Citation
A Guide to Literacy in Art Education

Material Information

Title:
A Guide to Literacy in Art Education
Creator:
Scorpiniti, Mandee
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Kushins, Jodi
Committee Co-Chair:
Roland, Craig

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Art education ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Literacy ( jstor )
Multiple literacies ( jstor )
Picture books ( jstor )
Reading instruction ( jstor )
Visual arts ( jstor )
Visual literacy ( jstor )
Zines ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
As technology has advanced and visual culture evolved, the format from which we read and comprehend information has evolved thus changing literacy and visual art education. In this capstone paper, I share the research goals, questions, literature review, methodologies and findings. In my literature review I discuss how literacy has evolved with regard to art education, explain the significance of incorporating literacy goals in visual art education curricula, and review methods of incorporating literacy in visual art education through postmodern picture books. I focused on such topics as connecting visual art education to Common Core standards through literacy objectives and redefining literacy to include broader concepts that relate to visual art and 21st century visual culture such as multiliteracy and multimodality. Based on my research, I created a zine called “An Art Educator’s Guide to Literacy in Art Education”, which is posted on my professional website at http://mandeescorpiniti.wix.com/arted#!capstoneproject/c1w0s. My zine introduces the research discussed in this paper in addition to other components of literacy in art education. It is meant as a provocation for other art educators to consider. The final section of this capstone paper discusses how my experiences creating a zine unexpectedly led to the creation of a multiliteracy text providing me another outlet for theinvestigation and understanding. Based on my research, it is my recommendation that the incorporation of zines in visual art education is an excellent method for integrating multiliteracy in visual art education.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Mandee Scorpiniti. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1039729430 ( OCLC )

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A GUIDE TO LITERACY IN ART EDUCATION By MANDEE SCORPINITI A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA JULY 2014 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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2 ! ! ©2014 Mandee Scorpiniti ! !

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3 ! ! Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge the love and support of my husband and family throughout the process of working on this capstone. Special thanks to my capstone committee, Dr. Jodi Kushins and Dr. Craig Roland. Without their guidance this project would not have taken the creative turn it needed. Final thanks to my fellow art teachers and students. This is really for you. ! ! !

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4 ! ! ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMEN TS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS A GUIDE TO LITERACY IN ART EDUCATION BY Mandee Scorpiniti July 2014 Chair: Jodi Kushins Member: Craig Roland Major: Art Education Abstract As technology has advanced and visual culture evolved , the format from which we read and comprehend information has evolved thus changing literacy and visual art education. In this capstone paper, I share the research goals, questions, literature review, methodologies and findings. In my literature review I dis cuss how literacy has evolved with regard to art education, explain the significance of incorporating literacy goals in visual art education curricula , and review methods of incorporating literacy in visual art education through postmodern picture book s. I focused on such topics as conn ecting visual art education to Common C ore standards through literacy objectives and redefining literacy to include broader concepts that relate to visual art and 21 st century visual culture such as multiliteracy and mult imodality. Based on my research, I created a zine called "An Art Educator's Guide to Literacy in Art Education", which

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5 ! ! is posted on my professional website at http://mandeescorpiniti.wix.com/arted#!capstone project/c1w0s . My zine introduces the research discussed in this paper in addition to other components of literacy in art education. It is meant as a provocation for other art educators to consider . The final section of this capstone paper discusses how my experiences creating a zine unexpectedly led to the creation of a multiliteracy text providing me another outlet for the investigation and understanding. Based on my research, it is my recommendation that the incorporation of zines in visual art education is an excellent method for integrating multiliteracy in visual art education.

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6 ! ! Table of Con tents ! Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 1 UF Copyright page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 3 UF Formatted Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 4 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 6 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 8 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ............................. 8 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 8 Definitions of Key Terms ................................ ................................ ............................ 9 Assumptions of the Study ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 Study Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 11 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 How has Literacy Evolved in Art Education? ................................ ........................... 12 Why Address Literacy in Art Education? ................................ ................................ .. 16 Methods of Teaching Literacy in Art Education ................................ ....................... 19 Final Thoughts on Scholarly Literature ................................ ................................ ..... 20 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 22 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 2 3 Creating a Zine and Uncovering Multiliteracy along the Way ................................ ......... 23 Apparently it's about the Journey not the Destination ................................ ...................... 27

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7 ! ! Summary across all Findings ................................ ................................ ........................... 29 Discussion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 29 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings ................................ ................................ ....... 29 Significance, Implications and Recommendations ................................ ........................... 30 Conclusi on ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 31 References ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 32 List of Figures and Figure Captions ................................ ................................ ....................... 35 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 36 !

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8 ! ! Introduction The promotion of literacy through visual art education has become a personal and profe ssional passion of mine . I have taught high s chool art for the last four years at the same high school I graduated from eight years ago. What once was a top rated school in the district has now been deemed a "turnaround" school, due in part , to a decrease in students' reading scores on the Nevada State Proficienc y Exam. When I passed my proficiency exams as a senior I thought I had seen these exams for the last time. I never imagined I would be facing them again through the ey es of my students. I obtained a B achelor's D egree in Art Education naively believing testing and teaching reading was a problem left to the instructors of core subject s . I was wrong. Working as a first year teacher in art education, I decided to obta in my first Master's Degree in Curriculum and I nstruction with an emphasis in literacy wit h the hopes that I might make a difference in the school community that helped me reach my goal . While teaching secondary art and researching literacy I discovered and dev eloped an appreciation for the overlapping goals of li teracy and visual art education . In 1981, art educators Feldman and Woods wrote, "Reading is widely acknowledged to be the most important academic subject" (p.2). More than 30 years later, the importance of teaching students to read has not changed. However, the definition of readi ng i n the 21 st century extends far beyond sounding out and comprehending words on a page . Being literate today means bein g able to comprehend a range of media that is f ar more complex than text and pictures. Visual art education plays an important role in teaching literacy to 21 st century students. Specifically, "to be relevant to contemporary social practice, art education must embrace interaction between communicative modes. The recent concepts of multiliteracy and multimodality are suggested for this pur pose" (Duncum, 2004, p.2 ). For my

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9 ! ! capstone project , I investigate d how different components of literacy ca n be effectively addressed through visual art education for 21 st century learners. Definition of Key Terms In order to understand literacy in contemporary times and with regard to 21 st century education we need to define and clarify the terms visual culture , multiliteracy , and multimodality . Kevin Tavin (2004), defines visual culture as "the studies of popular culture in order to understand and challenge the way subjectivities [that] are constituted through images and imagining" (p.197). The study o f visual culture has become a driving force for visual art curriculum in the 21 st century (Duncum, 2004, p. 255 ). Visual culture is no longer associa ted with images alone. As participants in our visual culture branch out lines between text, images, and sound get increasingly blurred. For example, a recent Smithsonian article about contemporary artist Banksy listed his credits as, " graffiti master, painter, activist, filmmaker and all purpose provocateur " (Ellsworth Jones, 2013 ) . If v isual culture has become a driving force of art education then art education standards need to ke ep up with the times and promote approaches in our teaching that contribute to our students not only comprehend ing visual culture but become active participants through teaching methods and learning activities that also break the boundaries between pictures, words, and sound. Multilitera cy and multimodality are new approaches to literacy that can be used to study visual culture. Multiliteracy explores the connections between text and images while Multimodality takes it a step further and incorporates sound as well. Each approach addresses literacy with the understanding that text is becoming intertwined with pictures, sound, or sometimes both and thus should be taught together rather than separate entities . Mu ltiliteracy "was introduced to educational researchers by the New London Group (1996). [It] called for

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10 ! ! literacy pedagogy to respond to the changing social conditions of global capitalism, in particular, the new demands it places on the workforce " (Kress, 2000, p.245). For example the relationship between online marketing and the consumer is filled with the intertwined use of text and images. Multiliteracy education has been frequently concerned with relationships between written words and images in childr en's picture books. Anstey and Bull (2000) suggest that postmodern picture books, like Anthony Browne's Gorilla and Voices in the Park , are among the most innovative sites for exploring complex relationships between pictures and words. (Duncum, 2004, p.260 ) Multimodality takes multiliteracy into the fourth dimension by not only focusing on the relationship between text and imagery but also incorporating sou nd and interactive technology . É i f we turn down the sound to a TV program, we find out how important dialogue is to our understanding of the picture. If we turn down the audio to a video game, we find how critical the sound effects and music are to experiencing the game. (Duncum, 2004, p. 254) The study of visual culture is an important aspect of visual art education. However being literate for 21 st century students is more complex than comprehending visual literacy or even reading literacy; technology is pushing education to address mult iliteracy and multimodality (Henderson, 2008, p.2). For example when you log onto Facebook a plethora of juxtaposed text and images is present. Everything from personal images and friends posts to unmistakable logos and the latest craze in popular culture is presented on the screen before you. With this influx of media students need to be taught how to comprehend, navigate, and filter this complex display of media.

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11 ! ! Assumptions and Limitations I assume literacy curriculum and contemporary visual art curriculum share similar objectives. I will work from this assumption to show how educators should be considering how literacy is inherently part of our objectives for comprehensive contemporary visual art curriculum. Furthermore I will show how multiliteracy and multimodality directly link to visual art education for 21 st century students. The limit ations of my study are subject to a short time frame. I researched examples that inform ed my research question, the developm ent of literacy in art ed ucation, and the application of multiliteracy and multimodality in visual art education . The idea of performing an action research project t o further explore the application of studio projects that address multiliteracy and multimodality in visual art curr iculum is of interest and value to me at a later time , bu t outside the scope of my study for the time frame of this project.

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12 ! ! Literature Review My goal in reviewing the literature for this project was to better understand the term "literacy" and its significance to visual art education. With the implementation of the Common C ore standards becoming increasingly popular in school districts nationwide (" English Language Arts Standards", 2014) . , now is the time for art educators to show how seamlessly v isual art education ties into to these ne w curriculum standards. Beyond Common C ore, it is important for art educators to realize the impact a literacy rich visual art e ducation can have in preparing student s for the 21 st century. Literacy education is much larger then sounding out words on a page and comprehending them just as visual a rt education is much larger than the exploration and creation of images. With changes in contemporary visual culture, brought about in large part fr om changing technologies, the relationship between words , pictures, and now even sound s is becoming increasingly complex. Towards these ends, I examine d the evolution of literacy in art education by looking to a rt education scholars Vincent La nier (1976) and Edmund Feldman (1976, 1981) . I lay out my argument for utilizing literacy in art educa tion to meet newly implemented Core S tandards and discuss how mu ltiliteracy and multimodality are changing the way we approach visual culture in art e ducation. Finally I utilized Dr. Frank Serafini's (2005) research to provide methods for including literacy in visual art education thr ough the use of post modern picture books , zines, and integration of social media as a tool for teaching multiliteracy . How has Lite racy Evolved in Art Education? The idea of teaching literacy through visual art is not a new concept. Initially art education was established in the United States to spread genteel refinement, promote good taste (or aesthetics) , and educate those who might need art skills for jobs in industry ( Stankiewicz,

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13 ! ! 2001 ) . It was not until the later half of the twentieth century that educators really began to see the potential for visual art education as a format for teaching visual and verbal literacy (Lanier, 1972) . However, it was these early roots in the history of art education that really set the stage for a justifiable need for art education in schools , with the establishment of aesthetic vocabulary . V isual literacy is a widely acknowledged , but inadequately d efined, component of visual art education (Feldma n, 1976 ). The term itself has evolved over time as communication technologies and understandings of visual culture and art education have evolved. Fo rmally brought forth in the mid twentieth century, visual literacy was defined as the, "conceiving of the visual arts as communications system like verbal language, this idea emphasize[d] sophistication and accuracy in the act of perception rather than its opposite, novelty of response" (Lanier, 1972, p.15). At this time visual literacy was being used to interpret fine art but paid no re gard to popular culture. Through the 1970's visual literacy was but a thorn in most art educators' side s . Perceived as the latest fad on a long list of curriculum trends many educators regarded the newly coined phrase as nothing more than the political reaction to the expansion of visual media. Lanier (1972) pointed out, É one of many problems raised by this idea is tha t the dissimilarities between the visual arts and verbal communication are far greater than the similarities. As a message system in which information is transmitted from sender to receiver, visual phenomena are notoriously inefficien t. (p.18) While Lanier pointed out the dissimilarities, Feldman ( 1976 ) held the opinion that reading literacy, verbal communication, and visual literacy were in fac t very similar. "V isual communication also relies on an innate grammar of images. I n some respects, this grammar r esembles the syntax of verbal language since written letters and words originated in visual

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14 ! ! images" (pp. 3 4). In spite of Lanier's criticisms' with regard to visual literacy, even he had to acknowledge it was a component of art education that was proving to be more than a trend. Lanier predicted "by the year 2000 art education will probably see itself as promoting visual literacy" ( 1976, p.13). The same year Lanier published his predictions for the 21 st century , Feldman (1976) presented his posit ion on visual literacy stating Év isual literacy should not be regarded as a substitute for conventional literacy a language for the handicapped and underprivileged. My contention is that everyone must learn to read images because our culture is increasingly repre sented and perceived in visual terms. ( Feldman, 1976, p.200) Prior to this article on visual literacy, Feldman had published an earlier body of work titled Becoming Human through Art (1970), in which he introduced art educators to a method of teaching evaluation skills to students through, " a series of activities, preceded by the acts of description, analysis, and interpretation" ( Geahigan,1975, p.30 ). This method was ground breaking to the teaching of visual literacy because it provided a platform with which art educators could teach art criticism and visual literacy. I n 1981 , Feldman in collaboration with his fellow professional colleague Woods, took his argument further by acknowledging that visual art provided more opportunities for teaching literacy beyond visual literacy. Feldman and Woods pointed to research that had been building in the field for nearly a decade sighting, "we should nevertheless like to point to a body of theory and accumulating evidence which goes even further: it suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading" (Feldman & Woods, 1981, p.76). Feldman and Woods acknowledged that reading, above all oth er subjects

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15 ! ! was of the upmost importance because it was the foundation for all other subjects. Furthermore, the American education system was in crisis based on the fact "many of our children are not learning to read or to understand what they read" (Feldm an & Woods, 1981, 76). Feldman and Woods argued that Feldman's method of evaluating art works could be applied to the teaching components of traditional literacy by making the argument that description, analysis, interpretation and judgment all appealed to the various cognitive levels of learning to read. Their research further took the position that decipheri ng meaning in art is similar to deciphering meaning in literature in that they were both context dependent. Both involve looking at a series of symbol s and then putting them together to understand what the author artist is saying. As Gombrich suggested, Ô We read a picture, as we read a printed line by picking up letters or cues and fitting them together till we feel that we look across the signs on the page at the meaning behind them. And just as in reading the eye does not travel along at an even pace gathering up the meaning letter by letter and word by word, so our glance sweeps across a picture scanning it for information'. At any rate, the really c rucial sequences that concern us as educators, whether in interpreting paintings or comprehending poetry and prose, are the movements from perceiving surface phenomena to understanding in depth and apprec iating texts, visual or verbal. (Feldman & Woods, 19 81, p.82). The latest trend in education is a movement to incorporate lessons that utilize multiliteracy and multimodality in part from the, " increasing digital technologies [that] are permeating daily activities and having a huge impact on the conduct of many literacy practices" in education (Henderson, 2008, p.2) . The idea of teaching visual literacy or incorporating reading literacy is simply not enough to prepare students for the communications systems they encounter

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16 ! ! on a daily basis. "T o be relevan t to contemporary social practice art education must embrace interaction between com municative modes" (Duncum, 2004 , p.252). For example text on a website might not carry the same message when the text is blocked from the page and it is reduced to images a lone. Though the images may be beautiful it may be difficult to truly understand the context of the page (Duncum, 2004 ). Why Address Literacy in Art Education? Despite a long history of connecting literacy to visual art education, "in many places, and by well intentioned teachers, art is still being taught the way it has been taught for decades" (Freedmen, 2011, p.1). Many art educators struggle to implement and balance literacy components with studio projects, let alone approach it from a modern standpoi nt and incorporate multiliteracy of multimodality. However, in order for art education to continue to be valuable for students, we as art educators, "must connect the visual arts to a variety of societal aims as well as educational goals" (Freedmen, 2011, p. 2). The most recent of these educational goals inc lude the implementation of the Common C ore standards. Common C ore standards were É created to align with the 2009 College and Career Readiness standards, NCCC standards were developed by using best practices evidence from a variety of states. The goal of NCCC workgroups was to create a system of standards that focused on a consistent end result , unlike our current system of standards, which differ from state to state. With a cross curriculum emphasis, these core curriculum standards staircase growing text complexity, an increased use of technology for sharing information and concepts, and a cont ent rich curriculum which assures smoother grade to grade progression. (Hill, 2011, p.1)

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17 ! ! If art education is going to prove its worth in the American education system then art educators must make it a priorit y to connect visual art to the Common C ore. Visual art curriculum contributes unique attributes to the educa tion system through hands on learning, problem solving, strategic thinking, and the experience of creating. However not all art education is created or taught equally. While some art educator s acknowledge a change in times and welcome new ideas into the classroom others teach the way they have for decades (Freedme n, 2011). If nothing else Common Core may serve as a push to update visual art curriculum and encourage art educators to integrate a ll the technological advances our century has to offer. Under No Child Left Behind and previous education al initiatives, " Arts education has been slipping for more than three decades, the result of tight budgets, an ever growing list of state mandates that have crammed the classroom curriculum, and a public sense that the arts are lovely but not essential " (Smith, 2009, p.1) . It's important that we use the end of NCLB to rebuild and strengthen vis ual art education by utilizing Common C ore to our advanta ge. For example the following common core standard states , " Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden's "MusÃŒe des Beaux Arts" and Breughe l's Landscape with the Fall of Icarus)" ( " English Language Arts Standards", 2014) . This standard connects literature with visual art by recognizing that there are several instances where literature, music, and visual art share thematic similarities. In an article published this past December in Education Week , curriculum s pecialist Susan M. Riley, was quoted as stating , "I see the Common Co re as a great platform for the arts to really raise and share their importance in the educational fabric of the school" (Robelen, 2013, p. 1). In the same article Kritisten Engebretsen, an arts education coordinator at Americans for the

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18 ! ! Arts, acknowledged, "If you walk into the principal's office and say, ÔHey I can connect this to the Common C ore,' you're going to get their ear" (Robelen, 2013, p.1). Common C ore is not going away anytime so on, as of fall 2013 , " Forty five states that signed on to adopt the new Common Core State Standards" (Rix, 2013, p. 1) . That being said five states have already, "opted not to of fer the online assessments designed to measure student outcomes against the standards" (Rix, 2013, p.1). Conn ecting art to the Common C ore should not be seen as a threat to vis ual art education. The goal of Common C ore is to help students develop, "much Ð heralded Ô21 st Century Skills' such as critical thinking and creativity" (Abdul Allm, 2012, P.1). Connecting language arts and visual arts through multiliteracy and multimodality not o nly connects visual art to the Common C ore but also teaches students 21 st century skills such as critical thinking, creative development, and cultural awareness. However, the large r challenge may not be getting art educators to implement literacy education or even connect curricu lum to the Common C ore, but help ing them to u nderstand the role of the arts in new definitions of what the term "literacy" means . In 1994 Elliot E isner wrote, " rather than viewing literacy solely as written, spoken, and visual language, literacy needs to be viewed "as the ability to encode or decode meaning in any of the forms of representation used in the culture to convey or express meaning"( as cited in Piro, 20 0 2, p. 42). Literacy addresses a variety of commutative systems. Multiliteracy and Multimodality take literacy to a new level by acknowledgi ng pictures, words, and sound are not separate entities. Artists today cross these boundaries all the time. T o ignore that would be to hide valuable content from students. Furthermore, "for art education, the concern with multiliteracy and multimodality gr ows out of the current drive to conceptualize the focus of art education as visual culture rather than art"

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19 ! ! (Duncum, 2004, p. 254). Based on the current trends in media contemporary artists are incorporating visual culture is no longer confined to solely v isual aesthetic. Visual culture has evolved. I f visual art education is primarily focused on teaching about visual culture then visual art objectives need to acknowledge this change in visual culture. In order to effectively teach visual culture in the art room, literacy, in the form of multiliteracy and multimodality can play en e ffective role in helping students to comprehend our increasingly complex visual culture. Methods of Teaching Literacy in Art Education One method of introducing students to critically analyzing visual culture is to use postmodern picture books. Postmodern picture books are the perfect blend of text, imagery, and interactive formatting. In art education they can serve as a bridge between t ext students are familiar with from core subjects and illustrations that require an understanding of visual art vocabulary. Postmodern picture books require more of today's students. They are not all read cover to cover, nor do they all have easily follo wed story lines. In Dr. Serafini's (2002) invest igation of p ostmodern picture books, Serafini cited fi ve characteristics of the postm odern works, "including non linear plots, self referential writing and illustrations, narrators that directly address the r eader, polyphonic narrators, numerous inter textual references, blending of genres, and indeterminate plot, characters and settings" (as cited in McCallum, 1996 , p.2 ). These characteristics challenge and prepare 21st century learners to be more adaptable in a world where the only constant is change. Postmodern literature redefines the way a book is read. Much like web pages postmodern pictures books have breaks in the text where the reader can be side tracked to another section of text. For example Emily Gravett 's Little Mouse's Big Book of Fears includes both fiction and

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20 ! ! non fiction text in combination with illustrations to carry the reader through the story. As such, these books are similar to comic books and zines or even popular social media sites lik e Facebook, Twitter, Scoop it, and Pinterest. Even a commercial site like Amazon combine images of products with written description and user reviews. This combination provides a more complete view of the item being considered tha n an image or description alone. While t his type of multiliteracy demonstrates a practical use , its implications for art and literacy education are far greater. For example , zines are a multiliteracy format that can be "a successful pedagogical strategy for encouraging students to participate in postmodern discourse" ( Congdon & Blandy, 2003, p. 44). Zines also lend toward a connection with technology in the classroom. Many zines are distributed through social media such as blogs, photo sites, posts, and ne tworking sites (Kline, 2010 ). Engaging student s in art through these multimodal forms connects students to art in a 21 st century environment that serves them as students by hel ping them develop skills for the visual worl d they live in. Final Thoughts on Scholarly Literature A s art educators , we hold a valuable position in education. It is u p to us to see that our role continues to grow and meet the needs of our ever changing student popula tion. This means connecting to Common C ore standards and broadening our definition of literacy to incorporate multiliteracy and multimodality. Visual a rt is a powerful tool for expression. As an art educator I have come to realize a picture is only worth a thousand words if yo u can comp rehend the meaning and connect to the world within the image. Incorporating multiliteracy and multimodality in visual art curriculum can encourage students to not only unlock the meaning in works of art but also navigate multimodal formats in an increasingly technological world.

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21 ! ! Methodology The purpose of my capstone project was to create a new visual commentary based on the information presented in my literature review in the form of a digital zine that illustrates how literacy can be approached in the visual art classroom . For this pu rpose I conduct ed a practice based study that included an integrative review of information collected f rom experts in the field. I analyzed my research and synthesized my o wn te xt in the form of a zine. The title of my zine is "An Art E ducator's Guide to Literacy in Art Education." A z ine is a Éself published magazine that combines images, text, writ ing, photography, and/or poetry. Many zine makers create works that include hand drawn and/or printed images with handwritten text, collages, photographs, and/or printed covers and pages. Stylistically, zine drawings range from manga style and action figures to simple black line drawings . Zines are often acquired cheaply, and may be viewed/distributed through posts to blogs, social networking, and/or photography sites (Klein , 2010, p. 1). For this project , I followed curriculum development methodology outlined by education curriculum schol ar Elliot Eisner (2000) in his article appropriatel y titled "Curriculum Development." I used , "an analytic dimension intended to identify the meaning of key concepts within the curriculum field and the formulation of new concepts designed to guide the stud y and creation of curricul a" (Eisner, 2000 , p.2 ). While conducted as academic rese arch, the outcome of my capstone project will be presented in the non academic f ormat of a zine. Kline (2010) states, " zine production embraces teacher reflection. Reflection is a strong component of art education programs and it is

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22 ! ! accomplis hed in a variety of ways" ( p. 3). In following this metho dology I reflected on my main research question; "How can literacy be effe ctively integrated into visual art education for 21st century learners?" and subsequent follow up questions, "What methods are there for teaching literacy in art education?", "How can multiliteracy and other forms of literacy be applied in 21st century vis ual art curriculum?", and "In what ways can literacy enhance the production of art?" My meth odology was divided in three parts including research, analysis, and finally the syn thesis in the form of a zine . First, I focused on gathering information on l iteracy integration into the visual arts curriculum by examining the phil osophical research of Vincent La nier, Edmund Feldman and other philosophical arts education scholars . Second, I examine d existing philosophical and applied methodology of literacy integration by examining the proposed methodology of Frank Serafini, P. Du ncum, and Kress. Finally I synthesize d my research into a zine that illustrates key points from my research . Significance My intention was to develop an original commentary that illustrates existing research and m ethodology of literature integration in the visual art classroom in a cheap easily accessible format . My zine will not provide all the answers, but through social media distribution will hopefully contribute to dialogue i lluminating connections to the history and serve as an invitation for professional development regarding the topic. I will post my digital zine and all subsequent re search to a professional website and create a printable pocket version of my guide that I will distribute through social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Educator s lead busy lives, outside of undergrad uate or graduate work it can be difficult to find time to research new teaching methods and philosophies. My intent in creating this zine is to share my research with fellow art

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23 ! ! educators in a quick, easy to reference format that will hopefully be of use in the classroom . Eisner (2000) acknowledges, "Teachers informally develop programs of use for their own classrooms when they have the opt ion of developing their own approach to the teach ing of a subject" ( p. 2). Developing this zine will afford me the unique opportunity to synthesize resea rch and develop a commentary that will encourage discussion of literacy and its contributions to the fi eld of art education. Findings The goal of my research was to investigate the changes in reading literacy that could be included in visual art education. In creating a zine I was able to fulfill my goal of creating an interactive commentary that synthesized and visually displayed my literature review. Subsequently, I found through creating a zine I was actuall y creating a multiliteracy text. Through my experience I have found a new appreciation for the level of thinking that goes into the developm ent of th is form of 21st century literature and a new perspective on how I might approach this learning philosophy as an art educator. Creating a Zine and U ncovering Multiliteracy along the W ay When I began the developme nt of this capstone project , my goal was to develop a visual commentary that opened a dialogue on the role of literacy in contemporary visual art education . My original intent was to have my zine serve as a teaching guide with definitions of key terms and teaching methods. While the final zine does include some of this information, it assumes a larger role by inspiring others to create curriculum. I wanted my guide to be a quick read with a wealth of ideas that an art educator might actually get use out of as opposed to a dense research paper that few teachers might read . Through the process of creating my zine I was surprised by

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24 ! ! the amount of literacy integration and artistic expression that the process involved. This finding was somewhat of a happy accident. For a fe w y ears now, postmodern picture books have fascinated me. I have utilized them in my art room and researched them as a graduate student. In my classroom I have my students explore postmodern pictures books when we learn about a variety of topics. For example, I reference the images from Shawn Tans books when I teach about surrealism. Students begin by exploring the images by taking a "picture walk" through the book with all the text covered up. In small groups students create their own story lines to the illus trations using supporting visual clues to justify their storyline. After this process students read through the book again, this time uncovering the text and revealing Tan's story line. Lastly students make connections between the written text and the illu strations by examining literal and figurative connections between the words and pictures. Students apply this to their own art through creating a studio project in which they are asked to illustrate their own surrealism piece with both literal and figurati ve meaning. No surprise, postmodern picture books were also my primary inspiration in developing this capstone project. My original intent was to include them as a page in my guide illustrating how art educators could use them to incorporate m ul tiliteracies in their classroom, just as I had included it in a section of my literature review for this capstone. As my zine began to unfold it became clear I was creating my own postmodern picture book. E xperiencing the struggles that went into creating it, I have an even greater appreciation and respect for t he authors of this genre. Creating this type of text involv es a great deal of planning and coordinating of text, images, and information. It is a balancing act that requires a great deal of strategi c thinking (see Figure 1) .

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25 ! ! Figure 1.Screenshot of Research Notes for Zine For example, the cover of my zine involved compiling a list of ideas and concepts (see Figure 2 ) . From there I created an original drawing to symbolize each concept or compiled a found image to collage in. The process of completing the cover page involved utilizing my knowledge of principles and elements to achieve a balanced visual aesthetic and having a clear understanding of co ncepts that I wanted to communicate.

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26 ! ! Figure 2. Cove r of Zine The main text of my zine is carried by a first person narrative. This was an idea that sprouted after several unsuccessful drafts that simply fe ll short of the challenge I set for m yself to cr eate an interactive and engaging text that contrasted typical research papers present ed in academia . Zines, "permit students to break with the strictures of writing formal papers based on the guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) or Modern Language Association (MLA)" (Con gdon & Blandy, 2003, p. 45). Using a n arrative added an extra layer to my zine that emphasized voice, originality, and an informal every day feel to the zine. In addition to the narrative I continued to explore the idea of using my zine to relay information as well. Page 7, for example, utilizes a visual hierarchy to balance the main story line, information, and an illustrati on (see Figure 3 ). At the top of th e page in bold larger font is the main narrative text. This text carries the reader page to page. In a smaller front, written in conversation bubbles

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27 ! ! are the numbers associated with common core standards. My original intent was to include the entire writte n standard. However including that much information crowded the page and required to small of a font size to be of any use to a reader. Using the abbreviated numbers allowed me to relay information using text but allowed room for an illustration to symboli ze each standard visually. Others interpreted it as a commentary on contemporary schooling in which students are focused on testing and standards as their teachers. Figure 3. Page 7 of Zine Earlier drafts of the zine illustrated words on a page but did not synthesize any of the concepts and included too much written text within the illustration (see Figure 4) . I realized I was giving myself too much space to illustrate my pages so I reduced the size of the paper I was working on from 9x12 to 6x9. This f orced me to condense the amount of written text I was including and rely more on my illustrations to communicate my concepts. This struggle made me

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28 ! ! relate back to the design challenges my students faced with the surrealism project when tasked with illustrating figurative vs. literal images in their studio project. I realized I was letting the incorporation of words hinder my illustrations. Figure 4. Draft of Zine Cover Apparently it's about the Journey , not the Destination With all the challenges I faced in creating the zine , came big reward s . The biggest reward in creating this zine came when I had the opportunity to share it with a group of fellow art educators at an AP Art educator's conference last month. Prior to the confer ence the zine had only been view ed by my capstone committee . Sharing it at the conference afforded me the opportunity to ga u ge the reactions of my target audience before sha ring a final publishing on the I nternet. The reaction was overwhelmingly positive. In general , their comments ranged from agreeing with my comments to sharing similar frustrations to the side comments made on pages 1, 2 and 6 (see Figures 5 ) .

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29 ! ! Figures 5 : From Left to Right: Pages 1, 2 and 6 of Zine This process also helped me pin point a few areas where readers were confused, such as page 10 (see Figure 6). Based on this reaction I was able to make changes to my final draft and clarify my points. Figures 6 : From Left to Right: Before and After of Page 10 Afterward I was approached by several of the art teachers, who were eager to know if they could have a copy. From this experience I noted a key observation from my colleagues, while they were interested in the information I was relaying in my zine they wer e equally if not more fascinated in the process of creating a zine and how they might adapt it for their own classrooms. It turns out, through all my fuss in making a guide for art educa tors about literacy

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30 ! ! integration, i t was the journey and the product, n ot the message written inside that fellow art educators were most eager to hear about. Making this observation brought me full circle back to my original research question; " H ow can literacy be successfully int egrated into visual art education for 21 st cen tury learners?" In creating a zine I had answered my own question. Creating zines with students was how literacy could be successfully integrated into visual art education. Summary Across all Findings When I began this capstone project I wrote a series of three questions to aid in focusing my main research questions that centered on applying 21 st century literacy to contemporary visual art curriculum. R eflecting on my findings, t he answer s I formulated is that incorporating the creation of zines in visual art curriculum is one method of creating art that utilizes a multiliteracy context while enhancing the production of art for 21 st ce ntury learners. Ironically the z ine I had set out to make to stimulate conversation and serve as introductory guide proved to be a guide in more than one way. At first glance it is exactly what I intended it be: a book with information . At second glance it also serves as an example of a multilite racy art project for 21 st century learners. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings Creating a zine was a difficult and rewarding process that challenged me to utilize many aspects of Language Arts, Visual Arts, and technology. Based on my research I wo uld argue making a zine is an excellent method for integrating literacy in visual art education because i t combines language arts and visual arts through the obvious combination of text and visual images. Additionally, creating a zine involves the incorporation of technology and the utilization of higher level th inking skills. The use of cross curriculum strategies , integration of technology and

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31 ! ! demanding higher level thinking all tie directly into Common C ore stan dards. M ore importantly the process of creating a zine enhances the art making process in a challenging way that encourages 21 st century students to explore the process of creating art in a format that has infinite possibility while reinforci ng much needed comprehension skill s . Furthermore this process addresses literacy as it is presented in our 21 st century visual culture with pictures, words, and sometimes even sound. While I don't believe the process of creating a zine is the only possible solution to integrating literacy in visual art educat ion, I do believe it is an effective strategy for integrating multiliteracy. Based on my findings I am eager to continue my research through the process of making zines with my photography students. I would like to continue to document my findings and observations in guiding high school students through this challenging process. I speculate this is a process that will excite and challenge them. If this process is a success I believe an excellent extension would be to create a section of the school library to house and archive student zines. Significance, Implications, and Recommendations In the conclusion of my literature review I stated, " Visual art is a powerful tool for expression. As an art educator I have come to realize a picture is only w orth a thousand words if you can comprehend the meaning and connect to the world within the image. Incorporating multiliteracy and multimodality in visual art curricula can encourage students to not only unlock the meaning." Guiding students through the cr eative process of making a zine provides a platform for students to, "combine iconography and text to create publications that can be chaotic, disturbing, uncomfortable, sensual, complex, loud, confrontive, and often a social critique of contemporary life" (Klein, 2010, p. 45). It is my recommendation that art educators

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32 ! ! recognize the value in this form of art making as a method of integrating multiliteracy in visual art education through a format that speaks to 21 st century students in a meaningful way. Conclusion Creating this capstone project has challenged me as an art educator to explore new ideas. Now having had this experience I am excited to take the next step in this journey and apply what I have learned to my classroom. It is my goal to continue to explore the integration of literacy in visual art education as well as distribute my zine to fellow art educators on a global scale through the use of soc ial media and my website. I also intend to send a copy to The Orange County Zine Library & Reading Room in California. A copy of my zine can be located on my professional web page at http://mandeescorpiniti.wix.com/arted#!capstone project/c1w0s .

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33 ! ! References Abdul Alim, J. (2012). The art of education. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 29 (22), 14 Anstey, M. (2002). It's not all black and white. Postmodern Picture Books and New Literacies . Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy , 45 (6), 444 457. Banks, T. (20 12). Information graphics. London: Centaur Communications Ltd. Colman, A. (2004). Net.art and Net.pedagogy: Introducing Internet art to the digital art curriculum. Studies in Art Education , 46 (1), 61 73. Congdon, K. & Blandy, D. (2003). Zinesters in the classroom: Using zines to teach about postmodernism and the communication of ideas. Art Education , 56 (3), 44. Duncan, G. J., & Brooks Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation Duncum, P. (2004). Visual culture isn't just visual: Multiliteracy, multimodality and meaning. Studies in Art Education, 45 (3), 252 264. Eisner, E. W. (2000). Curriculum development. US: American Psychological Association. (pp. 415 419). Ellsworth Jon es, W. (2013, February 1). The story b ehind Banksy. Smithsonian . Retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts culture/the story behind banksy 4310304/ English Language Arts Standards È Reading: L iterature È Grade 9 10 È 7. (2014 .). Home. Retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA Literacy/RL/9 10/7/ Feldman, E. B. (1976). Visual literacy. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 10 (3/4), 195 200. Feldman, E. B., & Woods, D. (1981). Art criticism and reading. Journal of Aesthetic Education , 15 (4), 75 95.

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34 ! ! Freedman, K. (2007). Leadership in art education: Taking action in schools and communities . Art Education , 64 (2), 40 45. Freedman, K. (2000). Social perspectives on art education in the U. S.: Teaching visual culture in a democracy. Studies in Art Education, 41 (4), 314 329 Geahigan, G. (1975). Feldman on evaluation. Journal of Aesthetic Education , 9 (4), 29 42. Hill, R. (2011). Common core curriculum and complex texts. Teacher Librarian, 38 (3), 42. Klein, S. (2010). Creating zines in preservice art teacher education. Art Education, 63 (1), 40 Kress, G. (2000). Multimodality. Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures , 182 202. Kuhn, M. (1967). Report of A seminar in art education for research and curriculum development National Art Education Association Lanier, V. (1972). Objectives of teaching art. Art Education , 25 (3), 15 19. Lanier, V. (1976). The future of art education or tiptoe through t he tea leaves. Art Education , 12 14. Piro, J. M. (2002). The picture of reading: Deriving meaning in literacy through image. Reading Teacher , 56 (2), 126. Rix, K. (2013). Common Core Under Attack. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3758244 Robelen, E. W. (2012). Arts education seen as common core partner. Education Week, 32 (14), 1. Serafini, F. (2005). Voices in the park, voices in the classroom: Readers responding to postmodern picture books. Reading Research and Instruction , 44 (3), 47 64. Smith, F. (2009). Why Arts Education Is Cru cial, and Who's Doing It Best , Edutopia . Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/arts music curriculum child development

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35 ! ! Stankiewicz, M. A. (2001). Roots of Art Education Practice. Art Education in Practice Series . Davis Publications, Inc., 50 Portland Street, Worcester, MA 01608 2013.

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36 ! ! List of Figures with Figure Captions Figure 1. Screenshot of Research Notes for Zine ................................ ................................ . 24 Figure 2. Cover of Zine ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 25 Figure 3. Page 7 of Zine ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 26 Figure 4. Draft of Zine Cover ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Figure 5. From Left to Right: Pages 1,2 and 6 of Zine ................................ ......................... 28 Figure 6. From Left to Right: Before and After of Page 10 ................................ .................. 28 !

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37 ! ! Author Biography For the past four years I have taught visual art education at Cimarron Memorial High School. Teaching is something that I have wanted to do from a young age and being able to teach art is the icing on the cake. I obtained a Bachelors of Science in Teaching Art Education in spring 2010 from the University of Nevada Las Vegas. I began teaching at Cimarron Memorial High school immediately after. I also began working toward a Masters in Curriculum and Instruction with an emphasis in Literacy Education (also at UNLV) . I completed this degree in fall 2011. Though I loved my time at UNLV , I wanted to expand my education and get back to my first love "Visual Art Education" . The Art Education Program at the University of Florida has been a perfect fit for me. I have been continually challenged as a n educator and student. Most recently, I feel my journey has come full circle. In writing this capstone paper and reflecting back on my capstone project I have discovered a perfect conclusion to my work as a graduate student . B y combining my working knowledge from all my previous years of study I have found an area of interest that combines visual art and literacy education creating the perfect culminating experience.


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