular music in the music classroom. A p p l i c a t i o n s o f R e s e a r c h i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , 3 2 (1), 25 33. doi:10.1177/8755123313502349. Starry, L. , & Waterman, C. (2014). A m e r i c a n P o p u l a r M u s i c : f r o m m i n s t r e l s y t o m p 3 (4 th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford Univ ersity Press. Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Woody, R. H. (2007). Popular music in the school: Remixing the issues. M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 9 3 (4), 32 3 7. doi:10.2307/4127131.

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & <= & Appendix 1 & G u i d e d L i s t e n i n g C h a r t D i r e c t i o n s : Listen to the excerpt of the listed songs then circle the appropriate responses in the boxes. S o n g H o w w o u l d y o u t o n e ? H o w w o u l d y o u p h r a s i n g ? H o w w o u l d y o u r h y t h m ? W e A r e Y o u n g Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back W e F o u n d L o v e Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back W e G o t t h e B e a t / Y o u Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back M o v e s L i k e J a g g e r Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Stac cato Strict Loose/laid back H o w W i l l I K n o w Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back R u m o r H a s I t / S o m e o n e L i k e Y o u Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back M a n i n t h e M i r r o r Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/l aid back T h e E d g e o f G l o r y Smooth Rough Dark Heavy Round Light Thin Le gato M arcato Staccato Strict Loose/laid back

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & <> & Appendix 2 E v a l u a t i o n C h a r t ( T r a d i t i o n a l E n s e m b l e ) D i r e c t i o n s : Check the box you feel most accurately evaluates each cat egory. C a t e g o r y W e A r e Y o u n g W e F o u n d L o v e W e G o t t h e B e a t / Y o u M o v e s L i k e J a g g e r P i t c h Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Some what Correct R h y t h m Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct E x p r e s s i o n Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style C o m m e n t s C a t e g o r y H o w W i l l I K n o w / R u m o r H a s I t M a n I n t h e M i r r o r T h e E d g e o f G l o r y P i t c h Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct R h y t h m Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct Correct Mostly Correct Somewhat Correct E x p r e s s i o n Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style Appropriate for Style Not Appropriate for Style C o m m e n t s

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & <@ & Appendix 4

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,-./0!1.,-0&232451!&647,8&,-&.'/&8'3!15&84!!,84546 & & & =B & A p p e n d i x 5