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Music Curriculum for Preschool and Kindergarten: Learning Fundamentals Through Exploration, Play, and Discovery

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Title:
Music Curriculum for Preschool and Kindergarten: Learning Fundamentals Through Exploration, Play, and Discovery
Creator:
Cleveland, Cheyenne
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida

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Subjects / Keywords:
Elementary school students ( jstor )
Kindergarten ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Music students ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical meter ( jstor )
Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Musical rudiments ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Theater ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
Over the past few decades it has become apparent that the curricula utilized in most elementary schools are based on highly teacher directed activities with strictly defined expectations and possibilities (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004) Contrary to the organizations of these curricula, some researchers have suggested that young children learn naturally through their involvement in explorative, imaginative, and playful activities (Lew & Campbell, 2005). When teachers allow their students to engage in playful activities they create an unthreatening environment in which awareness and skills are developed (Niland, 2009). In fact, the overall cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development of young children is enhanced through playful interactions (Tarnowski, 1999). Because exploration, play, and discovery have such a vital role in the education of young students, it is necessary that music teachers enact an effective music curriculum that enhances the natural learning experiences of young students. In order to do so, music educators must recognize their personal role in the play environment. In addition, teachers must also allow themselves to become aware of their students immediate needs and interests. In doing so, teachers will be able to provide their students with a healthy learning environment that encourages children to experience music to the best of their natural abilities. Based on these findings, a curriculum was developed that addresses the immediate student need for exploration, play, and discovery within the educational environment. The purpose of this Preschool and Kindergarten music curriculum is to pursue the satisfaction of this need with a suggested balance between both teacher- and child-directed musical play activities (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004, Miranda, 2004; Berger & Cooper, 2003; Tarnowski, 1999).
General Note:
Music Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Running head: MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN ! " " " " " " " " " " " " " " Music Curriculum for Preschool and Kindergarten : Learning Fundamentals Through Exploration, Play, and Discovery Cheyenne Cleveland University of Florida " " " " " " " " " " " " " " A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " # " Dedication To my Creator: You are the true giver of life, wisdom, and truth. To my husband: You are my greatest support . Thank y ou for your patience and kindness. You inspire me to be everything I was created to be. To my family: You have been a constant encouragement throughout every aspect of my education. Thank you for instilling me with a motivation and an eagerness to learn. To my friends: You have been a bond thicker than blood. Thank you for your continual prayers.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $ " A C KNOWLEDGEMENTS A sincere thank you to the members of my committee, Dr. Amber Peterson and Dr. Keith Thompson, for all of your guidance and support. Thank you to Professor Gary Stith for encouraging me to never give up on my pursuit of a career in music education.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " % " Table of Contents AbstractÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ... ....7 Chap ter One: IntroductionÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ... ...8 The Purpose of a Curriculum Based on Exploration, Play, and DiscoveryÉÉÉ ... 8 The Need for a Curriculum Based on Exploration, Play, and DiscoveryÉÉÉÉ ..10 Chapter Two: Review of LiteratureÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ... 12 Children and Musical Play ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ. 12 The Functions of Musical Play ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. .15 The Benefits of Musical PlayÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ É. 17 The Role of the Te acherÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 19 The Emotional and Physical Classroom E nvironmentÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 20 Summa ryÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ É 24 Chapter Three: CurriculumÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ É 27 Curriculum DesignÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 27 Table 1: Music Curriculum for Pr e school and KindergartenÉÉÉÉÉÉ.30 Lesson s and ActivitiesÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ É.. 30 Lesson One: Music as SoundÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ . 30 Lesson Two : D ynamicsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 34 Lesson Three: Steady Beat (Part I) ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ... 37 Lesson Four: Steady Beat (Part II) ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ . 41 Lesson Five: TempoÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ... 45 Lesson Six: Articulation ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 49 Lesson Seven: R hyt hm PatternsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 52

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " & " Lesson Eig ht : PitchÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 56 Lesson Nine: Voice ChoicesÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ .. 61 Lesson Ten: Songs and ChantsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ.. 65 Assessments and Rub ricsÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ... 68 Figure 1: Lesson Con cept RubricÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 69 Figure 2: Free Mus ical Play RubricÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..É. 70 Figure 3: Free Musical Play Checklist ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ...71 Figure 4: Tempo Detection RubricÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 72 Figure 5 : Seating ChartÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ .. 73 Figure 6 : Voice Choice Picture Matching QuizÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 75 Figure 7 : Songs and C hants QuizÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 76 Overall Curriculum Obj ectivesÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 77 Chapter Four: Con clusionÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ .. 78 ReferencesÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ .. 79 Appendic esÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 80 Appendix A: Understandi n g by DesignÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 82 Appendix B : Co mmon Core Standards for K indergarten Music EducationÉÉÉ.. 88 Appendix C: Carnival of the Ani mal s Coloring SheetÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 90 Appendix D : "Echo Hello" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 91 Appendix E : "Color Song" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ92 Appendix F : "Lions Roar, Mi ce Squeak" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ. 93 Appendix G : "The Steady Rain" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 94 Appendix H : "Traveling Through Space" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 95

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ' " Appendix I : "Gravity" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.É.. 96 Appendix J : "Weigh tl es sly"ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.. 97 Append ix K : "The Rhythm of the Jungle" ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 98 Appendix L : " Voice Cho ices at School"ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.ÉÉÉ.. 99 Appendix M : "Two Litt l e Birdies"ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 100 Appendix N: "Boom! Bang!"ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 101

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ( " Abstract Over the pa st few decades it has become apparent that the curricula utilized in most elementary schools are based on highly teacher directed activities with strictly defined expectations and possibilities (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004) Contrary to the organizations of these curricula , some researchers have suggested that young children learn naturally through their involvement in explorative, imaginative, and playful activities (Lew & Campbell, 2005). When teachers allow their students to engage in playful activities they create an unthreatening environment in which awareness and skills are developed (Niland, 2009). In fact, the overall cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development of young children is enhanced through playful interacti ons (Tarnowski, 1999). Because exploration, play, and discovery have such a vital role in the education of young students, it is necessary that music teachers enact an effective music curriculum that enhances the natural learning experiences of young students. In order to do so, music educators must recognize their personal role in the play environment. In addition, teachers must also allow themselves to become aware of their students immediate needs and interests. In doing so, teachers will be able to provide their students with a healthy learning environment that encourages children to experience music to the b est of their natural abilities. Based on these findings, a curriculum was developed that addresses the immediate student need for exploration, play, and discovery within t he educational environment. T he purpose of t his Preschool and Kindergarten music curriculum is to pursue the satisfaction of this need with a suggested balance between both teacher and child directed musical play activities (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004, Miranda, 2004; Berger & Cooper, 2003; Tarnowski, 1999).

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ) " Music Curriculum for Preschool and Kindergarten : Learning Fundamentals Through Exploration, Play, and Discovery Chapter One: Introduction As an elementary music teacher, I understand the importanc e of fostering young children's natural innovation and imagination. In every aspect of their lives, young children display an instinctive creative thought process that is evident through their dramatic play, imaginative use of colors, and inventive use of language (Sawyer, 2012). In fact, young children naturally learn through the processes of exploration, play, and discovery (Lew & Campbell, 2005). Therefore, it is the responsibility of elementary music educators to provide their students with countless op portunities to experience and learn music creatively through expression and imagination. The Purpose of a Curriculum Based on Exploration, Play, and Discovery Music is an important source of enjoyment and recreation in young children's lives (Nardo, Custo dero, Persillin, & Fox, 2006). "When music educators adopt a playful approach to music, they are valuing children's music making in [a] wider context" (Niland, 2009, p. 18). In other words, play, utilized as an educational approach, allows children to not only learn about music, but also experience music to their fullest and greatest potential through interactive applications. In order to provide students with the means necessary to learn to the best of their natural abilities, teachers must first understa nd the relationships that exist between children and exploration, play, and discovery. As previously stated, play is an instinctive quality of young children (National Association for the Education of Young Children, NAEYC, 2009). Children of all ages part icipate in playful activities that engage and develop problem solving, social, and

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " * " language skills (NAEYC , 2009; Tarnowski, 1999). Play also provides the natural and experiential learning that helps young children construct knowledge of the world around th em (Tarnowski, 1999). Through playful interactions, children also learn how to "interact with others, express and control emotions, develop their symbolic and problem solving abilities, and practice emerging skills" ( NAEYC , 2009, p. 14). Therefore, it can be rightfully assumed that children can develop socially, emotionally, physically, and cognitively through playful interactions. In fact, play considerably affects the development of the whole child (Tarnowski, 1999). Not only do children experience benefi ts to their overall development through play, but children also experiment with knowledge and skills that they have previously acquired. Once music educators have concrete knowledge of t heir students' development , they may begin to construct a curriculum that supports their students' direct needs. It is vital that young children are educationally equipped through curricula, lessons and activities that foster their instinctive creativity through playful interactions. Because play is already an instinctive c haracteristic of young children, it can be easily incorporated into instruction. Play is also made up of a series of explorative and discovery processes (Niland, 2009). Therefore, educators can anticipate that children will need time to develop and process their previously gained knowledge through playful experiences. It is necessary that music educators incorporate and facilitate musical development through planned opportunities for play. Through play, students will not be encumbered with the need to meet performance goals, but rather encouraged to participate playfully within a risk free environment (Tarnowski, 1999). Instead, young students will experience music naturally and joyfully +,-./0-1"234-51"6"73840-1"#99%:;"<=->".?@AB" -C?B34D8@"8-BDE>AF-"3>C"B3/ A430AF-"D>"4=-"/035G?0">34?8-"DG"B=A0C8->H@".?@AB30"3B4AIA451" .?@AB"-C?B34AD>"JA00"K-"G3.A0A38"4-88A4D85"4D"4=-A8"@4?C->4@"+,-./0-1"234-51"6"73840-1"#99%:;

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !9 " "A play based, child centeredÉmusic curriculum [will] nurture the innate musicality of young childre n so that they become and remain music makers throughout their lives" (Niland, 2009, p. 20). The Need for a Music Curriculum Based on Exploration, Play, and Discovery An effective music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students should include les sons and activities that provide teachers with the means to appropriately equip their students with the foundational skills and knowledge of music through exploration, play, and discovery ( NAEYC , 2009). Unfortunately, not very many elementary curricula pro vide students with multiple opportunities to learn music through experimentation and exploration (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004). In fact, the content of instruction and current teach ing practices are far from the creative and playful practices suggested b y the National Standards for Music Education (Nardo, et. al., 2006). More often than not, the musical potential of young children is overlo oked. Young students are often expected to willfully participate in monotonous musical interactions lead by teachers who are unfamiliar with their utmost musical potential (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004). On the other hand, teachers who value the playful interactions of young children, nurture their students by way of the their natural strengths and instinctive interest s (Lew & Campbell, 2005). Teachers must familiarize themsel ves with their students' needs and natural learning abilities, and strive to learn about each student's musical and non musical interests (Miranda, 2004). Young children's educational needs can als o be met th rough the incorporation of their ideas and suggestions into the learning process (Miranda, 2004). When children feel that their needs and desires are being met within the educational environment they willingly engage as active learners (Miranda, 2004) .

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ! ! " The purpose of this Preschool and Kindergarten music curriculum is to pursue the satisfaction of this need with a suggested balance between both teacher and child directed musical play activities (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004, Miranda, 2004; Ber ger & Cooper, 2003; Tarnowski, 1999). This curriculum will equip teachers with the means to encourage students to express themselves freely and playfully through music education . Teacher's who implement this curriculum will be encouraged to continually fos ter their student s' overall growth and development through exploration, play, and discovery.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !# " Chapter Two: Review of Literature Public music education has change d drastically over the past few decades. Several advancements have occurred over the years including the implementation of the national music standards in 1994 and creation of the common core standards in 2009 (National Association for Music Education, NAfME, 2014). Unfortunately, some of these advancements have caused some music ed uc ators and administrators to shift their focus and attention from learning through exploration and play to using goals and standards to motivate student progress (Miller & Almon, 2009). In turn, many c hildren have been unable to experience learning through their natural playful qualities. Instead opportunities for exploration, play, and discovery have been replaced with regimented curricula (Miller & Almon, 2009 ; Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004 ). Children and Musical Play Rec ent research suggests that deve lopmentally appropriate elementary general music practices should be playfully centered on child initiated instruction (Miranda, 2004). This means that teachers need to be aware of the interests and developmental needs of their students, and have the willi ngness to allow student guided learning within the instructional environment. Awareness of students' interests and involvements can lead to "a greater understanding and appreciation of the rich musical possibilities that childrenÉpossess and express" (Lew & Campbell, 2005, p. 58). Teachers must therefore teach to enhance learning and increase students' overall development by making choices, planning curriculum, and choosing activities that reflect their understanding and sensitivity to the students' needs. Miranda (2004) conducted a study involving the instructional strategies of three elementary general music teachers from three separate schools. During this study, Miranda observed three kindergarten classes over the period of one instructional year . Throu gh her

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !$ " observations, Miranda found that effective and developmentally appropriate strategies are conclusive to creating a learning environment and curriculum based on students ' needs and interests. When the general music teachers chose curriculum content b ased on generic reasons, rather than considering the specific interests and abilit ies of their students, the over all learning experiences resulted in boredom and frustration. O ne of the teachers in Miranda's (2004) study appeared to consistently construct curriculum based on generic reasoning , such as personal familiarity with specific materials or thematic purposes . For example, t his teacher selected an extensive book about popcorn to help introduce a popcorn themed song. Unfortunately, because the book w as lengthy and took over twenty minutes to read most of the children lost interest in the activity before the popcorn themed song was ever introduced. However, when the teachers displayed knowledge and awareness of students' interests within their construc ted curriculum , their students engage d as active learners. A nother teacher in Miranda's study frequently showed flexibility in her curriculum construction, and encouraged student input during instru ction. This teacher, for instance , introduced a counting s ong and game in which the students would count to three . The students were asked to make a circle in the middle of the room, and the teacher would move about the circle and touch the students as they counted. The third student the teacher touched would mov e from the inside circle to an outer circle. When there were only two students remaining in the inner circle, the teacher asked for her students input on what to do. The students brainstormed together and decided that the best way to continue the game woul d be to count the first student again as the third student. Because this teacher positively responded to the students' ideas and requests, the students continued to be actively involved throughout the entire activity.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !% " Through her studies, Miranda (2004) also found that the most effective, appropriate, and congruent i nstructional strategies w ere implemented when the teacher and students operated as co learners. Teachers who are willing to include a balance of both teacher and student directed activities allow room for student input and student suggestions. They encourage healthy interactions, and appropriately adjust lesson plans to coincide with students' capabilities. In other words, t he teachers in Miranda's study who were able to successfully interac t with students as equal learning partners knew how to respond to the child ren's knowledge rather than solely be aware of the students' understandings or capabilities. These teachers exhibited the flexibility to adj ust and modify their curricula based on th e responses of the children. Furthermore , these teachers experienced more positive student interactions and applications of learning than instructors with hig hly teacher directed curricula . Although teachers have a responsibility to direct and instruct t heir students, teachers should also allow time for students to explore new concepts and ideas on their own. Children have a need to connect their learning through playful activities. When this need is ignored and replaced with prolonged discussion or monot onous repetitions the children lo se interest in the learning experience (Miranda, 2004). Once children understand or master the skills and concepts taught by the teacher, they are ready to "create, ready to take ownership, [and] ready to make their own mus ic" (Miranda, 2004, p.51) In order for children to learn to the best of their natural abilities through playful activities, children must be "allowed to listen, watch, and musically explore as they wish" (Taggart, 2000, p. 24) without teacher employed boun daries. As children participate in self regulated play activities, they experience an increase in their developmental awareness and skill set (Niland, 2009). In fact, repetitive and frequent musical play encourages young children to develop keen understand ing of specific musical skills such as beat, tempo,

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !& " form, and pitch (Niland, 2009 ) Therefore, it is possible for children to create their own learning ex periences through musical play, and it is vital that teachers tend to these needs of the student by all owing them to actively engage in playful learning experiences. The Functions of Musical Play P lay can be considered any intrinsically motiv at ing activity that is pleasurable to the participant. "It is an activity in which being engaged in a process, rathe r than achieving a final product, is the goal" (Tarnowski, 1999, p. 27). In fact, some researche r s, theorists, and educators would agree that "play involves free choice, enjoyment, self motivation, and a focus on process rather than product" (Niland, 2009) . Musical play, therefore, can be considered any musical activity in which students enjoyably participate. Tarnowski (1999) further suggests that musical play should consist of a variety of activities that enable children to explore, improvise, and create sound. There are several ways in which music teachers can incorporate these types of music al play activities into their elementary mu sic education. Music play can consist of explorative activities that allow children to discover new musical concepts throu gh vocalizations, experiment with rhythmic patterns through movements in the body and movements of objects, and explore sounds through playing instruments. P layful vocal activities can include the investigation of rhythmic speech, tone color and inflection , and the use of songs and chants. Playful activities in which movement is the primary focus can include walking, running, rocking back and forth, twisting, and dancing alone or with objects such as a scarf or ribbon. Playful activities centered on instrum ent exploration can include the repetition or stabilization of melodic and rhythmic patterns, as well as, the creation and recognition of melodic and rhythmic patterns.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !' " Tarnowski (1999) also differentiates musical play as having three separate varieties : functional musical play, constructive musical play, and dramatic musical play. Functional musical play refers to the exploration of sound and the ways through which sounds are made. One example of functional musical play in the music classroom could invol ve the process of using an abstract object to make a sound. For instance, the music teacher could provide his or her students with multiple objects, such as building blocks and newspapers, and encourage the student to explore the objects' possible sounds. Students would discover that clapping two building blocks together creates a clicking noise, while crinkling newspapers together creates a crackling noise. During this functional play activity, students could not only explore what sounds are made with the objects separately, but also what sounds are made when the objects are used in combination. Constructive musical play can be viewed as an extension of functional musical play. During constructive musical play the initial exploration of sound begins to deve lop a sense of structure through "patterns of rhythm, melody, tempo, dynamics, or tone color" (Tarnowski , 1999, p. 28). For example, a functional musical play activity would transform into a constructive musical play activity when the students begin to use the abstract objects to create dynamic patterns. Not only do the blocks make a clicking sound when they are tapped together, but they also sound louder when tapped abruptly and softer when tapped gently. The last function of musical play is dramatic music al play. This function of musical play can include the involvement of songs, chants, or instruments during musical and nonmusical play themes. For example, the music teacher could sing a song about traveling through the jungle. The students would then imag ine themselves traveling through the jungle as the teacher sings. The students would be encouraged by the teacher to move about the room in a way that mimics walking through thick foliage and brush. The teacher could also include the sounds of a flute to i mitate the sounds of

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !( " birds, or the sounds of a drum to imitate the sounds of gorillas pounding their chests. This activity may also be adjusted to reflect child initiated and directed play. For instance, the teacher could provide his or her students with v arious rhythmic instruments and costumes. The scenario of dramatic play would then be determined by the students' imaginations and creativity. The Benefits of Musical Play When play is appropriately utilized within a learning environment, the child deve lops a personal understanding of the world and how to appropriately function within it. Play promotes natural and experiential learning that helps to support a child's whole development (Tarnowski, 1999). Music learning through appropriate and playful expe riences positively supports a child's social, cognitive, and emotional development (Fox & Liu, 2012). In addition, musical play also promotes self awareness and a child's overall physical development (Tarnowski, 1999). Specific areas of development that a re addressed through playful education by Tarnowski are as follows: • Social development o Cooperation o Patience o Sharing and taking turns • Cognitive development o Divergent thinking o Problem solving skills o Concept development o Language development o Creativit y

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !) " • Emotional development o Self esteem o Self expression of feelings and emotions o Cooping skills • Physical development o Gross motor control o Fine motor control o Hand eye coordination Musical play not only positively affects a child's social, cognitive, emotional, and physical development, but also the overall musical development of a child. What follows are s ome of the specific musical developments enhanced through playful interactions that are addressed by Isenbery and Jalongo (1993) : • Music listening • Music performance • Musical understanding • Musical creativity • Response to Music With the maturity of these specific musical developments, students learn how to appreciate the music they listen to and value it as a part of everyday life. They can experime nt with classroom instruments through functional play, and develop their sense of melodic and rhythmic knowledge through constructive play. Students are also encouraged to interact with music through physical interpretations of expressive and rhythmic move ments. As students continue to engage in

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " !* " musical play, they will eventually develop age appropriate music concepts that are valued by their level of understanding (Isenbery & Jalongo, 1993). The Role of the Teacher The teacher has many roles in an instru ctional and interactive play environment (Tarnowski, 1999) . One of these roles is a responsibility that most teachers are already quite familiar with : the director . When teachers assume this role they are leading activities and giving students instructions . Although this may be the most familiar r ole for teachers to assume, it is suggested that teachers also be willing to assume other roles to maintain a healthy and playful atmosphere. For example, t he teacher may also assume the role of the observer. As an observer, it is the teacher's responsibility to provide his or her students with an environment for independent musical play. Then, the teacher will observe the students and assess their application of musical understanding, musical skill, and the student s' overall development. Another role teachers assume in a playful instructive environment is that of the entertainer. During this role, the teacher helps to focus and direct the children's attention by encouraging them to participate in playful activities. In addition to the director, the observer, and the entertainer, the teacher also acts as a balancer. As the balancer, the teacher learns to combine his or her roles as a director, observer, and entertainer and operate as all three at once. There are many responsibilities that coincide with the willingness to operate as a balancer. A teacher who functions simultaneously as a director, an observer, and an entertainer, must know how to effectively plan, observe, participate, extend, model, and motivate stude nts (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004). In an interactive play environment , it is the balancer's responsibility to plan new mat erials in creative ways that will help spark and hold student s' interest. It is also the responsibility of the balancer to be able t o introduce new materials in

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #9 " engaging ways. When the balancer operates as an observer, he or she must be able to detect teachable moments, and determine when students need problem solving assistance. As an entertainer, the balancer participates in playful activities as an equal learning partner with students. The balancer may also extend the students learning experiences through interactive and independent play by asking open ended questions or proposing an idea for consideration. Another way for teachers t o effectively participate in playful activities with children is by modeling and demonstrating new behaviors. When the balancer demonstrates new behaviors, he or she does not simple show the students what to do. Instead, the balancer verbally describes his or her actions and allows students to offer suggestions (Kemple, et. al., 2004). Lastly, the balancer must be able to successfully motivate his or her students. Through positive motivation the balancer help s his or her students feel safe within the learni ng environment, and encourage s them to participate in both interactive and independent play activities. As the teacher continues to encourage and motivate playful learning, he or she will eventually inspire self propelled learning. In other words, a teac her who first supports the students learning through extension, modeling, and motivation, will initiate self regulated learning. This transition from teacher supported to student regulated learning is often associated with Russian psychologist Lev Semenovi ch Vygotsky's scaffolding theory ( Vygotsky, 1978, as cited in Woolfolk, 2007). According to Vygotsky, scaffolding is support for learning and problem solving through "clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an examp le, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner" (Woolfolk, 2007, p. 48). As the student learns and masters new skills, and is increasing ly able to perform independently, adult support is gradually withdrawn (Kemple, et.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #! " a l., 2004). Eventually, the student is able to plan, monitor, and guide his or her own learning and problem solving (Woolfolk, 2007). The Emotional and Physical Classroom Environment In addition to the role of the teacher, o ne of the most important infl uences on a child's music education is the actual learning environment. The learning environment should be a place in which "children can take risks without the fear of failure" (Tarnowski, 1999, p. 29). It must be a place in which the natural musical expr essions of children are nurtured and valued (Taggart, 2000). Children feel appreciated within an educational environment when they are entrusted to operate freely without spec ific instructions or teacher le d activities. When students engage freely during musical play, they are given the opportunity to utilize their knowledge of music through exploration, improvisation, and composition (Berger & Cooper, 2003). During free musical play, teachers operate under the role of the observer. This means that it is the teacher's responsibility to provide the students with materials and resources that encourage independent and social musical play, and acc ess the students' natural musical applications and interactions. Throughout musical free play, the teacher may also observe the students natural musical abilities, sound exploration, unconventional uses of instruments, peer teaching and interaction s , and spontaneous games (Berger & Cooper, 2003). Berger and Cooper (2003) conducted a study of free musical play in which preschool aged students could experience music education with both group instruction and independent play through the exploration of various musical centers. Each class session consisted of a similar schedule that involved opening free play, followed by g uided group activities, middle free play,

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ## " and a closing group activity. The lead music teacher led group activities with singing songs, moving activities, listening activities and reading children's literature. During free play, the teacher strove to provi de the students with adequate materials and tools for musical play, along with an appropriate amount of time to participate in free musical play. The preschool students were allowed to individually choose which musical center to explore and self regulate t heir play activities. The students were accompanied by their parents, and the parents were encouraged to observe and interact with the children. Results from this study suggest that children who experience unfinished play, or play that is interrupted or in hibited, desire to continue their play experiences beyond the contained time frames within class sessions. The students' musical play could also be extinguished by way of inappropriate adult responses through corrections or criticisms. However, the student s' free musical play was enhanced when adults encouraged student creativity and imagination. Through their study Berger and Cooper (2003) found specific techniques that successfully help adults encourage musical exploration. The first strategy is addressed through observation. Children feel encouraged in their free musical play when adults show value in the students' exploration by giving them attention. Students also felt encouraged in their free musical play when adults modeled playful behaviors and made positive comments about the children's interactions. Adults may also encourage free musical play by guiding the stu dents' exploration through open ended questions. In fact, "open ended instructional strategies using questions and suggestions may guide chil dren to discover musical elements, thereby laying the ground work for later skill acquisition" (p.162). Kemple, Batey, and Hartle (2004) feel that one of the best ways to help students engage in free musical play is to provide them with musical centers. A musical center is an area

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #$ " dedicated to specific music activities or resources. A musical center can exist anywhere in the classroom, and there can be multiple musical centers throughout the entire classroom. Several examples of different musical center s are given in Kemple, Batey, and Harte's (2004) article . Som e of the musical centers mentioned in the article involve sound exploration through abstract objects and instruments, composing music through drawing and recording, and dramatizations through mus ical theater. A musical jars center, for instance, can encourage children to participate in functional and constructive musical play. This center would include several identical glass jars filled with equal amounts of colored water, a safe striker to tap t he edges of the jars with, and a pitcher of water. The students would then be left to experiment with sounds by adding water to and striking the glass jars. The children could even be encouraged to create their own compositions using the musical jars. The teacher could also provide the students with colored crayons and paper to draw out their original musical jars compositions. Another musical center that could be created to encourage sound exploration is an exploring bells center. This center could includ e various types, shapes, and sizes of bells. The students could explore the different sounds made by the different bells. The teacher could also provide paper and crayons to help the children graft the findings of their explorations. A multicultural instr ument center could also exist in the classroom to encourage free musical play. This musical center would perhaps involve more preparation and guidance from the teacher so that students would be able to understand how to properly and respectfully utilize th e different instruments. However, students could also initiate functional and constructive play within this center. Dramatic musical play can be encouraged within a musical theater center. This center would simply include costumes, instruments, a performe rs' area, and an audiences' area. The

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #% " role play and music incorporation would then be left to the students' imaginations. Another center that could encourage dramatic musical play would be a recording studio center. This center could be set up with props a nd devises to mimic a music recording studio. The students could be equipped with a working microphone and recording devise to record sounds or original compositions. Other centers could include a movement and dance center or a making musical instruments c enter. When creating musical centers within an educational environment, it is best to consider the needs and the interests of the students. Students can be included in the planning process for musical centers though brainstorming and discussion . Although the primary purpose for musical center s is to allow students to operate freely within the educational environment, teachers must also help to guide their student to safely and appropriately utilize the materials and resources within each music center. Tea chers may also interact with their students by assuming the role of the entertainer or by engaging as an equal learning partner. As students engage in free musical play at a music center , it is very crucial to allow adequate tim e for students to "explore materials and construct musical concepts" (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004, p. 36). If students' free musical play is interrupted or extinguished, they may be less likely to engage during a free play activity or produce functional or constructive musical out come s (Berger & Cooper, 2003). Instead, the teacher should promote and enhance free musical play through positive behaviors and attitudes that create an overall safe learning environment for all students.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #& " Summa ry Based on the understandings of the n atural relationship between young children and play, a suitable and effective preschool and kindergarten curriculum can be constructed. First, t he findings and results of several educators and researchers suggest that music curricula should be formulated a round the interest of the students (Miranda, 2004; Lew & Campbell, 2005). Because play is an instinctive and natural interest or desire of young children ( NAEYC , 2009), a curriculum that allows for planned opportunities for play will inevitably meet some o f the needs of students ( Miranda, 2004). However, teachers should not discontinue the involvement of students' interests into the curriculum with the incorporation of play. Instead, teachers should strive to learn about their students' interests both withi n and outside of the classroom . Teachers must not only be aware of the needs and interests of their students and how to choose curriculum based on those desires, but also learn how to adjust or modify curriculum due to the response s of the children (Mira nda, 2004). Flexibility is a necessary trait for teachers to possess when facilitating learning through play. Teachers must learn to reconstruct and redesign their predetermined plans in an instant to accommodate the interests and desires of the students. If a child makes a request for a specific activity or song, the teacher must seize that moment as an opportunity to reinforce learning, rather than a waste of time. The teacher must possess a variety of skills that allow him or her to lead activities and give instructions; watch, observe, and assess the overall development of the children; focus their students' attention and encourage them to participate; and recognize every moment as a teachable moment to enrich the students' complete learning experience. Therefore, the teacher must plan for opportunities to act as the director, the observer, the entertainer, and the balancer (Tarnowski, 1999). An effective learning environment will consist of a healthy balance between

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #' " teacher and child controlled options (Miranda, 2004). Teachers must therefore plan for opportunities to act under different roles. When teachers incorporate a combination of guided and free play activities into their curriculum they will enrich the overall learning experiences of their stud ents (Berger & Cooper, 2003). Both guided and free musical play can consist of a variety of activities that enable children to explore, improvise, and create sound (Tarnowski, 1999). Teachers may include planned activities for functional musical play, con structive musical play, and dramatic musical play into their curricula. A play based music curriculum should consist of a variety of functional sound exploration activities, structured constructive activities, and theatrical applications. Even though educa tors can plan for specific teacher directed activities, it can sometimes be difficult to plan for periods of independent play. One of the ways in which teachers can plan for or incorporate free musical play into their curricula is by providing their studen ts with an unthreatening environment in which awareness and skills are developed (Niland, 2009). A variety of musical centers can be created within the classroom to help inspire functional, constructive, and dramatic musical play (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle, 2004). Musical centers can consist of musical instruments, recording devices, random objects, costumes, or writing materials that trigger the exploration, play, and discovery of musical concepts. The overall play based music curriculum should be one that encourages students to enjoy learning (Nardo, et. al., 2006) . The music curriculum should encourage the healthy development of students cognitive, emotional, physical, and social development through both structured and independent opportunities for musical play (Tarnowski, 1999). It should inspire students to create their own learning experiences through musical play, and continue as active music learners throughout their lives (Niland, 2009).

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #( " Chapter Three: Curriculum In attempts to move beyond t he comm only utilized teacher directed curricula (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle 2004) , I have created a Preschool and Kindergarten music curriculum that encompasses a suggested balance between both teacher and child directed activities (Kemple, Batey, & Hartle 2004; Mi randa, 2004; Berger & Cooper, 2003; Tarnowski, 1999) . T he majority of this curriculum is based on both teacher directed lessons and group activities and child directed playful experiences and interactions , all of which were created to foster the instinctiv e creativity of young children. T he learning experiences foun d within this curriculum were chosen to specifically encourage the exploration of ne w sounds and musical concepts, the musical i nteract ion of inventive movements, the contribution of the creation of new music and musical ideas, and the discover y of natural musical capabilities among students . Curriculum Design The overall design and construction of this curriculum follow s the inclusive structures of those found in The Understanding by Design (UBD ) Guide to Creating High Quality Units (Wiggins & McTighe, 2011 ). The focus of Understanding by Design is to help students achieve specific outcomes. Some of the specific outcomes of this curriculum , for example, include the ability to create simple rhythm ic patterns throu gh constructive musical play and the ability to distinguish between loud and soft sounds through functional musical play (se e Appendix A ) . In order to accomplish the specific goals established through an Understanding by Design curriculum , teachers must first implement the three stages of backwards design : identify desire results, determine acceptable behaviors, and plan learning experiences and instruction accordingly .

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #) " U nlike most traditional forms of curriculum design, backwards design f irst addresses what students are able to do with content, rather than the content itself. This first step of the backwards design plan is a reiteration of the overall focus of Understanding b y Design: to help students achieve specific outcomes. Therefore, the desire results and specific outcomes are determined in the first stage of backwards design. Once the desired outcome has been determined, the next step of backwards design is to decide how students will show ev idence of outcome achievement. Teachers w ho utilize Understanding by Design feel that learning happens best when students are given multiple opportunities to apply their learning in a meaningful context. Understanding by Design provides students with many opportunities to show understanding of co ntent through explanation, interpretation, application, shift perspective, empathizing, and self assessment (Wiggins & McTighe, 2011) . In relation to this curriculum, students will be provided with many opportunities to demonstrate their understanding and knowledge through both group and independent interactions. The teacher will guide the students to learn new musical concepts and ideas. However, the teacher will also provide the students with the materials and resources to independently disco ver musical n otions . The last step of backwards design is to create content that cohesively aligns with the achievement of the desired outcome s . During this stage of backwards design the actual curriculum is formulated. From here, teachers may begin to structure their lessons and activities based on the amount of knowledge and acquired skill sets that they anticipate their students will have at the conclusion of the curriculum. The music curriculum I have created will cover the time span of ten instructional weeks. E a ch Preschool and Kindergarten class will meet once a week for a total of ten musical

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " #* " instruction periods. The lessons and activities within this curriculum are constructed to accommodate class periods that are approximately thirty minutes in length with cl ass sizes of fifteen to twenty four students. Each class period was assembled to incorporate both teacher le d and student directed activities. The structure of the class es is similarly based on the suggestions of Berger and Cooper (2003). Each class period begin s with a teacher directed group activity, which is then followed by a period of free play. During free play, students are provided with multiple musical play centers that will encourage functional, constructional , or dramatic musical play. Students a re allotted approximately ten to fifteen minutes to explore the different musical centers. Throughout the period of free play, the teacher assume s the role of the observer . The teacher is responsible for observing and assess ing the students ' behaviors and interactions as they investigate the musical centers. When the teacher monitors his or her students, he or she must carefully track and record the students' interactions (Tarnowski, 1999) . Once the period of free play has ended, the students gather for a f inal group activity. Both opening and closing group activities are designed to include a series of planned musical experiences that involve singing, playing instruments, moving, listening, and children's literature. The overall design of this curriculum was created to reflect the natural learning processes of young children through exploration, play, and discovery (Lew & Campbell, 2005). Within each lesson, young students are given the opportunity to explore musical concepts, experience free musical play, and discover and draw connections between teacher initiated learning and independent practice. Table 1 organizes the musical concepts that will be addressed throughout this curriculum by way of exploration, play, and discovery.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $9 " Table 1 Music Curricu lum for Preschool and Kindergarten Lesson Musical Goals 1 Music a s Sound 2 Dynamics 3 Steady Beat (Part I) 4 Steady Beat (Part II) 5 Tempo 6 Articulation 7 Rhythm Patterns 8 Pitch 9 Voice Choices 10 Songs and Chants Lessons and Activities T he first lesson in this general music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around sounds that make music . Throughout this lesson students will ponder the question, "What makes music?" The teacher will provide a combination of guidan ce based and exploration based instruction that will encourage students to ponder and recall various objects and instruments that make music. Students will (a) explore the various sounds that can be made with classroom objects and instruments, (b) particip ate in activities that encourage functional play , and (c) discover that it is possible for any sound to be categorized as music. Explore, Play, and Discover: Music as Sound Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week One Student Grade Level : Presch ool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Creating: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr6.Ka • Connecti ng: MU:Cn10.0.Ka, MU:Cn11.0.Ka

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $! " New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Student s will be able to: 1. Demonstrate vocal pitch matching on an interval of a minor third (Sol Mi) . 2. Demonstrate simple vocal call and response techniques. 3. Demonstrate what it means to make music through sound exploration during functional play. Materials: • Stu dent Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Materials for Musical Play Centers o Marbles and empty glass or plastic jars o Newspapers and magazines o Building blocks o Differently sized buckets • Music: o "Echo Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Wh at Makes Music" by Joe Raposo o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Book: The Listening Walk by Paul Showers • Miscellaneous Items: frying pan, rubber band, comb, etc. • Instruments (for visual reference): drum, triangle, recorder, etc. Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Hide Allegro the Frog in the classroom in a place that that will be somewhat visible to the children. • Meet children at the door and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colore d rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Introduce yourself as "Mrs. Cleveland" and say, "this must be your first time in my music classroom." • Tell students that you are very excited to get to know them, and they are going to have great fun learning about music. • Let students know you have a special friend in the room that is kind of shy. Tell students that he's name is Allegro, and have the students pronounce his name. Tell the students that if we call out his nam e really loudly he might come out. • Have students call out, "Allegro." As students are calling for Allegro, find him in the room and put the puppet on your hand. • Introduce Allegro to the class.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $# " Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Tell stu dents that Allegro is a special frog that really likes to sing, and he has a special "Hello" song that he would like to sing with everyone. • Explain to students that every time Allegro sings hello we sing hello back. "Let's try it!" • Teach students that whe n your hand is pointed inward that means it's the teacher's turn to sing (or Allegro's turn) and when your hand is pointed outward that means it's the students' turn to sing. • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed ph rases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro. • Tell students that you and Allegro really enjoy music class because we love to make music. Have Allegro say "Make Music? How do we make Music Mrs. Cleveland?" Respond and say, "Hmmmm, that's a very good question. W hy don't we ask our new friends? " • Ask the students to put their thinking caps on and think about how to make music. Allow a few moments for students to ponder how to make music. Ask students to raise their hands once they have an id ea. • Allow time for student response and discussion. • Tell students that you have an idea. Get out your miscellaneous items and instruments. Tell students that you have all of these things that may make music. Take turns holding up either an item or an ins trument, each time asking the students "Does this make music?" • As students respond with either "yes," or "no," tell them that you know a great song that can help us figure out what makes music. • Sing "What Makes Music." Have students listen to the words t hat tell us what makes music. (If you have items that correspond with the song hold them up when you sing about them.) • Once the song is complete, ask students again, "What makes music?" Answer: "Anything." Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music c enters that encourage functional play. o Functional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! Marbles and empty glass or plastic jars ! Newspapers and magazines ! Building blocks ! Differently sized buckets • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to ex plore different things that make music. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers . • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $$ " Closing Activity • Tell students that you would like to share a stor y with them about a little girl who liked to listen for sounds that make music. Get out the book A Listening Walk. • Tell students to listen to the story and think about the sounds in the story that could be heard as music. • Read A Listening Walk to the stu dents. Demonstrate the various sounds in the book. Signal the students to repeat/echo the sounds you demonstrate. • Once the story is finished, ask students to think about the sounds in the book. Ask, "What are some of the things we talked about in the stor y that could make musical sounds?" Allow time for student responses and discussion. • Encourage students to listen for musical sounds everywhere they go. Ask students to share some of the musical sounds they hear throughout the week with you when they come back to music class. • Dismiss the class with the "Color Song." Assessment: • Aural observation of students singing the echoed phrases of the song "Echo, Hello" in time and on the correct pitches with at least 80% accuracy. • Observation of students' underst anding of key lesson concepts; "What makes music?" through functional musical play interaction s . Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to sing a solo echoed phrase during the song "Echo, Hell o." • Vocal Disabilities: Students will not be required to interact vocally. Students will be encouraged to listen and respond through physical actions. For example, students will wave "Hello" with their hands during the "Echo, Hello" song. • Movement disabi lities: No provisions needed. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. Music References: Raposo, J. (2000). What makes music. Joe Raposo songbook: Piano, vocal guitar . Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp. The second lesson in this general music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around dynamics . During this lesson students will learn about sounds that are soft and sounds that are loud. The teacher will provide both guidance based and exploration based instruction that wi ll encourage students to ponder and recall various sounds that are loud and various sounds that are soft. Students will (a) explore how to make loud and soft sounds both

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $% " vocally and with classroom objects, (b) participate in activities that encourage const ructional play , and (c) discover connections between loud and soft sounds within music learning and everyday life happens. Explore, Play, and Discover: Dynamics Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Two Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kinde rgarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Creating: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU: Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn10.0.Ka, MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works o f Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate vocal pitch matching on an interval of a minor third (Sol Mi). 2. Demonstrate the difference s between loud and soft sounds through appropriate displays of vocal use and physical gestures. 3. Appr opriately demonstrate loud and soft sounds during functional play. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Materials for Musical Play Centers o CDs and a CD player with a working volume knob o Different sized bells o A bucket of le aves o Pots, pans, and cooking spoons • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Lions Roar, Mice Squeak" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Book: Quiet Loud by Leslie Patricelli

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $& " Procedures: Anticipatory Set : • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Ask the childre n to recall the "Hello" song they sang with you the last time they were in your classroom. Tell students that we will begin each music class by singing this song. • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of th e song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro. • Ask the students to recall what else we learned during our last music class. Ask, "Do you remember what we were supposed to listen for during the week?" Answer: Sounds that make music. • Allow children to share some of the sounds they heard throughout their week. Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Explain to the children that sometimes sounds can be loud and sometimes sounds can be soft. Each time you say "loud" and "soft," use a dynamic and expression that easily demonstrates the definition of each word. • Tell the children that you have a story to share with them about loud and soft sounds. Note that some of the sounds talked about in the book may be some of the sounds your students heard thr oughout the week. • Read Quiet Loud to the students. Demonstrate the various sounds in the book. Signal the students to repeat/echo the sounds you demonstrate. • Once the story is finished, tell students that today we are going to practice making loud and sof t sounds. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage functional play. o Functional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! A listening station with CDs and a CD player with a volume knob ! Different sized bells ! A bucket of leaves ! Po ts, pans, and cooking spoons • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore different things that make loud and soft sounds. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers . • Observe and monitor the students while tracking an d recording their interactions.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $' " Closing Activity • Let students know that you have an act ivity that will help us learn when to make loud sounds and when to make soft sounds. • Have children stand up and spread out throughout the room. • Help the st udents find their "self space." (Self space is the space around the child that should be clear of obstacles and people.) Students find their self space by placing their hands on their hips and twisting at the waist. If their elbows are bumping a friend or something else in the classroom they do not have appropriate self space." Set clear boundaries for the students so they know exactly where they can move while having fun and being safe. • Tell children to watch you and do what you do. • Speak the "Lions Roar, Mice Squeak" chant while moving about the room. Be loud with your voice and your feet movements too: stomp and roar during the lion part of the chant, and tip toe and squeak during the mice part of the chant. Repeat the chant as needed. • Ask your students to have a seat on the colored rug. • Thank the students for making loud and soft sounds with you. Ask them to recall which animal made loud sounds, and which animal made soft sounds. • Ask for students to give examples of loud or soft sounds. Remind student s of the many different loud and soft sounds that were talked about during music class. • Make various noises and sounds and continue to ask students to decipher if the sounds you are making are loud or soft. • Tell students that we will continue to learn ab out loud and soft sounds when they come back to music class. • Dismiss the class with the "Color Song." Assessment: • Aural observation of students singing the echoed phrases of the song "Echo, Hello" on the correct pitches with at least 80% accuracy. • O bse rvation of students' ability to appropriately express loud and soft sounds both vocally and physically . • Observation of students' understanding of key lesson concepts; " Loud and Soft " through functional musical play interaction s . Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to sing a solo echoed phrase during the song "Echo, Hello." Provide an opportunity for students to give vocal examples of loud or soft sounds during lesson closure. • Vocal Disabili ties: Students will not be required to interact vocally. Students will be encouraged to listen and respond through physical actions. For example, students will use their hands to clap either loudly or softly during classroom activities. • Movement disabilit ies: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropriate to their abilities. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $( " The third lesso n in this general music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around the steady be at of music. During this lesson students will learn about steady beat in relation to music. Again, t he teacher will provide both guidance based and exp loration based instruction that will encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of steady beat through both vocal and physical exemplification. Students will (a) explore the use of steady beat in relation to music, (b) participate in activities that encourage constructional play and play games that encourage the physical and vocal demonstrations of steady beat, and (c) discover connections between steady beat in music learning and everyday life activities. Explore, Play, and Discover: Steady Beat (Part I) Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Three Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Creating: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re7.2Ka, MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participa ting in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate the differences between loud and soft sounds. 2. Describe the concept of steady beat in relation to music. 3. Appropriately demonstrate use of steady beat through vocal and physical exemplifications.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $) " Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Materials for Musical Play Centers o Building blocks o Different sized bells o A bucket of leaves o Pots, pans, and cooking spoons • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o " Boom! Bang! " poem by Anonymous o " The Steady Rain " by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Instruments: Hand drum (teac her use only) Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the wh ite board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro. • Tell the students you have a special poem you would like to read. Tell the stud ents that the name of the poem is "Boom! Bang!" (Say with loud expression) Ask the children if the name of the poem sounds loud or soft. Answer: Loud. • R ead "Boom! Bang!" with expression. • Ask the students if the words expressed in the poem were loud or so ft. Answer: Loud. • Tell the students that there are a lot of loud sounds we hear during a thunderstorm. Give the students examples: thunder and howling wind. • Tell the students that there are soft sounds during a thunderstorm too, but sometimes we have to listen very carefully to hear them because of all the loud sounds we hear. Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Tell the children to listen carefully as you chant with a soft voice the portion of "The Steady Rain" chant that says "drip, drop, dr ip, drop." Exemplify a steady beat by taping with both hands on your lap as you chant for the students. • Ask the students to describe what they hear. Looking for answers such as soft sounds and falling rain. • Ask the students use their soft voices and joi n you as you chant "drip, drop, drip, drop." Have the students use their hands to tap the steady beat on their laps.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " $* " • Speak the entire chant, "The Steady Rain" while you and your students keep a steady beat. • Teach the children "The Steady Rain" chant. Signal to the children to repeat each phrase. Once the children have learned each smaller phrase, work on larger sections of the chant, eventually chanting the entire chant together while keeping the steady beat. • Ask the children to continue taping on the ir laps with you. Count "1, 2, 1, 2" and remind the children to try and tap with you at exactly the same time. • Tell the children that together we are keeping a steady beat. • Explain to the students that a steady beat is kind of like the heartbeat of music because it keeps going at a steady pace. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage constructional play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! Building blocks ! Different sized bells ! A bucket of leaves ! Pots, pans, and cooking spoons • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore different things that can make a steady beat. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers . • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Ask the students if it would be possible to keep a steady beat with our feet when we walk. Answer: yes! • Tell the students to stand up, spread out, and find their self space. Once students have found their self spac e, ask them to march in place with a steady beat. Count out loud so your students know when to march with their feet. • Tell the children that instead of counting you are going to play a steady beat on the drum. Have the children match the movement in their feet to the steady beat you play on the drum. Give verbal directions as needed. • Tell the children that we are going to play a game called "The Beat In My Feet." Explain to the students that during this game we can move about the room. Remind them of the safely set boundaries. During this game, children will be expected to listen to the steady beat played on the drum and match the pace of their march to that of the steady beat. • Randomly stop playing the drum to see if children are paying attention to the steady beat. Remind children to listen to the steady beat and freeze when they hear silence. • Repeat "The Beat In My Feet" game as desired. • Ask the students to take a seat on the colored rug.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %9 " • Tell the students that today we learned about keeping a s teady beat. Ask the children to recall some of the things we talked about that can keep a steady beat. Allow time for student responses. • Ask the children to look around them. Name a few items in the classroom, each time you name an item ask the children i f it can keep a steady beat. • Encourage students to listen for things that keep a steady beat throughout the week. Ask students to share some of the steady beats they hear throughout the week with you when they come back to music class. • Dismiss the class w ith the "Color Song." Assessment: • O bservation of students' ability to appropriately express loud and soft sounds both vocally and physically . • Observation of students' understanding of key lesson concepts; " Steady Beat " through constructional musical pla y interaction s . • Observation of students' ability to maintain a steady beat physically, and aural observation of students' ability to maintain a steady beat vocally. Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to sing a solo echoed phrase during the song "Echo, Hello." Provide an opportunity for students to lead a steady beat activity by initiating the steady beat. • Vocal Disabilities: Students will not be required to interact vocally. Students will be encouraged to listen and respond through physical actions. For example, s tudents will use their hands and feet to tap, clap, and stomp the steady beat. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If poss ible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropriate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact through vocal responses, such as counting the steady beat. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. The fo u rth lesson in this general music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students is a continuation lesson themed around the steady beat of music. During this lesson students will continue learn about steady beat in relation to music. The teach er will provide a balance between teacher directed and child directed instruction that will encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of steady beat through both vocal and physical exemplification. Students will also explore ways to visualize s teady beat patterns through iconic notation. Throughout this lesson, students will (a) explore the use of iconic notation in relation to steady beat, (b) participate in

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %! " activities that encourage constructional and dramatic play , and (c) discover the uses o f steady beat in relation to music through sight, sound, and movement. Explore, Play, and Discover: Steady Beat (Part II) Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Four Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subje ct: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Creating: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb , MU:Cr2:1.Ka • Performing: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re 7.2Ka, MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate correct use of singing voice while pitch matching short vocal phrases. 2. Read iconic notation in relation to steady beat. 3. Demonstrate the concept of steady beat in relation to music through constructive or dramatic p lay interactions. 4. Appropriately display use of steady beat through both vocal and physical exemplifications. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Stethoscope • Heart Beat/Steady Beat Iconic Notation Examples (removable Ve lcro pieces and a poster board to display different rhythms) • Materials for Musical Play Centers o CDs, a CD player, crayons and paper o Building blocks o A bucket of leaves o A dress up corner with army soldier and knight costumes

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %# " • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arr anged by Cheyenne Cleveland o " Hickory, Dickory, Dock" English Traditional Folk Song o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Instruments: o Piano or keyboard Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • M eet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro. • While patting a steady beat on your lap, say in rhythm, "Raise your hand if you remember what we learned last time in music." (Pause) "I'm giving you a hint." • Allow time for student resp onse. Answer: Steady Beat. • Ask students to recall some of the things we talked about that can keep a steady beat (heart beat, windshield wipers, rain drops etc.) Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Tell students that today we are going to read some music. Show the students the Heart Beat/Steady Beat examples (four plain hearts in a row on a poster). • Ask the students to explain what they see. Guide students and help them discover that four hearts=four beats. Count the number of hearts out loud with the students. • Perform the steady beat pattern with the students while counting out loud "1, 2, 3, 4." Have students count with you. • Remove the hearts from the poster and replace them with hearts containing headless quarter notes. Ask the students to discover and describe the differences they see. • Explain to the students that the line in the middle of the heart represents one note. It may look different, but it still sounds the same. Ask the students to play this new notation with you. Ask the studen ts to pat the steady beat on their laps. • Place the words "Tick" and "Tock" underneath the iconic notation. Ask the students, "What do you think the music is trying to tell us this time?" Allow time for student response. Help students realize that we are t o speak the words and play the steady beat at the same time. Chant "tick, tock" with the students as everyone pats a steady beat on their laps. • Tell the students that we are going to try something tricky. Encourage the students and let them know that they are well prepared for the task. • Tell the students to play the music that they see on the poster. Explain that while they play this music, you are going to perform something else.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %$ " • Start off playing the four note pattern with students and chanting, "t ick, tock." As the students continue to chant, begin to sing the words of "Hickory, Dickory, Dock." • Praise the students for completing the task. • Teach the students "Hickory, Dickory, Dock" repeating one phrase at a time. Add larger sections together unti l students are able to sing the entire song. • Have students perform the entire chant while keeping a steady beat on their laps. • Remind students of loud and soft sounds. Give the students scenarios in which the mouse would need to be loud or soft. For exam ple, "The mouse is trying to hide from a hungry cat! Let's sing softly." Have the students perform the entire song softly with a steady beat. Or, "The mouse is happy he found a piece of cheese. Let's sing loudly." Have the students perform the entire song loudly with a steady beat. Repeat song as desired. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage both constructional and dramatic play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! A listening center with CDs, a CD player, cr ayons and paper ! Building blocks ! A bucket of leaves o Dramatic Musical Play Center Suggestions ! A dress up corner with army soldier and knight costumes • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore different ways they can make a steady beat. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers . • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Get our the stethoscope and tell the students that today you brought your special heart beat detecting tools because you wanted to be able to hear the steady beat of music. Ask the students to help you find the steady beat in music. • Go over to the piano and play familiar songs with the students. Each time you play a song, refer to the song as a doctor's patient. Help the patient find his heart beat. Tell the students to listen for the steady beat. When they find the steady beat, ask them to show you by taping the steady beat on their laps. Help students find the steady beat by playing the pi ano chords on the steady beat of the song. Repeat activity as desired. • Remind children of the iconic notation used earlier in class and how we used hearts to represent beats. • Ask the students to take a seat on the colored rug. • Tell the students that t oday we learned about finding a steady beat. Remind children that we learned how to see and hear a steady beat by listening and reading music.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %% " • Tell the students that today you are going to clap the steady beat of the "Color Song" as you sing while they line up. Ask students to march to the steady beat as they line up. • Dismiss the class with the "Color Song." Assessment: • Aural observatio n of students singing "Echo, Hello" and "Hickory, Dickory, Dock" on the correct pitches with at least 80% accuracy. • Aural observation of students' ability to read iconic notation of steady beats with at least 80% accuracy. • Observation of students' understanding of key lesson concepts; " Steady Beat " through both constructional and dramatic musical play interaction s . • Ob servation of students' ability to maintain a steady beat physically, and aural observation of students' ability to maintain a steady beat vocally. Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to sin g a solo echoed phrase during the song "Echo, Hello." Provide an opportunity for students to lead a steady beat activity by initiating the steady beat. • Vocal Disabilities: Students will not be required to interact vocally. Students will be encouraged to li sten and respond through physical actions. For example, s tudents will use their hands and feet to tap, clap, and stomp the steady beat. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropriate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact through vocal responses, such as counting the steady beat. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. The fifth lesson in this general music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around tempo. During this lesson students will learn about three different tempi speeds: slow, medium, and fast. The teacher will provide a combination of guidance based an d play based instruction that will encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of these three tempi speeds through both movement and listening related activities. Throughout this lesson, students will (a) explore the use of tempo in relation to a nimal movements, (b) participate in a series of activities that encourage constructional and dramatic play , and (c) discover how to detect different tempi within music listening examples.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %& " Explore, Play, and Discover: Tempo Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cl eveland Date: Week Five Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Creating: M U:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re7.2Ka, MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Mate rials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Appropriately demonstrate use of steady beat through innovative movements. 2. Describe the concept of tempo in relation to music. 3. Demonstrate correct use and application of tempo during constructive and dramatic musical play. 4. Listen to and d etect tempo changes in music. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Coloring Sheets and Crayons enough for each student • Te mpo Rubric • Recordings: o "Carnival of the Animals" by Saint Sa‘ns ! "Wild Asses" [03] ! "Tortoise" [04] ! "The Elephant" [05] • Materials for Musical Play Centers o CDs, a CD player, crayons and paper o Marbles and empty glass or plastic jars o A dress up corner with an assortment of costumes and props o A dance center with scarfs and flags • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Instruments: Hand drum (teacher use only)

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %' " Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Me et children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hell o" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro. • Pretend that Allegro whispered something in your ear and respond with, "What's that, Allegro? You want to sing our song again whi le keeping a steady beat?" • Tell the students that Allegro would like to sing our song again, but this time we are going to practice keeping a steady beat while we sing. • Start patting a steady beat on your lap, ask the students to join you. (Allegro may j ump on your lap to show a steady beat) Sing, "Echo, Hello" again while keeping a steady beat. If needed sing the echoed phrases along with the students to maintain a steady beat. • Have Allegro jump for joy. Tell the students that Allegro really likes to ke ep a steady beat when he jumps. • Pretend that Allegro whispered in your ear. Tell the students that Allegro wants us all to jump with him on a steady beat. • Have the students spread out and find their self space. Remind students of safety guidelines. Have students hop like frogs around the room while you count the steady beat, "1, 2, 1, 2." Substitute counting for "hop" or jump." Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Ask the students to "freeze" and have a seat wherever they are. • Tell the studen ts that there are many animals that can keep a steady beat when they move, just like we kept a steady beat during the "Beat in my Feet" game. • Tell the students to put their thinking caps on and think of an animal that can keep a steady beat. Ask the stude nts to raise their hand when they've thought of an animal. • Call on a few students to share the animals they thought of. • Get out your hand drum. Tell the students that we are going to keep a steady beat like the animals do. • Like the "Beat in my Feet" gam e, have the students match their movements to the steady beat that you play on your hand drum. However, each time you play a steady beat call out an animal name. The students must create inventive ways to move like various animals to the steady beat. Try t o correspond the speed of your steady beat to a speed relatable to the animal's natural movements. • Begin to relate to three different animals to show differences in speed. Turtle=slow (Adagio), Elephant=medium (Andante), and Horse=fast (Presto).

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %( " • After a few rotations of different animals tell the students to "freeze." Begin prompting a connection between the different animal movements and speed. Ask students to share and describe how they showed the movement of the different animals. Capitalize on and reinforce any mentioning of speed. • Summarize by saying, "When we moved like a turtle we moved slow, when we moved like an elephant we marched at a medium pace, and when we moved like a horse we moved fast." Free Play • Provide the class with multiple mus ic centers that encourage both constructional and dramatic play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! A listening center with CDs, a CD player, crayons and paper ! Marbles and empty glass or plastic jars o Dramatic Musical Play Center Suggestions ! A dress up corner with an assortment of costumes and props ! A dance center with scarfs and flags • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore fast and slow movements. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers . • Obser ve and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Tell the students you have some music that you want them to listen to. Tell the students that the name of the music is called "Carnival of the Animals" written by the French Composer Saint Sa‘ns. • Tell the students that we are going to listen to three different animals in this carnival. Tell the students that they are the same animals we talked about earlier in class, the turtle, the elephant, and the horse. • Pa ss out crayons and coloring sheets to the students of the turtle, the elephant, and the horse. Tell the students that when we listen to the music we are going to color the picture of the animal that we hear. • Listen to "Carnival of the Animals: Wild Asses, " "Carnival of the Animals: Tortoises," and "Carnival of the Animals: The Elephant." As you listen to each selection, guide the students listening to hear the tempo of the piece. Walk around the room with your rubric and pay attention to the students color ing. Mark on the rubric to track student understanding. • Once the recordings have finished, review with the students the songs they heard and how they correspond with each animal through tempo. Example: "The first song we heard was fast. It reminded me of running. Which animal would we use to describe this song? (Answer: Horse)" • Collect the students' work as evidence of understanding. • Dismiss the class with the "Color Song."

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %) " Assessment: • Observation of students' ability to maintain a steady beat ph ysically while generating inventive, yet appropriate, movements. • Observation of students' ability to appropriately and effectively demonstrate tempo through movement. • Observation of students' understanding of tempo; "Slow, medium, and fast" through both c onstructional and dramatic musical play interactions. • Written rubric to track student understanding of tempo and ability to detect tempo changes in music during listening activities. Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provi de an opportunity for students to lead a movement activity by choosing a tempo and an animal that correctly reflects that tempo. • Vocal Disabilities: No provisions needed. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement ac tivities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropriate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact through vocal responses, such as making animal noises or counting with the tempo of the stea dy beat. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. Music References: Sa‘ns, S. (1886). Czechoslovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, perf. Carnival of the Animals . Saint Sa‘ns. 1990. Naxos Music Library . The sixth lesson of this general music curri culum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around articulation. During this lesson students will experience elements of time both with and without musical elements. Students will learn to connect their movements to the three different tempi ma rkings of Adagio, Andante, and Presto. They will also experience movements as sustained, moderate, or quick. Students will relate their movements to their personal and imaginative experiences in connection to gravity and outer space. Throughout this lesson , students will (a) explore the use of movement in relation to time and articulation, (b) participate in a series of activities that encourage both constructional and dramatic play , and (c) discover an awareness of their individual sense of sustained, mode rate, and quick movements in relation to internal timing and pulse.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " %* " Explore, Play, and Discover: Articulation Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Six Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Crea ting: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr5.1Kb, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re7.2Ka, MU:Re8 .1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students wil l be able to: 1. Demonstrate movements that correspond with specific tempi marking s . 2. Demonstrate movements that correspond with both triple and duple meters. 3. Demonstrate movements on both micro and macro beats. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Materials for Musical Play Centers o Different sized pebbles and rocks o Multiple plastic and Styrofoam cups o A dress up corner with an assortment of costumes and props o A dance center with scarfs and flags • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arra nged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Moon and Sun" by James DesJardins o "Traveling Through Space" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Gravity" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Weightless" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &9 " Procedures: Anti cipatory Set: • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sin g the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Tell the students that today we are going to be going on a wild adven ture. Ask the students to put on their imagination caps, and strap them on tight! • Tell the students that we are going to take a rocket into space! Pretend to climb into the rocket and buckle yourselves in. • Act surprised. Tell the students that the rocket ship is a music rocket ship and it can only blast off if we keep a steady beat and count down from 10. Pat a steady beat on your lap with students and count down from ten on the strong beats. • Shout, "BLAST OFF!" and shake like the rocket is moving into spa ce. Encourage imagination by telling the students to look out the windows and share what they see. • Tell the students you see the moon. Ask the students to put their space suits on because were going to go for a walk on the moon. • Speak the chant "Moon and Sun" with the students. Have the students move with sustained movements when they are on the moon. Jump to the sun! Have students move with quick movements while walking on the sun. • Repeat the chant a few times. Have the students jump from the moon to th e sun. Recognize the differences between the sustained movements and the quick movements. • Ask the students to recall the different animal movements made in the last class and how they relate to the way we move on the moon and on the sun. On the moon we m ove slowly because there is no gravity. On the sun we move quickly because our feet our hot! • Ask the students to think about the way we walk on earth in the halls of our school. We move at a medium pace, like the elephant, when we walk on earth. • Practice g oing from the moon to the sun and then to the earth, so that students can feel the differences of the three tempi. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage both constructional and dramatic play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! Different sized pebbles and rocks in a large plastic bin ! Dozens of plastic and Styrofoam cups o Dramatic Musical Play Center Suggestions ! A dress up corner with an assortment of costumes and props ! A dance center with scarfs and flags

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &! " • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore outer space. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers . • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Tell the ch ildren that you would like to visit a few other planets before we head home. • Talk to the students about gravity and how it can make you feel heavy and low to the ground. Tell the students that some planets we visit will have heavy gravity, and other plane ts we visit will have no gravity and we will feel light as a feather. • Explain to the students that when we feel heavy we will move really low to the ground and when we feel light we move really high. • Begin to sing "Traveling Through Space" and encourage t he students to move like you move. Pretend to float through space moving with waltz like movements on the macro beat, orbiting back and forth and around the room. • Pause and say, "This planet's heavy." Then sing "Gravity" as the students move slowly with t he strong beats of the song. Encourage the students to move with low space movement. • Sing "Traveling Through Space" again. This time visit a lighter planet and sing "Weightlessly" as the students move about the room with quick movements on the 6/8 micro b eat. Encourage the students to move with high space movements. • Visit other heavy and light planets, each time singing the appropriate correlating song. Sing "Traveling Through Space" between visiting each planet. Choose heavy and light planets at random. • Tell the children that it has been an awesome adventure in space, but now its time to head home. • Pretend to climb back in the rocket and buckle up. Remind students that the rocket will not blast off unless we keep a steady beat and count down from ten. • Pat a steady beat on your lap with students and count down from ten on the strong beats. Shout, "BLAST OFF!" and shake like the rocket is moving back to earth. • Once you arrive back at earth, have the students pretend to unbuckle and climb off the rocket b ack into our classroom. • Tell the students that you really enjoyed our space adventure today, but now it's time to go. • Dismiss the class with the "Color Song." Assessment: • Observation of students' understanding of tempo; "Slow, medium, and fast" through both constructional and dramatic musical play interactions. • Observation of students' ability to effectively demonstrate movements during songs with 4/4 and songs with 6/8 meters. • Observation of students' ability to appropriately and effectively demonstr ate sustained, moderate, and quick movements on both micro and macro beats.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &# " Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to lead a movement activity by choosing what type of planet (heavy or li ght) our class will land on. • Vocal Disabilities: No provisions needed. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropri ate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact through vocal responses, such as high noises, low noises, and counting with the tempo of the steady beat. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. The seventh lesson of the gene ral music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around the construction of rhythmic patterns. During this lesson, students will discover the differences between steady beat and simple rhythmic patterns using quarter notes and eighth notes. The teacher will provide a balance between teacher directed and child directed instruction that will encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of rhythmic patterns through both physical and instrumental exemplifications. Students will be given the opportunity to connect their audible understanding of rhythmic patterns with the visual use of iconic notation. Students will (a) explore ways to visualize rhythmic p atterns through iconic notation, (b) participate in activities that encourage c onstructional and dramatic musical play , and (c) discover the connections between musical rhythmic patterns and everyday speech patterns. Explore, Play, and Discover: Rhythm Patterns Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Seven Student Grade L evel : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Creating: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb , MU:Cr2.1.Ka • Perfo rming: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr5.1Kb, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re7.2Ka, MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &$ " New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Re sources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate the differences between steady beat and rhythm patterns. 2. Read iconic notation in relation to steady beat and rhythm patterns. 3. Demonstrate the concept of rhythm patterns in relation to music through constructive or dramatic play interactions. 4. Appropriately demonstrate the use of rhythm patterns through vocal and instrumental exemplifications. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Char t • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Heart Beat/Steady Beat and Rhythmic Iconic Notation Examples (removable Velcro pieces and a poster board to display different rhythms) • Materials for Musical Play Centers o • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "The Rhyt hm of the Jungle" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Clevela nd • Instruments: o Djembe (teacher use only) o Hand drums, one for each student Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome s tudents to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the s tudents for singing with Allegro

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &% " Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Show the students a steady beat with iconic notation on your Velcro poster board. Use hearts with headless quarter notes. • Ask the s tudents to recall what it is they see. Answer: Steady beat. • Allow the students to play the steady beat for you on their laps. • Replace the steady beat iconic notation with the following rhythmic pattern: eighth note, eighth note, quarter note, eighth note , eighth note, quarter note. Use hearts with headless eighth and quarter notes. • Ask the students if the pattern they see on the poster board still looks like a steady beat. Allow time for student discussion. Is it a steady beat? Why, or why not? • Explain to the students that when we see a pattern that is not a steady beat it is called a rhythm. Tell the students that a rhythm is made up of a pattern of different notes that may not look the same. • Tell the students that sometimes it is easier to understand the differences between steady beats and rhythms when we use a secret language to help us. • Teach the children that the headless quarter notes are pronounced "ta" in our secret music language and the headless eighth notes are pronounced "ti, ti." • Have the students verbally perform the rhythm that is displayed on the poster board. Replace the rhythm with a new rhythm using both headless eighth and quarter notes. Again have the students verbally perform the rhythm. • Display the first rhythmic pattern played in "The Rhythm of the Jungle" (ti, ti, ti, ti, ta, ta). Have the students perform it verbally. • Pass out hand drums to each student. • Exemplify the rhythmic pattern by speaking it and playing it on the djembe. • Have the students perform the rhythm verbally while playing it on the hand drum. • Have the students continue playing the rhythm while you sing "The Rhythm of the Jungle." • Show the students how to go back and forth between a steady beat and a rhythm. Speak "ta, ta, ta, ta" to represent the steady beat and "ti, ti, ti, ti, ta, ta" to represent the rhythm. • Sing the beginning of the song with the students. • Tell them to listen for the parts that you sing about the "beat" of the jungle and the parts when you sing about the "rhythm of the jungle." When the y hear the word "beat" they should play a steady beat, and when they hear the word "rhythm" they should play the rhythm displayed on the poster board. • Sing "The Rhythm of the Jungle" again. Demonstrate the correct rhythms or steady beat to be displayed wh ile students follow along. • Have the students listen to you perform the second half of the song alone with your djembe drum. Ask the students to raise their hand when they hear the rhythms being played. • Play the refrain portion (the beginning portion) of t he song again, and have the students perform it with you. • Collect the hand drums.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " && " Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage constructional play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! A listening center with C Ds, a CD player, crayons and paper ! Building blocks ! A bucket of leaves ! Pots, pans, and cooking spoons • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore different ways they can make rhythms. • Divide and assign the students to different mus ic centers . • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Ask the students to remember the secret language we used earlier to help us learn about rhythm. • Tell the students that we use rhythms all the time in the language we speak in our classroom. • Demonstrate the use of rhythm in language by saying a simple greeting such as "Hi! How are you?" and playing the rhythm you speak at the same time on your drum. • Pass the hand drums out to the students, and tell them that we are going to have a music conversation. • Tell the students that you are going to talk to them by calling out their names one at a time. When you call on their name, they are to listen to your rhythm and play a rhythm back to you (questio n and answer, or call and response can be used to describe this activity). • One by one call out a students name and say in a four beat rhythm, "I am talking to you." Ask a question by playing a rhythm on your drum then allow time for the student to respond with his or her own rhythm. • Repeat this "Talk to Me" activity as desired. • Dismiss the class with the "Color Song" Assessment: • Observation of students' ability to vocally and instrumentally demonstrate the differences between steady beat and rhythmic patterns. • Aural observation of students' ability to read iconic notation of steady beats and rhythmic patterns with at least 80% accuracy. • Observation of students' understan ding of rhythmic patterns through constructional musical play interaction s . • Observ ation of students' ability to express rhythmic patterns both instrumentally and vocally.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &' " Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to start a rhythmic conversation during the "Talk to Me" activity. • Vocal Disabilities: No provisions needed. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to play rhythmic patterns on the hand drum. Instead, the students' understanding will be observed through their vocal interactions. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. Music References: DesJardins , J. M. (2011) . Moon and sun. Magic and meaning : The what, why and how of early childhood movement . Rochester, NY: NYSSMA . The eighth lesson of this general music curriculum for pre school a nd kindergarten is themed around pitch. Throughout this lesson students will listen to and experience the differences between high and low sounds. The teacher will provide a combination of guidance based and play based instruction that will encourage stude nts to demonstrate their understanding of pitch through various listening, movement, and performance activities. Students will (a) explore the use of pitch in relationship to physical places and vertical movements , (b) participate in a series of activities that encourage functional, constructional , and dramatic play , and (c) discover how to listen for, detect, and respond to the differences in pitch in musical examples. Explore, Play, and Discover: Pitch Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Wee k Eight Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Crea ting: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1. 1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr4.2Ka, MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr5.1K a, MU:Pr5 .1K b, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re7.2Ka, MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &( " New York State Standards for Arts Education 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate movements that correspond with high pitched melodies and low pitched melodies. 2. Listen to and detect pitch changes in m usic. 3. Demonstrate changes in pitch during functional, constructive, and dramatic musical play. 4. Demonstrate changes in pitch on Orff instruments. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Recordings: o "Peter and the Wolf" by Prokofiev ! "The Bird" [16] ! "Grandfather" [19] • Materials for Musical Play Centers o Different sized bells o A listening center with CDs, a CD player, crayons and paper o A dress up corner with an assortment of costumes and props o A dance center with scarfs and flags • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Instruments o Various Orff Instruments o Piano Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &) " Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Tell the children that you are going to play some different musical examples. Ask the children to listen closely to the sounds that they hear. • Play the "Peter and the Wolf: The Bird" track for the students. Ask the students to describe what they heard. Allow time for student responses. • Play the "Peter and the Wolf: Grandfather" track for the students. Again, ask the students to describe what they h eard and allow time for student responses. • Have the students compare and contrast the two pieces using descriptive words they have already learned, i.e. fast, slow, loud, soft, etc. • Tell the students that one of the pieces sounds high, while the other pi ece sounds low. • Have the students find self space within the room. Remind students of safety guidelines. • Ask the students if they can think of some high things that are way up in the sky. Allow time for student responses. • Have the students make a high sh ape with their bodies. They may stand on their tip toes and reach for the sky. • Ask the students if they can think of some low things that are down on the ground. Allow time fore student responses. • Then, have students make a low shape with their bodies. T he students may squat down to the ground and get as low as they possibly can. • Listen to "Peter and the Wolf: The Bird" again. Tell the students to move about the room and make shapes that reflect the sounds they hear in the song. • Listen to "Peter and the Wolf: Grandfather." Ask the students move about the room and make shapes that reflect the sounds they hear in the song. • Switch back and forth between the two recordings. Have the students continue making shapes that reflect the high and low pitches that they hear. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage both constructional and dramatic play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! Different sized bells ! A listening center with CDs, a CD player, crayons and paper o D ramatic Musical Play Center Suggestions ! A dress up corner with an assortment of costumes and props ! A dance center with scarfs and flags • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore high and low sounds. • Divide and assign the studen ts to different music centers. • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " &* " Closing Activity • Have the students sit in a circle in the middle of the room. • Pass out the various Orff instruments and mallets. Eac h instrument (depending on its size) should allow room for two students. • Show the students how to properly hold the mallets and play the instruments. • Have the students on the right find the smallest note/key. Have the students play the note with their ma llets to a teacher directed steady beat. Count "1É2É3É4É" as the students play their steady beat. • Ask the students if the sound they heard was high or low. (Answer: high) • Have the students on the left find the biggest note/key. Have the students play the note with their mallets to a teacher directed steady beat. Count "1É2É3É4É" as the students play their steady beat. • Ask the students if the sound they heard was high or low. (Answer: low) • Go over to the piano and improvise a melody in the middle of the p iano using the chords C major and G major. (You could also choose to play familiar songs such as "Row, Row, Row, Your Boat" and "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star".) • Have all of the students play their notes to the steady beat of the song. • Ask the students t o listen. Tell them that you will play the melody with high sounds and low sounds. • Tell the students on the right to play the steady beat when they hear high sounds. Likewise, tell the students on the left to play the steady beat when they hear low sounds . • Play the melody with high pitched notes, and then play the melody on low pitched notes. Switch back and forth between the two melodies. • Allow an opportunity for students to switch sides, and repeat the activity as desired. • Collect the mallets and Orff instruments. • Dismiss with the class with the "Color Song." Assessment: • Observation of students' ability to effectively demonstrate corresponding movements, either high and low, during listening examples . • Observation o f students' understanding of pitch ; "high and low " through functional, constructional , and dramatic musical play interactions. • Observation of students' ability to appropriately and effectively demonstrate the use of high and low pitches while playing Orff instruments.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '9 " Provis ions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to lead a movement activity by creating specific high or low movements for the entire class. • Vocal Disabilities: No provisions needed. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropriate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact through vocal responses, such as high noises, low noises, and counting with the tempo of the steady beat. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. " Music References: Prokofiev, S. (1936 ). Czechoslovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, perf. Peter and the Wolf. Prokofiev . 1990. Naxos M usic Library . " " The ninth lesson of this general music curriculum for preschool and kindergarten is themed around four different voice choices. Throughout this lesson students will learn about the differences between a whisper voice, a singing voice, a sh outing voice, and a speaking voice. The teacher will provide a combination of guidance based and play based instruction that will encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of the different voice choices and their appropriate uses. Students will (a) explore various situations in which different voice choices may be utilized, (b) participate in a series of activities that encourage constructional and dramatic play , and (c) discover how to appropriately use the four voice choices: whisper, sing, sh out, and speak.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '! " Explore, Play, and Discover: Voice Choices Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Nine Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 24 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes Nationa l and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Crea ting: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb • Performing: MU:Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr5.1Kb, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Educ ation 1. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 2. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate differences between the four voice choices : sing, shout, whisper, and speak. 2. Understand the appropriate uses of the four voice choices: sing, shout, whisper, and speak. 3. Demonstrate the appropriate use of the four voice choices during constructive and dramatic play. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Voice Choice Chart (four separate pictures of people singing, shouting, whispering, and speaking with the corresponding action words covered by a removable flap next to each picture) • Voice Choice picture matching qui z • Recordings: o "Voice Choice" by Bryan Louiselle • Materials for Musical Play Centers o Telephone construction area with paper cups, string, crayons, and PVC piping. o A dress up corner with policemen and firemen costumes and props o A pretend stage area with a n assortment of medieval princess and prince costumes. o A pretend recording studio area with a CD player, microphones, and a keyboard.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '# " • Music: o "Echo, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Voice Choices at School" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Tell the students they are going to need their thinking caps for what we do next. Have the children pretend to place their thinking caps on their heads. • Show the students your voice choice poster. Ask the students to think about the pictures they see. • Point to the pictur e of people speaking, and ask the children to think about what the people are doing in this picture. Allow time for student response. • Tell the students that the people in this picture are speaking. Explain to the children that we are going to use the word "speak" in music class to describe our talking voices. • Speak in rhythm "my speaking voice" and have the students echo you. • Point to the picture of people shouting and ask the children to think about what the people are doing in this picture. Allow time fo r student response. • Tell the students that the people in this picture are shouting. Explain that our shouting voice is different than our yelling voice because our shouting voice doesn't hurt our voices. • Shout in rhythm "my shouting voice" and have the s tudents echo you. • Point to the picture of people singing and ask the children to think about what the people are doing in this picture. Allow time for student response. • Tell the students that the people in this picture are singing. • Sing in rhythm with a Sol Mi pattern "my singing voice" and have the students echo you. • Point to the picture of people whispering and ask the children to think about what the people are doing in this picture. Allow time for student response. • Tell the students that the people in this picture are whispering. • Whisper in rhythm "my whisper voice" and have the children echo you. • Have the children think about different situations in which they may appropriately use their speaking voice, shouting voice, singing voice, and whisper voice. Allow time for student discussion.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '$ " • Tell the students that you have a song that will help us think about when to use our different voice choices. • Have the students find their self space within the room. Remind students of safety guidelines. • Li sten to the song "Voice Choice." Tell the children to listen to the words of the song and mimic the motions you use as you move about the room. Also, encourage the students to speak, shout, sing, and whisper when indicated by the lyrics of the song. • When the song is finished, have the students return to their seats on the colored rug. • Review which voice choices were used during the different sections of the song. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage both constructional and dramatic play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! Telephone construction area with paper cups, string, crayons, and PVC piping. o Dramatic Musical Play Center Suggestions ! A dress up corner with policemen and firemen costumes and props ! A pretend stage area with an assortment of medieval princess and prince costumes. ! A pretend recording studio area with a CD player, microphones, and a keyboard. • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore our four voice choices: spea k, shout, sing, and whisper. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers. • Observe and monitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Have the students sit in a circle in the middle of the room. • Tel l the students that we use all of these voice choices while we are at school. Have the students think about the different rooms in school and what voice choices we could use in each room. • Teach the children the song "Voice Choices at School" by echoing sm all phrases of the song with the children. Have the students demonstrate each voice choice appropriately when indicated. • Pass out the voice choice matching quiz and pencils to the students. • Read the directions out loud to the students as they complete th e quiz. • Collect the picture matching quizzes. • Dismiss with the class with the "Color Song."

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '% " Assessment: • Obser vation of students' ability to appropriately demonstrate the different voice choices: speak, shout, sing, and whisper . • Observation o f students' understanding of the different voice choices; "speak, shout, sing, and whisper " through constructional and dramatic musical play interactions. • Picture matching quiz to display the understanding of when to appropriately use each voice choice. Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to explain different situations in which each voice choice would be appropriately used. • Vocal Disabilities: Students will not be required to interact voca lly. Students will be encouraged to listen and respond through physical actions. For example, students will wave "Hello" with their hands during the "Echo, Hello" song or use the dynamics of an instrument to correspond with the dynamics of each speaking vo ice. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is comfortable and appropriate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact thr ough vocal responses. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. " Music References: Louiselle, B. (2005 ). Voice Choice . Silver Burdett Making Music , student edition (p. 25). Pearson. Scott Foresman. The final lesson of this general music curric ulum for preschool and kindergarten students is themed around the vocal performances of various musical works . During this lesson students will learn about the differences between musical works that are sung and musical works that are spoken. Students will learn to identify and draw connections between songs and the use of singing voices and chants and the use of speaking voices. The teacher will provide a combination of guidance based and play based instruction that will encourage students to demonstrate t heir understanding of the differences between songs and chants. Throughout this lesson, students will (a) explore both speaking and singing vocal performance techniques , (b) participate in a series of activities that encourage both constructional and drama tic play , and (c) discover an understanding of the differences between songs and chants.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '& " Explore, Play, and Discover: Songs and Chants Teacher's Name: Cheyenne Cleveland Date: Week Ten Student Grade Level : Preschool/Kindergarten Class Size: 15 2 4 Class Subject: General Music Lesson Length: 30 minutes National and State Standards Addressed in this Lesson: CORE Music Standards for Kindergarten • Crea ting: MU:Cr1.1.Ka, MU:Cr1.1.Kb, MU:Cr2.1Ka, MU:Cr3.1Ka • Performing: MU: Pr4.1Ka, MU: Pr4.2Ka, MU :Pr4.3Ka, MU:Pr5.1Kb, MU:Pr6.1Ka • Responding: MU: Re7.2Ka, MU:Re8.1Ka • Connecting: MU:Cn10.0Ka, MU:Cn11.0.Ka New York State Standards for Arts Education 3. Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts 4. Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 3. Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art Mastery Objectives: Students will be able to: 4. Demonstrate differences between songs and chants 5. Demonstrate the appropriate use of speaking and singing voices during constructive and dramatic play. 6. Identify the differences between songs and chants through listening examples. Materials: • Student Attendance List/Seating Chart • Frog Puppet, Allegro • Songs and Chants Quiz • Materials for Musical Play Centers o Telephone construction area with paper cups, string, crayon s, and PVC piping. o A dress up corner with policemen and firemen costumes and props o A pretend stage area with an assortment of medieval princess and prince costumes. o A pretend recording studio area with a CD player, microphones, and a keyboard. • Music: o "Ec ho, Hello" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Two Little Birdies" by Cheyenne Cleveland o "Monkey, Monkey, Moo" by Anonymous o "Color Song" arranged by Cheyenne Cleveland • Instruments o Piano o Hand drums, one for each student

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '' " Procedures: Anticipatory Set: • Meet children at the door with Allegro the Frog and welcome students to your classroom. Ask students to find a seat anywhere on the colored rug (the colored rug is in the center of the room in front of the white board and bulletin board) • Sing the "Echo, Hello" song with Allegro. Help students pitch match the echoed phrases of the song. • Thank the students for singing with Allegro Instructional Strategies: Opening Activity • Ask the children to recall the four different voice choices that they learned abo ut in the previous class. Ask the children to recall all of the different places and situations in which each voice choice may be used. • Ask the children about the different voice choices we use in music class. • Sing "Two Little Birdies," and ask the child ren to identify the voice choice you used. (Answer: Singing Voice) • Teach the children to sing "Two Little Birdies." • Explain to the children that we can sing loudly and softly, without whispering or shouting. • Ask the children to find their self space wit hin the room. Remind students of safety guidelines. • Tell the children that we are going to perform "Two Little Birdies" as a class. Ask the children to move about the room with gentle bird like motions as they use their singing voices to sing "Two Little Birdies." • Ask the children to have a seat on the colored rug. • Have the children listen as you chant "Monkey, Monkey, Moo" for the students, and ask them to identify the voice choice you used. (Answer: Speaking Voice) • Teach the children to chant "Monkey, M onkey, Moo." • Explain to the children that when we use our speaking voices to perform a piece of music we speak with a rhythm pattern. • Perform "Monkey, Monkey, Moo" while playing the speaking rhythm on a hand drum. • Tell the children that we are going to p erform "Monkey, Monkey, Moo" as a class. • Pass out hand drums to each student, and teach the children how to play the rhythm pattern of "Monkey, Monkey, Moo" using "ti,ti" and "ta". • Perform "Monkey, Monkey, Moo" as a class using speaking voices and hand d rums. • Collect the hand drums. • Ask the children to discuss the differences between the two pieces of music we performed. • Tell the students that when we sing a pi ece of music we call it a song, and when we speak a piece of music we call it a chant.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '( " • Ta ke time to review some of the songs and chants that you have introduced to the students in music class. Perform various chants and songs for the students and have them identify what voice choice you use and whether or not the piece of music is a song or a chant. Free Play • Provide the class with multiple music centers that encourage both constructional and dramatic play. o Constructional Musical Play Center Suggestions: ! Telephone construction area with paper cups, string, crayons, and PVC piping. o Dramatic Musical Play Center Suggestions ! A dress up corner with policemen and firemen costumes and props ! A pretend stage area with an assortment of medieval princess and prince costumes. ! A pretend recording studio area with a CD player, microphones, and a keyboa rd. • Explain to the students that they will now have a chance to explore songs and chants. • Encourage the children to make up their own songs and chants during their independent play. • Divide and assign the students to different music centers. • Observe and m onitor the students while tracking and recording their interactions. Closing Activity • Have the students sit on the colored rug in the middle of the room. • Pass out the Songs and Chants Quiz and writing utensils to each student. • Tell the students that we are going to take a short quiz on songs and chants. • Tell the children to listen to the directions carefully. Explain that you are going to read the quiz and perform the different musical examples that are used throughout the quiz. • Read the quiz for th e students while giving specific directions. After you have read or performed each question, read the answer choices for the students and encourage them to circle the best possible answer. • Collect the quizzes. • Dismiss with the class with the "Color Song. " Assessment: • Obser vation of students' ability to appropriately demonstrate the differences between songs and chants. • Observation o f students' understanding of songs and chants through constructional and dramatic musical play interactions. • Songs and C hants Quiz to display student understanding and knowledge of songs and chants.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ') " Provisions for Students with Special Needs: • Gifted and Talented: Provide an opportunity for students to give examples of songs or chants that they know or have learned out side of music class. • Vocal Disabilities: Students will not be required to interact vocally. Students will be encouraged to listen and respond through physical actions. For example, students will wave "Hello" with their hands during the "Echo, Hello" song or use the dynamics of an instrument to correspond with the dynamics of each speaking voice. • Movement disabilities: Students will not be required to interact during movement activities. If possible, students will be encouraged to move in a way that is co mfortable and appropriate to their abilities. Students will be encouraged to interact through vocal responses. • English Language Learners: No provisions needed. " Assessments and Rubrics The assessments and rubrics created for this curriculum were desig ned to track the students overall musical development and progression. Students will be assessed by way of a series of playful activities and interactions that will allow them to continue their musical development without fear of failure (Miranda, 2004). S tudents will not be encumbered with the need to meet performance goals. However, students will be encouraged to participate playfully and nurtured towards achievement.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " '* " Throughout this curriculum, s tudents will be informally assessed based on their level of interact ion , skill, and understanding. The s tudent s' progression will also be tracked with a rubric at a basic, proficient, or advanced level. A l esson concept rubric (Figure 1) and a free musical play rubric (Figure 2) are consistently implemented duri ng each lesson plan. Both rubrics are standardized rubrics used to aid observational assessment. The lesson concept rubric is used to assess the students' level of musical application during the lesson activities and interactions , while the free musical pl ay rubric is used to asses the students' level of independent musical application during free play. The free musical play checklist (Figure 3) created for this F igure 1: Lesson Concept Rubric

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (9 " curriculum may also be implemented during free musical pl ay to help teachers quickly and efficiently record data about each child's interaction, musical skill, and understanding. Figure 2: Free Musical Play Rubric

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (! " Figure 3: Free Musical Play Checklist

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (# " Only once within this curriculum is a specified rubric used to monitor student progress during a particular lesson activity. The tempo detection rubric (Figure 4 ) is used specifically during the closing activity of the fifth lesson of this preschool and kindergarten general music curriculum. This rubric assesses the students' level of understanding of three different tempi markings while they complete an interactive listening activity. Figure 4 : Tempo Detection Rubric

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ($ " Although the students' development may be noted directly on the rubric itself, th e teacher could also use the classr oom seating chart (Figure 5 ) to track the students' progress. The teacher would simply use the rubric for guidance and mark each individual student's level of knowledge, understanding, and application on the classroom sea ting chart in the open boxes below the child's name or picture. The music educator may utilize the rubrics as a more detailed approach to informal assessment to take notes or make comments abou t a particular students' growth, or utilize the classroom seati ng chart as a more generalized yet more time efficient approach to informal assessment . Figure 5 : Classroom Seating Chart

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (% " Although student progress is predominantly monitored through informal and observational forms of assessment throughout this curricu lum, it is also measured by way of formal written quizzes and assessments. The two written assessments used within this curriculum appear towards the end of the curriculum in the ninth and tenth lessons. All of the quizzes will be proctored and interactive ly administered to the students. The first written assessment is a picture matching quiz (Figure 6 ) . This quiz is administered to the students during the closing activity of the ninth lesson. The students will have spent the entire class exploring the conc ept of different voice choices. The test will measure the students' knowledge of the different voice choices and the places in which these voice choices are most recommended. The second written assessment is a multi ple choice answer quiz (Figure 7 ). This multiple choice quiz is administered to the students during the closing activity of the tenth lesson. The students will have spent the entire class participating in activities that involve the knowledge, understanding, and application of songs and chants. The test will measure the students' ability to differentiate between songs and chants.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " ( & " Figure 6 : Voice Choice Matching Quiz

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (' " Figure 7 : Songs and Chants Quiz

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (( " Overall Curriculum Objectives The overall goal of this music curriculu m for preschool and kindergarten students is to provide teachers with lessons and activities that will encourage child initiated, child directed, and teacher supported learning. Through t his curriculum teachers will be equipped with the means to foster the natural and playful learning abilities of young children, and encourage students to express themselves freely and playfully through music learning. Students will learn musical skills and concepts through a variety of interactive experiences that encourage endless exploration, dramatic play, and life long learning. Together, the e ducators who implement and the students who experience a play based music curriculum will be encouraged to learn, be inspired, and be imaginative through music.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " () " Chap ter Four: Conclusion Children become actively engaged in music learning when they are provided with opportunities to freely explore the unlimited possibilities of music making through functional, constructional, and dramatic play (Burton & MENC, 2011). Unf ortunately, despite current research and studies to enhance playful music education, limited action has taken place to address the need for change in our early childhood and elementary music instructional methods (Nardo et. al., 2006). Therefore, it is vit al that teachers take action to provide their students with play based curriculum and learning experiences that will equip them to positively experience music in innovative and creative ways. Because young children learn naturally through exploration, play and discover (Lew & Campbell, 2005) educators should strive to enact a curriculum that supports the natural learning abilities of children. The overall goal of the music curriculum should not be emphasized on the achievement of a final goal or product, bu t rather to provide students with lessons and activities that will encourage child initiated, child directed, and teacher supported learning. The best way to address music education through play is by immersing young students in an interactive environment in which their natural musical expressions are nurtured and valued (Taggart, 2000). Thus, it is the responsibility of elementary music educators to provide their students with multiple opportunities to experience music creatively through expression and im agination. Music teachers must strive to provide young students with an instructional atmosphere in which child initiated play and experiential learning are encouraged. Young children who are given the opportunities to learn through exploration, play, and discovery will be fostered through their instinctive creativity and encouraged to develop to their fullest potential (Miller & Almon, 2009).

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " (* " References: Berger, A. A., & Cooper, S. (2003). Musical play: A case study of preschool children and parents. Jou rnal of Research in Music Education, 51 (2), 151 165. Burton, S., & MENC, T. (2011). Learning from young children: Research in early childhood music . Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Education. DesJardins , J. M. (2011) . Moon and sun. Magic and meaning : The what, why and how of early childhood movement . Rochester, NY: NYSSMA . Fox, D., & Liu, L. (2012). Building musical bridges: Early c hildhood learning and musical play. Min Ad: Israel Studies In Musicology Online , 1057 , 67. Isenberg, J. P., & Jalongo, M. R. (1993). Creative expression and play in the early childhood curriculum . Merrill. Kemple, K., Batey, J., & Hartle, L. (2004). Musi c play creating centers for musical play and exploration. Young Children, 59 (4), 30 35. Lew, J., & Campbell, P. (2005). Children's Natural And Necessary Musical Play: Global Contexts, Local Applications. Music Educators Journal, 57 57. Miller, E., & Alm on, J. (2009). Crisis in the Kindergarten: Why Children Need to Play in School. Alliance for Childhood (NJ3a). Miranda, M. (2004). The Implications Of Developmentally Appropriate Practice For The Kindergarten General Music Classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52 (1), 43 63. Nardo, R., Custodero, L., Persellin, D., & Fox, D. (2006). Looking Back, Looking Forward: A Report On Early Childhood Music Education In Accredited American Preschools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 54 (4), 278 292.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " )9 " National Association for Music Education (NAfME). (2014). Retrieved August 7, 2014, from http://musiced.nafme.org/files/2014/05/Core Music Standards PreK 81.pdf National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practices for early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. 1 32. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSDAP.pdf Niland, A. (2009). The Power of Musical Play: The Value of Play Based, Child Centered Curriculum in Early Childhood Music Education. General Music Today, 17 21. Pa tricelli, L. (2003). Quiet, loud . Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press. Prokofiev, S. (1936 ). Czechoslovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, perf. Peter and the Wolf. Prokofiev . 1990. Naxos M usic Library . Raposo, J. (2000). What makes music. Joe Raposo songbook: Piano, vocal guitar . Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp. Sa‘ns, S. (1886). Czechoslovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, perf. Carnival of the Animals . Saint Sa‘ns. 1990. Naxos Music Library . Sawyer, R. (2012). Explaining creativity the science of human innovation . Ox ford: Oxford University Press. Showers, P. (1991). The listening walk (New ed.). New York: HarperCollins. Taggart, C. C. (2000). Developing musicianship through musical play. Spotlight on early childhood music education , 23 26 . Tarnowski, S. (1999). Musi cal Play and Young Children. Music Educators Journal, 86 (1), 26 27.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " )! " Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2011). The understanding by design guide to creating high quality units . Alexandria, Va.: ASCD. Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational Psychology (Tenth ed.). Bosto n, MA: Pearson Education.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " )# " Unit Ti tle: Explore, Play, Discover MUSIC! Grade Level: Preschool & Kindergarten Subject/Topic Areas: Sound, Loud & Soft, Steady Beat, Fast & Slow, Movement & Expression, Rhythm, Short & Long, Voice Choices, High & Low Key Words: music, sound, loud, soft, fast, slow, short, long, high, low, steady beat, whisper, speak, sing, shout, chant, song Designed by: Cheyenne Cleveland Time Frame : Ten 30 Minute Class Periods College/University: University of Fl orida Department: Music Education Brief Summary of Unit: This curriculum will be taught to a multiple Preschool and Kindergarten classes. Each class will consist of a combination of 15 24 Preschool and Kindergarten students. This curriculum is designed to help young children experience music to their fullest potential through play centered learning. Students will explore sound in a way that encourages them to imagine and create, interact playfully with classroom activities and games, and discover the endless possibilities of music in relation to education and everyday life happenings. The primary goals and objectives of this curriculum are to encourage children to develop keen listening skills, interact with musical sound, and create new musical sounds during both teacher directed activities and independent play. Unit de sign status Completed template pages Stages 1, 2, and 3 Completed blueprint for each performance task Completed rubrics Directions to students and teachers Materials and resources listed Suggested accommodations Suggested extensions Appendix A Music Curriculum for Preschool and Kindergarten Understanding by Design

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " )$ " Stage 1 Identify Desired Results Creating Music: • Imagine: Students will generate musical ideas for various purposes and contexts • Plan and Make: Students will select and develop musical ideas for defined purposes and contexts • Evaluate and Refine: Students will evaluate and refine selected musical ideas to create musical work(s) that meet appropriate criteria • Present: share creative musical work that conveys intent, demonstrates craftsmanship, and exhibits originality Performing Music • Select: Students will select varied musical works to present base d on interest, knowledge, technical skill, and context • Analyze: Students will analyze the structure and context of varied musical works and their implications for performance • Interpret: Students will develop personal interpretations that consider creators' intent • Rehearse, Evaluate and Refine: Students will evaluate and refine personal and ensemble performances, individually or in colla boration with others • Present: Perform expressively, with appropriate interpretation and technical accuracy, and in a manner appropriate to the audience and context Responding to Music • Select: Students will choose music appropriate for a specific purpose or context • Analyze: Students will Analyze how the structure and context of varied musical works inform the responses • Interpre t: Students will support interpretations of musical works that reflect creators'/performers' expressive intent • Evaluate: Students will support evaluations of musical works and performances based on analysis, interpretation, and establis hed criteria Connect ing to Music • Students will synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make music • Students will relate musical ideas and works with varied context to deepen understanding Established Goals: Core Music Standards What essential questions will be considered? What understandings are d esired? " 1. What makes music? 2. How can we express loud or soft music ? 3. How can we express high or low music ? 4. How can we express fast or slow music ? 5. Can music be short or long? 6. How can we express the music we hear through movement and dramatizations ? Students will understandÉ Musical Opposites • Loud & Soft • Fast & Slow • High & Low • Short and Long What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit? 1 Students will knowÉ Key Lesson Terms • Steady Beat • Rhythm • Voice Choices: Speaking, Singing, Whispering, Shouting 2 Students will be able toÉ • Explore a variety of sounds through functional musical play. • Create and construct simple melodic and rhythmic patterns through constructive musical play. • Interact with musical sounds with movement and personal expression through dramatic musical play. G T Q

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " )% " Stage 2 Determine Acceptable Evidence Students will self asses their own development and understanding on a "Thumbs Up" grading scale. The teacher will prompt the students as desired or as nee ded. • Thumbs Up = I really understand what we are learning about. • Thumbs In The Middle = I kind of understand what we are learning about, but I need more explanation. • Thumbs Down = I do not quite understand what we are learning, and I need more explan ation and application. What evidence will show that students understand? Performance Tasks: What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results? Perform Ñ Students put their learning into immediate action by way of group activities and independen t play. Students will perform simple tasks, songs, chants, and activates that directly relate to key lesson concepts. Discuss Ñ Students will engage in lesson related discussions. Evidence of student understanding will be apparent through effective communi cation when responding to a question or prompt. Generate Ñ Students will generate their own musical ideas, sounds, and movements. Student understanding will be evident through effective and original musical expressions. Observation Ñ The teacher will listen to students' vocal and in strumental performances of various musical concepts. The teacher will visually observe student interaction and participation. Quizzes Ñ Students will take a few picture based quizzes throughout this curriculum that will help the teacher assess student under standing of key lesson terms and concepts. Rubrics -Students will be assessed based on their level of interaction, skill, and understanding. Rubrics created for this curriculum will assess students' level of skill and application at a basic level, profi cient level, and advanced level. Student Self Assessment and Reflec tion:

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PR ESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN " " " " )& " Stage 2 Determine Acceptable Evidence (continued) " Assess ment Task Blueprint What understandings or goals will be assessed through this task? What criteria are implied in the standards and understandings regardless of the task specifics? What qualities must student work demonstrate to signify that stan dards were met? Through what authentic performance task will students demonstrate understanding? Task Overview: What student products and performances will provide evidence of desired understandings? By what criteria will student products and performances be evaluated? Student Understanding of Musical Opposites: Loud & Soft, Fast & Slow, High & Low, and Long & Short. " Student Understanding of Voice Choices: Speaking, Singing, Whispering, and Shouting. Student completion of in class and homework assignments thr ough both verbal responses and picture quizzes. Student Products will be evaluated by: • Students ability to effectively communicate key lesson terms and concepts. • Students ability to correctly match related terms and pictures. Student Performances will be evaluated by: • Student Participation and Involvement • Musical Accuracy " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " L4?C->4@".?@4"C-.D>@4834-"BD88-B4"?@-"DG" 4-8.@1"3//0AB34AD>"DG"M>DJ0-CE-1"3>C" I-8K30"8-@/D>@-@"8-E38CA>E"@43>C38C@"4D" K-".-4;" " " L4?C->4@"JA00"?>C-8@43>C"4=-"?@-"DG" @D?>C@"A>"8-034AD>"4D".?@AB"3>C"-I-85C35" 0 AG-"-N/-8A->B-@;" " L4?C->4@"JA00"C-.D>@4834-"?>C-8@43>CA>E"4=8D?E=O" " • P-8K30"8-@/D>@-@"4D"CA@B?@@AD>"Q?-@4AD>@"3>C"/8D./4@ " • P-8K30"8-@/D>@-@"4D " 0A@4->A>E"3>C"3>305@A@" " • R-.D>@4834AD>"DG".?@AB30"-0-.->4@"4=8D?E="IDB301"A>@48?.->4301"3>C".DI-.->4" /-8GD8.3>B-@ " • SAB4?8-".34B=A>E"Q?AFF-@" " • T//0AB34AD>@"DG"0-38>-C"M>DJ0-CE-"3>C"@MA00@"4=8D?E="/-8ADC@"DG"A>C-/->C->4".?@AB30"/035;" " " L4?C->4"IDB301"A>@48 ?.->4301"3>C" .DI-.->4"/-8GD8.3>B-@"4=34"8-G0-B4"M-5" 0-@@D>"BD>B-/4@1"3>C"D8AEA>30"3>C"B8-34AI-" ?@-"DG"A.3EA>34AD>; "

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Running head: MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN )' " " " Stage 3 Plan Learning Experiences What sequence of teaching and learning experience will equip students to engage with, develop, and demonstra te the desired understandings? Use the following sheet to list the key teaching and learning activities in sequence. Code each entry with the appropriate initials of the WHERETO elements. W =where is it going?, H =hook the students, E =explore and equip , R = rethink and revise, E =exhibit and evaluate, T =tailor to student needs, interests, and styles, and O =organize for maximum engagement and effectiveness. Week One: 1. Introduced yourself and the frog puppet Allegro to students WHT 2. Teach students "Echo, Hello" E 1O 3. Prompt discussion and interac tion by asking, "What makes music?" WHE 1E 2O 4. Explore items that might make music HE 1TO 5. Sing "What Makes Music" with students E 1 6. Discover that anything makes music RE 2 7. Read A Listening Walk by Paul Showers WHE 1TO 8. Play fully engage students to echo sound demonstrations HET 9. Encourage students to discover musical sounds throughout every aspect of their lives E 1RT Week Two: 1. Ask students to share some of the musical sounds they heard throughout the week WHE 1RETO 2. Read Quiet Loud by Leslie Patricelli and exp lore quiet and loud sounds HE 1T 3. Teach students "Lions Roar, Mice Squeak" WE 1 4. Have students play with movements that demonstrate loud and soft sounds HE 1T 5. Explore items that might make loud or soft sounds HE 1TO 6. Encourage students to discover loud and so ft sounds throughout every aspect of their lives E 1RT Week Three: 1. Read the poem "Boom! Bang!" by Anonymous WH 2. Encourage discussion about sounds we hear during a thunderstorm WHE 1T 3. Perform "The Steady Rain" for students while they listen for soft sounds E 1E 2 4. Explore the concept of steady beat with students E 1T 5. Discover steady beat in relation to everyday life activities E 1RT 6. Play "The Beat in My Feet" game HE 1T Week Four: 1. Review steady beat with students WRO 2. Teach students to read iconic notation of steady beat E 1T 3. Students explore the connections between visual iconic notation and audible music E 1E 2 4. Students learn and perform the song "Hickory Dickory Dock" E 2 5. Practice singing "Hickory Dickory Dock" with loud and soft singing voices WE 1R 6. Explore items that may keep or help students create a steady beat HE 1TO 7. Play "Music Doctors" and discover the heartbeat/steady beat of various songs HE 1T 8. Play "The Beat in My Fee" game HE 1T Week Five: 1. Explore original and creative movements in relation to ste ady beat WHE 1RE 2TO 2. Play "Beat in My Feet Game" while imitating animal movements WHE 1RE 2TO 3. Relate animal movements to specific tempi RO 4. Explore the use of tempi through constructive and dramatic play HE 1TO 5. Discover changes in tempi in the "Carnival of the Animals" by Saint Sa‘ns HE 1RE 2TO 6. Encourage students to discover appropriate times to move slow, medium, or fast outside of music class E 1RT " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN )( " " " Week Six: 1. Explore the diff erences in articulation through movement and imagination WHE 1RE 2TO 2. Correspond specific movements with certain tempi markings RO 3. Explore the use of articulation through constructive and dramatic play HE 1TO 4. Relate knowledge of weight with sustained, moder ate, and quick movements RO 5. Discover an awareness of individual sense of sustained, moderate, and quick movements in relation to internal timing and pulse. HE 1RE 2TO Week Seven: 1. Explore the differences between steady beat and rhythm patters WHE 1RE 2TO 2. U se iconic notation to read rhythmic patterns E 1E 2T 3. Use mnemonic syllables to remember specific rhythmic note patterns E 1E 2 4. Demonstrate differences between steady beat and rhythm on instruments HE 1RE 2TO 5. Explore the use of rhythm patterns through const ructive play HE 1TO 6. Improvise and play rhythmic patterns on hand drums HE 1RE 2TO 7. Discover connections between rhythmic patterns and patterns of speech HE 1RE 2TO Week Eight : 1. Explore the differences between high and low sounds WHE 1RE 2TO 2. Discover change s in pitch in "Peter and the Wolf" by Prokofiev HE 1RE 2TO 3. Relate physical places and vertical movements to both high and low sounds RO 4. Explore the use of pitch through functional, constructive, and dramatic play HE 1TO 5. Discover and perform changes in pitc h on Orff instruments HE 1RE 2TO Week Nine: 1. Explore the differences between four voice choices: speak, sing, shout, whisper WHE 1RE 2TO 2. Discover circumstances in which each voice choice is appropriately used HE 1RE 2TO 3. Listen to the song "Voice Choice" a nd act out motions WHE 1 R E 2T O 4. Explore the use of the different voice choices through constructive and dramatic play HE 1TO 5. Discover how to appropriately use the four voice choices within the educational environment HE 1RE 2TO 6. Take the "Voice Choice Match ing Quiz" RE 2TO Week Ten: 1. Explore the differences between songs and chants WHE 1RE 2TO 2. Perform the song "Two Little Birdies," and the chant "Monkey, Monkey Moo" HE 1RE 2TO 3. Listen to, discover , and identify the differences between songs and chants HE 1RE 2TO 4. Explore songs and chants through constructive and dramatic play HE 1TO 5. Take the "Songs and Chants Quiz" RE 2TO " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN )) " " " T//->CAN"2 " Common Core Standards for Kindergarten Music Education Creating Music: • Imagine: Students will generate musical ideas fo r various purposes and contexts o MU:Cr1.1.Ka With guidance, explore and experience music concepts (such as beat and melodic contour). o MU:Cr1.1.Kb With guidance, generate musical ideas (such as movements or motives). • Plan and Make: Students will select and develop musical ideas for defined purposes and contexts o MU:Cr2.1.Ka With guidance, demonstrate and choose favorite musical ideas. o MU:Cr2.1.Kb With guidance, organize personal musical ideas using iconic notation and/or recording technology. • Evaluate and Re fine: Students will evaluate and refine selected musical ideas to create musical work(s) that meet appropriate criteria o MU:Cr3.1.Ka With guidance, apply personal, peer, and teacher feedback in refining personal musical ideas. • Present: share creative music al work that conveys intent, demonstrates craftsmanship, and exhibits originality o MU:Cr3.2.Ka With guidance, demonstrate a final version of personal musical ideas to peers. Performing Music • Select: Students will select varied musical works to present base d on interest, knowledge, technical skill, and context o MU:Pr4.1.Ka With guidance, demonstrate and state personal interest in varied musical selections. • Analyze: Students will analyze the structure and context of varied musical works and their implications for performance o MU:Pr4.2.Ka With guidance, explore and demonstrate awareness of music contrasts (such as high/low, loud/soft, same/different) in a variety of music selected for performance. • Interpret: Students will develop personal interpretations that co nsider creators' intent o MU:Pr4.3.Ka With guidance, demonstrate awareness of expressive qualities (such as voice quality, dynamics, and tempo) that support the creators' expressive intent. • Rehearse, Evaluate and Refine: Students will evaluate and refine pe rsonal and ensemble performances, individually or in collaboration with others o MU:Pr5.1.Ka With guidance, apply personal, teacher, and peer feedback to refine performances. o MU:Pr5.1.Kb With guidance, use suggested strategies in rehearsal to improve the exp ressive qualities of music.

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN )* " " " • Present: Perform expressively, with appropriate interpretation and technical accuracy, and in a manner appropriate to the audience and context o MU:Pr6.1.Ka With guidance, perform music with expression. o MU:Pr6.1.Kb Perform approp riately for the audience. Responding to Music • Select: Students will choose music appropriate for a specific purpose or context o MU:Re7.1.Ka With guidance, list personal interests and experiences and demonstrate why they prefer some music selections over ot hers. • Analyze: Students will Analyze how the structure and context of varied musical works inform the responses o MU:Re7.2.Ka With guidance, demonstrate how a specific music concept (such as beat or melodic direction) is used in music. • Interpret: Students will support interpretations of musical works that reflect creators'/performers' expressive intent o MU:Re8.1.Ka With guidance, demonstrate awareness of expressive qualities (such as dynamics and tempo) that reflect creators'/performers' expressive intent. • E valuate: Students will support evaluations of musical works and performances based on analysis, interpretation, and established criteria o MU:Re9.1.Ka With guidance, apply personal and expressive preferences in the evaluation of music. Connecting to Music • S tudents will synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make music o MU:Cn10.0.Ka Demonstrate how interests, knowledge, and skills relate to personal choice and intent when creating, performing, and responding to music. ! MU:Cr3.2.Ka ! MU:Pr4.1K a ! MU:Pr4.3.Ka • Students will relate musical ideas and works with varied context to deepen understanding o MU:Cn11.0.Ka Demonstrate understanding of relationships between music and other arts, other disciplines, varied contexts, and daily life. ! MU:Pr4.2.Ka ! MU :Re7.2.Ka ! MU:Re9.1.Ka

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *9 " " " Appendix C Carnival of the Animals Coloring Sheet " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *! " " " T//->CAN"R " UVB=D1"7-00DW" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *# " " " T//->CAN"V " UXD0D8"LD>EW" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *$ " " " " " T//->CAN"Y " UZAD>@"[D381"\AB-"LQ?-3MW" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *% " " " T//->CAN"] " U^=-"L4-3C5"[3A>W " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *& " " " T//->CAN"7 " U^83I-0A>E"^=8D?E="L/3B-W " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *' " " " T//->CAN"_ " U]83IA45W" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *( " " " T//->CAN"` " U<-AE=40-@@05W" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN *) " " " T//->CAN", " U^=-"[=54=."DG"4=-"`?>E0-W" " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN ** " " " T//->CAN"Z " UPDAB-"X=DAB-@"34"LB=DD0W" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN !99 " " " T//->CAN"\ " U^JD"ZA440-"2A8CA-@W" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

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MUSIC CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN !9! " " " " T//->CAN"a " U2DD.b"23>EbW" " " " "