PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE By ANDREA EDWARDS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE DR. SANDY B. GOLDIE, CHAIR DR. TIMOTHY S. BROPHY, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSIT Y OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014
Running head: PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 1 Abstract The purpose of this review of literature was to examine the literature relat ed to performance anxiety and music memorization an d to generate research based, best practice instructional strategies that would benefit music students and teachers in memorizing and performing music. Music memorization and performance anxiety were cross referenced with the intention of extracting eleme nts which were common to both. As part of this review of literature , an investigation of prior research related to performance anxiety and music memorization w ere examined and the information gathered was used to generate effective strategies related to m usical performance anxiety and music memorization. T he environment for performing appears to relate to levels of anxiety and successful music memorization. T he size of the performance venue as well as the audien ce present during a performance may both si gnificantly impact music memorization and levels of performance anxiety according to the literature . S econd, mental practice and cognitive rehearsal are similar strategies which were found to positively impact the ability to memorize music and decrease pe rformance anxiety related to music memorization.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 2 Performance Anxiety and Music Memorization: A Review of Litera ture Performing memorized music is not an easy task to accomplish for a student involved in music whether the individual is a beginni ng music student or someone who has studied music for many years. To successfully perform music from memory requires planned strategies which are implemented during the early stages of learning music. Without thoughtful planning, an individual's likeliho od of performing memorized music for a public performance may result in extreme nervousness and multiple memory lapses resulting in a less than acceptable performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature relat ed to musical performance anxiety and m usic memorization and to generate research based, best practic e instructional strategies that benefit music students and teachers in memorizing and performing music. Music memorizati on and performance anxiety were c ross referenced with the i ntentio n of extracting elements which we re common to both. As part of this study, an investigation of p rior research w as examined and analyzed, and explanations of research based strategies for memorizing music as well as strategies for decre asing perform ance anxiety were presented. This study was guided by the following questions: a) Why do most children and adults experience musical performance anxiety while other children and adults experience very little anxiety? b) What strategies are most effect ive in the memorization of music? c) What strategies exist that will guide and assist students in dealing with anxiety and aid in the memorization of music in a performance setting? d) Does an individual's personality or genetics have an impact on how the person deals with performance anxiety and memorization of music?
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 3 Understanding the relationship between music memorization and performance anxiety is important because the research gath ered in this project provides strategies to help students at all perf orm ance levels memorize m usic well. A dditionally, beginner and advanced students who struggle with memorizing are equipped with strategic plans for retaining memorized music. A better understanding of this topic may help teachers provide soluti ons and st rategies for their student s that aid them in performing memorized music in front of an audience. This information may be beneficial to teachers who work with students who perform music by memory either individually or in a group performance . Performance Anxiety Anxiety, fear, and helplessness are three very familiar words f or musical performers of all ages and genders, regardless of the hours of practice and musical performance experience (Malebranche, 2012). Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2014) def ines anxiety as " fear or nervousness " about an event which might happen and the event is accompanied by an overwhelming " sense of apprehension " and fear for the individual . T his fear, an expectation or worry about something bad or unpleasant, manifests as sweating, tension, and an increased pulse. Anxiety and fear together often create a feeli ng of helplessness, also stated by Merriam Webster (2014) as " an inability to do something to help make a situ ation or task better or easier for the individual." Fear often prevents us from facing new challenges before us (Malebranche, 2012). T he word " fear " implies that individuals are afraid of something or someone. Fear can prevent individu als from facing new challenges because of the possibility of failure . Fear causes restlessness, tenseness, clumsiness, insecurity, anxiety, and avoidance in individuals who are afraid of appearing as a failure ( Kruger, 1993 ) . Thus, as a result of anxiety, fear, and
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 4 helple ssness, a musical performer may experience what is kn own as musical performance anxiety or MP A. Many emotions are associated with music performance anxiety such as fear, shame, anger or confusion (Malebranche, 2012) . Many physiological symptoms appear as a performance date nears whereas psychological sy mptoms typically appear days or weeks prior to a performance (McQuade, 2008) . With MPA, performers often exaggerate the importance of minor mistakes and view one mistake as ruining the entire performance ( Malebranche , 2012) . A fear of the unknown aspects of performing also contributes to music performance anxiety. These "unknowns" include lack of confidence in performance , the presence of an audience, technical problems in the music , a fear of disapproval from friends, and anxiety about losing physical control of the instrument while pe rforming (Malebranche, 2012 ) . The s ubconscious eventually is enabled and presents the performer with doubts about their ability to perform. R esearchers have examined underlying factors which contribute to performan ce anxiety in individuals (McGinnis & Milling, 2005; Pergman, 2006) . Some contributing factors which have been shown to increase anxiety in performers include intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as age, personality and years of performance , an d individua l cognitive features like self efficacy and several others which will be examined further (McQuade, 2008). Before examining the above factors, an explanation of the physical changes brought about by anxiety is briefly presented below . Sympathetic Nervous System The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) prepares us for a "fight or flight" response when confronted with an anxiety stricken situation. As a result of the S NS, the heart beats faster, pupils dilate , airways become more open, muscles tense, and the sa livary glands secrete mo re
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 5 saliva causing a dry mouth (Iltis, 2012 ). These changes are crippling and unproductive for perf ormers. The issue for a performer is not whether the audience presents a threat to the performer, but whether the audience is percei ved as threatening (Iltis, 2012) . Fearful thoughts as well as observable behaviors of a ny perceived threats from the audience activate the SNS which produces MPA (Iltis, 2012 ) . According to Iltis, t he anticipation of the stressful event may cause more an xiety th an the actual event. C ontributing Factors for Anxiety The degree of susceptibility to experiencing anxiety plays an important role in performance, as it can influence the performer's perceptions of the situation and their preparation procedures (P apageorgi, Hallam & Welch, 2007 ). According to these researchers, the intensity of anxiety is associated with a performer's characteristics including intrinsic, extrinsic and cognitive features. Intrinsic, which refers to the innate characteristics a pers on is born with (Merriam Webster, 2014) , includes factors relating to gender, age, and personality. Ex trinsic is identified as external influences on an individual according to the dictionary, and include an individual's prior performing experiences. Las t, anxiety appears to be affected by cognitive characteristics of a performer and includes metacognitive skills (Papageorgi et.al, 2007). Gende r Intrinsic factors in individuals include components such as gender, age, and personality (Papageorgi, Hallam & Welch, 2007) . L eBlanc, Jin, Ober t, and Sii v ola (1997) f ound that female musicians w ere more prone to feelings of anxiousness as well as experiencing higher levels of music performance anxiety than male musicians. Females also appeared to perceive the p resence of an audience as threatening.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 6 L eBlanc et al. (1997) evaluated heart rate of students at Michigan State University performing a solo alone, with one researcher present, and then with all four researchers and a small peer group present. The resear chers worked with male and female students (N=27) who were members of a local high school band. S ixteen students were male and 11 were female. Students played a variety of instruments including flute, oboe, clarinet, alto, tenor, and baritone sax, trumpe t, and French horn. Female participants presented a significantly higher hear t rate while performing alone compared to male participants . Female heart rates remained high while performing with one researcher. Finally, heart rates for females were extrem ely high in the performance setting when there were four researchers and the peer group as an audience. The resear chers concluded that males and females may respond differently to stress and anxiety during musical performance especi ally with an audience pr esent. This is important for music teachers who have female students because teachers should perhaps be more sensitive to the needs of female students in a performance environment. Osborne, Kenny and Holsomback (2005) exami ned performance anxiety of ch ildren ages 11 13 (N=84) who were all involved in the be ginner band class in a small rural town in Texas. Most of the students learned music through the school curriculum with only a few in private music lessons. 95% o f the students were from the US and 5% were from Mexico. Students completed questionnaires on demographics, the MPAI I (Musical Performance Anxiety Inventory), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the SPAI C. All of the students bega n playing their instruments at nine years of age and had studied their instrument for an average of two years. The average practice time was one hour and four minutes. Of the students surveyed, 18% wanted to become professional musicians, 50% were uns ure, and 32% had no desire to become professi onal. The study was completed to compare MPA in elite Australian
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 7 adolescents with younger American band students. An interesting observation made during the study was that consistent with previous research, girls in this study also scored significantly h igher on musical performance anxiety than boys. Ag e Age appears to be an important intrinsic factor affecting performance anxiety (Papageorgi, Hallam & Welch, 2007) . According to these researchers, adolescents h ave more issues with MPA than younger perfor mers , and s ome professional performers also deal with anxiety througho ut a dulthood ( Papageorgi, 2007; Osborne et a l . , 2005 ) . Anyone who has watched young chil dren perform is aware that children at this age tend to love p erform ing i n front of others. Thes e children rarely experience performance anxiety that afflicts older people (Kenny, 2006 ). They are usually not inhibited and love being in front of an audience . It does not matter how many mistakes they make in a performance because generally the audien ce will encourage the child through loud cheers and clapping to offer encouragement. But at some point during a child's young life, he or she may have a negative performance experience, resulting from another individual's comments which show a lack of sup port or appreciation for the performer, and the child becomes embarrassed resulting in anxiety during future performance situations (Kenny, 2006) . R esearch suggests that anxiety in a perform ance situation is learned (Huston, 2001). Parental expectations e xerted on their children can often be extreme and unrealistic triggering a child's fear of failing (Kenny, 2006) . Strict discipline along with high expectations for school success may also manifest i n shy behavior which correlates with anxiety in children (Hu ston , 2001 ) . Fear of parental expectations leads to fear of authority and that leads to one's own judgmental inner voice (Malebranche, 2012). According to Malebranch e (2012) , t oday's society
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 8 pressures kids to be perfect and often performers can compa re their performance of a piece of music to performances of other great artists, possibly resulting in feelings of inadequacy. Additionally, the development of self evaluation begins to emerge during middle to late adolescence and students become aware of their musical strengths and weaknesses as a performer (McQuade, 2008) . Os borne et al., ( 2005 ) found t hat American students who were less advanced in their musical training scored lower on MPA than the 11 13 year old group from Australia. Students with less musical training, who perform music less technically demanding, scored lower on MPA assessment than advanced music students of the same age with extensive musical training and performance (Osborne et al., 2005 ). Their research s uggest ed that as stud ents progress in their musical training from less demanding music to more demanding music , the student perceives higher expectations of performing and therefore experience s more MPA. This is also important as it relates to younger performers since a young er performer will play music that is much less technical than an older more advanced student. As the demands on performance increase , so d o es the anxiety. This results in the possibility of MPA b eing more prevalent in older students as their musi c become s more difficult during their continuation of their musical studies ( Osborne et al., 2005 ) . P ersonalit y T rait s In addition to gender and age, per sonality differences are another factor which may contribute t o MPA . While certain personality traits may pr e dispose someone to developing MPA, much of the angst is learn ed over many years (Iltis, 2012). The personality traits of introverts are lin ked to increased anxiety levels. Performance is a social activity and requires the musician to engage in an activi ty with an audience which is opposite of the quiet, solitary
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 9 lifestyle of introverts (Papageorgi et al., 2007). A low self esteem, resulting from a previous performance or feelings of personal unworthiness, may contribute to MPA as well. Very high pers onal standards and perfectionist views also are associated with MPA (Kenny, 2006) . A dditionally , e xcessive worrying over small mistakes may als o increase performance anxiety. Concerning perfectionism, the desire for perfection develops from high standard s which leads t o extreme self critical behavior, concern over mistakes, doubt about one 's performance, pressure from parental expectation s, criticism, an overemphasis on orderliness and organization (Harvey, Palland, & Harvey, 2 004 ). Although Pergman (200 6) found that perfectionism and p erformance anxiety have no connection in a non professional performing setting, professional performing artists feel a strong desire and great pressure for perfection in a perf ormance (Flett & Hewitt, 1995; Frost , 1990). Trait and State A nxiet y Ot her intrinsic contributing factors of anxiety are trait and state an xiety (McQuade, 200 9). Trait anxiety is defined as how prone to being anxious a person i s while state anxiety is defined as the level of anxiety an individual experiences in certain situations (Wilson, 2002). Some people are more sensitive to a negative evaluation from others along with a fear of failure (Wilson, 2002). According to Wilson, t hese individuals see events such as recitals and examinations as more threateni ng and challenging to confront thus cr eating anxiety in the performer. I n a review of medical and scientific issues affecting music performance anxiety, Iltis (2012) presented five pe rsonality factors which are affiliated with anxiety including the following: planning for coping with anxiety, judgmental attitudes about one's performance, worry about anxiety and its effects on performance, concern with reactions of others to a performance and concern with distractions during a performance.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 10 S el f C oncept Self concept is a view an individual has of their self that is formed through experiences and evaluations from significant others in the person's life ( Papageorgi et al., 2007) . Po sitive self concept is important for confidence and self esteem ( Papageorgi et al., 2007) . Additionally, a musician needs to also exhibit self efficacy, which includes the ability to believe in their abilities as a pe rformer, with persistence to follow through and succeed on a required task ( Papageorgi et al., 2007) . Also, i ndividuals possessing higher self efficacy also experience a positive impact on achievement in grade d exam ination s . A ccording to Papageorgi et al ., (2007), p erformers with reduced co nfidence level s often experience self defeati ng thoughts and lack a positive self concept and self efficacy. M etacognition Another factor affecting performance anxiety include s the lack of metacognition skills . Metacognition i nvolves thinking about one's own thinking and therefore requires one to use higher order th inking skills and reasoning (McCombs, 2001) . It i ncludes the use of goal setting, problem solving, and self evaluation strategies ( Papageorgi et al., 2007). Concerning musical performance, metacognitive strategies include planning, monitoring, and evalua ting the learning process and performance a ccording to Papageorgi et al . , (20 07). I nexp erienced performers often experience pre performance anxiety which appears d uring a performance situation ( Papageorgi et al., 2007). The demands and high expectations from teachers and family members can sometimes result in feelings of inadequacy and nervousness. A fear of a negative evaluation by others may trigger nervousness. Melanbranche (2012) found that c oncern ab out others ' reaction to musical performance also increase s anxiety .
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 11 A udience Performances are expected to have an impact on an audience. Therefore, a performer must not only be technically polished, but stimulating, impress ive, and engrossing ( Malebranche , 2012 ). The audience is the evaluator and judge for any musician. As a result, an audience assists in creating more anxiety for performers. Musicians often express fear of laughter from others if a mistake happens in the performance as well as feelings of incomp etence when mistakes take place. St udies have shown that higher levels of nervousness appear in individuals even with a small audience compared to no audience or only a few onlookers (L eblanc , Jin, Overt, & Siivol a, 1997) . Additionally, the closer the audience is to the performer, the mo re anxiety is felt (McQuade, 2008 ). A lso , l imited performance experiences have been shown to affect MPA (Salmon & Meyer, 1998). Musicians have frequently claimed that they require a certain level of anxiety and nervousness to perform successfully. Con sequently, performers must achieve a balance between an acceptable level of anxiety and a level that eventually become s debilitatin g creating MPA. LeBlanc, Jin, Obert, and Siivola (1997 ) e xamined male and female students (N=27) who were members of a loca l high school band a nd the students were chosen with the intent of examining music performance anxiety and the effects of an audience on anxiet y. The students were 9 th through 12 th graders, 16 were male , an d 11 were female. Most band instrument s were rep resented by the sample of students. The study began about six weeks before the district solo and ensemble festival. A self reporting scale called the Personal Performance Anxiety Report was created by the researchers and completed by participants immedia tely after each performance to let the researchers know how much performance anxiety was experienced in the
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 12 students' performances. Students reported their perceived anxiety on a scale of 0 to 10. Heart rate monitors were used to identify each participan t's heart rate during their performance. In the first performance situation, participants performed a solo for two minutes alone in a practice room. Heart rate was taken at 5 second intervals. During the second performance taken two weeks later, partici pants played their solo for two minutes in a practice room with one researcher present. During the last performance, also given two weeks later, students played their solo for two minutes in the choral rehearsal room with four researchers and a small audi ence of peers present. LeBlanc et al ., ( 1997 ) found that heart rate was not affected in the first two scenarios where participants performed alone and with one researcher , but there was a significant rise in heart rate in the performance in front of a s mall audience. In exit interviews, 17 students said that playing for the researchers and their peer group was the most stressful performance condition. Five participants experienced the most stress while playing for classmates and fri ends. Researchers c oncluded that an audience, even a small peer group, increases the anxie ty felt by performers. A secon d study conducted by M cQuade (2008) , involved students (N=139) who were all involved in theater, acting, music, musical theater, dance, and speech ar ts. Most of the participants were four year college students with a smaller number attending a postsecondary performing arts school specializing in musical theater. All of the students had performed p ublicly within the last year. One h alf of the st udents being studied were in musical theater. The ages of the students ranged from 18 to 30, and 70% were female while 30% were male. A la rge majority, 80%, were Caucasia n. As part of the research study, participants were asked to describe their mos t
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 13 recent performance and rate it on a scale from 1 10 for importance of performance and how challenging it was. A large majority, 80%, reported experiencing an increase in their heart rate just before performing. A third reported increased sweating and a third reported hand tremors. Forty two percent reported being more nervous performing for a small audience of around ten people, while 40% stated that audience size did not matter. Thirty five percent felt more nervous performing with an audi ence of people they know while 30% stated nervousness when performing in front of faculty evaluators. Ad ditionally, 27% stated that peer eval uations increased their anxiety. An audience has a negative impact on performance anxiety (McQuade, 2008). S ocial S upport At least one study has found a relationship between social support and performance anxiety. S chneider & Chesky ( 2011 ) examined the p erceived social support of col lege students majoring in music and compare d types and levels of social suppor t in music and non music majors. The subjects in th e study (N=609) were from a university in northern Texas . 40% were music majors and 60% were in non music classes . They completed questionnaires relating to performance anxiety. Approximately 60% of all the students were female and over 90% of the participants were single. Schneider and Chesky found that the students in this study believed that their performance anxiety had a negative impact on their ability to perform . The questionnaire also revealed an average of 15 hours of time alone each week meaning there was no interaction with friends, family or other social support for all students. Non music majors reported around 14 hours , and music majors reporting about 1 7 ! hours of time alone. Findings indicated t hat music majors perceive significantly less social support when compared to non music majo rs (Schneider & Chesk y, 2011). T he difference in the results was not related to
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 14 support of friends and family but to s u pport from a significant other . Finding s from the study suggest perceived social support is different between music and non music majors and that MPA may be related to social support. S trategies for Coping w ith Performance Anxiety Understanding contri buting factors of performance anxiety may assists individuals in selecting appropriate and effective strategies which enable them to present a performance one would consider w ell performed a nd executed. Considering that each i ndividu al responds differentl y in a performance setting, an extensive arsenal of strategies is helpful for a musician preparing for a public performance. Strategies including Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, the Alexander Technique, beta blockers a nd other strategies are options which can be applicable to musicians in a performance setting experiencing performance anxiety. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Cognitive Behavioral T herapy Behavior is determined by a combination of thoughts, feelings and pas t and present behaviors (Kenny, 2006). Three types of therapies with similar treatment options have been shown to be somewhat effective in treating anxiety including Behavioral, Cognitive and Behavioral Cognitive Therapy . B ehavioral therapies focus on ch anging the behavior that arises when people feel anxious (Kenny, 2006) . A ccording to Kenny (2006), a target for behavioral therapy is muscle tension which is treated by encouraging the person to imagine their fears in grade steps until they can visualize the situation without experiencing muscle tension. Co gnitive therapy is concerned with changing thinking patterns that encourage muscle tension or impaired performances (Kenny, 2006). This form of therapy involves cognitive restructuring where negative a nd unproductive thinking is replaced with more rational ways of understanding their
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 15 problems. Through this restructured thinking, people are able to reassess their fears in ways that make dealing with an uncomfortable situation more manageable (Kenny, 200 6) . Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) includes a combination of behavioral and cognitive interventions. CBT is focused and action oriented, meaning the person involved in CBT must keep records of behaviors, be an active participant, and apply and evalua te the progress of therapy (Kenny, 2006) . Alexander T echnique The Alexander Technique involves methods for improving physical and mental functioning ( Alexander, 2001/1932 ) . According to Frederick Alexander , who discovered this technique , excessive menta l and physical tension creates pressure within the body. One purpose of the approach to relieving anxiety is clear thinking in the mind. The t echnique is primarily taught one on on e or in c lasses such as a university setting . The individual lessons incl ude simple movements where students move with freedom and improved coordination, but o nly after students engage in activities such as raising their shoulders, tightening their legs, and other muscle tightening throughout their body producing excessive tens ion in their b odies. This t ension is eventually released with the intention of the individual' s sensory awareness of habitual t ension, especially i n the neck and spine. As the sensory awareness develops, the student becomes more aware of chronic tension patterns. Another component of the Alexander T echnique i s the use of visualization in which performers are asked to imagine an activity that produces positive emotions such as accomplishment and competence in their performance ability. Valentine, Fitzg er ald, Gorton, Hudson and Symonds (1995) assessed the therap eutic effects of the Alexander T echnique on MPA. A sample of 25 students taking a music performance class at a university in England was
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 16 chosen for the study. The students ranged in age from 18 to 32, played various band instrument s, and the group also included six singers. The participants were randomly assigned to a control group and an experimental group. One group of music students was given 15 lessons using the Alexander Technique, while a control group received no lessons. After fifteen lessons using this strategy, there was evidence that improvement in musical and technical quality as well as a more positive mood was pres ent in the musical performers. Beta B lockers Beta blockers have become popular with performers over the last several years (Kenny, 2006) . Th e use of these drugs seems to be most effective with musicians who exhibit physical symptoms of anxiety such as palpitations, hyperventilation, hand tremors, trembling lips, and sweating palms but less effective with individuals having self esteem issues or social phobias. Beta blockers prevent adrenaline from combining with beta receptors in the nerve cells. It is the receptors and the adrenaline together which create the tremb ling and heart pounding as well as possible fainting. With the use of beta blockers, there is the potential for drug wit hdrawal and other side effects for the individual, as well as possible drowsiness and dizziness which may affect the quality of a p erfo rmance. Symptoms r epo rted in 10% of users of beta blockers include such issues as hypotension, cold ext remi ties, upset stomach, and muscle fatigue (Kenny, 2006). Other T reatments for Music P erformance A nxiety Several other options have been shown to be effective in treating performance anxiety such as simple breathing exercises (Nagel, 2010) . N agel found that M PA causes breathing to be agitated, shallow, and irregular. Just being aware of breathing issues will release tension and help the performer be come more at ease. Controlled breathing slows the heart and alleviates shallow breathing (Kruger, 1993 ). Additionally, cognitive rehearsal requires the performer to
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 17 imagine everything that could go wrong in a performance, and then replace those thoughts with more realistic ones (Malebranche, 2012). I nternal rehearsal involves having the performer "play" the passages in the music mentally. Mapping requires the individual to make written representations of what is happening in the music to show the melodic shape of the music (Malebranche, 2012) . This can include using numbers, color s, dashes, or curved lines. Many factors contribute to an increased level of per formance anxiety in musicians including gender, age, personality, self concept, metacog nition skills and audience size. With so many factors being influential as contributors to performance a nxiety, many strategies are needed to help individuals deal with the anxiety, fear, and thoughts of hopelessness which accompany the anxiety. Any ap proach or strategy for dealing with MPA will not be practical for all people (Nagel, 2010 ) . Everyone is unique and strategies for coping with anxiety are also unique for each performer. Music Memorization According to Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2 014) the word memorize m eans an individual has "the ability to learn something so well that the person is able to rememb er it perfectly ," and the word perfect is defined as "completely correct and accurate wi th no flaws." From the combining of these two w ords, we can conclude that music memorization means an individual is able to perform a piece of music with 100% accuracy. Musicians are very much aware that achieving the task of memorization without any mistakes is not easy. Yet, we must acknowledge tha t unless music is performed "perfectly", it is not memorized. The brain is wired in different ways for different people. Some individuals memorize well while others struggle to accomplish this feat. How is music memorized by performers who achieve this goal easily a nd what strategies are implemented by performers who seem to excel at this task? Although music
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 18 memorization has been examined through studies by individuals who reflected on their own methods of memorization, the process is still unclear to many and therefore has encouraged ineffective and inefficient memorization strategies and additional performance anxiety (Mishra, 2005). Many strategies for memorization have been examined including various processing strategies, learning styles, retrieva l cues, over learning, auditory feedback, chunking and finally, mental practice. These strategies for music memorization will be presented and examined more thoroughly. Processing s trategies There are different strategies that guide and assist students in dealing with performance a nxiety a nd strategies which also aid in the memorization of music in a performance setting . These include four processing strategies: segmented, holistic, serial and additive. In addition, other strategies correlate to an in dividual's learning style , the physical environment of the performance , various retrieval cues, and the use of auditory feedback. Segmented, Holistic, Serial, A dditive The way in which a performer approaches a piece of music is determined by p re vious t raining , experience and the di fficulty of the music. Four processing strategies include segmented, holistic, serial, and additive (Mishra, 2003). The segmented and additive strategies of memorization include isolating part of the music for practice. In segmented practice, fragments of the music are practiced individually and then added to the rest of the music. When measures are continually added to the music being practiced, it is referred to as the additive procedure. A holistic processing strategy means that the music is repeatedly performed from beginning to end with only minor memory slips allowed. If errors cause the musician to continuously return to the beginning of the music rather than continue to the end, this processing
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 19 strategy is referre d to as serial. Each method is effectiv e and will assist the performer in su ccessful memorization (Mishra, 2003). A combination of the differ ent strategies has also been successful with memorization (Chaffin & Imreh, 2000). The segmented strategy appear s to be favored by advanced and exp ert performers (Ginsborg, 2002). Sensory L ea rning S tyle s S ens ory learning styles include aural, visual, and kinesthetic learning. An individual who memorize s music using aural memory is able to hear the notes from a piec e of music and these notes are "heard" in the correct order although the performer does not have access to a sound source or the actual music being performed. A person who can see a mental picture of the music to be performed is said to have visual memory . This individual is also able to visualize various finger patterns and hand position on an instrument. Last, an individual who is able to memorize and perform by remembering the muscle movements involved in performing a piece of music is identified as a kinesthetic learner and has developed kinesthetic memory. It is understood and acknowledged that these various methods of music memorization involving learning styles most likely interact with each other and combining all three of the strategies result i n a more secure memory (Jones, 1990). Retrieval C ues Retrieval cues, also known as performance cues , se rve to activate musical material, whi ch allows information in working memory to activate long term m em ory ( Chaffin & Imrah, 2002). Performance cues are points in music that an experienced musician will use to evaluate and monitor different "activity" which is happening in the music as it is being performed. The cues help to form a type of mental roadmap which allows the individual to control the quic k, automatic actions of their hands, giving the musician time to "push through" and continue
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 20 performing when there is a mishap in the musical performance resulting from a memory lapse (Chaffin, 2007). Thinking about performance cues help s musician practic e memory retrieval. By simply paying attention to a particular spot in the music, a retrieval cue is established and during the performance the retrieval cue is automatic, resulting in a successful performance. Extended practice is necessary for performa nce cues to be effective when an i ndividual is performing on stage (Chaf fin, 2002). A performer must be able to think about what will happen next in the music and without extensive practice, the performer is more likely hesitate as he or she tries to reme mber the next passage in the music (Chaffin, 2007). Physical E nvironment The physical aspects of the environment including the lighting, acoustics, size of the room, people present in the room, and other outside sounds can be encoded with the musical material (Mishra, 2005). Physiological conditions including anxiety and mood can also be encoded with the music as well. Although the environmental features are not important when it comes to memorizing music, the presence or absence of environmental cue s may affect the retrieval of memorized music (Mishra, 2005). Mishra and Backlin (2007 ) compared the impact of three different music learning experiments on music memory. In each experiment, participants memorized music in one learning context and then perf ormed in either the same or different context t o observe differences if any on memory. E xperiment one involved ten university music education students, four which were vocalists and six were instrumentalists. Participants were asked to memorize a si xteen measure exercise and to memorize in one of two settings, either an auditorium or conference room. Pa rticipants learned and recalled either in the same context or in alternative contexts . For example, some of the subjects memorized in an auditorium and performed from memory at the
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 21 same location, while others learned in the auditorium and recalled in the conference room. Musicians appeared to recall a similar amount of music in the conference room, regardless of learning context. The musicians who re membered the least music both learned and r ecalled in the auditorium lobby (Mishra & Backlin, 2007). Subjects in experiment tw o (Mishra & Backlin, 2007) included 6 0 students in a university ensemble with approximately half of the subjects being male and female. The students were asked to memorize a 36 measure exercise. Three contexts were chosen, and each location was frequently encountered by college m usic students. These included a practice room in a university school of music , a professor' s office, and an auditorium stage . Upon recall of memorized music , no significant differences were observed. This s uggested that the familiarity of these differen t performance environments may have influenced recall suggesting that memorizing in one room and perf orming from memory on stage successfully is possible. Experiment thre e (Mishra & Backlin, 2007) involved 32 college piano students who were asked to memorize a 16 measure exercise. Two pianos were used in this study including a seven foot Steinway a nd Sons grand piano and a Kaw ai upright studio piano both located in a college professor's studio. After learning the music on one piano, the students were asked to perform from memory on the same piano or on the other piano. R ecall scores revealed higher r ecall scores for same instrument conditions and low scores for the different instrument performa nce. Changing instruments for performance negatively affected recall in subjects. These findings suggest that e nvironment may have an impact on memorizing for performance although results concerning recall varied for reasons which can only be explored through further studies.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 22 Structural B ound aries, S witch and Expressive C ues Studies of musical memory show that musicians are able to encode music in relation ship to its structure by using the structure to organize their practice (Chaffin, 2007). By starting and stopping at various sections in the music, performers can use the form of the music as a retrieval cue if the individual gets lost while playing or pe rforming. A switch, another example of a performance cue, means the same musical material is repeated throughout the music with the possibility of the performer becoming confused as to which passage to play. Additionally, expressive cues represent emotio n shared with the audience. Interpretative and basic performance cues involve such aspects as dynamics and crescendos as well as fingering. Studies of musicians learning new music support the idea that they engage in extended practice of performance cues (Chaffin, 2007). Chaffin (2007) completed a study of Gabriela Imreh , a classical pianist from Romania who lives and performs in the United State s a s concert pianist. Imreh was asked to learn " Clair de Lune " f or performance. She was familiar with the music and had performed other Debussy pieces but not "C lair de Lun e." Imreh recorded her practice from the very first time sitting at the piano learning this piece until her first public performance two weeks later. The first five sessions took place in a practice studio and were recorded on videotape. Her last two sessions were in the concert hall on the day before and day of the performance and were recorded this time only on audiotape. Her practice sessions were notated by each start and stop during her practice. Approximately six months after her performance, Imreh reported features of the music that she was especially attentive to during practice including structural dimensions describing her understanding of the thematic organization o f " Clair d e Lun e . " P erform ance cues she
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 23 implemented included expressive, interpretive, and basic cues. Interpretive cues helped shape the phrasing, dynamics, tempo, and pedaling in the piece. Basic cues she utilized included fingering and technical difficulties (C haffin, 2007). Imreh's practice sessions included a complete run through without stopping to work on any of the aspects of the music. This allowed her to get an overview of the piece and form a "musical image" while identifying the main landmarks and iss ues in the music to deal with (Chaf fin, 2007 ). S econd, she worked through the music in sections and sub sections. Her next practice sessions involved playing through the entire piece followed by another session where she added her final section of the m usic. To conclude, Imreh's practice sessions were organized by the formal structure of " Clair de Lune " , including section or structural boundaries. Additionally, she focused on performance cues especially expressive performance cues. Last, she specifica lly attended to performance cues during her practice sessions to establish these cues as a memory retrieval strategy. Because memorization was the most important goal for Imreh, many of the comments made during her practice reflect ed the principles of w hat is known as expert memory. Imreh commented on familiar patterns in the music, patterns that are already stored in memory. These patterns happened in sequences. Additionally, similarities of fingerings used in " Clair de Lune " aided in the memorizatio n of the music and can be labeled as another example of expert memory being utilized. She identified sections in the music that illustrated similarities and differences, another example of how expert memory is important for memorization. With the underst anding that memorization and performance was the ultimate goal of the music, Imreh actively engaged in memorization of the music from the very first practice session.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 24 Over L earning Performing musicians generally continue to practice a piece of music even when it can be performed from memory (Mishra, 2005). Mishra identifies this stage in musical memorization as the over learning stage which includes re learning, automatization and maintenance rehearsal. During the re learning stage, musical informat ion is cognitively reorganized and during this stage, other learning strategies may be implemented to strengthen memorization. A utomati zatio n i nvolves the continuous repetition of a behavioral sequence in the music which enables the performer to complete the task of playing automatically with no conscious control (Mishra, 2005). It is suggested that over learning aids the performer in automization of the physical motions and possibly retrieval cues during a performance. With the implementation of a utomat i zation, t he performer can focus more on the musical interpretation of a piece of music rather than just playin g t he notes and rhythms correctly. A third component of over learning includes maintenance rehearsal. Mishra (2005) defines maintenance rehears al as the periodic performance of a memorized piece of music which allows the information to remain active in memory over a long period of time. This stage assists the performer in maintaining their ability to remember musical information. Auditory F ee dback The production of sound is the goa l of any musica l performance. Prior research has illustrated that auditory feedback which is slightly altered, can hamper a musical performance (Finney, 1997). An example of this concept would be a performance in a recital hall where delays in sound can occur between production of a note and the sound it creates. One study has shown that learning and memory in a skilled musical performance involves auditory based facets such as pitch, harmony, meter and melodic st ructure (Finney & Palmer, 2003).
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 25 Fi nney and Palmer examined t he importance of auditory feedback in music learning. The researchers conducted three experiments with sound. Their first study included sixteen adult pianists age 18 to 44 from Ohio, with an average of ten years of piano instruction and each had played the piano for 13 years or longer. The subjects performed on a Roland electronic keyboard. They listened to their performance using headphones. Keystroke data were collected. Auditory feed back was controlled by connecting or disconnecting the headphones. Closed earpiece headphones were worn in all conditions helping to eliminate as much noise from the keyboard as possible. The pianists were give four short two part musical pieces in 4/4 m eter from early Baroque era organ music. The music was two measures long and consisted of twenty three notes. The subjects were tested individually. They were asked to perform the music with the notation and perform it without notation to see how well t hey were able to recall the music. They were asked to perform from start to finish without stopping for correcting mistakes in the music. Pianists were allowed to view the music for as long as they wished. Afterwards, they performed the music 10 times wi th the music and four times from memory. In the first experiment, the availability of auditory feedback was controlled during the performance while subjects were allowed to use their music and also controlled during the performance when subjects played fr om memory. T he results from the first study supported the idea that the presence of sound during the learning stage with music assisted the performer in recalling the music during the performance by memory. Finney and Palmer's second study (2003) c onsi sted of 24 a dult pianists ranging in age from 18 to 32 also from Ohio and with approximately 11 years of piano instruction. These subjects had close to 13 years of experience playing the piano. None of the participants were involved in the first study. The equipment was the same except that auditory feedback was
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 26 turned on and off without unplugging the headphones. The music consisted of four pieces of music, two in major and two in minor; all were in 4/4 meter and contained 32 sixteenth notes. The same procedure was used as in the first e xperiment, but w ith the addition of another task. Pianists performed the music ten times from notation and were then given an additional task to complete. For some of the pianists, they received another piece of music al notation to listen to while other pianists were given written math instructions. In the sound only group, subjects listened to the music and were asked to follow along but not move their fingers. The pianists then performed the music on their k eyboard s, but co uld not hear themselves playing. In the sound plus motor musical condition, pianists performed the musical exercise and were able to hear their own performance as well. The subjects with the arithmetic task were asked to complete simple addition problems such as counting by f ours. The p u rpose of this task was to block mental rehearsal without musical content. Results showed that performances from memory of well learned music had little effect of removal of auditory feedback (Finney & Palmer, 20 03). The final study in the research by Finney and Palmer (2003) was designed to discover whether or not auditory feedback affected the recall of complex and well learned music. In this experiment, the pianists chose music from their own repertoire and performed from memory with both sound present and sound absent conditions. The researchers were interested in finding out whether or not auditory feedback was more crucial when memorizing a long musical piece for performance. In the final study, 11 skil led pianists ranging in age from 18 to 40 with approximately 12 years of piano instruction were participants in the researcher's final examination of music memorization and recall. The equipment was the same as in study 1 and 2. The pianists performed fr om memory. After performing without their music but with auditory
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 27 feedback, they were asked to play again without sound. The results of the study supported the idea that auditory feedback removal did not have a significant effect on memorized performance (Finney & Palmer, 2003). Additionally, this data supports the idea that memorization for performance by skilled musicians does not require auditory feedback. The presence or absence of sound during music learning did illustrate the importance of auditory feedback in later recall. Finney and Palmer provide two explanations for this process including the idea that sound may give "meaning" to the performance task. Also, memory may be improved when there are several sources of sensory information such as wh en auditory information is combined with visual information. C hunking Expert memorists also employ another strategy called chunking (Chaffin, 2007) . Chunking is a skill which requires musicians to group notes into familiar patterns as in scales or arp eggios. The musician then use s the musical structure of the piece to serve as a retrieval cue and participates in continuous practice of retrieval from their l ong term m e mory ( Noice, Jeffrey, Noice & C haffin , 2008) . Mental P ractice Mental practice requi res a performer to engage in a cognitive rehearsal before a performance without any physical movement involved. Mental practice includes a visualization of the task to be performed. Driskell, Copper, and Moran (1994) examined literature of researchers an d their studies over the past 80 years to examine the significance of mental pra ctice on performance. The authors integrated the results of the various studies and examined the effects of mental pr actice on performance. Their research provide d a summary of the overall effects of mental practice and performance. They found t hat mental practice is an effective
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 28 means for enhancing performance according to the research collected . Also, the physical act of practice was more effective than mental practice sin ce mental practice does not allow for visual and tactile feedback. Nevertheless, mental practice is very beneficial. Second , t he effect of mental practice on performance is stronger when the task involves cognitive elements in the music . Third, the effe ct of mental practice on performance lessons over time. To avoid this, it is necessary to engage in mental practice more frequently, perhaps every week. Fourth, the authors concluded that mental practice is more effective for experienced performers than for beginners. Furthermore, experienced musicians benefited well from mental practice whether it was a physical or mental type tasks. Beginners appeared to benefit more from mental practice on cogniti ve tasks than physical task s ( Driskell, Copper, & Mora n, 1994). Additionally, the data gathered by the authors supported the idea that more mental practice is not necessarily better. Results from their analysis suggest that the longer the subject engages in mental practice, the less effective t he strategy b ecomes. Last, data collected suggested a mental practice session of 20 total minutes as an optimal intervention. Analytical Learning S tyle Individuals with an analytical learning style may prefer to use a segmented processing strategy for memorizing music. V arious techniques are often used when memorizing music including playing hands separately, blocking chords, practicing at a slow tempo, and practicing segments of the music in reverse (Mishra, 2005). Using t hese techniques supports the implementat ion of an analytical l earning style. According to Mishra, p racticing hands separately helps the performer identify patterns that might go unnoticed when playing both hands together. Furthermore, t he use of blocked chords allows for kinesthetic movements to be examined at the same time. Connecting segments in any order, whether at the end, or starting in the middle of
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 29 the music, requires the musician to define a new beginning to the music which is referred to as serial effects (Mishra, 2005) . These techn iques focus attention and help to develop cognitive analysis. The performer must seek musical patterns while using these strategies or an analytical memory may not be developed during practice In summary, s trategies for music memorization equip a perform er with the skills needed to memorize and perfect a musical piece in preparation for performance. Although the musician has the strategies available, humans are imperfect and performing from memory without any mishaps in a piece of music seems almost impo ssible. Many variables seem to influence and affect the successful transmission of music from the written notation to the performance stage. Music which is perfected on the page seems to evolve in interesting ways in a memorized public performance. Whil e perfection is the goal of memorized music, the reality is that although many strategies are available to assist the performer in achieving that goal, many factors influence the success of the goal s m usician s hopes to achieve. By i mplementing processing strategies including learning styles, retrieval cues, over learni ng, mental practice and other strategies available to the performer , continuous practice and implementation of these strategies may aid in the successful positive outcome a performer desires to achiev e. S trategies for aiding music memorization as well as managing performance anxiety are presented with implications for teachers who work one on one with performing students. Discussi on and Application of Findings In the review of literature related to performance anxiety, research was presented offering explanations for musical performance anxiety in children and adults. Additionally, implications for individuals who seem to escape the fear of performance in front of an audience were a lso pre sented . Although research studies have not been able to ascertain with 100% certainty all of
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 30 the exact causes of performance anxiety in every individual, the existing r esearch c an certainly help one understand from a teaching perspective how to assist ind ividuals in performance settings . Several ideas seem to immerge as significant for the teaching environment. Some individuals regardless of age, whether a young performer or an adult, experience performance anxiety. There are several common qualities and characteristics which seem to contribute to this anxiety. In addressing musical performance anxiety in children and adults and why some performers experience it while others may not, further discussion and application of data gathere d through research st udies concerning gender and age are presented. Gender Fe male musicians seem to be more likely to experience anxiety in a public per formance (LeBlanc et, al . 1 99 7) . Females also appear to be more fearful of an audience and see the audience as threatenin g to their performance. Consequently, the larger the audience, the greater the fear seemed to be. At the same time, males appeared to experience less anxiety while performing. This is important to educators . Being aware of this fear might suggest that females should be given more opportunities for public performance with the intention of helping them deal with performance anxiety through repeated performance opportunities. It is possible that with more opportunities for performance, their fear may less on with practice in front of spectators, even if this performance is in a classroom setting. A possible goal would be to have the student play for only a few listeners and gradually increase the size of the audience. This would certainly be applicable in a recital type setting where students perform for each other before the actual performance for family and friends. Female students should be given opportunities to play for just a few friends a nd then as more performances are presented by the student, the audience also gradually increases in number.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 31 Age The research literature suggests t hat age is a factor in p erf ormance anxiety in individuals (Papageorgi et.al, 2007). This anxiety seems to be more prominent in adolescents than younger performers. Add itionally, the anxiety can continue into adulthood and affect professional performers. R esearch suggests that younger children have not been "s haped" by the views of others as much as adolescent p erformers (McQuade, 200 8 ). Eventually a negative experienc e happens and the embarrassment creates anxiety for the child. There i s research that suggests parental expectations contribute to performance anxiety as well as strict discipline manifesting as shy behavior in a child. Also many children seem to experi ence the need for perfection therefore putting extra stress and anxiety into their performance. This information s uggests several ideas for teachers. First, teachers can help parents understand that children need encouragement and support from them, and that it is ok if their child makes mistakes. The emphasis should not be on perfection but growth in their musicality. Additionally, no one is perfect and perfection should not be stressed when students are preparing for a public performance such as a rec ital or concert. Students need to know that they have the support of their parents and teachers no matter what happens while they perform in front of others. Second, parents, teachers, friends, and family should embrace every opportunity to encourage and support a young child when performing. When a memory lapse, which will take place at some point, does happen, the child needs to know it is okay and all performers, even professionals make mistakes. It is the way students deal with these little "disappo intments" that can help them to rise above their challenges and hopefully decrease performance anxiety as they grow older and mature.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 32 Personality T rait s To better understand the relationship bet ween personality and its impact on performance anxiety as well as music memorization, p ersonality traits of individuals should be considered . I ntroverts are more likely to experience performance anxiety since performing is a social activity and requires the musician be "center stage" in a perceived uncomfortabl e setting (Malebranche, 2012). Additionally, low self esteem may develop as a result of feelings of personal unworthiness. Some personality types are more prone to excessive worrying which appears to also contribute to music performance anxiety as well. The findings from this research stud y (Wilson, 2002) have several implications for a teaching situation working with students who can be identified as introverts. First, these students need extra support and encouragement not only in a performance sett ing but in their everyday interactions with their teacher. For students with low self esteem, music can be the vehicle through which students feel good about their accomplishments. When music is the catalyst which creates anxiety, teachers have to become more creative in helping students feel successful in a performance. Perhaps one suggestion might be to team students who are introverts with those students who are more extraverted and give opportunities for the students to perform for each other. This "coupled" environment might provide a safe setting for performance where the introverted student might develop some confidence in their musical performance while performing for the other student. As a student develops more confidence while performing, a t eacher may elect to include the student in a larger group setting with hopefully a more successful performance environment where the student does not experience the anxiety at the same level as previously felt.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 33 Metacognition The inability to implement m etacognition skills appears to affect performance anxiety in a negative manner in students of all ages and genders (Papageorgi et al, 2 007 ). According to McCombs (2001), metacognition requires individuals to use higher order thinking skills such as probl em solving and self evaluation strategies. Students with this ability are able to include strategies for planning, monitoring, and evaluating their learning. This should be viewed as important by teachers because younger students have not reached this mi lestone in their mental development until they are older and therefore have not developed metacognition skills . With the implementation of metacognition skills, students are able to set goals when learning music. Additionally, they can monitor the progre ss they make in their learning process and are therefore able to make changes when necessary to aid them in music memorization. During performance, metacognition skills assist them in utilizing retrieval cues, for instance, if there are memory slips. Uti lization of these strategies would aid in decreasing performance anxiety. Teachers therefore need to understand developmentally where a student is in their mental comprehension of what is happening in music to be most effective in helping decrease their p erformance anxiety. This information is important for older students because teachers can encourage the use of higher order thinking skills for students as they practice thinking about what they are performing hopefully with the goal once again of decrea sed performance anxiety. Audience The size and proximity of an audience in relation to the performer may create anxiety ( McQuade, 2008). M cQuade (2008) found t hat individuals had lower levels of anxiety while performing a lone or with only one person p resent, but as the size of the audience increased, s o did the individual's anxiety. Second, p erformers experience more anxiety when playing for a
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 34 peer group, c lassmates, and friends. Third, a p erformer experiences more anxiety when the audience is closer to them (McQuade, 2008) . All three of these findings are important i n an educational setting. T o h elp students experience less anxiety and have a successful public performance, research findings support the idea that students should be performing for f amily members in a "safe" home environment before performing publicly in front of their peers and friends. This emphasizes once again the importance of family support when a child is learning music in preparation for performance. Teachers can encourage a nd explain the importance of this experience to parents before the first recital opportunity arises for a student. As the student builds confidence in performing in front of family members, teachers should present opportunities for individuals to perform for friends and peer groups even though this setting will feel uncomfortable. With continued exposure to these performance opportunities, the goal would be to decrease feelings of musical performance anxiety. Last, the proximity of an audience appears to increase anxiety as well. A simple solution when performing would be for the teacher to provide a performance setting which allowed ample space between performers and the audience. Social S up port T he importance of social support fo r older music perfor mers suggest s t hat social support from a significant other assists in decreas ing performance an xiety ( Schneider & Chesky, 2011). Research findings suggest s that the demands of preparing for a musical performance required more "alone" time and did not allo w as much time for the musician to be with friends and family compared to individuals who were not studying music in any capacity. This lack of time with friends and family was not significant in situations where performers had the sig nificant
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 35 other in t heir lives. This information reinforces the importance of a close relations hip from a spouse or partner. Th e research is important f or teachers who teach older, mature adult music students in a studio or college setting. Teachers should be able to pred ict and anticipate performance anxiety in these students based on their individual relationship status with other persons in their lives. Teachers can anticipate ways to help these students deal with performance anxiety using strategies applicable to each individual based on the ir relational circumstances. Music M emorizatio n Public performance, whether in a recital setting or performing as a professional musicia n, r equires individuals to not only appear center stage but memorize the music which is to be p erformed for the audience. Both components are necessary if an individual is presenting what observers would identify as a successful performance. Memorization of music seems to be a challenge for many students whether they are comfortable performing in front of an audience or not, although some students seem to memorize well. Processing S trategies P rocessing strategies are conducive to memorization of music. In addressing one of the research questions f or this review of literature, "w hat strategies a re most effective in the memorization of music ?" an examination of segmented, holistic, serial, and additive strategies is presented with implications for implementing these suggestio ns in a teaching environment. Segmented, holistic, serial, and additive are four processing strategies which seem to assist stu dents in memorization of music (Mishra, 2003). These strategies are important f or teachers when helping students memorize music. These strategies not only help students in choosing a method or method s for memorization but they also give the teacher tools for helping students
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 36 with this challenge. Memorization is not a "one size fits all" strategy and therefore many options need to be presented and explained to students to help them become skilled at m usic memorization. These strategies are also significant because as teachers work closely with students, the teacher begins to identify how the child processes information and can then identify which of these four strategies will be most helpful to the st udent. Research studies have shown support for each method, used alone and in combination t o aid the performer with music memoriza tion (Mishra, 2003). Teachers can implement the s egmented strategy by focusing on m easures in music that are seen as diffi cult by the student. After continuous practice with these challenging measures, they are added to the rest of the music, resulting in the additive strategy. By repetition of difficult measures, students begin to memorize just by the continuous practice o f these measures. Once those measures are added to the next measures in the music, the student is able to remember the music in a different capacity aiding the memorization process. Te achers can implement the serial and holistic strategy as well by requ iring students to play from the beginning of their piece of music, as in sight reading, and continue to the end without allowing them to correct notes and rhythms as they move through the music. For students who like to stop and correct their music e rrors as they play by going back to the beginning of the music and replaying the piece, teachers should realize that students are using the serial strategy and this thought process really is a memorization strategy for some students. Each of these strategies c an be used by teachers with students of all performance levels. Physical E nvironment The physical environment including the lighting, sound, room size, audience, as well as other "noise" appear to be connected with music memorization because this envir onment serves
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 37 as a type of retrieval cue for memorized music (Mishra, 2005) . This is important f or teaching because it suggests the importance of practice taking place in the actual venue where the public performance will take place. Students will be mor e accustomed to the environment and not be distracted by what is going on around them if there practice occurs in a performance setting on the actual instrument being used for performance and on the stage where they will be performing as well. Performance C ues Research suggests that the form of a piece of music serves as a retrieval or pe rformance cue for memorization (Chaffin, 2007). Several performance cues including expressive, interpretative and what is referred to as a switch are all strategies whic h aid in m emorization. This idea i s important for teachers of advanced students because it emphasizes the importance of identifying and labeling sections of the music for retrieval if the student should get lost while playing. Identifying form gives stu dents cues to where to return or as an aid to help them remember what happens next in their music when they are performing. Th e performance cue called a switch is important f or teachers. Since a switch is a repeated passage played at various points in a piece of music, it can become confusing for a student. By recognizing and analyzing these points in the student's music, the teacher can help the students identify the differences which happen in measures leading up to and immediately following a switch. These strategies will assist the student's memorization process. Ex pressive and interpretative cues involve the emotion which is to be performed in music. These cues are important f or teachers with advanced performing students. Through analysis of th ese cues in the student's music, the performer is assisted in creating an "emotional picture" of the music which aids in memorization.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 38 O ver L earning Performing a piece of music until it becomes automatic c an be labeled as over learning . Mishra (2005) reminds the reader of three stages of the over learning process including re learning, automatization, and maintenance rehearsal. Each stage is important f or a teacher working with students who are memorizing music. First, through re learning, the studen t has already memorized the music but they are able to think about the music differently as they continue to play it again and again. They may begin to consider changes in dynamics for example as they continue to play their memorized music. This results in a more solid memorization process for performing from memory. Automatization is important for teachers because students at this stage can play without thinking about the music basically. The student is on "auto pilot" it seems. Mishra suggests the au tomaticity allows the student to play with no conscious control. By requiring students who have memorized music to play their music repetitively, the music soon becomes a part of them and their memorization ability should be reflected in their memorizati on of the music. Maintenance rehearsal is important for teachers because it is a reminder that teachers need to require students to play previously memorized music sporadically as they continue to learn new music to assist the student in remembering mus ical information. This maintenance rehearsal will help students memorize music more easily for future performances if the skill of performing by memory is continuously practiced, even if a memorized performance is not scheduled to take place. Mental P ra ctice Mental practice involves thinking about the music and the performance without physically participating in the musical performance. Ma ny positive results of men tal practice
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 39 can be implemented when helping students memorize. This is important f or t eachers in several ways. First, mental practice is a skill which appears to be more beneficial for experienced performers than b eginners. T herefore a teacher would only anticipate this skill to be practiced by older students and not younger ones. Additi onally, mental practice for experienced performers seems to be more effective when cognitive elements of music are involved including form, meter, melody, harmony, and rhythm. From a teaching perspective, students need to learn this strategy and then imp lement it in the memorization process. As part of this process of mental practice, the teacher needs to recognize and bring to the student's attention the structural elements happening in the musi c t o assist them in visually mapping out the musical perfor mance without the physical performance taking place. This may involve the teacher questioning the student about the music from beginning to end with the goal of aiding the performer in remembering what the music looks, sounds, and feels like when they act ually perform from memory. Sensory Learning S tyles The use of what we know about a ural, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles s eem s to assist in memorizati on of music (Jones, 1990 ). This is important for teachers to understand with their students. I ndividual learning styles are different for every student. Teachers are able to identify a student's strengths concerning learning styles. As teachers work with a particular student, it soon becomes evident whether the child learns best through an aural, visual, or kinesthetic learning experience. Also, teachers should question students and assess their abilities to memorize before implementing a learning style strategy. If a student is a strong aural learner, meaning they can "play by ear ," t he teacher should use and build upon that skill to help them memorize music. If the student is a visual learner, the teacher should question the student about
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 40 what is seen in a particular measure in the music a nd encourage memorization of music through implementing their visual learning style preference. Some students learn well through touch and movement and would be considered kinesthetic learners. T eachers can help these learners, f or example , b y pointing out the position of the student's hand on the instrument being played. Additionally, the movements between one note and another can be identified and studied aiding in the memorization of musi c. The more modalities combined in music memorization suggests better memorization of the music. Teachers should work to incorporate aural, visual, and kinesthetic learning opportunities for all students. Analytical Learning S tyle Individuals with an analytical learning style use a segmented processing strategy for memorizing music. Analytical learning i nvolves techni ques used for memorization including performing hands separately, blocking chords, and practicing at a slow tempo (Mishra, 2005). Practicing one hand at a time helps the student identify patterns in the music. Blocking chords hel ps the performer to iden tify kinesthetic movements used in memorization. These techniques help a musician develop cognitive analysis, useful in music memorization. This learning style is significant for teachers because it helps students who are analytical in their approach to learning memorize their music successfully. Musical patterns are an important component of analytical learning and these patterns should be labeled when working with students. Commonalities for Music Memorization and Performance Anxiety One of the purpos e s of th is review of literature was to extract similarities between methods for memorizing music and strategies for dealing with t he stress of performance anxiety . W he n examining strategies to effective ly deal with music memorization and performance anxie ty issue s, a couple of commonalities were apparent. F irst, a common strat e gy useful for
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 41 teaching i nvolves the performance and learning environment in a performance setting. An understanding and appreciation of the importance of the learning environment w ill assists teacher s and also aid the teachers in preparing their students for a memorized musical performance. A student' s practice and learning environment is important f or music memorization and also important for lessoning performance anxiety . To ach ieve the best performance outcome, rehearsing and performing in the same setting is optimal for performance anxiety and music memorization. T he size of the room used for performance and the people who a re present during performance are also factors influen cing memorization and performance. Second, mental practice, a strategy for music memorization is related to cognitive rehearsal and internal rehearsal, two strategies for dealing with performance anxiety. M ental practice and internal rehearsal share comm on features in that both involve imagining and picturing the music to be played before it is performed. Cognitive rehearsal gives the performer opportunity to imagine everything that could go wrong in a performance and mentally prepare for those mishaps t hat may take place. Conclusion In an effort to examine the literature relat ed to musical performance anxiety and memorization of music and to generate research based, best practice instructional strategies , m usic memorization and performance anxiety st rategies were examined with the intention of extracting elements common to both. P rior research was ex amined and analy zed, and explanations of research based strategies for memorizing music as well as strategies for decrea sing performance anxiety were pre sented. Further, questions regarding performance anxiety in children and adults as well as personality and genetics were considered when reviewing the literature on anxiety and memorization.
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 42 Music memorization strategies examined which support effectiv e memorization of music include learning styles, retrieval cues, segmented, holistic, serial and additive processing strategies, the physical environment, identification of form in music, over learning, and mental practice. According to research, performa nce anxiety tendencies seem to be more prevalent in females, introverts, those with perfectionism views who have extremely high expectations from others and individuals with poor metacognition skills. Additionally, the size of an audience as well as the l ack of support perceived by an individual contribute to anxiety. Strategies for treating performance anxiety i nclude various therapies, medication, and cognitive rehearsal. When examining the strategies for music memorization and performan ce anxiet y, it appears that the musi c m emori zation strategies including a) processing strategies, b) learning styles, c) retrieval cues, d) over learning, and e) the use of auditory feedback c an easily be implemented and utilized in a teaching environment by a musi c teacher, whereas some of the strategies for performance anxiety are not as easily administered and practiced. For instance, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy require an individual to seek help from a specialist who understand s the thought process behind these therapies and is qualified to prescribe an appropriate treatment option. Additionally, the use of beta blockers would involve professionals who could administer these medications but only if someone was extrem ely desperate for help with performance anxiety. Some of the performance anxiety strategies seem to involve and be focused on a professional therapist setting where an individual meets with clients to deal with their anxiety. Consequently, knowing and un derstanding more about the causes of pe rformance anxiety a ppear s t o be most helpful in an educational setting for teachers who work with students preparing memorized music for p erformance. Certainly, students need to be adept in
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 43 successfully achieving mem orization and performance if they will perform for an audience. Teachers who have a clearer understanding of anxiety and memorization can equip students and hopefully assist in the students achieving complete success in developing the skills needed for bo th of these endeavors. Co nsidering the importance of auditory feedback for memorization, future research on the imp ortance of vision and depth perception a s it relates to memorization and performing seems to be a needed topic for further study . Based on the importance of auditory feedback, and the importance of being able to hear the music during the music learning phase which research suggests is important for later recall, it seems that the ability to view music with 20/20 vision might be important in t he music learning stage as it relates to recall and encoding for performance. Perhaps a further examination and understanding of depth perception involving the eyes, hands, and the musical instrument being played would offer beneficial strategies for memo rization as well. Also, further research and investigation concerning the aging process and its effects on music m emorization as it relates to retrieval of stored musical memory and encoding, should be undertaken. Research on the implications of peaking in memorization abilities might also be an interesting topic of further research . In conclusion, the findings shared in this paper address ed the four research questions presented including possible explanations for musical performance anxiety in childre n and adults. Age, gender, personality, trait and state anxiety, and self concept have important implications for teachers who have students that experience performance anxiety . These factors may help explain differences in performance anxiety levels amo ng individuals and provide some explan ation for research questions one and four identified in this paper. Additionally , metacognition skills, the audience size and location, as well as support from significant
PERFORMANCE ANXIETY AND MUSIC MEMORIZATION 44 individuals are factors contributing to perfo rmance anxiety. Many strategies are presented for individuals to utilize with students who have memorization challenges presented in questions two and three including retrieval cues, learning styles, segmented, holistic, serial, and additive processing st rategies, performance cues, over learning, auditory feedback, chunking, mental practice and an analytical learning style approach to memorization. Finally, several strategies which share commonalities with performance anxiety and music memorization addre ssed in research question three include importance of the environment for learning and performing, mental practice and cognitive rehearsal as each relate s to a performer's thought process, and last ly , the development of metacognition skills which assist th e performer in music analysis as it relates to form and structure. The strategies for music memorization and performance anxiety may positively impact a teacher's and student's perspective on student music memori zation and may not only equip s tudents to manage these challenges, but also provide support for teac hers as they prepare their students for their first , second or final recital experience. As a studio teacher, the accessibility of and familiarity with strategies needed to assist students in over coming challenges with memory lapses in their music, as well as the challenges of dealing with the angst resulting from an anticipat ed performance, is beneficia l. If a teacher is able to fully comprehend and understand at a deeper level the underlying caus es of performance anxiety , students will be more prone to successful public performance. Additionally, the frustrations that arise for a student when facing the task of music mem orization will hopefully be minimalized. Further, the implementation of rese arc h based strategies can assists teachers in help ing students excel at b oth tasks, resulting in positive music memorization and successful performance experience for students and teachers.
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