CREATING MUSIC ONLINE: DEVELOPING AN ONLINE MUSIC CREATION COURSE FOR THE HIGH SCHOOL MUSIC STUDENT By JASON P. LONGTIN SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. KEITH P. THOMPSON , CHAIR DR. PETER R. WEBSTER , MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 2 Â©2014 Jason P. Longtin
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my Capstone committee, Dr. Kei th P. Thompson and Dr. Peter R. W ebster for contributing their time, effort, and expertise in reviewing my work and guiding me along the way. I would espec ially like to thank Dr. Thompson for his unwavering support , meaningful dialogue , and encouragement through out this pr ocess and for his help in refining this project. I would also like to acknowledge my classmates for their advice, inspiration , and help these past two years. Finally I would like to thank my wife, Amy, and my daughters, Charlotte and Violet, for their continually astounding love, patience, and faith in me during this time. I could not have done this without you and I love you all !
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 4 The p rimary purpose of this project was the development of a web based c ourse in music creation for high school students. The course is currently located at: http s://sites.google.com/site/uflongtin/
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 W EBSITE ADDRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 CHAPTER 1. PROBLEM, NEED FOR STUDY, PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1 4 3. PROJECT OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 4. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 RE FERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 APPENDICES A. RUBRIC FOR INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 B. RUBRIC FOR COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 C. WEBSITE SCREENSHOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 D. SAMPLE AUDIO OF FINAL PROJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 6 ABSTRACT Many high school students never get the opportunity to create music. Whether they are not involved in the school music program at all, or their music teacher teaches little or no composition in their classes, students are not experiencing a key element of music education. Even in schools where music teachers do incorporate aspects of music creation into their ensembles, many other students are missing out because they are reluctant to participate in school music programs, as they do not want to be in a pe rforming ensemble. This project seeks to solve the problem by offering a course in music creation/composition that is designed with those students in mind. Because of the ease of access to programs such as Soundation and Google Hangouts , this course has been designed to be taught online as part of a comprehensive music program. Students will navigate through a series of projects that will introduce them to the music creation experience without requiring them to have preexisting knowledge of formal musica l concepts.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 7 CHAPTER 1 PROBLEM, NEED FOR STUDY, PURPOSE The question of the role of music creation and/or composition in the music classroom is one that has baffled music educators for years. Music creation is the act of constructing a series of single or multiple pitch patterns and movement (upwards or downwards), soun ds and silences (long or short), and expression through written or electronic means . This can be accomplished without written notation, using graphical music interfaces, recording equipment, or (if desired) unique symbol systems. While composition is similar to music creation, there are differences. The most significant difference is that composition generally uses traditional notation, and is created by people with some knowledge of traditional music theory . However, music can be created without this knowledge. Through out the literature discussed in this document, the process of composition is referred to quite often. It is my opinion that althoug h this project refers to music creation, t he literature regarding composition is still applicable. Throughout this paper, the two terms will b e used interchangeably . Do teacher s use music creation or composition in the classroom? If so, how often do they use it ? If not, why? In her survey of Indiana music teachers, Katherine Strand (2005) discovered that while 88.5% of teachers used composition in the classroom, only 5.9% of teachers indicated they many other activities (56.9%) and lack of technology (28.2%) were the two most common reasons for the rare use or total exclusion of composition in the classroom. I was surprised that only 8.9% of teachers responded that they were not comfortable teaching composition. While this was only a statewide survey, I would imagine national results would prove to be similar. A
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 8 course in music creation delivered online could be a solution to this problem of not enough in the traditional classroom. Why teach composition in the classroom? Often, music education falls behind visual art and theatre in opportu experiences in creating music, Bolden discovered several themes that figured into the reasoning ion, Through his study, he came to an important conclusion: Many of the participants who composed for this study enjoyed doing so. This study indicates their enjoyment stemmed from engaging in a comparatively rare experience ( ''I've finally gained the satisfaction of composing my own piece'' ) and having a tangible indication of achievement and success ( ''To play and hear something you did, and get feedback, is very inspiring and rewarding'' ). R espondents wrote of the 'satisfaction', 'pride,' and 'fulfillment' they felt having composed. Educators need to recognize the huge potential for intrinsic motivation in this activity. In addition, learning is always enhanced when educational activities are enjoyable -composing is accordingly a brilliant opportunity for enhanced learning. (p. 26) Along with the enhanced learning experience , composition (music creation) is a vital part of the National Standards in Music. In June 2014, the new National Core Art Standards were completed and made available. These standards replace t he 1994 NAfME (formerly MENC) St andards that have been the guidelines for state standards and music teachers (Standards, 2014). The standards include four Processes: Creating, Perf orming/Presenting/Producing, Responding, and Connecting. Each Process contains 2 or 3 Anchor Standards (National Arts Standards,
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 9 2014). The standards have been separated into different strands, and Composition & Theory are one of those strands. Included in the composition strands are the four Processes and Anchor Standards. An Enduring Understanding and Essential Question accompany each Anchor Standard (Core Music Standards, 2014). The inclusion of a Composition Theory Strand nt to having composition courses available to students. It is my firm belief that a well designed music creation course can easily be developed around the standards. The idea of using technology (including the internet) as a teaching t ool is not entirely a new one. Reese and Hickey (1999) suggested that teachers and students could benefit from the use of technology and the internet in teaching composition . They argued that simply automating traditional classroom models using technology cannot realize the full potential of using technology. involves creating coordinated learning activit ies that can be used inside and outside of the classroom, including online. After studying two distinctive projects (NETCOMM and MICNet) that offered pre service teachers the opportunity to develop skills in using technology (including the internet) to tea ch composition, they encouraged teacher educators to implement similar projects in their teacher education programs to equip new music teachers with the proper tools for the 21 st Century. Bond (2003) conducted a study with students in remote areas of Weste rn Australia to gauge the potential for using the internet to deliver music education. He discovered that the flexibility and convenience of online music courses were one of the main advantages of the program. He did note that these same factors could wo rk against students who put other
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 10 activities (work, social, other schooling, etc) ahead of their online studies. This would sometimes result in a delay in communication between the teacher and student (though this happens worldwide and at all levels of ed ucation). Bond found that in order for an online learning environment to be effective, various issues relating to teaching in this manner would need to be addressed. Some of these factors included the ability for the teacher to create and facilitate an o nline learning environment that was effective, the readiness of the students to learn music online, and the logistics involved in this type of music instruction. It is my firm belief that an effective online course in music creation can be developed keepi ng these issues in mind. Schools at all levels have become increasingly active in online education. However, online music education has been rather slow to develop. Although secondary online music education is still relatively new, with rather few research studies conducted, Alberch Artal and Sangra (2012) conducted a study of several online music courses in Spain (including courses on Finale and film scoring techniques) and came to the conclusion that these courses ca n offer numerous learning opportunities for students. They discovered that o nline lessons in music tend to be split into two categories: artistry & general music concepts and physical (mechanical) training. Online music resources have been made increasin gly available to students for self directed teaching and enrichment. The scope of online schools is continually growing. As of 2013, 44 states offer some Okla homa, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Additionally, six states now require an online course for graduation: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Michigan, North Carolina, and Virginia (Watson, et al., 2013). Through my research, I did not find any online high school courses focusing on music
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 11 creation (traditional composition or otherwise). The purpose of this project is to develop a viable online course in music creation. David Williams challenged the members of the Tanglewood Symposium II on Technology to revisit th e 1967 recommendations from the original Tanglewood Symposium which stressed the importance of including non performing students in a comprehensive music education program (Williams, 2007). He cited a study by Edwards (2006) that found in 4 states across the nation, the percentage of non performing high school students was surprisingly high: Ohio 70%, New York 74%, Florida 85%, and California 88%. Williams and Dammers (2014) the time they reach high school, are missing a key element of their education. The purpose of this project is to develop a comprehensive high school course in music creation that can be delivered entirely online. This course is intended for students with no formal musical training or performance experience Of course, students with training would be welcome in the course and have a lot to gain. The course is designed so that it does not require students to have music reading or technical performance skills. Because of the graphical interface of the programs used, mastery of the complex traditional notation system is not needed. This course could be appealing to a large number of students because, unlike ensemble membership, it does not require a long term, on going commitment to rehearsals and daily practice. While the collaborative aspect of this course does require students to find time to work together, these times can be agreed upon by the students themselves. In my current teaching position at Florida Virtual School, I encounter all types of students. I have non musician students who are taking this course to fulfill their graduation requirements, other non musician students who are taking this course to impro ve their GPA,
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 12 musicians who are hoping for enrichment while they are on summer vacation, and serious music students who plan to attend college and study music. Because of this variety, I have become personally interested in providing an enriching musical experience to all of my students, whether they are musicians or not. During the 2013 14 and 2014 15 school years, I spent a significant amount of time visiting two high schools in Miami, FL as a representative of FLVS. I had nearly 130 students from thes my students from either school were in a music class at the school. To see them show interest and excitement in learning about music showed me how important it is to develop course s that appeal to the non performing students. I have created a course that will allow students to use technology available on the internet to explore their own musical creativity. How is this achieved? According to Peter Webster (2002), creative thinkin thinking, moving in stages over time, enabled by certain skills (both innate and learned), and by generally thought of as a thought process in which a person goes through a specific set of logical steps to reach one conclusion. Divergent thinking, on the other hand, is a process in which a person explores many possibilities before reaching one of any number of conclusions (Sawyer, 2012). Webster has created a Model of Creative Thinking Process in Music, which has been updated several times though the years. His 2002 Model (Fig. 1 1 ) contains changes that are especially attractive to me as a course de has included provisions for peer influence. Additionally, Webster describes the non linear way for students to work through the process.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 13 Figure 1 1 Music (2002) The course I have designed uses course and lessons. In order to keep the students from feeling isolated, I believe the inclusion of collaborative experiences is very important. What I really want is for th e students to feel free to create without the fear of embarrassment or feeling inadequate. The course culminates in a final project for students to demonstrate their mastery of the techniques. While developing this course, I used the following questions a s guides to my design: 1. Is an online course in music creatio n a viable option for teaching non t raditional Music students? 2. Can a sequence of music creation activities be designed for online delivery that will enable students to systematically work through 3. What tools and techniques can be used to assess student achievement appropriately and provide meaningful feedback in an online music creation course?
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 14 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The research and exploration of multiple areas of expert thinking was required to complete this project. These include the use of software that does not require pre existing knowledge of notation, assessment of creativity, the availability of music course s (of all types, and composition) to high school students in America, the use of technology and the internet in composition, and the importance of collaboration in creative musical activities. Bauer (2014) stresses the importance of students being able to oriented software, such as GarageBand (or in the case of this project, Soundation ) offers an opportunity for young students or older students that do not read notation to create sound without worrying about notation. By using loops, piano rolls, digital audio, and other sounds students notational Assessment of creativity is often a challeng e for educators. It can be a tough balance between encouraging freedom and maintaining project structure. Kratus (1990) wrote about structuring music lessons to nurture creativity. He argued that when evaluating creative activities, teachers need to avo work meets the instructional objectives. Wiggins (1999) w rote that in assessing students, it is t teachers can develop subsequent lessons based on what might be missing from the compositions. For example, while students might construct melodies with shor t and long tones, but lack any dynamic contrast. Teachers can then encourage students to vary the volume of the next composition.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 15 In her doctoral dissertation investigating the social and school factors contributing to high school music enrollment, Carole e Stewart (1991) found that nationally, an average of 92.1% of schools offer some kind of music class. She found that 80.1% offered band, 20.4% offered strings, 77.9% offered chorus, 32.8% offered theory and 29.9% offered history/appreciation. She descri bed the performance based courses as more rewarding and enriching, compared to the non performance based courses. She concluded that some adolescents have very little knowledge of their musical culture outside of what they learned in elementary or middle schools and what they choose to listen to on their own. She cited various factors such as social class; gender, school size, school location, and student academic achievement all contribute to music enrollment, particularly in performance based courses. She suggested that we, as music educators must work to include as diverse a population as possible in our performance based classes, but we must also develop more appealing non performance based courses to appeal to the students who (for whatever reason) w ample opportunities are made available and all types of students are encouraged to take music Williams and Dam mers (2014) wrote that as students progress through school, participation in music becomes much more selective. Music programs go from participatory and in clusive (elementary) to more performance based and ex clusive (secondary). While they do not advocat e changing this major component of the music education tradition of the United States, they do suggest that it is time for more teachers to embrace the opportunities presented by the internet based technology , to attract more students to music inside the school.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 16 Why is it important to reach out to these students through technology , and more importantly, cloud based internet technology ? Data suggests it is because these non performing students can be attracted to these technology based music classes. Through the collection of anecdotal data, Williams (2011) also described a set of 8 attributes of non performing students that would make them likely to be attracted to technology based music classes. T hese attributes include having a life in music outside of school (church, garage band, etc. ), being able to sing or play an instrument (most likely guitar, keyboard, or drums), and not being able to read music notation. He found that an average of 67% of students that take technology based music classes come into the class with experience on an instrument or singing. He also discovered that an average of 78% of students that take technology based music classes are not able to read notation. This data sug gests that there are students in the schools that want to take music classes and to make music. They are just not signing up for traditional ensembles. Collaboration is a significant activity that has been incorporated in this course. Sawyer (2006) writ es about the importance of collaboration in creativity. He contends that creativity without any single member of the g roup taking a leadership role. Writing about collaboration activities such as jazz and theatre improvisation, Sawyer examines the educational imp lications of group creativity. He states that music is a collaborative activity, but many music teachers teach it as a solitary one. Students are required to practice alone, learn notation alone, and memorize solos alone. Arguing for the use of co llaboration, Sawyer contends : But if music is a collaborative practice and if communication is central to musical creativity, then our educational methods should emphasize group interaction. There are some exciting new projects designed to teach children by drawing on the
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 17 power of group creativity and communication. (p. 161) Sawyer also suggests that effective group activities allow learners, regardless of skill level, to participate in a meaningful way. Students not only learn the skills outlined in the course material, but they also learn interactional skills, how to listen and respond, and how to collaborate. Through collaboration, a student is able to contri bute to the learning of his/her collaborators, while learning from them at the same time. Although this chapter is not an exhaustive review of the literature, the publications reviewed strongly suggest that a need exists for a course through which high school students of any skill level learn to create music. Such a course should be available to a wide range of students, whether involved in performi ng ensembles or not, and can be delivered online.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 18 CHAPTER 3 PROJECT OVERVIEW The purpose of this project was to develop a course, to be delivered online, through which high school students at all musical skill levels would learn to create mus ic. The projects in this course are I define music creation as the creation and manipulation of organized sounds and silences throug h written or electronic means. The activities in this course give students the opportunities to work with single musical elements such as pitch, duration, harmony, volume, and form by creating short statements of musical expression, which culminates in a three minute composition as a final project. This course is primarily aimed at high school students who do not participate in traditional ensembles and do not have any formal music training. Activities in this project are designed to be completed without traditional notation or traditional instruments. However, a s discusse d above, for various reasons, students enrolled in traditional music courses are rarely given the opportunity to create music. They listen creatively, perform creatively and expressively, but often do not create new music. Students with musical knowledge and training are welcome in this course , and stand to gain much by working with music outside of their traditional training. In this course, s tudents will have the opportunity to create music using graphically oriented software which, according to Bauer ( 2014), is ideal for students with little knowledge of music notation . I have intentionally designed this course for The course was designed using Google Sites and is housed at https://sites.google.com/site/uflongtin . I chose Google Sites as the host because it offers web hosting at no cost, has a simple design interface, page templates, and can be integrated with other Google feat ures. Soundation is the principal tool with which students will use to create their music. Soundation is free, cloud based internet music sequencing program which is available for
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 19 free at www.soundation.com . Students have the ability to work on their projects anywhere, at any time. Because the cour se is designed to help students with no formal music training to explore their musical creativity , Soundation is an ideal choice because knowledge of traditional notation is not needed . Soundation has provi ded very useful tutorial videos on how to use the program so that students may j ump right in and get started. Students will use Soundation and Soundation with Google Hangouts to create music as they learn about the basic elements of music. Students can ac cess Google Hangouts directly from the course website or create their own with a Google account. Through Google Hangouts , each student will have the opportunity to work, virtually, with others on collaborative assignments. Students will share their works in progress with each other, and the instructor, to gain insight and hear suggestions on how to fully realize their creative potential. Some high school students struggle with reading notation, and early attempts at playing an instrument or singing have been unsuccessful. The course begins with the students learning to work with and develop their own symbol system for representing sound. Students begin their study in this course by working without traditional notation, and developing their own system fo r representing sound. Traditional notation is avoided throughout the course, with the students focusing on creating sound through the graphical interface of Soundation . They will also have an opportunity to improvise their own music over a series of chord progressions without the limitations of notation. Manipulation of sound and silence is a key element of music creation. Each module will present students with opportun ities to use Soundation to manipulate sound and silence in different ways. After creating a short piece of music in Soundation and developing a notation system, students will move to the next module relating to sound and silence. Students use
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 20 Soundation to create patterns of sound and silence without regard to the highness or lowness of the sounds (Fig 3 1 ) . Figure 3 1 Creating sound/silence patterns in Soundation Students move on to create pitch patterns and mo vement, both with i ndividual and sim ultaneous pitches. Students use repetition, variation, and manipulation to construct short musical phrases that use high and/or low sounds as well as long and/or short . Once the students have begun creating single musical phrases, they are able to move o n to creating multiple pitches simultaneously. Students use Soundation to first create pitch patterns and movement (similar to before) containing two sounds occurring simultaneously . Students then create a piece containing at least three (or more if desired) sounds occurring simultaneously. The use of sound/silence patterns is optional at this point, but students are encouraged to include them if desired. Because the sounds created b y multiple pitches being created at once can produce very different results, students are encouraged to experiment with which pitches sound good together to them (Fig 3 2) . At this point in the course, the students
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 21 and teacher should not be concerned with traditional harmony or harmonic progressions. Students have the freedom to figure out what works for them and expand upon their ideas. Figure 3 2 Creating two sounds simultaneously in Soundation Once students have begun to get comfortable with both cre ating sound and silence of varying lengths and using Soundation and a tool, they can begin to incorporate more complex elements into their compositions. By using tools inside the program such as the cross fader, students will be able to incorporate expressive elements into their musical creations. Students will be able to use Soundation to manipulate their previous creations or new audio. Expansion, contraction, reverse, clipping, and other effe cts can be used for more complex expression. The project in the module regarding expression gives students a lot of freedom to explore their creative ideas in ways that appeal to them the most. The last module prior to the final p roject allows students to experiment with o rganizing music. Students will use Soundation to construct music that contains specific patterns of music (which could be labeled A, B, C, D, etc. ). In this module, students are able to use the pre recorded sample tracks included in the Soundation software to organize their music. This allows them to focus solely on organizing the music into logical order. In the subsequent project,
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 22 students will either create their own theme, or choose an existing one and organize a series of variatio ns on those themes using any type of variation they choose. Some students might choose to vary the pitches of their theme, vary the length of the pitches, add harmonic elements, or any type of variation they can construct on their own. The most unique aspect of this course is the inclusion of real time online collaborative projects. In three of the six modules, students will collaborate in groups of two or three in Google Hangouts to complete the final assignment of the module. The use of Google Hangouts will require the creation of a free Google account. Students will agree upon a time in which to meet in the Hangout and begin working on the assignment. Depending on the nature of the assignment, students can choose to take preexistin g work from one member of the group and expand upon it, combine work from multiple group members, or start from scratch on something completely new. While using Soundation with Google Hangouts , students are able to construct and manipulate patterns, loops , piano rolls, digital audio, instruments, and other musical elements together while talking to one another using video (Figure 3 3 ) . Figure 3 3 Screenshot of Soundation with Google Hangouts While working in Google Hangouts , students can choose in which ways to contribute to the creation of the music. As suggested by Sawyer (2006), the most effective form of creative
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 23 There are no instructions in the mo dules specifying how students should contribute to the collaboration. Some groups may choose to work collectively on each aspect of the music. Other groups may choose to assign cer tain roles to certain members. Students are welcome to invite the instruct or to the collaboration sessions for guidance and assistance w ith the creation of the music. When the group completes the project, it is submitted to another peer group for evaluation and critique. After a sufficient period of time, the critique is retur ned and the group reconvenes to make edits to the music prior to final submission. The final project of this course is a culmination of everything the students have learned throughout each preceding module. Students are asked to create a 2:30 3:00 piece of music that contains at least two layers of sound throughout (See Appendix D for sample) . These layers should be a rhythm (or recorded audio) track and a pitch track. For at least 30 seconds of the piece, four or more tracks should be utilized. Stude nts should create recognizable musical patterns (including pitch, rhythm, and harmony) that are repeated, varied, and expanded upon. The music should be organized into three major sections two of which are related, while another is contrasting (similar to ABA). Students may choose to use another form with instructor approval. Variations in volume and sound effects will be used to create expressive interest, and the piece should have a recognizable beginning and ending. Students have the option of usin g pre existing material from any of their other projects or create a completely original work. The students will work closely with the instructor and peers to allow for critique and revision. Their final project will be a complete, cohesive musical creat ion that will allow them to experience the satisfaction of creating music completely on their own; using all of the new skills they have learned.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 24 CHAPTER 4 IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS This course offers lots of opportunities for teachers to i nteract with students in new and unique ways. The course fosters and encourages creative interaction between teacher and collaboration th ough Google Hangouts , there are numerous possibilities for teachers a n d students to work together and learn from each other. Because the course focuses on creative experiences and not on traditional structure, notation, or melodic and rhythmic patterns, teacher should be able to encourag e and direct student work without being concerned with doing anything The internet is a continually increasing in importance as a tool for education. Because the software used in this course is both free and cloud based, students have the ability to work in any location with internet access. Collaboration becomes a powerful and somewhat essential aspect of the course because Google Hangouts can be used on a computer or mobile device, allowing for even more flexibility when students are working to gether. This course could also easily be incorporated into current non performance based classes such as Music Appreciation. Although it is designed as a self contained course, it could be adapted and/or shortened to become a useful part of a non perform ance course . Even though the course purposefully avoids using standard musical terminology, each module could be used as an added feature of units discussing pitch and melody, rhythm, form, dynamics, etc. Students that participate in this course could fin d opportunities to collaborate with performing ensembles at their school. Students might have the opportunity to create unique digital accompaniments to songs that their school choirs or bands are performing, incorporate recorded samples of those ensemble
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 25 band. The combination of traditional and non traditional performers is an exciting possibility for students at all levels and on all instruments. One of the first steps beyond this project would be the actual implementation of the course. The website is designed to be easy to follow, concise, and immediately useable for teachers and students. This course should be field tested with diverse students and in diverse settings. The course only scratches the surface of what is possible using the Soundation Teachers are encouraged to take this model and create more advanced courses t hat cover topics such as remixing, advanced looping, film scoring, digital manipulation of voices and instruments, and mul t i track layering. This course is intended to be an example of a useable model of delivery for music creation for teachers at the high school level. It is my opinion that it could easily be adapted for other purposes both online and in traditional settings. Soundation is by no means the only software that could be used for a course such as this. With the ever expanding availability of online, cloud based software, teachers have many programs at their disposal. More importantly, many of these programs are either low cost or completely free. Jam with Chrome allows raphical representations of instruments. GarageBand has become a very popular sequencing program for Apple computer and iPhone/iPad users. FLStudio ( Fruity Loops ) is a low cost alternative for Windows users that is graphics based and offers many more adv anced features than Soundation (as does GarageBand ). For teachers who wish to use this course model with students who have a background in music reading, online notation software such as Note flight is a viable option. For younger students, online programs such as Incredibox and Hyperscore (which is no longer free)
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 26 allow students to create music by simply clicking their mouse on a picture or drawing a line on the screen. Researchers in the field of online education (and Music Education) have the opportunity to study the effect of a course like this on s chool music program enrollment. How can teachers incorporate this course into a fully comprehensive Music Education program at their school? How can this course be adapted for students who have a more thorough knowledge of music? Do students who take this course show an interest in creating digital performing ensembles of their own using mobile techno logy? The answers to these questions are be yond the scope of this project and paper, but offer an intriguing opp ortunity for future researchers.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 27 REFERENCES Alberich Artal, E., Sangra, A. (2012). Virtual virtuosos: A case study in learning m usic in virtual learning e nvironments in Spain. European Journal of Open, Distance and E Learning 1, 9. Andersson, E., Bryant, B., & Tyson, A. (2012 ). Soundation . Retrieved August 7, 2014, from http://www.soundation.com Apple, Inc. (2014). GarageBand. Retrieved December 1, 2014 from https://www.apple.com/mac/garageband/ Bauer , W.I. (2014). Music learning today: Digital pedagogy for creating, performing, and responding to music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Bolden, B. (2004). Principal themes students composing: Examining the experience. Canadian Music Educator, 45 (4), 20 27. Bond, A. (2003). Teaching music online: An accessible learning program for isolated students . Kensington Park, SA, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research. Retrieved from http://www.ncver.edu.au/research/proj/nr1013.pdf Core Music Standards (Composition Theory Strand) (2014). Retrieved August 8, 2014 from http://www.nafme.org/ wp content/uploads/2014/06/Core Music Standards Composition Theory Strand.pdf Edwards, N. (2006). Non traditional music students: A new population of musi c student for the 21st c entury . (Unpublished research paper). Normal, IL: Illinois State University. Ever green Education Group. (2013). Keeping pace with K 12 online & blended learning: An annual review of policy and practice (10th ed.). Durango, CO: Watson, J., Murin, A., Vashaw, L., Gemin, B., & Rapp, C.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 28 Google , Inc . (2013). Google Hangouts. Retrieved August 7, 2014, from http://www.google.com/hangouts/ Google, Inc. (2014). Jam with Chrome. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.jamwithchrome.com Hal Leonard Corporation . (2014). Noteflight. Retrieved December 1, 2014 from http://www.noteflight.com Image Line Software, International . (2014). FL Studio. Retrieved December 1, 2014 from http:// http://www.image line.com/flstudio/ Hickey , M. (1999 ). Assessment rubrics for music composition: Rubrics make evaluations concrete and objective, while providing students with detailed feedback and the skills to become sensitive music critics . Music Educators Journal, 85(4 ), 26 33. Kratus , J. (1990). Structuring the Music Curriculum for Creative Learning . Music Educators Journal, 76 (9), 33 37. M.I.T. Media Lab. (2013). Hyperscore. Retrieved December 2, 2014 from https://hyperscore.wordpress.com/ National Core Arts Standards (2014). Retrieved August 8, 2014 from http://www.nationalartsstandards.org/ Reese , S. & Hickey , M. (1999). Internet based music composition and music teacher education. Journal of Music Teacher Education . 1999;9(1):25 32. Sawyer, R. K. (2006). Group creativity: musical performance and collaboration. Psychology of Music, 34 (2), 148 165. Sawyer, R.K. (2012). Expl aining creativity: The science of human innovation (2 nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 29 So Far So Good. (2014). Incredibox . Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.incredibox.com Standards . (2014). Retrieved August 8, 2014 from http://www.nafme.org/my classroom/standards/ Stewart, C. (1991). Who takes music? Investigating access to high school music as a function of social and school factors. ( Doctoral Disseration). Retrieved from ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 1991. 9208660. Stran d, K (2006). Survey of Indiana music teachers on using composition in the c lassroom . Journal of Research in Music Education, 54 (2). Webster, P. (1990). Creativity as creative thinking. Music Educators Journal, 76 (9), 22 28 . Webster, P. (2002). Creative thinking in music: advancing a model. Creativity and Music Education , T. Sullivan & L. Willingham (Eds.) (16 33). Edmonton, Canada: Canadian Music Educator s Association. Wiggins , J. (1990). Teacher control and creativity . Music Educators Journal, 85 (5 ), 33 35+ 44 . Williams, D.B. (2007). Presentation at the Tanglewood II Technolog y and Music Education Symposium. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. April 6. http://www.musiccreativity.org. Accessed August 10, 2014. Williams, D. B. (2011). The n on traditional music student in secondary schools of the United States: Engaging non participant students in creative musi c activities through technology. Journal of Music, Technology and Education 4: 2 3. pp. 131 147.
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 30 Williams, D. & Dammers, R. If we build it they will come. Kansas Music Review . 77.2. Spring 2013 14. Retrieved August 10, 2014 from http://kmr.ksmea.org/?issue=201314s§ion=articles&page=build
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 31 APPENDIX A RUBRIC WHICH CAN BE USED AND MODIFIED FOR INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS CATEGORY Beginning Developing Accomplished Exemplary Aesthetic Appeal Does not contain any interesting musical ideas. Contains at least one interesting musical idea, but is overall uninteresting or ineffective. Contains some interesting and unique musical ideas. Moderately effective and interesting to listeners. Contains many interesting and unique musical ideas. Highly enjoyable and interesting to a large number of listeners. Creativity Few to ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. Contains ideas that are familiar or clichÃ© . Original ideas are not developed in any way. Some ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. However, these ideas might not be developed or explored. Many ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. Most ideas are generally well developed and explored. Most ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. All of these ideas are fully developed and explored. Craftsmanship Presents musical ideas that are incomplete or incoherent. No identifiable beginning, middle, or ending is evident. Presents musical ideas that feel somewhat incomplete, disorganized, or not coherent. Beginning and ending are somewhat clear or unclear. Presents complete musical ideas which are mostly organized and coherent. Composition contains identifiable ending but might or might not be as clear in other sections. Presents complete musical ideas which are organized and coherent. Composition contains clearly identifiable beginning, middle (if applicable), and end. Guidelines (Will vary based on project) No required elements are evident. Missing two or more required elements as prescribed by the directions. Contains all but one required element as prescribed by the directions. Contains all required elements as prescribed by the directions. Instructor Comments: Adapted from Hickey (1999)
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 32 APPENDIX B RUBRIC WHICH CAN BE USED AND MODIFIED FOR COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS CATEGORY Beginning Developing Accomplished Exemplary Aesthetic Appeal Does not contain any interesting musical ideas. Contains at least one interesting musical idea, but is overall uninteresting or ineffective. Contains some interesting and unique musical ideas. Moderately effective and interesting to listeners. Contains many interesting and unique musical ideas. Highly enjoyable and interesting to a large number of listeners. Creativity Few to ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. Contains ideas that are familiar or cliche. Original ideas are not developed in any way. Some ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. However, these ideas might not be developed or explored. Many ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. Most ideas are generally well developed and explored. Most ideas are original, unusual, varied, imaginative, and interesting. All of these ideas are fully developed and explored. Craftsmansh ip Presents musical ideas that are incomplete or incoherent. No identifiable beginning, middle, or ending is evident. Presents musical ideas that feel somewhat incomplete, disorganized, or not coherent. Beginning and ending are somewhat clear or unclear. Presents complete musical ideas which are mostly organized and coherent. Composition contains identifiable ending but might or might not be as clear in other sections. Presents complete musical ideas which are organized and coherent. Composition contains clearly identifiable beginning, middle (if applicable), and end. Guidelines (will vary based on projec t) No required elements are evident. Missing two or more required elements as prescribed by the directions. Contains all but one required element as prescribed by the directions. Contains all required elements as prescribed by the directions. Collaboration Does not contribute to the project in any way. Contributes minimally to the project. Contributes to the creation of the project, but offers few ideas to move it forward. Helps the group move forward with the ideas and contributes to the overall creation of the project. Instructor Comments: Adapted from Hickey (1999)
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 33 APPENDIX C WEBSITE SCREENSHOTS
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CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 48 APPENDIX D SAMPLE AUDIO OF THE FINAL PROJECT T he link below is an audio file that is provided to students as an example of the final project. This music was created by the author entirely in Soundation using the parameters prescribed in the final project details. https://soundcloud.com/jasonlongtin/in a trance Soundation demo
CREATING MUSIC ONLINE 49 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born in Woonsocket, Rhode Island, Jason Longtin moved to Florida when he was 10 years old. He earned a Bachelor of Music Education (cum laude) from Stetson University in 1999. He was a high school choral director in Florida for 14 years, and became a Nat ional Board Certi fied Teacher (Early Adolescence through Young Adulthood Music) in 200 7. Choirs under his direction have performed in Italy, Switzerland, and at Carnegie Hall in New York City. In 2013, he began teaching Music at Florida Virtual School, a position which he still holds. An active composer of choral music, musical theatre, and art songs, music has been performed throughout North America and Europe , including He currently resides in Citrus Springs, Florida with his wife and two daughters.