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The choral music of Ernst Toch

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The choral music of Ernst Toch
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Zach, Miriam S
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vii, 192 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Choirs ( jstor )
Compositional techniques ( jstor )
Metrical structure ( jstor )
Music analysis ( jstor )
Music composition ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Poetry ( jstor )
Soprano ( jstor )
Tonal harmony ( jstor )
Choral music -- 20th century ( lcsh )
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1993.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 181-189).
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by Miriam Susan Zach.

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Full Text







THE CHORAL MUSIC OF ERNST TOCH








By

MIRIAM SUSAN ZACH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1993


























Copyright 1993 by

Miriam Susan Zach












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author is grateful


to Mikesch Mucke, life-partner and


architect


for


his


patience,


encouragement, and introduction


Venturi's thought.


His ability to clarify mysteries of computers and


the German language made this dissertation a reality. She would like to express her deepest gratitude to her parents, Margaret Munster Zach and Herbert William Zach, for a lifetime of support and for


advocating the research, teaching,


and performance of music.


She feels fortunate to have had the opportunity to study music history and literature with Dr. David Z. Kushner, a master teacher, pianist, and researcher, a mentor who cares. The author is grateful to Dr. Otto W. Johnston for his persistence to help her develop a cogent argument, for responding promptly with thoughtful insights that focused fragmentary ideas, and his humor during the long process. She would also like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Budd Udell, Dr. Arthur Jennings, Dr. Phyllis Dorman, Dr. Russell Robinson, and Professor Reid Poole for their counsel arid collective effort to teach her how to fish.
She would like to honor Dr. Robert and Millie Ramey for their encouraging presence and thoughtfulness.


to








She


would


like


to


thank


Dr.


Jeffrey


Prater


for


being


enthusiastic about her research on


Toch, and for assembling the


talents of faculty arid students for The Life, Times and Music of Ernst


Toch


pilot project at Iowa State University.


Resources at Princeton University facilitated the realization of


this study.


She is especially grateful


to Penna Rose, Director of


Chapel Music, for her energy and devotion to music.
To these people and many who contributed pebbles along the path but remain unmentioned here, this dissertation is dedicated.


I


In celebration
of unknown repercussions
nf si fsllina trenn







TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .... ....


ABSTRACT


..... . ...... ...... . ..... * iii


. ... ... .... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ...* SS *S S * ** *.. . .. .. . .. ...S *


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION


. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . .1


Purpose
Research Questions Need for the Study
Methodology
Analysis of Data
GERMAN-AMERICAN AESTHETICS AND ERNST TOCH . . .


CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN EUROPE 1903-1933 ....
Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue)
Das Wasser
Der Tierkreis: Es sass emn Fuchs & Es sitzt emn Vogel
Es 1st emn Schnee gefaillen
CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN THE UNITED STATES


1934-1964


The Inner Circle Song of Myself Valse (Waizer)


PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS


144


Inclusion of Toch's Music in Existing Courses Pilot Project: The Life, Times, and Work of Ernst Toch,
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, Spring 1992 Toch as Teacher


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


APPENDICES


A Chart of Vocal Ranges


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


B Publication and Pefformance Infomaon .... . .. .. .. . .


1


74 75


vi


1


2


3


4


11


19


5


78


6


1


54


page











Abstract of Dissertation presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE CHORAL MUSIC OF ERNST TOCH By
Miriam Susan Zach


August 1993

Chairman: Dr. David Z. Kushner Major Department: Music


Ernst


Toch


(1887-1964),


a


prolific


Austrian-American


composer,


teacher,


pianist,


theorist, and member of the Central


European emigre community in Los Angeles, produced over


170


compositions in various genres. His current reputation rests largely upon his Geographical Fugue for speaking chorus (1930) in which he patterned names of places into a fugue, and his Symphony No. 3 (1954/55) for which he was awarded a Pulitzer prize.


In addition


to orchestral,


opera, chamber, film, and


piano


works, Toch wrote choral compositions informed by German, British,


and American literature.


His diverse body of choral music has been


neglected


by musicologists,


theorists,


performers,


and


teachers.


Toch's choral music receives little attention in standard references and rarely appears on recitals or in reviews.


' Sr -. - - -


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their complexity is the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon which is paradoxical contrast whose source is stylistic contradiction


that yields several layers of meaning. T phenomenon comes from Robert Venturi'


and


~he idea of the "both-and"


s


seminal book, Complexity


Contradiction in Architecture (1966) with which he became


known as the father of "post-modernism."
Some of those choral works containing such contradiction evoke


humor.


In


order


to


show


the


extent


to


which


Toch


s


choral


compositions break expectations of order and create humor, we shall


examine how


Toch places familiar elements in unfamiliar contexts.


Analyses of musical elements are used to show how a composition is


complex and contradictory within itself, in comparison


choral works by Toch, and within its historical context.


to other


His published


choral works discussed are Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue), Das Wasser, Es sass emn Fuchs, Es sitzt emn Vogel, Es ist emn Schnee gefallen, The Inner Circle, Song of Myself, and Valse.












CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION


Puroose


Ernst Toch has a puzzling eclectic identity as a composer.


He is


said


to


be


"too


avant


garde


for


the


traditionalists


and


too


conservative for the modernists."1


Many of his choral works are


complex


and


contradictory.


They


resist


easy


classification


understanding. The nature of their complexity will be explored by


examining


Toch's use of conventional compositional techniques in


unconventional ways.


Furthermore, their complexity appears to be


the result


of


a hybrid


"both-and"


phenomenon whose source is


stylistic contradiction that yields several layers of meaning.
Thirteen of Toch's choral compositions have been published


and will be discussed in this study.


These include a fugue from a


three-movement


suite for speaking


chorus, a


cantata,


two


brief


works for women's or children's voices, a folksong arrangement for mixed chorus, a collection of six mixed choruses with soloists, a short piece for large mixed chorus with soloists, and a waltz for speaking


chorus.


Toch's unpublished choral compositions are discussed by


Charles Anthony Johnson in his Ph.D. dissertation, The Unpublished


or






2


Analyses of musical elements will be used to show how each


choral


work


may


be


complex


and


contradictory


within


the


boundaries


of


that


composition.


They


will


be


presented


demonstrate how compositional


techniques in


one choral


work


compare with techniques in Toch's other choral pieces.


Furthermore,


analyses will be used to explore the relationship of each choral work to the historical milieu in which that composition was created.
The ideas of complexity and contradiction, and the "both-and"


phenomenon are adopted for this


study from Robert


Venturi's


seminal book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture ( 1966 ),


with


which


he


became


known as


father


of


"post-modernism."2


Theoretical constructs from the discipline of architecture will be used


explore


the


interweaving


of


order


and


disorder


which


characterizes much of Toch's writing.


the


"both-and"


phenomenon,


inconsistencies


may


contained within order. This is congruous with current chaos theory


in which two general emphases exist.


In the first, chaos is seen as


order's precursor and partner, rather than as its opposite. The second


branch focuses on


the


hidden


order


that


exists


within


chaotic


systems.3
"Both-and" refers to the relationship of elements to each other


and to the whole, and the mixing of stylistic categories.


combinations of focus and richness of meaning.


It allows for


Contradiction may


to


to


In


be






3


refer to a unique inconsistency, or to inconsistencies throughout the


whole.


There is room for ambiguity, and the tensions produced by it.


Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast.


An


element may be double-functioning.


for example,


Harmony may be structural,


when a vertical combination of tones occurs on strong


beats or as the final chord of a composition.


On the other hand,


"changes of chords (or dissonant notes) of durations shorter than the


prevailing


unit


(or the dimensions


that we are examining)


are


ornamental."4


Rhythm may


be


a double-functioning


element


providing structural stability, for example, to stress strong beats or


organize a reoccurring temporal pattern.


It may be ornamental if


changes of rhythm are shorter than the prevailing rhythmic unit.
The extent to which Toch uses conventional compositional fugal


techniques in an


unconventional way will


be explored.


In


Th e


Shaping Forces in Music he states that the meaning of counterpoint is t"produce a discussionll mn point of contrasting idasa voicing Lthe pros and cons, and thus resulting in clarification and final shaping of the


issue."s5


Toch contrasts two types of counterpoint.6 The "imitative"


type of counterpoint of Johann Sebastian Bach has close thematic unity, continuous motivic unfoldment, an insistent motoric rhythm,


and equal phrase groupings.


The "fermentative" type of counterpoint


of Richard Wagner has freely invented independent melodic lines, elastic rhythm, and unequal phrase groupings. We shall examine the


extent


to


which


Toch


uses


these


two


types


of


counterpoint


to








Through


the


unconventional


organization


of


conventional


elements a composer is able to create new meanings. Some choral works by Toch that use conventional elements in an unconventional


way may create humor.


In order to show how Toch creates humor,


we shall examine the extent to which his choral compositions break


expectations of order, and how


Toch places familiar elements in


unfamiliar contexts making the elements perceptually new.


Venturi


defines


two


types


of


contradiction.


He


states,


"Contradiction is adapted by accommodating and compromising its


elements.


the other


hand,


contradiction


juxtaposed is


unbending. oppositions."


It contains violent contrasts


7


The extent to which


and


uncompromising


Toch uses these two types of


contradiction in his choral compositions,


"contradiction adapted" and


"contradiction juxtaposed," will be explored.


Toch's choral works,


"contradiction adapted" is suggested


when different compositional


techniques are


superimposed and


elements are subtly adjusted to accommodate them.


This involves


simultaneous events in which layers are visible but partially erased. It is possible to auditorily discriminate these various synchronic


layers,


which


may


be


distinct


as


well


as


partially


obscured.


"Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested when different compositional techniques or styles occurring sequentially are strongly contrasted.


These


diachronic


contrasts


contribute


to


discernible


auditory


distinctions.


4


In


. . . On






5


At a weekend symposium in 1988 entitled Music in Post-Modern


America,


composers,


performers,


critics,


and


social


historians


discussed the "yawning chasm" that separates their work from tastes


of popular


culture and regular audiences.


They


saw


hope for


narrowing


the chasm through


"post-modern"


music,


which


they


defined as "music that incorporates references to earlier styles and traditions without completely abandoning the tenets of modernism."8
They thought that such works were "less difficult for audiences


to appreciate


than


the


'modernist'


pieces


that


have dominated


composition in


this century--and


that have seemed


to forswear


tonality, rhythm, and the casual listener."9


According to H. Wiley


Hitchcock who is quoted in an article by Lawrence Biemiller,


Post-modernism lives in the present.


. .It looks either


consciously or unconsciously toward the past.


And a


great deal of it shares one characteristic--accessibility. .. . The term "post-modern" is borrowed from architecture. There it refers to the recent movement away from the starkness and lock-step conceptual purity of modernism and toward a revival of ornament anid spatial da. ...


In both music and buildings on the tension between modernist practices.10


. .. post-modernism builds


historical


references


and


Research Guestions
1. How did Toch's artistic and socio-political context influence his
development of stylistic contradictions?
2. How did Toch use conventional compositional techniques in
11nrnnxnc'ntinal wAflrC7






6


3. What are the stylistic contradictions that yield several layers of
meaning?


How did Toch create specific emotions such as humor via his use
of familiar elements in unexpected ways?
How does the study of Toch's choral music impact on the college
music curriculum and instruction?


Need for the Study


Ernst Toch (1887-1964) was a theorist, teacher, pianist, and


prolific, eclectic writer who composed over


170 works in various


genres.


The UCLA


Toch Archive11 contains his correspondence,


essays, two textbooks, four published operas,


seven symphonies,


numerous vocal and orchestral works, chamber music,


piano solos


and duets, film scores, and incidental music for stage and radio plays.


Yet


Toch's


disillusioned


self-reference


as


"the


forgotten


composer of the twentieth century"'2


is


still


valid.


From


1949


through 1990 an average of three listing


s


per year in


The Music


Index


reflects


some


international


interest.


Recordings


and


performances of his numerous compositions are relatively few1


difficult to find.


3


and


Although he is included in major musicological


reference


books,14


many


available


twentieth-century


histories


contain scant information on his creative contributions.15 11 For address refer to Appendix B Publication and Performance Information.


4.


5 .






7


Toch's choral compositions are informed by Austrian, German,


American,


British,


Spanish,


and


Indian


literature,


and


Jewish


tradition.


Choral


music


was


a


means


of


expression


for


his


preoccupation with literature.16 It emerges from different stylistic periods spanning almost fifty years of Toch's creative life ranging


from 1913 to 1961,


and from a variety of poets.


His diverse body of choral music has, however, been neglected


by musicologists, performers, and teachers.


His choral music receives


little attention in references on choral music17 and rarely appears on concert programs. Several choral compositions remain unpublished in


the


Toch Archive at the University of California, Los Angeles.


addition, no previous comprehensive study of the choral music of


Ernst Toch has been undertaken.


will be discussed in Chapter


Possible reasons for the neglect


2 of this study.


Methodology


this


study


embraces


literature


as


well


as


music,


biographical-historical


method


common


to


these


disciplines


employed.


The formulation of a statement of the purpose evolved


during the process of locating scores, formulating research questions,


evaluating


data,


and


gathering


supporting


evidence


from


musicological and literary sources. The summary, conclusions, and


recommendations synthesize research findings.


This study merges


European library sources from Berlin, Detmold, and Vienna,


domestic


In


As


a


is






8


material from the UCLA Toch Archive, and the author's analysis of


Toch's


choral


compositions.


In


the


process of


gathering


data,


preliminary, primary, and secondary resources were consulted.


In


the section of this study entitled, German-American Aestheuics and


Ernst Toch


this literature was reviewed and an historical overview


presented.
Preliminary sources consisted of available twentieth-century music histories, musicological references in the United States, and resources on choral literature. These revealed little information on Toch and his choral music, a factor which supported the need for this


study.


Reference books on literature clarified terms and styles,18


and biographies and anthologies provided information on poets and their poetry.


Primary source


s


included Toch's theoretical writings and some


of his published articles. These were important sources of his ideas


on composition and musical influences on him. Toch


s


The Shaping


Forces in Music (1948) was used as a guide to analyze his use of


harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, and form.


The choral works


were selected for examination from the 1977 revised comprehensive


repertoire list in its appendix.


This definitive List was prepared with


the help of the chronological and thematic catalogue of Toch's works


organized by Charles A. Johnson in his dissertation.19


sources examined in the UCLA


Primary


Toch Archive included scores and


manuscripts of choral compositions, correspondence, and recordings






9


Secondary sources included dissertations, books, and articles on


Toch's


work,


as


well


as


an


interview


with


Bernard


Galm,2 0


interviewer of Lilly


Toch for UCLA's Oral History


Program,


who


generously provided recordings,


programs,


and access to letters.


Charles Anthony Johnson's dissertation, The Unpublished Works of


Ernst Toch


(19


73)


was a valuable resource for exploring


Toch's


thought.


Diane Peacock Jezic, in her book, The Musical Migration and


Ernst Toch (1989), contributed to the understanding of Toch as an 6migr6 composer and teacher, and to the chronological structure of this study.


Newspaper clippings of reviews found in


the


Toch Archive


reflected


public


reaction


to


performances


of


Toch's


choral


compositions. Biographies of poets and the historical context in which


poems


were


written


were


examined


for


clues


on


inspiration.


Collections of poems were researched for text history of a specific poem, and to compare Toch's presentation of the poem with other possible versions.
Important information concerning the origin and development of ideas for his choral music and public reaction to it was written in


German.


It was necessary to translate these findings into English in


order to make this information more accessible to Anglophones who rely on the English language as a primary medium of communication.
A translator has to distinguish between literal translations,


where


common


ideas


may


sound


strange,


and


an


idiomatic








However,


such


translations


are


not


necessarily


meaningful


translations because some words do not translate clearly from one language to another.


Analysis of Data


Each published choral composition is individually discussed. Analyses include a preliminary overview of the choral work, text history incorporating biographical data on the poet, public reaction, musical details about harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, form, orchestration, and the interrelationship of words and music.


This study will


compare


Toch's choral


compositions


from


different stages of his career.


Data are synthesized into chronological


and stylistic patterns.


Toch's compositional


s


tyle is demonstrated


with the aid of tables and musical examples.
The purpose of analysis is to illuminate a musical composition,


making apparent that which may not be immediately noticed.


A


major reason for integrating analyses of the text and music is to


bring various aspects of a composition into focus.


These aspects


include the extent to which music supports the text, is an equal partner with the text, or takes an ironic position in regard to the text.


For this study a combination of analytic tools, namely


Toch' s


The


Shaping Forces in Music (1948),


Jan LaRue'


s


Guidelines for Style


Analysis ( 197 0), and Robert V enturi' s Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), provided the theoretical basis for analysis of


10












C HAPTER


2


GERMAN-AMERICAN AESTHETICS AND ERNST TOCH


As a musician of diverse talents living in different cultural


environments,


Toch


was


influenced


by various external


forces.


Throughout his life he reconciled contradictory aesthetic views.


his essay on his Pulitzer-prize-winning


Third Symphony (1954)


states,

We are and must remain conditioned by the most varied circumstances. There is first the mystery of a person's gifts and capabilities. There is second the mystery of


individual


development.


There


is


the


mystery


person's existence within the collective which we talk of


as "'culture."


We are deeply involved with the specific


cultural environment that had shaped us, that presented


us with a "way of life," with usages,


values


,aspirations,


expectations.


Toch has a puzzling eclectic identity.


Although he preferred


not to ally himself stylistically with


traditionalist


or avant-garde


composers in Central Europe or the United States, both camps include


and exclude him at various points in his career.


Rooted in Baroque,


Classical, and Romantic Germanic traditions, he chose to search for


In


he


of


a






12


Toch expanded the framework gained from his auto-didactic musical studies of Mozart's string quartets in Vienna, his birthplace and home until 1909 in which year he won the Mozart Prize to study piano and composition at the Hochschule far Musik in aurt am


Main.


In 1913, as


professor of composition at the Hochschule fur


Musik in Mannhelin, he developed a "reputation as an important heir


the


late


Roman tic


tradition


of


Brahms"2


indicating


public


recognition of his place within Central European musical traditions.
In his search for new approaches, Toch moved into the realm of


Neuec


Musik


infusing


new


ideas


into


German


communities


via


chamber music, a Western art music genre highly revered in Austria and Germany. In Mannheim, his String Quartet No. 9, Opus 26 (1919) served as a vehicle for introducing change. It emphasizes linear counterpoint, accented dissonances, harmonic clashes, and large


intervallic skips.


His chamber opera, Egon und Emilie (1928) based


on Christian Morgens tern's satirical scene which parodied Goethe's Sing spiel Erwin und Elmire, transformed Mozart's emotional arias into a modernist idiom.3
Among the vanguard of modern Western European composers


the


1920s,


Toch investigated


the music in sound-films, non-


functional harmonic progressions, imitative as well as nonimitative


counterpoint, rhythmic complexities, and jazz.


He also explored


ambiguous


tonality,


but


declared,


"My music is not atonal.


originates in


tonality."4


Toch's


experimentation


in


the


1920s


to


in


It








tumultuous


reaction


to


the


classic-romantic


tradition


among


composers. tradition.


They parodied earlier works, and rejected or expanded


American jazz was heard for the first time in


Western


European communities.


The war years of the


1930s to mid-1940s appear in stark


contrast


to


the


preceding


decade


as


a


time


of


simplicity


and


conservatism. In Germany, National Socialists imposed political and


racial dogma on the musical profession.


They used music as a tool of


socialization as art for the state's sake. Toch toured the United States


in 1932 by invitation of the Pro Musica Society.


Upon his return to


Berlin, his career in censored his musical


Germany was cut short


works and


blacklisted


by the


him


as a


Nazis who


"cultural


Bolshevik."


On


22


May


1938


an exhibition


of


En tartete Musik


(Debased Music) opened


in D~sseldorf Propaganda,


under the auspices of the Nazi Ministry of


with


the


declared


aim


to


forestall


the


'proliferation of . .. Marxist, Bolshevist, Jewish and other un-German tendencies, such as atonal music and jazz,' with special alcoves containing phonograph recordings of modernistic music and published scores by such 'cultural


Bolsheviks' Schoenberg,


as Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith,


. .


. . .Arnold


.Ernst Toch, Ernest Bloch, Kurt Weill.5


Toch had drawn inspiration from prominent German musical


ancestors.


He had served in the Austrian army during World War I,


and been commissioned by Germany to publish a choral arrangement


13







representations


were


highly


regarded


by


contemporaries.


Ironically,


Toch


was


condemned


as


having


an


insufficiently


wholehearted attitude toward National Socialism and the aesthetic facade touting its ideology.


4 December


1934 There are two conflicting ideologies.


One of them regards everything in


artistic


Socialism,


pursuit.


realizes


The other


that


an


the light of pure


,represented


artist


reflects


by


National


a political


situation.8

In Germany the individual is promoted for the well-being of


the entire group.


Toch was an individual who became an outsider.


As an avant-garde composer of Jewish birth, he veered too far afield following artistic pursuits to be accepted by National Socialists. It comes as no great surprise to learn that in Cologne in 1935 Nazi brown-shirts broke into a rehearsal of Der Each er, his 1929 three-act opera incorporating American jazz about a rebellion toward tyranny,


and literally Steinberg.9


took away the


baton from


the conductor


William


In April 1933


soon after Hidler became chancellor of Germany,


Toch and his family fled to Paris, then to London and in 1934, to New


York,


where he taught composition at the New School for Social


Research.


He moved to Los Angeles in 1936 to write incidental music


for films. In 1940 he became an American citizen and began teaching composition at the University of Southern California.10


14


7






15


In the United States musical innovations were socially and


economically curtailed during the war years.11


Some were received


coolly


or


not


at


all.


Hollywood


film


producers


searched


for


appropriate subject matter and musical style to reach the American


masses via sound films.


Confronted with Hollywood aesthetics that


promoted


the


subservience of


music


to drama,12


Toch's


"early


enthusiasm


for


the


artistic


cross-fertilization


possible


in


film


gradually soured into bitter disillusionment."13


During the war years


he was also frustrated locating publishers and conductors. Charles A. Johnson explains:


Toch


contacted


Associated


Music


Publishers


who


represented Schott in this country, and was told he must


join ASCAP, the performing rights society.


Unfortunately,


AMP was then purchased by BML, the rival composers'


organization.


Efforts to obtain performances, publish new


works, or collect royalties were consequently frustrated


at


every


because


turn--Toch


he


was


not


could


not


supplying


be actively new works;


promoted


but


AMP


would not accept new works from an ASCAP composer.14 Publishers include Associated Music Publishers/G. Schirmer,


Belwin-Mills


Publishing


Corporation,


F.E.C


.Leuckart,


P.


Pabst,


Theodore Presser, and B. Schott SOhne.J


s5


Adding to his professional


11 Hitchcock 1974: 217


Film music "should never dominate a sequence of film.


. .It should


enhance the feelings and emotions of the characters . . . and not tax the mind."


lnffrev Fmhler in "Te


Structure nE Film MurCI" frnm FilmC in Review (19S


12






16


woes, he was anxious about relatives and friends in Europe, and under financial pressure to help them obtain exit visas.


As an immigrant composer of Western art music,


himself as "a link in this chain,"


Central European heritage.


Toch saw


maintaining continuity with his


Toch declared,


I believe that we can only be the product of a long line of ancestors and that each creating artist, involuntarily, is


placed as a link in this chain.


He cooperates on


the


continuity to the degree in which the timeless is more
important to him than the timebound.16


He did adapt to the American milieu as evidenced by his use of the English language and American poets in choral compositions written after 1934. Yet he refused to fully accommodate his Central European aesthetic principles to the American musical culture; he


composed for two audiences.


One large and general group responded


to the programmatic Pinocchio, a Merry Overture


orchestral


(1935) and eerie


effects in film chase scenes and mysteries. A second


smaller


audience


was


more


receptive


to


exploring


musical


complexities in chamber music,


such as his Swring Quartet, Op. 70


(1949).


After the war


United States.


Toch traveled extensively in Europe and the


He experienced a renaissance of his earlier creative


productivity


in


an


American


cultural


milieu


encouraging


- - - - - - - -- 4- - 4- - - -


rfl


Li ~ r~ori rr1 fifl F * I F ~ tin * ~ n *a rr r *n~~i mn 4 IN 1 r~ r' 4-.. rn a-, 4- ES ,-~ ~ r r~ .- s-I n n


4-1-n







foundation for his textbook of aesthetic principles, Forces in Music (1948). Toch states in the preface,


The Shaping


This book contains a compilation of observations and ideas which have accumulated through years of


expert bring featur ones.


ence out es of


as a composer and emphasize music as against


In doing so, it attend


"classical" with the at-times


and teacher. It attempts to the timeless and permanent the time-bound and transient ipts to reconcile the at-times
"mden"17


A hybrid consolidation of the past with contemporary change is also evident in his Pulitzer-prize winning Third Symphony (1954) in which Toch challenges convention by using unusual instruments, shifting meters, chromaticism, and transparent linear counterpoint.
In 1957 Toch was awarded the Order of Merit of the German


Government.


In his acceptance speech he said,


I will try to say something not quite easy to express; I


have the f distinction lost in my


town.] and I' partly substit way, I


Iwa was by ute am


feeling of homecoming of th of being different from my childhood and lonesome, a sif not the black sheep, dh never fully accepted. I r' choice, partly by fate.


e lost son. environmen t home and te awkward oamed the


Possibly


By my tlIwas in my sheep, world.


today,


I


fatherland for father and, in a most primitive proud of a father's blessing. But most of all I


am proud of being a descendent of the music which sprang up in Germany and Austria, I do not hesitate to say the greatest music within the Western music, an heir to the greatest of all masters and I humbly accept the acknowledgment that I belong to their spiritual family.18


I A 7 a . p rt 4 a 4- a .. a a 1 a a a A a a 4- a n a C a a 4- .. - - a a 1 ,, a a a 1. I a


17






18


Man has not changed .. . human life has circled in times past and will circle in the future (around) love, death, suffering, struggle, hope, despair, and the urge and search


for God.


These are the things around which human life


really revolves, independent of epochs and localities of races and languages, habits arnd fashions, in short all changeable aspects of any given epoch.19

The Inner Circle (1953) is an example of Toch's concern with


the universality of art.


It is a collection of six short a cappella


choruses based on poems about love, death, hope, faith, and eternity


written by international authors.


His manuscript


Cantata of the


Bitter


Herbs (1938) on the story of the Exodus of the Jews from


Egypt is another choral work intended to be "non-denominational and broadly universal."20


As an immigrant composer in the United States,


Toch reconciled


German and American aesthetic views. His eclectic responses negated the creation of an aesthetic that was only German or American. His musical pluralism indicates that consolidation is an integral part of the art-music traditions of Central European Americans.












CHAPTER 3


CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN EUROPE


1903-1933


Fuge aups cier Geographie (Geographical Fugue) (1930)
Toch's Fuge aus der Geographic (Geographical Fugue),


a 2.5


minute a cappella fugue for speaking SATB chorus, is the published


third movement


of


a three-movment


suite


Gesprochene


Musik


(Music for Speaking Chorus)


and 2


ta tam ta tam ta tam


. Two unpublished movements 1. oaoaoa remain in relative obscurity in the UCLA


Toch Archive. The secular suite premiered in Germany during the Berliner Festtage far Zeitgenbssische Musik 17-21 June 1930 where, "It made an enormous impression in avant-garde circles."1


The Fuge aus 4er Geographic best-known compositions. Translat


has become one of Ernst Toch's


:ed from German into English by


Toch, it has been recorded and performed internationally at major


events in Europe and the United States.


The brief Geographical Fugue


is suitable for high school choruses, college choirs,


and musically


literate non-singers.
Contradictory levels of meaning in music involve paradoxical


contrast.


This phenomenon of being


"both-and"


can evoke humor


through the unexpected use of familiar elements. In his Geographical






20


Germany during the Baroque period with phonemic folly based on names of places organized in a manner that denies order.


In other words,


the Geographical Fugue is highly structured


and exactly determined, yet it sounds chaotic.


A hidden order exists


within that which appears to be babbling chaos. This corresponds to the second branch of chaos theory which emphasizes the hidden order that exists within chaotic systems.2
Toch organized both rhythm and timbre, independent of text or


pitch, into musical form.


Although all three movements in the suite


Gesproch en e


Musik appear disorderly,


the first is sectional, the


second has a curve of tension and release, and


the


third is the


Geographical Fugue.3


Some order-beaning elements exist but others


are omitted.
The generation of the suite can be traced to chaotic spoken


interruptions.


Toch discusses how the suite originated in his chance


experiences with the sound of babble of simultaneous conversations of human voices which intruded upon his consciousness at social gatherings.

The way I first became conscious of the fact that the


combination


of numerous ordinary human


voices


producing a confused vocal din, contains a sort of musical


pattern


was


merely


in the annoyance


such


a racket


caused me when it coincided with my preoccupation with


a composition in progress.


. .. The world at large rather


amply


provided


such


sources


of


disturbance.


experienced it from conferences, in restaurants,


social


in


I








gatherings of all kinds,


especially from criss-crossing


conversations around a convivial table.


. .. Such were the


experiences from which I culled the idea of spoken music


as represented by the fugue.


It was tempting just for


once to try to organize according to set rules the peculiar


sounds


that


arose


from


combinations


of


words


and


voices.4

Toch chose the place names 'according to their rhythmical and acoustical content, their meter, their adaptability to contrapuntal variation, and also with a view to a certain melodic and rhythmic


physiognomy." U


Sonority is


favored


over meaning


and logical


continuity of the words.
He intended his suite to be an experiment recording exactly


determined spoken rhythms,


vowels,


consonants,


syllables,


and


words, then mechanically accelerating them on a granmmophone. The result was a kind of instrumental music whose source was speech,


and represented an an early example of musique con crdte.


Toch


declared that he was only disappointed that the machine altered the vowels in a way that he had not foreseen, but added that it was an interesting acoustical experiment as well as being a musical joke.

Ich wahlte dazu das gesprochene Wort und liess einen vierstimmigen gemischten Kamnmerchor genau festgelegte


Rhythmen, sprechen,


Vokale, Konsonanten, Silben und Worte so


dass


unter


Einschaltung


der mechanischen


Mdglichkei ten


bei der


Aufnahme (Vervielfachung


des


Tempos und die damit verbundene Ton-Erhdhung), eine


Art


Instrumentalmusik


entstand,


die


es


wohi


fast


voraccon mtichen maia diave ihrer T-Trinorrinainno niir


21








tauschte mich die Maschine leider: sie veranderte die Vokale in einer nicht von mir beabsichtig ten Weise mit).


In zwei bewegten Satzchen Geographic" versuchte ich, Seiten anzupacken. So anre sein mag: ich mdchte es seib 0iberschatzt wissen, sondern wissen, was es f r mic


und


einer


"Fuge aus der


das Problem von mehreren ~gsam das Experiment aber st weder tQberschatzen noch lediglich aMs das aufgefasst
war: ein interessanter


akustischer Versuch an einem Neben- oder Abfallprodukt, ein musikalischer Scherz wohi auch.6


I chose the spoken chamber choir spe vowels, consonants,


that with the introd during the recording that the related raisi music resulted in whi its origin only lies in machine disappoint unforeseeable way). Geographical Fugue
various sides. As int I would like neiti undervalued, but oni it was for me: an int side- or byproduct, a


word and ak exactly syllables, ar Auction of r accelerationc ng of pitch)


LChitisc speech. me: it In two I[tried t :eres ting her to Ly want eresting
musical


ilmo


let a four-voice mixed determined rhythms, nd words in such a way
mechanical possibilities in of the tempo and with ,a kind of instrumental st possible to forget that


(Only in one point did the


changed the vowels in an dynamic movements and a ) examine the problem from Sas the experiment may be, overvalue it nor see it to see it understood as what acoustical experiment on a I joke also.


Interrelationshin of Text and Music


In comparing the German and English versions, the title, Fuge aus der Geographie, literally means Fugue out of the Geography indicating the source of Toch's text. Many of the place names refer to


seaports.


Honolulu is the capital of Hawaii on south Oahu. Malaga is


in southern Snain. Rimini is in northeastern Italy on the Adriatic.


22


a








capital of Greece in the southeastern


part.


Nagasaki is on west


Kyushu in southwest Japan.


Yokohama is on southeast Honshu in


central Japan on Tokyo Bay.
Two places hold distinction due to their altitude. Tibet is the highest country in the world situated in south Asia, north of the


Himalayas.


Titicaca is a lake on the boundary between south Peru


and west Bolivia in the Andes, the highest large lake in the world. Mexico and Canada are countries in the North American landmass.


Popocatepeti is a volcano in south central Mexico.


Trinidad is an


island


off


the


northeast


coast


of Venezuela.


Mississippi is


the


principal river of the United States.


Nagasaki, Yokohama, Brindisi,


Athens


and Ratibor achieved


prominence in World War II. Nagasaki was the second military use of


the


atomic


bomb


on


9


August


1945


Yokohama


was


largely


destroyed


by U.S.


bombing in


1945.


Brindisi was a naval base.


Athens was occupied by Germans from April


1941


until October


1944.


Ratibor which is the German name for Racib6rz, a city in


southern Poland, was returned from Prussia to Poland in 1945.8


For the English


version,


Toch


changed Ratibor to


Trinidadc,


maintaining three syllables.


In contrast to the English Athens, in


German


A then


is


pronounced


like


attain in


English.


hypothesized


that


Toch changed A then to


Tibet


and Ratibor to


Trinidad in the English version to increase the number of plosives. This is examined in the discussion of Table II Frequency Distribution


23


7


It


is








Fluss meaning river rather than


big,


which he probably used to


maintain a one-syllable word, Toch's English translation is verbatim and literal.
The Geographical Fugue follows the conventions of a fugue, it is


contrapuntal and polyphonic.


Within the bounds of a four-voice


SATB texture, counterpoint is imitative with close motivic unity and an insistent motoric rhythm which can be found, for example, in the


fugues of Johann Sebastian Bach.


According to the manuscript, the


tempo is a steady, brisk eighth-note equaling 13


2


with 4/4 meter


throughout.


Rhythm


is inextricably bound to text which is set syllabically.


Toch creates rhythmic motives, which are important as generative and unifying forces of form, based on the number of syllables and accents of words. Table I shows the distribution of words by syllabic


content in Fuge aus der Geographie ( Geographical Fugue).


It is an


examination of the rhythmic content of the place names he chose.
It is evident in Table I that Toch uses ten one-syllable (nine one-syllable in English due to the being equivalent to der and die), two two-syllable, six three-syllable, five four-syllable, and one sixsyllable words in his composition. His choice of big instead of river supports a goal of maintaining similar syllabic content in his English


translation.


Toch assigns longer rhythmic values and/or dynamic


accent markings to some accented syllables.


He also links words in


patter-aria fashion, and unexpectedly accentuates the third syllable


24








TABLE I


DISTRIBUTION OF WORDS BY SYLLABIC CONTENT IN FUGE


A US DER GEOGRAPHIE (GEOGRAPHICAL FUGUE) In German Version:


# Syllables


'I


a


one


t


und. derdie. Fluss, Stadt,.


See,


liegt, nicht, in, Ia


two Athen, sondern
three Ratibor, KAnada, M~xiko, Milaga, Rimini, Brindisi
four Mississippi, Titicica, Honolnlu, Nagasiki, Yokohima
six P6pocatpetl

In English Version. # Syllables I
one and, the, big, town, lake, is, not, in, yes
two Tib&, rather three Trinidad, Cinada, M6xico, Milaga, Rimini, Brindisi
four Mississippi, Titicica, Honolulu, Nagasiki, Yokohima six P6pocat6petl


Timbre is another component of the composition.


It is varied


by changing the texture of the a cappella vocal parts and by the


choice of phonemes.


The categories of type of phoneme (plosive,


nasal, and fricative) and selection of phonemes per category are from


Cohen 1965


.Table II shows the frequency distribution of phonemes


in the Fuge aus dler Geographie


indicating the tonal content of the


place names he chose. It was derived by counting the number of phonemes in each category of speech-sound production in the words in Table I. It does not consider the number of times each word is repeated in Toch's composition, so it can only give an indication of


the predominance of


phoneme


types


Toch


chose.


"Instances in


25






26


In Table II it is evident that there are more words with plosive and fricative phonemes chosen for the German version, while the amount of words with nasal phonemes is approximately the same in


both versions.


In the German version 75% of the words chosen have


plosives whereas in the English version 66.6% of the words have


plosives.


In the German version 62.5% of the words chosen have


fricatives compared with 50% in the English version. In both versions


58.3% of the words chosen include nasals.


Of those words with


plosives, there are 1.77 plosives in each German word compared to


2.06 plosives in each English word.


Of those words having fricatives,


there are 1.3 fricatives in each German and English word.
The analysis of phonemes, i.e. timbre or tonal content, indicates


that Toch carefully chose English words that not only fit


TABLE II


parameters


FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PHONEMES IN FUGE AUS


DER GEOGRAPHIC (GEOGRAPHICAL FUGUE)


Phonemes in German version


plosive/p/b/t/d/k/g/
nasal /m/n/3 /

fricative/f/v/6/ 3 s/ z/f/3/r/h/


Phonemes


in English version


Phonemes in Number of
Words in TABLE I of 24 total words


Number of Instances in
Words


18 32 x in 18 words
14 l6 xin l4 words

15 2O xin l5 words


plosive /p/b/t/d/k/ g/ 16 33 x in 16 words
nasal /m/n/qt / 14 15 x in l4 words








syllabic/rhythmic


content,


but


also


similar


phonemic /tonal


content. A goal of increasing the number of plosives in the English version to approximate the percentage of plosives in the German version supports the hypothesis that Toch changed A then to Tibet


(from 0 to 3 plosives) and Ratibor to Trinidad (from


2 to 3 plosives)


in the English version to increase the number of plosives.
A third musical element to be considered is form.


For


Toch


form is the "balance between tension and relaxation?"9 Tension ebbs


and


flows


with


changes


of


texture,


dynamic


levels,


and


the


introduction of rests.


Table III is a diagram of the Fuge aus der


Geographic (Geographical Fugue) showing events in each bar of the 50-bar fugue.


The boldest line (


) indicates the fugal subject which


corresponds to the first three lines of the text (Trinidad! and the big


Mississippi


and


the


town


Honolulu


and


the


lake


Ti tica ca,


the


Popocatepedi is not in Canada rather in Mexico Mexico Mexico).10 T he


thinner


line


(


)


indicates


the


countersubject


which


corresponds to the next two lines of the text (Canada Malaga Rimini


Brindisi Yes! Tibet Tibet Tibet Tibet).


11 T he dotted line (*-----.....-----------)


coincides with that rhythmic material which is neither subject, nor


countersubj ec t.


It is primarily associated with the third line of the


text (Nagasaki Yokohama Nagasaki Yokohama) although may include words from either the first or second text lines that have rhythmic alterations from their presentation as subject or countersubject.


of


27








28


T ABLE III DIAGRAM OF FUGE AUS DER GEOGRAPHIC


q


19


29


39


49


l0


20


30


40


m -


50


I -


- - __


Toch


countersubj


s


fugue


is


conventional


ect, episodes, and stretto.


As


it


contains


a


seen in Figure 1


subject, the fugue


subject is three bars long and usually enters with a bold


fortissimo.


In the exposition in bars 1-12 the subject appears in the tenor, then with its countersubject in the alto, soprano, and bass voices.


The first episode, whic


hi by definition has no presentation of the


, I A' T V. ,... - 1 7 .~ V. - V. ~ - -. - ~ - - - - -


9


S
A
T


-5


II


s A.


B


21


3


13


23


33


43


4


14


24


34


44


S.
A.


12


22


32


42


7


17


27


37


'47


8


18


28


35


46


15


25


35


45


16


26


36


46


31


S
A
r


B


41


S
A
T








20-


25


includes


counter


s


ubject


fragment


s


and


assigns


new


accentuation to words of the subject text.



Soprano


Alto Tenor Bass


4


a


p


Ed
.1


-j











Can -a - da Ma -la -ga Ri -mi -ni Brin-di -al Can- a- da Ma- la-p gI - mi- nI Brin-di -si


Figure 1


TochFuge aus der Geographie


Bars


1950


195


7


by Mill


s


Music


New York


ed by permission of CPP


/Belwin


Inc


Miami


The subiect reenters


in


rite-


bass


in


bar


25


in stretto


with


the alto


29


S .


A.


B.

s.
A.

T.

S.

A.


T.
B.


U


s


1


-4


4 Trin - 1 - dadt and the big Mis - sis - sip - pi and the















2.


Trin


J


-i1


t


- dadi


ma



Can-a- da Can -a - da Can-a - da Can-a -da Ma -la -ga Ma -La- ga Ma-La -ga Ma-la -pg







nd he bgMis -a al sp - p1


Trn-1 aiand the big PMlm - win - alp - ph and Ohe










and th onHn-o-l uand the


lawn j-on -o - lu- lu and the lake TI - ti - cs-ca



Trin -l - dadi and the big MIs -alas-aip -pi


alp - pA and the town lion -




lake TI -ti -ca - ca Trin - 1





and the town Hon -c- lu- lu and the Lake fl -ti -ca -ca


Lake


T


rT, . 7~ V n - a -. b -


S


I- I


ff


I


3


0


Au


Au


and


the


a


.7









31


Stretto continues in bars 33-38 with several changes.


word (Trinidad) is augmented beginning in bar 33 occur in SATB order at regular half-note intervals.


The first


,and the entries Toch increases a


crescendo


in


bars


37-38.


From


bars


39-50


the


four-voice


- crescendo
P


Tr - (witih rolled "r')


Trin fl; dadi Trin - t - dadi


Trmn - I - dad! Trin - i - dad!


Cana -daMa-a-gaRI-mi-ntBrafldI-li Caf-a -da Ma-Ia-ga Ri-mi-niflrin-dt-ai




cre sc. moito

Trtn - 1-dadl Trmn-i1- dad~ Trin-t- dadt Trin -i-dadI
cresc. motto

Trwn-i1- dad! Trin -I- dadl Trwn- i- dad! Trin - 1era sc. molto


Can -a - a Ma-la -ga


Ri- wi- ni Brin-dI - at Can - a- d~a Ma-la - gp Ri- mt- ni BrIn-di -ax


''I


ii


dn a- ad Tr4n- -dd


- I


- dad!


Figure 3 TocliFuge aus der Geographie Bars 48-50


1950, 1957 by Mills Music, New York
Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami


II


LI


Trwn






32


pedalpoint in the soprano beginning in bar 48 builds to a climax with the entire choir exclaiming Racibor (Trinidad) in unison in bar 50.


It is clear from


the foregoing


analysis


that


Toch carefully


organized both rhythm and timbre, or pitch, into a musical form. Text I


independent of textual meaning hias a double functdon; it serves as


a rhythmic generating device,


and the source of timbre.


In contrast


to choral works specifying pitches, here pitches are unspecified. Given that harmony and melody depend on specific pitches, they are


not among the musical elements discussed.


Since the fugue is a


cappella, orchestration is also not part of this analysis.
In conclusion, in reference to the creative origins of the suite,


Toch succeeds in contrasting organized elements with babble.


In


other words, he creates babble using carefully organized musical


elements.


The Geographical Fugue is an example of a hybrid "both-


and"


composition.


Toch


uses conventional


techniques


such as


"imitative" counterpoint,


stretto, augmentation, close motivic unity,


and an insistent motoric rhythm which were popular in the Baroque era. He combines these conventional techniques unconventionally with a speaking chorus. The juxtaposition of opposing forces is also


evident in other choral works such as


Toch's cantata Das


Wasser


discussed in the next section. Gesprochene Musik Suite in Historical Context


Poets


and


composers


before


Toch had


experimented


with






33


with speech sounds and words as sonorous events is reminiscent of the literary work of symbolist poets who, between 1880 and 1895,


were


exploring musical


propertie


s


of language.


In


symbolism,


"symbols lacking apparent logical relation are put together in a pattern" and words are used "for their musical effect, without very much attention to precise meaning."12
Near the end of the nineteenth century in Germany, composers were looking for ways to more precisely connect the spoken voice's


rhythms to notated music.


Engelbert Humperdinck (18


54-192


used Sprechstimme in his melodrama Kdnigskinder (1897 Figure 4. This notation was later employed by Schdnberg i Lunaire (1912) to show the many possibilities of using th voice musically.'3


Md- ne - son Bin- men Ira- gen 'Thu in den Ojo- iken.

4


V


Cd


I


) seen in


n Pierrot e spoken


Figure 4 Humperdinck Keinigskinder lb


Lau rgedich te (Sound


Poems)


were familiar to the German


public,


and can


be


traced


chronologically in


twentieth-century


German literature. Paul Scheerbart invented words in his abstract


1


)









appeared in Fin Eisen bahnroman, ich liebe dich


Love You) (1900).


(A Railway Novel,


14


Christian Morgenstern, who wrote Egon und Emilie which Toch set to music as a chamber opera in 1928, invented words in his poem Das grosse Labila that begins Kroklokwafzi? Semememi! Seiokron to-


prafriplo.


This abstract poem in Galgenlieder (1905)15 was popular,


and part of the repertoire at the Dadaist Cabaret Voltaire.16
In 1916 Dadaist Hugo Ball also wrote a sound-poem beginning gadji bern bimba17 in which he invented words. In the same year, Dadaist Richard Huelsenbeck created a poem based on sounds of


letters.


His Chorus Sanctus 18 from Phancastischen Gebeten (1916)


begins aao ael iii oi.


In his Manifesto of 1918


Richard Huelsenbeck states.


"Life


appears as a simultaneous muddle of noises, colours, and spiritual


rhythms,


which


is


taken


unmodified


into


Dadaist


art.


The


SIMULTANE things."19


IST


poem teaches a sense of the merry-go-round of all


Dada was a movement in art and literature founded c.


1916 in Zurich.20 In the 1920s Berlin Dadaists were redefining their culture and manipulating linguistic, visual, and auditory conventions


in an effort


to


reveal


how they were


generated


and how they


functioned.21


14 Richter 1965: 120 15 Morgenstern 1979: 16


34


I







Dadaists were active in Hanover


19


23


-1932. Kurt Schwitters


(1887-1948), originator of Merz art, created anUrsonate in 1924/5.
The following is a brief excerpt from the first part of the Ursonate.22

Fflmms bi wd ftimms bi wO ff mmes hO wO ta~Aa?
Ftimms hO wO ftimms hO wO ffdmms bi wO taa zaa Uuuu?
Rattatata tattatara tattatata
Rinnzekete bee bee nnz krr mtiitt?


Huelsenbeck' s


"simultaneous muddle"


calls to mind Toch'


discussion about how his tree-movement Gesprochene Musik suite originated in his chance experiences with the sound of babble of


simultaneous conversations of human voices.


Toch, like Huelsenbeck


in his Chorus


Sanctus,


and


Schwitters


in


his


Ursona te,


used


disassociative speech sounds in the unpublished first and second


movements


of


Gesprochene Musik (1930).


The


texts


of


the


unpublished first and second movements use phonemes to provide timbre and rhythm.


Movement one of Gesprochene Musik begins The text has contrasting consonants and vowels.


o a oa oa irilirL.
The beginning of


movement


two


of


Gesprochene Musik is ta


tam


ta


tam


La


tam


begobum gobetiga 1itipiti. Movement two includes strings of onesyllable plosive-plus-vowel composites drawn from the following


possibilities: /pi, pe, pa, pam, po, be, ho,


bum, ii, te, ta, tamn, to, tu, di,


,ka, ko,


gi, ga, go/


Combinations with


are most frequent,


followed by /p, b, g,


and /d/


.Some of the syllables are German


r i'. .. .. r * 11 e 1/


* /


35


s


ki


/t/


k/






36


movements Toch used disassociative speech sounds, the published third movement Fuge aus der Geographie used recognizable words but in a relatively meaningless syntax.
These first two movments are in 4/4 meter with the quarter


note equaling a brisk 144.


In The Unpublished Works of Ernst Toch


Johnson confirms that, "Despite their innovations, the first two pieces


have been almost completely ignored in favor of the third.


This may


have been due in no small part to the performance difficulties arising from the avoidance of recognizable words."23
Toch's work differs from most of the Dada24 authors in that as


a composer,


Toch created phonetic poetry


then used it as the basis


of musical compositions.


No documentary evidence has been found


linking


Toch to the Dada movement, yet we see parallels.


Given


Toch's temporal and geographic proximity, it is unlikely that he was


unaware of


activities of Dadaists in


Germany. However,


without


documentary evidence in the form of Toch's own writings, it is only possible to say that he may have been tangentially involved in the Dada movement without actively promoting it.


Das Wasser (The Water). ot.


53 ( 1930)


Das Wasser is a 1 9-minute secular cantata in German for tenor


solo, baritone solo, narrator, three-part women's,


men's or children's


chorus, flute,


trumpet,


percussion,


6-12


violins


, 4-6 cellos, and


contrabass on a text by the novelist Alfred DOblin (187


8-1957)


25


In








August


1922,


Das


Wasser appeared as a six-page essay without


rhymed verse in Die Neue Rundschau.26 A slightly altered version


was published in Das Ich


uber 4cr Natur27


in Berlin in 1927


handwritten manuscript of the text of Das Wasser corresponding to Toch's musical version was discovered in the UCIA Toch Archive.


Toch's version premiered during 17-21 June 1930.


the


UCLA


February


Toch Archive document performances in


1933


, however,


no clippings


were


found


Clippings in Germany in to indicate


performances thereafter.


The solo parts are difficult.


They are


appropriate for professionally trained singers in contrast to the choral parts which are suitable for amateur choruses.
Complexity in this multi-movement choral work is the result of a "both-and" phenomenon whose source is stylistic contradiction that yields several layers of meaning. In Das Wasser Toch juxtaposes an idealistic baritone who focuses on metaphysics with a realistic tenor who is concerned with physical and chemical properties of water.


Toch


yields


uncompromising


oppositions


by


superimposing


conventional forms and techniques popular in


the Classical and


Romantic stylistic periods within the structure of a cantata which


was


popular


in


the Baroque era.


Conventional


techniques


are


combined in an unconventional way.
Toch states he was attracted


to the opposition of the


two


characters, a calm narrator and choir, and to the didactic tone of Alfred Dbblin's writings in which humor and warmth sound quietly.


37


A









Ads mir Doblin das "Wasser" vorlas, da "kiang" es in mir;


und darum habe ich es komponiert.


Gegensatzlichen


dier


beiden


"Fig uren"


. .Sie liegt im


und


in


den


neutralen Ruhepunkten von Sprecher und Chor, und sie liegt endlich im diclaktischen Ton, in weichem Humor und
Warme leise anklingen.28

A critic for the Dtisseldorfer-Lokal Zeicung declared that Toch used the form elements of the teaching piece as a virtuoso, humorous


ironic fencing mirror,


"benutzt hier Toch


die Formelemente des


Lehrstticks


zu


einer


virtuosen,


humorig


ironischen


Spiegelfechterei."29
For Doblin the fact that water is in all organic beings proves the unity of life.30 It is a means by which an individual is one with the


cosmos.


Ddblin shows there is no dualism between spirit and matter


by depicting two human representatives engaged in dialog in which each presents his viewpoint, and ultimately supporting unmty. Interrelationshio of Tex.t and Music


Toch' s


eight-movement


cantata


Das


Wasser


follows


conventional structure popular in


the Baroque era,


including a


succession of recitatives, arias, duets, and choruses. Movements are


joined by the narrator's rhymed spoken verse.


It resembles the


cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach as an allegorical31 composition, and in its small scale requiring only two soloists, narrator, choir, and


38


a








chamber orchestra.


Unusual in a Baroque cantata is Toch's amalgam


of compositional techniques popular in later centuries.
The German text of Toch's cantata combines rhymed verse and


unrhymed prose.


Archive.


It was found in manuscript form in the UCLA Toch


This text differs considerably from the six-page published


essay entitled Das Wasser.
In movement I the narrator sets the scene for the cantata with a rhymed couplet. The English translation was done by the researcher.

Sprecher Es gehen zwei am Meer entlang,
Fin Gesprach fangt zwischen ihnen an.

Narrator As two people walk along the sea,
a conversation begins between them.

Movement I is a brisk instrumental introduction marked Straff


(taut) with the quarter note equaling 132


.In the exposition, the first


theme has balanced four-bar antecedent and consequent phrases,


and meter changes.


It is presented by unison fortissimo violins,


cellos, and contrabass in Figure 5 bars 1-8


Figure 5


bars


1


-2


are repeated in bars 3-4 to comprise the


antecedent phrase.


In the consequent phrase, syncopation occurs in


bars 5 and 8


sequences in bars


5 and 6


,and a descending whole-


tone scale in bars 7 and 8.


Beginning in bar 9 the trumpet repeats


the first theme accompanied by a countermelody with an insistent motoric eighth-note rhythm in the cellos.


39











(


2


V


a


2


- I ___ I-I
-I
-I -~


2g


.1


Figure


5 Toch Das Wasser, Op.


53


Movement I Bars 1-8


Copyright B. Schott'


s


Sohne, Mainz 1930.


Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S.


and Canadian agent for B. Schott'


s


Sbhne, Mainz


the first two bars of the first theme in different keys.


Although a


double exposition and development exist, no recapitulation occurs.


Therefore the movement is termed


"


quasi sonata.


Toch concludes


the movement with a crescendo to a massive fortissimo C major


chord and accented pause.


He defines the point of articulation


between movements I and II by changes in tempo, dynamic level, rhythm, melody, and instrumentation.


Movement II introduces the two characters.


This duet between


the


tenor and


baritone is


in


unrhymed


verse.


It


begins with a


"somewhat relaxed"


tempo,


piano dynamic level, and


"plodding


motive


"in violins and cellos.


This motivic designation refers to the


U nw naco anrd flh tonnr hciino orn11nrderd in nbxrviral rcitlisr


A final


40


I


IT


-4,


2







41


Tenor Wenn wir beie so langsam trotten, Werden wir morgen zu Hause sein. Bariton Das Meer ist ein wunderbares Ding. Tenor Wir wollen nach Haus!

2Tnr If we walk so slowly, We will be home tomorrow. Baritone The sea is a wonderful thing. Tenor We want to go home!


The tenor enters for the first time in Figure 6 bar 45 with


eighth-note surface activity and a repeated


two-bar phrase in a


narrow melodic range over the "plodding motive" in staccato


The baritone first enters in bar 49 to extol the wonders of


0 s geaidUoh


p


s


trmgs.


the living


TENOR


Wean WIF bd- ma 1a~-amtrt-tau, wa- whuc a Es-rn sofa.
- -
- I

-


eta cc.


50


rn


IARITON * WI, wollec nsA
br ______________I I
Dan Mecr... tat a wm-dar4s-cs Ding.



~-e


Figure 6 Toch Das Wasser, Op.


53


Movement II Bars 4


3-52


'I,








sea.


In


contrast


to


the


tenor


and


musically


suggestive


expansive spirit,


he is supported by an accompaniment that is free


of the "plodding motive." This is an example of how Toch musically contrasts the two different characters.
Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. Tonal ambiguity is achieved through the superimposition of independent


melodic lines focusing on different tonal centers.


Nonfunctional


harmonic progressions are the result of the vertical intersection of


these tonally ambiguous lines.


The two soloists, choir and strings


express


different


views


in


Figure


7


bars


66-70.


The


choir


monophonically echoes the baritone.


Bariton


Ich sah es nicht immer so.


Das Wasser ist lebendig! Choir Das Wasser ist lebendig. Tenor Hier hast du Bleistift und Papier. Das wird emn Gedicht. Zum Lachen! Wo ist das Meer lebendig!


Baritone I didn't always see it so. Choir The water is alive. Tenor Here is pencil and paper. Ridiculous! Where is the sea alive!


The water is alive!


This will be a poem.


Toch


defines


the


transition


to


movement


II


by


changing


tempo,


dynamic


level


melody,


harmony,


rhythm,


and


instrumentation. He ends movement II with a fortissimo F# major chord held a dotted half note with fermata.


Movement


III


the


tenor


lists


physical


and


chemical


42


of


an


In








70


Tea. Bar.


Figure


7 Toch Das Wasser, Op.


53


Movement II Bars 66-70


Copyright B. Schott'


s


Sohne, Mainz 1930.


Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S.


arid Canadian agent for B. Schott'


s


Sdhne, Mainz


Tenor


Das Meer, meine Damen und Herrn, 1st aufzufassen


als emn grosser Topf. nur saiziges Wasser.


Leider ist keine Milch drin, sondern Zwei Komma f nf Prozent Salz hat


schrecklicher Weise das Meer.


. .. Mehr, meine Damen


und Herrn, 1st vom pp Meer nicht bekannt. Bariton Und was 1st das Wasser?


Tenor


The


sea,


ladies


and


gentlemen,


has


understood as a large pot. Too bad that there is no milk in it, but only salt water. Terrible to think of it but the sea has two point five percent sa.... . . More32 ladies and


gentlemen, is not known from that sea.


43


___________________ Bleistift und N-pier. Dam wird oh GoDais Ideer_________ 1st Ie~

Was-


tree

- - -


AUi.


to


be






44


This tenor and baritone duet with chorus is in a five-part rondo


form popular in the Classical period.


It is marked Allegro with the


quarter note equaling 138.


In Figure 8


Theme A is presented at a


piano dynamic level in the first violins in bars 84-85.


This theme


unifies


the movement


by its


periodic repetition.


Its continuous


melodic unfoldment and insistent eighth and sixteenth note motoric rhythm were popular in the Baroque era.


tAuesr@ 4-au
A ~flLJflb


L.a





* -


ii-


a


4'-


r


'I-


w


U-


Figure 8 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53


Movement III Bars 84-8 6


Copyright B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz 1930.
Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S.


and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz


After listing physical and chemical properties of water the


tenor unexpectedly critiques his own factual declarations stating,


Im


liibrigen ist es Jan gweilig und ohne Humor (By the way it is boring


and without humor)


in Figure 9


bars


140-14


2.


He immediately








140




f *1


0J


- tL ,-1 rThz.


V






ccc

c


lrntb


- rlgen it as zang-weitwg


tnd ohne Ru-mar.


Figure 9 Toch Das Wasser, Op.


53


Movement III Bars 139-142


Copyright B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz 1930.
Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation


sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott'


s


Sbhne, Mainz


DOblin


s


sudden


change


to


rhymed


verse


tends


to


draw


attention to the tenor's text. Toch emphasizes this rhymed text by suddenly setting it a cappella in contrast to a massive homophonic


texture and active rhythm.


are broken


Expectations of order in music and text


,and familiar elements are placed in unfamiliar contexts


Vt.

Na


45


VIM.






46


He ends movement III with a descending triadic unison flourish to a fortissimo C and accented pause.
Movement IV is a tenor and baritone recitative in which the


baritone presents his point of view and the tenor comments.


The


baritone then expands on his ideas in an aria and their debate


continues.


In contrast to earlier movements, the majority of the


dialog


between


the baritone and tenor is in rhymed verse.


The


movement begins Quasi grave with the quarter note equaling 96 and


has a changing meter. In Figure 10 bars 1


57


-1


59, tritones in the low


strings provide a tense pulse over which violins and cellos play a new theme in unison.


4


'a



f


f___


f _______________


f


Figure 10 TochDas Wasser, Op.


53


Movement NV Bars 15


7


- I


-159






47


Tension mounts during the baritone's recitative and overflows into an aria, a romantic outpouring on the essence of water beginning in Figure 11 bar 200. Nonfunctional harmonic progressions are the result of the vertical intersection of chromatic and tonally ambiguous lines.


B aritoin


Sieh!


Was


hier


zu


unsern


Fuissen


liegt,


Urwesen, die grosse Wassergewalt.


Hier heisst sie Meer,


aber sie fulit die ganze Erde an. Alles auf der Erde will atmen und nichts Lebendes kann das Wasser entraten. .. . TZenlr Und bleibt doch immer H zwei 0!

Baritone See! What lays here at our feet, is the original


being,


the great power of water.


Here we call it sea, but


it fills the entire earth.


Everything on the earth wants to


breathe and nothing alive can get by without water. .. .
Tenor And remains still always H two 0!

Melodic changes build tension. The melody gradually ascends chromatically to a peak in Figure 11 bar 205. The tenor, however, is not convinced that water is anything but H20. Movement IV ends


inconclusively on a pizzicato G and pause.


In The Shaping Forces of Music


Toch contrasts two types of


counterpoint, the "imitative" type of Johann Sebastian Bach which he considers has an ornamental function, and the "fermentative" type of


Richard


Wagner which has formative power.33 In movement IV,


"fermentative"


counterpoint


prevails


with


free


invention,


independent melodic lines, uneaual phrase grouinss


and elastic


ist








200 BAR TON


a-s em It


205


s-'' i It


-r


7' it- I I


I I I
_____________I__________________________


~1


Figure 11 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement IV Bars 200-205

Copyright B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz 1930.
Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sdhne, Mainz


In Movement V the choir represents the voice of the people


questioning the essence of water.


Once again the narrator comments


on the action in a couplet with rhymed verse.


Chor Das Wasser, das Wasser, was ist das Wasser? Sprecher So der Chor, der SpOtter drangt seine Antwort vor.

Choir Water, water, what is water? (often repeated) Narrator So much for the choir, The scoffer pushes forth his answer.


48


a








harmonies seen in Figure


1


2


bars


269-


2


75


Continuous motivic


unfoldment,


sequences,


anid


an insistent motoric


rhythm


were


popular in compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach.


Toch


introduces


complexities


of


stretto


in


bars


311


-320.


Tension mounts as the choir gradually ascends chromatically in


unison from cl-a flat


2 con tutta forza.


An abrupt f minor chord


ends movement V


Dat 'Wa.. - ser, darn Was a icr, was ist




Jilts mimer gtstohn

'a


F


IA
r


275


It


Das Was - ner) dan Was - icr,

Was - 3cr? Was it da
r.
IllI ____


1'


Figure 12 TochDas Wasser, Op.


53 Movement V Bars 269


-27


49


5






50


Movement VI begins Allegro commodlo with the quarter note


equaling


11


2


and a consistent


4/4 meter throughout.


In a brief


orchestral introduction Toch recalls the "plodding motive" associated


with the tenor in movement II.


Here this motive appears as a steady


eighth note f#-e flat alternation in


the strings in


the orchestral


introduction in Figure 13.


~5d~


Sol Inz.


-- -4
- *


I I I I


I ~I ~


Figure 1


3


TochDas Wasser, Op.


53


Movement VI1 Bars 34 1-343


Copyright B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz 1930.
Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott'


s


Sbhne, Mainz


In movement VI


the


tenor sings a rhymed strophic arietta


about the realities of heat and light. Once again the narrator propels action in a rhymed couplet.

Tenor Weisse Kohle, unsre Kochtdpfe zu heizen,
weisse Kohie unsre Stuben zu beleuchten.
Wieviel Kilowatt in der Stunde?


Allegro coinmodo . :112


f~4


A







51


The "plodding motive"


his arietta.


continues to accompany the tenor during


It is evident in Figure 14 in the flute part while cellos


and a triangle maintain a steady eighth-note pulse. The reoccurrence


in this movement of the


"plodding motive"


with the tenor unifies the


composition and functions as the tenor's leitmotiv.


This same motive


was identified in


Toch'


s


chamber opera Edgar and Emily (1928)


where it occurred during periods of time in which Emily waited for


Edgar. motive TglTen4


Vcl


Thus in the context of the opera it was dubbed "waiting


"by the researcher.


___________________________Koch- t5pte ma heizenweL - a. Kok- - -Is unare Stuben zu be-leucliten.
p p - - p - p


w.
-


35/5s


Fl Tgl Ten


o-watt in der Stun-dle,


mis - vie!


Ki-ba-watt in der Stun-


Figure 14 Toch Das Wasser, Op.


53


Movement VI Bars


35


2-3 56


Copyright B. Schott'


s


Sohne, Mainz 1930.


Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation


sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott'


s


Sdhne, Mainz


--


Wie -viel Ki-









movement


ends


with an inconclusive a minor


chord in


second


inversion.
In movement VII the baritone elaborates on his point of view


in unrhymed prose.


The choir continues to wonder about the essence


of water and the narrator comments in a rhymed couplet.


Chor Das Wasser, was ist das Wasser?


Bariton Im


Wasser fliessen wir,


Wasser sind wir auch.


Das Wasser lebt im Meer und in den Fit0ssen.


Das Was ser


lebt auch in uns Menschen. . .. Sprecher Es scheint, das Gesprach wendet sich.


Wohin, wohin wendet


es sich?


Chair Water, water, what is water? (repeated) Baritone We flow in the water, we also are water.


lives in the sea and in the rivers.


Water


Water lives also in us


people. .. .
Narrator It seems that the conversation is changing. where, to where does it turn?


The legato subject in Figure 1


5


bars


3 82-3


97


in the cellos is


answered at the octave by the violins in bar 392.


394 Toch superimposes the baritone'


s


Beginning in bar


independent melodic line onto


"imitative" overlapping


counterpoint


of


in


different


the


layers


orchestra. which


This


nterweg


simultaneous awe suggests


"contradiction adapted."
Toch uses conventional fugal techniques including an inverted


ciihinrr hnn4nntnn 4n bnr A 92 nnA n tnr~ A 2 2 A 2


-7


52


To







53


FlieendTkfete1 keetwa *9


______ I I_____ 3=


Pp


'go


I I F~Ps I 1I'AAtAt


p motto u sam pro Iega'Ihmzme IA.RiTON 2

Ira 1Wa - set fie - banwr

was st as Ws -serwas tat das Was - so:?


Figure 15 Toch Das Wsr, Op. 53 Movement VII Bars 3 82-397

Copyright B. Schott' s Sbhne, Mainz 1930.
Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz


phonically intones Was ist dais Wasser?


Toch ends movement VII in


B flat major.
Movement VIII begins calmly with the quarter note equaling


80.


In a brief duet with unrhymed prose, the tenor quietly questions


his substance while the baritone affirms his own nosition








dich nicht


erniedrigen, sondern zu reclit stellen


und


erhdh'n, dich Offnen und bereichemn.


Diese Welt ist ganz


deine, was du urn dich erblickst, bist du, bist alles du!

TenIQr And I am therefore nothing but water, and maybe also a bit of protein and salt? Baritone You don't know, what you are with all of that! I don't want to put you down, but correct and lift you, open


and enrich you.


This world is entirely yours, what you


notice around you, you are, you are all!


In response to the tenor, a trio of baritone, flute,


answer.


and violin


The flute imitates the violin while the baritone sings an


independent line which can be seen in Figure 16 bars 530-532.


FL


~zti t-I


-ft_
.1


t~~~1


- nickt,wus dtz dc-mit al-lesbisti


-


Uch will dick uicht er - riled-ri-gem,


Figure 16 TochDas Wasser


,op. 53 Movement VIII Bars 530-532


Copyright B. Schott' s Sbhne, Mainz 1930.
Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sdhne, Mainz


Toch accentuates the baritone's declaration that man is one


with the cosmos.


He inserts a trumpet fanfare, drum roll, melodic


54


Bar.


'I


vtot











rhymed


couplet.


The


cantata


ends


with


a large


choral


finale


unrhymed prose praising the great living water


3
4


A


Allegro 4


g


Laic


:.23h-144


545


tins dus


gro


'Jo


C
"C


Wa~s 5r




1~


f


It


H-


,enl


1-


'so


Laa -it


'too


if
arc')


'I:


3f
4


zrzl:tI - - '


-Th


I ri


~1


Li.


r


Ce-'n


-1


'- .


Figure 17 TochDas Wasser


, Op.


53 Movement VIII Bars 543


-551


Copyright B.


Schott' s Sdhne, Mainz


1930.


Copyright renewed.


All Rights Reserved.


Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation


sole U


.s.


and Canadian agent for B.


Schott's Sbhne


Mainz


Sprecher Beendet ist die Belehrung,


55


in


71. 'fly. ft.


I CHOIl 4-if-


K
ass 4*8


Wa. WI.




Lb.


)ttt


r


F--F









Narrator The instruction is finished now, they honor the great water. Choik Let us praise the great water! (repeated)


. . .Itis


the power which breaks out of the mountains, flows over trees and flowers, through animals and people it runs its course.


Toch's grand finale, Lasst uns das grosse


Wasser preisen!


resembles Johann Sebastian Bach'


s


(1685-17


50) Jauchzet, frohiocket,


auf,


preiset


die


Tage34


for


the


first


Christmas


day


from


Weihnachtsoracorium in Figure


18.


Both are fast contrapuntal


choruses of praise in triple meter that are tonally centered in major keys. Both have a chamber orchestra of trumpet, flute, drum, violin divisi, viola, cello, and contrabass.


Fg.C'g.
e Coat


rfl


iauihtet,rroh - l - )01, auf, preset die Ta - ge, rtihjaucIhtet,Frch- Iok-Ret, auf, preset die Ta - ge, runjauchiet (rob - bok - ket, auf , preset die T -g


jauchrtet~Eroh- loW -ket, auf, presset die Ta - ge, T1Ut t


6


C
4


S
3


7


I


A


a


S..- S


Fire 1R8, LA


Bach Weihnachtsorarnriiim Bars 42-46


56


his


S


.






57


In contrast to Bach's setting, Toch does not include an oboe or


harpsichord.


Toch'


s


melody is different.


Bach has a four-voice mixed


choir whereas Toch writes for a children


women


or men's chorus.


Toch


begins


the


finale


with


imitative counterpoint,


close


thematic unity, continuous motivic unfoldment, and insistent motoric


rhythm reminiscent of J.S.


Bach.


He introduces a new theme in bar


563 in the cellos.


This new theme is presented in bitonal stretto in


the orchestra seen in Figure 19 bars


11 'I 'a


586-591.


590


lb - isa Last. - Var- .6.
b U
S





If
C
Ti


Figure 19 TochDas Wasser, Op. f

Copyright B. Schott'


53

s


I


Movement VIII Bars 586-591


Sohne, Mainz 1930.


Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B.


from


Schott's Sdhne, Mainz


Toch learned to reconcile polyphonic and homophonic writing Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart whom he considered to be "the


A








summary


Table


Iv


Structure


of


Das


Wasser is a concise


overview


of


the


movements


in


the


cantata,


their


form,


duration,


tempo,


vocalists needed,


and orchestration.


The right-hand column


indicates whether


Toch added flute,


trumpet, and/or percussion to


the string orchestra. TABLE IV STRUCTURE OF


Movement


II


:iii


Form


quasisonata


organic


rondo ABACA


Du


DAS WASSER
ration Tei


1 minute


1.5 minutes


2


minutes


mipo


taut


somewhat


relaxed


fst


*


-138


Vocalists


Strings+


I


no


T B choir


T B choir


Fl Tpt Prcs


Tpt


Fl Tpt Prcs


IV organic 3.5 minutes grave T B (only
* -96 ______strings)
V fugal 1.5 minutes fast *=144 choir FL Tpt Prcs
___ ___ ___ technique _ _ _ _ _
VI strophic 1.5 minutes fast *=1 12 T Fl Prcs


fugal


technique


fugal


technique


5


minutes


3 minutes


flowing
*=-29
*=80
*=138


B choir


T B choir


Fl Tpt


Fl Tpt Prcs


* means quarter note


Toch


planned


contrast in form,


techniques,


duration


tempo,


and orchestration between movements.


He altered texture, harmony,


melody,


rhythm,


dynamic


level,


and


used


spoken


narration


In


58


VII


VIII


in


*=132








Rhythmically,


the meter is stable in the second, third, sixth,


and seventh movements.


There are frequent


meter


changes


thefirst, fourth, fifth, and eighth movements. and slower tempos in the cantata as seen in


Toch contrasted fast


Table IV.


Rhythmic


motives such as the "plodding motive"~ in movements II and VI tend to unify the composition.
Harmonically, accidentals indicate tonal centers rather than the key signature which in the common practice period would indicate


either C major or a minor.


Although the majority of the cantata does


not consistently follow triadic harmonic progessions, movements end in C major, F# major, the note c, the note g, f minor, a minor, B flat


major, and C major the key signature.


. The closure of half of the movements relate to Toch uses a variety of harmonic tools including


triadic


harmony,


bitonality,


and


expanded


harmony


such


chromaticism for affective color.
Melodically, shape and growth are achieved by introduction of


new material,


variation, and repetition. Melodic ranges are tenor


soloist C-g l, baritone soloist B flat-fl, and if a women's or children's


chorus,


sopranos I f#1-a2, sopranos II cl-a flat 2, and altos g-d2.


Dynamic levels range from pianissimo to fortissimo.


decrescendos direct motion.


Crescendos and


Often crescendos work with melodic


ascent to contribute to directional motion and build tension to a melodic peak.
Text is set predominantly syllabically, although melismatic text


59


in


as






60


In conclusion, the complexity of Das Wasser appears to be the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon whose source is stylistic


contradiction that yields several layers of meaning.


Contradiction of


meaning involves paradoxical contrast. The simultaneous overlapping


different


layers


which


are


visible


but


interweave


suggests


"contradiction adapted" as was seen in movement VIII.


"Contradiction


juxtaposed" is suggested when different compositional techniques


occurring


sequentially


are


strongly


contrasted;:


for


example,


"fermentative" counterpoint appears in movement IV and "imitative"


counterpoint


eras.


in movement V.


Toch juxtaposes compositional techniques popular in earlier Techniques prevalent in the romantic era include the use of


expanded tonality with chromaticism, tapering dynamic changes, and


gradual ascent to a melodic climax.


Tonal ambiguity is achieved


through the superimposition of independent melodic lines focusing on different tonal centers in "fermentative" counterpoint.


Techniques popular in


the Baroque era include "imitative"~


counterpoint with stretto and inverted subject, close thematic unity, insistent motoric rhythm, and continuous motivic unfoldment in a


cantata structure.


Balanced four-bar antecedent and consequent


phrases,


rondo and


s trophic


form, and


triadic


harmonies


used


structurally as final chords of movements, were widespread during the Classical period.
Toch uses conventional compositional fugal techniques in an


of






61


clarification and final shaping of the issue."36 Toch's use of different


types of counterpoint in Das Wasser


is an appropriate choice to


represent Doblin's contradictory positions embodied in


the two


characters.
It has been seen that expectations of order in music and text are broken, and familiar elements are placed in unfamiliar contexts


giving way to humor.


Complexity and contradiction can also be


found in Toch's choral works of a much smaller scale such as Es sass emn Fuchs (There Sat a Fox) and Es sitzt emn Vogel (There Sits a Bird) discussed in the next section of this study.


Der.- Tierkreis. On.


52:


Es sass emn Fuchs (There Sat a Fox) (1930) an~d


Es sitz efi VOge. (Ther e. . is a Birdr) (1.930)


Toch set each of these one-minute secular pieces of moderate


difficulty for a small two-part women's or children's a


app ella


chorus.


Both are in Das neuc Chorbuch, Heft


7 (1930) edited by Erich


Katz.


They are based on poems by Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), a


German artist and writer who is as famous for his caricatures and comic drawings as for such humorous writings as Max and Moritz.37 Both poems appeared in 1874 in a popular collection of eighty poems


entitled


Kri Uk


des


Herzens (Critique of


the Heart)


by


Wilhelm


Busch.38
Toch's settings of Busch's poems come from a three-piece cycle


Der Tierkreis (The Zodiac), op.


52


which includes a third unpublished








(Stork) by von Arnim.39


The translation "Circle of Animals" is more


accurate than "The Zodiac" for this song cycle about chickens,


a fox,


bird, cat, and stork.
The source of the "both-and" phenomenon is contradiction of


content and meaning.


Double meanings abound in these two brief,


humorous compositions in which Wilhelm Busch and Ernst Toch use,


yet


simultaneously


challenge


conventions.


As


satires


against


complacency,


they question norms and traditions.


Toch believes


"There must be form--the outer shape dictated


by a work's inner organic life.


That form Wll present, in some


aspect,


a


struggle


between


differing


concepts."40


Both


brief


compositions are in binary form. conflict between a farmer and fox.


The first piece represents the The second work depicts the


tension between a cat and bird.


Es sass emn Flxchs (193.O.


Interrelationship of Text and Music


The


motivation


of


many


of


Busch's


animals


"frequently


resembles that of people who are liberated from social or cultural


inhibitions."41


His criticism is directed at his society, encouraging


people to "take a new look at traditional values."42


Toch does not


state the source of his version of the poem, but it matches a version published in 1908 in Kritik des Herzens.43


62






63


In his poem Busch is advising the dissident middle class about


the double-dealing


of


the aristocracy.


Like German rulers


who


offered amnesty to the revolutionaries of 1848,


then seized and


executed trusting opponents, the farmer seeks to capture the fox. But


the crafty animal will not be fooled.


He not only refuses the offer of


safe conduct, but announces that another fox has just been born, suggesting that some animosities endure forever.
Busch's 14-line poem is divided into two unequal parts of eight


and six lines.


Except for its rhyme scheme of AABBCCDD FFFFGG, it


adheres to the classical form of an Italian Petrarchan sonnet. A


sonnet is divided into two sections.


The first is an eight-line "octave"


rhyming ABBAABBA that presents a narrative, states a proposition,


or raises a question.


The second section is a six-line "sestet" rhyming


CDFCDE, CDCDCD, or CDFDCE that makes an abstract comment, applies the proposition, or solves the problem.44


In Busch


s5


poem


the octave opens with a couplet (tief and


Brie!) which introduces the fanner's proposition (So und so)


has four


accents per line, regular iambic meter, and an AABBCCDD rhyme scheme.

Es sass ein Fuchs im Walde tief,
Da schrieb ihm der Bauer einen Brief: So und so, und er sollte nur kommen,
's war Alles verziehen, was fibel genommen.

A fox sat in the deep forest,






64


The sestet begins with a couplet (blur and gut) introducing the fox's reply and shifts to irregular two or three accents per line in an


EEFFGG


rhyme


scheme.


The


English


translation


done


by


the


researcher is idiomatic, rather than literal, taking into account two different writing styles, one by the farmer, and the other by the fox. It considers the use of idiomatic conversational German by the fox.

Darauf schrieb der Fuchs mit Ganseblut:
Kann nicht gut.
Meine Alte mal wieder
Gekommen nieder.

To which the fox wrote with geeseblood:
Cannot do.
My old lady has just had another little one.
Wilhelm Busch challenges convention in his use of form and language. Within the classical structure of a sonnet, irregular phrases


appear.


Busch creates tension by juxtaposing a farmer who is trying


to trick a fox, and a wily fox who outsmarts him.
The poem's binary design determines the composition's AB


form with two unbalanced parts containing 14 +


11 bars.


With a


march tempo in 4/4 meter, Toch begins the composition in D major as indicated by the key signature.


Toch sets


the first two


poetic


lines syllabically in a forte


straightforward unison with balanced antecedent and consequent


phrases in Figure 20 bars 1-4.


He begins the farmer's proposition















irttrr


saS elniFuchis imn WaI- de


K __


-4----- -



_____ - -


tie!,


da


sebrieb ihm der Baia - er
I
F


r


V


Es saB emn Fuchs in' Wal-de


tieS,


da


schrneb Thm der Ba - er


p


5


k


r


- nen Brief: So und so, urn] er soil-ic nur kom-men, s w~r

:9


LjJ


- nen


Brief:


So und


so,


und er soli-te rut


3 r3


w


kerm-men,


s wnr


Al - les Ver-


zie-hen, was


Figure


20 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es Sass emn Fuchs" Bars 1-6


Copyright B. Schott' s Sbhne, Mainz 1930.

Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors

Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz


Toch indicates a


point


of


articulation in Figure 21


bar


between the


farmer's


farewell and introduction of the fox's answer.


Gradually rhythmic activity slows to quarter then half notes.


A poco


ritardando and decrescendo to pianissimo support his farewell in


Figure 21 bars


13-14.


Fluctuating tonal centers and chromaticism


convey ambiguity in the farmer's farewell.


I

t


s .


65


.W


4


el


\tJ


15








bar


18


the fox'


s


answer musically reflects the irregularities of the


text by using


3/


2 and 4/4 meter. As in the farmer'


s


proposition, Toch


ambiguously wanders from the tonal orbit during the fox's answer.


pOCO it.


U


rr


- ten soil-be gein - tr treu-er Kri-schan fbi - .


- ten soil-to neia ga - ter, treu-er Eri-schan ErA - .
15 a tempo

- Draul schrieb derFuchs mit Ginse - blut: Kann nicht gt


* -U


N


-. - a p ~iii Fr-r


-I, II - -


t


Uraufisctrieb der Fuchs


mit


- blat:


Mann nioht gut.


Figure 21 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op.


Copyright B. Schott'


52


s


"Es Sass emn Fuchs" Bars 11-18


Sohne, Mainz 1930.


Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.
Used by permission of European American Music Distributors
Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sdhne, Mainz

Although the majority of the text is set syllabically, Toch uses a


melisma plus crescendo and melodic peak in Figure


22 bar


emphasize the word Seele in the fox'


s


farewell (Im


U brig en


von


ganzer Seeke dein Fuchs in der Hdhle.


in the cave)


Otherwise sincerely, your fox


Then he quickly tapers the dynamic level to pianissimo.


In contrast to the ambiguity in the farmer'


s


extended farewell, the


66


22


to









lento


U- brigen von ganzcr


I :1
K' -w II


yip-


p


C.


a
p


In:


lee - -


- T -


a tempo


pp


Lie
P


dein Fuchs in der lHbh-le.


f


U - brigen


von ganzer


See


- le


dciniFuchs in der E~h-le.


Figure 22 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op.


52


"Es Sass ecn Fuchs" Bars 2 1-24


Copyright B. Schott' s Sbhne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.


Used


by


permission


of European


American


Music


Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sdhne, Mainz

In conclusion, Es sass ecn Fuchs is a small-scale example of a


"both-and"


phenomenon with stylistic contradictions.


Toch uses


techniques popular in the Classical period such as triadic harmony,


imitative counterpoint, small forces, and a clear binary form.


He also


uses techniques prevalent in the Romantic era such as building to a climax, ambiguous expanded tonality for affective color, and tapering dynamic level changes.


Es sitzt ecn Vogel(1930)


The second of the published compositions in Der Tierkreis is Es


sitzt eini Vogel about


the conflict between a bird and cat.


In Wilhelm


Busch's poem located in Kritik des Herzens (19O8)4s a bird is caught


in the lime spread out on a branch and cannot fly away.


The cat


67


H


V


A.


w


U


-








his demise.


This is gallows humor, and this poem is often cited as


one of the best examples of the genre in German.
The twelve-line text is divided into two equal parts with four


accents per line, and AABBCC DDFEFF rhyme scheme.


line section introduces the


The first six-


two characters, a bird and cat, and


establishes their conffictual situation.

Es sitzt emn Vogel auf dem Leim,
Er flattert sehr und kann nicht heim.
Fin schwarzer Kater schleicht herzu, Die Krallen spitz,46 die Augen gluh.

A bird is stuck,
He flutters so and cannot go home.
A black cat moves stealthily to him
The claws outstretched, the eyes glowing.

The second six-line section tells us what the bird is thinking and


doing,


and gives a final brief comment from the poet.


The


poem-


s


binary


design


defines


the


AB


form


of


the


composition with two balanced parts containing 16 +


15 bars.


With


Allegro tempo and 4/4 meter, Toch begins the composition in D major as indicated by the key signature. Toch sets the first two poetic lines syllabically in an imitative texture at a mezzo-forte


dynamic level seen in Figure


23


In contrast to the initial conjunct melodic line "stuck" to d, Toch introduces the black cat in Figure 23 bar 4 with a descending octave


lean. melismas. andl chrnmaticikim


fHp PmnHaci7Pc the wnrrd cnil-7


68













Es
I".


'4-


sitt in Vo -gel auf dein


-2~~
4.--


Leim,


er flat-tert


Vo - Ke] aid deni


Leirn,er flat


- terd


p,


V


4-


sehr und kann nichit hcim. Ein


M


4


5


sch


warmer Ka -


-p


Pt


sehr und kann nichl heim.


I I -


- - ier


4


Ein schwar -


4


ler


schleicht..


K a * ter


Figure


23


Toch Der Tierkreis, Op.


52


"Es sPAz emn Vogel"


Bars 1-5


Copyright B. Schott'


s


Sbhne, Mainz 1930.


Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.


Used


by


permission


of European


American


Music


Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott'


s


Soline, Mainz


accents, staccato articulation, and


upward melodic leaps.


Toch


wordpaints schleich t


as the feline moves stealthily with imitative


lines that gradually ascend to melodic peaks in Figure 24 bars 10-11


that accent gluh.


The


word


gluh


in line 4 die Augen gluh


is


poetic


10
I


if,,


I


spitz, die Au - - - gin gluk. - Den Baum kin- aid und im-aer
>-ffp
a
S


Krallen spitz,


die Au -


- gn -


r


II


die Au - gen


gluli. Den


-


Baum bin- of vini im-mer


Figure 24 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op.


52


"Es sitzt emn Vogel


Bars 8-1


69


Es


-I


izt


ein


2


Allegro








license for


glahen and means that the cat'


s


anticipation of the meal he is about to enjoy.


eyes are shining in He also uses eighth-


note


surface


activity


to


increase


tension.


Melodic


ranges


are


sopranos cl-g2


altos a-e2.


Toch creates a moment of high tension by using a disjunct line


with


wide


leaps,


a crescendo,


and


sudden fortissimo to piano


dynamic level change in Figure


24 bars 10-11


.The melodic peak is


paired with a major second melodic interval which is an accented dissonance at the loudest point. A dotted half note and minor ninth


leap upwards further emphasize the cat'


s


eyes


glowing in hungry


anticipation.


Toch


maintains


tension


to


the


end


of


section A


-a-- Is


I


kommt or dcei ar - - - men Vo - gel ma - her. Der Vo - gel


kommt or dern ar- men Vo - - gel Da-ber. Der Vo - gel


A A ATp 20

denkt: Weil das so 1st und well mich doch der Ka - ter IriBt, so


4


denkt: Weil das


so


1st uid


1~


weil mich doch tier Ka - ter


fri~t,


so


Figure


25


Toch Der Tierkreis, Op.


52


"Es sitzt emn Vogel


Bars 14-2 1


70


by


p4






71


continuing to use chromaticism, modulation, and progressions of seventh intervals.
Toch defines the point of articulation ending section A by a


decrescendo arid accented pause in Figure 25


bar


16 .


Harmonic


ambiguity at the end of section A continues tension as the black cat comes ever closer to the bird.
Section B begins in bar 17 with a straightforward declaration.


Toch emphasizes the bird's resolute decision in Figure


25 bars 18-19


by using triadic harmony, half- and quarter-notes, and accentuating syllabically-set text. The tritone on frisst in bar 21 increases tension.


Der Vogel denkt:


Weil das so ist


Und weil mich doch der Kater frisst,
So will ich keine Zeit verlieren,
Will noch emn wenig quinquilieren.

The bird thinks: Because it is so And because the cat will eat me,
I don't want to lose any time,
I want still to twitter a little.

Toch wordpaints the bird twittering via a three-bar melisma of
primarily sixteenth notes in the soprano part in Figure 26 bars 24-


26.


An active disjunct melodic line of staccato major and minor


thirds in the alto part resembles the call of a cuckoo. Toch represents the final straightforward commentary (1Der Vogel, dltnkt mich,47 hat Humor. The bird, I thought, has a sense of humor.) in Figure 26 bars


2Q-3 1


H-in


-S-~~ 4 S ~ .


uses accented notes and


naiises


svllahicnllv-ser text






72


(2)


a


a


K~ 7113


Cd


lu-stig pfeifen wie


zU'


- vor.


Per


Vo - gel,


diinkt


niich,


hat Hu-mor.


Figure 26 Toch Per Tierkreis, Op.


52


"Es sitz emn Vogel" Bars 24-31


Copyright B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved.


Used


by


permission


of European American


Music


Distributors


Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sbhne, Mainz

In conclusion, it has been seen that Toch changes dynamic level, harmony, melody, and rhythm to portray characters and define points of articulation. He elicits humor through the unexpected use of


conventional techniques.


The work is an example of a hybrid "both-


and" composition in which Toch contrasts compositional techniques popular in the romantic era such as expanded tonality, dynamic level


tapering, and building to melodic peaks,


with balanced form, small


forces, and triadic harmony that were popular in the eighteenth


25


lie-ren,quinqui - i e-ren quin-qui-1 Ie-ren quinqui -Ie-ren quin-qui-Iir-ren und


___ p 30

lu-stig pfeifen wie zu - vor. Drr Va - gel, dunks ih a umr
p- I








intervallic skips. compositional


"Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested as different


techniques


occurring


sequentially


are


strongly


contrasted to musically characterize the cat and bird.


Es ist ein Schnae~egefallen


(1.93 )


The simplicity of this arrangement appears in striking contrast


to Toch's choral compositions discussed in this study.


In its clarity,


balance, and order, Toch's a cappella SATB setting of a fifteenth-


century secular folksong with


cantus


firmu s


in


the


tenor is an


example of twentieth-century neo-classicism in music.


This 2.5


minute work is suitable for youth and college choirs.
The brief strophic setting is one of many arrangements by


composers48


throughout


Germany


and


Austria


who


were


commissioned by the state to contribute to the Jugendbewegung in


the 1920s.


Toch's composition is in the


Volksliederbuch fur die


Jugend, Band II, Heft 5 Gemischte ChOre, Leipzig (1930)


that Toch


.It is ironic


,who was invited to represent the voice of the German


people in this folksong


would be blacklisted within three years by


the National Socialists. InterrelationshiD of Text and Music


This melancholy strophic poem by an unknown poet about the painful consciousness of time passing foreshadows the end of the Weimar Republic and the impending exodus from Germany.


73








Es ist emn Und es is Man wirf Der Weg


Mein Es ist Zerbr Mein


Schnee gefallen, t doch nicht Zeit. t mich mit den Ballen, ist mir verschneit.


Haus hat keinen Giebel, mir worden alt. ochen sind die Riegel, Stflblein worden kalt.


Ach Lieb, lass diclis erbarmen, Dass ich so elend bin, Und schleuss mich in dein Arme, So fahrt der Winter bin.

1930 by C. F. Peters Leipzig.
Used by permission of C. F. Peters Corporation, New York.

The twelve-line text is divided into three equal parts with


three accents per line, and ABAB CDCD EFEF rhyme scheme.


The


English version as translated by the researcher is:

Some snow has fallen And it is not yet time.
One throws snowballs at me,
My way is covered with snow.


My house hasi It has become Broken are the My little room


n gabel, Ald.
beams, has become cold.


Oh love, have mercy on me That I am so pitiful, And hold me in your arms, That is how the winter goes.


74








bars.


For


each


of


the


three


verses,


Toch


sets


the


rhymed


text


syllabically in two equal eight-bar symmetrical phrase groupings of


an antecedent and consequent nature. Tempo is not indicated.


4/4


meter is consistent throughout the piece. Quarter note activity begins


the composition.


With


the cantus firmus in


the


tenor, imitative


entries for basses, altos, and sopranos build a four-part homophonic


texture seen in Figure


27.


1. Es 1st ein Schinec ge * MaI - leii, und es 2 Mein ilaus hat kel - nen Gie - bet, es ist 2. Ach Lieb, laB dicbs er - bar - men, daa icli

1. Es 1st ein Schnecgc - *a len, und es ist nit Zeit, es
2. Memn Haus hat kei - ruin Ole - but, es ist war- den alt, mein 3. Ach Lieb, 1a6 dichs cr - bar- men, daU icli e - lend bin, mob


I. Es


inst


3- Nein Ihaus


tin Schneuge hat ked - yen


3. Ach Lieb. taui dichs er


- fal Oat
- bar


Ieii, und


- bel,


es


men, dao


es


ist ich


ist dochl nichi rnir war- den so c- lend


Figure


27 Toch Es ist ecn Schnee gefallen Bars 1-4


1930 by C.


Used by permission of C.


F. Peters Leipzig.


F. Peters Corporation, New York.


Melodic lines move primarily in stepwise motion with the vocal


range rarely exceeding an octave. Melodic ranges are sopranos dl


-e2,


altos b-al, tenors d-dl


and basses


G-g.


Harmonically, a G major tonal center as indicated by the key


signature predominates, seen in bars 1-4 and in Figure 28 bar 8.


The


point of articulation corresponding to the end of the first poetic


75


es


alt, bin., -_ _


mein nuh











Zeit. alt. bin,


Zeit. alt. bin,


N


Zeit. alt. bin,


Man wirft inich mit


den


Zer -bro -chen sind die


mnd schleub mich in


dein


Man wirft mich mit den Bai- len, Zer - bro - chen sind die Rio-gel, und schleuS mich in delii A r -me,


Man wirft mich mit den BEd- len, Zer - bro - chen sind die Rie -gel, mnd schleuB niich in dein Ar - me,


Bal Rie Ar


- len,)
- gel,
- me,


Figure 28 Toch Es ist emn Schnee gefallen Bars 8-10


1930 by C. F. Peters Leipzig.


F. Peters Corporation, New York.


Some chromaticism provides tension


10 in the chromatically descending bass line.


rhythmic activity in bar


piece.


Toch unifies the work by repeating the tenor and bass lines


directional motion, and


Eighth note surface


from bar 9 in Figure


29 bar


1


3


.Additive imitative entries of altos


and sopranos at a half note delay in bar process of imitative entries in bars 1-2 wh


13 resemble the additive


ich were at the whole note


delay.


A chromatically descending bass line contribute


s


variety in


Figure


29 bars 13-15


.Toch cadences conventionally V-I to G maior


76


4cr mein so


Used by permission of C.


variety


in the second couplet. This can be seen in Figure 28 bars 9-


10 also provides variety and propels the









wan wirft mich mit den Bal - len, tier Weg 1st mir ver-achneit.
- zer * bro - chen sind die Rie - gel, mein StUb - 1ein wor. den hait.
- ~und sthleuiC iih in delin Ar - me, so tahrt dier Wira- ter hinM

man wirft mich mit den hi - - lan, dier._. Weg lit mit ver-schneit.
ier - bro - dhen sind die Rie - - gel, ami Stdb - 1cin war - den kalt.
und schleua mich in decn Ar - - me, so - fihrt der Win -icr kin!


wirrt mich mit bro - chen sind schietiB iich in


den die dein


Bad
Rie Ar


- len, der
- gel, mein


- me,


so


Weg Stub
fihrt


1st
- ein


dier


mir


Win


ver - sc neit.


den Ler


kalt. hin!


Figure


29 Toch~s is': emn Schnee gefallen Bars 13-


30 by C.


F. Peters Leipzig.


Used by permi


s


sion of C.


F. Peters


Corporation


New York.


conclusion


as Gebrauchsmusik,


the folksong


collection


which


Es


is':


emn


Schneee


gefallen


belong


s


serves


a pedagogical


purpose for


s


tudent


s


from the age


of twelv


e


to learn to sing Lieder in


a variety


of


style


s .


The limited


technical ability and narrow vocal


range


of


youthful


voices


are


important


parameters


of


the


compositions.49


This purpose explains


writing in comparison to


Toch


the simplicity of the choral


's contemporary choral publications.


77


t


19


16


In


to













CHAPTER 4
CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN THE UNITED STATES 1934-1964


The Inner Circlsom


67 (1953)


Toch's The Inner Circle is a collection of six a cappella choruses primarily for large forces and professional soloists based on secular and sacred English texts by an international group of nineteenth-


century poets.


The cycle lasts 13 minutes.


The compositions are


I. Cui bono? by Thomas Carlyle II. The Lamb by William Blake


III. Extinguish my eyes


by Rainer Maria Rilke


IV. 0 World, thou chosest not by George Santayana
V. Have you not heard his silent step by Rabindranath T agore
VI. Good-bye, Proud world by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Although Affiliated Musicians, Inc. is credited as publishing the cycle, the researcher located no current address for this company. BMI,


ASCAP, Beiwin-Mills, Associated Music Publishers/G.


Schinmer, and


European American


Distributors


Corporation


had


no record


publication of The Inner Circle.1
The choruses on poems by Carlyle, Blake, Rilke, and Santayana,


plus Trees


(1914) by Joyce Milmer,


2


premiered 26 May


1945 mna


of








collection entitled Songs of the Cycle for mixed voices,


women's


voices, soprano solo, flute, and organ at the Seventh Annual Festival of Modern Music at the First Congregational Church in Los Angeles.3 Songs of the Cycle included
Prologue for flute and piano


Qui Bono


?7


for mixed voices by Thomas Carlyle


Interlude for flute and piano The Lamb for women's voices by William Blake Interlude for piano Faith for mixed voices by George Santayana


Trees for soprano solo, flute, and


piano by Joyce Kilmer


The Book of Hours excerpt for mixed voices and organ
by Rainer Maria Rfilke
Epiloque for flute, piano and organ
The existence of the concert program indicates that the first four of the compositions in The Inner Circle were composed at least


eight years before they were published.


In organizing


The Inner


Circle, Toch omitted Joyce Kilmer's Trees, the instrumental prelude,


interludes, and postlude.


He later added the poems by Tagore and


Emerson.


In The Inner Circle Toch embraces established practices.


He


favors conventional forms and compositional techniques from his


studies of Western European traditions.


A decrease in the amount of


contrapuntal writing in comparison to his earlier works is noted in


79








over linear independence.


Toch allows the influx of unconscious


emotional sources to influence his balance of tension and relaxation


throughout the cycle.


His acceptance of irrational creative springs


from


which


inspiration


bubbles


up


is


characteristic


of


the


nineteenth-century romantic writers who stimulated Toch's poetic imagination in this cycle.
The impact of his composing commercial film music is not to be discounted as contributing to a change in his compositional style and choice of traditional texts that focus on universal aspects of human


existence.


Since 1936 Toch had been writing film music that "should


enhance


the


feelings


and


emotions


of


the


characters."4


socio/cultural significance of the prevalence of neo-romanticism in this cycle is that Toch became too conservative for the modernists of the 1950s.
The song cycle has also been referred to as Songs of Life and


The Cycle of Life.


5


The revised collection published as


The Inner


Circle renounces the temporal in favor of universal and eternal aspects of life. It is Toch's response in contradiction to the rationality of his contemporary historical context in which serial music, that emphasized a highly conscious and rational approach to composition,


was widespread.


Toch wrote,


Our music is fully


congruous with


our time; it is an


appropriate expression


of


our age.


Many


established


practices are abandoned, many new beginnings have


80


A








prominently it denotes a change i m.. . . The change is predicated u heretofore unknown, of rationalit) other innate faculties of man. The


on a ramp
The
on formaLi developed deduction emotional


n the inner status pon a preponderan y, as compared to intellect seems to


age against man's totality.... "timely" music of our day places its emphasis stic and structural elements. Sets of laws are for their operation. Argument and logical are now the valid measure. . .. Influx from .unconscious sources is sifted out to the


minimum. .. .
For those infatuated with the rational and dedicated


to creation along these 11 great fascination. . .. relationship between thel ever equal that between


whether their music may endearing, transporting past, whether this music that measure of collective unique human possession


I
h


nies, the task evidently holds But I wonder whether the .r music and their public will man and music heretofore, prove capable of becoming the experience it has been in the may enjoy, on a broad basis, acceptance which made it the that was handed down to us.6


I.


Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), a British philosopher, critic, and historian who lived in Edinburgh and London, believed that the


"ultimate reality is not to be found in


the visible world, but in


timeless and


universal


truths for which natural phenomena can


provide but fragmentary representations."7 These truths are found intuitively rather than through logical processes. His poem Cui Bono?


Appendix


II


"Fractions


(182 3-1833)"


in


Critical


and


Miscellaneous Essays: Collected and Republished ( 1860).8 Although


81


of ce, all be


is


in






82


Toch does not state the source of his version of the poetic text, the poem probably dates from late 1826.9
Toch set Cui bono? for a large a cappella SATB divisi chorus. This two-minute secular piece of moderate difficulty is suitable for


college


choirs.


The


poem's


tripartite


design


determines


the


composition's musical shape of AAB form with balanced sections


containing


14


+


14


+


15


measures.


Unity is


achieved


by the


repetition of section A, whereas B provides variety.


Details of poetic


structure are confirmed by musical points of articulation defined by changes in dynamic level, harmony, and rhythm.


Pianissimos and


slower


harmonic


rhythm


at


cadences


harmonically stable D or F major define the three major points of


articulation at bars 14


,28, and 43.


Rhythmic lulls in the form of


dotted quarter rests contribute to clarifying points of articulation at


bars 14 and 28.


Dynamic levels range from pianissimo to fortissimo


with crescendos arid decrescendos.


These contribute to directional


motion.


Sections A begin


What is hope?


A smiling rain bow


and


What is life? A thawing iceboard.


These are relatively quieter and


calmer than section B which has more dramatic dynamic contrasts.


Section B begins with the text,


What is man? A foolish baby,


Vainly


strives and fights and frets.


Toch set Gui bono? to a massive chordal


homophonic texture with only the briefest imitative echo concluding


each


of the


three sections.


Events in


this composition involve


simultaneity rather than independence of lines.


in










phrase structure of the text is reflected in


the music by eighth,


quarter,


or dotted-quarter


rests,


and


longer


notes


relative


surrounding rhythmic activity.


Toch set the text to a quick quarter-


beat pulse of "about 92," accelerandos or ritardandos.


4/4


meter in all


but bar


35


and no


The prevailing unit is half notes.


Toch matches notes to the stress and length of syllables or


words.


He emphasizes words and phrases by text repetition, melodic


peaks or valleys, and sudden changes in harmonic color in Figure 30 bars 1-4.


a about 92


FL


N


espr.


Tenor Bass


0)


What is hope? What


I - F! - I N
I'-,


is


hope?.. A smil-ing


rain -


bow-


rain - bow.


-I


I-


~e-)


Th


What is hope ? Wha is


&-- I


111


hopie?-


smil


A


- iN


I


r w~~I~w4d


ci


C,


rain - bow. re~


riz I


- - -


I III
I P'
~Vhat is hape? What is hope?- A smil - ing rain - bow...


What


is hope? What is


hope?-


A


smnil - ing


rain - bow.


Figure 30 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Gui bono? " Bars 1-4


195


3 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles


The tree-note rhythmic motive, short-short-long, in bar 1 that is presented and immediately repeated signals the beginning of each


section.


This rhythmic motive serves to unify the composition. The


lowest notes of the melodic range of the sopranos and altos are on


83


to


ILM








84


syllables on melodic highs or lows by using open vowels.


ranges are sopranos e#1-a2, altos b-e2


Melodic


tenors d flat-f#1, and basses


G flat-b. Melodic shape and growth are achieved by repetition and introduction of new material.

In comparing the beginning of sections A and B which have the


same rhythmic stress,


but different harmonic


background


it is


evident that melodic variation is also a source of melodic shape and


movement. Toch varies t section B in Figure 31 bar emphasize man rather that


he melodic pattern of the beginning of 29 by leaping upward a major sixth to n, repeating the section A descending leap.


The melodic curve in Figure 30 bars


2-3


transforms to a sawtooth


shape in section B bars


32-35


seen in Figure 3


2


.These variations in


melodic pattern propel section B forward.


a


11


mf
ht -~


-I


r


What


is


man? What


is


man?-


A


nif


p


22934


What


An


is man? What


Is


man?-


A


nit


r - -,

a
What is man? What is man?~ A
P -- ft in
b


What


is


marl? What


is


man?


Figure


31 Toch The Inner Circle, op. 67 "Gui bono?" Bars 2 9-30


1953 by AMfiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles


-, p


A


A








begins


each


signature,


section in D major which


he


ends


the


composition


is indicated


in


EF


major.


by the key Harmonic


contradictions also exist.


The progression toward the sharp side


from two sharps in D major to four sharps in F major tends to increase tension. Modulation away from the tonic center, complex and dissonant alterations as indicated by numerous accidentals, and contrasting fast with slow harmonic rhythm contribute to tension


and movement.


Harmony is used ornamentally with changes of


chords or dissonant notes shorter than the prevailing half-beat unit. Toch uses an expanded tonality in search of affective color which was popular in the nineteenth century.
Toch is sensitive to textual meaning and the effect of complex vertical structures on affective color. Areas of greater and lesser


dissonance contribute to gradations of harmonic color.


In comparison


to the more stable undulating melodic contours, triadic harmonies,


and V 7


chords of sections A, in section B Toch wordpaints baby


vainly strifes and fights and frets, Demanding all, deserving nothing


in Figure 32 bars


32-37.


He uses disjunct sawtooth melodic lines, a


fast harmonic


rhythm,


complex chords with


tritone harmonies,


chromaticism, and a crescendo to increase tension building to a fortissimo six-part climax.


Harmony serves as a double-functioning element.


structurally to stabilize, for example,


It is used


g-flat-7 chords on nothing in


Figure 32 bar 36 stabilize on the prevailing half-note unit.


It also


85







86


/


7


mand-ing


Figure 3


2


a11-


d. -sur -ving


Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67


nyu'


- ling, -


195


3


by


Affiliated Musicians, Inc.,


Los Angeles


coordinating


musical


elements


Toch


creates


a region


maximum tension. A flectdon count, in which the number of changes


in melodic


direction


are


added


between


relevant


articulations,


By


"Gui bono?" Bars 32-37


of


ha - by, vaIa-ly strikes and fights and trstt,- Doha - by, vain-ly strife5 and fights and frets,5- e


ba -by, vain-ly airfEss and fights and frets,.-- Dw


hA - by, vala-ly strifes ad lights and frets. -.. Do







watad-ing all,. de -ser- ving nuth -Iag, -






87


Toch further stresses the phrase, Demanding all, deserving nothing, by departing briefly from 4/4 meter to 6/4 meter.
Toch gradually releases much of the tension during the last five


measures of the composition.


Melodic lines stabilize at a pianissimo


dynamic level, triadic harmonies increase, and the harmonic rhythm slows to cadence in F Major.


In conclusion,


Gui


bono? is an example of how


Toch


uses


compositional procedures that were conventional in the Romantic era to create an ebb and flow of tension within a form popular in the


Baroque and


Classical periods. Assymetrical


phrase lengths and


affective harmonic color exist in contrast to the clarity of the overall


trnpartite structure.


"Contradiction adapted" is suggested as different


compositional techniques are superimposed and elements are subtly adjusted to accommodate them.


Cui


bono? harmony


was


used


both


structurally


and


ornamentally as a double-functioning element.


It has also been


shown that the work is historically anachronistic when considered in


relationship


to


prevalent


contemporary


rational


compositional


thought.


II.


William Blake


(175 7-1827)


combined


poetry


and


pictorial


design. The Lamb which may represent Jesus, the lamb of God, is in


In






88


sweetness, simplicity, unrestrained love, and the ability to accept life in all its aspects as a source of joy."10


The


Lamb was published in London in an


elegant leather-


bound collection of poetry with corresponding watercolor plates


entitled Songs of Innocence and of Experien cc: Shewing the


Two


Con rary States of the Human Soul by William Blake in 1794.11 Toch


The Lamb for an a cappella women's SSA chorus.


The melody


sung


by


Sopranos


I s


accompanied


by Sopranos


II and Altos.


Occasionally he divides Sopranos II which results in a four-part as


well


as


three-part


homophonic


texture


featuring


primarily


simultaneous events.


Marked Allegretto grazioso e leggiero with


"about 96."


the quarter note


The Lamb is a two-minute work of easy-to-moderate


difficulty suitable for college choruses.


The meter changes from


duple 4/4 as indicated by the time signature to triple 6/4 or 3/


Frequent


meter


changes


are


consistent


with


twentieth-century


rhythmic treatment.


The duple or triple half-note pulse contrasts


with active surface motion consisting primarily of eighth notes.
Vocal entries corresponding to the beginning of poetic lines


occur primarily on downbeats. Symmetrical


consequent phrases predominate.


two-bar antecedent-


Text is set primarily syllabically.


Harmonically, one sharp in the key signature indicates either G major or e minor tonality. As seen in Figure 33, harmony is a double-


functioning element.


For example, in bar 4 the G major and e minor


set


4.









Allegret to grazboso e leggacra


4 about 943


Soprano I Soprano II Allo


Lit - tie


Iamb, wno


mada


laher?


- - -


- - r


Lit - tie


jamb, who


made


Dast


-v
thou kiw w w lid U' ad C t he
-~
- I


thlu


know


4W


Lit - tic Iamb. who made thee? D9st thou


,


know


who


ziadc


4-


who


mad


r


thee?


thee?


Gave thee lie andbadh thee feed by the strvarnandoerthemcad.


, a


Gave thee cluUh-ing of


K


dc-lght,


fU~IZ~IZ9J ~-JtA


rt~w44


r


Gave thee lIfe andbad~e e ced by the stream andortbenmead.


Gave


thee


CILflh-[ng of


U] LI ________________is. ~ 'I - 1-. -a * y ' . L


~q#t


flaw thee Ilfeand badethee feed by the stream and 6er the mead,.


Gave


Ehe -


cloth


- jug


Figure


33


Toch


The Inner Circle, Op.


67


"The Lamb


" Bars


195


3


by


Affiliated Musician


s


Inc.


Lo


s5


Angele


provide triadic stability in the flow of sound.The vertical structures


between


these


two


s


table


nodes


are


ornamental.


They


provide


affective color rather than serve as functional harmonic progressions. This expanded tonality was conventional in the nineteenth-century,


and was evident in


Melodically,


s


occur in each voice.


Gui bono?, the first choral work in this cycle. tepwise motion predominates, but skips and leaps

A descending minor sixth leap in Soprano I seen


in Figure


33


bars


1,


2 and


5 provide


s


thematic unity


Melodic ranges


are


sopranos


I


el


-ab2


,soprano


s


II


b-e2,


and


altos


g


-c2.


Melodic


sh sne nnd ornwi-h airo nrhipvnl


hu rpnptition


anui inrrndiirinn


89


-S


F


I


F


N0


~r


k


L.


1


-5


s


nf


ost


D


thee?












is


I


pgt


. ' N


III*I I II-'


awe tihe


such a


Icu - 4cr


voice?


p0(0
C'


. - ,~-


rr Yr I'
- . . .- I.


nrr T r I * TI


iJ- -I


r


Gave thee such a ten-Get VOICC1- P


mak-ing all the vales to - JaWc.?


Gave thee such


a ten -der


such a


ten


-de_ -


voice?


A'


'pp


poco nit.


A --


C'


Lit-tie larnb wha made Ihee? Dost thoukww~hOZmad4thee?


tie lamb,


who


made thee?


Figure


34 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "The Lamb " Bars


7-il


1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles


are marked


by


modified


rhythm,


harmony,


dynamic


level,


and


melody.


In Figure


34 bars 8-11 chord rhythm slows to circle around


F-flat major as a stable tonal center. The meter changes from 6/4 to 3/4 in bar 8.

In Figure 34 bars 9 and 11 fermatas interrupt the legato flow. A dotted half note in bar 9 and poco ritardando in bar 11 slow the


pace. in bar


A


pianissimo also contributes to marking the end of section A


11.


Melodic activity decreases in Soprano I in bars 7-8


as Soprano


A~G


- r I I


90


1J


LII


*






91


quantitatively demonstrates how Toch used melody to define these points of articulation. In bars 7-9 the flection counts are Sopranos I


0, Sopranos II 16, and Altos 6.


In comparison in bars


10-11


the


flection counts are considerably reduced for Sopranos II and Altos. They are Sopranos I 3, Sopranos II 0, Altos 0.
Unity is achieved by the repetition of the first six measures of section A at the beginning of section B. Variety occurs in bars 18-28


with new musical material.


The greatest textural contrast occurs at


the beginning of the Coda in Figure 35 bar 24. Toch accentuates the words Little lamb by a two-octave imitative melodic ascent by minor thirds to a melodic climax on a-flat 4.
Toch uses text repetition and a sudden change in dynamic level from forte to pianissimo to emphasize the final two lines of the poem


which ends in stable G major consistent with


the key signature.


Although forte emphasizes one other phrase beginning I a child in


bar 18


,pianissimo to piano dynamic


levels


prevail


throughout


the


fMa .S


~rx~ 1~


I


~~z~4vP Ji
- ~
t***:r4


Ft--TA--. -H-Ak


tJ


Lit-tie Iamb


God


bless (bee _____GodbessGodhiesszhee.


Litle lamb


N.]




"p i-h.


4'


I.t 1tle'


labGodblessGud bless thee -Godhless (ld blessthee.


Lat-tie !arb G oI bltess,God bless thee ____ God bhts God blessthce.


Figure 35 Toch The Inner Circle, op. 67 "The Lamb " Bars


(C


24-28


1953 by Affiliatedl Miicicinng Inc


MO


n


M


r~.


iT


S.


,


Ine Anogloe








In conclusion, The Lamb


is more neo-classical in its balance,


clarity, calm, and relative simplicity than many of Toch's choral


works.


It has a balanced binary form, symmetrical two-bar phrases,


predominantly


triadic


harmonies on


strong


beats


,homophonic


texture, and thematic repetition. In contrast,


Toch uses tapering


dynamic changes, and harmony for affective color that were popular in the romantic period. It has been seen that harmony is a double-


functioning


element


providing


both


ornament


and


structure.


"Contradiction adapted


"is suggested as Toch superimposes different


compositional


techniques


and


subtly


adjusts


elements


accommodate them.


III.


Rainer (Karl Wilhelm Josef)


Maria Rilke (18


75-


1926) was a


great lyric poet of German literature who was raised Roman Catholic


but rebelled in adolescence. He ci shunned it as an entanglement.12


erished love as an inspiration, but His fanatical poem of passionate


desire, Extinguish my eyes, appeared in 1901 as Ldsch mir die Augen aus: ich kann dich sehn.13


is an


ardent,


personal


poem


whose


origins


are


sacred


medieval horac canonical consisting of liturgical prayers of monks.


The


poem is in his Zweites Buch: Das Buch von der Pilgerschaft


(Second Book:


The Book from the Pilgrimage), the second book of


92


to


It








three in Das Stun den-Buch


(The Book of Hours).14


T his second book


was written at Westerwede, near Bremen, 18-25 September


1901.


Fair copy for Lou Andreas-Salom6 was made in Paris in the summer


of 1903.


It was revised for the press at Worpswede, 24 April-16


May 1905.15


Using an English translation by Jessie Lemont,


Toch musically


depicted the reckless, anxious, subjective emotion of ike's obsessive


love.


In burning contrast to the preceding piece, the heat of this


composition is palpable.


Tension prevails throughout this difficult


one-minute work which is suitable for large advanced college and professionally trained choirs. Toch set Extinguish My Eyes for a large a cappella SATB divisi chorus ranging from four to six parts. A massive complex homophonic texture predominates.
The poem's binary design determines the composition's musical shape of AB form with assymetrical sections containing 12 + 23 bars.


Section B is twice as long as section A.


Details of poetic structure are


indicated by musical points of articulation defined by changes in rhythm, dynamic level, harmony, and melody.


With fanatical


passion


the


quarter


note equaling


104- 108


propels


eighth


notes


forward


with


impetuous


recklessness.


Rhythmically, in contradiction to the triple quarter pulse indicated


by the


time signature


3/4,'


Toch's sforzando accentuations and


lengthening of certain syllables suggest duple meter in Figure 36 bars 1-4.


93




Full Text

PAGE 1

THE CHORAL MUSIC OF ERNST TOCH By MIRIAM SUSAN ZACH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTL^L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1993

PAGE 2

Copyright 1993 by Miriam Susan Zach

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author is grateful to Mikesch Miicke, life-partner and architect, for his patience, encouragement, and introduction to Venturi's thought. His ability to clarify mysteries of computers and the German language made this dissertation a reaUty. She would like to express her deepest gratitude to her parents, Margaret Munster Zach and Herbert William Zach, for a lifetime of support and for advocating the research, teaching, and performance of music. She feels fortunate to have had the opportunity to study music history and Uterature wdth Dr. David Z. Kushner, a master teacher, pianist, and researcher, a mentor who cares. The author is grateful to Dr. Otto W. Johnston for his persistence to help her develop a cogent argument, for responding promptly with thoughtful insights that focused fragmentary ideas, and his humor during the long process. She would also like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Budd Udell, Dr. Arthur Jennings, Dr. PhyUis Dorman, Dr. Russell Robinson, and Professor Reid Poole for their counsel and collective effort to teach her how to fish. She would like to honor Dr. Robert and MilUe Ramey for their encouraging presence and thoughtfulness. Marsha Berman and Stephen Fry at the UCLA Toch Archive gave their time and expertise during the author's two visits to the collection, and made long-distance research possible. iii

PAGE 4

She would like to thank Dr. Jeffrey Prater for being enthusiastic about her research on Toch, and for assembling the talents of faculty and students for The Life, Times and Music of Ernst Toch pilot project at Iowa State University. Resources at Princeton University facilitated the realization of this study. She is especially grateful to Penna Rose, Director of Chapel Music, for her energy and devotion to music. To these people and many who contributed pebbles along the path but remain unmentioned here, this dissertation is dedicated. In celebration of unknown repercussions of a falling tree iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii ABSTRACT vi CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose Research Questions Need for the Study Methodology Analysis of Data 2 GERMAN-AMERICAN AESTHETICS AND ERNST TOCH .. . 11 3 CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN EUROPE 1903-1933 19 Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue) Das Wasser Der Tierkreis: Es sass ein Fuchs & Es sitzt ein Vogel Es ist ein Schnee gefallen 4 CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN THE UNITED STATES 1934-1964 78 The Inner Circle Song of Myself Valse (Walzer) 5 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 144 Inclusion of Toch's Music in Existing Courses Pilot Project: The Life, Times, and Work of Ernst Toch, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, Spring 1992 Toch as Teacher 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 154 APPENDICES A Chart of Vocal Ranges 174 B Publication and Performance Information 175 REFERENCES 181 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 190 V

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Abstract of Dissertation presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE CHORAL MUSIC OF ERNST TOCH By Miriam Susan Zach August 1993 Chairman: Dr. David Z. Kushner Major Department: Music Ernst Toch (1887-1964), a prolific Austrian-American composer, teacher, pianist, theorist, and member of the Central European emigre community in Los Angeles, produced over 170 compositions in various genres. His current reputation rests largely upon his Geographical Fugue for speaking chorus ( 1930) in which he patterned names of places into a fugue, and his Symphony No. 3 (1954/55) for which he was awarded a PuUtzer prize. In addition to orchestral, opera, chamber, film, and piano works, Toch wrote choral compositions informed by German, British, and American literature. His diverse body of choral music has been neglected by musicologists, theorists, performers, and teachers. Toch's choral music receives little attention in standard references and rarely appears on recitals or in reviews. Many of Toch's choral compositions are complex and contradictory. They resist easy classification or understanding. As we shall see, their complexity lies in Toch's use of conventional compositional techniques in unconventional ways. Furthermore, vi

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their complexity is the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon which is paradoxical contrast whose source is stylistic contradiction that yields several layers of meaning. The idea of the "both-and" phenomenon comes from Robert Venturi's seminal book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966) with which he became known as the father of "post-modernism." Some of those choral works containing such contradiction evoke humor. In order to show the extent to which Toch's choral compositions break expectations of order and create humor, we shall examine how Toch places familiar elements in unfamiliar contexts. Analyses of musical elements are used to show how a composition is complex and contradictory within itself, in comparison to other choral works by Toch, and within its historical context. His published choral works discussed are Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue), Das Wasser, Es sass ein Fuchs, Es sitzt ein Vogel, Es ist ein Schnee gef alien. The hiner Circle, Song of Myself, and Valse. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose Ernst Toch has a puzzling eclectic identity as a composer. He is said to be "too avant garde for the traditionalists and too conservative for the modernists."i Many of his choral works are complex and contradictory. They resist easy classification or understanding. The nature of their complexity will be explored by examining Toch's use of conventional compositional techniques in unconventional ways. Furthermore, their complexity appears to be the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon whose source is styUstic contradiction that yields several layers of meaning. Thirteen of Toch's choral compositions have been pubUshed and will be discussed in this study. These include a fugue from a three-movement suite for speaking chorus, a cantata, two brief works for women's or children's voices, a folksong arrangement for mixed chorus, a collection of six mixed choruses with soloists, a short piece for large mixed chorus with soloists, and a waltz for speaking chorus. Toch's unpublished choral compositions are discussed by Charles Anthony Johnson in his Ph.D. dissertation. The Unpublished Works of Ernst Toch (1973), and will be listed in a concise compilation of all of Toch's choral works. 1 Strickler 1989: 194 1

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2 7\nalyses of musical elements will be used to show how each choral work may be complex and contradictory within the boundaries of that composition. They will be presented to demonstrate how compositional techniques in one choral work compare with techniques in Toch's other choral pieces. Furthermore, analyses will be used to explore the relationship of each choral work to the historical milieu in which that composition was created. The ideas of complexity and contradiction, and the "both-and" phenomenon are adopted for this study from Robert Venturi's seminal book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), with which he became known as father of "post-modernism." 2 Theoretical constructs from the discipline of architecture will be used to explore the interweaving of order and disorder which characterizes much of Toch's writing. In the "both-and" phenomenon, inconsistencies may be contained within order. This is congruous with current chaos theory in which two general emphases exist. In the first, chaos is seen as order's precursor and partner, rather than as its opposite. The second branch focuses on the hidden order that exists within chaotic systems.^ "Both-and" refers to the relationship of elements to each other and to the whole, and the mixing of styUstic categories. It allows for combinations of focus and richness of meaning. Contradiction may 2 According to Vincent Scully in the Introduction, "it is probably the most important writing on the making of architecture since Le Corbusier's Vers une Architecture of 1923" (Venturi 1966, 1977: 9). 3 Hayles 1990: 9

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refer to a unique inconsistency, or to inconsistencies throughout the whole. There is room for ambiguity, and the tensions produced by it. Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. An element may be double-functioning. Harmony may be structiu-al, for example, when a vertical combination of tones occurs on strong beats or as the final chord of a composition. On the other hand, "changes of chords (or dissonant notes) of durations shorter than the prevailing unit (or the dimensions that we are examining) are ornamental.'"* Rhythm may be a double-functioning element providing structural stability, for example, to stress strong beats or organize a reoccurring temporal pattern. It may be ornamental if changes of rhythm are shorter than the prevailing rhythmic unit. The extent to which Toch uses conventional compositional fugal techniques in an unconventional way will be explored. In The Shaping Forces in Music he states that the meaning of counterpoint is to "produce a discussion in point of contrasting ideas, voicing the pros and cons, and thus resulting in clarification and final shaping of the issue." 5 Toch contrasts two types of counterpoint.^ The "imitative" type of counterpoint of Johann Sebastian Bach has close thematic unity, continuous motivic unfoldment, an insistent motoric rhythm, and equal phrase groupings. The "fermentative" type of coimterpoint of Richard Wagner has freely invented independent melodic Hnes, elastic rhythm, and unequal phrase groupings. We shall examine the extent to which Toch uses these two types of counterpoint to represent contradictory positions embodied by different characters. 4 LaRue 1970: 42 5 E Toch 1948/1977: 134 6 E Toch 1948/1977: 140-3

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Through the unconventional organization of conventional elements a composer is able to create new meanings. Some choral works by Toch that use conventional elements in an unconventional way may create humor. In order to show how Toch creates humor, we shall examine the extent to which his choral compositions break expectations of order, and how Toch places familiar elements in unfamiliar contexts making the elements perceptually new. Venturi defines two types of contradiction. He states, "Contradiction is adapted by accommodating and compromising its elements. ... On the other hand, contradiction juxtaposed is unbending. It contains violent contrasts and uncompromising oppositions. "7 The extent to which Toch uses these two types of contradiction in his choral compositions, "contradiction adapted" and "contradiction juxtaposed," will be explored. In Toch's choral works, "contradiction adapted" is suggested when different compositional techniques are superimposed and elements are subtly adjusted to accommodate them. This involves simultaneous events in which layers are visible but partially erased. It is possible to auditorily discriminate these various synchronic layers, which may be distinct as well as partially obscured. "Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested when different compositional techniques or styles occurring sequentially are strongly contrasted. These diachronic contrasts contribute to discernible auditory distinctions. We shall also examine the extent to which Toch's writing suggests "post-modernism" before the term became widely known. 7 Venturi 1966/1977: 45

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At a weekend symposium in 1988 entitled Music in Post-Modern America, composers, performers, critics, and social historians discussed the "yawning chasm" that separates their work from tastes of popular culture and regular audiences. They saw hope for narrowing the chasm through "post-modem" music, which they defined as "music that incorporates references to earlier styles and traditions without completely abandoning the tenets of modernism."' They thought that such works were "less difficult for audiences to appreciate than the 'modernist' pieces that have dominated composition in this century-and that have seemed to forswear tonality, rhythm, and the casual Ustener."9 According to H. Wiley Hitchcock who is quoted in an article by Lawrence Biemiller, Post-modernism Uves in the present. ... It looks either consciously or unconsciously toward the past. And a great deal of it shares one characteristic-accessibihty. . . . The term "post-modem" is borrowed from architecture. There it refers to the recent movement away from the starkness and lock-step conceptual purity of modernism and toward a revival of ornament and spatial drama. . . . In both music and buildings . . . post-modernism builds on the tension between historical references and modernist practices. Research Questions 1. How did Toch's artistic and socio-poUtical context influence his development of stylistic contradictions? 2. How did Toch use conventional compositional techniques in unconventional ways? 8 Biemiller 1988: A5 9 Ibid. 1988: A5 10 Ibid. 1988: A5

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3. What are the styUstic contradictions that yield several layers of meaning? 4. How did Toch create specific emotions such as humor via his use of familiar elements in unexpected ways? 5. How does the study of Toch's choral music impact on the college music curriculum and instruction? Need for the Study Ernst Toch (1887-1964) was a theorist, teacher, pianist, and prolific, eclectic writer who composed over 170 works in various genres. The UCLA Toch Archive n contains his correspondence, essays, two textbooks, four published operas, seven symphonies, numerous vocal and orchestral works, chamber music, piano solos and duets, film scores, and incidental music for stage and radio plays. Yet Toch's disillusioned self-reference as "the forgotten composer of the twentieth century" 12 is still valid. From 1949 through 1990 an average of three listings per year in The Music Index reflects some international interest. Recordings and performances of his numerous compositions are relatively fewi3 and difficult to fmd. Although he is included in major musicological reference books, many available twentieth-century histories contain scant information on his creative contributions.! 5 1 1 For address refer to Appendix B Publication and Performance Information. 12 Toch to Nicolas Slonimsky, 1962. Correspondence in UCLA Toch Archive. 13 See Discography in Jezic 1989 14 Einstein 1929, Austin 1947, Edwards and Marrocco 1968, Cooper 1974, Erwin 1980, White 1990 15 Ulrich and Pisk 1963, Chase 1955/1966, Salzman 1967, Wilder 1969, Grout and Palisca 1988, Watkins 1988, Borroff 1990, Stolba 1990, Morgan 1991

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Toch's choral compositions are informed by Austrian, German, American, British, Spanish, and Indian literature, and Jewish tradition. Choral music was a means of expression for his preoccupation with literature, It emerges from different stylistic periods spanning almost fifty years of Toch's creative hfe ranging from 1913 to 1961, and from a variety of poets. His diverse body of choral music has, however, been neglected by musicologists, performers, and teachers. His choral music receives htde attention in references on choral musici^ and rarely appears on concert programs. Several choral compositions remain unpublished in the Toch Archive at the University of California, Los Angeles. In addition, no previous comprehensive study of the choral music of Ernst Toch has been undertaken. Possible reasons for the neglect will be discussed in Chapter 2 of this study. Methodology As this study embraces literature as well as music, a biographical-historical method common to these disciplines is employed. The formulation of a statement of the purpose evolved during the process of locating scores, formulating research questions, evaluating data, and gathering supporting evidence from musicological and Uterary sources. The summary, conclusions, and recommendations synthesize research findings. This study merges European library sources from Berlin, Detmold, and Vienna, domestic 16 Johnson 1973: 241 1^ Toch is not in the following reference books on choral literature: Jacobs 1963, Robinson 1978, Ulrich 1973, Young 1963. Nor were Toch's choral works in M.E.N.C. 1990, Robinson and Winold 1976, Valentin 1953, Whitten 1982, Young 1969

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material from the UCLA Toch Archive, and the author's analysis of Toch's choral compositions. In the process of gathering data, preliminary, primary, and secondary resources were consulted. In the section of this study entitied, German-American Aesthetics and Ernst Toch, this literature was reviewed and an historical overview presented. Preliminary sources consisted of available twentieth-century music histories, musicological references in the United States, and resources on choral literature. These revealed little information on Toch and his choral music, a factor which supported the need for this study. Reference books on Uterature clarified terms and styles,i8 and biographies and anthologies provided information on poets and their poetry. Primary sources included Toch's theoretical writings and some of his pubUshed articles. These were important sources of his ideas on composition and musical influences on him. Toch's The Shaping Forces in Music (1948) was used as a guide to analyze his use of harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, and form. The choral works were selected for examination from the 1977 revised comprehensive repertoire list in its appendix. This definitive Hst was prepared with the help of the chronological and thematic catalogue of Toch's works organized by Charles A. Johnson in his dissertation.! 9 Primary sources examined in the UCLA Toch Archive included scores and manuscripts of choral compositions, correspondence, and recordings of the Geographical Fugue and Valse. 18 Drabble 1985, Garland 1976, Holman and Harmon 1986 19 Johnson 1973

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Secondary sources included dissertations, books, and articles on Toch's work, as well as an interview with Bernard Galm,2 0 interviewer of Lilly Toch for UCLA's Oral History Program, who generously provided recordings, programs, and access to letters. Charles Anthony Johnson's dissertation, The Unpublished Works of Ernst Toch (1973) was a valuable resource for exploring Toch's thought. Diane Peacock Jezic, in her book, The Musical Migration and Ernst Toch (1989), contributed to the understanding of Toch as an emigre composer and teacher, and to the chronological structure of this study. Newspaper clippings of reviews found in the Toch Archive reflected public reaction to performances of Toch's choral compositions. Biographies of poets and the historical context in which poems were written were examined for clues on inspiration. Collections of poems were researched for text history of a specific poem, and to compare Toch's presentation of the poem with other possible versions. Important information concerning the origin and development of ideas for his choral music and pubUc reaction to it was written in German. It was necessary to translate these findings into English in order to make this information more accessible to Anglophones who rely on the English language as a primary medium of communication. A translator has to distinguish between literal translations, where common ideas may sound strange, and an idiomatic representation of the meaning of the text. Literal translations are useful as they help singers see connections between music and text. 20 Interviewed in Spencer, Iowa, on July 11, 1992

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However, such translations are not necessarily meaningful translations because some words do not translate clearly from one language to another. Analysis of Data Each published choral composition is individually discussed. Analyses include a preliminary overview of the choral work, text history incorporating biographical data on the poet, public reaction, musical details about harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, form, orchestration, and the interrelationship of words and music. This study will compare Toch's choral compositions from different stages of his career. Data are synthesized into chronological and stylistic patterns. Toch's compositional style is demonstrated with the aid of tables and musical examples. The purpose of analysis is to illuminate a musical composition, making apparent that which may not be immediately noticed. A major reason for integrating analyses of the text and music is to bring various aspects of a composition into focus. These aspects include the extent to which music supports the text, is an equal partner with the text, or takes an ironic position in regard to the text. For this study a combination of analytic tools, namely Toch's The Shaping Forces in Music (1948), Jan LaRue's Guidelines for Style Analysis (1970), and Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), provided the theoretical basis for analysis of musical elements and text in Toch's choral compositions.

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CHAPTER 2 GERMAN-AMERICAN AESTHETICS AND ERNST TOCH As a musician of diverse talents living in different cultural environments, Toch was influenced by various external forces. Throughout his life he reconciled contradictory aesthetic views. In his essay on his Pulitzer-prize-winning Third Symphony ( 1 954) he states, We are and must remain conditioned by the most varied circumstances. There is first the mystery of a person's gifts and capabiUties. There is second the mystery of individual development. There is the mystery of a person's existence within the collective which we talk of as "culture." We are deeply involved with the specific cultural environment that had shaped us, that presented us with a "way of Ufe," with usages, values, aspirations, expectations.! Toch has a puzzling eclectic identity. Although he preferred not to ally himself stylistically with traditionalist or avant-garde composers in Central Europe or the United States, both camps include and exclude him at various points in his career. Rooted in Baroque, Classical, and Romantic Germanic traditions, he chose to search for innovative approaches, experimenting to discover new ideas and refine his personal aesthetic. 1 EToch 1971: 25 11

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Toch expanded the framework gained from his auto-didactic musical studies of Mozart's string quartets in Vienna, his birthplace and home until 1909 in which year he won the Mozart Prize to study piano and composition at the Hochschule fur Musik in Frankfurt am Main. In 1913, as professor of composition at the Hochschule fur Musik in Mannheim, he developed a "reputation as an important heir to the late Romantic tradition of Brahms" 2 indicating public recognition of his place within Central European musical traditions. In his search for new approaches, Toch moved into the realm of Neue Musik infusing new ideas into German communities via chamber music, a Western art music genre highly revered in Austria and Germany. In Mannheim, his String Quartet No. 9, Opus 26 (1919) served as a vehicle for introducing change. It emphasizes linear counterpoint, accented dissonances, harmonic clashes, and large intervallic skips. His chamber opera, Egon und Emilie (1928) based on Christian Morgenstem's satirical scene which parodied Goethe's Singspiel Erwin und Elmire, transformed Mozart's emotional arias into a modernist idiom.3 Among the vanguard of modem Western European composers in the 1920s, Toch investigated the music in sound-films, nonfunctional harmonic progressions, imitative as well as nonimitative counterpoint, rhythmic complexities, and jazz. He also explored ambiguous tonality, but declared, "My music is not atonal. It originates in tonality."^ Toch's experimentation in the 1920s corresponds to a period in Western Europe in which there was a 2 Weschler 1977: v 3 Zach and Johnston 1991 ^Slonimsky 1967: 500

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tumultuous reaction to the classic-romantic tradition among composers. They parodied earUer works, and rejected or expanded tradition. American jazz was heard for the first time in Western European communities. The war years of the 1930s to mid1940s appear in stark contrast to the preceding decade as a time of simplicity and conservatism. In Germany, National Socialists imposed poUtical and racial dogma on the musical profession. They used music as a tool of socialization as art for the state's sake. Toch toured the United States in 1932 by invitation of the Pro Musica Society. Upon his return to Berlin, his career in Germany was cut short by the Nazis who censored his musical works and blacklisted him as a "cultural Bolshevik." On 22 May 1938 an exhibition of Entartete Musik (Debased Music) opened in Diisseldorf under the auspices of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda, with the declared ciim to forestall the 'proUferation of . . . Marxist, Bolshevist, Jewish and other un-German tendencies, such as atonal music and jazz,' with special alcoves containing phonograph recordings of modernistic music and published scores by such 'cultural Bolsheviks' as Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, . . . Arnold Schoenberg, . . . Ernst Toch, Ernest Bloch, Kiu-t Weill.5 Toch had drawn inspiration from prominent German musical ancestors. He had served in the Austrian army during World War I, and been commissioned by Germany to publish a choral arrangement of a German folksong.^ His critical thought and clever musical 5 Slonimsky 1971: 670 6 Es ist ein Schnee gef alien (E Toch 1930)

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representations were highly regarded by contemporaries. 7 Ironically, Toch was condemned as having an insufficiently wholehearted attitude toward National Socialism and the aesthetic fagade touting its ideology. 4 December 1934 There are two conflicting ideologies. One of them regards everything in the Ught of pure artistic pursuit. The other, represented by National Socialism, reaUzes that an artist reflects a poUtical situation.8 In Germany the individual is promoted for the well-being of the entire group. Toch was an individual who became an outsider. As an avant-garde composer of Jewish birth, he veered too far afield following artistic pursuits to be accepted by National Socialists. It comes as no great surprise to learn that in Cologne in 1935 Nazi brown-shirts broke into a rehearsal of Der Facher, his 1929 three-act opera incorporating American jazz about a rebellion toward tyranny, and literally took away the baton from the conductor WiUiam Steinberg.9 In April 1933, soon after Hider became chancellor of Germany, Toch and his family fled to Paris, then to London and in 1934, to New York, where he taught composition at the New School for Social Research. He moved to Los Angeles in 1936 to write incidental music for films. In 1940 he became an American citizen and began teaching composition at the University of Southern California. 7 "As a composer, Toch is one of the most versatile and inventive talents of the New Music" (Hnstein 1929). 8 "Esthetics or National Struggle?" by Alfred Rosenberg, foremost theorist of National Socialism, in Die Musik, Berlin, January 1935 (Slonimsky 1971: 597). 9 UllyToch 1978: 121-2 10 Weschler 1977

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In the United States musical innovations were socially and economically curtailed during the war years. n Some were received coolly or not at all. Hollywood film producers searched for appropriate subject matter and musical style to reach the American masses via sound films. Confronted with Hollywood aesthetics that promoted the subservience of music to drama,i2 Toch's "early enthusiasm for the artistic cross-fertilization possible in film gradually soured into bitter disillusionment." 13 During the war years he was also frustrated locating pubUshers and conductors. Charles A. Johnson explains: Toch contacted Associated Music Publishers, who represented Schott in this country, and was told he must join ASCAP, the performing rights society. Unfortunately, AMP was then purchased by BMI, the rival composers' organization. Efforts to obtain performances, publish new works, or collect royalties were consequently frustrated at every turn-Toch could not be actively promoted because he was not supplying new works; but AMP would not accept new works from an ASCAP composer.i^ PubUshers include Associated Music Pubhshers/G. Schirmer, Belwin-Mills Publishing Corporation, F.E.C. Leuckart, P. Pabst, Theodore Presser, and B. Schott Sohne.is Adding to his professional 11 Hitchcock 1974: 217 12 Film music "should never dominate a sequence of film. ... It should enhance the feelings and emotions of the characters . . . and not tax the mind." Jeffrey Embler in "The Structure of Film Music" from Films in Review (1953) (Limbacher 1974: 61-3). Martin William in "Jazz at the Movies" supports Embler's position stating, "The film composer walks a narrow Une; he has to be good enough not to be noticed" (Limbacher 1974: 42). 13 Weschler 1974:9 14 Johnson 1973: 177-8 15 Appendix B in Jezic 1989

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woes, he was anxious about relatives and friends in Europe, and under financial pressxire to help them obtain exit visas. As an immigrant composer of Western art music, Toch saw himself as "a link in this chain," maintaining continuity with his Central European heritage. Toch declared, I believe that we can only be the product of a long line of ancestors and that each creating artist, involuntarily, is placed as a link in this chain. He cooperates on the continuity to the degree in which the timeless is more important to him than the timebound.i^ He did adapt to the American miUeu as evidenced by his use of the English language and American poets in choral compositions written after 1934. Yet he refused to fully accommodate his Central European aesthetic principles to the American musical culture; he composed for two audiences. One large and general group responded to the programmatic Pinocchio, a Merry Overture (1935) and eerie orchestral effects in film chase scenes and mysteries. A second smaller audience was more receptive to exploring musical complexities in chamber music, such as his String Quartet, Op. 70 (1949). After the war Toch traveled extensively in Europe and the United States. He experienced a renaissance of his earlier creative productivity in an American cultural milieu encouraging experimentation. Toch was invited to lecture at Harvard on the reconciliation of traditional and modern styles. This became the First Symphony program notes (E Toch 1971)

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17 foundation for his textbook of aesthetic principles, The Shaping Forces in Music (1948). Toch states in the preface, This book contains a compilation of observations and ideas which have accumulated through years of experience as a composer and teacher. It attempts to bring out and emphasize the timeless and permanent features of music as against the time-bound and transient ones. In doing so, it attempts to reconcile the at-times "classical" with the at-times "modem."i7 A hybrid consolidation of the past with contemporary change is also evident in his PuUtzer-prize winning Third Symphony (1954) in which Toch challenges convention by using unusual instruments, shifting meters, chromaticism, and transparent linear counterpoint. In 1957 Toch was awarded the Order of Merit of the German Government. In his acceptance speech he said, I will try to say something not quite easy to express; I have the feeling of homecoming of the lost son. By my distinction of being different from my environment I was lost in my childhood and lonesome, at home and in my town. I was, if not the black sheep, the awkward sheep, and I was never fully accepted. I roamed the world, partly by choice, partly by fate. Possibly today, I substitute fatherland for father and, in a most primitive way, I am proud of a father's blessing. But most of all I am proud of being a descendent of the music which sprang up in Germany and Austria, I do not hesitate to say the greatest music within the Western music, an heir to the greatest of all masters and I humbly accept the acknowledgment that I belong to their spiritual family. is Woven into temporal considerations of continuity is also Toch's emphasis on the universality and timelessness of good art. 17 E Toch 1948/197: xxi 18 E Toch 1957 UCLA Toch Archive

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Man has not changed . . . human life has circled in times past and will circle in the future (around) love, death, suffering, struggle, hope, despair, and the urge and search for God. These are the things around which human life really revolves, independent of epochs and locahties of races and languages, habits and fashions, in short all changeable aspects of any given epoch. 19 The Inner Circle (1953) is an example of Toch's concern with the universality of art. It is a collection of six short a cappella choruses based on poems about love, death, hope, faith, and eternity written by international authors. His manuscript Cantata of the Bitter Herbs (1938) on the story of the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt is another choral work intended to be "non-denominational and broadly universal." 20 As an immigrant composer in the United States, Toch reconciled German and American aesthetic views. His eclectic responses negated the creation of an aesthetic that was only German or American. His musical pluralism indicates that consoUdation is an integral part of the art-music traditions of Central European Americans. 19 E. Toch 1945: 13 20 E Toch 1971: 16

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CHAPTER 3 CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN EUROPE 1903-1933 Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographi ral Fugue) ( 1930) Toch's Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue), a 2.5 minute a cappella fugue for speaking SATB chorus, is the published third movement of a three-movment suite Gesprochene Musik (Music for Speaking Chorus). Two impubUshed movements 1. oaoaoa and 2. ta tarn ta tarn ta tarn remain in relative obscurity in the UCLA Toch Archive. The secular suite premiered in Germany during the Berliner Festtage fur Zeitgenossische Musik 17-21 June 1930 where, "It made an enormous impression in avant-garde circles." i The Fuge aus der Geographie has become one of Ernst Toch's best-known compositions. Translated from German into EngUsh by Toch, it has been recorded and performed internationally at major events in Europe and the United States. The brief Geograpliical Fugue is suitable for high school choruses, college choirs, and musically Uterate non-singers. Contradictory levels of meaning in music involve paradoxical contrast. This phenomenon of being "both-and" can evoke humor through the unexpected use of familiar elements. In his Geographical Fugue Toch uses a conventional compositional technique in an unconventional way. He juxtaposes a fugal technique popular in 1 Johnson 1973: 147 19

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Germany during the Baroque period with phonemic folly based on names of places organized in a manner that denies order. In other words, the Geographical Fugue is highly structured and exactly determined, yet it sounds chaotic. A hidden order exists within that which appears to be babbling chaos. This corresponds to the second branch of chaos theory which emphasizes the hidden order that exists within chaotic systems.^ Toch organized both rhythm and timbre, independent of text or pitch, into musical form. Although all three movements in the suite Gesprochene Musik appear disorderly, the first is sectional, the second has a curve of tension and release, and the third is the Geographical Fugue.^ Some order-bearing elements exist but others are omitted. The generation of the suite can be traced to chaotic spoken interruptions. Toch discusses how the suite originated in his chance experiences with the sound of babble of simultaneous conversations of human voices which intruded upon his consciousness at social gatherings. The way I first became conscious of the fact that the combination of numerous ordinary human voices, in producing a confused vocal din, contains a sort of musical pattern was merely in the annoyance such a racket caused me when it coincided with my preoccupation with a composition in progress. . . . The world at large rather amply provided such sources of disturbance. I experienced it from conferences, in restaurants, social 2 Hayles 1990: 9 3 He "tries to produce musical effects through speech. . . . The record got lost or was destroyed, likewise the music, except the manuscript" (E.Toch Geographical Fugue 1930: 12).

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21 gatherings of all kinds, especially from criss-crossing conversations around a convivial table. . . . Such were the experiences from which I culled the idea of spoken music as represented by the fugue. It was tempting just for once to try to organize according to set rules the pecuUar sounds that arose from combinations of words and voices.4 Toch chose the place names "according to their rhythmical and acoustical content, their meter, their adaptabiUty to contrapuntal variation, and also with a view to a certain melodic and rhythmic physiognomy. "5 Sonority is favored over meaning and logical continuity of the words. He intended his suite to be an experiment recording exactly determined spoken rhythms, vowels, consonants, syllables, and words, then mechanically accelerating them on a grammophone. The result was a kind of instrumental music whose source was speech, and represented an an early example of musique concrete. Toch declared that he was only disappointed that the machine altered the vowels in a way that he had not foreseen, but added that it was an interesting acoustical experiment as well as being a musical joke. Ich wahlte dazu das gesprochene Wort und liess einen vierstimmigen gemischten Kammerchor genau festgelegte Rhythmen, Vokale, Konsonanten, Silben und Worte so sprechen, dass unter Einschaltung der mechanischen Moglichkeiten bei der Aufnahme (Vervielfachung des Tempos und die damit verbundene Ton-Erhohung), eine Art Instrumentalmusik entstand, die es wohl fast vergessen machen mag, dass ihrer Hervorbringung nur ein Sprechen zugrunde liegt. (Nur in einem Punkte ^EToch 1971: 21 5 EToch 1971: 22

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22 tauschte mich die Maschine leider: sie veranderte die Vokale in einer nicht von mir beabsichtigten Weise mit). In zwei bewegten Satzchen und einer "Fuge aus der Geographic" versuchte ich, das Problem von mehreren Seiten anzupacken. So anregsam das Experiment aber sein mag: ich mochte es selbst weder uberschatzen noch iiberschatzt wissen, sondern lediglich als das aufgefasst wissen, was es fiir mich war: ein interessanter akustischer Versuch an einem Nebenoder Abfallprodukt, ein musikaUscher Scherz wohl auch.6 I chose the spoken word and let a four-voice mixed chamber choir speak exactly determined rhythms, vowels, consonants, syllables, and words in such a way that with the introduction of mechanical possibilities during the recording (acceleration of the tempo and with that the related raising of pitch), a kind of instrumental music resulted in which it is almost possible to forget that its origin only lies in speech. (Only in one point did the machine disappoint me: it changed the vowels in an unforeseeable way). In two dynamic movements and a Geographical Fugue I tried to examine the problem from various sides. As interesting as the experiment may be, I would like neither to overvalue it nor see it undervalued, but only want to see it understood as what it was for me: an interesting acoustical experiment on a sideor byproduct, a musical joke also. Interrelationship of Text and Music In comparing the German and English versions, the title, Fuge aus der Geographie, literally means Fugue out of the Geography indicating the source of Toch's text. Many of the place names refer to seaports. Honolulu is the capital of Hawaii on south Oahu. Malaga is in southern Spain. Rimini is in northeastern Italy on the Adriatic. Brindisi is an important city in southeastern Italy. Athens is the 6 EToch Melos 1930: 222

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capital of Greece in the southeastern part. Nagasaki is on west Kyushu in southwest Japan. Yokohama is on southeast Honshu in central Japan on Tokyo Bay. Two places hold distinction due to their altitude. Tibet is the highest country in the world situated in south Asia, north of the Himalayas. Titicaca is a lake on the boundary between south Peru and west Bolivia in the Andes, the highest large lake in the world. Mexico and Canada are countries in the North American landmass. Popocatepetl is a volcano in south central Mexico. Trinidad is an island off the northeast coast of Venezuela. Mississippi is the principal river of the United States.^ Nagasaki, Yokohama, Brindisi, Athens, and Ratibor achieved prominence in World War II. Nagasaki was the second mihtary use of the atomic bomb on 9 August 1945. Yokohama was largely destroyed by U.S. bombing in 1945. Brindisi was a naval base. Athens was occupied by Germans from April 1941 until October 1944. Ratibor which is the German name for Raciborz, a city in southern Poland, was returned from Prussia to Poland in 1945.8 For the English version, Toch changed Ratibor to Trinidad, maintaining three syllables. In contrast to the English Athens, in German A then is pronounced like attain in English. It is hypothesized that Toch changed Athen to Tibet and Ratibor to Trinidad in the EngUsh version to increase the number of plosives. This is examined in the discussion of Table II Frequency Distribution of Phonemes in Fuge aus Der Geographie. With one other exception. 7Urdang 1968 8 Webster 1984

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Fluss meaning river rather than big, which he probably used to maintain a one-syllable word, Toch's English translation is verbatim and literal. The Geographical Fugue follows the conventions of a fugue, it is contrapuntal and polyphonic. Within the bounds of a four-voice SATB texture, counterpoint is imitative with close motivic unity and an insistent motoric rhythm which can be found, for example, in the fugues of Johann Sebastian Bach. According to the manuscript, the tempo is a steady, brisk eighth-note equaling 132 with 4/4 meter throughout. Rhythm is inextricably bound to text which is set syllabically. Toch creates rhythmic motives, which are important as generative and unifying forces of form, based on the number of syllables and accents of words. Table I shows the distribution of words by syllabic content in Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue). It is an examination of the rhythmic content of the place names he chose. It is evident in Table I that Toch uses ten one-syllable (nine one-syllable in English due to the being equivalent to der and die), two two-syllable, six three-syllable, five four-syllable, and one sixsyllable words in his composition. His choice of big instead of river supports a goal of maintaining similar syllabic content in his English translation. Toch assigns longer rhythmic values and/or dynamic accent markings to some accented syllables. He also links words in patter-aria fashion, and unexpectedly accentuates the third syllable of Ratibor (Trinidad) at the conclusion of the composition. This supports the reading that Toch uses syllables as rhythmic generating devices to organize the work.

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TABLE I DISTRIBUTION OF WORDS BY SYLLABIC CONTENT IN FUGE AUSDER GEOGRAPHIE {GLOGRAPmCAL FUGUE) In German Version: # Syllables one und, der.die. Fluss, Stadt. See. liegt. nicht, in. Ja two Atnen, sonoern three X}rtt\V\r\r IfaTiaHcj \/f*^vil(rr» M^l^lOJl RlTTIini Rl*infiisi IxdllDUr, N-dllctLla., IvicAlKw, rflaSay^tXt iMiiiiiii, ijx iiiuioi four K/ficcicciTM-*i TiHr'ar-a Hnnrili'ilii MiiOQQ^lfl Yolcnll^TnJl IV115>5>looippi, llLlLctLo., rHJlUJlUlU, lNa.>;;a.dcl^J., l W^Wlldliia. six ropOLtllcpcLi In English Ver # Syllables sion: one and, the, big, town, lake, is, not, in, yes two Tibet, rather three Trinidad, Canada, Mexico, Malaga, Rimini, Brindisi four Mississippi, Titicaca, Honolulu, Nagasaki, Yokohama six Popocatepetl Timbre is another component of the composition. It is varied by changing the texture of the a cappella vocal parts and by the choice of phonemes. The categories of type of phoneme (plosive, nasal, and fricative) and selection of phonemes per category are from Cohen 1965. Table II shows the frequency distribution of phonemes in the Fuge aus der Geographie indicating the tonal content of the place names he chose. It was derived by counting the number of phonemes in each category of speech-sound production in the words in Table I. It does not consider the number of times each word is repeated in Toch's composition, so it can only give an indication of the predominance of phoneme types Toch chose. "Instances in Words" takes into account that the same type of phoneme production may occur more than one time in a word; for example, Popocatepetl contains six plosives.

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In Table II it is evident that there are more words with plosive and fricative phonemes chosen for the German version, while the amoimt of words with nasal phonemes is approximately the same in both versions. In the German version 75% of the words chosen have plosives whereas in the English version 66.6% of the words have plosives. In the German version 62.5% of the words chosen have fricatives compared with 50% in the English version. In both versions 58.3% of the words chosen include nasals. Of those words with plosives, there are 1.77 plosives in each German word compared to 2.06 plosives in each EngUsh word. Of those words having fricatives, there are 1.3 fricatives in each German and English word. The analysis of phonemes, i.e. timbre or tonal content, indicates that Toch carefully chose English words that not only fit parameters TABLE II FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PHONEMES IN FUGE AUS DER GEOGRAPHIE (GEOGRAPHICAL FUGUE) Phonemes in German version Phonemes in Number of Words in TABLE I of 24 total words Number of Instances in Words plosive/p/b/t/d/k/g/ 18 32 X in 18 words nasal /m/n/i^ / 1 16 X in 14 words fricative/f/v/e/ d /s/ 15 20 X in 15 words z/J/yr/h/ Phonemes in English version plosive /p/b/t/d/k/g/ 16 33 X in 16 words nasal /m/n/ / 14 15 X in 14 words fricative/f/v/0/ 3 /s/ 12 16 X in 12 words z/i/yr/h/

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of syllabic/rhythmic content, but also similar phonemic/ tonal content. A goal of increasing the number of plosives in the English version to approximate the percentage of plosives in the German version supports the hypothesis that Toch changed Athen to Tibet (from 0 to 3 plosives) and Ratibor to Trinidad (from 2 to 3 plosives) in the English version to increase the number of plosives. A third musical element to be considered is form. For Toch form is the "balance between tension and relaxation."^ Tension ebbs and flows with changes of texture, dynamic levels, and the introduction of rests. Table III is a diagram of the Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue) showing events in each bar of the 50-bar fugue. The boldest line (^^™") indicates the fugal subject which corresponds to the first three lines of the text (Trinidad! and the big Mississippi and the town Honolulu and the lake Titicaca, the Popocatepetl is not in Canada rather in Mexico Mexico Mexico). The thinner line ( ) indicates the countersubject which corresponds to the next two lines of the text (Canada Malaga Rimini Brindisi Yes! Tibet Tibet Tibet Tibet), n The dotted Une ( ) coincides with that rhythmic material which is neither subject, nor countersubject. It is primarily associated with the third Une of the text (Nagasaki Yokohama Nagasaki Yokohama) although may include words from either the first or second text lines that have rhythmic alterations from their presentation as subject or countersubject. 9 E Toch 1948/1977: 157 10 Ratibor! und der Fluss Mississippi und die Stadt Honolulu und der See Titicaca der Popocatepetl liegt nicht in Kanada, sondern in Mexiko, Mexiko, Mexiko 11 Kanada Malaga Rimini Brindisi Ja! Athen Athen Athen Athen

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28 TABLE III DIAGRAM OF FUGE AUS DER GEOGRAPHIE 1 '> 1 4 ?? fi 7 fl q 10 s A T B II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 S A T _ . 8 21 22 23 24 2S 26 27 28 29 30 S A T B 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 S A T a 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 46 49 50 s A T B Toch's fugue is conventional; it contains a subject, countersubject, episodes, and stretto. As seen in Figiwe 1, the fugue subject is three bars long and usually enters with a bold fortissimo. In the exposition in bars 1-12 the subject appears in the tenor, then with its countersubject in the alto, soprano, and bass voices. The first episode, which by definition has no presentation of the subject, occurs in bars 13-17. In bar 17 the subject reappears in the tenor accompanied by a fragment of the subject in the soprano and bits of the countersubject in the soprano and alto. Episode 2, bars

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29 20-25, includes countersubject fragments and assigns new accentuation to words of the subject text. Soprano * _ — Alto 4 Tenor 4 4 Trln 1 dadi and th« big Ml» alp p» * ad the BasB s. A. T. B. 8. A. T. B. 1 1 — 1 1 — ^ — ^ — 1 town Hon o lu lu and th« Uk« Tl tl ca ca, the 3 3 3 3 J-r-. J .1 ,1 J ; J J J J J"rj Fo poca te pet 1 Is not In Caa-a da rath-«r ir MexI eo Mex 1 eo Mex-I CO S. >• A. -ii > — • # J — Trln 1 dadI and the big Mia Bis alp pi ajid lb* T. J J "J J J —0 — Can a da Ma U ga Ri mi nl Brlndl fi Can • a da Ma-U-gB Ri-ml-BlBria-dl-al B. Figure 1 TochFuge aus der Geographie Bars 1-4 © 1950, 1957 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami The subject reenters in the bass in bar 25 in stretto with the alto after a quarter-beat delay. A four-voice stretto begins in Figure 2 bar 30 initiated by the soprano and bass entries.

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30 I Trln 1 dadi ma 4 d — ^ — W — » 9 — • — •— • — « — C«n-«*da Can-a-da Can-a-da Can a< — 9 — • — # — #a • da Ma la* ga J ^ ^ y J — J J * • — Ma laga Mala ga Ma-la ga 1 Trln X and the big Mia • aip _2 . * # 3Trill \
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Stretto continues in bars 33-38 with several changes. The first word (Trinidad) is augmented beginning in bar 33, and the entries occur in SATB order at regular half-note intervals. Toch increases a crescendo in bars 37-38. From bars 39-50 the four-voice crescendo -o — Tr (with rolled "r') Trin i dad! Trln i dadi cresc. motto Trln I dadI cresc. molto F Trin i dadI Trin i dadI Trin i J J ^ Can • a • da Xta-la-ga Rlminl Brln-di il Can a da Mala ga Riml ni Brln-dl -ai in I dadl Trln i dad! dad*. Trin I dad! Figure 3 lochFuge aus der Geographie Bars 48-50 © 1950, 1957 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami stretto continues. As seen in Figure 3 bars 48-50, rhythmic activity and tension continue to the end of the composition. A rolled /r/

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pedalpoint in the soprano beginning in bar 48 builds to a climax with the entire choir exclaiming Ratibor (Trinidad) in unison in bar 50. It is clear from the foregoing analysis that Toch carefully organized both rhythm and timbre, independent of textual meaning or pitch, into a musical form. Text has a double function; it serves as a rhythmic generating device, and the source of timbre. In contrast to choral works specifying pitches, here pitches are unspecified. Given that harmony and melody depend on specific pitches, they are not among the musical elements discussed. Since the fugue is a cappella, orchestration is also not part of this analysis. In conclusion, in reference to the creative origins of the suite, Toch succeeds in contrasting organized elements with babble. In other words, he creates babble using carefully organized musical elements. The Geographical Fugue is an example of a hybrid "bothand" composition. Toch uses conventional techniques such as "imitative" counterpoint, stretto, augmentation, close motivic unity, and an insistent motoric rhythm which were popular in the Baroque era. He combines these conventional techniques unconventionally with a speaking chorus. The juxtaposition of opposing forces is also evident in other choral works such as Toch's cantata Das Wasser discussed in the next section. Gesprochene Musik Suite in Historical Context Poets and composers before Toch had experimented with producing musical effects using speech. Recitative has a long history in occidental operas, cantatas, and oratorios whereby the spoken word is assigned pitches but has great rhythmic freedom. Toch's play

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33 with speech sounds and words as sonorous events is reminiscent of the Uterary work of symbolist poets who, between 1880 and 1895, were exploring musical properties of language. In symbolism, "symbols lacking apparent logical relation are put together in a pattern" and words are used "for their musical effect, without very much attention to precise meaning." 12 Near the end of the nineteenth century in Germany, composers were looking for ways to more precisely connect the spoken voice's rhythms to notated music. Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921) used Sprechstimme in his melodrama Konigskinder (1897) seen in Figure 4. This notation was later employed by Schonberg in Pierrot Lunaire (1912) to show the many possibilities of using the spoken voice musically. 13 Wt'ine wd-ssen Bin-men fri(-f.'en Tm in dt-n Olo-ikcii. p r [ [nj II -J f ' 1 7 Figure 4 Humperdinck Konigskinder lb Lautgedichte (Sound Poems) were familiar to the German public, and can be traced chronologically in twentieth-century German literature. Paul Scheerbart invented words in his abstract poem beginning Kikakoku! Ekoralaps! Wiso kollipanda opoldsa which 12 Holman 1980: 437 13 Stuckenschmidt 1969: 63

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34 appeared in Ein Bsenbahnroman, ich liebe dich (A Railway Novel, I Love You) (1900). 14 Christian Morgenstem, who wrote Egon and Emilie which Toch set to music as a chamber opera in 1928, invented words in his poem Das grosse Lalula that begins Kroklokwafzi? Semememi! Seiokrontoprafriplo. This abstract poem in Galgenlieder (1905)^^ was popular, and part of the repertoire at the Dadaist Cabaret Voltaire.i^ In 1916 Dadaist Hugo Ball also wrote a sound-poem beginning gadji beri bimba^'' in which he invented words. In the same year, Dadaist Richard Huelsenbeck created a poem based on sounds of letters. His Chorus Sanctus is from Phantastischen Gebeten (1916) begins aao aei Hi oh. In his Manifesto of 1918 Richard Huelsenbeck states, "Life appears as a simultaneous muddle of noises, colours, and spiritual rhythms, which is taken unmodified into Dadaist art. The SIMULTANEIST poem teaches a sense of the merry-go-round of all things. "19 Dada was a movement in art and literature founded c. 1916 in Zurich.20 in the 1920s Berlin Dadaists were redefining their culture and manipulating linguistic, visual, and auditory conventions in an effort to reveal how they were generated and how they functioned.2i 14 Richter 1965: 120 15 Morgenstem 1979: 16 16 Kleinschmidt 1969: xxviii 17 Huelsenbeck 1969: 61 18 Huelsenbeck 1964: 205 19 Richter 1965: 106 20 Drabble 1985 21 Benson 1985: 131, 134

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35 Dadaists were active in Hanover 1923-1932. Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948), originator of Merz art, created anUrsonate in 1924/5. The following is a brief excerpt from the first part of die Ursonate.^^ Fiimms bo wo fiimms bo wo fiimmes bo wo taaaa? Fiimms bo wo fumms bo wo fiimms bo wo taa zaa Uuuu? Rattatata tattatara tattatata Rinnzekete bee bee nnz krr miiuiiii? Huelsenbeck's "simultaneous muddle" calls to mind Toch's discussion about how his three-movement Gesprochene Musik suite originated in his chance experiences with the sound of babble of simultaneous conversations of human voices. Toch, like Huelsenbeck in his Chorus Sanctus, and Schwitters in his Ursonate, used disassociative speech sounds in the unpublished first and second movements of Gesprochene Musik (1930). The texts of the unpublished first and second movements use phonemes to provide timbre and rhythm. Movement one of Gesprochene Musik begins o ao ao a tiriUri. The text has contrasting consonants and vowels. The beginning of movement two of Gesprochene Musik ista tarn ta tarn ta tarn begobum gobetiga litipiti. Movement two includes strings of onesyllable plosive-plus-vowel composites drawn from the following possibUties: /pi, pe, pa, pam, po, be, bo, bum, ti, te, ta, tam, to, tu, di, ki, ka, ko, gi, ga, go/. Combinations with /t/ are most frequent, followed by /p, b, g, k/, and /d/. Some of the syllables are German pronunciations of alphabet letters, for example, b is /be/, p is /pe/, t is /te/, k is /ka/. Whereas in these first and second unpublished 22 Richter 1965: 143

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movements Toch used disassociative speech sounds, the pubUshed third movement Fuge aus der Geographic used recognizable words but in a relatively meaningless syntax. These first two movments are in 4/4 meter with the quarter note equaling a brisk 144. In The Unpublished Works of Ernst Toch Johnson confirms that, "Despite their innovations, the first two pieces have been almost completely ignored in favor of the third. This may have been due in no small part to the performance difficulties arising from the avoidance of recognizable words."23 Toch's work differs from most of the Dada24 authors in that as a composer, Toch created phonetic poetry, then used it as the basis of musical compositions. No documentary evidence has been foimd linking Toch to the Dada movement, yet we see parallels. Given Toch's temporal and geographic proximity, it is unlikely that he was unaware of activities of Dadaists in Germany. However, without documentary evidence in the form of Toch's own writings, it is only possible to say that he may have been tangentially involved in the Dada movement without actively promoting it. Das Wasser (The Water), op. S3 (1930) Das Wasser is a 19-minute secular cantata in German for tenor solo, baritone solo, narrator, three-part women's, men's or children's chorus, flute, trumpet, percussion, 6-12 violins, 4-6 cellos, and contrabass on a text by the novelist Alfred Doblin ( 187 8-195 7).25 in 23 Johnson 1973: 147 24 For more information refer to the video, Germany Dada— Dada from Z to A, available from Tamarelle's International Films, 110 Cohasset Stage Road, Chico, CA 95926 tel. (916) 895-3429. 25 Alfred Doblin, known for his Berlin Alexanderplatz, studied medicine in

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August 1922, Das Wasser appeared as a six-page essay without rhymed verse in Die Neue Rundschau.^^ A sUghtly altered version was pubUshed in Das Ich iiber der Natur^'' in Berlin in 1927. A handwritten manuscript of the text of Das Wasser corresponding to Toch's musical version was discovered in the UCLA Toch Archive. Toch's version premiered during 17-21 June 1930. Clippings in the UCLA Toch Archive document performances in Germany in February 1933, however, no clippings were found to indicate performances thereafter. The solo parts are difficult. They are appropriate for professionally trained singers in contrast to the choral parts which are suitable for amateur choruses. Complexity in this multi-movement choral work is the result of a "both-and" phenomenon whose source is stylistic contradiction that yields several layers of meaning. In Das Wasser Toch juxtaposes an idealistic baritone who focuses on metaphysics with a reaUstic tenor who is concerned with physical and chemical properties of water. Toch yields uncompromising oppositions by superimposing conventional forms and techniques popular in the Classical and Romantic stylistic periods within the structure of a cantata which was popular in the Baroque era. Conventional techniques are combined in an unconventional way. Toch states he was attracted to the opposition of the two characters, a calm narrator and choir, and to the didactic tone of Alfred Doblin's writings in which humor and warmth soimd quietiy. Berlin and Freiburg. A Social Democrat and Jew, he moved to France in August 1933 then to the United States (Garland 1976). 26DdbUn 1922 27 Miiller-Salget 1972: 204

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38 Als mir Doblin das "Wasser" vorlas, da "klang" es in mir; und darum habe ich es komponiert. . . . Sie liegt im Gegensatzlichen der beiden "Figuren" und in den neutralen Ruhepunkten von Sprecher und Chor, und sie liegt endlich im didaktischen Ton, in welchem Humor imd Warme leise anklingen.28 A critic for the Dusseldorfer-Lokal Zeitung declared that Toch used the form elements of the teaching piece as a virtuoso, humorous ironic fencing mirror, "benutzt hier Toch ... die Formelemente des Lehrstiicks zu einer virtuosen, humorig ironischen Spiegelfechterei."29 For Doblin the fact that water is in all organic beings proves the unity of Ufe.^^ it is a means by which an individual is one with the cosmos. Doblin shows there is no dualism between spirit and matter by depicting two human representatives engaged in dialog in which each presents his viewpoint, and ultimately supporting unity. hiterrelationship of Te xt and Music Toch's eight-movement cantata Das Wasser follows a conventional structure popular in the Baroque era, including a succession of recitatives, arias, duets, and choruses. Movements are joined by the narrator's rhymed spoken verse. It resembles the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach as an allegorical^i composition, and in its small scale requiring only two soloists, narrator, choir, and 28 E Toch Melos 1930: 221-222 29 30 April 1932 clipping in UCLA Toch Archive 30Kort 1974: 48 31 Allegory, a story in which people, things, and happenings have another meaning, as in a fable or parable; allegories are used for teaching or explaining; symbolic narration or description (McKechniel983).

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chamber orchestra. Unusual in a Baroque cantata is Toch's amalgam of compositional techniques popular in later centuries. The German text of Toch's cantata combines rhymed verse and unrhymed prose. It was found in manuscript form in the UCLA Toch Archive. This text differs considerably from the six-page published essay entided Das Wasser. In movement I the narrator sets the scene for the cantata with a rhymed couplet. The English translation was done by the researcher. Sprecher Es gehen zwei am Meer entlang, Ein Gesprach fangt zwischen ihnen an. Narrator As two people walk along the sea, a conversation begins between them. Movement I is a brisk instrumental introduction marked Straff (taut) with the quarter note equaling 132. In the exposition, the first theme has balanced four-bar antecedent and consequent phrases, and meter changes. It is presented by unison fortissimo violins, cellos, and contrabass in Figure 5 bars 1-8. Figure 5 bars 1-2 are repeated in bars 3-4 to comprise the antecedent phrase, hi the consequent phrase, syncopation occurs in bars 5 and 8, sequences in bars 5 and 6, and a descending wholetone scale in bars 7 and 8. Beginning in bar 9 the trumpet repeats the first theme accompanied by a countermelody with an insistent motoric eighth-note rhythm in the cellos. In the remainder of Movement I, Toch develops the dottedeighth-plus-sixteenth-note motive first seen in bar 5. He presents

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40 '>r.ji i ;ijiNi,jii^ 3 2 2 Y 2 3 2 • » — ^ — • Figure 5 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement I Bars 1-8 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz the first two bars of the first theme in different keys. Although a double exposition and development exist, no recapitulation occurs. Therefore the movement is termed "quasi sonata." Toch concludes the movement with a crescendo to a massive fortissimo C major chord and accented pause. He defines the point of articulation between movements I and II by changes in tempo, dynamic level, rhythm, melody, and instrumentation. Movement n introduces the two characters. This duet between the tenor and baritone is in unrhymed verse. It begins with a "somewhat relaxed" tempo, piano dynamic level, and "plodding motive" in violins and cellos. This motivic designation refers to the slow pace and the tenor being grounded in physical reaUty. A final rhymed couplet by the narrator foretells of future activity.

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41 Tenor Wenn wir beide so langsam trotten, Werden wir morgen zu Hause sein. Bariton Das Meer ist ein wunderbares Ding. Tenor Wir wollen nach Haus! Tenor If we walk so slowly, We will be home tomorrow. Baritone The sea is a wonderful thing. Tenor We want to go home! The tenor enters for the first time in Figure 6 bar 45 with eighth-note surface activity and a repeated two-bar phrase in a narrow melodic range over the "plodding motive" in staccato strings. The baritone first enters in bar 49 to extol the wonders of the living 1 0 Stwu gemioUloh tenor Figure 6 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement II Bars 43-52 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz

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sea. In contrast to the tenor and musically suggestive of an expansive spirit, he is supported by an accompaniment that is free of the "plodding motive." This is an example of how Toch musically contrasts the two different characters. Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. Tonal ambiguity is achieved through the superimposition of independent melodic Unes focusing on different tonal centers. Nonfunctional harmonic progressions are the result of the vertical intersection of these tonally ambiguous lines. The two soloists, choir and strings express different views in Figure 7 bars 66-70. The choir monophonically echoes the baritone. Bariton Ich sah es nicht immer so. Das Wasser ist lebendig! Choir Das Wasser ist lebendig. Tenor Hier hast du Bleistift und Papier. Das wird ein Gedicht. Zum Lachen! Wo ist das Meer lebendig! Baritone I didn't always see it so. The water is aUve! Choir The water is aUve. Tenor Here is pencil and paper. This will be a poem. Ridiculous! Where is the sea alive! Toch defines the transition to movement III by changing tempo, dynamic level, melody, harmony, rhythm, and instrumentation. He ends movement II with a fortissimo F# major chord held a dotted half note with fermata. In Movement III the tenor lists physical and chemical attributes of water, and the baritone asks for clarification. As in movement II, the choir monophonically echoes the words of the soloist. The narrator closes with a rhymed couplet.

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43 AU* VcL Figure 7 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement II Bars 66-70 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Tenor Das Meer, meine Damen und Herm, ist aufzufassen als ein grosser Topf. Leider ist keine Milch drin, sondem nur salziges Wasser. Zwei Komma funf Prozent Salz hat schrecklicher Weise das Meer. . . . Mehr, meine Damen und Herm, ist vom pp Meer nicht bekannt. Bariton Und was ist das Wasser? Tenor The sea, ladies and gentlemen, has to be understood as a large pot. Too bad that there is no milk in it, but only salt water. Terrible to think of it but the sea has two point five percent salt. . . . More32 ladies and gentlemen, is not known from that sea. Baritone And what is the water? 'Mehr' ('more' in English) is a homonym for 'Meer' which means 'sea' in German.

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44 This tenor and baritone duet with chorus is in a five-part rondo form popular in the Classical period. It is marked Allegro with the quarter note equaling 138. In Figure 8, Theme A is presented at a piano dynamic level in the first vioUns in bars 84-85. This theme unifies the movement by its periodic repetition. Its continuous melodic unfoldment and insistent eighth and sixteenth note motoric rhythm were popular in the Baroque era. Figure 8 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement ni Bars 84-86 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz After listing physical and chemical properties of water the tenor unexpectedly critiques his own factual declarations stating, Im Ubrigen ist es langweilig und ohne Humor (By the way it is boring and without humor) in Figure 9 bars 140-142. He immediately contradicts this statement declaring, Es scheint, dirkommt das nicht so vor (It appears that it doesn't seem that way to you) in bars 143144 meaning it is not boring and it is humorous.

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45 Figure 9 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement III Bars 139-142 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Doblin's sudden change to rhymed verse tends to draw attention to the tenor's text. Toch emphasizes this rhymed text by suddenly setting it a cappella in contrast to a massive homophonic texture and active rhythm. Expectations of order in music and text are broken, and familiar elements are placed in unfamiliar contexts giving way to humor. Toch defines the next major point of articulation by changing tempo, dynamic level, rhythm, harmony, melody, and orchestration.

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46 He ends movement III with a descending triadic unison flourish to a fortissimo C and accented pause. Movement IV is a tenor and baritone recitative in which the baritone presents his point of view and the tenor comments. The baritone then expands on his ideas in an aria and their debate continues. In contrast to earlier movements, the majority of the dialog between the baritone and tenor is in rhymed verse. The movement begins Quasi grave with the quarter note equaling 96 and has a changing meter. In Figure 10 bars 157-159, tritones in the low strings provide a tense pulse over which violins and cellos play a new theme in unison. Figure 10 TochDas Wasser, Op. 53 Movement IV Bars 157-159 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz

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47 Tension mounts during the baritone's recitative and overflows into an aria, a romantic outpouring on the essence of water beginning in Figure 11 bar 200. Nonfunctional harmonic progressions are the result of the vertical intersection of chromatic and tonally ambiguous lines. Bariton Sieh! Was hier zu unsern Fiissen liegt, ist Urwesen, die grosse Wassergewalt. Hier heisst sie Meer, aber sie fullt die ganze Erde an. Alles auf der Erde will atmen und nichts Lebendes kann das Wasser entraten. . . . Tenor Und bleibt doch immer H zwei O! Baritone See! What lays here at our feet, is the original being, the great power of water. Here we call it sea, but it fills the entire earth. Everything on the earth wants to breathe and nothing alive can get by without water. . . . Tenor And remains stUl always H two O! Melodic changes build tension. The melody gradually ascends chromatically to a peak in Figure 11 bar 205. The tenor, however, is not convinced that water is anything but H20. Movement IV ends inconclusively on a pizzicato G and pause. In The Shaping Forces of Music Toch contrasts two types of counterpoint, the "imitative" type of Johann Sebastian Bach which he considers has an ornamental function, and the "fermentative" type of Richard Wagner which has formative power.33 in movement IV, "fermentative" counterpoint prevails with free invention, independent melodic Unes, unequal phrase groupings, and elastic rhythm seen in Figure 11. This type of counterpoint tends to be associated with the baritone. 33 E Toch 1948/1977: 140-3

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Sieh!_ Was Lier zu uiisei n Vii Beo liegt, ist UrFigure 11 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement IV Bars 200-205 48 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz In Movement V the choir represents the voice of the people questioning the essence of water. Once again the narrator comments on the action in a couplet with rhymed verse. Chor Das Wasser, das Wasser, was ist das Wasser? Sprecher So der Chor, der Spotter drangt seine Antwort vor. ChQir_Water, water, what is water? (often repeated) Narrator So much for the choir, The scoffer pushes forth his answer. In contrast to the preceding movement, in movement V Toch uses "imitative counterpoint" with close thematic unity and triadic

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harmonies seen in Figure 12 bars 269-275. Continuous motivic unfoldment, sequences, and an insistent motoric rhythm were popular in compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach. Toch introduces complexities of stretto in bars 311-320. Tension mounts as the choir gradually ascends chromatically in unison from cl-a flat 2 con tutta forza. An abrupt f minor chord ends movement V. Figure 12 TochDas Wasser, Op. 53 Movement V Bars 269-275 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz

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50 Movement VI begins Allegro conunodo with the quarter note equaling 112 and a consistent 4/4 meter throughout. In a brief orchestral introduction Toch recalls the "plodding motive" associated with the tenor in movement II. Here this motive appears as a steady eighth note f#-e flat alternation in the strings in the orchestral introduction in Figure 13. Figure 13 TochDas Wasser, Op. 53 Movement VI Bars 341-343 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz In movement VI the tenor sings a rhymed strophic arietta about the realities of heat and light. Once again the narrator propels action in a rhymed couplet. Tenor Weisse Kohle, unsre Kochtopfe zu heizen, weisse Kohle unsre Stuben zu beleuchten. Wieviel Kilowatt in der Stunde? Tenor White coal, to heat our cooking pots, White coal to light our rooms. How many kilowatts per hour?

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51 The "plodding motive" continues to accompany the tenor during his arietta. It is evident in Figure 14 in the flute part while cellos and a triangle maintain a steady eighth-note pulse. The reoccurrence in this movement of the "plodding motive" with the tenor unifies the composition and functions as the tenor's leitmotiv. This same motive was identified in Toch's chamber opera Edgar and Emily (1928) where it occurred during periods of time in which Emily waited for Edgar. Thus in the context of the opera it was dubbed "waiting motive" by the researcher. Tgl Ten Koch topfe ni heizeoiwel Be Koh]e unsra Stubenzu be-leuchten. Wle-vlel Kl-l&jw&ttio der Stan-de, wia viel fel-lo-wattln der StunFigure 14 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement VI Bars 352-356 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Each of two verses of the arietta is followed by a refrain Wieviel Kilowatt in derStunde?m Figure 14 bars 355-356. The

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movement ends with an inconclusive a minor chord in second inversion. In movement VII the baritone elaborates on his point of view in unrhymed prose. The choir continues to wonder about the essence of water and the narrator comments in a rhymed couplet. Chor Das Wasser, was ist das Wasser? Bariton Im Wasser fliessen wir, Wasser sind wir auch. Das Wasser lebt im Meer und in den Fliissen. Das Wasser lebt auch in uns Menschen. . . . Sprecher Es scheint, das Gesprach wendet sich. Wohin, wohin wendet es sich? Choir Water, water, what is water? (repeated) Baritone We flow in the water, we also are water. Water Uves in the sea and in the rivers. Water lives also in us people. . . . Narrator It seems that the conversation is changing. To where, to where does it turn? The legato subject in Figure 15 bars 382-397 in the cellos is answered at the octave by the violins in bar 392. Beginning in bar 394 Toch superimposes the baritone's independent melodic line onto "imitative" counterpoint in the orchestra. This simultaneous overlapping of different layers which interweave suggests "contradiction adapted." Toch uses conventional fugal techniques including an inverted subject beginning in bar 423, and stretto in bars 433-437. Toch further contributes tension by gradually ascending chromatically in bars 475-480 to a melodic peak. The Choir insistently mono-

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In Wu Mr Ola • ta wlr, Figure 15 Toch Das Wasser, Op. 53 Movement VII Bars 382-397 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz phonically intones Was ist das Wasserl Toch ends movement VII in B flat major. Movement VIII begins calmly with the quarter note equaling 80. In a brief duet with unrhymed prose, the tenor quiedy questions his substance while the baritone affirms his own position. Tenor Und ich bin also nichts als Wasser, und vielleicht auch noch Eiweiss und Salz? Bariton Du weisst nicht, was du damit alles bist! Ich will

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54 dich nicht erniedrigen, sondern zu recht stellen und erhoh'n, dich offnen und bereichem. Diese Welt ist ganz deine, was du um dich erblickst, bist du, bist alles du! Tenor And I am therefore nothing but water, and maybe also a bit of protein and salt? Baritone You don't know, what you are with all of that! I don't want to put you down, but correct and lift you, open and enrich you. This world is entirely yours, what you notice around you, you are, you are all! In response to the tenor, a trio of baritone, flute, and violin answer. The flute imitates the violin while the baritone sings an independent line which can be seen in Figure 16 bars 530-532. Figure 16 TochDas VWasser, Op. 53 Movement Vin Bars 530-532 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Toch accentuates the baritone's declaration that man is one with the cosmos. He inserts a trumpet fanfare, drum roll, melodic ascent, and crescendo to a fortissimo choral homophonic entry in Figure 17 bar 543. The tempo changes to Allegro with the quarter note equaling 138-144. The narrator offers final remarks in a

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55 rhymed couplet. The cantata ends with a large choral finale in unrhymed prose praising the great living water. Figure 17 TochDas Wasser, Op. 53 Movement Vin Bars 543-551 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Sprerher Beendet ist die Belehrung, dem grossen Wasser erweisen sie Verehrung. Chor Lasset uns das grosse Wasser preisen! . . . Es ist die Kraft, die aus den Bergen bricht, Baume und Blumen treibt sie auf durch Tiere und Menschen nimmt sie ihren Lauf.

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56 Narrator The instruction is finished now, they honor the great water. Choir Let us praise the great water! (repeated) ... It is the power which breaks out of the mountains, flows over trees and flowers, through animals and people it runs its course. Toch's grand finale, Lasst uns das grosse Wasser preisen! resembles Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685-1750) Jauchzet, frohlocket, auf, preiset die Tage^'^ for the first Christmas day from his Weihnachtsoratorium in Figure 18. Both are fast contrapuntal choruses of praise in triple meter that are tonally centered in major keys. Both have a chamber orchestra of trumpet, flute, drum, violin divisi, viola, cello, and contrabass. Figure 18 J. S. Bach Weihnachtsoratorium Bars 42-46 Jauchzet, frolocket, auf, preiset die Tage, nihmet, was heute der Hochste getan! Lasset das Zagen, verbannet die Klage, stimmet voll Jauchzen und Frohlichkeit an! Dienet dem Hochsten mit herrlichen Choren lasst uns den Namen des Herrschers verehren (J.S.Bach 1734/1935).

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57 In contrast to Bach's setting, Toch does not include an oboe or harpsichord. Toch's melody is different. Bach has a four-voice mixed choir whereas Toch writes for a children's, women's, or men's chorus. Toch begins the finale with imitative counterpoint, close thematic unity, continuous motivic unfoldment, and insistent motoric rhythm reminiscent of J.S. Bach. He introduces a new theme in bar 563 in the cellos. This new theme is presented in bi tonal stretto in the orchestra seen in Figure 19 bars 586-591. Figure 19 TochDas Wasser, Op. 53 Movement Vin Bars 586-591 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Toch learned to reconcile polyphonic and homophonic writing from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart whom he considered to be "the great exponent of this style." ^5 He ends movement VIII with tutti fortissimo homophonic C Major chords. 35 EToch 1948/1977: 143

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58 In summary, Table IV Structure of Das Wasser is a concise overview of the movements in the cantata, their form, duration, tempo, vocaUsts needed, and orchestration. The right-hand column indicates whether Toch added flute, trumpet, and/or percussion to the string orchestra. TABLE IV ; Movement ^TRUCTUR] Form 5 OF DAS W/ Duration \SSER Tempo Vocalists Strings+ I quasisonata 1 minute taut *=132 no Fl Tpt Prcs II organic 1.5 minutes somewhat relaxed T B choir Tpt III rondo ABACA 2 minutes fast * =138 T B choir Fl Tpt Prcs IV organic 3.5 minutes grave * =96 TB (only strings) V fugal technique 1.5 minutes fast *=144 choir Fl Tpt Prcs VI strophic 1.5 minutes fast *=112 T Fl Prcs vn fugal technique 5 minutes flowing *=29 B choir FlTpt vni fugal 1 technique 3 minutes * =80 *=138 T B choir Fl Tpt Prcs * means quarter note Toch planned contrast in form, techniques, duration, tempo, and orchestration between movements. He altered texture, harmony, melody, rhythm, dynamic level, and used spoken narration in rhymed couplets to define points of articulation. It has been seen that Toch arranged movements in a way that encourages a directional flow of tension and relaxation.

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Rhythmically, the meter is stable in the second, third, sixth, and seventh movements. There are frequent meter changes in thefirst, fourth, fifth, and eighth movements. Toch contrasted fast and slower tempos in the cantata as seen in Table IV. Rhythmic motives such as the "plodding motive" in movements II and VI tend to unify the composition. Harmonically, accidentals indicate tonal centers rather than the key signature which in the common practice period would indicate either C major or a minor. Although the majority of the cantata does not consistently follow triadic harmonic progessions, movements end in C major, F# major, the note c, the note g, f minor, a minor, B flat major, and C major. The closure of half of the movements relate to the key signature. Toch uses a variety of harmonic tools including triadic harmony, bitonality, and expanded harmony such as chromaticism for affective color. Melodically, shape and growth are achieved by introduction of new material, variation, and repetition. Melodic ranges are tenor soloist C-gl, baritone soloist B flat-fl, and if a women's or children's chorus, sopranos I f#l-a2, sopranos II cl-a flat 2, and altos g-d2. Dynamic levels range from pianissimo to fortissimo. Crescendos and decrescendos direct motion. Often crescendos work with melodic ascent to contribute to directional motion and build tension to a melodic peak. Text is set predominantly syllabically, although melismatic text setting is evident. Melodic motion ranges from level, to conjunct with primarily stepwise motion, to disjunct with occasional sixth, seventh or octave leaps such as in the baritone's aria in movement IV.

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In conclusion, the complexity of Das Wasser appears to be the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon whose source is stylistic contradiction that yields several layers of meaning. Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. The simultaneous overlapping of different layers which are visible but interweave suggests "contradiction adapted" as was seen in movement VII. "Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested when different compositional techniques occurring sequentially are strongly contrasted; for example, "fermentative" counterpoint appears in movement IV and "imitative" counterpoint in movement V. Toch juxtaposes compositional techniques popular in earlier eras. Techniques prevalent in the romantic era include the use of expanded tonality with chromaticism, tapering dynamic changes, and gradual ascent to a melodic climax. Tonal ambiguity is achieved through the superimposition of independent melodic lines focusing on different tonal centers in "fermentative" counterpoint. Techniques popular in the Baroque era include "imitative" counterpoint with stretto and inverted subject, close thematic unity, insistent motoric rhythm, and continuous motivic unfoldment in a cantata structure. Balanced four-bar antecedent and consequent phrases, rondo and strophic form, and triadic harmonies used structurally as final chords of movements, were widespread during the Classical period. Toch uses conventional compositional fugal techniques in an unconventional way. In The Shaping Forces in Music he states that the meaning of counterpoint is to "produce a discussion in point of contrasting ideas, voicing the pros and cons, and thus resulting in

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clarification and final shaping of tiie issue."36 Toch's use of different types of counterpoint in Das Wasser is an appropriate choice to represent Doblin's contradictory positions embodied in the two characters. It has been seen that expectations of order in music and text are broken, and famiUar elements are placed in unfamiliar contexts giving way to humor. Complexity and contradiction can also be found in Toch's choral works of a much smaller scale such as Es sass ein Fuchs (There Sat a Fox) and Es sitzt ein Vogel (There Sits a Bird) discussed in the next section of this study. Per Tierkreis. Op. 52: Es sass ein Fuch s (There Sat a Fox) (1930) and Es sitzt ein Vogel (There Sits a Bird) ( 1930) Toch set each of these one-minute secular pieces of moderate difficulty for a small two-part women's or children's a cappella chorus. Both are in Das neue Chorbuch, Heft 7 ( 1930) edited by Erich Katz. They are based on poems by Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), a German artist and writer who is as famous for his caricatures and comic drawings as for such humorous writings as Max and Moritz.^^ Both poems appeared in 1874 in a popular collection of eighty poems entitied Kritik des Herzens (Critique of the Heart) by Wilhelm Busch.38 Toch's settings of Busch's poems come from a three-piece cycle Der Tierkreis (The Zodiac), op. 52 which includes a third impublished composition for four-part mixed chorus entitled Klappers torch 36 EToch 1948/1977: 134 37 Thorlby 1969 38 Busch 1908

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(Stork) by von Amim.39 The translation "Circle of Animals" is more accurate than "The Zodiac" for this song cycle about chickens, a fox, bird, cat, and stork. The source of the "both-and" phenomenon is contradiction of content and meaning. Double meanings abound in these two brief, htunorous compositions in which Wilhelm Busch and Ernst Toch use, yet simultaneously challenge conventions. As satires against complacency, they question norms and traditions. Toch beUeves, "There must be form~the outer shape dictated by a work's inner organic life. That form will present, in some aspect, a struggle between differing concepts."'^^ Both brief compositions are in binary form. The first piece represents the confUct between a farmer and fox. The second work depicts the tension between a cat and bird. Es sass ein (1930) Interrelationship of Text and Music The motivation of many of Busch' s animals "frequently resembles that of people who are Uberated from social or cultural inhibitions."4i His criticism is directed at his society, encouraging people to "take a new look at traditional values." ^2 Toch does not state the source of his version of the poem, but it matches a version published in 1908 in Kritik des HerzensA^ Refer to Johnson 1973 for information on the unpubUshed Klapperstorch from Der Tierkreis, Op.52 (1930). UCLA Toch Archive Articles and Essays Box 3, No. 33 41 Lotze 1979: 31 42 Lotze 1979: 42 43 Busch 1908: 49

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In his poem Busch is advising the dissident middle class about the double-dealing of the aristocracy. Like German rulers who offered amnesty to the revolutionaries of 1848, then seized and executed trusting opponents, the farmer seeks to capture the fox. But the crafty animal will not be fooled. He not only refuses the offer of safe conduct, but announces that another fox has just been bom, suggesting that some animosities endure forever. Busch' s 14-line poem is divided into two unequal parts of eight and six lines. Except for its rhyme scheme of AABBCCDD EEFFGG, it adheres to the classical form of an Italian Petrarchan sonnet. A sonnet is divided into two sections. The first is an eight-line "octave" rhyming ABBAABBA that presents a narrative, states a proposition, or raises a question. The second section is a six-line "sestet" rhyming CDECDE, CDCDCD, or CDEDCE that makes an abstract comment, applies the proposition, or solves the problem.44 In Busch's poem the octave opens with a couplet ( tie f and Brief) which introduces the farmer's proposition (So und so), has four accents per line, regular iambic meter, and an AABBCCDD rhyme scheme. Es sass ein Fuchs im Walde tief. Da schrieb ihm der Bauer einen Brief: So und so, und er sollte nur kommen, 's war Alles verziehen, was tibel genommen. A fox sat in the deep forest. There the farmer wrote him a letter: This and that, and he should only come. All was forgiven, what was badly taken. "Sonnet" in Holman and Harmon 1986

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64 The sestet begins with a couplet (blut and gut) introducing the fox's reply and shifts to irregular two or three accents per line in an EEFFGG rhyme scheme. The English translation done by the researcher is idiomatic, rather than Uteral, taking into account two different writing styles, one by the farmer, and the other by the fox. It considers the use of idiomatic conversational German by the fox. Darauf schrieb der Fuchs mit GSnseblut: Kann nicht gut. Meine Alte mal wieder Gekommen nieder. To which the fox wrote with geeseblood: Cannot do. My old lady has just had another litde one. Wilhelm Busch challenges convention in his use of form and language. Within the classical structure of a sonnet, irregular phrases appear. Busch creates tension by juxtaposing a farmer who is trying to trick a fox, and a wily fox who outsmarts him. The poem's binary design determines the composition's AB form with two unbalanced parts containing 14+11 bars. With a march tempo in 4/4 meter, Toch begins the composition in D major as indicated by the key signature. Toch sets the first two poetic lines syllabically in a forte straightforward unison with balanced antecedent and consequent phrases in Figure 20 bars 1-4. He begins the farmer's proposition with "imitative" counterpoint. Triplets increase surface rhythmic activity in Figure 20 bar 6. A gradual crescendo builds to a melodic peak in bar 8. Melodic ranges are sopranos a-f2 and altos g-d2.

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65 So und so, und er soll-te r.ur Al-les ver-2i*--hen, -was ii . helffe-noin-inen. Iter E wiir Al Its ifcr-zit-hen, was " Figure 20 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es Sass ein Fuchs" Bars 1-6 Copyright B. Schott's S5hne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Toch indicates a point of articulation in Figure 21 bar 15 between the farmer's farewell and introduction of the fox's answer. Gradually rhythmic activity slows to quarter then half notes. A poco ritardando and decrescendo to pianissimo support his farewell in Figure 21 bars 13-14. Fluctuating tonal centers and chromaticism convey ambiguity in the farmer's farewell. The fox is introduced in Figure 21 bars 15-17. Toch unifies the work by using D major tonality, a tempo, a forte dynamic level, and the same melody as in Figure 20 bars 1-2. Beginning in Figure 21

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66 bar 18, the fox's answer musically reflects the irregularities of the text by using 3/2 and 4/4 meter. As in the farmer's proposition, Toch ambiguously wanders from the tonal orbit during the fox's answer. Figure 21 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es Sass ein Fuchs"Bars 11-18 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz Although the majority of the text is set syllabically, Toch uses a melisma plus crescendo and melodic peak in Figure 22 bar 22 to emphasize the word Seele in the fox's farewell (Im ubrigen von ganzer Seele dein Fuchs in der Hdhle. Otherwise sincerely, your fox in the cave). Then he quickly tapers the dynamic level to pianissimo. In contrast to the ambiguity in the farmer's extended farewell, the fox quickly leaves in bars 23-24. A clear D major tonality, a tempo, and forte dynamic level serve to unify the piece.

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67 lento Ubrigen von g'anzcr a tempo PP__f See E le dein Fuchs in der r — # iHbh-le 0 m deinFuchs ia der H°6h-le. U-brigen von ganzer See le Figure 22 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es Sass ein Fuchs" Bars 21-24 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz In conclusion, Es sass ein Fuchs is a small-scale example of a "both-and" phenomenon with stylistic contradictions. Toch uses techniques popular in the Classical period such as triadic harmony, imitative counterpoint, small forces, and a clear binary form. He also uses techniques prevalent in the Romantic era such as building to a climax, ambiguous expanded tonality for affective color, and tapering dynamic level changes. Essit7tein Vngel (^<^^0) The second of the pubUshed compositions in Der Tierkreis is Es sitzt ein Vogel about the conflict between a bird and cat. In Wilhelm Busch's poem located in Kritik des /ferze/is (1908)^5 a bird is caught in the lime spread out on a branch and cannot fly away. The cat knows this and approaches in hot expectation. Since the bird cannot do anything else, he does the one thing he can do~sing, as he awaits 45 Busch 1908:3

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his demise. This is gallows humor, and this poem is often cited as one of the best examples of the genre in German. The twelve-line text is divided into two equal parts with four accents per line, and AABBCC DDEEFF rhyme scheme. The first sixline section introduces the two characters, a bird and cat, and estabUshes their conflictual situation. Es sitzt ein Vogel auf dem Leim, Er flattert sehr und kann nicht heim. Ein schwarzer Kater schleicht herzu. Die Krallen spitz,46 die Augen gluh. A bird is stuck. He flutters so and cannot go home. A black cat moves stealthily to him The claws outstretched, the eyes glowing. The second six-line section tells us what the bird is thinking and doing, and gives a final brief comment from the poet. The poem's binary design defines the AB form of the composition with two balanced parts containing 16+15 bars. With Allegro tempo and 4/4 meter, Toch begins the composition in D major as indicated by the key signature. Toch sets the first two poetic lines syllabically in an imitative texture at a mezzo-forte dynamic level seen in Figure 23. In contrast to the initial conjtmct melodic line "stuck" to d, Toch introduces the black cat in Figure 23 bar 4 with a descending octave leap, melismas, and chromaticisim. He emphasizes the word spitz referring to the cat's outstretched claws in Figure 24 bar 8 by In the 1908 poem die Krallen scharf/ the claws sharp

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5 st\i vnd kann sicM heim. Ein schwarier Ka • P ler sclileichl ^ p-)tckr und kann Bicht keim. Ein schwar-zer Ka ter Figure 23 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "£s sitzt em Vbge/" Bars 1-5 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz accents, staccato articulation, and upward melodic leaps. Toch wordpaints schleicht as the feline moves stealthily with imitative lines that gradually ascend to melodic peaks in Figure 24 bars 10-11 that accent gluh. The word gluh in line 4 dieAugen gluh is poetic Krallen spitz, die Au^n, — dieAu-^en gluh. Den Baum hin-anf und im-mer Figure 24 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es sitzt ein Vogel" Bars 8-12 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz

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license for gluhen and means that the cat's eyes are shining in anticipation of the meal he is about to enjoy. He also uses eighthnote surface activity to increase tension. Melodic ranges are sopranos cl-g2, altos a-e2. Toch creates a moment of high tension by using a disjimct line with wide leaps, a crescendo, and sudden fortissimo to piano dynamic level change in Figure 24 bars 10-11. The melodic peak is paired with a major second melodic interval which is an accented dissonance at the loudest point. A dotted half note and minor ninth leap upwards further emphasize the cat's eyes glowing in hungry anticipation. Toch maintains tension to the end of section A by Itommt er dem ar-mea Vo -gel na-ber. Der Vo gel i denkt: Weil das A A -P g o so ist und A A -P. weil mich doch der Ka ter friBt, so so denkt: Weil das so 1st und weil mich doch der Kater friCt) Figure 25 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es sitztein VogeI"Bars 14-21 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz

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continuing to use chromaticism, modulation, and progressions of seventh intervals. Toch defines the point of articulation ending section A by a decrescendo and accented pause in Figure 25 bar 16. Harmonic ambiguity at the end of section A continues tension as the black cat comes ever closer to the bird. Section B begins in bar 17 with a straightforward declaration. Toch emphasizes the bird's resolute decision in Figure 25 bars 18-19 by using triadic harmony, halfand quarter-notes, and accentuating syllabically-set text. The tritone on frisst in bar 2 1 increases tension. Der Vogel denkt: Weil das so ist Und well mich doch der Kater frisst, So will ich keine Zeit verlieren. Will noch ein wenig quinquiUeren. The bird thinks: Because it is so And because the cat will eat me, I don't want to lose any time, I want still to twitter a little. Toch wordpaints the bird twittering via a three-bar melisma of primarily sixteenth notes in the soprano part in Figure 26 bars 2426. An active disjunct melodic line of staccato major and minor thirds in the alto part resembles the call of a cuckoo. Toch represents the final straightforward commentary {Der Vogel, diinkt mich,"*^ hat Humor. The bird, I thought, has a sense of humor.) in Figure 26 bars 29-31. He uses accented notes and pauses, syllabically-set text, terraced dynamic level changes, and a final D tonal center. In the 1908 version Der Vogel, scheint mir/ The bird appears to me.

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72 lu-stig pfeifen wie zu vor. Der Vo-gel, diinkt mich, hatHu-nior. Figure 26 Toch Der Tierkreis, Op. 52 "Es sitzt ein Vb^e/"Bars 24-31 Copyright B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz 1930. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz In conclusion, it has been seen that Toch changes dynamic level, harmony, melody, and rhythm to portray characters and define points of articulation. He elicits humor through the unexpected use of conventional techniques. The work is an example of a hybrid "bothand" composition in which Toch contrasts compositional techniques popular in the romantic era such as expanded tonality, dynamic level tapering, and building to melodic peaks, with balanced form, small forces, and triadic harmony that were popular in the eighteenth century. He also uses modernist devices such as independence of melodic hnes, accented dissonances, harmonic clashes, and large

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intervallic skips. "Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested as different compositional techniques occurring sequentially are strongly contrasted to musically characterize the cat and bird. Es ist ein Schnee . gefallen ( 1 930) The simplicity of this arrangement appears in striking contrast to Toch's choral compositions discussed in this study. In its clarity, balance, and order, Toch's a cappella SATB setting of a fifteenthcentury secular folksong with cantus firmus in the tenor is an example of twentieth-century neo-classicism in music. This 2.5 minute work is suitable for youth and college choirs. The brief strophic setting is one of many arrangements by composers'^s throughout Germany and Austria who were commissioned by the state to contribute to the Jugendbewegung in the 1920s. Toch's composition is in the Volksliederbuch fur die Jugend, Band II, Heft 5 Gemischte Chore, Leipzig (1930). It is ironic that Toch, who was invited to represent the voice of the German people in this folksong, would be blacklisted within three years by the National Socialists. Interrelationship of Text and Music This melancholy strophic poem by an unknown poet about the painful consciousness of time passing foreshadows the end of the Weimar RepubUc and the impending exodus from Germany. ^8 Hindemith and Schonberg are among the many composers listed as "Schopfer neuer Satze ihre Kunst in den Dienst dieses der deutschen Jugend gewidmeten Werkes stellten." (Creators of new movements of their art dedicated to the service of German youth) in" Introduction" (E Toch Es ist ein Sclinee gefallen 1930).

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74 Es ist ein Schnee gefallen, Und es ist doch nicht Zeit. Man wirft mich mit den Ballen, Der Weg ist mir verschneit. Mein Haus hat keinen Giebel, Es ist mir worden alt. Zerbrochen sind die Riegel, Mein Sttiblein worden kalt. Ach Lieb, lass dichs erbarmen, Dass ich so elend bin, Und schleuss mich in dein Arme, So fahrt der Winter hin. © 1930 by C. F. Peters Leipzig. Used by permission of C. F. Peters Corporation, New York. The twelve-line text is divided into three equal parts with three accents per line, and ABAB CDCD EFEF rhyme scheme. The English version as translated by the researcher is: Some snow has fallen And it is not yet time. One throws snowballs at me, My way is covered with snow. My house has no gabel. It has become old. Broken are the beams. My Uttle room has become cold. Oh love, have mercy on me That I am so pitiful. And hold me in your arms. That is how the winter goes. The poem's ternary design defines the strophic form of the composition with musically identical strophes each containing 16

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75 bars. For each of the three verses, Toch sets the rhymed text syllabically in two equal eight-bar symmetrical phrase groupings of an antecedent and consequent nature. Tempo is not indicated. 4/ 4 meter is consistent throughout the piece. Quarter note activity begins the composition. With the cantus firmus in the tenor, imitative entries for basses, altos, and sopranos build a four-part homophonic texture seen in Figure 27. 1. Es ist einSdmec ge fal leii, und es 2 Mein Haus liat kei nen Qic bel, es ist 3. Acii Lieb, laQ dichs er • bar-men, daS icii t. Es Ist einSchneegc 2. Mein Haus hat kei nen S. Ach Licb, laO dichs cr Ia\ len, und es ist niclitZcit, es Oie bul, es ist wor-den alt, mein barmen, daU ich e Und bin, acb Melodie J. J^J i 1. Es ist ein Schnecge fal S. Mein Haus hat Icei oen Oie 3. Ach Licb, lalS dichs tr bar len, uiid es bel, es ist men, daD ich ist docU nicht Zeit, mir worden alt, . so e lend bin. . es mein ach Figure 27 Toch Es ist ein Schnee gef alien Bars 1-4 © 1930 by C. F. Peters Leipzig. Used by permission of C. F. Peters Corporation, New York. Melodic lines move primarily in stepwise motion with the vocal range rarely exceeding an octave. Melodic ranges are sopranos dl-e2, altos b-al, tenors d-dl, and basses G-g. Harmonically, a G major tonal center as indicated by the key signature predominates, seen in bars 1-4 and in Figure 28 bar 8. The point of articulation corresponding to the end of the first poetic couplet is marked by a dotted half note and textural change from four to two parts.

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Zeit. alt. Zeit. alt. bin, -1 Zeit. Man wirft mich mit den alt. Zer • bro chen sind die bin. und schleufl mich in dein i Man wirft mich mit den Bal-kn, Zer bro • chen sind die Rie-|^, und schleu£ mich in dein Ar • me. Man wirft mich mit den B&l-len, Zer bro • chen sind die Rie • gel, und schleufi mich in dein Ar • me, 1 Bal Rie Ar len, gel, me. der mein so Figure 28 Toch Es ist ein Schnee gefallen Bars 8-10 © 1930 by C. F. Peters Leipzig. Used by permission of C. F. Peters Corporation, New York. Some chromaticism provides tension, directional motion, and variety in the second couplet. This can be seen in Figure 28 bars 910 in the chromatically descending bass line. Eighth note surface rhythmic activity in bar 10 also provides variety and propels the piece. Toch unifies the work by repeating the tenor and bass lines from bar 9 in Figure 29 bar 13. Additive imitative entries of altos and sopranos at a half note delay in bar 13 resemble the additive process of imitative entries in bars 1-2 which were at the whole note delay. A chromatically descending bass line contributes variety in Figure 29 bars 13-15. Toch cadences conventionally V-I to G major in bars 15-16 to end the work. No dynamic level changes are noted in the composition, which is unusual in Toch's choral writing.

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man wirft rer • 'bro • und sdileuD mich mit den Bal ' dien sind die Rie • inlch in dein At len, der We; ist gel.nieui Stiii • lein me, so fahrt der mir ver-schneit. worden kalt. Win.ter hin! 77 — » — irman virft mich mit xer brochen sind und schleiifl mich in den Bal* -len, der— We; ist die Rie gel, mein Stiib lein dein Ar • me, so — fiihrt der mir verschneit. worden kalt. Win-ter bin! > J .. J J 5(^ne wirft mich mit den Bal bro • chen sind die Rie schleufl mich in dein At len, der Weg ist mir ver gel, mein Stiib lein wor den me, so fiihrt der Win • ter schneit. kalt. hin! Figure 29 TocIlE's ist ein Schnee gefallen Bars 13-16 © 1930 by C. F. Peters Leipzig. Used by permission of C. F. Peters Corporation, New York. In conclusion, as Gebrauchsmusik, the folksong collection to which Es ist ein Schneee gefallen belongs, serves a pedagogical purpose for students from the age of twelve to learn to sing Lieder in a variety of styles. The limited technical ability and narrow vocal range of youthful voices are important parameters of the compositions.49 This purpose explains the simplicity of the choral writing in comparison to Toch's contemporary choral publications. '^^ "Das begrenzte technische Konnen und besonders der engere Umfang jugendlicher Stimmen wurde nie aus dem Auge gelassen" in "Introduction" (E Toch Es ist ein Schnee gefallen 1930).

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CHAPTER 4 CHORAL MUSIC COMPOSED IN THE UNITED STATES 1934-1964 Thp Inner Circle, op. 67 (1953) Toch's The Inner Circle is a collection of six a cappella choruses primarily for large forces and professional soloists based on secular and sacred English texts by an international group of nineteenthcentury poets. The cycle lasts 13 minutes. The compositions are I. Cui bono? by Thomas Carlyle II. The Lamb by William Blake III. Extinguish my eyes by Rainer Maria Rilke IV. O World, thou chosestnot by George Santayana V. Have you not heard his silent step by Rabindranath Tagore VI. Good-bye, Proud world by Ralph Waldo Emerson Although Affiliated Musicians, Inc. is credited as publishing the cycle, the researcher located no current address for this company. BMI, ASCAP, Belwin-Mills, Associated Music Publishers/G. Schirmer, and European American Distributors Corporation had no record of publication of The Inner Circle.^ The choruses on poems by Carlyle, Blake, Rilke, and Santayana, plus Trees (1914) by Joyce Kilmer, 2 premiered 26 May 1945 in a 1 Contacted by telephone 18 May 1993. See Appendix B for telephone numbers. 2 (Alfred) Joyce Kilmer (1886-1918) was an American poet from New Jersey (Kilmer 1914). Toch's composition, Trees, has not yet been located (Letter from Stephen M. Fry, UCLA Toch Archive to the author dated 27 April 1993). 78

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collection entitled Songs of the Cycle for mixed voices, women's voices, soprano solo, flute, and organ at the Seventh Annual Festival of Modem Music at the First Congregational Church in Los Angeles.^ Songs of the Cycle included Prologue for flute and piano Qui Bono? for mixed voices by Thomas Carlyle hiterlude for flute and piano The Lamb for women's voices by WiUiam Blake Interlude for piano Faith for mixed voices by George Santayana Trees for soprano solo, flute, and piano by Joyce Kilmer The Book of Hours excerpt for mixed voices and organ by Rainer Maria Rilke Epilogue for flute, piano and organ The existence of the concert program indicates that the first four of the compositions in The Inner Circle were composed at least eight years before they were published. In organizing The Inner Circle, Toch omitted Joyce Kilmer's Trees, the instrumental prelude, interludes, and postlude. He later added the poems by Tagore and Emerson. In The Inner Circle Toch embraces established practices. He favors conventional forms and compositional techniques from his studies of Western European traditions. A decrease in the amoimt of contrapuntal writing in comparison to his earlier works is noted in the first four pieces of the cycle which premiered in the 1945 collection. In these four works, simultaneity of events predominates 3 Clippings in the UCLA Toch Archive

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over linear independence. Toch allows the influx of unconscious emotional sources to influence his balance of tension and relaxation throughout the cycle. His acceptance of irrational creative springs from which inspiration bubbles up is characteristic of the nineteenth-century romantic writers who stimulated Toch's poetic imagination in this cycle. The impact of his composing commercial film music is not to be discounted as contributing to a change in his compositional style and choice of traditional texts that focus on universal aspects of human existence. Since 1936 Toch had been writing film music that "should enhance the feelings and emotions of the characters. "4 A socio/cultural significance of the prevalence of neo-romanticism in this cycle is that Toch became too conservative for the modernists of the 1950s. The song cycle has also been referred to as Songs of Life and The Cycle of Life.^ The revised collection published as The Inner Circle renounces the temporal in favor of universal and eternal aspects of Ufe. It is Toch's response in contradiction to the rationality of his contemporary historical context in which serial music, that emphasized a highly conscious and rational approach to composition, was widespread. Toch wrote, Our music is fully congruous with our time; it is an appropriate expression of our age. Many established practices are abandoned, many new beginnings have been made. Our music, by and large, exhibits great losses in naivete, in instinct, and in spontaneity. . . . Most 4 limbacher 1974: 61-63 5 Johnson 1973: 238

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81 prominently it denotes a change in the inner status of man The change is predicated upon a preponderance, heretofore unknown, of rationality, as compared to all other innate faculties of man. The intellect seems to be on a rampage against man's totality. . . . The "timely" music of our day places its emphasis on formalistic and structural elements. Sets of laws are developed for their operation. Argument and logical deduction are now the valid measure. . . . Influx from emotional, unconscious sources is sifted out to the minimum. . . . For those infatuated with the rational and dedicated to creation along these lines, the task evidentiy holds great fascination. . . . But I wonder whether the relationship between their music and their public will ever equal that between man and music heretofore, whether their music may prove capable of becoming the endearing, transporting experience it has been in the past, whether this music may enjoy, on a broad basis, that measure of collective acceptance which made it the unique human possession that was handed down to us.^ I. Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), a British philosopher, critic, and historian who lived in Edinburgh and London, believed that the "ultimate reality is not to be found in the visible world, but in timeless and universal truths for which natural phenomena can provide but fragmentary representations." ^ These truths are found intuitively rather than through logical processes. His poem Cui Bono? is in Appendix II "Fractions (1823-1833)" in Critical and Miscellaneous Essays: Collected and Republished (1860).8 Although " (E. Toch 1966) Although this quote comes from Toch's essay "Some Thoughts Out of Season" which was published after his death, it was probably written in the 1950s (Johnson 1973: 233). 7 Tarr and McClelland 1986: xxx 8 Carlyle 1860: 471

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Toch does not state the source of his version of the poetic text, the poem probably dates from late 1826.^ Toch set Cui bono? for a large a cappella SATB divisi chorus. This two-minute secular piece of moderate difficulty is suitable for college choirs. The poem's tripartite design determines the composition's musical shape of AAB form with balanced sections containing 14 + 14+15 measures. Unity is achieved by the repetition of section A, whereas B provides variety. Details of poetic structure are confirmed by musical points of articulation defined by changes in dynamic level, harmony, and rhythm. Pianissimos and slower harmonic rhythm at cadences in harmonically stable D or E major define the three major points of articulation at bars 14, 28, and 43. Rhythmic lulls in the form of dotted quarter rests contribute to clarifying points of articulation at bars 14 and 28. Dynamic levels range from pianissimo to fortissimo with crescendos and decrescendos. These contribute to directional motion. Sections A begin Wliat is hope? A smiling rainbow and What is life? A thawing iceboard. These are relatively quieter and calmer than section B which has more dramatic dynamic contrasts. Section B begins with the text. What is man? A foolish baby, Vainly strives and fights and frets. Toch set Cui bono? to a massive chordal homophonic texture with only the briefest imitative echo concluding each of the three sections. Events in this composition involve simultaneity rather than independence of lines. Secondary points of articulation correspond to poetic divisions and punctuations within each stanza. Rhythmically, the assymetrical 9 Tarr and McClelland 1986: 151

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83 phrase structure of the text is reflected in the music by eighth, quarter, or dotted-quarter rests, and longer notes relative to surrounding rhythmic activity. Toch set die text to a quick quarterbeat pulse of "about 92," 4/4 meter in all but bar 35, and no accelerandos or ritardandos. The prevailing unit is half notes. Toch matches notes to the stress and length of syllables or words. He emphasizes words and phrases by text repetition, melodic peaks or valleys, and sudden changes in harmonic color in Figure 30 bars 1-4. J about 92 Soprano Alto Tenor Bass What is hope? What is hope?_ A smil-ing rain-bow_ rain bow. Whit is hope?Wharis ho^?_ smil rain bow. es*r. •P r J si What is hope 7 What is hope?— A smil ing rain bow. P What is hope? What is hope?— A smil ing rain buw. Figure 30 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Cui bono? " Bars 1-4 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles The three-note rhythmic motive, short-short-long, in bar 1 that is presented and immediately repeated signals the beginning of each section. This rhythmic motive serves to unify the composition. The lowest notes of the melodic range of the sopranos and altos are on hope in bar 2 and life in bar 16. Melodically, although stepwise motion is prevalent, skips and leaps serve often to accentuate text. Toch avoids vocally awkward

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84 syllables on melodic highs or lows by using open vowels. Melodic ranges are sopranos e#l-a2, altos b-e2, tenors d flat-f#l, and basses G flat-b. Melodic shape and growth are achieved by repetition and introduction of new material. In comparing the beginning of sections A and B which have the same rhythmic stress, but different harmonic background, it is evident that melodic variation is also a source of melodic shape and movement. Toch varies the melodic pattern of the beginning of section B in Figure 31 bar 29 by leaping upward a major sixth to emphasize man rather than repeating the section A descending leap. The melodic curve in Figure 30 bars 2-3 transforms to a sawtooth shape in section B bars 32-35 seen in Figure 32. These variations in melodic pattern propel section B forward. Whit is man? What is man?— ^ ^ A What is man? What is XT, What is man? What is man?— A. P ff , , mf % What is man? What is man?_ Figure 31 TochT/ie Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Cui bono? " Bars 29-30 © 1953 by Affihated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles Harmonically, triads at the beginning and end of the three sections provide stable structures unifying the work. Although Toch

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begins each section in D major which is indicated by the key signature, he ends the composition in E major. Harmonic contradictions also exist. The progression toward the sharp side from two sharps in D major to four sharps in E major tends to increase tension. Modulation away from the tonic center, complex and dissonant alterations as indicated by numerous accidentals, and contrasting fast with slow harmonic rhythm contribute to tension and movement. Harmony is used ornamentally with changes of chords or dissonant notes shorter than the prevailing half-beat unit. Toch uses an expanded tonality in search of affective color which was popular in the nineteenth century. Toch is sensitive to textual meaning and the effect of complex vertical structures on affective color. Areas of greater and lesser dissonance contribute to gradations of harmonic color. In comparison to the more stable undulating melodic contours, triadic harmonies, and V 7 chords of sections A, in section B Toch wordpaints baby, vainly strifes and fights and frets, Demanding all, deserving nothing in Figure 32 bars 32-37. He uses disjunct sawtooth melodic Unes, a fast harmonic rhythm, complex chords with tritone harmonies, chromaticism, and a crescendo to increase tension building to a fortissimo six-part climax. Harmony serves as a double-functioning element. It is used structurally to stabilize, for example, g-flat-7 chords on nothing in Figure 32 bar 36 stabilize on the prevailing half-note unit. It also functions ornamentally where changes of chords or dissonant notesare shorter than the prevailing unit. This tends to create tension, for example, on vainly in bar 32.

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86 ba • hy, v*la-ly strlfw and (IihU tad tt4U, bft by, valn-ly ttrirc* wid fl[bt> and fratt, Da•• I III I 1 1 II I M/' /' I '^^O^f/ ba by, vaia-ly atrifta aad (I^t* ai)4 ftatt, b» • by, vato-ly stiifei and ri(hts and frets mud-ioe all,. dfser-vin( rr mind-lof aU,_ dttar -vine mand-lnc *U,— d«-aar-vins P noth -ln{,. noth in(, noUiuc,_ maad-inc all_ da-aar-vinj noth ing, Figure 32 Toch Tiie Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Cui £)Oi2o7" Bars 32-37 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles By coordinating musical elements Toch creates a region of maximum tension. A flection count, in which the number of changes in melodic direction are added between relevant articulations, quantitatively demonstrates how Toch used melody to define these points of articulation. The flection count has increased to 12 in Figure 32 bars 32-37 compared with a flection count of 4 in bars 1-5.

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Toch further stresses the phrase, Demanding all, deserving nothing, by departing briefly from 4/4 meter to 6/4 meter. Toch gradually releases much of the tension during the last five measures of the composition. Melodic lines stabiUze at a pianissimo dynamic level, triadic harmonies increase, and the harmonic rhythm slows to cadence in E Major. In conclusion, Cui bono? is an example of how Toch uses compositional procedures that were conventional in the Romantic era to create an ebb and flow of tension within a form popular in the Baroque and Classical periods. Assymetrical phrase lengths and affective harmonic color exist in contrast to the clarity of the overall tripartite structure. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as different compositional techniques are superimposed and elements are subdy adjusted to accommodate them. In Cui bono? harmony was used both structurally and ornamentally as a double-functioning element. It has also been shown that the work is historically anachronistic when considered in relationship to prevalent contemporary rational compositional thought. n. William Blake (1757-1827) combined poetry and pictorial design. Tlie Lamb which may represent Jesus, the lamb of God, is in his Songs of Innocence which he etched in 1789. These poems appear to be for children but express profound thoughts about life. Innocence is a "condition that the idea of childhood evokes:

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sweetness, simplicity, unrestrained love, and the ability to accept life in all its aspects as a source of joy."io The Lamb was published in London in an elegant leatherbound collection of poetry with corresponding watercolor plates entitled Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul by William Blake in 1794.ii Toch set The Lamb for an a cappella women's SSA chorus. The melody sung by Sopranos I is accompanied by Sopranos II and Altos. Occasionally he divides Sopranos II which results in a four-part as well as three-part homophonic texture featuring primarily simultaneous events. Marked Allegretto grazioso e leggiero with the quarter note "about 96," The Lamb is a two-minute work of easyto-moderate difficulty suitable for college choruses. The meter changes from duple 4/4 as indicated by the time signature to triple 6/4 or 3/4. Frequent meter changes are consistent with twentieth-century rhythmic treatment. The duple or triple half-note pulse contrasts with active surface motion consisting primarily of eighth notes. Vocal entries corresponding to the beginning of poetic lines occur primarily on downbeats. Symmetrical two-bar antecedentconsequent phrases predominate. Text is set primarily syllabically. Harmonically, one sharp in the key signature indicates either G major or e minor tonality. As seen in Figure 33, harmony is a doublefunctioning element. For example, in bar 4 the G major and e minor chords on the first and third quarter-note beats are structural. They 10 Malcolmson 1967: 33 11 Rare Book Room in Firestone Library, Princeton University.

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aa,v»lhe«Iife»iidba(felheefeed by theslrcunando'erthenttad. Gave ihec cloih ing Figure 33 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "The Lamb " Bars 1-5 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles provide triadic stability in the flow of sound.The vertical structures between these two stable nodes are ornamental. They provide affective color rather than serve as functional harmonic progressions. This expanded tonality was conventional in the nineteenth-century, and was evident in Cui bono?, the first choral work in this cycle. Melodically, stepwise motion predominates, but skips and leaps occur in each voice. A descending minor sixth leap in Soprano I seen in Figure 33 bars 1, 2 and 5 provides thematic unity. Melodic ranges are sopranos I el-ab2, sopranos 11 b-e2, and altos g-c2. Melodic shape and growth are achieved by repetition, and introduction of new material. The binary structure of the poem is reflected in the binary musical shape AB Coda of 11 + 12 + 5 measures. Points of articulation

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90 Figure 34 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "The Lamb " Bars 7-11 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles are marked by modified rhythm, harmony, dynamic level, and melody. In Figure 34 bars 8-11 chord rhythm slows to circle around E-flat major as a stable tonal center. The meter changes from 6/4 to 3/4 in bar 8. In Figure 34 bars 9 and 11 fermatas interrupt the legato flow. A dotted half note in bar 9 and poco ritardando in bar 1 1 slow the pace. A pianissimo also contributes to marking the end of section A in bar 11. Melodic activity decreases in Soprano I in bars 7-8 as Soprano II and Altos wind down from sawtooth patterns in bars 7-8 to level patterns in bars 9-11. A flection count which is the sum of the changes in melodic direction between relevant articulations,

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91 quantitatively demonstrates how Toch used melody to define these points of articulation. In bars 7-9 the flection coimts are Sopranos I 0, Sopranos 11 16, and Altos 6. In comparison in bars 10-11 the flection counts are considerably reduced for Sopranos II and Altos. They are Sopranos I 3, Sopranos 11 0, Altos 0. Unity is achieved by the repetition of the first six measures of section A at the beginning of section B. Variety occurs in bars 18-28 with new musical material. The greatest textural contrast occurs at the beginning of the Coda in Figure 35 bar 24. Toch accentuates the words Little lamb by a two-octave imitative melodic ascent by minor thirds to a melodic cUmax on a-flat 4. Toch uses text repetition and a sudden change in dynamic level from forte to pianissimo to emphasize the final two lines of the poem which ends in stable G major consistent with the key signature. Although forte emphasizes one other phrase beginning I a child in bar 18, pianissimo to piano dynamic levels prevail throughout the rii).! bless.God bIfss thee. Figure 35 Toch The hmer Circle, Op. 67 "The Lamb " Bars 24-28 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles composition. Dynamic changes supply variety. Section A is quieter than section B which has the two forte markings.

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In conclusion, The Lamb is more neo-classical in its balance, clarity, calm, and relative simplicity than many of Toch's choral works. It has a balanced binary form, symmetrical two-bar phrases, predominantly triadic harmonies on strong beats, homophonic texture, and thematic repetition. In contrast, Toch uses tapering dynamic changes, and harmony for affective color that were popular in the romantic period. It has been seen that harmony is a doublefunctioning element providing both ornament and structure. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as Toch superimposes different compositional techniques and subtly adjusts elements to accommodate them. III. Rainer (Karl Wilhelm Josef) Maria Rilke (1875-1926) was a great lyric poet of German literature who was raised Roman CathoUc but rebelled in adolescence. He cherished love as an inspiration, but shunned it as an entanglement. 12 His fanatical poem of passionate desire, Extinguish my eyes, appeared in 1901 as Losch mir die Augen aus: ich kawi dich sehnA^ It is an ardent, personal poem whose origins are sacred medieval horae canonicae consisting of liturgical prayers of monks. The poem is in his Zweites Buch: Das Buch von der Pilgerschaft (Second Book: The Book from the Pilgrimage), the second book of 12 Thorlby 1969 13 Rilke 1911: 54

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three in Das Stunden-Buch (The Book of Hours) M This second book was written at Westerwede, near Bremen, 18-25 September 1901. Fair copy for Lou Andreas-Salome was made in Paris in the summer of 1903. It was revised for the press at Worpswede, 24 April16 May 1905.15 Using an English translation by Jessie Lemont, Toch musically depicted the reckless, anxious, subjective emotion of Rilke's obsessive love. In burning contrast to the preceding piece, the heat of this composition is palpable. Tension prevails throughout this difficult one-minute work which is suitable for large advanced college and professionally trained choirs. Toch set Extinguish My Eyes for a large a cappella SATB divisi chorus ranging from four to six parts. A massive complex homophonic texture predominates. The poem's binary design determines the composition's musical shape of AB form with assymetrical sections containing 12 + 23 bars. Section B is twice as long as section A. Details of poetic structure are indicated by musical points of articulation defined by changes in rhythm, dynamic level, harmony, and melody. With fanatical passion the quarter note equaling 104-108 propels eighth notes forward with impetuous recklessness. Rhythmically, in contradiction to the triple quarter pulse indicated by the time signature 3/4, Toch's sforzando accentuations and lengthening of certain syllables suggest duple meter in Figure 36 bars 1-4. 14 The first and third books of Das Stunden-Buch are Erstes Buch: Das Buch vom Monchischen Leben, Berhn 1899 and Drittes Buch: Das Buch von der Armut und vom Tode, Paris 1903 (Rilke 1926). 15 Rilke 1967: 61

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94 With fanatical passion J^104-108 Soprano Alto Tenor Bass Ex-tin-|uish my eyes I still can see you, close my ears, I can P Ex-tin-guish my eyes I slill ^ can see you, close niy ears, I can Figure 36 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Extinguish My Eyes "Bars 1-4 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles Toch makes analogies between word and musical rhythm. He stresses -tinin Figure 36 bar 1 by placing it as if on "one" after an upbeat, and melodically leaping upward a minor sixth. In bar 2 he I I I I ,y I I J ' I y I hear your foot • steps (all and_with out feet I still can fol-lowyou, and with •HH k hear your foot steps fall— and with out feet 1 can fol (owyou,wi'(h hear your foot steps fall and with out feet I r.m fol A tow you, with hear your fool steps fall and with out feet 1 can fol low you with Figure 37 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Extinguish My Eyes "Bars 5-8 © 1953 by AffiHated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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accents eyes I still, and sets both eyes and still to dotted quarter notes. He further emphasizes eyes by placing it on beat one after an upward leap in all parts. In Figure 37 bar 5 foot is similarly accented and is lengthened to a dotted quarter note. Rhythm may here be viewed as a double-fimctioning element. In Figure 37 bar 6, the half-note chord sung by tenors and basses has a structural function. By its longer duration it stabilizes triple meter. Triplets in bars 6-8, however, add to the emotional turmoil by inserting more rhythmic activity in the soprano Une. Thus they serve an ornamental and affective function. I still can to you call Break off niy I still can to yoii call. Dreak off my Figure 38 TochThe Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Extinguish My Eyes " Bars 10-13 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles Although dynamic levels range from piano to a forte level is preeminent. Dynamic changes that were popular in the nineteenth century contribute to directional motion and an increase in tension.

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96 As seen in Figure 38, a gradual crescendo builds to a climax in bar 11 marking the end of section A. In dramatic contrast to the histrionic ascent and climax, Toch suddenly begins section B in bar 13 with pianissimo and low tones of vocal ranges. The pattern of a slow but steady crescendo is repeated in section B. Toch begins bar 13 piano, but builds gradually to a iff climax to conclude the piece. Harmony is consistendy unpredictable, befitting obsessive love that is not controlled by reason. Toch uses expanded tonality popular with nineteenth-century composers in their search for affective color. Chromaticism, complex vertical structures with tritones, structural dissonances, few stable lulls, and numerous accidentals contribute to suspense, directional motion, and affective color. Harmony serves as a double-functioning element. For example, in Figure 38, chromatic movement is visible in the soprano, bass, and tenor parts in bar 10. Tritones are part of complex chords in the same bar on the fourth and sixth eighth notes on weak beats. They serve an ornamental function lending color, whereas in bar 11 the tritone is a structural dissonance at a tense point of articulation ending section A. Harmony contributes to movement via chord rhythm, and a tensional plan which is the degree of tonal change. In bar 10 the rate of harmonic change is very fast, transformed with each new eighth note. This suppUes a strong sense of forward motion. On the other hand, one chord in bars 11-12 stands in stark and static contrast to the majority of the piece. It interrupts the rash

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97 movement and provides an unexpected tense lull in the midst of the hotheaded exertion. In Figure 38 bar 10 texture expands from four to six parts immediately preceding a climax. This expansion contributes to directional motion. Growth to six parts is also in Figure 39 bars 27Figure 39 TochThe Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Extinguish My Eyes " Bars 27-35 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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98 35 preceding the final climax. With brief imitative entries in bar 27, numerous accidentals indicate complex vertical structures with a fast harmonic rhythm building to a penultimate peak on flood in bar 30. In sudden contrast to the massive chords, doubling at the octave in Figure 39 bars 31-34 emphasizes text that is set melismatically. It also provides an unexpected change in harmonic color. Toch ends the piece with an augmented triad~a wonderful example of order within chaos. Toch increases the density of the melodic action by increasing the number of different notes in the melodic line. The contorted disjunct melody is almost a dodecaphonic line on all the singing in bars 31-32. Toch uses all notes of a chromatic scale each one time from e flat 1 to d2, except c2 and c#2. Melody contributes to directional motion in a profile of melodic peaks depicting the poem as an emotional roUercoaster. Peaks occur in bar 1 1 a2 on call, bar 2 1 b-flat 2 on fire, bar 29 a2 on flood, and in bar 34 g2 on blood. An undulating melodic profile is seen on a smaller scale in bars 1-6 in the soprano part. Melodic ranges are sopranos d#l-b flat 2, altos b flat-f2, tenors e-gl, and basses almost two octaves F-e flat 1. In conclusion, Toch mirrored the zealous fervor of Rilke's poem, Extinguish My Eyes, in music. He conveyed tension and instability via complexities in harmony, melody, rhythm, and dynamic changes. It has been seen that rhythm and harmony are double-functioning elements which provide structure as well as ornament.

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Whereas in the previous work neo-classical techniques prevail, this composition stresses neo-romantic and modernist devices. Chromaticism, complex vertical structures with tritones, structural dissonances, few stable lulls, and numerous accidentals contribute to suspense, directional motion, and affective color. Toch placed impetuous emotional ambiguity within a clear binary form. Extinguish My Eyes is another example of a "both-and" phenomenon, in which inconsistencies may be contained within order. It is congruous with the second branch of current chaos theory that focuses on the hidden order that exists within chaotic systems. IV. George Santayana (1863-1952), poet, philosopher, and professor at Harvard University from 1889-1912, thought of himself as a Spaniard in exile in the United States, In February 1894 Sonnets and Other Poems pubUshed by Stone and Kimball in Cambridge and Chicago contained what has become Santayana' s well-known poem, the sonnet O world, thou choosest not the better partA^ Earlier in his career Toch set another sonnet to music, namely Busch's Es sass ein Fuchs which was discussed in Chapter II of this study. Santayana preferred archaic addresses of "thou" and forms such as his sonnet which is "characteristic of the nineteenth-century romantic veneration for an earlier golden time and disaffection for the present."! "7 A renunciation of the temporal in favor of the eternal, and a reliance on irrational sources for wisdom may explain 16 Rare Book Room in Firestone Library, Princeton University. 17 Holzberger 1979: 76

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Toch's attraction to the poem and its inclusion in the cycle. Toch called this work Faith^^ in a concert in 1945 before the collection was pubUshed as The Inner Circle in 1953. Instead of the present tense choosest seen in Santayana's manuscript, Toch's version has the past tense chosest. Toch's 2.5 minute secular work of moderate difficulty, O world, thou chosest not the better part, is suitable for college choruses. It is for a large a cappella SATB divisi choir with professional soprano soloist. The poem's punctuation indicating the end of sentences of lines 4, 8, and 14, determines the composition's tripartite musical shape. Sections AAB contain 15 + 15 + 22 bars. Unity is achieved by the repetition of section A, whereas B provides variety. Poetic structure is further confirmed by major musical points of articulation in bars 15, 30, and 52. These are defined by changes in rhythm, texture, harmony, dynamic level, and melody. The changes foster growth in the work. Rhythmically, 4/4 meter remains steady throughout the composition with the quarter note equaling 88. A five-note rhythmic motive of four eighth notes plus a quarter note is seen in the altos in Figure 40 bars 3,5, and 6. This tiny motive tends to unify the piece. Eighth-note surface rhythm prevails within sections. Analogies are made between poetic text and music. Toch matches notes to the stress and length of syllables, for example, Oi3-iy in Figure 40 bar 5. Toch lengthens the note value of the word at the end of a poetic line, for example, part in bar 3 and wise in Figure 40 bar 6. 1^ 26 May 1945 program at First Congregational Church of Los Angeles (UCLA Toch Archive)

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Figure 40 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 'OWorld Thou Chosestnot the Better Part" Bars 1-6 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles Text is set primarily syllabically with massive chordal texture in a homophonic texture as in Figure 40 bars 1-3. Toch alters texture to define a point of articulation in bar 31 from massive SATB to women's voices to signal the beginning of section B. Polyphonic texture appears briefly in bars 43-46 in section B to provide variety. Stable harmonic triadic structures define all three sections. Sections A begin and end in F major which is consistent with the key signature. Section B begins briefly in E major, but wanders among

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102 tonal centers to conclude the work in D-flat major. Within these stable structural boundaries, modulatory sequences break from tonic centers, and chromaticism is used ornamentally to color. Toch uses an expanded tonality as did nineteenth-century composers in search of affective color. Cadential structures are unconventional in terms of fimctional chord progressions. As seen in Figure 41, massive complex chords converge on a b-flat minor triad on the first beat in bar 29. Then parts diverge in contrary chromatic motion to resolve tensions and end section A with a climax in triadic F major in bar 30. The intermediate complex chords contribute to ornamental color and movement, in contrast to the stabiUty of the triadic poles on strong beats. The sudden textural contrast in Figure 41 bar 31 to women's voices further serves to define this point of articulation between sections A and B. Toch rhythmically defines this and other points of articulation by placing whole notes in all voices to slow the flow of movement. Dynamic levels range from pianissimo to fortissimo with crescendos and decrescendos. These contribute to directional motion and also serve to define points of articulation. It can be seen in Figure 41 bar 26 that Toch uses crescendo molto to build tension to a whole-note fortissimo cUmax on a complex chord that is a structural dissonance. Toch then inserts a dramatic pianissimo dynamic contrast in bar 27 to define the beginning of the next poetic line. Given the inconclusive nature of the chord in bar 26, this is a secondary point of articulation which propels the flow forward to a

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103 sci cnce and his on ]y art. f. Soprano Solo ^ftf 11koow ledge Is a torcli of , / ^ Soprano , tiao-ky plue ttiat lights tlie pith M-aybul nhc Step know-ledge Is x n ^"^ torch or sino-k/ pluc itiai iigU^ one step a know-lcdgi Is a toich — iiut_ Hgtitsbmone ticp * Figure 41 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "OWorld Thou Chosestnot the Better Part" Bars 25-34 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles more stable resting point in bar 30 that ends section A. Changes in melodic activity, harmony, and rhythm serve to define a secondary point of articulation in Figure 42 bar 40 that corresponds to the end

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104 of line 1 1 in the poem. A lull of relative stability results from the low level of rhythmic activity. Altos and basses ascend in unison to an e minor chord in bar 40. Toch adds tenors to descend chromatically in a slow harmonic rhythm. mys tt ry and— vtry Under dread . Bid tba light to shine. Figure 42 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 'OWorld Thou Chosest not the Better Part" Bars 38-44 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles A flection count in which the number of changes in melodic direction are added between relevant articulations, quantitatively

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105 demonstrates how Toch used melody to define this point of articulation. The flection count for altos is 6 in four bars in Figiu-e 41 bars 31-34. In comparison, the flection count is only 1 for altos, tenors and basses for seven bars in Figure 42 bars 38-44. The considerable reduction in harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic activity defines this secondary point of articulation. Melodic ranges in this piece are soprano solo e flatl-b2, sopranos d#l-a2, altos a flat-f2, tenors d-f#l, and basses F-cl. The low tessitura of altos and tenors seen in the previous musical example in Figure 42 bars 38-44 contrasts greatiy with women's voices in bars 31-38 preceding the secondary point of articulation. The soprano solo peak in Figure 42 bar 44 is an example of word painting as light emerges from murky darkness to shine on b 2. Two other lower peaks are sopranos on a2 in bar 11 on heart and bar 26 on art. These melodic peaks approximately two-thirds through each section tend to propel directional motion. Toch unifies the work by using similar techniques to conclude each section. This can be seen in Figure 43 bars 49-52 which ends section B in D flat Major. Massive complex six-voice chords converge to three voices in bar 51 before diverging in contrary chromatic motion to rest ultimately on a structurally stable triad. Earlier this was seen in Figure 41 bars 27-30. In conclusion, O World thou chosest not the better part, is an example of how Toch uses compositional techniques of affective harmonic color, large forces, melodic peaks, and tapering dynamic changes popular in the romantic era within a neo-classical structure defined by clear triadic harmonies. In its use of techniques popular

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un to the think y yfdolciss. lug u( liiL' (liuught ili 106 vii:e. uii to the think > pj> dolciss. , ing uf the thouiilit di un to the , PJ' dolciss. 1 Uliak ing .j» — ft— uf the thought (li led UII to thu tbiuk ing uf the thought Ui i !>. O ;— Figure 43 Toch Tiie Zniier Circle, Op. 67 'OWorld Thou Chosestnot the Better Part" Bars 49-52 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles in earlier centuries, the work appears to be historically anachronistic in relationship to prevalent contemporary rational thought. As an example of how contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast, it was shown how harmony was used both structurally and ornamentally as a double-functioning element. V. Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) from Bengal, India, was a poet, dramatist, novelist, musician, painter, critic, philosopher, educator, and patriot, Albert Schweitzer crowned him the "Goethe 19 Iyengar 1986: 10

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of India."20 Tagore's work has "features of universality, including human features that are essential in all ages and places." 21 Active in the fight for freedom from British rule during a turbulent cultural and poUtical renaissance in Indian history, Tagore, like Toch, was "forced, as much by outer circumstances as by an inner necessity, to stand alone, to rely entirely on his inner resources. . . ."22 in 1912 The India Society in London pubUshed Gitanjali (Song Offerings), "a collection of prose translations made by the author from the original Bengali."23 Have you not heard his silent steps? comes from Gitanjali for which Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. This two-minute moderately difficult choral work for large a cappella SATB divisi chorus is suitable for college choirs. The poem's design determines the composition's binary musical AB form with assymetrical sections containing 18 + 31 bars. Details of poetic structure are confirmed by musical points of articulation defined by changes in texture, harmony, and melody. The piece begins like a simple, quiet folk song with a call and response pattern as seen in Figure 44. Texture is monophonic with the soprano melody outlining an F major triad that corresponds to the key signature. Altos and tenors respond homophonically alternating between d minor (vi) and a minor (iii) triads. Cadences are conventional in 20 Iyengar 1986: 3 21 Iyengar 1986: 3 22 Tagore had alienated the ruling authorities. ... He was a political suspect and was being watched (Kripalani 1962: 204). 23 (Tagore 1912: viii) in Rare Book Room in Firestone Library, Princeton University.

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108 Sopr&no AUo Tenor Hive you not heard his si lent steps? Ili: cuiiivs, hit ciimirs, e-vi i coim-s — Figure 44 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Have you not heard his silent steps? " Bars 1-4 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles terms of functional progressions. Harmonically, in section A Toch stays near an F major tonal center using functional progressions to move to closely related triads. Rhythmically, the piece is marked Allegretto With Secrecy with a gently rocking dotted quarter note about 58 in 6/8 meter. Eighthnote surface rhythm and the meter remain constant throughout the composition. Text is set primarily syllabically. Toch is sensitive to the stress of words and syllables. He uses the repetitive short-longshort-long-short-short-long pattern of the refrain as a unifying device for the piece. Toch varies the pattern of call-response in section A and subdivides the section into three parts corresponding to poetic divisions. He expands the number of monophonic bars from a twobar phrase as seen in Figure 44 bars 1-2, to a four-bar phrase in bars 5-8, and to a six-bar phrase in bars 1 1-16. Toch unifies section A by repeating the two-bar refrain, he comes, he comes, he comes with slightly varied triadic progressions. The third refrain may be seen in

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Figure 45 bars 1718. Section B begins in Figure 45 bar 18 with a textural contrast involving complexities of stretto technique popular in Baroque fugues. This polyphonic textiure and overlapping poetic lines contrasts with the symmetrical homophonic phrase structure of section A. pril thru' the Tor-esl pith he comes, «v er comes. In the riiii y ((Uioni of Ju In the rain y gliium of Ju ly iH(;h(.s, mi the Figure 45 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Have you not heard his silent steps? " Bars 17-25 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles The four-bar subject is first sung by sopranos beginning in Figure 45 bar 18. It is imitated one bar later at the octave by altos. Basses enter for the first time in the composition in Figure 45 bar 23 with a slightly altered subject beginning a minor third lower on G.

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110 Tenors imitate basses beginning in bar 24 to complete tlie four sequential entries common in a foiur-part fugue. This is an example of fugato since it is a fugal beginning that does not progress beyond the exposition. Dynamic levels range from mezzo forte to pppp, but piano predominates. Crescendos and decrescendos direct motion. For example, a crescendo in Figure 46 bars 37-38 corresponds to a melodic ascent. on my h«art . Figure 46 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Have you not heard his silent steps? " Bars 37-40 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles Melodic ranges are sopranos dl-b flat 2, altos g-f2, tenors e flat-gl, and basses G-b flat. Stepand skipwise motion prevail. Toch builds to a melodic climax in Figure 46 bar 38 in which he contrasts peaks and lows of the melodic ranges. Sopranos and tenors I peak, whereas altos and basses sing their lowest pitches. Altos reach their

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Ill zenith in Figure 46 bar 39. Melismatic text setting emphasizes the words makes and joy. Toch suddenly reduces the massive six-part chordal texture to three-part women's voices in Figure 46 bar 39. To complete the composition Toch juxtaposes a minor and F major triads He corrws, he comes, he ev er comes. Figure 47 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Have you not heard his silent steps? " Bars 41-49 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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112 in a massive chordal bitonal texture in Figure 47 bars 41-49. He extends this structural dissonance and unifies the piece by repeating the refrain which has remained rhythmically constant throughout. In contrast to earlier presentations of the refrain with an active melodic contour, in Figure 47 bars 42-49 the melodic profile is almost level. This is consistent with textural and dynamic level changes. Toch supports the decrescendo by gradually reducing the massive six-part texture to two parts ending at a pppp dynamic level in a minor. In conclusion, Have You not Heard his Silent Steps? is relatively simple and more neo-classical in comparison to other works in this cycle. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as different compositional techniques popular in Western Europe are superimposed and elements are subtiy adjusted to accommodate them. Within a binary form with symmetrical phrases defined by clear triadic harmonies and imitative counterpoint that were popular in the eighteenth century, Toch uses compositional techniques of affective harmonic color, melodic peaks, and tapering dynamic changes that were widespread during the romantic period. The extent to which Toch uses contrapuntal devices in this piece is unusual in comparison with earlier works in this cycle in which imitative writing appears only briefly. VI. The American poet Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) emphasized universal ideas24 which links him to the international Emerson 1965: x

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113 group of poets in The Inner Circle. His poem, Good-bye, Proud World, appeared in 1847 in Poems published by James Munroe and Company in Boston.^s Emerson venerates an earlier golden age as did Santayana in the preceding choral work. The poem, if viewed as Toch's declaration against the prevalence of rationality in contemporary composition, is a fitting conclusion to the cycle. Good-bye, Proud World is the final choral work in Toch's cycle. The Inner Circle, and the longest one lasting 3.5 minutes. It is a difficult piece suitable for college choruses or professional choirs with SAT professional soloists. The poem's four-part design determines the composition's musical form ABCD with four unbalanced sections containing 16 + 19 + 23 + 22 bars. Tension prevails in all but the third section which exists in calm contrast to the rest of the work. With stout defiance J=8*88 Good-iiye, pruud worldl Im p-iiig f home: ^ou ire iiut my ? ' J. I Goad-bye,proud world! I'm no-ing / home; You ire not my 3 Good-by«,|>roud world! I'm %
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114 Toch defines points of articulation by changes in rhythm, texture, harmony, dynamic level, and melody. He is sensitive to the meaning of the text, and makes analogies between word and musical rhythm. With stout defiance the quarter note equals 84-88. Toch immediately sets the challenging tone of the piece by contradicting the 4/4 time signature with triple meter as seen in Figure 48 bar 2. In Figure 48 bar 3 monophonic texture suddenly expands to tense and complex massive chords to emphasize home. In section A, as in the majority of the composition, text is set primarily syllabically with key words accentuated. A disjunct melodic line with leaps further stresses key words or syllables, for example -bye in bar 1, and home in bar 3. These musical changes intensify the poem's defiant declarations. Rhythm may be viewed as a double-functioning element. In Figure 49 bar 16, the whole note has a structural function. By its longer duration it signals the end of section A. Triplets in Figiu-e 49 Figure 49 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Good-bye, Proud World" Bars 13-19 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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115 bars 17-18 add to the emotional turmoil by interjecting more rhythmic activity in the tenor line. Thus rhythm also serves an ornamental and affective function. Toch further defines this point of articulation by contrasting heavy homophonic chords in Figure 49 bars 15-16 at the end of section A with a thin monophonic texture and new melodic material to begin section B in bar 17. A repeating echo of massive chords on Good-bye! tends to unify section B. The echoing can be seen in Figure 49 bar 19, and Figure 50 bars 25-26. i crowd ed halls, to court ind street; To froi en licirls ind lust r good -bye' r r good-bjrel -^Hf — gaod-by«! fK K ii Ta f hearts ami hattil ' #' — 1 — To crowd-ed hills, to court and street,Figure 50 Toch Ti2e Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Good-bye, Proud World" Bars 25-27 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles Melodic ranges are sopranos dl-a2, altos a-f2, tenors d-al, basses F#-dl, soprano soloist el-g2, alto soloist a-e2, and tenor soloist d-gl. New melodic material in each section contributes to variety in the work. Melody contributes to directional motion by gradually ascending chromatically in peaks as in the soprano line in Figure 50 bars 25-26.

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116 Rhythmic change supports this directional motion by accelerating in bar 23 Un poco piu mosso with the quarter note equal to 96. Fluctuations in melody, rhythm and dynamic level combine to gradually build tension to a fortissimo climax in bar 31 with sopranos on a2 near the end of section B. These compositional techniques were popular in the nineteenth century. Toch concludes section B in Figure 51 with a slower tempo marked heavy again with the quarter note equal to 80. A Ilcnvy a(;uin J : 80 A ^Wlth a puMtoral touch VQ^Flucnl uKain i z%t Mill Id. I'ni );ii I A A hyf, proud world, I'm jo InR hom«. I'm jo inj lo my 1 ^' Y 1 \Ui I'll' iiM bye, proud world,— I'm liif; home. Solo P till to-iiiK lu . I'm 8t)-ing lo my own heart a se-crct own hcirt sloiii! bo-ioined in yon green hills a lone, in yon Figure 51 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Good-hye, Proud World" Bars 32-40 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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117 descending bass line and augmented complex vertical structures come to rest on an open fifth rooted on G in Figure 5 1 bar 35 to end section B. Texture, harmony, melody, and dynamic modifications define the point of transition to section C. Emerson's gender text is reflected in Toch's musical setting. The tempo changes With a pastoral touch Fluent again and quarter note equal to 96. In section C beginning in Figure 51 bar 35, a trio of tenor, alto, and soprano soloists gently flow through a quiet, hallowed pleasant land replete with triadic harmonies, smooth melodic contours, and steady eighth-note motion. Although SAT tutti join the soloists, no basses are heard in section C. In contradiction to the fortissimo massive vertical structures of sections A and B, in Figure 51 bars 37-40 the polyphonic texture of three independent melodic Hnes suggests "fermentative counterVP 10 tliou|{ht__ and God. Oh, when I'm taf* in ffly_ sa cred to tbou{hl and God. Oh, when I'm safe — in ray ^ VP _ and_ Gad. Oh, whtn I'ntl bafc Oh, when I'm safe1 in niy in my Figure 52 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Good-bye, Proud World" Bars 57-60 © 1953 by AffiUated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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118 point" which is "based on continuous free, inventive creation."26 Triadic harmonies abound in section C in contrast to the complex vertical structures seen in sections A and B. Although Toch modulates within a tonal orbit, section C begins in G major in Figure 51 bars 37-39, and ends in bright C# Major in Figure 52 bar 58. Rome; and when I'm slrrtched te nealh lh« pines where (he Kom«; and wh«ii I'm !,lr<:'.chcd be iicatli l he pints where Uie ^^^^^^^ Rome; and when I'm itr etched be m-alh l he yiiies where the Rome; and when I'm ilretch.:d be m.-alh the pines where the © eve iiing star so_ ho ly shines,! liu);h eve iiiiiR star iO_ ho l/ihines,l lauRh eve ning star so_ ho ly shines 'e ninR star so ho |y shines. I laugh Figure 53 Toch The Inner Circle, Op. 67 "Good-bye, Proud World" Bars 66-71 © 1953 by Affiliated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles 26 E Toch 1948/1977: 141

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Unlike other points of articulation in this piece which clearly separate sections, Toch overlaps the last two sections maintaining a constant pianissimo dynamic level. A quiet bass tutti entry in Figure 52 bar 58 signals the emergence from the haven of section C into section D, a harsh reality of complex chords with tritones, homophonic texture, mocking thirds, and staccato attacks at the sophist schools and the learned clan in bars 74-75. Harmonically, Toch primarily uses an expanded tonality consistent with the nineteenth-century search for affective color. Tritones and chromaticism prevail in Figure 53 bars 66-70. Harmony has a double function. In bar 66 a tritone is part of a structural dissonance on a strong beat. Tritones on weak beats provide affective color, however, in Figure 53 bars 67-70. In Figure 53 bar 71 Toch word paints laugh using a pattern of consecutive dotted-eighth-sixteenth notes, and minor thirds. Melody contributes to directional motion via profiles of consecutive chromatically ascending melodic peaks near the end of section D. In Figure 53 the sopranos sing f#2 in bar 66, g2 on beat Allargando i A A, -9L =1 Figure 54 Toch The hmer Circle, Op. 67 "Good-hye, Proud World" Bars 78-80 © 1953 by AffiUated Musicians, Inc., Los Angeles

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120 one of bars 67-70, and g#2 in bar 71. In Figure 54 they reach a2 to conclude the composition in bar 80. This melodic technique coupled with a gradual crescendo serves to unify the piece. It was seen earlier near the end of section B in which the sopranos gradually ascended to a fortissimo peak on a2 in bar 31, before a heavy descent. In contrast to section B, however, Toch concludes section D con tutta forza with the sopranos on a2 climaxing in a complex vertical structure. The similarity in texture between Figure 48 bars 1-3 and bars Figure 54 bars 78-80 also serves to unify the composition. In both cases, unison doubling expands into complex massive vertical structures. In conclusion, Toch's setting of Good-Bye, Proud World seems appropriate to the defiant nature of Emerson's poem. Rhythm and harmony have been seen to be double-functioning elements providing both structure and affective ornament. Texture is a complex mixture of monophony, homophony, and polyphony including "fermentative counterpoint." Toch's setting appears to be a "both-and" phenomenon. Numerous rhythmic changes and accented dissonances are consistent with modernist practices. These coexist with compositional techniques popular in the romantic era such as tapering dynamic level changes, affective harmony, and melodic peaks. Summary of The Inner Circle Table V Structure of The Inner Circle provides a concise overview of the form of each composition, duration, tempo, choral

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121 forces required, poet, topic of the poem, and poet's nationality. Professional soloists are needed for the fourth and sixth choral works. TABL Poem i VSTR Form UCTURE C Duration >F THE INI Tempo sfER CIRC Chorus LE Poet Topic Nationality I AAB 2 minutes allegretto *=92 SATB Carlyle hope, life, man England II ABcoda 2 minutes allegretto *=96 SSA Blake Jesus England III AB 1 minute allegro *=104-108 SATB Rilke obsessive love Austria IV AAB 2 minutes30 seconds moderato *=88 SATB+ S solo Santayana faith Spain V AB 2 minutes allegretto *.=58 SATB Tagore eternity India VI ABCD 3 minutes30 seconds varies *=80, 96 SATB+ SAT solos Emerson life, death U.S.A. * means quarter note It was seen in the preceding analyses that tension ebbs and flows in the first and fourth works which are of moderate difficulty. The text and relatively easy music of the second and fifth choral works are calm. They contrast with the textual drama and difficult music of the third and sixth compositions. The third piece is the shortest in contrast to the sixth work which is longest. Thus on a large dimension Toch provided variety in the cycle but unified it by balancing mood and degree of difficulty. It appears that musical form, unity, and variety were derived from poetic structure and meaning. Details of poetic structure are confirmed by musical articulations following the hnes of the poems. Toch makes analogies between word and musical rhythm. He uses a

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122 wide range of resources from his study of European compositional techniques. The first four pieces may have been written almost a decade earlier than the last two works, and may be reflective of his early concession to American taste. They have predominantly homophonic texture whereas the last two pieces mix polyphony, homophony, and monophony. Harmonically, key signatures indicated in the first, second, fourth, and fifth pieces correspond to the beginning and predominant tonal centers in those works. The second piece ends in a triad related to the key signature, but the first and fourth pieces end in stable triads unrelated to the key signature. The fifth work ends bitonally. Both the third and sixth pieces are unpredictable and do not begin or end with stable triads. Rhythmically, the meter is stable in the first, fourth, and fifth pieces. There are frequent meter changes in the second, third, and sixth pieces. Toch preferred moderate to fast tempos in the cycle. Rhythmic motives unify the first, fourth and fifth pieces. Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. Harmony and rhythm were seen to be double-functioning elements providing structure and ornament. Toch also contrasts two types of counterpoint. He uses imitative counterpoint in the fifth piece, and fermentative counterpoint based on continuous free, inventive creation in the sixth work. Although imitative writing appears briefly in the first four works in the cycle, the extent to which Toch used counterpoint in these final two works is unusual in comparison. Compositions in The Inner Circle appear as examples of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon in which techniques from earlier

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123 eras coexist in different degrees in each piece, and in comparison to other works in the cycle. The first and fourth compositions balance devices popular in the classical and romantic eras. The second and fifth works have symmetrical phrases, predominantly triadic harmonies on strong beats, and thematic repetition which prevailed in the eighteenth century. In contrast, the third and sixth pieces use relatively more compositional techniques popular in the romantic period such as large performing forces, expanded tonality for affective color, gradual crescendos building to melodic peaks, and little thematic repetition. They also use modernist devices such as accented dissonances, harmonic clashes, and large intervallic skips. Although Toch had employed romantic compositional techniques in earlier published choral works composed in Europe such as Das Wasser (1930), his use of them in the mid-twentieth century in the United States makes The Inner Circle (1953) an anachronism within his contemporary historical miheu emphasizing rationality. His use of them is consistent, however, with Hollywood film aesthetics requesting enhancement of feeUngs and emotions of characters. Snnff nfMv.<:p1f(^c)(^7^ Toch set Song of Myself for large a cappella SATB divisi chorus, soprano solo, and tenor solo. This 4.5 minute moderately difficult work is suitable for college choruses. Toch's setting is a brief excerpt of a long poem entitled Song of Myself by the American poet Walt

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Whitman (1819-1892) from his book Leaves of Grass which was pubUshed in 1881 by Rees Welsh & Co. in Philadelphia.27 Whitman's collection Leaves of Grass was "the ultimate expression in America of a poetry organic in form and romantic in spirit." 28 Organic form asserts that each poem has "its own inherent laws, originating with its very invention and fusing in one vital unity both structure and content."29 By ennobling and celebrating the Ufe of animals, Whitman opposed societal and religious teachings that dictate domination of animals. Song of Myself evolved with changes in diction and rhythm from its 1856 title Poem of Walt Whitman, an American. Succeeding editions were titled simply Walt Whitman until in 1881 it became Song ofMyself.^^ Toch set section 32 of 52 sections in Song of Myself to music.31 No record of performances or recordings were located in the UCLA Toch Archive to examine audience responses. Textually as well as in Toch's musical setting, Song of Myself exists in contradiction to the rationality prevalent in Toch's contemporary historical context. In his setting of Whitman's Song of Myself, Toch let romantic sources influence his balance of tension and relaxation. By fusing these with compositional procedures popular in the Baroque period such as fugato Toch creates his own hybrid "both-and" form. Complexity is the result of a hybrid "both^' Rare Book Room in Firestone Library, Princeton University. 28 Holman and Harmon 1986: 439 29 Holman and Harmon 1986: 211 30 Allen and Bradley 1965: 28 31 The 1881 version has an additional line after the first line, "I stand and look at them long and long," awake "in the dark" line 3, that way "huge times ago" line 11, and drop"instead of "dropped" them' line 11,

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125 and" phenomenon which is paradoxical contrast whose source is stylistic contradiction. If the title is a clue, Song of Myself represents an autobiographical view of Toch's musical thought. Interrelatio nship of Text and Music Toch is true to the structure of the poem. It appears that Toch planned unity and contrast to delineate the poetic text, that musical form was derived from the lines of the poetry. Details of poetic structure are confirmed by musical articulations following the poetry line by Une. Articulations are defined by changes of texture and dynamic level. Although dynamic levels range from pianissimo to forte with several crescendos and decrescendos, the majority of the poem is marked piano. Vocal entries corresponding to the beginning of poetic lines are often on upbeats or "and." Toch varies linear contrapuntal, massive chordal, and tutti, three-part, two-part, and solo settings of poetic lines. Although the majority of the text is set polyphonically, occasional homophonic settings stress words and phrases, for example, God in bar 14, things in bar 19, unhappy over the whole earth in bars 26-27, and They bring me tokens of myself, they evince them plainly in their possession in bars 32-39. The greatest textural contrasts occur at points of articulation which the contrasts help delineate. Toch begins Song of Myself vdth a sequence. He repeats the five-note dolce theme presented in the sopranos in bar 1 a third lower in bar 2. Triadic harmony is evident moving from G major to D major in bar 1, to a minor and el in bar 2 as seen in Figure 55.

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Figure 55 Toch5"oi2g of Myself Bars 1-3 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami The melody is conjunct and legato. Toch indicates a slow eighth-note pulse equaling 56 and triple meter throughout the composition. He increases melodic activity by introducing more sixteenthnotes in bar 4. A decrescendo and calando in bar 6 leading to D Figure 56 TochS"oi2g of Myself Bars 6-8 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami

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127 major on beat one of bar 7 signal a point of articulation corresponding to the poetic punctuation as seen in Figure 56. In Figure 56 bars 7-8 the initial tempo returns to initiate a new poetic line. Toch presents the initial theme from Figure 55 bar 1 in the contrapuntal technique of stretto which extends through bar 10. By using stretto he condenses the second and third poetic lines. Rhythmically, as is often seen in slow compositions, at least one voice carries momentum in the form of a rhythmic pulse through the majority of points of articulation. Toch melodically and rhythmically overlaps the first four lines of the poem, and seamlessly winds up to line five which begins on the first beat of Figure 57 bar 15. Then he Figure 57 TochSong of Myself Bars 14-17 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami breaks the continuous flow of music to begin line six with a contrasting texture, melody, rhythm, and dynamic level. Line seven

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128 overlaps the end of line six. Toch separates lines eight, nine, and ten by rests. He offsets the final brief tenor of line ten by inserting a fermata which is the only place where he discontinues the rhythmic pulse through a point of articulation. Toch breaks the stable continuous flow of eighth and sixteenth notes and creates tension by inserting a striking increase of rhythmic density of triplets and cross rhythm in Figure 57 bar 17. This rhythmic change combined with a high tessitura for the altos on the words demented and mania create tension. Two lulls in the form of half-plus-eighth-note-plus-eighth-rest in bar 19 and dotted quarter-plus-eighth-rest in bar 27 at the conclusion of poetic lines indicate articulations. Two transitions corresponding to the beginning of other poetic lines, for example, in bar 28 quarter followed by eighths, and fermata in bar 35 also clarify articulations. Melodically, Toch creates a hierarchy of peaks that correspond to the poetic lines. The work begins calmly then interjects peaks of unresolved tension. The progressive chain of peaks contribute to the flow of movement. Song of Myself is an example of how Toch slowly unfolds each Une of a poem while building a melodic wave contour with peaks chromatically ascending before the wave "breaks." In The Shaping Forces Toch's illustrative examples of this idea come from Beethoven's Violin Sonata Op. 47. Toch states, If a melody is given time to develop on a broader basis, it shows that the smaller partial waves which constitute the whole line have the tendency to drive upwards their

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129 several highest tones (climaxes) until, after reaching the highest of these climaxes, the wave "breaks." 32 This profile of higher and more intense melodic peaks contributes to directional motion and shape of the composition. These chromatically ascending peaks occur in the soprano part on f#2 in bar 19 at a six-part fortissimo climax on things. The next is one-half-step higher in the soprano part on g2 in bar 27 which is the pinnacle of a gradual crescendo and melodic ascent on the whole earth. A final peak appears in the soprano part on a2 in Figure 58 bar 35. This is the culmination of a fortissimo tutti homophonic ascent with complex vertical sonorities on evince them plainly in their possession. Then suddenly the wave "breaks" as a lone tenor inconclusively ponders the source of the animals' traits with a disjunct melodic line. Melodic shape and growth are also achieved by variation and introduction of new material. There is melodic interest in each voice. Melodic ranges are soprano soloist dl-b2, tenor soloist e-fl, sopranos dl-a2, altos a#-f2, tenors c#-a flatl, and basses F-cl. Stepwise and skipwise motion predominate. Occasional upward leaps emphasize the following text, for example, major seventh on awake in bar 10, major sixth on me sicii in bar 13, major seventh on thousands, major seventh and octave on not one in bar 24, and major ninth on relations in bar 29. Toch avoids vocally awkward syllables on melodic climaxes using open 32 E Toch 1948/1977: 79-80

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130 i vlnce them_ plain ly in their poa ses aion. vince them, plain ly in their. poa aea sion. vlnce them, plain ly in their. pos aea slon. vince lhem_ plain ly in their pos ses sion. (calando) — , p (liie iiila vince tbum_ plain ly in their. pos ses sion, I woo der t vince them, plain ly in their. vincu Uiem_ plain ly in their. pos ses sion. vince Ihern. plain ly in their pos ses sion. Tenur (Sulo) poco rail. wlit'ro.lhcy got those toIcons, did I. pnss th:it way. and. nc-gll-gcnt-ly dropped them? (;»,) (:iK) (39) i Figure 58 TochSoi2^ of Myself Bars 34-39 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami

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131 vowels on highs and lows. Melismas are used to stress words such as animals in bars 5-6, God and mania in bar 14, and relations in bar 29. Some text repetition also serves to accentuate, for example, they do not in bar 11. There is ambiguity in the combination of old and new styles in Song of Myself. Harmonic contradictions abound. Stable harmonic triadic structures occur at the beginning and majority of articulations except in bars 9, 24, 35. There are many diatonic intervals even though tonal centers fluctuate. Although the key signature indicates either C major or a minor, numerous accidentals indicate remote B major and F-sharp major. At the end of the piece an inconclusive el-d#l sung by the solo tenor leaves the listener wondering about the origin of the animals' traits. Harmonically, major triadic key centers are found at all points of articulation except bars 9, 24 and 35. Toch modulates within sections and builds toward cadences by increasing the complexity of chords at bars 27 and 34. Cadential structures are unconventional, and modulatory sequences break from the tonic orbit. The source of maximum tension and activity is found in the complex vertical structures and accelerating rate of harmonic change preceding a melodic peak, for example, bars 34-35. Movement is increased by using dissonances in positions of rhythmic stress. Harmonic rhythm ranges from moderate to fast. Harmony generates tension at dramatic situations, for example complex vertical sonorites preceding melodic climaxes and signaling points of articulation. The net effect of Song of Myself is relative tension because of Toch's large harmonic vocabulary, unconventional cadences and tonal structure, and inconclusive nature of the final

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132 lines. Toch uses expanded harmony such as chromaticism in bar 27 which was also popular in the nineteenth-century search for affective color. He uses structural dissonance in the form of complex chords in cadential and other stable functions, for example, in bar 19 he adds a c natural to F# major V7 chord. He broadens concepts of tonality to include collections of loosely associated harmonic phenomenon in bars 34-35 build to climax. These conventional romantic compositional procedures are unusual in the context of twentieth-century rationality. Contrapuntal contradictions also exist. As in the late eighteenth and into the nineteenth centuries, fugato sections occur within a predominantly chordal style. Ingredients of linear orientation, approximately equal activity of concurrent lines and overlapping articulations, are evident in Song of Myself. Complex imitative contrapuntal organization using stretto is seen in bars 7-10. Rhythmically Toch matches notes to the stress and length of syllables. Analogies are evident between word and musical rhythm, for example, animals in bar 2. Phrase structure is assymetrical corresponding to poetic lines. Irregular phrase length and elastic rhythm are reminiscent of Wagnerian free melodic invention. Accelerandos associated with crescendos in bar 4, and ritardandos with decrescendos in bar 6 support nineteenth-century romantic origins of this composition. Accelerandos are located at bars 26-27 and bars 34-35 at points of articulation. On the other hand, Toch uses a technique of motivic evolution which was popular in the Baroque era. A five-note rhythmic motive serves as primary thematic material to unify the composition. It is

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133 presented in the soprano line in Figure 55 bars 1-2, in the tenor and soprano lines in Figure 56 bars 7-8, and in a melodically altered form in the tenor line in Figure 57 bars 15-17. In the Shaping Forces in Music Toch states, "We are only partly conscious of the motifs, . . . whose invaluable function is to build, to cement, to keep life alive, to continue, to promote and propel."^^ Rhythmic growth is achieved by repetition and variation of the five-note motive, and by introduction of new rhythmic material. Toch unifies Song of Myself by providing consistent motivic rhythmic patterns, familiar diatonic intervals, and predominantly stepand skipwise motion of melodic lines. He provides variety by introducing new melodic and rhythmic thematic material, unstable modulatory sections, dissonant chord progressions, and contrasting chordal and contrapuntal texture. In conclusion, in Song of Myself Toch uses compositional procedures popular in the Baroque era such as motivic evolution, sequences, stretto, and "imitative" counterpoint. He also uses techniques popular in the romantic era such as a series of chromatically ascending melodic peaks, tapering dynamic level changes, and expanded harmony. The piece is an example of how Toch combines conventional compositional techniques in an unconventional way. His organic form and use of compositional procedures popular in the romantic era stand in opposition to the rationaUty of his contemporary milieu which emphasized formahstic elements, sets of laws, and logical deduction that diminished influence from emotional, unconscious sources. 33 E Toch 1948/1977: 209

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Valse for Mixed Speaking Chorus and Optional Percussion (1962) Toch's brisk, humorous four-minute Valse is for SATB divisi speaking chorus, soprano and tenor soloists. In striking contrast to The Inner Circle and Song of Myself, this final choral work returns to the lighthearted humor and exploration of the musical possibilities inherent in speech of Toch's 1930 Gesprochene Musik suite to which Fuge aus der Geographle belongs. Humor results from Toch's unexpected use of conventional elements in unconventional ways. It is not unusual that a choral work bears a French title. It is curious, however, that the tide of a choral work refers to an instrumental genre. Optional percussion is indicated for two players on side drum, Chinese wood blocks, xylophone, claves, and wooden drum which "may be an empty cigar box." Valse is a relatively easy work suitable for high school choruses, college choirs, and musically literate nonsingers. Interrelationship of Text and Music As in his Geographical Fugue of 1930 Toch organizes spoken words into a musical structure, juxtaposing order and disorder. Toch expresses freedom of thought with the help of a stalling technique by repeating words, for example, somersault pepper never ever never ever. This free flow of thought is challenged by a soprano soloist, and contained within an ABCDCoda structure with balanced sections of 40 + 39 + 44 + 38 + 14 bars. Optional percussion appears in all sections except the first. Although no precise pitches are indicated Toch gave a few qualifying directions for vocalists such as "low

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135 j =138-144 Soprano umy,) 2 Alto Tonor (^iviiii 1 Bass (^ivisi) Percussion 0 / ^ J two. three — — 4-J i L 4 r^. One l J J two, three J ^ 1 One two. three J i L One What a f J J two. three 1 ^ > One ;> ;^ J) pit-c>' pit-ty pit-ty ;) J) J) J) p€t:y pitty pit-ty patty pit -ty pit -ty what a J J J -i J i J J 1 One, two, three two, three two. three J J J t L One, two, three J J J One One One, two, three ^ .1 J One, rwo. three B Perc 1 < ^ One Figure 59 TochValse Bars 1-8 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami

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136 spoken," "high spoken," and mood changes such as "quasi indignandy, angry, mockingly." Toch wrote the English text which Friedrich Schall translated for the German edition, Walzer fiir gemischten Sprech-Chor and Schlagzeug ad libitum, published in 1962. Homophonic, monophonic, and polyphonic textures are represented in the piece. In Figure 59 bars 1-8 sopranos are accompanied by altos, tenors, and basses in a homophonic textvu"e. Rhythm is bound to a syllabically set text presented in traditional notation with the quarter note equaling 138-144. Toch maintains a constant triple meter throughout the composition indicated by 3/4 in the time signature. Toch uses a hocket technique to repeat one at mezzo-forte level followed by two, three at a piano dynamic level. Repetition of these words defines a clear quarternote pulse and confirms the identify of the piece as a waltz. Eighth notes associated with two-syllable words provide surface activity. Points of articulation are defined by changes in texture, text, rhythm, dynamic levels, and percussion accompaniment. Given that melody and harmony depend upon specific pitches, they are not considered among the musical elements in this composition. The way Toch defines the transition from section A to B can be seen in Figure 60 bars 40-41. In contrast to monophonic texture of basses in Figiu-e 60 bar 40 ending section A, the texture suddenly changes to a soprano soloist echoed by two solo tenors and the altos. Section B begins in Figure 60 bar 41 with optional percussion accompaniment. New text and complete sentences also signal a new section.

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;> ;> ^ ^ j> My, how su per (Jup per! J) J) ,^ ;> i> p , , h p !) p ;^ What a whip per»nAp -per I P P P P P What a whip per-saap per i P P P P P My, how ;ju per dup per t Soin-er sal! and par I Another Tinor. S>lo p J I 1 husb ! J L 1 Heir I r P P P P P P hush • Hold your tonj^e.you strap -pert P P P P P P Hold your tongue, you atrn.p -per ! Si(!« Crum (no u\Ai*\ Perc. j i Figure 60 TochVaise Bars 37-42 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami

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138 t I 1 J I J J ^ 1 J Now let go I cwo, ihree Ixo. thre« two, three Now let t J J Now lot Now let go ! go 1 go ! J i L 1 it X One doe 1 ^ ^ Ons Perc. J gliu. low S> P J) I JOh, I am ao hap py thac I have this lit -de dajictf with you ! two, three molto p I J I i J I two. three two , three 1 J I two. three molto P. molto p. J L 1—i L One One J i L Perc. Cos Side Dium Figure 61 TochVa/se Bars 78-86 © 1962 by Mills Music, New York Used by permission of CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami

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139 Toch alters rhythm, text, and instrumentation to define the next point of articulation. He combines a dotted half note to create a rhythmic lull, percussion trills, and glissando to end section B in Figure 61 bar 79. Section C begins in Figure 61 bar 80 without percussion. Repetition of text and rhythm from the beginning of the section A Figure 59 serves to unify the composition. Toch varies the pattern in Figure 61 bar 84 by interjecting a soprano solo reciting complete sentences. In section C, Toch uses more three and four syllable words than earlier in the work. Modifications in dynamic level, texture, and text define the next point of articulation. Toch ends section C in Figure 62 bar 124 with a crescendo to molto forte. Via an additive process he builds to a massive homophonic texture flowing over the bar line to accentuate the first beat of section D in Figure 62 bar 124. These techniques contribute to directional motion. The number of syllables in words grows to five and six in section D beginning in Figure 62 bar 124. Toch frequendy overlaps words creating a polyphonic texture with rhythmically independent lines. Dynamic levels range from pianissimo to sforzando in the piece. In Figure 63 Toch uses dynamic changes to propel directional motion to the end of the composition. In this Coda, Toch again uses an additive SATB technique to build a massive homophonic texture in Figure 63 bars 165-170. He uses rhythm to prolong suspense by increasing the duration of the sound, while decreasing its volume. A solo soprano interrupts the

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accented pauses to conclude the piece with a /orte homophonic flourish. 140 1 ^ J> J) }^ s> 1 ao ex cep tioa al. axKi Is Uiat J ^ ^ J) J? and Is that stead hab i ~ tu oJ. -i I and is ch&t ^17 JLJ_J. and IS Vaa-i all 7 is ttut all? 3 Chineie Wood Block! _i i Perc. "'f°: f) ;> ;^ ;> all? ac coQ Di a claa moltof. , all? ac con bi a ttoo p P P p all? hal lu cl 7 7> ;) J) ;> la U la la J ^ ;> hal lu cl aa Hon U la la la la clip I P 1 L la la la dtp I X la la We
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141 Now where are we? dim. molto J iore we 7 dim. molto J i_ J iare we 7 -i J 1 J i Now where J I are we 7 are we 7 ^im. molto J ^ Now wher J I are we 7 Now where dim. molto ^ J_ dim. ( Wooden box) J i L J i L Now where Perc. ( Side Dtuinl I dim. 1 Perc. (Sm1« Drum) -i One -< 3 i. What dance I What dance ! What dance ! Chlneir T
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142 Rhythm is an important element in the work. Table VI Distribution of Words by Syllabic Content in Valse is a summary of the rhythmic content of the rhymed words Toch used in the English version to generate the composition. TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OF WORDS BY SYLLABIC CONTENT IN VALSE Number of Syllables "Prefix" "Suffix" one fl-cl-ch-tr-ip fl -ap hi-pi-tch h-t-sh-bar-op 1-ch-cr-t-imp two pi-pe-pe-pu-pre-fat-chat-cat-wft-ki't-ty ev-nev-pepp som-strapp-sup-dup-whi'pp-snapp-er n-w-s-illy s-t-ally b-elly sh-bar-st-r-ocking three tourn-orn-ament amplistupqualmulthorrterr-ified wonderbeauti-ful four exceptionexcentrichysteric-al habitu-al -le intonarrenturonversrhvthmiyhalliirinreverbergratificaccumulamplificcorroberproliferaffiliassocicongratulapproximadministrfalsificmultiplicretaileradicassimilcommunicamalgamparalyzfortificdenuncieliminexonerevapordenominratificfive anti-any-thing-pro pro-any-anti un-convention-al un-accountab-le six anti-Wagneranti-Communanti-semitanti-Nazianti-any-ism and MacCarthy-ism

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143 In conclusion, rhythm contributes to the growth of Valse via a gradual increase in the number of syllables per word as the work progresses. Toch used 15 one-syllable, 29 two-syllable, 10 threesyllable, 35 four-syllable, 5 five-syllable, and 5 six-syllable words to generate rhythmic motives. This is the rhythmic material which serves to unify and order the composition. Timbre depends on the phonemic content of the chosen words, changes in texture, and inclusion of optional percussion instruments. Sonority is favored over meaning and logical continuity of the words. Toch contrasts female and male voices, and alternates four-part homophonic texture, trios, duets, and solo-tutti sections. Percussion instruments not only enrich the tone color of the SATB divisi chorus, they reinforce the triple meter and echo spoken rhythms. It is apparent that Toch carefully organized rhythm and timbre independent of pitch or textual meaning into a sectional form. Although the composition may appear disorderly with seemingly haphazard interjections from members of the chorus, it has been seen that rhythm and timbre are ordering-bearing elements in this work. Valse is an example of a "both-and" phenomenon in which Toch contrasts disorder within order. By placing familiar words and rhythms in unfamiliar contexts Toch makes the elements perceptually new and contributes to humor.

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CHAPTER 5 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS How does the study of Toch's choral music impact on the college music curriculum and instruction? A reoccurring pedagogical issue is one of access to information. For this study, accessibility means obtaining scores, locating recordings, and determining the suitability of each choral composition for people with different backgrounds. Judgment of suitability for different performing groups involved the consideration of singers' technical ability and vocal range, Toch's intent, an analysis of each composition, and interviews with choral conductors. For example, Es ist ein Schnee gefallen with its limited technical demands and narrow vocal range fulfills its commission to be accessible to youthful singers. Its simplicity, however, does not exclude more experienced choirs. The concise compilation Publication and Performance Information in Appendix B provides an overview of title, date of pubUcation, poet, language(s), type of choral work, and suitability for different types of choral groups. It also provides data on melodic ranges for each soloist and choral part, instrumental forces required, publisher, performances, recordings, and duration of each of Toch's pubUshed choral compositions. The most accessible of Toch's choral works are Fuge, Es sass ein Fuchs, Es sitzt ein Vogel, Es ist ein Schnee 144

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145 gef alien, The Lamb, Have you not heard his silent steps, and Valse. His unpublished choral compositions are discussed by Charles Anthony Johnson in his Ph.D. dissertation, The UnpubUshed Works of Ernst Toch, UCLA (1973). They are An Mein Vaterland, Op. 23 (1913) a three-movement symphony for large orchestra, organ, soprano solo, mixed and boys' choruses; l.oaoaoa and 2.ta tarn ta tarn ta tarn from Gesprochene Musik (1930) a three-movement suite for speaking chorus; S.Klapperstorch from Der Tierkreis, Op. 5 2 (1930) for women's chorus; Cantata of the Bitter Herbs, Op. 65 (1938) for soprano, alto, tenor, bass, narrator, chorus and orchestra; and Phantoms, Op.81 (1957) a three-piece cycle for women's speaking chorus and percussion. Despite the lack of critical interest in it, Toch's choral music is a source of teaching material for college as well as children's and professional choirs. In The Technique of Choral Composition Archibald T. Davison states, In choosing a text the composer should give especial heed to three considerations. He should seek words embodying ideas which stimulate his imagination; he should, save in very exceptional cases, confine himself to material of a high literary quality; and he should be sure that the text he selects literally cries out to be sung.i Toch chose poems that stimulated his imagination and were meant to be sung. For example, William Blake's poem is a Song of Innocence, Rabindranath Tagore's Have you not heard his silent steps? is a song from Gitanjali, and Walt Whitman's poem is a Song Davison 1966: 140

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of Myself. Texts in German and English belong to world literature by male poets of international acclaim such as Alfred Doblin, Wilhelm Busch, Thomas Carlyle, William Blake, Rainer Maria Rilke, George Santayana, Rabindranath Tagore, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Walt Whitman. Most of Toch's choral compositions await recording, and reviews of performances. Choral conductors and the public have the opportunity to become famiUar with some litde-known works of art. Toch's choral compositions also anticipate inclusion in reference books, musicological monographs, papers presented or performances at professional meetings, and college courses. Inclusion of Toch's Music in Existing Course s Heretofore unfamiliar information may be added to existing courses on twentieth-century music, choral music, American music, and music theory. The following information could be incorporated into any of these courses by focusing on various aspects of the composer's life and creative contributions. As an emigre composer, Toch's life and work could be compared and contrasted with other prominent twentieth-century European emigre composers to the United States. Diane P. Jezic's book. The Musical Migration and Ernst Toch, could be used as textbook or reference reading. Chapter 7, The Emigre Contribution to Musical America, examines how Ernst Toch and his generation contributed to musical life in the United States, and the extent to which each composer adapted to his new environment. She summarizes careers of some successful emigres, their teaching.

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147 theoretical writing, and composing for film among other genres. Jezic includes Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951), Darius Milhaud (18921974), Ernst Krenek (1900-1991), Hanns Eisler (1898-1962), Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Kurt Weill (1900-1950), Erich Wolfgang Komgold (1897-1957), and Karol Rathaus (1895-1954). Her brief overviews of the life and work of some of Toch's contemporaries could be augmented by reading original writings by the composers, studying scores, listening to recordings of compositions, discussing their compositional techniques, and performing their work. The life and work of other emigre composers such as Ernest Bloch (18801959) and Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) could be added to this group. Toch's choral works could be compared and contrasted with pieces by twentieth-century composers who were bom and raised in the United States. These could include works by Aaron Copland (1900-1990), WiUiam Schuman (1910-), Samuel Barber (1910-1981), Elliott Carter (1908-), and Howard Hanson (1896-1981). From the point of view of the text, Toch's musical setting of a poem could be compared and contrasted with musical settings of the same poem by other composers. Correspondence between Toch and Alfred Doblin was discovered in the UCLA Toch Archive. Lilly Toch's oral history provides a detailed view of life in Austria, Germany, and the United States. These resources might prove fruitful avenues of exploration for researchers of German and American literature. Toch's two theory books, Die Melodielehre (1923) and The Shaping Forces in Music (1948), could be read, discussed, and compared in music theory courses. Pedagogical potential exists in

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148 these two volumes. The German book is a systematic treatise on the subject of melody for readers with expertise in music. In the Preface to Die Melodielehre Toch states, Diese Arbeit ist in ihren Grundzixgen im Jahre 1914 niedergeschrieben worden. Sie enthalt eine Sammlung von Gedanken, welche ich aus den Niederschlagen praktischen Musikerlebens und musik-theoretischer Unterrichtstatigkeit empfangen und der Aufzeichnung wert gehalten habe. Wenngleich sie nicht gerade als Lehrbuch gedacht ist, so ist sie vielleicht doch imstande, einiges Licht auf ein Gebiet zu werfen, welches die sonst so regsame und geschaftige Musik "theorie" ziemhch im Dunkeln gelassen hat, Es gibt eine Menge Harmonielehrbucher, aber meines Wissens weder ein Buch noch eine Lehrkanzel fiir Melodielehre. 2 This work was written down initially in the year 1914. It contains a collection of thoughts, which I gathered from the condensation of practical music experience and music theory teaching, and thought worthy of recording. Although it is not exactly meant to be a textbook, it will perhaps shed light on an area which the otherwise lively and busy music theory has left in the dark. There are a lot of harmony textbooks, but to my knowledge there is neither a book nor a faculty position for teaching melody. Musical elements in the 1948 textbook are organized into chapters on harmony, melody, counterpoint, and form. Rhythm is discussed with melody and harmony. This organization of elements could be used to design a curriculum. Numerous musical examples in both textbooks are valuable resources to show the influence of other composers on Toch's thought. In the Preface of The Shaping Forces in Music Toch states. 2 E Toch 1923: iii

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149 (This book) is intended for those who may have gone through a certain amount of elementary music theory, say the fundamentals of traditional harmony as they are commonly taught, and may find themselves at odds with prevailing traits of that music which does not correspond to this knowledge. ... It is also intended for music lovers who desire to attain a better understanding-"appreciation"~of music at large; for practical musicians and amateurs who are aware of the incompleteness of their musical upbringing, when confronted with a more progressive type of music; and finally for all those interested in trying their hand at musical composition. Thus it may well serve as a vade mecum for instruction or for self-instruction.3 Pilot Proierr: The Life. Times and Work of Fmst Torh. Iowa State University. Ames. Iowa. Spring 1992 Toch's ideas could be incorporated into the college curriculum by creating an independent study course focusing on Toch's life, times, and work. This course could integrate information and practices of different musical disciplines, and instill in students the value of a dialog among research, teaching, and performance. In addition to increasing knowledge of Toch and his music, it could help students learn how to do musicological research, make theoretical analyses, and write cogent papers. It could help them present their papers publicly, improve performance skills, and organize the numerous behind-the-scenes details necessary for a successful public event. Goals for the pilot project were to present a public lecturerecital of the chamber opera Edgar and Emily, op. 46 by Ernst Toch. The text by Christian Morgenstem was translated to English by Paul 3 E Toch 1948/1977: xxii

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150 Aaron. The presentation was to demonstrate students' ability to organize and present knowledge of the composer, historical setting, and analysis of musical materials with visual aids to a university and general audiences. The course was structured as a seminar in which each student was responsible for becoming an expert on several topics relating to the entire project. The Analysis for Performance course included the study of interrelationships between theoretical analysis, musicological research, and applied performance including staging and pubUcity. These three areas were considered to be interdependent bodies of information and skills. Theoretical analysis was based on Jan LaRue's Guidelines for Style Analysis of text, sound, harmony, melody, rhythm, and growth. Detailed questions were created to suggest research direction for each student. Previous detailed analyses of Toch's works were used as a starting point.'^ An historical profile of the composer involved creating a bibliography to guide students to basic biographical information. This included Toch's significance as a composer and a list of his works. It also contained resources that directed them to pertinent autobiographical statements by Toch, circumstances surrounding the creation of the chamber opera, photographs of Toch, and musical manuscripts. His Geographical Fugue and Vaise were learned and performed during the course. Performance considerations involved securing and confirming all equipment and personnel needed for the performance, setting up 4 Zach 1990, Zach and Johnston 1991

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151 and maintaining the seminar and rehearsal schedule, publicizing the event, asking for help from applied instructors, and dividing assignments for research and speech writing. Undergraduate music students were selected accorded to their abiUty to perform different instruments, musical expertise, and interest in an interdisciplinary group effort. The faculty team included a music theorist/project facilitator, musicologist, vocal coach/stager, conductor, and tour/outreach coordinator. In order to get principles across to general audiences with a presumed lack of background experience or knowledge of Toch and his music, it was decided collectively that the presentation format for the midwestern tour would be papers, skits, and performance of Toch's opera, Edgar and Emily. A tangible result of the course was a professionally recorded archival videotape for the Iowa State University Music library. Toch as Teacher In her book. Musical Migration and Ernst Toch, Diane P. Jezic presents "Toch the Teacher" in Chapter 5. She discusses what Toch said about education, his pedagogical techniques, and tributes from former students. Students include Nikolai Lopatnikoff (1903-1976), Douglas Moore (1893-1969), Andre Previn (1929-), Peter Jona Kom (1922-), and Mantle Hood (1918-). Matt Doran (1921-) remembered Toch as an impressive pianist. He declared, Toch's greatness as a teacher stemmed from his unique abiUty and willingness to see everything that his students produced, from their point of view. Never forcing his

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152 own creative insights on the students who were expected to develop their own style and personality of writing, Toch permitted and encouraged his students, of greatly diverse background abilities, to write in a wide variety of idioms and tonal languages. Since the composition classes were always small, with never more than four or five students per hour, usually lasting two hours, however, Toch was able to supervise the development of each individual, whether he was writing a twelve-tone composition or a simple waltz. 5 Toch insisted that composition could not be taught in a controversial article, "The Teaching of Music Composition is Futile. He answered his critics and enlarged on his views in a letter to the editor in the June issue of the Musical Courier stating, My striving as a teacher was passionate and sincere. I had a number of passionate, sincere, and gifted students; some of them may have felt that I helped them along, some of them were grateful. But in the end I came to see that you cannot make a composer out of somebody who would not be a composer without you. ^ In the Introduction to a collection of essays Placed as a Link in This Chain, Mantle Hood comments. For about five years, beginning late in 1945, I had the privilege of studying with Ernst Toch. . . . Frequently I was asked what system he used, what techniques he espoused. What took place in the course of lessons with a composer who maintained that composition could not be taught? ... I used to ponder his occasional reminder, "Either you are a composer or you are not. All I can help evoke is what is already within you.". . . I also believe a reading and re-reading of these thoughts will indicate 5 Jezic 1989: 106 ^ E Toch Musical Courier March 1954 ^ E Toch Musical Courier June 1954: 5

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that Toch is a humanist's composer, rather more than a composer's composer, that the premises which guided his creative output are like all simple truths—complex in their manifestation and the order of things to which they refer, but ultimately simple, when understood.^ 8 EToch 1971: 4-5

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CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This final chapter of summary, conclusions, and recommendations reviews the purpose, need, methodology, and analysis of data of this study. Research findings are synthesized into chronological and stylistic patterns, and recommendations made for further research. Toch's choral compositions from different stages of his career are compared. Analyses and style characteristics are summarized. Commonalities of the works studied in terms of the specific techniques of using musical elements and subject matter are discussed. It is shown how the works collectively support the thesis, and how the conclusions were reached. This study is unusual in its interdisciplinary use of theoretical constructs from the discipline of architecture to illuminate the thought of a composer. It makes a unique contribution to the body of knowledge by focusing on the published choral music of Ernst Toch, works that have not previously been studied by musicologists, theorists, performers, and teachers. Toch's choral music receives Uttle attention in standard references and is rarely seen on recitals or in reviews. As this study includes literature as well as music, a biographical-historical method common to these disciplines was used. The formulation of a statement of the purpose evolved during the 154

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155 process of locating scores, formulating research questions, evaluating data, and gathering supporting evidence from musicological and literary sources. The summary, conclusions, and recommendations in this final chapter synthesize research findings. This investigation drew upon European library sources in Berlin, Detmold, and Vienna, domestic material from the UCLA Toch Archive, and the author's analysis of Toch's choral compositions. Preliminary sources were available twentieth-century music histories, musicological references in the United States, and resources on choral literature. These revealed littie information on Toch and his choral music, which supported the need for this study. Reference books on Uterature clarified terms and styles, and biographies and anthologies provided information on poets and their poetry. Primary sources included Toch's theoretical writings and published articles. These were important sources of his ideas on composition and musical influences on him. Scores and manuscripts of choral compositions, correspondence, and recordings of the Geographical Fugue and Valse were examined in the UCLA Toch Archive. Toch's textbook The Shaping Forces in Music (1948) was employed to analyze his use of harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, and form. The choral works were selected for examination from the 1977 revised comprehensive repertoire list in its appendix. This definitive list was based on work by Charles Anthony Johnson in his dissertation, The Unpublished Works of Ernst Toch (1973). 1 Secondary sources included dissertations, books, newspaper clippings, and articles on Toch's work, as well as a 1 Johnson 1973

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156 meeting with Bernard Galm, interviewer of Lilly Toch for the UCLA Oral History Program. Diane Peacock Jezic, in her book, The Musical Migration and Ernst Toch ( 1989), contributed to the understanding of Toch as an emigre composer and teacher. Biographies of poets were examined to explore the historical context in which poems were written. Collections of poems were researched for text history of a specific poem, and to compare Toch's version of the poem with other possible versions. Important information concerning the origin and development of ideas for his choral music and public reaction to it was written in German. It was necessary to translate these findings into English in order to make this information more readily available to Anglophones who rely on the English language as a primary medium of communication. The English translations for Das Wasser, the two poems by Wilhelm Busch, Es ist ein Schnee gefallen, and various excerpts from German publications found in this dissertation were done by the researcher. This study combines tools of musicology, music theory, and music education to examine the life of Ernst Toch, thirteen published choral works within their historical context, and pedagogical implications of investigating his works. Analyses of musical elements were presented to show how each choral work may be complex and contradictory within the boundaries of that composition. They were used to demonstrate how compositional techniques in one choral work compare with techniques in Toch's other choral works. Furthermore, analyses were used to explore the relationship of each choral work to the historical milieu in which it was created.

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157 Each published choral composition was individually discussed. Analyses included a preliminary overview of die choral work, text history incorporating biographical data on the poet, public reaction, musical details about harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, form, orchestration, and the interrelationship of words and music. Toch's compositional style was demonstrated with the aid of tables and musical examples. In the Purpose in Chapter 1 of this dissertation, five research questions were posed. The following summary gives some specific answers to these questions. 1. How did Toch's artistic and socio-political context influence his development of stylistic contradictions? Toch's reconciliation of contradictory aesthetic views from different cultural environments was discussed in Chapter 2 of this study entitled, German-American Aesthetics and Ernst Toch. Throughout his life he used compositional techniques learned from his careful consideration of the work of European musical ancestors. These ideas he fused with twentieth-century innovations, becoming recognized as a leader of Neue Musik in the 1920s, and winning a Pulitzer prize for his Symphony No. 3 ( 1954/55). In the 1920s in his varied choral works he explored musical possibilities of phonetic poetry of his own creation, and used a variety of techniques from the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods to contrast metaphysical and physical reality by a twentiethcentury novelist. He created musical settings for two poems of nineteenth-century social criticism in which contradictions abound.

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158 In contrast, he wrote neo-classical Gebrauchsmusik inspired by an anonymous folksong of the fifteenth century. As an emigre in the United States in the 1940s and early 1950s the subject matter of his poems focused on universal aspects of human existence, and self-reflection. He adapted to his new environment by using the English language and poems by British and American authors. Toch continued to integrate compositional techniques popular in Western Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in his choral works in the United States. The first four choral works in The Inner Circle reflect a decrease in contrapuntal writing before 1945 when they premiered in the collection entitied Songs of the Cycle, There is also an increase in these works of expanded harmony that was popular in the nineteenth century for affective color. This may be related to his writing for film music that supported the enhancement of characters' emotions. After the war Toch experienced a renaissance of his earlier creative productivity in a milieu encouraging innovation. He produced four operas and seven symphonies among other pieces. The last two choral works in The Inner Circle that were probably written after 1945 exhibit contirapuntal writing. Song of Myself (1961) also has imitative writing. All three of these works have techniques that were popular in the romantic era such as expanded harmony, chromatically ascending peaks, and tapering dynamic level changes. His last choral work, Valse (1961), returns to the lighthearted humor and exploration of the musical possibilities inherent in speech of the 1930 Gesprochene Musik suite to which Fuge aus der Geographie belongs.

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159 2. How did Toch use conventional compositional techniques in unconventional ways? The means by which Toch used conventional compositional techniques in unconventional ways were discussed with musical examples in the detailed analyses of his published choral works composed in Europe in Chapter 3 and in the United States in Chapter 4. The following is a summary of the results of each of those analyses. In the Geographical Fugue (1930) it was seen that Toch juxtaposes conventional fugal techniques such as "imitative" counterpoint, stretto, augmentation, close motivic unity, and an insistent motoric rhythm which were popular in Germany during the Baroque era. He combines these conventional techniques unconventionally with spoken phonemic folly based on names of places organized in a manner that denies order. In other words, the Geographical Fugue is highly structured and exactly determined, yet it sounds chaotic. A hidden order exists within that which appears to be babbling chaos. This corresponds to the second branch of chaos theory which emphasizes the hidden order that exists within chaotic systems.2 It was clear from the analyses of the Geographical Fugue that Toch carefully organized both rhythm and timbre, independent of textual meaning or pitch, into a musical form. Text has a double function. It serves as a rhythm generating device and the source of timbre. The complexity of Das Wasser (1930) is the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon whose source is stylistic 2 Hayles 1990: 9

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160 contradiction that yields several layers of meaning. Contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. The simultaneous overlapping of different layers which are visible but interweave suggests "contradiction adapted," for example, in movement VII. "Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested when different compositional techniques occurring sequentially are strongly contrasted, such as "fermentative" counterpoint in movement IV and "imitative" counterpoint in movement V. Toch uses conventional compositional fugal techniques in an unconventional way. It was seen that counterpoint serves a double function being both ornamental and formative, hi The Shaping Forces in Music he states that the meaning of counterpoint is to "produce a discussion in point of contrasting ideas, voicing the pros and cons, and thus resulting in clarification and final shaping of the issue. "3 Toch's use of "imitative" and "fermentative" types of counterpoint in Das Wasser is an appropriate choice to represent Doblin's contradictory positions embodied in the two characters. Es sass ein Fuchs appears to be a small-scale example of a "both-and" phenomenon with stylistic contradictions. Toch uses techniques popular in the classical period such as triadic harmony, imitative counterpoint, small forces, and a clear binary form. He also uses techniques prevalent in the romantic era such as building to a climax, ambiguous expanded tonality for affective color, and tapering dynamic level changes. In Es sitzt ein Vogel Toch contrasts compositional techniques prevalent in the classical and romantic periods with modernist 3 EToch 1948/1977: 134

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161 devices. "Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested as different compositional techniques occurring sequentially are strongly contrasted to musically characterize the cat and bird. The simplicity of Toch's arrangement of Es ist ein Schnee gefallen (1930) appears in striking contrast to Toch's choral compositions discussed in this study. In its clarity, balance, and order, Toch's a cappella SATB setting of the fifteenth-century secular folksong with cantus firmus in the tenor is an example of twentiethcentury neo-classicism in music. No dynamic level changes are indicated in the piece which is also unusual in Toch's work. Each of the six compositions in The Inner Circle is summarized individually. Imitative writing appears only briefly in the first four works in the collection. The meager contrapuntal writing in the first four works in the cycle is unusual in comparison to Toch's use of counterpoint in earlier choral compositions. In Cui bono? harmony is used both structurally and ornamentally as a double-functioning element. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as different compositional techniques are superimposed and elements are subtly adjusted to accommodate them. It was also shown how the work is historically anachronistic when considered in relationship to prevalent contemporary rational compositional thought. The Lamb is more neo-classical in its balance, clarity, calm, and relative simplicity than many of Toch's choral works. It was seen that harmony is a double-functioning element providing both ornament and structure. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as Toch superimposes different compositional techniques and subdy adjusts

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elements to accommodate themin Extinguish My Eyes inconsistencies appear to be contained within order. Tlie piece is consistent with the second branch of current chaos theory which focuses on the hidden order that exists within chaotic systems. Rhythm and harmony were seen to be double-functioning elements which provide structure as well as ornament. O World thou chosest not the better part was seen to be an example of how contradiction of meaning involves paradoxical contrast. It was shown how harmony was used both structurally and ornamentally as a double-functioning element. Toch used techniques that were popular in the romantic era within a neo-classical structure defined by clear triadic harmonies. Have You not Heard his Silent Steps? is relatively simple in comparison to other works in this cycle. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as different compositional techniques are superimposed and elements are subtly adjusted to accommodate them. The extent to which Toch uses "imitative" counterpoint and complexities of stretto in this piece is unusual in comparison with earlier works in this cycle in which imitative writing appears only briefly. In Good-Bye, proud World rhythm and harmony are doublefunctioning elements providing both structure and affective ornament. Toch uses "fermentative counterpoint" which is xmusual in comparison to the small amount of contrapuntal writing in the first four pieces in the cycle. Compositions in The Inner Circle appear to be hybrid "bothand" phenomena. Harmony and rhythm were seen to be doublefunctioning elements providing structure and ornament. Toch

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163 contrasts two types of counterpoint. He uses "imitative" counterpoint in the fifth piece, and "fermentative" counterpoint based on continuous free, inventive creation in the sixth work. Although imitative writing appears briefly in the first four works in the cycle, the extent to which Toch uses counterpoint in these final two works is unusual in comparison to earUer compositions. Song of Myself is an example of how Toch combines conventional compositional techniques in an unconventional way. Toch's organic form and use of compositional procedures popular in the romantic era stand in opposition to the rationality of his contemporary milieu which emphasized formalistic elements, sets of laws, and logical deduction that diminished influence from emotional, unconscious sources. In Valse, rhythm contributes to growth via a gradual increase in the number of syllables per word as the work progresses. This is the rhythmic material which serves to unify and order the composition. Timbre depends on the phonemic content of the chosen words, changes in texture, and inclusion of optional percussion instruments. Sonority is favored over meaning and logical continuity of the words. Percussion instruments not only enrich the tone color of the SATB divisi chorus, they reinforce the triple meter and echo spoken rhythms. 3. What are the styhstic contradictions that yield several layers of meaning? The styhstic contradictions that yield several layers of meaning were identified and discussed in the detailed analyses of Toch's

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published choral works in Chapters 3 and 4. The following is a summary of the results of those analyses. Toch believes, "There must be formthe outer shape dictated by a work's inner organic life. That form will present, in some aspect, a struggle between differing concepts.'"* He used binary form for the poems by Busch, the anonymous fifteenth-century poet, Blake, Rilke, and Tagore. Tripartite form provides the outer shape for the poems by Carlyle and Santayana. Four-part form organizes Good-bye, proud World and Vaise. These shapes correspond to poetic design. In the Geographical Fugue conventional elements and techniques popular in the Baroque era are combined unconventionally with a speaking chorus. Contradictory levels of meaning in music involve paradoxical contrast. Toch succeeds in contrasting organized elements with babble. In other words, he creates babble using carefully organized musical elements. In Das Wasser Toch juxtaposes an idealistic baritone who focuses on metaphysics with a realistic tenor who is concerned with physical and chemical properties of water. The work is a "both-and" phenomenon in which Toch contrasts compositional techniques popular in earlier eras. Techniques prevalent in the romantic era include the use of expanded tonality with chromaticism, tapering dynamic changes, and gradual ascent to a melodic climax. Tonal ambiguity is achieved through the superimposition of independent melodic lines focusing on different tonal centers in "fermentative" counterpoint. UCLA Toch Archive Articles and Essays Box 3, No. 33

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165 In Das Wasser techniques popular in the Baroque era include "imitative" counterpoint with stretto and inverted subject, close thematic unity, insistent motoric rhythm, and continuous motivic unfoldment in a cantata structure. Balanced four-bar antecedent and consequent phrases, rondo and strophic form, and triadic harmonies used structurally as in final chords of movements were widespread during the classical period. In Es sass ein Fuchs Toch employs triadic harmony, "imitative" counterpoint, small forces, and a clear binary form that were popular in the eighteenth century. He also uses techniques of building to a climax, ambiguous expanded tonality for affective color, and tapering dynamic level changes that were prevalent in the romantic era. In Es sitzt ein Vogel Toch contrasts expanded tonality, dynamic level tapering, and building to melodic peaks well-known in the nineteenth century, with a balanced form, small forces, and triadic harmony popular in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He also uses modernist devices such as independence of melodic lines, accented dissonances, harmonic clashes, and large intervaUic skips. In Es ist ein Schnee gef alien, no stylistic contradiction is suggested within the composition. The simpUcity and clarity of the choral writing is unusual in Toch's choral compositions. Each of the six compositions in Tlie Inner Circle is summarized individually. Although Toch had used romantic compositional techniques in earlier published choral works composed in Europe such as Das U^asser (1930), Toch's use of these conventions in the mid-twentieth century in the United States makes The Inner Circle (1953) an anachronism within his contemporary historical milieu

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166 emphasizing rationality. His use of romantic compositional techniques is consistent, however, with Hollywood film aesthetics requesting enhancement of characters' emotions. Cui bono? is an example of how Toch uses compositional procedures that were conventional in the romantic era to create an ebb and flow of tension within a structure popular in the eighteenth century. Assymetrical phrase lengths and affective harmonic color exist in contrast to the clarity of the overall neo-classical tripartite structure. The Lamb has a balanced binary form, symmetrical two-bar phrases, predominantly triadic harmonies on strong beats, homophonic texture, and thematic repetition. In contrast to these conventions prevalent in the eighteenth century, Toch uses tapering dynamic changes, and harmony for affective color popular in the romantic period. Toch musically conveys the ardent fervor of Rilke's poem, Extinguish My Eyes. Whereas in the previous work neo-classical techniques predominate, this composition emphasizes neo-romantic and modernist devices. Chromaticism, complex vertical structures with tritones, structural dissonances, few stable lulls, and numerous accidentals contribute to suspense, directional motion, and affective color. He communicates tension and instability via changes in harmony, melody, rhythm, and dynamic level. Toch placed disorderly emotional ambiguity within a clear binary form. O World tJiou chosestnot the better part, is an example of how Toch uses compositional techniques of affective harmonic color, large forces, melodic peaks, and tapering dynamic changes popular in the

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romantic era within a neo-classical structure. In his use of devices popular in the romantic era, the work is historically anachronistic in relationship to prevalent contemporary rational thought. Have You not Heard his Silent Steps? has binary form, symmetrical phrases defined by clear triadic harmonies, and "imitative" counterpoint which suggest eighteenth-century influences. Toch also uses compositional techniques of affective harmonic color, melodic peaks, and tapering dynamic changes that were widespread during the romantic period. In Good-Bye, Proud World numerous rhythmic changes and accented dissonances are consistent with modernist practices. These coexist with compositional techniques popular in the romantic era such as tapering dynamic level changes, affective harmony, and melodic peaks. On a large dimension, Toch provided variety in The Inner Circle but unified it by balancing mood and degree of difficulty. It was seen that Toch used conventional compositional techniques popular in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries in individual pieces. "Contradiction adapted" is suggested as different compositional techniques are superimposed and elements are subtly adjusted to accommodate them. In considering the placement of pieces within the cycle, the second and fifth works of The Inner Circle have many conventions popular in the eighteenth century such as symmetrical phrases, triadic harmonies on strong beats, and thematic repetition. In contrast, the third and sixth pieces have large performing forces, expanded tonality for affective color, and gradual crescendos

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building to melodic peaks which were popular in the romantic period. "Contradiction juxtaposed" is suggested as different compositional techniques or styles occurring sequentially in different pieces are strongly contrasted. In Song of Myself Toch uses compositional procedures popular in the Baroque era such as motivic evolution, sequences, stretto, and "imitative" counterpoint. He also uses techniques popular in the romantic era such as a "waves" of chromatically ascending melodic peaks, tapering dynamic level changes, and expanded harmony. It is apparent in Valse that Toch carefully organized rhythm and timbre independent of pitch or textual meaning into a sectional form. As in his Geographical Fugue of 1930, Toch organizes spoken words into a musical structure, juxtaposing order and disorder. Although the composition may appear disorderly with haphazard interjections from members of the chorus, it has been seen that rhythm and timbre are order-bearing elements in this work. 4. How did Toch create specific emotions such as humor via his use of familiar elements in unexpected ways? The way Toch creates specific emotions such as humor by using familiar elements in unexpected ways was discussed in the detailed analyses of his pubUshed choral works in Chapters 3 and 4. The following is a summary of those analyses. In movement III of Das Wasser it was seen how Toch changes the music to correspond to the tenor's unexpected self-critique. Toch suddenly sets the text a cappella in contrast to massive homophonic texture with rhythmic activity. The source of the "both-and"

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phenomenon is contradiction of content and meaning. Expectations of order in music and text were broken, and familiar elements were placed in unfamiliar contexts giving way to humor. Double meanings abound in Es sass ein Fuchs and Es sitzt ein Vogel. It was seen that in these two brief, humorous compositions Wilhelm Busch and Ernst Toch use, yet simultaneously challenge conventions. As satires against complacency, they question norms and traditions. Es sitzt ein Vogel is cited as one of the best examples of gallows humor in German literature. Toch wordpaints the doomed bird twittering via a three-bar melisma of primarily sixteenth notes in the soprano part. An active disjunct melodic Hne of staccato major and minor thirds in the alto part resembles the call of a cuckoo. He then suddenly contrasts this activity with the straightforward final comment. InValse for speaking chorus Toch makes elements perceptually new and contributes to humor by placing familiar words and rhythms in unfamiliar contexts. In striking contrast to The Inner Circle and Song of Myself which were also composed in the United States, this final choral work returns to the lighthearted humor and exploration of the musical possibilities inherent in speech of Toch's 1930 Gesprochene Musik suite to which Fuge aus der Geographie belongs. 5. How does the study of Toch's choral music impact on the college music curriculum and instruction? This was discussed in Chapter 5 Pedagogical Implications. In response to a need for access to information, a comprehensive list

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170 was compiled. The reader was referred to Appendix B Publication and Performance Information which provides an overview of the tide, date of publication, poet, language(s), type of choral work, and suitability for different types of choral groups. It also provides data on melodic ranges for each soloist and choral part, instrumental forces required, publisher, performances, recordings, and duration of each of Toch's published choral compositions. It was discussed how Toch selected poems that stimulated his imagination and were meant to be sung. Judgment of suitability for different performing groups involved the consideration of singers' technical ability and vocal range, Toch's intent, an analysis of each composition, and interviews with choral conductors. The most accessible of Toch's published choral works were judged to beFuge aus der Geographie, Es sass ein Fuchs, Es sitzt ein Vogel, Es ist ein Schnee gefallen, The Lamb, Have you not heard his silent steps, and Vaise. Toch's unpubUshed choral compositions in Charles Anthony Johnson in his Ph.D. dissertation. The Unpublished Worlcs of Ernst Toch, UCLA (1973) were also listed in Chapter 5 of this study. It was suggested that information on Toch's Ufe and music could be incorporated into courses on twentieth-century music, choral music, American music, and music theory. As an emigre composer, Toch's life and work could be compared and contrasted with other prominent twentieth-century European emigre composers to the United States, some of whom were named in Chapter 5. Toch's choral works might be compared and contrasted with pieces by twentieth-century composers who were bom and raised in

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171 the United States. Toch's musical settings of poetry and prose could be compared with other musical settings of the same poem. Toch's two theory textbooks, Die Melodielehre (1923) and The Shaping Forces in Music (1948), were reviewed. They are resources which could be read and discussed in music theory courses. It was suggested that Toch's ideas could be built into the college curriculum by creating an independent study course focusing on Ernst Toch's life, times, and work. Such a course could integrate information and practices of different musical disciplines, and instill in students the complementary importance of research, teaching, and performance. In addition to increasing knowledge of Toch's thought, it could help students learn how to do musicological research, make theoretical analyses, and write cogent papers. It could help them present their papers pubUcly, improve performance skills, and organize the many behind-the-scenes details necessary for a successful public event. It was further discussed in Chapter 5 how these ideas were implemented in a pilot project during Spring 1992 at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. A final section on Toch as Teacher looked at what Toch said about education, his pedagogical techniques, and tributes from former students. Toch's views on teaching composition were also reviewed. Conclusions After reviewing a vast amount of material, the term "postmodernism" would seem to apply to Toch. It has been seen in this

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172 study that Toch integrated references to earlier styles drawing upon compositional techniques popular in the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras. He incorporated these with modernist techniques such as independence of melodic lines, accented dissonances, harmonic clashes, and large intervallic skips. In the Preface to The Shaping Forces in Music, Toch explains how he "attempts to reconcile the at-times "classical" with the attimes "modern". 5 Toch's concern about reaching audiences was expressed in the discussion of The Inner Circle in Chapter 4 of this study. He wrote pieces that included tonality, conventional rhythm, and the casual listener. It has been shown that throughout his career in Europe and the United States, Ernst Toch wrote primarily in an eclectic manner. The complexity of his choral music lies in his use of conventional compositional techniques in unconventional ways. Furthermore, their complexity is the result of a hybrid "both-and" phenomenon whose source is stylistic contradiction yielding several layers of meaning. Some of his choral works containing such contradiction were shown to create humor by breaking expectations of order and placing familiar elements in unfamiliar contexts. Recommendations for Further Research Toch's film scores could be analyzed in depth to determine the extent of the impact on his compositions written after his move to the United States. Research could commence in the extensive UCLA film library. 5 E Toch 1948/1977: xxi

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Little research has been done on "post-modernism" in music. It could be explored in the work of other twentieth-century composers. This is a fertile field awaiting the curious. Other areas of investigation include tracing the compositional processes of at least two choral works. A manuscript version of Toch's Cantata of the Bitter Herbs is available for rental from BelwinMills. It differs structurally from a manuscript version studied in the UCLA Toch Archive. Manuscripts of earlier versions of The Inner Circle could be located and compared with the published collection. Finally, Toch's compositions could be learned, performed, recorded, and reviewed.

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APPENDIX A 11 CHART OF VOCAL RANGES 174

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APPENDIX B PUBLICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Fuge aus der Geographie (Geographical Fugue ) (1930) Third movement of Gesprochene Musik (Music for Speaking Chorus) with two unpublished movements l."oaoaoa" and 2."ta tarn ta tam ta tam" in UCLA Toch Archive. German and English texts by Ernst Toch. Type of Choral Work: secular a cappella fugue for speaking SATB high school or college chorus, or musically literate non-singers Publisher : Belwin-Mills with separate German and English editions (1950, 1957) Premiere of Suite: In Germany during the Berliner Festtage fur Zeitgenossische Musik 17-21 June 1930. It made an enormous impression in avant-garde circles (Johnson 1973:147). Major international performances: (programs in UCLA Toch Archive) 13 November 1956 by Liverpool Chamber Music Group Singers at Hoffnung Music Festival Concert 1956 at Royal Festival Hall, London. 1 November 1965 by Interlochen Arts Academy Opera Department, Grunow Theater, Interlochen. 14 October 1967 by Sudfunkchor at the Suddeutsches Chorfest in Ludwigsburg. 19 February 1975 by UCLA Madrigal Singers at Ernst Toch Festival in Los Angeles. Recording s: Geographical Fugue, Valse (1930). Camerata of Los Angeles conducted by H. Vincent Mitzelfelt. Cover title Ernst Toch in Retrospect. Crystal Records S502 (1975). Geographical Fugue (1930). The Abbey Singers. Cover tide Five Centuries of Song. Decca DL 710073 (1963). Duration : 2.5 minutes Das Wasser (The W^tpr). on. 53 (1930) Based on writings by Alfred Doblin. German. No pubUshed EngUsh translation. Tvpe of Choral Work: secular cantata for professionally trained tenor and baritone, narrator, women's, men's, or children's chorus, flute, 175

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176 trumpet, percussion (1 player), 6-12 violins, 4-6 cellos, and contrabass Melodic Rang es: sopranos I f#l-a2, sopranos II cl-a flat2, altos g-d2, tenor soloist C-gl, baritone soloist B flat-fl Publisher: B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz. In the United States and Canada, European American Distributors Corporation. Premiere: 17-21 June 1930 Performances : in Germany until February 1933. No clippings were located in the UCLA Toch Archive after this date. Duration: 19 minutes Per Tierkreis (The Zo diac), op. 52 ( 1930): Es sass ein Fuchs (There sat a fox) and Es sitzt ein Vogel (The re sits a Bird) Based on poems by Wilhelm Busch. German. No published English translation. 3. Klapperstorch (Stork) based on poem by von Amim is unpublished in UCLA Toch Archive Type of Choral Work: secular for two-part women's or children's a cappella chorus Melodic Rang es: Es sass ein Fuchs -sopranos a-f2, altos g-d2; Es sitzt ein Vogel sopranos cl-g2, altos a-e2. Publisher: B. Schott's Sohne, Mainz in Das neue Chorbuch, Heft 7 (1930) edited by Erich Katz. In the United States and Canada, European American Distributors Corporation. Performances : none located Duration: Es sass ein Fuchs 1 minute; Es sitzt ein Vogel 1 minute Es ist ein Schnee gefallen ( 1 930) Based on fifteenth-century German folksong by anonymous poet. German. No published English translation. Tvpe of C horal Work : secular a cappella SATB folksong arrangement for children's chorus in strophic form with cantus firmus in tenor; also suitable for high school and college choruses Melodic Rangps: sopranos dl-e2, altos b-al, tenors d-dl, basses G-g Publisher; C.F. Peters in Volksliederbuch fur die Jugend, Band 11 Gemischte Chore, Leipzig (1930). Performances: none located Duration: 2.5 minutes if quarter note equals 80

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The Inner Circle, op. 67 (1953) Based on poems: 1. Cui bono? by Thomas Carlyle 2. The Lamb by William Blake 3. Extinguish my Eyes by Rainer Maria Rilke 4. O World, thou chosestnot by George Santayana 5. Have you not heard his silent steps? by Rabindranath Tagore 6. Good-bye, Proud World by Ralph Waldo Emerson. English. Type of Choral Work: collection of five secular a cappella SATB choruses for large choruses with divisi sections, and professional soloists in O World, thou chosest not and Good-bye, Proud World, and one sacred a cappella SSA chorus (The Lamb); suitable for college and professional choruses Melodic Ranges : TABLE \ Poem ai MELO Sopr I Die RAh + Sopr GES OF 1 Alto 'HE INNE Tenor R CIRCLI Bass A solo T solo I e#la2 b-e2 d flatf#l G flat-b U el -a flat 2 Sop II b-e2 g-c2 III d#l-b flat 2 b flat-f2 e-gl F-e flat 1 IV d#-a2 solo e l-b2 a flat-f2 d-f#l F-cl V dl-b flat 2 g-f2 e flat-gl Gb flat VI dl-a2 solo elg2 a-f2 d-al F3-dl a-e2 d-gl Publisher: Affiliated Musicians, Inc. Los Angeles is credited in the score but no address was located. BMI, ASCAP, Belwin-Mills, Associated Music Publishers/G. Schirmer, and European American Distributors Corporation had no record of the composition. Performances! Four of the six poems, those by Carlyle, Blake, Rilke, and Santayana, plus Trees by Joyce Kilmer, premiered on 26 May 1945 in a collection entitled Songs of the Cycle for mixed voices, women's voices, soprano, flute and organ at the seventh annual Festival of Modern Music in Los Angeles. The published collection 7/26 Inner Circle premiered 10 March 1968 (Clippings in UCLA Toch Archive).

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Duration : Carlyle 2 minutes, Blake 2 minutes, Rilke 1 minute, Santayana 2.5 minutes, Tagore 2 minutes, Emerson 3.5 minutes (Total 13 minutes) Son g of Myself (1962) Based on excerpt from longer poem from Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman. English. Type of Choral Work: secular a cappella SATB for large chorus with divisi sections and soprano and tenor soloists; suitable for college and professional choruses Melodic rang es: soprano soloist dl-b2, tenor soloist e-fl, sopranos dl-a2, altos a#-f2, tenors c#-a flatl, basses F-cl Publisher: Belwin-MilLs Performances : none located Duration : 4.5 minutes Valse (Walzer) (1962) English text by Ernst Toch. German translation by Friedrich Schall. Type of Choral Work: secular for SATB speaking chorus with optional percussion for two players (side drum, Chinese wood blocks, xylophone, wooden drum); suitable for high school or college choruses, or musically literate non-singers. Publisher: Belwin-Milk for English edition. The German version, Walzer fiir gemischten Sprech-Chor imd Schlagzeug ad libitum., was published in 1962 by Mills Music, Inc., New York for Germany, Austria and Switzerland as Edition Corona KG Rolf Budde GMBH & Co., Berlin ECO 83. After searching for the German version at the UCLA Toch Archive and via interUbrary loan in the United States to no avail, it was located by the researcher in the Bibliothek Nordwestdeutsch Musikakademie in Detmold, Germany. Performances: 1966 by Norman Luboff Choir at Los Angeles Music Center. Duration: 4 minutes

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Addresses of Toch Archive and Publishers Marsha Berman and Stephen Fry, Reference Librarians Music Library-Toch Archive Schonberg Hall 1102 405 Hilgard Avenue University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90024-1490 Lou Ellen Kramer, Reference and Outreach Coordinator UCLA Film and Television Archive Powell Library 46 405 Hilgard Avenue University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90024-15 17 Associated Music Publishers/G. Schirmer In the United States and Canada: Music Sales 24 E. 22nd Street New York, NY 10040 Tel (212) 254-2100 CPP/Belwin, hic. (Belwin-Mills Publishing Corporation) 15800 NW 48th Avenue P.O. Box 4340 Miami, FL 33014 Tel (305) 620-1500 Fax (305) 621-4869 Budde Edition Corona Hohenzollemdamm 54A 1000BerUn33, Germany Tel (030) 8 23 40 15 Telex 1 84 770 Budde D C.F. Peters Corporation 373 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10016 Tel (212) 686-4147 Fax (212) 689-9412

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B. Schott's Sohne In the United States and Canada: European American Distributors Corporation P.O. Box 850 VaUey Forge, PA 19482-0850 Tel (215) 648-0506 Fax (215) 889-0242 ASCAP(212) 621-6160 BMI(212) 586-2000

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REFERENCES Allen, Gay Wilson and Sculley Bradley, editors. The Collected Writings of Walt Whitman. New York: New York University, 1965. Austin, William W. Music in the Twentieth Century. New York: W.W. Norton, 1947. Bach, Johann Sebastian. Weihnachtsoratorium. Leipzig: Ernst Eulenburg, 1734, rev. ed.l935. Ball, Hugo. Die Flucht aus der Zeit. Luzern: Verlag Josef Stocker, 1946. Barzun, Jacques and Henry F. Graff. The Modern Researcher. 4th edition. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Benson, Timothy O. "The Functional and the Conventional in the Dada Philosophy of Raoul Hausmann" in Dada/Dimensions, edited by Stephen C. Foster. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985. Biemiller, Lawrence. "Composers and Scholars Bemoan the 'Yawning Chasm' Separating Audiences and Serious Modem Music" in The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 9, 1988: A5, A12. Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Shewing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul. London: W. Blake, 1794: 8. Bohlman, Philip V. "The Land Where Two Stireams Flow:" Music in the German-Jewish Community of Israel. Urbana and Chicago: University of IlUnois Press, 1989. Borroff, Edith. Music in Europe and the United States: A History. 2nd ed. New York: Ardsley House, 1990. Busch, Wilhelm. Kritik des Herzens (Critique of the Heart). Elfte Auflage. Munchen: Verlag von Fr. Bassermann, 1908: 3, 49. 181

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182 Carlyle, Thomas. Critical and Miscellaneous Essays: Collected and Republished. Vol. I. Boston: Brown and Taggard, 1860: 471. Chase, Gilbert. America's Music: From the Pilgrims to the Present. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955; 2nd rev. ed., 1966. Cohen, Antoine. The Phonemes of English. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965. Cooper, Martin, editor. The Modern Age, 1890-1960. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1974. Daiches, David, editor. The Penguin Companion to English Literature. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. Davison, Archibald T. The Technique of Choral Composition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1966. Doblin, Alfred. "Das Wasser" in Die Neue Rundschau 33, Band H, BerUn: S. Fischer Verlag, (August 1922): 853-858. Drabble, Mary, editor. The Oxford Companion to EngUsh Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Eckardt, Wolf von and Sander L. Gilman. Bertolt Brecht's BerUn: A Scrapbook of the Twenties. New York: Anchor Press/ Doubleday, 1975. Edwards, Arthur C. and W. Thomas Marrocco. Music in the United States. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co., 1968. Einstein, Alfred, editor. "Ernst Toch" in Riemanns Musik Lexikon. 11. aufl. Berlin: Max Hesse, 1929. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Poems. First Edition. Boston: James Munroe & Company, 1847: 57. Poems of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1965. Erwin, Charlotte. "Ernst Toch" in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan PubUshers Limited, 1980.

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183 Garland, Henry and Mary, editors. The Oxford Companion to German Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. London: Penguin Books, 1974. Goldberg, Albert. " 'The Teaching of Music Composition is Futile' Says Ernst Toch" in Musical Courier 149 ( 1 March 1954): 28-29. Grout, Donald Jay and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music. 4th edition. New York: Norton, 1988. Hamm, Charles. Music in the New World. New York: W.W. Norton, 1983. Hayles, N. Katherine. Chaos Bound: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Holman, C. Hugh. A Handbook to Literature. 4th edition. IndianapoUs: Bobbs-Merrill Educational Publishing, 1980. Holman, C. Hugh and William Harmon. A Handbook to Literature. 5 th edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Holzberger, WiUiam G. editor. The Complete Poems of George Santayana, A Critical Edition. London: Associated University Presses, 1979. Huelsenbeck, Richard. Dada Eine literarische Dokumentation. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, 1964. Memoirs of a Dada Drunmier. New York: The Viking Press, 1969. Humperdinck, Engelbert. Konigskinder. Leipzig: Max Brockhaus, 1897. Iyengar, K. R. Srinivasa. Rabindranath Tagore: A Critical Introduction. London: Oriental University Press, 1986. Jacobs, Arthur. Choral Music: A Symposium. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963.

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184 Jezic, Diane Peacock. The Musical Migration and Ernst Toch. Ames: Iowa State University, 1989. Johnson, Charles Anthony. The Unpublished Works of Ernst Toch. Ph.D. Dissertation. Los Angeles: University of California, 1973. Kilmer, (Alfred) Joyce. Trees and Other Poems. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1914. Kleinschmidt, Hans J. "Introduction" to Richard Huelsenbeck's Memoirs of a Dada Drummer. New York: The Viking Press, 1969. Kort, Wolfgang. Alfred Doblin. New York: Twayne Publishers Inc., 1974. Kripalani, Krishna. Rabindranath Tagore: A Biography. London: Oxford University Press, 1962. Lach, Friedhelm Lach. "Schwitters: Performance Notes" in Dada/Dimensions edited by Stephen C. Foster. Ann Arbon UMI Research Press, 1985. LaRue, Jan. Guidelines for Style Analysis. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1970. limbacher, James L., editor. Film Music: From Violins to Video. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1974. Lotze, Dieter P. Wilhelm Busch. Boston: Twayne PubUshers, 1979. Malcolmson, Anne, editor. William Blake: An Introduction. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1967. McKechnie, Jean L., editor. Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd edition. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. Miller, James E., Jr. A Critical Guide to "Leaves of Grass" Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957. Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991.

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185 Morgenstern, Christian. Galgenlieder in Jubilaumsausgabe in vier Banden. Miinchen: R. Piper & Co. Verlag, 1979. Miiller-Salget, Klaus. Alfred Doblin Werk imd Entwicklung. Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann, 1972. Music Educators National Conference. Choral Music for Children: An Annotated Ust. Reston, Va., MENC, 1990. Pasella, Margaret. The Piano Music of Ernst Toch. Master's thesis. Los Angeles: University of California, 1963. Richter, Hans. Dada: art and anti-art. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965. Riley, Robert. "Luboff Concert a Triumph" newspaper clipping. UCLA Toch Archive, 16 January 1966. Rilke, Rainer Maria. Das Stunden-Buch. Leipzig: Insel-Verlag, 1911: 54. Rainer Maria Rilke. Samtliche Werke. herausgegeben vom Rilke-Archiv in Verbindung mit Ruth Siebe-Rilke. Erster Band. Im Insel Verlag, 4.XII 1875 RMR 29. XII,1926. Rainer Maria Rilke. Selected Works. Volume II. Poetry translated by J.B. Leishman. New York: A New Directions Book, 1967. Robinson, Ray, editor. Choral Music. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1978. Robinson, Ray and Allen Winold. The Choral Experience: Literature, Materials and Methods. New York: Harper and Row, 1976. Salzman, Eric. Twentieth Century Music: An Introduction. Englewood CUffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967. Santayana, George. Sonnets and Other Poems. Cambridge and Chicago: Stone and Kimball, February 1894: 5. Sarup, Madan. An Introductory Guide to Post-structuralism and Postmodernism. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1988.

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186 Schwadron, Abraham A. Aesthetics: Dimensions for Music Education. Washington, D.C.: Music Educators National Conference, 1967. Slonimsky, Nicolas. "Ernst Toch (1887-1964)" inNeue Zeitschrift fur Musik. (Dezember 1967): 499-501. Music Since 1900. 4th ed. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1971. Soergel, Albert and Curt Hohoff. Dichtung und Dichter der Zeit. ZweiterBand. Diisseldorf: August Bagel Verlag, 1963. Stolba, K. Marie. The Development of Western Music: A History. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown, 1990. Stone, Kurt. "Ernst Toch" in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1966. Strickler, John W. Ernst Toch, Grundgestalt, and Developing Variation. Ph.D. Dissertation. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 1989. Stuckenschmidt, Hans Heinz. Twentieth Century Music translated by Richard Daveson. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Tagore, Rabindranath. Gitanjali (Song Offerings) London: The India Society, 1912: 23-24. Tarr, Rodger L. and Fleming McClelland, editors. Collected Poems of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. Greenwood, Fl.: The Penkevill PubUshing Company, 1986. Thorlby, Anthony, editor. The Penguin Companion to European Literature. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1969. Toch, Ernst. Die Melodielehre. Berlin: Max Hesse, 1923. Egon und Emilie. Text by Christian Morgenstem. Mainz: B. Schott's Sohne, 1928. Es ist ein Schnee gef alien in Volksliederbuch fur die Jugend, Band 11, Gemischte Chore. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1930.

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187 Gesprochene Musik (Music for Speaking Chorus). UCLA Toch Archive, 1930. Das Wasser (The Water), Op. 53, Kantate nach Worten von Alfred Doblin. Mainz: B. Schott's Sohne, 1930. (German vocal score) "Tiber meine Kantate Das Wasser und meine Grammophon Musik" in Melos (May-June 1930): 221-222. Der Tierkreis (The Zodiac), Op.52 in Das neue Chorbuch, Heft 7. Mainz: B. Schott's Sohne, 1930. The Credo of a Composer m Deutsche Blatter UCLA Toch Archive, April 1945. The Shaping Forces in Music. New York: Dover PubUcations, Inc., 1948, rev. ed. 1977. The Inner Circle, Op.67. Los Angeles: Affiliated Musicians, Inc., 1953. . "I Stopped Teaching Composition!" in Music Journal 12: (March 1954):39, 82. Letter to the Editor in answer to critics about "The Teaching of Music Composition Is Futile" in Musical Courier 149 (June 1954): 5, 45. Edgar and Emily: Not a Family Drama, op. 46, text by Christian Morgenstem, English translation by Paul Aaron. New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1956. Acceptance Speech on Occasion of Ceremony Awarding Ernst Toch the Order of Merit of the German Government, UCLA Toch Archive, 195 7. Fuge aus der Geographie (The Geographical Fugue) New York: Mills Music Co., 1957. (EngUsh and German editions) . Song of Myself, New York: Belwin-Mills, 1962.

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188 Valse for Speaking Chorus and Percussion, New York: Belwin-Mills, 1962. (English edition) Some Ttiouglits Out of Season in Notes 22, No. 3, (Marchl966): 1003-1007. Placed as a Unk in Tliis Chain: A Medley of Observations by Ernst Toch. Los Angeles: Friends of the UCLA Library, 1971. Toch, Lilly. The Orchestration of a Composer's Life. Interviewed by Bernard Galm for the UCLA Oral History Program. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978. Ulrich, Homer and Paul A. Pisk. A History of Music and Musical Style. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963. Ulrich, Homer. A Survey of Choral Music. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1973. Urdang, Laurence, editor in chief. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. College Edition. New York: Random House, 1968. Valentin, Erich. Handbuch der Chormusik, Band I, IL Hrsg. im Auftrag der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Chorverbande. Regensburg: G. Bosse, 1953. Venturi, Robert. Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: The Museum of Modem Art, 1966, rev. ed.l977. Watkins, Glenn. Soundings: Music in the Twentieth Century. New York: Schirmer Books, 1988. Webster's New Geographical Dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: MerriamWebster, hic, 1984. Weschler, Lawrence. "Ernst Toch, 1887-1964: A Biographical Essay Ten Years After His Passing." UCLA Toch Archive, 1974. "Introduction" to The Shaping Forces in Music. New York: Dover, 1977.

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189 White, J. Perry. Twentieth Century Choral Music: An Annotated Bibliography of Music Suitable for Use by High School Choirs. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 2nd edition, 1990. Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. Philadelphia: Rees Welsh & Co., 1881: 54. Whitten, Lynn. A Classified, Annotated Bibliography of Articles Related to Choral Music in Five Major Periodicals Through 1980. Lawton, Oklahoma: American Choral Directors Association, 1982. Wilder, Robert D. Twentieth-Century Music. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co. PubUshers, 1969. Young, Percy. Choral Music of the World. London, New York: Aberlard-Schuman, 1959. The Choral Tradition: An Historical and Analytical Survey from the Sixteenth Century to the Present Day. London: Hutchison & Co., Ltd., 1963. Zach, Miriam S. The Operas of Ernst Toch. Master's thesis. Gainesville: University of Florida, 1990. Zach, Miriam S. and Otto W. Johnston. "Deconstructing the Metaphysics of Love: Christian Morgenstem and Ernst Toch's Parody of Goethe and Mozart" in Seminar: A Journal of Germanic Studies 27, No. 4 (November 1991): 330-346.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Miriam Susan Zach earned a Bachelor of Science in 1976 from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and Master of Arts in 1980 from the University of Chicago. During the next five years she taught piano in West Germany at the Universitat Bielefeld and the Musikschule Bad Salzuflen. She directed a private music studio and served as organist for the British Army of the Rhine. She studied organ performance and sang in Kantorei St. Nikolai with JobstHermann Koch in Lemgo, completing German National Music Examinations in 1984. This same year she and Mikesch Mucke married. For four years she taught music history and literature at the University of Florida, and performed primarily German, French, Italian, and American organ and harpsichord music. She is grateful to Miriam Havighurst Johnson, Ruth Gilkey, Margaret Kemper, and Willis Bodine for encouraging her performance of keyboard literature. Her areas of specialization are Baroque and twentiethcentury music, especially the organ works of OUvier Messiaen and women's music. She has performed Messiaen's Les Corps Glorieux and La Nativite du Seigneur in concert in Germany, France, and the United States, and holds degrees in organ performance. In May 1989 she co-organized a two-day Symposium on Women Composers at the University of Florida. As part of ongoing 190

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Uberal to Play Women's Music! in Spring 1992 at the College Music Society Southern Chapter Meeting in Miami, Florida, and at the Women Composers Symposium at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. She discovered Ernst Toch in 1988 while searching for musical settings of Goethe's poetry and reading The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Her master's thesis, The Operas of Ernst Toch, was completed at the University of Florida in May 1990 with the guidance of Dr. David Z. Kushner. Accompanying the document is an audiotape recording of a student production of Toch's chamber opera, Edgar and Emily, under her direction. In 1990 she also presented a condensed version of the study at the College Music Society Southern Chapter Meeting in San Juan, Puerto Rico. A chapter from her thesis developed into an article that she coauthored with Dr. Otto W. Johnston. This article. Deconstructing the Metaphysics of Love: Christian Morgenstern and Ernst Toch's Parody of Goethe and Mozart, was published in the November 1991 issue of the Canadian periodical Seminar: A Journal of Germanic Studies. During Spring/Summer 1992 she presented the chapter of this dissertation, German-American Aesthetics and Ernst Toch, at the University of Chicago International Conference, The Musical Culture of GermanAmericans: Cultural Identity and Ethnic Thought, and in Munich, Germany, at the College Music Society Southern Chapter International Meeting. She also delivered it at the American Musicological Society Southern Chapter Meeting at the University of Florida, and at the College Music Society South Central Chapter Meeting at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas.

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192 As musicologist at Iowa State University she co-taught the pilot project Analysis for Performance course in Spring 1992 entitled The Life, Times and Music of Ernst Toch, faciUtated by theorist Dr. Jeffery Prater. The culmination of undergraduate students' creative process of research, writing, and practice was a well-received midwestem tour, and a professional videotape of the students' papers, skits, and performance of Toch's opera, Edgar and Emily, for the Iowa State University Music Library. The author was named International Woman of the Year for 1992 by the International Biographical Centre in Cambridge, England, for her distinguished service to music. She is grateful for D'Albora Scholarships in 1987 and 1988, and a travel grant from the University of Florida in 1990 to partially support her participation in the International Summer Organ Academy in Paris, France. She is an honorary member of Pi Kappa Lambda, Phi Beta Delta, Phi Kappa Phi, and is listed in Who's Who of American Women, Who's Who in American Education, and Who's Who Among Young American Professionals.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. David Z. Kushner, Chair Professor of Music 1 certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. ^ / Otto W.Johnston Professor ofperman I certify that 1 have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Phyllis Dorman Professor of Music 1 certify that 1 have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Arthur C. Associate Professor of Music

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. — ^ — 1 certify that 1 have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Fine Arts and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. August 1993 Budd Udell Professor of Music Dean, College of Fine Arts Dean, Graduate School


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