Citation
How Ideas Become Real: Making the 21st Century

Material Information

Title:
How Ideas Become Real: Making the 21st Century
Creator:
Brooks, Daniel Paul
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Kushins, Jodi
Committee Co-Chair:
Roland, Craig

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Active learning ( jstor )
Architectural design ( jstor )
Art education ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Brainstorming ( jstor )
Design engineering ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Observational research ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
This capstone project explores the idea of bringing back “shop class,” merging it with “art class” and reorienting both around community needs. It provides and investigation of established art education methodologies including design thinking (DT) and project-based learning (PBL) along with the established design industry methodology of Design-Build to find underlying commonalities and limitations. The author summarizes these philosophies and explores applications of these theories in art education environments presented during observations at various commercial maker studios. He presents a discussion of academic and industry standards to inform a proposal for a new philosophy or approach to studio art education that focuses on individual process development and positions the Maker movement within the umbrella of art education. The author’s views have been framed by his career as a practicing architect and his work as an elementary school art docent. The ISSUU document MAKing offers a compilation of this work - an assemblage of writings on art education topics such as Project based learning, Design thinking, commercial Maker spaces and analysis of commonalities between these programs and considerations for understanding the Maker movement in relation to comprehensive visual art education. It is available at http://issuu.com/danielbrooks/docs/making_magazine_draft_final_001.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Daniel Paul Brooks. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
1039729399 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EEZPP8T5A_XPM5DM INGEST_TIME 2016-04-19T21:46:12Z PACKAGE AA00030822_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EJN6IDR5W_9Q7XR8 INGEST_TIME 2016-04-21T20:07:00Z PACKAGE AA00030822_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES



PAGE 1

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 HOW IDEAS BECOME REAL : MAKING IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By DANIEL PAUL BROOKS A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AUGUST 2014

PAGE 2

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 © 2014 Daniel Paul Brooks

PAGE 3

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my wife Michele for her endless patience and support during this process. Her ability to balance work, home , and l ife was instrumental in my success. I also thank my children Morgen, Ma ren, and Stella for often, and unknown assistance, inspiration , and support . I want to than k my parents, Paul and Carolyn Brooks for their leadership and example in the field of educat ion . I thank the staff at ORB architects, Geoff Anderson, John Patterson and Nhi Nguyen specifically for supporting me in this journey. Mrs. Burney, my first art teacher, thank you for your art on a cart once a week and sending me to the talented and gift ed program. Mary Alice Sessler , my summer art teacher was inspiration in my youth and still is to this day. I also thank Dr. Jodi Kushins and Dr. Craig Roland for their expertise, passion, guidance, support and simply pushing me to do better.

PAGE 4

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 4 AN ABSTRAC T OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS HOW IDEAS BECOME REAL: MAKING IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By DANIEL PAUL BROOKS August 2014 Chair: Jodi Kushins Committee Member: Craig Roland Major: Art Education Abstract This capstone project explores the idea of bringing back "shop class," merging it with "art class" and reorienting both around community needs. It provides and investiga ti on of establish ed art education methodologies including design t hinking (DT) and p roject based l earning (PBL) along with the established design in dustry methodology of Design Build to find underlying commonalities and limitations . The author summarizes the se philosophies and explores applications of these theories in art education environments presented during observation s at various commercial maker studios. He presents a discu ssion of academic and industry standards to inform a proposal for a new philosop hy or approach to studio art education that focuses on individual process development and position s the M aker movement within the umbrella of art education. The author's views have been framed by his career as a practicing architect and his work as an elem entary school art docent .

PAGE 5

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 5 The ISSUU document MAKing offers a compilation of this work an assemblage of writings on art education topics such as Project based learning, Design thinking, commercial Maker spaces and analysis of commonalities between these programs and considerations for understanding the Maker movement in relation to comprehensive visual art education. It is available at http://issuu.com/danielbrooks/docs/mak ing_magazine_draft_final_001 .

PAGE 6

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 6 Table of Contents Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 UF Copyright Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 6 Why is something the way it is? ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 8 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 Rationale and Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ................... 10 Assumptions of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 11 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 Study Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 14 Project based learning ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 15 Design Thinking ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 19 Design Build ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 22 The Classroom Environment ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 24 Subject Selection, Site, and Description ................................ ................................ ................... 25 Data Collection Procedures and Analysis ................................ ................................ ................. 26 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 27 Brainstorming and Ideation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 27 Multiple Modes of Thinking ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 30

PAGE 7

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 7 The Studio Environment ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 31 Which Projects are Bes t? ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 31 Summary Across all Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 32 Just One Thing ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 33 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 33 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 35 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 37 List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 41 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 42

PAGE 8

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 8 Why is something the way it is? Schools today reflect a by gone era. Rigid schedules, inflexible facilities, and fixed boundarie s separating the grades, subjects , and classrooms inhibit the development and performance of students in the 21 st century. We need a new concept of education, one that connects schools to the real world, and closer unites educators and administrators to th e communit ies they are mandated to serve. The 21 st c entury demands learning environments that embrace the concepts of interdisciplinary learning and foster healthy cultures of mutual respect among students, educators, families , and communities. This caps tone project explore s the idea of bringing back "shop class , " merging it with "art class , " and re orienting both around community needs. Be it through project selection or community member involvement we can advance popular teaching methodologies into both personal process development ( based on your own way of doing things) and participation with in the local community. Local art and design experts can also play a role by making their expertise available in the classroom. Building on th e contemporary Maker mov ement we could create a hybrid Maker studio in our schools. Recent media hype and marketing campaigns regarding STEM (Science Technology Engineering Math), to STEAM ( Science Techn ology Engineering, Arts, & Math; RISD, 2009 ) integration has caused worry about arts "lite . " This is a response to past efforts to integrate the arts . A unit on transportation , for example, involved the music specialist teach ing the children some train songs. The arts were used to put on a show and make the learning "fun" rega rding important core facts or benchmarked skills; the real subjects (Bell, 2010) . Unless the music is linked to solid learning goals, howev er, all you have is train songs. You can buy the latest integrative lesson plans and you can become current quickly. But if you want to teach students

PAGE 9

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 9 what they need to know to apply core knowledge , you have to do the rigorous work of planning a comprehensive curriculum that unfolds authentically and engages them to do meaningful work (Bell, 2010) . Building on constru ctivist learning theories, the STEAM approach promotes the idea that the best instruction and most effective learning occur when students pursue questions and ideas that have meaning to them (Bell, 2010) . By making course content relevant to students' lives we can create an environment tha t helps students make essential, rat ional, passionate , and communal conn ections to skill and content. In addition to being STEAM oriented and teaching "21 st Century Skills" (P21, 2009) core objectives of a maker curriculum will be increased involvement in participatory democracy and creativ ity innovation demonstrated through student built projects for community benefit. Statement of the P roblem I believe art educators and their stud ents can learn a lot from professional creatives . Both from what they do in their design practices but also from what they are doing in their free time . Many creative pro fessionals are utilizing Maker studios to further their personal work. They tinker, sketch, design, invent, prototype, try, fail , succeed, and revise, all in an effort to get their ideas out of the head. We should see what we could draw from this environment for use in our art studios. Programs such as STEM, STEAM, and Design Thinking (DT) have trendy labels, but at some point, you have to wonder why we feel the need to create jazzed up 21s t century acronyms and marketing campaigns for an old (but good) idea: hands on learning through building visible progress . When marginalized subject teachers, like visual art and formerly, technology, see their beloved fields of expertise included in some official policy driven

PAGE 10

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 0 initiative, even standardized testing, they're reassured; it's a sign of validation and a warrant to continue on per the status quo (sticking to what they know) . I researched existing "hands on" te aching methods with the goal of de veloping a foundation for a new approach to studio art education . I argue that art educators ought to consider design processes used by industry professionals and the Maker movement as a source for their work with students . I believe this could mitigate th e educational disconnect ion between industry creative professionals and education professionals. I believe my experience as an architect and designer give s me a unique perspective on this subject. Research Questions Through my research, I address ed the following questions: • What are commonalities between Project Based Learning, Design Thinking, Design Build, Maker movement , and STEAM ? • What types of projects incorporate the best practices of Project Based Learning, Design Thinking, Design Build, Maker m ovement and STEAM ? • What can art e ducators learn from the Maker movement? Rationale and Significance of the Study Jean Piaget once wrote, "The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new thing s, not simply repeating what other generations have done ." The Maker movement , PBL, DT and DB embody this idea. They are learning by doing environments that offer a highly social culture. Makers have individual goals but they want other s' input and want to give others theirs. I believe it is important to find a position for the maker movement under the umbrella of art education. I have a long term goal of using this research a s a launching point to connect experts to the classroom and the academic.

PAGE 11

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 1 Addit ionally, the goal is to combine the mind of a scientist or engineer with that of an artist or designer , with the goal of foster ing true innovation . Projects geared toward hands on learning provide students with the opportunity to aggressively explore the l ink between art and design with technology. One does not have to give up either discipline to do work in the other. Assumptions of the Study I enter ed this project with the following assumptions. I assume d many o f the best practices in P roject B ased L e arning and D esign T hinking could be related to the Design B uild process and are currently manifested in the Maker Movement . I believe d a program informed by these teaching philosophies enhance s student learning. I also believe d that the most formative edu cational experiences happen through the hands, and in building visible progress. I also assumed there are a wealth of industry professionals that would be willing to participate in the classroom activities but lack a connection to a classroom . My final ass umption was that my experience as an architect and designer would give me a unique perspective on this subject . Definition of Terms The following terms are pertinent to this capston e project. Brainstorming. Brainstorming makes use of various techniqu e s to spontaneously generate as many ideas as possible with regard to solving one ' s problem . Judg ment is suspend ed and all ideas are considered. It's a type of divergent thinking processes like PBL and DT use d to start the design process. Project Based Learning (PBL). PBL derives from a "constructivist epistemological belief, which emphasizes providing a rich context for exhibiting knowledge construction " (Driscoll, 1994 , p . 4). PBL teaches students by encouraging them to work through a project that

PAGE 12

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 2 le ads to a solution to a driving question . To answer that question the students research, gather data, prototype and reflect. 21 st Century Skills. Defined as c reativit y & innovation, collaboration, p robl em solving, critical thinking, g lobal awareness, med ia & technology l iteracy (P21, 2009). The industry term "21 st Century Skills" is championed by The Partnership for 21 st Century Skills , a n organization formed in 2002 between public and private sectors to create an understanding of learning that incorporat es 21 st century skills into our schools. Members include Apple Computer, AOL Time Warner, Dell, Microsoft, and National Education Association (NEA) in partnership with the US Department of Education (P21, 2009). Design Thinking (DT). This term is best described as generating a solution through a formal process where many aspects of the problem can be evaluated, typically a building project (Cross, 1982). Rolf Faste of Stanford has furthered the early work of Robert McKim (1973) by promoting design think ing as a creative endeavor. Design Build (DB). In the industry sense, t he Design Build process can be defined as a building project delivery method in which the designer and builder are on the same team and communication is less adversarial ( Quatman, W. & Dhar, R., 2003). Design Build is an interdisciplinary industry approach to project delivery. The term Design Build has been around for thirty to forty years, however, it has deep roots in the "master builder" movement of the 20th century and humans have been designing and building, or making, for millennia. F ield observation and hands on project design is essential to this practice . The ability to practice design is based upon previous experiences and a deepening repertoire of "projects." These projects could be from personal experience or from existing case studies establish ed within one's field. Further, having field experience of working with the builder (if not one in the same as

PAGE 13

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 3 designer) will deepen the skill of the designer. STE(A)M. Science, Tec hnology, Engineering, and Math (STEM ) with the addition of an A for the Arts, is a " movement championed by the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) and adopted widely by institutions, corporations, and individuals (RSID, n.d.) . " Andover Public Schools, Rea ding is Fundamental (RIF), Blue School, and Sesame Street Incorporated , for examples, have STEAM into their goals (P21, 2009). Maker Movement. The Maker movement is a grassroots culture that makes things with whatev er materials they can gather. While th is can be done with simple tools and materials, it is often tech nology heavy, utilizing Arduino microcontrollers, laser cutting, 3D printing, makers gather in a social workshop setting to cooperate and collaborate on ideas, tools and space . Divergent Th inking. The term divergent thinking was invented by psychologist J.P. Guilford in 1967 (Guilford, 1967). Divergent thinkin g has also been referred to as " lateral thinking , " a term invented by Edward de Bono (de Bono, 1967). Divergent thinking is simply a process that is used to create as many different ideas as possible by exploring many avenues. An example of divergent thinking would be brainstorming. Convergent Thinking. The term convergent thinking was invented by psychologist J.P. Guilford in 1967 (Gu ilford, 1967). It is the opposite of divergent thinking and typically does not require creativity. Instead of an expansive look at a broad range of ideas, convergent thinking requires focus on one idea. An example of convergent thinking i s taking a multi ple choice format test versus working out an essay problem . Transformational Learning . Transformational learning is when deep learning and integration occur (Mezirow, 1997). It can further be " defined as learning that induces more far reaching change in the learner, especially learning experiences which shape the learner and

PAGE 14

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 4 produce a significant impact, or paradigm shift, which affects the learner's subseq uent experiences " (Clark, 1993, p . 48 ). Study Limitations My biggest limitation in conducting thi s project is that I am not a practicing art e duca tor. I don't consider myself a Maker either. I am an architect and while design is one of my duties , I am primarily concerned with design communic ation, construction management, planning , and cost control. This limit s my perspective and cause d me to rely heavily on scholarly articles and observations versus firsthand knowledge and experience in the classroom . I also didn't focus on student assessment. While important and while it may directly impact how a student interprets the process and project he or she just undertook, the programs I researched did not formally a ssess via grades. Inherent to project process was feedback and prototyping, projects I observed did not quit when faced with failure. Failur e was just another step in the process. In a sense, only "A" work was acceptable. When looking at how industry design processes can inform art education I have to address an elephant in the room. Are designers artists? Oftentimes, t here's a fingernails on the chalkboard reaction to calling a designer an artist. Is design art? Art typically deals with pure form and expression. Art may tell a story or be non representational and simply exist, open to any interpretation. But design strives to solve a pr oblem. Now add to the mix art e ducators. While art educators may be artists in their own right, in the classroom they are teachers. And as such, should draw from any source available to inform their practice. So what do we call designers who are using a rt to solve problems and artists that use design to make art? My research does not strive to answer these questions but I do feel the need to acknowledge them.

PAGE 15

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 5 Literature Review Scholars and resources I researched include Po Bronson, Stephanie Bell, Jeremy Foote, Emily Pilloton, and college and university Design Build programs . In this section I will discus s their main ideas and projects as they relate to my own research goals and questions about Project based learning, Design Thinking and Design Buil d. Project based learning PBL derives from a " constructivist epistemological belief, which emphasizes providing a rich context for exhibiting knowledge construction. The richer and more complex the context is, the more opportunities learners are afforded in building their knowledge. Examples of rich contexts include authentic tasks with real world relevance. PBL encourages learners' cognitive involvement and entails the use of higher order thinking skills , in interdisciplinary challeng e s . When learning o ccurs in such a context, the learning goals become meaningful an d relevant to the learners (Driscoll, 1994 , p p . 4 ). " " PBL is a strategy for creating independent thinkers and learners. Students solve real world problems by designing their own inquiries, p lanning their learning, organizing their research, and implementing a multitude of learning strategies (Bell, 2010, p. 39 ) . " Students flourish under this learner driven, motivating approach to learning and l e arn skills that will strengthen our economy (Bel l, 2010). In my research, I observed several models of project based learning. Typically, they all shared some cha ra cteristics, beginning with a project launch or the introduction of a driving question and "need to know" followed by inquiry and data gath ering through deep research to develop subject matter expertise. The next phase is doing the culminating challenge and being briefed by subject experts (Bell, 2010). Next, workshops are conducted to respond to the driving

PAGE 16

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 6 question. Feedback and revisions are solicited and made. Finally, there's a summative assessment or a public presentation of the product. Finally, the summative assessment and public project presentation occurs. Products of the culminating challenge are presented to numerous audiences, including parents, peers, experts and the global community if you will. This motivates students to create high quality products. The summative assessment measures the learning objectives of each student. This assessment will only work if the tasks studen ts were required to perform well aligned with instructional goals (Bell, 2010). These steps are visualized in Figure 1. Learning by doing is not a new practice. It has been around for thousands of years. It's fair to say that humans have been learning by doing since early homo sapiens rubbed two sticks together and discovered fire. But if there's one person that can be given the title of "first" to adopt the term "project learning" to the field of education, that person is John Dewey. John Dewey lived d uring the Industrial Age, a time of massive change. He is considered one of the most influential educational theorists of his time and perhaps the 20 th century. He was proponent of learning that focused on the individual. His educational concept focused o n meaningful activities and participation in a classroom democracy. John Dewey argued that students learn in a community driven environment with subject matter selected with the local community in mind (Stankiewicz, 2001). Dewey wrote in The School and Society " "an embryonic community life, active with types of occupations that reflect the life of the larger society and permeated throughout with the spirit of art, history and science. When the school introduces and trains each child of society into memb ership within such a little community, saturating him with the spirit of service, and providing him with instruments of

PAGE 17

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 7 effective self direction, we shall have the deepest and best guarantee of a larger society which is worthy, lovely and harmonious (Dewey , 1909, pg.44)." Dewey theorized that education is integral to ones life, not just as a preparatory act. Dewey was also a leader in the Progressive School Movement. Progressives were based on four goals. First, broaden educational functions to address ch ildren's health and family, implementation of the use of psychology and sociology by teachers, expanding curriculum to be relevant to student's lives and the idea that everyone should participate in the arts. Most Progressives felt individual freedom was good and children should follow their creative impulses. Others, felt learning should still be structured and that freedom be developed through systematic choices. This idea is attributed to Maria Montessori. (Stankiewicz, 2001)

PAGE 18

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 8 Figure 1: Project B ased Learning Process

PAGE 19

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 1 9 Design Thinking While the design thinking pr ocess illustrated in Figure 2 show s the standard steps of Observe Define Ideate Prototype Test Reflect (Simon, 1969) , design thinkers essentially craft a unique process for each particula r project. As students become more mindful of the process they have used on previous projects, they build confidence in their ability to successfully navigate open ended challenges (Pilloton, 2009) . Through observation, much can be learned. Often people will say they are doing one thing, but when an astute observer looks, they will find that actually the behavior is different. Active listening and curiosity are practiced and enhanced as a critical skill of DT. Through direct lessons and extensive practic e, students become proficient inquisitors who recognize the power of beginning questions with "Why?" Identifying experts, locating heavy users, and performing on line research are all key aspects of the DT process. Students use this stage to understand a nd learn new information as well a s to answer questions or locate resources through the process. After collecting information, students then strive to understand the passive thoughts and attitudes of a user/client. By digging into the experiences of user s and developing "deep empathy," they are able to cultivate understanding that can lead to primary insights.

PAGE 20

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 0 Figure 2 : Design Thinking Process

PAGE 21

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 1 Many design challe nges are complex and multi faceted. Grappling with them can be daunting and cause some people to give up hope on solving them. By focusing on particular user types and their needs, along with the insights gathered during research, students define an area that is large enough to allow for innovation, yet set boundaries enough to allow for success (Pilloton, 2009) . Solving even a small part of a large issue is worthy of effort. We need to foster an attitude of optimism that is supported by the tools of the design t hinking process. Students also benefit from exposure to diffe r ent methods of analy zing and making decisions. Beginning with simple pros and cons and moving to weighted ratings of various criteria, students build a repertoire of techniques to use in the future (Razzouk & Shute, 2012). Soliciting feedback from users is a key aspect of the d e sign t hinking process. Many factors contribute to a person's respon se to a product . Designers should strive to work from an attitude of "not knowing" and an open mind to obtain feedback (Pilloton, 2009) . Experimentation as well as failures are valued for their information and because they contribute to future success. Students use the feedba ck to better their prototypes. Through additional research, brainstorming and working with the infor mation they have collected, students deci de how best to proceed. Should we change our prototype? Have we answered our questions? Do we need more information and ideas? Should we scrap this and start over (Pilloton, 2009) ? Beyond the DT standard process is the inherent need for collaboration. Using basic techniques of project planning and time management, students practice how to monitor their progress and meet deadlines . Having individual "check ins" with the instructor to voice concerns and work collectively. It is also important to monitor the motivation of a team. If the various stages of DT are visited without enthusiasm the results are likely to be less than

PAGE 22

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 2 innovative. Design t hinking teaches more than d esign or positive production, it teaches teamwork and leadership skills (Razzouk & Shute, 2012) . Design Build The Virginia Tech Alexandria Architecture Center (WAAC) , as documented by Jeremy Foote ( 2012) , intentionally leaves design build projects incomplete or unfinished. They recognize what Umberto Eco defined as a ÔÔwork in moveme nt," a project is deliberately left unfinished, or open, for further development and interpretation by students . For example, in the design and construction of a new coffee house students didn't fully work out the details of how the shop fully inte rfaced with the existing constr uction. Additionally , one semester's students may design build a space for a coffee shop but they may only complete the "shell" or exterior walls. The ne x t semester class will need to further the work by the previous class to reali ze the next phase of the design, such as the interior lighting design or kitchen design, and onward (Foote, 2012) . This process is visualized in Figure 3. According to Foote (2012), the act of leaving a design build open for future interpretation addres ses an the problem of an arbitrary deadline, the end of the semester. This may have hidden and unintended consequences. Students and teachers gain satisfaction through closure, but this arbitrary deadline might not be a positive. Students risk missing t he point that design never stops a nd revisions are continu ous, instead students may experience the opposite and think that revisions and redesign interrupts the efficiency of getting to the deadline (Foote, 2012).

PAGE 23

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 3 Figure 3: The Design Build Process

PAGE 24

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 4 T he Classroom Environment The classroom is a mutable framework in which we conduct learning to achieve greater meaning and relation to the world in which we exist. The very definition of classroom must be expanded beyond the literal physical qualities. The environment I, and these authors, Burton (2001) and Carroll (2006), are discussing are experiences and exposures of students to anything that will drive their artistic and aesthetic development. Whether it's by creating a safe zone, free from fear an d rejection, or creating an environment conducive to pondering essential questions, the classroom space is the enabling element of any style o r vision of art education . Further, development will not occur in any real sense without a proper supporting envir onment that supports art creation b eyond simple material exposure (Burton, 2001) . The Study Group for Holistic Approaches in Art Education affirms safe learning environment s where students can cooperate, support , and engage art of utmost importance (Carrol l, 2006). The activating element of the student's environment is the teacher role. London (2003) discusses Buber's the "I Thou" teacher and student relationship. In this relationship it is made clear to each student that they have valu abl e information to share and the teacher is sincerely interested in what they have to say. Methodology I performed curriculum research to describe the philosophical framework and process & principles for proposing an approach to art education based on Maker culture. To wards these ends, I researched PBL and DT curriculum and design industry process of Design Build and observed how they work through design and project completion and how that can inform art education. Further, I field observed Maker studios to witness the application of found

PAGE 25

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 5 commonalities of the afore mention ed processes. These industry processes have roots in my profession and I believe this viewpoint is of use in providing art educators with a new perspective . Subject Selection, Site, and Description I n advance of this project, I spent consideratble time at MakerHaus (n.d.) in Seattle, WA . Makerhaus provides the resources, education and community for creative minds to make, invent, prototype and explore without boundaries . They host a variety of class topics such as CAD, design, wood working, metal working, electronics, Arduino, 3D printing, laser work, Adobe, busin ess, jewelry, drawing, and more ( Makerhaus, n.d. ) . I also vis i ted Metrix Create: Space , Seattle, WA . The pr imary goal of Metrix Create: Space (n.d.) is : to enable the public at large to hack, make, build , and create new and " awesome " things. MCS has all the tools of a modern prototyping and fabrication lab, and provides easy access to tools and rapid prototypi ng services for the general public. Established in 2009, it has a community of creative engineers, professionals and enthusiasts who push the limits of the technology available and create prototypes, products and businesses. I n addition, I performed on l ine investigations of Studio H, Berkley, CA (2013). Studio H is an in school design/build class for 8th 11th grade students. First launched in Bertie County, NC and now based at Realm Charter School in Berkele y, CA, Studio H students apply their core subject learning to design and build audacious and socially transformative projects. Students of Studio H have previously dreamed up, designed, and constructed a 2000 square foot farmers market pavilion, a pop up p ark, laser etched skateboards, sculptural concrete public furniture, roadside farm stands, and more.

PAGE 26

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 6 Through experimentation, non stop production, tinkering, and a lot of dirt under their fingernails, students develop the creative capital, critical thinkin g, and citizenship necessary for their own success and for the future of thei r communities. On site observation is essential in field s of research that are practice oriented . The ability to practice design is based upon previous experiences and a deepenin g repertoire of "projects." These projects are based either on personal experience or are model cases established within the profession. The knowledge base we are seeking to build in the student s becom es activated when their work compares existing projects and actual design program parameters. I am following a similar path in conducting my research for this project. Data Collection Procedures and Analysis I implemented a triangulation principle ( Morse, 2003 ) using observation of interactions, observations of project outcomes, and research of scholarly writings to make sense of the information I gathered for this project. I believe I was able to successfully use the following observation locations to answer my research questions. I spent every Saturday mo rning and several evenings for four months in 2014 at either Makerhaus or Metrix Create: Space observing and participating in classes or other "making" activities. I took field no tes, photos and participated in general group discussions. I kept a researc h journal and have done field sketches (visual note taking) of the environments. I tried to identify reoccurring themes, activities, dialogues, words , and projects between project methodologies and the commercial maker houses .

PAGE 27

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 7 Figure 4: Art Making at a Maker Space, Makerhaus, 2014 Findings My resea rch questions focused on discovering commonalities across multiple academic and industrial design methodologies , studying the manifestation of t hose commonalities within the M aker movement. Inherent in thi s research was the desire to discover the position of the M aker mo vement within the realm of art e ducation. The following themes are the major commonalities I discovered. Brainsto r ming and Ideation

PAGE 28

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 8 Designers want to make things better . Whether they use Project Based Learning , D esign Thinking , and Design Build their ideation process es always starts with brainstorm ing . Brainstorming in these environments is a set of skills as well as an attitude. By adhering to a few rules, teams and individuals learn to turn off their judgment in order to increase the fluency of their ideas. I observed many students using a version of sketch brainstorming or idea/concept mapping to allow them to rapidly capture their ideas (see Figures 5 and 6) . Some even created abstrac t paintings as a source of inspiration. Visual communication through drawing and sketching are integral to the process. I observed students at Makerhaus creating sculptures to be printed via 3D printers. Most of these were not impressive examples of for m or expression , or art. They were toy like , simple material investigations into a relatively new technology. They were brainstorming by playing with materials. These were tests to see what new synthetic materials could do as well as the limits to the 3D printing software and hardware. But the idea of creating many scalable study models quickly is an extremely useful interdisciplinary tool. I also observed another version of brainstorming, which makers call " material hacking. " The makers salvage as much stuff as the y can, furniture, electronics Ñ not just junk Ñ high end technology and anything else they can get their hands on an d rip it, hacksaw, laser cut and reassemble into something else that does, something . To a material hacker , there is no high t ech or low tech, only tools, only materials. Brainstorming in these environments is a set of skills as well as an attitude. It's important not to get stuck on a particular method of brainstorming. Most participants have only experienced what amounts to l ist making, generating ways to solve a problem, or relegating brainstorming to step one or two in their process.

PAGE 29

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 2 9 Not only have I observed several types of brainstorming . I have observed designers at Makerhaus utilize brainstorming in multiple phases. F or example, the maker had identified the problems, had the goal, had the design, but during the prototyping phase ran into materiality problems. The maker went back and utilized his brainstorming method but in a focused way on what materials offered a bet ter solution. This persistence is key. S tudents need to know that revisions and thinking are continuous. Figure 5 : Visual Brainstorming

PAGE 30

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 0 F igure 6 : Brainstorming with Post it notes Multiple Modes of Thinking I observed divergent thinking used in conj unction with convergent thinking. Co n vergent thinking is then following a process of step to create one, best solution. Based on my observations, I believe that Project Based Learning, Design Thinking and Design Build are example s of convergent processes t hat utilize within them rounds of divergent thinking. O nce the brainstorming phase was over makers and designers moved on to prototyping, building and making. Through my research and observations I noticed students implementing design thinking were alway s asking the questions, What comes next? What do we need next?

PAGE 31

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 1 The Studio Environment " The answer is in the studio " Ð Bob Mueller , Printmaker , University of Florida Common between programs (PBL, DT, DB and Making) is a n open and fluid studio environm ent. There are no formal lectures. Action and adaptation is constant. It's an almost tangible attitude towards visible progress. Students design, think and invent in the same environment they build. And while there may be the "lone wolf" isolationist ove r in the corner, it's hard to hide. And why would you want to? I observed these studio environments foster ing a great sense of community, cooperation and support. If someone discovered something they wanted to share and teach it to others. Some days, t he maker studios would host design labs where the people who participated may or may not have their own idea to share, but they show up to help others and perhaps find inspiration for their own project. Or , they are there to exercise their creative muscle s in preparation for when inspiration strikes. Sometimes you have to build the tool to use the tool. At Makerhaus, there is a group of artisans called Foundry Club . Together they are designing and building a forge , w hich once built will be use d to cast into metal whatever the makers can imagine. Which Projects are Best? In short, all of them; any of them. I overstate this to make a point. One of my early assumptions was that only highly specific, meticulously detailed, thoroughly developed, perfect pro jects would work . Based on program research and Maker field studies, I didn't see any unsuccessful projects. Success isn't defined as not failing, there was a lot of failing going on. I didn't see any projects that couldn't be worked out through a proces s that used ideation and

PAGE 32

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 2 brainstorming, making thinking in a studio environment. Failure plays an important role in art and design. Of course, for non professionals, the project should be age specific and tool use needs to be s ensible. While welding may always be reasonably dangerous, new equipment such as 3D printing, CNC milling machines, and laser cutters are 95% accessed and run via software interfaces. We have to keep challenging the materials and tools we choose to use. F urther, using a less selec tive project selection, may have the added benefit of teaching students that all products can be made in a beautiful, satisfactory and creative way. There are no boring projects. Summary Across all Findings Across all these findings the commonality is co llaboration and cooperation . It ' s key to recognize the difference between these two words as we usually use them interchangeably: C ooperating is enabling someone to do something through shared resources while collaboration is actually working together to a chieve the goal. So much so, that the work of any one ream member is indistinguishable. Another way to look at it is that cooperation can be non interfer ing or passive, while collaboration is active. Additionally, brainstorming, thinking, and the studio environment all use drawings and sketching and sometimes painting to communicate their design. Design communication is fundamental. Within the maker movement, the designer is the maker, but most makers have the goal of taking their design to the world so they can visually document the work. I witnessed nearly everyone in the Maker studios producing 2 D sketching and other graphic communications. Typically folks can show you better than they can tell you.

PAGE 33

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 3 Just One Thing I've covered a lot of ground here and if I can circle the wagons around just one idea o f what it all means it is this: R egardless of chosen curriculum philosophy, or process, if one is truly focused on furthering their own individualized process you have to stay aware of what you are doin g. Unless it is done with purpose and rigor we will fall into a maze of random intuitions. And while there is some value in that , serious art and design is done with intention. Discussion My goals in conducting this research were to find commonaliti es between goals and objectives for art education, industry methods , and the maker movement , as well as to discuss what art educators can learn from those genres . In my review of scholarly literature I discovered common themes of making, creativity, c ooper ation, communication, innovation, collaboration, problem solving, thinking, media and technology literacy. The goal of these programs is to foster the true innovation that comes with combining the mind of a scientist or engineer with that of an artist or designer. Through projects geare d toward s hands on learning, use of speakers and field trips , and a variety of "shop tools" students ill gain opportunities to aggressively explore the link between art and design with maker movement technology and coding . By analyzing thes e processes, a nd observing Maker movement environments, I have found that there are fundamental similarities . Wh ile many makers are creating products, they are n't fully geared towards the capitalism of creating a business. It's the reverse, they using capitalism to su pport their motivation in making new and interesting things. Th ey are investing in themselves. They are connecting multiple genres and disciplines and coexisting. What if we could dissolve the compartmentalization of engineering, humanities, science and art in education? "Making" does that. More importantly, it eradicates the unproductive

PAGE 34

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 4 attitude between vocational and academic education. When we recognize the parallel s between the techniques, tools, and processes are used and taught in physics, auto shop, and the art studio, we will stop sorting kids into winners and losers. This coexisting and blending of disciplines reminds me of a powerful event in art history, the Armory Show. The 1913 Armory Show was subversive and undermined a s sumptions and expectations of art making that had been stoic since the Renaissance (Doss, 2005). Until then, Americans had not seen experimental modern art, not to mention cubism, futuris m, fauvism or other work that challenged classical art. This work challenged t he notion that art should be a window to the world. Before the Armory Show, American art was primarily portrait painting and images of the Wild West. America was in the late stag es of the Gilded Age transformation. Witnessing emerging technologies, inventions and human migration. America's art underwent massive change along with the rest. The maker movement exemplifies in a Marxian way that workers can be their own bosses . Kic kstarter has made fundraising only from large investors unnecessary. One concern in this world of makers and the do it yourself, Esty, Pinterest explosion s is that when we are all entrepreneur s it becomes more difficult to get others excited about our pro ject s . Your new and interesting thing gets lost in a sea of new and interesting things and success becomes more about your ability to attract attention. This also connects the Maker movement to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the late 19 th century and early 20 th century. Albeit a more radical faction of the Arts and Crafts Movement, that furthered worker autonomy as goal of the movement over the wing more concerned with good taste, self fulfillment and beautiful objects. The Arts and Crafts Movement oc curred in defiance of mechanical production. The Maker movement is part of a 21 st century Arts and

PAGE 35

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 5 Crafts renaissance. My research was focused on process es for learning and creating , and while PBL, DT, DB and maker studios all have the goal of "making" something, they are also focused on the process. This reminds me of the Dadaists. The central theme to the Dada movement was collaboration, play, and performance. The value of the art was not the object, but the act of making, community, collaboration a nd creating new world visions. Conclusion Define quality. It's highly valued and sought after but hard to nail down and define. I have defined several high quality education processes and environments. Their reach and reputations are world wide and deep ly historic. The synthesis of art, design, making, teaching, learning, thinking, collaboration, cooperation, further complicates the understand ing of how this all affects the field of art education. W e need to always be looking for ways to improve our art educational practices and processes. One way to do that is to invite the Maker movement into the fold. In a project learning environment the maker can inform the student and the student can inform the maker. We need to c hallenge art students to engage m ediums that are intimidating. At some point children become perfectionists and forget how to brainstorm or j ust produce work that will aid in the final product. I came to the field of Art Education because my son started school and I learned there were n o art teachers and I felt charged to do something about that. With a background in Arch itecture and Design , I am se arching for my place in Art Education . How does my background position me within the field? I was concerned that what I was doing wouldn't be useful or would be considered self serving. It's my hope that other s will find seeking and

PAGE 36

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 6 investigating the links and common ground across disciplines is useful. I am passionate about this research and feel it was necessary for anyone struggling to c onnect their field to that of education, and specifically industry design experts and creatives seeking a deeper, richer relationship to education. Towards these ends I create d a Pinterest Board of Maker projects located at URL: http://www.pinterest.com/daniel7brooksuf/maker studio projects/ . I also compiled a list of Maker movement resources on my website, www.brooksmojo .com/makerresources . Further, an ISSUU document titled MAKing offers an assemblage of writings that synthesize this research . It is available at http://issuu.com/danielbroo ks/docs/making_magazine_draft_final_001 . F igure 7 : MAKing (an ISSUU)

PAGE 37

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 7 References Adobe. (2012). State of c reate s tudy. [white paper] Retreived from http://www.adobe. com/aboutadobe/pressroom/pdfs/Adobe_State_of_Create_ Global_Benchmark_Study.pdf . Bell, S. (2010) . Project b ased l earning for the 21st c entury: Skills for the f uture. The c learing h ouse: A j ournal of e ducational s t rategies, i ssues and i deas, 83 (2) , 39 43 . Bronson, P., & Merr yman, A. (2010). Creativity in a merica: The c reativity c risis. Newsweek. pp. 44 50. Bu rton, J. M. (2001). Lowenfeld; a nother l ook. Art e ducation, 54 (6), 33 42. Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986) . Becoming c ritical: E ducation , k nowledge and a c tion r esearch . Carroll, K. L. (2006). Development and learning in art: Moving in the direction of a holistic paradigm for art education. Visual a rts r esearch, 32 (1), 16 28. Clark, M. C. (1993). Transformational learning, New d irections f or a dult a nd c on tinuing e ducation, (57), 47 56. Cross, N. (1982). Designerly w ays of k nowing. Design s tudies 3( 4 ) , pp. 221 27. De Bono, E . ( 1967 ) . The u se of l ateral t hinking . International c enter for c reative t hinking. Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F. (1980). . A Thousand Plateaus . Trans. Brian Massumi . London and New York: Continuum, 2004. Vol. 2 of Capitalism and Schizophrenia . 2 vols. 1972 1980. Trans. of Mille Plateaux . Paris: Les Editions de Minuit. Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of learning for instruction. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

PAGE 38

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 8 Empowering c reative m inds . (n.d.) In Makerhaus. Retrieved from http://www.makerhaus.com/about/ Eisner, W. & Day, M.D. (Eds.), Handbook of research and policy in art education (pp. 299 328). Reston, VA: National Art Education Associ ation . Foote, J. (2012). Design b uild :: B uild d esign. Journal of a rchitectural e ducation Vo l. 65(2) , pp. 52 58. Pub lished by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of the Association of Collegiat e Schools of Architecture, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41820037 Groat, L. , & Wang, D . (2002). Architectural research m ethods . New York: John Wiley & sons. Guilford, J.P. (1967). The n ature of h uman i ntelligence . Gutteridge, M. (1990). The c la sses of Franz Cizek. Davis Publications. Ivashkevich, O. (2006). Drawing in children's lives. In J. Fineberg (Ed.), When we were young: Perspectives on the art of the child (pp. 45 59).Los Angeles: University of California Press. Liu, M., Yu Ping, H. ( 2002). Middle s chool s tudents as m ultimedia d esigners: A p roject b ased l earning a pproach. Journal of i nteractive l earning r esearch. Association for the a dvancement of c omputing in e ducation (AACE). Retrieved March 21, 2014 from High Beam Research: h ttp://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1 95765020.html Make s omething a wesome. (n.d.). In Metrix Create:Space. Retrieved from http: //www.metrixcreatespace.com/#makesomethingawesome .

PAGE 39

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 3 9 Meredeth, R. (2010, March 1). Fra nz Cizek: Lib erating the c hild a rtist [web log post]. Retrieved from http://meredithsabbatical.blogspot.com/2010/03/franz cizek liberating child artist.html Mezirow, J . (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New d irections for a dult and c ontinuing e ducation, 74 , 5 12. M orse, J. (2003). Principles of m ixed m ethods and m ultimethod r esearch d esign. Handbook of m ixed m ethods in s ocial & b ehavioral r esearch. (189 208). Osborn, A.F. (1963). Applied imagi nation: Principles and procedures of creative problem solving (Third Revised Edition). Ne w York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. The Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2009). 21 st Century Learning Environments [White Paper]. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_Report.pdf The Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2009). Framework Foundations [White Paper]. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_Report.pdf Pilloton, E. (2009). Design r evolution; 100 p roducts t hat e mpower p eople . Metropolis Books. Razzouk, R. & Shute, V. (2012). What is d esign t hinking and w hy is it i mportant? Review of e ducational r esearch , Vol. 82, No. 3 , pp. 330 348. Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23260048 Simon, H. (1969). The s ciences of the a rtificial . MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Smith, P. (March 1985) Franz Cize k: The p atriarch. Art Education . 38( 2 ) . pp. 28 Ð 31 . Quatman, W. & Dhar, R. (2003). The architect's guide to design Ð build services. John Wiley & Sons Inc., USA. White, H. (2010). STEAM Not Stem. [White P aper] Retrieved from: http://steam notstem.com/about/whitepaper/

PAGE 40

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 4 0 Wilson, B. (2005). Child art after Modernism: Visual c ulture and new narratives. Wolfe, M. (2004). Crating safe environments for troubled youth. In P. London & The Study for Holistic Art Education (Eds.) Toward as Holistic Paradigm in Art Education (pp. 36 39). [Center for Art Education Monograph No.1]. Baltimore: Maryland Institute of College Art. Yin, Robert. (1984/1994). Case s tudy r esearch: d esign and m ethod s . Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.

PAGE 41

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 4 1 List of Figures Figure 1. Project Based Learning ProcessÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ 16 Figure 2. Design Thinking ProcessÉ............................................. ......................... .....18 Figure 3. Design Build ProcessÉ . ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ21 Figure 4. Art Making at a Maker Space, Makerhaus, 2014ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ..25 Figure 5 . Visual Brainstorming ..... ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ27 Figure 6 : Brainstorming using Post it notes.. ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ28 Fi gure 7: MAKing (an ISSUU)ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ.36

PAGE 42

STUDIO ART, MAKER ST YLE 4 2 Author Biograph y Daniel Brooks had been a practicing architect for over fifteen years. He is licensed in Washington, Oregon, Alaska and Cold Region Engineering certified as well as National Council of Architectural Registration Boards ( NCARB ) certified. Dan is also a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Accredited Professional (LEED AP). He is also a member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA), National Art Educators Association (NAEA ) and a board member of the M t. Tahoma Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME). He graduated from Iowa State University with a professional degree in Architecture. Daniel has been interested in architecture since the age of 10 and desig ned and built his first residential structure by the age of 16. More tha n eight years of residential design and construction followed. Daniel studied architecture in abroad in England, Spain, Italy, Egypt and Pakistan. He won an international design competition sponsored by Domus magazine. Since graduation from Iowa State Uni versity, he has worked for corporate clients such as Albertson's, Jack in the Box, McDonald's, Payless Shoes and Starbucks. Dan also has experience working on U.S. Department of H ousing and U rban D evelopment funded multi family residential and assisted liv ing facilities in Washington and Oregon. Daniel served in the U.S. Army and Reserves. His current architectural focus is military projects at Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM) and other installations, involving everything from American Disabilities Act and Anti Terrorism/Force Protection compliance, building renovation and historic preservation, to repurposing, sustainment, and new construction. He's worked on a variety of project types, including headquarters, training facilities, recreation and gym fa cilities, and administrative buildings.