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Running Head: MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 1 A REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY FOR HARRIET TUBMAN CHARTER SCHOOL By STEJHA C. MEEKINS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. RICHARD S . WEBB , CHAIR DR. TIMOTHY S. BROPHY , MEMBER A PRO JECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY Abstract This capstone project is an educational experience cen tered on the exploration of Howard school environments, and cross curricular approaches to instruction. The findings and actions executed in this project culminate in a K 8 Professional Development workshop for Harriet Tubman Charter School (HTCS), in Bronx, NY. The workshop includes printed materials and school curriculum, testimonies of its success in schools in the United States, and strategies for both academic and special area teachers to incorporate their understandings of the intelligences in classroom instruction. Testimonies of the successful application of the theor y in public/private school environments are provided through video resources. The professional development calls for educator and administrative participation in hypothetical scenarios utilizing understandings of the intelligences for the benefit of stude nt learning and efficiency of instructional cycles. There is an emphasis on the musical intelligence and students who demonstrated stronger inclinations towards musical participation in school. The project provides methods for MI research to be connected t o best teaching practices. It fostered the fusion of Common Core standards, National/State standards, and the various intelligences of the theory. The project concludes with a questionnaire for all teaching staff, school faculty, and administration of the Harriet Tubman Charter School on the appropriateness, efficiency, and usefulness of the overall professional development experience. This follows a brief session for questions and comments.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 3 Acknowledgements First and foremost, I want to acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord and my successes, past, present and future, are His achieved through me. All glory, honor, and praise belong to Him and I am honored to be chosen to represent Him in this academic achievement. Mom , you are my #1 cheerleader. You alwa ys have been and I know you always will be. Thanks for your unending encouragement and infinite support. If anyone knew I could and would make it to this point in my life, it was you. It's always been you. Thanks for seeing the jewel in me, even when I cou ldn't see it in myself. Love you, girlfriend! My sisters in Christ ( Angie, Mary, & Lisa ), you are my angels. From rants to tears of fatigue and frustration, you ladies held me up! You loved me in my "hiding" and you made my rare moments of surfacing so wor thwhile. You supported my journey to achieve higher education and never failed to offer words of wisdom, love, acceptance, comedy, sarcasm, encouragement, enthusiasm, and divine anchoring. Thank you for being my "on purpose" friends. I love and thank God f or you rabbits! Mr. Person , you fall in a line of mentors whose faith in me never wavered. Thank you for your professional fashioning, personal motivation, and overall commitment to my success. Thank you for your calm yet efficient nature that influenced m e to both strive and trust in my abilities as an educator. Thank you for giving me the room to explore my educational capacities and the platform to implement a project such as this. I can only hope to one day be half the leader you are and I am honored yo u chose me to be a member of the HTCS family. I pray I continue to make you proud and make our scholars soar into new heights! Dr. Webb , I can't begin to express my sentiments in having you as my committee chair during this experience. You have walked with me, guided me, encouraged me, comforted me,
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 4 taught me, laughed with me, helped me sort through my thoughts, and aided me in further believing in myself. While it may have appeared that our academic partnership for this project was mere chance, I am more c onvinced now than ever before that God chose you for me. He knew I would need your patience, your energy, your poise, your dedication, your humor, your positivity, your motivation, your expertise, your gentleness, your delivery, your concern, your characte r and your spirit. I could not have asked for a more ful filling experience than the one you provided. At the root of my gratitude, I just want to say thank you for simply caring; about my work, my efforts, and me as a person. N o longer just my professor, m y heart now considers you a friend. Thank you so much, Dr. Webb! To extended family and friends , my UF professors and academic colleagues , thank you for making this experience one of extreme gratification and purpose. I am honored to be a member of the Gat or nation and to have taken these steps toward progression. Finally, to my musical minions ! I sing for you! I dance for you! I perform for you! I create for you! I notate for you! I plan for you! I teach for you! And I learn FOR YOU! One day I will be gone and my accomplishments will fade with me. But what I give to you now is what will matter when we are apart. So I give you knowledge that will never bore you. I give you excitement of learning something new. I give you courage to do those things even you t hink you can't do. I give you BIG EYES so you know that I am watching and warm hugs even when you make mistakes. I give you permission to make your dreams a reality. I give you a path to follow, even if you choose not to follow it. I give you open doors. I give you room t o always strive and grow but freedom to be exactly who you are. I give you love, my musical monsters, because you are enough and you are absolutely worth it!
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 5 Table of Contents Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 6 What is a Theory? ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 Writings, Research, and Pra ctical Applications of MI ................................ ................................ . 9 MI in Schools ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 12 MI in Music Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 19 Harriet Tubman Charter School (HTCS) and MI ................................ ................................ ....... 21 Professional Developments ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 23 Emphasis on MI in Music: Some Personal Thoughts ................................ ................................ . 29 Presentation for HTCS Professional Development ................................ ................................ ..... 34 Howa rd Ga r dner ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 35 MI Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 37 MI an d School ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 39 MI and Music Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 40 Standards ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 41 In Service ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 42 Professional Development Survey/Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ...... 50 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 51
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 6 Introduction Developmental psychologist, professor, and author Howard Gardner developed the theory o f Multiple Intelligences in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences . In this influential text , Gardner explained his idea of human beings not only processing information in a singular type of method, as suggested in previous view s of human aptitude, but in multiple ways that are, in fact, autonomous of one another. Though we each possess each of the intelligences, the theo ry described the variety of ways in which those intelligences can be displayed. According to the theory, our i ndividual capacities for the intelligences are unique, as are our thumbprints. Originally consisting of linguistic, logical/mathematical, musical/rhythmic, bodily kinesthetic, spatial, naturalist, intrapersonal, and interpersonal, Gardner went on to later informally inc lude several other intelligences . Educational practices incorporating the Multiple Intelligences theory (henceforth, I will abbreviate as MI ) in classroom instruction can possess positive results to student learning and accountability in the school environment. My intentions for this particular study and p roject involve d my colleagues dep arting from the professional development workshop feeling that their time was well spent and the information was useful to their respective teaching capaciti es. I also intend ed for my colleagues instruction in the classroom, a revitalized attitude toward differentiation in teaching and learning through an understanding of MI, increased awareness of the musical intelligence in learners, and an overall confidence towards the application of contents within the PD. I feel the days of professional development having minor impacts on the educator community, individually and as a
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 7 experienced by most teachers and principals is pretty much like it has always been unfocused, insufficient, and irrelevant to the day to 2002). I also feel that the gap between music and core academic classes needs to be filled in a manner that fosters more appreciation of music e ducation. This project addressed the current approaches to intelligence and provided theoretical insight of human intellect while bringing mo re attention to the various ways of processing and utilizing information . The purpose of this project w a Theory, and its implications in school curriculum and student learning. Through discussion and analysis of each of the nine intelligences within the theory, I hope d to create a keener awareness of student strengths, weakness, and preferences in learning in the teacher population at Harriet Tubman Charter School. The second purpose of this project wa s to create an efficient and resourceful professional development workshop in which all teaching staff are ab le to utilize knowledge and feel confident in implementing instructional practices in the classroom that further the efforts of fostering our understandings of the theory. I plan ned to use the theory and the nature of the professional development activiti es to cultivate a greater appreciation of and attention to music education at Harriet Tubman Charter School. This project is in two parts. Teachers in a ll disciplines we re exposed to the musical intelligence component of the theory and the musical learner demographic in our schoo l population. The teachers also learn ed how to promote an environment that is nurturing and encouraging of music. In this professional development, I h oped to provide practices that we re invigorating, differentiated, and embracing o f the arts in all classrooms at HTCS.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 8 What is a Theory? For the function of this project, it is imperative that the term theory is not mistaken or taken out of context pertaining to the information being presented. It is my understanding that a theory is a belief or set of ideas used to explain a precise statement. I believe a theory is broad, as it is a statement or belief that has yet to be proven by fact or law. Theories are statements supported by general information that aid in further inquiry of the subject matter at hand. Used in many cases as a means of justification, theories are neither proven right nor wrong, but simply lay a foundation of principles to be considered. According to the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), scientists gauge t substantiated explanation of an Though theories are a system of beliefs yet to be proven completely factual, they leave room for observat ions to be made and tested. It is important to note that the work of Howard Gardner, to be later discussed in this project, is a theory of intelligence. It is not to be confused as a theory of learning, knowledge, or pedagogy. He sums this up best in his o featuring the word idea , I want to underscore that the notion of multiple intelligences is hardly a proven scientific fact: it is, at most, an idea that has recently regained the right to be discussed ).
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 9 Writings, Research, and Practical Applications of MI philosopher Nelson Goodman in the initiative known as Pr oject Zero. This research based group, founded in 1967, wa s authorized and originally highlighted issues in the area of arts education. A compilation of senior scholars and research assistants from the university frequently gathered to convey ideas about arts education in relation to psychology, philosophy, and c ognition (Gardner, Perkins, Quense, Seidel & Tishman, 2003). The group of researchers, including Gardner, initially studied artistic ability through a lens of scientific processes linked to mental awareness. In 1972, Gardner transitioned from research assi stant and co founder of the group to co director with David Perkins. In the following years, the group of researchers expanded. Project Zero was originally focused on arts education, but later began to also include other areas of cognitive concern such as critical thinking and problem solving (Gardner et al., 2003). The research ies and professional influences in the field of developmental psychology, would further lead him in the direction of investigating the subject of human intelligence. In this endeavor with Project Zero, Gardner embarked on a journey to investigate the worki ngs of the human mind. Amidst working in conjunction with members of the Project on ilities of investigations, Gardner begin drafting the text Frames of Mind in 1981 (Gardner, 1983).
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 10 Early in Frames of Mind , Gardner delivered a short but simp more to intelligence than short answers to short questions answers that predict academic His MI theory, a conjecture based on exploration of human brain research, posited that intelligence extends far beyond the spectrum of a single, unitary demonstration. Gardner believes that intelligence is not only identifiable by linguistic and mathematical capabilities, but indeed encompasses other displays of cognition. In Frames of Mind , Gardner explained his re asoning for this statement re garding intellect. He referenced the then common measurement of intellect, the standard Intelligence Quotient test. He discussed that single number calculated from responses to various types of questions. Gardner emphasized how the intelligence quotient was used as a normal assessment tool of overall individual intelligence. He also challenged the single assessment of human intellect by pointing out its negation of an relatively autonomous human int Gardner explained in his text how he sought to clarify the subject of human intellectual competence. He went on to develop the idea of humans having several intelligences, which oper ate independent of each other, that can be combined in various ways pertinent to the subjects, including but not limited to prodigies, normal adults, brain damaged pati ents, work experts, gifted individuals, and persons from different cultures (Gardner, 1983). Gardner explain ed that prodigies are known to be particularly gifted in isolated areas of human
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 11 competence, while idiot savants (mentally challenged, autistic, etc ) maintain uniqueness demonstrated among a backdrop of performance based deficiencies. These remote instances , in which human intellect wa s found to be defined beyond the means of an Intelligence Quotient assessment, aid ed Gardner in developing his thesis that humans indeed encompassed multiple intelligences. The Original Seven Intelligences Gardner suggested a set of 7 intelligences he believed to be possessed by human beings. He would later add more intelligences to the list: Linguistic Intelligence Mus ical Intelligence Logical Mathematical Intelligence Spatial Intelligence Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence (Gardner , 1983) ion of significant competence in one area of cognition. The Lingusitic Intelligence described capacity and skill at using language to achieve certain tasks and goals. Students demonstrating high competence in the linguistic intelligence a re usually v ery enthusiastic about speaking, writing, answering questions, writing poetry, and use language as a tool of memorization. The Musical Intelligence focused and basic musical functions. Stu dents having a high inclination to the musical intelligence generally demonstrate excitement towards performance based activities, deciphering musical
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 12 patterns, engaging in singing, and musical inquiry. The Logical Mathematical Intelligence described the i nclination toward reasoning and logical thinking. It lends itself to the operational component of problem solving, analysis, and scientific investigations ( Dixon & McPhee, 2001). The Spatial Intelligence highlighted the capacities one has in using an creat ing mental images to achieve tasks and goals. Students with a higher capacity for spatial intelligence typically recognize patterns and manipulate images in problem solving. The Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence emphasized process information and participate in learning tasks. In demonstrating this intelligence, students are utilizing the mind to initiate bodily movement during the learning experience. The Interpersonal Intelligence described the skills one embodies in unde rstanding and relating to other individuals. Students having a stronger inclination towards the Interpersonal intelligence generally work well with others and promote cohesiveness with people around them. The Intrapersonal Intelligence emphasized more of s elf awareness self awareness and appreciation. Students demonstrating a heightened appreciation are generally self critical, honest, and introspective ( Dixon & McPhee, 2001). MI in Schools eing solely rooted in the demonstration of mathematical and linguistics abilities, but it also impacted a large community of education professionals centered on increasing intellectual achievement and revamping the educational experience of all learners; t directly targeted at human intelligence and the capacity at which one acquired and processed information, it spread throughout the community of teachers around the world. Kassell Workshops, videotapes, and curricula flooded the market as teachers leapt onto the Though not proven to be concrete and
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 13 factual statements of intelligence, educators took a keen interest in the idea of humans encompassing sev eral ways to process and display knowledge. Speaking of r ationale, Kassell also described Finally, here was confirmation of what some teachers had known all along paper and pencil linguistic tests and logical, mathematical tests were not enough to measur e intelli The theory, in its entirety, affected the educational world in that teachers were charged to consider the larger bracket of students who were not particularly demonstrating strength in mathematical and linguistic areas of i nstruction. Following consideration of the multiple intelligences present in school populations, teachers could possibly revamp classroom instruction to illustrate fostering of the other intelligences mentioned in Spark Education is an educational advocate group based in California that aids in the development of its K 12 and post secondary educators. It aims to present the arts as a vital component of the learning experience. Intelligen ces challenged the dominant definition of intelligence as limited to mathematical and linguistic abilities (verbal and computational intelligences). Gardner theorized that rather than just these two intelligences, a grouping of seven intelligences more acc urately accounts for the diversity of ways in which people acquire and utilize knowledge. In Frames of Mind, Gardner stated explicitly (from psychology or education t exts) or implicitly (by living in a culture with a strong but possibly circumscribed view of intelligence). es theory, Spark Education noted some of the implications of the theory in school environments. According to Spark Education,
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 14 individual capacities to promote useful functions in society (SPARKed, 2002). It stressed the need for teachers to give equal attentio manner inclusive of all the intelligences directly affects the level at which students are intrigued an d engaged by the learning process. Students are able to further comprehend material in various ways while teachers are able to enhance their teaching styles through use of differentiation and non traditional teaching methods. In his Frames of Mind text, Gardner contributed the notion that every human being possesses multiple intellectual capacities, or intelligences, but that the set of intelligences is unique to the actual (Gardner, 1983). Lauren Wheatcro ft also pinpointed hildren learn differently and each person has a unique combination, or profile. Although we each have all seven intelligences, no two individuals have them in the same exact configuration simil ar to our This statement alluded to the preceding idea that human beings possess ed each of the seven intelligences presented by Gardner and that they each demonstrate d an independent set of skills due to these intelligence s. When thinking in terms of education and styles, methods of instruction, and proof of comprehension. eory gained n otoriety in the educational world. There are a number of schools curriculum . These schools provide instruction to students in a way that bri ngs about their varied their weaknesses as learners. One of these theory driven schools is the Gardner School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS). Located in Vancouver, Wisconsin,
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 15 this school focuses on providing opportunities for students to demonstrate comprehension of subjects using their unique set of intelligences (GSAS, 2014). By emphasizing the descriptions of each of the intelligences set forth by Gardner, the school creates an environment where students individually flourish in their own capacities, while still developing their areas of limitation (GSAS, 2014). Below is a chart used to help the school community in better identifying the intelli gences fostered during the day.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 16 Intelligence Area: Is Strong In: Likes to: Learns Best Through: Famous Examples: Verb al Linguistic (Word Smart) reading, writing, telling stories, memorizing dates, thinking words read, write, tell stories, talk, memorize, work at puzzles reading, hearing and seeing words, speaking, writing, discussing and debating T.S. Eliot, Maya Angelou , Virginia Woolf, Abraham Lincoln Math Logic(Number Smart) math, reasoning, logic, problem solving, patterns solve problems, question, work with numbers, experiment working with patterns and relationships, classifying, categorizing, working with the abstr act Albert Einstein, John Dewey, Susanne Langer Spatial (Picture Smart) reading, maps, charts, drawing, mazes, puzzles, making images, visualization design, draw, build, create, daydream, look at pictures working with pictures and colors, visualizing, usi ng the minds eye, drawing Pablo Picasso, Frank Lloyd Wright, Georgia O Keeffe, Bobby Fischer Bodily Kinesthetic (Body Smart) athletics, dancing, acting, crafts, using tools move around, touch and talk, use body language touching, moving, processing knowle dge through bodily sensations Charlie Chaplin, Martina Navratilova, Magic Johnson Musical (Music Smart) singing, picking up sounds, remembering melodies, rhythms sing, hum, play an instrument, listen to music rhythm, melody, singing, listening to music an d melodies Leonard Bernstein, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ella Fitzgerald Interpersonal(People Smart) understanding people, leading, organizing, communicating, resolving conflicts, selling have friends, talk to people, join groups sharing, comparing, relatin g, interviewing, cooperating Mahandas Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, Mother Theresa Intrapersonal(Self Smart) understanding self, recognizing strengths and weaknesses, setting goals work alone, reflect, pursue interests working alone, doing self paced projects, h aving space, reflecting Eleanor Roosevelt, Sigmund Freud, Thomas Merton Naturalist(Nature Smart) understanding nature, making distinctions, identifying flora and fauna be involved with nature, make distinctions working in nature, exploring living things, learning about plants and natural events John Muir, Charles Darwin, Luther Burbank Figure 1 . Gardner School of Arts and Sciences MI Chart. This figure illustrates how the eferences in learning.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 17 New City School (NCS) in St. Louis, Missouri carries similar missions and goals for its school community. Highly passionate about students learning and demonstrating knowledge in multiple ways, New City School boasts use of the theo ry during instruction since 1988 (NCS, 2014). Servicing preprimary grades and kindergarten through sixth, New City school immerses each student in activities geared around multiple intelligences and varied methods of learning. choice time during class instruction (NCS, 2014). Starting at the preprimary stage, New City School students learn an assortment of ways to enhance each of the intelligences, as shown below: Interpersonal: pretend, share, interact, and problem solve Intrapersonal: reflect and recover Linguistic: increase phonemic awareness, read, write, and listen Logical Mathematical: count, sequence, pattern, classify, measure, problem solve Musical: compose , enjoy, sing, perform, and listen Naturalist: observe, sort, classify, and hypothesize Spatial : build, draw, color, paint, sculpt, and create Bodily Kinesthetic (gross motor) : move, balance, stretch Bodily Kinesthetic (fine motor): write, cut, glue, sculpt (NCS, 2014) As the students matriculate through each of the grade levels, they are exposed to further defined aspects of each of the intelligences, getting equal engagement in them all. The school The eight intelligences reflect different w ays of thinking, solving problems, and learning. his/her own unique MI profile. MI (theory) is a tool which allows our teachers to expose students
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 18 to new concepts and skil ls in multiple ways and allows our students to demonstrate their understanding in multiple ways as well In addition to its MI access to their Multiple Intelligences Library. H ere, students are afforded ample literary texts during the library period, as well as an intricately constructed area with components to aid in fostering the intelligences. Among these are an amphitheater for small performances, an Exploratorium erase walls, a sink, and a tile floor which allows for numerous art intelligences driven activities (NCS, 2014). Another school curriculum based on the ideas o Multiple Intelligences Academy in Gainesville, Georgia. Belonging to a network of Gainesville high expectations in instruction, presenting diversity as a means of learning, and providing a Ac learning experience with one another. Each student at Enota MI Academy participates in a weekly rotation of MI centered activities, where they are guided to apply their smarts to common societal atmospheres such as the post office, culinary business, and the local bank (Bernard, and subsequently creating environments in w hich students feel comfortable to explore and take ownership of their unique set of intelligences.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 19 In a research study , Hassan, Sulaiman and Yen Yi explored the use of the MI t heory in educational settings. The r esearchers looked into the teaching styles of over 300 primary and secondary school teachers. In this study, researchers examined the differences of the school instruction. Research proved that the MI profiles most commonly used by primary and secondary teachers were Logical Mathematics, Spatial, Interpersonal, Musical, and Naturalistic (Hassan, Sulaiman & Yen Yi, 2011 students felt an increased amount of freedom in exploring the subjects as it pertain to their intelligence strengths and weaknesses, as the teacher took more of a facilitative role (Hassan et al., 2011) MI in Music al education, but music Always eager for outside validation, music educators were vocal in their excitement and welcomed Frames of Mind: The Theory of attention to music education and musical learning in a way that had never been presented before. Teachers everywhere were being charged to consider the idea that students possessed several intellectual c apacities, including the very elaborately discussed musical intelligence (Kassell, f music education. Kassell maked sure to outline the potential negative underto ne the theory lends critically before applying the multiple intelligences theory and con sider the integrity of music and learn She elaborated on the use of music in regards to
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 20 memory and drill techniques in student learning and that they neither fully develop a musical comprehension nor produce comprehension of the intended subject matter. Kassell warned music educators to consid er the integrity and authenticity of music education when implementing such MI based activities in instruction. fore front to help others understand the power According to Hart, the general public had not proven to be receptive to music aesthetics or education, but rather respond ed when music has a correlation to childre n becoming smarter. She mentioned aid ed (Hart, 1999). so presented a scope for more, if not all, individuals to be deemed eings possess each of the seven intelligences, just in different sets and combin ations of strength. This led to the idea that everyone wa s capable of demonstrating a musical intelligence at some capacity or another. Non musical classroom teachers had an ad vantage in this idea, such that classroom activities and instruction could be formatted to include musical components for increased student comprehension. In the plight to bridge educational gaps between general education and music education teachers, the theory opened the door for communication and shared practices for an overall student success progression. This is inevitably the end result I desire for the Harriet Tubman Charter School community.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 21 Harriet Tubman Charter School (HTCS) and MI Harriet Tubman Charter School serves 675 inner city students in grades K 8. In our school population, there are approximately 130 Individualized Education Plans and 7 CTT/ICT classes ranged from 2 nd 8 th grade. At HTCS, it is my understanding that we are collectively pre paring our scholars for prosperous futures and healthy contributions to the communities of the world. We believe in fostering environments that cultivate the minds and intellects of each student, further propelling each one into an atmosphere of unlimited success. HTCS is one of the few charter schools in the southeast section of Bronx, NY that offers a combination of 5 special area classes to its students each week. These special area classes consist of Music, Art, Dance, Physical Education, and French in the Elementary Academy. In the Junior Academy, students are involved in 4 special area classes a week; Music, Spanish, Physical Education, and Creative Writing. These domains are offered to all 675 scholars at HTCS in the hopes that they would further deve lop our students to be well rounded and cultured individuals. Constantly pushing towards progression and achievement for our learning community, HTCS staff and educators are eager for new ways to promote success and bring about intellectual stimulation in each of our students. information in a singular type of method, as suggested in previous views of human aptitude, but in multiple ways that are, in fact, autonomous of one another. Though we each possess each of the intelligences, according to the theory, our individual capacities for the intelligences are unique, as are our thumbprints. Educational practices incorporating MI in classroom instruction can possess positive re sults to student learning and accountability in the school environment. This might be useful in that the theory can influence positivity toward student diversity and
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 22 cohesiveness in the school community despite differences. Students can learn to appreciate not only their own strengths and weaknesses, but those of their learning peers as well. Teachers can confidence inspired learning environment. I believe knowledge and application of effective teaching strategies involving MI will aid the teaching staff in my learning environment in considering ways to augment student learning, address student weaknesses, and enhance student strengths. The incorporation of MI into th e learning environment could potentially be the key to unlocking the academic and artistic potential of our students on an elevated level. In addition to student and teacher growth, as teachers will subsequently benefit by being able to increase comprehens ion on the part of their influence the further unification of teaching staff across curriculums and disciplines. Teachers will be able to share collective strategies tow ard instructional shortcomings, spanning the sciences to music, and will generally each feel more useful to one another as a collective community of educators. describes the overa ll agreement that we are here for the students because students are the most important people. The entire educator community , school teaching staff, faculty, and administration, operate as a cohesive unit for the betterment of the school body. T his project highlights a goal shared by many educational teams , w hich is to create a system where individuals are on one accord for the common good of students and where learning is continuously enhanced and progressive as a result of unified instructional momentum.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 23 Professional Developments From my experience and current level of participation, I gather professional developments to be educationally influenced gathering in which various methods are used to expand skills and proficiency in specific areas. Professional entities throughout the world engage in development at some capacity of their employees and support staff in efforts to further push an overarching vision of growth. I typically understand that individual progression eventually influences collective progr ession and thus presents an obvious need for nurturing in the professional atmosphere. In education, professional development is inevitably woven into the scheme of education, extending beyond multiple student learning centers and into a joint teacher lear ning atmosphere. Though educational professional developments are generally produced for those in direct contact with student and classroom instruction, they can also offer material useful for those not necessarily immersed in the academic classroom. In t his setting, professional developments have the opportunity to reach all participants involved in the overall school community, including administration, teachers, teaching assistants, support staff, and school aids. At some point in a typical school day, each of these teams will encounter a student or group of students, whether in passing or in an instructive capacity, and they will be able to partake in the educational rearing of the whole child through resources gained in a professional development sessi on. Professional gatherings o f this nature provide a knowledge and information useful for the particular line of work one is involved in. Educational developments aim to provide materials and resources beneficial for student achievement and educator suppo rt in instruction. According quality staff development, it generally:
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 24 Includes opportunities for practice, research, and reflection: work and takes place during the school day: Is sustained over time: and Is founded on a sense of collegiality and collaboration among teachers and between teachers and principals in solving important problems related to teaching and learning (Sparks, 2002) . In additio n to these, Sparks also mentioned staff development encompassing a team of learners 2002). Through this article, Sparks gave numerous assumptions of what he believed professional development to entail. These assumptions include d student learning going hand in hand with quality teaching, the quality of instructional leadership being determ ined by the professional development of school principals, ambitious goals requiring the modification of school practices, and the importance of professional learning communities taking risks, reflecting, and collaborating to solve problems (Sparks, 2002). As previously described, educationally based professional development sessions are to bring forth collaborative ideas for student achievement, a clearer understanding of content for educators, and efforts of continuous improvement as a professional team, among other factors. In the results of a national sample of teachers on the effectiveness of professional developments, Birman, Desimone, Garet, Porter, and Yoon compiled an analysis on the structural features of high quality professio nal developments. In this study, they identified the structural features of form, duration, and collective participation to influence success or lack thereof (Birman,
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 25 Desimone, Garet, Porter, & Yoon, 2001). They also highlight ed core features such as content focus, active lear ning, and the promotion of coherence in teacher development. The most common type of professional development today is the structured form known as workshops (Birman et al., 2001). These generally take place outside of the classroom with a designated lead er conducting workshops during specific intervals of time. Though common, these forms of professional development are not highly favored and have influenced teachers to seek out other forms of training expansion. Reform activities are the desired approach, as they allow for teachers to train during the school day, with real time feedback of practices and methods of implementing instruction. Teachers in the sample agreed that professional development activities where they were able to track and monitor each extended period of time proved to be more effective for collaborative efforts, encouragement, rtunity to experiment with best practices in the classroom (Birman et al., 2001). Collective participation is another component of professional development success. According to the study, teachers benefit ted from c ollective training as it fostered an env ironment for discussion about content, skills, and concerns (Birman et al., 2001). Participation from a team of professionals allows teachers to share successes and setbacks, methods of instruction, content delivery, and common occurrences across the disci plines. Specifically bringing attention to music and cross curricular experiences, collective participation, a s described in the study, allowed et al., 2001). This is extremely important in considering the effectiveness of a professional development as the education of the whole child involves the
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY 26 English teacher just as much as it does the music teacher. Teachers being guided in a professional d evelopment arena need instruction beneficial to individual and team based progression. Guskey gave an intriguing description of the role evaluation plays in the planning of an efficient and resourceful professional development. Initially highlighting the fact that legislatures and policymakers frequently question the necessity and usefulness of funds allotted for professional developments, Guskey p resented a clear need for evaluation. According to Guskey, and informal professional activities ( Guskey, 2002). Guskey elaborated on five general levels based upon information gathered throughout the evaluation. These levels , in sequential order, s Reaction, Participants Learning, Organization Support and Change, 2002). Each level of information contributes to the overall evaluation of the professional development experience and allows facilitators and creators to conduct future events that build upon successes and failures illustrated in the analysis of the information retrieved. In matters of creating and planning for effective profes sional activities, Guskey po inted out how to utilize this five level evaluation in a fo rm of backward design. He stated Using five critical levels of evaluation, you can improve your school's professional development program. But be sure to start with the desired result improved st .
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY Evaluation Level What Questions Are Addressed? How Will Information Be Gathered? What Is Measured or Assessed? How Will Information Be Us ed? 1. Participants' Reactions Did they like it? Was their time well spent? Did the material make sense? Will it be useful? Was the leader knowledgeable and helpful? Were the refreshments fresh and tasty? Was the room the right temperature? Were the chair s comfortable? Questionnaires administered at the end of the session Initial satisfaction with the experience To improve program design and delivery 2. Participants' Learning Did participants acquire the intended knowledge and skills? Paper and pencil ins truments Simulations Demonstrations Participant reflections (oral and/or written) Participant portfolios New knowledge and skills of participants To improve program content, format, and organization 3. Organization Support & Change Was implementation advo cated, facilitated, and supported? Was the support public and overt? Were problems addressed quickly and efficiently? Were sufficient resources made available? Were successes recognized and shared? What was the impact on the organization? Did it affect the organization's climate and procedures? District and school records Minutes from follow up meetings Questionnaires Structured interviews with participants and district or school administrators Participant portfolios The organization's advocacy, support, ac commodation, facilitation, and recognition To document and improve organization support To inform future change efforts 4. Participants' Use of New Knowledge and Skills Did participants effectively apply the new knowledge and skills? Questionnaires Struct ured interviews with participants and their supervisors Participant reflections (oral and/or written) Participant portfolios Direct observations Video or audio tapes Degree and quality of implementation To document and improve the implementation of program content 5. Student Learning Outcomes What was the impact on students? Did it affect student performance or achievement? Did it influence students' physical or emotional well being? Are students more confident as learners? Is student attendance improving? Are dropouts decreasing? Student records School records Questionnaires Structured interviews with students, parents, teachers, and/or administrators Participant portfolios Student learning outcomes: Cognitive (Performance & Achievement) Affective (Attitud es & Dispositions) Psychomotor (Skills & Behaviors) To focus and improve all aspects of program design, implementation, and follow up To demonstrate the overall impact of professional development Figure 2. Five Levels of Professional Development Evaluati on to creating and evaluating professional development.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY al development planning provided a cle ar and distinct method of creating successful training fo r school faculty and support staff. Using this format of preparation, student learning outcomes are the basis for the professional development. In this phase of the process, it is vital to identify what the overall outcome is for student learning and achie vement. This is present in level 5 of the system. Continuing to work backwards, facilitators should establish the avenue(s) in which the student learning outcomes will be achieved. This entails finding best practices and techniques that foster the desired resu lts in students. Guskey provided several questions to be asked during this stage of the system to information gathered in level 4 of the evaluation system. Level 3 follows with the ways in which organization support brings about action in implementing the best practices necessary for the student learning outcome. This is an important step of the pr ocess, as educational support is crucial to teacher confidence in executing changes in their classrooms instruc tionally. the questions: Was implementation advocated, facilitated, and supported? Was the support public and overt? Were problems addressed quickly and efficiently? Were sufficient resources made available? Were successes recognized and shared? What was the impact on the organization? Did it affect the organization's climate and procedures? (Guskey, 2002)
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 29 Moving forward in the planning of the professional developmen evaluation continued to the learning of the participants, as described in Level 2. This is the phase of planning where facilitators verify the skills that are needed by the teachers in order to carry o ut the practices and techniques earlier communicated in Level 4. Planning concludes with activities, events, projects, group work, feedback, and experiences necessary for participants to be able to effectively acquire skills and knowledge presented in Leve Profession al Development Evaluation served to both create and follow up effective and resourceful training for the educational environment. Emphasis on MI in Music: Some Personal T houghts When initially searching for a topic for my Capstone project, it was somewhat difficult as there were many topics to choose from. I considered the abundance of research and analysis that would take place and searched for a subject with a practical component and benefit of real time application. Under the advisement of Dr. Webb, I leaned towards this matter of student intellect. In reviewing my graduate courses and scholarly assignments required by each, I decided upon the Multiple Intelligences The ory. The MUE 6931 Instructional Design course, conducted by Professor Amber Peterson, was centered on the exploration of learning standards, tools, and approaches for improved educational programs, curriculums, and classroom instruction. It aided in trans forming my view of education from one of narrowness to heightened inclusive potential. An assignment in Module 3 of the course, prompting the investigation of different learning theories in relation to personal teacher strengths and preference of
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 30 philosoph to increase awareness of educational views in my own professional environment. It was during this course that I began to notice traits and behaviors in my own students, not thro ugh a lens of mere behavioral management, but through one of multiple learning styles, strengths, and weakness as learners. I had always plagued myself with questions of student comprehension, willingness to participate, self efficacy, mastery of concepts, motivation, and the like. I observed that my elementary students each responded differently to lesson content, instructional delivery, and assessment. However, I was not aware of why student responses were so intellectually varied, even though music instr uction was executed the same. As a teacher concerned about safety and proper demonstration of classroom instructions, I would often become irritated with particular students who absolutely had to do small flips and jumps when the class would sing a song w ith movements. Along component, those eager to draw musical pictures of their lesson, those who only participated when asked to write on the SMART board, students who were very qui ck with computing note values, and students who would continue singing a song long after it was over and another part of the lesson had begun. I became very hard on myself, justifying this array of student involvement, or lack thereof, as a deficit of my t eaching capabilities. After being given this assignment in my Instructional Design course, however, the light bulb finally went off. styles in the classroom. It emphasized the ide a of strengths and weaknesses in a way that
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 31 challenged my approach to teaching for the betterment of each of my students. The idea beings, casting out those who fall short of average intellectual abilities, but instead to expose their intellectual strengths, in an attempt to bring about usefulness and relevance in all human minds. From this graduate course, I began to reshape my instructional approaches to foster a learning en vironment nurturing to the strengths and weakness of my students so that each learner departed with a better sense of ownership, awareness, and comfort in the music education experience. This is what led me to make this the focal point of my culminating pr oject. Before this milestone in my graduate studies, my response to student participation and behavior in the classroom stemmed primarily from my understanding of management and discipline. Implementing the idea of the various intelligences in my music cl assroom thereafter proved to be much more beneficial to myself and my students. On the educator end, I became more open to student exploration, student centered learning, collaborative activities, differentiated instruction, and unfamiliar teaching strateg ies. Thinking from a perspective of MI, I became more patient as a teacher and more inclined to the intellectual capacities of my students. From a student standpoint, classroom participation increased. Students began to demonstrate more confidence in their areas of musical strength, while also becoming more aware of their musical weaknesses. As an educator, I better understand and am more cognoscente of my role in bringing about multiple areas of musical success in my students because of my examination of t he theory. My students are each taking part in their learning experience and utilizing their strengths to contribute to the success of the collective whole. This is the product of implementing MI theory that
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 32 I would like to see prevalent across the entire learning community here at Harriet Tubman Charter School. Through the exploration process of MI during this professional development, I plan to utilize my skills of assessing music learning by applying national, state, and local standards for music. Classr oom teachers will also be given the opportunity to connect the practical techniques for student learning. For my school community, this project aids in the developmen t of teacher preparation efforts. The professional development offer s fresh and invigorating approaches to classroom instruction that challenge the teaching staff at HTCS to create lessons that are embracing of the arts and the intelligences within the the ory. This professional development is formatted to positively affect s tudent effort and participation in classroom in struction, as lessons have been presented to i nclude even more outlets of comprehension for the students to plug into. For the future, I in tend this project to subsequently affect student behavior, as disciplinary problems are often a result of disengagement and lack of tasks c omprehension. This project also serve s as a means of increased administration awareness and support, parental involve ment, and overall community pride. Through exploration of the theory, professionally developed methods of implementing the theory into instruction, and an enhanced degree of joint school community efforts towards adopting the practices for st udent growth, this project lead s to deeper considerations from the powers that be of the intelligences and necessity to
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 33 Harriet Tubman Charter School is a unique learning environment that caters to the educational and community needs of its students. Our mission statement reads as follows: Harriet Tubman Charter School is committed to helping each child develop to his or her full potential. We recognize that all human beings are endowed with unique talents and gifts, and we believe that the process of schooling should lead each student to the realization, development, and expression of his or her potential. (HTCS, 2014) Our core values, in which students and teachers alike operate in, are wisdom, ju stice, courage, compassion, hope, respect, responsibility, and integrity. In each see and be reminde d of each day. This project further s the efforts of our school commun ity in creating lifelong learners and well rounded citizens who embrace diversity and make use of differences in learning to contribute to a prosperous collective whole. As a professional, this project stretch es and prepare s me for future opportunities to be an agent of productive change in ed ucational environments. It also reaffirm s my passion for education and lifelong commitment to being an ambassador for the arts. Through this project, I hope to provide my teaching colleagues with a new way of approachi ng music and the arts, arts education, and student engagement through the incorporation of MI cen tered instruction. This project include s materials useable and supportive of authentic professional development.
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 34 HTCS Professional Development on MI Pr esentation for Harriet Tubman Charter School Professional Development
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 35 Howard Gardner Howard Earl Gardner (b. 1943) attended Wyoming Seminary preparatory school and l field of study, however, was not what he would eventually gain notoriety for. Gardner attended Harvard University to study for a career in law, but was later inspired, by individuals including developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, cognitive psychologis t Jerome Bruner, and psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, to study developmental psychology. Gardner explains the influence these prominent figures had on his choice to investigate human thinking. He also credits sociologist David Riesman in addition for stimulatin g his interest in investigating how humans think (Smith, 2002). In 1965, Howard Gardner completed his undergraduate studies at Harvard University. Following this event, Gardner became a Harvard Fellow at the London School of Economics. He also participated in working on the MACOS project with emphasizing repetition of complex ideas in various ways for easier comprehension. In 1966, Gardner decided to maintain his studies of developmental psychology in the doctoral graduate program at Harvard University. It was here that Gardner joined and became a founding member of the research efforts for the initiative known as Project Zero. This project emphasized the study of arts edu (Winner, n.d.). Following the completion of his graduate studies in 1971, Gardner continued to be an active member of Project Zero, participati ng as chairperson, co director, and later
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 36 Professor of Education at Harvard Graduate School of Education and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Educa tion at Harvard, to which he still serves today. He is the recipient of numerous awards and accolades ranging from the National Psychology Award for Excellence in the Media of the American Psychological Association to the Educational Press of America, Dist inguished Achievement Award (Plucker & Esping, 2014).
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 37 Multiple Intelligences Theory : The Original Seven Intelligences
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 38
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 39 MI in School s
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 40 MI in Music Education
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 41 Standards
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 42 In Service PD Questionnaire: Staff will be given questionnaire forms on arrival. They will answe r 4 questions from Side #1 of the questionnaire form, based on their current or prior knowledge of the Multiple Intelligences theory. Opening Discussion: Facilitator will enlighten staff to the nature of the professional development, primarily t hat it will embody information beneficial to students, teachers, support staff, administration, and the school community. Staff will be asked to be as honest as possible when prompted to do so, and to be open to mental and physical engagement during the se ssion.
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 43 Activity #1 ( Getting to Know You) During this activity, staff members will be given a worksheet with various questions and opportunities for short answers. The questions will be as such: 1) Describe one personal strength and weakness of y ours: Strength: __________________________________________________________ Weakness: _________________________________________________________ 2) Describe one strength and weakness of the following person(s) below: (Grade Level Teams) Teacher 3 rd Grade St rength Weakness Mrs. Martinez Mrs. Fender Mrs. Kirlew Ms. Johnson Ms. Caceres Ms. Urena
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 44 Discussion The facilitator will ask staff to share out answers. Staff will be engaged in conversation about reasons for their answers. They w ill be asked questions such as: 1) What have you observed of Mrs. Martinez that leads you to say that she is organized? 2) Knowing that Mrs. Kirlew is precise, how do you go about speaking with her regarding new ideas you have? 3) Does Ms. Caceres being witty promp t you to be open to her advice? 4) What are your strengths and weakness as a team? 5) How do your strengths and weaknesses contribute to your collective operation as teachers and school support staff?
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 45 Activity #2 (Getting to Know Your Students): Facilitator will show a brief video of students in music class. School staff will watch video all the way through once. Staff will engage in short conversation about what was observed in the video. Facilitator will play video again, and follow up wi th a more in depth conversation about what was observed. Staff will be prompted to make verbal observations of the students in the video based on the intelligences introduced in the MI theory.
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 46 Activity #3 (MI and Your Students): Facilita tor will guide faculty into a short identification assignment of students at HTCS. Staff will be given a short list of names of their respective grade level students and will be asked to describe each of those students in 2 3 sentences. Upon completion, st aff will share out their responses. Using their MI charts, staff will then be asked to think of the stronger and weaker intelligences demonstrated by those particular students and how instruction can possibly be modified for them.
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 47
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 48 PowerPoint Slide Presentation: MI Chart (What does it all mean?) MI use in Schools Today (school video, websites) MI at HTCS (What does this look like in our classrooms? In our school?) MI in Music at HTCS Concluding A ctivity (Accountable Talk): Facilitator will guide staff back to the original activity worksheet where they were initially asked to identify strengths and weakness about themselves. Staff will go back to each description and label it with one or more of the MI intelligences. Staff will share out, in grade team levels, what they now understand these descriptions to potentially mean in relation to the theory and the presence of Multiple Intelligences, in both students and teachers. Questions, Comments, Conc erns: Staff will have the opportunity to ask questions, give comments, and share concerns about the information given throughout the in service.
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 49 Video presentation: MI in Present Day Schools Q/A session on PD significance and methods of utilization across disciplines.
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 50 Professional Development Survey/Questionnaire PD Questionnaire: Staff will return to their previously distributed questionnaire form on Multiple Intelligence theory. They will co mplete the questionnaire, sharing things they have learned, tools they feel comfortable practicing in future instruction, and their overall rating of the professional development experience. 1. Workshop Title: ________________________________ 2. Please rat e the following statements SA A D SD I am satisified with today's session. Handouts were engaging and useful. Time in the workshop was sufficient to allow learning and practicing new concepts. The workshop was well planned and interactive. The presenter was effective. The atmosphere was enthusiastic, interesting, and conducive to a collegial professional exchange. Session content and strategies will be useful in my work. I would recommend this session to colleagues. 3. What is the most significant thing you learned today? 4. What support do you need to implement what you learned? 5. How will you apply what you learned to your work? 6. How can we build on this session for follow up learning?
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 51 References Bernard, S. (2009). Elementary school kids show their multiple intelligences. Edutopia. Birman, B.F., Desimone, L., Garet, M.S., & Porter, A.C. (2003). Des igning professional development that works! Retrieved from http://outlier.uchicago.edu/computerscience/OS4CS/landscapestudy /resources/B man Desimone Porter and Garet 2000.pdf Birman, B. F., Desimone, L., Garet, M. S., Porter, A . C., & Yoon, K. S.(2001). What makes a professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38 (4), 915 945. doi: 10.3102/00028312038004915 Conway, C. (2007). Setting an agenda for professional development policy, practice, and research in music education. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 17 (1), 56 62. doi: 10.1177/1057083707017001010 9 Dixon, J. & McPhee, A.D. (2001). Howard Gardner and education : The theory of multiple intelligences. In The Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory . Retrieved from http://eepat.net/doku.php?id=howard_gardner_and_education Enota Multiple Intelligences Academy. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2014 from http://www.edutopia.org/multiple intelligences immersion enota
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 52 Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intelligences . New York, 7, 2014 from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/education/ed_mi_overview.html Implications of the Theory of M 18(8), 4 9. Gardner, H., Perkins, D., Quense, C., Seidel, S., Tishman, S. (2003). Ten years at project zero: A report on 1993 2002. Retrieved date? from http://www.pz.gse.harvard.edu/ten_years_at_project_zero.php Gardner School of Arts and Sciences. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.gar dnerschool.org/programs/curriculum/multiple intelligences/ Guskey, T.R. (2002). Does it make a difference: Evaluating professional development. In Educational Leadership: Redesigning Professional Development , 59(6), 45 51. Hart, K. (1999). Multiple intell igences. Music Educators Journal , 85 (4), 38. doi: 10.2307/3399532 Harriet Tubman Charter School. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://htcsbronx.org/ Hassan, A., Sulaiman, T., & Yen Yi, H. (2011). An analysis of teaching s tyles in Primary and Secondary school teachers based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Social Sciences, 7 (3), 428 435. Kassell, K. (1998). Music and the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Music Educators Journal, 84(5) 29 32. New City Sc hool Multiple Intelligences. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2014 from http://www.newcityschool.org/academics/curriculum
Professional Development on Multiple Intelligences Theory 53 Peterson, B. (2004). Strengthening the educational value of the elementary musical. General Music Today , 18 (1), 12 19. doi: 10.1177/10483713040180010104 Sparks, D. (2002). Designing powerful professional development for teachers and principals . Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council Spark Education. (2014). Multiple intel ligences theory. San Francisco, CA Winner, E. (n.d.). The History of Howard Gardner. http://www.howardgardner.com/bio/lerner_winner.htm
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