Citation
Design Thinking in the Art Classroom

Material Information

Title:
Design Thinking in the Art Classroom
Creator:
Peterson, Raya Dawn
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Roland, Craig
Committee Co-Chair:
Slawson, Brian

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Art education ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Classroom design ( jstor )
Classrooms ( jstor )
Collaboration ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Problem solving ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
The goal of my capstone project is to discover the connections between design thinking and art education, to explore how art teachers are currently teaching design thinking and to determine the connections between the design thinking model and 21st century skills. To carry out my project, I first explored the background and current use of design thinking as a teaching method in the K-12 classroom and as well as examined where it fits within the larger context of education today. Then I interviewed seven art teachers that are using design thinking in their classrooms. Finally, I share my findings in a supporting paper, which conclude that the art teachers I studied favor design thinking because it helps students learn the mental flexibility to solve problems and encourages creativity and communication within groups while also promoting self-directed learning. While design thinking is not directly referenced in the 2014 National Core Visual Arts Standards, it aligns very well with the goals of art education and provides an important bridge between art and other school subjects. The art educators I interviewed felt that design thinking also aligns very well with many other contemporary trends in education such as Common Core and the 21st Century Skills Framework. Furthermore, design thinking is an effective tool for fostering innovation, which provides an important link for policymakers who are interested in the United States remaining economically competitive. Finally, as an outcome of my capstone research, I created a online curriculum resource that outlines best practices for art educators who are looking for ways to introduce design thinking in their classrooms, which can be viewed at designthinkingforartteachers.com.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Raya Dawn Peterson. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1039729427 ( OCLC )

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DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM 1 DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM By RAYA DAWN PETERSON A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA July 2014

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DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM 2 2014 Raya Dawn Peterson

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DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM 3 Acknowledgements A deep and heartfelt than you to my husband Michael, who spent countless hours reading and editing my work. Also special thanks to my committee chair Dr. Craig Roland and CoChair, Brian Slawson for their insightful advice, and to dedicated art teacher Cristina Faulkner who introduced me to the idea of design thinking.

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DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM By Raya Dawn Peterson July 2014 Chair: Craig Roland Committee Member: Brian Slawson Major: Art Education Abstract The goal of my c apstone project is to discover the connections between design thinking and art education, to explore how art teachers are currently teaching design thinking and to determine the connections between the design thinking model and 21st century skills. To carry out my project, I first explored the background and current use of design thinking as a teaching method in the K 12 classroom and as well as examined where it fits within the larger context of education today. Then I interview ed seven art teachers that are using design thinking in their classrooms. Finally, I share my findings in a supporting paper , which conclude that the art teachers I studied favor design thinking because it helps students learn the mental flexibility to solve problems and encourages creativity and c ommunication within groups while also promoting self directed learning. While design thinking is not directly referenced in the 2014 National Core Visual Arts Standards, it aligns very well with the goals of art education and provides an important bridge b etween art and other school subjects. The art educators I interviewed felt that design thinking also aligns very well with many other contemporary trends

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DESIGN THINKING IN THE ART CLASSROOM 5 in education such as Common Core and the 21st Century Skills Framework. Furthermore, design thinking i s an effective tool for fostering innovation, which provides an important link for policymakers who are interested in the United States remaining economically competitive. Finally, as an outcome of my capstone research, I created a online curriculum resource that outlines best practices for art educators who are looking for ways to introduce design thinking in their classroom s , which can be viewed at designthinkingforartteachers.com.

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6 Table of Contents Title ................................................................................................................................................. 1 University of Florida Copyright ...................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................................... 3 Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 8 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................ 9 Research Questions ................................................................................................................... 12 Rationale and Significance of the Study ................................................................................... 13 Assumptions .............................................................................................................................. 13 Limitations ................................................................................................................................ 13 Definition of Terms ................................................................................................................... 13 Literature Review .......................................................................................................................... 15 Background ............................................................................................................................... 15 Innovation and Economics ........................................................................................................ 17 Empathy and Creativity ............................................................................................................. 20 Interdisciplinary Learning ......................................................................................................... 22 Questions That Still Remain ..................................................................................................... 23 Methodology ................................................................................................................................. 24 Subjects ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Research Site ............................................................................................................................. 26 Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation ...................................................................... 26 Data Analysis Procedures .......................................................................................................... 26

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7 Findings ......................................................................................................................................... 27 Teacher Demographics .............................................................................................................. 28 Taking Risks .............................................................................................................................. 29 Communication ......................................................................................................................... 30 Design Thinking is Still Not Widely Practiced in Schools ....................................................... 30 Teachers Feel Supported in their use of Design Thinking ........................................................ 30 Assessment is a Challenge ........................................................................................................ 31 Design Thinking is Flexible ...................................................................................................... 32 Problem Solving ........................................................................................................................ 32 Intrinsic Motivation and Independence ..................................................................................... 33 Collaboration in the Classroom and Beyond ............................................................................ 33 Summary of Findings ................................................................................................................ 35 Discussion and Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 35 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings ................................................................................ 36 Significance, Implications, and Recommendations .................................................................. 38 References ..................................................................................................................................... 41 Appendix A Interview Questions ............................................................................................... 45 Appendix B IRB Approval ......................................................................................................... 46 Appendix C List of Best Practices for Art Teachers using Design Thinking ............................. 47 List of Figures and Tables with Captions ..................................................................................... 52 Author Biography ......................................................................................................................... 53

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8 Introduction During the past school year, the high school students in Cristina Faulkner’s Design Thinking class were challenged to re imagine a decommissioned U.S. Naval Base in Puerto Rico as a future eco resort. Students were asked to study the site, which is on the east coast of Puerto Rico, researching climate patterns and the natural ecology of the area. They studied the government request for proposal website, fbo.gov and viewed the proposed building site on Google Earth to see what kind of resort could be possible while trying to make as light a "footprint" as possible. After three weeks of study and collaboration, the student teams each created an architectural model of their ideas, showing the kind of buildings and energy sources they envisioned and highlighted sustainable practices they would like to incorporate. Once the models and written reports about their designs were completed, a team of architects from a local firm were invited to the classroom see the models and to comment on the designs. One of the teams had created a resort that featured a "village" of hut like structures that were placed on platforms high above the ground. An architect questioned the team about their design and decision to put the buildings on stilts. He was a bit dismissive of the design indicating that he thought the students built the structures on stilts just to produce something different. At that point, one of the student team members spoke up, responding that actually they had learned not to design just for the sake of making something different or cool, but that the idea of design thinking is to really understand the needs and the challenges of the site. The student described how they had chose n to place their resort huts on stilts because much of the untouched areas on the naval base property are covered with mangrove trees. He said the team had researched mangroves and had found that they have extremely large above ground roots. That made the team realize that putting s tructures on the ground would mean having to remove a large quantity

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9 of trees, thereby defeating the purpose of trying to have a light footprint. The student told the architect that their design was based on a real situation and the need to keep the site natural. Together, these students came up with a complex and sensitive solution to the challenge that they were given and were confident and capable enough in their understanding of the design process to defe nd their decisions to adults. Working as a team, t hey tapped into their own sense of empathy when researching for the project and attempted to understand the real needs and nuances of the site. The students in this example were engaged and enthusiastic learners who are being prepared for the future by developing empathy, critical thinking, problem solving and collaboration skills through the use of design thinking. Inspired by this model of teaching , I decided that for my capstone project I would explore how practicing art teachers are using design thinking in their classrooms, why they choose the method and how it benefits their students. The study also identifies some best practices for teaching design thinking and investigates the alignment between the design thinking method and current college and career readiness initiatives. Statement of the Problem Since the new millennium, a profound chasm has begun to emerge between the skills that children will need for success in the 21st century and the skills that are being taught in schools (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). The next generation will not be asked to respond to routine problems, but instead to wrestle with novel challenges using sophisticated technology (McWilliam, 2008). In this changing new landscape students must develop skills needed to create innovative solutions such as collaboration, problem solving and creativity as well as media and technology skills (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). The shift in our future needs necessitates an adjustment in educational techniques. Design thinking offers a new educational

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10 technique that focuses on the skills that will be in demand for the next generation including creativity, collaboration, critical thinking , and problem solving (Phillips, 2012) , which can also be fused with the goals of a school art curriculum (National Art Education Association, 2010). To foster this alignment, design thinking has t he potential to be a usefu l teaching and learning tool in the K 12 a rt curriculum. Design thinking does not carry the same meaning as the term “design” in a formal sense, but rather refers to the idea of applying the process of design to a broader set of problems using a step by s tep method. This solutiondriven thinking starts with a goal, or design challenge, such as “how might we drink water on the go” and guides the practitioner to a series of steps to arrive at some possible solutions. One of the defining characteristics of de sign thinking is the emphasis on the use of empathy by the designers to better understand the needs and nuances of those that they are designing for. One of the early adopters of the term “design thinking” was David Kelley, professor at Stanford University and one of the founders of the design firm IDEO . Kelley later founded the d.school at Stanford, which in conjunction with IDEO developed a design thinking method that is intended for use in K 12 education ( Stanford University Institute of Design, 2014). This method, described in the d.school’s Virtual Crash Course in Design Thinking, ( Stanford University Institute of Design, 2014 ) and outlined in Figure 1, below uses the steps: empathize, define, ideate, prototype, test.

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11 Figure 1. The steps of the design thinking methodology according to the Virtual Crash Course in Design Thinking published by Stanford University Institute of Design (2014). According to Stanford University Institute of Design (2014) , participants engaged in the empathize step work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom they are designing by observation, communication, and immersing themselves in the users experiences. Next they define the problem from the end users point of view us ing the information gathered in the previous empathy step. In the ideate step, design thinkers explore a wide range of ideas about how they will address the users problem through design. The next step involves hands on prototyping with materials possible solutions to the defined problem. Finally, in the test phase the prototype is presented to the end user for feedback and the designer refines the prototype based on the feedback. A variety of different design thinking models e xist t hat have been published from other sources, but for the purposes of this research the design thinking process that the author is referring to is the process published by Stanford University Institute of Design. In the realm of art education sp ecifically, design thinking is becoming a hot topic as evidenced by its prominence art education blog posts and on state and national art education

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12 conference schedules. For example, in 2012 the Pennsylvania Art Education Association (PAEA) recently staged a conference at which the goal was “strengthen the bond between art, design thinking, and education” ( Pennsylvania Art Education Association, 2012, para 1) . The National Art Education Association (NAEA) hosted conference presentations on the topic as early as 2010 (W alkup, 2010) and the NAEA convention in San Diego in 2014 also featured the topic (National Art Education Association, 2014) . In 2012, NAEA announced their partnership with the Industrial Designers Society of America to present the IDSA Design Learning Challenge; the purpose of which was to expose K 12 students to design thinking (ISDA, 2012.) Numerous studies have been conducted about how classroom teachers at the K 12 level are implementing design thinking in their classrooms (Kwek , 2012), but little research has been done on how and why art teachers specifically are using it in their classrooms. Purpose and Goals of this Study This capstone research explores how K 12 art teachers are using design thinking in their classrooms , the learning outcomes of this method, and why they choose to use it. I interviewed seven art teachers on how incorporated design thinking into their curriculums and what they perceived to be its b enefits and limitations. Additionally , I investigated whether design thinking aligns with popular 21st Century Skills such as creativity, problem solving and working collaboratively (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). Lastly, for the purposes of sharing what I learned from my teacher interviews, I compared their experiences and comments to arrive at a set of best practices for the use of design thinking in art classrooms. Research Questions My research into the topic of desig n thinking in the art classroom was guided by these questions :

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13 1. What is the role of design thinking in the K 12 art classroom? How is design thinking currently being used in the art classrooms? a) What are the benefits of design thinking in art classrooms? b) What are the limitations of design thinking in the art classroom? 2. What does design thinking have in common with 21st century skills such as creativity, problem solving and working collaboratively (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010)? a) Why is this alignment important? 3. What are some criticisms and limitations of design thinking? Rationale and Significance of the Study This study is needed to better understand the applied use of the design thinking methods in art classroom s an d devise some best practices for art educators interested in using this method. Assumptions I n the crafting of my research, I have made two assumptions about the topic. First, I have assumed that design thinking is a valid pedagogical tool in the K 12 art classroom. Additionally, I have assumed that it would be desirable for the goals of design thinking and 21st century skills to align because as learning outcomes these skills are broadly desirable. Limitations This study is not intended to address questions about what types of student populations may be best served by the use of design thinking in the classroom and it will not analytically compare design thinking with other pedagogical tools. Definition of Terms Design thinking. In a 2010 interview, David Kelley, the founder of the d.School (also known as Hasso Plattner School of Design) at Stanford University explains design thinking as “a

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14 methodology which allows people to have confidence in their creative ability” ( Zastrow, 2010, p. 1). More specifically, design thinking is a prescriptive, stepby step process that gu ides user s through procedures that help them to identify and solve complex, humancentered problems. The method encourages a collaborative approach to innovation in which students research a problem using empathy as a guide, define the problem that needs t o be addressed and brainstorm to come up with creative solutions. Next, students prototype their solution and gather feedback about their ideas in order to further improve them. IDEO. Also credited to David Kelley is IDEO, a prestigious design firm based in Palo Alto, California. In partnership with the d.School, IDEO helped to create the Design Thinking for Educators Toolkit (IDEO, 2012). 21st Century Skills . The phrase 1st Century Skills” refers to a group of skills that students will need for future success that goes above and beyond basic knowledge of core subjects (Partnership for 21st Cent ury Skills, 2010). These skills were defined by the Partnership for 21st Century skills (P21). They include creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, and communication and collaboration, among others (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). Common Core State Standards Initiative . My research will also refer to the Common Core State Standards Initiative, referred to as Common Core, which according to it’s website seeks to develop “ a set of high quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy (ELA). These learning goals outline what a student sh ould know and be able to do at the end of each grade ” ( Core State Standards Initiative, 2014). The goal of the Common Core curriculum is to establish standards that equip students with the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in college, career, and l ife, regardless of where in the United States they live.

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15 Literature Review In today’s educational context, there is a greater emphasis on developing students’ workplace skills and dispositions , such as creativity and problem solving, that will help them develop the capabilities that they need in order to be innovators as adults. These skills and dispositions are commonly known today as 21st Century Skills (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). Design thinking is a fairly new pedagogical tool that may empower students to connect with their own creative potential, leverage creative problem solving, and become innovators. Design thinking is intrinsically connected with design as an art and cra ft, but is focused more on the concept of design for a purpose rather than simply for its own sake. This contemporary idea of design as a vehicle to improve human lives, as described in Warren Berger’s (2010) book CAD Monkeys, Dinosaur Babies, and T Shaped People: Inside the World of Design Thinking and How It Can Spark Creativity and Innovation, is “less consumer based: more responsible and resourceful. With greater emphasis on solving problems and doing more with less” (p. 6). Background The idea of design improving people’s lives is an old one that has recently experienced a resurgence in popularity. Design movements such as Modernism, the Arts and Crafts Movement, and F uturism were rooted in the utopian idea that design could make people s ’ lives better (Berger, 2010, p. 5). Design, however, is also linked with the idea of aesthetics, and by the 1980’s design took a turn to mean the popularization of elite “designer” goods. This materialistic era of the discipline was a time when designer brand items, from jeans to highend appliances, became the mark of good taste (Berger, 2010, p. 5). Design thinking provides a sharp contrast to the consumerism of the 1980’s as it taps into the earlier values of more idealistic movements and takes a more humble approach to the design process. In general, the idea of design thinking is

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16 less about one elite designer imposing his or her grand vision on others and more about awakening the designer in every person so that as many people as possible have the ski lls to design solutions to the world’s problems. Design thinking relies on a collaborative approach that values the input of as many different perspectives as possible to try to come up with solutions. The working model developed by the d.School an d IDEO p uts an emphasis on stepby step evaluation and reconsideration throughout the design process incorporating feedback from multiple pers pectives. Berger (2010) says that today’s designers do a good deal of watching and listening” (p. 6). This means that the designer must always keep in mind who he or she is designing for. Instead of designing for the elite, today’s design is for the populous. To set the stage for the relevance of design thinking today, it is useful to frame the conversation within the context of the economics and innovations of the past hundred years. During the later half of the 20th century, the first world shifted from the Industrial Age which was driven by manufacturing and machine inventions to the Information Age which emphasized digital technologies to enhance modern conveniences. In the Information Age, technology and computing enable rapid exchange of information, and this in turn has facilitated profound cultural shifts, changing the game in terms of the future needs of humanity (Fuchs, 2013). This shift from machine production towards a more technologically driven society has had a dramatic impact on global economics and the individual’s way of life (Fuchs, 2013). During the Information Age, the world has seen rapid progress that has enabled “substantial increases in life expectancy, per capita income, and literacy and significant decreases in infant mortality and the number of people living in poverty around the world” (Allis, 2013, para 3). New technologies have ope ned doors, providing new solutions to difficult problems such as hunger and water scarcity. Looking toward the future, because of the technological advances of the Information

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17 Age, especially the Internet and personal computing, the stage is set for creat ive innovators to leverage Information Age tools to change the world for the better. According to Allis (2013), many scholars believe we will soon be entering the Innovation Age, which will be a time of rapid growth and development of new innovations. Desi gn thinking shows promise as a simple and useful pedagogical tool to explore problems and invigorate students’ creative abilities in order to arrive at innovative solutions (IDEO, 2012). Innovation and Economics T he 21st century will see a growing trend amongst education lead ers and policy makers that views the arts both as providing an essential skill set for personal development, and also for the overall economic positioning of the nation (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). This focus on 21st century readiness lead to the development of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills which is a coalition of interested parties including the US Department of Education and several private corporations that depend on innovation such as Microsoft Corporati on, Cisco Systems and Apple Computer (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, also known as P21, has since agreed upon some essential skills, which in addition to content mastery, are imperative to student read iness. A foundational element of this organization was the emphasis not only on core subjects, which they refer to as the 3Rs “English, reading or language arts; mathematics; science; foreign languages; civics; government; economics; arts; history; and geo graphy,” (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010) but also on additional skills needed for success in college, career and life which are referred to as the 4Cs, critical thinking and problem solving; communication, collaboration; and creativity and innovation (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010). Interestingly, all of these elements referred to as the 4Cs are also outcomes of the design thinking method as it is applied to the K -

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18 12 classroom. In a 2010 interview, David Kelley connects the ideas of Design Thinking and 21st Century Skills: The funny thing is that now in the K 12 literature I read all this stuff about 21st century skills. And it's amazing because I could just cross out ‘21st century skills’ and put in ‘design thinking.’ It's basically what we mean, which is a new way of thinking that adds to, but doesn’t replace, the way we normally think—w hat we call analytical thinking ( cited in Zastrow, 2010, para 8). While P21 has maintained a strong influence over educational policy in the past decade, it is not universally accepted. Critics argue that it is flawed in that the ideas of P21 tell educators what to do without explaining how to do it (Willingham, 2009). Additionally, Willingham (2009) adds that 21st Century Skills such as collaboration are difficult to assess. Another controversial yet prominent trend in education today is the implementation of the Common Core curriculum, which seeks to develop nationwide standards for student outcomes in math and English Language Arts. Common Core focuses on the development of basic skills as well as more complex learning outcomes such as critical thinking and creativity ( Core State Standards Initiative, 2014). Common Core shares many similar goals with the P21 Framework. This table , pulled from the Partnership for 21st Century Skills website, explains that alignment:

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19 Table 1 . Examples of alignment areas between the P21 Framework and the Common Core State Standards. Further, at the time of this writing, the National Coalition for Core Art Standards has just released the v oluntary National Visual Arts Standards, which according to a webinar released by the National Art Education Association in June of 2014 are “aligned with the 21st Century Skills: Critical thinking Collaboration Communication Creativity” (NAEA, 2014). While the terms innovation and design are not synonymous, they are c losely linked and interdependent (Berger, 2010) . When it comes to economic development, which is an important driving force for th e push for innovation, businesses are turning to design as a means to innovate. Larry Keeley of the Doblin consulting group, explains the relationship between design and innovation by saying, “Innovation is a business process that makes a science out of di scovery. To do that the process must harness design capabilities including the ability to discern what people need and then give form to those findings” (Berger, 2010, P. 104) . Design has traditionally been affiliated with the discipline of art. If inn ovation is a key to economic advancement, then the need for design to fuel innovation places a spotlight on the

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20 importance of the visual arts in education. The trend to view the arts as a key to economic success is evident in a 2012 report by the National Governors Association that focuses on how public support of the arts through government funding and resources can help the states solve problems and meet economic goals. Specifically, the report, New Engines of Growth Five Roles for Arts, Culture and Design, "focuses on the role that arts, culture, and design can play in assisting states as they seek to create jobs and boost their economies in the short run and transition to an innovation based economy in the long run" (National Governors Association, 2012, p.1) This passage is interesting because it acknowledges the impending transition that our nation is likely to make to an innovationbased economy, while also specifically citing the arts as playing a vital role in developing the economy both short and long term. The National Governors Association (2012) states that: An arts, culture, and design strategy, coupled with other strategies, can provide states a competitive edge in five important ways: 1. It can provide a highgrowth, dynamic industry cluster; 2. It can help mature industries become more competitive; 3. It can provide critical ingredients for innovative places; 4. It can catalyze community revitalization and civic enrichment; and 5. It can deli ver a better prepared workforce . (p. 8) The National G overnors Association report is important because it is exemplifies the trend at the public level to correlate the arts with economic development and makes a direct correlation between the support of the arts and the ability to bolster innovation. Further, the National Governors Association is one of the governing bodies behind Common Core . Empathy and Creativity Design thinking claims to be one means by which to practice and develop creativity.

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21 In their 2013 book, Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All, designers David and Tom Kelley explain methods by which individuals can expand their creative strengths. They state that many people feel confident in their own disciplines and professions but fear crossing over into what they perceive as creative territory (Kelley & Kelley, 2013). By developing creative confidence, design thinking helps to provide techniques that counteract these fears of failure. In a 2010 interview, David Kelley defines in a simple way, what the term des ign thinking means by calling it, “a framework that people can hang their creative confidence on” (Zastrow, 2010, para 5). The Kelley s (2013) go on to say that creative confidence is most likely to blossom in a supportive environment free of judgment, esp ecially self judgment, and individuals must learn to embrace failure as a part of the c reative process. Berger (2010) also agrees that designers need to have “the time and security to experiment, to connect ideas and explore adjacencies —in a word, to ‘drif t’” (p. 54). He adds that “ to bring about change you have to ‘kiss a lot of frogs’” (Berger, 2010, p. 66) meaning that in order to foster creativity, designers must accept that their first idea is not always their best idea and it is safe to take risks and to fail along the way . The focus of the book Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All is on what individuals can do to harness their creativity. According to the Kelley s (2013), some keys to unlocking your creative potential are overcoming fear of failure and developing empathy for others . Berger (2010) also connects the idea of empathy with creativity and innovation when he refers to the “innovation gap” as the distance between the knowledge of how to make things and the understanding of what people really need and want (p. 105). Empathy is the means by which designers can come to develop a profound understanding of these needs in order to further innovation. Interestingly, taking risks, developing empathy, collaboration, and

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22 communication are all core concepts in art education. Due to this alignment, the design thinking methodology provides a useful mechanism to develop these skills in students. Interdisciplinary Learning Berger (2010) suggest s one promising way to end c reative blocks is to tap into the minds and imaginations of others. IDEO’s Tim Brown says, “To respond to the complexity of design problems today, what’s required is not one person working alone is a studio —it’s more likely to be interdisciplinary teams” (Berger, 2010 p. 39). In its theoretical roots and everyday practice, design thinking is inherently interdisciplinary. The concept of applying design thinking in an educational context started as a collaborative effort at the university level to bring toge ther graduate students from multiple disciplines, such as computer science, social sciences, mathematics and design and ask them to collaborate with one another to solve real world problems. IDEO’s Tim Brown says, “if someone has an enthusiasm or curiosity about many different disciplines, then they can be more flexible, more empathetic, and more engaged in the world” (Berger, 2010, p. 40). In other words, according to Brown, a good designer is curious about many different subjects, and he adds that this inquisitiveness when combined with empathy enables the designer to view the world from the perspective of others (Berger, 2010) . As design thinking evolved from a method used in design studios into a learning tool for K 12, the interdisciplinary characteristic remained. This characteristic provides an important connection regarding the use of design thinking by art educators because of the increasing emphasis on learning being interdisciplinary and also on the soft skill of empathy. Sandell (2012) highlights the importance of art education being interdisciplinary in nature. She says, "art is a vital and core subject that should be seen as balanced, interdisciplinary, and grounded in meaning and inspiration" (p. 2). Sandell contends that education leaders need to “ reexamine the

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23 arts and its relationship to traditional school disciplines. Excellent visual arts teaching helps learners make interdisciplinary connections between art and life, while developing visual communication skills leading to authenticity and multiple forms of literacy that will facilitate community intera ction and global understanding” ( 2010, p. 4) . In summary, design, empathy, and interdisciplinary collaboration characterize good art education. Art provides the skills that bridge many differe nt disciplines. Design scholars have long understood the connection between the sciences and the arts. Legendary designer Bruce Mau explains: I believe in science and art and the promise and potential of design to bring them together to change the world. In our intellectual institutions, and our society in general, science and art live mostly separate lives . . . but the more I work as a designer – a practice that demands the constant negotiation of the boundaries and intersections of the two worlds, the m ore deeply committed I am to the foundation of science . . . My commitment to scientific knowledge in no way diminishes my belief in the mystery and power of the arts. It is art that sings to us and opens out hearts to one another. It is art that gives meaning to things that would otherwise go unnoticed. And that connects us to our past. And that laughs at our hubris and limitations, while speaking to us of the darkness that we cannot say out loud . . . In my practice of design, these two worlds of meaning and matter, of aesthetics and scientific knowledge, of quality and quantity, of mystery and certainty, of intuition and expertise, come together to create new possi bilities for shaping the world. ( cited in Berger, 2010, p. 121122) Questions That Still Rem ain While great strides have been made to bring design thinking to K 12 classrooms, research is still needed on the benefits and limitations of this approach when implemented with students

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24 in art classrooms specifically. Additionally, more research is needed about how design thinking aligns with the new National Visual Arts Standards (NAEA, 2014) and how it fits in with other contemporary trends in education. Methodology My research examines how de sign thinking is currently taught in selected K 12 art classrooms in order to identify some best practices for use of the method in this context. The most fitting research methodologies for the purpose s of this c apstone project are a combination of literature review and standardized, openended interviews (Valenzuela & Shrivastava, 2002 ). I gathered responses about direct classroom experiences with design thinking from seven K 12 art teachers. I acquired this data through standardized, openended interviews, which, according to the article Interview as a Method for Qualitative Research, are one of the best methods for gathering in depth experiences and the story behind a topic (Valenzuela & Shrivastava, 2002). Usin g this method, “the same openended questions are asked to all interviewees; this approach facilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzed and compared” (Valenzuela & Shrivastava, 2002, p. 5). One outcome of my research is a list of best pr actices for art teachers who want to use design thinking in their classrooms. The best practices are listed in abbreviated form in Appendix C and reside in extended form on a website I created called Design Thinking for Art Teachers , shown in Figure 2, which is located at designthinkingforartteachers.com.

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25 Figure 2. The Design Thinking for Art Teachers website , located at designthinkingforartteachers.com. Subjects For the purposes of this c apstone project, I gathered personal experiences of seven art educators who are using design thinking in their classrooms and drew out common themes in their experiences. All interviewees were currently practicing art teachers in the United States at various K 12 levels who use or have used design thinking in their classrooms. Teachers were drawn from a variety of different geographic locations and had as much variety as possible in terms of th eir other demographics. The interviewees were selected through purposive sampling (Marshall, 1996) because they must all have had the very specific characteristic of being art teachers who use design th inking as a pedagogical tool. The sample of interview ees was selected from people who I know though the University of Florida Art Education online graduate program as well as others that I am acquainted with through the California Art Education

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26 Association and the National Art Education Association. Additionally I also sought out interviewees by contacting Stanford University directly and through social media. Research Site The interviews were conducted through teleconference and audio recordings were made. If a teleconference was not possible due to time or other constraints, a written interview was conducted via email. Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation The interview portion of my research was scheduled over the course of a month in the spring of 2014. During these interviews, I examined how each teacher uses the design thinking model in their own classrooms, and what they see as benefits and limitations of this approach in their own educational settings. I looked for links between design thinking and 21st century skills, especially creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, and communication and collaboration as identified by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2010). All interviewees were asked the same series of questions that were designed to draw out details a bout their experiences using design thinking. See Appendix A for a record of the interview questions. In conclusion, my research employ ed standardized, openended interviews in order to derive common themes that emerged when examining each art teachers’ us e of design thinking in the classroom. Data Analysis Procedures For the literature review portion of this project I collected writings that inform educators on the topic such as current books and articles about design thinking. My study also employ ed the use of interviews, which were audio recorded via web conference. I wrote interview questions that were asked of each interviewee ( S e e Ap p e ndix A ) . I also took i nterview notes,

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27 which I compiled after each interview . I collect ed source material from the interviewees such as photographs that illustrate the design thinking projects that interviewees have exper ienced in their classrooms if those were available. I also collected handouts, curriculum units, and online documents that describe classroom uses of the design thinking model. Data was a ggreg a ted a nd s y stem a t ic a l l y synthesized using data triangulation methods. Data triangulation involves using different sources of information in order to validate a study (Olsen, 2004). In the analysis phase, feedback from the interviewees was compared with data gathered in the lite rature review to determine areas of agreement as well as divergence. The study also employs elements of environmental triangulation because I interviewed instructors from various regions of the United States at different grade levels. Environmental triangulation is a method of analysis that involves collecting data from a variety of different locations and settings and comparing the experiences of the respondents (Olsen, 2004). I validated t he interview data through member checking. Member checking is a technique that serves as a quality control process by which a researcher seeks to improve the accuracy, credibility and validity of what has been recorded during a research interview (Harper & Cole, 2012). Specifically I validate d my interview findings by repeating back, in summary form, what I understood the interviewee to be saying after each question. I also asked the interviewees to review the portions of the interviews that I use d in my research and confirm that their quotes a nd ideas are accurately represented. Findings The purpose of this study is to explore how K 12 art teachers are using design thinking, the learning outcomes of this method, and why they choose to use it. The research also explores whether design thinking a ligns with the goals of art education and whether it meets the needs of

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28 students in obtaining readiness for the workplace by developing skills such as creativity, problem solving and working collaboratively . The goal of my research is to identify some best practices for art teachers who use design thinking. I n discussing my findings, I will se t the stage by first describing the demographics of the educators that were interviewed, which provide some surprising insights. I will then share my findings and inte rpretations of the data. The study found that the outcomes of the use of design thinking in the classroom align very strongly with the P21 Framework, especially in the areas of critical thinking and problem solving, in creativity, and in building mental flexibility. Several art teachers interviewed mentioned the P21 framework specifically, including K 5 art teacher Beth Dobberstein who says, “Design Thinking compliments 21st Century Skills that promote communication, creativity and collaboration” (Persona l communication, April 2, 2014) . Also, design thinking shares many outcomes with art education in general such as exploring multiple solutions to a problem, and the use of various materials (Eisner, 2002, p. 70). While design thinking is not addressed by n ame in the 2014 National Visual Arts Standards, ( National Art Education Association, 2014) it does teach many of the same lessons that art teaches. My findings, which I will present next under ten subheadings, demonstrate how design thinking can be useful in any discipline including art education as well as in collaborating across fields, generating and refining ideas and fostering creativity. Teacher Demographics Art educators are practicing design thinking at a variety of grade levels. Interviewees ranged from kindergarten through 12th grade art teachers at both public and private schools. Among the art teachers that I interviewed, all had master degrees and several described themselves as leaders in their schools. The education level of the teachers practicing design

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29 thinking was an interesting finding because it was not a factor used in the selection process of the interviewees, yet it was a demographic that they shared in common. This sugge sts that the art teachers who have adopted the practice are open to new ideas and pedagogical methods and are committed to ongoing professional development. Additionally it suggests that they themselves are the lifelong learners that they would like their students to become. I would also speculate that practicing design thinking is difficult for teachers who already must overcome many other challenges in their classrooms. Perhaps the best prepared teachers with the most educational tools are the best equipped to take on the challenge of implementing design thinking. Taking Risks Design thinking allows the students to experiment with ideas without the fear of making mistakes. Design thinking helps students break outside of the box of their first ideas and encourages them to generate new ideas. Design thinking helps students to eliminate the fear of failure and to learn that there is more than one “right answer” to many real world problems. When ask ed how design thinking benefits their students, two participating teachers in my study specifically mentioned that it encourages them to take risks without fear of failure. For instance, high school art teacher Danna Fuller says, Along with the mechanics of using tools and materials, along with learning about art history, along with the basics of many media, art education must be a place where students can explore and experiment with ideas and “happy accidents” without fear of making mistakes. Design thin king encourages iteration, or cycles of trying things. This leads to solutions that may never have appeared had students been afraid to make ‘mistakes’ (D. Fuller, personal communication, March 23, 2014) .

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30 Communication Students engaged in design thinking practice oral, written and visual communication techniques. They become adept at showing ideas and not just telling them, and they become better observers and storytellers so they can communicate an idea. Four of the teachers interviewed expressed that des ign thinking helps improve student communication skills in general and three mentioned that the practice encourages students to listen. Texas art teacher Deborah Brock stated, “design thinking builds stronger communication skills, the willingness to listen to others ideas ” (personal communication, April 22, 2014) . Additionally, both Brock and high school art and design thinking teacher Cristina Faulkner seem to emphasize the formal presentation of the final product of the project. Faulkner says, “I always have a presentation piece and they have to present as if they are presenting to a client. Show it not just tell it” (personal communication, March 18, 2014) . Design Thinking is Still Not Widely Practiced in Schools Four of the seven art teachers I intervie wed reported that they were the only educators in their school who are using design thinking. One teacher reported that one other teacher was using the method, and another reported that one other teacher used a similar method but did not call it “design th inking.” Teachers Feel Supported in their use of Design Thinking All seven interviewees reported that they feel supported by their administrators when it comes to the use of design thinking in the classroom. However, three of them expressed that they do not feel that their administrators fully understand the concept of design thinking and how it is being used in their classrooms. Beth Dobberstein says,

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31 The principal observed my introduction to design thinking. Prior to class I provided her with a descript ion of design thinking and a lesson plan so that she would be familiar with the concept. She loved it! The only negative was that there was not enough time for her to really grasp the concept of what the kids would be creating in a 35minute class period ( personal communication, April 2, 2014) . Assessment in Design Thinking is a Challenge Two art teachers mentioned that assessment presented some challenges for them . Los Angeles based art teacher, Rama Hughes stated "f or me, it has been difficult to quantify my success with design thinking but that is something I am working on. Until the results are measurable and it ’s worth proving , I think some teachers will have a hard time justifying it [design thinking] for their classes " (personal communication, April 16, 2014) . Similarly, Cristina Faulkner reported having difficulty with assessment when she first tried the method, but she was able to overcome it by focusing the assessments around reflective pieces and presentations. She reflects on her strategy saying: There is no testing in design thinking. Make something, Present something. Assessment through reflective pieces. We reflected on what we did and we evaluated how we did ourselves. I put pretty clear rubrics I know what to look for so that things are compl ete. This year I had them share their work with another class and the other class evaluated them. When you put your stuff out in public is falls where it falls or it stands on its own merit. We didn't use those numbers in the grade but it helped in their f inal reflection (C. Faulkner, personal communication, March 18, 2014) .

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32 Design Thinking is Flexible Two of art teachers that I interviewed chose to adapt the design thinking process to fit their specific needs. Middle school art teacher Laurie Herrman Myers says, “I changed the process and added something to it to make it fit my classroom” (personal communication, March 23, 2014) . Later she added, “it can be so flexible. It doesn’t have to be rigid. You don’t have to follow the specific steps. You can change it to suit your needs.” High school art teacher Deborah Brock agrees, stating, most people think you have to follow a prescribed method step by step in order to be using or integrating the ideas of design thinking in the classroom but I don’t belie ve this to be true. It isn’t the form but the essence behind design thinking that will benefit your classroom. Understanding the steps and using them as they are laid out may be helpful in the beginning but one needs to be flexible about integrating them ( personal communication, April 22, 2014) . Problem Solving A majority of the art teachers interviewed favor design thinking because it helps students learn the mental flexibility to solve problems. The terms “problem” and “problem solving” were mentioned 18 times by interviewees. Design thinking teaches that there are many solutions to a problem and trains students to approach even complex problems with the hope of solving them. The term “solution” was used 8 times during the interviews. Design thinking is problem solving for social impact and it teaches students that they can make changes in the world. Cristina Faulkner, says of her classroom projects: you really come out with a lot of hope. Bruce Mau studio's motto is ‘make hope visible.’ A lot of things th at could be discouraging can be taken on. In the universities they are

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33 solving problems that are important problems for the world and it was really hopeful, so I thought that they can see that there are problems but we actually have a way to approach it an d make a change. That makes it more powerful. They will be the people who make changes (C. Faulkner, personal communication, March 18, 2014) . Intrinsic Motivation and Independence Design thinking makes learning personal and gives the students choice. This learner directed philosophy accommodates students with a variety of different needs and learning styles by giving them some freedom to be guided by their own interests. Elementary art teacher Beth Dobberstein says, “My classroom embraces a learner directed philosophy that allows for student choice in content and material for end project. This philosophy provides an atmosphere that can meet the differentiated learning styles of each of my students including those with special needs” (personal communication, April 2, 2014) . Two teachers I interviewed said that design thinking encourages independence in students, and three suggested that the method helps their students learn by tapping into their intrinsic motivation since they are pursuing problems that in terest them. K 8 art teacher, Kim Dahlheimer recommends that challenges should be “relevant to student’s interest to drive his or her intrinsic motivation” (personal communication, April 13, 2014) . Collaboration in the Classroom and Beyond The design thinking process strongly supports collaboration in the classroom. In my research, the term “collaboration” was mentioned 20 times by interviewees. High school art and design thinking teacher Cristina Faulkner says, “What I have found is that the students ar e quite enthusiastic about the projects. They like to collaborate. They don’t get a chance to collaborate in other classrooms” (personal communication, March 18, 2014) . Danna Fuller agrees, “design

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34 thinking encourages conversation and collaboration” (perso nal communication, March 23, 2014) . Figure 2, below, shows students in Fuller’s class collaborating during a project. Figure 3: High school students practicing design thinking have a n opportunity to collaborate on projects. Other teachers in my study found that design thinking encourages collaboration across disciplines within their schools and also with the outside world. Deborah Brock says “from the standpoint of preparing our students to be creative problem solvers in a gl obally diverse world it supports the ideas of teaching collaboration, and connections between art and other areas of academia” (personal communication, April 22, 2014) . Again, Faulkner adds that design thinking is useful in building bridges across discipli nes, pointing out that the way people are learning and why we are getting these amazing solutions to problems is because biologists are now working with engineers, or anthropologists. Ethnobotanists are working with anthropologists. It's kind of pulling together so that you can have really fast solutions because people are collaborating across disciplines. It is just happening

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35 now in the colleges, then it trickles down into the high schools, so we are a little ahead in that way (personal communication, Ma rch 18, 2014) . She concludes, “It's timely because that means we are on the right path” (personal communication, March 18, 2014) . Summary of Findings The art teachers that I interviewed are open to adding design thinking to their repertoire of art teaching techniques and have embraced design thinking as a compliment to traditional art education methods. They concur the design thinking method has tremendous potential benefit to students in their art classrooms by providing opportunities for collaboration, communication, problem solving, and risk taking. Many art teachers involved in my study use design thinking as a vehicle to make real world connections for students between what they are learning in class and the larger world. Students are embarking on problem solving projects and developing skills such as finding and understanding needs through empathy, ideating possible solutions and prototyping them. The art educators I interviewed found very few limits to this flexible learning tool, howeve r, most stated that time limits and the intrinsic interruptions of short class periods could create barriers in the learning experience. Additionally, the physical geographic placement of a school can be a limitation in terms of the outside resources that are available such as museums and professional contacts. Similarly, lack of diversity can be an issue in some areas, because design thinking is most effective when a diverse population is practicing it. Discussion and Conclusion The goal of my research was to discover the connections between design thinking and traditional art education, to explore how art teachers are currently using design thinking in their classrooms and to understand the connections between the model and 21st century skills. While

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36 design thinking is a relatively new term, the idea of using design to better people’s lives is an old idea that has recently become popular again. The future calls for students who will be excellent communicators, be able to work together and solve problem s creatively. From an idealistic perspective, design thinking is simply a method used to generate and refine ideas that can improve people’s lives, but from the perspective of economic development, it has tremendous potential as an economic driver, because of the link between design and innovation. The findings of my research support the theory that design thinking can be a useful tool for art educators to compliment traditional forms of art education and help to build connections between the arts and other disciplines by giving real life examples of art teacher who are using design thinking to connect with other disciplines. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings The ability to design is linked with innovation, which is linked with business and economi c development. While art education proponents understand it’s value on it’s own terms, and many of them bristle at justifying the arts by using an economic argument, the fact remains that many policymakers do not prioritize the arts highly when making dec isions. They may however be swayed by data that suggests that the arts fuel a healthy economy. This means that skills traditionally associated with the arts, such as creativity, are in a position to be more universally valued by policymakers because of th eir possible contribution to economic development. The possible implication is this that design thinking could help to elevate the disciplines of art and design in the minds of policymakers who provide funding for public schools and make high level decisions regarding education. Teachers favor design thinking because it causes students to become completely engaged in the learning experience. Beth Dobberstein is an art teacher in grades K 5 who uses the method

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37 with her students. She says, “Students become a ctively engaged in a project. Students brought items from home simply because they wanted to or had an idea to add a unique aspect to their project. Students could not wait to work on their project –stopping me on campus to let me know” (B. Dobberstein, pe rsonal communication, April 2, 2014) . Using this method, student learning is self directed and they have considerable choice in the projects that they work on. This taps into intrinsic motivation. The method encourages many valuable behaviors such as risktaking, collaboration and developing independence. Several art teachers interviewed developed design thinking classes at their schools and now teach them as electives along side their other art subjects. The implication of this is that while design thinking can be used as a tool in any art classroom, it can also be a stand alone discipline in a K 12 context, as it is sometimes seen in higher education. The art educators interviewed found that design thinking also aligns very well with many other contempor ary trends in education, making a well timed introduction into education. Two interviewees felt that design thinking works well with STEM / STEAM learning. Another two interviewees mentioned that it integrates well into a flipped classroom. Both Beth Dobbe rstein and Danna Fuller stated that design thinking provides support to the implementation of Common Core in their classrooms. Fuller says, “Design thinking works well Common Core standards. It works well with 21st Century Skills Standards where creativit y is placed at the top” (personal communication, March 23, 2014) . In short, design thinking is a timely and relevant learning tool that is gaining momentum in the realm of education. Design thinking aligns very well with the outcomes of the Framework for 21st Century Learning. In the category of learning and innovation skills, design thinking helps to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills by asking students to identify problems and

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38 brainstorm solutions. Students work together collaborativel y and leverage their creativity toward a useful purpose. Additionally, design thinking requires communication within the group to complete the project and allows students an opportunity for oral and written communication through presentation. Finally, students get to practice lesser known communication strategies by learning how to make a visual representation of their ideas through prototyping. In the area of Life and Career Skills, a subset of the P21 Framework, design thinking encourages flexibility as students assume varied roles and responsibilities within the group and develop the ability to adapt and overcome when setbacks occur. Design thinking is largely student directed so it requires them to practice good time management and project management skills. Since students have considerable choice in their projects, they develop their own initiative by tapping into what motivates them, thus developing a commitment to the lifelong learning process. Students develop cross cultural and social skills as they are required to work effectively across diverse teams who have different ideas and values. In summary, the use of the design thinking process provides an excellent support system for many complex readiness skills that are identified in the P21 Framework. Significance, Implications, and Recommendations Given the focus on college and career readiness, design thinking is an idea whose time has come. If design thinking is used to support the Common Core and 21st Century readiness at a practical classroom level, then it stands a good chance to be accepted by administrators and policymakers who hold the power to make decisions about the direction of education. The question remains as to whether design thinking will be accepted among the art education community. Because it is not strictly a traditional art discipline it is likely to be controversial in the art education community, but it has already enjoyed considerable exposure among art

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39 education leadership an d has become a hot topic at recent NAEA conventions . Design thinking is already becoming a fairly common practice in education in the United States and is being used by teachers of a variety of different disciplines, including art. An interesting area of furthe r study could be to compare the use of design thinking in education in other countries with that in the United States. Considering the ties with global economics, it would be interesting to determine if other countries that are meeting their educational goals more successfully than the United States might also be using design thinking. This study focuses on the use of design thinking by art teachers specifically and asks what the value is of design thinking being presented in the art classroom as opposed t o a business, engineering or other context. So, why should design thinking be taught in the art classroom? The design thinking method has many different models, and is very flexible. It can be used in any classroom context, including art, at varying grade levels. The art teachers I interviewed favored the method and called out its alignment with learning art skills such as the mechanics of art media and tools and the generating of unique ideas. Additionally, art teachers agree that design thinking helps s tudents build creative confidence and generate new ideas, which helps them be better artists. Using the design thinking method, the students’ learning outcome is not necessarily an art piece, through the process students learn the skills an artist or desi gner needs. Design thinking is a broadly relevant practice that can be used in many different educational contexts. Since design thinking helps to teach many of the same lessons and skills that the arts teach and since it is so widely applicable to contem porary learning, the method provides a unique opportunity to shine a light on the relevance and importance of art education.

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40 Through the use of design thinking the art education community has the opportunity to leverage this tool to strengthen its position in the eyes of policymaker s . Not only does the design thinking provide an opportunity to empower art education in general, but also it can empower art teachers within the context of their school by making the community aware of importance of art educati on. Art teacher Deborah Brock says of the method that, “it has educated the community at my school about the benefits of studying the visual arts and how the arts teach critical thinking and creative problem solving which is useful in a multitude of areas of study ” (D. Brock, personal communication, April 22, 2014) . As Brock points out, the nature of design thinking is very collaborative and lends itself to possible projects across disciplines on a school level. This provides opportunities for art teachers to connect with their colleagues in other disciplines who ma y not understand the importance of art education. Just as design thinking can be a bridge for students across disciplines, it can also be an opening for teachers to build connections between their art programs and their colleagues, their administrators and their community. Conclusion In the classroom, design thinking has shown to be a great motivator to students encouraging their intrinsic motivation, providing opportunities to collaborate and encouraging creativity. D esign thinking has the potential to be a useful tool in the art classroom and viewed through a wider lens, could open many doors for the art education community to build connections between other disciplines and strengthen the position of the visual arts in the eyes of policymakers.

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41 References Allis, R. (n.d.). We are entering the innovation age . Retrieved from http://startupguide.com/world/the innovationage/ Allis, R. (n.d.). The world is actually getting better . Retrieved from http://startupguide.com/world/the world is actually getting better/ Berger, W. (2010). CAD m onkeys, dinosaur babies, and t s haped people: i nside the w orld of design t hinking and how i t c an s park c reativity and i nnovation. Penguin. Carlson, J. A. (2010). Avoiding traps in member checking. The qualitative report , 15(5), 11021113. Core State Standards Initiative. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org Fuchs, C. (2013). Internet and society: Social theory in the information age . Routledge. Harper, M., & Cole, P. (2012). Member checking: Can benefits be gained similar to group therapy?. The Qualitative Report, 17( 2), 510517. IDEO. (2012). Design thinking for educators toolkit. Retrieved from http://designthinkingforeducators.com IDEO & d.school. (2013). Design thinking in Schools. Retrieved from http://designthinkinginschools.org ISDA. (2012) . IDSA Design Learning Challenge. Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/news/idsa dlc Jick, T. D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. A dministrative Science Q uarterly , 24(4), 602611. Kelley, T. & Kelley, D. (2013). Creative confidence: Unleashing the creative potential within us all . New York: Crown Business.

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42 Kwek, S.H. (2011). Innovation in the classroom: Design thinking for 21st century learning. Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/group/redlab/cgibin/publications_resources.php Lfgren , K. (2013, May 19). Qualitative analysis of interview data: A step by step guide . Re trieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DRL4PF2u9XA Marshall, M. N. (1996). Sampling for qualitative research. Family practice , 13(6), 522526. McWilliam, E. (2009). Teaching for c reativity: f rom s age to g uide to m eddler. Asi a P acific Journal of Education, 29( 3), 281293. National Art Education Association. (2014). 2014 NAEA national convention hands on workshops . Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/news/convention14/SAN_DIEGO_HANDS_ON_WORKSHOPS.pdf National Art Education Association. (2014). I mplementing the new v isual arts s tandards: an overview of what art educators need to k now . Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/research/nccas National Governors Association, (May 2012). New e ngines of g rowth f ive r oles for a rts, c ulture and design. Retrieved from http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1204NEWENGINESOF FGROWTH.PDF Olsen, W. (2004). Tri angulation in social research: Q ualitative and quantitative method s c an reall y be mixed. Developments in S ociology , 20, 103118. Phillips, L. (2012, 11 26). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://blog.artsusa.org/2012/11/26/the top10skills children learn from the arts/

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43 Partnership for 21st C entury Skills. (2009, 12). P21 f ramew ork d efinitions. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_Framework_Definitions.pdf Partnership for 21st Ce ntury Skills. (2010, 07). 21st century skills a rts m ap. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_arts_map_final.pdf Pennsylvania Arts Education Network. (2012, 10 05). Pennsylvania art education association (paea) conference, Design for Life. Retrieved from http://www.artseducationpa.org/event/pennsylva nia art educationassociation paea conference/ Sandell, R. (2012). What excellent visual arts teaching looks like: Balanced, m eaningful and Interdisciplinary. National Art Education Association Advocacy White Papers for Art Education. Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/advocacy/NAEA_WhitePapers_3.pdf Stanford University Institute of Design (2014). Virtual crash course in design thinking. Retrieved from http://dschool.stanford.edu/ Troyka, L. Q., Hesse, D. D., & Strom, C. (1999). Simon & Schuster handbook for writers. Prentice Hall. Valenzuela, D., & Shrivastava, P. (2002). Interview as a method for qualitative research. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/Interview%20Fri.pdf Walkup, N. (2010, March 30). Design thinking at naea. Retrieved from http://www.schoolartsroom.com/2010/03/designthinking at naea.h tml Willingham, D. (2009). Flawed assumptions undergird the program at the partnership for 21st c entury s kills. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2009/03/flawedassumptions undergirdthe partnership for 21st century skills movement in education/

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44 Zastrow, C. (2010, January 20). New designs for learning: A conversation with IDEO founder David Kelley. Learning First Alliance. Retrieved November 15, 2013 f rom http://www.learningfirst.org/vis ionaries/DavidKelley

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45 Appendix A Design Thinking in the Art Classroom Interview Questions 1. What grade(s) do you teach? 2. What is the name and location of the school where you teach? 3. How did you first discover the idea of Design Thinking? 4. How does Design Thinking align with the goals of Art Education? 5. What pedagogical techniques have you found to be effective when using Design Thinking? 6. What pedagogical techniques have you found to be ineffective when using Design Thinking? 7. After the first time you tried using Design Thinking as a technique in your classroom, did you continue to use it? If so, why? If not, why? 8. Do any other educators in your school use Design Thinking? 9. To what degree do your administrators support your efforts to use Design Thinking in the classroom? 10. What benefits do you feel students get from using Design Thinking? 11. What are the limitations of using Design Thinking as a pedagogical technique? 12. Consider where Design Thinking fits within the context of other current trends in education. What is the relationship of Design Thinking to these other trends? 13. Do you think that Design Thinking is similar to any other trends in education? 14. In your view, is Design Thinking in conflict with any contemporary trends in education? 15. What advice would you give other art educators thinking of experimenting with Design Thinking?

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46 Appendix B IRB Approval

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47 Appendix C List of Best Practices for Art Teachers using Design Thinking 1. Design thinking can be used in any class at any grade level. The design thinking process is very adaptable and can be used in any classroom. California High School Art and Design Thinking Teacher, Cristina Faulkner says “if you are not fee to have a D Lab in your school, there is no reason why you cant do a project in any of your class es (painting / drawing, etc . ) Maybe you could introduce them to the steps. There could be a need... (Or you could use your design for some cause) ceramics could design water carrier. They could learn that this is an emerging movement” 2. The Design Thinking Process is Flexible It is ok, and encouraged even, to adjust it to fit the needs of your classroom. Deborah Brock, Texas High School Art and Design Thinking Teacher says “Most people think you have to follow a prescribed method step by step in order to be using or integrating the ideas of Design Thinking in the classroom but I don’t believe this to be true. It isn’t the form but the essence behind Design Thinking that will benefit your classroom. Understanding the steps and using them as they are laid out may be helpful in the beginning but one needs to be flexible about integrating them.” 3. Look for Opportunities to Design in your own Environment Many educators have found that students become engaged when they are busy solving problems that have an impact on them and their community. Florida Art Teacher Kim Dahlheimer recommends, “encourage the students to look for opportunities where design thinking could be used for improvements and solutions.”

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48 4. Your Workspace is Important It is important to provide the students with a workspace that is conducive to collaboration. Group tables together so that students can face each other to discuss their ideas. Missouri Middle School Art Teacher Laurie Herrman Myers says that she “discovered that the environment plays an important factor. The way I had my drafting tables in rows hindered problem solving. I discovered the Harkness table, an oval shaped table where a team comes together and is facing each other. I adapted my classroom arrangement into horseshoes so they could collaborate more effectively and move about more easily.” 5. Use Graphical Organizers Several teachers practicing design thinking have recommended the use of simple graphical organizers to help student get ideas flowing on paper. “I have created some very easy to make visual organizers (worksheets) graphic organizers, like a word bubble or thought bubble. Before students respond, I have them write something. If you make a cartoon, everyone will write right away to get their thoughts down. Otherwise they are sometimes reluctant to write,” says California High School Art and Design Thinking Teacher Cristina Faulkner. 6. Teach Presentation Skills Several teachers recommended putting an emphasis on the presentation of the ideas. Students must learn to show their ideas graphically and present them verbally. Cristina Faulkner says, “I always have a presentation piece and they have to present as if they are presenting to a client. Show it not just tell it.”

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49 7. Use Challenges with Shorter Lengths for Younger Grades Florid a K 8 Art Teacher , Kim Dahlheimer recommends, “Challenges should be relevant to student’s interest to drive his or her intrinsic motivation. Challenges with shorter time lengths create greater enthusiasm. Focus challenges on prototype building and collabor ation.” 8. Invite Guests from the Community High School art teacher Cristina Faulkner recommends inviting guests from the community to participate in classroom activities and providing feedback. She says, “I think it is a very good thing to bring in people w ho are working and they spend time in your classroom and help the kids for a few days. They don't actually take over the classroom; they just jump in with whatever the kids are doing. We had an architect come in. Having them in the classroom is so much bet ter than a career day.” 9. Make it Personal Beth Dobberstein keeps her students focused on projects that are meaningful to them and driven by their own interests. She says, “My students not only developed unique projects, they created meaningful projects bas ed on their own personal interests.” Many teaches report that having students focus on projects that are derived from their own interests helps to tap into their intrinsic motivation to learn. 10. Design Thinking works well with Technology Technical proficiency is an important trend in education today. Design thinking fits well with incorporating technology into the learning experience. High school art teacher, Cristina Faulkner says, “There is a big push for more technology in the classroom and getting students more proficient. Design Thinking fits in quite well with that. iMovie,

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50 tumble blogs, 3D printing, Prezi, Google Sketchup. It's not like I taught them these things. If on kid knows how I go ‘good, show the guy next to you...’ it lends itself to that because it is more flexible." 11. Design Thinking incorporates with other trends in education Design Thinking incorporates with other trends in education. Teachers mentioned that it aligns well with flipping the classroom, project based learning, STEM / STEAM, more technology, common core, 21st century skills, globalization, integrated learning, and independent learning. 12. Consider Eliminating Prerequisites Eliminating prerequisites can encourage diversity in the classroom. Initially when t exas art teacher, Deborah Brock began teaching design thinking, she imposed other an introductory art class as a prerequisite but she found that by “eliminating the prerequisites for an intro art class, it encouraged students who otherwise didn’t consider taking an art class to sign up. This made the type of student in my class more diverse and now after one year has doubled the number of students registered.” 13. Assess using Reflective Writing During my interviews with teachers, two art teachers mentioned th at assessment presented some challenges for them. Cristina Faulkner reported having difficulty with assessment when she first tried the method, but she was able to overcome it by focusing the assessments around reflective pieces and present ations. She refl ects on her strategy saying, “There is no testing in design thinking. Make something, Present something. Try assessment through reflective pieces. We reflected on what we did and we evaluated how we did ourselves. I put pretty clear rubrics I know what to look for so that things are

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51 complete. This year I had them share their work with another class and the other class evaluated them. When you put your stuff out in public is falls where it falls or it stands on its own merit. We didn't use those numbers in t he grade but it helped in their final reflection.” 14. Everyone can be a designer Design thinking can provide benefits to every student including those who don’t consider themselves artists. Cristina Faulkner says, “we don't need to leave [design] up to a desi gn class of people, everybody should be able to offer solutions to use their experience and their understandings to offer good solutions." 15. Go For It! Missouri Middle School Art Teacher Laurie HerrmanMyers, says “Do it! Go for it! Learn as much as you can about it, read as much as you can about it. Until you actually experiment with it in your classroom I don't think you can understand how it works or why it works.” Deborah Brock, Texas High School Art and Design Thinking Teacher adds "Have fun with it a nd don’t be afraid – students really love the fact that they can explore ideas (even the crazy one’s) and as a team find the best solution."

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52 List of Figures and Tables with Captions Page 9. Figure 1. Retrieved From: http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/. Copyright Stanford University Institute of Design (2014). Page 16. Table 1. Retrieved From: The P21 Common Core Toolkit http://www.p21.org/component/content/article/2publications/1005p21commoncoretoolkit P21 Content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNon Commercial NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Page 24. Figure 2. Design Thinking for Art Teachers website located at designthinkingforartteachers.com. Page 28. Figure 3: Retrieved from personal correspondence. Copyright Danna Fuller. Used by permission.

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53 Author Biography Raya Dawn Peterson was educated at University of California Berkeley, receiving her BA in Art Practice in 1998. She is currently a graduate student at the University of Florida working toward her Masters in Art Education. Raya has enjoyed a 13 year career in graphic arts and we bsite design and is currently working toward a career in teaching art. Her goal is to teach art at the community college level. Raya enjoys art making, museum hopping, gallery trolling and scuba diving. She lives in Huntington Beach, California with her husband, Michael, children Elijah and Solana, and their two dogs.


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