Citation
Using Technology to Facilitate Learning in the Applied Clarinet Studio: Selected Mobile, Software, and Web-Based Applications

Material Information

Title:
Using Technology to Facilitate Learning in the Applied Clarinet Studio: Selected Mobile, Software, and Web-Based Applications
Creator:
Lucia-Ingle, Michelle R.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Webb, Richard S.
Committee Co-Chair:
Goldie, Sandy B.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aural learning ( jstor )
Clarinets ( jstor )
Computer technology ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Music learning ( jstor )
Music students ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Software applications ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
This Capstone Project explored ways current digital technologies can foster learning and clarify assessment in the applied clarinet studio and music classroom. A review of selected digital technologies applicable to the applied clarinet studio is presented. The review includes a description of the selected technologies, how they can be effectively utilized in both the applied studio and classroom setting, and screenshots of the main user interface of each item. Detailed information on each item and where it can be located is provided. The specific digital technologies presented in this document are by no means the only ones available, but represent a sample of those available to the music educators’ disposal. A review of literature with regard to digital technologies used in many aspects of music education is also presented. The use of digital technologies continues to have many implications for music education. The literature suggests that these technologies can help to facilitate learning in music by engaging students in ways familiar to them. It can also motivate them to devote more time to practicing their instrument. More research is needed in the areas of the specific technologies mentioned and utilizing them in the applied studio to evaluate how music technology benefits students’ learning.
General Note:
Music Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Michelle R. Lucia-Ingle. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
927149463 ( OCLC )

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Running head: USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 1 USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING IN THE APPLIED CLARINET STUDIO: SELECTED MOBILE, SOFTWARE, AND WEB BASED APPLICATIONS By M ICHELLE R. LUCIA INGLE SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. RICHARD S. WEBB, CHAIR DR. SANDY GOLDIE, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LI E U OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC EDUCATIO N UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 2 © 2014 Michelle Lucia Ingle

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 3 Abstract This Capstone Project explored ways current digital technologies can foster learning and clarify assessment in the applied clarinet studio and music classroom. A review of selected digital technolog ies applicable to the applied clarinet studio is presented. The review includes a description of the selected technologies, how t hey can be effectively utilized in both the applied studio and classroom setting, and sc reenshots of the main user interface of each item. Detailed information on each item and where it can be located is provided. The specific digital technologies presented in this document are by no means the only ones available, but represent a sample of th . A review of literature with regard to digital technologies used in many aspects of music education is also presented. The use of digital technologies continues to have many implications for music educat ion. T he literature suggests that these t echnolog ies can help to facilitate learning in music by engaging students in ways familiar to them. It can also motivate them to devote more time to practicing their instrument. More research is needed in the areas of the specific technologies mentioned and utilizing them in .

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 4 Acknowledgments All my gratitude to my husband, Ronnie for encouraging me to go back to school after many years a nd believing in my ability t o succeed in my courses and m y sons, Michael and Evan for unending patience and understanding during these two years of studying. Special thanks to my advis e r, Dr. Richard S. Webb , for being available, insightful, and supportive.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 5 Table of Contents Abstract Acknowledgements Table of Contents 5 List of Figures .7 Introduction ..8 Purpose Rationale ..........................9 Review of Literature ..1 1 Digital Technologies in Music Education Digital Technologies in an Instrume ntal Setting Digital Technologies in the Private Studio Other Applications of Digital Technologies Summary 20 Review of Technologies 1 Mobile Apps ... 2 1 Cleartune Tempo Advance iReal Pro Amazing Slow Downer Clarinet in Reach PlayAlong Clarinet Clarinet Prompter

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 6 Cadenza Loopy NotateMe Software SmartMusic 3 5 Band in a Box . 3 6 Audacity 38 Web based Video Resources 40 Noteflight ....... 41 ArtistWorks 42 Livestream 4 4 Conclusion 45 References Appendix A: Referenced Mobile, Software and Web based Applications Appendix B: Biographical Sk etch

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 7 List of Figures Figure 1. Cleartune 23 Figure 2. Tempo Advanc e 25 Figure 3. iReal Pr o 26 Figure 4. Amazing Slow Downer 28 Figure 5. Clarinet in Rea ch 29 Figure 6. PlayAlong Cla rinet 30 Figure 7. Clarinet Prompter 31 Figure 8. Cadenza 32 Figure 9. Loopy 34 Figure 10. NotateMe 35 Figure 11. SmartMusic 36 Figure 12. Band in a Box 38 Figure 13. Audacity 39 Figure 14. YouTube 41 Figure 15. Noteflight 42 Figure 16. ArtistWorks 43 Figure 17. Livestream 44

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 8 Using Technology to Facilitate Learning in the Applied Clarinet Studio: Selected Mobile, Software, and Web Based Applications Digital t echnolog ies are everywhere . Between hardware such as smartphones , iPads, and various computer systems , and connectivity software such as YouTube, Skype, and Facebook, our lives are interwoven with technology regardless of our conscious recognition of it. According ach other using all kinds of technology. The keyword is connected. We as educators owe it to ourselves and especially our (p. 33). As educators, we should frequently a sses s how this can be accomplished. Digital technologies provide us with the opportunity to listen to music differently, study it more vividly, and collaborate more effectively. The current options in music technology yield many benefits for musicians at all s tages of interest and study. The most crucial skill that a teacher must consider is the successful implementation of various creative means of learning, and the a pplied music instruct or may be the most challenged in this endeavor . This is due to the fact t he teaching environment of a private lesson is typically one of solitude, where the teacher and student sit alone to address areas of technique and musicianship unique to that individual (Grushcow, 1985) . M any creati ve avenues can be added to music education through the use of music technology (Watson, 2011) . Mobile, software and w eb based applications (apps) can serve as an aide for the applied clarinet studio and can be used by teachers in other music education areas, such as ensemble directo rs and general music instructors. The se digital technologies may reinforce traditional musical concepts that are being taught and keep students engaged (Beckstead, 2001 ; McAllister, 2010 ). There is also an importance of connecting to a broader community for the 21 st century musician. Digital technolog y can make this possible.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 9 Purpose The purpose of this project was t o inform ways in which digital technolog ies can aid in the applied clarinet studio, and to articulate ways various technologies can impact learning . A primary purpose was to show ways that digital technolog ies can alleviate some of the subjectiv ity in applied studio teaching, since assessment of musical abilitie s is mostly a personal determination. The ability to listen to a performance and judge its musical qualities is based on instructors own musicianship (Brophy, 2000). Rather than using verbal communication for assessing scales, for example, tools such as S martMusic and P layAlong Clarinet could instead be used to show accuracy. The personal and debatable nature of much of the aural assessment and verbal feedback encountered in applied instruction can now be assessed in a clearer and more instructive way with the addition of printouts, instant aural feedback, and visual computer reaction. Finally, the project will reveal ways in which technology benefits music education when strategies are employed appropriately. Rationale There are some educators who choose n ot to use music technology for many reasons which may include a lac k of technological knowledge, dislike of technology, lack of time to learn new technology, or lack of portability of access to equipment and budget limitations ( Clements Cortes, 2013) . T her e is not much literature available concerning the use of technology in the applied studio in comparison to the classroom, which suggests that more research is needed on the topic of technology in the applied studio. I believe t his may be due to the insistence to continue the traditional applied teaching methods, or simply in the solitary nature of individual instruction.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 10 Technology is a connection to a global community of music ians and pedagogues ( Pniewski, 1998) . The advances in just the past f ew years have made it possible to insta ntly connect to people all over the world like never before . Digital technolog ies o ffer opportunit ies for greater creativity, and within a modest budget (Clements Cortes, 2013) . S tudents today have grown up in a world with technology and devices readily available for their use . Bauer (2013) Including technology in private applied lessons is a sol id method of connecting with students in their way of thinking, while at the same time teaching necessary music concepts (McAllister, 2010). Technology can focus a student's attention on the task at hand, and stimulate their emotions in ways with which t hey are already familiar, thereby helping them learn more thoroughly and at a faster rate (Kassner, 2006). Technology and digital media play significant roles in how people network, collaborate, create, and interact with music (Tobias, 2013). By using digi tal technolog ies in music education, it offers opportunities to connect music materials and current technology being used by learners on a daily basis. The use of digital technolog ies with music ians that experience difficulties in distan ce to a metropolitan area ( i.e. l ive in rural area) . Living in a rural environment can present a lack of opportunities, resources (especially financial), and accessibility to a professional community (Eberle, 2003) . Having access to critical materials and the connection to a broader, global community are essential in becoming better musicians . T echnology serves as a motivational resource in the advancement of students . Studies have shown that students exposed to curriculums with technology are enthusiastic and motivated, achieving high levels of success in the edu cational objectives (Clements, 1995) .

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 11 Review of Literature Digital T echnolog ies in Music E ducation The utilization of digital technologies has become increasingly accepted by music teachers. It is a positive tool in all music disciplines. This is evidenced by the fact that both the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) ha ve added technology as a required competency for all professional , fully accredited baccalaureate music degrees (Deal & Taylor, 1997 ; Walls, 2000) . In a survey of 69 colleges in t he southeastern U nited States, Price and Pan (2002) collected data concerning curriculum, facilities, and personnel in music education technology. T he results showed that , even though not all colleges surveyed have adequate staff and facilities to provide music education t the importance of its inclusion in higher education was very high. All but one participant responded that a functional knowledge of music technology is vital for musicians and music educators in the 21 st century. When asked if instruction in music technology should be an integral part of the music education curriculum, all but two respondents agreed . Most students are entering college with a high level of computer skills, and many have computers at home (Walls, 2000). Bauer (2001) surveyed a class of 12 music education majors at Ball State University, who were enrolled in a five week long summer methods course examining attitudes about learning via the w eb. Two different questionnaires w ere used to respond to statements on a Likert type scale . The first questionnaire determined the background of the subjects and their previous experience with w eb based tools similar to those to be subsequently used in the class. The purpose of the second attitudes to ward learning via the w eb based technologies that were ultimately used in the course. Bauer

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 12 concluded that not only did they possess a hig h level of experience with the I nternet, but they were also well versed in the use of basic Internet tools. They also strongly agreed with the he I nternet contains valuable resources for music education , and eb based technologies helped me better unders tand the content of this cou rse (p. 25). Walker (2001) co nducted a qualitative study of graduate students enrolled in a Schenkerian analysis class. The students used video conferencing to form a supportive local community, and Internet applications for journaling. Data was collected during participant observation for an entire semester , which included bi weekly survey questionnaires and final private interviews with each student and the professor. Results revealed that the collaboration was enjoyable and beneficial, as some of the best work submitted was collaborative. The participants also felt the journal was rewarding , and served to motivate th em in learning the subject matter . Incorporating digital technologies in music appreciation courses is an area that has been thoroughly explored . In a study of 15 instructors at colleges and universities, Piccioni (2003) provided a qualitative assessment of changes created by incorporating digital technologies in undergraduate music appreciation courses. The data collected was compiled through participant interviews of the instructors. Standalone programs as well as Internet resources were considered. The findings of this study indicated that the instructors adopted technology to bet ter succeed in their musi c teaching and learning goals. More constructivist experiences in music appreciation were done in comparison to traditional lecture classes. The digital technologies helped develop instructional designs to support alternative ways for students to get the benefit of exploring music more fully.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 13 Wise, Greenwood and Davis (2011) examined four secondary schools in New Zealand w ith regard to digital technologies and the various ways that teaching music has changed in these programs as a result. N ine music teachers participated. Data collection techniques included interviews, observation s and questionnaire s . Results showed that all teachers used a wide range of digital technologies to help them in their teaching. All but one reported havin g a computer at home and regularly moving material between home and school. All of the teachers used technology in composition al activities. Two reported using other software such as Music Ace to support their teaching of music theory, and four referred to accessing YouTube to locate supplementary material to support performance and music history assignments. All of the participating teachers provided evidence that digital technologies available to them have served to transform their pedagogical approaches. With all participants there was a measurable and discernable shift from the instructivist approach to a more constructivist pedagogical philosophy. A ll gave clear examples of a change from this teacher directed model to the inclusion of more student centered activities in the music classroom. Their comments revealed that the integration of digital technologies in the classroom did not necessarily change their basic teaching approach, but the method of delivering curriculum content and setting up learning activities for their students changed . They also indicated that, by using digital technologies in the classroom , their approach became more student centered and provided real world learning experien ces for the students that extended beyond the classroom. The use of digital technolog ies in choral music education is another area of study. In a survey of 237 students at three public high schools, Ryder (2004) looked at the integration of techno logy in choral music education and the ways in which th is technology effects the teaching of voice science to high school students. The study involved three units : ( 1) the learning of vocal

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 14 anatomy, ( 2) function , and ( 3) health. These units were taught through a researcher designed w ebsite over an eight week time frame . The students complet ed preliminary and post project Likert type scale surveys to determine their previous experience with , and attitude toward , using the I nternet for school work. The subjects also completed pre and post tests to measure their knowledge of the conten t before and after instruction. Ryder concluded that the I nternet based teaching had a positive impact All three units of study showed a significant knowle dge gain after instruction, and a majority of students indicated they were comfortable with using the I nternet for school work. The I nternet based format offered features that were not available in a traditional teaching format, including diagrams, photo i mages, and unlimited access to needed information . In addition , questions could be submitted to the teacher at any time, and a missed in class assignment could be made up from home. Legette (2002) studied the effect of a technology assisted music program on the self concept and academic achievement of elementary public school students. The participants constituted 119 fourth grade students at two elementary schools in the sout heastern United States. Both schools were designated as Chapter I schools, mean ing that more than 75% of the students receive free or reduced lunch and both were located in high crime areas. A pre test using the Piers Concept Scale was given. Pre test measures of academic achievement included report card grade averages, attendance, and the Comprehensive Assessment Program (CAP) standardized test scores from the previous school year. CAP is a norm referenced test that compares the ac ademic achievement of students within a particular school district to students nationally. The basic skills that it is designed to access are reading, language and math. The students were divided into two groups. The control group received

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 15 traditional musi technology for general music entitled Music in Education (MIE). The treatment phase lasted two academic years. The researcher observed the classes on a monthly basis. A pos t test of the Piers Concept Scale was given again. The result s revealed no significant difference between groups on any of the subscales and the CAP exams also failed to show a difference. When academic achievement on the report card s was compared, there was a significant difference between groups in the area of language, in favor of the experimental group. A study examining the quality of music technology integration in school was completed by Mills and Murray (2000). The researchers visited 52 schools in England that were already The criteria enables students to make good progress and includes teachers with good knowledge of their subject, high expectations, effective plan ning, strategies that match curricular objectives, manage students well, and use time and resources effectively. 161 music lessons that made use of information and communications technology (ICT) were evaluated. The report finds that 106 of the music lesso ns were found to be good music lessons and the role of ICT facilitated progress in music. The teachers used ICT for composing, performing and other music behaviors for the lessons. The inspectors found the extra time on thei r projects. Some enthusiastic students purchased technology to use at home. This study is rare in that it is descriptive across many schools and music lessons. Digital T echnolog ies in an Instrumental Music S etting In a study of the effe cts of instructional media on group piano students performances and attitudes when utilized in student pra ctice, Benson (2002) found that students who use instructional media in the practice session achieve more total practice time than those not

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 16 engaging in the media. The study investigated 16 music majors enrolled in a group piano course with the purpose of examining possible effects of the kind of instructional media capable of providing audio and video models on student piano learning . The subjects were divided into four groups for a period of two weeks, and practiced the performance material with the use of either a MIDI sequenced recording, a videotape, an interactive multimedia program, or no m edia . The performances of the required material by each subject were recorded for analysis and judgment by an independent observer. Results indicated no significant differences among treatment groups in student performance. Variables observed included note and rhythm accuracy, dynamics, express ive markings, pedaling, and phrasing. Through a survey, t he subjects were asked if their performances improved with the practice sessions, an d if yes, what specific aspects improved. Subjects also rated the media used, the practice sessions, and the diffic ulty of the piece. Open ended questions concerning the aspects of the study that were most helpful and what could have been more instructive about the media and practice session were also included. All three groups using instructional media rated their pra ctice easier than the traditional group , and more total practice time was realized . Digital technologies can be used with instrumental ensemble students to teach and reinforce basic music concepts. A study was conducted by Smith (2002) that investigated the use of computer assisted instruction and its effect on the develop ment of rhythm reading skills. The p articipants included 120 middle school students who were enrolled in instrumental music instruction in their school. The cognitive style variable of field independence/dependence (FDI) was measured. After controlling for FDI, students were assigned to two groups. The experimental group received instruction on rhythm reading using the computer software Music Ace for a half hour per week for a total of eight weeks. The participants completed a pre test and

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 17 post test to measure the the computer assisted instruction (CAI) as a supplementary form of learning did not improv e significantly more than those subjects who did not use CAI. Field independent students did achieve higher on the post test than did field dependent students. The subjects also completed a Student Attitude Survey (SAS) after the completion of the post tes t. Results confirmed a generally positive attitude of subjects toward their experience of using Music Ace as a part of school instrumental ensemble instruction. Many participants indicated on the SAS that they would be interested in continuing this type of CAI as a part of band and orchestra class . The majority of students were optimistic about the effectiveness of the CAI to teach them about music beyond their current ensemble experience, and particular ly the ability to read and perform rhythms more accurately . A study was completed in regard to the use intelligent accompaniment, a feature of SmartMusic, during individual practice. Glenn (2000) followed 22 participants who were studying applied music in either oboe, clarinet, or bassoon at a un iversity in the southeastern United States. Three data collection methods were used: 1) a post test questionnaire, 2) a grading rubric for evaluating pre test and post test recordings, and 3) practice logs kept by each participant. Results indicated the me an scores on the post tests from the experimental group using SmartMusic were higher than the post tests scores from the group that not using the program. Post test questionnaires revealed that more participants in the experimental group (six out of eleven ) felt positively about their post test performance. In contrast, only three out of the eleven in the control group reported a positive feeling about their post test performance. More than half of the experiment group students claimed they enjoyed the inte lligent accompaniment and that it contributed to their musicianship.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 18 Glenn and Fitzgerald (2002) followed up the study mentioned above using the same data with additional information and data regarding intelligent accompaniment feature and it s effects on student attitudes, motivation, and self efficacy. The instructors selected specific pieces available as SmartMusic accompaniments that students had not practiced . They were asked to prac tice the selected music for 30 minutes on six different d ays within a nine day period for a total of three hours. After the practice phase was completed, the comments from the experimental group confirmed the positive impact of using SmartMusic . Some specific comments given included the following: acticing with an accompanist because the practice session seems more complete to me; also, there is more to the music than just your part, and hear the overa exploring the effects of practicing with accompaniment find that it is favored by many students, then possibly this attitude will motivate students to increase practice time. Digital T echnolog ies in the Private S tudio There is a gap in the literature regarding digital technolog ies used in the applied studio. Additional research in this area is needed to explore potential benefits to students in the applied studio. Although ther e is not a body of research study in this area, there are music educators contributing to music journals of their experience and recommendations using digital technolog ies in the applied studio. Anderson (2006) discusse d how he use d SmartMusic, Finale and TuneUp to enrich practice sessions for his students . Engelke (2011) recommends ways to enhance instruction and practice with the use of mobile apps. He lists over 30 mobile apps to assist in improving music skills and to apps, music databases, and accompaniment apps.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 19 Other Applications of Digital Technologies Digital Technologies have important implications in other areas of music education. Assistive technology is providing ways for students with disabilities to learn music in a multisensory learning environment. Children with vision problems, hearing difficul ties, dexterity and other disabilities are benefiting from digital technologies (Gregory, 2002; McCord, 2002). Research is reflecting more use of digital technologies in the area of music therapy. The goals of physical rehabilitation, improved communicatio ns, emotional expression, social and intellectual growth, relaxation, minimizing pain and building individuality and self confidence can be enhanced with music software, recording technology, and computer assisted devices (Clements Cortes, 2013; Crowe & Ri o, 2004). Technology based music classes are becoming more traditional music 12, do not participate in traditiona l performing ensembles (band, orchestra, choir), may or may not play an instrument (guitar, bass, keyboard, drums), and read little if any notation (Dammers, 2008; Williams, 2007). Conducting courses may also benefit from digital technologies (Kraus, Gonza lez, Hill & Hemphreys 2004). Digital technologies may enable professional development that is relevant to world at any time to interact and share teaching experie nces and techniques (Bauer, 2014). Studies have also been done regarding the effectiveness of music technology workshops, courses and websites for professional development of teachers (Bauer, McAllister & Reese, 2003; Reese, Repp, Meltzer & Burrack, 2002) . Finally, productivity for music educators is increased by digital technologies. Organizational support such as calendars, recordings, lesson plans, inventory, and assessment records can be maintained in an easy and organized manner

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 20 (Bauer, 2014; Riley, 2 013). It was not the intent of this project to explore these areas in detail, but the literature does reflect a body of research and practice that is worth mentioning. Summary A review of the relevant literature regarding the incorporation of digital techn ologies in music education has brought se veral themes to the forefront. Technology is a part of our everyday lives . Therefore, students are generally comfortable with the I nternet and many have their own computers and ancillary devices. Using digital technologies in music education provides unlimited acce ss to information at any time. S tudents know that the I nternet contains valuable resources for music education , and using digital technologies helps them to better understand the subject they a re studying. When comparing , across several musical subjects, the difference between traditional learning methods and the use of digital technologies , studies indicate that test scores and content knowledge are higher for the students in the experimental ( technology) groups. Using digital technologies in music education is becoming more accepted as a way to facilitate learning. Colleges and universities are now required to incorporate music technology into bachelorette music degrees for accreditation from N ASM and NCATE. Music instructors report that incorporating digital technologies into their teaching strategies result s in more student centered and collaborative activities. Even though the curriculum and objectives have not changed, their pedagogical methods have shifted in approach from instructivist t o constructivist. Studies show that students using digital technologi e s in music education enjoy learning more, spend more time practicing their instruments, and are motivated to do well in their classes .

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 21 Review of Technologies Developing understanding and facility with new and emerging digital technologies edagogy and ability to address the nuances of associated musicianship (Tobias, 2013). The following selected digital technologies , available as of October 2014 , can be used to facilitate learning in the applied clarinet studio. It is important to realize that these digital technologies can be used very effectively in other settings. For example , any instrumental or vocal applied studio can benefit from the technologies outlined below, and en semble directors might also benefit . The introduction of these te chnologies can be made in most classroom situations, from music therapy and education to performance and theory. Each of the technologies outlined involve a range of musical skills, knowledge, and decisions that can be utilized by students at all skill lev els . It is important to note that the technologies outlined below are some of the most effective tools I have discovered and have subsequently used, but there are many technologies on the market that, in some cases, perform the same tasks in an equally eff ective manner. Therefore, I am not endorsing these specific technologies, but instead simply reporting about what they offer and their effectiveness. A description of each techno logy with screen shots is provided on the following pages. Specific details are included where available and appropriate, including current cost, ease of use, portability, pros and cons, and comprehensiveness of product as it relates to potential for learning. Suggestions for use are given, including standard and unconventional ways the products can be used to facilitate music learning. Mobile Apps Cleartune . There are many apps available on the market that serve the primary purpose of tuning and generating pitch. Additionally, many apps attempt to provide advance d features

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 22 that offer the user more convenient options. Cleartune successfully balances its basic functionality with high end features that do not obscure its usability. This makes it the top selling, most critically acclaimed instrument tuner available fo r mobile devices to date, with over a half million users interface, a fine tuning meter display is included so the user can visually achie ve a perfect tuning. By having both displays contained within the same interface, the user can see the note name being played while simultaneously observing the pitch . This is especially beneficial for wind instruments such as clarinet, where the pitch can tend to fluctuate according to variables such as breath, dynamics, and articulation. One of the prevailing issues with other tuner apps is the inability to cancel out ambient noise. Cleartune addresses this issue, allowing the pitch to be heard by the dev ice regardless of on stage or extra curricular noise. It supports custom temperaments, a feature that is not only beneficial for performers but also advantageous for teachers. For instance, a performer can tune to equal temperament common in Western Europe an music, while a teacher can use the device to more clearly explain and demonstrate the differences in the Pythagorean, Mean Tone, and French tuning systems. Cleartune also supports the tuning of transposing instruments (clarinet, trumpet, horn, etc.) by converting the sounding pitch to the actual pitch on the note display. This causes less confusion about actual pitch versus transposed pitch , an especially common occurrence among developing students. Note names can be or teachers of aural skills and sight singing. There is a built in temperament especially devoted to the violin family, a feature not found in other tuning apps, which recognizes and tunes intervals such as fifths and octaves properly. The pitch pipe tone generator is also part of the main user interface, providing the musician with a clear reference

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 23 point that can be adjusted quickly if necessary. Especially in comparison to traditional tuners, the Cleartune app provides many positive options without the unnecessary complexity typically found in technology of this nature. Figure 1 . Screenshot of Cleartune . This figure illustrates the rotary no te wheel displaying pitch and fine tuning meter. Tempo Advance . Tempo Advance is a metronome app that retains the functionality of traditional metronomes while adding features that solves most rhythmic nuances and complexities encountered in music. The user interface is set up in a way that is immediately accessible to the first time user, but can be programmed to perform any number of complex tasks. There is a polyrhythm mode that can simultaneously play back two different beats in each measure, which can be set to up to 20 beats in a measure. This is most helpful fo r musicians who wish to work on the feel of various Latin rhythms and twentieth century music. What is most impressive about the app is its flexibility in programming an accelerando and r itardando , tempo changes, meter changes, fermatas, and time changes. There are over 35 different time signatures

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 24 to choose from, all of which can be organized into a "set list" to accommodate mixed meters and tempo changes. The built in set list allows the user to program these features and save the song for subsequent prac sounds, from hand clapping to voice count beat as well, and the volume of each beat is controllable. The basic tempo range ex tends far beyond traditional metronomes, with a span of 10 to 800 beats per minute. Combining this with subdivisions of each beat provides a virtually unlimited tempo range. Another handy feature for the performing musician is its tracking and automation c apabilities, allowing one to document the number of times each measure or passage is played or the amount of time practiced. For teachers, this information can in turn be used for assessment. The preset button feature provides a space where unique time sig natures and rhythmic patterns can be saved for convenient recall. These presets and set lists can be shar e d via email, and unique set lists can be backed up through iTunes File Sharing. Advanced audio fun c tions are also available, allowing the user with su rround sound speakers to pan left and right, and carefully control the direction of the audio. A fun and artistic aspect of Tempo Advance is its inclusion of multiple themes and layouts, an d a choice of various textures for the main user interface. The vis ual aspect of Tempo Advance , as well as its functionality, makes this app convenient and exciting to use, and its price, which is currently at $3.99, makes it a resource that is hard to surpass. For active p erformers, the app includes Blue tooth capability so the functions can be triggered by up to six foot pedals with AirTurn. The display can be seen in portrait or landscape as shown in Figure 2. iReal Pro . iReal Pro provides backing tracks for practicing in a similar manner to the popular software Band in a Box . This way, students can be assigned similar creative tasks using a smartphone that would otherwise only be implement ed with a computer using Band in a Box .

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 25 Figure 2 . Screenshot s of Tempo Advance . This figure illustrates a set list and mixed meter. S tudents will be able to write lead sheets and compositions, download thousands of songs to study, and create different musical s tyles and remixes. There are 35 different styles to choose from including jazz, Latin, and pop. More are available with an In App purchase. T he app can be used for improvisational assignments as well as technical drills (e.g. ii V I patterns). There are 50 common chord progr ession exercises included. Since the chords appear on the screen as the playback advances through the chart, students can learn from both a performance and a theoretical prospective. The chords and subsequent scales are easil y customizable, which enable st udents to make creative choices about a particular sound that is desired. Scale recommendations for each chord can be displayed to help with improvisational ideas. T he sound quality of the backing tracks contain very realistic sounding guitars, pianos, bas s, drums, and strings. This is important because it is the sound quality of the product that will cause students to enjoy the tasks that are assigned and make them want to use these newly acquired skills in a l ive situation. Since many clarinet students ch oose to learn saxophone in order to play in the jazz

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 26 ensemble at school, the transpositi on and tempo functions allow students to easily learn this important skill. iReal Pro offers helpful practice options including looping a group of measures, a n automatic tempo increase at each repeat, and automatic transposition at each repeat for an extra challenge. Guitar tabs and piano fingerings can be displayed or looked up for any chord charts. Songs can be saved and shared by email or in the iReal Pro for ums. They can be exported as PDF, MusicXML, WAV, AAC and MIDI files. It is also compatible with AudioBus and page tuners, such as AirTurn. Although Band in a Box offers more options, IReal Pro offers portability and an inexpensive price. Figure 3 . Screenshot s of iReal Pro . This figure illustrates chord changes, song list, tempo and track control, and editing.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 27 Amazing Slow Downer . One of the more beneficial skills musicians must acquire is aural recognition. Pitch accuracy, timbre discrimination, intervallic recognition, and chordal identification are all important in ultimately becoming an excellent musician and artist. Transcribing passages from pre recorded music is an art often neglected by most musicians. This the Amazing Slow Downer app to learn the details of a musical passage makes this process easier and more vivid. In general, the app slows down recorded music without changing the pitch. To do this it arranges the various features in a very user provided to change parameters such as speed, pitch, sta rt point, and mix. Once these parameters are chosen, a passage can be chosen to constantly loop for practicing. This app is beneficial in several important ways. For the practicing musician, the benefits lie in its assistance in slowing down passages for m ore detailed study. Music teachers and students can focus on important musical events in ways not previously possible, all without sacrificing quality of sound. Also, educators can more clearly point out critical aspects of a composition in terms of form a nd technique, thereby making the music more understandable and less mysterious. Transcribing music for the purpose of sharing, studying, and publishing is made imm ensely easer through this app. T he app can be used in other disciplines, particularly in danc e, where the user finds it beneficial to slow down the speed of the music. The equalizer has eight channels and is adjustable, making it easier to arrive at the exact frequency of the chosen passage so it can be clearly heard. Users can maximize their time management, and make boring tasks more fun. T he portability and convenience of t his app can maximize make the assigned task more fun.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 28 Figure 4. Screenshots of Amazing Slow Downer . This figure illustrates speed control and song list. Clarinet in Reach . Clarinet in Reach is p art of a series of apps called Music in Reach that strives to focus primarily on band instruments (flute, saxophone, trumpet and trombone). According to the developers, their focus is to utilize traditional teaching techniques and methods in order to "provide quality products that will improve a student's musical abilities in and out of rehearsal . " Pr esented by Anthony McGill, principal clarinetist of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra of New York, the app contains a wealth of information for students and teachers alike, including: ( 1) a udio files of etudes , ( 2) v ideo files o n technique development (master classes) , ( 3) f inge ring chart (standard and trill), ( 4) b eginner and professional equipment guide (reeds, ligatures, instruments) , and ( 5) c omprehensive list of musical terms with definitions . Perhaps the most beneficial aspect of this app is that i t is constantly being improved upon, with updates that are frequently offered with no additional work on the part of the consumer and at no additional

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 29 charge. There is a companion book that one could use with the app if desired. The following screenshots i n F igure 5 demonstrate the incredible ease of use inherit in this app. Figure 5. Screenshots of Clarinet in Reach . This figure illustrates the fingering chart and musical terms with definitions. PlayAlong Clarinet . PlayAlong Clarinet is a p art of a series of apps called AtPlayMusic that focus primarily on beginning musicians of all kinds, including orchestral (violin, viola and cello), band (flute, saxophone, horn, trumpet , trombone , baritone and tuba ) , and other instruments (recorder, guitar and bass guitar) . This app is designed to help clarinetists of al l levels with the technical aspects of performance through inventive ways of assessment. For instance, teachers can write exercises and send them directly to their students. Students can create ga mes with their peers using the scoring feature, a feature that automatically tabulates results and shares them with friends. Perhaps most stunning is its ability to listen to your playing and guide you through selected songs. At the end of a given song there is a proficiency score and cumulative statis tics of correct notes, consecutive correct notes, and the number songs played

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 30 correctly. The beginner student can have a fingering chart displayed under each note as they play, and an audio plays by touching t he fingering chart. There is a game center mo de where stats are listed on a leaderboard and songs are shown as accomp lishments. Figure 6 . Screenshots of PlayAlong Clarinet . This figure illustrates the game leaderboard and song guide. Clarinet Prompter . Clarinet Prompter provides the note fingerings in real time while a song or musical passage plays. One can p lay the note fingerings shown on the screen to play along with the 36 pre packaged song and scale files ( chromatic major, minor and blues) or import a song MIDI f ile from e mail or a w ebsite . It provides the user with the ability to s low down the recorded playback and perform the passage at a more reasonable speed , and to adjust the speed as the passage becomes more manageable. Tracks are separ ated, making it possible to isolate a track by turning off others. Lesson files can be shared by using AirDrop , a feature that allows instant sharing by any enabled wireless device. Clarinet Prompter also supports the two pedal AirTurn wireless page turner . A song file written for another instrument can be automatically transposed and viewed by the user, accounting for the range of the clarinet. Since the app is developed by a company that specialized in products for all band instruments, it is

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 31 highly usefu l for the band director or classroom teacher. The app is also available for flute, oboe, saxophone, and trumpet. The following screenshots in F igure 7 show different practice options available on c larinet prompter. Figure 7. Screenshots of Clarinet Prompter . This figure illustrates the pre packaged song files and available options for each song, including tracks and fingerings . Cadenza . Cadenza provides a full orchestra accompaniment that will play along with the performer . It listens and This is the first app from Sonation , a company founde d in 2013. Their mission is to produce technology that allows true musical expression. The app is available for iPad with a free download. There are about 50 titles to choose from including concertos, sonatas and chamber music, with more being added all the time. Each piece is an extra purchase around five dollars and in cludes a PDF of the music of the solo part . Cadenza is available for violin, viola, cello, flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, trumpet, and F rench horn. A vocal app is in the works. The backing tracks are recordings of real orchestras from the United States an d Europe that have been used over the past 60 years by Music Minus One , not digital instruments. Many of the top

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 32 music institutions have tested this product including New England Conservatory, Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, Berklee College of Music and many more. It is easy to use and provides complete control. It can start and stop at any point in the piece. Volume, tuning, and the following sensitivity of the orchestra can be adjusted. It can be trained to play a passage the same way the next time. Perform ances can be recorded and mixed with basic controls and shared. A few more features can be used with an additional upgrade. They include creating your own sections to rehearse, adjusting the accompaniment tuning, and turning off the adaptive accompaniment. The following screenshots in F igure 8 show a solo part for practicing. Figure 8. Screenshots of C adenza . This figure illustrates a PDF of the solo trumpet part with the management window and a cellist practicing with the app.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 33 Loopy . The implications of this app in relation to both the applied clarinet studio as well as the classroom are wide reaching. It allows students to be creative and gain necessary number of sources, including external sound such as a voice or instrument, and pre recorded sounds f rom other devices and sources. Compared to previous technologies that perform the same tasks, this app is extremely user friendly while retaining the same power and functionality. It is also affordable an d portable. Recording and layering is as simple as t ouching one of the twelve time performances for musicians who need to have hands free control to play their instrument. MIDI information can be sent directly to Loopy via a f oot pedal. The importing and arranging functionality of the app is perhaps the most impressive feature. Not only can one import loops from a computer, with endless options and file formats, but each audio file is automatically rendered to fit the desired beat. Performing and sharing a project is possible with the provided recording options. Performances can be uploaded and easily posted on so cial network or personal sites. It is compatible with the Audiobus app, which is a stand alone app whose purpose is to connect multiple music apps to one another like virtual cables. Figure 9 shows the ease of the app. NotateMe . This notation app differs from others because music can be entered quickly with a pen and paper. This option may be easier for some students in comparison to entering music with a mouse or keyboard. NotateMe offers instant playback, editing, and a printable score. It includes support for transposing instruments. Scores can be em ailed as PDF, MusicXML, and MIDI files. They can

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 34 Figure 9. Screenshots of Loopy . This figure illustrates the main looping interface, built in loops, and wave file with options. be opened in Sibelius, Finale, and other desktop software, then printed. MusicXML files can be imported and edited. The handwritten music reco g ni zition adjusts to ones writing style. It recognizes a wide range of music symbols, including notes (with solid, open, and slanted noteheads), flags, beams, leger lines, multiple voices per staff, chords, rests, accidentals, articulations, ties, slurs, tuplets, hairpins, clef changes, and key signatures. Barlines, clefs and time signatures are added automatically. C . An in app purchase called PhotoScore Add in allows one to take photos of sheet music then playback and edit them within NotateMe . Files can be e xport ed as MusicXML to other apps. Another in app purchase called AudioScore will be available soon. Music can be sung or played into the

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 35 Figure 10. Screenshots of Not at eMe . This figure illustrates the handwritten music recognition, converted notation. Software Smart Music . SmartMusic is interactive music software that provides accompaniment microphone and follows the spontaneous changes in tempo and musicality. encourages the performer to play with expression, creativity and musicality. It allows for customizations that includ e tempo adjustments, transpositions, and stylistic considerations. A music library for every band, orchestral and jazz ensemble instrument can be found. Vocal music is also included. Standard repertoire including solos, method books (solo and ensemble) an d state metronome, fingering charts, warm up exercises, and other resources that serve to make practicing productive. Another feature of SmartMusic is its capability to record a practice session. With one click, a student can record themselves and transfer it to an external media such

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 36 as a CD. The objective assessment and instruction included in the program are particularly beneficial. SmartMusic use s colored graphics to show errors of rhythm and pitch on a staff that can be printed and given to the student. Once the problematic areas are r e gistered, SmartMusic provides the needed tools to correct the issues. This personalized feedback allows teachers to help each student with their specific deficiencies. Other assessments created by SmartMusic include grade book, practice journal, and tangible products such as CDs and printed music. Figure 1 1 . Screenshots of SmartMusic . This figure illustrates an assessment with colored graphics showing playing mistakes and available options for each song, including intelligent accompaniment and recording. B and in a Box . The convenience of practice materials on fixed media such as Musi c Minus One and The Jamey Aebersold Play a Long Series beginning in the 1990s were welcomed as one of the most ground breaking tool s for music practicing to date and used by many of us currently teaching. These new tools offered helpful and fun ways to enhance music learning, but with some limitations. Practicing with these recordings caused one to be relegated to a specific key,

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 37 styl e, and tempo, which was difficult to those interested in learning outside of the parameters provided. The emergence of Band in a Box largely solved these limitations by offering the necessary flexibility to change these aspects. Its user friendly display s uch as c hord changes e xpressed as simple chord symbols, is easy to understand for even novice users. Once the chord change is entered, Band in a Box processes this information and plays it back as its aural representation. The playback is high quality with real sounding instruments. Once a file is created using chord changes a n assortment of options become available to the user. A solo can be produced that offers instantly generated solos in the style of hundreds of popular music ians. Specific instruments can be suppressed during playback, allowing the user to join the mix. Remixing a given track into a completely different style is as easy as choosing from hundreds of pre loaded styles. The musical content of Band in a Box includ es thousands of styles country . On screen notation is provided to play along or print out. These can be used to teach improvised solos . The harmonization function allows the user to c reate harmonies from single line melodies that are either created live or imported from other media. Original music can be arranged and produced with the fully customized digital audio workstation that is provided. Up to 64 tracks can be added to any arran gement, making Band in a Box a most useful and fun tool for any musician. Band in a Box can be used specifically as an aide to show the stylistic differences between prominent jazz soloists. A discussion comparing Miles Davis to Freddie Hubbard is made more vivid by generating a solo for each trumpeter and analyzing how each solo is treated. An arrangement for an instrument from an original composition can be made using the modified using substitute chords and unique voice leading. Perhaps one of the most useful features for teaching students is the Ear Training and

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 38 Chord Tutor. Students can recognize both pitch and timbre through an easi ly navigated window. specific note. The chords can be placed in root position or inverted and can be in either open or included as a fun way to assess the recognition of chords and pitches. A lien ships are shot down by choosing the correct pitch connected with each ship. Figure 1 2 . Screenshots of Band in a Box . This figure illustrates a chord progression with style choices and a soloist setlist with choices including style, choruses and harmony . Audacity . Audacity is a free multi track audio editor and recorder program that operates in multiple platforms. Primarily Audacity is used to record audio and computer playback, but it also can be used for other purposes beyond that of an audio recorder. Other digital media formats can be converted into digital copies, and project mixes can be produced through the many program tools. The sound quality is extreme ly high for a free program, and a bank of effects are built in to further manipulate and enhance the sound. Multiple tracks can be recorded together for simultaneous viewing, making it easy to compare methods of articulation. Audacity can be used

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 39 in the ap plied studio for more than recording lessons, practice sessions, performances, and projects. This alone makes Audacity and progress. In this respect, Audacity's value for wind instrumentalists l ies in its ability to through a visual representation of a waveform reveals many attributes in sound production and technique. A series of notes articulated repeatedly in Audacity not only reveals the shape of each shaped note , since the shape of a brick represents a definitive beginning and end of a note as well as a consistency of volume. The presence of varying degrees of amplitude means that air is not being consistently released into the instrument. Finally, correct articulation can be more easily understood while viewing Audacity . In the end, it is extre mely beneficial to hear recordings of personal performances, but Audacity allows one to add the sense of sight to help further determine areas of technical inconsistencies with regard to blowing air into an instrument and articulation. Figure 1 3 . Screenshots of Audacity . This figure illustrates multi tracks with the sound represented by wave forms and options for editing tracks .

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 40 Web based Video Resources . Recordings of music events are available on multiple platforms throughout the Internet, making performances and live events more readily accessible . This in turn provides the user with efficient and constructive ways of teaching and learning. This instant accessibility serves to eliminate the excessive time and money needed to locate appropri ate recordings and live performances to purchase . Multiple performances and interpretations of a given work can be viewed and studied, increasing the scope of knowledge one acquires from such a service. Th e possibilities of networking and exposure in music throughout the world have increased dramatically with access to a seemingly infinite amount of information. YouTube is a familiar video sharing website that can be instantly accessed with any computer or mobile device. Performances can be uploaded, viewed and stored at no cost. I t is not even necessary to create an account to utilize many of the features of YouTube . Recital s, concerts and audition materials can easily be uploaded and shared with other musicians in an either public or private way. The uploaded videos are stored indefinitely. Videos platforms for specific instruments can be located on many websites and blogs pertaining to that i nstrument. A useful website for a rchived performances by some of the most famous clarinetists of all time i ncluding Thea King, Charles Niehich, and many others is clarinetinstitute.com . The website allclarinet.blogspot.com is a clarinet blog with p erformances of new repertoire . Advertisements for u pcoming clarinet performances throughout the United States are p osted to this site . This blog is also linked to the International Clarinet Association , the premier organization for clarinet performers and educators . Most of the videos on websites and blogs are linked to YouTube , but the convenience of having clarinet specific videos on a unique site provides teachers and students with a

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 41 convenient location by which they can obtain important and new repertoire as well as iconic performances. Figure 1 4 . Screenshot of YouTube . This figure illustrates the video search engine with a search for a popular clarinet solo sorted by view count, which demonstrates the amount of choices available for one piece. Notef light . Noteflight is an online music application that allows one to create, view, print , hear, share, and store professional quality music notation. It is a free product, with options for purcha sing upgrades. Because it is a w eb based program, it is useful for collaborative student projects and easily accessible by the instructor for communication and interaction between lessons or classes . It is simple to use and only requires setting up a free account to get started. Arrangement and transcription projects can be assigned to students in Noteflight. For more advanced students and assignments, an upgrade to Noteflight Crescendo may be needed. Features in the upgrade not included in the free version are unlimited scores, 85+ high quality instruments, individual part printing, MIDI note entry, and audio mixing. Noteflight has several

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 42 public forums to share ideas with other people. There is a musical collaboration forum where multiple people can contribute to a piece of music. The original compositions forum allows one to post an original composition for discussion. There is also a publ ic domain music forum to discuss music that is not under a current copyright. Other notation programs such as Finale and Sibelius offer more options and are used by most professional composers, but the value for the product, the ease of collaboration and the learning curve are good reasons to use it. It is a similar comparison to Word versus Google Docs . Figure 1 5 . Screenshot of Noteflight . This figure illustrates score entry with the notation pallet and file options such as public, private, or embedding into a w eb page. ArtistWorks . ArtistWorks is interactive online music lessons with world renowned master teachers. Instruction is available for a variety of instruments, from orchestral and jazz instruments to harmonica and guitar. It offers instruction in a variety of diverse musical genres, including classical, jazz, commercial, and bluegrass to name a few. Even cour ses in DJ scratching are offered. It works using the process . This allows the teacher

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 43 and student to speak freely about specific matters that relate only to a given situation. Videos are posted to a specific teacher for review and comment, and the response is posted in return in the same format to the student. The response from the instructor outlines specific technical areas that can be i mproved upon based on the content of the original video. There is also a forum that allows the communication to include other stud ents enrolled at the school. P re recorded lessons by the instructor of specific solos, etudes, and orchestral excerpts are ava ilable for the students to view . Additionally, technical clinics on a given topic can be posted . An option to learn from others is provided, since students typically have the same questions . With this exchange also comes the ability to chat online with oth er students around the world, post questions and comments to the forum, and find other students with which to collaborate. Lessons are available in three, six, and twelve month sessions, with a fixed cost for each option. While real time feedback is not po ssible through ArtistWorks , the combination of and an archived bank of past lessons, make it a highly effective tool in applied instruction. Having access to the top pedagogues in their field that will affirm and reinforce the musical techniques that one is teaching to their students is invaluable and can serve to motivate music students. Figure 1 6 . Screenshots of ArtistWorks . This figure illustrates the options offered and a pre recorded clarinet lesson with Ricardo Morales.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 44 Livestream . Livestream is an I nternet streaming website that allows users to b roadcast live events for free. The initial set up for Livestream is only to c reate an account. After following some simple steps, hosting a n event is as easy as c licking the record button. The w ebsite is free to use and can archive events for 30 days. Videos can be archived longer than 30 days with a premium upgrade for a nominal fee. Once the event is completed, an option is provided to download the video to a personal computer . Livestream connects the musical community on a global scale, making it possible to attend concerts and events without travel ing a great distance. Livestream provides a way for individuals to avoid the disappointment of missing concerts and events due to problems in scheduling, weather, di stance, finances or other obstacles. For the applied studio, Livestream provides unlimited opportunities to experience music events all over the world . Students can view recitals, promote concerts, and provide a way to reach a network of people outside their normal group. Current trends can be more easily discovered and followed through this con nection with other artists around the world. Soloists and ensembles, red carpet events, and popular artists all use Livestream to promote an upcoming event without paying premium advertising costs. As with other social media w ebsites, Livestream allows u sers to keep up with their favorite artists and their performance sch edule. Figure 1 7 . Screenshots of Livestream . This figure illustrates playback of a recorded event and the live broadcast platform.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 45 Conclusion th e Internet , and instant access to media of many kinds. We have a professional responsibility to understand these digital technologies their assets and limitations for learning (Webster, 2009). Music educators would be well served to use digital technolog ies to facilitate learning in the applied studio, ensembles, other instrumental settings and classrooms. This connection between the central goals of music education and the opportunities that technology presents is hardly new (Webster, 2002). Music educators are less interested in comparative studies that pit music the data are clear that technological methods do equally well or better than more conventional teaching (Webster, 2007). More research is needed to discover the worth of technology in music education (Watson, 2011). And as Walls (2000) suggests, m usic educators must share their insights into how technology has affected their students . Those i nstructors who have experience integrating digital technologies into their teaching can advance our practice if they publish what they have learned. The premise of this Capstone Project can best be summed up through the words of Dr. that can come from pairing some of the best software with your fine music teaching can be en Capstone Project was to address the need for more research by prov iding practical perspectives on how current music technology, including mobile, software and w eb based apps can facilitate learning in the applied studio and other areas of music education. Because technology is constantly evolving, more and better music technology will become available, possibly making the technologies reviewed in this p roject dated, if not entirely obsolete. It is my ho pe that the information provided here will

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 46 inspire music educators to add technology into their music teaching and reap the benefits of better student learning, creativity and motivation.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 47 References Anderson, M. (2006). Making the most of S mart M usic and TuneU p. International Trumpet Guild Journal , 31 (1) , 71, 78. Bauer, W. I. (2001). Student attitudes toward web enhanced learning in a music education methods class: a case study. Journal of Technology in Music L earning, 1 (1), 20 30. Bauer, W. I. (2014). Music learning today: Digital pedagogy for creating, performing, and responding to music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Bauer, W., McAllister, P., & Reese, S. (2003). Transforming music teaching via technology: The role of professional development. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51 (4), 289 301. Beckstead, D. (2001). Will technology transform music education? Music Educators Journal, 87 (6) , 4 4 49. Benson, C. (2002). The effects of instructional media on group piano student performance and attitude. Journal of Technology in Music Learning, 1 (2), 38 55. Brophy, T. S. (2000). Assessing the developing child m usician: A guide for general music t ea chers. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc. Clements, D. (1995). Teaching creativity with computers. Educational Psychology Review, 7 (2), 141 161. Clements Cortes, A. (2013). High tech therapy: M usic technology in music therapy. Canadian Music Educator, 54 ( 4 ), 37 39. Crowe, B. , & Rio, R. (2004). Implications of technology in music therapy practice and research for music therapy education: A review of literature. Journal of Music Therapy, 41 (4), 282 320.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 48 Dammers, R. (2008). A survey of tec hnology based music classes in New J ersey high schools. Contributions to Music Education, 36 (2), 25 43. Deal, J. D. , & Taylor, J. A. (1997). Technology standards for college music degrees. Music Educators Journal, 84 (1), 17 23. Eberle, K. (2003). Enhancing voice teaching with technology. Journal of Singing, 59 (3), 241 246. Engelke, L. (2011). Enhancing practice and instruction with iP hone/smartphone applications. International Trumpet Guild Journal, 35 (4) , 72 75. Glenn, S. G. (2000). The effects of a situated approach to musical performance education on student achievement: Practicing with an artificially intelligent computer accompanist. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thes e s database (AAT 99 84138) Glenn, S. G. & Fitzgerald, M. A. (2002). Technology and student attitudes, motivation, and self efficacy: A qualitative study. NACWPI Journal, Fall, 4 15. Gregory, D. (2002). Assistive technology for computer based music instruction. Journal of Tec hnology in Music Learning, 1 (2), 15 23. Grushcow, B. (1985). Computers in the private studio. Music Educators Journal, 71 (5), 25 29. Hagon, S. (2011). Technology: It's everywhere. So wha t are you going to do about it? Massachusetts Music News, 59 (3) , 33 34. Kassner, K. (2006). Technology for music instruction: Is technology finally better than human teachers? Take a look at Music Ace Maestro. General Music Today, 19 (26), 26 29. doi: 10.1177/10483713060190020107

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 49 Kraus, B., Gonzalez, G., Hill, G., & Hem phreys, G. (2004). Interactive computer feedback on the development of fundamental conducting skills. Journal of Band Research, 39 , 35 44. Legette, R. M. (2002). The effect of technology assisted music instruction of the self concept and academic achievement of fourth grade public school students. Contributions to Music Education, 29 (1), 59 69. McAllister, L. S. (2010). Should music lessons be fun? American Music Teacher, 59 (4), 16 19. McCord, K. (2002). Children with special needs compose using music technology. Journal of Technology in Music Learning, 1 (2), 3 14. Mills, J. & Murray, A. (2000). Music technology inspected: Good teaching in ke y stage 3. British Journal of Music Education, 17 (2), 129 156. Piccioni, R. (2003). Integrating technology into undergraduate music appreciation courses (Do ctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thes e s database ( AAT 3106957) Pniewski, T. (1998). Music lessons in cyberspace: T he Manhattan School of M program. The World & I , 13 (5) , 92 98. Price, H. E. , & Pan, Kok Chang (2002). A survey of music education technology at colleges in the southeastern USA . Journal of Technology in Music Learning, 1 (2), 56 66. Reese, S., Repp, R., Meltzer, J., & Burrack, F. (2002). The design and evaluation of use of a multimedia web site for online professional development. Journal of Technology in Music Learning, 1 (2), 24 37. Riley, P. (2013). Teaching, learning, and living with i P ads. Music Educators Journal, 100 (1), 81 86.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 50 Ryder, C. O. (2004). The u se of I nternet b ased t eaching s trategies in t eaching v ocal a natomy, function, and h ealth to h igh s chool c horal m usic s tudents, and its effect on student attitudes and a chievement (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thes es ( AAT 3136262) Smith, K. H. (2002). The effectiveness of computer assisted instruction on the development of rhythm reading skills among mi ddle school instrumental students. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3070051) Tobias, E. S. (2013). Toward convergence: Adapting music education to contemporary society and participatory culture. Music Educators Journal, 99 (4), 29 36. Walls, K. C. (2000). Technology for future music educators. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 9 (2), 14 21. Watson, S. (2011). Using technology to unlock musical creativity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Webster, P. R. (2002). Historical perspectives on technology and music. Music Educators Journal, 89 (1), 38 43 , 54. Webster, P. R. (2007). Computer based technology and music teaching and learning: 2000 2005. In Bresler, L. (Ed.), International handbook of research in arts education (pp. 1311 1330). Ne w York, NY : Springer. Webster, P. R. (2009). Music technology as a ser vant to real music experience. The Orff Echo, F all , 8 12.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 51 Williams, D. B. (2007). Paper presented at the Proceeding s of University of Minnesota. Wise, S., Greenwood, J. , music education: Illustrations of changing classrooms. British Journal of Music Education, 28 (2), 117 134.

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 52 Appendix A Referenced Mobile, Software, and Web Based Applications

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 53 Referenced Mobile, Software, and Web Based Applications Amazing Slow Downer (Version 4.8.0) [ Mobile application ]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com ArtistWorks [ Web based ]. Available from http://artistworks.com/ Audacity (Version 2.0.5) [Computer software]. Available from http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ Band in a Box (Version 2014) [Computer software]. Available from http://www.pgmusic.com/ Cadenza (Version 1.2) [Mobile application]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com Clarinet in Reach (Version 3.0) [ Mobile application ]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com Clarinet Prompter (Version 2.3) [ Mobile application ]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com Cleartune (Version 2.1.3) [ Mobile application ]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com iReal Pro (Version 6.0) [ Mobile application ]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com Livestream [Web based]. Available from http://new.livestream.com/ Loopy (Version 1.4.10) [Mobile application]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com NotateMe (Version 2.6.5.0) [Mobile application]. Available from http://www.store.apple.com Noteflight [Web based]. Available from http://www.noteflight.com/ PlayAlong Clarinet (Version 2.2.2) [ Mobile application ]. Available f rom http://www.store.apple.com SmartMusic (Version 2014 ) [Computer software]. Available from http://www.smartmusic.com/ Tempo Advance (Version 2.0 .2 ) [ Mobile application ] . Available from http://www.store.apple.com YouTube [ Web based ]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 54 Appendix B Biographical Sketch

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USING TECHNOLOGY TO FACILITATE LEARNING 55 Biographical Sketch Michelle Lucia Ingle received her Bachelor of Music in Clarinet Performance degree from the University of Southern California, where she studied with several preeminent clarinet pedagogues, including Mitchell Lurie, Yehuda Gilad, and Michelle Zukovsky. She continued graduate studies at the University of California at Los Angeles, while working as a radio pr ogrammer. She is currently completing University of Florida. She is the founding member of several chamber ensembles in her career, including the Baltimore Symphonic Band Clarinet Quintet, and the Appalachian T rio and Joyeux Chamber Ensemble, served as principal clarinetist of the High Desert Symphony, and recorded on First Love label. She was a featured guest performer at the 2013 Brandon University Clarinet Festival. She currently serves on the faculty of the International Music Camp, where she teaches clarinet and chamber music. Mrs. Ingle served as executive director of the Grand Forks Master Chorale for five seasons, an d has also served as personnel manager, coordinator of the Young Artist Concerto Competition, and principal clarinetist for the Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra. She currently maintains a private studio of clarinetists and saxophonists in Grand Forks , and is a member of the University of North Dakota Faculty Contemporary Chamber Ensemble, the Classic Swing Band, and performs with local theater productions including Crimson Creek Players and the UND Theatre Department, and has performed with the nation al touring company of the musical Chicago . She is a member of the National Association for Music Educat ion , North Dakota Music Educators Association, and International Clarinet Association.


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