Citation
All for One and One for All: Developing a Unit of Study on Art and Interdependence

Material Information

Title:
All for One and One for All: Developing a Unit of Study on Art and Interdependence
Creator:
Ruckel, Megan
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Roland, Craig
Committee Co-Chair:
Kushins, Jodi

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animation ( jstor )
Art education ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Classrooms ( jstor )
Collaborative learning ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Middle schools ( jstor )
Modern art ( jstor )
Stop motion animation ( jstor )
Units of study ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
What does interdependence mean? How can art increase our awareness of interdependence on a global and personal level? What happens in a middle school art classroom when students are engaged in an exploration of the concept of interdependence? For my Capstone Project, I examined these questions and expanded upon current research related to the curricular theme of interdependence in art education. In my action-research study, I employed a backward design approach to create a curriculum unit for my middle school students that focused on the enduring idea of interdependence. Although interdependence is not a new concept, it is now being addressed more than ever within our modern globalized society, particularly within political and ecological contexts. In the unit, I highlighted connections between interdependence and the work of selected contemporary artists. I discovered that interdependence was a much broader concept than I originally realized. My students uncovered an abundance of interdependent relationships through their own online research, which they summarized on Pinterest boards created for this project, and in the creation of stop motion animations. The results of my project, including a Prezi used for teaching the unit lessons, photographs of students’ art work, and stop motion animations produced by the students are available for viewing on my website at http://meganr522.wix.com/portfolio#!capstone-project/c1x6z.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Megan Ruckel. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1039728991 ( OCLC )

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 1 ALL FOR ONE AND ONE FOR ALL: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY ON ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE By MEGAN RUCKEL A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 2 © 2014 Megan E. Ruckel

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 3 Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Craig Roland and Dr. Jodi Kushins for being helpful, encouraging, and invaluable fountains of knowledge. I would also lik e to thank my boyfriend Andres, for his patience and support while I completed this project. I thank my family, friends, and colleagues for all your support and encouragement. Finally, I would like to thank my students for inspiring me to develop exciting, contemporary art lessons and for always being willing to provide honest feedback. I could not have accomplished this without each and every one of you. Thank you!

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 4 Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the Uni versity of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts ALL FOR ONE AND ONE FOR ALL: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY ON ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE By MEGAN RUCKEL August 2014 Chair: Craig Roland Member: Jodi Kushins Maj or: Art Education Abstract What does interdependence mean? How can art increase our awareness of interdependence on a global and personal level? What happens in a middle school art classroom when students are engaged in an exploration of the concept of i nterdependence? For my Capstone Project, I examined these questions and expanded upon current research related to the curricular theme of interdepe ndence in art education. In my action research study, I employed a backward design approach to c reate a curr iculum unit for my middle school students that focused on the enduring idea of interdependence. Although interdependence is not a new concept, it is now being

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 5 addressed more than ever within our modern globalized society, particularly within political and ecol ogical contexts. In the unit , I highlighted connections between interdependence and the work of selected contemporary artists. I discovered that interdependence was a much broader concept than I originally realized. My students uncovered an abundance o f interdependent relationships through their own online research, which they summarized on Pinterest boards created for this project, and in the crea tion of stop motion animations . The results of my project, including a Prezi used for teaching the unit les sons, photographs of a r t work, and stop motion animations produced by the students are available for viewing on my website at http://meganr522.wix.com/portfolio#!capst one project/c1x6z .

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 6 Table of Contents Acknowledgments ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 3 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 4 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 6 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 8 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 8 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 10 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 The History of Interdependence ................................ ................................ ................................ 12 A Declaration of Interdependence ................................ ................................ ............................ 13 Contemporary Art and Interdependence ................................ ................................ ................... 14 Interdependence within the School Community ................................ ................................ ....... 15 An Example of Engagement in the Notion of Interdependence: The Hexagon Project ........... 16 Summary of the Literature ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 17 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 17 Interdepend ence Pinterest Boards ................................ ................................ ............................. 18 Stop Motion Collaboration ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 20 Research Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 22 Subjects ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 23 Data Collection and Documentation ................................ ................................ ......................... 23 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 24 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 24

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 7 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 25 First Observation: Interdependence is an important, but unexplored concept for many students ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 25 Second Observation: Pinterest is a valuable, yet complex visual discovery tool ..................... 27 Third Observation: Stop Motion Animation is a logical choice for teaching and learning about interdependence ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 29 Summary a cross Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 31 Discussion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 31 Interpretation of my Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 32 Significance of my Results and Recommendations ................................ ................................ .. 33 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 35 Appendix A: UF IRB letter ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 38 Appendix B: IRB Parental Consent Form ................................ ................................ .................... 39 Appendix C: Pinterest Planning Worksheet ................................ ................................ ................. 41 Appendix D: Interdependence Pinterest Board Rubric ................................ ................................ . 43 Appendix E: Stop Motion Collaboration Rubric ................................ ................................ .......... 44 Appendix F: Stop Motion Collaboration Self Assessment Form ................................ ................. 45 Appendix G: Student Behavior Chart ................................ ................................ ........................... 46 List of Figures with Figure Captions ................................ ................................ ............................ 47 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 48

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 8 Introduction While watching the Ohio State Michigan football game this year, I quickly became enthralled by the Ohio State Marching Band as they were performing for the half time show. The hundreds of band members working synchronously to create moving pictures across the football field fascinated me. They were performing songs from well known movie soundtracks such as Superman, Harry Potter, Jurassic Park, and Pirates of the Caribbean . The Ohio State band seamlessly worked to create images of Superman saving a falling building, Harry Potter catchi ng the golden snitch on his broom, a Tyrannosaurus Rex eating a Michigan football player, and dueling pirate ships, complete with pyrotechnics. The performance made me think of the principle of Gestalt, the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of it s individual parts. This principle implies that all bits and pieces of a process work together in unison in order to achieve a goal or a certain outcome. After doing further investigation into the idea of Gestalt, I soon learned that this phenomenon is som etimes also applied to notions of interdependence. Interdependence involves a mutual dependence between things. Interdependent relationships exist within families, social groups, communities, nations, and within objects. Becoming aware of our dependence o n other people, objects we cherish, and the interdependence of forms, such as in art, may encourage new perspectives and insights into our human experience. Although freedom and independence may be an ultimate goal of most people, in actuality, humans are so dependent on one another that there is very little that we can do without the interdependent family, community, and global structures. Purpose of the Study The p urpose of my capstone project was to devel op and implement a unit of art study for my middl e school students that focus ed on the enduring idea of interdependence, an integral part of human experience. For my research, my goal was to accomplish the following: (a) introduce

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 9 the concept of interdependence as a big, enduring idea to encourage contem porary thinking and collaboration in my classroom at Lawton Chiles Middle School and (b) to observe, document, and analyze the behaviors of my 7 th and 8 th grade students as they completed the first few lessons within my unit on interdependence. The outcome s I expected from this project include: (a) a student created definition of interdependence, (b) students realization of their own interdependent relationships, (c ) positive collaborati ve behavior in the classroom, and (d ) creative visual problem solving . I also hoped to develop unique lesson plans and projects, which allowed students to become mutually dependent upon on another as they worked toward a common goal. Furthermore, I desired for students to be excited about these projects and be actively invol ved in the creative process. It is my hope to share my findings with other contemporary educators to foster the development of global citizens who recognize interdependence as a way to improve the human experience. Research Questions T o guide my investig ation, I used a participatory action research method of investigation to focus on the following research questions: 1. What is interdependence? a. What are the different levels/types of interdependence, and how are they related? b. How do artists represent i nterdependence? c . Who are some contemporary artists that explore i nterdependent relationships in their work? d. How can artists highlight or raise awareness of interdependent relationships? 2. What happens in a middle school art classroom when you engage stu dents in an exploration of the concept of interdependence?

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 10 a. What kinds of art lessons and projects might promote interdependence? b. What essential questions would focus an art unit on interdependence? c. What desired outcomes could result from an art unit on interdependence? Significance of the Study I believe that interdepe ndence is a critical part of human experience, and studying this phenome non will help students recognize the important relationships developed over time to ensure a healthy, successful li fe. Many important modern issues, for example climate change , crime, technology, markets, communications, and public health, are global in character. By studying interdependence, students may become inspired to continue to work within their own families, s chools, and communities to improve cooperation and understanding. With the advent of Common Core standards , teachers are developing more and more interdisciplinary lesson plans. This art unit on interdependence not only highlight s relationships between var ious parties, but also incorporates knowledge and content from other subject areas, helping students create more meaningful opportunities for learning. Assumptions My fundamental assumption at the start of this project was that an art unit of study on int erdependence will help students recognize the various relationships and connections they make on a daily basis. Ultimately, I hope d that my students would be able to move beyond the first step, recognition of interdependence, and reflect upon their own int erdependent relationships. I hope d to instill in my students the belief that humans can interact peacefully to create positive change in the world. At the same time, I want my students to think for themselves, to form their own opinions, to internalize the information they are given, and to take personal action. I anticipate that as I introduce new ideas and dimensions to art making, that my students will embrace these new ideas and create their own conceptual works of art as a result.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 11 Literature Review T he purpose of this literature review is to explore the complex interdisciplinary concept of interdependence, which is becoming more and more prevalent in educational writings and practices. The term interdependence conveys a sense of connectedness, of rely ing on and being responsible for others. It has bee n addressed in a number of ways and in various disciplines throughout the last century (Smith, Clark, & Yusoff, 2007). Although interdependence may be a reference point in many contexts and professional pr actices or disciplines, here the term is applied in relation to the multifaceted phenomenon of globalization, and in particular to the ways in which this concept may be addressed through the creation and study of art. The concept of interdependence also r elates to the development of cooperation in the classroom via collaborative learning strategies, which have been extensively researched by such scholars as Bruffee (1994), Johnson and Johnson (1994), and Kagan (1989). Collaborative learning is said to be e ffective at all levels of education, from the kindergarten classroom to higher education lecture halls, and even to administrators evaluating teachers. Although it is not a new concept, collaborative learning has become more popular in schools recently by virtue of the fact that it assumes learning occurs among persons rather than between a person and things, imitating the types of interdependent relationships formed in the real world (Bruffee, 1994, p. 39). As Johnson and Johnson (1994) explain, the ways in which teachers structure student student interaction patterns determine how well students learn, how they feel about school and the teacher, how they feel about each other, and how much self esteem they have. Finally, although there is limited existi ng K 12 classroom based research on units of study based on interdependence, my literature review will also address what could happen in a classroom when students are engaged in an exploration of the concept of interdependence. A relevant resource for this topic is the National Art Education Association s International

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 12 Interdependence Hexagon Project (Barbolish & Burkhauser, 2012). The Hexagon Project aims to connect students to real world issues, and provides an opportunity for children to participate in t he international celebration of Interdependence Day. Interdependence Day was created as a post 9/11 symbol of regeneration, as a time to reflect on the tragedy of the incidents of terror, not only in the United States, but all over the world. Through this interdisciplinary project, students learned to recognize the inevitability and significance of interdependence in our time, and set out to build a peaceful global society in a constructive manner (Barbolish & Burkhauser, 2012). The History of Interdependen ce When examining historical uses of the term interdependence, we must consider the broad scope of this interdisciplinary concept and the various contexts under which it may be addressed. Interdependent relationships may exist within the family, school, c ommunity, within objects, or on a global level. These connections may be social, political, economic, emotional, cultural, financial, mental, or physical. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the term interdependence has been used in reference to political and ecological contexts, particularly by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, Henry Wallace. Wallace viewed the various parts of the agricultural system as great links in the food distributing chain, and proposed that his Farm Act of 1933 be und erstood as a Declaration of Interdependence, a recognition of our essential unity and of our absolute reliance one upon another (Smith et al., 2007, p. 344). Forty years later, U.S. National Security Advisor and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger made in terdependence a central concept of his speech to the UN special session in early 1974 in response to the international oil crisis. More recently, the phrase has appeared in Civworld s Interdependence Days, organized in response to the September 11 th 2001 b ombing of the U.S. World Trade Center, as well as in speeches and statements made by mainstream politicians in the UK and

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 13 USA. For example, former U.S. president Clinton has argued, interdependence is both the great promise and the defining paradox of the 21st century (Smith et al., 2007, p. 346). A Declaration of Interdependence More recently, The Moxie Institute (2011) experimented with cloud filmmaking in their poignant work, A Declaration of Interdependence . To create the collaborative film, the co mpany first rewrote the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and posted the script online: A Declaration of Interdependence When in the course of human events, it becomes increasingly necessary to recognize the fundamental qualities that connect us, Then we must reevaluate the truths we hold to be self evident: That all humans are created equal and all are connected. That we share the pursuits of life, liberty, happiness, food, water, shelter, safety, education, justice, and hopes for a better future. That ou r collective knowledge, economy, technology, and environment are fundamentally interdependent. That what will propel us forward as a species is our curiosity, our ability to forgive, our ability to appreciate, our courage, and our desire to connect... That these things we share will ultimately help us evolve to our fullest common potential. And whereas we should take our problems seriously, we should never take ourselves too seriously. Because another thing that connects us...is our ability to laugh...and o ur attempt to learn from our mistakes.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 14 So that we can learn from the past, understand our place in the world, and use our collective knowledge to create a better future. We can make the future whatever we want it to be. So perhaps time that we, as a s pecies, who love to laugh, ask questions, and connect....do something radical and true. For centuries, we have declared independence. Perhaps now time that we, as humans, declare our interdependence. (Moxie Institute, 2011, of Interdepend para. 1) Then, the Moxie Institute asked people all over the world to record themselves reading the script in their native language, and to submit the videos on their website, ( www.letitripple.org ). In add ition, the Moxie Institute accepted artwork interpreting their words and ideas. The film that unfolded includes music by Moby, animations by Stefan Nadelman, and user generated videos and graphics from all over the globe, and may now be found on YouTube: ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzZ1Gl5UfE0 ). A Declaration of Interdependence demonstrates the vast potential of collaboration in the 21st century, and provides an inspiring summary of all the co ncepts embedded within the enduring idea of interdependence. Contemporary Art and Interdependence Artists around the world have addressed interdependence on a global level, particularly as it relates to ecological issues and concerns. Art educators have previously explored relationships among art, art education, and the environment. As scholars in art education encounter new theories, they will change their conceptions of the environment and art. Contemporary eco theorists and eco activists have developed co nceptions of the environment, as an "art education of place" with which art educators can establish new connections between art, community, and the environment. Graham (2007) explains that critical place based pedagogy provides a robust

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 15 framework for th e theory and practice of art education that is concerned with ecological issues. He believes art education that neglects contemporary art and visual culture deprives students of the prospect of becoming conversant in emerging forms of artistic discourse. I t also deprives them of information about the issues of social and ecological justice, and hinders them as artists in fostering social and ecological justice (Graham, 2007). Blandy, Congdon, and Krug (1998) aim to foster an awareness of the many contempo rary artists who are promoting ecological preservation and restoration. Artists such as Helen and Newton Harrison promote a view of humans as an interconnected part of nature (Blandy et al., 1998). The PBS (2007) series, Art in the 21st Century includes an inspiring episode on ecology, which examines the work of four contemporary artists who explore the relationship of nature and culture, including the surrender of wilderness to human civilization, the basis of scientific knowledge, the impact of technolo gy on biology, and human relationships to the land. Included in the PBS ecology episode (2007) are Ursula von Rydingsvard, I ñ igo Manglano Ovalle, Robert Adams, and Mark Dion, who are only a few of the artists who address this complex notion of connectednes s in their work, and among the artists I introduced to my students. Interdependence within the School Community When developing a unit of study based on interdependence, it s important to note that interdependent relationships also exist within the schoo l community. Noted educational scholars such as Kagan (1989) have contributed to the development of collaborative classroom structures and activities aimed to provide authentic opportunities for learning, and increase knowledge retention. Johnson and Johns on (1994) explain that positive interdependence establishes the fact that each group member's efforts are required and necessary for group success, and that each

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 16 group member has a unique contribution to make to the collaborative effort because of his or h er resources, role, and responsibilities within the group. Horn (2008) discusses the benefits of organizing teachers into collaborative teams, which not only supports the goal of increased student achievement, but also garners emotional, social, and prof essional benefits for the educators themselves. Furthermore, a school community can only function properly if all faculty members are committed to collaboration to ensure student success. Other scholars have explored the benefits of working collaboratively in the art classroom. Vieth (1999) explains that collaborative art projects emphasize the notion of community, and may highlight common bonds which were previously ignored. An Example of Engagement in the Notion of Interdependence: The Hexagon Project B arbolish and Burkhauser s (2012) discussion of the Hexagon Project emphasizes that the goals of interdependence are innately interdisciplinary. They require everyone to reach beyond their social, economic, political, artistic and academic domains to intera ct and connect in a more collaborative and creative manner. Those who can think creatively and solve problems will be most valued as the world confronts its issues of inequality, injustice, unsustainable environmental conditions, health care, global govern ance, democracy, and religious freedom. This ongoing project aims to communicate the unifying theme of interdependence through the production of artwork by employing post modern concepts such as social justice art education, globalization and art, alternat ive processes and media, juxtaposition, and appropriation. Barbolish and Burkhauser (2012) also encourage students to explore the role of the artist in times of political inconstancy and social unrest, to analyze how historical and cultural events impact f orms, techniques and the purpose of artwork, and to demonstrate interdependence by working collaboratively.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 17 Summary of the Literature Interdependence is a complex idea that has been explored in various contexts for different purposes. Collectively, insig hts gained from my review of the lite rature on this topic informed my personal development of a unit of art study based on the big idea of interdependence. Examining the definition(s) of interdependence, its prevalence within the work of contemporary artis ts, and how it has been applied within school communities to promote cooperation and learning has helped me establish a strong foundation of knowledge on my topic. For my capstone project, I aspired to extend beyond the existing research relating to interd ependence and art by developing and implementing an original unit plan that engages my middle school students in authentic, meaningful learning opportunities. Research Design I use d action research methods for my study, which is a type of applied researc h that involves a systematic study of actions and consequences within the classroom (Rust & Clark, n.d.). Action research requires the researcher to be actively involved throughout the process. Within the field of education, action research is typically co nducted by inquiry oriented educators to analyze data from the classroom in order to reflect upon and improve their practice (Carroll, 1997). According to How to do Action Research in your Classroom (Rust & Clark, n.d.), the five steps of action research include: 1. Making the commitment (The call to inquiry). 2. Designing a study (Questions & answers). 3. Making sense of the experience (Data & analysis). 4. Beginning again (New & better questions). 5. Improving your practice (Lessons from experie nce).

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 18 My research questions focused on developing a definition for interdependence, and introducing this concept in my middle school art classroom. Ut ilizing these steps helped me develop methods for systematically collecting data, and consistently evalu ating results. For my project, I developed, implemented, and evaluated an original unit of art study based on the enduring idea of interdependence. First, I researched the concept of interdependence, and collected scholarly writings from var ious subject ar eas. Then, I developed and implemented the first few lessons on interdependence in my middle school classroom over a period of five weeks. The art unit followed Florida s Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) and the backward design model for cu rriculum development. Interdependence Pinterest Boards My Exploring 3D Art s tudents were first introduced to the concept of interdependence by watching The Moxie (2011) cloud film, Declaration of which may be found on You T ube: ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzZ1Gl5UfE0 ). As a class, w e initially discussed some possible meanings for interdependence, the international hand sign used to represent interdependence (whi ch was featured in the video), and the important connections highlighted by the video. For the first lesson, Interdependence Pin terest B oards, students worked in small groups (3 4 students per group) to begin to define interdependence, and to collect onl ine resources and c ontemporary art examples of interdependence . The class consisted of 9 groups (35 students total) , and each group was encouraged to include examples of different types of interdependent relationships on their Pinterest boards (for exampl e, interdependence with objects, with animals, family, community, national, global, ecological, physical, emotional, economic, political, etc.). Each group created an annotated Pinterest board consisting of at least 20 individual pins or

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 19 links, at least 10 of which had to be contemporary art examples of work conveying interdependence. To supplement the brainstorming/Pinterest board creation process, each group was provided with a Pinterest board planning worksheet (see Appendix C) to guide their online r esearch. (See Figure 1 ). Figure 1: Screenshot of student Pinterest Board Once the Pinterest boards were complete, each group presented their findings to the rest of the class by highlighting their five favorite pins, explain ing why they chose to showcase those pins, and how each pin relates to the concept of interdependence (See Figure 2) . A pin on the Pinterest board could be an image, a video, a link to a website, or a contemporary art example. Pinterest boards were assessed using a specific rubric (see Appendix D ), and then students were asked to individually reflect on their experience by answering the following questions on a piece of paper: 1. What is interdependence? 2. What did you learn from creating a Pinboard about interdependence? 3. How did the other groups' Pinboards expand, reinforce, or challenge your understanding of interdependence?

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 20 Figure 2: Students presenting their Pinterest Board to the class Stop Motion Collaboration For the second lesson, Stop Motion Collaboration , stu dents again worked in small groups (3 4 students per group) to create a stop motion animation conveying and enacting this big idea of interdependence. First, we reviewed some familiar vocabulary from the beginning of the school year, specifically the terms collabor ation and stop motion animation . We also watched our first attempts at stop motion from the beginning of the year. T hese experiments were quick ten second animations created by drawing on the classroom white board, which are now posted on my LCMS art blog: ( http://lcmsart2014.blogspot.com/2014/09/stop motion collaboration.html ).

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 21 Secondly, I introduced the animation concepts of frames, frames per second, and story boards. Students were shown examples of storyboards, and then as a class we watched some examples of different types of stop motion animations. All the examples shown in class are also found in my Prezi and on my website: http://meganr522.wix.com/portfolio . After viewing a variety of stop motion animations, students began working with their group to develop a storyboard for their own stop motion film (See Figure 3) . We looked back at the Pinterest boards to create a list of images or symbols that seemed to express this concept of interdependence. Students used this imagery of connectedness (e.g. links in a chain, networks of people/things, connected hands, small parts coming together to form a whole, etc.) a s a starting point for developing their storyboards and the overall concept for their animations. To ensure that each animation aimed to convey this big idea of interdependence from the beginning, we also discussed (as a class) our working definition of i nterdependence, various types of interdependent relationships that exist, and why stop motion animation is a useful art mediu m for conveying interdependence. Because many students did not have a lot of experience with stop motion animation, I recommended filming at 5 smartphones by downloading free stop motion applications (apps) such as the iPhone Stop Motion Studio app, and the android Stop Motion Cartoon Maker app. Each group had a fl exible smartphone tripod, and decided together how the camera would be set up, and what materials they would use to create their stop motion animation. Everyone in the group had a job during this project, so each group consisted of a director, who supervis ed th e other group members, and made sure the animation is progressing according to the storyboard , a camera operator, who took all the frames (images) on the stop motion app, and who ensured the camera stays in the correct place for each frame , a set desi gner/creator, who

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 22 made the backdrops/set and any props used in the movie , and a set operator, who made sure all the right pieces/objects are moving correctly for each frame of the movie . Figure 3: Students brainstorming and experimenting with stop motion animation Over the next few weeks, students worked to create their stop motion animations. Once complete, the projects were shared with the rest of the class, and will eventually be shared with the rest of the school via our weekly news show, called PAWS 52. The animations were graded using a specific rubric (see Appendix E ), and students were asked to reflect upon their experiences by completing the Stop Motion Collaboration Self Assessment Form (see Appendix F ). Research Site I carried out my research with one of my three Explori ng 3D A rt classes during the fall 2014 semester at Lawton Chiles Middle School in Oviedo, Florida. Oviedo is a city of approximately 35,000 in Seminole County. Chiles Middle School is relatively large, with about 1,300 students. It is a wonderful place to teach, and has earned an A rating for twelve

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 23 consecutive years. It is also currently the #1 middle school in Seminole County based on FCAT scores. Subjects My study included 35 students total, 40% male and 6 0% female. The stu dents represented a diverse group of socio economic backgrounds, and ranged from age 12 to 14. The class also reflected t he school s racial demographics , which are as follows: 74% White, 16% Hispanic, 5% Black, 4% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 1% American In dian/Alaska Native. Data Collection and Documentation I implemented action research methods for this project. Throughout my research, I collect ed and analyze d various data as evidence of student learning. This data was used to analyze and reflect upon th e classroom experiences during and after each lesson. By using action research, this project provided many valuable opportunities to reflect and improve upon my current teaching practices as a young second year teacher. From this experience, I hope to deve lop future opportunities for authentic, meaningful learning in the art classroom. I believe that the lessons and behaviors learned through this research will improve my curriculum. Action research has allowed me to identify and explore dynamics to predict success or failure in my classroom. The data collected during and at the conclusion of the Interdependence Pinterest Boards and Stop Motion Collaboration lessons included photographs of my classroom, my instructional materials, still and video images of st udents working, my field observation notes taken in class, including notes from informal conversations with students, student plans and sketches, student animations and Pinterest boards, student reflections, and my own teaching journal reflections .

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 24 Data An alysis I created my curriculum plan using action research methods , implemented the plan with one of my middle school Exploring 3D A rt classes, and then reflected upon and revised the plan (during and after the end of the unit ). I organized and analyzed my collected data systematically to seek answers to my research questions, and to reflect upon the effects of my curriculum development and teaching practices. To remain organized, I documented student collaboration, student work, progress of Pinterest boards and storyboards, and students reflections about their experiences in the classroom. To analyze the data, I created a chart summarizing the behaviors and results I observed (See Appendix G) . I look ed for patterns and trends from week to week, which provid e d clues to student learning and progress within each lesson. I also videotaped the students working to analyze their behavior. The class period I chose to study was the last of the school day, so I always had time to reflect and document my findings direc tly after the final bell. Finally, I develop ed an argument with specific evidence and claims relating to my original research questions (Rust & Clark, n.d.). Limitations of the Study I believe that interdependence is an essential part of human experience , and is a very valuable concept for students to learn and recognize early on in order to become informed, global citizens. Because this was not something I could demonstrate in the short amount of time used for this project, my results are based on person al observation. Certain limitations also arose from having to ensure that this art unit on interdependence adhered to all state and district standards and essential curriculum requirements. In Seminole County, we are currently preparing our students for ou r new elective Standard Based Assessments (SBA s), which will be multiple choice exams administered at the end of the semester (December 2014).

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 25 The population of my sample was relatively small, including one of my three 3 D art classes consisting of 35 st udents and three student assistants. Other limitations included uncontrollable variables such as the tendency for this age group to yield to peer influences. Available class time, student attendance, and a general lack of artistic production skills are als o notable limitations with my students. Finally, specific findings from my study are limited to my own students and classroom, although readers may also infer what they believe to be applicable from my research to their students and classrooms. Findings T he main goal of my research was to develop, implement, and reflect upon an original art unit centered on the enduring idea of interdependence. I had two main research questions: What is interdependence? What happens in a middle school art classroom when yo u engage students in an exploration of the concept of interdependence? Most of my findings were expected but still exciting, while other results were unanticipated and fascinating. First Observation: Interdependence is an important, but unexplored concept for many students When I first began my art unit on interdependence, about 90% of the students in my class had never heard of the term interdependence. Many students had a difficult time explaining the difference between interdependence and other types of relationships (i.e. dependent, independent) after watching the of video at the beginning of the unit. However, once they began creating their Pinterest boards, and were given more time to brainstorm in order to find relevant online resources and examples, more and more relationships were eventually recognized as being interdependent. Throughout the unit, students began to identify and examine their own interdependent re lationships: within their families , with their

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 26 classmates at school, with fellow athletes on their sports teams, with their friends, with their environment, and with their electronic devices. Learning about their own in terdependent relationships, students also began to recognize the intrinsic val ue of working co llaboratively i n the classroom to achieve a common goal, something they had done before in my class and many of their other classes (See Figure 4) . Students also began to identify interdependent relationships they have learned about in other subject area s. One group found a n entertaining science stop motion animation for their Pinterest board, which highlighted the interdependent relationship between bees and the flowers they pollinate ( https://ww w.youtube.com/watch?v=zy3r1zlC_IU ). I was pleasantly surprised by the variety and depth of interdependent relationships students identified and explored throughout the two lessons. Figure 4: Students working in small groups in the classroom

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 27 Furthermore, watching my students develop their own mutually dependent relationships with their group members was so exciting! Their groups we re carefully chosen for this project . After observing the class for the first few weeks of the school year , I reorganized my se ating chart so that each table included students at different academic performance levels (low, medium low, medium high, high) . This allowed students to interact with a variety of learning styles , and required them to collaborate with new tablemates. I was also pleased to see how quickly everyone jumped in and actively contributed to our discussions and projects. Second Observation: Pinterest is a valuable , yet complex visual discovery tool Overall, I think the Interdependence Pinterest Board lesson was a success. Students learned how to use a modern digital tool to collect valuable online resources and examples. I was very impressed by the variety and relevance of the material added to the Pinterest boards (See Figure 5) . The students seemed co nfident and prepared for their presentations to the rest of the class, and we had some really interesting discussions about the examples that were share d. Like interdependence, Pinterest was another new concept for the majority of my students. M ost of the m had heard of the website, but did not understand how to create a Pinboard to collect images, links, and online resources. Once I demonstrated how to add pins to the Pinboards I had previously created for each group, students seemed to pick up the concept of a digital pinboard relatively quickly. Many of the groups had trouble getting started, because they were unsure of what types of images, websites, and/or art examples they should be looking for. I think the Pinterest Board planning worksheet (see Appen dix C) helped in that respect, and allowed the students to brainstorm and clarify for themselves what types of examples they could add to their group Pinboards.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 28 Figure 5: Screenshot of one Pinterest board Although Pinterest is a valuable learning tool, there are some limitations and problems that could arise in the classroom . Most of the students in my class have smart phones; so many of them were able to add pins to their board using the free Pinterest app. I had to monitor the classroom closely to ensure students were actively searching for resources and examples for their Pinterest boards instead of playing a game or doing something else on their phones unrelated to the project. Other students chose to use the laptops and desktop compute rs in the classroom, which are very old and presented some complications. Some of the laptops in my classroom were not connecting to the wireless Internet network, and the desktop computers often loaded pages very slowly. I observed a few students becoming frustrated with the outdated technology, but in most cases we were able to quickly find another computer that working more efficiently. Also, when using Pinterest I had to constantly monitor the content that was being added to the Pinboards to ensure it w as school appropriate and relevant to our project.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 29 Third Observation: Stop Motion Animation is a logical choice for teaching and learning about interdependence After presenting a few different project ideas to my capstone committee, we all agreed that sto p motion animation was an interesting and relevant choice of media for this art unit on interdependence. When I first introduced the Stop Motion Collaboration lesson to my students, I asked them why they thought we were using stop motion to convey this big idea of interdependence. One student named Sarah 1 suggested it was a stop motion movie is created by placing all these individual pictures in a series, so a good example of interdependence because all these little parts are coming together t o make one cohesive whole So after we discussed how stop motion as a medium is an inherent example of interdependence, students were excited to develop their own stories of connectedness for this project (See Figure 6) . I was really excited to find out that many of the students in the class had already experimented with stop motion at home, and some of them had already experimented with stop motion apps on their phones. Some groups had too many ideas and took a little longer to decide on a direction for their animations, while other groups agreed on a concept surprisingly quickly. I was very impressed with the level of engagement in th e classroom during this project, from watching stop motion examples at the beginning of the lesson, to developing and cont ributing to their own projects. I noticed some of the students getting almost overly excited, and their group members asking them to calm down so they could continue working. I think the stop motion animations created during this project are examples of ar twork that the students are very proud of, and they were very excited to share their work with their friends and families. Although some of the projects may have strayed from our original goal of 1 All student names are fictitious.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 30 conveying interdependence, they all demonstrate this idea of connectedness on some level. Many of the students were so eager to begin making their animations that they did not spend enough time working on their storyboards. To prevent this in the future, I would encourage the students to spend more time developing a strong concept for the animation first, and then work on developing a more detailed storyboard before beginning to film. F igure 6: Students working in small groups to create their stop motion animations

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 31 Giving each student a job within their group pro ved to be a great organizational tool, particularly because I was monitoring so many students in the classroom at once. It also allowed each student to assume a specific role and take ownership of their contributions to the group. Every student felt equall y important and useful within the team, which again emphasized the value of developing interdependent relationships within the classroom. Summary a cross Findings Overall, I think this unit was a successful introduction to the concept of interdependence. I was surprised by the quality of the Pinterest boards, despite our numerous technical difficulties in the classroom. The students really enjoyed making the stop motion animations, but some groups strayed from their original concept and did not always focu s on expressing interdependence within their animations. I knew that monitoring and mentoring nine groups of students would be challenging, but it was a little more overwhelming than I expected. I think the classroom felt slightly chaotic at times because many of the groups did not spend enough time planning and developing their concept, and jumped right into the work before I expected them to do so. Even though some of the animations were not completely thought out, I was inspired by the eagernes s and original ideas. They really impressed me with their creative problem solving skills, and we discovered more and more interdependent relationships as time progressed. Discussion and Conclusion Throughout history, artists have attempted to address the theme of interdependence in their work by actively engaging their communities as collaborators and subjects. Art has the ability to communicate interdependence, and to make us think of interdependence in different ways (Blandy, Congdon, & Krug, 1998). With this capstone, and through action research , I have discovered what happened when I introduce d the concept of interdependence in my art

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 32 classroom. I have investigated the various types of interdependent relationships, and how these concepts may be presente d as art lessons. I am confident that my research will improve my future curriculum and encourage positive collaboration and creative problem solving . I am hopeful that in sharing my research on art and interdependence with others, more educators will intr oduce this valuable contemporary concept in their own classrooms. Interpretation of my Results Based on my observations and research, I believe that Pinterest and stop motion animation are effective tools to teach and learn about interdependence. I have s een my students begin to develop a more in depth understanding of the various forms of interdependence, and how it can be expressed through art. They learned how different artists represent and challenge our views about interdependence, how art can record interdependent relationships and phenomena, and how art can increase our awareness of interdependent relationships (Public Broadcasting Service [PBS], 2007). Students also demonstrated how certain art principles, techniques, and media can be used to create artwork that conveys ideas about interdependence. Furthermore, this unit emphasized how studying the enduring idea of interdependence can promote new understandings of one another through art. After collecting and analyzing my data, I believe that my stud ents demonstrated an understanding of the following concepts: (a) art often depicts interdependence happening around us; (b) art can make us think of interdependence in different ways; (c) interdependence is an evolving process; (d) art is a powerful mediu m for the development of interdependent relationships; and (e) studying interdependence in and through art can challenge our beliefs and stereotypes.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 33 Significance of my Results and Rec ommendations Interdependence is a critical part of the human experience, and I believe studying this phenomenon helps students recognize the ir own interdependent relationships , which are developed over time to ensure a healthy, successful life. Many important modern issues, for example climate change , crime, technology, market s, communications, and public health, are global in character. By studying interdependence, students may become inspired to work within their own families, schools, and communities to improv e cooperation and understanding, and to promote a positive change. With the advent of Common Core standards , teachers are developing more and more interdisciplinary lesson plans. This art unit on interdependence not only highlight s relationships between various parties, but also incorporates knowledge and content from o ther subject areas, helping students create more meaningful opportunities for learning. Interdependence could be a valuable starting point for developing more cross curricular lesson plans in the future, and may encourage art educators to collaborate with other educators at the school to teach and learn about these ide a s of connectedness and mutual dependence. As a second year teacher, I feel that my school district has provided many valuable cooperative learning strategies and tools for promoting collabora tion in the classroom, so I feel that many of the teachers at my school could also easily adapt the se lessons to their own subject areas. I look forward to expanding and adapting this art unit in the future , and working with my students throughout these tw o lessons has already produced a few new project ideas. considered developing lessons involving a ltered puzzles, papier mâché sculptures depicting connectedness within the family unit, recycled material sculptures to emphasize our relationship with th e environment, as well as school community projects. I am excited to expand upon my findings by providing my students with more authentic opportunities for learning. I will make it a

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 34 priority to share my research with other educators as well. Through the i nfinite number of relevant online resources, my contact information, and documentation of my project on my professional website, other educato rs can easily incorporate the concept of interdependence into their own curricula.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 35 References Barbolish, G., & Burkhauser, B. (2012). International hexagon project VI: A social justice art education model. National Art Education Association, 1 12. Retrieved from http://naeaworkspace.org/session_handouts_12/Hexagon%20Prospectus_Beth%20Burkh auser_George%20Barbolish.pdf Blandy, D., Congdon, K. G., & Krug, D. H. (1998). Art, ecological restoration, and art education. Studies in Art Education, 39 (3), 230 243. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/1320366 Blandy, D., & Hoffman, E. (1993). Toward an art education of place. Studies in Art Education, 35 (1), 22 33. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/1320835 Bruffee, K. A. (1994). The art of collaborative learning: Making the most of knowledgeable peers. Change , 26 (3), 39. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/11msp81 Carroll, K. L. (1997). Action Research and preservice teachers. Art Education , 50 (5), 6 13. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stab le/3193657 Clark, G., Day, M., & Greer, D. (1987). Discipline based art education: Becoming students of art. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 21 (2), 129 193. Retrieved from http://www.j stor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/3332748 Cummings, K. L. (2010). So What. Who Cares? Whatever. : Changing adolescents attitudes in the art classroom. Visual Arts Research , 36 (1), 55 67. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1w6K0gt Dick, B., Stringer, E., & Huxham, C. (2009). Theory in action research. Action Research , 7 (1), 5 12. Retrieved from http://arj.sagepub.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/content/7/1/5.full.pdf+html

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 36 Graham , M. (2007). Art, ecology and art education: Locating art education in a critical place based pedagogy. Studies in Art Education , 48 (4), 375 391. Retrieved from http://www.jst or.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/25475843 Horn, I. S. (2008). The inherent interdependence of teachers. Phi Delta Kappan , 89 (10), 751 754. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1Gb2a1X Johansen, P. (1983). The interdependence of theory and practice in art education. Art Education , 36 (1) , 20 22. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/3192710 Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). An overview of cooperative learning. In J. Thousand, J. S., Villa, R. A., and Nevin, A. I. (Eds.), Creativity and collaborative learning: A practical guide to empowering students and teachers (pp. 31 44). Baltimore, MA: Brookes Press. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1uc6wAa Kagan, S. (1989). The structural approach to cooperative learning. Ed ucational Leadership , 47 (4), 12 15. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1w6KenZ Karlberg, M. (2010). Education for interdependence: The university and the global citizen. Global Studies Journal , 3 (1), 129 138. Retrieved from http://myweb.wwu.edu/karlberg/articles/GC Interdependence.pdf Knox, A. B. (2003). Interdependence. Adult Learning , 14 (4), 31. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1A9c9CN M cKay, S. W. (2006). Living the questions: Technology infused action research in art education. Art Education, 59 (6), 47 51. Retrieved fr om http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/27696182

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 37 Moxie Institute (Producer). (2011). A declaration of interdependence [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch/?v=fzZ1Gl5UfE0 Murray, A., Bagby, J., & Sulak, T. (2010). Research 101: Understanding educational research. Montessori Life , 22 (4), 34 37. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1wUnjhs P ublic Broadcasting Service [PBS] (Pr oducer). (2007). Art in the twenty first century: Ecology [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/art21/watch now/episode ecology Roberts, G. (2005). Cooperation through interdepe ndence. Animal Behaviour, 70 (4), 901 908. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/science/article/pii/S0003347205002216# Rust, F., & Cla rk, C. (n.d.). Teachersnetwork.org. Retrieved from http://teachersnetwork.org/tnli/Action_Research_Bookl et.pdf Smith, J., Clark, N., & Yusoff, K. (2007), Interdependence. Geography Compass , 1, 340 359. doi: 10.1111/j.1749 8198.2007.00015. Smith, R. (1987). The changing image of art education: Theoretical antecedents of discipline based art education. Jour nal of Aesthetic Education , 21 (2), 3 34. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/3332744 Vieth, K. (1999). Chapter three: Encouraging personal expression. In K. Vieth, Engaging the adolescent mind (pp.45 71). Worcester, MA: Davis Publications.

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 38 Appendix A : UF IRB letter

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 39 Appendix B: IRB Parental Consent Form

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 40

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 41 Appendix C: Pinterest Planning Worksheet

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 42

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 43 Appendix D: Interdependence Pinterest Board Rubric Interdependence Pinterest Board Rubric Period _____ Group #______ Date: __________________________ Group Members: ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Score Content Content is relevant to the concept of interdependence. Board includes at least 20 pins, including 10 examples of artwork; ea ch pin is annotated correctly (Author/Artist, Title of work / article/website/video, and how the pin relates to the concept of interdependence) Content is mostly relevant to the concept of interdependence. Board includes at least 20 pins, including 10 exa mples of artwork; most pins are annotated correctly (Author/Artist, Title of work / article/website/video, and how the pin relates to the concept of interdependence) Content somewhat relevant to the concept of interdependence. Board includes less than 20 pins, including 8 10 examples of artwork; some pins are annotated correctly (Author/Artist, Title of work/article/website/ video, and how the pin relates to the concept of interdependence) Content is not really relevant to the concept of interdependence. Board includes less than 20 pins, including 1 8 examples of artwork; most pins are not annotated correctly (Author/Artist, Title of work/article/ website/video, and how the pin relates to the concept of interdependence) Planning and Organization Effec tive use of class time; group demonstrates clear focus and intent throughout the creation of the Pinterest Board Adequate use of class time; most group members attempt to focus and contribute to the creation of the Pinterest Board Limited use of class time ; little focus, most group members have difficulty focusing, do not really contribute to the Pinterest Board Off task for majority of class time; failure to p roduce completed Pinterest Board Oral Presentation Group shows confidence and demonstrates relev ant knowledge of the concept of interdependence. Maintained eye contact, spoke loudly and clearly to the entire audience. Didn't speak too fast or too slow. Highlighted at least 5 of their favorite pins and explained why they relate to interdependence. So me group members are confident with the content. Mostly maintain eye contact, spoke loud enough for entire audience to hear. Didn't speak too fast or too slow. Highlighted at least 5 of their favorite pins and made an effort to explain why they relate to interdependence. Few group members are confident with content. Do not maintain eye contact, do not speak loudly or clearly. Speak too fast/slow. Highlighted 3 4 of their favorite pins, but really explain why they relate to interdependence. No group members are confident with material. No eye contact, do not speak loudly or clearly. Speak too fast/slow. Highlighted less than 3 of their favorite pins, and really explain why they relate to interdependence. Total Score: _____ /12 (Weighted Total x 5): _____ / 60

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 44 Appendix E : Stop Motion Collaboration Rubric Exploring 3D Art Stop Motion Collaboration Rubric Category 4 3 2 1 Score Content Project clearly conveys interdependence in a creative manner. Animation inc ludes lots of detail, and goes beyond basic requirements by depicting a unique, cohesive story. Project conveys interdependence in a creative manner. Animation includes some detail, and attempts to go beyond basic requirements by depicting a unique, cohesi ve story. Project attempts to convey interdependence, but theme is not clear. Animation includes little detail, and attempts to depict a cohesive story. Project does not clearly convey interdependence. Animation includes little detail, and does not depict a cohesive story. Personality Animation reflects personal artistic styles, highlighting their talents and personalities. Animation attempts to reflect personal artistic styles, and makes some effort to highlight their talents and pe rsonalities. Animation attempts to reflect personal artistic styles, but makes little effort to highlight their talents and personalities. Animation does not reflect personal artistic styles, making no effort to highlight their tale nts and personalities. Planning and Organization Effective use of class time; demonstrates clear focus and intent throughout the animation process. Recreates original storyboard. Adequate use of class time; attempts to focus throughout animation proces s, and to recreate original storyboard. Limited use of class time; little focus, animation strays from original storyboard. Off task for majority of class time; failure to produce original plan or adequately complete project. Materials Group uses c hosen materials creatively to convey theme of interdependence. Group attempts to use materials creatively to represent theme of interdependence. Group makes little effort to use materials creatively to represent theme of interdependence. Group makes no at tempt to use materials creatively to represent theme of interdependence. Craftsmanship Very neat execution. Pays close attention to detail. Animation is fluid and cohesive. Above average execution. Some attention to detail. Animation is somewhat fluid an d cohesive. Average execution. Little attention to detail. Animation does not really flow, and is not very cohesive. Below average execution. No attention to detail. Animation is neither fluid nor cohesive. Total: _______/20 (Weighted Total x 5): _______/100

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 45 Appendix F: Stop Motion Collaboration Self Assessment Form 3D Art: Stop Motion Collaboration Self Assessment Form Name ___________________________________ Period ______ Date____________ Answe r the following questions using complete sentences and specific examples! 1. Describe your stop motion animation. (How does your project convey interdependence? What materials did you use?) (4 points) 2. What do you like most about your project? WHY? (3 points) 3. What would you do differently if given more time to work on your project? (3 points)

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 46 Appendix G: Student Behavior Chart

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 47 List of Figures with Figure Captions Figure 1: Screenshot of student Pinterest Boards . 19 Figure 2: Students presenting their Pinterest Board to the class Figure 3: Students brainstorming and experimenting with stop motion animation 2 Figure 4: Students working in small groups in the classroom 6 F igure 5: Screenshot of one Pinterest board Figure 6: Students working in small groups to crea te their stop motion animations 30

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ART AND INTERDEPENDENCE: DEVELOPING A UNIT OF STUDY 48 Author Biography I was born and raised in Jacksonvil le, FL. My passion for art really began to develop in middle school, and I flourished in high school as a student in the IB Art Program at Stanton College Preparatory school. I attended the University of Florida for my undergrad studies, where I fell in lo ve with art history and traveling. I graduated from UF in 2010 with a Bachelors Degree in Art History, and then went backpacking through Europe, visiting ten countries in just over six weeks. Since beginning the UF Masters Program for Art Education in 201 2, my graduate classes have really given me a lot to think about as I develop my middle school art curriculum in my first year of teaching. I ve attended two UF summer studios, printmaking and ceramics, which provided wonderful opportunities for personal a nd professional growth as an art educator. As a new teacher, I hope to avoid the monotony of my middle school art experience, which was dominated by tedious busy work and simplified projects aimed at teaching only the basics , not necessarily the essenti als . I believe that we need to study the art of our times by beginning with probing questions and far reaching goals. What do our students need to know to understand the art of various cultures in the past, and in the 21st century? What knowledge do stude nts need today to encourage and boost their creative powers? Although I m somewhat inexperienced, I m attempting to apply a comprehensive art education approach, by exploring visual culture in our global society through enduring ideas. Many of my students did not choose to take art as an elective, but were simply placed in the class out of necessity. I think adopting a multicultural, inclusive approach to my art curriculum will help them realize that my lessons are relevant and applicable to their daily li ves.