Citation
#Arthistory Integration: Social Media Platforms for High School Curriculum

Material Information

Title:
#Arthistory Integration: Social Media Platforms for High School Curriculum
Creator:
Lindgren, Lindsey Leigh
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Tillander, Michelle
Committee Co-Chair:
Roland, Craig

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Art education ( jstor )
Art history ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
High school students ( jstor )
History instruction ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Social media ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
My research relates to how art history can be integrated in art education curriculum. Specifically in developing an art history curriculum that uses social media as a learning tool. This project created an art history curriculum that contains four units, each with two lessons that explore big ideas in art history. During my investigations I have come across varying opinions about how to teach art history in a studio class, but a general consensus among Chanda (1998), Dyson (1989), Stinespring and Steele (1993) is that a student does not need to face an entire timeline. By breaking the study of art history up into big ideas, the art teacher can provide students with more opportunities for closer study, allow students to be more focused on ideas by learning one theme at a time.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Lindsey Leigh Lindgren. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1039729425 ( OCLC )

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * * ***. * #ARTHISTORY INTEGRATION: SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS FOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM By LINDSEY LEIGH LINDGREN A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ART UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DECEMBER 2014

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * / * © Lindsey Leigh Lindgren

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 0 * Acknowledgments I would like to recognize my loving family and friends who made sure I did not lose faith while completing my masters. Without them, crossing that finish line would have been much more difficult. I would first like to recognize my mother, Julie Felts, who is my idol and embodies the kind of career path I would like to follow. She has devoted h er years to evolving with the technologies, methodologies, and practices in art education. She has never shied from change. I can only hope that I will be able to evolve with my career as she has. Along with my mother, there have been countless nights an d hours of conversation spent with many people as I discussed my ideas and research. I would like to thank Dr. Tillander for her drive and support while chairing my thesis project. She has been highly aware of what direction my research could go in. Becau se of this insight she has challenged me to better my thesis by posing difficult questions to get me to revaluate my objective. I would also like to thank Dr. Roland for being my Committee Member; he took on that role with excellence. He provided numerous ideas and asked the tough questions that helped narrow and center my focus. My professor from the University of South Florida, Kim Millspaugh, inspired and kindled my artistic voice. Without discovering that voice I do not think I would have pursued the pa th of art educator. To m y editor Taylor Vick Anderson (to the moon and back I tell you) you have been a key component in getting this work produced, without you I would still be editing my abstract. Finally, the last individual that deserves my regards (but certainly not least) would be my feline companion, Boo Cat. She was awake with me at all hours and sat on my laptop when I needed breaks. She reminded me to smile, remain calm, and to take a breath.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 1 * ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSI TY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS #ARTHISTORY INTEGRATION: SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS FOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM By Lindsey Leigh Lindgren December 2014 Chair: Michelle Tillander Committee Member: C raig Roland Major: Art Education Abstract My research relates to how art history can be integrated in art education curriculum. Specifically in developing an art history curriculum that uses social media as a learning tool. This project created an art his tory curriculum that contains four units, each with two lessons that explore big ideas in art history. During my investigations I have come across varying opinions about how to teach art history in a studio class, but a general consensus among Chanda (199 8), Dyson (1989), Stinespring and Steele (1993) is that a student does not need to face an entire timeline. By breaking the study of art history up into big ideas, the art teacher can provide students with more opportunities for closer study, allow student s to be more focused on ideas by learning one theme at a time.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 2 * Table of Contents Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 1 UF Copyright page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 3 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 4 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 5 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 7 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 7 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 8 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 8 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9 Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 10 Art History Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 12 Chronological Art History ................................ ................................ ......................... 13 Integrating Social Media ................................ ................................ ........................... 16 Finding, Student Learning ................................ ................................ ......................... 16 Literature Review Realization ................................ ................................ ................... 17 Social Media in Education ................................ ................................ ......................... 1 8 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 19 Curriculum Research ................................ ................................ ................................ . 20 Art Historical Research ................................ ................................ ............................. 2 0 Gatheri ng Data ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 21 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 2 1

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 3 * Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 22 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Media Literacy and How We Share New Culture Materials ................................ ............. 24 Counter Opinion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 25 Integrating Art History into Social Media ................................ ................................ ......... 26 Finding Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 29 Discussion and Looking Forward ................................ ................................ ......................... 30 Discussion and In terpretation of Findings ................................ ................................ ....... 3 1 Project Accomplishment ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 31 Project Summary: The Use of Social Media in an Art History Curriculum ...................... 3 4 The Use of Social Media in Art History: Findings for the Future and Significance ......... 3 6 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 7 References ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 3 9 List of Figures and Figure Captions ................................ ................................ ...................... 42 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 43

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 4 * Introduction Many times I have sat through an art history survey course and thought to myself that the material could be integrated into big ideas and embodied into simplified themes. Lecture study has produced "poor results in retention of information and motivation" (Stinespring & Steele, 1993, p. 7) in art and art history. It is also important to notice that our culture today is driven to post, tweet, and share our interests with all friends. Why not take th is current cultural trend and use it within arts education? Social media can be used as a way to enhance learning art and art history to contemporary students who are interested in and able to use technology effectively to broaden their learning experience . In order to reach these students, our teaching methods need to embrace the technologies our students are using. My project is a study and representation of integrating art history curriculum with social media venues for a secondary level. Research Quest ions The research questions that have guided my concept are: How can art history be integrated into the curriculum? How can art history curriculum be redesigned to engage students in social media effectively? What are some hurdles that would require adapta tion to fuse social media and art history? In addition, the study of other scholars that have integrated art history into an art curriculum provides case examples to analyze. Chanda (1998) and Stinespring & Steele (1993) have already paved the way and hav e provided a working model by using art historical methods in their art curriculums. My project incorporates some of their ideas as models but also incorporates social media as a tool to enhance learning.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 5 * Assumptions Art history has been taught in a li near time line in the field for a long time, perhaps because history is classically taught that way (Crowley, 1999, p. 1). The assumption may have been that a chronological approach is the only way to teach art history as well, but this is not the case. I assumed that art history could be successfully taught without being presented in a linear timeline. Timelines do not always show larger themes or connections that span from multiple cultures and chronological teaching can often present gaps because a focus of study is too close. As stated, "Chronology becomes more important when it illuminates a development within a specific culture" (Stinespring & Steele, 1993, p. 8). In retrospect a bigger picture is needed for students to gain a greater understanding bef ore discussing specifics in art and art history. One assumption among teaching professionals may be that social media platforms do not belong in the classroom. I disagree with this assumption. I believe that social media does belong in the classroom beca use our students are highly driven to engage with social media. Students today have access to many forums to express themselves on the Internet and enjoy the process of creating and expressing with their peers. Limitations The research is not about the h istory of curriculum or the teaching of art history. It is not to be understood as a study of methods, but rather a selection of methods that translate into a modified art history curriculum. It is a process that gathers materials about art history to crea te an art history curriculum unit that presents art and art history assignments through social media.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 6 * Literature Review The research I have conducted is important because aligns many themes and concepts by bringing together several sources pertaining to teaching art history. My goal ultimately has been to generate a project that uses this research to create an art history curriculum unit that is based upon using big ideas in art history and art history methods as facets to teach art. As revealed in my literature review the process of researching art history education for compiling the review has emphasized the relevance of my topic; art history methods and art education learning methods have required further study and investigation. In this literature review I explored and analyzed the sources that I found that were relating to my topic of integrating art history and how to create an art history curriculum with social media. The authors that have been most helpful for my topic are Eric Fernie, Michael Hatt, Charlottee Klonk, Jacqueline Chanda, Susan Crowley, John Stinespring, Brian Steele, Bradford Collins, Joanne Sowell, Christine Greenhow, Beth Robelia, Earl Beck, Hadweijch Vanwynsberghe, Pieter Verdegem, Sonia Livingstone, and Anthony Dyson. Each of these authors have provided their perspectives about either art history, how to teach art history, social media literacy, or learning methods in art education. Reading works by these authors has provided some framework for developing my own art history cur riculum with social media elements. My research was fueled by Chanda's (1998) work, whose article is the hybrid of methods and integration of art history in art education. Her study has helped feed other discoveries for my research along the way.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .7 * Terms Art history can be defined as "a branch of history devoted to a particular kind of human activity: the making of art, that is, material objects which have a Ômore than utilitarian' function" (Collins, 1991, p. 53). Art history methods can be defined as cat egories in which art history is interpreted. These categories also identify historical time periods and allow for one to write and discuss the past. The art history methods are parallel to historical methods in that the same questions are used to categoriz e history but modified. Teaching history is similar to teaching art since it "poses the same problems and necessitating the same inspiration and dedication displayed by the painters and the sculptor" (Beck, 1967, p. 143). History and art history are parall el in this definition because both fields look to the past and recognize the struggles, identity, expressions of tolerance, and unending battle to represent the self insight of culture (Beck, 1967, 145). For example some of the questions asked are: When wa s the piece produced? Where was the work created? Who created the piece? What type of material was used? Was the work commissioned? The process of answering these questions places a piece of art into social and historical context. Contextual study and vis ual analysis are the two contrasting processes used by art historians to define a piece of art. In art education visual analysis is encountered when discussing "subject matter and style, or how that subject matter is presented by the artist or architect" ( Collins, 1991, p. 54) and to question the "relationship between the spectator and the depicted scene" (Collins, 1991, p. 55). Contextual study is when there is a direct focus upon the "artistic, personal, and socio economic" (Collins, 1991, p. 56). Context ual study is more researched based and driven by the "investigation of the tradition from which the artist and his work emerged" (Collins, 1991, p. 56). Using both contextual study and visual analysis an art historian seeks to

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .. * find meaning, determine socia l relevance and understand the artwork on a deeper level. Contextual study and visual analysis are employed to engage students in an open dialogue making connections between art history and contemporary culture. Another reoccurring term was connoisseurshi p or the "making of judgments about the quality of artists works for purposes of attribution and to decide whether they should form part of the canon of great works of art" (Fernie, 1995, p.11). This definition was derived from art history methods but refl ects how art is judged, viewed, read, and defined historically. A term that was later discovered while I was researching topics about integrating social media into art education was social media literacy . Social media is defined as a medium that could be u sed in "social network sites for creative and communication purposes" (Greenhow & Robelia, 2009, p. 1132). For example, social media platforms include YouTube ¨ , Pinterest ¨ , Tagboard ¨ , Twitter ¨ , Instagram ¨ , and Blogger ¨ . Social media literacy is a newer te rm that is infiltrating the classrooms academically. Yet, even with all the facts, synthesis, and analysis art historians and art educators can come to "fundamentally different conclusions" (Collins, 1991, p. 59) when interpreting and investigating art. Fo r example social media literacy includes terms of agreement, online privacy and safety, censorship, intellectual property and copyrights. Another term that came up in my research was learning cycles . Learning cycles "are based on the ideas that learning s hould be active, that concepts should be developed by the students' exploration of concrete objects" (Sowell, 1993, p. 20). Sowell describes the benefits of teaching art history with learning cycles because students can make collaborative realizations and observations (1993, p. 20). An example of a learning cycle in art history is showing an example of Dada art to the students and asking them what they think about the context in which

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * ./ * the piece was created. The learning cycle allows for the student to inves tigate and learn about cultural events by learning about one element and looking to a larger event. Art History Methods Within the study of art history there are several methods that have been identified as indicators that divide the reading and interpret ation of art's progress through time. These methods used in art history help art historians infer about the works context, readings, and historical purpose by eras. The scholarship I looked into, Fernie's (1995) Art history and its Methods: A Critical Anth ology Selection and Commentary, Hatt & Klonk's (2006) Art History: A Critical Introduction to its Methods, and Chanda's (1998) article Art History Inquiry Methods: Three Options for Art Education Practice , all explored the application and definition of art history methods. Chanda's (1998) article is different because she use s art history methods and applied them to art lessons. The other two textbooks focused only on art history methods and are further explained below . Fernie's (1995) text divides art histo ry methods into several categories: connoisseurship, context of the cultures that produce art, empiricism and idealism, and academic criticism. These categories are then broken down into more narrow categories of iconography, style, artistic canon, semioti cs, quality, and patronage. I noted that Fernie (1995) as well as Hatt & Klonk (2006) define the roles and rise of methods in art history. Chanda's (1998) article makes this correlation by intertwining how one historical work is viewed by an audience to ho w a student looks at a work upon first glance. Hatt & Klonk (2006) refer to Fernie's (1995) text by making the methods relatable to a different culture by discussing one category and figure leader and branching into the next

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .0 * through the use of a narrativ e. The text is linear in its progression of methods, but allows the reader to transition from one category to another with stories and visual comparison examples. Chanda (1998) who has influenced my research was found when I was reading through bibliograp hies, on how art history methods could be used in art education. Chanda (1998) explains and applies art history methods by example. She breaks down the history of how methods evolved in art history and explains the inquiry process that artists use when dis cussing art. Her candid explanation helped my understanding that art history's methods can be used in an educational learning setting. Her article is the guide foundation for my own research of how to integrate art history into art education because her me thod encourages art educators to be aware of the "different modes of inquiry" (Chanda, 1998, p. 17), which for me means using tools beyond a text book or a lecture to enrich knowledge about a subject or piece of art. Since the modes of inquiry can often in clude analysis, social media platforms and Internet research can provide both a forum for discussion and background information. The goal is to use social media to enrich learning by making lessons more visual, more interactive , and more focused on visual culture. Chronological Art History Art history is traditionally taught in a lecture format, which may be simply art educators applying how they learned to their students. Art history in most cases has been "a seductive procedure because it seems perfectly logical and implies a cause and effect relationship between events" (Stinespring & Steele, 1993, p. 8). Art history has been described as being "essential to the cultural development of man" (Christian Science Monitor, 1965, p.1). Yet I have learned and re tained more from studying specific relationships by looking at the bigger picture with a framed reference. I believe s tudents should investigate the smaller elements before they can justifiably

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .1 * understand the bigger picture. By doing so, student can develo p an understanding of a specific culture and see what it borrows from other cultures (Stinespring & Steele, 1993, p.8). My research concludes that art history does not need to be lecture based or chronological, but it should employ investigation and appli cation (Stinespring & Steele, 1993, p. 7 8). There is also support that art educators do not need to be historians, but that they should be aware that history is a facet of art education (Dyson, 1989). Art teachers should learn about and include more art h istorical methods because their goal should be to inspire the investigation process in student learners (Stinespring & Steele, 1993, p. 7 8). By encouraging students to want to learn , we as educators can aim for greater understanding . Other works that were explored about chronological presentation of art history were Bersson (2004), Payne (2000), and Witcombe (n.d.). Witcombe's website is hyperlinked and permits a user to navigate through a webpage in a non linear fashion. For example, Witcombe's (n.d.) web site allows the user to jump from prehistoric art to the baroque period with a mouse click, whereas the texts from Bersson (2004) and Payne's (2000) works rely upon an index and table of contents page for navigation. The other two texts by Bersson (2004) a nd Payne (2000) are formatted so that the reader goes through the text in a sequential and chronological order. They do however include clear graphics, and detailed information that identifies a works social history, artist biography and cultural events as well as parallels encountered through visual analysis. Payne's (2000) briefly defines an artist's works and a synopsis of the current culture the work was produced in. Presenting art history in a chronologic manner is not ideal for learning art history ac cording to Crowley (1999) and Stinespring & Steele (1993). Crowley states that it is "becoming too monotonous" (1999, p. 1) and Stinespring & Steele say that students' "brains remain idle" (1993, p. 7). Activating a student's prior knowledge, forming a bas is of inquiry and

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .2 * then focusing narrowly on specific pieces of art allows a student to use learning cycles to gain greater knowledge. Even so Bersson's Responding to Art: Form, Content, and Context (2004) is not entirely linear and chronologically based i n his presentation of art history. He does branch from one formal method to another by integrating culture with pop culture. An example is his inclusion of the cinema industry, which developed in parallel with the development of photography (2004, p. 170). Bersson (2004) infuses social history so that a reader has a cultural point of reference to place art within the context of history. The text reads like a social studies text because it draws attention to cultural, political, and philosophical evolutions associated with an artwork. Bersson (2004) fairly represents multiple cultures, which is useful when designing curriculum with a multicultural focus. The text is not solely focused upon European productions and masterpieces; there is a diverse mix of multi ple cultures, African, Chinese, Australian, North and South America, and the Middle East. For my research this is the type of text that would be useful in developing an art history curriculum. The website created by Witcombe (n.d) centered upon how art h istory reflects the developments of technology. The page is interactive through the use of hyperlinks and provides several external links within its bibliography. An introduction on the site was informative and summarized how art history came to be a speci fic academic subject separate from studio art and history class. The website does not include as many graphics or images of art as the previous texts described. Some of this material was very useful as a supplemental resource for designing an art history c urriculum unit.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .3 * Integrating Social Media The researched text from Greenhow & Robelia (2009, p. 1130) mentioned how social media is creating a generational divide. The generational divide can be worked on with educators seeking an appropriate application of social media literacy into their curriculum. Art history can function as this bridge because it is a subject that studies the development of culture and societal changes, economically, and politically through art. It is traditionally understood and kno wn that art has been used as a form of mass media throughout history. In my research there was a conclusion that it is my "responsibility in teaching young people how to deal with new media including social media" (Vanwynsberghe & Verdegem, 2013, p.2). By creating a curriculum for art history that uses social media I can provide tools such as collaboration platforms to assist student art discussions and projects. Finding, Student Learning Crowley (1999) explains how a student can learn art history in small group learning activities such as a mini lesson about creating a gallery show on poster board. This is similar to Stinespring & Steele's (1993) perspective that students need to have activities that engage them to learn art history. Freed (2004) outlines the differences between active learning and lecture based learning. Using art history to build contextual knowledge through both guided and independent research projects fall under active learning, which is an approach that is successful in building connec tions for students (Freed, 2004). Crowley stresses the need to actively engage and motivate a student because "lecture will eventually kill the program, due to lack of interest" (1999, p.1). By failing to keep the student actively engaged with the material being presented, a teacher does not imprint the knowledge for retention.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .4 * Stinespring & Steele champion art educators to "inspire students to broaden their repertoire of ideas for projects and to see their art as a part of long tradition of art making" (1 993, p.7). This encouragement urges the art teacher to understand that "lecture has long ago been shown to produce poor results in retention of information and motivation" (1993, p.7). On another point, Stinespring & Steele (1993) do not disagree with a ch ronological approach to teaching art history. They detail the need for a timeline in building context for art appreciation. "A time line that links art with historical events helps place the individual object within the context of political history or patr onage" (p. 8). Crowley (1999), in contrast does not state an opinion upon this matter. Another author that discusses student learning was Sowell (1993). She explains how to apply a learning cycle of learning art history with students. This demonstrated to me how to apply art history methods in an art classroom. Sowell states that students should learn through visual analysis as well as actively exploring concepts through participation (1993, p. 19). An interactive and investigative approach to learning will better suit students than a lecture. Literature Review Realization The research has indicated a diverse and wide range of interpretation and knowledge about teaching methods for art history in art education. My search results varied and at times strayed from my focus. My project focus es upon students being able to actively learn art history through application, investigate, and invention. My research has also found that social media belongs in the classroom because it is a new forum for the artist to expr ess themselves. Art history does not need to be purely studied in a chronological approach, and it can be divided and studied in more narrowly focused units. Art history can aid in the process of contextual and visual analysis for students in art because i t provides a point of reference for students.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .5 * Art history can function as a medium for students to provide a deep wellspring of contextual knowledge and visual references to work with during their own stages of invention. Studying art history will provide a point of reference and build background knowledge for students to begin their learning inquiry. I have broken away from the standard lecture approach and look forward to creating lessons that inspire a student to explore an integrated art history curric ulum. My classroom will be student centered, with small collaborations based upon independent learning styles, with the teacher acting as a guide towards contextualized knowledge (Freed, 2004). Chanda (1998) was one author that used both student learning and the application of art history methods in her article. Chanda's (1998) article explains the direction I have aligned my project with. She explains the vocabulary and methods that are required for students to learn before they can speak about art, she states, "children could begin to speculate about the meanings of the attributes and icons" (1998, p. 22). Her research demonstrates how children can learn to discuss and analyze works of art with the proper tools. Her observation is correct about the focus that many art teachers maintain, "using themes, biographies, and chronologies; concentrating on remembering names, dates, and time period; or disseminating oversimplified versions of expert knowledge" (1998, p. 24). While this past teaching formula was ef fective, art education has shifted away from this style of chronological memorization. E ducation requires teachers to demonstrate to students how to navigate mass media and I have done so within my art history curriculum project. Social Media in Education Social Media can be used in art history curriculums because it shows changes in culture. Greenhow & Robelia describe social media in education as an outlet for "creative and

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * .6 * communication purposes" (2009, p. 1132). For creative purposes art history curri culum can bring together several themes in art all in one go. Social media networking is the new way in which we interact with each other and s cholars have found that "online communication can be hyper personal, even more friendly, social, and intimate tha n face to face communication" (Greenhow & Robelia, 2009, p. 1135). Take for example how social etiquette says while meeting a new individual that we put away our phone and reframe from texting or browsing a website. However, from personal experience my onl ine communication exceeds what I verbally state. At times my online personality is distinctly different from my personality in real life. I am naturally shy, quiet, and a bookworm for British literature. My online personality models what I strive to be in my culture, one that shares knowledge, trends, and cat memes. Sometimes words and media sharing become easier to do from behind a screen rather than in person. With social media and networking we are "self creating content, sharing created content, and c ollaborating with others online during the process" (Vanwynsberghe & Verdegem, 2013, p. 5). By paying attention to how social media changes we can integrate social media into art history curriculum. Research Methodology My methods of research have been a mixture of art historical research and curriculum research as well as a study about social media being integrated into education as well as designing a webpage that contains my art history curriculum. The research has aided me in building my own art histo ry curriculum because it integrates art history with social media platforms. The study utilizes research from online resources, scholar texts, and databases that discuss the developments of integrated curriculums in the arts, social media, and the applicat ion of art history methods in the classroom. During my independent research, I continued to explore

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /7 * of social media platforms, curriculum models for art history, and best practices of using social media in education. Curriculum Research The curriculum rese arch method includes a passage that says, "that learning begins with classes and categories of things, not with facts but with concepts and relations, not with facts but with the symbolized experience of others" (Foshay & Green, 1954, p. 248). This method also mentions that curriculum research has basics, "knowing what we are trying to do, and knowing how we are to achieve it within the limits placed upon us be the community" (Foshay & Green, 1954, p. 246). I have used this method to distinguish between my learning outcomes and being aware of my community's expectations for art education. Raudenbush (2005) and Foshay & Green (1954) both share a common thread that education does not have enough research activity or support. As state by Foshay & Green (1954) "knowing what we are trying to do, and knowing how we are to achieve it" (p. 246) , e ducation takes on the role knowing what needs to be done and getting the job accomplished. With a lack of constant innovative research, we are not providing our students or teachers with a "proper education" (Foshay & Green, 1954, p. 250). I expand on th e need for educational research and bridging the gap between social media, art, and art history curriculum for the secondary level. Art Historical Research Art historical re search includes how to "reveal insights into contemporary art" (Sullivan, 1996, p. 210). This particular method encourages the process of critical inquiry about the connoisseur's role, how art is viewed and consumed by the audience. This is also a method t hat parallels curriculum research because it too is a study of the emergence of interpretative dialogue, "the popular metaphor of framing" that the viewer has an understanding of how to rely

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /. * on assumptions that fill in the gaps (Sullivan, 1996, p. 211). I used this method alongside the curriculum research method. I have been critically analyzing art history with the connoisseur in consideration; this is similar to working with curriculum research because I studied how to establish curriculum goals with the community in mind while integrating social media. Gathering Data My collecting of data took over four months. I focused on my goal to create an art history curriculum that incorporated social media. I reviewed past and current online examples of curricula regarding art history and social media in education as being integrated together and how to include them into media platforms. I explored the process of creating curriculum with student driven projects by using big ideas and art history themes. The themes are realism and abstraction, fantasy and reality, expression, art and text, biography and autobiography, politics and art, public art, popular culture in art, landscape, and science and art (Contemporary Museum of Art, Lose Angeles, "Education: Themes in art", 2013). The resources gathered from databases were primary and secondary sources such as: online web searches, and textbook references. Methods of Research was the ideal class venue to start my capstone project. It provided the tools and conversation with peers, which built upon academic scholarship and personal educational growth. Data Analysis Process When my data was collected I organized it so that I would have research that focused on creating art history curriculums and social media integration . There was also another category that contained the collection of methods used for art history and art historical themes. Once categorized, I sought common terms used and ideas that were similar to the collected data. Ideas were usually found within an au thor's thesis; I looked at the thesis, terms, and context. For

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * // * example, I have discovered that the idea of the connoisseur ship is used in art education as a method to teach students to read art and this method is also applied in art history. For my proje ct the information that was gathered and organized into themes and topics. I selected four themes and made them the unit headers. By doing so I was able to collect resources that were art history based and researched topics such as the American dream, mass media, media literacy, graffiti, landscape and land art, street and urban installation. Significance This study was designed to help me gain a better knowledge and understanding of how to create my own curriculum. I do not have art education field exper ience yet, but I will have entered the field better prepared with an understanding of how different types of curriculum models can function and be applied in art education. Through the creation of my art history curriculum (see Fig. 1) , I want to engage my students through technology and social media since those are the tools and language from their generation. By integrating those facets into the arts my students will learn to express themselves artistically and appropriately with social media. Ideally my art history curriculum will provide my students with power and knowledge to make their own connections across history and compare current historical events with past and present. My students will be introduced to methods of media literacy through an art cu rriculum. Importantly, technology can be used in advantageous ways and I have incorporated it often. My project contains four units with two lessons that each touch on varying themes and big ideas in art. This art history curriculum will be ever evolving b ecause I have made it available online through my professional page. Other art educators can learn and evaluate alternative ways to teach art history in an art classroom by exploring my project and reading research findings.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /0 * * !"#$%&' ( )'*+,&'-.#&'+/'01%23"42+%5'6$%%"7$8$,

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /1 * Findings The researched findings are that an art history curriculum can be effectively created through the integration of art history methods and use of social media platforms. The following sections explain wha t was discovered while researching topics about teaching art history curriculum, social media and its role(s) in the classroom environment, and the need for integration of social media into the classroom. Media Literacy and How We Share New Culture Materi als The findings conclude that media literacy is a topic that needs to be explored and taught to youth while dealing with social media platforms. I found that social media and art history bring out similar big ideas and themes. Both bring forth the idea of how we individually present our identity, how we are social connected, and how we share media and culture. Social media and media literacy do have a place in an art history curriculum. As stated by Livingstone, "media literacy skills developed through so cial networking will transfer to support online learning and participation and protect youth from online risks" (2008, p. 395). I found that I am not only responsible for teaching art history, I am responsible for teaching students to have the proper langu age and knowledge about the risks that social media can create. Students who are not equipped with media literacy need guidance to maneuver social media and skills to navigate social networks. For example there was a study done by Greenhow & Robelia (2009) that interviewed teenagers about their browsing and networking habits. Some of the teenagers stated that they were not aware of how the privacy controls worked and if there were any to protect their personal information that they had posted publically. I recall maintaining a MySpace ¨ page and that I would post information that was public. I eventually learned that my

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /2 * online persona did not need to be shared globally and I adjusted my page to be only privately view able by my friends. The youth in the digit al generation often do not understand the impact they have with providing their information to the Internet. In her study Livingstone discusses teenagers using MySpace ¨ and Facebook ¨ as they were using "a free flowing, open ended discussion" (2008, p. 397) in their social networks. Livingstone (2008) aligns with the work by Vanwynsberghe & Verdegem that explain how media literacy "is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and create messages across a variety of context" (2013, p. 2). These findings helped with the understanding that while dealing with social media in an art history class teachers will be required to demonstrate "responsibility in teaching young people how to deal with new media including social media" (Vanwynsberghe & Verdegem, 2013, p. 2) . For example, students need to understand that whatever they publically share can be seen globally. By sharing publically they are potentially risking themselves to identity theft or a missed opportunity to get into a college. While I was applying for col leges I made sure that all my social networking profiles were private and did not misrepresent myself. Greenhow & Robelia encourage the use of "social network sites for creative and communication purposes" (2009, p. 1132). This finding follows the main pu rpose of research: to engage students by including social networks and media in an art history curriculum. Counter Opinion The counter opinion about social media is that the user is "bombarded with several streams of electronic information and do not pay a ttention, control their memory or switch from one job to another" (Solis, 2009, p. 1). This is a potential issue to deal with in art history curricula because students will need to be focused upon the topic they are studying. I can relate

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /3 * to this observati on about bombardment because while doing my own research I too have to sift through varying types of information that was not related to my original topic of study. For example, while I was searching for artist information for my project's curriculum unit s. I often came across alternative materials that were not related and flickering advertisements. I would search works by Andy Goldsworthy and would be led to a social networking site like Flikr ¨ or Pinterest ¨ or even a blog from Tumblr ¨ or Blogger ¨ . The r esources I was sifting through often had social networking intertwined and I found that I had to decipher between creditable or not by narrowing keywords while using search engines. This will require art educators to have a background knowledge with what i s factual verses not. Integrating Art History into Social Media While researching how to integrate art history into social media I came across a finding that "creating and responding to art therefore helps to change us" (Hausman, 2011 p. 2). Hauseman (20 11) explains how social media bridges the gap between creating art and how we respond to it, and he further explains how art is a commodity. This is relevant since this statement relates to how students need to create art themselves to understand the full role of being a connoisseur. In order to embody a connoisseur , one must investigate, reflect, discuss, and create art of their own. Creating allows for the viewer to switch roles. When we read and view art we naturally have a response to the piece; we ar e instinctively making judgments and attaching feelings to visuals in art. With some of the lessons I have included polls on my webpage. Some of the polls have been created to gauge the interest level of the user similar to seeing if they approve or disapp rove, mimicking Facebook ¨ 's like button.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /4 * Other polls in the lessons question the users factual knowledge gained. The polls were created to engage the user to click and seek out more information. The answers remain private which leaves the user to search for the answer on their own or through my provided resources. In art history, art works have profound meaning and have a purpose for the audience to consume their piece for its value economically, historically, and culturally. While creating an art hist ory curriculum, I found the lessons needed to be more product based and should follow an epistemological model. Students are keen to understanding interrelationships as long as we are constantly making connections. Art teachers should provide "a basis for students' understanding the creative as well as the intellectual process through critically analyzing" (Tassel, 1986, p. 8). Tassel (1986) and Hausman (2011) have a similar idea that the student should ideally become a better versed connoisseur of the arts . While collecting resources for my webpage, I was taking on the role of the connoisseur because I was actively looking for websites that provided background and historical insights. I incorporated videos from Smarthistory.org, Khanacademy.org, and Google' s Cultural Institute ¨ into my art history curriculum. The videos were chosen to function as supplemental materials that would aid the student to make connections between the past and present. By creating their own online blog students actively share their discoveries and become adept consumers and art historians. Through the use of a class hashtag students are able to identify members of their class and share information with their peers. Hashtags also allow the student to search related material to focus o r hone in on a specific topic or theme. Social media hashtags provide frameworks for discussion, identity building, cross cultural learning opportunities and active investigation ( "Using hashtags on Twitter" , 2013) . I have come to understand that hashtags are a new method of consuming social media. They are a

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /5 * way of condensing information into searchable discussion boards and hashtags function as the in between for conveying a visual or written thou ght or statement. Each of my online units incorporates social media using YouTube ¨ , Google Maps ¨ , image galleries, and hotlinks to enhance each lesson. Hotlinks take the student to a source of information in a new window, which provides an opportunity fo r the student to actively investigate information that is new. The search engine Tagboard ¨ is a way for students to explore media through hashtags which are used to identify and label topics, ideas, and themes. Several of the lessons require students to a ttach hashtags to their created work and assignments and to search particular hashtags that relate to the lesson. Facebook ¨ allows users to search for hashtags posted amongst all users, dependent upon the type of privacy level selected by user. Twitter ¨ al lows users to search hashtags too through the Discover tab that can activity pull links and commentary about any topic with a hashtag. By creating a discussion using hashtags students can actively explore related topics and learn art history outside of the confines of a timeline. As connoisseurs of the arts, students would better relate to new materials when they are incorporated into a digital format because it "emphasized transactional and transformative experience in creating and responding to art" (Hau sman, 2011, p. 2). Hausman also discussed how "Art educators should look to social issues and current events outside the fields of art to spark the interests of students" (2011, p.3). What Hausman (2011) has advocated for art educators to do, I have incorp orated into my project by combining topics that are contemporary which relate to historical moments.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * /6 * Finding Summary I found that creating my own art history curriculum with social media was a challenge. Designing a functional webpage required taking a leap, without feedback from students, on if an idea was successful or not. The work that was put into the project was mainly research and a simmering of creative ideas until one stuck. I had to dive into an unchartered arena to learn about creating my own curriculum because I wanted to keep my mind focused on being a better connoisseur of the arts and its historical impact. I found that my background and knowledge alone in art history helped me form connections across eras of time. My curriculum is designe d to spark interest in students and connect the past to the present (see Fig. 2) . I found that creating a class discussion using hashtags to be a bridge between the past and present, allowing my students to actively engage and investigate through resources provided on my webpage. My knowledge about social media and researching social media literacy helped me better understand that my curriculum has to address appropriate use of social media platforms. For example, the search engine Tagboard ¨ functions like any other search engine such as Google ¨ . The information one is looking for is often obscured by results that do not pertain to the original topic. Learning to narrow a search can be instructive for students and apply to other areas of research.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 07 * * !"#$% &' 9 )':7%&&;'43+2'+/' !"#$%&'("&)*+, '8&44+; ' Discussion and Looking Forward The goal for my research was to gather resources that supported themes in art history, which would lead to the creating of an art history curriculum that inte grated social media and social networks. For teaching art history Stinespring & Steele have stated that lecture study has produced "poor results in retention of information and motivation" (1993, p. 7). Art educators should be mindful to demonstrate to s tudents how they could learn to discuss and analyze works of art instead of regurgitating memorized information (Chanda, 1998). I believe that "chronology becomes more important when it illuminates a development within a specific culture" (Stinespring & St eele, 1993, p. 8) when the student has context and the ability to discuss art. My

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 0. * art history curriculum is not linear and it addresses art works to be comparative with the past, present, and future. I researched how social media compliments art history si nce the future generations are digitally driven by using social media tools such as YouTube ¨ , Google Maps ¨ , Blogger ¨ , Tagboard ¨ , and Pinterest ¨ . Discussion and Interpretation of Findings How can art history be integrated into a curriculum? How can art his tory curriculum be redesigned to engage students in social media effectively? What are some hurdles that would require adaptation to fuse social media and art history? During my investigation of social media being integrated into art history curriculums I came to the realization that "all academic disciplines and fields of knowledge connect an overlay in the context of the everyday" (Hausman, 2011, p. 3). Art history does not stand alone. It is a combination of several other topics, science, culture, econo my, art, and philosophies. I realize that while creating my art history curriculum I have had to become more aware of the connections between multiple fields. Art history is the type of topic that touches on many topics all at once. Art represents the comm unity and the cultural trends that are taking place, it "allows for embodied understanding of both historical and artistic concepts" (Desai, 2010, p. 35). While working with social media I find that popular culture is brief and as Desai observed "it moves so quickly, you can't use the same thing more than once or twice" (2010, p. 42). From Desai's (2010) point of view there is a need to constantly modify and adjust my art history curriculum since it uses social media. Project Accomplishment Two challenge s were present at the onset of my research while attempting to modify traditional art curriculum to include art history and social media. The first was how to stay away

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 0/ * from a lecture while teaching art history, a subject traditionally taught in lecture fo rm and chronologically. Frequently history is taught with a timeline, timelines in art history tend to be dense with facts and dates, which can obscure larger themes or a bigger picture, which becomes lost in all the dates and events. By focus more narrowl y on an artist or theme in art teachers allow students to become absorbed in one subject, and art history can become more interesting and engaging. The goal is to make my lessons more engaging and involve the active learning process (Freed, 2004) along wit h projects that engage students through visual analysis (Sowell, 1993). The second challenge was how to begin researching the use of social media platforms to enhance learning. My curriculum makes use of any and all available internet technologies that m ay be available at the school. There is no way to tell which social media or what kinds of materials will be available at each school, because they all have different resources. By creating a curriculum that is online, I have made it more accessible and fl exible to the limitations. I plan on using technology to compliment and enhance the active learning with art history. I completed a project that incorporates many social media platforms into an art history curriculum. Students are required to maintain a bl og using Tumblr ¨ or Blogger ¨ to document their assignments and participate in discussion about visual culture. In my lessons YouTube ¨ is used a supplemental resource, providing videos that enhance lessons on art history themes in both contemporary and past times. An assignment requires students to use Google Maps ¨ to locate and document street art. My art history curriculum is available online at http://meow2thepaw.weebly.com/arthistory.html and has been shared with fellow teachers in my social network, pri vately and publically (see Fig. 3). Through the process of social media sharing I look forward to my art history curriculum being applied in other art classrooms.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 00 * * !"#$%&' < )':7%&&;'43+2'/%+,'01%23"42+%5'3+,&-.#&=' -./%012 My c apstone project has four units with two lessons that address the individual unit's big idea. I worked with the big ideas such as public space, identity, popular culture, and mass media. These topics are both found in art history in the present and past. I prefer to work with the method of connecting time periods that are presently occurring with a past historical movement. This will allow for my students and me to have a point of reference while they are studying art movements. Art history and history often overlaps and the key is finding the connection. In my webpage I have included external links that take the user to social networking platforms. I have embedded YouTube ¨ clips in the art history lessons to function as supplements for my selected art histor y themes. The YouTube ¨ clips refer to contemporary television episodes, historical documentaries and are used to create background knowledge.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 01 * Project Summary: The Use of Social Media in an Art History Curriculum Public space is a space that is openly s hared with audiences. I created a lesson on Earthworks and land art and a lesson about graffiti art. Both lessons use social media to create student assignments and emphasize the importance of public space. Earthworks and graffiti deal with alternative use s of space and artist voice, allowing students to participate in studying many perspectives. YouTube¨, Google Maps¨, Blogger¨, Tagboard¨, and Pinterest¨ were used through the lesson as supplemental. The Earthworks lesson presents activities that require t he student to analyze data, selected artists, and to work out a sales pitch to get their mini Earthwork commissioned. Research for visual references will begin online through search engines such as Google¨ or Pinterest¨, and students will keep track of res ources in student blogs. Since a blog is digital, they can easily catalogue website links, images, videos or documents that pertain to their research subject. The first lesson on public space introduces the student to the reverse role of connoisseurship wh ere they act as the artist and must convince their buyer to provide an allowance to create an installation. The second lesson in public space addresses graffiti art. Graffiti art was a personal discovery while cataloging works on scoop.it.com for a diffe rent research project. There are documented works of graffiti dating back to the 1 st and 3 rd century that depict in the bigger picture the divide between the Romans and Christians. This lesson was generated so students could understand that graffiti art is not only about the bold spray paint on businesses, but also that it is used as a form of protest, then and now.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 02 * A webpage containing images, links, and educational resources will guide the students in their investigation of graffiti art through time. Be ginning with art history, the students will eventually use Google Maps¨ to map locations of local graffiti. Using visual analysis students will report on the graffiti they find, comparing it to the past for message, style or context. A blog will be used to catalogue images and document findings. Social media will function as a forum for discussion and sharing, which are two components to forming artist voice and identity. The next units contain lessons on identity, popular culture and mass media. Identity is an important topic to discuss with high school students because they are often struggling to develop their own identity. As soon to be legal adults they should have a sense of who they are, what impacts they have on their community and what roles they p lay within society. I created an assignment that investigates the American dream. In the 1950's marketing was at its height and America was massively consuming new goods from the aggressive style of marketing. The marketing was targeted so that the classes would buy a product that would enrich and make their life easier. I think that students needs to understand that their culture has been highly driven by consumption and advertising for hundreds of years. Students will take on a new identity and write a di ary entry in their blogs, describing their assimilation into a new culture. Another assignment requires students to select a work of art and create an original photobomb to be shared on social media. Students will learn about the history of portraits, meth ods of commission and the purpose of portraits whether for documentation, posterity, etc. I worked on a lesson that addressed popular culture and the theme mass media. Movie posters have changed in style over the decades of red carpet releases, and marke ting has reflected increased budgets and shifting preferences. Students will see the difference in how media is presented, create a poster of their own and participate in connoisseurship by discussing the work

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 03 * of others on social media. The other lesson th at uses art and text explores artist quotes to become familiar with the artist and the culture in which they produced. It is designed to be a study that uses Dada's style of production, cut and paste collage. Not only will the student be learning about an artist they will also be infusing a style from a different era into their work. Both assignments will be blogged and students will catalogue their findings. The Use of Social Media in Art History: Findings for the Future and Significance While creating th is art history curriculum I was challenged to create a unit that would be age appropriate and would demonstrate safe practices that introduced social media and media literacy to students while studying art history. As described by Solis we do not become be tter managers with multiple tasks instead we are "bombarded with several streams of electronic information and do not pay attention" (2009, p. 1). The way in which I present the curriculum to the students will have to be mindful that should be focused on a specific theme while using social media platforms. The material that I have used in my curriculum has been pre screened and pre viewed by me for students participating in the study of my art history curriculum. With bombardment being a recognized issue wi th social media's viewership, my students will have careful exposure. In the future more topics with curriculum that relate to media literacy for high school level will be researched. I will eventually expand in my art history curriculum to have assignment s that change with popular culture. The educational standards change and in a curriculum the needs of the students and the community have to be met. Over time my curriculum will evolve and may or may not include more types of social media integration. Cur rently I have incorporated YouTube ¨ , Google Maps ¨ , Pinterest ¨ , Blogger ¨ , Tagboard ¨ , and Tumblr ¨ , each serving a different purpose within my curriculum. The real struggle that educators will have to handle is how media literacy reflects "societal values"

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 04 * (G reenhow & Robelia, 2009, p. 1130). The values and morals of the students who daily handle technology differ from the person that rarely encounters a computer. The student needs to have an understanding about how they present themselves to online networkin g communities. My curriculum will adjust to meeting those needs and include a unit on creating an online identity. It will be a different approach to art history curriculum, centered on an arts curriculum through digital mediums. The study about social net working connections and identities over time will eventually reflect what a culture has evolved too. Interconnections, global and local, can be related to the process with how art is shared, viewed, and marketed with varying cultures across the globe. Co nclusion As educators we must embrace the culture of exploration that we are trying to infuse in our student learning, and often try new ways of presenting our lessons. In my research I clearly saw the potential for social media and art history to work as ambassadors to talking about art, providing context and a forum for discussion. Social media connects and engages the students to participate in a conversation about art history, culture and topics related to art viewership and connoisseurship. While I ha ve not yet engaged with students in a classroom, my curriculum will have activities and direct students to specific social media platforms. As with any major change, there will be further allowances made for the changing culture of social media and adjust ments made to further encourage learning. We can spend half of our time ignoring the data stream that the kids are plugged into, or we can plug in and hopefully reach them. My curriculum attempts to engage students actively, to talk about art in engaging w ays. A contemporary talking point in education is cross curriculum, where topics that span multiple areas can be taught from multiple perspectives to provide a big picture. Art is by nature

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 05 * a product of creativity and culture, which are constantly shifting much like the education field. Social media, art history and contemporary art culture can all provide lenses for focusing on a topic in different ways. Reaching students in their digital space requires educators to plug in, reach out and engage students b eyond a classroom.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 06 * References Alvarez, I. & Olivera Smith, M. (2013). Learning in social networks: Rationale and ideas for its implementation in high education. Education Sciences, 3 , 314 325. doi: 10.3390/educsci30314. Beck, E. (1967). The art of tea ching history. Peabody Journal of Education, 45 (3), 143 147. Bersson, R. (2004). Responding to art: Form, content, and context . New York: McGraw Hill. Chanda, J. (1998). Art history inquiry methods: Three options for art education practice. Art Education, 51 (5), 17 24. Christian Science Monitor (1965). What about teaching art history? The Christian Science Monitor (1908 2000) . 9. Collins, B. (1991). What is art history? Art Education , 44 (1), 53 59. Cohen, K. (1997). Digital culture practices of art and ar t history. The Art Bulletin, 79 (2), 187 216. Contemporary Museum of Art, Los Angeles. (2013). Education: Themes in art. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://edu.moca.org/education Crowley, S. (1999, Feb.). Teaching art history creatively. School Arts . p . 43. Desai, D., Hamlin, J. & Mattson, R. (2010). Curriculum as a creative process. History as Art, Art as History: Contemporary Art and Social Studies Education, 35 46. New York: Routledge. Dyson, A. (1989). Style, technique, context: Art and design histo ry in the general certificate of secondary education. Art Education , 42 (1), 12 19. Fernie, E. (1995). Art history and its methods: A critical anthology selection and commentary . London: Phaidon Press Ltd.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 17 * Foshay, A. & Green, J. (1954). Technics of curricu lum research. Review of Educational Research, 24 (3), 246 52. Freed, S. (2004). Lecture, p.9. Retrieved November 16, 2014, from https://www.andrews.edu/~freed/oldpages/pdfs/p9 lecture.pdf Greenhow, C. & Robelia, B. (2009). Old communication, new literacies : Social network sites as social learning resources. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 14 , p. 1130 1161. doi:10.1111/j.1083 6101.2009.01484.x Hatt, M. & Klonk, C. (2006). Art History: A critical introduction to its methods . Manchester; New Yor k: Manchester University Press. Hausman, J. (2011). A need to return to conscience and consciousness in art education. Advocacy White Papers for Art Education, 1 4. Retrieved September 6, 2014, from http://www.arteducators.org/advocacy/whitepapers Livings ton, S. (2008). Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: Teenagers' use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self expression. New Media Society, 10 (3), 393 411. doi: 10.1177/1461444808089415 Payne, L. (2000). Essential histo ry of art. Bath: Parragon Publishing. Pitt, S., Updike C., & Guthrie M. (2002). Integrating digital images into the art and art history curriculum. Journal of library administration, 39 (2 3), 29 42. doi: 10.1300/J111v39n02_04 Raudenbush, S. (2005). Lear ning from attempts to improve schooling: The contribution of methodological diversity. Educational Researcher , 34 (5), 25 31. Sowell, J. (1993). A learning cycle approach to art history in the classroom. Art Education, 46 (3), 19 24.

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 1. * Stinespring, J. & Ste ele, B. (1993). Teaching art history: Getting started. Art Education , 46 (5), 7 13. doi: 10.2307/3193370 Sullivan, F. (1996). Critical interpretive inquiry: A qualitative study of five contemporary artists ways of seeing. Studies in Art Education , 37 (4), 210 225. Support.twitter. (2013). "Using hashtags on Twitter." Retrieved November 22, 2014, from https://support.twitter.com/articles/49309# VanTassel Baska, J. (1986). Effective curriculum and in structional models for talented students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 30 (4), 164 169. Vanwynsberghe, H. & Verdegem, P. (2013). Integrating social media in education. Comparative Literature and Culture, 15 (3). 2 10. Witcombe, C. (n.d.). Art history and techno logy: A brief history . Retrieved from http://arthistoryresources.net/arth technology/arth technologybiblio.html

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 1/ * List of Figures Figure 1: Home page of #Arthistory curriculumÉÉÉÉ...ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ23 Figure 2: Screen shot of Stamp Act 2014 lesson ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ30 Figure 3. Screen shot of #Arthistory homepage, Purpose ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.33

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!"#$%&'$(#)* &+$,-#"$&(+ * 10 * Author Biography A fifth generation Floridian and second generation Gator, L indsey Lindgren was born in Gainesville, Florida and now lives in Sarasota, Florida. She planned on going into education after graduating from the University of South Florida with a degree in Art History in 2011. Lindsey decided to visit the European lands cape during the summer of 2012, and this reflection and time encouraged her to pursue a master's degree in art education at the University of Florida. Lindsey wants to share her knowledge and passion with others through art and art history. During this edu cational adventure Lindsey has rekindled her interest in popular technological and social changes in our modern culture and media literacy. Yet, her main focus has been with the growth of popular culture in social media. She believes that culture is highly reflective of the arts. Lindsey looks forward to infusing art with history by using social media as an outlet of expression for her students.


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