Citation
A Music Technology Curriculum for Middle Grades in the State of Florida

Material Information

Title:
A Music Technology Curriculum for Middle Grades in the State of Florida
Creator:
Hicks, Manning J.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Webb, Richard S.
Committee Co-Chair:
Bazen, Dale E.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Computer technology ( jstor )
MIDI ( jstor )
Music composition ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Music notation ( jstor )
Music students ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Software ( jstor )
Sound pitch ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to present a one semester curriculum for a middle grades Music Technology course. The project begins with a review of literature, focusing on current research and expertise related to the need for and use of music technology curriculum in secondary education. Some of the themes from the research and practitioner literature include: the relevance and results of music technology instruction, practical issues related to music technology, educational philosophies in music technology instruction, and resources available for use in the curriculum. The project presents the curriculum in unit divisions, using a template designed for use with the Understanding by Design (UbD) model for curriculum unit development. The 2011 State of Florida Next Generation Sunshine State standards for M/J Music Technology are used to establish learning goals and objectives for student learning and achievement. Four units are presented using the UbD template. Each unit is designed to encompass four lessons, and focuses on a particular area of music instruction using current software and web-based technologies. Appendices provide examples of lesson plans and assessments for use in the curriculum.
General Note:
Music Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Manning J. Hicks. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Running Head: A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 1 A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM FOR MIDDLE GRADES IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA By M ANNING J . HICKS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. RICHARD S. WEBB, CHAIR DR. DALE BAZAN, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 2 For my wonderful students at Madison Academy and North Florida Community College; I want yo u to love music as much as I do; and I want you to grow up to be the amazing people you are meant to be.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 3 A cknowledgements First, I want to thank my family and friends who have encouraged me to pursue my goals . I could not have accomplished this without your love and friendship. I also want to thank in particular my dear friend and guitar teacher/writer extraordinaire David Hoge, who has helped me believe that I a m capable of accomplishing things that matter to people. I a m also indebted to Dr. Bauer and the wonderful professors in the UF Master’s program, that I have had the privilege of studying under for the past two years. Finally, I would like say a special “thank you” to my committee chair and advisor Dr. Rick Webb, for his tremendous help and guidance throughout the C apstone process.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 4 Abstract The purpose of this project is to present a one semester curriculum for a middle grades Music Technology course. The project begins with a review of literature, focusing on current research and expertise related to the need for and use of music technology curr iculum in secondary education. Some of the themes from the research and practitioner literature include: the relevance and results of music technology instruction, practical issues related to music technology , educational philosophies in music technology instruction, and resources available for use in the curriculum. The project presents the curriculum in unit divisions, using a template designed for use with the Understanding by Design (UbD) model f or curriculum unit development. The 2011 State of Florida Next Generation Sunshine State standards for M/J Music Technology are used to establish learning goals and objectives for student learning and achievement. Four units are presented using the UbD tem plate. Each unit is designed to encompass four lessons, and focuses on a particular area of music instruction using current software and webbased technologies. Appendices provide examples of lesson plans and assessments for use in the curriculum.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 5 Table of Contents Dedication .....2 Acknowledgements...3 Abstract .....4 Table of Contents.. Part 1: Review of Literature......6 Part 2: Curriculum Introduction .12 Curriculum Purpose and Overview.12 Overview of State of Florida Course Requirements13 Terms and Software Applications ...14 Understanding by Design Unit Template ....15 Part 3: Middle Grades Music Technology Curriculum..17 Middle Grades Music Technology Unit 1 18 Stage 1: Desired Results .......19 Stage 2: Assessment Evidence .2 Stage 3: Learning Plan ......23 Middle Grades Music Technology Unit 2....25 Stage 1: Desired Results..26 Stage 2: Assessment Evidence ....29 Stage 3: Learning Plan.30 Middle Grades Music Technology Unit 332 Stage 1: Desired Results..33 Stage 2: Assessment Evidence36 Stage 3: Learning Plan.37

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 6 Middle Grades Music Technology Unit 438 S tage 1: Desired Results..39 Stage 2: Assessment Evidence42 Stage 3: Learning Plan.43 Appendix : Sample Lesson Plan.........45 Sample Quiz49 Sample WebQuest...51 Sample Project Rubric.57 References ......59 Personal Notes and Final Thoughts .......62

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 7 A Music Technology Curriculum f or Middle Grades in the State o f Florida Part 1 – Review of Literature Digital music technology plays an increasingly important role in music education. Not only has music technology become an important resource for teachers in the music classroom, it is increasingly gaining interest as a focus of study and skill development for students. With the growing recognition of the relevance of music technology in music education, the use of information and communications technology by music educators is becoming the accepted norm in a number of countries around the world (Wise, Green wood, & Davis, 2011). Literature on the subject includes research articles describing studies of classroom s using music technology as a primary curricular focus, as well as informative books and articles offering insight into the strategies, processes and tools available to the music technology educator. A 2008 survey of music teachers , conducted by the Music Educators National Conference, indicated that almost half, forty four percent, are comfortable with music technology, while forty one percent described themselves as semi comfortable. The same teachers indicated that they believed only about fourteen percent of their students were comfortable with music technology, while thirty eight percent were semi comfortable (Anonymous, 2008) . The Relevance of Music Technology Instruction The concept of music technology in the classroom is not new. In a recently republished article, first published in 1988, Deutsch (2009) describes the vast potential for music technology in music education, noting that Musical I nstrument Digital Interface ( MIDI ) technology has advanced, computer hardware has become more affordable, and school administrators take a more favorable view of courses using technology. The article was republished twenty years later, because of it continued relevance. The current generation of students is made up of “digital

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 8 natives who have grown up with digital technology” (Cra ppell, 2011, p. 12). Their musical experiences and preferences are diverse. Teachers must consider the need and opportunity to a dapt instruction to these digital natives, using the current technology available, and the students’ favorite work. Cra ppell (2011) describes an example of such adaptation in which a teacher downloads a MIDI file from a popular video game archive. The teacher then opens it in Noteflight notation software, allowing the students’ to participate in editing the notation according to their abilities. While the focus of this review of literature is primarily on music technology curriculum from the perspective and for the purposes of music education, music technology has also attracted the interested of science and technology specialists. In their research into music as a theme for technology education, Thaler and Zorn (2010) found that students who participated in a study using music technology in a sound studio classroom setting “expressed the desire to learn and do more with music technolo gy” (p. 5). Their research concluded that music can be used to raise student’s interest in technology, describing music as a fun and attractive way to engage students with technology. Increasingly, professional musicians are adapting their offerings in wa ys that encourage the use of music technology. Bands like Radiohead and Nine Inch Nails have made individual tracks from their recordings available for download, so that the public can use them in remixing them into their own creations (Tobias , 2012) . This speaks to growing assumptions as to the sophistication of the public in terms of manipulating music with technology. The opportunity to share original music on the internet, and use music fairly through Creative Commons licensing, is increasing the demand for music techn ology, and the skills to use it (Tobias, 2013).

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 9 Results of Music Technology in Music Education According to Ley, “ i n composing, music technology allows pupils to explore, create, organize and manipulate sounds through a variety of processes sequencing, recording, notating musicstimulating creative possibilities and further ideasallowing realization when motor skills lag behind ideasallowing or novel or unexpected manipulation of existing work” ( as cited in Mellor , 2008, p. 451). Based on published studies, music technology appears to offer benefits to both experienced and inexperienced music students. Students with strong music skills seem to quickly find use of technology as a tool for application of their existing musical skills and know ledge. Students without a strong music background seem to benefit from the ease of musical exploration offered by the tools of technology. In a study by Mellor (2008) , using music composition software with secondary school students, students who had less formal instrumental music training showed a greater propensity to engage in exploratory behavior while composing. Music students that excel musically seem to adapt more quickly to the software tools used in music notation, while students in general had a s hort learning curve using sound creation and editing software ( Nielson, 2013). Music technology also offers opportunities to engage students more quickly in the primary musical activities of composing, performing, and listening. In espousing the advantages and benefits of a recording studio in the music classroom environment for performing students, Schwartz notes that “many students claim they cannot write music because they do not know how to write it down properly” (Schwartz , 2010 , p. 12) . Practical Is sues Related to Music Technology in Music Education The struggle for arts curricular status is decades old. The challenge continues with the renewed emphasis on S.T.E.M. (science, technology, engineering , and mathematics) education ( Gerber & Gerrity, 2007) . Tobias (2012) describes music classrooms that combine technological

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 10 and musical experiences as teaching “hyphenated musicianship in hybrid music programs” (p. 329). He suggests that as school administrators look to minimize the role of traditional performance ensemble classes, music programs can adapt by expanding the traditional curricula to include more contemporary approaches to musicianship , such as those that incorporate technology skills (Tobias, 2012). While the cost of computers and other hardware may still be prohibitive in some cases, more and more music software applications are becoming available at little or no cost. The cost of obtaining access to the tools of music technologies is minimized by the availability of more and more freeware, open source software, shareware, and web based applications (Watson, 2011). Because of the free price of software like Audacity music teachers can not only afford it for their music classroom, but can also provide students with instruction on a tool that they can use themselves, without investment, outside of school. With this software, students can enjoy experimenting with effects like pitch adjustment, audio reversal, and distortion. Teachers can use such a tool, using multi track audio recording, to engaged students in interesting projects like ringtone creation, and remixing ( “Technology for Teaching ,” 2011) . Hoffman and Carter (2013) point out that pay per license software for music notation is no longer necessary, as there are now web based programs that s tudents can access Noteflight is one such notation program that offers a free account option. Music Technology and Educational Philosophies In his discussion of students creating podcasts using music technology, Bolden points out that this type of project fits the model and philosophy of constructivism in education. It allows students to build knowledge internally, through active and engaging experiences (Bolden, 2013). In describing of the results of a study of nine teachers using music technology Wise , e t al . also

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 11 observed that the use of digital technologies by music teachers seemed to result in teachers moving towards a more constructivist teaching philosophy ( Wise, Greenwood , & Davis, 2011) . Saster et al point out that technology must be integrated int o the day to day practices of the music educator . It should allow for experimentation and exploration of sound. However, it should not result in a deviation from the practices that are enriching for students (2013) . Readily Available Resources in Music Technology While music technologies encompass a wide range of hardware and software, three technologies in particular seem most accessible to the music educator, for minimal cost and use of space. Music notation software, wave file editing or music studio software, and the internet Music notation software should be used to set up scores according to layout guidelines, enter notes, add expressions, add text, and add and change time and key signatures. Using digital audio workstation software opens up many cre ative possibilities because of the ability to use multiple audio tracks and MIDI tracks (Watson, 2011) . WebQuests, originally developed in the mid1990s provide a “project based model for learning that has continued to evolve as newer technologies have become available.” These focus on resources available on the internet, and are typically delivered to the student via a teacher created website. (Bauer , 2013, p. 120) . Conclusion A review of the literature related to music technology in music education indicates that the tools of technology can be used for exploration of music theory, music notation, composition, musical creativity, and other topics related to music and its relationship to other subject areas. While studies do highlight strengths and wea knesses of certain approaches with certain student profiles, these studies also consistently indicate positive results and increased engagement by music technology students.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 12 Part 2 – Curriculum Introduction Curriculum Purpose and Overview This curriculum was developed for a middle grades music technology course, using desktop or laptop computers running Windows operating systems as the primary interface device for students. The course spans one semester and is applicable to grades six, seve n, and eight . The course is designed to prepare students to address and meet the required benchmarks for the State of Florida DOE Next Generation Sunshine State standards for M/J Music Technology, course number 1303150. The curriculum involves creating, pe rforming, responding to, and connecting music, with a particular emphasis on musical creativity using the available technologies. The course is comprised of four, four week units, with one, one hour session per week. The Understanding by Design ( see Wiggin s & McTighe, 2011) approach to curriculum development was used to develop each unit. Sample lesson plans, assessments, and grading rubrics are included in the Appendi c es. Three digital technology solutions are used in the course. Audacity is a free open source wave file editor that is available on multiple computing platforms, and works with several common music media file types. Noteflight is a browser based music notation editor created by the company of the same name. It is available in free versions, as well as manageable subscription versions ideal for educational use. Soundation is a browser based music studio solution providing multi tracking, sampling, and Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) capabilities for sound creation and editing. Soundation also offers manageable subscriptionbased licensing, optimize d for the music technology classroom. Research into topics related to m usic technology will be conducted using guided WebQuests. All of these technologies are viable and reasonable solutions for the middle school music technology class with only access to computers running Microsoft Windows operating systems.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 13 Overview of St ate of Florida Course Requirements The S tate of Florida Department of Education provides a course description for middle grades music technology. This course description includes twenty one Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards. These standards are used to establish learning goals in the curriculum . Along with standards for music education, the requirements include standards for language arts, math, and dance. E ach of the four units in the curriculum includes the applicable standards listed as established g oals. Although the course is define as a full year, or two semesters, course, t hrough the completion of the entire four unit s presented here , all standards are addressed. The description of the course from the Department of Education website is as follows: Students investigate the fundamental applications, tools, history, and aesthetics of music technology. Student musicians explore traditional, current, and eme rging technologies, including personal devices; and use them to explore, capture, create, arrange, manipulate, reproduce, and distribute music. Public performances may serve as a resource for specific instructional goals. Students may be expected to attend one or more performances outside the school day to support, extend, and assess learning in the classroom . ( “M/J Music Technology ,” 2014 ) Because the curriculum presented here focuses on technologies available on a specific computer system, the exploration of personal devices (described above), beyond the laptop computers used in class, is accomplished through a WebQuest research project. Also, attendance at performances outside the school day is described as a possible requirement for the course, but is not included in this curriculum. The complete State of Florida course description with standards and resources is available at http://www.cpalms.org/Public/PreviewCourse/Preview/3330 .

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 14 Term s and Software Applications Audacity A free, open source software program that has sound wave editing capabilities. digital technology A system of transfer and translating information using bits (1’s and 0’s) looping Creating a repeated sequence of a recorded musical idea. mashup A musical product the combines parts of more than one recording. Microsoft Windows A computer operating system developed by the Microsoft Corporation. MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface – a protocol used on digital devices to translate information about sounds. multi tracking Recording separate audio tracks over the same time interval. Noteflight A web browser based software used to create music compositions using music notation. remix A musical product created by editing or enhancing an existin g recording. sampling Using a portion of a sound recording as part of a different recording or musical composition. SMART B oard A touch sensitive white board with a computer interface that allows interaction between the surface of the board and the computer. Soundation A web browser based music studio software with functionality used to create, edit and mix sound. UbD Understanding by Design – an approach to instructional design that emphasizes backwards design, where desired results are established first. WebQuest An approach to learning based on inquiry, and facilitated primarily through guided internet research.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 15 Understanding by Design (UbD) Unit Template Each unit is presented using a UbD template. The design stages are indicated in the shaded boxes. Major sections within each stage are indicated in bold type. Descriptions of each section are provided below. Course Name – Unit Number Unit Title: Grade Level: Subject/Topic Areas: Key Words: Designed by : Time Frame: Unit Summary A brief description of the unit including an overview of unit goals, activities, projects and assessments. Stage 1 Desired Results Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards addressed in the unit. Established Goals: Questions with answers that lead to broader understanding, beyond factual knowledge. What essential questions will be considered? Conceptual and theoretical insights that place knowledge and skills in context. What understandings are desired? Students will know: and Students will be able to: What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 16 Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Assessable activities or products that demonstrate students’ achieve desired understanding. What evidence will show that students understand? Additional assessable activities or products that confirm achievement of established goals. What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results? Documented reflections and self evaluation related to activities and products. Student Self Assessment and Reflection: Stage 3 Learning Plan Lesson outlines demonstrating implementation of a plan to achieve and assess desired results. These are not comprehensive lesson plans. Each item in the lesson outline is identified according to key elements and purpose with letters from the acronym WHERETO. W – Let students know Where the lesson is going and What to ex pect. H H ook the students and H old their interest. E E quip students to E xperience and E xplore. R – Allow for R evisions and R ethinking. E – Create opportunities for student self E valuation. T – T ailor instruction to diverse needs and abilities. O – Main tain O rganization. Lessons

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 17 Part 3 A First Semester Middle Grades Music Technology Curriculum for M/J Music Technology, Course #1303150, Florida Department of Education Manning J. Hicks University of Florida 2014

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 18 Middle Grades Music Technology – Unit 1 Unit Title: Unit 1 – Musical Elements and Form Grade Level: Middle Grades Subject/Topic Areas: Using a digital wave file editor to experience and manipulate m usical elements and form. Key Words: Audacity , Tempo, Dynamic, Pitch, Timbre, Waveform, Effects Designed by : Jay Hicks Time Frame: 4 Weeks Unit Summary This unit is the first of four in the middle grades (6 8) music technology curriculum designed for one sixteen week semester with classes meeting one hour each week. The digital wave file editor Audacity is used to manipulate sound waves in numerous ways. Through guided and project oriented tasks students will experience and recognize basic elements of sound (tempo, dynamics, pitch, and timbre) as applied to music. The unit will also engaged students in creative experiences through wave file editing (cutti ng, copying and pasting) in such a way as to help students better understand form and structure in music. This unit is four weeks (lessons) long, and will begin with a hands on instructional overview of Audacity . Students will be given musical wave or mp3 files for the purpose of experimenting with all of the effects available in the software, and identifying the element or elements of sound that each effect manipulates. Students will then be given the opportunity to experiment with editing using two files to create a remix or mashup. F inally the students will use the skills learned to create a mash up or remix of their own choosing.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 19 Unit 1 Stage 1 Desired Results This unit will address the following Next Generation Sunshine State Standards required by the State of Florida in its course description for M/J Music Te chnology, course number 1303150. MU.68.C.2.1 Critique personal performance, experiment with a variety of solutions, and make appropriate adjustments with guidance from teachers and peers. MU.68.C.2.3 Critique personal composition and/or improvisation, using simple criteria, to generate improvements with guidance from teachers and/or peers. MU.68.F.1.1 Create a composition and/or performance, using visual, kinesthetic, digital, and/or acoustic means to manipulate musical elements. MU.68.F.1.2 Create an original composition that reflects various performances that use "traditional" and contemporary t echnologies. MU.68.H.2.2 Analyze how technology has changed the way music is created, performed, acquired, and experienced. MU.68.O.2.1 Create a composition, manipulating musical elements and exploring the effects of those manipulations. MU.68.S.1.3 Arrange a short musical piece by manipulating melody, form, rhythm, and/or voicing. MU.68.S.1.8 Demonstrate specified mixing and editing techniques using selected software and hardware. Established Goals:

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 20 Unit 1 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) DA.68.S.2.1 Sustain focused attention, respect, and discipline during classes and performances. LAFS.68.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 68 texts and topics. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1Use appropriate tools strategically. MAFS.K12.MP.6.1Attend to precision. M AFS.K12.MP.7.1Look for and make use of structure. What essential questions will be considered? Established Goals (continued): What are the basic elements of music? How can sound waves be manipulated to alter the basic elements of music? How can digital technologies be used to arrange and create music? What understandings are desired? Students will understand: The elements of music (tempo, dynamics, pitch, and timbre). How changing musical elements affects the qualities of music. Elemental strategies of music composition, such as repetition, sequencing, and diminution. How digital technolog ies can be used to creat e and arrang e music .

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 21 Unit 1 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) Students will know: The four basic elements of music (tempo, dynamics, pitch, and timbre). Various types of digital effects that affect the basic elements of music. The processes used on sound wave files to create m usic al arrangements and compositions (e.g. recording, copying, trimming, sil encing, etc.). Students will be able to: Use digital sound wave editing software to remix and alter recorded music. What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 22 What evidence will show that students understand? Students will apply all available effects in the Audacity software to a recorded musical wavefile, identifying and documenting each effect the musical element(s) affected. Students will perform prescribed editing tasks on a prerecorded musical wavefile, demonstrating the ability to move, remove, and copy soundwaves to or from desired locations. Students will use effects and editing tools in Audacity to create an arrangement, remix, or mashup of two to or more music clips. Unit 1 Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Students will provide feedback on their peers’ musical products, identifying evidence of creative use of the tools in Audacity to manipulate elements and form in music. Students will demonstrate , through an online multiple choice quiz, the knowledge of terms and concepts related to musical elements, formal structure, and digital wave editing. Student Self Assessment and Reflection: What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results? Students will document reflections on the process of creating an arrangement, remix, or mashup, describing how the activity affected or changed their understanding of musical creativity. Students will critique their musical product based on adherence to guidelines as well as creativity, using an online evaluation form.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 23 Unit 1 Stage 3 Learning Plan 1. Assess student knowledge of and experience with digital audio in their personal lives through fun and engaging survey. W 2. Introduce Audacity using SMART Board , with a scripted demonstration of a remix/mashup using engaging music. H 3. Introduce and direct students to the online syllabus and unit overview, reviewing the goals, objectives, expectations, and schedule for the unit. W 4. Provide stepby step hands on instruction for working in Audacity , covering important tools and processes, and checking aurally for understanding. E O Lesson 1 Lesson 2* 1. Review the four basic elements of music (tempo, dynamics, pitch, and timbre ) , providing aural examples of each, engaging students in identifying changes in examples. W H E O 2. Have students import audio sample . E ngage in guided listening activity, exploring the elements of music. Informally assess students’ accuracy in recognizing elements. E T 3. Provide students with guided instruction for applying “Effects” in Audacity to the musical example, and completing the “musical elements worksheet” entries for each effect. R O 4. Assess completed musical elements worksheets and provide feedback to students, developing plans for remediation or accommodation where necessary. R E T *See appendix for sample lesson plan.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 24 Unit 1 Stage 3 Learning Plan (continued) 1. Review formal structures of music, providing aural examples of formal changes and techniques, engaging students in identifying changes in examples. W H E O 2. Have students import audio sample, and engage in guided listening activity, exploring formal structu res in the music. Informally assess students’ accuracy in recognizing elements. E T 3. Provide students with guided instruction for editing the musical example, and completing the “musical form check off sheet”. R O 4. Have students save and upload completed pr oject to shared folder. Evaluate students’ work, developing plans for remediation or accommodation where necessary. R E T Lesson 4 1. Present examples of real remixes and mashup from YouTube or other sources. H 2. Have students import audio example for final remix/mashup project . Provide instructions for use of effects and editing tools in remix/mashup creative process. O E 3. Allow students ample class time to work independently on remix/mashup project, uploading final product to shared folder. O E 4. Assign listening peer review assignments to students and have them listen to a peer’s product and fill out online review/evaluation. O E 5. Have students listen to and review their own product and fill out online self evaluation and reflection form. E 6. Evaluate student work, providing feedback and recommendations. R E T Lesson 3

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 25 Middle Grades Music Technology – Unit 2 Unit Title: Unit 2 – Notating Music Grade Level: Middle Grades Subject/Topic Areas: Creating musical compositions in standard music notation using music composition software. Key Words: Noteflight, Staff, Clef, Note values, Rest values, Dynamic markings, Tempo markings, articulation. Designed by : Jay Hicks Time Frame: 4 Weeks Unit Summary This unit is the second of four in the middle grades (6 8) music technology curriculum designed for one sixteen week semester with classes meeting one hour each week. The online mus ic notation software Noteflight will be used to introduce music composition using music notation. Through guided and project oriented tasks students will learn standard music notation and terminology . The unit will introduce symbols and terms used to inform performing musicians, and will emphasize the relationship of these to the elements of music exp erienced in Unit 1 . This unit is four weeks (lessons) long. The first three lessons will include instructional videos on the use of Noteflight, related to the objectives of that lesson. Students will be given increasing complex composition assignments that balance creative freedom with prescribed tasks, designed to demonstrate understanding of music notation. Students will progress from basic single staff, eight measure compositions, with a small set of note and rest value options, to a final sixteen measur e composition. The final composition will use multiple staves and include wide range of values, symbols and terms, as well as a prescribed a b a b’ form.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 26 Unit 2 Stage 1 Desired Results This unit will address the following Next Generation Sunshine State Standards required by the State of Florida in its course description for M/J Music Technology, course number 1303150: MU.68.C.2.1 Critique personal performance, experiment with a variety of solutions, and make appropriate adjustments with guidance from teachers and peers. MU.68.C.2.3 Critique personal composition and/or improvisation, using simple criteria, to generate improvements with guidance from teachers and/or peers. MU.68.F.1.1 Create a composition and/or performance, using visual, kinesthetic, digital, and/or acoustic means to manipulate musical elements. MU.68.F.1.2 Create an original composition that reflects various performances that use "traditional" and contemporary technologies. MU.68.H.2.2 Analyze how technology has changed the way music is created, performed, a cquired, and experienced. MU.68.O.2.1 Create a composition, manipulating musical elements and exploring the effects of those manipulations. MU.68.S.1.3 Arrange a short musical piece by manipulating melody, form, rhythm, and/or voicing. MU.68.S.1.2 Compose a short musical piece. DA.68.S.2.1 Sustain focused attention, respect, and discipline during classes and performances. Established Goals:

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 27 Unit 2 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) LAFS. 68.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6 8 texts and topics. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1 Use appropriate tools strategically. MAFS.K12.MP.6.1 Attend to precision. MAFS.K12.MP.7.1 Look for and make use of structure. Established Goals (continued): What essential questions will be considered? What is standard music notation? How is music notation used to create musical compositions ? How can music symbols and terms communicate the elements of music in a performance? How can digital technologies be used to create, edit and perform musical compositions using standard notation? What understandings are desired? How symbols and terms can be used to communicate musical elements. Strategies for creating musical compositions using standard music notation . How digital te chnology can be used in composing and arranging music with music notation.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 28 Unit 2 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) Students will know : The pitch names associated with the lines and spaces on the music staff in treble and bass clef . The note values of whole note, half note, quarter note, and eighth note, and corresponding rests . The meanings of clef symbols and time signatures . Basic dynamic, tempo, and articulation markings. Students will be able to: Use music notation software to create a musical composition. What key knowledge and skills will students acqu ire as a result of this unit?

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 29 Unit 2 Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Students will create short musical compositions with prescribed note values and symbols . Students will perform prescribed tasks related to manipulating music notation using digital music notation software . Students will create longer music compositions with multiple staves and instrumentation using treble and bass clefs. Students will create music compositions using the formal structure abab’ What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results? What evidence will show that students understand? Students will provide feedback on their peers’ musical composition , identifying evidence of correct and creative use of musical notation, symbols, terminology and form. S tudents will demonstrate, through an online multiple choice quiz, the knowledge of terms and concepts related to composition and standard music notation. Student Self Assessment and Reflection: Students will document reflections on the process of creating a composition describing how the activity affected or changed their understanding of musical creativity. Students will critique their musical composition based on adherence to guidelines as well as creativity, using an online evaluation form.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 30 Unit 2 Stage 3 Learning Plan 1. Assess student knowledge of and experience with music notation through an online nongraded quiz/ survey. W 2. Introduce Noteflight onli ne music notation software with “The Basics 1” and “The Basics 2” videos . W H 3. Introduce and direct students to the online syllabus and unit overview, reviewing the goals, objectives, expectations, and schedule for the unit. W O 4. Assign student logins and passwords for Noteflight, and review login process . E O 5. Assign video viewing assignments ( Noteflight Instructional videos #1 and #3) E 6. Create new score and step thru “Ode to Joy” four measure transcription. E R Lesson 2 Lesson 1 1. Review music staves, clefs, time signatures, pitch names, and note values, using Noteflight to demonstrate each . W 2. Have students open teacher created sample (e.g. “Jingle Bells”) and engage in interactive identification of notation elements learned . H E T 3. Assign eight measure original composition requiring use of treble clef, quarter notes, half notes, and quarter rests in 4/4 time . Limit pitches to G major pentatonic within staff, beginning and ending on tonic. E T 4. Assess comp leted musical compositions and provide feedback to students, developing plans for remediation or accommodation where necessary. R O T

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 31 Unit 2 Stage 3 Learning Plan (continued) 1. Administer online quiz on notation and symbols used in Lesson 2* . W R 2. Have students view Noteflight videos “Beyond the Basics 1” and “Beyond the Basics” E T 3. Introduce eighth notes using “William Tell Overture” theme created by teacher. E T 4. Have students open and save their own copy of “William Tell Overture Theme .” E 5. Assign markings and articulation project, having students create prescribed dynamic and tempo markings, as well as articulations in “William Tell Overture Theme.” E 6. Evaluate student work, providing feedback and recommendations. R E T *See appendix for sample quiz. Lesson 4 Lesson 3 1. Play “Find the Repeating Lines” by playing scores of “Jingle Bells” and “Ode to Joy” in Noteflight (on SMART Board), as an introduction to abab’ and aaba forms. H 2. Assign final Noteflight composition project as follows: E T O a. The composition should be sixteen measures, and use at least two parts (i.e. staves and instruments). b. Note and rest values whole, half, quarter, and eighth may be used. c. Only notes in the G major pentatonic scale within the treble and bass clef staves should be used. d. The composition must use abab’ form and end on tonic. 3. Evaluate student work, providing feedback and recommendations. R E T

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 32 Middle Grades Music Technology – Unit 3 Unit Title: Unit 3 – Music Tech WebQuest Grade Level: Middle Grades Subject/Topic Areas: Using online research and presentation tools to discover and present information relevant to current issues in music technology. Key Words: MIDI, Electrophone, Remix, Mashup, Digital, Analog, Copyright, Intellectual Property, Careers Designed by : Jay Hi cks Time Frame: 4 Weeks Unit Summary This unit is the third of four in the middle grades (6 8) music technology curriculum designed for one sixteen week semester with clas ses meeting one hour each week. In this unit the class will work in five groups to resear ch a current topic relevant to music technology. For larger classes, multiple groups may be assigned the same topic, or additional topics may be created. The five topics available to the groups will be presented in the context of a WebQuest, in which the g roups will be guided through internet research. The research will culminate in a slide show presentation using a presentation tool such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Google Presentation. Topics include “Careers in Music Technology*,” “The History of Electroni c Music,” “Digital Technology in Today’s Music Industry,” “Intellectual Property and Copyright in the Digital Music Age,” “Music and Apps in a Mobile Universe.” Live or video recorded oral presentations will accompany the slide shows on the final lesson of the unit. *See Appendix for WebQuest example.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 33 Unit 3 Stage 1 Desired Results Established Goals: This unit will address the following Next Generation Su nshine State Standards required by the State of Florida in its course description for M/J Music Technology, course number 1303150: LAFS.6.SL.1.2 Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats ( e .g. visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. LAFS.6.SL.1.3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported b y reasons and evidence from claims that are not. LAFS.6.SL.2.4 Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. LAFS.68.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 68 texts and topics. LAFS.68.WHST.3.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. LAFS.68.WHST.3.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. MU.68.F.3.2: Investigate and discuss l aws that protect intellectual property, and practice safe, legal, and responsible acquisition and use of musical media.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 34 Unit 3 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) MU.68.F.3.2 Investigate and discuss laws that protect intellectual property, and practice safe, legal, and responsible acquisition and use of musical media. MU.68.F.3.3 Identify the tasks involved in the compositional process and discuss how the process might be applied in the work place. MU.68.H.2.2 Analyze how technology has changed the way music is created, performed, acquired, and experienced. MU.68.H.3.1 Identify connections among music and other content areas and/or conte xts through interdisciplinary collaboration. LAFS.68.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6 8 texts and topics. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1 Use appropriate tools strategically. MAFS.K12.MP.6.1 Attend to precision. M AFS.K12.MP.7.1 Look for and make use of structure. Established Goals (continued): How have electronics, digital technology, and mobile devices changed the way music is created, performed, and experienced? Which careers use music technology? How do intellectual property laws affect the way music can be created and used? What essential questions will be considered?

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 35 Unit 3 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit? What understandings are desired? Students will know: Names and types of careers that use digital music technology. Names and types of electronic devices that have been used in creating, performing, and listening to music, historically. Names and types of popular mobile devices and apps that can be used for creating, performing, and listening to music. Basic rules of i ntellectual property and copyright law that guide how music can be created, performed and used. Students will be able to: Discuss topics related to current and historical issues in digital music technology. Use music technology in accordance with intellectual property laws. Students will understand: How digital technology can impact on music creation, performance, and use. The ways in which music technology is used in careers inside and outside the music industry. How intellectual property laws affect the ways individuals, groups, and organizations can create, perform and use music. How changes in electronic and digital technology can evolve over time.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 36 Unit 3 Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Students will present to the class a slide show with a live or recorded oral presentation demonstrating knowledge of an assigned topic related to music technology. Students will respond to questions from the instructor regarding the information presented in the slide show presentation. Students will briefly discuss and summarize the main points of the presentations of other students in a written document. What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results? What evidence will show that students understand? Students will provide feedback on their peers’ presentations. Visual and oral presentations will be accurate in spelling, grammar, use of terminology. Presentations will demonstrate a logical flow of information in a visually engaging format. Student Self Assessment and Reflection: Students will document reflections on the process of researching, developing , and presenting a presentation on the assigned topic. Students discuss how the project affected or changed their understanding of the uses of music technology . Students will critique their presentations based on adherence to guidelines using an online evaluation form.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 37 Unit 3 Stage 3 Learning Plan 1. Present “Music in the Movies” sample slide show . W H 2. Assign and organize WebQuest groups. O 3. Present sample WebQuest from Google Sites or school website. W E 4. Briefly discuss and assign each WebQuest topic. E O 5. Have groups begin WebQuests, saving work frequently. R T Lesson 2 Lesson 1 1. Organize WebQuest groups for continued research and development. O R T 2. Address questions and provide as sistance as needed . W R T 3. Remind students to save work frequently. E Lesson 3 1. Organize WebQuest groups for research and presentation completion. O R T 2. Address questions and provide assistance as needed. W R T 3. Remind students to save work frequently. E 4. Review work prior to class presentations to avoid unwelcomed surprises. O Lesson 4 1. Group presentations. a. Time presentations based on WebQuest instructions for length. O b. Allow time for student and teacher questions and discussion. E 2. Instruct students to complet e online self evaluations. E 3. Assign student reflection and summary writing assignments. E

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 38 Middle Grades Music Technology – Unit 4 Unit Title: Unit 4 – Musical Creativity Grade Level: Middle Grades Subject/Topic Areas: Using Soundation music studio with sampling and MIDI technology to create music. Key Words: MIDI, Samples, Channels, Tracks, Multi tracking Designed by : Jay Hicks Time Frame: 4 Weeks Unit Summary This unit is the third of four in the middle grades (6 8) music technology curriculum designed for one sixteen week semester with clas ses meeting one hour each week. In this unit students will use the online music studio software Soundation to explore and experience more advanced digital music manipulation and creation. The unit will begin with overviews of music studio production concepts such as multi tracking, sampling, looping and MIDI. Students will select from, and experiment with, a variety of sampled music and sound clips to create interesting patterns o f accompaniment. Student will also use MIDI technology to create melodies. Two projects will form the basis of the unit. First, students will create a prescribed and guided four track musical composition using a combination of sampled percussion clips, sam pled instrumental clips, and a familiar melody created using MIDI technology. The second project will allow more creative freedom, and will incorporate skills learned throughout the unit. In this project the student will create an original musical product, two to three minutes in length, using a minimum of four tracks. The tracks will include an imported audio clip created in Audacity , as well as a MIDI track scored in Noteflight. Students’ musical creations will be performed for the class.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 39 Unit 4 Stage 1 Desired Results This unit will address the following Next Generation Sunshine State Standards required by the State of Florida in its course description for M/J Music Technology, course number 1303150: MU.68.C.2.1 Critique personal performance, experiment with a variety of solutions, and make appropriate adjustments with guidance from teachers and peers. MU.68.C.2.3 Critique personal composition and/or improvisation, using simple criteria, to generate improvements with guidance from teachers and/or peers. MU.68.F.1.1 Create a composition and/or performance, using visual, kinesthetic, digital, and/or acoustic means to manipulate musical elements. MU.68.F.1.2 Create an original composition that reflects various performances that use "traditional" and contemporary technologies. MU.68.H.2.2 Analyze how technology has changed the way music is created, performed, acquired, and experienced. MU.68.O.2.1 Create a composition, manipulating musical elements and exploring the effects of those manipulations. MU.68.S.1.3 Arrange a short musical piece by manipulating melody, form, rhythm, and/or voicing. MU.68.S.1.8 D emonstrate specified mixing and editing techniques using selected software and hardware. DA.68.S.2.1 Sustain focused attention, respect, and discipline during classes and performances. Established Goals

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 40 Unit 4 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) LAFS.68.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 68 texts and topics. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1 Use appropriate tools strategically. MAFS.K12.MP.6.1Attend to precision. M AFS.K12.MP.7.1Look for and make use of structure. Established Goals (continued): What essential questions will be considered? How can sound be layered to create new and interesting musical compositions and arrangements? How can digital technology be used to arrange new and interesting versions of familiar music? How can multiple digital technology tools be used together in the creative process? Students will understand: The role of sound layering and variation in the creation of musical compositions. How digital technology can provide opportunities to experiment with sounds in the creative process. How different digital technologies can be used in the creation of a single musical composition or arrangement. What understandings are desired?

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 41 Unit 4 Stage 1 Desired Results (continued) What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit? Students will know: The meanings of important music studio terms: multitracking, looping, sampling, and MIDI. The roles of different digital music technologies in music creation and production. Students will be able to: Create accompaniments by looping sampled sounds. Create layers of sound by using multi tracking technology. Create music using MIDI. Use multiple digital technologies to produce a musical product.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 42 Unit 4 Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Students will produce a musical product based on strictly pres cribed requirements, applying techniques and concepts taught in this unit (multi tracking, sampling, looping, and MIDI). Students will produce an original musical composition using the digital technologies and concepts introduced in units 1, 2 and 4, incor porating products from Audacity and Noteflight into the final product created in Soundation. What evidence will show that students understand? Students will provide feedback on their peers’ musical products, identifying evidence of multitra cking and looping techniques . Students will demonstrate, through an online multiple choice quiz, the knowledge of terms and concepts related to multitracking, sampling, looping, and MIDI. Student Self Assessment and Reflection: What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results? Students will document reflections on the process of creating a musical product using the digital technologies introduced in units 1, 2, and 4. Students will critique their musical product based on adherence to guidelines , as well as creativity, using an online evaluation form.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 43 1. Using rhythm and Orff mallet instruments, engage students in a quick, live looping and layering activity . H 2. Introduce Soundation using SMART Board , wi th a scripted demonstration of looped sample clips applied on multiple tracks, as well as MIDI track creation . W H 3. Introduce and direct students to the online syllabus and unit overview, reviewing the goals, obje ctives, expectations, and schedule for the unit. W O 4. Assign student logins and passwords for Soundation, and review login process . E O 5. Take students through creation of tracks in Soundation using looped samples and MIDI, discussing and defining the concepts as they are applied. W O 6. Allow students time to experiment with Soundation and ask questions. E Lesson 1 Lesson 2 1. Open with a demonstration of a musical arrangement from Soundation , created in the style of Soundation Project 1. Play the arrangement from within the studio application, while displaying on screen. W H E O 2. Direct students to Soundation Project 1 instructions. Review instructions and allow opportunities for que stions. E T O 3. Have students complete Soundation Project 1 assisting as needed . R O 4. Remind students to save projects frequently. O T 5. Assess completed projects and provide feedback to students, developing plans for remediation or accommodation where necessar y. R E T Unit 4 Stage 3 Learning Plan

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 44 Unit 4 Stage 3 Learning Plan (continued) 1. Open with a demonstration of a musical arrangement from Soundation , created in the style of the Final Project. Play the arrangement from within the studio application, while displaying on screen. W H E O 2. Direct students to Final Project instructions. Review instructions and allow opportunities for questions. E T O 3. Review strategies for using Audacity and Noteflight in conjunction with Soundation to complete the final product. 4. Have students begin Final Project, monitoring progress and assisting as needed. R O 5. Remind students to save projects frequently. O T 6. Assess complete d projects and provide feedback to students, developing plans for remediation or accommodation where necessary *. R E T *See Appendix for sample rubric . Lesson 4 1. Administer online quiz covering music studio concepts and terminology. O 2. Play Final Projects for the class, allowing for class discussion and Q&A. E E 3. Have students fill out online self assessment and process reflection forms. E Lesson 3

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 45 Appendix Sample Lesson Plan – Unit 1 , Lesson 2 NGSS Standards Addressed: MU.68.H.2.2 Analyze how technology has changed the way music is created, performed, acquired, and experienced. MU.68.O.2.1 Create a composition, manipulating musical elements and exploring the effects of those manipulations. MU.68.S.1.8 Demonstrate specified mixing and editing techniques using selected software and hardware. DA.68.S.2.1 Sustain focused attention, respect, and discipline during classes and performances. LAFS.68.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domai nspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6 8 texts and topics. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1 Use appropriate tools strategically. MAFS.K12.MP.6.1 Attend to precision. Measurable Learning Objectives: Students will be able to: Define the four basic elements of music (tempo, dynamics, pitch, and timbre). Recognize changes in the four basic elements of music by listening. Manipulate digital effects using sound wave fil e editing software.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 46 Appendix Sample Lesson Plan – Unit 1 , Lesson 2 Materials and Media Needed: Students Laptops with Audacity and Microsoft Word. Headphones. Project and sound for teacher computer. 5 MP3 music clips accessible via shared drive. Lesson 2 instruction blog (online). 1. Review the four basic elements of music (tempo, dynamics, pitch, and timbre ). a. Provide aural examples of changes in each using instruments and voice. b. E ngag e students in identifying changes in examples. c. Recruit volunteers from class to demonstrate element changes on instruments. d. Informally assess students understanding through class interaction. e. Review formal definitions of the four elements: Tempo the speed of the beat in music Pitch the quality of a sound governed by the rate of vibrations producing it; the degree of highness or lowness of a tone Dynamics the volume of a sound or note Timbre the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity. Procedures:

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 47 2. Have students import A udio Clip 1 from shared drive into Audacity . Engage in guided activity, exploring Effects and Elements a. File/Import/Audio Open Selected Audio File b. Play Audio Clip 1 from start to finish, watching changes in waveform c. Select first 15 seconds of clip, and Fade it In. d. Select from 45 seconds to 1 minutes and Change Pitch . e. Select from 30 to 45 seconds and Fade it Out f. Select from 45 seconds to 1 minute and change Equalization. g. Replay Audio Clip 1 from beginning. 3. Provide students with guided instruction for applying “Effects” in A udacity to the music al example, and completing the musical elements worksheet entries for each effect. a. Close Audio Clip 1 and import Audio Clip 2 into Audacity . b. Experiment with ten of th e effects in the "Effects" menu ( Amplify, Bass and Treble, Change Pitch, Cha nge Speed, Change Tempo, Echo, Equalization, Fade In, Invert , Reverb ). c. As you try each effect, determine which element or elements are affected. d. In a Word document, list each "Effect" and the affected "Element(s)." a. Save your Word document as "effects_xx" w her e "xx" represents your initials, then copy and paste your document into the shared folder. Procedures (continued): Appendix Sample Lesson Plan – Unit 1 , Lesson 2

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 48 Assess completed musical elements worksheets and provide feedback to students, developing plans for remediation or accommodation where necessary. Answer Key for Musical Elements Worksheet 2 point s for each Effect ( 1 point each where 2 elements are affected) Effect Element(s) Points Amplify Dynamics 2 Bass and Treble Timbre, Dynamics 2 Change Pitch Pitch 2 Change Speed Tempo, Pitch 2 Change Tempo Tempo 2 Echo Timbre 2 Equalization Timbre, Dynamics 2 Fade In Dynamics 2 Invert Pitch, Timbre 2 Reverb Timbre 2 Total Points: 20 Appendix Sample Lesson Plan – Unit 1 , Lesson 2 Assessment: Because of the universal and free availability of Audacity , students with special needs may receive additional guidance outside of the classroom setting. Students with physical disabilities that hinder their ability to perform the tasks in this lesson may be assisted by a specialist, or work with other students, depending on the need. If students consistently exhibit difficulties recognizing changes in certain musical elements, consideration may be given to possible physiological conditions such as congenital amusia. Special Considerations:

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 49 Appendix Sample Quiz – Unit 2, Lesson 3 This multiple choice quiz is made up 1 equally weighted, low complexity multiple choice questions. The questions address knowledge of musical symbols and notation, as required NGSS standard LAFS.68.RST.2.4 . Music Notation Quiz 1. The image above represents which of the following: a. quarter note b. half note c. treble clef d. staff x 2. In 4/4 time the quarter note receives the value of: a. 2 beats b. 3 beats c. 1 beat X d. 4 beats 3. The image above represents which of the following: a. E x b. F c. G d. C 4. The space notes on the treble clef staff spell: a. EGBDF b. DOG c. LOVE d. FACE x 5. In 4/4 time the half note receives the value of: a. quarter note b. 3 beats c. 1 beat d. 2 beats x

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 50 Appendix Sample Quiz – Unit 2, Lesson 3 6. The image above represents which of the following: a. E b. G c. A x d. C 7. The image above represents which of the following: a. quarter note x b. half note c. treble clef d. staff 8. The image above represents which of the following: a. quarter note b. half note c. treble clef x d. staff 9. The image above represents which of the following: a. quarter note b. half note c. treble clef x d. staff 10. The lines notes on the treble clef staff (from bottom up) are: a. FACE b. ABCD c. EGBDF x d. ABCDE

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 51 Appendix Sample WebQuest – Unit 3 Introduction WebQuest Careers in Music Technology When you think of jobs in music, do you think of? Y our music teacher? S omeone who works in a music store? Y our favorite musicians who write songs, record music and give concerts? These are all real jobs in music, but there are also jobs that involve music technology. In this WebQuest your group will discover and learn about careers in music technology. Before y ou begin your task, ask yourself these important questions: 1. If I were exploring a career I might like, what things would I want to know? a. What would a day at work be like? b. How much money could I make? c. Do I already know someone in this career? d. Something else ? 2. What kind of additional information about a career would I want to share with the class? a. What skills would they need? b. How would they get those skills? c. Are there famous people in this career? d. Something else? Now get ready to begin your Quest, and learn more about your task.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 52 Task Your task is to create a 5 to 8 minute presentation about careers in music technology. After you have considered the questions in the introduction, you will be ready to begin your research. Divide your research tasks among your group. Perhaps each group member could have one research question to answer. You will present your research using a Microsoft PowerPoint slideshow. Your slideshow should contain at least eight sli des, including introduction, quiz and conclusion slides. Your slides should have bullet points and numbered lists that highlight your research in a logical and organized way. You may also include clipart to make your slideshow more interesting. Your slide show will be accompanied by an oral presentation. This may be live, or recorded using Audacity . Your oral presentation should provide more information about the bullet points and lists in your slideshow. Your finished project should include: A slide show presentation (8 10 slides) wi th the main points of the research, and including introduction, quiz and conclusion slides . Sample Slide Presentation A script (document) outlining the things you will say (include questions for the class). Sample Script Outline A five question quiz slide to at the end of the presentation. Sample Quiz Slide Appendix Sample WebQuest – Unit 3

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 53 Process Use the three general categories below to research and develop your lesson. You may want to use these categories to divide the responsibilities among your team members. Category 1 Learn By Reading ( just the facts!) Explore these websites to discover things about careers in music technology you might use in your presentation. http://www.uab.edu/uabmagazine/2013/august/musictech http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/musicprod.htm http://www.careersinmusic.com/ Category 2 – Learn By Watching and Listening ( hey! ...check this out !) Check out this video to see people with careers in music technology in action. https://www.yo utube.com/watch?v=M7woVKKjLhc Category 3 Learn By Asking ( there’s no such thing as a dumb question!) Check out these professionals, and let your teacher help you email questions to them. http://reellife.net/real 2reel staffengineers/ Finale Time to build your lesson. When you've finished your research, create the outline of your slideshow. Use your slideshow outline as a basis for building your outline script document. Choose the information that seems most important, and create your five quiz questions. Appendix Sample WebQuest – Unit 3

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 54 WebQuest Research and Presentation Rubric Project Expectations Meets Expectations Approaches Expectations Below Expectations The WebQuest answers the important questions about the topic . The facts and ideas presented help the audience answer all of the important questions from the WebQuest Introduction. The facts and ideas presented help the audience answer most , but not all of the important questions from the WebQuest Introduction (more information is needed to answer some of the questions). Few or no facts and ideas are presented that would help the audience answer the important questions from the WebQuest Introduction (most of the information is not on topic.) The slideshow is: c omplete . well organized. easy to follow. The slideshow: has the correct number of slides, and all the required parts. makes good use of bulleted points , begins with an introduction, and ends with a quiz and conclusion. is presented in a very logical way (building on facts, and completing ideas before moving to new ones). The slideshow: has the correct number of slides , but does not inc lude all of the required parts. begins with an introduction, and ends with a quiz and conclusion, but needs to use more bulleted points. is presented in a mostly logica l way, but does not consistently build on facts or complete ideas . The slideshow: does not have the required number of slides. does not use bulleted points , or the introduction, quiz and conclusion are out of order. does not build on facts or complete ideas, making it hard to follow. Appendix Sample WebQuest – Unit 3 Evaluation

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 55 WebQuest Research and Presentation Rubric continued Project Expectations Meets Expectations Approaches Expectations Below Expectations The oral presentation is: easy to understand. well scripted. a group activity. The presentation: is clear ly spoken and can be easily heard and understood by the audience. has a script that always follow s the points on the slides, while giving additional facts and ideas. gives all group members a chance to speak. The presentation: can be heard, but is occasionally too soft or too fast, making it hard to understand at times. has a script that mostly follow s the points on the slides, but needed more facts and ideas . give s some, but not all , group members a chance to speak. The presentation: is hard to hear and follow, and needs more volume or slower tempo . does not have a script , or the script needs to follow the points on the slide, and provide other facts and ideas. has only one or no speaker, and needs to include the entire group.. The 5 quiz questions related to facts or ideas from the presentation. There are five questions. All of the questions have answers that are included in the presentation. There are five questions. Most, but not all, of the questions have answers that are included in the presentation. There are fewer than five questions, or most questions have answers that are not included in the presentation. Evaluation continued Appendix Sample WebQuest – Unit 3

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 56 Appendix Sample WebQuest – Unit 3 Conclusion You have completed your WebQuest into the careers in music technology. Now, consider the following questions: Would you want a career in music technology? Why, or why not? Do you think jobs in music technology are just for people who sing or perform on instruments? Do you think there will be more types of careers in music technology in the future? How do you think careers in music technology might change by the time you finish your education? The knowledge you gain and skills you develop in your music technology class may not only be making you a better musician. They may also be preparing you for a job in the future. Wrap Up: D ocument your reflections on the process of researching, developing , and presenting your p resentation. In your reflection, describe how the project affected or changed your understanding of the uses of music technology in careers . Critique your groups’ presentation using the online evaluation form .

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 57 References Appendix Sample Project Rubric – Unit 4 Unit 4 Final Project Rubric Project Expectations Meets Expectations Approaches Expectations Below Expectations Audacity is used to create a quality spoken vocal recording with effects. The recording: is the correct length uses original lyrics that do not break copyright laws, and follow a consistent rhythm pattern. uses several effects that change the timbre, dynamics, pitch, or tempo of the voice. is exported to a wave file. The recording: is the correct length uses original lyrics that do not break copyright laws, but sometimes need steadier beat and pulse. uses one or two effects that change the timbre, dynamics, pitch, or tempo of the voice. is exported to a wave file. The recording: is too short or too long. uses lyrics that are copyrighted, or are very erratic and consistently need to keep a steadier beat and pulse. needs effects applied that demonstrate changes in musical elements. is not exported, or is the wrong file type. Soundation is used to create looped samples as an accompaniment to a melody. The accompaniment: uses a good variety of sampled sounds that go together to create an interesting accompaniment . contains correct timing and placement of samples, creating consistent loops. The accompaniment: uses a few sampled sounds that go together well, but more would help create an interesting accompaniment . contains correct timing and placement of samples, creating consistent loops. The accompaniment: uses one or no sampled sounds , and needs more to meet the minimum project requirements and create an interesting accompaniment . no looping is present, or loops are not timed consistently.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 58 Appendix Sample Project Rubric – Unit 4 Unit 4 Final Project Rubric continued Project Expectations Meets Expectations Approaches Expectations Below Expectations Noteflight is used to create a MIDI file of an interesting melody. The composition: uses a variety of note and rest values, creating variety in rhythm. uses a good variety of pitches that help create an interesting melody. uses forms like abab’ or aaba, that repeat memorable phrases. is exported to a MIDI file. The composition: uses a few different note and rest values, but more variety would make more interesting rhythms. uses some variety of pitches, but more would help make the melody more interesting. does not use musical forms like aaba or abab’ to establish memorable phrases. is exported to a MIDI file. The composition: only uses one or two note and rest values and needs much more variety to create interesting rhythms. uses only one or two pitches and needs much more variety to create an interesting melody. does not use musical forms like aaba or abab’ to establish memorable phrases. is exported to a MI DI file. Multi tracking is used in Soundation to build a final product. The final product includes a tracks created from a wave file from Audacity , a MIDI file from Not eflight, and looped tracks created in Soundation. The final product includes multiple tracks, but is missing one of the following: a wave file from Audacity , a MIDI file from Not eflight, or looped tracks created in Soundation. The final product does not include multiple tracks, or is missing more than one of the following: a wave file from Audacity , a MIDI file from Not eflight, or looped tracks created in Soundation.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 59 References Anonymous (2008). Members embrace classroom music technology . Music Educators Journal, 94(5), 14. Bolden, B. (2013). Learner created podcasts: Students' stories with music. Music Educators Journal , 100(1), 7580. doi :10.1177/0027432113493757 Bauer, W. I. (2014). Music learning today: Digital pedagogy for creating, performing, and responding to music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Crappell, C. (2011). Adapting to the diverse musical experiences and preferences of today's digital natives. American Music Teacher , 60(5), 12 . Deutsch, H. (2009). Where was technology and music education twenty years ago? Journal of popular music studies, 21(1), 9096. doi :10.1111/j.15331598.2009.01171.x Gerber, T., & Gerrity, K. (2007). Principles for p rincipa ls: Why music remains important in middle s chools . General Music Today , 21(1), 1723. doi:10.1177/10483713070210010105 Hoffman, A., & Carter, B. (2013). A virtual composer in every classroom. Music Educators Journal , 99(3), 5962. doi: 10.1177/0027432112470697 M/J Music Technology. (2014). Retrieved November 14, 2014, from http://www.cpalms.org/Public/PreviewCourse/Preview/3330 Mellor , L. (2008). Creativity, originality, identity: Investigating computer based composition in the secondary school. Music Education Research, 10(4), 451472. doi : 10.1080/14613800802547680 Nielson, D. (2013). Developing musical creativity: Student and teacher perceptions of a high school music technology curriculum . Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 31(2), 5462. doi : 10.1177/8755123312473610

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 60 Sastre, J., Cerda, J., Garcia, W., Hernandez, C.A., Lloret, N., Murillo, Dannenberg, R.B., (2013). New technologies for music education, 2013 Second International Conference on e Learning and e Technologies in Education (ICE EE), 149 154. doi: 10.1109/ICeLeTE.2013.6644364 Schwartz, E. (2010). Idea bank: A classroom recording studio. Music Educators Journal, 97(1), 1113. doi: 10.1177/0027432110376042 Tech nology for t eaching (2011). Music Educators Journal, 98(2), 39. doi :10.1177/0027432111428745 Thaler, A. & Zorn, I. (2010). Issues of doing gender and doing technology: Music as an i nnovative theme for technology education. European Journal of Engineering Education, 35(4), 445454. doi :10.1080/03043797.2010.490578 Tobias , E. (2012), Hybrid spaces and hyphenated musicians: Secondary students’ musical engagement in a songwriting and technology course. Music Education Research, 14(3), 329 346. doi :10.1080/14613808.2012.685459 Tobias, E. (2013). Toward convergence: Adapting music education to contemporary society and participatory culture. Music Educators Journal, 99(4), 2936. doi :10.1177/0027432113483318 Watson, S. (2011). Using technology to unlock musical creativity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2011). The understanding by design guide to creating high quality units. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 61 Wise, S., Greenwood, J., & Davis, N. (2011). Teachers' use of digital technology in secondary music education: Illustrations of changing classrooms. British Journal of Music Education, 28(2), 117134. doi :10.1017/S0265051711000039

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A MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM 62 Personal Notes and Final Thoughts Having spent a significant amount of my adult life in a technology career in public education, and having spent my entire life with a passion for creating, performing, listening to and teaching music, I have a great interest in the merging of music and tec hnology. The opportunities that digital technology affords music teachers and students seem to be growing exponentially. It has been my pleasure to be a co writer and developer for two virtual music courses, middle and high school guitar, now in use by the Florida Virtual School and North Dakota Virtual School. This year, I have also begun teaching the curriculum presented here , in place of middle grades general music. It thrills me to see students, who otherwise are not easily engaged in a traditional gene ral music course, excel in tech nology based music instruction. The case for music technology instruction, though, goes beyond any current trends and fads that attract students to a discipline. Technology is , and I believe will continue to be , an important tool for creating, performing, and listening to music. Because of this, I also believe music educators have a responsibility to include music technology instruction as part of a comprehensive music program, particularly in secondary grades. As I write th is, three of my seventh grade students are creating a mashup, using Audacity , for their peers in sixth grade to use in a holiday performance in just a few weeks. These three students are doing this voluntarily, as an out of class project, for no grade or e xtra credit. For teachers, having students choose to use the knowledge, skills and understanding we have guided them towards is the greatest validation of our mission. My personal goals for the future include expanding this curriculum to a second semester, and adapting it for virtual and blended learning environments.