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The development of an integrated pest management system for the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in Morelos State, Mexico

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Title:
The development of an integrated pest management system for the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in Morelos State, Mexico
Added title page title:
Integrated pest management system for the cattle tick
Added title page title:
Boophilus microplus
Creator:
Camino-Lavin, Mario, 1940-
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Language:
English
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xii, 235 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cattle ( jstor )
Eggs ( jstor )
Female animals ( jstor )
Larvae ( jstor )
Longevity ( jstor )
Oviposition ( jstor )
Pastures ( jstor )
Predation ( jstor )
Ticks ( jstor )
Vegetation ( jstor )
Cattle-tick -- Control -- Mexico ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Entomology and Nematology -- UF
Entomology and Nematology thesis Ph. D
Pests -- Integrated control -- Mexico ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 196-205.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mario Camino-Lavin.

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE CATTLE TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887)
IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO

















BY

MARIO CAMINO-LAVIN


A DiSSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFiLLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3980















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author is grateful for the guidance of Dr. Jerry F. Butler for his supervision, suggestions and encouragement as chairman of the supervisory committee.

Particular thanks are due to the committee members: Dr. H.L. Comroy, S.G. Zam, S.H. Kerr, and D.H. Habeck for suggestions and efforts to make this research possible in Mexico.

The National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Center of Animal Parasitology (CENPA)2 in cooperation with the National
3
Campaign Aqainst the Cattle Tick in Mexico (FCNCG) are due thanks for the monetary support given these investigations.

The author is extremely grateful to the Division of Morelos State (Jefatura Estatal Morelos, FCNCG) for allowing me to utilize the facilities in the Field and also Mr. Juvencio Yanes, a cattle owner where an experimental area was provided.

Much appreciation is extended to Dr. Said Infante of the Postgraduate College of SARH and M.S. Luz del C. Calder6n for discussion and cooperation of the mathematical analysis.

Finally, warm thanks are extended to my wife, Ruth, for understanding and patience during the time of my doctoral education at the University of Florida

2Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia. 3Centro Nacional de Parasitologia Animal. FCNCG. SARH. Fideicomiso Campana Nacional Contra la Garrapata. SARH. BNCR. BID.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


II

V


LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . .

LITERATURE REVIEW . . . . . . . . . .


Insect Pest Management. . . . . .
The Cattle Industry in Mexico . . . The Cattle Industry in the United States of World-Wide Eradication Campaigns Against
Boophilus microplus and B. annulatus. Disease Transmission by Boophilus Species The Cattle Tick, Boophilus microplus. . .


. . VIi4



. . xi


Amer i ca


METHODS AND MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction to Tick Ecosystem. . . . . . . .
Cattle Tick Ecology . . . . . . . . . .
Cattle Management in Morelos State. . . . . . .
Survey of Tick Control Program Status in Morelos State.
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus microplus
in Morelos State. . . . . . . . . .

RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Cattle Tick Ecology . . . . . . . .
Survey of Cattle Management Practices in
Morelos State . . ... ........
Actual Resources for Tick Control . . . . .


DISCUSSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Cattle Tick Ecology . . . . . . . . .
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus microplus
in Morelos State. . . . . . . . .

CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .


4
7
11

11 14 15

47

47 55 76 76


77

78


. . . 78

. . . 172 . . 175


178


. . 178


. 137


193











LITERATURE CITED. . . . . . . . . . . . 196

APPENDICES. . . . . . . . . . . . 206

1 RAW DATA FOR THE PREOVIPOSITION, OVIPOSITION,
LONGEVITY AND NON-PARASITIC STAGES OF THE CATTLE
TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS . . . . . . . . 208

2 RAW DATA OF THE FECUNDITY OF THE CATTLE TICK,
B. MICROPLUS. . . . . . . . . . . 218

3 RAW DATA OF THE NON-PARASITIC STAGES OF THE CATTLE
TICK, B. MICROPLUS. . . . . . . . . . 226

4 DATA ON MICROCLIMATE. . . . . . . . . . 230

5 RANGES IN OVIPOSITION AND LONGEVITY OF LARVAE PERIODS
AT THREE LOCALITIES IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO. . . . 233 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . 235


iv















LIST OF TABLES


Table

I Mean preoviposition period at Yecapixtla as affected
by the time of year and type of vegetation. . . . . 87

2 The duration of the preoviposition at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate
and mesoclimate . . . . . . . . . . 90

3 Mean oviposition period at Yecapixtla as affected by
the time of year and type of vegetation . . . . . 91

4 The duration of the oviposition periods at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate and
mesoclimate . . . . . . . . . . . 93

5 Mean longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla as affected by
the time of the year and type of vegetation . . . . 96

6 The duration of the longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate and
mesoclimate . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

7 Mean total longevity of the non-parasitic stages of
B. microplus at Yecapixtla as affected by the type
of vegetation and time of year. . . . . . . . 101

8 ANOVA test for the number of eggs produced by ticks for
the first six series time periods and the check of the
cattle tick, B. microplus in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico . 108

9 Boophilus microplus mean oviposition rates for six
different times of the year of disturbed and undisturbed
ticks at Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . 110

10 Linear correlation between the mean number of eggs
and tick weights. . . . . . . . . . . 111

11 Rates of oviposition and longevity of larvae of B.
microplus at three localities in Morelos State, Mexico. . 133

12 The effect of localities on the non-parasitic stages
of the cattle tick, BoophiZus microplus studied in
cages, Morelos State, Mexico . . . . . . . . 134


V









Table


12 The effect of pastures on the non-parasitic stages of
the cattle tick, B. microplus studied in cages in
Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. . . . . . . . . 136

14 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
preoviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesoclimate . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

15 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
oviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesoclimate . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

16 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate and
mesoclimate . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

17 Oviposition of the cattle tick, BoophiLus microplus (Can.)
in cage trials at Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. . . . . 147

18 Gravid BoophiZus microplus (Can) and their natural
predation by Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . 155

19 Total predation of gravid females of the cattle tick
Boophilus microplus (Can.) exposed in different habitats
in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. . . . . . . . 156

20 Chi-square analysis for predated and unpredated females
of the cattle tick, BoophiLus micropZus (Can.) exposed
in different habitats in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. . 157

21 Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick BoophiZus
microplus by the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Fab.)
on unpastured grass in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. . . 159

22 Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus (Can.) by the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata
(Fab.) on setaria and Bermuda grasses in Zacatepec,
Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . 160

23 Host preference of B. microplus on native cattle in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . 161

24 Host preference of B. microplus on native cattle in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . 165

25 Host preference of engorged female ticks of B. microplus
on dairy cattle in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico . . . 167

26 Probabilities for the goodness of fit using the chi-square
test for counts of the total number of the cattle tick
on 79 head of cattle in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico . . 170
vi










Table


27 Relationships between mean/variance, Morisita index and
K parameter of negative binomial for distribution of
cattle tick counts on native cattle in Yautepec,
Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . . . 173


vii















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure

1 Ecological areas for bovin cattle production in
Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 Scanning electron micrograph of the capitulum of
B. micropius male . . . . . . . . . . 21

3 Morelos State and its limits. . . . . . . . 48

4 Macroclimate conditions of four boundaries in Morelos
State where experiments were conducted. . . . . . 52

5 Tubes used for exposed ticks. . . . . . . . 57

6 Cage, a new design to study ticks on pastures . . . 61

7 Placement of the cage . . . . . . . . . 63

8 Ecological studies on ticks at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
at side of meteorological station . . . . . . 64

9 Ecological studies in Zacatepec . . . . . . 66

10 Equipment for microclimate recording. . . . . . 69

11 Cages utilized to measure the existence of predators. . 71

12 Body areas of cows where tick distribution was evaluated . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

13 Scanning electron micrograph of an engorged female Boophilus micropius tick showing capitulum, hypostome,
and scutum. . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

14 Scanning electron micrographs (ventral view) of coxa I of Boophilus microplus female tick. . . . . . . 82

15 Scanning electron micrograph (ventral view) of coxa I of Boophilus wicroplus male tick. . . . . . . 84

16 Climatic conditions during the first phase near the tick study site at Yecapixtla, Morelos. . . . . . 86

17 Preoviposition periods in the three types of vegetation at Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. . . . . . . . 89

viii











Figure


18 Oviposition periods in three types of vegetation. . . 95

19 Longevity of larvae in three types of vegetation . . . 100

20 Total longevity of the non-parasitic stages of the
cattle tick, Boophilus microplus in three different
habitats Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . 104

21 Per cent of eclosion of larvae of the cattle tick,
Boophilus microplus in three different habitats and
eight exposure dates. . . . . . . . . . 106

22 Mesoclimate conditions during the experiments on
fecundity in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . 107

23 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the first series . . . . . . . . . . 112

24 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. micropLus,
of the second series. . . . . . . . . . 113

25 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the third series . . . . . . . . . . 114

26 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the fourth series. . . . . . . . . . 115

27 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the fifth series . . . . . . . . . . 116

28 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the sixth series . . . . . . . . . . 117

29 Number of eggs of the female offspring, time in
days at peak numbers of eggs and capacity for
increase of the six disturbed series. . . . . . 119

30 Climate at Yecapixtla, Morelos during the time of the
experiments of the second phase . . . . . . . 121

31 Climate at Cuernavaca (Progreso) Morelos during the
time of the experiments of the second phase . . . . 122

32 Climate in Zacatepec, Morelos during the time of the
experiments of the second phase . . . . . . . 123

33 Non-parasitic stages studied in cages, tubes in cages
and tubes in three different localities in Morelos
State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125









Figure

34 Non-parasitic stages studied in cages at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . 128

35 Non-parasitic stages studied in cages in Cuernavaca (Progreso) Mexico . . . . . . . . . . 131

36 Non-parasitic stages studied in cages in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . 132

37 Comparison of oviposition periods studied in cages at three localities . . . . . . . . . 138

38 Comparison of larval longevity periods studied in cages at three localities . . . . . . . . 140

39 Climate in Cuautla, Morelos during the time of the experiments on fecundity. . . . . . . . . 146

40 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca (Progreso). . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

41 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca (Progreso). . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

42 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca (Progreso). . . . . . . . . . . . 150

43 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca (Progreso). . . . . . . . . . . . 151

44 Cuticles of engorged female ticks of B. microplus attacked by the native fire ant, Solenopsis geminata. . 153

45 Predation of B. microplus engorged females by Solenopsis geminata ants in three habitats in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . . 154

46 Host preference of engorged female ticks of Boophilus micropZus on native and Brahman cross cattle at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico . . . . . . . 164

47 Seasonal distribution of engorged females of B.
microplus on dairy cattle from October 1978 to
July 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

48 Ecological areas in Morelos State location of dipping vats and location of experimental areas . . . . . 189

49 Tick pest management control methods. . . . . . 190

50 A proposed component model of the tick system . . . 15


x















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE-DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FOR THE CATTLE TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887) IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO

By

Mario Camino-Lavin

August 1980


Chairman: Dr. J.F. Butler
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology


This research involved ecological studies on the cattle tick, 3cophilus mi7icrcplus (Canestrini, 1887), for the development of an integrated pest management system as a pilot program for the Morelos State, Mexico, study area, taking into account climate, type of cattle, and management.

The main studies were conducted by counting engorged female ticks in the parasitic stage on native and introduced cattle. On native and Brahman cross cattle, 80% of the ticks were found infesting 40% of the animals compared to European cattle on which 80% of the ticks were found on 70% of the animals. Seasonal tick populations were light in the middle of both wet and dry seasons and were related to pasturing procedures. The highest populations of the cattle tick were found at the end of the wet season. A survey to determine body region preference for this tick was made. Tick distribution on the host showed the


xi










highest tick populations on the rearbelly area, then upper-inner-legs, estucheon and tail base.

Non-parasitic stage studies were conducted within tubes and cages placed into the soil to evaluate tick survival and egg laying. Maximum longevity observed for non-parasitic stages (adult female, eggs, and larvae) was 190 days in Zacatepec, Morelos; 117 in Yecapixtla; and 96 days in Cuernavaco (Progreso). Meteorological stations near the trials did not give precise enough information on ecological niches occupied by ticks to correlate the monthly mean temperature and the tick life cycle. The duration of the tick life cycle was found to be regulated by the microclimate which in turn was controlled by tick preference and movement in cages as ticks buried into the soil to lay eggs at optimum temperature.

Surveys on tick predation were made. Predation by ants, Solenopsis geminata (L.) was found to be most important and varied depending on the type of vegetation. Predation reached 60% in thicket areas then decreased on pasture to 19% with the lowest predation seen in brushy and woody begetation.

A proposed tick pest management system was designed and presented.

The management system was developed on a regional basis which incorporated chemical and ecological information on ticks obtained in this study. The control methods included pasture spelling, use of natural predators, breeding for resistant cattle, management of cattle fed on corn stalk forage, quarantine measures, and chemical control.


xii















INTRODUCTION


The total production value of the cattle industry in Mexico is

500 million dollars. The industry occupies a surface area of 54,338,190 hectare (ha) (General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. S.A.R.H. 1979).

Mexico has 22,500,000 head of cattle including both beef and dairy cattle. The major problems of obtaining high meat and milk production are breeds of cattle, animal feed, the parasite load, and climate. Of these, the parasite load is often very damaging. The cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Cantestrini, 1887), transmits Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilbourne, 1893) which is a major factor in the death of 150,000 animals per year and it represents losses of 10 million dollars per year (General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. S.A.R.H. 1979). The tick also affects the efficiency of meat and milk production. The tick infested areas in the Mexican Republic comprise the tropical and subtropical area of Mexico as well as Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and Coahuila along the border with the state of Texas in the United States

of America. The Mexican government has established a program to eradicate the cattle tick under a cattle dip program with chemicals. The program covers 7,703,716 ha. The total dipping program is to cover an area of 14,166,779 ha. At present (1980) the tick has been successfully controlled in an area of 2,373,798 ha (Anonymous, 1980).

Cattle tick control is a concern to both Mexico and the United States of America as it involves both social and technical problems. The national Mexican control program is primarily associated with


I






2


acaricides. Therefore, it is important to determine alternative control measures because tick resistance to specific acaricides may eliminate chemical control in Mexico as in certain areas of Australia. Nonchemical control means must be evaluated as well as cultural practices such as pasture spelling and resistant cattle. Perhaps other control methods such as biological control can be incorporated into pest management practices. In some marginal areas for livestock as in Morelos State an inexpensive program for controlling ticks must be developed

with strategic dipping and cultural practices that can be implemented by the farmers. Morelos State covers 4,941 km2 and it is the 27th largest in size of Mexico's 32 states. Cattle management practices are the same in all the central part of the Mexican Republic. Morelos State is located just in the transitional area between the neartic and neotropical zoogeographical areas.

In the cattle tick eradication program, control of the cattle tick is done by the farmers under the supervision of field technicians (inspectors) and veterinarians from the National Campaign. They supervise the construction of dipping vats in the promotion phase. When the control phase is initiated they make recommendations on the kind of dip as well as the timing between dips.

Farms of the central part of Mexico, with the exception of the

dairy industry, are the poorest and smallest ("Ejidatarios"). Here the construction of dipping vats will take longer. In the tropics, mainly in the States of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Campeche, Tabasco and Yucatan, population suppression by acaricidal treatments is now taking place.







3


In the future for the control of bovine ticks, there will be a Pest Management Program developed for each ecological area in Mexico. There has to be intensive sampling and chemical control with buffer areas to be operational in the states that border with the United States of America, because of cattle exportation from Mexico.

The main objectives of the present work are (1) to elucidate the tick, Boophilus micropius population dynamics in different seasons of the year, (2) to evaluate tick distribution on the host, and (3) to understand the natural control as affected by climate and the management of cattle. Based on all of these ecological data the overall objective is to propose an Integrated Pest Management System for the cattle tick, BoophiZus microplus (Canestrini) in Morelos State, Mexico.















LITERATURE REVIEW


Insect Pest Management


In the United States there is an extension education system

designed to teach farmers, ranchers, and homeowners how to carry out more effective pest control, protect pest natural enemies, implement chemical and non-chemical means of controlling pests and apply pesticides on an ''as needed" basis (Smith and Pimentel, 1978). This is because increased pest resistance is limiting the effectiveness of many pesticides, as a sole control means.

During the past five years major steps have been made by the

public research and extension agencies to develop and demonstrate the concepts and techniques of integrated pest management (PM). Chemical pesticides may be required in IPM programs; however, they are applied only as a last resort to keep the pests from exceeding established threshold levels (Smith and Pimentel, 1978).

More than 3 billion livestock are maintained to supply the

animal protein consumed annually in the United States. In addition to

the large amount of forage, this livestock population consumes about ten times as much grain as is consumed by the total U.S. human population. In considering food energy and protein produced, grains and some legumes like soybeans are produced more efficiently than fruits, vegetables, and animal products. Expensive grain would tend to reduce the quantity of grain for feeding livestock (Pimentel et al., 1980).


4






5


Integrated Pest Management is the practical manipulation of mite, tick or insect pest populations using any or all control methods in a sound ecological manner (Watson et al., 1976).

In handling insect pest problems we have gone full cycle from the early applied ecology days, to chemical control, to integrated control, and finally to a multicomponent IPM system founded in ecological principles. The basic elements upon which a sound IPM system rest are: natural control, sampling, economic thresholds and tick biology and ecology (Watson et al., 1976). With IPM it is usually desirable to maintain low levels of the pest at all times. The factors needed to understand the systems include climate, alternate host plants, beneficial insects and man's activities (Watson et al., 1976).

Integrated Pest Management includes the integration of two or more technologies to control one or more pests of a commodity with some reduced injury level. It is an economic pest control, decision-making aid. A definition is: the selection and integration of insect control

methods on the basis of anticipated economic, ecological and sociological consequences (Anonymous, 1979). It is an important mechanism to transfer technology to producers. In other words IMP is the optimization of pest control in an economically and ecologically sound manner.

The fundamental strategy of pest management is the coordinated use of multiple tactics in a single integrated system with the goal of maintaining pest numbers and resultant damage at economically acceptable levels. IPM generally aims for a containment rather than an eradication strategy (Anonymous, 1979). Models are not required for most single IPM programs, but modelling is a very useful tool.







6


The agroecosystem, where most of the IPM systems take place, is

not characterized by "biological balance" but by "biological imbalance." The agroecosystem is a manifestation of an ecological principle which states that species simplicity rather than diversity is the most highly productive state of an ecosystem (Anonymous, 1979).

Pest Management is the intelligent selection and use of pest control actions that will ensure favorable economic, ecological and socioecological consequences. It has to rely on the applied ecology through devising procedures for pest control suited to current technology and compatibility with economic and environmental quality aspects, that is, economic and social acceptance (Metcalf and Luckmann, 1975).

A key factor in IPM is to find out why an insect population became higher at certain seasons of the year (Rabb and Guthrie, 1970).

Metcalf and McKelvey, Jr., in 1976 said that it is urgent to develop needed ecological and other relevant information on the pest species in order to enable the most intelligent use of pesticides.

The essential problem with the known insecticides is the development of insect resistance. The total number of insect and tick strains resistant to the chlorinated and organophosphorus insecticides and other acaricides have risen at an alarming rate (Jacobson, 1975). The word ''resistance'' has come to be applied to any population, within a species normally susceptible to a given insecticide that is no longer controlled by the insecticide in the area concerned. In other words, resistance is a developed attribute that has come to characterize an insect population consequent upon continued treatment with the insecticide (Brown and Pal, 1971).






7


Recently (Anonymous, 1979), a workshop on Livestock Pest Management was held at Kansas State University. The committee members recommended research be developed to determine the effect of abiotic factors on survival, longevity and fecundity of ticks, and to assess populations on different breeds of cattle. The primary idea was to put into practice more than one control method with emphasis on cultural control to be used in a regional basis (Anonymous, 1979).


The Cattle Industry in Mexico


The cattle industry in Mexico is of an extensive type and is based almost entirely on production from grazing animals. The only intensive production occurs in the dairy animal industry close to the big population centers. Both improved breeds of cattle and good management are utilized in the dairy industry. Breeding rates for beef cattle are close to55 to60%and the survival to sale is very low (13 to 14%). The best meat production is in the 'huastecas" in which slaughtered animal weight averaged 200 kg or more. The national average is between 150 and 160 kg per animal. Milk production per cow per year is on the average of one thousand liters. There exists a social problem with the people working as middle man between the producer and the consumer because they increase the price of milk and beef. The producer earns just 25% of the final price of the meat (Anonymous, 1980).

The average consumption per habitant per year is 20 kg of red meat and 81 liters of milk and its derivatives. In other developed countries the consumption is higher in the population areas of higher income. Since 1960 the federal government has been working on a






8


national campaign to improve the bovine cattle industry, not just for the improvement of internal consumption but also to intensify. exportation after the improvement of production. By 1960, most of the technical aid was in the hands of the private sector with few veterinarians and other technicians working with the farmers to improve herd quality (Anonymous, 1980).

In 1930 there were 10,083,000 head of cattle in the Mexican

Republic, in 1950, 15,713,000, in 1958, 21,921,000 and in 1970 there were 22,500,000 (Anonymous, 1980).

The ecological areas for cattle production can be classified in Mexico as follows (Figure 1): a) North, with 39.4 million hectars and stocking rates of 6 to 50 ha per animal (average), with the exception of "the Huastecas" which has a better climate and soil and a stocking rate of 2 head per ha on native pastures or 3 head per ha on improved pasture. Close to 30% of the livestock production occurs in Chihuahua State. The average temperature is 18C and rainfall varies from 350 to 900 mm. Cattle spend most of the dry season close to ponds, during the rainy season animals graze on the rest of the pasture. In the Huastecas there is higher rainfall (Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi States) and higher temperatures. Coahuila, Nuevo Le6n, Zacatecas, North of Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi sell feeder cattle for fattening to the Huastecas mainly during the dry season. Herefords are the predominant breed. b) North Pacific, covers 11.3 million ha and has a stocking rate of 5 to 50 ha per head of cattle. The climate is tropical and includes irrigated areas for agricultural production. Cattle management is similar to that of the Gulf of Mexico area.












United States of America



A





0
B Gulf of Mexico
B
0
C



D4

Pacific Ocean


E



Guatemala Figure 1. Ecological areas for bovin cattle production in Mexico: A, North;
B, North Pacific; C, Center; D, Gulf of Mexico; E, South Pacific.
1, Morelos State where experiments were conducted.






10


c) Center, with an area of 7.6 million ha of pasture, has stocking rates of 5 to 10 ha per animal. The climate varies from dry to temperate and tropical. This area has a higher cattle population (one third of the total) and higher consumption rate of meat and milk. Jalisco and Michoacan States account for 17% of the total cattle of the country. There are different breeds of cattle including Hereford, Shorthorn, Brahman and others, but the native cattle are very well distributed. Dairy cattle are of primary importance. d) Gulf of Mexico, extends over 3.7 million ha but it is the most important area for grazing and fattening cattle. In Tabasco, Veracruz and Campeche stocking rates rise to 3 head per ha. In the Yucatan peninsula, which has a lower dry climate, there is a stocking rate of 8 to 15 ha per head of cattle or less in Tizimin. "The Huastecas" area comprise part of Veracrz, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas States. The average stocking rate is I head per ha. Production is almost 200,000 head of cattle, with an average slaughtered weight of 240 to 250 kg per unit. Two thirds of the beef consumption is by Mexico City. The climate is tropical with 6 to 11 months of rainfall (1,800 to 3,000 mm per year). Cattle are pastured during the dry season. The main breeds are Brahman crosses. e) South Pacific, surface of 5.2 million ha and 2.3 million cattle. Stocking rates vary from 1.5 to 10 ha per animal and in some places even more. The climate is mostly semitropical and dry with the exception of some areas in Chiapas State with a tropical and wet climate. Cattle management is similar to some areas of the center and in some areas in the South Pacific area (Anonymous, 1980).






11


The Cattle Industry in the United States of America

Cattle production in Mexico can be compared to that in the

United States of America with total cattle and calves at 110,864,000 head. The State of Texas accounts for the most animals produced with 13,900,000 head (Anonymous, 1978).


World-Wide Eradication Campaigns Against
Boophilus micropius and B. annulatus

Bishop in 1913 reported the first collections of the cattle tick, Boophiius micropZus at Key West, Florida, in 1912. Smith and Kilbourne in 1893 made their historic announcement of the role of the ixodid tick, 3oophiZus annulatus, in the transmission of Texas fever (bovine babesiosis) among cattle in the southern United States. In 1906, it was estimated that B. annulatus caused economic losses, directly and indirectly, of 130,500,000 U.S. dollars per year, probably equivalent to a billion or more 1976 dollars (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).

An eradication campaign in the United States was formally

organized in 1909. Cattlemen enthusiastically supported and participated in the tick eradication (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).

Survival of unfed larvae in pastures from which all cattle had been removed was of vital importance as a basis for planning many control programs. Pasture vacation was the primary control measure used by many cattle raisers, especially in the more northern parts of the infested area where tick survival was probably tenuous at best (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977). In April 1910, the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) adopted arsenic as its recommended tick control agent. The eradication program proceeded to an apparently successful conclusion






12


in 1944, but Florida subsequently suffered 3 limited outbreaks of B. microplus during 1945-1950, 1957-1958, and 1960-1961, It was impossible to determine whether these infestations represented reappearances of pre-existent low-level populations that survived on wild animal host or whether they stemmed from new introductions of the tick from the Caribbean area (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977). Since 1968, there have been 18 separate outbreaks north of the buffer zone in Texas and these have led to the discovery of 235 infested premises. In areas which are climatically suitable for the survival and reproduction of B. micropZus, this species is generally considered to be a more severe threat than B. annulatus because of an apparent wider host adaptability and a possible greater genetic vigor (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).

At the moment there are eradication campaigns in Argentina and

Uruguay which began in 1939 and 1940, respectively. The main problem in an eradication program is lack of ecological data (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977). Grillo-Torrado in 1976 reported that resistance to organophosphate insecticides was less of a problem in Argentina than in Australia but that it often interfered with tick control operations.

In Australia the national government concluded that although cattle ticks cost governments and producers close to 42 million Australian dollars per year (= 62 million U.S. dollars) eradication of the tick, B. micropius, was not practical. But an eradication program in New South Wales was appropriate. They stressed the need for more use of resistant cattle (Commonwealth of Australia, 1975; Noland, 1979).






13


The special problem in Australia is the dependence of the cattle industry on chemicals for tick control and the facility with which the tick, B. microplus has developed resistance to chemicals. Resistance to OP's was recognized in central Queensland in 1963 and had developed as a result of dioxathion (Delnav) selection (Ridgelands strain). Since 1966, the Biarra Strain appeared with cross-resistance to almost all organophosphate and carbamate chemicals. In 1967 the Mackay strain appeared and higher resistance to carbamate and prolate was seen. In 1970 the Mt. Alford strain was discovered with resistance to all organophosphate and carbamate chemicals. The problem in northern New South Wales is compounded by the fact that tick control has been maintained at such a high level that tick fever is not normally transmitted. Therefore, there is a population of 750,000 non-immune cattle in a potentially enzootic area (Wharton, 1974b). Ecological data will be very important to determine other control measures along the border between new South Wales and Queensland (Lewis, 1974).

After Mexico initiated its fever tick control eradication program (1976), Sonora and Chihuahua were maintained tick free by quarantines maintained by the federal government of Mexico. Less surveillance was required over Mexican cattle imported into the United States from those Mexican States (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).

The eradication campaign in Mexico includes individual state legislation for the campaign, starting by a promotion phase which includes cattle dip constructions, and determination of free areas within each state. After this, the control phase begins and includes dipping of cattle each 14 days with one oF the recommended






14


six acaricides. After completion of this phase the eradiction phase will start with restricted cattle movement from one area to another (Anonymous, 1980).


Disease Transmission by Boophilus Species

Texas fever caused by Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilbourne) is the major disease that B. microplus and B. annuatus can transmit. In 1889 Smith made his epoch-making discovery of the intracorpuscular protozoan parasite inhabiting blood of the diseased cattle.

Smith and Kilbourne, on suggestion of Almon, who studied the disease earlier, proved that the disease is tick-borne. The work of Smith and Kilbourne (1893) marks a most important milestone in the

study of protozoan disease and in the history of preventive medicine. It made possible the elimination of Texas cattle fever from the United States (James and Harwood, 1961).

In Australia (Queensland), the control methods were designed to reduce cattle tick populations so that cattle do not lose immunity to piroplasmosis (Wilkinson, 1957).

Christophers (1907) made a systematic study of the life cycle of Babesia bigemina in the cattle tick. The life cycle of the protozoa has two distinct phases: an asexual cycle in the vertebrate host where multiplication takes place in the red blood corpuscles by binary fission, and a simple sexual cycle in the tick.

There are various species of Babesia: 3. cabaZli and B.

(NuttaZia) equi both from horses. Infecting cattle are four main species: B. bigemina, B. major, B. argentina and B. bovis. The






15


first is the main agent in Mexico and can be recognized in the red corpuscles by the pair of piriform globules in a short angle (Price and Reed, 1973).

There is a vaccine against Babesia bigemina and B. argentina in

Australia. The strain has to be collected in the place or country where the vaccine is going to be applied (Callow, 1977).

Mahoney and Mirre (1977) reported Babesia bovis as a synonym to Babesia argentina while they had been working intensely on the transmission mechanism by larvae of B. microplus.

In the case of Anaplasma marginale the transmission by the cattle tick or other species of tick is not clear (Canabez and Bawden, 1977; Corrier et al., 1978).

Other diseases transmitted by the species of BoophiLus are

isolations of Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (CHF-congo) Tick borne virus has been isolated from B. decoZoratus (Koch) in Nigeria and from B. microplus (Canestrini) in west Pakistan. In Ethiopia serological and immunological tests have provided evidence of infection of adult B. decoloratus with Rickettsia canori, and in Brazil B. microplus is considered to be a vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Smith, 1973).


The Cattle Tick, Boophilus microplus Taxonomy

The present status of the taxonomy of the cattle tick is as

follows: class Arachnida, suborder Ixodida; super family Ixodoidea; family Ixodidae; and genus and species BoophiZus microplus (Canestrini, 1887). Other names under synonymy are Boophilus (urobophilus)







16


microplus, Boophilus caudatus, Boophilus (urobophilus) fallax, Boophilus (urobophilus) caudatus, as well as others (Roberts, 1964).

There are three valid species of the genus Boophilus: B. annulatus (Say, 1821), B. decoloratus (Koch, 1844) and B. microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Feldman-Muhsam and Shechter, 1970).

The suborder Ixodida include all ticks. Ticks are ectoparasitic in all postembryonic stages, feeding primarily on the blood of mammals, reptiles and birds. The hypostome of the tick is modified into a holdfast organ armed with retrorse teeth. Other important features include lack of an apotele on the palpal tarsus, the tarsus itself often being reduced, a peritreme in the form of a stigma plate surrounding each of the stigmata which are located laterad of or posterior to, coxae IV, a sensory 'capsule" and adjacent pit on the dorsum of tarsus I comprising the Haller's organ. Three families are recognized: Ixodidae, Argasidae and Nuttalliellidae (Krantz, 1975).

The superfamily Ixodoidea has the following description: weakly sclerotized but with thick leathery cuticle, with or without a dorsal shield, gnathosoma terminal or ventral, hypostome armed with retrorse teeth, palpi simple, telescoped or normal, with a sensory pit, or Haller's organ on dorsus of tarsus I; all tarsi with apoteles (Krantz, 1975).

The family lxodidae or hard ticks comprises approximately 700 species in 9-12 genera (Bauch, 1966). The first description of the genus Boophilus was by Curtice (1891). The species 3. microplus was described by Canestrini in 1887; the original description and synonyms were as follows:






17


1887 Haemaphysalius micropla Canestrini.

original description. 1890 RhipicephaZus micropla (Canestrini) 1897 Rhipicephalus annulatus (Say) Neumann 1899 Rhipicephalus australis Fuller 1901 Boophilus australis (Fuller) Stiles and Hassell 1901 Boophilus australis (Fuller) Salmon and Stiles 1901 RhipicephaZus annulatus var. micropZus (Canestrini) Neumann


1911 1912


Marqaropor Marqaropo


1913 Aarqaropo1934 UroboophiL 1934 UroboophiZ 1941 Boophilus 1941 Boophilus 1943 Boophi2us


,us micropia (Canestrini) Neumann us annulatus australis (Fuller)

Hooker et aZ.

us annulatus australis (Ful ler) Bishopp

us cycLops Minning original description us microplus (Canestrini)

Minning

(Uroboophilus) microplus (Canestrini) Osorno-Mesa

annulatus microplus (Canestrini)

Travis

microplus (Canestrini)

Fairchild.






18


Description


Female

Body. Unengorged, length from tip of palpi to posterior margin (in cm) from 2.34 to 2.85; width from 1.14 to 1.50. Long oval. Scutum occupying about half the total length. Median and posterolateral grooves present. Marginal groove absent. Venter with genital and postanal median grooves present. Hairs present on dorsal and ventral surfaces but absent in all grooves. Fully engorged specimens may be as large as 13.0 by 9.0 and are oval, wider and thicker behind (Bauch, 1966).

Capitulum. Length from tip of palpi to posterior margin, about

0.45; width from 0.62 to 0.66. (The palpi are mildly protrusile, hence measurements of length are not entirely dependable.) Hexagonal. Cornua as rounded corners (variable). Dorsal surface with two longitudinal -alleys which traverse the porose areas. Porose areas oval, mildly convex, with longer axes diagonal. Palpal article I not visible above. Inner edge of article 2 either in one continuous convex curve or mildly notched near the middle, the notch when present leading to a transverse dorsal crease, which may or may not extend to the outer side of the article (Bauch, 1966).

In ventral view, basis is subreniform with posterior margin

salient. Palpal article I absent. Articles 2 and 3 with the posterior salient edges continuing into the median margin; postero-inner edges of

2 and 3 sometimes extended into mild diagonal lobes (Bauch, 1966).

Hypostome. Short, broad, mildly notched apically; denticles,

five or six in each file and occupying about three-fifths of the total length. Length, about 0.30 (Bauch, 1966).






19


Scutum. Length, from 0.96 to 1.02; width, from 0.75 to 0.80;

longer than wide. Scapulae long, blunt; the interval deep, very wide. Eyes distinct. Cervical grooves as broad divergent valleys, terminating at posterolateral margins. Hairs few, scattered, absent in the valleys. Punctations absent (Bauch, 1966).

Legs. Long, all about equally heavy. Terminal ventral spurs on tarsus I, and both terminal and subterminal spurs on 11, 111, and IV present (Bauch, 1966).

Length of tarsus I, 0.36; metatarsus, 0.30. Length of tarsus IV, 0.39; metatarsus, 0.30 (Bauch, 1966).

Coxae. Coxae I and II with spurs broadly rounded, about equal, wider than long. Coxa III, outer spur, smaller than on 11; internal spur absent. Coxa IV, external spur very short; internal spur absent. Hairs few (Bauch, 1966).

Genital aperture. Between coxae 11. Male

Body. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin (not to tip of caudal process) from 1.75 to 2.00; greatest width, 1.05 to 1.20. Oval, widest at about the middle. Scutum not covering entire body at sides; exposed parts striate and without hairs (Bauch, 1966).

Capitulum (Figure 2). Length from tips of palpi to tips of cornua, from 0.33 to 0.40; width, 0.40 to 0.49. Basis about twice as long as wide. Cornua bluntly pointed, a little raised over the level of the posterior margin. A few hairs present on sides and top of basis. Palpal article I not visible from above (Bauch, 1966).

































Scanning electron micrograph* of the capitulum of B. micropZus male. It showspalpal article I with a retrograde projection on the inner side. Denticles of the hypostome, four in each file.


Courtesy of Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida.


Figure 2.































































4 I4






22


In ventral view, palpal article I with a retrograde projection on the inner side (shape variable). Inner edges of article 2 and 3 with a few palpal setae (Bauch, 1966).

Hypostome. Essentially as in the female. Length, about 0.24.

Scutum. Mildly excavated at the sides near the spiracular plates. Scapulae long, situated far apart. Lateral and posterior areas increasingly declivous to the margins. Posterior margin plain, not crenate. Cervical grooves mild, divergent posteriorly; posterior to them, at about the middle, rounded depressions. Posterior to these rounded depressions, posterolateral and median grooves present. Hairs numerous on elevated areas, absent in grooves and depressions. Surface throughout with very fine granulations. Eyes small and often not easily seen (Bauch, 1966).

Shields. Terminating posteriorly with blunt, free points; surfaces convex; hairs present (Bauch, 1966).

Legs. Shorter and heavier than in the female. Length of tarsus I,

0.33; metatarsus, 0.30. Length of tarsus IV, 0.36; metatarsus, 0.50 (Bauch, 1966).

Coxae. Coxa I with spurs very distinct, triangular, pointed; internal spur wider than external; anterior process long, extending beyond the scapula (visible from above). Coxa I with internal and external spurs distinctly rounded, shorter than on 1, internal spur wider. Coxa III with a still shorter, rounded, external spur; internal spur as a rounded salience (similar to that on 11). Coxa IV with spurs absent. Hairs few.

Genital aperture. Situated between coxae I (Bauch, 1966).






23


Nymph


Body. Length well-engorged, 2.40 to 2.70; width, 1.60 to 1.80 wide in front, narrow behind, mildly constricted at the spiracular plates; edges of the spiracular plates usually visible from above (no unfed nymphs available) (Bauch, 1966).

Capitulum. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin, 0.24; greatest width, 0.30. Basis with posterior salient margin convex. Cornua faint or absent. Palpi short, poorly sclerotized; transverse ridges faint. Sheaths of the chelicerae very long, fully twice as long as the palpi. Palpal hairs few, not conspicuous (Bauch, 1966).

Hypostome. Short and broad. Denticles 3/3 with about five in each file. Length about 0.14 (Bauch, 1966).

Scutum. Pentagonal. Length and width equal, each about 0.45. Cervical grooves as shallow valleys, divergent posteriorly. Eyes small, oval, faint. Surface smooth, shining. Punctations absent. Hairs few.

Legs. Short, moderately heavy (Bauch, 1966).

Coxae. Small, convex. Coxa I with a short, broad, rounded, external spur; 11 and IllI about as in I but progressively smaller;

IV, spurs absent (Bauch, 1966).


Larva

Body. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin of body,

0.60; width, 0.42. Short oval. Scutum occupying about three-fifths of the length of the body (Bauch, 1966).

Capitulum. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin, 0.15; width of basis, 0.18. Lateral profile lines of basis convex; posterior






24


margin nearly straight. Cornua absent. Palpal article I absent. In ventral view, basis broadly rounded behind. Palpi with relatively long hairs (Bauch, 1966).

Hypostome. Short, broad, with about six broad, short, rounded denticles in each file. Dentition 2/2. Length about 0.065 (Bauch, 1966).

Scutum. Length, 0.31; width, 0.42. Cervical grooves shallow, short, converging posteriorly. Surface smooth, shining, impunctate, and with hairs absent.

Coxae. Coxa I with a short, broad, internal spur; 11 and III without spurs (Bauch, 1966).


Hosts

Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) was described as Haemaphysalis micropla from specimens that came from Paraguay. The tick had been taken on cattle in the United States, on deer, horse and man from Argentina, and from deer, ox, and horse from Brazil. It has been

reported from cattle in Panama as wel1 as horse, dog, goat, and deer. Valadez in 1923 (cited by Smith, 1973) mentions the tick under the name Margaroporus annulatus australis as present in Mexico.

The usual host of the cattle tick is cattle, but Roberts in 1947, reported in Queensland, Australia, the common cattle tick, B. micropZus annulatus, attacking not only cattle and horses, but also sheep, pigs, deer, wallabies and kangaroos. The deer, Cervus elephas, were seen to be heavily infested.

From November to February 1936-1937 tick collections were made on different hosts in Florida (Orange, Osceola and Collier Counties) and






25


it was found that just one tick, Boophilus annulatus microplus, was collected from the Florida deer, Odoicoleus osceola (Anonymous, 1952).

Powell (1970) reported that sheep are accepted as hosts by larvae of B. microplus in the absence of cattle and that they can reach maturity. These ticks were found near Yeerongpilly in Brisbane, Australia, and they produced eggs, from which larvae were successfully hatched. Graham et al. in 1972 stated that Boophilus annulatus (Say) was found on a variety of hosts other than cattle such as deer, sheep, goats, dogs, cats and rabbits during the years 1905-1913 (in the southwestern and southern United States) where the ticks were eradicated by treating only bovines and equines. In contrast, many thousands of white-tailed deer had to be slaughtered in Florida before B. microplus was eradicated from that state. The same authors found that by putting 20,000 larvae of B. microplus on one deer and the same quantity of larvae on one calf they could produce more engorged females on the deer than on the calf. In this case 738 engorged females were produced from the deer and 536 engorged females from the calf. Development required 30 days on the deer and 28.5 days on the calf to reach the adult stage. Ticks were 42% heavier from the calf than the ones obtained from the deer. They did not find B. annulatus on rabbits, racoons, oposums, skunks, coyotes, bob cats or roadrunners. Under natural conditions deer probably remove most of the ticks that attach to them by grooming, so only a few ticks located in the most inaccessible areas of the deer's body are able to complete their development. On the other hand, it should be remembered that female ticks can deposit viable eggs even though they are dislodged from the host before they complete their engorgement. Finally, the authors reported that wild animals and






26


small laboratory animals are poor hosts for B. annulatus because they are so adept at mechanical removal of all stages of the tick, with the exception of the white-tailed deer as hosts. Wild animals may not be important in the maintenance of populations of B. annulatus in an area in which an eradication effort is being made. But these animals may serve as carriers of ticks from infested to uninfested areas.

In Japan, Asanuma et al. in 1977 reported Boophilus micropLus ticks infesting the iriomote wild cat, Mayailurus iriomotensis.


Biology

The pioneer work on the life-cycle and biology of the cattle tick, Boophilus annulatus (= argaroporus annulatus) was carried out by Curtice Cooper 1891, who stated:

The life cycle and biology may be divided into two
distinct phases, a parasitic period during which the
tick is attached to its host, and a non-parasitic
period during which the tick is at no time attached
and during which it does not feed. After the tick
has left its host there is a pre-oviposition period
ranging from three days in summer to as many as
twenty-eight days in winter. Oviposition continues for eight or nine days. The average number of eggs
laid by a single female is about three thousand.
The average period of incubation is about thirty days according to the temperature and the amount
of moisture. (p. 113)

De La Vega (1975) studied under laboratory conditions, the biology of B. microp)lus, at different temperatures. He demonstrated that the preoviposition period is a linear function of the temperature between 21 to 32*C, and the oviposition period is an exponential function of the temperature between 21 to 36'C. Egg hatching time is a linear function of the temperature between 24 to 340C. Fertility was found to be high at 24 to 34'C, while at 36C fertility was low. Engorged






27


females loose 2% of their weight at 30*C and 100% relative humidity

(RH). Negative geotrophism was high at fourth day after

eclosion.

A linear relationship was shown between the weight of engorged

female ixodid ticks and the number of eggs they produce (Sutherst, 1969).

Drummond et al. (1971) proved that in another tick Amblyomma

american=w (L.) the number of eggs per female did not differ significantly between females disturbed daily and those undisturbed. Peak daily oviposition occurred on the third day of oviposition.

Dispersal of larvae of B. microplus was studied in Australia

(Lewis, 1970) and the results provide evidence that tick larvae disperse down-wind across a pasture and are carried by casual hosts. Dispersion by wind was up to 30 m and the casual hosts were rat, cockerels, magpies and horses.


Physiology

It is well known that larvae of the cattle tick became active

when exposed to carbon dioxide and this gas is used for host detection (Garcfa, 1962; Miles, 1968; Korenberg, 1972 and Balashov, 1974).

Moorhouse (1967) described the pattern of attachment of Boophilus spp. to cattle. The mouth parts of the larvae, nymphs and adults penetrate to a similar depth toward the base of the malpighian layer of the host's skin. Attachment is accomplished by the secretion of cement whose histochemistry indicated two components, cortex and internum (Moorhouse, 1967). Ticks in the final stages of engorgement produced secondary secretions of cement into the lesion.

Waladde (1977) examined the sensory receptors on tarsus I and mouth parts of the cattle tick by scanning electron microscopy. The







28


sensory setae included mechanoreceptors, contact and olfactory chemoreceptors and of special interest, on each inner cheliceral digit, was a denticle bearing a papilla at its tip and a pit at its base. The functions of these two newly described features are not known. They may include contact chemoreception for sensing host chemicals.

It is only relatively recent that we have begun to understand that the direct effect of tick infestation is more than that induced by skin irritation and the loss of blood. Although abscesses resulting from the attachment of Ambiyomna sp. to the teats of dairy cattle cause serious harm and heavy tick infestations greatly reduce the value of hides, there is also a profound systemic effect. Boophilus microplus secretes a toxin which interferes with bovine metabolic processes including liver function (O'Kelley et al., 1971). Heavily infested cattle not only show damage to metabolic processes involved in protein synthesis but this damage persists when they are subsequently maintained free from ticks. It is possible that a permanent biochemical lesion can be produced with heavy tick infestation (Springell et aL., 1971).

Tatchell and Moorhouse in 1968 studied the attachment of larvae of the cattle tick. During the first five hours, following arrival on the host, some larvae attach immediately and begin penetration of the epidermis.

The first observable changes in the dermis centers in the capillaries, particularly the more superficial, which may become dilated close to the mouth parts. Mast cells were present throughout the sections of all hosts. Oedema was obvious with most attachments. At 24 hours the main differences were in the greater degree and the







29


increased frequency of the blockage of the deeper capillaries, caused mainly by neutrophil leucocytes henceforth referred to as neutrophils, and lymphocytes. Between days 3 and 4 larval ticks started engorgement which was completed by the fifth day; engorgement was rapid during the first 24 hours and thereafter slowed until the beginning of the moult (Tatchell et al., 1972).

It was frequently found that after the moult the nymphs had

attached within a few millimeters of the site of the larval attachment, which could be recognized by the larval cement cone. Engorged nymphs may be found any time from 10 to 15 days after infestation. The final phase of nymphal feeding which follows the secretion of secondary cement was characterized by the development of a more obvious lesion of up to 350 mm in width by 280 mm in depth. The leucocytes within the cavity were mostly neutrophils along with a few small and medium-sized lymphocytes. The capillaries laterally adjacent to the attachment tended to be dilated and superficial haemorrhage was common. The cavities were larger than those of larvae and extended into the dermis to include the reticular plexus of blood vessels for the first six days after attachment female ticks are mainly inactive. The intensity of feeding and salivation is greater at night and reaches its peak on the final night of attachment (Tatchell et al., 1972).

Seifert et a1. (1968) showed different features on the

feeding of the cattle tick. Boophilus spp. is so sparing in its defecation that it would be of negligible proportions when compared with the food intake during the parasitic life cycle. Protein is no doubt an important factor in the diet of the tick, so that the red cells with their 30% protein content will assume a greater






30


importance than the plasma with their 6 to 7% protein. It will be seen that an adult female takes 350 ml of blood from a crossbred Brahman and 300 ml of blood from a British animal. They calculated daily blood loss amounts of 107 to 154 ml in British animals in contrast to a Brahman crossbred heifer, which lost on the average no more than I ml of blood per day. Calves on normal rations can tolerate losses of up to 200 ml of blood a day without marked ill effect, for at least 7 weeks. However, it is obvious that the interaction between host age, nutritional standards and tick numbers is complex. Dropped fully engorged adult females contained more red cells per individual and generally also more plasma, than engorged ticks removed from the host.

Presence of ecdysone had been reported (Obenchain, 1979) in ticks, Ornithodorus moubata or at least these ticks contain material which has moulting activity. This has not been studied in Boophilus micropLus.

In ticks other than 3. microplus the presence of a pheromone has been demonstrated (Layton and Sonenshine, 1975).

Ixodid ticks use the salivary glands for osmoregulation during feeding. During the sixth to seventh day of the last feeding they concentrate the copious blood meal by injecting 74% of the ingested water and 95% of the Na back into the host as sal iva. The fluid secretion appears to be controlled by catecholaminergic nerves. In this case it is the acinus Ill which became active. During feeding acinus I produce cement and acinus II produce enzymes which are very important in the immunological process (Diehl et aZ., 1978).






31


Boophius microplus engorged females have a pattern of dropping off the host, when they reach 4.5 to 8.0 mm and with the first light of the morning (Wharton, 1974a). Wharton and Utech (1970) gave a methodology: they found that counting ticks 4.5 to 8.0 mm in length on one day provided a reliable estimate of the numbers of engorged ticks dropping the following day. Partly engorged females, which have grown to a length of 4 to 6 mm (10 to 30 mg) undergo rapid final engorgement at night to reach a length of 8 to 11 mm (150 to 250 mg) and detach from cattle in the early hours of the morning. Ecology


The parasitic life cycle

Ecological studies on the tick parasite stage are very important

to develop tick control methods. Hitchcock (1954) studied the parasitic stage of B. microplus in Australia. The minimum duration of the larval stage was 4.5 days, and the maximum, 13.1 days. Fifty per cent of the larvae had undergone ecdysis by 5.5 days after attachment. Nymphs commenced to moult 11.9 days after the attachment of the larvae and the last moulted 20.3 days after. Adult males were still present up to 70 days after attachment of the larvae. Engorged female ticks commenced to feed after 18.9 days post larvae attachment. Fifty per cent had fallen by 21.9 days, and the last fell at 35.5 days. Climate has little effect on the duration of the stages on cattle.

On cattle, male ticks appear somewhat earlier than females, usually on the 13th day. The adult females emerge from the nymph stage on about the 14th or 15th day of parasitic life. Usually females are fertilized






32


by the males soon after moulting. The great majority drop about the 22nd day of parasitic life, but although the ticks are under "natural incubator" conditions by the host, there is of course variations between individuals in their rate of development (Anonymous, 1959).

Wilkinson in 1970 gave an explanation of the distribution of the cattle tick in Australia. Boophilus microplus has established itself in Australia in an arc across the northern part of the continent, where annual rainfall exceeds 38 to 50 cm.

It extends southwards down to the east coast within this zone, but is progressively limited to the coastal region with low in-land winter temperatures. In other areas tick scarcity was due to the aridity of the soil surface of hilly areas, in contrast to the adjacent tick infested alluvial plains (Wilkinson, 1970).

Sutherst and Moorhouse (1972) reported that in an elevated area of Queensland, Australia, B. micropZus had three generations during the year, and exhibited a very large increase in numbers from reproduction in the warmer months.


The non-parasitic life cycle

Harley (1966) reported data from three different climatically dissimilar districts of north Queensland, Australia. Larval survival and total longevity also followed a similar pattern in all districts. The longest survival periods were recorded for the progeny of ticks exposed late in the wet season from March to April and the shortest survival periods were seen for the progeny of ticks exposed during the dry season from August to September. Mean maximum total longevity for






33


ticks exposed in field plots in the 38 cm rainfall district varied from 10 to 22 weeks, and in the 200 cm rainfall district from 15 to 26 weeks. He also mentioned that Wilkinson (1957) reported a marked

decrease in tick fertility which occurs in the winter in south Queensland.

However, during the winter in Rockhampton ticks laid large numbers of

fertile eggs. Very few larval progeny of ticks hatching in summer

survived three months after the date of placement of the parent female.

Progeny of ticks put out in the winter persisted up to 5 1/2 months after

the date of placement of the parent. The comparatively short survival

periods of larvae in central Queensland in summer indicated the

practicability of controlling the cattle tick by temporarily destocking

pastures.

Larvae of B. microplus have the ability to take water from the air in conditions close to saturation. Larvae of AmbZyomma cajennense died after six days exposed to 53% R.H.; after 7 days at 60% R.H.; after 21 days at 73% R.H. and at 85% and 93% they can survive for 70 and 127 days (Kniille, 1966).

McCulloch and Lewis (1968) reported that the maximum longevity of the non-parasitic stages of the cattle tick in Australia to be 7 1/2 months. The great majority of larvae died within 6 months of the parent leaving the host. For a program of strategic dipping aimed at economic control, the optimum time for beginning would be early October in the areas most favorable to the tick.

Boophilus microplus was eradicated from an infested island near Townsville, Australia, by removing all cattle and horses for 26 weeks. Experimental tick plots showed the longest survival time of B. microplus






34


on the pasture to be 16 weeks. It was noted that two horses on the island at the start of the scheme had been parasitized by B. micropzus for some years and it suggested that brumbies could cause the breakdown of similar schemes on the mainland (Johnston et aZ., 1968).

The relationship between egg output and the weights and states of engorgement of B. annuZatus was reported recently by Iwala and Okpala (1977). Linear correlation was noted between tick weights and number of eggs produced. The percentage of body weight and eggs produced by individual ticks did not exceed 50 + 2% irrespective of their states of engorgement.

Variations in temperature affect the developmental periods of eggs, larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus which were shortest at an optimum of 30*C. Generally, relative humidity did not affect rate of development. It did, however, critically affect survival, particularly of eggs and larvae. The relative humidity range of 60-70% was critical; below this range survival of the eggs and larvae was very limited. Nymphs and adults were resistant, and natural tick populations probably survive hot and dry seasons in these stages. In a habitat with thick vegetation, temperature and humidity fluctuations were smaller than in one with sparce vegetation, and the former therefore supported a greater tick population (Tukahirwa, 1976).

Newson (1978) reported the development of Rhipicephalus appendicuZatus populations at three different host stocking rates in Nairobi, Kenya. At high stocking rates (1,000 m2 per I animal) population fluctuations of the tick were less stable with high fluctuations. At low stocking rates (12,000 m2 per 1 animal) population fluctuations of






35


the tick were more stable. At intermediate stocking rates (4,000 m2 per animal) population fluctuations were in between the other two treatments. Sutherst and Wharton (1971), in considering the climate in relation to the cattle tick, said that the fluctuating rainfall in Australia may produce situations where either long periods of favorable conditions allow the tick populations to increase or long unfavorable periods cause the local extinction of the ticks. The former would require supplementary control such as with acaricides, while the latter will tend to be minimized by favorable foci and poor conditions of the host reducing their resistance. Innoculation for protection against babesiosis may be required as a precautionary measure where tick populations are maintained at low levels. They also pointed out that ecological studies are needed in order to construct a population model of Boophilus microplus and predict populations in relation to climate and other biotic factors. Also Arthur (1975) predicted that modeling of tick populations will be a prerequisite to control.

Recent ecological studies are taking into account the microclimate (Daniel, 1978) as a determining element in the distribution of ticks and their developmental cycles. It emphasizes that meteorological stations do not give exact information about the ecological niches occupied by ticks. A measurement of microclimate conditions must be made in order to find relations between macroclimate, mesoclimate and microclimate.

Microclimates influence egg laying and therefore fecundity and this is also related to predators and parasites. Host populations affect microclimate and cutting grass for feeding (Davidson et a7., 1970).






36


Zapata and Camino (1977) studied the non-parasitic stage of BoophiZus microplus in Chontalpa, Tabasco, Mexico, in a tropical wet climate. The total longevity in the rainfall season was 11 days and was 30% less in the dry season. Cattle maintained under that climate accounts for more than 60% of the properties in Tabasco State. These cattle graze in the flat pasture areas in the dry season (3 months) and in the elevated areas of pasture during the wet season. Therefore a control method of pasture spelling can be recommended in conjunction with chemical dips.

Sutherst et al. (1977) have developed an elaborate population model for determining Boophilus micropZus tick populations.


Chemical Control

Drummond (1974) said:

I still believe that B. microp(us, since it is a one
host species and is limited to bovines, can be
eradicated through a scheme of compulsory dipping
of cattle in an acaricide that will kill 99 per cent of the cattle ticks on the animal. Such a government conducted program should succeed if the ranchers were
thoroughly educated and motivated so that the
eradication program will be supported by all of the
participants. The cost of the program might be high,
but it would be relatively minor compared with the
large losses that can be anticipated when previously available acaricides are no longer effective against
B. microplus. (p. 54)

Kearnan (1974) pointed out that in Queensland an effective

control method against B. micropZus is planned dipping that aims at keeping pastures relatively free of seed ticks. It consists of a

series of dippings at less than 21 day intervals, preferably 18 days.

The major problem facing tick control and vector control in all countries lies in the development of acaricide resistance. This






37


problem has become more widespread in most countries although the general picture of types of tick resistance remains similar. The global situation is dominated by Boophilus microplus in Australia (Anonymous, 1975).

Boophilus microplus demonstrated resistance for the first time to DDT in 1954, to HCH-Dieldrin in 1950 and to organophosphates acaricides in 1964 (Drummond, 1977). At least eight distinct strains of B. micropus in Australia now show unique and overlapping resistance to a variety of organophosphate and carbamate acaricides. In other countries where resistance is not present every effort must be made to prevent or delay selection for resistance to presently used acaricides and any new acaricide (Drummond, 1977).

Amaral et al. (1974) found that strains "D" from Rio Grande Do Sul and "M" from Minas Gerais, Brazil, were resistant to coumaphos, dioxathion, and ethion but that a new acaricide, American cyanamide AC-84633, "nimidane" (4-chloro-N-1, 3-dithietan-2-Ylidene 2-methylbenzenamine) controlled these strains. Tick resistance has been confirmed in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the United States, in Boophiius decoloratus in Africa, B. micropius in Australia, South American countries, Malagasy and India; and in Rhipicephalus appendicuiatus and R. evertsi in South Africa. Resistance has not been recorded in the genera Ixodes, HyaZonmna or Haemaphysalis. A more detailed knowledge of the tick ecology is required which is essential for an effective control. It is also necessary to integrate these approaches with the efficient use of pastures and cattle management (Wharton and Roulston, 1970). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Anonymous, 1977) recommended that tick species






38


be evaluated for resistance to acaricides or used in screening tests; these should be limited to the following main genera: Boophilus, Rhipicephaius, Amblyoma and Dermacentor. Acaricides tested at cooperating laboratories would be limited to the following chemicals: chlorinated hydrocarbons: dieldrin (indicator), toxaphene and lindane; organic phosphates: dimethoate (indicator), coumaphos, chlorfenvinphos, dioxatrion, chlorpyrifos, and bromophos-ethyl; carbamates: carbaryl, and promacyl; and the last group: foramidines.

Howell (1977) found resistant BoophiZus spp. strains in South Africa. The tests have shown that widespread resistance in varying degrees occurs in strains of species of B. microplus and B. decoZoratus against compounds of arsenical, organochlorine and organophosphorous groups. With few exceptions the degree of resistance is of a low

order and probably indicative of selection at the low acaricide concentrations generally used by stockowners.

Roulston in 1967 said that for practical tick control it

appears advisable to make more extensive use of pasture spelling and tick resistant cattle, instead of relying exclusively on chemical control.

Recent advances in controlling ticks off the host by treating or changing the environment include use of ultra-low-volume (ULV) equipment to apply small volumes of (0.6 to 2.3 liters/ha) concentrated or technical toxicant to the ground as well as systemic insecticides used experimentally to control ticks on cattle and horses. Feed treatments of famphur controlled various species of ticks feeding on cattle (Drummond ev a-l., 1973, 1974).










Ticks of the genus BoophiZus have been eradicated from the United States and only occasional minor infestations are found along the Mexican border. Both B. annulatus and B. microplus abound in Mexico. Continual dipping and inspection of cattle imported from Mexico into the United States are necessary to prevent introduction of Boophilus (Drummond et aZ., 1967).

Drummond et al. in 1976 reported that in laboratory tests four strains (3 from Mexico and one from Texas) of the southern cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were not resistant to nine commonly used acaricides. In field tests of 18 acaricides sprayed on cattle artifically infested with B. microplus and with the cattle tick, A. annulatus, 16 were applied at concentrations that afforded 99% control of both species. In dipping vat tests, a solubilized formulation (1 part Al: I part Triton R X-100) of compound 4072, after an initial charge of 0.1% was still effective at 126 wk of postcharge (end of test). Phosmet (Imidan R) in the vat at 0.25% caused poisoning in cattle but was effective for 68 wk at a concentration of 0.001%.

In Mexican field tests in Monte Morelos, Nuevo Le6n State and Yautepec, Morelos State all six acaricides tested were effective for the control of Boophilus species. Until now there is no field evidence of insecticide resistant strains in Mexico (Anonymous, 1980).

Rawlins and Mansingh (1978) detected the susceptibility of five strains of B. microplus from Jamaica, St. Kitts, Trinidad and Guyana to 15 acaricides. The LC50 values revealed that the Guyanese ticks were the most susceptible strain in the Caribbean, even more than the susceptible Yeerongpilly strain of Australia. All strains were least






40


susceptible to bromophos and DDT. Generally carbamates were the most potent acaricides on all strains.

Palmer et al. (1977) showed the residue problem of dioxathion in adipose tissue cattle subjected to multiple dipping in Wollongbar, N.S.W., Australia. Maximum residues of dioxathion in adipose tissue occur 2-4 days after treatment. The half life for the disappearance of residues once maximum levels were reached was 16 days, and was similar to that of some other commonly used organophosphorus acaricides (e.g., ethion, chlorpyrifos). It is recommended that cattle subjected to three dippings at 5 day intervals in dioxathion be withheld from slaughter for a period of at least 6 weeks to allow residues to fall below the Australian maximum residue limit of 1 mg kg -1.

Some other chemicals have been tested and are available for the control of resistant strains as in the Australian case.

Knowles and Roulston (1973) showed that twenty-nine foramidines and related compounds displayed activity toward engorged female B. microplus as judged by reduction in oviposition and egg viability, but only the most toxic adulticides showed activity against larvae.

Stentel (1976) showed that the foramidine compounds can be used for the control of various tick species, such as Boorhilus microplus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. everstii, Amblyomma hebraeum, A. cajennense and Hyalorma truncatum.

Other chemical control measures for ticks have been investigated.

Osburn and Olivier Jr. in 1978 reported the effects of metepa on the cytology and fertility of male Dermacentor variabilis treated as unfed adults. Evidence of cellular damage was found in testicular






41


areas where actively dividing cells and some enlarging spermatocytes were found. The amount of cellular damage correlates positively with the concentration of the chemosterilizant and resulted in decreased number of spermatids. In crosses of treated males to untreated females,

resulting egg masses hatched normally; however, the percentage of females producing egg masses that hatched was reduced.

The use of insect growth regulators is under investigation as applied to ticks. Solomon and Evans (1977) treated adults of various species, including B. micropLus with synthetic hormone mimics, and found that they caused eggs to become dessiccated after oviposition. Greater effectivity was found with ZR-615 (N-etil-3,7,ll-trimetil dodeca 2,4-dienamide).

Recently Hair et al. (1979) reported the effectiveness of famphur applied as bolus for control of Boophilus spp. ticks. When cattle were infused with famphur via rumen cannulae and challenged with several 1-host ticks, 3 mg famphur/kg body wt/day was ineffective against Boophilus annua2tus (Say), B. microplus (Canestrini) and Dermacentor albipictus (packard), but 5 mg/kg was highly effective against Boophilus spp. while giving no control of D. albipictus. Administration of famphur in a sustained release bolus resulted in complete control of Boophilus when the insecticide was administered to cattle at an average daily dose of 6.82 mg famphur/kg animal body wt. Control Methods other than Chemicals

It is important to determine alternative approaches to control such as pasture spelling, resistant cattle, biological control, cultural






42


practices (Wharton et aZl., 1969; Wharton, 1974b)and legislation that makes it obligatory for all stockmen to follow certain rules and regulations concerning cattle management and treatment (Drummond, 1974). Barnet (1977) mentioned that the main problem in eradication programs would be the restrictions of movement of cattle within a country or between countries.

Waters (1972) concluded that examination of pasture spelling practices for the control of the cattle tick has shown that, to be successful, the program must be tailored to fit both the environmental and the management needs of the particular property. Spelling periods must be sufficient to permit the majority of tick larvae to die due to starvation. At the same time, consideration should be given to the best use of available feed and the capacity of combination with other management practices.

Harley and Wilkinson (1971) proved that using divided paddocks and planning the movement of the cattle according to the longevity of larvae the cattle required seven treatments in a two year period. Whereas cattle grazing on unsubdivided paddock required 22 treatments. Application of the method is likely to be seriously hampered by the necessity for increased fencing and movement of cattle. The method of planning a control program is best considered in relation to a particular district and according to the survival of the ticks.

Applied biological control for the cattle tick is limited, but there are some studies for the assessment of natural enemies of B. microp7us. Wilkinson in 1970 in Queensland, Australia, reported that in some of the areas predation of engorged ticks by ants was sufficiently





43


intense to provide a possibile explanation for scarcity of ticks. He presented a list of ant species found in tick infested areas; about half the engorged females may be killed by ants and Lycosid spiders. Some of the ant species were Iridomyrmex detectus, Pheidole megacephala,

P. weisei, Aphaenogaster longiceps, Chalcoponera metallica, Iridomyrmex anceps, Poyrhachis aurea, Notoncus foreii, Monomorium gracillimum, Rhytidoponera cristata, Meranoplus hirsutus and Acrocoelia australis. Spider predation by Lycosa spp. occurred in Rockhampton with one specimen being identified as L. deffroyi.

Harris and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977) have shown that in Louisiana, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta had caused dramatic reductions in ticks Amblyomma americanum (L.).

In Australia, the pee-wee, GraiZina cyanoleuca G. and the introduced starlings Sturnus vulgaris are quite frequently seen apparently pecking ticks from cattle (Wilkinson, 1970).

A wasp Hunterellus theierae was collected from nymphs of

Amblyoomia nuttalli (Graff, 1979). It was found in the Ivory Coast of Africa.

No parasites of 3. microplus are known, though possibly there are unicellular parasites, or symbionts,which may occasionally be harmful (Wilkinson, 1970).


Resistant cattle

Tick resistant cattle have been an area of study for many years. Until now the mechanism of resistance in hosts in the case of B. microplus ticks remains unknown.






44~


Riek in 1956 said at that time that resistance in Bos taurus is due to the development of a skin hypersensitivity while in Bos indicus this skin hypersensitivity is aided possibly by the presence of an immune reaction. European breeds had a large number of mast cells in the dermis when compared with highly susceptible animals. The mast cells seem to be the sensitized cell in the resistant animal. The union of antigen with antibody attached to these cells probably brings about the liberation of histamine which cuases the oedema and irritation following larval, nymphal and adult attachment in the animals.

Seeback et aL. in 1970 conducted experiments to measure the

effects of infestation of B. micropZus on cattle and to separate the effects of reduced food intake (anorectic effect) from those due to the remaining effect of tick infestation (specific effect). The anorectic effect accounted for approximately 65% of the depression of body weight due to tick infestation. The specific effect was tested and the compensatory gain made by the infested group was less than that of the group kept tick free. This indicates a severe effect on the metabolism of the tick infested animals, with prolonged after effects.

The zebu crossbreds on an average carried 20% less ticks

than carried by the British cattle. There tended to be more females than males, in summer than in winter and in F2 than in F3 animals. Heritability in British cattle was up to 48%, but in some cases much lower. In the Zebu crossbreds there was little heritability variation in F cattle, but in subsequent generations heritability was estimated as 82% (Seifert, 1971). Hewetson in 1969 developed resistance in purebred sahiwal cattle which acquired resistance to 3. 7iJroplus






45


in a similar manner to crossbred sahiwal cattle. There was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid and hatched from ticks dropped by purebred and cross bred animals.

Roberts in 1976 demonstrated that a major component of resistance is acquired and that each animal acquires its individual level of resistance.

Roberts (1971) showed that larvae of B. microplus, during the first 24 hours of the parasitic life cycle, made about two attachments in an 8 hour period and approximately half of the time was spent attached on susceptible cattle. Mortality reached 60% in the larval stage on standard animals while on resistant cattle with from 4 to 6 attachments, mortality reached 80% of the larvae in a similar period. Also, Kemp and Koudstall (1971) showed that resistance of cattle to the cattle tick is manifest within 24 hours after infestation.

Francis and Ashton (1967) stated there was no significant

correlation between tick infestation and the distribution of alleles at the following loci: haemoglobin, albumin, transferrin, postalbumins and soluble J antigen.

Kemp (1978) reported that the histamine caused larvae of the cattle tick to drop off the host. Drop off after 3 hours of the injection of histamine (minimum effective dosage 0.8 to 3.2 mg) had

a greater effect than at 48 hours.

An esterase enzyme studied by Willadsen (1976) produced allergenic activity in cattle infested with 3. microplus ticks.

Roberts and Kerr in 1976 and Brossard (1976) made the transfer of resistant cattle to 3. micropius to susceptible animals.






46


As the intimate mechanism of resistance becomes better known, selection of resistant cattle can be used as a control method (Utech et al., 1978; Wagland, 1979; Sutherst et al., 1979).


Acquired immune type of control

Snowball (1956) concluded that grooming, and other forms of behavior, e.g. licking and rubbing, which produce tick mortality by mechanical means must be considered in any study of natural mechanism regulating cattle tick populations, and is acquired in the case of European cattle.

Indian cattle are more resistant to B. microplus by selection through long time periods but have low numbers of animals that carry high numbers of ticks (Nagar et aZ., 1978).

Criollo cattle in Central America, which are probably the

dominant breed, have been shown to be more resistant to 3. microplus than European cattle. This helps to reduce the severity of the cattle tick problem in those countries (Ulloa and De Alba, 1957; Wharton, 1974b).














METHODS AND MATERIALS


Introduction to Tick Ecosystem


Morelos State Statistics


The state of Morelos is located in the central part of the

Mexican Republic, between 18'22'5"' and 19*07'10" north longitude and between 99037'8" and 99*30'8" west Greenwich longitude. The state is bordered on the north by The Federal District and Mexico State, to the south with Guerrero and Puebla States (Figure 3). It has 4,941 square kilometers, and is the 27th largest in surface area of all the states of the Mexican Republic. Isotherms cover three areas between less than 20*C and more than 20'C. Rainfall ranges from 1100 to 900 mm in the north and south.

Cuernavaca is the capitol city. There are areas within the State which have been populated since 1500 B.C. When the Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortez came to "Tenochtitlan' (The Aztec Capitol) in November, 1519, he knew that there was an empire south which was dependent upon the Aztecs. Cortez almost "owned" the entire state at that time and ordered a castle built in Cuernavaca.

In 1869, the 16th of April, Morelos was named as a state, under

President Benito Juarez. By 1975, it had an estimated population density of 165 people per square kilometer. People working in livestock and agriculture in 1975 were 72.9 thousand people which was 36.9% of the total population. About 27% of the population that work


47










Fe eral District 900 1100

1000 0

0 0 0 0 -4 -4 - -Isoyeths (mm)

I sotherms

.4i| IIIII20*C (C
2 -~



900
(1,4 (1



1100'' --(0-- 00
44 f' 0.
,4,



ill i *1000 5900


10\

Guerrero



Figure 3. Morelos State and its limits. Isotherms (annual mean temperature in 'C),
Ioyeths (total rainfall per year in mm) and location of the experiments:
1. Yecapixtla, 2. Yautepec, 3. Cuernavaca (progreso), 4. Zacatepec, 5.
lequesquitengo, and 6. Cuautla.






49


in agriculture and livestock worked a maximum of nine months per year.

Morelos State has more electrification than any other state in Mexico (92%) and by 1980 the whole population is projected to have electricity. Ninety-six per cent of the education is supported by Federal funds. Less than 50% of the students that finish high school will continue to higher education (Anonymous, 1980). Agriculture and Livestock Industry

The land available for agriculture is 150,000 ha which represents 30% of the total surface of the state, of these 50,000 ha are under irrigation. Efforts are being made to develop intensive agriculture. Eighty-five per cent of the properties have 5 ha or less.

Almost 80% of the tillable surface is "Ejidal," which is an extensive subdivision of the land.

The main problem in livestock production is the lack of feed due to poor pastures and overgrazing. The disposable land is 145,000 ha (it represents 30% of the total) and is located mainly in elevated areas. Morelos has to import 30% of its livestock feed and is limited by poor genetic quality of their livestock.

There are 466,000 head of livestock. The main animals are cattle with 282,000 head (60% of the total).

In the future the government programs have a goal to have an

intensive type livestock industry and to produce food for cattle, with the integration of the agriculture and the production of supplements other than pasture. They intend to introduce improved pastures and to






50


improve the breeds of cattle. The animals, other than cattle, include 29,653 horses, 34,485 donkeys, 10,031 mules and 1.2 million chickens.

Agriculture is mixed with livestock production. The main agronomic crops are corn, beans and sorghum which are cultivated during the wet season. Rice and sugarcane are cultivated all year round and are located in irrigated areas. Cattle are maintained in an area of 145,783 ha but because the management is not under any direct control this land becomes more depleted year by year because of erosion. The main livestock breeds are native cattle (creollum) and Brahman crosses. Some agricultural land is rotated yearly between cattle and crops. There are some dairy cattle (Holstein and Holstein crosses) which are grazed close to the roads and main population centers (Cuernavaca, Cuautla, Joiutla, Zacatepec) and in the dry season cattlemen feed these animals sugarcane and rice residues. There are some animals in stalls all the year round.

When a highly improved production breed is introduced in the State it soon becomes infected with cattle tick fever transmitted by Boophilus microplus. Introduction of European cattle has failed because of the cattle tick problem (Guerrero Rios, Personal Communication).


Cattle Tick Eradication Campaign

The present cattle tick control program has been based on the use of chemicals. A cattle tick campaign against Boophilus spp. and conducted by the government started in 1969 to 1971 in some states of the Mexican Republic such as Nuevo Le6n, Tabasco and Veracruz. In 1976, the campaign was initiated in the whole Mexican territory. It is a






51


program with funds from the Interamerican Bank for Development (BID), the biggest effort conducted by the government for the livestock industry.

It consists mainly of building dipping vats (promotion phase), the offering of technical assistance to the grasiers and furnishing

inspectors for the campaign at the time of the cattle dipping (control phase) and inspection of the animals in the eradication phase of the cattle tick program (eradication phase or free phase). When eradication is complete a quarantine phase will be maintained to prevent reintroduction of ticks into the free areas.


Location and Climate

It is important to point out that Morelos State is located in the transition zone between the center and south Pacific ecological livestock areas. It is in the transitional zoogeographical areas which divide the continent (neartic and neotropical).

Almost the entire Mexican Republic, with the exception of the

extreme northeast, has a rainfall season in the middle half of the hot period of the year (May to October). The eastern and southern parts of the country have a short dry period in the middle of the rainy season. This season is called "canicula" in Spanish it is a dry August producing a dry seasonal bimodal distribution in rainfall. The areas with this phenomenon cover the Pacific Coast and the Sierra Madre of the south in the states of Oaxaca-Guerrero, Morelos, Michoac5n Colima and south of Jalisco (Garcia, 1973). The recorded macroclimate of the study sites can be seen in Table 4: Cuautla 1,291 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.),











II II I I I I I


I


F


T -


I I I I I I I I I I


Rainfal l


Temperature '- 0' m


Pse


rir~F1II


-A____ -....p a'4- '- 11 1


3


'I I


r2


I I liii I I


T[I


.a a
I. .I g... ..L- I


J F M A M J J A S 0 N D


rinnnfl

r0l nU n


r


I


a


Trtautn


J F M A M J J A S 0 N D


T I M E


Figure 4. Macroclimate conditions of four boundaries in Morelos State where experiments were
conducted. 1. Yecapixtla, 2. Cuautla, 3. Cuernavaca (Progreso), 4. Zacatepec.


30 26

22 18



34


wu
L

a1)
a
E








0


2


30 1-


300 250

200
E
150

100
C
50 (0

300 ~,u
4-2 0
250 1-


26

22 18


4


- Ole


-4 200


150

1 00


50


% 1** 1


"Mft"W


I


0-> 34


- 4 N






53


mean temperature 23.0*C, rainfall 977.6 mm per year; Progreso (Cuernavaca) 1,529 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 20.7*C, rainfall 1,061.0 mm per year; Zacatepec 900 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 24.8*C, rainfall 838.9 mm per year and Yecapixtla (Tetelcingo) 1,245 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 23.6*C, rainfall 856.7 mm per year (Garcia, 1973).

Yecapixtla boundary has a climate classification: Aw"o(w)ig (Garcia, 1973) where the dry season is in the middle of the year in which the winter takes place (Aw). The mean annual temperature is 25C (Awo) and the total rainfall per year between 850 mm. There is a short dry season in the summer (w") as well as a dry season in the winter. The mean temperature of the coldest month is above 18'C; the driest month has under 60 mm of rainfall. The hottest month is before "the solstice" of summer (g) with a difference between the hottest months less than 5*C (isothermal) (Garcia, 1973).

Cuautla boundary has a climate classification: Aw"o(w)i'g which is similar to the one of Yecapixtla with a total rainfall that exceeds 900 mm per year. Zacatepec boundary has a climate Awo(w)(i')g which is similar to Cuautla but without the short dry season (Awo) in the middle of summer (without "Canicula") with rainfall well distributed during six months and 840 mm of rainfall per year, and Cuernavaca with a climate classification: A(c)w"l(w)ig, with the mean temperature of the coldest month above 180C and the driest month has an annual rainfall less than 60 mm. The letter (c) means a tendency of climate "A" to follow the C climates which is temperate with rainfall. The annual mean temperature is between 20 to 220C but with an annual rainfall of more than 1,000 mm per year.







54


In general "A" climates belong to tropical and wet climates. The sabanna climates and "C" climates are temperate and wet. Designations of Bw climates are hot and sub-humid with the wet season in summer. In general in Mexico, places with these types of climates present types of vegetation other than the typical savanna vegetation. "A" climates in Mexico are well represented in both litoorals: in the Pacific side from the parallel 20* north to the south and from sea level to an altitude of 800 to 1,000 meters above sea level; on the Gulf side from the parallel 230 north to the south coastal area and the base of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the mountains north of Chiapas State. Also these climates are in the Yucatan Peninsula, the deep valley of the Balsas River (Morelos State) and the central depression in Chiapas where they extend to 1,300 m.a.s.l. (Garcia, 1973).

The altitude in Cuautla is 1291 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level), Yecapixtla 1578 m.a.s.l., Cuernavaca 1552 m.a.s.l., and Yacatepec 917 m.a.s.l. (Figure 4) (Garcia, 1973).

The number of cattle in Yecapixtla was 6,529 head, Cuautla 10,404 head, Cuernavaca 10,708 head and Zacatepec 2,530. With respect to vegetation the main species of bush (thicket) were Cordia boissieri, Neopringlas integrifolia, Celtis pallida and Forestierra spp. The main species of pastures were, in the low grass areas Lycurus pheoides, Hilaria cenchroides, Cathestecum spp. and Opizia spp. The main species of native pasture are Paspalun spp., and introduced grasses included Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon. Some other grasses under experimentation are Setaria sphanceata and African star, Cynodon plectostachius (Anonymous, 1980).






55


Cattle Tick Ecology


Non-Parasitic Stages. First Phase Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla

The Yecapixtla experimental site was located about three kilometers

from the meteorological station. This meteorological station supplied maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall. With these data mean monthly temperature and total monthly rainfall were calculated (mesoclimate).

The non-parasitic studies of the first phase took place in Yecapixtla from October 1977 to September 1978.

Eight exposures of engorged female ticks were made. The

exposures were made in a property of the grazier Mr. Juvencio Yanez. This is a 300 ha ranch with 200 head of criollo cattle and Brahman crosses, native pasture was Paspalwn spp. and Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon.

The study area of 1,850 sq. meters was fenced to prevent the ticks from being disturbed by cattle. From July to September 1977, the area was placed under a pasture spelling procedure in order to prevent it from having natural infestations of ticks. Larval samples were made by flagging (Wilkinson, 1957) with white flannel to be sure the pasture was without seed ticks. The pasture in the area fenced was Cynodon dactylon. At this time there were no dipping vats on the property.

Tick exposures were made in three different habitats: thicket (whose main plant was Cordia boissieri), primer vegetation (whose main






56


vegetation was Ipomea muricoides) and grass (whose main grass was Cynodon dactylon). Tick exposures were made in small vials (tubes) 8 mm in length by 3 mm (Figure 5) made of metal screen used for tick studies in Falcon Damp. Texas., U.S. Livestock Insects Lab. U.S.D.A. and obtained through Dr. 0. H. Graham. Exposure times were October 21, October 26, November 4, November 24, December 22, January 16, February 22 and March 14.

The area was divided into 10 quadrants and random sites for

exposures were chosen. In each of these sites three tubes with three engorged female ticks (8.0 to 11.0 mm) were placed at each site. All tubes were covered with vegetation. Ticks used were collected on the

same day from cattle as close to the moment of dropping from native cattle as possible. A sample of the engorged females was weighed. Some ticks were left in tubes and covered with vegetation in order to replace ticks which died in the first 3 to 6 days. Observations of the duration of the non-parasitic stages were made. A sample of dead preserved ticks (all stages) was sent for identification to Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, where scanning electron micrographs were taken with the scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-450). Ticks were cleaned and coated with a gold coating with the 11-2 ion coater. Special attention was placed on the mean features for B. rmcroplus identification. Pre-oviposition period

Each two or three days tubes were removed and ticks were checked for mortality and egg laying. If ticks had died during this period,






57


A A

















Figure 5. Tubes used for exposed ticks.

A. Tube made of metal screen.
B. Top of tube, an engorged tick and
egg mass is seen.
C. Top of tube.






58


they were replaced from samples described previously. Each tick exposure was identified with a colored flag and had a specific data number. Definition of death in this case was the change of color (dark) in addition to no observable movements of the digestive tract and legs for 15 minutes when the tick was observed in the light.


Oviposition period

Egg counts were initiated when the first eggs were observed.

Data in days were recorded until the final eggs were laid. Per cent of eclosion was also determined by per cent hatch at 10, 50 and 90%.


Longevity of larvae

A month after the first engorged female series was exposed,

engorged females were collected from cattle and taken to Mexico City where they were placed in an incubator at 23'C; 80% R.H. in small vials. There they were allowed to lay eggs. When the larvae emerged they were taken to the Yecapixtla study area for field exposure. Exposures were made in the same manner as the engorged females. Larvae were allowed to crawl onto selected plants. Three exposures were made in each area and dates of these exposures were + 3 days the same dates as for the engorged females. Definition of death was in this case when no living larvae were found. Larvae were termed "alive" when they were able to walk and move their legs when stimulated with the breath (by blowing).

Total longevity data were collected for the non-parasitic stages of the first phase.






59


Mesoclimate at Cuautla

The Cuautla experimental oviposition site was located about two kilometers from the meteorological station which recorded temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall daily. Mean monthly temperature and total monthly rainfall were calculated from these data (mesoclimate).


Fecundity at Cuautla

In the Cuautla boundary, a study of day-by-day oviposition was conducted by exposing six series of engorged females. Each series exposed consisted of 10 tubes as described for the exposure of engorged females in Yecapixtla. An engorged female (8.0 to 11.0 mm in length) was placed in each tube. More than 50 engorged female ticks were collected for this study from native cattle, put in a large vial and covered with vegetation in the field and held for more than 3 days. Ten live engorged females were chosen, weighed and placed singularly in each vial and the vials were covered with vegetation as in the Yecapixtla study. When oviposition began the engorged females in five vials were handled daily for removing the eggs laid. Eggs were collected in small vials and taken to the laboratory to be counted with the aid of a microscope, utilizing a hand cell counter. Egg masses were separated with a hair brush in a petri dish filled with water; the bottom of the petri dish was divided into quadrants and in this way eggs were easily counted.

The other five tubes with an engorged female were allowed to develop without handling. Just at the moment that oviposition was completed eggs were counted in the same manner of handling the






60


engorged females. A total of six series were evaluated throughout the time covered by both dry and wet seasons.

The grass present was Cnodon dactylon in an area close to the Cuautla River on a property of Mr. Ricardo Guerrero Rios near 20 head of cattle. An area of 20 square meters was fenced to prevent it from being disturbed by cattle.


Data analysis

Variance analyses (ANOVA) were done with the non-parasitic stages exposed on pasture, thicket and primer vegetation and Tukey's test for comparison of the means. Also correlations were made as to the number of days required to complete the periods as influenced by macroclimate and mesoclimate.

An analysis of daily fecundity was made for the experiments and an ANOVA test was made for the number of eggs produced by the ticks handled daily as compared to those not handled until the end of the oviposition period.


Non-Parasitic Stages. Second Phase


Cage design

Evaluation of the non-parasitic stages of the second phase was

done at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec from October 1978 to September 1979.

A new cage design for the study of the non-parasitic stages of the cattle tick, B. 7icroplus was tested. This cage design was modified to allow ticks to have a temperature and humidity choice. Figure 6 shows the cage; it consists of a top made of wood and covered







61


Figure 6. Cage, a new design to study ticks
on pastures.

A. Upper part covered with cloth.
B. Middle wood cage.
C. Screened bottom buried under
the soil.






62


with cloth. The top could be removed so observations of the ticks inside could be made. Measurements were 25 cm in height and 18 by 30 cm in width. It has a 12 cm center ring made of wood. The bottom of the cage was made of wood and covered with a mesh screen cage. This bottom could be separated, buried in the soil and covered on the inside with earth (Figure 7).

Five engorged females (8.0 to 11.00 mm) were placed in the cage. These ticks were allowed to move freely inside the cage. Ticks which died during the first preoviposition period (3 to 8 days) were replaced with live ones of the same age.

At each locality (Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec) five cages were located for each exposure and each cage contained five engorged females. Weekly observations were made by removing the soil in the bottom of each cage and looking for the ticks. Each cage also contained six tubes with an engorged female (8.0 to 11.0 mm). Three of the tubes were inside the cage on the ground and were not covered with vegetation during the trial. The second three tubes were placed outside the cage. Each exposure consisted of five cages and 25 ticks and of 30 tubes and 30 ticks.

Exposures were conducted in Yecapixtla boundary in the same area where the first phase took place. In Cuernavaca the cages were placed in a place called Progreso. The area occupied was 6 by 6 meters (Figure 8). Pasture was African star, Cynodon plectostachius. In Zacatepec boundary the cages were placed at an experiment station of the Mexican government on experimental pasture areas. Pastures were setaria grass, Setaria sphanceata var. mandi and Bermuda grass






63




















4 4


104







Figure 7. Placement of the cage. Bottom covered
with earth where ticks were released (C).


A and B same as Figure 6.






64


'~ ~








~4~, ~A4.-.


Ecological studies on ticks at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) at side of meteorological station. Mesoclimate measures: T = temperature; R = rainfall. Arrow indicates a cage for study of the life cycle of ticks under soil.


Figure 8.






65


cross 1, Cynodon dactylon with C. nemfiuensis. Each area of pasture occupied a surface of 5 by 8 meters (Figure 9).

Exposures were initiated in October 1978. For each exposure,

engorged females were taken from cattle as close to the moment of the dropping (8.0 to 11.0 mm) as possible. The ticks were placed in a plastic cage and observed for three hours to select those which were completely engorged. Care was taken to prevent tick damage. Those ticks which died in the first eight days were replaced by live ones of the same age which were held for this purpose. Observations were made once a week by choosing the first cage and carefully emptying the earth content. When ticks were found, observations of the non-parasitic stages were made and then they were replaced in the same position in the cage and carefully covered with earth. Observations of the ticks in six tubes

were then made (three inside the cage and three outside the cage). Tubes were not covered with vegetation. By the following week the next cage and tubes were used in order to make observations. On the fifth week observations were made on the first cage and tubes observed

during the first week.

There were different numbers of exposures made in the three areas

studied (Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec) because the total cycle differed in the three areas. No ticks were carried out of the test areas.


Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec

In Yecapixtla the meteorological climate (mesoclimate) was taken in the same manner as in the first phase.






66


Ar A
.
p '










Figure 9. Ecological studies in Zacatepec. Setaria
grass growth leaving open areas.






67


In Cuernavaca (Progreso) mesoclimate was taken at the test site (Figure 8). Temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall were taken daily. With these data mean monthly temperature and total monthly rainfall were calculated (mesoclimate). In Zacatepec the experimental station was just 50 meters from the experiments; also mesoclimate were

taken in the same manner as in Cuernavaca.

Pre-oviposition period. Data taken on pre-oviposition include

the number of days to complete the pre-oviposition period from the first exposure day to the first eggs laid. When ticks were found dead they were replaced with live ones of the same age.

Oviposition period. In this case egg masses produced were expressed in an arbitrary scale in both time and egg mass size. Egg mass size was related to the total egg number by counting representative samples. From 1 to 2 days, measurement of egg mass was less than 0.50 cm. This gave approximately 25 to 400 eggs as number 1. From 3 to 6 days the measurement of an egg mass was greater than 0.50 cm or approximately 500 to 1400 eggs as number 2. From 7 to 10 days the measurement of an egg mass 1.0 cm or approximately 1,500 to 2,000 eggs as number 3 and from 11 to more than 12 days, measurement of egg mass greater than I cm gave approximately 2,200 to 3,000 eggs as number 4.

The incubation period was also recorded as beginning from the moment when the tick started oviposition until the first larvae emerged.

Longevity of larvae. An arbitrary scale was designed in order to follow larval numbers. It was as follows: A, less than 100 larvae eclosed; B, 20,000 larvae eclosed (equal to I gm); C, less than 100






68


larvae remaining alive. Total longevity was used in order to establish the pasture spelling possibilities.


Mesoclimate at Cuautla

The Cuautla meteorological station was located about two

kilometers from the oviposition study site. Temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall were recorded daily. Mean monthly temperature

was calculated and total monthly rainfall was used (mesoclimate).

Oviposition of the cattle tick in cage trials at Cuautla. The oviposition of engorged females was studied in the cages as at Yecapixtla and Cuernavaca and compared with the oviposition in tubes placed into the soil and tubes placed on the soil surface. Five cages with five engorged females in each were used, as well as 10 tubes, each one with an engorged female. Ten of the tubes were placed in the soil

4 cm deep and ten on the soil surface. These observations were made only once (see Results).


Microclimate in tubes and cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso)

Microclimate was taken in Cuernavaca (Progreso) for one week in the dry season and one week during the wet season. Temperature was taken from the precise location in the cages where the ticks were located inside the tubes (on soil surface) and six centimeters deep in the soil of the cage, as well as other sites. Humidity was taken just at the soil surface. Temperature was taken utilizing a scanning tele-thermometer YSI model 47 with 47 channels (Figure 10).

Data analysis. 'T" test analyses were made with data of the non-parasitic stages taken with cages against tubes. Correlations






69


Figure 10. Equipment for microclimate recording.
Telethermometer (1), hygrometer (2),
and cage (A and B).






70


were made with cl imate conditions (macrocl imate, mesocl imate and microclimate) with the period (in days) of the non-parasitic stages.


Predation of B. micropZus

In order to determine if predators exist in the non-parasitic

stages of the cattle tick, B. microplus engorged females were exposed under field conditions in three different localities: Yecapixtla (October 1977 to September 1979), Cuernavaca (Progreso) (October 1978 to September 1979) and Zacatepec (October 1978 to September 1979). Each time they were available a series of ticks was exposed. Each series consisted of five cages made of mesh screen 40 cm high by 15 cm in diameter. Cages were placed in the soil and were separated by less than one meter. Gravid females (4.0 to 8.0 mm) of B. micropius were exposed in mesh cages through which they could not escape but which did allow the entrance to smaller arthropods. In Yecapixtla five cages (Figure 11) were placed in each of the three habitats in the same place as the first and second phase of the non-parasitic stages were conducted. The number of ticks per cage varied from 5 to 30. They were placed inside the cage with some earth and vegetation. Cages were buried 5 cm deep as shown in Figure 11 and the top was closed with mesh screen. The exposure cages were examined after one week for tick remains by emptying the contents of the cage over a piece of white flannel cloth (one square meter) in order to find the exposed ticks and tick remains. Exposure times and the number of females exposed in each series are given in the results tables. The

same exposure trials were recorded in Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec. In Cuernavaca pasture was African star grass. This is a






71


4
























Figure 11. Cages utilized to measure the existence of
predators.

A. Cage, inside earth and exposed ticks.
B. Top to cover the cage.






72


clump grass which grows high (from 30 cm to 50 cm) but grows leaving clear areas. Also in this area was Bermuda grass cross I which grows high also (from 40 cm to 80 cm) but is not a clump grass and grows without leaving clear areas. Chi-square analysis was made to evaluate predation rates.

Specimens recorded as a predator were sent to Dr. J. F. Butler at the University of Florida. Identification was made by Dr. W. Buren and Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Parasitic Stages of the Tick


Yecapixtla. Host preference studies

Tick counts were made in Yecapixtla boundary on 150 animals to determine tick preference as to animal breed. The breeds evaluated were 'criollo" or native cattle and Brahman crosses, Counts of engorged female ticks (4.5 to 11.0 mm) were made in order to establish infestation rates.

Counts were made while the animals were being milked. Engorged female ticks were counted by hand. Counts were made on ten animals on one side of the animal at all times and were chosen at random at least once a month. When the cattle were grazing on pastures on the property a sample of ten animals was chosen at random at milking time (from June to December). But when cattle were being pastured on corn stalks they were caught in the field with the aid of salt. Counts were made for two years on the same property.






73


Zacatepec. Host preference studies

In Zacatepec boundary close to Tequesquitengo Lagune, cattle

tick counts were made on a herd of 50 Holstein crossbred dairy animals maintained under semi-improved conditions. Each count consisted of ten animals chosen at random. Counts were made on one side of ten animals at monthly intervals from October 1978 to September 1979. From June to December cattle were maintained on pastures with feed supplements. From January to May they were fed more as pasture was scarce.


Yautepec. Distribution of ticks on individual animals

The distribution of tick populations on a given animal was made to determine regional body preference on the host. At a place near Cuautla

called Yautepec counts were made on 79 native cattle and Brahman crosses. Animals were chosen at random from a herd of 150 animals. These counts were taken over two or three days with 8 to 12 animals per day evaluated until complete counts on 79 animals were made. Counts were taken by the body regions (Figure 12). The regions used to separate the different body anatomy of cows were face, jaw, ear, upper neck, lateral neck, shoulder, back, upper dewlap, lower dewlap, rib, anterior belly, posterior belly, rump, upper legs, lower legs, tail base, tail, estucheon, rearbelly, udder and upper inner-legs. Those counts were made during November and December 1977.

Data analysis. Data were compiled and graphs were constructed for the number of ticks found on cattle as related to climate and cattle management. Herd infestation rates were calculated on native cattle, Brahman crosses and Holstein crossbreds, and compiled. The cattle tick counts were made in Yecapixtla and Zacatepec.












Figure 12. Body areas of cows where tick distribution was evaluated.


Area


Area in Spanish


Face
Jaw
Ear
Upper Neck Lateral Neck Shoulder Back
Upper Dewlap Lower Dewlap Rib
Anterior belly Posterior belly Rump
Upper Leg Lower Leg Tail Base Tail
Estucheon Rear Belly Udder Upper Inner Leg


Cara Carri 1 los Oreja Corbata Cuello Tabla Cuello Escapula Lomo Pecho Papada Costillar Panza Hijar Muslo
Pierna Mano Muslo Cola Cola Ingle Perine Ubres Sobaco


Number


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11
12
13
14 15 16 17
18 19
20 21




















tL
OL
E8 GL
- y






76


Analysis of the distribution of cattle tick (4.5 to 11.0 mm)

counts in Yautepec was made by using the S.A.S. system to evaluate the probabilities (in per cent) of the goodness of fit using the chisquare test to the following distributions: normal, binomial, double poisson, negative binomial, neyman type A and logarithmic.


Cattle Management in Morelos State


Standard cattle management procedures in Morelos State were determined by making observations and questioning cattle owners and some peasants. Surveys of management methods were also made through discussion with people working in the campaign against the cattle tick in Morelos State (Veterinarians, the state chief, inspectors, and others). Cattle management was identified according to the dry and the wet seasons taking into account the resources of food and water and type of exploitation. Similar management techniques are practiced for areas under the same climate as Morelos State.


Survey of Tick Control Program Status in Morelos State


Surveys were conducted on the number of the dipping vats constructed, the future vats to be built, the number of working people in the campaign (monetary resources) and equipment, and the availability of acaricides. Other possible control measures were discussed in a final study with the officer in charge of the campaign in Morelos State in order to determine the state of the actual tick control program.






77


Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophi us microplus in Morelos State


By correlating the survey results to the results. of the ecological studies and incorporating the understanding of some tick surveillance phenomena with the knowledge of cattle management and by taking into account sociological and economic problems of the area under study, a pest management system was proposed for the cattle tick, Boophi7us microp7us. In this system various control methods were integrated including the chemicals in conjunction with cultural methods, the use of resistant cattle, legal and quarantine methods as well as the

improvement of natural biological control.

This program was discussed in various meetings with the whole

staff of the campaign working in the state (veterinarians, inspectors, etc.) and then with cattle owners and peasants in order to see its practicability and to determine its acceptability.

The pest management system that is proposed will be a combination between the regional technology and the modern technology which in reality the "intermediate technology" which arises as the technology that can be incorporated in countries under development (Ruesink, 1976).














RESULTS


Cattle Tick Ecology


Non-Parasitic Stages. First Phase

Photographs of BoophiZus microplus were taken with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Dr. H. L. Cromroy of the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida. This allowed comparisons to be made between two species present in Mexico, B. microplus and B. annulatus. The main feature used to separate both species as Bauch (1966) showed is coxa I shape. Boophilus microplus females (Figure 13) have two spurs (coxa 1) broadly rounded (Figure 14) about as wide as long and possessing a few setae. Coxa I has two spurs and coxa III and IV have none. On the contrary, B. annulatus has one spur on coxa I and none on coxa 11, 1I1 and IV. Boophilus micropZus male coxa I spur structure is given in Figure 15 and is very distinct as Bauch (1966) reported. It has a triangular pointed internal spur wider than the external with few setae. It also has a caudal process on the ventral posterior side of the opisthosoma. In contrast, B. annulatus has two spurs on coxa I but the internal spur is definitely rounded and the external spur triangular without a caudal process on the ventral posterior side

of the opisthosoma.

The tick ecological studies in the "first phase" (October 1977 to September 1978) was completed at Yecapixtla, Morelos,on the 78




































Figure 13. Scanning electron micrograph of an engorged
female Boophilus microplus tick showing
capitulum, hypostome, and scutum. The legs
are long and about equally developed.







80


A


-a.


-t


2.,


#







































Figure 14. Scanning electron micrographs (ventral view) of
coxa I of Boophilus microplus female tick. Spur
structure and setae shown (see 50 p reference).


























.1





/


~77

,,1~;~

9-,


82


owl



































Figure 15. Scanning electron micrograph (ventral view) of
coxa I of Boophilus microplus male tick. Spur structure and setae shown (see 50 ji reference).






84















L






85


non-parasitic stages with the exception of the studies on fecundity day-by-day which were done in Cuautla, Morelos. Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla

The monthly mean temperature taken at the Yecapixtla meteorological station (mesoclimate) had a lower mean temperature than expected when compared with the macroclimate which correspond to the monthly mean temperature of twelve years. The months with the highest temperatures were May and June (Figure 16) and the lowest temperatures were recorded from December, January and February. The highest month for rainfall was April and the lowest January.

Preoviposition period at Yecapixtla. The number of days required for engorged ticks to complete the preoviposition period when exposed in vegetative covered tubes showed a significant difference (ANOVA, P < 0.01) due to the time of year they were exposed. When comparisons were made between time (month) and vegetation type, both were shown to be significantly important in their effect on the preoviposition period required (ANOVA two way analysis P < 0.05).

When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure and the preoviposition period, significant differences were seen between December (5), February (7), March (8), November (4) and October (2), January (6), October (1) (Table 1, A and C). These mean preoviposition periods ranged from 9.8 to 13.0 days (A) for these months as compared to 4.8 to 7.0 days (C).

When habitats were evaluated as to vegetation type there were significant differences (P < 0.01) demonstrated between primer vegetation and pasture (Table 1) but not between primer vegetation and thicket.











I -i I-r ~


I I


I


Total Rainfall Mean Temperature


/


ON


N D J


F M A M J


J A S


M 0 N T H S

Figure 16. Climatic conditions during the first phase (October 1977 to September 1978)
near the tick study site at Yecapixtla, Morelos (mesoclimate).


34


C>Q)

0 c J


30L


26-


22 18


300


1250


E
E
200

U 4
C fu 150
44 0


100




50


0


- -md-


I
M


-


I


-I-


i


I











Table 1. Mean preoviposition period at Yecapixtla (first
phase) as affected by the time of year and type
of vegetation.


Mean
Number Preoviposition 12
Date of of Period Significant
Exposure Exposure (Days) Difference

Time
Dec. 5 5 13.0

Feb. 22 7 12.0

Mar. 14 8 12.0 A

Nov. 24 4 10.3

Nov. 4 3 9.8 B

Oct. 26 2 7.0

Jan. 26 6 5.0 C

Oct. 21 1 4.8


Vegetation Primer
(Habitats) vegetation 10.5
IA
Thicket 9.8

Pasture 7.4 B


Note: Means covered with uncommon
(P < 0.01).


letters are significantly different


2Tukeys' mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W. (1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.





88


There was no correlation between the number of days required for the oviposition periods and the mean temperature of the macroclimate or the mesoclimate (Table 2).

Figure 17 presents preoviposition periods (days) required for the different types of habitats for the different months of the year. Sample dates that accounted for the significant differences on pasture were seen for exposures October, November and December. The main differences were at the end of the year (October, November, December) when some humidity was present. At the beginning of the year (January, February, March) in all three habitats the preoviposition periods were the same which corresponded to low humidity in the area of study.

Oviposition period at Yecapixtla. The number of days required for engorged ticks to complete the oviposition period when exposed in vegetative covered tubes showed a significant difference (ANOVA P <

0.01) due to the time of the year they were exposed. When comparisons were made between time (month) and vegetation (type) both time and vegetation were shown to be significantly important in the oviposition

period (Table 3).

When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure,

significant differences were seen between January 26, November 24, February 22 (A) and December 5, October 21, November 4 (C-D) (Table 3). No significant differences were seen between means of the exposures

January 26, November 4, February 22, October 26; these accounted for the larger duration of the oviposition period (Table 3).

When habitats were evaluated as to type of vegetation, there were significant differences (P < 0.01) seen between primer vegetation, thicket and pasture (Table 3).




Full Text
Figure 19. Longevity of larvae in three types of vegetation.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.


Man's Activities
Figure 50. A proposed component model of the tick system. 1. Susceptible cattle;
2. Resistant cattle.


73
Zacatepec. Host preference studies
In Zacatepec boundary close to Tequesquitengo Lagune, cattle
tick counts were made on a herd of 50 Holstein crossbred dairy animals
maintained under semi-improved conditions. Each count consisted of
ten animals chosen at random. Counts were made on one side of ten
animals at monthly intervals from October 1978 to September 1979- From
June to December cattle were maintained on pastures with feed supple
ments. From January to May they were fed more as pasture was scarce.
Yautepec. Distribution of ticks on individual animals
The distribution of tick populations on a given animal was made to
determine regional body preference on the host. At a place near Cuautla
called Yautepec counts were made on 79 native cattle and Brahman crosses.
Animals were chosen at random from a herd of 150 animals. These counts
were taken over two or three days with 8 to 12 animals per day
evaluated until complete counts on 79 animals were made. Counts were
taken by the body regions (Figure 12). The regions used to separate
the different body anatomy of cows were face, jaw, ear, upper neck,
lateral neck, shoulder, back, upper dewlap, lower dewlap, rib, anterior
belly, posterior belly, rump, upper legs, lower legs, tail base, tail,
estucheon, rearbelly, udder and upper inner-legs. Those counts were
made during November and December 1977.
Data analysis. Data were compiled and graphs were constructed
for the number of ticks found on cattle as related to climate and
cattle management. Herd infestation rates were calculated
on native cattle, Brahman crosses and Holstein crossbreds, and com
piled. The cattle tick counts were made i n Yecapixt1 a and Zacatepec.


67
In Cuernavaca (Progreso) mesoclimate was taken at the test site
(Figure 8). Temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall were taken
daily. With these data mean monthly temperature and total monthly
rainfall were calculated (mesoclimate). In Zacatepec the experimental
station was just 50 meters from the experiments; also mesoclimate were
taken in the same manner as in Cuernavaca.
Pre-oviposition period. Data taken on pre-oviposition include
the number of days to complete the pre-oviposition period from the first
exposure day to the first eggs laid. When ticks were found dead they
were replaced with live ones of the same age.
Oviposition period. In this case egg masses produced were expressed
in an arbitrary scale in both time and egg mass size. Egg mass size was
related to the total egg number by counting representative samples.
From 1 to 2 days, measurement of egg mass was less than 0.50 cm. This
gave approximately 25 to 400 eggs as number 1. From 3 to 6 days the
measurement of an egg mass was greater than 0.50 cm or approximately
500 to 1400 eggs as number 2. From 7 to 10 days the measurement of an
egg mass 1.0 cm or approximately 1,500 to 2,000 eggs as number 3 and
from 11 to more than 12 days, measurement of egg mass greater than 1 cm
gave approximately 2,200 to 3,000 eggs as number b.
The incubation period was also recorded as beginning from the
moment when the tick started oviposition until the first larvae
emerged.
Longevity of 1arvae. An arbitrary scale was designed in order
to follow larval numbers. It was as follows: A, less than 100 larvae
eclosed; B, 20,000 larvae eclosed (equal to 1 gm); C, less than 100


221
Appendix 2D. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick
B. mievoplus. Fourth Series. November 18 to
December 5, 1977- Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
N u
m b e
r o f
T i c
k s
Date
D-l
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
Mean
Nov. 18
0
220
503
237
272
1 ,232
246.40
19
260
344
410
198
273
1,485
297-00
20
519
355
340
372
480
2,066
413-20
21
433
380
291
312
478
1,894
378.80
22
106
190
219
181
204
900
180.00
23
131
100
186
264
180
861
172.20
24
183
132
108
73
109
605
121.00
25
89
48
0
31
28
196
39.20
26
50
42
38
52
23
205
41.00
27
22
10
29
15
70
146
29.20
28
3
10
32
10
8
63
12.60
29
10
6
19
10
3
48
9.60
30
6
2
15
0
0
23
4.60
Dec. 1
3
3
0
2
0
8
1.60
2
1
0
0
2
0
2
0.40
3
0
1
1
5
7
1.75
4
.U
1
3
0
4
0.58
5
0
1
1
2
0.66
6
JU
ju
'*
0
0.00
Tota 1
1,816
1,844
2,195
1,175
2,128
9,748.00
n
(14)
(17)
(18)
(18)
(12)
Mean
129.71
108.47
121.94
98.05
177-33
X
1 ,949.00
/V
Death of the tick.


68
larvae remaining alive. Total longevity was used in order to establish
the pasture spelling possibilities.
Mesoclimate at Cuautla
The Cuautla meteorological station was located about two
kilometers from the oviposition study site. Temperature (maximum and
minimum) and rainfall were recorded daily. Mean monthly temperature
was calculated and total monthly rainfall was used (mesoclimate).
Oviposition of the cattle tick in cage trials at Cuautla. The
oviposition of engorged females was studied in the cages as at
Yecapixtla and Cuernavaca and compared with the oviposition in tubes
placed into the soil and tubes placed on the soil surface. Five cages
with five engorged females in each were used, as well as 10 tubes, each
one with an engorged female. Ten of the tubes were placed in the soil
4 cm deep and ten on the soil surface. These observations were made
only once (see Results).
Microclimate in tubes and cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
Microclimate was taken in Cuernavaca (Progreso) for one week in
the dry season and one week during the wet season. Temperature was
taken from the precise location in the cages where the ticks were
located inside the tubes (on soil surface) and six centimeters deep
in the soil of the cage, as well as other sites. Humidity was taken
just at the soil surface. Temperature was taken utilizing a scanning
tele-thermometer YSI model 47 with 47 channels (Figure 10).
Data ana lysis. "T" test analyses were made with data of the
non-paras itic stages taken with cages against tubes. Correlations


97
There was no correlation between the number of days required for
the longevity of the larval period and the mean temperature of the
macroclimate or mesoclimate (Table 6).
Figure 19 presents the longevity of larvae (days) in three types
of vegetation. Significant differences (P < 0.01) on pasture were seen
for exposures October, November and December (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). In
general the longest larval longevity were for primer vegetation with
little change for the different months. Fewer days were required for
larval ticks located on thickets and less for larval ticks located on
pasture. Larger periods were related with rainy months.
Total longevity at Yecapixtla. The number of days required for
B. micpoplus ticks to complete the total non-parasitic stage, from
dropping of the engorged female from the cattle to the last larvae found
alive when exposed in vegetative covered tubes, showed a significant
difference (ANOVA P < 0.05) due to the time of the year they were
exposed. When comparisons were made between time (month) and vegetation
(type) both were shown to be significantly important (Table 7, ANOVA,
two way analysis, P < 0.01).
When comparisons were made between the date of exposure of the
non-paras i t i c stages separated by habitats (type of vegetation)
significant differences were seen between the type of vegetation and
the non-paras itic stages period (Table 7), with the exception of the
oviposition period where no significant differences were shown on
thicket and primer vegetation. In general, there are more interactions
between the date of exposure on primer vegetation and thicket than the
date of exposure on pasture.


V
90
Table 2. The duration of the preoviposition periods at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico as influenced by
the macroclimate and mesoclimate. First phase.
Exposure
Month
Macro (A)
TxC
Preoviposition
Period
Mean in Days
Meso (B)
TxC
1
Oct.
22.0
4.67
19.5
2
Oct.
22.0
7.00
19-5
3
Nov.
22.8
9.67
18.0
4
Nov.
22.8
10.33
18.0
5
Dec.
21.9
13.00
17.0
6
Jan.
22.4
5.00
16.5
7
Feb.
23.2
12.00
17.6
8
Mar.
24.3
12.00
18.2
Hypothesis*
r = 4873
r =
0.3467
Ho: r = 0
r2 = 0.2375
2
r =
0.1202
Hi : r 0
R2 = 0.7625
r2 =
0.8798
Do not reject
b = 1.9758
b =
1.0630
(A) Macroclimate: Monthly mean temperature for twelve years.
(B) Mesoclimate: Monthly mean temperature for October 1977~September
]978.
"Linear correlation ref. Snedecor, G. W. (1961) 160-193 pp. Iowa St.
Univ. Press.


33
ticks exposed in field plots in the 38 cm rainfall district varied
from 10 to 22 weeks, and in the 200 cm rainfall district from 15 to
26 weeks. He also mentioned that Wilkinson (1957) reported a marked
decrease in tick fertility which occurs in the winter in south Queensland.
However, during the winter in Rockhampton ticks laid large numbers of
fertile eggs. Very few larval progeny of ticks hatching in summer
survived three months after the date of placement of the parent female.
Progeny of ticks put out in the winter persisted up to 5 1/2 months after
the date of placement of the parent. The comparatively short survival
periods of larvae in central Queensland in summer indicated the
practicability of controlling the cattle tick by temporarily destocking
pastures.
Larvae of B. mieroplus have the ability to take water from the
air in conditions close to saturation. Larvae of Amblyomma eajennense
died after six days exposed to 53% R.H.; after 7 days at 60% R.H.;
after 21 days at 11% R.H. and at 85% and 93% they can survive for 70
and 127 days (Knlle, 1966).
McCulloch and Lewis (1968) reported that the maximum longevity of
the non-paras itic stages of the cattle tick in Australia to be 7 1/2
months. The great majority of larvae died within 6 months of the
parent leaving the host. For a program of strategic dipping aimed
at economic control, the optimum time for beginning would be early
October in the areas most favorable to the tick.
Boophilus mieroplus was eradicated from an infested island near
Townsville, Australia, by removing all cattle and horses for 26 weeks.
Experimental tick plots showed the longest survival time of B. mieroplus


18
Description
Female
Body. Unengorged, length from tip of palpi to posterior margin (in
cm) from 2.34 to 2.85; width from 1.14 to 1.50. Long oval. Scutum
occupying about half the total length. Median and posterolateral
grooves present. Marginal groove absent. Venter with genital and
postanal median grooves present. Hairs present on dorsal and ventral
surfaces but absent in all grooves. Fully engorged specimens may be
as large as 13-0 by 9.0 and are oval, wider and thicker behind (Bauch,
1966).
Capitulum. Length from tip of palpi to posterior margin, about
0.45; width from 0.62 to 0.66. (The palpi are mildly protrusile,
hence measurements of length are not entirely dependable.) Hexagonal.
Cornua as rounded corners (variable). Dorsal surface with two
longitudinal -alleys which traverse the porose areas. Porose areas
oval, mildly convex, with longer axes diagonal. Palpal article I not
visible above. Inner edge of article 2 either in one continuous convex
curve or mildly notched near the middle, the notch when present leading
to a transverse dorsal crease, which may or may not extend to the
outer side of the article (Bauch, 1966).
In ventral view, basis is subreniform with posterior margin
salient. Palpal article 1 absent. Articles 2 and 3 with the posterior
salient edges continuing into the median margin; pstero-inner edges of
2 and 3 sometimes extended into mild diagonal lobes (Bauch, 1966).
Hypos tome. Short, broad, mildly notched apically; denticles,
five or six in each file and occupying about three-fifths of the total
length. Length, about 0.30 (Bauch, 1966).


10
c) Center, with an area of 7-6 million ha of pasture, has stocking
rates of 5 to 10 ha per animal. The climate varies from dry to
temperate and tropical. This area has a higher cattle population (one
third of the total) and higher consumption rate of meat and milk.
Jalisco and Michoacan States account for 17% of the total cattle
of the country. There are different breeds of cattle including
Hereford, Shorthorn, Brahman and others, but the native cattle are very
well distributed. Dairy cattle are of primary importance, d) Gulf of
Mexico, extends over 3-7 million ha but it is the most important area
for grazing and fattening cattle. In Tabasco, Veracruz and Campeche
stocking rates rise to 3 head per ha. In the Yucatan peninsula, which
has a lower dry climate, there is a stocking rate of 8 to 15 ha per
head of cattle or less in Tizimin. "The Huastecas" area comprise
part of Veracruz, Hidalgo, San Luis Potos and Tamaulipas States.
The average stocking rate is 1 head per ha. Production is almost
200,000 head of cattle, with an average slaughtered weight of 240 to
250 kg per unit. Two thirds of the beef consumption is by Mexico City.
The climate is tropical with 6 to 11 months of rainfall (1,800 to 3,000
mm per year). Cattle are pastured during the dry season. The main
breeds are Brahman crosses, e) South Pacific, surface of 5.2 million
ha and 2.3 million cattle. Stocking rates vary from 1.5 to 10 ha per
animal and in some places even more. The climate is mostly semi-
tropical and dry with the exception of some areas in Chiapas State
with a tropical and wet climate. Cattle management is similar to some
areas of the center and in some areas in the South Pacific area
(Anonymous, 1980).


APPENDIX k
DATA ON MICROCLIMATE


43
intense to provide a possibile explanation for scarcity of ticks. He
presented a list of ant species found in tick infested areas; about
half the engorged females may be killed by ants and Lycos id spiders.
Some of the ant species were Iridomyrmex detectas, Pheidole megacephala,
P. weisei, Aphaenogaster longiceps, Chalcoponera metallica, Iridomyrmex
anceps, Polyrhachis aurea, Notorious foreli, Monomorium gracillimum,
Rhytidoponera cris tata, Meranoplus hirsutus and Acrocoelia australis.
Spider predation by Lycosa spp. occurred in Rockhampton with one
specimen being identified as L. deffroyi.
Harris and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977) have shown
that in Louisiana, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta had caused dramatic
reductions in ticks Amblyomma americanum (L.).
In Australia, the pee-wee, Grallina cyanoleuca G. and the introduced
starlings Stumus vulgaris are quite frequently seen apparently pecking
ticks from cattle (Wilkinson, 1970).
A wasp Hunterellus theilerae was collected from nymphs of
Amblyomma nuttalli (Graff, 1979). It was found in the Ivory Coast of
Africa.
No parasites of B. microplus are known, though possibly there are
unicellular parasites, or symbionts, which may occasionally be harmful
(Wi1kinson, 1970).
Resistant cattle
Tick resistant cattle have been an area of study for many years.
Until now the mechanism of resistance in hosts in the case of B.
microplus ticks remains unknown.


61
Figure 6. Cage, a new design to study ticks
on pastures.
A. Upper part covered with cloth.
B. Middle wood cage.
C. Screened bottom buried under
the soil.


DISCUSSION
Cattle Tick Ecology
Non-Parasitic Stages. First Phase
In Yecapixtla, Morelos no mortality was noted in the preoviposition
period (Table 1). The shortest life cycle duration was observed for
October and January when the conditions of the macroclimate and meso-
climate (Figures 4 and 16) show the lowest rainfall. December, February,
March and November show rainfall from 50 to 200 mm per month with tempera
tures raising from 18 to 22C but as there was no linear correlation
between the number of days for the preoviposition period and the macro
and mesoclimate, an exact explanation could not be made. Also no
separate microclimate measurements were taken. Preovi position rates
from primer vegetation and thicket were both different from pasture
grass. There were strong fluctuations in preoviposition for time
required for the three habitats, mainly for exposures from October to
November (1 to 4) but from December exposure (5) through January (6),
February (7) and March (8) no significant differences (P < 0.01) were
seen in the preoviposition requirements. This is the time when the dry
season takes place and when trees lose their leaves. The bush vegetation
maintains green leaves during this time but is scarce.
In the oviposition period the type of vegetation (Table 3) was
very important and accounts for the main significant differences (P <
0.01) for all habitats tested. No significant correlation (P < 0.01)
178


Date and Exposures
Oct 1
Jul 5
Mar k
Feb 3
Jan 2
Oct 1
Figure
ZTS I
~ ZTB1
-p^m. ZTCS1
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimiiii zcsi
iiiiiiiiiikiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir ZSB>
iiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiir pcs
PTC5
PT5
iiiiimiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiui pc/.
PJCk
PT^4
iiiiiniiiiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiii pc3
PTC3
' PT3
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinr pc2
PTC2
PT2
mi iiiiiiii iiiiii nun mi iiiiiii pci
PTC I
" PTI
J L I I L I J I
Cage (C)
Tube in Cage (TC)
Tube (T)
miimm
P = Cuernavaca
(Progresso)
Z = Zacatepec
B = Bermuda grass
S = Setaria grass
-i.
20
*t0
60 80
100 120 HO
Time (Days)
160 180
200
33. continued.
N>
CTN


25
it was found that just one tick, Boophilus annulatus microplus, was
collected from the Florida deer, Odoiaoleus osaeola (Anonymous, 1952).
Powell (1970) reported that sheep are accepted as hosts by larvae
of B. microplus in the absence of cattle and that they can reach
maturity. These ticks were found near Yeerongpilly in Brisbane,
Australia, and they produced eggs, from which larvae were successfully
hatched. Graham et at. in 1972 stated that Boophilus annulatus (Say)
was found on a variety of hosts other than cattle such as deer, sheep,
goats, dogs, cats and rabbits during the years 1905-1913 (in the south
western and southern United States) where the ticks were eradicated by
treating only bovines and equines. In contrast, many thousands of
white-tailed deer had to be slaughtered in Florida before B. microplus
was eradicated from that state. The same authors found that by putting
20,000 larvae of B. microplus on one deer and the same quantity of
larvae on one calf they could produce more engorged females on the
deer than on the calf. In this case 738 engorged females were produced
from the deer and 536 engorged females from the calf. Development
required 30 days on the deer and 28.5 days on the calf to reach the
adult stage. Ticks were k2% heavier from the calf than the ones
obtained from the deer. They did not find B. annulatus on rabbits,
racoons, oposums, skunks, coyotes, bob cats or roadrunners. Under
natural conditions deer probably remove most of the ticks that attach
to them by grooming, so only a few ticks located in the most inaccessible
areas of the deer's body are able to complete their development. On the
other hand, it should be remembered that female ticks can deposit viable
eggs even though they are dislodged from the host before they complete
their engorgement. Finally, the authors reported that wild animals and


75


91
Table 3- Mean oviposition period at Yecapixtla (first phase)
as affected by the time of year and type of vegetation.
Date of
Exposure
Number
of
Exposure
Mean
Oviposition
Period
(Days)
Significant'
Difference
Jan. 26
6
29.0
Nov. 24
4
26.0
A
Feb. 22
7
25.3
B
Oct. 26
2
25.0
Mar. 14
8
24.0
Dec. 15
5
22.7
C
Oct. 21
1
18.7
D
Nov. 4
3
17.3
Vegetation
Pri mer
I
(Habitats)
vegetation
10.5
A
Thicket
UD
OO
B
Pasture
73 |
C
Note: 'Means
covered with uncommon
letters are significantly different
Tukey's mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W.
(1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.


APPENDIX 3
RAW DATA OF THE NON-PARAS IT IC STAGES OF
THE CATTLE TICK, B. MICROPLUS


143
No significant correlation (P < 0.01) was demonstrated between
the longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate and mesoclimate
(Table 16) for larvae studied in cages. No significant correlation
(P < 0.01) was demonstrated with larvae in tubes. Larva ticks failed
to complete the cycle in tubes in 13 cases out of 16 (Table 16).
Mesoclimate at Cuautla
Figure 39 shows the climatic measurements taken at the meteoro
logical station of Cuautla which registered a long dry season from
December to March. The June fecundity experiment in tubes and cages
took place when high temperatures were registered (mean monthly
temperature, 24C) and 20 mm total rainfall. Moisture was present
due to the May rainfall (60 mm).
Oviposition of the cattle tick in cage trials at Cuautla. Table
17 shows that the oviposition rate was the highest for caged ticks at
6 cm under the soil (mean 2,040 eggs). The primary problem in taking
these measurements was that the ticks were disturbed at first day of
oviposition and at 13th to 20th day in order to count the eggs. Tubes
6 cm under the soil had low numbers of eggs (mean 1,652.31) and they
were disturbed 7 times. The ticks in tubes on the soil surface layed
only 93 eggs (all four ticks) by the 7th day and then they died.
Microclimate in tubes and cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
Figures 40 to 43 show temperature trends inside the tubes on the
soil surface (tick habitat) and inside the cage under the soiT 6 cm
deep (tick habitat). Temperatures in tubes had strong fluctuations
(from 23 to 33C) in 24 hours reaching from 44 to 50C at noon and from


231
Appendix 4B. Microclimate: temperature (C) at
different sites and humidity (in
per cent) in Cuernavaca (Progreso),
Morelos, Mexico. Dry season*, 1979-
S i tes
Half
C1oudy
Day
C1oudy
Day
Sunshine
Day
Inside the Tube
41.0
25.0
50.0
Out of the Tube
34.5
23.0
40.0
In the Cage
Soi1 Surface
29-5
22.5
39.0
In the Cage
Inside Soil
(6 cm deep)
22.2
20.5
26.0
Tube Inside Cage
35.0
22.5
22.0
V?
February, 1979.


Figure 35
Non-paras it¡c stages studied in cages
(Progreso) Mexico. Second phase 1978-
in Cuernavaca
1979.


Table 10. Linear correlation between the mean number
of eggs and tick weights. Cuautla, Morelos,
Mexico. 1977-1978.
Number of
Eggs
Mean Weight
of Ticks*
(grams)
2,882.80
0.30
2,359.20
0.31
2,643.40
0.27
1 ,949.00
0.25
1,425.80
0.26
1 ,694.60
0.25
Hypostheis:
O
II
O
m
r = 0.6930
Hi: r1 t 0
R2 = 0.3070
Do not reject
Fully engorged (4.58.0 mm).


39
Ticks of the genus Boophilus have been eradicated from the United
States and only occasional minor infestations are found along the
Mexican border. Both B. armulatus and B. microplus abound in Mexico.
Continual dipping and inspection of cattle imported from Mexico into
the United States are necessary to prevent introduction of Boophilus
(Drummond et al. 1967).
Drummond et al. in 1976 reported that in laboratory tests four
strains (3 from Mexico and one from Texas) of the southern cattle
tick Boophilus mieroplus (Canestrini) were not resistant to nine
commonly used acaricides. In field tests of 18 acaricides sprayed on
cattle artifically infested with B. microplus and with the cattle tick,
A. ccnnulatus, 16 were applied at concentrations that afforded 33%
control of both species. In dipping vat tests, a solubilized
formulation (1 part Al: 1 part Triton X-100) of compound 4072,
after an initial charge of 0.1% was still effective at 126 wk of
postcharge (end of test). Phosmet (Imidan ) in the vat at 0.25%
caused poisoning in cattle but was effective for 68 wk at a con
centration of 0.001%.
In Mexican field tests in Monte Morelos, Nuevo Len State and
Yautepec, Morelos State all six acaricides tested were effective for
the control of Boophilus species. Until now there is no field evidence
of insecticide resistant strains in Mexico (Anonymous, 1980).
Rawlins and Mansingh (1978) detected the susceptibility of five
strains of B. microplus from Jamaica, St. Kitts, Trinidad and Guyana
to 15 acaricides. The LC50 values revealed that the Guyanese ticks
were the most susceptible strain in the Caribbean, even more than the
susceptible Yeerongpilly strain of Australia. All strains were least


37
problem has become more widespread in most countries although the
general picture of types of tick resistance remains similar. The
global situation is dominated by Boophilus microplus in Australia
(Anonymous, 1975).
Boophilus microplus demonstrated resistance for the first time
to DDT in 1954, to HCH-Dieldrin in 1950 and to organophosphates
acaricides in 1964 (Drummond, 1977). At least eight distinct strains
of B. microplus in Australia now show unique and overlapping resistance
to a variety of organophosphate and carbamate acaricides. In other
countries where resistance is not present every effort must be made
to prevent or delay selection for resistance to presently used
acaricides and any new acaricide (Drummond, 1977)-
Amaral et al. (1974) found that strains "D" from Rio Grande Do
Sul and "M" from Minas Gerais, Brazil,were resistant to coumaphos,
dioxathion, and ethion but that a new acaricide, American cyanamide
AC-84633, "nimidane" (4-ch1oro-N-1 3dithietan-2-Ylidene 2-methyl-
benzenamine) controlled these strains. Tick resistance has been
confirmed in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the United States, in
Boophilus decoloratus in Africa, B. microplus in Australia, South
American countries, Malagasy and India; and in Rhipicephalus
appendiculatus and R. evertsi in South Africa. Resistance has not
been recorded in the genera Ixodes, Hyalomma or Haemaphysalis. A
more detailed knowledge of the tick ecology is required which is
essential for an effective control. It is also necessary to integrate
these approaches with the efficient use of pastures and cattle manage
ment (Wharton and Roulston, 1970). The Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations (Anonymous, 1977) recommended that tick species


82


35
the tick were more stable. At intermediate stocking rates (4,000 m
per animal) population fluctuations were in between the other two
treatments. Sutherst and Wharton (1971), in considering the climate in
relation to the cattle tick, said that the fluctuating rainfall in
Australia may produce situations where either long periods of favorable
conditions allow the tick populations to increase or long unfavorable
periods cause the local extinction of the ticks. The former would
require supplementary control such as with acaricides, while the latter
will tend to be minimized by favorable foci and poor conditions of the
host reducing their resistance. Innoculation for protection against
babesiosis may be required as a precautionary measure where tick
populations are maintained at low levels. They also pointed out that
ecological studies are needed in order to construct a population model
of Boophilus microplus and predict populations in relation to climate
and other biotic factors. Also Arthur (1975) predicted that modeling
of tick populations will be a prerequisite to control.
Recent ecological studies are taking into account the micro
climate (Daniel, 1978) as a determining element in the distribution
of ticks and their developmental cycles. It emphasizes that meteoro
logical stations do not give exact information about the ecological
niches occupied by ticks. A measurement of microclimate conditions
must be made in order to find relations between macroclimate, meso-
climate and microclimate.
Microclimates influence egg laying and therefore fecundity and
this is also related to predators and parasites. Host populations
affect microclimate and cutting grass for feeding (Davidson et al.,
1970).


Date and Exposures
- Bermuda -Setaria -
Oct
Feb
May
Oct
Feb
May
p.a 0
LL
1 2 3
ri/y
Longevity of Larvae
1
1 1
1 = 25~A00 eggs
2 = 500-1400 eggs
3 = 1500-2000 eggs
4 = 2200-3000 eggs
A = < 100 larvae
B = 20,000 larvae
C = < 100 larvae
P.0. = Preov¡pos ition
0 = Oviposition
I = Incubation
LL = Longevity of
Larvae
100 120 1 *0 160 180 200
Time (Days)
Figure 36. Non-pa ras itic stages studied in cages in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. Second phase.
1978-1979.
V-O
K>


Table
12 The effect of pastures on the non-paras it¡c stages of
the cattle tick, B. microplus studied in cages in
Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico 136
14 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
preoviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 1 41
15 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
oviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 142
16 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 144
17 Oviposition of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.)
in cage trials at Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 147
18 Gravid Boophilus microplus (Can) and their natural
predation by Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 155
19 Total predation of gravid females of the cattle tick
Boophilus microplus (Can.) exposed in different habitats
in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 156
20 Chi-square analysis for predated and unpredated females
of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.) exposed
in different habitats in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. 157
21 Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick Boophilus
microplus by the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Fab.)
on unpastured grass in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 159
22 Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus (Can.) by the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata
(Fab.) on setaria and Bermuda grasses in Zacatepec,
Morelos, Mexico 160
23 Host preference of B. microplus on native cattle in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 161
24 Host preference of B. microplus on native cattle in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 165
25 Host preference of engorged female ticks of B. microplus
on dairy cattle in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico 167
26 Probabilities for the goodness of fit using the chi-square
test for counts of the total number of the cattle tick
on 79 head of cattle in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico 170
V|


31
Boophilus microplus engorged females have a pattern of dropping
off the host, when they reach 4.5 to 8.0 mm and with the first light
of the morning (Wharton, 1974a). Wharton and Utech (1970) gave a
methodology: they found that counting ticks 4.5 to 8.0 mm in length
on one day provided a reliable estimate of the numbers of engorged
ticks dropping the following day. Partly engorged females, which
have grown to a length of 4 to 6 mm (10 to 30 mg) undergo rapid final
engorgement at night to reach a length of 8 to 11 mm (150 to 250 mg)
and detach from cattle in the early hours of the morning.
Ecology
The parasitic life cycle
Ecological studies on the tick parasite stage are very important
to develop tick control methods. Hitchcock (1954) studied the parasitic
stage of B. miaroplus in Australia. The minimum duration of the larval
stage was 4.5 days, and the maximum, 13-1 days. Fifty per cent of the
larvae had undergone ecdysis by 5-5 days after attachment. Nymphs
commenced to moult 11.9 days after the attachment of the larvae and
the last moulted 20.3 days after. Adult males were still present up
to 70 days after attachment of the larvae. Engorged female ticks
commenced to feed after 18.9 days post larvae attachment. Fifty per
cent had fallen by 21.9 days, and the last fell at 35-5 days. Climate
has little effect on the duration of the stages on cattle.
On cattle, male ticks appear somewhat earlier than females, usually
on the 13th day. The adult females emerge from the nymph stage on about
the 14th or 15th day of parasitic life. Usually females are fertilized


181
six series studied) for the egg production (Table 9). It is reasonable
to assume that the mesoclimate at the time of this study, October 1977
to September 1978 (Figure 22) which covered both the dry and wet season-
influenced ticks to produce high numbers of eggs (mean 2,592) in a humid
habitat or to produce low number of eggs (mean 1,528) in a dry habitat.
Under laboratory conditions this trend has been previously demonstrated
for B. miaroplus (De La Vega, 1975).
A linear correlation of 69% (Table 10) between the mean weight of
engorged ticks and the number of eggs they laid was found as was reported
by Sutherst (1969) for B. miaroplus tick drops from the host in the dry
season they start laying eggs quickly and the number of eggs produced
daily peaks in less than five days (Figure 29) and because of this the
capacity for increase (rc) becomes larger at this time of the year.
The number of eggs produced that will produce female offspring (Ro)
decreases however. If B. miaroplus ticks drop from the host in the
wet season they start laying eggs slowly and the number of eggs produced
daily peaks in more than six days (Figures 23, 24 and 25) and because
of this the capacity for increase (rc) became shorter. The number of
eggs that will produce females in the offspring were higher. This is
demonstrated in the tick surveys on fecundity made in this study.
Non-Pa ras itic Stages. Second Phase
During this phase tubes were evaluated without cover vegetation
and ticks inside the tubes seldom completed the non-paras itic stage
cycle because of high mortality (Figure 33). This has not happened
with the ticks tested inside cages as they buried themselves into the
ground inside the cage, in the same manner as ticks in pastures would


44
Riek in 1956 said at that time that resistance in Bos taurus
is due to the development of a skin hylersensitivity while in Bos
indicus this skin hypersensitivity is aided possibly by the presence
of an immune reaction. European breeds had a large number of mast
cells in the dermis when compared with highly susceptible animals.
The mast cells seem to be the sensitized cell in the resistant animal.
The union of antigen with antibody attached to these cells probably
brings about the liberation of histamine which cuases the oedema and
irritation following larval, nymphal and adult attachment in the
animals.
Seeback et al. in 1970 conducted experiments to measure the
effects of infestation of B. miovoplus on cattle and to separate the
effects of reduced food intake (anorectic effect) from those due to the
remaining effect of tick infestation (specific effect). The anorectic
effect accounted for approximately 65% of the depression of body weight
due to tick infestation. The specific effect was tested and the
compensatory gain made by the infested group was less than that of the
group kept tick free. This indicates a severe effect on the metabolism
of the tick infested animals, with prolonged after effects.
The zebu crossbreds on an average carried 20% less ticks
than carried by the British cattle. There tended to be more females
than males, in summer than in winter and in than in
animals. Heritability in British cattle was up to 48%, but in some
cases much lower. In the Zebu crossbreds there was little heritability
variation in F^ cattle, but in subsequent generations heritability was
estimated as 82% (Seifert, 1971). Hewetson in 1969 developed resistance
in purebred sahiwal cattle which acquired resistance to 3. microplus


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Agriculture and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1980
Dean, Graduate School


Figure 38. Comparison of larval longevity periods studied in cages at three
localities. Second phase. 1978-1979.


183
The maximum total longevity of the non-paras itic stages was
190.0 days. It was found in Zacatepec on Bermuda grass (6.3 months).
Here the experiments were located in an experimental area for agri
culture purposes and had irrigation at least once a month. Cuernavaca
(Progreso) locality accounted for the minimum total longevity of three
studied localities, it was recorded 96.40 days (3.2 months). Yecapixtla
was in an intermediate situation with the total longevity recorded
117.13 days (3*9 months). As cattle spelling from pastures to corn
stalk areas occurs, Cuernavaca and Yecapixtla data showed that a
pasture spelling program for controlling B. miaroplus can be implemented
however for areas under irrigation with high humidity the whole year
round some other alternative must be proposed.
In different pastures the stages of development varies as the
plant growth provides a different environment (Table 13 and Figures 37
and 38). It is pointed out that most of the work done on the non-
parasitic stages do not include more than one pasture type (Harley,
1966 and Wilkinson, 1970).
The longest total longevity of the non-parasitic stage did occur
on the exposure of middle May on Bermuda grass which disagrees with
what Harley (1966) reports in Australia. He reports that it happened
late in the wet season from March to April.
As in the first phase, there were no correlations demonstrated with
the macroclimate, mesoclimate and the duration of the cycles of the non-
parasitic stages. De La Vega (1975) found linear and exponential functions
with temperature and the preovi posit ion and oviposition periods but his
experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions. In the case of the


Table 23.
Host preference of B. mioroplus (4.5-8.0 mm) on native cattle' in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. 1977-1978.
An ima1
1977
Oct.
21
Nov.
9
Nov.
25
Dec.
9
1978
Jan.
16
Count
Feb.
14
Dates^
Mar.
6
Tota 1s
1
5(23.80)
25(32.89)
99(33.55)
24(15-58)
7(58.33)
62(48.81)
36(37-5)
5(83.33)
2
4(42.85)
15(52.63)
98(66.77)
22(29.87)
4(91.66)
46(85.03)
21 (59.37)
1
3
3(57.14)
15(72.36)
21(73.89)
21 (43-50)
1
19
18(78.12)
0
4
2(66.66)
12(88.15)
19(80.33)
18(55-19)
0
0
10(88.54)
0
40%(79.28)
5
2(76.19)
6(96.05)
18(86.44)
16(65.58)
0
0
6(94.79)
0
624
6
2(85.71)
3
14(91.18)
14(74.67)
0
0
5
0
7
2(95.23)
0
12(95.25
14(83.76)
0
0
0
0
8
1
0
8(97.96)
10(90.25)
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
5(99.66)
10(96.75)
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
0
Totals
21
76
295
154
12
127
96
6
787
Cattle
G razing:
P a s t u
r e
Cor
n Stalk
s
^and Brahman crosses.
Numbers in parentheses are percentages ofticks on animal (for each date).


93
Table 4. The duration of the oviposition periods at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the
macroclimate and mesoclimate. First phase.
Exposure
Month
Macro (A)
TxC
Ovi pos ition
Period
Mean in Days
Meso (B)
TxC
1
Oct.
22.0
18.67
19.5
2
Nov.
22.8
25.00
18.0
3
Nov.
22.8
17.33
18.0
4
Dec.
21.9
26.00
17.0
5
Jan.
22.4
22.67
16.5
6
Feb.
23.2
29.00
17-6
7
Mar.
24. 3
25.33
18.2
8
Apr.
26.2
24.00
19-5
Hypothesis"
r = 0.2223
r =
0.3327
Ho: r = 0
r2 = 0.494
2
r =
0.1107
Hi: r/0
R2 = 0.9506
r2 =
0.8893
Do not reject
b = 0.6007
b =
1.2071
(A) Macrocl¡mate:
Monthly
mean temperature of
twelve years.
(B) Mesoclimate:
1978.
Month 1y
mean temperature for
October 1977 to
September
''Linear correlation
i ref. Snedecor, G. W. (1961)
. 160-193 pp. 1
1owa S t.
Univ. Press.


227
Appendix 3B. Raw data of the non-paras itic stages of the cattle
tick, Boophilus mievoplus in Cuernavaca (Progreso)
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979.
EXPOSURES*
Stages on
Commenced and
Months
Covered
1)
African
1
2
3
4
5
Star Grass
Oct. 5
Jan. 5
Feb. 15
Mar. 5
Jul. 10
T
4.6
0
10.0
0
0
Preovipos ition
Oct.
Feb.
Oct.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Jul.
C
1 1.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
12.0
T
3.0
0
12.0
0
0
Ovi pos ition
Oct.
Mar.
Nov.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
Aug.
C
28.0
22.0
28.0
30.0
28.0
1ncubation
T
0
0
0
0
0
Nov.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
Aug.
C
37.0
30.0
33.0
36.0
34.0
T
0
0
0
0
0
Longevity of
Larvae
Jan.
Mar.
May
Jun.
Oct.
C
43.0
33-0
45.0
58.0
74.0
T
0
0
0
0
0
Total Longevity
C
91.0
73-0
90.0
108.0
120.0
Means in days of nine ticks (three in each tube) and five ticks (in one
cage), in each observation; and 45 ticks in 15 tubes and 25 ticks in
five cages in each exposure. T, tube; C, cage.
1) Months covered when ticks finished the stage.


8
national campaign to improve the bovine cattle industry, not just for
the improvement of internal consumption but also to intensify
exportation after the improvement of production. By I960, most of the
technical aid was in the hands of the private sector with few
veterinarians and other technicians working with the farmers to improve
herd quality (Anonymous, 1980).
In 1930 there were 10,083,000 head of cattle in the Mexican
Republic, in 1950, 15,713,000, in 1958, 21,921,000 and in 1970 there
were 22,500,000 (Anonymous, 1980).
The ecological areas for cattle production can be classified in
Mexico as follows (Figure 1): a) North, with 39.^ million hectars and
stocking rates of 6 to 50 ha per animal (average), with the exception
of "the Huastecas" which has a better climate and soil and a stocking
rate of 2 head per ha on native pastures or 3 head per ha on improved
pasture. Close to 30% of the livestock production occurs in
Chihuahua State. The average temperature is 18C and rainfall varies
from 350 to 900 mm. Cattle spend most of the dry season close to ponds,
during the rainy season animals graze on the rest of the pasture. In
the Huastecas there is higher rainfall (Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosf
States) and higher temperatures. Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Zacatecas,
North of Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosf sell feeder cattle for fattening
to the Huastecas mainly during the dry season. Herefords are the
predominant breed. b) North Pacific, covers 11.3 million ha and has
a stocking rate of 5 to 50 ha per head of cattle. The climate is
tropical and includes irrigated areas for agricultural production.
Cattle management is similar to that of the Gulf of Mexico area.


Figure 15.
Scanning electron m
coxa I of Boophilus
structure and setae
crograph (ventral view) of
microplus male tick. Spur
shown (see 50 y reference)


27
females loose 2% of their weight at 30C and 100% relative humi d i ty
(RH). Negative geotrophism was high at fourth day after
eclosin.
A linear relationship was shown between the weight of engorged
female ixodid ticks and the number of eggs they produce (Sutherst, 1969).
Drummond et at. (1971) proved that in another tick Amblyomma
americanum (L.) the number of eggs per female did not differ significantly
between females disturbed daily and those undisturbed. Peak daily
oviposition occurred on the third day of oviposition.
Dispersal of larvae of B. mieroplus was studied in Australia
(Lewis, 1970) and the results provide evidence that tick larvae disperse
down-wind across a pasture and are carried by casual hosts. Dispersion
by wind was up to 30 m and the casual hosts were rat, cockerels,
magpies and horses.
Physiology
It is well known that larvae of the cattle tick became active
when exposed to carbon dioxide and this gas is used for host detection
(Garca, 1962; Miles, 1968; Korenberg, 1972 and Balashov, 197*0.
Moorhouse (1967) described the pattern of attachment of Boophilus
spp. to cattle. The mouth parts of the larvae, nymphs and adults
penetrate to a similar depth toward the base of the malpighian layer of
the host's skin. Attachment is accomplished by the secretion of cement
whose histochemistry indicated two components, cortex and internum
(Moorhouse, 1967). Ticks in the final stages of engorgement produced
secondary secretions of cement into the lesion.
Waladde (1977) examined the sensory receptors on tarsus 1 and
mouth parts of the cattle tick by scanning electron microscopy. The


APPENDIX 2
RAW DATA OF THE FECUNDITY OF THE
CATTLE TICK, B. MICROPLUS


77
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus microplus
in Morelos State
By correlating the survey results to the results of the ecological
studies and Incorporating the understanding of some tick surveillance
phenomena with the knowledge of cattle management and by taking into
account sociological and economic problems of the area under study, a
pest management system was proposed for the cattle tick, Boophilus
m'iovo'plus. In this system various control methods were Integrated
including the chemicals in conjunction with cultural methods, the use
of resistant cattle, legal and quarantine methods as well as the
improvement of natural biological control.
This program was discussed in various meetings with the whole
staff of the campaign working in the state (veterinarians, inspectors,
etc.) and then with cattle owners and peasants in order to see its
practicability and to determine its acceptability.
The pest management system that is proposed will be a combination
between the regional technology and the modern technology which in
reality the "intermediate technology" which arises as the technology
that can be incorporated in countries under development (Ruesink,
1976).


gure 11. Cages utilized to measure the existence of
predators.
A. Cage, inside earth and exposed ticks.
B. Top to cover the cage.


182
do. This phenomena has not been reported for B. microplus ticks and for
the first time it was indicated that B. microplus ticks can protect
themselves from hostile environments by seeking suitable microclimates
in cracks and holes in the ground. It is pointed out that the time
required for the non-parasitic stages under these conditions (under the
soil) became longer. This phenomena is shown in Figure 33 for three
localities [Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec]. Tubes
under the cage followed a similar trend for the same duration periods,
but reportedly did not give as wide a choice of microclimates as the
cages used in the study.
Harley (1966), Harley and Wilkinson (1971), McColluch and Lewis
(1977), Waters (1972), Wharton et al. (1969), Wilkinson (1970) and
Zapata and Camino (1977) reported the total longevity for B. microplus
in different areas of the world (mainly in Australia) and in a
qualitative measure. The total longevity of the non-paras itic stages
of the present study were presented in a qualitative and quantitative
way also, as an arbitrary scale was developed in order to avoid counts
of individual eggs for ecological studies.
Time required for tick cycles under the soil were not significantly
different (P < 0.01) from the time required for oviposition and incubation
period (Table 12) but significantly different times were required (P <
0.01) for preoviposition and longevity of larvae. This may be because
the normally engorged female ticks during the preoviposition and larval
period are found on soil surface and the oviposition and incubation
period took place under the soil surface as this was where engorged
females were mainly found.


Figure 21. Per cent of eclosin of larvae of the cattle tick, Boophilus
mioroplus in three different habitats and eight exposure dates.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.


69
Figure 10. Equipment for microclimate recording.
Telethermometer (1), hygrometer (2),
and cage (A and B).


34
on the pasture to be 16 weeks. It was noted that two horses on the
island at the start of the scheme had been parasitized by B. mioroplus
for some years and it suggested that brumbies could cause the breakdown
of similar schemes on the mainland (Johnston et at. 1968).
The relationship between egg output and the weights and states of
engorgement of B. annulatus was reported recently by Iwala and Okpala
(1977). Linear correlation was noted between tick weights and number
of eggs produced. The percentage of body weight and eggs produced by
individual ticks did not exceed 50 +_ 2% irrespective of their states of
engorgement.
Variations in temperature affect the developmental periods of
eggs, larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephatus ccppend-ioulatus
which were shortest at an optimum of 30C. Generally, relative humidity
did not affect rate of development. It did, however, critically affect
survival, particularly of eggs and larvae. The relative humidity range
of 60-70% was critical; below this range survival of the eggs and larvae
was very limited. Nymphs and adults were resistant, and natural tick
populations probably survive hot and dry seasons in these stages. In
a habitat with thick vegetation, temperature and humidity fluctuations
were smaller than in one with sparce vegetation, and the former
therefore supported a greater tick population (Tukah irwa, 1976).
Newson (1978) reported the development of RhipiaephaZus appendiou-
latus populations at three different host stocking rates in Nairobi,
Kenya. At high stocking rates (1,000 m per 1 animal) population
fluctuations of the tick were less stable with high fluctuations. At
low stocking rates (12,000 m per 1 animal) population fluctuations of


201
Mahoney, D. F., and Mirre, G. B. 1977- The selection of larvae of
Boophilus rnicroplus infected with Babesia bovis synonym Babesia
argentina. Res. Vet. Sci. 23(0:126-127.
McCulloch, R. N., and 1. J. Lewis. 1968. Ecological studies of the
cattle tick, Boophilus microplus in the north coast district of
New South Wales. Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 19^689710.
Metcalf, R. L. and W. H. Luckmann. 1975. Introduction to Insect Pest
Management. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 5 PP-
Metcalf, R. L. and J. J. McKelvey, Jr. 1976. The Future for Insecticides.
Needs and Prospects. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 487 PP-
Miles, V. I. 1968. A carbon dioxide baited trap for collecting ticks
and fleas from animal burrows. J. Med. Entomol. 5(4):491-495.
Moorhouse, 0. E. 1967. The attachment of some Ixodid ticks to their
natural hosts. Proc. 2nd Int. Cong, of Acarology.
Nagar, S. K., V. K. Saxena, and R. N. Raizada. 1978. Studies on the
rate of infestation of Boophilus microplus (Acaria: Ixodidae)
on Indian cattle, its activity and infestation differential.
Indian J. Anim. Sci. 48(3):173"176.
Noland, J. 1979. New acaricides to control resistant ticks. Rec.
Adv. Acarology I I :5564.
Newson, R. M. 1978. The development of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus
populations at three different host stocking densities. Proc. V
Int. Cong. Acarology. East Lansing, Michigan.
Obenchain, F. D. 1979- Non-acaricida1 chemicals for the management of
Acari fo medical and veterinary importance. Rec. Adv. Acarology
11:35-44.
O'Kelly, J. C., R. M. Seebeck, and P. M. Springell. 1971. Alterations
in the host metabolism by the specific and anorectic effects of the
cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). II. Changes in blood composition.
Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 24:381-389.
Osburn, R. L. and J. H. Olivier, Jr. 1978. Chemosteri 1ization of
Dermacentor vetriabilis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). I. Effects of
metepa on the cytology and fertility of males treated as unfed
adults. J. Parasitol. 64(4):719-726.
Palmer, W. A., J. H. 0. Dingle, and G. H. O'Neill. 1977- Residues of
dioxathion in adipose tissue of cattle subjected to multiple
dippings. Aust. J. Exp. Agrie. Anim. Husb. 17(84):20-24.


215
Appendix 1H. ANOVA test for the total longevity of the non-
parasitic stages of the cattle tick, Boophilus
mioroplus Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First
phase.
Source of Variation
d. f.
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Ca1culated
(1)
T reatments
(Time + vegetation)
23
90,294
3,925.83
43.36**
Error
48
4,396
90.54
Tota 1
71
94,640
TTT
Ti me
(Exposures
7
16,700.00
2,385.71
26.35**
Vegetation
(Habitats)
2
50,925.00
25,462.50
281.23**
1nteraction
14
34,225.00
2,444.64
27.00**
Error
48
4,346
90.54
Tota 1
71
94,640
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
** Significant difference (P < 0.01)


12
in 1Skh, but Florida subsequently suffered 3 limited outbreaks of
B. mieroplus during 19^+5 1950, 1957 1958, and 1960 1961 It was
impossible to determine whether these infestations represented re
appearances of pre-existent low-level populations that survived on wild
animal host or whether they stemmed from new introductions of the tick
from the Caribbean area (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977)* Since 1968,
there have been 18 separate outbreaks north of the buffer zone in
Texas and these have led to the discovery of 235 infested premises.
In areas which are climatically suitable for the survival and reproduction
of B. mieroplus, this species is generally considered to be a more
severe threat than B. ccnnulatus because of an apparent wider host
adaptability and a possible greater genetic vigor (Graham and Hourrigan,
1977).
At the moment there are eradication campaigns in Argentina and
Uruguay which began in 1939 and 19^0, respectively. The main problem in
an eradication program is lack of ecological data (Graham and Hourrigan,
1977). Grillo-Torrado in 1976 reported that resistance to organo-
phosphate insecticides was less of a problem in Argentina than in
Australia but that it often interfered with tick control operations.
In Australia the national government concluded that although
cattle ticks cost governments and producers close to k2 million
Australian dollars per year (= 62 million U.S. dollars) eradication
of the tick, B. mieroplus, was not practical. But an eradication
program in New South Wales was appropriate. They stressed the need
for more use of resistant cattle (Commonwealth of Australia, 1975;
Noland, 1979).


203
Seifert, G. W., P. H. Springell, and R. J. Tatchell. 1968. Radioactive
studies on the feeding of larvae, nymphs, and adults of the cattle
tick, Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini). Parasitology 58:415-430.
Smith, E. H. and D. Pimentel. 1978. Pest Control Strategies. Acad.
Press. New York. 334 PP-
Smith, K. G. V. 1973- Insects and other arthropods of medical importance.
British Museum. London, pp. 437-447.
Smith, R. and F. L. Kilbourne. 1893. Investigations into the nature,
causation, and prevention of Texas or southern cattle fever.
U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. I, BAI.
Snowball, G.J. 1956. The effect of self-licking by cattle on
infestations of cattle tick, Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini).
Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 7:227232.
Solomon, K. R. and A. A. Evans. 1977. Activity of juvenile hormone
mimics in egg-laying ticks. J. Med. Entomol. 14(4):433436.
Springell, P. M., J. C. O'Kelly, and R. M. Seebeck. 1971. Alterations
in the host metabolism by the specific and anorectic effects of
the cattle tick (Boophilus mioroplus). III. Metabolic implications
of boood volume, body water and carcass composition changes.
Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 24:1033-1045.
Stentel, W. 1976. The control of resistant ticks by cyclic amidines.
Fortschr. Veterinaemed. 25:168-172.
Sutherst, R. W. 1969. The precise estimation of the effects of extrinsic
factors on the egg production and egg hatch rates of Ixodid ticks.
Parasitology 59:305-310.
Sutherst, R. W. M. J. Dallwitz, K. B. W. Utech, and J. D. Kerr. 1977.
A population model for Boophilus mioroplus in Australia. J.
Zool. 25:159-174.
Sutherst, R. W., and D. E. Moorhouse. 1972. The seasonal incidence of
Ixodid ticks on cattle in an elevated area of southeastern
Queensland. Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 23:195-204.
Sutherst, R. W. and R. H. Wharton. 1971. Preliminary considerations of
a population model for Boophilus mioroplus in Australia. Proc.
3rd Int. Cong. Acarology. Prague.
Sutherst, R. W., R. H. Wharton, I. M. Cook, I. D. Sutherland, and
A. S. Bourne. 1979- Long term populatoin studies of the cattle
tick, Boophilus mioroplus, on untreated cattle selected for
different levels of tick resistance. Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 30(2):
353-368.


220
Appendix 2C. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick,
B. nrieroplus. Third Series. October 21 to
November 21, 1977. Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
Date
N u
C-l
m b e
C-2
r o f
C-3
T i c
C-4
k s
C-5
Mean
Oct.
21
0
0
30
0
0
30
6.00
22
0
0
10
0
0
10
2.00
23
0
0
8
0
0
8
1.60
24
0
0
10
40
0
50
10.00
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
00.00
26
88
269
632
46
234
1 ,269
253.80
27
161
243
308
16
101
829
165.80
28
482
275
346
357
577
2,037
407.40
29
341
219
313
436
312
1 ,621
324.20
30
306
247
231
299
71
1,154
230.80
31
235
226
277
378
103
1,219
243.80
Nov.
1
194
273
143
188
158
956
191.20
2
182
399
182
391
315
1,469
293-80
3
111
242
39
137
259
788
157.60
4
55
86
40
39
148
368
73.60
5
0
96
31
152
279
558
111.60
6
33
98
14
55
115
315
63.00
7
14
50
10
9
51
134
26.80
8
10
54
9
8
41
122
24.40
9
0
61
6
0
0
66
13-20
10
0
32
6
0
0
38
7.60
11
0
10
3
0
0
13
2.60
12
8
11
1
0
0
20
4.00
13
3
8
1
2
7
21
4.20
14
14
8
1
6
11
40
8.00
15
0
3
2
17
6
28
5.60
16
0
0
0
12
0
12
2.40
17
3
0
1
0
0
4
0.80
18
0
2
0
3
1
6
1.20
19
1
0
JL
1
1
3
0.75
20
10
18
/V
.u
28
14.00
21
J-
A
0
00.00
Total
2,241
2,930
2,654
2,592
2,790
13,217-00
n
(26)
(26)
(28)
(27)
(25)
Mean
86.57
112.69
94.78
96.00
111.60
2,643.40
Death.


76
Analysis of the distribution of cattle tick (4.5 to 11.0 mm)
counts in Yautepec was made by using the S.A.S. system to evaluate
the probabilities (in per cent) of the goodness of fit using the chi-
square test to the following distributions: normal, binomial, double
poisson, negative binomial, neyman type A and logarithmic.
Cattle Management in Morelos State
Standard cattle management procedures in Morelos State were
determined by making observations and questioning cattle owners and
some peasants. Surveys of management methods were also made through
discussion with people working in the campaign against the cattle tick
in Morelos State (Veterinarians, the state chief, inspectors, and
others). Cattle management was identified according to the dry and
the wet seasons taking into account the resources of food and water
and type of exploitation. Similar management techniques are practiced
for areas under the same climate as Morelos State.
Survey of Tick Control Program Status in Morelos State
Surveys were conducted on the number of the dipping vats con
structed, the future vats to be built, the number of working people in
the campaign (monetary resources) and equipment, and the availability
of acaricides. Other possible control measures were discussed in a
final study with the officer in charge of the campaign in Morelos State
in order to determine the state of the actual tick control program.


Temperature
I I I I 1 1 L_
1700 1800 0700 1100 1130 1200 1600 1800
Hours
Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso)-
2000
Figure 43


Figure ^6. Host preference of engorged female ticks (^.5_8.0 mm) of Boophilus
miovoplus on native and Brahman cross cattle'" at Yecapixtla, Morelos,
Mexico.
October to December counts cattle grazed on pasture; January
to June counts cattle grazed on corn stalks.


Figure 2^4. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus, of the second series. September-
October 1977-


96
Table 5- Mean longevity of larvae at Yecaplxtla
(first phase) as affected by the time of
the year and type of vegetation.
Rate of
Exposure
Number of
Exposure
Mean
LongevIty
of Larvae
(Days)
c- -r- J,2
Significant
Difference
Oct. 26
2
67-3
A
Dec. 15
5
63-3
Feb. 22
7
59.0
B
Nov. 24
k
56.0
C
Mar. ]k
8
53-7
Oct. 21
1
50.7
D
Jan. 26
6
42.0
Nov. k
3
29.0
E
Vegetation
Primer
(Hab tats)
vegetation
74.4
A
Th Icket
54.8
B
Pasture
28.8
C
Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different
(P < 0.01).
Tukey's mean test analysis as adapted from Snedecor, G. W.
(1961) 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.
Note:


38
be evaluated for resistance to acaricides or used in screening tests; these
should be limited to the following main genera: Boophilusy Rhipioephalus,
Amblyomma and Devmacentor. Acaricides tested at cooperating laboratories
would be limited to the following chemicals: chlorinated hydrocarbons:
dieldrin (indicator), toxaphene and lindane; organic phosphates: dimethoate
(indicator), coumaphos, chlorfenvinphos, dioxatrion, chlorpyrifos, and
bromophos-ethy1; carbamates: carbaryl and promacyl; and the last group:
foramidines.
Howell (1977) found resistant Boophilus spp. strains in South
Africa. The tests have shown that widespread resistance in varying
degrees occurs in strains of species of B. mioroplus and B. deoolovatus
against compounds of arsenical, organochlorine and organophosphorous
groups. With few exceptions the degree of resistance is of a low
order and probably indicative of selection at the low acaricide con
centrations generally used by stockowners.
Roulston in 1967 said that for practical tick control it
appears advisable to make more extensive use of pasture spelling and
tick resistant cattle, instead of relying exclusively on chemical
contro 1.
Recent advances in controlling ticks off the host by treating or
changing the environment include use of ultra-low-volume (ULV) equip
ment to apply small volumes of (0.6 to 2.3 liters/ha) concentrated or
technical toxicant to the ground as well as systemic insecticides
used experimentally to control ticks on cattle and horses. Feed
treatments of famphur controlled various species of ticks feeding on
cattle (Drummond et al. 1973, 197*0.


Number of Eggs
Time
Figure 26. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. micvoplus, of the fourth series. November
December 1977


21


32
by the males soon after moulting. The great majority drop about the
22nd day of parasitic life, but although the ticks are under "natural
incubator" conditions by the host, there is of course variations
between individuals in their rate of development (Anonymous, 1959).
Wilkinson in 1970 gave an explanation of the distribution of the
cattle tick in Australia. Boophilus tniaroplus has established itself
in Australia in an arc across the northern part of the continent, where
annual rainfall exceeds 38 to 50 cm.
It extends southwards down to the east coast within this zone,
but is progressively limited to the coastal region with low in-land
winter temperatures. In other areas tick scarcity was due to the
aridity of the soil surface of hilly areas, in contrast to the adjacent
tick infested alluvial plains (Wilkinson, 1970).
Sutherst and Moorhouse (1972) reported that in an elevated area
of Queensland, Australia, B. microplus had three generations during the
year, and exhibited a very large increase in numbers from reproduction
in the warmer months.
The non-parasitic life cycle
Harley (1966) reported data from three different climatically
dissimilar districts of north Queensland, Australia. Larval survival
and total longevity also followed a similar pattern in all districts.
The longest survival periods were recorded for the progeny of ticks
exposed late in the wet season from March to April and the shortest
survival periods were seen for the progeny of ticks exposed during the
dry season from August to September. Mean maximum total longevity for


155
Table 18. Gravid Boophilus miaroplus (Can) and their natural
predation by Solenopsis gemvnata (Fabric!us) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase. 1977"
1978.
Date of
Exposure
Vegetative
Type
Exposed
Females
Observation
Date
Predated
Fema1es
Percentage
of Predation
Nov. 6
Th
6
Nov. 12
4
66
G
3
3
100
Pv
7
1
14
Nov. 9
Th
3
Nov. 18
3
100
G
8
1
12
Pv
4
2
50
Nov. 24
Th
6
Dec. 1
6
100
G
6
3
50
Pv
26
0
0
Dec. 1
Th
15
Dec. 12
15
100
G
15
2
13
Pv
15
2
13
Jan. 26
Th
20
Feb. 3
5
25
G
20
1
5
Pv
20
1
5
Th = Thicket
G = Grass
Pv = Primer Vegetation


200
180
160
1 AO
120
100
80
60
^0
20
O ND JFMAMJ JAS
MONTHS
Figure 22. Mesoclimate conditions during the experiments on fecundity (October 1977 to
September 1978) in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
Tota 1 Ra i nfa 1 1 (mm)


Figure 48. Ecological areas in Morelos State (A, B, C,) location of
dipping vats and location of experimental areas (1 to 6).
A. North
B. Central
C. South
1. Yecapixt1 a
2. Cuautla
3. Yautepec
4. Cuernavaca
5. Zacatepec
6. Tequesqui tengo


LITERATURE CITED
Amaral N. K., L. F. S. Monmany, and L. A. F. Carvalho. 1974.
Acarlcide AC 84,633; First trials for control of Boophilus
microplus. J. Econ. Entolmol. 67:387~389-
Anonymous. 1952. Examinations of wild animals for the cattle tick
Boophilus annulatus microplus (Canestrini) in Florida. J.
Parasitol. 63:465
Anonymous. 1959- Understanding the cattle tick. C.S.I.R.O. Leaflet
No. 24. Melbroune, Australia.
Anonymous. 1961. La ganadera en america latina. United Nations.
FAO 61.11.H.7- Rome, Italy.
Anonymous. 1975- Report of the consultation on research on tick-
borne diseases and their vectors. FAO. Rome, Italy. 6-8 May.
Anonymous. 1977* On the assessment of an acaricide resistance test
method and assembly and distribution of proto-type test kits.
FAO. Rome, Italy. 12-16 December.
Anonymous. 1978. Livestock summary. Florida Agricultural Statistics.
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando, Florida.
Anonymous. 1979a. Proceedings of a workshop in livestock pest manage
ment. Held at Kansas State University. 57 March.
Anonymous. 1979b. General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. SARH.
Anonymous. 1980. Plan nacional de erradicacin. Fideicomiso
Campaana Nacional contra la Garrapata., SARH; BNCR; BID. Mexico.
Arthur, D.R. 1975. Modelling of tick populations as a prerequisite
to control. Proc. 8th British Insecticides and Fungicide Conference.
London.
Asanuma, K., S. Kitaokas, and S. Oshima. 1977- Ticks infesting
Iriomote wild cat, Mayailurus iriomotensis: a preliminary report.
J. Mammal. Soc. JPV. 7(2) :110.
Balashov, Yu. S. 1974. Collecting the tick, Omithodoros pccpillipes
Bir. in caves with C0. Ref. Appl. Entomol. Series B. 62(8):
122-123. Z
196


224
Appendix 2G. Raw data of the number of eggs of the cattle
tick, B. nricroplus of the sixth series
(disturbed and the check undisturbed) in
Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. 19771978.
D
1
i s t u
2
r b e d
3
- (S e r
4
I e s)
5
6
3,162
2,437
2,251
1 ,816
1,078
1 ,420
3,047
2,406
2,930
1,844
1,599
1 ,615
3,262
2,571
2,654
2,195
1,428
1 ,673
2,976
2,480
2,592
1,175
1,452
1,809
1 ,967
1,902
2,790
2,128
1,572
1,956
U
n d i s
t u r b (
2 d (S
e r i e
s)
2,723
2,840
2,504
1,403
1 ,413
1,357
3,135
2,365
2,783
1,491
1 ,426
1,366
3,320
2,548
2,605
1,526
1 ,530
1,358
3,122
1,963
2,415
1,273
1 ,200
1,250
1,803
1,701
2,528
1,315
1 ,336
1 ,863
Ti ck
Number
1
2
3
4
5
5


180
keep some for milking purposes. Zapata and Camino (1977) reported the
total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of B. nricroplus being 111
days (3-7 months) in a tropical area of Mexico and McColluch and Lewis
(1968) reported 7-5 months for the total longevity of the non-parasitic
stages of B. rrriaroplus in Queensland, Australia where a pasture spelling
program for tick control was under way. As Zapata and Camino (1977)
and McColluch and Lewis (1968) showed the life cycle became longer in
the rainy season. Those results are concordant with Yecapixtla results
that showed that in October and early November exposures when the rain
fall season was ended accounted for the highest total longevity being
135 days (4.5 months) and in late exposures (January, February, March)
when the dry season takes place accounted for the shortest total
longevity being 115 days (3-8 months) (Figures 16 and 20).
Larval eclosin was lowest on pasture (10%) and highest on primer
vegetation (80%). At observation time, it was noticed that tubes became
hot mainly on pasture which killed the enclosed ticks. This led to the
use of cages which allowed ticks to seek their own preferred temperature
and humidities. Field conditions which approached the tube temperatures
would undoubtedly kill ticks in the same manner as demonstrated by the
experimental conditions and would explain mortalities seen in the field.
Significant differences were not seen (P < 0.01) between ticks
which were disturbed while laying eggs (daily) from those undisturbed,
this is identical to the pattern for Amblyorma amevioanum as reported
by Drummond et al. (1971).
The fecundity experiments at Cuautla, Morelos showed that corre
lation for environmental conditions could be the explanation (for the


Monthly Mean Temperature
Figure Macroclimate conditions of four boundaries in Morelos State where experiments were
conducted. I. Yecapixtla, 2. Cuautla, 3. Cuernavaca (Progreso), 4. Zacatepec.
N>
Total Rainfall (mm)


135
incubation periods for ticks held in cages at all three localities.
There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in total longevity of
larvae (P < 0.05) at all different localities when mean comparisons
were made.
When comparisons were made between pasture types as they effect
the number of days to complete the non-paras itic stages of the tick
(Table 13), there were no significant differences (P < 0.01) between
Bermuda cross one and Setaria pastures. There were significant
differences (P < 0.01) between the different stages of development,
and the interaction between pastures and stages of development.
Figures 37 and 38 show the comparison of the non-paras itic stages
at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec for oviposition and
longevity of larvae for the exposure dates. Yecapixtla was the most
stable from early November through March. There were strong fluctuations
in the number of days to complete the oviposition period through the
seven exposures in Zacatepec (Figure 37).
The larval longevity periods were the longest for Zacatepec.
Progreso had the shortest periods and Yecapixtla was in an intermediate
situation (Figure 38).
When comparisons were made on the preoviposition, oviposition
and longevity of larval periods as affected by mesoclimate and macro
climate, no significant correlation (P < 0.01) was demonstrated between
the preoviposition periods (Table 14) and no significant correlation
(P < 0.01) between the oviposition period either (Table 15). Values
2
of r are 0.1120 both with preoviposition periods with tube and cage
2
with macroclimate (Table 14). The highest r calculated for the ovi
position period was 0.3391 for cage and macroclimate (Table 15).


159
Table 21. Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick
Boophilus microplus by the fire ant, Solenopsis
geminata (Fab.) on unpastured grass in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979-
Date of
Exposure
Number of
Ticks Exposed
Observation
Data
Number
of Ticks
Predated
Percentage
of Predation
Oct.
5
5
Oct.
10
0
0
17
18
25
6
33-33
25
3
31
0
0
Nov.
8
13
Nov.
15
4
30.76
15
8
23
1
12.50
23
12
28
0
0
Dec.
5
19
Dec.
1 1
0
0
Jan.
9
15
Jan.
15
0
0
Feb.
1
12
Feb.
8
0
0
13
16
22
0
0
Mar.
20
23
Mar.
27
0
0
Apr.
18
18
Apr.
26
0
0
May
3
10
May
8
0
0
Jun.
8
8
Jun.
23
0
0
Ju 1 .
6
6
Jul .
18
0
0
Tota 1
186
1 1
5.91


Figure 39.
Climate in Cuautla, Morelos during the time of the experiments on
fecundity (mesocl¡mate). Second phase. 1978-1979.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
V
~~ J i.
Jerry F/r''B'u tier, CRaTrmSn
Profespo/ of Entomology and Nematology
I certify that I
conforms to acceptable
adequate, in scope and
Doctor of Philosophy.
have read this study and that in my opinion it
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
qua 1ity, as
i certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Dale H. Habeck
Professor of Entomology and Nematology
I certify that I
conforms to acceptable
adequate, in scope and
Doctor of Philosophy.
have read this study and that in my opinion it
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Microbiology


Appendix
3A.
Raw data
of
the non-
-parasitic stages of the
cattle
tick, B. mieroplus
in Yecapi
ixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
Second phase. 1978
-1979.
E
X P 0 S U
R E S*
Stages
C
o m m e
need an
d Mon
t h s
C
ove red
1)
on
1
2
3
*4
5
6
7
8
Bermuda Grass
Oct. 9
Nov. 12
Nov. 29
Dec. 28
Jan.
1*4
Feb. 10
Mar. 1
Apr. 1
T
8.6
1 1.0
15.3
2.0
7.0
1*4.0
0
0
Preovipos ition
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
C
12.0
13.0
18.0
18.0
19-0
18.0
7.0
9.0
T
9.6
5-6
22.6
10.0
10.0
0
0
0
Ovi pos ition
Oct.
Nov.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
C
2*4.0
3*4.0
27.0
28.0
28.0
28.0
30.0
3*4.0
T
10.3
5.6
23-3
0
0
0
0
0
Incubation
Oct.
Nov.
Jan.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
C
27.0
37.0
32.0
32.0
32.0
30.0
36.0
39-0
Longevity
of
Larvae
T
27.0
Nov.
0
10.3
0
0
0
0
0
Jan
Mar.
Mar
Apr.
Apr.
Jun.
Jun.
Aug.
C
6*4.0
85.0
65.0
68.0
60.0
65.0
60.0
90.0
Total
T
*46.0
0
*49.0
0
0
0
0
0
Longevity
Preov. inc.
Long. Larvae
C
103.0
135.0
115.0
119.0
111.0
113.0
103.0
138.0
Means in days of nine ticks (three in each tube) and five ticks (in one cage), in each observation; and
**5 ticks in 15 tubes and 25 ticks in live cages in each exposure. T, tube; C, cage.
1) Months covered or when ticks finished the stage.


152
10 to 15C at night. Morning temperatures in the cage under the soil
(6 cm deep) showed a stable situation with low 3 to 6 hour delayed
fluctuations of 5 to 7C for the same time period as the tubes. Maximum
temperatures in the cages were 27C and the minimum 20C. In tubes
minimum temperatures were at the order of 15 to 17C and maximum from
38 to 50C. Temperatures were recorded for August 1979 as monthly mean
temperature of the mesoclimate 20.9C and 160 mm total monthly rainfall.
Predation of B. microplus
The only natural predator of B. microplus detected in the present
study was identified as Solenopsis geminata (L) known as the fire ant.
This species of ant devours gravid female ticks while on pasture after
they have dropped from cattle. Feeding by the ants leaves no more than
cuticle remnants (Figure 44). The ant feeding begins at the coxae.
Table 18 shows the results of tick predation exposure studies and the
percentage of predation in thicket, pasture and primer vegetation.
Predation was the greatest in thicket areas, then pasture areas, followed
with the least predation in areas of primer vegetation (Figure 45). The
habitats with the greatest predation correspond to those areas preferred
by Solenopsis geminata (L).
Table 19 shows the total predation of the fire ant from November
1977 to January 1978 when the experimental area was without cattle. In
this study the predation on thicket areas were higher. Chi-square
analysis of data (Table 20) indicated significant differences in
predation in different sites, i.e. predation is not independent of
environment, in this case, the configuration of vegetation.
Identified by Dr. W. Burn, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.


Number of Ticks 10 Animals
200
150
100
50
%
Cr 1
%
V
\
\
%
%
1978
16
Oct
L.
10
Nov
-J-
%,"""rn
28
15
Dec
1979
3
Jan
19
28
Feb
14
Mar
30
13
Apr
4 30
May
Figure 47-
Seasonal distribution of engorged females of B. microplus on dairy cattle from October
1978 to July 1979. Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico.
O'
VX>


193
De Le Vega, R. R. 1975. Estudio de la biologa de Boophilus mioroplus.
Informe Tcnico. Impresora Universitaria "Andre Voisin."
La Habana, Cuba.
Diehl, P., W. Kaufman, A. Aeschlimann, and R. Guggenheim. 1978.
Cytological changes related to Induction of fluid secretion in
salivary gland. Course on Ticks. Institute de Zoologie.
Universite De Neuchatel. Switzerland. September.
Drummond, R. 0. 1974. Discussion of the paper on ticks with special
emphasis on Boophilus mioroplus. In R. Pal and W. H. Wharton.
Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Importance. Acad. Press.
London. 53-54 pp.
Drummond, R. 0. 1977. Resistance in Ticks of Veterinary Importance.
Pesticide Management and Insect Resistance. Acad. Press. New York.
Drummond, R. 0., S. E. Ernst, J. L. Trevino, W. J. Gladney, and 0. H.
Graham. 1973. Laboratory testing of insecticides for control
of Boophilus annulatus (Say) and Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini).
J. Econ. Entomol. 66(1) : 130-133.
Drummond, R. 0., S. E. Ernst, J.L. Trevino, W. J. Gladney, and 0. H.
Graham. 1976. Tests of acaricides for control of Boophilus
ccnnulatus and B. mioroplus. J. Econ. Entomol. 69(1):37~40.
Drummond, R. 0., W. J. Gladney, and 0. H. Graham. 1974. Recent advances
in the use of Ixodicides to control ticks affecting livestock.
Bull. Off. Int. Epiz. 81(1-2):47-63.
Drummond, R. 0., 0. H. Graham, S. E. Ernst, and J. L. Trevino. 1967-
Evaluation of insecticides for the control of Boophilus annulatus
(Say) and 3. mioroplus (Canestrini) (Acaria: Ixodidae) on
cattle. Proc. 2nd Int. Cong. Acarology.
Drummond, R. 0., T. M. Whetstone, and W. J. Gladney. 1971- Oviposition
of the lone star tick. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 64(1):191-194.
Feldman-Muhsam, B., and R. Schechter. 1970. Some notes on the genus
Boophilus (Ixodidae), with special reference to species found
in Israel. J. Med. Entomol 7(6) :677-686.
Francis, J., and G. C. Ashton. 1967- Tick resistance in cattle: Its
stability and correlation with various genetic characteristics.
Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 45:131-140.
Garcia, E. 1973- Modificaciones al sistema de clasificacin cimatica
de Koppen.^ Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico-Inst i tuto
de Geografa-Ciudad Universitaria. Mexico 20, D.F. Mexico.
Garcia, R. 1962. Carbon dioxide as an attractant for certant ticks
(Acaria: Argasidae and Ixodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
55 (5) :605-6o6.


200
Jacobson, M. 1975- Insecticides of the Future. Marcel Dekker, Inc.
New York. 93 pp.
James, M. T., and Harwood, R. F. 1961. Medical Entomology. The
Macmillan Co., London, pp. 357-358.
Johnston, L. A. Y., R. H. Wharton, and J. H. Calaby. 1968. Eradication
of cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) from the Magnetic Island,
Queensland, in the presence of native fauna. Aust. Vet. J.
44(9):403-405.
Kearnan, J. F. 1974. Cattle tick control. Advisory Leaflet No. 769.
Div. Animal Industry, Dept. Primary Industries. Queensland,
Australia.
Kemp, D. H. 1978. In vitro culture of Boophilus microplus in relation
to host resistance and tick feeding. Ann. Appl. Entomol. Series
B 66 (10):316 -
Kemp, D. H., and D. Koudstall. 1971. Labelling larvae of the cattle
tick, Boophilus microplus with 32p to follow their movements on the
host. Parasitology 63 :323~330.
Knowles, C. 0., and W. J. Roulston. 1973- Toxicity of Boophilus
microplus of Formamidine acaricides and related compounds, and
modification of toxicity by certain insecticide synergists.
J. Econ. Entomol. 66 (6) : 1245-1251.
Knulle, W. 1966. Equilibrium humidities and survival of some tick
larvae. J. Med. Entomol 2(4):335~338.
Korenberg, E. I. 1972. The reaction of Taiga ticks (Ixodes persulcatus
P. Sch.J to carbon dioxide and some propects of its application
in field investigations. Med itsinskaya Parazitologi ya i parazitarnye
Bolezni., 38(4):427~431.
Krantz, G. W. 1975. A Manual of Acarology. O.S.U. Book St. Inc.
Corvallis, Oregon. 141 pp.
Layton, E. C., and D. E. Sonenshine. 1975. Description of a gland
associated with the Foveae dorsales in two species of Dermacentor
ticks and its possible role in sex pheromone activity (Metastigmata:
Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 12(3):287295.
Lewis, I. J. 1970. Observations on the dispersal of larvae of the cattle
tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.). Bull. Entomol. Res. 59:595-604.
Lewis, I. J. 1974. Personal communication. Dept. Agr. Cattle Tick
Research Station. Wollonbar, New South Wales, Australia.


23
Nymph
Body. Length well-engorged, 2.40 to 2.70; width, 1.60 to 1.80
wide in front, narrow behind, mildly constricted at the spiracular
plates; edges of the spiracular plates usually visible from above (no
unfed nymphs available) (Bauch, 1966).
Capitul urn. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin, 0.24;
greatest width, 0.30. Basis with posterior salient margin convex.
Cornua faint or absent. Palpi short, poorly sclerotized; transverse
ridges faint. Sheaths of the chelicerae very long, fully twice as
long as the palpi. Palpal hairs few, not conspicuous (Bauch, 1966).
Hypostome. Short and broad. Denticles 3/3 with about five in
each file. Length about 0.14 (Bauch, 1966).
Scutum. Pentagonal. Length and width equal, each about 0.45.
Cervical grooves as shallow valleys, divergent posteriorly. Eyes
small, oval, faint. Surface smooth, shining. Punctations absent.
Hairs few.
Legs. Short, moderately heavy (Bauch, 1966).
Coxae. Small, convex. Coxa I with a short, broad, rounded,
externa] spur; II and III about as in I but progressively smaller;
IV, spurs absent (Bauch, 1966).
La rva
Body. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin of body,
0.60; width, 0.42. Short oval. Scutum occupying about three-fifths
of the length of the body (Bauch, 1966).
Cap i tu 1 urn. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin, 0.15;
width of basis, 0.18. Lateral profile lines of basis convex; posterior


Appendix 2A. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick,
B. rrdovoplus. First series. July 11 to August
5, 1977. Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
N u
m b e
r 0 f
T i c
k s
Date
A-l
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
Mean
Ju 1.
11
0
0
155
291
0
446
89.22
12
237
283
165
96
49
830
166.00
13
281
200
258
187
87
1,023
202.60
14
502
403
326
347
172
1,750
350.00
15
339
409
436
418
54
1,656
331.20
16
342
380
267
265
25
1,279
255.80
17
255
232
220
190
241
1,138
227-60
18
251
203
239
219
100
1,012
202.40
19
253
242
288
172
49
1 ,004
200.80
20
179
153
223
152
151
858
171.60
21
211
232
137
244
230
1,054
210.80
22
109
89
141
92
77
508
101.60
23
75
82
134
79
44
414
82.80
24
23
51
43
93
72
282
56.40
25
21
13
89
34
90
247
49.40
26
43
40
37
17
87
224
44.80
27
19
13
46
20
70
168
33.60
28
11
10
12
16
85
134
26.80
29
6
8
9
21
78
122
24.40
30
5
3
11
5
137
161
32.20
31
0
0
9
10
53
72
14.40
Aug.
1
0
1
4
0
15
20
4.00
2
JL
JL
6
0
0
6
2.00
3
4
4
0
8
2.66
4
3
1
1
5
1.66
5
0
3
0
3
1.00
6
JU
'c
0
0.00
Tota 1
3,162
3,047
2,262
2,976
1,967
14,414.00
n
(19)
(21)
(25)
(26)
(24)
Mean
166.42
145.09
130.48
114.46
81.95
X
2,882.80
Death of the tick.
213


Table 22. Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.)
by the fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fab.) on setaria and Bermuda grasses
in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979.
Date of
Exposure
Number of
Ticks Exposed
Observation
Date
Number of
Ticks Predated
Setaria Bermuda"
Percentage
of Predation
Setaria Bermuda
Oct.
19
18
Oct.
27
15
0
83-33
0
27
10
Nov.
4
0
0
0
0
Nov.
9
12
19
3
0
25.00
0
19
12
25
4
0
33.33
0
25
10
4
0
0
0
0
Jan.
15
8
Jan.
22
0
0
0
0
Feb.
12
6
Feb.
20
0
0
0
0
Apr.
20
15
Apr.
28
0
0
0
0
May 19
18
May
26
18
0
100
0
Jun.
10
10
Jun.
20
0
0
0
0
Ju 1 .
5
15
Jul .
16
0
0
0
0
Aug.
26
24
Sep.
3
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
158
40
0
25.31
0
Bermuda and setaris grasses.


Number of eggs of the female offspring (Ro), time
in days at peak numbers of eggs (Tc) and capacity
for increase (rc) of the six disturbed series.
Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. July 1977 to May 1978.
Figure 29.


53
mean temperature 23.0C, rainfall 977-6 mm per year; Progreso
(Cuernavaca) 1,529 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 20.7C, rainfall
1,061.0 mm per year; Zacatepec 900 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 24.8C,
rainfall 838.9 mm per year and Yecapixtla (Tetelcingo) 1,245 m.a.s.l.,
mean temperature 23-6C, rainfall 856.7 mm per year (Garcia, 1973)-
Yecapixtla boundary has a climate classification: Aw"o(w)ig
(Garcia, 1973) where the dry season is in the middle of the year in
which the winter takes place (Aw). The mean annual temperature is 25C
(Awo) and the total rainfall per year between 850 mm. There is a
short dry season in the summer (w") as well as a dry season in the
winter. The mean temperature of the coldest month is above 180 C; the
driest month has under 60 mm of rainfall. The hottest month is before
"the solstice" of summer (g) with a difference between the hottest
months less than 5C (isothermal) (Garcia, 1973).
Cuautla boundary has a climate classification: Aw"o(w)i'g which
is similar to the one of Yecapixtla with a total rainfall that exceeds
900 mm per year. Zacatepec boundary has a climate Awo(w)(i')g which
is similar to Cuautla but without the short dry season (Awo) in the
middle of summer (without "Canicula") with rainfall well distributed
during six months and 840 mm of rainfall per year, and Cuernavaca with
a climate classification: A(c)w"l(w)ig, with the mean temperature of
the coldest month above 18C and the driest month has an annual rainfall
less than 60 mm. The letter (c) means a tendency of climate "A" to
follow the C climates which is temperate with rainfall. The annual
mean temperature is between 20 to 22C but with an annual rainfall
of more than 1,000 mm per year.


LIST OF TABLES
Table
1 Mean preovipos¡tion period at Yecapixtla as affected
by the time of year and type of vegetation 87
2 The duration of the preoviposition at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate
and mesoclimate 90
3 Mean oviposition period at Yecapixtla as affected by
the time of year and type of vegetation 91
4 The duration of the oviposition periods at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 93
5 Mean longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla as affected by
the time of the year and type of vegetation 96
6 The duration of the longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate and
mesoclimate 98
7 Mean total longevity of the non-parasitic stages of
B. microplus at Yecapixtla as affected by the type
of vegetation and time of year 101
8ANOVA test for the number of eggs produced by ticks for
the first six series time periods and the check of the
cattle tick, B. microplus in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 108
9Boophilus microplus mean oviposition rates for six
different times of the year of disturbed and undisturbed
ticks at Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 110
10 Linear correlation between the mean number of eggs
and tick we i ghts Ill
11 Rates of oviposition and longevity of larvae of B.
microplus at three localities in Morelos State, Mexico. 133
12 The effect of localities on the non-paras itic stages
of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus studied in
cages, Morelos State, Mexico 134
v


Date and Exposures
Oct
Nov
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Figure 3k. Non-paras itic stages studied in cages at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979-


17
1887 Haemaphysalius mioropla Canestrini.
original description.
1890 Rhipioephalus miaropla (Canestrini)
1897 Rhipioephalus annulatus (Say) Neumann
1899 Rhipioephalus australis Fuller
1901 Boophilus australis (Fuller)
St i les and Hasse11
1901 Boophilus australis (Fuller)
Salmon and Stiles
1901 Rhipioephalus annulatus var. mioroplus
(Canestrini) Neumann
1911 Marqaroporus mioropla (Canestrini) Neumann
1912 Marqaroporus annulatus australis (Fuller)
Hooker et al.
1913 Marqaroporus annulatus australis (Fuller)
Bishopp
1931+ Uroboophilus oyolops Minning
original description
1934 Uroboophilus mioroplus (Canestrini)
Minning
19^1 Boophilus (Uroboophilus) mioroplus (Canestrini)
Osorno-Mesa
19^1 Boophilus annulatus mioroplus (Canestrini)
T ravis
19^3 Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini)
Fairchiid.


85
non-paras¡tic stages with the exception of the studies on fecundity
day-by-day which were done in Cuautla, Morelos.
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla
The monthly mean temperature taken at the Yecapixtla meteoro
logical station (mesoclimate) had a lower mean temperature than expected
when compared with the macroclimate which correspond to the monthly
mean temperature of twelve years. The months with the highest tempera
tures were May and June (Figure 16) and the lowest temperatures were
recorded from December, January and February. The highest month for
rainfall was April and the lowest January.
Preoviposition period at Yecapixtla. The number of days required
for engorged ticks to complete the preoviposition period when exposed
in vegetative covered tubes showed a significant difference (ANOVA,
P < 0.01) due to the time of year they were exposed. When comparisons
were made between time (month) and vegetation type, both were shown to
be significantly important in their effect on the preoviposition period
required (ANOVA two way analysis P < 0.05).
When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure and the
preoviposition period, significant differences were seen between
December (5), February (7), March (8), November (A) and October (2),
January (6), October (I) (Table 1, A and C). These mean preovi pos ition
periods ranged from 9.8 to 13-0 days (A) for these months as compared
to 4.8 to 7.0 days (C) .
When habitats were evaluated as to vegetation type there were
significant differences (P < 0.01) demonstrated between primer
vegetation and pasture (Table 1) but not between primer vegetation
and thicket.


Appendix 1A. Raw data for the number of days to complete the
preoviposition periods of the cattle tick,
Boophilus mioroplus on the eight exposures of
the first phase (October 1977 to September 1979)
in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
H
abita
4_ JL
t s-
Number of Exposures
Pasture
Thicket
Primer
Vegetation
Mean
1: Oct. 21
6(2)
18(6)
18(6)
4.67
2: Oct. 26
18(6)
21 (7)
24(8)
7.00
3: Nov. 4
27(9)
30(10)
30(10)
9-67
4: Nov. 24
9(3)
36(12)
48(16)
10.33
5: Dec. 5
30(10)
42(14)
45(15)
13.00
6: Jan. 26
15(5)
15(5)
15(5)
5.00
7: Feb. 22
36(12)
36(12)
36(12)
12.00
8: Mar. 14
36(12)
36(12)
36(12)
12.00
Mean
7-37
9.75
10.50
Each number of habitats represent the addition of the number of days of
three tubes and nine engorged female ticks. The numbers in parentheses
are the means.
208


16
microplus, Boophilus aaudatus, Boophilus (urobophilus) fallax, Boophilus
(urobophilus) accudatus, as well as others (Roberts, 1964).
There are three valid species of the genus Boophilus: B. annulatus
(Say, 1821), B. deooloratus (Koch, 1844) and B. mioroplus (Canestrini,
1887) (Feldman-Muhsam and Shechter, 1970).
The suborder Ixodida include all ticks. Ticks are ecto-
parasitic in all postembryonic stages, feeding primarily on the blood
of mammals, reptiles and birds. The hypostome of the tick is modified
into a holdfast organ armed with retrorse teeth. Other important
features include lack of an apotele on the palpal tarsus, the tarsus
itself often being reduced, a peritreme in the form of a stigmal plate
surrounding each of the stigmata which are located laterad of or
posterior to, coxae IV, a sensory "capsule" and adjacent pit on the
dorsum of tarsus I comprising the Haller's organ. Three families are
recognized: Ixodidae, Argasidae and Nuttal1iel1idae (Krantz, 1975).
The superfamily Ixodoidea has the following description: weakly
sclerotized but with thick leathery cuticle, with or without a dorsal
shield, gnathosoma terminal or ventral, hypostome armed with retrorse
teeth, palpi simple, telescoped or normal, with a sensory pit, or
Haller's organ on dorsus of tarsus I; all tarsi with apoteles (Krantz,
1975).
The family Ixodidae or hard ticks comprises approximately 700
species in 9-12 genera (Bauch, 1966). The first description of the
genus Boophilus was by Curtice (1891)- The species 3. miovoplus was
described by Canestrini in 1887; the original description and synonyms
were as follows:


133
Table 11. Rates of oviposition and longevity of larvae
(arbitrary scale) of B. microplus at three
localities in Morelos State, Mexico. Second
phase.
L 0
Yecapixt1 a
cal i t i
Cuernavaca
i e s
Zacatepec
Oviposition Rates3
1
1.87
4.80
4.50
2
7.25
10.80
6.16
3
13.87
10.40
15.50
4
6.62
3.60
4.50
[3
Longevity of Larval Rates
1
34.75
13.20
30.50
2
33.25
18.00
41.33
3
50.25
19-40
50.33
c
Multiple Linear Regression
Hypotheses
Oviposition
Longevi
ty of Larvae
Ho: ao = al = a2
ao = 0.06
ao =
- 12.30
Hi: ao ^ al / a2
al = 0.90
a 1 =
0.33
Hypotheses
a2 = 0.15
a2 =
2.36
rej ected
Z = 0.09*'
* Z =
- 5.94**
1. 25-400 eggs; 2. 500-1400
eggs; 3- 1500-i
2000 eggs; 4.
2200-3000 eggs.
1. Less than 100 larvae; 2.
20,000 larvae;
3. Less than
100 larvae.
As adapted from Mood and Grayhill (1963).
1ntroduction
to the Theory
,of Statistics. McGraw-Hill.
Significant difference (P <
0.01).


6
The agroecosystem, where most of the I PM systems take place, is
not characterized by "biological balance" but by "biological imbalance."
The agroecosystem is a manifestation of an ecological principle which
states that species simplicity rather than diversity is the most highly
productive state of an ecosystem (Anonymous, 1979)-
Pest Management is the intelligent selection and use of pest
control actions that will ensure favorable economic, ecological and
socioecological consequences. It has to rely on the applied ecology
through devising procedures for pest control suited to current technology
and compatibility with economic and environmental quality aspects, that
is, economic and social acceptance (Metcalf and Luckmann, 1975).
A key factor in IPM is to find out why an insect population became
higher at certain seasons of the year (Rabb and Guthrie, 1970).
Metcalf and McKelvey, Jr., in 1976 said that it is urgent to
develop needed ecological and other relevant information on the pest
species in order to enable the most intelligent use of pesticides.
The essential problem with the known insecticides is the develop
ment of insect resistance. The total number of insect and tick strains
resistant to the chlorinated and organophosphorus insecticides and
other acaricides have risen at an alarming rate (Jacobson, 1975). The
word "resistance" has come to be applied to any population, within a
species normally susceptible to a given insecticide that is no longer
controlled by the insecticide in the area concerned. In other words,
resistance is a developed attribute that has come to characterize an
insect population consequent upon continued treatment with the
insecticide (Brown and Pal, 1971).


199
Graff, J. F. 1979. The biology of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing ticks
in Ivory Coast. Rec. Adv. Acarol. 1:463-468.
Graham, 0. H., W. J. Gladney, and J. L. Trevino. 1972. Some non-
bovine host relationships of Boophilus annulatus. Fol. Entomol.
Mex. Nos. 23-24. pp. 89_90.
Graham, 0. H., and J. L. Hourrigan. 1977. Eradication Programs for the
Arthropod parasites of livestock. J. of Med. Entomol. 13(6):
629-658.
Grillo-Torrado, J. M. 1976. The problem of acaricide resistance in
tick control programs, pp. 94-98. Proc. VIII Inter.-Amer.
Mtg. Foot-and-Mouth Dis. and Zoonoses Cont., Guatemala, C.A.
Guerrero Rios, R. 1980. Personal communication. Fideicomiso
Campaa Nacional contra la Garrapata. BNCR; BID. Jefatura
Estatal Morelos, Mexico.
Hair, J. A., W. J. Gladney, R. B. Davey, R. 0. Drummond, and P. D. Teel.
1979. Sustained-release famphur bolus for control of Boophilus
ticks. J. Econ. Entomol. 72(0:135-138.
Harley, K. L. S. 1966. Studies on the survival of the non-paras i t ic
stages of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus in three
climatically dissimilar districts of north Queensland. Aust.
J. Agrie. Res. 17:387-410.
Harley, K. L. S., and P. R. Wilkinson. 1971. A modification of pasture
spelling to reduce acaricide treatments for cattle tick control.
Aust. Vet. J. 47:108-111.
Harris, W. G. and E. C. Burns. 1972. Predation of the lone star tick
by the imported fire ant. Environ. Entomol. 1:362-365.
Hewetson, R. W. 1969 Resistance to the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus. III. The development of resistance to experimental
infestations by purebred Shaiwal and Australian lllawara short
horn cattle. Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 22:331-342.
Hitchcock, L. F. 1954. Studies on the parasitic stages of the cattle
tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acaria: Ixodidae).
CSIR0. Div. Entomol., Vet. Parisitol. Yeerongpi 11y, Queensland,
Australia.
Howell, C. J. 1977- Tick resistance to pesticides in the R.S.A.
Some observations. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 48(1) : 11 -12.
Iwvala, M. 0. E., and I. Okpala. 1977- Egg output in the weights and
states of engorgement of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabrc.) and
3. annulatus (Say) (ixodoidea: Ixodidae). Folia Parasitol.
24(2):162-172.


Table
27 Relationships between mean/variance, Morisita index and
K parameter of negative binomial for distribution of
cattle tick counts on native cattle in Yautepec,
Morelos, Mexico
173
v
1


min
lllll
T
T
T
T
1
llllllllllllli
Grass Pasture
Th¡cket
Primer Vegetation
Date and Exposure
o
ON


gure 5- Tubes used for exposed ticks.
A. Tube made of metal screen.
B. Top of tube, an engorged tick and
egg mass is seen.
C. Top of tube.


Temperature
1700 2100 2*400 0700 1000 1200 1900
Hours
Figure *<2. Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso).
O




110
Table 9- Boophilus miavoplus mean oviposit ion rates for
six different times of the year of disturbed
and undisturbed ticks at Cuautla, Morelos,
Mexico. 1977~1978.
Month
Mean
1 2
Significant
Difference
Disturbed or
Undisturbed
Jul.-Aug.
2,882.80
Di sturbed
Sep.-Oct.
2,359.20
A
Disturbed
Oct.-Nov.
2,643.40
D i sturbed
Nov.-Dec.
1 ,949.00
Di sturbed
Feb.-Mar.
1,425.80
B
D i sturbed
May
1,649.60
Disturbed
Oct.-Nov.
2,605.20
Undisturbed
Sep.-Oct.
2,539.90
A
Und i sturbed
Jul.-Aug.
2,582.70
Undisturbed
Nov.-Dec.
1 ,6l6.60
Und i sturbed
B
May
1,566.70
Und i sturbed
C
Feb.-Mar.
1,403.40
Und i sturbed
Note: Mean values without common letters are significantly
different (P < 0.01) .
Tukey's mean test analysis as adapted from Senedecor, G.W.
(1961), 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.


210
Appendix 1C.
Raw data on the number of days to complete the
oviposition periods of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus on the eight exposures of the first
phase (October 1977 to September 1978) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
Number of Exposure
H a
Pasture
bita
Thicket
JL
t s
Primer
Vegetation
Mean
1
0
78(26)
90(30)
18.67
2
66(22)
75(25)
84(28)
25-00
3
0
69(23)
87(29)
17.33
4
84(28)
63(21)
87(29)
26.00
5
36(12)
69(23)
99(33)
22.67
6
84(28)
75(25)
102(34)
29.00
7
60(20)
66(22)
102(34)
25-33
8
57(19)
69(23)
90(30)
24.00
Mean
16.13
23.50
30.88
Each number of habitats represent the addition of the number of days of
three tubes and nine engorged female ticks. The numbers in parentheses
are the means. Zero means that ticks died in the preovi position period


29
increased frequency of the blockage of the deeper capillaries, caused
mainly by neutrophil leucocytes henceforth referred to as neutrophils,
and lymphocytes. Between days 3 and 4 larval ticks started engorgement
which was completed by the fifth day; engorgement was rapid during the
first 24 hours and thereafter slowed until the beginning of the moult
(Tatchell et al. 1972).
It was frequently found that after the moult the nymphs had
attached within a few millimeters of the site of the larval attachment,
which could be recognized by the larval cement cone. Engorged nymphs
may be found any time from 10 to 15 days after infestation. The
final phase of nymphal feeding which follows the secretion of secondary
cement was characterized by the development of a more obvious lesion
of up to 350 mm in width by 280 mm in depth. The leucocytes within
the cavity were mostly neutrophils along with a few small and medium-sized
lymphocytes. The capillaries laterally adjacent to the attachment tended
to be dilated and superficial haemorrhage was common. The cavities were
larger than those of larvae and extended into the dermis to include the
reticular plexus of blood vessels for the first six days after attach
ment female ticks are mainly inactive. The intensity of feeding and
salivation is greater at night and reaches its peak on the final night
of attachment (Tatchell et at., 1972).
Seifert et al. (1968) showed different features on the
feeding of the cattle tick. Boophilus spp. is so sparing in its
defecation that it would be of negligible proportions when compared
with the food intake during the parasitic life cycle. Protein is no
doubt an important factor in the diet of the tick, so that the red
cells with their 30% protein content will assume a greater


36
Zapata and Camino (1977) studied the non-paras itic stage of
Boophilus microplus in Chontalpa, Tabasco, Mexico, in a tropical wet
climate. The total longevity in the rainfall season was 111 days and
was 30% less in the dry season. Cattle maintained under that climate
accounts for more than 60% of the properties in Tabasco State. These
cattle graze in the flat pasture areas in the dry season (3 months)
and in the elevated areas of pasture during the wet season. There
fore a control method of pasture spelling can be recommended in con
junction with chemical dips.
Sutherst et al. (1977) have developed an elaborate population
model for determining Boophilus microplus tick populations.
Chemical Control
Drummond (197*0 said:
I still believe that B. microplus, since it is a one
host species and is limited to bovines, can be
eradicated through a scheme of compulsory dipping
of cattle in an acaricide that will kill 99 per cent
of the cattle ticks on the animal. Such a government
conducted program should succeed if the ranchers were
thoroughly educated and motivated so that the
eradication program w¡11 be supported by all of the
participants. The cost of the program might be high,
but it would be relatively minor compared with the
large losses that can be anticipated when previously
available acaricides are no longer effective against
B. microplus. (p. 54)
Kearnan (1974) pointed out that in Queensland an effective
control method against B. microplus is planned dipping that aims at
keeping pastures relatively free of seed ticks. It consists of a
series of dippings at 1 ess than 21 day intervals, preferably 18 days.
The major problem facing tick control and vector control in all
countries lies in the development of acaricide resistance. This


204
Tatchell, R. J. and D. E. Moorhouse. 1968. The feeding processes of
the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Part II. The
sequence of host-tissue changes. Parasitology 58:441-459-
Tatchell, R. J., R. Carnell, and D. E. Kemp. 1972. Electrical studies
on the feeding of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.
Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 38(1):32-44.
Tukahirwa, E. M. 1976. The effects of temperature and relative humidity
on the development of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann
(Acaria, Ixodidae). Bull. Entorno 1. Res. 66:301-312.
Ill loa, G., and J. De Alba. 1957. Resistencia a los parsitos externos
en alqunas razas de bovinos. Turrialba 7:8-12.
Ultech, K. B. W., R. H. Wharton, and J. D. Kerr. 1978. Resistance to
Boophilus microplus in different breeds of cattle. Aust. J. Agrie.
Res. 29(4):885-896.
Wagland, B. M. 1979. Host resistance to cattle tick Boophilus microplus
in Brahman Bos-indicus cattle. Part IV. Ages of tick rejected.
Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 30(1):211-218.
Waladde, S. M. 1977. The sensory nervous system of the adult cattle
tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) Ixodidae: Part II.
Scanning electron microscopy. J. Aust Entomol. Soc. 16(1) :
73-79.
Waters, K. S. 1972. Pasture spelling for tick control. Advisory
leaflet No. 723. Oiv. Anim. Ind., Dept. Primary Industries.
Queensland, Australia.
Watson, T. F., L. Moore, and G. W. Ware. 1976. Practical Insect Pest
Management. A Self-Instruction Manual. W. H. Freeman and Co.
San Francisco, Calif. 196 pp.
Wharton, R. H. 1974a. Personal communication. C. S. I. R. 0., Long
Pocket Lab., Queensland, Australia.
Wharton, R. H. 1974b. Ticks with special emphasis on Boophilus
microplus. In R. Pal and W. H. Wharton. Arthropods of
Medical and Veterinary Importance. Acad. Press. London.
35-42 pp.
Wharton, R. H., K. L. S. Harley, P. R. Wilkinson, K. B. Utech, and
B. M. Kelley. 1969- A comparison of cattle tick control by
pasture spelling, planned dipping, and tick resistant cattle.
Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 20:783-797-


Legal and Quarantine Control
A. Chemical Control
Strategic dippjngs^ on switch (each 1 A days) and normal dipping
intervals (each 21 days)
.W E TSE A S 0 N
Jul y
to
December
Cattle on Properties or
Grazing Freely
(some fenced)
B. Immune Type of Contro
Breed for cattle tick
resistance
D. Cultural Control
Pasture spe11ing
6 months or 9 months
(if fenced)
C. Natural Biological Control
Favored predators existence
(pasture with open areas)
January
to
June
DRY SEASON
Cattle on Corn Stalks
(majority fenced)
D. Cultural Control
Change of water supply areas
for cattle.
Figure A9. Tick pest management control methods.
CD
o


177
These facilities will also allow program coordination with the National
Center of Animal Parasitology with education and research on cattle
ticks which will be available for more professionals, such as veter
inarians, biologists, chemists, etc.
The Officer-in-charge, Ricardo Guerrero Rios, said that as the
control phase is coming to a close that a pest management program for
control and later eradication is needed for the State of Morelos.


187
upper-inner-1egs, estucheon, upper legs and tail base. This knowledge
will be useful under field conditions, in order to make a better sampling
of the ticks. Also to understand how ticks--in some cases--can escape
from the dipping vat chemicals, as is the particular case of the upper-
inner-legs. Those areas have thermoreceptors in the skin and cattle
tend to close the upper-inner-legs when they contact water, leaving
populations without chemical contact.
Development of an Integrated Pest Management
System for the Cattle Tick, Boovhilus micro-plus
in Morelos State
Figure 48 shows the areas of the arrangement for tick control
procedures in Morelos State, also shown is the distribution of dipping
vats already built. The study areas taken as a basis for the ecological
tick knowledge are Yecapixtla (north), Cuernavaca (center), and Zacatepec
(south). The most important area for tick fecundity is Cuautla (central)
located in an irrigated area. Tick predation is identified: Yecapixtla
(north), Cuernavaca (central) and Zacatepec (south). All these studies
were made on the non-paras itic stages.
For the parasitic stage studies were made in Yecapixtla, for
Creollo and Brahman crosses cattle (north) and Zacatepec, for European
cattle (south).
For the north area (Figure 48) it is proposed to improve fencing
of properties, in order to establish pasture spelling. The block diagram
(Figure 49) outlines the control methods proposed. Also an improvement
can be made in the method of treating cattle by sprayed chemicals.
Climate does help to improve dairy cattle and maintained in semi-stabi 1ized


191
conditions, and treat with chemicals in the wet season. If the area of
corn stalks is fenced, with the addition of an electric fence cattle can
be managed. This is also necessary to change water supply areas and
resting areas (those areas accounted mainly for reinfestation of ticks
on cattle).
For the central area (Figure 48) it is proposed to improve dairy
cattle but breeds for grazing on pasture (as the Australian lllawarra
shorthorn); to breed for cattle tick resistance and to improve pasture
[i.e., Bermuda grass); to improve feed supplement in order to have manage
ment of cattle and weight gains; to follow the tick pest management
control methods (Figure 49).
For the southern area (Figure 48) with COPLAMAR project it will
be an improvement of the cattle industry itself; to assess for breeding
cattle for tick resistance and to follow the control method proposed
in Figure 49- In irrigated areas or close to agricultural areas the
cattle tick ecosystem can be divided into four areas for rotation: two
on pastures (by using fences) and two on corn stalks by close areas for
water supply (with fences). This will allow pasture spelling for nine
months in each area. This will allow breaking the life cycle by reducing
the total longevity of the non-pa ras itic stages. As it was found in the
present study in the Zacatepec irrigated areas, the longevity studies
indicate that we are dealing with at least two strains of ticks. One
that can extend their life cycles and other that does not. These
differences are dependent upon the microclimate conditions of the tick's
habitat (Figure 50). More knowledge of tick ecology will allow the
improvement of this proposed program for the optimization of pest control
strategies in an economically and ecologically sound manner.


Number of Eggs
400
IS)
X 320
I-
Q)
>
2^0
c
03
<13
160 -
80
T ¡ me
Figure 27. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. nricroplus, of the fifth series.
March 1978.
February-


119
Jan S-0 0-N N-D F-M May
Ti me
Capacity for increase (r


Monthly Mean Temperature C
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
1978 0
1 1 1
Temperature llllllllllllll
Ra 1 n fa 1 1
A
\
\
A
NX
\
V
/
v v
V V
i I i i 1-
D 1979 J
M A
Date
400
36O
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
Figure 32. Climate in Zacatepec, Morelos during the time of the experiments of the second phase
(mesoc1imate).
K>
V-O
Total Rainfall (mm)


Figure
3k Non-parasitic stages studied in cages at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico 128
35 Non-pa ras itic stages studied in cages in Cuernavaca
(Progreso) Mexico 131
36 Non-paras itic stages studied in cages in Zacatepec,
Morelos, Mexico 132
37 Comparison of oviposition periods studied in cages
at three localities 138
38 Comparison of larval longevity periods studied in
cages at three localities 140
39 Climate in Cuautla, Morelos during the time of the
experiments on fecundity 146
40 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 1 48
41 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 149
42 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 150
43 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 151
44 Cuticles of engorged female ticks of B. miaroplus
attacked by the native fire ant, Solenopsis geminata. ... 153
45 Predation of B. miaroplus engorged females by
Solenopsis geminata ants in three habitats in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 154
46 Host preference of engorged female ticks of Boophilus
miaroplus on native and Brahman cross cattle at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 164
47 Seasonal distribution of engorged females of B.
miaroplus on dairy cattle from October 1978 to
July 1979 169
48 Ecological areas in Morelos State location of dipping
vats and location of experimental areas 189
49 Tick pest management control methods 190
50 A proposed component model of the tick system 192
x


Table 20. Chi-square analysis for predated and unpredated
females of the cattle tick, Boophilus mioroplus
(Can.) exposed in different habitats in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. First phase. 19771978.
Unp reda ted
P reda ted
Total s'
Hab i tat
Observed
Expected
Observed
Expected
Thicket
22
(43-5)
38
(16.5)
60
Grass
51
(45-7)
12
(17.3)
63
Primer
Vegetation
75
(58.8)
6
(22.2)
81
Totals
148
56
204
\2 = (J eD2
X ej
= 57.16 (predation is dependent on site).


158
From October 1978 to July 1979 predation at Yecapixtla was
observed in the same place but on ungrazed pasture, here predation
by ants was observed only three times.
Table 21 shows the exposure dates, the number of ticks exposed
and the phenomenon of predation. Predation was drastically reduced
from previous trials with 5-91% of the total ticks exposed predated.
It is pointed out that the pasture cover at this location was high
because the experimental area was maintained without grazed animals
from July 1977 to July 1979.
In Cuernavaca (Progreso) there was no observed predation of ticks
by ants on a total of 92 engorged females exposed ticks from October
1978 to July 1979-
In Zacatepec no tick predation was observed on Bermuda grass
pasture (cross one). Pasture growth was high (40 to 60 cm high) and
very compact. Predation was observed four times on setaria grass
(Table 22) resulting in a total of 25-3% predation. This grass grows
leaving open areas (Figure 9) and native fire ants were observed twice
wandering on the open spaces of this grass.
Parasitic Stages of the Tick
Yecapixtla. Host preference studies
Animal surveys for the tick preference of animal breed were
evaluated on criollo cattle and Brahman crosses at Yecapixtla from
October 1977 to March 1978 (Table 23). Seventy-nine per cent of the
total ticks observed were found on k0% of the animals. Reviewing
each count date made for animals pastured on corn stalk forage, 30%


THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FOR THE CATTLE TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887)
IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO
BY
MARIO CAM I NO-LAV IN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
¡980


45
in a similar manner to crossbred sahiwal cattle. There was no
significant difference in the number of eggs laid and hatched from
ticks dropped by purebred and cross bred animals.
Roberts in 1976 demonstrated that a major component of resistance
is acquired and that each animal acquires its individual level of
resistance.
Roberts (1971) showed that larvae of B. mzoroplus, during the first
24 hours of the parasitic life cycle, made about two attachments in an
8 hour period and approximately half of the time was spent attached on
susceptible cattle. Mortality reached 60% in the larval stage on
standard animals while on resistant cattle with from 4 to 6 attachments,
mortality reached 80% of the larvae in a similar period. Also, Kemp and
Koudstall (1971) showed that resistance of cattle to the cattle tick is
manifest within 24 hours after infestation.
Francis and Ashton (1967) stated there was no significant
correlation between tick infestation and the distribution of alleles
at the following loci: haemoglobin, albumin, transferrin, post
albumins and soluble J antigen.
Kemp (1978) reported that the histamine caused larvae of the
cattle tick to drop off the host. Drop off after 3 hours of the
injection of histamine (minimum effective dosage 0.8 to 3-2 mg) had
a greater effect than at 48 hours.
An esterase enzyme studied by Willadsen (1976) produced
allergenic activity in cattle infested with B. nrioroplus ticks.
Roberts and Kerr in 1976 and Brossard (1976) made the transfer
of resistant cattle to B. micvoplus to susceptible animals.


58
they were replaced from samples described previously. Each tick
exposure was identified with a colored flag and had a specific data
number. Definition of death in this case was the change of color (dark)
in addition to no observable movements of the digestive tract and legs
for 15 minutes when the tick was observed in the light.
Oviposit ion period
Egg counts were initiated when the first eggs were observed.
Data in days were recorded until the final eggs were laid. Per cent
of eclosin was also determined by per cent hatch at 10, 50 and 90%.
Longevity of larvae
A month after the first engorged female series was exposed,
engorged females were collected from cattle and taken to Mexico City
where they were placed in an incubator at 23C; 80% R.H. in small
vials. There they were allowed to lay eggs. When the larvae emerged
they were taken to the Yecapixtla study area for field exposure.
Exposures were made in the same manner as the engorged females. Larvae
were allowed to crawl onto selected plants. Three exposures were made
in each area and dates of these exposures were +_ 3 days the same dates
as for the engorged females. Definition of death was in this case when
no living larvae were found. Larvae were termed "alive" when they
were able to walk and move their legs when stimulated with the breath
(by blowing).
Total longevity data were co11ected for the non-paras itic stages
of the first phase.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Mario Camino Lavin was born on July 9, 19^+0, in Cuernavaca,
Morelos, Mexico. After graduating from high school in Cuernavaca City
in I960, he entered the Department of Biological Sciences at the
University of Mexico in Mexico City. From 1964 to 1965, he completed
his thesis work on the population dynamics of aphids in alfalfa in
Mexico State. After graduation he joined the International Program,
United States of America-Mexico for the eradication of the screworm
fly in Mexico, working on the life cycle and behavior in Veracruz,
Mexico.
From 1968 to 1970 he went to the Graduate School of Chapingo,
Mexico (C.P., SARH) and completed his master's degree in entomology.
His thesis problem was on viruses transmitted by aphids on cucumber
at Morelos State, Mexico. He worked from 1971 to mid 1975 as a professor
at the Graduate School of Agriculture in South Tropical, Mexico, and
became involved in Veterinary Entomology Research. He went to SCIRO in
Australia for a training program of cattle ticks supported by FAO.
During September, 1975, he joined the National Campaign for tick erad
ication in Mexico and obtained a grant from CONACYT, Mexico,in order to
obtain his Ph.D. in the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the
University of Florida in Gainesille, Florida, United States of America.
In collaboration with his supervisory committee and monetary support
from Mexican Institutions (CONACYT-FCNCG) he developed his doctoral
research in Mexico, working on cattle tick pest management in Morelos
State, Mexico.
235


64
Figure 8. Ecological studies on ticks at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) at side of meteorological
station. Mesoclimate measures: T =
temperature; R = rainfall. Arrow indicates
a cage for study of the life cycle of ticks
under soil.


Figure 12. Body areas of cows where tick distribution was evaluated.
Number
Area
Area in Spanis
1
Face
Cara
2
Jaw
Carr i 1 los
3
Ear
Orej a
4
Upper Neck
Corbata Cue 11o
5
Lateral Neck
Tabla Cue 1lo
6
Shoulder
Escpula
7
Back
Lomo
8
Upper Dewlap
Pecho
9
Lower Dewlap
Papada
10
Rib
Cost i llar
1 1
Anterior belly
Panza
12
Posterior belly
Hi jar
13
Rump
Mus lo
14
Upper Leg
Pierna
15
Lower Leg
Mano
16
Tail Base
Muslo Cola
17
Tai 1
Cola
18
Estucheon
Ingle
19
Rear Belly
Per ine
20
Udder
Ubres
21
Upper Inner Leg
Sobaco


87
Table 1. Mean preovipos ition period at Yecapixtla (first
phase) as affected by the time of year and type
of vegetation.
Date of
Exposure
Number
of
Exposure
Mean
Preovipos ition
Period
(Days)
Significant^
Difference
Time
Dec. 5
5
13.0
Feb. 22
7
12.0
Mar. 14
8
12.0
A
Nov. 24
4
10. 3
Nov. 4
3
9.8
B
Oct. 26
2
7.0
Jan. 26
6
5.0
C
Oct. 21
1
4.8
Vegetation
(Habitats)
P rime r
vegetation
Th icket
10.5
9.8
A
Pasture
7.4 |
B
Note: Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different
(P < 0.01).
2
Tukeys' mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W.
(1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.


186
to survive the stress conditions of the switch to dry season. Also it
shows that cattle carry lower populations while fed on corn stalks than
when cattle are fed on pasture on the properties (Table 24, Figure 46).
In most counts more than 50% of the total ticks counted were found in
20% of the cattle (Table 24). Eighty per cent of the total ticks
counted were found in 40% of the cattle, this is concordant with Ulloa
and De Alba reports in 1957 in Central America, and with Nagar et al.
(1978). On the contrary in cattle tick counts in Zacatepec, Morelos
on European cattle (Bos taurus) 70% of the animals carried 84.39% of
the total ticks, and in comparison with cattle tick counts on criollo
cattle (Table 25), the former were more susceptible and it agrees with
Wharton (1974) who said that criollo cattle are the dominant breed in
Central America. This breed has shown to be more resistant to B.
microplus than European cattle. The results are also concordant with
Seifert (1971). He stated that the zebu (Bos indicus) crossbreeds
carried 20% less ticks than carried by the British cattle. The European
cattle were maintained mainly under semi-stab i 1ized conditions and
mainly on the dry season (January to May), they were fewer ticks
during that period (Figure 47).
Distribution of ticks on individual animals
In a control or eradication campaign against the cattle tick,
B. microplus sampling is very important, "the last tick found is the
hard one to find" this is what Wharton (1974) stated.
The negative binomial distribution fitted from 30 to 100%
probabilities and mainly from the alternate and truncate form (Table
26). The concentration of the ticks were found mainly in the


41
areas where actively dividing cells and some enlarging spermatocytes
were found. The amount of cellular damage correlates positively with
the concentration of the chemosteri1izant and resulted in decreased
number of spermatids. In crosses of treated males to untreated females,
resulting egg masses hatched normally; however, the percentage of
females producing egg masses that hatched was reduced.
The use of Insect growth regulators is under investigation as
applied to ticks. Solomon and Evans (1977) treated adults of various
species, including B. mioroplus with synthetic hormone mimics, and
found that they caused eggs to become dessiccated after oviposition.
Greater effectivity was found with ZR-615 (N-eti1-3,7,11-trimet i 1
dodeca 2,4-dienamide).
Recently Hair et al. (1979) reported the effectiveness of famphur
applied as bolus for control of Boophilus spp. ticks. When cattle were
infused with famphur via rumen cannulae and challenged with several
1-host ticks, 3 mg famphur/kg body wt/day was ineffective against
Boophilus annualtus (Say), B. microplus (Canestrini) and Dermacentor
albipiotus (packard), but 5 mg/kg was highly effective against
Boophilus spp. while giving no control of D. albipiotus. Administration
of famphur in a sustained release bolus resulted in complete control
of Boophilus when the insecticide was administered to cattle at an
average daily dose of 6.82 mg famphur/kg animal body wt.
Control Methods other than Chemicals
It is important to determine alternative approaches to control such
as pasture spelling, resistant cattle, biological control, cultural


40
susceptible to bromophos and DDT. Generally carbamates were the most
potent acaricides on all strains.
Palmer et al. (1977) showed the residue problem of dioxathion
in adipose tissue cattle subjected to multiple dipping in Wollongbar,
N.S.W., Australia. Maximum residues of dioxathion in adipose
tissue occur 2-4 days after treatment. The half life for the dis
appearance of residues once maximum levels were reached was 16 days,
and was similar to that of some other commonly used organophosphorus
acaricides [e.g., ethion, chlorpyrifos). It is recommended that cattle
subjected to three dippings at 5 day intervals in dioxathion be with
held from slaughter for a period of at least 6 weeks to allow residues
to fall below the Australian maximum residue limit of 1 mg kg -1.
Some other chemicals have been tested and are available for the
control of resistant strains as in the Australian case.
Knowles and Roulston (1973) showed that twenty-nine foramidines
and related compounds displayed activity toward engorged female B.
microplus as judged by reduction in oviposit ion and egg viability, but
only the most toxic adulticides showed activity against larvae.
Stentel (1976) showed that the foramidine compounds can be used
for the control of various tick species, such as Boophilus microplus,
Rhipicephalus appendiaulatus, R. everstii, Amblyomma hebraeum, A.
cajennense and Hyalomma truncation.
Other chemical control measures for ticks have been investigated.
Osburn and Olivier Jr. in 1978 reported the effects of metepa on the
cytology and fertility of male Dermacentor variabilis treated as
unfed adults. Evidence of cellular damage was found in testicular


Temperature
Figure ^0. Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso).


T ¡ me
Mean Monthly Temperature C
NJM MKJN3 JSJNJ N>
9^1
Mean Temperature Zffl


Figure 18. Oviposition periods in three types of vegetation.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.


Table 24. continued.
Animal
Apr.
17
Count Dates
Hay
20
2
Jun.
29
Aug.
12
Sep.
20
Tota 1s
1
20(46.51)
12(54.54)
15(31.25)
8(36.36)
14(51.85)
2
9(67-44)
6(81.81)
13(58.33)
6(63.63)
5(70.37)
3
8(86.04)
3(95.45)
7(72.91)
3(77.27)
4(85.18)
b0% (81.66)
4
3(93-02)
1
6(85.41)
2(86.36)
2(92.59)
548
5
2
0
2(89.58)
2(95.45)
1 (96.29)
6
0
0
2(93.75)
1
1
7
0
0
1 (95.83)
0
0
8
0
0
1(97.91)
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
Total
43
22
48
22
27
671
Cattle
Grazing:
Corn S t a
1 k s
P a
s t u r e
Numbers in parentheses are mean percentages of ticks on each animal (for each date).


Append¡x
5A.
Ranges in
1 oca 1 ities
oviposition
in Morelos
periods at three
State, Mexico.
1978-1979.
Locality
Time and
Exposure
25
1
¡-400
Ranges (no. of eggs)
2 3 4
500-1400 1500-2000 2200-3000
2a
X
Y
1
Oct.
3
4
10
7
C
1
Oct.
7
12
6
3
Z
1
Oct.
4
10
12
4
9.39508b
Y
2
Nov.
2
10
12
10
C
2
Jan.
3
7
10
2
Z
2
Oct.
2
5
19
2
11.17759b
Y
6
Feb.
2
10
10
5
C
3
Feb.
2
4
20
3
Z
3
Feb.
2
3
20
3
7.67698b
Y
7
Mar.
3
6
12
7
C
4
Mar.
2
15
8
5
Z
4
Feb.
3
3
10
8
10.60741b
Y
8
Apr.
2
6
15
5
C
5
Jul .
10
8
8
2
z
5
May
4
8
16
6
17.5379
Contingency tables (chi
U.S.D.A. Washington, D.
-square test) Ref
C.
. Wad ley, F. M.
(1967)
. 73-73 pp.
Hypotheses: Yecapixtla (Y) = Cuernavaca (C) = Zacatepec (Z).
Hypotheses do not reject.
y
Hypotheses rejected (P < 0.05).
y
Hypotheses rejected (P < 0.01).
233


49
in agriculture and livestock worked a maximum of nine months
per year.
Morelos State has more electrification than any other state in
Mexico (92%) and by 1980 the whole population is projected to have
electricity. Ninety-six per cent of the education is supported by
Federal funds. Less than 50% of the students that finish high school
will continue to higher education (Anonymous, 1980).
Agriculture and Livestock Industry
The land available for agriculture is 150,000 ha which represents
30% of the total surface of the state, of these 50,000 ha are under
irrigation. Efforts are being made to develop intensive agriculture.
Eighty-five per cent of the properties have 5 ha or less.
Almost 80% of the tillable surface is "Ejidal," which is an
extensive subdivision of the land.
The main problem in livestock production is the lack of feed
due to poor pastures and overgrazing. The disposable land is 145,000
ha (it represents 30% of the total) and is located mainly in elevated
areas. Morelos has to import 30% of its livestock feed and is
limited by poor genetic quality of their livestock.
There are 466,000 head of livestock. The main animals are cattle
with 282,000 head (60% of the total).
In the future the government programs have a goal to have an
intensive type livestock industry and to produce food for cattle, with
the integration of the agriculture and the production of supplements
other than pasture. They intend to introduce improved pastures and to


170
Table 26. Probabilities (in percentage) for the goodness of fit
using the chi-square test for counts of the total
number of the cattle tick on 79 head of cattle in
Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico.
Distributions {% P < 0.01)
Neyman
Areas
Neqative
Binomia 1
Type A
Logarithmic
Poisson
C
T
C
T
T
1 Face
30-50 (S)
30-50
-
.u
5-10(s)
70-80(A)
70-80
.u
30-50(A)
2 Jaw
30-50(S)
-
10-20(S)
- (s)
80-90(A)
70-80
30-50(A)
JU
50-70(A)
-
3 Ear
5-10 (S)
30-50(s)
JU
- (s)
-
30-50(A)
90-95
80-90(A)
/'?
10-20(A)
10-20(A)
4 Upper-Neck
20-30(s)
10-20
-
JU
- (s)
30-50(A)
30-50
-
JU
20-30(A)
-
5 Lateral Neck
-
-
-
*
-
-
6 Shoulder
10-20 (S)
50-70
/'c
70-80(A)
90-95
-
.u
5"10(A)
-
7 Back
- (s)
30-50
- (s)
J.
_
_
- (A)
30-50
5-10(A)
J.
-
-
8 Upper
70-80 (s)
90-95
-
.u
10-20 (S)
Dewlap
99 (A)
99
-
J,
50-70(A)
-
9 Dow
- (s)
*i.d.f.
_
J-
*i.d.f.
_
Dewlap
20-30(A)
30-50
-
*
5-10
10 Rib
10-20(S)
5
-
Vc
_
50-70(A)
50-70
-
*
20-30(A)
-
11 Anterior
5-10 (S)
70-80
_
j1;
_
Belly
20-30(A)
20-30
-
*
-
-
12 Posterior
30-50(s)
30-50
30-50 (s)
.U
5-10(S)
_
Belly
50-70(A)
50-70
20-30(A)
20-30(A)
13 Rump
30-50 (s)
30-50
-
.u
- (s)
_
50-70(A)
50-70
-
.u
5-10(A)
-
14 Upper
- (s)
-
_
*
Legs
20-30(A)
20-30
-
*
-


54
In general "A" climates belong to tropical and wet climates. The
sabanna climates and "C" climates are temperate and wet. Designations
of Bw climates are hot and sub-humid with the wet season in summer. In
general in Mexico, places with these types of climates present types
of vegetation other than the typical savanna vegetation. "A" climates
in Mexico are well represented in both litoorals: in the Pacific
side from the parallel 20 north to the south and from sea level to
an altitude of 800 to 1,000 meters above sea level; on the Gulf side
from the parallel 23 north to the south coastal area and the base of
the Sierra Madre Oriental and the mountains north of Chiapas State.
Also these climates are in the Yucatan Peninsula, the deep valley of the
Balsas River (Morelos State) and the central depression in Chiapas
where they extend to 1,300 m.a.s.l. (Garcia, 1973)-
The altitude in Cuautla is 1291 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level),
Yecapixtla 1578 m.a.s.l., Cuernavaca 1552 m.a.s.l., and Yacatepec
317 m.a.s.l. (Figure 4) (Garcia, 1973).
The number of cattle in Yecapixtla was 6,529 head, Cuautla 10,404
head, Cuernavaca 10,708 head and Zacatepec 2,530. With respect to
vegetation the main species of bush (thicket) were Cordia boissieri,
Neopringlas integrifolia, Celtis pallida and Forestierra spp. The
main species of pastures were, in the low grass areas Lycurus pheoides,
Hilaria oenchroides, Cathestecum spp. and Opizia spp. The main species
of native pasture are Faspalum spp., and introduced grasses included
Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon. Some other grasses under experimentation
are Setaria sphanaeata and African star, Cynodon pleotostaohius
(Anonymous, 1980).


234
Appendix 5B. Ranges in longevity of larvae periods at three
localities in Morelos State, Mexico. 1978-1979.
Ranges
(no. of
larvae)
Locality
Time and
Exposure
1
< 100
2
20,000
3
< 100
Ia
X
Yecapixt1 a
1
Oct.
30
50
23
Cuernavaca
1
Oct.
18
20
5
Zacatepec
1
Oct.
10
30
83
69.827**
Yecapixtla
2
Nov.
70
40
25
Cuernavaca
2
Jan.
5
10
18
Zacatepec
2
Oct.
5
17
-8
104.263**
Yecapixtla
6
Feb.
60
30
25
Cuernavaca
3
Feb.
10
10
25
Zacatepec
3
Feb.
26
55
45
38.949**
Yecapixtla
7
Mar.
50
49
29
Cuernavaca
4
Mar.
8
20
30
Zacatepec
4
Feb.
25
30
60
30.385**
Yecapixtla
8
Apr.
30
30
51
Cuernavaca
5
Ju 1.
25
30
19
Zacatepec
5
May
63
61
16
38.407**
aContingency
72-73 pp. U
tables
.S.D.A
(chi-square test),
i. Washington, D.C.
Ref. Wad ley, F. M.
(1967).
Hypotheses:
Yecapixt1 a
= Cuernavaca =
Zacatepec.
Hypotheses rejected (P < 0.01).


season from June to October. Low temperature was recorded in January
and high temperatures were registered in March and June.
In general, the study area showed low temperature and rainfall
conditions in Yecapixtla, in comparison with Yecapixtla that registered
the highest temperature and moisture and Cuernavaca (Progreso) was an
intermediate area (Figures 30, 31 and 32).
Comparison of non-paras itic stages in the study area. Figure 33
shows the total duration period of the non-parasitic stages of the cattle
tick, B. miaroplus at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec
taking into account the exposure chamber (cage or tube). Analysis of
equality showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.01)
between the number of days that ticks spent in tubes and cages. Ticks
extended the time required for development of the non-paras itic stages
in cages and tubes increased mortality in early stages of development.
Tubes in cages followed the same trends as tubes in soil.
There was no significant difference (P < 0.01) at Zacatepec
between the non-paras itic stages of ticks exposed in cages between
Bermuda and Setaria grasses but there was significant difference (P <
0.01) between both ticks exposed in cages and ticks exposed in tubes
in Bermuda and Setaria grasses.
Cages in each locality. Figure 34 shows the cycles of the non-
parasitic stages held in cages at Yecapixtla. In this figure the major
difference was seen in the longevity of larval period. AN0VA test
showed no significant difference (P < 0.01) in the arbitrary scale
of oviposition but did show significant differences in the arbitrary
scale of longevity of larval periods. Maximum total longevity was
reached with exposure 8 (April) which lasted for 145 days. Minimum


Figure 3- Morelos State and its limits. Isotherms (annual mean temperature in C),
Isoyeths (total rainfall per year in mm) and location of the experiments:
I. Yecapixtla, 2. Yautepec, 3. Cuernavaca (progreso), Zacatepec, 5.
lequesquitengo, and 6. Cuautla.


13
The special problem in Australia is the dependence of the cattle
industry on chemicals for tick control and the facility with which the
tick, B. mioroplus has developed resistance to chemicals. Resistance
to OP's was recognized in central Queensland in 1963 and had developed
as a result of dioxathion (Delnav) selection (Ridgelands strain). Since
1966, the Biarra Strain appeared with cross-resistance to almost all
organophosphate and carbamate chemicals. In 1967 the Mackay strain
appeared and higher resistance to carbamate and prolate was seen. In
1970 the Mt. Alford strain was discovered with resistance to all organo
phosphate and carbamate chemicals. The problem in northern New South
Wales is compounded by the fact that tick control has been maintained
at such a high level that tick fever is not normally transmitted.
Therefore, there is a population of 750,000 non-immune cattle in a
potentially enzootic area (Wharton, 197^+b). Ecological data will be
very important to determine other control measures along the border
between new South Wales and Queensland (Lewis, 197*0.
After Mexico initiated its fever tick control eradication program
(1976), Sonora and Chihuahua were maintained tick free by quarantines
maintained by the federal government of Mexico. Less surveillance
was required over Mexican cattle imported into the United States from
those Mexican States (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).
The eradication campaign in Mexico includes individual state
legislation for the campaign, starting by a promotion phase which
includes cattle dip constructions, and determination of free areas
within each state. After this, the control phase begins and
includes dipping of cattle each 1A days with one of the recommended


194
8. Boophilus microplus engorged female ticks are able to escape
environmental abiotic stress by moving into holes and burrows
or by burying themselves if the soil surface allows, they have a
broad cycle under those conditions.
9. The native fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (L.) was determined as a
predator of engorged female ticks, Boophilus microplus
(Canestrini).
10. Habitats preferred by ants for predation on ticks occur in clear
areas.
11. The maximum total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of B.
microplus studied in cages was 6.3 months.
12. Non-parasitic stages of tick cycle became shorter as the humidity
decreases.
13- Meteorological stations do not give exact information about the
ecological niches occupied by ticks but microclimate measurements
do.
14. Criollo cattle and Brahman crosses carried low levels of engorged
female ticks in comparison with European breeds of cattle.
15- Criollo cattle and Brahman crosses carried high levels of ticks
while grazing on pasture in comparison with cattle fed on corn
stalks.
16. Distribution of ticks on individual animals were clumped and
fitted to the negative binomial type of distribution on upper-
inner-legs, estucheon, upper legs and tail base.
In Morelos State it should be possible to implement a pasture
spelling control tick method by proper management of cattle.
17.


42
practices (Wharton et at. 1969; Wharton, 1974b)and legislation that
makes it obligatory for all stockmen to follow certain rules and
regulations concerning cattle management and treatment (Drummond,
1974). Barnet (1977) mentioned that the main problem in eradication
programs would be the restrictions of movement of cattle within a
country or between countries.
Waters (1972) concluded that examination of pasture spelling
practices for the control of the cattle tick has shown that, to be
successful, the program must be tailored to fit both the environmental
and the management needs of the particular property. Spelling periods
must be sufficient to permit the majority of tick larvae to die due
to starvation. At the same time, consideration should be given to
the best use of available feed and the capacity of combination with other
management practices.
Harley and Wilkinson (1971) proved that using divided paddocks and
planning the movement of the cattle according to the longevity of larvae
the cattle required seven treatments in a two year period. Whereas
cattle grazing on unsubdivided paddock required 22 treatments.
Application of the method is likely to be seriously hampered by the
necessity for increased fencing and movement of cattle. The method of
planning a control program is best considered in relation to a particular
district and according to the survival of the ticks.
Applied biological control for the cattle tick is limited, but
there are some studies for the assessment of natural enemies of B.
miaroplus. Wilkinson in 1970 in Queensland, Australia, reported that
in some of the areas predation of engorged ticks by ants was sufficiently


26
small laboratory animals are poor hosts for B. annulatus because they
are so adept at mechanical removal of all stages of the tick, with the
exception of the white-tailed deer as hosts. Wild animals may not be
important in the maintenance of populations of B. ccnnulatus in an
area in which an eradication effort is being made. But these animals
may serve as carriers of ticks from infested to uninfested areas.
In Japan, Asanuma et al. in 1977 reported Boophilus miaroplus
ticks infesting the iriomote wild cat, Mayailurus iriomotensis.
Biology
The pioneer work on the life-cycle and biology of the cattle tick,
Boophilus annulatus (= Margaroporus annulatus) was carried out by
Curtice Cooper 1891, who stated:
The life cycle and biology may be divided into two
distinct phases, a parasitic period during which the
tick is attached to its host, and a non-paras itic
period during which the tick is at no time attached
and during which it does not feed. After the tick
has left its host there is a pre-oviposition period
ranging from three days in summer to as many as
twenty-eight days in winter. Oviposition continues
for eight or nine days. The average number of eggs
laid by a single female is about three thousand.
The average period of incubation is about thirty
days according to the temperature and the amount
of moisture, (p. 113)
De La Vega (1975) studied under laboratory conditions, the biology
of B. miaroplus, at different temperatures. He demonstrated that the
preovipos ition period is a linear function of the temperature between
21 to 32C, and the oviposition period is an exponential function of
the temperature between 21 to 36C. Egg hatching time is a linear
function of the temperature between 24 to 34C. Fertility was found
to be high at 24 to 34C, while at 36C fertility was low. Engorged


Date
Figure 30. Climate at Yecapixtla, Morelos during the time of the experiments of the second phase nj
(mesoclimate).
Total Rainfall (mm)


63
Figure 7-
Placement of the cage. Bottom covered
with earth where ticks were released (C).
A and B same as Figure 6.


Table 7- continued.
Date of
Exposure
Pasture
(Days)
Sig
Dif
1 >2
Date of
Exposure
Ti cket
(Days)
c- 1,2
S i g. '
Dif.
Date of
Exposure
Primer j 2
Vegetation Sig.
(Days) Dif.
Period:
Longevity of Larvae
Feb. 22
49
A
Oct.
26
79
Nov.
4
87
A
Mar. 14
42
Oct.
21
76
A
Oct.
26
85
H
Oct. 26
38
B
Dec.
5
73
Dec.
5
82
Nov. 24
36
C
Nov.
24
66
Oct.
21
76
1 B|c
Dec. 5
35
D
Feb.
22
55
D
Feb.
22
73
CL
Jan. 26
30
Mar.
1*4
51
L
Mar.
14
68
Nov. *4
0
Jan.
26
38
D
Nov.
24
66
L
Oct. 21
0
t
Nov.
4
0
E
Jan.
26
58
Period:
Total Longevity
Feb. 22
85
1 A
Oct.
26
115
Dec.
5
134 I
A
Mar. 1 4
77
Dec.
5
114
A
Nov.
4
125
Nov. 2*i
71
D
Oct.
21
112
Oct.
26
125
D
Oct. 26
70
C
Nov.
24
103
B
Feb.
22
123 1
Jan. 26
67
D
Feb.
22
93
Mar.
14
118 I
Dec. 5
61
Mar.
14
90
L
Oct.
21
116
L
Nov. 4
9
E
Jan.
26
72
D
Nov.
24
115 1
Oct. 21
2
1
F
Nov.
4
33
E
Jgn.
26
101 |
D
Note: Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different (P < 0.01).
2
Tukey's mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W. (1961) 321-327 PP* Iowa St. Univ.
Press.


six acaricides. After completion of this phase the eradiction phase
will start with restricted cattle movement from one area to another
(Anonymous, 1980).
Disease Transmission by Boophilus Species
Texas fever caused by Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilbourne) is
the major disease that B. miaroplus and B. annulatus can transmit. In
1889 Smith made his epoch-making discovery of the intracorpuscular
protozoan parasite inhabiting blood of the diseased cattle.
Smith and Kilbourne, on suggestion of Almon, who studied the
disease earlier, proved that the disease is tick-borne. The work of
Smith and Kilbourne (1893) marks a most important milestone in the
study of protozoan disease and in the history of preventive medicine.
It made possible the elimination of Texas cattle fever from the United
States (James and Harwood, 1961).
In Australia (Queensland), the control methods were designed to
reduce cattle tick populations so that cattle do not lose immunity to
pirop1asmosis (Wilkinson, 1957).
Christophers (1907) made a systematic study of the life cycle of
Babesia bigemina in the cattle tick. The life cycle of the protozoa
has two distinct phases: an asexual cycle in the vertebrate host where
multiplication takes place in the red blood corpuscles by binary
fission, and a simple sexual cycle in the tick.
There are various species of Babesia: 3. aaballi and B.
(Nuttalia) equi both from horses. Infecting cattle are four main
species: B. bigemina, B. major, B. argentina and B. bovis. The


136
Table 13. The effect of pastures on the non-parasitic
stages of the cattle tick, B. microplus studied
in cages in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. Second
phase. 1978-1979.
Source of
Variation
d. f.
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
Total
23
47,992.62
Subgroups
(Pasture and Stages
of Development)
7
47,683.29
6,811.90
352.34**
Pastures (A)
1
165.37
165.37
8.55
Stages of
Development (B)
3
47,323.79
15,774.60
815.94**
Interaction
(A X B)
3
194.13
64.71
3.35*
Error
16
309.33
19-33
-Bermuda (cross one) and setaria grasses.
ANOVA (P < 0.05)* (P < 0.01)**.


Figure 14. Scanning electron micrographs (ventral view) of
coxa I of Boophilus nrieroplus female tick. Spur
structure and setae shown (see 50 y reference).


INTRODUCTION
The total production value of the cattle industry in Mexico Is
500 million dollars. The industry occupies a surface area of 54,338,190
hectare (ha) (General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. S.A.R.H. 1979).
Mexico has 22,500,000 head of cattle including both beef and
dairy cattle. The major problems of obtaining high meat and milk
production are breeds of cattle, animal feed, the parasite load, and
climate. Of these, the parasite load is often very damaging. The
cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Cantestrini, 1887), transmits Babesia
bigemina (Smith and Kilbourne, 1893) which is a major factor in the
death of 150,000 animals per year and it represents losses of 10 million
dollars per year (General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. S.A.R.H.
1979). The tick also affects the efficiency of meat and milk production.
The tick infested areas in the Mexican Republic comprise the tropical
and subtropical area of Mexico as well as Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and
Coahuila along the border with the state of Texas in the United States
of America. The Mexican government has established a program to
eradicate the cattle tick under a cattle dip program with chemicals.
The program covers 7,703,716 ha. The total dipping program is to cover
an area of 14,166,779 ha. At present (1980) the tick has been success
fully controlled in an area of 2,373,798 ha (Anonymous, 1980).
Cattle tick control is a concern to both Mexico and the United
States of America as it involves both social and technical problems.
The national Mexican control program is primarily associated with
1


Table 25. continued.
An ima1
Apr.
13
May
b
Count Dates'^
May May
19 30
Ju 1 ,
15
Tota 1s
1
2(100)
8(100)
2(100)
*4(100)
3(60)
2
0
0
0
0
1 (80)
3
0
0
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
*40% of animals 66.87% of total ticks
5
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
70% of animals 8*4.39 of total ticks
8
0
0
0
0
0
E 530
9
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
1
8
2
b
5
E 628 Ticks
^Numbers in
parentheses
are mean
percentages
of ticks on
each
animal (for each date).


FIgure
18 Oviposition periods in three types of vegetation 95
19 Longevity of larvae in three types of vegetation 100
20 Total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of the
cattle tick, Boophilus microplus in three different
habitats Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 104
21 Per cent of eclosin of larvae of the cattle tick,
Boophilus microplus in three different habitats and
eight exposure dates 106
22 Mesoclimate conditions during the experiments on
fecundity in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 107
23 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the first series 112
24 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the second series 113
25 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the third series 114
26 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the fourth series 115
27 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the fifth series 116
28 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the sixth series 117
29 Number of eggs of the female offspring, time in
days at peak numbers of eggs and capacity for
increase of the six disturbed series 119
30 Climate at Yecapixtla, Morelos during the time of the
experiments of the second phase 121
31 Climate at Cuernavaca (Progreso) Morelos during the
time of the experiments of the second phase 122
32 Climate in Zacatepec, Morelos during the time of the
experiments of the second phase 123
33Non-paras itic stages studied in cages, tubes in cages
and tubes in three different localities in Morelos
State
1 x
125


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful for the guidance of Dr. Jerry F. Butler
for his supervision, suggestions and encouragement as chairman of the
supervisory committee.
Particular thanks are due to the committee members: Dr. H.L.
Comroy, S.G. 2am, S.H. Kerr, and D.H. Habeck for suggestions and
efforts to make this research possible in Mexico.
The National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT)' and the
2
Center of Animal Parasitology (CENPA)" in cooperation with the National
Campaign Against the Cattle Tick in Mexico (FCNCG)^ are due thanks for
the monetary support given these investigations.
The author is extremely grateful to the Division of Morelos State
(Jefatura Estatal Morelos, FCNCG) for allowing me to utilize the
facilities in the field and also Mr. Juvencio Yaes, a cattle owner
where an experimental area was provided.
Much appreciation is extended to Dr. Said Infante of the Post
graduate College of SARH and M.S. Luz del C. Calderon for discussion
and cooperation of the mathematical analysis.
Finally, warm thanks are extended to my wife, Ruth, for under
standing and patience during the time of my doctoral education at the
University of Florida
^Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa.
"Centro Nacional de Parasitologa Animal. FCNCG. SARH.
^Fideicomiso Campaa Nacional Contra la Garrapata. SARH. 5NCR. BID.


162
of the animals carried 100% of the ticks observed, with the exception
of March 6 (count date). Cattle were highly infested while grazing
on pasture (Table 23). Two population peaks occurred during the sample
period (1977~1978) one in late November and the other during the middle
of February (Figure 46). Table 24 shows that 81.66% of the ticks were
found on 40% of the criollo and Brahman cross cattle at Yecapixtla in
counts made from October 1978 to September 1979. In all counts there
were 80% of the ticks on 40% of the animals.
In 1978-1979 low levels of infestation were recorded (Figure 46)
compared with 1977-1978 counts. Two peaks were seen in December when
cattle grazed on pasture and one in March when cattle were fed on corn
stalk forage. On the 12th of November one chemical dip for tick control
was made and is reflected in the November 17th (1978) count.
Zacatepec. Host preference studies. Animal surveys for tick
preference by animal breed were made in Zacatepec ("Tequesquitengo")
on Holstein, Jersey, Swiss and few Brahman and criollo cross dairy
cattle. At this site 84.39 of the ticks found on 70% of the animals
counted (Table 25). Two population peaks were seen, one in the middle
of October and the other during late November (Figure 47). Few ticks
did occur during January to May. All those animals were in semi-
stabilized conditions as most dairy cattle in the State of Morelos.
Yautepec. Distribution of ticks on individual animals. Dis
tribution of cattle ticks on animals were evaluated as to the type of
distribution. Table 26 shows the probabilities (in per cent) for the
goodness of fit of various distributions using the chi-square test on
the total number of the ticks on 79 individual animals. Analyses were


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS '
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION 1
LITERATURE REVIEW 4
Insect Pest Management 4
The Cattle Industry in Mexico 7
The Cattle Industry in the United States of America 11
World-Wide Eradication Campaigns Against
Boophilus micvoplus and B. annulatus 11
Disease Transmission by Boophilus Species 14
The Cattle Tick, Boophilus micvoplus 15
METHODS AND MATERIALS 47
Introduction to Tick Ecosystem 47
Cattle Tick Ecology 55
Cattle Management in Morelos State 76
Survey of Tick Control Program Status in Morelos State. ... 76
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus micvoplus
in Morelos State 77
RESULTS 78
Cattle Tick Ecology 78
Survey of Cattle Management Practices in
Morelos State 172
Actual Resources for Tick Control 175
DISCUSSION 178
Cattle Tick Ecology 178
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus micvoplus
in Morelos State 137
CONCLUSIONS 193
i i i


METHODS AND MATERIALS
Introduction to Tick Ecosystem
Morelos State Statistics
The state of Morelos is located in the central part of the
Mexican Republic, between 18022'5" and 1907'10" north longitude and
between 9937'8" and 9930'8" west Greenwich longitude. The state is
bordered on the north by The Federal District and Mexico State, to the
south with Guerrero and Puebla States (Figure 3)* It has 4,941 square
kilometers, and is the 27th largest in surface area of all the states
of the Mexican Republic. Isotherms cover three areas between less than
20C and more than 20C. Rainfall ranges from 1100 to 900 mm in the
north and south.
Cuernavaca is the captol city. There are areas within the
State which have been populated since 1500 B.C. When the Spanish
Conquistador Hernn Cortez came to Tenochtitlan" (The Aztec Capitol)
in November, 1519, he knew that there was an empire south which was
dependent upon the Aztecs. Cortez almost "owned" the entire state
at that time and ordered a castle built in Cuernavaca.
In 1869, the 16th of April, Morelos was named as a state, under
President Benito Juarez. By 1975, it had an estimated population density
of I65 people per square kilometer. People working in livestock and
agriculture in 1975 viere 72.9 thousand people which was 36.9% of the
total population. About 27% of the population that work
47


228
Appendix 3C. Raw data of the non-paras 111c stages of the cattle
tick, Boophilus microplus In Zacatepec, Morelos,
Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979.
E X
P0S
U R E
ju
S"
Stages on
Commenced
1 and
Months
Covered
1)
Bermuda (B)
1
2
3
and Setaria (S)
Oct
. 11
Feb
. 9
May
15
Grasses
B
S
B
S
B
S
T
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
0
0
Preovipos ition
Oct.
Oct.
Feb.
Feb.
Oct.
Oct.
Feb.
Feb.
May
May
C
5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
6.0
5.0
T
23.0
20.0
19.0
16.0
0
0
Ovi pos ition
Nov.
Nov.
Feb.
Feb.
Nov.
Nov.
Mar.
Mar.
Jun.
Jun.
C
30.0
28.0
28.0
24.0
34.0
32.0
T
30.0
26.0
0
0
0
0
Incubation
Dec.
Nov.
Dec.
Nov.
Mar.
Mar.
Jun.
Jun.
C
36.0
34.0
34.0
30.0
40.0
38.0
T
73.3
60.0
0
0
0
0
Longevity of
Feb.
Jan.
Larvae
Apr.
Mar.
Jul .
Jul .
Nov.
Oct.
C
123.0
110.0
126.0
115.0
140.0
119.0
T
106. 3
89.0
0
0
0
0
Total Longevity
C
164.0
148.0
164.0
149.0
186.0
162.0
Means in days of nine ticks (three in each tube) and five ticks (in one
cage), in each observation; and 45 ticks in 15 tubes and 25 ticks in
five cages in each exposure. T, tube; C, cage.
1) Months covered or when ticks finished the stage.


APPENDICES


109
When comparisons were made on the seasonal mean egg production
with disturbed egg samples, significant differences (P < 0.01) were
demonstrated between the first three dates (July-August, September-
October, October-November)and the last three dates (November-December,
February-March, May) (Table 9 A and B). When undisturbed samples were
compared a similar pattern was seen with the additional slight
separation of May, November-December from February-March (Table 9 A,
B, and C).
There was correlation between the number of eggs laid and the
mean weight of fully engorged female ticks (Table 10).
Figures 23 through 28 are a graphic presentation of the mean
number of eggs laid for the dates noted in the figures. The time
required for egg laying depended on the time of year and location of
the gravid ticks (series 1, 2 and 3) which produced the largest
numbers of eggs and they correspond to the months of the wet season
from July to November and after the months with highest rainfall
(June). These series 1, 2, and 3 required longer time periods for
total egg laying than did series 4, 5, and 6 (Figures 26, 27 and 28).
In contrast the mean number of eggs of the series 4, 5, and 6
(Figures 26, 27 and 28) had the lowest mean egg production and they
correspond to the months of the dry season from middle November to
May, the months without any rainfall. Egg production for series 4,
5, and 6 (Figures 26, 27 and 28) was initiated and completed earlier
than series 1, 2, and 3 (Figures 23, 24 and 25).
Figure 29 shows the number of eggs that will produce female
offspring (Ro), the age of mother when she produces the batch of eggs


141
Table 14. Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
preoviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesoclimate. Second phase. 1978-1979.
Loca 1ity
Exposure
Macroclimate
Mean Temp
C
Preoviposition
Days
Cage Tube
Mesoclimate
Mean Temp
C
Month
Yecap1xt1 a
1
22.0
12.0
8.6
20.0
Oct.
2
22.8
13.0
11.0
18.0
Nov.
3
21.9
18.0
15.3
17-5
Dec.
4
22.4
19.0
2.0
17.0
Jan.
5
22.4
19-0
7.0
17.0
Jan.
6
23.2
19-0
14.6
18.1
Feb.
7
24.3
18.0
0
19.5
Mar.
8
26.2
7.0
0
20.2
Apr.
Cuernavaca
1
20.0
11.0
4.6
19-7
Oct.
(Progreso)
2
18.9
10.0
0
18.5
Jan.
3
20. 1
12.0
10.0
20.5
Feb.
4
22.0
14.0
0
23.2
Mar.
5
20.5
12.0
0
24.2
Jul.
Zacatepec
1
24.3
5-0
3.0
22.2
Oct.
2
22.5
4.0
3.0
21.2
Feb.
3
28.0
6.0
0
23.7
May
Hypothesis
Tube
b = 0.7090
Tube
b = 1.2552
vs
r = 0.3346
vs
r = 0.5417
Ho: r = 0
Macro
r2 = 0. 1 120
Meso
r2 = 0.2934
Hi : r j 0
R2 = 0.8880
Rz = 0.7066
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothesis
Cage
b = 0.7090
Cage
b = 1.2827
vs
r = 0.3346
r = 0.6122
Macro
r2 = 0.1120
r2 = 0.3748
R2 = 0.8880
R2 = 0.6252
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothes
i s


129
total longevity was seen in exposure 8 (March) which lasted for
105 days.
Figure 35 shows the cycles of the non-paras itic stages held in
cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso). In this figure the stage development
was longer in exposure (March) 4 and (July) 5 with 115 days and 120
days, respectively. The shortest duration period of the total
longevity was 75 days, exposure (January) 2.
Contingency tab 1es showed no significant differences in the
arbitrary scale ranges of oviposition but did show significant differences
in the arbitrary scale ranges of longevity of larvae.
Figure 36 shows the cycle of the non-parasitic stages held in
cages at Zacatepec. In this figure the stage of development was
longest in the May exposure in Bermuda grass (190 days) with the longest
total non-paras itic stages registered. In comparison with all three
localities studied, the shortest non-parasitic stage registered in
Zacatepec was a February exposure on Setaria grass (155 days).
Table 11 shows oviposition and longevity of larvae (arbitrary
scale) in three localities. Multiple linear regression showed no
relation between Cuernavaca rates between both oviposition and longevity
of larvae, or with Yecapixtla and Zacatepec rates both between ovi
position and longevity of larvae.
Comparison of stages held in cages at all localities when correlated
with macro and mesoclimate. Table 12 shows the effect on localities on
the non-pa ras itic stage studied in cages. There were significant
differences (P < 0.05) between the oviposition periods at Yecapixtla
and Cuernavaca and those at Zacatepec. There were no significant
differences in the time required to complete the oviposition and


Figure 2. Scanning electron micrograph* of the capitulum of
B. microplus male. It shows palpal article I with
a retrograde projection on the inner side. Denticles
of the hypostome, four in each file.
Courtesy of Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy, Entomology
and Nematology Department, University of Florida.


219
Appendix 2B. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick,
B. miaroplus. Second series. September 13 to
October 1, 1977* Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
Date
N u
8-1
m b e
B-2
r of
B-3
T i c
B-4
k s
B-5
Mean
Sep.
13
0
305
690
5
3
1 ,003
200.60
14
74
420
310
73
181
1 ,058
211.60
15
144
440
302
160
153
1,199
239-80
16
352
393
167
173
169
1,254
250.80
17
409
240
279
220
232
1,380
276.00
18
192
179
272
294
202
1,139
227.80
19
230
119
287
241
231
1,108
221.60
20
236
81
161
103
283
864
172.80
21
260
80
37
264
174
815
163.00
22
289
66
10
283
83
631
126.20
23
102
42
28
215
73
461
92.20
24
104
17
12
238
66
437
87.40
25
47
9
9
114
10
190
38.00
26
38
6
3
74
8
129
25.80
27
23
5
3
4
13
48
9.60
28
18
4
0
11
10
43
8.60
29
9
0
0
3
6
18
3.60
30
8
0
1
3
3
15
3.00
Oct.
1
1
0
*
1
2
4
1.00
2
/V
/V
j.
0
0.00
Total
2,437
2,406
2,571
2,480
1 ,902
11,796.00
n
(18)
(16)
(18)
(19)
(19)
Mean
135-38
150.37
142.83
130.52
100.10
X
2,359.20
J-
Death of the tick.


Date and Exposure
Oct 1
0ct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Time (Months)
Apr
Hay
Jun
Ju 1
Figure 20. Total longevity of the non-parasitic stages of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus
in three different habitats Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. October 1977-September 1978.
First phase.
o
-c-


120
(Tc) and the capacity for increase (rc) of the slope of the curve of
the undisturbed eggs. A bimodal peak is demonstrated for the wet season
(July to November) which correspond to the first three series. Only
one peak is seen for the dry season (November to May), which correspond
to the last three series.
The dry season series 4, 5, 6 (November, February, May) (Figure
29) show that the number of eggs decreases and also the age of the mother
when she produces the highest number of eggs (TC). Therefore, the
capacity for increase became higher in the dry season, in comparison
to the wet season when the number of eggs increase (1, 2 and 3 series).
The age of the mother when she produces the highest number of eggs
increases at the wet season and the rc is maintained to its lowest
numbers.
Non-parasitic Stages. Second Phase
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec
Figure 30 shows the temperature and rainfall registered at the
Yecapixtla meteorological station. Low temperatures were recorded for
October to March and high temperatures from March to August. Rainfall
occurred primarily during the months of May through October.
Figure 31 shows the climate conditions at Progreso southwest to
Cuernavaca City. A long dry season occurs here from November to April,
a wet season from March to October. The lowest temperature was
registered in January.
Figure 32 shows the climate conditions registered in Zacatepec.
The dry season at this locality was from November to May and the wet


Table 25. Host preference of engorged female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm) of B. mieroplus
on dairy cattle' in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico.
An ima1
1978
Oct.
16
Nov.
10
Count Dates3
Nov. Dec.
28 15
1979
Jan.
3
Jan.
19
Feb.
28
Mar.
14
Mar.
30
1
59(33.90)
14(16.09)
38(20.32)
35(35)
13(65)
1 (100)
2(22.22)
5(27-77)
3(42.85)
2
20(44.38)
13(31.03)
28(35.29)
14(49)
4(85)
0
2(44.44)
4(50.00)
2(71.42)
3
18(54.49)
12(44.82)
27(49.73)
13(62)
1 (90)
0
2(66.66)
3(66.66)
1 (85.71)
A
17(64.04)
11 (57.47)
23(62.03)
8(70)
1 (95)
0
1(77.77)
3(83.33)
1
5
15(72.47)
9(67.81)
19(72.19
7(77)
1
0
1(88.88)
1(88.88)
0
6
13(79.77)
8(77.01)
17(81.28)
7(84)
0
0
1
1(94.44)
0
7
13(87.07)
7(85.05)
12(87.70)
6(90)
0
0
0
1
0
8
12(93.82)
7(93.10)
10(93.04)
5(95)
0
0
0
0
0
9
8(98.31)
4(97-70)
8(97.32)
3(98)
0
0
0
0
0
10
3
2
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
178
87
187
100
20
1
9
18
7
2Holstein, Jersey, Swiss and few crosses with Brahman and Criollo.
Numbers in parentheses are mean percentages of ticks on each animal (for each date).


Table 2k.
Host preference of B. mieroplus
(4.5-8.0 mm) on
native
cattle in
Yecapixt1 a,
Morelos, Mexico.
1978-1979.
1978
Coun t
Dates^
1979
Oct.
Oct.
Nov
Nov.
Dec,
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Animal
5
10
17
28
8
8
13
15
20
1
18(6/4.28)
6(50.00)
6
20(25.31)
23(20.17)
20(43.47)
20(35-71)
15(36.58)
85(66.92)
2
3(75-00)
4(83.33)
0
18(48.10)
18(35.96)
11 (67.39)
15(62.50)
7(53.65)
12(76.37)
3
2(82.]k)
2
0
32(88.60)
20(53.50)
15
11(82.14)
5(65.85)
10(84.25)
4
2(89.28)
0
0
6(96.20)
16(67.54)
0
5(91.07)
6(80.48)
7(89.76)
5
2(96.42)
0
0
3
16(81.57)
0
5
2(85.36)
5(93.70)
6
1
0
0
0
9(89.47)
0
0
1(87.80)
5(97.63)
7
0
0
0
0
8(96.49)
0
0
1 (90.24)
1 (98.42)
8
0
0
0
0
3(99.12)
0
0
2(95.12)
1(99.21)
9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
28
12
6
79
114
46
56
41
127
Cattle
Grazing
P a s t u r
e
C
o r n
Stalks
2and Brahman crosses.
Numbers in parentheses are mean percentages of ticks on each animal (for each date).


60
engorged females. A total of six series were evaluated throughout the
time covered by both dry and wet seasons.
The grass present was Cnodon daotylon in an area close to the
Cuautla River on a property of Mr. Ricardo Guerrero Rios near 20 head
of cattle. An area of 20 square meters was fenced to prevent it from
being disturbed by cattle.
Data ana lysis
Variance analyses (ANOVA) were done with the non-paras itic stages
exposed on pasture, thicket and primer vegetation and Tukey's test for
comparison of the means. Also correlations were made as to the number
of days required to complete the periods as influenced by macroclimate
and mesoc1imate.
An analysis of daily fecundity was made for the experiments and
an ANOVA test was made for the number of eggs produced by the ticks
handled daily as compared to those not handled until the end of the
oviposition period.
Non-Paras itic Stages. Second Phase
Cage design
Evaluation of the non-pa ras itic stages of the second phase was
done at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec from October
1978 to September 1979-
A new cage design for the study of the non-paras itic stages of
the cattle tick, B. miaroplus was tested. This cage design was
modified to allow ticks to have a temperature and humidity choice.
Figure 6 shows the cage; it consists of a top made of wood and covered


2
acariceles. Therefore, it is important to determine alternative control
measures because tick resistance to specific acaricides may eliminate
chemical control in Mexico as in certain areas of Australia. Non
chemical control means must be evaluated as well as cultural practices
such as pasture spelling and resistant cattle. Perhaps other control
methods such as biological control can be incorporated into pest manage
ment practices. In some marginal areas for livestock as in Morelos
State an inexpensive program for controlling ticks must be developed
with strategic dipping and cultural practices that can be implemented
2
by the farmers. Morelos State covers 4,941 km and it is the 27th
largest in size of Mexico's 32 states. Cattle management practices are
the same in all the central part of the Mexican Republic. Morelos State
is located just in the transitional area between the neartic and neo
tropical zoogeograph ica1 areas.
In the cattle tick eradication program, control of the cattle tick
is done by the farmers under the supervision of field technicians
(inspectors) and veterinarians from the National Campaign. They
supervise the construction of dipping vats in the promotion phase.
When the control phase is initiated they make recommendations on the
kind of dip as well as the timing between dips.
Farms of the central part of Mexico, with the exception of the
dairy industry, are the poorest and smallest ("Ejidatar ios"). Here
the construction of dipping vats will take longer. In the tropics,
mainly in the States of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Campeche, Tabasco and
Yucatan, population suppression by acaricidal treatments is now taking
p1 ace.


209
Appendix IB. ANOVA test for the preovipos ition period
Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico,
First phase.
Source of Variation
d. f.
Sum
of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
(1)
T reatments
23
1,019.87
44.34
71.4**
(Time + vegetation)
Error
48
298.00
6.21
Tota 1
71
1 ,317.87
UT
Ti me
(Exposures)
7
671.87
95.98
15.46**
Vegetation
(Habitats)
2
127.75
63.88
10.29*
Interaction
14
220.26
15.73
2.53
Error
48
298.00
6.21
Total
71
1,317.87
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
Significant difference (P < 0.05)
""Significant difference (P < 0.01)


RESULTS
Cattle Tick Ecology
Non-Paras i ti c Stages. First Phase
Photographs of Boophilus microplus were taken with the aid of
a scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Dr. H. L. Cromroy of the
Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida.
This allowed comparisons to be made between two species present in
Mexico, B. microplus and B. annulatus. The main feature used to
separate both species as Bauch (1966) showed is coxa I shape.
Boophilus microplus females (Figure 13) have two spurs (coxa I)
broadly rounded (Figure 14) about as wide as long and possessing a
few setae. Coxa !I has two spurs and coxa I I I and IV have none.
On the contrary, B. annulatus has one spur on coxa I and none on
coxa II, III and IV. Boophilus microplus male coxa I spur structure
is given in Figure 15 and is very distinct as Bauch (1966) reported.
It has a triangular pointed internal spur wider than the external
with few setae. It also has a caudal process on the ventral posterior
side of the opisthosoma. In contrast, B. annulatus has two spurs on
coxa I but the internal spur is definitely rounded and the external
spur triangular without a caudal process on the ventral posterior side
of the opisthosoma.
The tick ecological studies in the "first phase" (October 1977
to September 1978) was completed at Yecapixtla, Morelos, on the
78


147
Table 17. Oviposition of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus (Can) in cage trials at Cuautla,
Morelos, Mexico. Second Phase. 1979
Observation
Date
Cage
6 cm
N u
m b e r of
Tube in
Soil (6 cm)
Eggs*
Tube
on Soil
June 4
976
1,246.00
0
5, 6
-
o
L.
1,669.75
0
7
a;
~o
c
836.75
93
8
z>
c
922.25
All Dead
9, 10, 11
12
-
ru
h-
+J
o
1,658.50
186.25
13 to 20
7,186
z:
89-75
E
8,162
6,609.25
X
2,040.5
1 ,652.31
Of 4 ticks.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FOR THE CATTLE TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887)
IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO
BY
MARIO CAM I NO-LAV IN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
¡980

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful for the guidance of Dr. Jerry F. Butler
for his supervision, suggestions and encouragement as chairman of the
supervisory committee.
Particular thanks are due to the committee members: Dr. H.L.
Comroy, S.G. 2am, S.H. Kerr, and D.H. Habeck for suggestions and
efforts to make this research possible in Mexico.
The National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT)' and the
2
Center of Animal Parasitology (CENPA)" in cooperation with the National
Campaign Against the Cattle Tick in Mexico (FCNCG)^ are due thanks for
the monetary support given these investigations.
The author is extremely grateful to the Division of Morelos State
(Jefatura Estatal Morelos, FCNCG) for allowing me to utilize the
facilities in the field and also Mr. Juvencio Yaes, a cattle owner
where an experimental area was provided.
Much appreciation is extended to Dr. Said Infante of the Post
graduate College of SARH and M.S. Luz del C. Calderon for discussion
and cooperation of the mathematical analysis.
Finally, warm thanks are extended to my wife, Ruth, for under
standing and patience during the time of my doctoral education at the
University of Florida
^Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa.
"Centro Nacional de Parasitologa Animal. FCNCG. SARH.
^Fideicomiso Campaa Nacional Contra la Garrapata. SARH. 5NCR. BID.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS '
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION 1
LITERATURE REVIEW 4
Insect Pest Management 4
The Cattle Industry in Mexico 7
The Cattle Industry in the United States of America 11
World-Wide Eradication Campaigns Against
Boophilus micvoplus and B. annulatus 11
Disease Transmission by Boophilus Species 14
The Cattle Tick, Boophilus micvoplus 15
METHODS AND MATERIALS 47
Introduction to Tick Ecosystem 47
Cattle Tick Ecology 55
Cattle Management in Morelos State 76
Survey of Tick Control Program Status in Morelos State. ... 76
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus micvoplus
in Morelos State 77
RESULTS 78
Cattle Tick Ecology 78
Survey of Cattle Management Practices in
Morelos State 172
Actual Resources for Tick Control 175
DISCUSSION 178
Cattle Tick Ecology 178
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus micvoplus
in Morelos State 137
CONCLUSIONS 193
i i i

LITERATURE CITED 196
APPENDICES 206
1 RAW DATA FOR THE PREOVI POSITION, OVI POSITION,
LONGEVITY AND NON-PARAS ITIC STAGES OF THE CATTLE
TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS 208
2 RAW DATA OF THE FECUNDITY OF THE CATTLE TICK,
B. MICROPLUS 218
3 RAW DATA OF THE NON-PARAS IT IC STAGES OF THE CATTLE
TICK, B. MICROPLUS 226
4 DATA ON MICROCLIMATE 230
5 RANGES IN OVI POS ITI ON AND LONGEVITY OF LARVAE PERIODS
AT THREE LOCALITIES IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO 233
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 235

LIST OF TABLES
Table
1 Mean preovipos¡tion period at Yecapixtla as affected
by the time of year and type of vegetation 87
2 The duration of the preoviposition at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate
and mesoclimate 90
3 Mean oviposition period at Yecapixtla as affected by
the time of year and type of vegetation 91
4 The duration of the oviposition periods at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 93
5 Mean longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla as affected by
the time of the year and type of vegetation 96
6 The duration of the longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the macroclimate and
mesoclimate 98
7 Mean total longevity of the non-parasitic stages of
B. microplus at Yecapixtla as affected by the type
of vegetation and time of year 101
8ANOVA test for the number of eggs produced by ticks for
the first six series time periods and the check of the
cattle tick, B. microplus in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 108
9Boophilus microplus mean oviposition rates for six
different times of the year of disturbed and undisturbed
ticks at Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 110
10 Linear correlation between the mean number of eggs
and tick we i ghts Ill
11 Rates of oviposition and longevity of larvae of B.
microplus at three localities in Morelos State, Mexico. 133
12 The effect of localities on the non-paras itic stages
of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus studied in
cages, Morelos State, Mexico 134
v

Table
12 The effect of pastures on the non-paras it¡c stages of
the cattle tick, B. microplus studied in cages in
Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico 136
14 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
preoviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 1 41
15 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
oviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 142
16 Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate and
mesocl imate 144
17 Oviposition of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.)
in cage trials at Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 147
18 Gravid Boophilus microplus (Can) and their natural
predation by Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 155
19 Total predation of gravid females of the cattle tick
Boophilus microplus (Can.) exposed in different habitats
in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 156
20 Chi-square analysis for predated and unpredated females
of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.) exposed
in different habitats in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. 157
21 Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick Boophilus
microplus by the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Fab.)
on unpastured grass in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 159
22 Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus (Can.) by the fire ant, Solenopsis geminata
(Fab.) on setaria and Bermuda grasses in Zacatepec,
Morelos, Mexico 160
23 Host preference of B. microplus on native cattle in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 161
24 Host preference of B. microplus on native cattle in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 165
25 Host preference of engorged female ticks of B. microplus
on dairy cattle in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico 167
26 Probabilities for the goodness of fit using the chi-square
test for counts of the total number of the cattle tick
on 79 head of cattle in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico 170
V|

Table
27 Relationships between mean/variance, Morisita index and
K parameter of negative binomial for distribution of
cattle tick counts on native cattle in Yautepec,
Morelos, Mexico
173
v
1

LIST OF FIGURES
gure
1 Ecological areas for bovin cattle production In
Mexico 9
2 Scanning electron micrograph of the capitulum of
B. miaroplus male 21
3 Morelos State and its limits 48
4 Macroclimate conditions of four boundaries in Morelos
State where experiments were conducted 52
5 Tubes used for exposed ticks 57
6 Cage, a new design to study ticks on pastures 61
7 Placement of the cage 63
8 Ecological studies on ticks at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
at side of meteorological station 64
9 Ecological studies in Zacatepec 66
10 Equipment for microclimate recording 69
11 Cages utilized to measure the existence of predators. ... 71
12 Body areas of cows where tick distribution was
evaluated 75
13 Scanning electron micrograph of an engorged female
Boophilus microplus tick showing capitulum, hypostome,
and scutum 80
14 Scanning electron micrographs (ventral view) of coxa I
of Boophilus microplus female tick 82
15 Scanning electron micrograph (ventral view) of coxa I
of Boophilus microplus male tick 84
16 Climatic conditions during the first phase near the
tick study site at Yecapixtla, Morelos 86
17 Preovi position periods in the three types of vegetation
at Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 89
vi i i

FIgure
18 Oviposition periods in three types of vegetation 95
19 Longevity of larvae in three types of vegetation 100
20 Total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of the
cattle tick, Boophilus microplus in three different
habitats Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 104
21 Per cent of eclosin of larvae of the cattle tick,
Boophilus microplus in three different habitats and
eight exposure dates 106
22 Mesoclimate conditions during the experiments on
fecundity in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico 107
23 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the first series 112
24 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the second series 113
25 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the third series 114
26 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the fourth series 115
27 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the fifth series 116
28 Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus,
of the sixth series 117
29 Number of eggs of the female offspring, time in
days at peak numbers of eggs and capacity for
increase of the six disturbed series 119
30 Climate at Yecapixtla, Morelos during the time of the
experiments of the second phase 121
31 Climate at Cuernavaca (Progreso) Morelos during the
time of the experiments of the second phase 122
32 Climate in Zacatepec, Morelos during the time of the
experiments of the second phase 123
33Non-paras itic stages studied in cages, tubes in cages
and tubes in three different localities in Morelos
State
1 x
125

Figure
3k Non-parasitic stages studied in cages at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico 128
35 Non-pa ras itic stages studied in cages in Cuernavaca
(Progreso) Mexico 131
36 Non-paras itic stages studied in cages in Zacatepec,
Morelos, Mexico 132
37 Comparison of oviposition periods studied in cages
at three localities 138
38 Comparison of larval longevity periods studied in
cages at three localities 140
39 Climate in Cuautla, Morelos during the time of the
experiments on fecundity 146
40 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 1 48
41 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 149
42 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 150
43 Temperatures in tick habitat studied at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) 151
44 Cuticles of engorged female ticks of B. miaroplus
attacked by the native fire ant, Solenopsis geminata. ... 153
45 Predation of B. miaroplus engorged females by
Solenopsis geminata ants in three habitats in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 154
46 Host preference of engorged female ticks of Boophilus
miaroplus on native and Brahman cross cattle at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 164
47 Seasonal distribution of engorged females of B.
miaroplus on dairy cattle from October 1978 to
July 1979 169
48 Ecological areas in Morelos State location of dipping
vats and location of experimental areas 189
49 Tick pest management control methods 190
50 A proposed component model of the tick system 192
x

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FOR THE CATTLE TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887)
IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO
By
Mario Camino-Lavin
August 1980
Chairman: Dr. J.F. 3utler
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology
This research involved ecological studies on the cattle tick,
Boophilus mcvoplus (Canestrini, 1887), for the development of an
integrated pest management system as a pilot program for the Morelos
State, Mexico, study area, taking into account climate, type of cattle,
and management.
The main studies were conducted by counting engorged female ticks
in the parasitic stage on native and introduced cattle. On native and
Brahman cross cattle, 80% of the ticks were found infesting 40% of the
animals compared to European cattle on which 80% of the ticks were
found on 70% of the animals. Seasonal tick populations were light in
the middle of both wet and dry seasons and were related to pasturing
procedures. The highest populations of the cattle tick were found at
the end of the wet season. A survey to determine body region preference
for this tick was made. Tick distribution on the host showed the

highest tick populations on the rearbelly area, then upper-inner-legs,
estucheon and tail base.
Non-paras itic stage studies were conducted within tubes and cages
placed into the soil to evaluate tick survival and egg laying. Maximum
longevity observed for non-paras itic stages (adult female, eggs, and
larvae) was 190 days in Zacatepec, Morelos; 117 in Yecapixtla; and 96
days in Cuernavaco (Progreso). Meteorological stations near the trials
did not give precise enough information on ecological niches occupied by
ticks to correlate the monthly mean temperature and the tick life cycle.
The duration of the tick life cycle was found to be regulated by the
microclimate which in turn was controlled by tick preference and move
ment in cages as ticks buried into the soil to lay eggs at optimum
temperature.
Surveys on tick predation were made. Predation by ants, Solenopsis
geminata (L.) was found to be most important and varied depending on the
type of vegetation. Predation reached 60% in thicket areas then
decreased on pasture to 19% with the lowest predation seen in brushy
and woody begetation.
A proposed tick pest management system was designed and presented.
The management system was developed on a regional basis which incorporated
chemical and ecological information on ticks obtained in this study. The
control methods included pasture spelling, use of natural predators,
breeding for resistant cattle, management of cattle fed on corn stalk
forage, quarantine measures, and chemical control.
x i i

INTRODUCTION
The total production value of the cattle industry in Mexico Is
500 million dollars. The industry occupies a surface area of 54,338,190
hectare (ha) (General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. S.A.R.H. 1979).
Mexico has 22,500,000 head of cattle including both beef and
dairy cattle. The major problems of obtaining high meat and milk
production are breeds of cattle, animal feed, the parasite load, and
climate. Of these, the parasite load is often very damaging. The
cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Cantestrini, 1887), transmits Babesia
bigemina (Smith and Kilbourne, 1893) which is a major factor in the
death of 150,000 animals per year and it represents losses of 10 million
dollars per year (General Direction of Statistics. Mexico. S.A.R.H.
1979). The tick also affects the efficiency of meat and milk production.
The tick infested areas in the Mexican Republic comprise the tropical
and subtropical area of Mexico as well as Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and
Coahuila along the border with the state of Texas in the United States
of America. The Mexican government has established a program to
eradicate the cattle tick under a cattle dip program with chemicals.
The program covers 7,703,716 ha. The total dipping program is to cover
an area of 14,166,779 ha. At present (1980) the tick has been success
fully controlled in an area of 2,373,798 ha (Anonymous, 1980).
Cattle tick control is a concern to both Mexico and the United
States of America as it involves both social and technical problems.
The national Mexican control program is primarily associated with
1

2
acariceles. Therefore, it is important to determine alternative control
measures because tick resistance to specific acaricides may eliminate
chemical control in Mexico as in certain areas of Australia. Non
chemical control means must be evaluated as well as cultural practices
such as pasture spelling and resistant cattle. Perhaps other control
methods such as biological control can be incorporated into pest manage
ment practices. In some marginal areas for livestock as in Morelos
State an inexpensive program for controlling ticks must be developed
with strategic dipping and cultural practices that can be implemented
2
by the farmers. Morelos State covers 4,941 km and it is the 27th
largest in size of Mexico's 32 states. Cattle management practices are
the same in all the central part of the Mexican Republic. Morelos State
is located just in the transitional area between the neartic and neo
tropical zoogeograph ica1 areas.
In the cattle tick eradication program, control of the cattle tick
is done by the farmers under the supervision of field technicians
(inspectors) and veterinarians from the National Campaign. They
supervise the construction of dipping vats in the promotion phase.
When the control phase is initiated they make recommendations on the
kind of dip as well as the timing between dips.
Farms of the central part of Mexico, with the exception of the
dairy industry, are the poorest and smallest ("Ejidatar ios"). Here
the construction of dipping vats will take longer. In the tropics,
mainly in the States of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Campeche, Tabasco and
Yucatan, population suppression by acaricidal treatments is now taking
p1 ace.

3
In the future for the control of bovine ticks, there will be a
Pest Management Program developed for each ecological area in Mexico.
There has to be intensive sampling and chemical control with buffer
areas to be operational in the states that border with the United
States of America, because of cattle exportation from Mexico.
The main objectives of the present work are (1) to elucidate the
tick, Boophilus microplus population dynamics in different seasons of
the year, (2) to evaluate tick distribution on the host, and (3) to
understand the natural control as affected by climate and the management
of cattle. Based on all of these ecological data the overall objective
is to propose an Integrated Pest Management System for the cattle tick,
Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) in Morelos State, Mexico.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Insect Pest Management
In the United States there is an extension education system
designed to teach farmers, ranchers, and homeowners how to carry out
more effective pest control, protect pest natural enemies, implement
chemical and non-chemical means of controlling pests and apply
pesticides on an "as needed" basis (Smith and Pimentel, 1978). This
is because increased pest resistance is limiting the effectiveness
of many pesticides, as a sole control means.
During the past five years major steps have been made by the
public research and extension agencies to develop and demonstrate the
concepts and techniques of integrated pest management (I PM). Chemical
pesticides may be required in I PM programs; however, they are applied
only as a last resort to keep the pests from exceeding established
threshold levels (Smith and Pimentel, 1978).
More than 3 billion livestock are maintained to supply the
animal protein consumed annually in the United States. In addition to
the large amount of forage, this livestock population consumes about
ten times as much grain as is consumed by the total U.S. human popu
lation. In considering food energy and protein produced, grains and
some legumes like soybeans are produced more efficiently than fruits,
vegetables, and animal products. Expensive grain would tend to reduce
the quantity of grain for feeding livestock (Pimentel et at., 1980).
k

5
Integrated Pest Management is the practical manipulation of mite,
tick or insect pest populations using any or all control methods in a
sound ecological manner (Watson et at., 1976).
In handling insect pest problems we have gone full cycle from the
early applied ecology days, to chemical control, to integrated control,
and finally to a multicomponent I PM system founded in ecological
principles. The basic elements upon which a sound I PM system rest
are: natural control, sampling, economic thresholds and tick biology
and ecology (Watson et at., 1976). With IPM it is usually desirable
to maintain low levels of the pest at all times. The factors needed
to understand the systems include climate, alternate host plants,
beneficial insects and man's activities (Watson et at. 1976).
Integrated Pest Management includes the integration of two or more
technologies to control one or more pests of a commodity with some
reduced injury level. It is an economic pest control, decision-making
aid. A definition is: the selection and integration of insect control
methods on the basis of anticipated economic, ecologica1 and sociologica1
consequences (Anonymous, 1979). It is an important mechanism to
transfer technology to producers. In other words IMP is the optimization
of pest control in an economically and ecologically sound manner.
The fundamental strategy of pest management is the coordinated
use of multiple tactics in a single integrated system with the goal
of maintaining pest numbers and resultant damage at economically
acceptable levels. IPM generally aims for a containment rather than
an eradication strategy (Anonymous, 1979). Models are not required
for most single IPM programs, but modelling is a very useful tool.

6
The agroecosystem, where most of the I PM systems take place, is
not characterized by "biological balance" but by "biological imbalance."
The agroecosystem is a manifestation of an ecological principle which
states that species simplicity rather than diversity is the most highly
productive state of an ecosystem (Anonymous, 1979)-
Pest Management is the intelligent selection and use of pest
control actions that will ensure favorable economic, ecological and
socioecological consequences. It has to rely on the applied ecology
through devising procedures for pest control suited to current technology
and compatibility with economic and environmental quality aspects, that
is, economic and social acceptance (Metcalf and Luckmann, 1975).
A key factor in IPM is to find out why an insect population became
higher at certain seasons of the year (Rabb and Guthrie, 1970).
Metcalf and McKelvey, Jr., in 1976 said that it is urgent to
develop needed ecological and other relevant information on the pest
species in order to enable the most intelligent use of pesticides.
The essential problem with the known insecticides is the develop
ment of insect resistance. The total number of insect and tick strains
resistant to the chlorinated and organophosphorus insecticides and
other acaricides have risen at an alarming rate (Jacobson, 1975). The
word "resistance" has come to be applied to any population, within a
species normally susceptible to a given insecticide that is no longer
controlled by the insecticide in the area concerned. In other words,
resistance is a developed attribute that has come to characterize an
insect population consequent upon continued treatment with the
insecticide (Brown and Pal, 1971).

7
Recently (Anonymous, 1979), a workshop on Livestock Pest Manage
ment was held at Kansas State University. The committee members
recommended research be developed to determine the effect of abiotic
factors on survival, longevity and fecundity of ticks, and to assess
populations on different breeds of cattle. The primary idea was to put
into practice more than one control method with emphasis on cultural
control to be used in a regional basis (Anonymous, 1979)-
The Cattle Industry in Mexico
The cattle industry in Mexico is of an extensive type and is based
almost entirely on production from grazing animals. The only intensive
production occurs in the dairy animal industry close to the big popu
lation centers. Both improved breeds of cattle and good management
are utilized in the dairy industry. Breeding rates for beef cattle are
cl ose to 55 to 60% and the survival to sale is very low (13 to 14%). The
best meat production is in the "huastecas" in which slaughtered animal
weight averaged 200 kg or more. The national average is between 150
and 160 kg per animal. Milk production per cow per year is on the
average of one thousand liters. There exists a social problem with the
people working as middle man between the producer and the consumer
because they increase the price of milk and beef. The producer
earns just 25% of the final price of the meat (Anonymous, 1980).
The average consumption per habitant per year is 20 kg of red
meat and 8l liters of milk and its derivatives. In other developed
countries the consumption is higher in the population areas of higher
income. Since I960 the federal government has been working on a

8
national campaign to improve the bovine cattle industry, not just for
the improvement of internal consumption but also to intensify
exportation after the improvement of production. By I960, most of the
technical aid was in the hands of the private sector with few
veterinarians and other technicians working with the farmers to improve
herd quality (Anonymous, 1980).
In 1930 there were 10,083,000 head of cattle in the Mexican
Republic, in 1950, 15,713,000, in 1958, 21,921,000 and in 1970 there
were 22,500,000 (Anonymous, 1980).
The ecological areas for cattle production can be classified in
Mexico as follows (Figure 1): a) North, with 39.^ million hectars and
stocking rates of 6 to 50 ha per animal (average), with the exception
of "the Huastecas" which has a better climate and soil and a stocking
rate of 2 head per ha on native pastures or 3 head per ha on improved
pasture. Close to 30% of the livestock production occurs in
Chihuahua State. The average temperature is 18C and rainfall varies
from 350 to 900 mm. Cattle spend most of the dry season close to ponds,
during the rainy season animals graze on the rest of the pasture. In
the Huastecas there is higher rainfall (Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosf
States) and higher temperatures. Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Zacatecas,
North of Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosf sell feeder cattle for fattening
to the Huastecas mainly during the dry season. Herefords are the
predominant breed. b) North Pacific, covers 11.3 million ha and has
a stocking rate of 5 to 50 ha per head of cattle. The climate is
tropical and includes irrigated areas for agricultural production.
Cattle management is similar to that of the Gulf of Mexico area.

Figure I. Ecological areas for bovin cattle production in Mexico: A, North;
B, North Pacific; C, Center; D, Gulf of Mexico; E, South Pacific.
1, Morelos State where experiments were conducted.

10
c) Center, with an area of 7-6 million ha of pasture, has stocking
rates of 5 to 10 ha per animal. The climate varies from dry to
temperate and tropical. This area has a higher cattle population (one
third of the total) and higher consumption rate of meat and milk.
Jalisco and Michoacan States account for 17% of the total cattle
of the country. There are different breeds of cattle including
Hereford, Shorthorn, Brahman and others, but the native cattle are very
well distributed. Dairy cattle are of primary importance, d) Gulf of
Mexico, extends over 3-7 million ha but it is the most important area
for grazing and fattening cattle. In Tabasco, Veracruz and Campeche
stocking rates rise to 3 head per ha. In the Yucatan peninsula, which
has a lower dry climate, there is a stocking rate of 8 to 15 ha per
head of cattle or less in Tizimin. "The Huastecas" area comprise
part of Veracruz, Hidalgo, San Luis Potos and Tamaulipas States.
The average stocking rate is 1 head per ha. Production is almost
200,000 head of cattle, with an average slaughtered weight of 240 to
250 kg per unit. Two thirds of the beef consumption is by Mexico City.
The climate is tropical with 6 to 11 months of rainfall (1,800 to 3,000
mm per year). Cattle are pastured during the dry season. The main
breeds are Brahman crosses, e) South Pacific, surface of 5.2 million
ha and 2.3 million cattle. Stocking rates vary from 1.5 to 10 ha per
animal and in some places even more. The climate is mostly semi-
tropical and dry with the exception of some areas in Chiapas State
with a tropical and wet climate. Cattle management is similar to some
areas of the center and in some areas in the South Pacific area
(Anonymous, 1980).

The Cattle Industry in the United States of America
Cattle production in Mexico can be compared to that in the
United States of America with total cattle and calves at 110,864,000
head. The State of Texas accounts for the most animals produced with
13,900,000 head (Anonymous, 1978).
World-Wide Eradication Campaigns Against
Booyhilus microplus and B. annulatus
Bishop in 1913 reported the first collections of the cattle tick,
Boophilus mioroplus at Key West, Florida, in 1912. Smith and Kilbourne
in 1893 made their historic announcement of the role of the ixodid tick,
Boophilus annulatus, in the transmission of Texas fever (bovine babesiosis
among cattle in the southern United States. In 1906, it was estimated
that B. annulatus caused economic losses, directly and indirectly,
of 130,500,000 U.S. dollars per year, probably equivalent to a billion
or more 1976 dollars (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).
An eradication campaign in the United States was formally
organized in 1909. Cattlemen enthusiastically supported and participated
in the tick eradication (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977)-
Survival of unfed larvae in pastures from which all cattle had been
removed was of vital importance as a basis for planning many control
programs. Pasture vacation was the primary control measure used by
many cattle raisers, especially in the more northern parts of the
infested area where tick survival was probably tenuous at best (Graham
and Hourrigan, 1977). In April 1910, the Bureau of Animal Industry
(BA I ) adopted arsenic as its recommended tick control agent. The
eradication program proceeded to an apparently successful conclusion

12
in 1Skh, but Florida subsequently suffered 3 limited outbreaks of
B. mieroplus during 19^+5 1950, 1957 1958, and 1960 1961 It was
impossible to determine whether these infestations represented re
appearances of pre-existent low-level populations that survived on wild
animal host or whether they stemmed from new introductions of the tick
from the Caribbean area (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977)* Since 1968,
there have been 18 separate outbreaks north of the buffer zone in
Texas and these have led to the discovery of 235 infested premises.
In areas which are climatically suitable for the survival and reproduction
of B. mieroplus, this species is generally considered to be a more
severe threat than B. ccnnulatus because of an apparent wider host
adaptability and a possible greater genetic vigor (Graham and Hourrigan,
1977).
At the moment there are eradication campaigns in Argentina and
Uruguay which began in 1939 and 19^0, respectively. The main problem in
an eradication program is lack of ecological data (Graham and Hourrigan,
1977). Grillo-Torrado in 1976 reported that resistance to organo-
phosphate insecticides was less of a problem in Argentina than in
Australia but that it often interfered with tick control operations.
In Australia the national government concluded that although
cattle ticks cost governments and producers close to k2 million
Australian dollars per year (= 62 million U.S. dollars) eradication
of the tick, B. mieroplus, was not practical. But an eradication
program in New South Wales was appropriate. They stressed the need
for more use of resistant cattle (Commonwealth of Australia, 1975;
Noland, 1979).

13
The special problem in Australia is the dependence of the cattle
industry on chemicals for tick control and the facility with which the
tick, B. mioroplus has developed resistance to chemicals. Resistance
to OP's was recognized in central Queensland in 1963 and had developed
as a result of dioxathion (Delnav) selection (Ridgelands strain). Since
1966, the Biarra Strain appeared with cross-resistance to almost all
organophosphate and carbamate chemicals. In 1967 the Mackay strain
appeared and higher resistance to carbamate and prolate was seen. In
1970 the Mt. Alford strain was discovered with resistance to all organo
phosphate and carbamate chemicals. The problem in northern New South
Wales is compounded by the fact that tick control has been maintained
at such a high level that tick fever is not normally transmitted.
Therefore, there is a population of 750,000 non-immune cattle in a
potentially enzootic area (Wharton, 197^+b). Ecological data will be
very important to determine other control measures along the border
between new South Wales and Queensland (Lewis, 197*0.
After Mexico initiated its fever tick control eradication program
(1976), Sonora and Chihuahua were maintained tick free by quarantines
maintained by the federal government of Mexico. Less surveillance
was required over Mexican cattle imported into the United States from
those Mexican States (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).
The eradication campaign in Mexico includes individual state
legislation for the campaign, starting by a promotion phase which
includes cattle dip constructions, and determination of free areas
within each state. After this, the control phase begins and
includes dipping of cattle each 1A days with one of the recommended

six acaricides. After completion of this phase the eradiction phase
will start with restricted cattle movement from one area to another
(Anonymous, 1980).
Disease Transmission by Boophilus Species
Texas fever caused by Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilbourne) is
the major disease that B. miaroplus and B. annulatus can transmit. In
1889 Smith made his epoch-making discovery of the intracorpuscular
protozoan parasite inhabiting blood of the diseased cattle.
Smith and Kilbourne, on suggestion of Almon, who studied the
disease earlier, proved that the disease is tick-borne. The work of
Smith and Kilbourne (1893) marks a most important milestone in the
study of protozoan disease and in the history of preventive medicine.
It made possible the elimination of Texas cattle fever from the United
States (James and Harwood, 1961).
In Australia (Queensland), the control methods were designed to
reduce cattle tick populations so that cattle do not lose immunity to
pirop1asmosis (Wilkinson, 1957).
Christophers (1907) made a systematic study of the life cycle of
Babesia bigemina in the cattle tick. The life cycle of the protozoa
has two distinct phases: an asexual cycle in the vertebrate host where
multiplication takes place in the red blood corpuscles by binary
fission, and a simple sexual cycle in the tick.
There are various species of Babesia: 3. aaballi and B.
(Nuttalia) equi both from horses. Infecting cattle are four main
species: B. bigemina, B. major, B. argentina and B. bovis. The

15
first is the main agent in Mexico and can be recognized in the red
corpuscles by the pair of piriform globules in a short angle (Price
and Reed, 1973).
There is a vaccine against Babesia bigenrina and B. argentina in
Australia. The strain has to be collected in the place or country where
the vaccine is going to be applied (Callow, 1977)-
Mahoney and Mirre (1977) reported Babesia bovis as a synonym to
Babesia argentina while they had been working intensely on the
transmission mechanism by larvae of B. mioroplus.
In the case of Anaplasma marginale the transmission by the cattle
tick or other species of tick is not clear (Canabez and Bawden, 1977;
Corrier ev at., 1978).
Other diseases transmitted by the species of Boophilus are
isolations of Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (CHF-congo) Tick borne
virus has been isolated from B. deaoloratus (Koch) in Nigeria and
from B. mioroplus (Canestrini) in west Pakistan. In Ethiopia serological
and immunological tests have provided evidence of infection of adult
B. deaoloratus with Rickettsia oanori, and in Brazil B. mioroplus is
considered to be a vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Smith, 1973).
The Cattle Tick, Boophilus mioroplus
Taxonomy
The present status of the taxonomy of the cattle tick is as
follows: class Arachnida, suborder Ixodida; super family Ixodoidea;
family Ixodidae; and genus and species Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini,
1887). Other names under synonymy are Boophilus (urobophilus)

16
microplus, Boophilus aaudatus, Boophilus (urobophilus) fallax, Boophilus
(urobophilus) accudatus, as well as others (Roberts, 1964).
There are three valid species of the genus Boophilus: B. annulatus
(Say, 1821), B. deooloratus (Koch, 1844) and B. mioroplus (Canestrini,
1887) (Feldman-Muhsam and Shechter, 1970).
The suborder Ixodida include all ticks. Ticks are ecto-
parasitic in all postembryonic stages, feeding primarily on the blood
of mammals, reptiles and birds. The hypostome of the tick is modified
into a holdfast organ armed with retrorse teeth. Other important
features include lack of an apotele on the palpal tarsus, the tarsus
itself often being reduced, a peritreme in the form of a stigmal plate
surrounding each of the stigmata which are located laterad of or
posterior to, coxae IV, a sensory "capsule" and adjacent pit on the
dorsum of tarsus I comprising the Haller's organ. Three families are
recognized: Ixodidae, Argasidae and Nuttal1iel1idae (Krantz, 1975).
The superfamily Ixodoidea has the following description: weakly
sclerotized but with thick leathery cuticle, with or without a dorsal
shield, gnathosoma terminal or ventral, hypostome armed with retrorse
teeth, palpi simple, telescoped or normal, with a sensory pit, or
Haller's organ on dorsus of tarsus I; all tarsi with apoteles (Krantz,
1975).
The family Ixodidae or hard ticks comprises approximately 700
species in 9-12 genera (Bauch, 1966). The first description of the
genus Boophilus was by Curtice (1891)- The species 3. miovoplus was
described by Canestrini in 1887; the original description and synonyms
were as follows:

17
1887 Haemaphysalius mioropla Canestrini.
original description.
1890 Rhipioephalus miaropla (Canestrini)
1897 Rhipioephalus annulatus (Say) Neumann
1899 Rhipioephalus australis Fuller
1901 Boophilus australis (Fuller)
St i les and Hasse11
1901 Boophilus australis (Fuller)
Salmon and Stiles
1901 Rhipioephalus annulatus var. mioroplus
(Canestrini) Neumann
1911 Marqaroporus mioropla (Canestrini) Neumann
1912 Marqaroporus annulatus australis (Fuller)
Hooker et al.
1913 Marqaroporus annulatus australis (Fuller)
Bishopp
1931+ Uroboophilus oyolops Minning
original description
1934 Uroboophilus mioroplus (Canestrini)
Minning
19^1 Boophilus (Uroboophilus) mioroplus (Canestrini)
Osorno-Mesa
19^1 Boophilus annulatus mioroplus (Canestrini)
T ravis
19^3 Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini)
Fairchiid.

18
Description
Female
Body. Unengorged, length from tip of palpi to posterior margin (in
cm) from 2.34 to 2.85; width from 1.14 to 1.50. Long oval. Scutum
occupying about half the total length. Median and posterolateral
grooves present. Marginal groove absent. Venter with genital and
postanal median grooves present. Hairs present on dorsal and ventral
surfaces but absent in all grooves. Fully engorged specimens may be
as large as 13-0 by 9.0 and are oval, wider and thicker behind (Bauch,
1966).
Capitulum. Length from tip of palpi to posterior margin, about
0.45; width from 0.62 to 0.66. (The palpi are mildly protrusile,
hence measurements of length are not entirely dependable.) Hexagonal.
Cornua as rounded corners (variable). Dorsal surface with two
longitudinal -alleys which traverse the porose areas. Porose areas
oval, mildly convex, with longer axes diagonal. Palpal article I not
visible above. Inner edge of article 2 either in one continuous convex
curve or mildly notched near the middle, the notch when present leading
to a transverse dorsal crease, which may or may not extend to the
outer side of the article (Bauch, 1966).
In ventral view, basis is subreniform with posterior margin
salient. Palpal article 1 absent. Articles 2 and 3 with the posterior
salient edges continuing into the median margin; pstero-inner edges of
2 and 3 sometimes extended into mild diagonal lobes (Bauch, 1966).
Hypos tome. Short, broad, mildly notched apically; denticles,
five or six in each file and occupying about three-fifths of the total
length. Length, about 0.30 (Bauch, 1966).

19
Scutum. Length, from 0.96 to 1.02; width, from 0.75 to 0.80;
longer than wide. Scapulae long, blunt; the interval deep, very wide.
Eyes distinct. Cervical grooves as broad divergent valleys, terminating
at posterolateral margins. Hairs few, scattered, absent in the valleys.
Punctations absent (Bauch, 1966).
Legs. Long, all about equally heavy. Terminal ventral spurs on
tarsus I, and both terminal and subterminal spurs on II, III, and IV
present (Bauch, 1966).
Length of tarsus I, 0.36; metatarsus, 0.30. Length of tarsus
IV, 0.39; metatarsus, 0.30 (Bauch, 1966).
Coxae. Coxae I and II with spurs broadly rounded, about equal,
wider than long. Coxa III, outer spur, smaller than on II; internal
spur absent. Coxa IV, external spur very short; internal spur absent.
Hairs few (Bauch, 1966).
Genital aperture. Between coxae I I.
Male
Body. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin (not to tip
of caudal process) from 1.75 to 2.00; greatest width, 1.05 to 1.20.
Oval, widest at about the middle. Scutum not covering entire body at
sides; exposed parts striate and without hairs (Bauch, 1966).
Cap i tu 1 urn (Figure 2). Length from tips of palpi to tips of
cornua, from 0.33 to 0.40; width, 0.40 to 0.49. Basis about twice
as long as wide. Cornua bluntly pointed, a little raised over the
level of the posterior margin. A few hairs present on sides and top
of basis. Palpal article I not visible from above (Bauch, 1966).

Figure 2. Scanning electron micrograph* of the capitulum of
B. microplus male. It shows palpal article I with
a retrograde projection on the inner side. Denticles
of the hypostome, four in each file.
Courtesy of Dr. Harvey L. Cromroy, Entomology
and Nematology Department, University of Florida.

21

22
In ventral view, palpal article I with a retrograde projection on
the inner side (shape variable). Inner edges of article 2 and 3 with a
few palpal setae (Bauch, 1966).
Hypostome. Essentially as in the female. Length, about 0.24.
Scutum. Mildly excavated at the sides near the spiracular plates.
Scapulae long, situated far apart. Lateral and posterior areas increas
ingly declivous to the margins. Posterior margin plain, not crenate.
Cervical grooves mild, divergent posteriorly; posterior to them, at about
the middle, rounded depressions. Posterior to these rounded depressions,
posterolateral and median grooves present. Hairs numerous on elevated
areas, absent in grooves and depressions. Surface throughout with
very fine granulations. Eyes small and often not easily seen (Bauch,
1966).
Shields. Terminating posteriorly with blunt, free points; surfaces
convex; hairs present (Bauch, 1966).
Legs. Shorter and heavier than in the female. Length of tarsus I,
0.33; metatarsus, 0.30. Length of tarsus IV, 0.36; metatarsus, 0.50
(Bauch, 1966).
Coxae. Coxa I with spurs very distinct, triangular, pointed;
internal spur wider than external; anterior process long, extending
beyond the scapula (visible from above). Coxa II with internal and
external spurs distinctly rounded, shorter than on 1, internal spur
wider. Coxa III with a still shorter, rounded, external spur; internal
spur as a rounded salience (similar to that on ll). Coxa IV with
spurs absent. Hairs few.
Genital aperture. Situated between coxae II (Bauch, 1966).

23
Nymph
Body. Length well-engorged, 2.40 to 2.70; width, 1.60 to 1.80
wide in front, narrow behind, mildly constricted at the spiracular
plates; edges of the spiracular plates usually visible from above (no
unfed nymphs available) (Bauch, 1966).
Capitul urn. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin, 0.24;
greatest width, 0.30. Basis with posterior salient margin convex.
Cornua faint or absent. Palpi short, poorly sclerotized; transverse
ridges faint. Sheaths of the chelicerae very long, fully twice as
long as the palpi. Palpal hairs few, not conspicuous (Bauch, 1966).
Hypostome. Short and broad. Denticles 3/3 with about five in
each file. Length about 0.14 (Bauch, 1966).
Scutum. Pentagonal. Length and width equal, each about 0.45.
Cervical grooves as shallow valleys, divergent posteriorly. Eyes
small, oval, faint. Surface smooth, shining. Punctations absent.
Hairs few.
Legs. Short, moderately heavy (Bauch, 1966).
Coxae. Small, convex. Coxa I with a short, broad, rounded,
externa] spur; II and III about as in I but progressively smaller;
IV, spurs absent (Bauch, 1966).
La rva
Body. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin of body,
0.60; width, 0.42. Short oval. Scutum occupying about three-fifths
of the length of the body (Bauch, 1966).
Cap i tu 1 urn. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin, 0.15;
width of basis, 0.18. Lateral profile lines of basis convex; posterior

24
margin nearly straight. Cornua absent. Palpal article I absent. In
ventral view, basis broadly rounded behind. Palpi with relatively
long hairs (Bauch, 1966).
Hypos tome. Short, broad, with about six broad, short, rounded
denticles in each file. Dentition 2/2. Length about 0.065 (Bauch,
1966).
Scutum. Length, 0.31; width, 0.42. Cervical grooves shallow,
short, converging posteriorly. Surface smooth, shining, impunctate,
and with hairs absent.
Coxae. Coxa I with a short, broad, internal spur; II and III
without spurs (Bauch, 1966).
Hosts
Boophilus miaroplus (Canestrini) was described as Haemaphysatis
miaropla from specimens that came from Paraguay. The tick had been
taken on cattle in the United States, on deer, horse and man from
Argentina, and from deer, ox, and horse from Brazil. It has been
reported from cattle in Danama as well as horse, dog, goat, and
deer. Valadez in 1923 (cited by Smith, 1973) mentions the tick under
the name Margaroporus cmnulatus australis as present in Mexico.
The usual host of the cattle tick is cattle, but Roberts in 1947,
reported in Queensland, Austra1ia, the common cattle tick, 5. miaroplus
annulatus, attacking not only cattle and horses, but also sheep, pigs,
deer, wallabies and kangaroos. The deer, Cervus elephas, were seen to
be heavily infested.
From November to February 1936-1937 tick collections were made on
different hosts in Florida (Orange, Osceola and Collier Counties) and

25
it was found that just one tick, Boophilus annulatus microplus, was
collected from the Florida deer, Odoiaoleus osaeola (Anonymous, 1952).
Powell (1970) reported that sheep are accepted as hosts by larvae
of B. microplus in the absence of cattle and that they can reach
maturity. These ticks were found near Yeerongpilly in Brisbane,
Australia, and they produced eggs, from which larvae were successfully
hatched. Graham et at. in 1972 stated that Boophilus annulatus (Say)
was found on a variety of hosts other than cattle such as deer, sheep,
goats, dogs, cats and rabbits during the years 1905-1913 (in the south
western and southern United States) where the ticks were eradicated by
treating only bovines and equines. In contrast, many thousands of
white-tailed deer had to be slaughtered in Florida before B. microplus
was eradicated from that state. The same authors found that by putting
20,000 larvae of B. microplus on one deer and the same quantity of
larvae on one calf they could produce more engorged females on the
deer than on the calf. In this case 738 engorged females were produced
from the deer and 536 engorged females from the calf. Development
required 30 days on the deer and 28.5 days on the calf to reach the
adult stage. Ticks were k2% heavier from the calf than the ones
obtained from the deer. They did not find B. annulatus on rabbits,
racoons, oposums, skunks, coyotes, bob cats or roadrunners. Under
natural conditions deer probably remove most of the ticks that attach
to them by grooming, so only a few ticks located in the most inaccessible
areas of the deer's body are able to complete their development. On the
other hand, it should be remembered that female ticks can deposit viable
eggs even though they are dislodged from the host before they complete
their engorgement. Finally, the authors reported that wild animals and

26
small laboratory animals are poor hosts for B. annulatus because they
are so adept at mechanical removal of all stages of the tick, with the
exception of the white-tailed deer as hosts. Wild animals may not be
important in the maintenance of populations of B. ccnnulatus in an
area in which an eradication effort is being made. But these animals
may serve as carriers of ticks from infested to uninfested areas.
In Japan, Asanuma et al. in 1977 reported Boophilus miaroplus
ticks infesting the iriomote wild cat, Mayailurus iriomotensis.
Biology
The pioneer work on the life-cycle and biology of the cattle tick,
Boophilus annulatus (= Margaroporus annulatus) was carried out by
Curtice Cooper 1891, who stated:
The life cycle and biology may be divided into two
distinct phases, a parasitic period during which the
tick is attached to its host, and a non-paras itic
period during which the tick is at no time attached
and during which it does not feed. After the tick
has left its host there is a pre-oviposition period
ranging from three days in summer to as many as
twenty-eight days in winter. Oviposition continues
for eight or nine days. The average number of eggs
laid by a single female is about three thousand.
The average period of incubation is about thirty
days according to the temperature and the amount
of moisture, (p. 113)
De La Vega (1975) studied under laboratory conditions, the biology
of B. miaroplus, at different temperatures. He demonstrated that the
preovipos ition period is a linear function of the temperature between
21 to 32C, and the oviposition period is an exponential function of
the temperature between 21 to 36C. Egg hatching time is a linear
function of the temperature between 24 to 34C. Fertility was found
to be high at 24 to 34C, while at 36C fertility was low. Engorged

27
females loose 2% of their weight at 30C and 100% relative humi d i ty
(RH). Negative geotrophism was high at fourth day after
eclosin.
A linear relationship was shown between the weight of engorged
female ixodid ticks and the number of eggs they produce (Sutherst, 1969).
Drummond et at. (1971) proved that in another tick Amblyomma
americanum (L.) the number of eggs per female did not differ significantly
between females disturbed daily and those undisturbed. Peak daily
oviposition occurred on the third day of oviposition.
Dispersal of larvae of B. mieroplus was studied in Australia
(Lewis, 1970) and the results provide evidence that tick larvae disperse
down-wind across a pasture and are carried by casual hosts. Dispersion
by wind was up to 30 m and the casual hosts were rat, cockerels,
magpies and horses.
Physiology
It is well known that larvae of the cattle tick became active
when exposed to carbon dioxide and this gas is used for host detection
(Garca, 1962; Miles, 1968; Korenberg, 1972 and Balashov, 197*0.
Moorhouse (1967) described the pattern of attachment of Boophilus
spp. to cattle. The mouth parts of the larvae, nymphs and adults
penetrate to a similar depth toward the base of the malpighian layer of
the host's skin. Attachment is accomplished by the secretion of cement
whose histochemistry indicated two components, cortex and internum
(Moorhouse, 1967). Ticks in the final stages of engorgement produced
secondary secretions of cement into the lesion.
Waladde (1977) examined the sensory receptors on tarsus 1 and
mouth parts of the cattle tick by scanning electron microscopy. The

28
sensory setae included mechanoreceptors, contact and olfactory chemo-
receptors and of special interest, on each inner cheliceral digit,
was a denticle bearing a papilla at its tip and a pit at its base.
The functions of these two newly described features are not known.
They may include contact chemoreception for sensing host chemicals.
It is only relatively recent that we have begun to understand that
the direct effect of tick infestation is more than that induced by
skin irritation and the loss of blood. Although abscesses resulting
from the attachment of Ambiyorma sp. to the teats of dairy cattle cause
serious harm and heavy tick infestations greatly reduce the value of
hides, there is also a profound systemic effect. Boophilus miaroplus
secretes a toxin which interferes with bovine metabolic processes
including liver function (O'Kelley st at. 1971). Heavily infested
cattle not only show damage to metabolic processes involved in protein
synthesis but this damage persists when they are subsequently maintained
free from ticks. It is possible that a permanent biochemical lesion can
be produced with heavy tick infestation (Springell et al. 1971).
Tatchell and Moorhouse in 1968 studied the attachment of larvae
of the cattle tick. During the first five hours, following arrival
on the host, some larvae attach immediately and begin penetration of
the epidermis.
The first observable changes in the dermis centers in the
capillaries, particularly the more superficial, which may become
dilated close to the mouth parts. Mast cells were present throughout
the sections of all hosts. Oedema was obvious with most attachments.
At 24 hours the main differences were in the greater degree and the

29
increased frequency of the blockage of the deeper capillaries, caused
mainly by neutrophil leucocytes henceforth referred to as neutrophils,
and lymphocytes. Between days 3 and 4 larval ticks started engorgement
which was completed by the fifth day; engorgement was rapid during the
first 24 hours and thereafter slowed until the beginning of the moult
(Tatchell et al. 1972).
It was frequently found that after the moult the nymphs had
attached within a few millimeters of the site of the larval attachment,
which could be recognized by the larval cement cone. Engorged nymphs
may be found any time from 10 to 15 days after infestation. The
final phase of nymphal feeding which follows the secretion of secondary
cement was characterized by the development of a more obvious lesion
of up to 350 mm in width by 280 mm in depth. The leucocytes within
the cavity were mostly neutrophils along with a few small and medium-sized
lymphocytes. The capillaries laterally adjacent to the attachment tended
to be dilated and superficial haemorrhage was common. The cavities were
larger than those of larvae and extended into the dermis to include the
reticular plexus of blood vessels for the first six days after attach
ment female ticks are mainly inactive. The intensity of feeding and
salivation is greater at night and reaches its peak on the final night
of attachment (Tatchell et at., 1972).
Seifert et al. (1968) showed different features on the
feeding of the cattle tick. Boophilus spp. is so sparing in its
defecation that it would be of negligible proportions when compared
with the food intake during the parasitic life cycle. Protein is no
doubt an important factor in the diet of the tick, so that the red
cells with their 30% protein content will assume a greater

30
importance than the plasma with their 6 to IX protein. It will be
seen that an adult female takes 350 ml of blood from a crossbred
Brahman and 300 ml of blood from a British animal. They calculated
daily blood loss amounts of 107 to 15^ ml in British animals in
contrast to a Brahman crossbred heifer, which lost on the average
no more than 1 ml of blood per day. Calves on normal rations can
tolerate losses of up to 200 ml of blood a day without marked ill
effect, for at least 7 weeks. However, it is obvious that the inter
action between host age, nutritional standards and tick numbers is
complex. Dropped fully engorged adult females contained more red cells
per individual and generally also more plasma, than engorged ticks
removed from the host.
Presence of ecdysone had been reported (Obenchain, 1979) in ticks,
Omithodorus moubata or at least these ticks contain material which has
moulting activity. This has not been studied in Boophilus microplus.
In ticks other than B. microplus the presence of a pheromone
has been demonstrated (Layton and Sonenshine, 1975).
Ixodid ticks use the salivary glands for osmoregulation during
feeding. During the sixth to seventh day of the last feeding they
concentrate the copious blood meal by injecting ~]h% of the ingested
water and 95% of the Na back into the host as saliva. The
fluid secretion appears to be controlled by catecho-
laminergic nerves. In this case it is the acinus III which became
active. During feeding acinus I produce cement and acinus II
produce enzymes which are very important in the immunological process
(Diehl et al. 1978).

31
Boophilus microplus engorged females have a pattern of dropping
off the host, when they reach 4.5 to 8.0 mm and with the first light
of the morning (Wharton, 1974a). Wharton and Utech (1970) gave a
methodology: they found that counting ticks 4.5 to 8.0 mm in length
on one day provided a reliable estimate of the numbers of engorged
ticks dropping the following day. Partly engorged females, which
have grown to a length of 4 to 6 mm (10 to 30 mg) undergo rapid final
engorgement at night to reach a length of 8 to 11 mm (150 to 250 mg)
and detach from cattle in the early hours of the morning.
Ecology
The parasitic life cycle
Ecological studies on the tick parasite stage are very important
to develop tick control methods. Hitchcock (1954) studied the parasitic
stage of B. miaroplus in Australia. The minimum duration of the larval
stage was 4.5 days, and the maximum, 13-1 days. Fifty per cent of the
larvae had undergone ecdysis by 5-5 days after attachment. Nymphs
commenced to moult 11.9 days after the attachment of the larvae and
the last moulted 20.3 days after. Adult males were still present up
to 70 days after attachment of the larvae. Engorged female ticks
commenced to feed after 18.9 days post larvae attachment. Fifty per
cent had fallen by 21.9 days, and the last fell at 35-5 days. Climate
has little effect on the duration of the stages on cattle.
On cattle, male ticks appear somewhat earlier than females, usually
on the 13th day. The adult females emerge from the nymph stage on about
the 14th or 15th day of parasitic life. Usually females are fertilized

32
by the males soon after moulting. The great majority drop about the
22nd day of parasitic life, but although the ticks are under "natural
incubator" conditions by the host, there is of course variations
between individuals in their rate of development (Anonymous, 1959).
Wilkinson in 1970 gave an explanation of the distribution of the
cattle tick in Australia. Boophilus tniaroplus has established itself
in Australia in an arc across the northern part of the continent, where
annual rainfall exceeds 38 to 50 cm.
It extends southwards down to the east coast within this zone,
but is progressively limited to the coastal region with low in-land
winter temperatures. In other areas tick scarcity was due to the
aridity of the soil surface of hilly areas, in contrast to the adjacent
tick infested alluvial plains (Wilkinson, 1970).
Sutherst and Moorhouse (1972) reported that in an elevated area
of Queensland, Australia, B. microplus had three generations during the
year, and exhibited a very large increase in numbers from reproduction
in the warmer months.
The non-parasitic life cycle
Harley (1966) reported data from three different climatically
dissimilar districts of north Queensland, Australia. Larval survival
and total longevity also followed a similar pattern in all districts.
The longest survival periods were recorded for the progeny of ticks
exposed late in the wet season from March to April and the shortest
survival periods were seen for the progeny of ticks exposed during the
dry season from August to September. Mean maximum total longevity for

33
ticks exposed in field plots in the 38 cm rainfall district varied
from 10 to 22 weeks, and in the 200 cm rainfall district from 15 to
26 weeks. He also mentioned that Wilkinson (1957) reported a marked
decrease in tick fertility which occurs in the winter in south Queensland.
However, during the winter in Rockhampton ticks laid large numbers of
fertile eggs. Very few larval progeny of ticks hatching in summer
survived three months after the date of placement of the parent female.
Progeny of ticks put out in the winter persisted up to 5 1/2 months after
the date of placement of the parent. The comparatively short survival
periods of larvae in central Queensland in summer indicated the
practicability of controlling the cattle tick by temporarily destocking
pastures.
Larvae of B. mieroplus have the ability to take water from the
air in conditions close to saturation. Larvae of Amblyomma eajennense
died after six days exposed to 53% R.H.; after 7 days at 60% R.H.;
after 21 days at 11% R.H. and at 85% and 93% they can survive for 70
and 127 days (Knlle, 1966).
McCulloch and Lewis (1968) reported that the maximum longevity of
the non-paras itic stages of the cattle tick in Australia to be 7 1/2
months. The great majority of larvae died within 6 months of the
parent leaving the host. For a program of strategic dipping aimed
at economic control, the optimum time for beginning would be early
October in the areas most favorable to the tick.
Boophilus mieroplus was eradicated from an infested island near
Townsville, Australia, by removing all cattle and horses for 26 weeks.
Experimental tick plots showed the longest survival time of B. mieroplus

34
on the pasture to be 16 weeks. It was noted that two horses on the
island at the start of the scheme had been parasitized by B. mioroplus
for some years and it suggested that brumbies could cause the breakdown
of similar schemes on the mainland (Johnston et at. 1968).
The relationship between egg output and the weights and states of
engorgement of B. annulatus was reported recently by Iwala and Okpala
(1977). Linear correlation was noted between tick weights and number
of eggs produced. The percentage of body weight and eggs produced by
individual ticks did not exceed 50 +_ 2% irrespective of their states of
engorgement.
Variations in temperature affect the developmental periods of
eggs, larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephatus ccppend-ioulatus
which were shortest at an optimum of 30C. Generally, relative humidity
did not affect rate of development. It did, however, critically affect
survival, particularly of eggs and larvae. The relative humidity range
of 60-70% was critical; below this range survival of the eggs and larvae
was very limited. Nymphs and adults were resistant, and natural tick
populations probably survive hot and dry seasons in these stages. In
a habitat with thick vegetation, temperature and humidity fluctuations
were smaller than in one with sparce vegetation, and the former
therefore supported a greater tick population (Tukah irwa, 1976).
Newson (1978) reported the development of RhipiaephaZus appendiou-
latus populations at three different host stocking rates in Nairobi,
Kenya. At high stocking rates (1,000 m per 1 animal) population
fluctuations of the tick were less stable with high fluctuations. At
low stocking rates (12,000 m per 1 animal) population fluctuations of

35
the tick were more stable. At intermediate stocking rates (4,000 m
per animal) population fluctuations were in between the other two
treatments. Sutherst and Wharton (1971), in considering the climate in
relation to the cattle tick, said that the fluctuating rainfall in
Australia may produce situations where either long periods of favorable
conditions allow the tick populations to increase or long unfavorable
periods cause the local extinction of the ticks. The former would
require supplementary control such as with acaricides, while the latter
will tend to be minimized by favorable foci and poor conditions of the
host reducing their resistance. Innoculation for protection against
babesiosis may be required as a precautionary measure where tick
populations are maintained at low levels. They also pointed out that
ecological studies are needed in order to construct a population model
of Boophilus microplus and predict populations in relation to climate
and other biotic factors. Also Arthur (1975) predicted that modeling
of tick populations will be a prerequisite to control.
Recent ecological studies are taking into account the micro
climate (Daniel, 1978) as a determining element in the distribution
of ticks and their developmental cycles. It emphasizes that meteoro
logical stations do not give exact information about the ecological
niches occupied by ticks. A measurement of microclimate conditions
must be made in order to find relations between macroclimate, meso-
climate and microclimate.
Microclimates influence egg laying and therefore fecundity and
this is also related to predators and parasites. Host populations
affect microclimate and cutting grass for feeding (Davidson et al.,
1970).

36
Zapata and Camino (1977) studied the non-paras itic stage of
Boophilus microplus in Chontalpa, Tabasco, Mexico, in a tropical wet
climate. The total longevity in the rainfall season was 111 days and
was 30% less in the dry season. Cattle maintained under that climate
accounts for more than 60% of the properties in Tabasco State. These
cattle graze in the flat pasture areas in the dry season (3 months)
and in the elevated areas of pasture during the wet season. There
fore a control method of pasture spelling can be recommended in con
junction with chemical dips.
Sutherst et al. (1977) have developed an elaborate population
model for determining Boophilus microplus tick populations.
Chemical Control
Drummond (197*0 said:
I still believe that B. microplus, since it is a one
host species and is limited to bovines, can be
eradicated through a scheme of compulsory dipping
of cattle in an acaricide that will kill 99 per cent
of the cattle ticks on the animal. Such a government
conducted program should succeed if the ranchers were
thoroughly educated and motivated so that the
eradication program w¡11 be supported by all of the
participants. The cost of the program might be high,
but it would be relatively minor compared with the
large losses that can be anticipated when previously
available acaricides are no longer effective against
B. microplus. (p. 54)
Kearnan (1974) pointed out that in Queensland an effective
control method against B. microplus is planned dipping that aims at
keeping pastures relatively free of seed ticks. It consists of a
series of dippings at 1 ess than 21 day intervals, preferably 18 days.
The major problem facing tick control and vector control in all
countries lies in the development of acaricide resistance. This

37
problem has become more widespread in most countries although the
general picture of types of tick resistance remains similar. The
global situation is dominated by Boophilus microplus in Australia
(Anonymous, 1975).
Boophilus microplus demonstrated resistance for the first time
to DDT in 1954, to HCH-Dieldrin in 1950 and to organophosphates
acaricides in 1964 (Drummond, 1977). At least eight distinct strains
of B. microplus in Australia now show unique and overlapping resistance
to a variety of organophosphate and carbamate acaricides. In other
countries where resistance is not present every effort must be made
to prevent or delay selection for resistance to presently used
acaricides and any new acaricide (Drummond, 1977)-
Amaral et al. (1974) found that strains "D" from Rio Grande Do
Sul and "M" from Minas Gerais, Brazil,were resistant to coumaphos,
dioxathion, and ethion but that a new acaricide, American cyanamide
AC-84633, "nimidane" (4-ch1oro-N-1 3dithietan-2-Ylidene 2-methyl-
benzenamine) controlled these strains. Tick resistance has been
confirmed in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the United States, in
Boophilus decoloratus in Africa, B. microplus in Australia, South
American countries, Malagasy and India; and in Rhipicephalus
appendiculatus and R. evertsi in South Africa. Resistance has not
been recorded in the genera Ixodes, Hyalomma or Haemaphysalis. A
more detailed knowledge of the tick ecology is required which is
essential for an effective control. It is also necessary to integrate
these approaches with the efficient use of pastures and cattle manage
ment (Wharton and Roulston, 1970). The Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations (Anonymous, 1977) recommended that tick species

38
be evaluated for resistance to acaricides or used in screening tests; these
should be limited to the following main genera: Boophilusy Rhipioephalus,
Amblyomma and Devmacentor. Acaricides tested at cooperating laboratories
would be limited to the following chemicals: chlorinated hydrocarbons:
dieldrin (indicator), toxaphene and lindane; organic phosphates: dimethoate
(indicator), coumaphos, chlorfenvinphos, dioxatrion, chlorpyrifos, and
bromophos-ethy1; carbamates: carbaryl and promacyl; and the last group:
foramidines.
Howell (1977) found resistant Boophilus spp. strains in South
Africa. The tests have shown that widespread resistance in varying
degrees occurs in strains of species of B. mioroplus and B. deoolovatus
against compounds of arsenical, organochlorine and organophosphorous
groups. With few exceptions the degree of resistance is of a low
order and probably indicative of selection at the low acaricide con
centrations generally used by stockowners.
Roulston in 1967 said that for practical tick control it
appears advisable to make more extensive use of pasture spelling and
tick resistant cattle, instead of relying exclusively on chemical
contro 1.
Recent advances in controlling ticks off the host by treating or
changing the environment include use of ultra-low-volume (ULV) equip
ment to apply small volumes of (0.6 to 2.3 liters/ha) concentrated or
technical toxicant to the ground as well as systemic insecticides
used experimentally to control ticks on cattle and horses. Feed
treatments of famphur controlled various species of ticks feeding on
cattle (Drummond et al. 1973, 197*0.

39
Ticks of the genus Boophilus have been eradicated from the United
States and only occasional minor infestations are found along the
Mexican border. Both B. armulatus and B. microplus abound in Mexico.
Continual dipping and inspection of cattle imported from Mexico into
the United States are necessary to prevent introduction of Boophilus
(Drummond et al. 1967).
Drummond et al. in 1976 reported that in laboratory tests four
strains (3 from Mexico and one from Texas) of the southern cattle
tick Boophilus mieroplus (Canestrini) were not resistant to nine
commonly used acaricides. In field tests of 18 acaricides sprayed on
cattle artifically infested with B. microplus and with the cattle tick,
A. ccnnulatus, 16 were applied at concentrations that afforded 33%
control of both species. In dipping vat tests, a solubilized
formulation (1 part Al: 1 part Triton X-100) of compound 4072,
after an initial charge of 0.1% was still effective at 126 wk of
postcharge (end of test). Phosmet (Imidan ) in the vat at 0.25%
caused poisoning in cattle but was effective for 68 wk at a con
centration of 0.001%.
In Mexican field tests in Monte Morelos, Nuevo Len State and
Yautepec, Morelos State all six acaricides tested were effective for
the control of Boophilus species. Until now there is no field evidence
of insecticide resistant strains in Mexico (Anonymous, 1980).
Rawlins and Mansingh (1978) detected the susceptibility of five
strains of B. microplus from Jamaica, St. Kitts, Trinidad and Guyana
to 15 acaricides. The LC50 values revealed that the Guyanese ticks
were the most susceptible strain in the Caribbean, even more than the
susceptible Yeerongpilly strain of Australia. All strains were least

40
susceptible to bromophos and DDT. Generally carbamates were the most
potent acaricides on all strains.
Palmer et al. (1977) showed the residue problem of dioxathion
in adipose tissue cattle subjected to multiple dipping in Wollongbar,
N.S.W., Australia. Maximum residues of dioxathion in adipose
tissue occur 2-4 days after treatment. The half life for the dis
appearance of residues once maximum levels were reached was 16 days,
and was similar to that of some other commonly used organophosphorus
acaricides [e.g., ethion, chlorpyrifos). It is recommended that cattle
subjected to three dippings at 5 day intervals in dioxathion be with
held from slaughter for a period of at least 6 weeks to allow residues
to fall below the Australian maximum residue limit of 1 mg kg -1.
Some other chemicals have been tested and are available for the
control of resistant strains as in the Australian case.
Knowles and Roulston (1973) showed that twenty-nine foramidines
and related compounds displayed activity toward engorged female B.
microplus as judged by reduction in oviposit ion and egg viability, but
only the most toxic adulticides showed activity against larvae.
Stentel (1976) showed that the foramidine compounds can be used
for the control of various tick species, such as Boophilus microplus,
Rhipicephalus appendiaulatus, R. everstii, Amblyomma hebraeum, A.
cajennense and Hyalomma truncation.
Other chemical control measures for ticks have been investigated.
Osburn and Olivier Jr. in 1978 reported the effects of metepa on the
cytology and fertility of male Dermacentor variabilis treated as
unfed adults. Evidence of cellular damage was found in testicular

41
areas where actively dividing cells and some enlarging spermatocytes
were found. The amount of cellular damage correlates positively with
the concentration of the chemosteri1izant and resulted in decreased
number of spermatids. In crosses of treated males to untreated females,
resulting egg masses hatched normally; however, the percentage of
females producing egg masses that hatched was reduced.
The use of Insect growth regulators is under investigation as
applied to ticks. Solomon and Evans (1977) treated adults of various
species, including B. mioroplus with synthetic hormone mimics, and
found that they caused eggs to become dessiccated after oviposition.
Greater effectivity was found with ZR-615 (N-eti1-3,7,11-trimet i 1
dodeca 2,4-dienamide).
Recently Hair et al. (1979) reported the effectiveness of famphur
applied as bolus for control of Boophilus spp. ticks. When cattle were
infused with famphur via rumen cannulae and challenged with several
1-host ticks, 3 mg famphur/kg body wt/day was ineffective against
Boophilus annualtus (Say), B. microplus (Canestrini) and Dermacentor
albipiotus (packard), but 5 mg/kg was highly effective against
Boophilus spp. while giving no control of D. albipiotus. Administration
of famphur in a sustained release bolus resulted in complete control
of Boophilus when the insecticide was administered to cattle at an
average daily dose of 6.82 mg famphur/kg animal body wt.
Control Methods other than Chemicals
It is important to determine alternative approaches to control such
as pasture spelling, resistant cattle, biological control, cultural

42
practices (Wharton et at. 1969; Wharton, 1974b)and legislation that
makes it obligatory for all stockmen to follow certain rules and
regulations concerning cattle management and treatment (Drummond,
1974). Barnet (1977) mentioned that the main problem in eradication
programs would be the restrictions of movement of cattle within a
country or between countries.
Waters (1972) concluded that examination of pasture spelling
practices for the control of the cattle tick has shown that, to be
successful, the program must be tailored to fit both the environmental
and the management needs of the particular property. Spelling periods
must be sufficient to permit the majority of tick larvae to die due
to starvation. At the same time, consideration should be given to
the best use of available feed and the capacity of combination with other
management practices.
Harley and Wilkinson (1971) proved that using divided paddocks and
planning the movement of the cattle according to the longevity of larvae
the cattle required seven treatments in a two year period. Whereas
cattle grazing on unsubdivided paddock required 22 treatments.
Application of the method is likely to be seriously hampered by the
necessity for increased fencing and movement of cattle. The method of
planning a control program is best considered in relation to a particular
district and according to the survival of the ticks.
Applied biological control for the cattle tick is limited, but
there are some studies for the assessment of natural enemies of B.
miaroplus. Wilkinson in 1970 in Queensland, Australia, reported that
in some of the areas predation of engorged ticks by ants was sufficiently

43
intense to provide a possibile explanation for scarcity of ticks. He
presented a list of ant species found in tick infested areas; about
half the engorged females may be killed by ants and Lycos id spiders.
Some of the ant species were Iridomyrmex detectas, Pheidole megacephala,
P. weisei, Aphaenogaster longiceps, Chalcoponera metallica, Iridomyrmex
anceps, Polyrhachis aurea, Notorious foreli, Monomorium gracillimum,
Rhytidoponera cris tata, Meranoplus hirsutus and Acrocoelia australis.
Spider predation by Lycosa spp. occurred in Rockhampton with one
specimen being identified as L. deffroyi.
Harris and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977) have shown
that in Louisiana, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta had caused dramatic
reductions in ticks Amblyomma americanum (L.).
In Australia, the pee-wee, Grallina cyanoleuca G. and the introduced
starlings Stumus vulgaris are quite frequently seen apparently pecking
ticks from cattle (Wilkinson, 1970).
A wasp Hunterellus theilerae was collected from nymphs of
Amblyomma nuttalli (Graff, 1979). It was found in the Ivory Coast of
Africa.
No parasites of B. microplus are known, though possibly there are
unicellular parasites, or symbionts, which may occasionally be harmful
(Wi1kinson, 1970).
Resistant cattle
Tick resistant cattle have been an area of study for many years.
Until now the mechanism of resistance in hosts in the case of B.
microplus ticks remains unknown.

44
Riek in 1956 said at that time that resistance in Bos taurus
is due to the development of a skin hylersensitivity while in Bos
indicus this skin hypersensitivity is aided possibly by the presence
of an immune reaction. European breeds had a large number of mast
cells in the dermis when compared with highly susceptible animals.
The mast cells seem to be the sensitized cell in the resistant animal.
The union of antigen with antibody attached to these cells probably
brings about the liberation of histamine which cuases the oedema and
irritation following larval, nymphal and adult attachment in the
animals.
Seeback et al. in 1970 conducted experiments to measure the
effects of infestation of B. miovoplus on cattle and to separate the
effects of reduced food intake (anorectic effect) from those due to the
remaining effect of tick infestation (specific effect). The anorectic
effect accounted for approximately 65% of the depression of body weight
due to tick infestation. The specific effect was tested and the
compensatory gain made by the infested group was less than that of the
group kept tick free. This indicates a severe effect on the metabolism
of the tick infested animals, with prolonged after effects.
The zebu crossbreds on an average carried 20% less ticks
than carried by the British cattle. There tended to be more females
than males, in summer than in winter and in than in
animals. Heritability in British cattle was up to 48%, but in some
cases much lower. In the Zebu crossbreds there was little heritability
variation in F^ cattle, but in subsequent generations heritability was
estimated as 82% (Seifert, 1971). Hewetson in 1969 developed resistance
in purebred sahiwal cattle which acquired resistance to 3. microplus

45
in a similar manner to crossbred sahiwal cattle. There was no
significant difference in the number of eggs laid and hatched from
ticks dropped by purebred and cross bred animals.
Roberts in 1976 demonstrated that a major component of resistance
is acquired and that each animal acquires its individual level of
resistance.
Roberts (1971) showed that larvae of B. mzoroplus, during the first
24 hours of the parasitic life cycle, made about two attachments in an
8 hour period and approximately half of the time was spent attached on
susceptible cattle. Mortality reached 60% in the larval stage on
standard animals while on resistant cattle with from 4 to 6 attachments,
mortality reached 80% of the larvae in a similar period. Also, Kemp and
Koudstall (1971) showed that resistance of cattle to the cattle tick is
manifest within 24 hours after infestation.
Francis and Ashton (1967) stated there was no significant
correlation between tick infestation and the distribution of alleles
at the following loci: haemoglobin, albumin, transferrin, post
albumins and soluble J antigen.
Kemp (1978) reported that the histamine caused larvae of the
cattle tick to drop off the host. Drop off after 3 hours of the
injection of histamine (minimum effective dosage 0.8 to 3-2 mg) had
a greater effect than at 48 hours.
An esterase enzyme studied by Willadsen (1976) produced
allergenic activity in cattle infested with B. nrioroplus ticks.
Roberts and Kerr in 1976 and Brossard (1976) made the transfer
of resistant cattle to B. micvoplus to susceptible animals.

46
As the intimate mechanism of resistance becomes better known,
selection of resistant cattle can be used as a control method (Utech
etal., 1978; Wagland, 1979; Sutherst et at., 1979).
Acquired immune type of control
Snowball (1956) concluded that grooming, and other forms of
behavior, e.g. licking and rubbing, which produce tick mortality by
mechanical means must be considered in any study of natural mechanism
regulating cattle tick populations, and is acquired in the case of
European cattle.
Indian cattle are more resistant to B. microplus by selection
through long time periods but have low numbers of animals that carry
high numbers of ticks (Nagar et at., 1978).
Criollo cattle in Central America, which are probably the
dominant breed, have been shown to be more resistant to B. microplus
than European cattle. This helps to reduce the severity of the cattle
tick problem in those countries (ill loa and De Alba, 1957; Wharton,
1974b).

METHODS AND MATERIALS
Introduction to Tick Ecosystem
Morelos State Statistics
The state of Morelos is located in the central part of the
Mexican Republic, between 18022'5" and 1907'10" north longitude and
between 9937'8" and 9930'8" west Greenwich longitude. The state is
bordered on the north by The Federal District and Mexico State, to the
south with Guerrero and Puebla States (Figure 3)* It has 4,941 square
kilometers, and is the 27th largest in surface area of all the states
of the Mexican Republic. Isotherms cover three areas between less than
20C and more than 20C. Rainfall ranges from 1100 to 900 mm in the
north and south.
Cuernavaca is the captol city. There are areas within the
State which have been populated since 1500 B.C. When the Spanish
Conquistador Hernn Cortez came to Tenochtitlan" (The Aztec Capitol)
in November, 1519, he knew that there was an empire south which was
dependent upon the Aztecs. Cortez almost "owned" the entire state
at that time and ordered a castle built in Cuernavaca.
In 1869, the 16th of April, Morelos was named as a state, under
President Benito Juarez. By 1975, it had an estimated population density
of I65 people per square kilometer. People working in livestock and
agriculture in 1975 viere 72.9 thousand people which was 36.9% of the
total population. About 27% of the population that work
47

Figure 3- Morelos State and its limits. Isotherms (annual mean temperature in C),
Isoyeths (total rainfall per year in mm) and location of the experiments:
I. Yecapixtla, 2. Yautepec, 3. Cuernavaca (progreso), Zacatepec, 5.
lequesquitengo, and 6. Cuautla.

49
in agriculture and livestock worked a maximum of nine months
per year.
Morelos State has more electrification than any other state in
Mexico (92%) and by 1980 the whole population is projected to have
electricity. Ninety-six per cent of the education is supported by
Federal funds. Less than 50% of the students that finish high school
will continue to higher education (Anonymous, 1980).
Agriculture and Livestock Industry
The land available for agriculture is 150,000 ha which represents
30% of the total surface of the state, of these 50,000 ha are under
irrigation. Efforts are being made to develop intensive agriculture.
Eighty-five per cent of the properties have 5 ha or less.
Almost 80% of the tillable surface is "Ejidal," which is an
extensive subdivision of the land.
The main problem in livestock production is the lack of feed
due to poor pastures and overgrazing. The disposable land is 145,000
ha (it represents 30% of the total) and is located mainly in elevated
areas. Morelos has to import 30% of its livestock feed and is
limited by poor genetic quality of their livestock.
There are 466,000 head of livestock. The main animals are cattle
with 282,000 head (60% of the total).
In the future the government programs have a goal to have an
intensive type livestock industry and to produce food for cattle, with
the integration of the agriculture and the production of supplements
other than pasture. They intend to introduce improved pastures and to

50
improve the breeds of cattle. The animals, other than cattle, include
29,653 horses, 3h,k8S donkeys, 10,031 mules and 1.2 million chickens.
Agriculture is mixed with livestock production. The main agronomic
crops are corn, beans and sorghum which are cultivated during the wet
season. Rice and sugarcane are cultivated all year round and are
located in irrigated areas. Cattle are maintained in an area of
1^5,783 ha but because the management is not under any direct control
this land becomes more depleted year by year because of erosion. The
main livestock breeds are native cattle (creollum) and Brahman crosses.
Some agricultural land is rotated yearly between cattle and crops.
There are some dairy cattle (Holstein and Holstein crosses) which are
grazed close to the roads and main population centers (Cuernavaca,
Cuautla, Joiutla, Zacatepec) and in the dry season cattlemen feed
these animals sugarcane and rice residues. There are some animals
in stalls all the year round.
When a highly improved production breed is introduced in the
State it soon becomes infected with cattle tick fever transmitted by
Boophilus miovoplus. Introduction of European cattle has failed because
of the cattle tick problem (Guerrero Rios, Personal Communication).
Cattle Tick Eradication Campaign
The present cattle tick control program has been based on the use
of chemicals. A cattle tick campaign against Boophilus spp. and
conducted by the government started in 1969 to 1971 in some states of
the Mexican Republic such as Nuevo Leon, Tabasco and Veracruz. In 1976,
the campaign was initiated in the whole Mexican territory. It is a

51
program with funds from the Interamerican Bank for Development (BID),
the biggest effort conducted by the government for the livestock
indust ry.
It consists mainly of building dipping vats (promotion phase), the
offering of technical assistance to the grasiers and furnishing
inspectors for the campaign at the time of the cattle dipping (control
phase) and inspection of the animals in the eradication phase of the
cattle tick program (eradication phase or free phase). When
eradication is complete a quarantine phase will be maintained to
prevent reintroduction of ticks into the free areas.
Location and Climate
It is important to point out that Morelos State is located in the
transition zone between the center and south Pacific ecological live
stock areas. It is in the transitional zoogeographical areas which
divide the continent (neartic and neotropical).
Almost the entire Mexican Republic, with the exception of the
extreme northeast, has a rainfall season in the middle half of the hot
period of the year (May to October). The eastern and southern parts of
the country have a short dry period in the middle of the rainy season.
This season is called "canicula" in Spanish it is a dry August producing
a dry seasonal bimodal distribution in rainfall. The areas with this
phenomenon cover the Pacific Coast and the Sierra Madre of the south in
the states of Oaxaca-Guerrero, Morelos, Michoacn Colima and south
of Jalisco (Garcia, 1973). The recorded macroclimate of the study sites
can be seen in Table k: Cuautla 1,291 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.),

Monthly Mean Temperature
Figure Macroclimate conditions of four boundaries in Morelos State where experiments were
conducted. I. Yecapixtla, 2. Cuautla, 3. Cuernavaca (Progreso), 4. Zacatepec.
N>
Total Rainfall (mm)

53
mean temperature 23.0C, rainfall 977-6 mm per year; Progreso
(Cuernavaca) 1,529 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 20.7C, rainfall
1,061.0 mm per year; Zacatepec 900 m.a.s.l., mean temperature 24.8C,
rainfall 838.9 mm per year and Yecapixtla (Tetelcingo) 1,245 m.a.s.l.,
mean temperature 23-6C, rainfall 856.7 mm per year (Garcia, 1973)-
Yecapixtla boundary has a climate classification: Aw"o(w)ig
(Garcia, 1973) where the dry season is in the middle of the year in
which the winter takes place (Aw). The mean annual temperature is 25C
(Awo) and the total rainfall per year between 850 mm. There is a
short dry season in the summer (w") as well as a dry season in the
winter. The mean temperature of the coldest month is above 180 C; the
driest month has under 60 mm of rainfall. The hottest month is before
"the solstice" of summer (g) with a difference between the hottest
months less than 5C (isothermal) (Garcia, 1973).
Cuautla boundary has a climate classification: Aw"o(w)i'g which
is similar to the one of Yecapixtla with a total rainfall that exceeds
900 mm per year. Zacatepec boundary has a climate Awo(w)(i')g which
is similar to Cuautla but without the short dry season (Awo) in the
middle of summer (without "Canicula") with rainfall well distributed
during six months and 840 mm of rainfall per year, and Cuernavaca with
a climate classification: A(c)w"l(w)ig, with the mean temperature of
the coldest month above 18C and the driest month has an annual rainfall
less than 60 mm. The letter (c) means a tendency of climate "A" to
follow the C climates which is temperate with rainfall. The annual
mean temperature is between 20 to 22C but with an annual rainfall
of more than 1,000 mm per year.

54
In general "A" climates belong to tropical and wet climates. The
sabanna climates and "C" climates are temperate and wet. Designations
of Bw climates are hot and sub-humid with the wet season in summer. In
general in Mexico, places with these types of climates present types
of vegetation other than the typical savanna vegetation. "A" climates
in Mexico are well represented in both litoorals: in the Pacific
side from the parallel 20 north to the south and from sea level to
an altitude of 800 to 1,000 meters above sea level; on the Gulf side
from the parallel 23 north to the south coastal area and the base of
the Sierra Madre Oriental and the mountains north of Chiapas State.
Also these climates are in the Yucatan Peninsula, the deep valley of the
Balsas River (Morelos State) and the central depression in Chiapas
where they extend to 1,300 m.a.s.l. (Garcia, 1973)-
The altitude in Cuautla is 1291 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level),
Yecapixtla 1578 m.a.s.l., Cuernavaca 1552 m.a.s.l., and Yacatepec
317 m.a.s.l. (Figure 4) (Garcia, 1973).
The number of cattle in Yecapixtla was 6,529 head, Cuautla 10,404
head, Cuernavaca 10,708 head and Zacatepec 2,530. With respect to
vegetation the main species of bush (thicket) were Cordia boissieri,
Neopringlas integrifolia, Celtis pallida and Forestierra spp. The
main species of pastures were, in the low grass areas Lycurus pheoides,
Hilaria oenchroides, Cathestecum spp. and Opizia spp. The main species
of native pasture are Faspalum spp., and introduced grasses included
Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon. Some other grasses under experimentation
are Setaria sphanaeata and African star, Cynodon pleotostaohius
(Anonymous, 1980).

55
Cattle Tick Ecology
Non-Paras itic Stages. First Phase
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla
The Yecapixtla experimental site was located about three kilometers
from the meteorologica1 station. Th i s meteorological station supplied
maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall. With these data mean
monthly temperature and total monthly rainfall were calculated (meso-
c1imate).
The non-paras itic studies of the first phase took place in Yeca
pixtla from October 1977 to September 1978.
Eight exposures of engorged female ticks were made. The
exposures were made in a property of the grazier Mr. Juvencio Yanez.
This is a 300 ha ranch with 200 head of criollo cattle and Brahman
crosses, native pasture was Paspalum spp. and Bermuda grass Cynodon
dactylon.
The study area of 1,850 sq. meters was fenced to prevent the
ticks from being disturbed by cattle. From July to September 1977,
the area was placed under a pasture spelling procedure in order to
prevent it from having natural infestations of ticks. Larval samples
were made by flagging (Wilkinson, 1957) with white flannel to be sure
the pasture was without seed ticks. The pasture in the area fenced
was Cynodon dactylon. At this time there were no dipping vats on
the property.
Tick exposures were made in three different habitats: thicket
(whose main plant was Covdia boissient), primer vegetation (whose main

56
vegetation was Ipomea muricoides) and grass (whose main grass was Cynodon
dactylon). Tick exposures were made in small vials (tubes) 8 mm in
length by 3 mm (Figure 5) made of metal screen used for tick studies
in Falcon Damp. Texas., U.S. Livestock Insects Lab. U.S.D.A. and
obtained through Dr. 0. H. Graham. Exposure times were October 21,
October 26, November 4, November 24, December 22, January 16,
February 22 and March 14.
The area was divided into 10 quadrants and random sites for
exposures were chosen. In each of these sites three tubes with three
engorged female ticks (8.0 to 11.0 mm) were placed at each site. All
tubes were covered with vegetation. Ticks used were collected on the
same day from cattle as close to the moment of dropping from native
cattle as possible. A sample of the engorged females was weighed.
Some ticks were left in tubes and covered with vegetation in order to
replace ticks which died in the first 3 to 6 days. Observations of
the duration of the non-paras itic stages were made. A sample of dead
preserved ticks (all stages) was sent for identification to Dr.
Harvey L. Cromroy of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida,
where scanning electron micrographs were taken with the scanning electron
microscope (Hitachi S-450). Ticks were cleaned and coated with a gold
coating with the IB-2 ion coater. Special attention was placed on
the mean features for B. miovoplus identification.
Pre-oviposition period
Each two or three days tubes were removed and ticks were checked
for mortality and egg laying. If ticks had died during this period,

gure 5- Tubes used for exposed ticks.
A. Tube made of metal screen.
B. Top of tube, an engorged tick and
egg mass is seen.
C. Top of tube.

58
they were replaced from samples described previously. Each tick
exposure was identified with a colored flag and had a specific data
number. Definition of death in this case was the change of color (dark)
in addition to no observable movements of the digestive tract and legs
for 15 minutes when the tick was observed in the light.
Oviposit ion period
Egg counts were initiated when the first eggs were observed.
Data in days were recorded until the final eggs were laid. Per cent
of eclosin was also determined by per cent hatch at 10, 50 and 90%.
Longevity of larvae
A month after the first engorged female series was exposed,
engorged females were collected from cattle and taken to Mexico City
where they were placed in an incubator at 23C; 80% R.H. in small
vials. There they were allowed to lay eggs. When the larvae emerged
they were taken to the Yecapixtla study area for field exposure.
Exposures were made in the same manner as the engorged females. Larvae
were allowed to crawl onto selected plants. Three exposures were made
in each area and dates of these exposures were +_ 3 days the same dates
as for the engorged females. Definition of death was in this case when
no living larvae were found. Larvae were termed "alive" when they
were able to walk and move their legs when stimulated with the breath
(by blowing).
Total longevity data were co11ected for the non-paras itic stages
of the first phase.

59
Mesoclimate at Cuautla
The Cuautla experimental oviposition site was located about two
kilometers from the meteorological station which recorded temperature
(maximum and minimum) and rainfall daily. Mean monthly temperature and
total monthly rainfall were calculated from these data (mesoclimate).
Fecundity at Cuautla
In the Cuautla boundary, a study of day-by-day oviposition was
conducted by exposing six series of engorged females. Each series
exposed consisted of 10 tubes as described for the exposure of
engorged females in Yecapixtla. An engorged female (8.0 to 11.0 mm in
length) was placed in each tube. More than 50 engorged female ticks
were collected for this study from native cattle, put in a large vial
and covered with vegetation in the field and held for more than 3 days.
Ten live engorged females were chosen, weighed and placed singularly in
each vial and the vials were covered with vegetation as in the Yecapixtla
study. When oviposition began the engorged females in five vials were
handled daily for removing the eggs laid. Eggs were collected in small
vials and taken to the laboratory to be counted with the aid of a
microscope, utilizing a hand cell counter. Egg masses were separated
with a hair brush in a petri dish filled with water; the bottom of the
petri dish was divided into quadrants and in this way eggs were easily
counted.
The other five tubes with an engorged female were allowed to
develop without handling. Just at the moment that oviposition was
completed eggs were counted in the same manner of handling the

60
engorged females. A total of six series were evaluated throughout the
time covered by both dry and wet seasons.
The grass present was Cnodon daotylon in an area close to the
Cuautla River on a property of Mr. Ricardo Guerrero Rios near 20 head
of cattle. An area of 20 square meters was fenced to prevent it from
being disturbed by cattle.
Data ana lysis
Variance analyses (ANOVA) were done with the non-paras itic stages
exposed on pasture, thicket and primer vegetation and Tukey's test for
comparison of the means. Also correlations were made as to the number
of days required to complete the periods as influenced by macroclimate
and mesoc1imate.
An analysis of daily fecundity was made for the experiments and
an ANOVA test was made for the number of eggs produced by the ticks
handled daily as compared to those not handled until the end of the
oviposition period.
Non-Paras itic Stages. Second Phase
Cage design
Evaluation of the non-pa ras itic stages of the second phase was
done at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec from October
1978 to September 1979-
A new cage design for the study of the non-paras itic stages of
the cattle tick, B. miaroplus was tested. This cage design was
modified to allow ticks to have a temperature and humidity choice.
Figure 6 shows the cage; it consists of a top made of wood and covered

61
Figure 6. Cage, a new design to study ticks
on pastures.
A. Upper part covered with cloth.
B. Middle wood cage.
C. Screened bottom buried under
the soil.

62
with cloth. The top could be removed so observations of the ticks
inside could be made. Measurements were 25 cm in height and 18 by
30 cm in width. It has a 12 cm center ring made of wood. The bottom
of the cage was made of wood and covered with a mesh screen cage. This
bottom could be separated, buried in the soil and covered on the inside
with earth (Figure 7).
Five engorged females (8.0 to 11.00 mm) were placed in the cage.
These ticks were allowed to move freely inside the cage. Ticks which
died during the first preoviposition period (3 to 8 days) were replaced
with live ones of the same age.
At each locality (Vecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec) five
cages were located for each exposure and each cage contained five
engorged females. Weekly observations were made by removing the soil
in the bottom of each cage and looking for the ticks. Each cage also
contained six tubes with an engorged female (8.0 to 11.0 mm). Three
of the tubes were inside the cage on the ground and were not covered
with vegetation during the trial. The second three tubes were placed
outside the cage. Each exposure consisted of five cages and 25 ticks
and of 30 tubes and 30 ticks.
Exposures were conducted in Yecapixtla boundary in the same area
where the first phase took place. In Cuernavaca the cages were placed
in a place called Progreso. The area occupied was 6 by 6 meters
(Figure 8). Pasture was African star, Cynodon plectostachius. In
Zacatepec boundary the cages were placed at an experiment station
of the Mexican government on experimental pasture areas. Pastures
were setaria grass, Setaria sphanoeata var. mandi and Bermuda grass

63
Figure 7-
Placement of the cage. Bottom covered
with earth where ticks were released (C).
A and B same as Figure 6.

64
Figure 8. Ecological studies on ticks at Cuernavaca
(Progreso) at side of meteorological
station. Mesoclimate measures: T =
temperature; R = rainfall. Arrow indicates
a cage for study of the life cycle of ticks
under soil.

65
cross 1, Cynodon dactylon with C. nemfluensis. Each area of pasture
occupied a surface of 5 by 8 meters (Figure 9).
Exposures were initiated in October 1978. For each exposure,
engorged females were taken from cattle as close to the moment of the
dropping (8.0 to 11.0 mm) as possible. The ticks were placed in a
plastic cage and observed for three hours to select those which were
completely engorged. Care was taken to prevent tick damage. Those ticks
which died in the first eight days were replaced by live ones of the
same age which were held for this purpose. Observations were made once
a week by choosing the first cage and carefully emptying the earth content.
When ticks were found, observations of the non-paras itic stages were
made and then they were replaced in the same position in the cage and
carefully covered with earth. Observations of the ticks in six tubes
were then made (three inside the cage and three outside the cage).
Tubes were not covered with vegetation. By the following week the
next cage and tubes were used in order to make observations. On the
fifth week observations were made on the first cage and tubes observed
during the first week.
There were different numbers of exposures made in the three areas
studied (Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec) because the total
cycle differed in the three areas. No ticks were carried out of the
test areas.
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec
In Yecapixtla the meteorological climate (mesoclimate) was taken
in the same manner as in the first phase.

66
Figure 9- Ecological studies in Zacatepec. Setaria
grass growth leaving open areas.

67
In Cuernavaca (Progreso) mesoclimate was taken at the test site
(Figure 8). Temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall were taken
daily. With these data mean monthly temperature and total monthly
rainfall were calculated (mesoclimate). In Zacatepec the experimental
station was just 50 meters from the experiments; also mesoclimate were
taken in the same manner as in Cuernavaca.
Pre-oviposition period. Data taken on pre-oviposition include
the number of days to complete the pre-oviposition period from the first
exposure day to the first eggs laid. When ticks were found dead they
were replaced with live ones of the same age.
Oviposition period. In this case egg masses produced were expressed
in an arbitrary scale in both time and egg mass size. Egg mass size was
related to the total egg number by counting representative samples.
From 1 to 2 days, measurement of egg mass was less than 0.50 cm. This
gave approximately 25 to 400 eggs as number 1. From 3 to 6 days the
measurement of an egg mass was greater than 0.50 cm or approximately
500 to 1400 eggs as number 2. From 7 to 10 days the measurement of an
egg mass 1.0 cm or approximately 1,500 to 2,000 eggs as number 3 and
from 11 to more than 12 days, measurement of egg mass greater than 1 cm
gave approximately 2,200 to 3,000 eggs as number b.
The incubation period was also recorded as beginning from the
moment when the tick started oviposition until the first larvae
emerged.
Longevity of 1arvae. An arbitrary scale was designed in order
to follow larval numbers. It was as follows: A, less than 100 larvae
eclosed; B, 20,000 larvae eclosed (equal to 1 gm); C, less than 100

68
larvae remaining alive. Total longevity was used in order to establish
the pasture spelling possibilities.
Mesoclimate at Cuautla
The Cuautla meteorological station was located about two
kilometers from the oviposition study site. Temperature (maximum and
minimum) and rainfall were recorded daily. Mean monthly temperature
was calculated and total monthly rainfall was used (mesoclimate).
Oviposition of the cattle tick in cage trials at Cuautla. The
oviposition of engorged females was studied in the cages as at
Yecapixtla and Cuernavaca and compared with the oviposition in tubes
placed into the soil and tubes placed on the soil surface. Five cages
with five engorged females in each were used, as well as 10 tubes, each
one with an engorged female. Ten of the tubes were placed in the soil
4 cm deep and ten on the soil surface. These observations were made
only once (see Results).
Microclimate in tubes and cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
Microclimate was taken in Cuernavaca (Progreso) for one week in
the dry season and one week during the wet season. Temperature was
taken from the precise location in the cages where the ticks were
located inside the tubes (on soil surface) and six centimeters deep
in the soil of the cage, as well as other sites. Humidity was taken
just at the soil surface. Temperature was taken utilizing a scanning
tele-thermometer YSI model 47 with 47 channels (Figure 10).
Data ana lysis. "T" test analyses were made with data of the
non-paras itic stages taken with cages against tubes. Correlations

69
Figure 10. Equipment for microclimate recording.
Telethermometer (1), hygrometer (2),
and cage (A and B).

70
were made with climate conditions (macroclimate, mesoclimate and micro
climate) with the period (in days) of the non-paras itic stages.
Predation of B. microplus
In order to determine if predators exist in the non-paras itic
stages of the cattle tick, B. microplus engorged females were exposed
under field conditions in three different localities: Yecapixtla
(October 1977 to September 1979), Cuernavaca (Progreso) (October 1978
to September 1979) and Zacatepec (October 1978 to September 1979).
Each time they were available a series of ticks was exposed. Each
series consisted of five cages made of mesh screen 40 cm high by 15
cm in diameter. Cages were placed in the soil and were separated by
less than one meter. Gravid females (4.0 to 8.0 mm) of B. nricroplus
were exposed in mesh cages through which they could not escape but
which did allow the entrance to smaller arthropods. In Yecapixtla
five cages (Figure 11) were placed in each of the three habitats
in the same place as the first and second phase of the non-parasitic
stages were conducted. The number of ticks per cage varied from 5
to 30. They were placed inside the cage with some earth and vegetation.
Cages were buried 5 cm deep as shown in Figure 11 and the top was
closed with mesh screen. The exposure cages were examined after one
week for tick remains by emptying the contents of the cage over a
piece of white flannel cloth (one square meter) in order to find the
exposed ticks and tick remains. Exposure times and the number of
females exposed in each series are given in the results tables. The
same exposure trials were recorded in Cuernavaca (Progreso) and
Zacatepec. In Cuernavaca pasture was African star grass. This is a

gure 11. Cages utilized to measure the existence of
predators.
A. Cage, inside earth and exposed ticks.
B. Top to cover the cage.

72
clump grass which grows high (from 30 cm to 50 cm) but grows leaving
clear areas. Also in this area was Bermuda grass cross I which grows
high also (from 40 cm to 80 cm) but is not a clump grass and grows
without leaving clear areas. Chi-square analysis was made to evaluate
predation rates.
Specimens recorded as a predator were sent to Dr. J. F. Butler
at the University of Florida. Identification was made by Dr. W. Burn
and Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Parasitic Stages of the Tick
Yecapixtla. Host preference studies
Tick counts were made in Yecapixtla boundary on 150 animals to
determine tick preference as to animal breed. The breeds evaluated
were "criollo" or native cattle and Brahman crosses, Counts of engorged
female ticks (4.5 to 11.0 mm) were made in order to establish infestation
rates.
Counts were made while the animals were being milked. Engorged
female ticks were counted by hand. Counts were made on ten animals on
one side of the animal at all times and were chosen at random at least
once a month. When the cattle were grazing on pastures on the property
a sample of ten animals was chosen at random at milking time (from
June to December). But when cattle were being pastured on corn
stalks they were caught in the field with the aid of salt. Counts
were made for two years on the same property.

73
Zacatepec. Host preference studies
In Zacatepec boundary close to Tequesquitengo Lagune, cattle
tick counts were made on a herd of 50 Holstein crossbred dairy animals
maintained under semi-improved conditions. Each count consisted of
ten animals chosen at random. Counts were made on one side of ten
animals at monthly intervals from October 1978 to September 1979- From
June to December cattle were maintained on pastures with feed supple
ments. From January to May they were fed more as pasture was scarce.
Yautepec. Distribution of ticks on individual animals
The distribution of tick populations on a given animal was made to
determine regional body preference on the host. At a place near Cuautla
called Yautepec counts were made on 79 native cattle and Brahman crosses.
Animals were chosen at random from a herd of 150 animals. These counts
were taken over two or three days with 8 to 12 animals per day
evaluated until complete counts on 79 animals were made. Counts were
taken by the body regions (Figure 12). The regions used to separate
the different body anatomy of cows were face, jaw, ear, upper neck,
lateral neck, shoulder, back, upper dewlap, lower dewlap, rib, anterior
belly, posterior belly, rump, upper legs, lower legs, tail base, tail,
estucheon, rearbelly, udder and upper inner-legs. Those counts were
made during November and December 1977.
Data analysis. Data were compiled and graphs were constructed
for the number of ticks found on cattle as related to climate and
cattle management. Herd infestation rates were calculated
on native cattle, Brahman crosses and Holstein crossbreds, and com
piled. The cattle tick counts were made i n Yecapixt1 a and Zacatepec.

Figure 12. Body areas of cows where tick distribution was evaluated.
Number
Area
Area in Spanis
1
Face
Cara
2
Jaw
Carr i 1 los
3
Ear
Orej a
4
Upper Neck
Corbata Cue 11o
5
Lateral Neck
Tabla Cue 1lo
6
Shoulder
Escpula
7
Back
Lomo
8
Upper Dewlap
Pecho
9
Lower Dewlap
Papada
10
Rib
Cost i llar
1 1
Anterior belly
Panza
12
Posterior belly
Hi jar
13
Rump
Mus lo
14
Upper Leg
Pierna
15
Lower Leg
Mano
16
Tail Base
Muslo Cola
17
Tai 1
Cola
18
Estucheon
Ingle
19
Rear Belly
Per ine
20
Udder
Ubres
21
Upper Inner Leg
Sobaco

75

76
Analysis of the distribution of cattle tick (4.5 to 11.0 mm)
counts in Yautepec was made by using the S.A.S. system to evaluate
the probabilities (in per cent) of the goodness of fit using the chi-
square test to the following distributions: normal, binomial, double
poisson, negative binomial, neyman type A and logarithmic.
Cattle Management in Morelos State
Standard cattle management procedures in Morelos State were
determined by making observations and questioning cattle owners and
some peasants. Surveys of management methods were also made through
discussion with people working in the campaign against the cattle tick
in Morelos State (Veterinarians, the state chief, inspectors, and
others). Cattle management was identified according to the dry and
the wet seasons taking into account the resources of food and water
and type of exploitation. Similar management techniques are practiced
for areas under the same climate as Morelos State.
Survey of Tick Control Program Status in Morelos State
Surveys were conducted on the number of the dipping vats con
structed, the future vats to be built, the number of working people in
the campaign (monetary resources) and equipment, and the availability
of acaricides. Other possible control measures were discussed in a
final study with the officer in charge of the campaign in Morelos State
in order to determine the state of the actual tick control program.

77
Development of an Integrated Pest Management System
for the Cattle Tick, Boophilus microplus
in Morelos State
By correlating the survey results to the results of the ecological
studies and Incorporating the understanding of some tick surveillance
phenomena with the knowledge of cattle management and by taking into
account sociological and economic problems of the area under study, a
pest management system was proposed for the cattle tick, Boophilus
m'iovo'plus. In this system various control methods were Integrated
including the chemicals in conjunction with cultural methods, the use
of resistant cattle, legal and quarantine methods as well as the
improvement of natural biological control.
This program was discussed in various meetings with the whole
staff of the campaign working in the state (veterinarians, inspectors,
etc.) and then with cattle owners and peasants in order to see its
practicability and to determine its acceptability.
The pest management system that is proposed will be a combination
between the regional technology and the modern technology which in
reality the "intermediate technology" which arises as the technology
that can be incorporated in countries under development (Ruesink,
1976).

RESULTS
Cattle Tick Ecology
Non-Paras i ti c Stages. First Phase
Photographs of Boophilus microplus were taken with the aid of
a scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Dr. H. L. Cromroy of the
Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida.
This allowed comparisons to be made between two species present in
Mexico, B. microplus and B. annulatus. The main feature used to
separate both species as Bauch (1966) showed is coxa I shape.
Boophilus microplus females (Figure 13) have two spurs (coxa I)
broadly rounded (Figure 14) about as wide as long and possessing a
few setae. Coxa !I has two spurs and coxa I I I and IV have none.
On the contrary, B. annulatus has one spur on coxa I and none on
coxa II, III and IV. Boophilus microplus male coxa I spur structure
is given in Figure 15 and is very distinct as Bauch (1966) reported.
It has a triangular pointed internal spur wider than the external
with few setae. It also has a caudal process on the ventral posterior
side of the opisthosoma. In contrast, B. annulatus has two spurs on
coxa I but the internal spur is definitely rounded and the external
spur triangular without a caudal process on the ventral posterior side
of the opisthosoma.
The tick ecological studies in the "first phase" (October 1977
to September 1978) was completed at Yecapixtla, Morelos, on the
78

gure 13- Scanning electron micrograph of an engorged
female Boophilus ririovoplus tick showing
capitulum, hypostome, and scutum. The legs
are long and about equally developed.

80

Figure 14. Scanning electron micrographs (ventral view) of
coxa I of Boophilus nrieroplus female tick. Spur
structure and setae shown (see 50 y reference).

82

Figure 15.
Scanning electron m
coxa I of Boophilus
structure and setae
crograph (ventral view) of
microplus male tick. Spur
shown (see 50 y reference)


85
non-paras¡tic stages with the exception of the studies on fecundity
day-by-day which were done in Cuautla, Morelos.
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla
The monthly mean temperature taken at the Yecapixtla meteoro
logical station (mesoclimate) had a lower mean temperature than expected
when compared with the macroclimate which correspond to the monthly
mean temperature of twelve years. The months with the highest tempera
tures were May and June (Figure 16) and the lowest temperatures were
recorded from December, January and February. The highest month for
rainfall was April and the lowest January.
Preoviposition period at Yecapixtla. The number of days required
for engorged ticks to complete the preoviposition period when exposed
in vegetative covered tubes showed a significant difference (ANOVA,
P < 0.01) due to the time of year they were exposed. When comparisons
were made between time (month) and vegetation type, both were shown to
be significantly important in their effect on the preoviposition period
required (ANOVA two way analysis P < 0.05).
When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure and the
preoviposition period, significant differences were seen between
December (5), February (7), March (8), November (A) and October (2),
January (6), October (I) (Table 1, A and C). These mean preovi pos ition
periods ranged from 9.8 to 13-0 days (A) for these months as compared
to 4.8 to 7.0 days (C) .
When habitats were evaluated as to vegetation type there were
significant differences (P < 0.01) demonstrated between primer
vegetation and pasture (Table 1) but not between primer vegetation
and thicket.

MONTHS
300
250
200
150
100
50
Figure 16.
Climatic conditions during the first phase (October 1977 to September 1978)
near the tick study site at Yecapixtla, Morelos (mesoclimate).
oo
CT'
Total Rainfall (mm)

87
Table 1. Mean preovipos ition period at Yecapixtla (first
phase) as affected by the time of year and type
of vegetation.
Date of
Exposure
Number
of
Exposure
Mean
Preovipos ition
Period
(Days)
Significant^
Difference
Time
Dec. 5
5
13.0
Feb. 22
7
12.0
Mar. 14
8
12.0
A
Nov. 24
4
10. 3
Nov. 4
3
9.8
B
Oct. 26
2
7.0
Jan. 26
6
5.0
C
Oct. 21
1
4.8
Vegetation
(Habitats)
P rime r
vegetation
Th icket
10.5
9.8
A
Pasture
7.4 |
B
Note: Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different
(P < 0.01).
2
Tukeys' mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W.
(1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.

88
There was no correlation between the number of days required for
the oviposition periods and the mean temperature of the macroclimate
or the mesoclimate (Table 2).
Figure 17 presents preoviposition periods (days) required for the
different types of habitats for the different months of the year.
Sample dates that accounted for the significant differences on pasture
were seen for exposures October, November and December. The main
differences were at the end of the year (October, November, December)
when some humidity was present. At the beginning of the year (January,
February, March) in all three habitats the preoviposition periods were
the same which corresponded to low humidity in the area of study.
Oviposition period at Yecapixtla. The number of days required
for engorged ticks to complete the oviposition period when exposed in
vegetative covered tubes showed a significant difference (ANOVA P <
0.01) due to the time of the year they were exposed. When comparisons
were made between time (month) and vegetation (type) both time and vegeta
tion were shown to be significantly important in the oviposition
period (Table 3).
When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure,
significant differences were seen between January 26, November 24,
February 22 (A) and December 5, October 21, November 4 (C-D) (Table 3).
No significant differences were seen between means of the exposures
January 26, November 4, February 22, October 26;these accounted for the
larger duration of the oviposition period (Table 3).
When habitats were evaluated as to type of vegetation, there were
significant differences (P < 0.01) seen between primer vegetation,
thicket and pasture (Table 3).

Number of Days
Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Figure 17- Preoviposition periods in the three types of vegetation at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. First phase.
OO
CD

V
90
Table 2. The duration of the preoviposition periods at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico as influenced by
the macroclimate and mesoclimate. First phase.
Exposure
Month
Macro (A)
TxC
Preoviposition
Period
Mean in Days
Meso (B)
TxC
1
Oct.
22.0
4.67
19.5
2
Oct.
22.0
7.00
19-5
3
Nov.
22.8
9.67
18.0
4
Nov.
22.8
10.33
18.0
5
Dec.
21.9
13.00
17.0
6
Jan.
22.4
5.00
16.5
7
Feb.
23.2
12.00
17.6
8
Mar.
24.3
12.00
18.2
Hypothesis*
r = 4873
r =
0.3467
Ho: r = 0
r2 = 0.2375
2
r =
0.1202
Hi : r 0
R2 = 0.7625
r2 =
0.8798
Do not reject
b = 1.9758
b =
1.0630
(A) Macroclimate: Monthly mean temperature for twelve years.
(B) Mesoclimate: Monthly mean temperature for October 1977~September
]978.
"Linear correlation ref. Snedecor, G. W. (1961) 160-193 pp. Iowa St.
Univ. Press.

91
Table 3- Mean oviposition period at Yecapixtla (first phase)
as affected by the time of year and type of vegetation.
Date of
Exposure
Number
of
Exposure
Mean
Oviposition
Period
(Days)
Significant'
Difference
Jan. 26
6
29.0
Nov. 24
4
26.0
A
Feb. 22
7
25.3
B
Oct. 26
2
25.0
Mar. 14
8
24.0
Dec. 15
5
22.7
C
Oct. 21
1
18.7
D
Nov. 4
3
17.3
Vegetation
Pri mer
I
(Habitats)
vegetation
10.5
A
Thicket
UD
OO
B
Pasture
73 |
C
Note: 'Means
covered with uncommon
letters are significantly different
Tukey's mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W.
(1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.

92
There was no correlation between the number of days required for
the oviposition periods and the mean temperature of the macroclimate or
mesoclimate (Table 4).
Figure 18 presents the oviposition period (days) required for the
sample dates from different types of habitat for the different months of
the year. Significant differences (P < 0.01) on pasture were seen for
exposures October, November and December (1, 3 and 5). In general the
longest oviposition times were for primer vegetation with little change
for the different months. Fewer days were required for ticks located in
thickets. By contrast ticks on pastures showed stable oviposition periods
in October, November and December. These months had the lowest rainfall
for the months studied.
Longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla. The number of days required for
larval ticks to complete the period for eclosin to the last larvae found
alive when exposed in vegetative covered tubes showed a significant
difference (ANOVA P < 0.01) due to the time of the year they were exposed.
When comparisons were made between time (month) and vegetation (type) both
time and vegetation showed to be significantly important in the longevity
of larval period.
When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure significant
differences were seen between October 26, December 15, February 22 (A),
and October 21, January 26, November 4 (D-E) These accounted for the
shortest duration of the longevity of larval period. Group "A" accounted
for the longest duration of the longevity of larval period (Table 5).
When habitats were evaluated as to type of vegetation, there
were significant differences (P < 0.01) seen between primer vegetation,
thicket and pasture (Table 5).

93
Table 4. The duration of the oviposition periods at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico as influenced by the
macroclimate and mesoclimate. First phase.
Exposure
Month
Macro (A)
TxC
Ovi pos ition
Period
Mean in Days
Meso (B)
TxC
1
Oct.
22.0
18.67
19.5
2
Nov.
22.8
25.00
18.0
3
Nov.
22.8
17.33
18.0
4
Dec.
21.9
26.00
17.0
5
Jan.
22.4
22.67
16.5
6
Feb.
23.2
29.00
17-6
7
Mar.
24. 3
25.33
18.2
8
Apr.
26.2
24.00
19-5
Hypothesis"
r = 0.2223
r =
0.3327
Ho: r = 0
r2 = 0.494
2
r =
0.1107
Hi: r/0
R2 = 0.9506
r2 =
0.8893
Do not reject
b = 0.6007
b =
1.2071
(A) Macrocl¡mate:
Monthly
mean temperature of
twelve years.
(B) Mesoclimate:
1978.
Month 1y
mean temperature for
October 1977 to
September
''Linear correlation
i ref. Snedecor, G. W. (1961)
. 160-193 pp. 1
1owa S t.
Univ. Press.

Figure 18. Oviposition periods in three types of vegetation.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.

Number of Days
Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date and Exposure

96
Table 5- Mean longevity of larvae at Yecaplxtla
(first phase) as affected by the time of
the year and type of vegetation.
Rate of
Exposure
Number of
Exposure
Mean
LongevIty
of Larvae
(Days)
c- -r- J,2
Significant
Difference
Oct. 26
2
67-3
A
Dec. 15
5
63-3
Feb. 22
7
59.0
B
Nov. 24
k
56.0
C
Mar. ]k
8
53-7
Oct. 21
1
50.7
D
Jan. 26
6
42.0
Nov. k
3
29.0
E
Vegetation
Primer
(Hab tats)
vegetation
74.4
A
Th Icket
54.8
B
Pasture
28.8
C
Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different
(P < 0.01).
Tukey's mean test analysis as adapted from Snedecor, G. W.
(1961) 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.
Note:

97
There was no correlation between the number of days required for
the longevity of the larval period and the mean temperature of the
macroclimate or mesoclimate (Table 6).
Figure 19 presents the longevity of larvae (days) in three types
of vegetation. Significant differences (P < 0.01) on pasture were seen
for exposures October, November and December (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). In
general the longest larval longevity were for primer vegetation with
little change for the different months. Fewer days were required for
larval ticks located on thickets and less for larval ticks located on
pasture. Larger periods were related with rainy months.
Total longevity at Yecapixtla. The number of days required for
B. micpoplus ticks to complete the total non-parasitic stage, from
dropping of the engorged female from the cattle to the last larvae found
alive when exposed in vegetative covered tubes, showed a significant
difference (ANOVA P < 0.05) due to the time of the year they were
exposed. When comparisons were made between time (month) and vegetation
(type) both were shown to be significantly important (Table 7, ANOVA,
two way analysis, P < 0.01).
When comparisons were made between the date of exposure of the
non-paras i t i c stages separated by habitats (type of vegetation)
significant differences were seen between the type of vegetation and
the non-paras itic stages period (Table 7), with the exception of the
oviposition period where no significant differences were shown on
thicket and primer vegetation. In general, there are more interactions
between the date of exposure on primer vegetation and thicket than the
date of exposure on pasture.

98
Table 6. The duration of the longevity of larvae at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico as influenced by
the macroclimate and mesoclimate. First
phase.
Exposure
Month
Macro (A)
TxC
Longevity of
Larvae Period
Mean in Days
Meso (B)
TxC
1
Dec.
21 .9
50.67
17.0
2
Jan.
22.4
67.33
16.5
3
Jan.
22.4
29.00
16.5
4
Feb.
23.2
23.2
17.6
5
Mar.
24.3
63.33
18.2
6
Apr.
26.2
42.00
19.5
7
May
25.8
59.00
22.7
8
Jun.
25.0
53.67
22.5
Hypothesis*
r = 0.0562
r =
0.1596
Ho: r = 0
r2 = 0.0032
2
r =
0.0255
Hi: r/0
R2 = 0.9968
r2 =
0.9745
Do not reject
b = 0.4171
b =
0.7744
(A) Macroclimate: Monthly
(B) Mesoclimate: Monthly
September 1978.
mean temperature
mean temperature
of twelve years,
for October 1977
to
Linear correl
Univ. Press.
ation ref.
Snedecor, G. W. (1961). 160-193 pp.
Iowa St.

Figure 19. Longevity of larvae in three types of vegetation.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Pasture
Th¡cket
Primer Vegetation
12 3 4 5 6 7 8
Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date and Exposure
7znztzmzzzm
lini'iiim
IIIIIIIEIIII
100

Table 7. Mean total longevity of the non-pa r a si t ¡ c stages of B. mioroplus at
Yecapixtla (first phase) as affected by the type of vegetation and time of
year.
Date of Pasture Sig.Date of
Exposure (Days) Dif. Exposure
12 Primer
Ticket Sig. Date of Vegetation
(Days) Dif. Exposure (Days)
Sig.
Dif.
1,2
Period: Preoviposition
Feb.
22
12
A
Dec.
5
1 b
Nov.
2b
16
Mar.
\b
12
A
Nov.
2b
12
Dec.
5
15
Dec.
5
10
B
Feb.
22
12
A
Feb.
22
12
Nov.
i
9
Mar.
\b
12
B
Mar.
\b
12
Oct.
26
6
C
Nov.
b
10
Nov.
b
10
Jan.
26
5
Oct.
26
7
Oct.
26
8
Nov.
2^4
3
D
Oct.
21
6
L
Oct.
21
6
Oct.
21
2
Jan.
26
5
Jan.
26
5
Period:
Ovi pos ition
Nov.
2b
28
Oct.
21
26
Jan.
26
34
Jan.
26
28
A
Oct.
26
25
Feb.
22
34
Oct.
26
22
Jan.
26
25
Dec.
5
33
Feb.
22
20
B
.
Nov.
b
23
A
Mar.
l b
30
Mar.
1*4
19
f
Dec.
5
23
A
Oct.
21
30
Dec.
5
12
Mar.
]b
23
Nov.
b
29
Oct.
21
0
D
Feb.
22
22
Nov.
2b
29
Nov.
b
0
Nov.
2b
21
Oct.
26
28
A
o

Table 7- continued.
Date of
Exposure
Pasture
(Days)
Sig
Dif
1 >2
Date of
Exposure
Ti cket
(Days)
c- 1,2
S i g. '
Dif.
Date of
Exposure
Primer j 2
Vegetation Sig.
(Days) Dif.
Period:
Longevity of Larvae
Feb. 22
49
A
Oct.
26
79
Nov.
4
87
A
Mar. 14
42
Oct.
21
76
A
Oct.
26
85
H
Oct. 26
38
B
Dec.
5
73
Dec.
5
82
Nov. 24
36
C
Nov.
24
66
Oct.
21
76
1 B|c
Dec. 5
35
D
Feb.
22
55
D
Feb.
22
73
CL
Jan. 26
30
Mar.
1*4
51
L
Mar.
14
68
Nov. *4
0
Jan.
26
38
D
Nov.
24
66
L
Oct. 21
0
t
Nov.
4
0
E
Jan.
26
58
Period:
Total Longevity
Feb. 22
85
1 A
Oct.
26
115
Dec.
5
134 I
A
Mar. 1 4
77
Dec.
5
114
A
Nov.
4
125
Nov. 2*i
71
D
Oct.
21
112
Oct.
26
125
D
Oct. 26
70
C
Nov.
24
103
B
Feb.
22
123 1
Jan. 26
67
D
Feb.
22
93
Mar.
14
118 I
Dec. 5
61
Mar.
14
90
L
Oct.
21
116
L
Nov. 4
9
E
Jan.
26
72
D
Nov.
24
115 1
Oct. 21
2
1
F
Nov.
4
33
E
Jgn.
26
101 |
D
Note: Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different (P < 0.01).
2
Tukey's mean test analyses as adapted from Snedecor, G. W. (1961) 321-327 PP* Iowa St. Univ.
Press.

103
Figure 20 presents the non-paras itic stages (in days) required
for the sample dates on different types of habitat for the different
months of the year. In general the longest non-paras itic cycles were
in primer vegetation and thicket in comparison with the shortest non-
parasitic stage in pasture. All exposed ticks with the exception of
exposures October (1) and November (3) completed the total non-paras itic
stages.
When comparisons were made (t-test) between ticks located in tubes
with and without soil inside them there were no significant differences
seen (P < 0.01).
Figure 21 shows the percent of larval eclosin in the three
habitats during the eight exposure dates of the first phase. Larval
eclosin was very low (0 to 10%) on grass pasture, slightly higher
on thicket (0 to 50%) and highest on primary vegetation (50 to 80%).
Fecundity at Cuautla. The number of eggs produced by ticks for
the six time periods was evaluated (AN0VA) to determine the effect of
time of year (Figure 22) and handling on oviposition. The results for
samples taken from October 1977 to September 1978 for the disturbed
eggs (daily manipulation for egg counts) and undisturbed eggs (counted
at the end of the oviposition period) are given in Table 8. No
significant difference was demonstrated (P < 0.01) between the disturbed
and undisturbed ticks. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01)
between the six time periods within each series of disturbed or un
disturbed ticks. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) in
the interaction of disturbed and undisturbed ticks and the time of
year they were exposed (months), indicating that the handling (disturbance)
in any time (months) did not significantly affect survival.

Date and Exposure
Oct 1
0ct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Time (Months)
Apr
Hay
Jun
Ju 1
Figure 20. Total longevity of the non-parasitic stages of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus
in three different habitats Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. October 1977-September 1978.
First phase.
o
-c-

Figure 21. Per cent of eclosin of larvae of the cattle tick, Boophilus
mioroplus in three different habitats and eight exposure dates.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.

min
lllll
T
T
T
T
1
llllllllllllli
Grass Pasture
Th¡cket
Primer Vegetation
Date and Exposure
o
ON

200
180
160
1 AO
120
100
80
60
^0
20
O ND JFMAMJ JAS
MONTHS
Figure 22. Mesoclimate conditions during the experiments on fecundity (October 1977 to
September 1978) in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
Tota 1 Ra i nfa 1 1 (mm)

108
Table 8. ANOVA test for the number of eggs produced by ticks
for the six series time periods (disturbed) and the
check (undisturbed) of the cattle tick, B. mieroplus
in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. 19771978.
Variation
Factor
d.f.
Sum of Squares
Square Mean
F
Ca1culated
Subgroups
1 1
19,296,683.60
1,754,243.96
15.74"
Group (1)
Disturbed &
Undisturbed
1
371,464
371,464
3.33
Group (2)
Time (Six
Series)
5
17,223,219-70
3,444,643.98
30.90"
1nteraction
Group 1 vs.
Group 2
5
1 ,701,999-90
340,399-98
3.05
Error
48
5,350,753.60
111,474.03
Total
59
24,647,437.20
Significant
difference
(P < 0.01).

109
When comparisons were made on the seasonal mean egg production
with disturbed egg samples, significant differences (P < 0.01) were
demonstrated between the first three dates (July-August, September-
October, October-November)and the last three dates (November-December,
February-March, May) (Table 9 A and B). When undisturbed samples were
compared a similar pattern was seen with the additional slight
separation of May, November-December from February-March (Table 9 A,
B, and C).
There was correlation between the number of eggs laid and the
mean weight of fully engorged female ticks (Table 10).
Figures 23 through 28 are a graphic presentation of the mean
number of eggs laid for the dates noted in the figures. The time
required for egg laying depended on the time of year and location of
the gravid ticks (series 1, 2 and 3) which produced the largest
numbers of eggs and they correspond to the months of the wet season
from July to November and after the months with highest rainfall
(June). These series 1, 2, and 3 required longer time periods for
total egg laying than did series 4, 5, and 6 (Figures 26, 27 and 28).
In contrast the mean number of eggs of the series 4, 5, and 6
(Figures 26, 27 and 28) had the lowest mean egg production and they
correspond to the months of the dry season from middle November to
May, the months without any rainfall. Egg production for series 4,
5, and 6 (Figures 26, 27 and 28) was initiated and completed earlier
than series 1, 2, and 3 (Figures 23, 24 and 25).
Figure 29 shows the number of eggs that will produce female
offspring (Ro), the age of mother when she produces the batch of eggs

110
Table 9- Boophilus miavoplus mean oviposit ion rates for
six different times of the year of disturbed
and undisturbed ticks at Cuautla, Morelos,
Mexico. 1977~1978.
Month
Mean
1 2
Significant
Difference
Disturbed or
Undisturbed
Jul.-Aug.
2,882.80
Di sturbed
Sep.-Oct.
2,359.20
A
Disturbed
Oct.-Nov.
2,643.40
D i sturbed
Nov.-Dec.
1 ,949.00
Di sturbed
Feb.-Mar.
1,425.80
B
D i sturbed
May
1,649.60
Disturbed
Oct.-Nov.
2,605.20
Undisturbed
Sep.-Oct.
2,539.90
A
Und i sturbed
Jul.-Aug.
2,582.70
Undisturbed
Nov.-Dec.
1 ,6l6.60
Und i sturbed
B
May
1,566.70
Und i sturbed
C
Feb.-Mar.
1,403.40
Und i sturbed
Note: Mean values without common letters are significantly
different (P < 0.01) .
Tukey's mean test analysis as adapted from Senedecor, G.W.
(1961), 321-327 pp. Iowa St. Univ. Press.

Table 10. Linear correlation between the mean number
of eggs and tick weights. Cuautla, Morelos,
Mexico. 1977-1978.
Number of
Eggs
Mean Weight
of Ticks*
(grams)
2,882.80
0.30
2,359.20
0.31
2,643.40
0.27
1 ,949.00
0.25
1,425.80
0.26
1 ,694.60
0.25
Hypostheis:
O
II
O
m
r = 0.6930
Hi: r1 t 0
R2 = 0.3070
Do not reject
Fully engorged (4.58.0 mm).

Number of Eggs
(Mean of Live Ticks)
Time (Days)
Figure 23. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus, of the first series. July-August 1977.

Figure 2^4. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus, of the second series. September-
October 1977-

Figure 25.
Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus, of the third series. October-
November 1977.

Number of Eggs
Time
Figure 26. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. micvoplus, of the fourth series. November
December 1977

Number of Eggs
400
IS)
X 320
I-
Q)
>
2^0
c
03
<13
160 -
80
T ¡ me
Figure 27. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. nricroplus, of the fifth series.
March 1978.
February-

Number of Eggs
(Mean of Li-ve Ticks)
Time
Figure 28. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B.
mioroplus, of the sixth series. May 1978-

Number of eggs of the female offspring (Ro), time
in days at peak numbers of eggs (Tc) and capacity
for increase (rc) of the six disturbed series.
Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. July 1977 to May 1978.
Figure 29.

119
Jan S-0 0-N N-D F-M May
Ti me
Capacity for increase (r

120
(Tc) and the capacity for increase (rc) of the slope of the curve of
the undisturbed eggs. A bimodal peak is demonstrated for the wet season
(July to November) which correspond to the first three series. Only
one peak is seen for the dry season (November to May), which correspond
to the last three series.
The dry season series 4, 5, 6 (November, February, May) (Figure
29) show that the number of eggs decreases and also the age of the mother
when she produces the highest number of eggs (TC). Therefore, the
capacity for increase became higher in the dry season, in comparison
to the wet season when the number of eggs increase (1, 2 and 3 series).
The age of the mother when she produces the highest number of eggs
increases at the wet season and the rc is maintained to its lowest
numbers.
Non-parasitic Stages. Second Phase
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec
Figure 30 shows the temperature and rainfall registered at the
Yecapixtla meteorological station. Low temperatures were recorded for
October to March and high temperatures from March to August. Rainfall
occurred primarily during the months of May through October.
Figure 31 shows the climate conditions at Progreso southwest to
Cuernavaca City. A long dry season occurs here from November to April,
a wet season from March to October. The lowest temperature was
registered in January.
Figure 32 shows the climate conditions registered in Zacatepec.
The dry season at this locality was from November to May and the wet

Date
Figure 30. Climate at Yecapixtla, Morelos during the time of the experiments of the second phase nj
(mesoclimate).
Total Rainfall (mm)

Monthly Mean Temperature
(_>
O
F¡gu re
T" l 1 1 1 i i i i 1 1 r
Temperature lllllllllllll
'978 0 N D 1979 J F M A M
Date
31.
Climate at Cuernavaca (Progreso) Morelos during the time of the experiments of the second
phase (mesocl¡mate)
Total Rainfal1 (mm)

Monthly Mean Temperature C
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
1978 0
1 1 1
Temperature llllllllllllll
Ra 1 n fa 1 1
A
\
\
A
NX
\
V
/
v v
V V
i I i i 1-
D 1979 J
M A
Date
400
36O
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
Figure 32. Climate in Zacatepec, Morelos during the time of the experiments of the second phase
(mesoc1imate).
K>
V-O
Total Rainfall (mm)

season from June to October. Low temperature was recorded in January
and high temperatures were registered in March and June.
In general, the study area showed low temperature and rainfall
conditions in Yecapixtla, in comparison with Yecapixtla that registered
the highest temperature and moisture and Cuernavaca (Progreso) was an
intermediate area (Figures 30, 31 and 32).
Comparison of non-paras itic stages in the study area. Figure 33
shows the total duration period of the non-parasitic stages of the cattle
tick, B. miaroplus at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec
taking into account the exposure chamber (cage or tube). Analysis of
equality showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.01)
between the number of days that ticks spent in tubes and cages. Ticks
extended the time required for development of the non-paras itic stages
in cages and tubes increased mortality in early stages of development.
Tubes in cages followed the same trends as tubes in soil.
There was no significant difference (P < 0.01) at Zacatepec
between the non-paras itic stages of ticks exposed in cages between
Bermuda and Setaria grasses but there was significant difference (P <
0.01) between both ticks exposed in cages and ticks exposed in tubes
in Bermuda and Setaria grasses.
Cages in each locality. Figure 34 shows the cycles of the non-
parasitic stages held in cages at Yecapixtla. In this figure the major
difference was seen in the longevity of larval period. AN0VA test
showed no significant difference (P < 0.01) in the arbitrary scale
of oviposition but did show significant differences in the arbitrary
scale of longevity of larval periods. Maximum total longevity was
reached with exposure 8 (April) which lasted for 145 days. Minimum

Date and Exposures
Mar
8
Feb
Jan
Dec
Nov
Nov
Oct
Oct
Figure
~1 I 1 I 1 1 1
iiiiiiimiiimiiiiiimimiimiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiii ves
YTC8
YT8
7
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIBIIIIIHIIIIIIIIi YC7
YTC7
" YT7
lllllllllllllltlllitllllllllllllllllllllll YC6
rjmm YTC6
YT6
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll VC5
llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll YC4
YT b
T
miiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii yc3
******>,*****- YTC3
" YT3
lllllllllllllllllllllflllllllllllllllllllllllllllll YC2
YTC2
mimimiiimmiiiifiiiimiiiiiiii vci
YTC 1
YT,
r
T
Tube in
_J I i I J 1 1 1 1 1
20 /4O 60 80 100 120 1*40 160 180 200
Time (Days)
33- Non-pa ras itic stages studied in cages, tubes in cages and tubes
localities in Morelos State.
Cage (C) llllllllllll
Cage (TC)
Tube (T)
Y = Yecapixtla
in three different

Date and Exposures
Oct 1
Jul 5
Mar k
Feb 3
Jan 2
Oct 1
Figure
ZTS I
~ ZTB1
-p^m. ZTCS1
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimiiii zcsi
iiiiiiiiiikiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir ZSB>
iiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiir pcs
PTC5
PT5
iiiiimiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiui pc/.
PJCk
PT^4
iiiiiniiiiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiii pc3
PTC3
' PT3
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinr pc2
PTC2
PT2
mi iiiiiiii iiiiii nun mi iiiiiii pci
PTC I
" PTI
J L I I L I J I
Cage (C)
Tube in Cage (TC)
Tube (T)
miimm
P = Cuernavaca
(Progresso)
Z = Zacatepec
B = Bermuda grass
S = Setaria grass
-i.
20
*t0
60 80
100 120 HO
Time (Days)
160 180
200
33. continued.
N>
CTN

Time (Days)
Figure 33. continued.
N>
^*4

Date and Exposures
Oct
Nov
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Figure 3k. Non-paras itic stages studied in cages at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979-

129
total longevity was seen in exposure 8 (March) which lasted for
105 days.
Figure 35 shows the cycles of the non-paras itic stages held in
cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso). In this figure the stage development
was longer in exposure (March) 4 and (July) 5 with 115 days and 120
days, respectively. The shortest duration period of the total
longevity was 75 days, exposure (January) 2.
Contingency tab 1es showed no significant differences in the
arbitrary scale ranges of oviposition but did show significant differences
in the arbitrary scale ranges of longevity of larvae.
Figure 36 shows the cycle of the non-parasitic stages held in
cages at Zacatepec. In this figure the stage of development was
longest in the May exposure in Bermuda grass (190 days) with the longest
total non-paras itic stages registered. In comparison with all three
localities studied, the shortest non-parasitic stage registered in
Zacatepec was a February exposure on Setaria grass (155 days).
Table 11 shows oviposition and longevity of larvae (arbitrary
scale) in three localities. Multiple linear regression showed no
relation between Cuernavaca rates between both oviposition and longevity
of larvae, or with Yecapixtla and Zacatepec rates both between ovi
position and longevity of larvae.
Comparison of stages held in cages at all localities when correlated
with macro and mesoclimate. Table 12 shows the effect on localities on
the non-pa ras itic stage studied in cages. There were significant
differences (P < 0.05) between the oviposition periods at Yecapixtla
and Cuernavaca and those at Zacatepec. There were no significant
differences in the time required to complete the oviposition and

Figure 35
Non-paras it¡c stages studied in cages
(Progreso) Mexico. Second phase 1978-
in Cuernavaca
1979.

Date and Exposures
Time (Days)

Date and Exposures
- Bermuda -Setaria -
Oct
Feb
May
Oct
Feb
May
p.a 0
LL
1 2 3
ri/y
Longevity of Larvae
1
1 1
1 = 25~A00 eggs
2 = 500-1400 eggs
3 = 1500-2000 eggs
4 = 2200-3000 eggs
A = < 100 larvae
B = 20,000 larvae
C = < 100 larvae
P.0. = Preov¡pos ition
0 = Oviposition
I = Incubation
LL = Longevity of
Larvae
100 120 1 *0 160 180 200
Time (Days)
Figure 36. Non-pa ras itic stages studied in cages in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. Second phase.
1978-1979.
V-O
K>

133
Table 11. Rates of oviposition and longevity of larvae
(arbitrary scale) of B. microplus at three
localities in Morelos State, Mexico. Second
phase.
L 0
Yecapixt1 a
cal i t i
Cuernavaca
i e s
Zacatepec
Oviposition Rates3
1
1.87
4.80
4.50
2
7.25
10.80
6.16
3
13.87
10.40
15.50
4
6.62
3.60
4.50
[3
Longevity of Larval Rates
1
34.75
13.20
30.50
2
33.25
18.00
41.33
3
50.25
19-40
50.33
c
Multiple Linear Regression
Hypotheses
Oviposition
Longevi
ty of Larvae
Ho: ao = al = a2
ao = 0.06
ao =
- 12.30
Hi: ao ^ al / a2
al = 0.90
a 1 =
0.33
Hypotheses
a2 = 0.15
a2 =
2.36
rej ected
Z = 0.09*'
* Z =
- 5.94**
1. 25-400 eggs; 2. 500-1400
eggs; 3- 1500-i
2000 eggs; 4.
2200-3000 eggs.
1. Less than 100 larvae; 2.
20,000 larvae;
3. Less than
100 larvae.
As adapted from Mood and Grayhill (1963).
1ntroduction
to the Theory
,of Statistics. McGraw-Hill.
Significant difference (P <
0.01).

Table 12. The effect of localities on the non-pa ras itic stages of the cattle tick,
Boophilus miovoptus studied in cages, Morelos State, Mexico. Second
phase. 1978-1979.
Source of
Vari ation
d. f.
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
1, 2, 3
Tukey's Mean Test
Tota 1
17
503.76
Y
lt.25
A
Preovipos ition
2
3/*3. ^6
171.73
16.06*
C
11.80
Error
15
160.30
10.69
Z
3.00
6
Total
18
196.1J
Z
29.33
Ovi pos ition
2
15.11
7-56
0.67
Y
29.13
A
Error
16
181.01
11.31
C
27.20
Total
18
216.9**
Z
35-33
1 ncubation
2
16.75
8.38
0.67
C
3i. 00
A
Error
16
200.21
12.51
Y
33.13
Total
18
18,281.16
Z
122.00
A
Longevity of Larvae
2
15,823.26
7,911.63
51.50**
Y
69.63
B
Error
16
2,457-91
153.62
C
50.60
C
Tota 1
18
16,333-79
Z
162.17
1 A
Tota 1 Longevity
2
12,858.89
6,129.45
29.60**
Y
117.13
B
Error
16
3, 474. 91
217.18
C
96.40
C
Note: Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different (P < 0.01).
Zacatepec, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Yecapixtla.
^ANOVA (P < 0.01)** (p < 0.05)*.
Tukey's mean test as adapted from Snedecor, G. W. (1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa State Univ.

135
incubation periods for ticks held in cages at all three localities.
There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in total longevity of
larvae (P < 0.05) at all different localities when mean comparisons
were made.
When comparisons were made between pasture types as they effect
the number of days to complete the non-paras itic stages of the tick
(Table 13), there were no significant differences (P < 0.01) between
Bermuda cross one and Setaria pastures. There were significant
differences (P < 0.01) between the different stages of development,
and the interaction between pastures and stages of development.
Figures 37 and 38 show the comparison of the non-paras itic stages
at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec for oviposition and
longevity of larvae for the exposure dates. Yecapixtla was the most
stable from early November through March. There were strong fluctuations
in the number of days to complete the oviposition period through the
seven exposures in Zacatepec (Figure 37).
The larval longevity periods were the longest for Zacatepec.
Progreso had the shortest periods and Yecapixtla was in an intermediate
situation (Figure 38).
When comparisons were made on the preoviposition, oviposition
and longevity of larval periods as affected by mesoclimate and macro
climate, no significant correlation (P < 0.01) was demonstrated between
the preoviposition periods (Table 14) and no significant correlation
(P < 0.01) between the oviposition period either (Table 15). Values
2
of r are 0.1120 both with preoviposition periods with tube and cage
2
with macroclimate (Table 14). The highest r calculated for the ovi
position period was 0.3391 for cage and macroclimate (Table 15).

136
Table 13. The effect of pastures on the non-parasitic
stages of the cattle tick, B. microplus studied
in cages in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. Second
phase. 1978-1979.
Source of
Variation
d. f.
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
Total
23
47,992.62
Subgroups
(Pasture and Stages
of Development)
7
47,683.29
6,811.90
352.34**
Pastures (A)
1
165.37
165.37
8.55
Stages of
Development (B)
3
47,323.79
15,774.60
815.94**
Interaction
(A X B)
3
194.13
64.71
3.35*
Error
16
309.33
19-33
-Bermuda (cross one) and setaria grasses.
ANOVA (P < 0.05)* (P < 0.01)**.

Figure 37- Comparison of oviposition periods studied in cages at three
localities. Second phase. 1978-1979.

Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date and Exposures
v~o
OO

Figure 38. Comparison of larval longevity periods studied in cages at three
localities. Second phase. 1978-1979.

Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date of Exposure

141
Table 14. Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
preoviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesoclimate. Second phase. 1978-1979.
Loca 1ity
Exposure
Macroclimate
Mean Temp
C
Preoviposition
Days
Cage Tube
Mesoclimate
Mean Temp
C
Month
Yecap1xt1 a
1
22.0
12.0
8.6
20.0
Oct.
2
22.8
13.0
11.0
18.0
Nov.
3
21.9
18.0
15.3
17-5
Dec.
4
22.4
19.0
2.0
17.0
Jan.
5
22.4
19-0
7.0
17.0
Jan.
6
23.2
19-0
14.6
18.1
Feb.
7
24.3
18.0
0
19.5
Mar.
8
26.2
7.0
0
20.2
Apr.
Cuernavaca
1
20.0
11.0
4.6
19-7
Oct.
(Progreso)
2
18.9
10.0
0
18.5
Jan.
3
20. 1
12.0
10.0
20.5
Feb.
4
22.0
14.0
0
23.2
Mar.
5
20.5
12.0
0
24.2
Jul.
Zacatepec
1
24.3
5-0
3.0
22.2
Oct.
2
22.5
4.0
3.0
21.2
Feb.
3
28.0
6.0
0
23.7
May
Hypothesis
Tube
b = 0.7090
Tube
b = 1.2552
vs
r = 0.3346
vs
r = 0.5417
Ho: r = 0
Macro
r2 = 0. 1 120
Meso
r2 = 0.2934
Hi : r j 0
R2 = 0.8880
Rz = 0.7066
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothesis
Cage
b = 0.7090
Cage
b = 1.2827
vs
r = 0.3346
r = 0.6122
Macro
r2 = 0.1120
r2 = 0.3748
R2 = 0.8880
R2 = 0.6252
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothes
i s

142
Table 15. Correlation evaluation between the duration of
the oviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesocllmate. Second phase. 1978-1979-
Loca 1ity
Exposure
Macroclimate
Mean Temp
C
Preovipos ition
Period
in Days
Cage Tube
Mesoclimate
Mean Temp
C
Month
Yecapixt1 a
1
22.8
24.0
9.6
18.0
Nov.
2
21.9
34.0
5-6
17.5
Dec.
3
22.4
27-0
22.6
17.0
Jan.
4
23.2
28.0
10.0
18.1
Feb.
5
23.2
28.0
10.0
18.1
Feb.
6
24.3
28.0
0
19-5
Mar.
7
26.2
30.0
0
20.2
Apr.
8
25.8
34.0
0
21.2
May
Cuernavaca
1
20.0
28.0
3-0
19-7
Oct.
(Progreso)
2
18.9
22.0
0
18.5
Jan.
3
20. 1
28.0
12.0
20.5
Feb.
4
23.2
30.0
0
24.5
Apr.
5
20.7
28.0
0
21.5
Aug.
Zacatepec
1
23-3
30.0
23-3
21.2
Nov.
2
25-3
28.0
19-0
24.2
Mar.
3
27.0
34.0
0
26.5
Jun.
Hypothesis
Tube
b
= 0.1567
Tube
b = 0.6304
vs
r
= 0.0436
vs
r = 0.2048
Ho: r = 0
Macro
r2
= 0.0019
Meso
r2 = 0.0419
Hi : r / 0
R2
= 0.9981
R2 = 0.9581
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothesis
Cage
b
= 0.8176
Cage
b = 0.5165
vs
r
= 0.5823
vs
r = 0.4293
Macro
r2
= 0.3391
Meso
r2 = 0.1843
R2
= 0.6609
R2 = 0.8157
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothesis

143
No significant correlation (P < 0.01) was demonstrated between
the longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate and mesoclimate
(Table 16) for larvae studied in cages. No significant correlation
(P < 0.01) was demonstrated with larvae in tubes. Larva ticks failed
to complete the cycle in tubes in 13 cases out of 16 (Table 16).
Mesoclimate at Cuautla
Figure 39 shows the climatic measurements taken at the meteoro
logical station of Cuautla which registered a long dry season from
December to March. The June fecundity experiment in tubes and cages
took place when high temperatures were registered (mean monthly
temperature, 24C) and 20 mm total rainfall. Moisture was present
due to the May rainfall (60 mm).
Oviposition of the cattle tick in cage trials at Cuautla. Table
17 shows that the oviposition rate was the highest for caged ticks at
6 cm under the soil (mean 2,040 eggs). The primary problem in taking
these measurements was that the ticks were disturbed at first day of
oviposition and at 13th to 20th day in order to count the eggs. Tubes
6 cm under the soil had low numbers of eggs (mean 1,652.31) and they
were disturbed 7 times. The ticks in tubes on the soil surface layed
only 93 eggs (all four ticks) by the 7th day and then they died.
Microclimate in tubes and cages at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
Figures 40 to 43 show temperature trends inside the tubes on the
soil surface (tick habitat) and inside the cage under the soiT 6 cm
deep (tick habitat). Temperatures in tubes had strong fluctuations
(from 23 to 33C) in 24 hours reaching from 44 to 50C at noon and from

144
Table 16. Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate
and mesoclimate. Second phase. 1978-1979.
Locality
Exposure
Longevity of
Larval Periods
Macroclimate in Days
Mean Temp
C Cage Tube
Mesoclimate
Mean Temp
C
Month
Yecapixt1 a
1
22.4
64.0
27.0
17.0
Jan.
2
24. 3
85.0
0
19.5
Mar.
3
24.3
65.0
10.3
19.5
Mar.
4
26.2
68.0
0
20.2
Apr.
5
26.2
60.0
0
20.2
Apr.
6
25.0
65.0
0
22.0
Jun.
7
25.0
60.0
0
22.0
Jun.
8
23.2
90.0
0
20.0
Aug.
Cuernavaca
1
18.9
43.0
0
18.5
Jan.
(Progreso)
2
22.0
33.0
0
23-2
Mar.
3
23.0
45.0
0
24.5
May
4
21.4
58.0
0
25.0
Jun.
5
20.0
74.0
0
19-7
Oct.
Zacatepec
1
22.5
123.0
73-3
21.2
Feb.
2
25.7
126.0
0
25.2
Ju 1 .
3
23-3
140.0
0
21.1
Nov.
Hypothesis
Cage
b = 3-398843
vs
r = 0.2337
Macro
r2 = 0.0547
R2 = 0.9453
Do not
reject hypothesis
Cage
b = 0.8973
vs
r = 0.0684
Meso
r2 = 0.00468
R2 = 0.99532
Do not
reject hypothesis

Figure 39.
Climate in Cuautla, Morelos during the time of the experiments on
fecundity (mesocl¡mate). Second phase. 1978-1979.

T ¡ me
Mean Monthly Temperature C
NJM MKJN3 JSJNJ N>
9^1
Mean Temperature Zffl

147
Table 17. Oviposition of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus (Can) in cage trials at Cuautla,
Morelos, Mexico. Second Phase. 1979
Observation
Date
Cage
6 cm
N u
m b e r of
Tube in
Soil (6 cm)
Eggs*
Tube
on Soil
June 4
976
1,246.00
0
5, 6
-
o
L.
1,669.75
0
7
a;
~o
c
836.75
93
8
z>
c
922.25
All Dead
9, 10, 11
12
-
ru
h-
+J
o
1,658.50
186.25
13 to 20
7,186
z:
89-75
E
8,162
6,609.25
X
2,040.5
1 ,652.31
Of 4 ticks.

Temperature
Figure ^0. Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso).

Temperature
Figure Al. Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso).
1500

Temperature
1700 2100 2*400 0700 1000 1200 1900
Hours
Figure *<2. Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso).
O

Temperature
I I I I 1 1 L_
1700 1800 0700 1100 1130 1200 1600 1800
Hours
Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso)-
2000
Figure 43

152
10 to 15C at night. Morning temperatures in the cage under the soil
(6 cm deep) showed a stable situation with low 3 to 6 hour delayed
fluctuations of 5 to 7C for the same time period as the tubes. Maximum
temperatures in the cages were 27C and the minimum 20C. In tubes
minimum temperatures were at the order of 15 to 17C and maximum from
38 to 50C. Temperatures were recorded for August 1979 as monthly mean
temperature of the mesoclimate 20.9C and 160 mm total monthly rainfall.
Predation of B. microplus
The only natural predator of B. microplus detected in the present
study was identified as Solenopsis geminata (L) known as the fire ant.
This species of ant devours gravid female ticks while on pasture after
they have dropped from cattle. Feeding by the ants leaves no more than
cuticle remnants (Figure 44). The ant feeding begins at the coxae.
Table 18 shows the results of tick predation exposure studies and the
percentage of predation in thicket, pasture and primer vegetation.
Predation was the greatest in thicket areas, then pasture areas, followed
with the least predation in areas of primer vegetation (Figure 45). The
habitats with the greatest predation correspond to those areas preferred
by Solenopsis geminata (L).
Table 19 shows the total predation of the fire ant from November
1977 to January 1978 when the experimental area was without cattle. In
this study the predation on thicket areas were higher. Chi-square
analysis of data (Table 20) indicated significant differences in
predation in different sites, i.e. predation is not independent of
environment, in this case, the configuration of vegetation.
Identified by Dr. W. Burn, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

153
Figure 44. Cuticles of engorged female ticks of
B. microplus attacked by the native
fire ant, Solenopsis geminata.

Per Cent of Predation
Predation of B. mioroplus engorged females by Solenopsis germinata ants in
three habitats in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
Figure 45.

155
Table 18. Gravid Boophilus miaroplus (Can) and their natural
predation by Solenopsis gemvnata (Fabric!us) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase. 1977"
1978.
Date of
Exposure
Vegetative
Type
Exposed
Females
Observation
Date
Predated
Fema1es
Percentage
of Predation
Nov. 6
Th
6
Nov. 12
4
66
G
3
3
100
Pv
7
1
14
Nov. 9
Th
3
Nov. 18
3
100
G
8
1
12
Pv
4
2
50
Nov. 24
Th
6
Dec. 1
6
100
G
6
3
50
Pv
26
0
0
Dec. 1
Th
15
Dec. 12
15
100
G
15
2
13
Pv
15
2
13
Jan. 26
Th
20
Feb. 3
5
25
G
20
1
5
Pv
20
1
5
Th = Thicket
G = Grass
Pv = Primer Vegetation

156
Table 19- Total predation of gravid females of the
cattle tick Boophilus miovoplus (Can.)
exposed in different habitats in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. First phase. 1977-1978.
Habitat
Females
Exposed Preyed Percentage
Females Upon of Predation
Thicket
60
38
63
Grass
63
12
19
Brush and Woody
Vegetation
81
6
7

Table 20. Chi-square analysis for predated and unpredated
females of the cattle tick, Boophilus mioroplus
(Can.) exposed in different habitats in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. First phase. 19771978.
Unp reda ted
P reda ted
Total s'
Hab i tat
Observed
Expected
Observed
Expected
Thicket
22
(43-5)
38
(16.5)
60
Grass
51
(45-7)
12
(17.3)
63
Primer
Vegetation
75
(58.8)
6
(22.2)
81
Totals
148
56
204
\2 = (J eD2
X ej
= 57.16 (predation is dependent on site).

158
From October 1978 to July 1979 predation at Yecapixtla was
observed in the same place but on ungrazed pasture, here predation
by ants was observed only three times.
Table 21 shows the exposure dates, the number of ticks exposed
and the phenomenon of predation. Predation was drastically reduced
from previous trials with 5-91% of the total ticks exposed predated.
It is pointed out that the pasture cover at this location was high
because the experimental area was maintained without grazed animals
from July 1977 to July 1979.
In Cuernavaca (Progreso) there was no observed predation of ticks
by ants on a total of 92 engorged females exposed ticks from October
1978 to July 1979-
In Zacatepec no tick predation was observed on Bermuda grass
pasture (cross one). Pasture growth was high (40 to 60 cm high) and
very compact. Predation was observed four times on setaria grass
(Table 22) resulting in a total of 25-3% predation. This grass grows
leaving open areas (Figure 9) and native fire ants were observed twice
wandering on the open spaces of this grass.
Parasitic Stages of the Tick
Yecapixtla. Host preference studies
Animal surveys for the tick preference of animal breed were
evaluated on criollo cattle and Brahman crosses at Yecapixtla from
October 1977 to March 1978 (Table 23). Seventy-nine per cent of the
total ticks observed were found on k0% of the animals. Reviewing
each count date made for animals pastured on corn stalk forage, 30%

159
Table 21. Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick
Boophilus microplus by the fire ant, Solenopsis
geminata (Fab.) on unpastured grass in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979-
Date of
Exposure
Number of
Ticks Exposed
Observation
Data
Number
of Ticks
Predated
Percentage
of Predation
Oct.
5
5
Oct.
10
0
0
17
18
25
6
33-33
25
3
31
0
0
Nov.
8
13
Nov.
15
4
30.76
15
8
23
1
12.50
23
12
28
0
0
Dec.
5
19
Dec.
1 1
0
0
Jan.
9
15
Jan.
15
0
0
Feb.
1
12
Feb.
8
0
0
13
16
22
0
0
Mar.
20
23
Mar.
27
0
0
Apr.
18
18
Apr.
26
0
0
May
3
10
May
8
0
0
Jun.
8
8
Jun.
23
0
0
Ju 1 .
6
6
Jul .
18
0
0
Tota 1
186
1 1
5.91

Table 22. Predation of gravid females of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Can.)
by the fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fab.) on setaria and Bermuda grasses
in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979.
Date of
Exposure
Number of
Ticks Exposed
Observation
Date
Number of
Ticks Predated
Setaria Bermuda"
Percentage
of Predation
Setaria Bermuda
Oct.
19
18
Oct.
27
15
0
83-33
0
27
10
Nov.
4
0
0
0
0
Nov.
9
12
19
3
0
25.00
0
19
12
25
4
0
33.33
0
25
10
4
0
0
0
0
Jan.
15
8
Jan.
22
0
0
0
0
Feb.
12
6
Feb.
20
0
0
0
0
Apr.
20
15
Apr.
28
0
0
0
0
May 19
18
May
26
18
0
100
0
Jun.
10
10
Jun.
20
0
0
0
0
Ju 1 .
5
15
Jul .
16
0
0
0
0
Aug.
26
24
Sep.
3
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
158
40
0
25.31
0
Bermuda and setaris grasses.

Table 23.
Host preference of B. mioroplus (4.5-8.0 mm) on native cattle' in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. 1977-1978.
An ima1
1977
Oct.
21
Nov.
9
Nov.
25
Dec.
9
1978
Jan.
16
Count
Feb.
14
Dates^
Mar.
6
Tota 1s
1
5(23.80)
25(32.89)
99(33.55)
24(15-58)
7(58.33)
62(48.81)
36(37-5)
5(83.33)
2
4(42.85)
15(52.63)
98(66.77)
22(29.87)
4(91.66)
46(85.03)
21 (59.37)
1
3
3(57.14)
15(72.36)
21(73.89)
21 (43-50)
1
19
18(78.12)
0
4
2(66.66)
12(88.15)
19(80.33)
18(55-19)
0
0
10(88.54)
0
40%(79.28)
5
2(76.19)
6(96.05)
18(86.44)
16(65.58)
0
0
6(94.79)
0
624
6
2(85.71)
3
14(91.18)
14(74.67)
0
0
5
0
7
2(95.23)
0
12(95.25
14(83.76)
0
0
0
0
8
1
0
8(97.96)
10(90.25)
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
5(99.66)
10(96.75)
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
0
Totals
21
76
295
154
12
127
96
6
787
Cattle
G razing:
P a s t u
r e
Cor
n Stalk
s
^and Brahman crosses.
Numbers in parentheses are percentages ofticks on animal (for each date).

162
of the animals carried 100% of the ticks observed, with the exception
of March 6 (count date). Cattle were highly infested while grazing
on pasture (Table 23). Two population peaks occurred during the sample
period (1977~1978) one in late November and the other during the middle
of February (Figure 46). Table 24 shows that 81.66% of the ticks were
found on 40% of the criollo and Brahman cross cattle at Yecapixtla in
counts made from October 1978 to September 1979. In all counts there
were 80% of the ticks on 40% of the animals.
In 1978-1979 low levels of infestation were recorded (Figure 46)
compared with 1977-1978 counts. Two peaks were seen in December when
cattle grazed on pasture and one in March when cattle were fed on corn
stalk forage. On the 12th of November one chemical dip for tick control
was made and is reflected in the November 17th (1978) count.
Zacatepec. Host preference studies. Animal surveys for tick
preference by animal breed were made in Zacatepec ("Tequesquitengo")
on Holstein, Jersey, Swiss and few Brahman and criollo cross dairy
cattle. At this site 84.39 of the ticks found on 70% of the animals
counted (Table 25). Two population peaks were seen, one in the middle
of October and the other during late November (Figure 47). Few ticks
did occur during January to May. All those animals were in semi-
stabilized conditions as most dairy cattle in the State of Morelos.
Yautepec. Distribution of ticks on individual animals. Dis
tribution of cattle ticks on animals were evaluated as to the type of
distribution. Table 26 shows the probabilities (in per cent) for the
goodness of fit of various distributions using the chi-square test on
the total number of the ticks on 79 individual animals. Analyses were

Figure ^6. Host preference of engorged female ticks (^.5_8.0 mm) of Boophilus
miovoplus on native and Brahman cross cattle'" at Yecapixtla, Morelos,
Mexico.
October to December counts cattle grazed on pasture; January
to June counts cattle grazed on corn stalks.


Table 2k.
Host preference of B. mieroplus
(4.5-8.0 mm) on
native
cattle in
Yecapixt1 a,
Morelos, Mexico.
1978-1979.
1978
Coun t
Dates^
1979
Oct.
Oct.
Nov
Nov.
Dec,
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Animal
5
10
17
28
8
8
13
15
20
1
18(6/4.28)
6(50.00)
6
20(25.31)
23(20.17)
20(43.47)
20(35-71)
15(36.58)
85(66.92)
2
3(75-00)
4(83.33)
0
18(48.10)
18(35.96)
11 (67.39)
15(62.50)
7(53.65)
12(76.37)
3
2(82.]k)
2
0
32(88.60)
20(53.50)
15
11(82.14)
5(65.85)
10(84.25)
4
2(89.28)
0
0
6(96.20)
16(67.54)
0
5(91.07)
6(80.48)
7(89.76)
5
2(96.42)
0
0
3
16(81.57)
0
5
2(85.36)
5(93.70)
6
1
0
0
0
9(89.47)
0
0
1(87.80)
5(97.63)
7
0
0
0
0
8(96.49)
0
0
1 (90.24)
1 (98.42)
8
0
0
0
0
3(99.12)
0
0
2(95.12)
1(99.21)
9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
28
12
6
79
114
46
56
41
127
Cattle
Grazing
P a s t u r
e
C
o r n
Stalks
2and Brahman crosses.
Numbers in parentheses are mean percentages of ticks on each animal (for each date).

Table 24. continued.
Animal
Apr.
17
Count Dates
Hay
20
2
Jun.
29
Aug.
12
Sep.
20
Tota 1s
1
20(46.51)
12(54.54)
15(31.25)
8(36.36)
14(51.85)
2
9(67-44)
6(81.81)
13(58.33)
6(63.63)
5(70.37)
3
8(86.04)
3(95.45)
7(72.91)
3(77.27)
4(85.18)
b0% (81.66)
4
3(93-02)
1
6(85.41)
2(86.36)
2(92.59)
548
5
2
0
2(89.58)
2(95.45)
1 (96.29)
6
0
0
2(93.75)
1
1
7
0
0
1 (95.83)
0
0
8
0
0
1(97.91)
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
Total
43
22
48
22
27
671
Cattle
Grazing:
Corn S t a
1 k s
P a
s t u r e
Numbers in parentheses are mean percentages of ticks on each animal (for each date).

Table 25. Host preference of engorged female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm) of B. mieroplus
on dairy cattle' in Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico.
An ima1
1978
Oct.
16
Nov.
10
Count Dates3
Nov. Dec.
28 15
1979
Jan.
3
Jan.
19
Feb.
28
Mar.
14
Mar.
30
1
59(33.90)
14(16.09)
38(20.32)
35(35)
13(65)
1 (100)
2(22.22)
5(27-77)
3(42.85)
2
20(44.38)
13(31.03)
28(35.29)
14(49)
4(85)
0
2(44.44)
4(50.00)
2(71.42)
3
18(54.49)
12(44.82)
27(49.73)
13(62)
1 (90)
0
2(66.66)
3(66.66)
1 (85.71)
A
17(64.04)
11 (57.47)
23(62.03)
8(70)
1 (95)
0
1(77.77)
3(83.33)
1
5
15(72.47)
9(67.81)
19(72.19
7(77)
1
0
1(88.88)
1(88.88)
0
6
13(79.77)
8(77.01)
17(81.28)
7(84)
0
0
1
1(94.44)
0
7
13(87.07)
7(85.05)
12(87.70)
6(90)
0
0
0
1
0
8
12(93.82)
7(93.10)
10(93.04)
5(95)
0
0
0
0
0
9
8(98.31)
4(97-70)
8(97.32)
3(98)
0
0
0
0
0
10
3
2
5
2
0
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
178
87
187
100
20
1
9
18
7
2Holstein, Jersey, Swiss and few crosses with Brahman and Criollo.
Numbers in parentheses are mean percentages of ticks on each animal (for each date).

Table 25. continued.
An ima1
Apr.
13
May
b
Count Dates'^
May May
19 30
Ju 1 ,
15
Tota 1s
1
2(100)
8(100)
2(100)
*4(100)
3(60)
2
0
0
0
0
1 (80)
3
0
0
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
*40% of animals 66.87% of total ticks
5
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
70% of animals 8*4.39 of total ticks
8
0
0
0
0
0
E 530
9
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
Tota 1
1
8
2
b
5
E 628 Ticks
^Numbers in
parentheses
are mean
percentages
of ticks on
each
animal (for each date).

Number of Ticks 10 Animals
200
150
100
50
%
Cr 1
%
V
\
\
%
%
1978
16
Oct
L.
10
Nov
-J-
%,"""rn
28
15
Dec
1979
3
Jan
19
28
Feb
14
Mar
30
13
Apr
4 30
May
Figure 47-
Seasonal distribution of engorged females of B. microplus on dairy cattle from October
1978 to July 1979. Zacatepec, Morelos, Mexico.
O'
VX>

170
Table 26. Probabilities (in percentage) for the goodness of fit
using the chi-square test for counts of the total
number of the cattle tick on 79 head of cattle in
Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico.
Distributions {% P < 0.01)
Neyman
Areas
Neqative
Binomia 1
Type A
Logarithmic
Poisson
C
T
C
T
T
1 Face
30-50 (S)
30-50
-
.u
5-10(s)
70-80(A)
70-80
.u
30-50(A)
2 Jaw
30-50(S)
-
10-20(S)
- (s)
80-90(A)
70-80
30-50(A)
JU
50-70(A)
-
3 Ear
5-10 (S)
30-50(s)
JU
- (s)
-
30-50(A)
90-95
80-90(A)
/'?
10-20(A)
10-20(A)
4 Upper-Neck
20-30(s)
10-20
-
JU
- (s)
30-50(A)
30-50
-
JU
20-30(A)
-
5 Lateral Neck
-
-
-
*
-
-
6 Shoulder
10-20 (S)
50-70
/'c
70-80(A)
90-95
-
.u
5"10(A)
-
7 Back
- (s)
30-50
- (s)
J.
_
_
- (A)
30-50
5-10(A)
J.
-
-
8 Upper
70-80 (s)
90-95
-
.u
10-20 (S)
Dewlap
99 (A)
99
-
J,
50-70(A)
-
9 Dow
- (s)
*i.d.f.
_
J-
*i.d.f.
_
Dewlap
20-30(A)
30-50
-
*
5-10
10 Rib
10-20(S)
5
-
Vc
_
50-70(A)
50-70
-
*
20-30(A)
-
11 Anterior
5-10 (S)
70-80
_
j1;
_
Belly
20-30(A)
20-30
-
*
-
-
12 Posterior
30-50(s)
30-50
30-50 (s)
.U
5-10(S)
_
Belly
50-70(A)
50-70
20-30(A)
20-30(A)
13 Rump
30-50 (s)
30-50
-
.u
- (s)
_
50-70(A)
50-70
-
.u
5-10(A)
-
14 Upper
- (s)
-
_
*
Legs
20-30(A)
20-30
-
*
-

171
Table 26. continued.
Areas
Neqative
Binomial
Neyman
Type A
Logarithmic
Poisson
C
T
C
T
T
15 Lowe r
30-50(s)
20-30
_
JL
_
_
Legs
50-70(A)
30-50

JU
16 Tail
10-20(S)
30-50
(s)
JU
-
Base
30-50(A)
70-80
30-50(A)
JU
-
17 Tail
70-80 (s)
30-50
-
JU
10-20(S)
20-30(A)
20-30
-
.u
10-20(S)
-
18 Estucheon
- (s)
50-70
20-30(s)
Vc
-
50-70(A)
80-90
10-20(A)
*
-
19 Rearbel 1y
20-30(S)
30-50
-
.u
- (S)
50-70(A)
50-70
-
JU
5-10(A)
-
20 Udder
70-80(s)
10-20
-
.u
-
30-50(A)
30-50
-
-
21 Upper
50-70(S)
50-70
-
-u
_
inner legs
80-90(A)
80-90
5 10(A)
*
C Complete; T Truncate
(S) Standard; (A) Alternate
* Not given by the program
i.d.f. Insufficient degrees of freedom

172
made using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) of five types of
distributions. Cattle tick counts fitted primarily the negative
binomial distribution, then logarithmic and finally Neyman type A.
In one case the Poisson distribution (alternate form) was found to
fit tick distribution of the ears of cattle.
Table 27 shows the values of k parameter of the Negative Binomial
distribution. This index was useful because data fitted to the negative
binomial distribution was better than other distribution types. K
parameter became larger on upper-inner-1egs where ticks were hidden and
can escape from dipping vat chemicals, on estucheon, upper legs and tail
base where it is difficult in some cases to make tick counts. The
proximity to unit 2 K parameter indicates a more crowded tick population.
Morisita index became lower in the upper-inner-leg area (1,7508). The
lower the Morisita index (close to 1) indicates more crowded tick popu-
1ations.
Survey of Cattle Management Practices
in Morelos State
Management of cattle in Morelos State is primarily dual purpose
for production of meat and milk at the same time. Many cattle owners do
not recognize this dual purpose ignoring the dairy status. Animal
production is intensive close to the population centers with the animals
stabled or semistabled all year. Dairy cattle are managed by "ejidatar ios"
which are communal propriertors of a parcel of land given by the govern
ment. These cattle are generally semistabled during the months of
November to May, and are fed mainly on corn residues (dry corn stalks),
as well as rice and sugar cane sta1ks. The remainder of the cattle

173
Table 27. Relationships between mean/variance, Morisita
index and K parameter of negative binomial for
distribution of cattle tick counts on native
cattle' in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico.
Areas
Counted
Mean/
Vari anee
Morisita
Index
K Parameter
! Face
11.1463
3.4731
0.2455
2 Jaw
3.4518
4.1874
0.2437
3 Ear
5.0010
4.3557
0.1910
4 Upper Neck
22.6965
5.3956
0.3356
5 Lateral Neck
57.6669
4.0801
0.3251
6 Shoulder
13.2549
2.7701
0.4287
7 Back
8.2350
1.9516
0.6405
8 Upper Dewlap
18.1359
3.0531
0.5967
9 Lower Dewlap
6.5435
5.8584
0.1451
10 Rib
20.5656
2.5620
0.5122
11 Anterior Belly
20.3852
2.3488
0.6859
12 Posterior Belly
8.3825
5.1727
0.1946
13 Rump
29.9107
3.6069
0.5754
14 Upper Legs
10.7817
2.2266
0.8093
15 Lower Legs
27.7082
3.6984
0.6650
16 Tail Base
6.3736
1.9440
0.7227
17 Tail
7.4593
3.6942
0.3449
1 8 Estucheon
11.0846
1.8928
0.8843
19 Rearbel1y
60.1397
2.9806
0.4311
20 Udder
35.5877
2.4888
0.6803
21 Upper Inner Legs
6.5450
1.7508
1.0302
'And Brahman cross.

174
owners maintain their herds in semistabled conditions from November
to May with many continuing from December 15th to June 15th. At this
time, cattle are fed commercial feed at 2 kg/cow/day, while they also
graze 24 hours/day on corn stalks. These areas are sometimes but not
always fenced. Cows milked daily in the mornings are freed for grazing
for the rest of the day. Cattle owners place water troughs close to
the milking area.
Sugar cane fodder fields can be up to 3 km from the milking area
or stables. From 4:00 to 6:00 P.M. cattle are taken to the stables where
they spend the night and are fed the tips of fresh sugar cane.
During the period from June to October, cattle primarily graze
on native grass pastures. These animals are returned to the stables
for morning milking, at that time cattle are also fed commercial products.
Beef animals in this area generally are criollo cattle or Brahman
crossbred also brown Swiss or brown Swiss cross. All the cattle on
pastures grazed freely. When the cattle are fed on dry corn stalk forage,
their water supply is limited to small rivers, small damps or irrigation
d i tches.
Corn stalks experience new growth due to sporadic rainfall late in
the season and this is the only green feed that cattle consume at this
time. This dry season period places the cattle under stress conditions,
because of the lack of food and water.
A good percentage of the small cattle owners use half of their
land for grazing cattle and the other half for agricultural practices.
The following year they rotate the cattle to the part dedicated to
agriculture and vice versa.

175
From June to November milk production is within a range from
1 to 5 liters per cow, plus +2 liters which is destined to calves.
Most animal owners consider their livestock as a form of inherit
ance and ignore the quality of animal. Some cattle owners use poultry
manure as feed supplement and mix it with ground corn or sorghum (one
to two kg daily per cow).
Health and sanitation measures include an annual vaccination against
derriengue (rabies) and a triple vaccine against pasteurellosis, black leg
and malignant edema diseases. Parasite control with antihelminthics is
very irregularly administered to poorly nourished cattle or calves.
Actual Resources for Tick Control"
The budget for the eradication program in Morelos State in 1975
was 130,434.78 U.S. dollars (3 million Mexican pesos) per year.
Morelos State is (1980) in the promotion phase of tick eradication
program and has constructed 20.33% of the total dipping vats planned (300
dipping vats). It is also planning to use spray facilities to control
t i cks.
The staff working within the state in the eradication campaign are
as follows (20 staff members):
1 Officer-in-charge (veterinarian)
1 Supervisor
2 Chief of Areas (veterinarians)
10 Field Inspectors
1 Assistant
1 Administrator of Budget
1 Assistant of Administrator
1 Draftsman
2 Typists
Personal communication with the Officei in-charge, Ricardo Guerrero Rios
(Veterinarian) in the State of Morelos.

176
The equipment:
5 Pick-up Trucks (Datsan)
5 Jeeps
3 Pick-up Trucks (Dodge)
] Truck (Dodge, 8 tons)
1 Pick-up Truck (Safari, VW)
I Bus (Combi, VW)
1 Car (VW)
1 Pick-up Truck (Dina)
1 Pick-up Truck (Dodge) for Maintenance
1 Truck Moving Spray
4 Sprinkling Pumps, High Capacity
4 Sprinkling Pumps, Low Capacity
5 Pumps (to Extract Water from Dipping Vats)
61 Dipping Vats
20 Dipping Vats under Construction
4 Sleeve Sprays
The National Center of Animal Parasitology is the primary research
laboratory supplying information to the National Campaign for the cattle
tick eradication program and is located in Cuernavaca (Progreso). It will
be the main center for research on ticks and veterinary entomology in
Latin America and should be useful in the Campaign in both laboratory and
field work. This location will contribute to the cattle tick control or
eradication within Morelos State. Researchers and technicians must do
laboratory and field work in order to develop control and eradication
programs for the cattle tick in the whole Mexican infested areas.
A government program called COPLAMAR (Comisin Planificadora de las
Zonas Marginadas) is a commission for the planning for development of 16
areas in Morelos. The commission will promote the improvement of breeds
of cattle, improved pastures and build a pilot cattle ranch (experiment
station). This program will also help the campaign as a demonstration site
with facilities for cattle tick control and can develop I PM techniques.
Other programs that will help are being developed at the University
of Morelos and will include granting masters in animal parasitology.

177
These facilities will also allow program coordination with the National
Center of Animal Parasitology with education and research on cattle
ticks which will be available for more professionals, such as veter
inarians, biologists, chemists, etc.
The Officer-in-charge, Ricardo Guerrero Rios, said that as the
control phase is coming to a close that a pest management program for
control and later eradication is needed for the State of Morelos.

DISCUSSION
Cattle Tick Ecology
Non-Parasitic Stages. First Phase
In Yecapixtla, Morelos no mortality was noted in the preoviposition
period (Table 1). The shortest life cycle duration was observed for
October and January when the conditions of the macroclimate and meso-
climate (Figures 4 and 16) show the lowest rainfall. December, February,
March and November show rainfall from 50 to 200 mm per month with tempera
tures raising from 18 to 22C but as there was no linear correlation
between the number of days for the preoviposition period and the macro
and mesoclimate, an exact explanation could not be made. Also no
separate microclimate measurements were taken. Preovi position rates
from primer vegetation and thicket were both different from pasture
grass. There were strong fluctuations in preoviposition for time
required for the three habitats, mainly for exposures from October to
November (1 to 4) but from December exposure (5) through January (6),
February (7) and March (8) no significant differences (P < 0.01) were
seen in the preoviposition requirements. This is the time when the dry
season takes place and when trees lose their leaves. The bush vegetation
maintains green leaves during this time but is scarce.
In the oviposition period the type of vegetation (Table 3) was
very important and accounts for the main significant differences (P <
0.01) for all habitats tested. No significant correlation (P < 0.01)
178

179
was found between the mean monthly temperatures of the macroclimate and
mesoclimate registered at the meteorological station at Yecapixtla area
with the number of days that ticks spend laying eggs (Table 4). This
may be because no microclimate conditions were correlated with the
habitat's tick placement. The longevity of larvae showed a similar
behavior to the oviposition periods (Tables 5 and 6). Here the primer
vegetation effect stabilized the temperature and no significant differences
(P < 0.01) were found. This occurred on thicket, with the exception of
exposure 3 (early November) when larvae were found dead (Figure 19) no
significant correlation (P < 0.01) could be made with monthly mean
temperatures registered in the macroclimate and mesoclimate (Table 6).
Tukahirwa showed (1976) that temperature and humidity fluctuations
were smaller in sparce vegetation in comparison with woody vegetation.
This fact could be the explanation of the significant differences found
in the three different habitats as no temperatures were registered
within each habitat.
The maximum total longevity of the non-pa ras itic stages of the
cattle tick, B. microplus in Yecapixtla, Morelos was found to be 85 days
on pasture, 115 days on thicket and 134 days on primer vegetation (2.8,
3-8, and 4.5 months, respectively). The cattle are normally switched
to grazing on pasture on the properties from July to December (six months),
if the last tick dropped from an animal in late June the offspring larvae
will die of starvation before the cattle return to this pasture from the
corn stalks. This shows that a pasture spelling control method could be
incorporated for this area. What actually happens is that cattle owners
do not remove all the cattle from pastures in the dry season because they

180
keep some for milking purposes. Zapata and Camino (1977) reported the
total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of B. nricroplus being 111
days (3-7 months) in a tropical area of Mexico and McColluch and Lewis
(1968) reported 7-5 months for the total longevity of the non-parasitic
stages of B. rrriaroplus in Queensland, Australia where a pasture spelling
program for tick control was under way. As Zapata and Camino (1977)
and McColluch and Lewis (1968) showed the life cycle became longer in
the rainy season. Those results are concordant with Yecapixtla results
that showed that in October and early November exposures when the rain
fall season was ended accounted for the highest total longevity being
135 days (4.5 months) and in late exposures (January, February, March)
when the dry season takes place accounted for the shortest total
longevity being 115 days (3-8 months) (Figures 16 and 20).
Larval eclosin was lowest on pasture (10%) and highest on primer
vegetation (80%). At observation time, it was noticed that tubes became
hot mainly on pasture which killed the enclosed ticks. This led to the
use of cages which allowed ticks to seek their own preferred temperature
and humidities. Field conditions which approached the tube temperatures
would undoubtedly kill ticks in the same manner as demonstrated by the
experimental conditions and would explain mortalities seen in the field.
Significant differences were not seen (P < 0.01) between ticks
which were disturbed while laying eggs (daily) from those undisturbed,
this is identical to the pattern for Amblyorma amevioanum as reported
by Drummond et al. (1971).
The fecundity experiments at Cuautla, Morelos showed that corre
lation for environmental conditions could be the explanation (for the

181
six series studied) for the egg production (Table 9). It is reasonable
to assume that the mesoclimate at the time of this study, October 1977
to September 1978 (Figure 22) which covered both the dry and wet season-
influenced ticks to produce high numbers of eggs (mean 2,592) in a humid
habitat or to produce low number of eggs (mean 1,528) in a dry habitat.
Under laboratory conditions this trend has been previously demonstrated
for B. miaroplus (De La Vega, 1975).
A linear correlation of 69% (Table 10) between the mean weight of
engorged ticks and the number of eggs they laid was found as was reported
by Sutherst (1969) for B. miaroplus tick drops from the host in the dry
season they start laying eggs quickly and the number of eggs produced
daily peaks in less than five days (Figure 29) and because of this the
capacity for increase (rc) becomes larger at this time of the year.
The number of eggs produced that will produce female offspring (Ro)
decreases however. If B. miaroplus ticks drop from the host in the
wet season they start laying eggs slowly and the number of eggs produced
daily peaks in more than six days (Figures 23, 24 and 25) and because
of this the capacity for increase (rc) became shorter. The number of
eggs that will produce females in the offspring were higher. This is
demonstrated in the tick surveys on fecundity made in this study.
Non-Pa ras itic Stages. Second Phase
During this phase tubes were evaluated without cover vegetation
and ticks inside the tubes seldom completed the non-paras itic stage
cycle because of high mortality (Figure 33). This has not happened
with the ticks tested inside cages as they buried themselves into the
ground inside the cage, in the same manner as ticks in pastures would

182
do. This phenomena has not been reported for B. microplus ticks and for
the first time it was indicated that B. microplus ticks can protect
themselves from hostile environments by seeking suitable microclimates
in cracks and holes in the ground. It is pointed out that the time
required for the non-parasitic stages under these conditions (under the
soil) became longer. This phenomena is shown in Figure 33 for three
localities [Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec]. Tubes
under the cage followed a similar trend for the same duration periods,
but reportedly did not give as wide a choice of microclimates as the
cages used in the study.
Harley (1966), Harley and Wilkinson (1971), McColluch and Lewis
(1977), Waters (1972), Wharton et al. (1969), Wilkinson (1970) and
Zapata and Camino (1977) reported the total longevity for B. microplus
in different areas of the world (mainly in Australia) and in a
qualitative measure. The total longevity of the non-paras itic stages
of the present study were presented in a qualitative and quantitative
way also, as an arbitrary scale was developed in order to avoid counts
of individual eggs for ecological studies.
Time required for tick cycles under the soil were not significantly
different (P < 0.01) from the time required for oviposition and incubation
period (Table 12) but significantly different times were required (P <
0.01) for preoviposition and longevity of larvae. This may be because
the normally engorged female ticks during the preoviposition and larval
period are found on soil surface and the oviposition and incubation
period took place under the soil surface as this was where engorged
females were mainly found.

183
The maximum total longevity of the non-paras itic stages was
190.0 days. It was found in Zacatepec on Bermuda grass (6.3 months).
Here the experiments were located in an experimental area for agri
culture purposes and had irrigation at least once a month. Cuernavaca
(Progreso) locality accounted for the minimum total longevity of three
studied localities, it was recorded 96.40 days (3.2 months). Yecapixtla
was in an intermediate situation with the total longevity recorded
117.13 days (3*9 months). As cattle spelling from pastures to corn
stalk areas occurs, Cuernavaca and Yecapixtla data showed that a
pasture spelling program for controlling B. miaroplus can be implemented
however for areas under irrigation with high humidity the whole year
round some other alternative must be proposed.
In different pastures the stages of development varies as the
plant growth provides a different environment (Table 13 and Figures 37
and 38). It is pointed out that most of the work done on the non-
parasitic stages do not include more than one pasture type (Harley,
1966 and Wilkinson, 1970).
The longest total longevity of the non-parasitic stage did occur
on the exposure of middle May on Bermuda grass which disagrees with
what Harley (1966) reports in Australia. He reports that it happened
late in the wet season from March to April.
As in the first phase, there were no correlations demonstrated with
the macroclimate, mesoclimate and the duration of the cycles of the non-
parasitic stages. De La Vega (1975) found linear and exponential functions
with temperature and the preovi posit ion and oviposition periods but his
experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions. In the case of the

present study, ticks were under field conditions under the soil (6 cm
deep) in the cage case. The oviposition period (Table 14) and in genera
the non-parasitic stages of the present study can not be related to
macro and mesoclimate because the ticks were found at the soil level.
As each tick found its optimum environment within cage conditions they
laid 2,040 mean eggs. On the contrary ticks in tubes laid 1,652 mean
eggs (Table 17). It is important to point out that in a tube on the
soil surface four ticks lived producing only 93 eggs before death took
place on the 8th day of oviposition. The explanation of this and in
general of the experiments conducted in the first phase (with tubes
covered by vegetation) and in the second phase (with comparison of non-
parasitic stages registered in tubes and cages) comes with the micro
climate conditions. It is concordant with what Daniel (1978) reported
about the meteorological stations, they do not give exact information
about the ecological niches occupied by ticks, and one has to rely on
the microclimate conditions in determining the tick distribution and
developmental cycles. In the present study it was found that the
temperature at mid day can reach 50C inside the tubes while cage
temperatures were 25C (6 cm deep in the soil). The variation that
can exist inside the tubes from sunshine to midnight is in the order
of 33C while at tick level (cage, 6 cm deep) it was found just 5C
of variation (Figures 40 to 43).
Predation
The study carried out on predation in Yecapixtla, Mexico, from
November 1977 to December 1978 (Table 20) showed that predation by the
fire ant, Solenopsis geminata on B. micvcplus engorged female ticks are

185
not independent of environment in this case, the configuration of vege
tation. These data are concordant with the results obtained by Harris
and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977) for predation of gravid
females of Amblyorma canericccnum ticks by the red imported fire ant,
Solenopsis invicta, in thickets. The same phenomenon was observed in
this study for predation of B. microplus ticks by the native fire ant,
S. geminata. In the same place predation was low from October 1978 to
July 1979 (just 5.91%). This was probably because pasture was left
without grazing cattle and became higher. The behavior of Solenopsis
spp. ants is favored in clear areas as Burns and Melancon showed (1977).
In Cuernavaca (Progreso) no predation of ticks by ants was observed
and in Zacatepec, Morelos, predation just occurred on setaria grass which
grows leaving clear spaces. From October 1978 to August 1979 a total
predation of 25-31% was observed but predation did not occur on Bermuda
grass, which grows high and without leaving clearing spaces. These
data are concordant with the behavior of the fire ants, previously
reported by Harris and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977).
Parasitic Stage
Host preference studies
Tick counts on criollo and Brahman cross cattle in Yecapixtla,
Morelos during two consecutive years showed a light infestation during
1978 in comparison with 1977 counts (Figure 46) and the generation peaks
did occur during November and December (1977-1978) this happens because
the wet season (up to late September) does provide a high fecundity
then ticks are able to build high populations by late December in order

186
to survive the stress conditions of the switch to dry season. Also it
shows that cattle carry lower populations while fed on corn stalks than
when cattle are fed on pasture on the properties (Table 24, Figure 46).
In most counts more than 50% of the total ticks counted were found in
20% of the cattle (Table 24). Eighty per cent of the total ticks
counted were found in 40% of the cattle, this is concordant with Ulloa
and De Alba reports in 1957 in Central America, and with Nagar et al.
(1978). On the contrary in cattle tick counts in Zacatepec, Morelos
on European cattle (Bos taurus) 70% of the animals carried 84.39% of
the total ticks, and in comparison with cattle tick counts on criollo
cattle (Table 25), the former were more susceptible and it agrees with
Wharton (1974) who said that criollo cattle are the dominant breed in
Central America. This breed has shown to be more resistant to B.
microplus than European cattle. The results are also concordant with
Seifert (1971). He stated that the zebu (Bos indicus) crossbreeds
carried 20% less ticks than carried by the British cattle. The European
cattle were maintained mainly under semi-stab i 1ized conditions and
mainly on the dry season (January to May), they were fewer ticks
during that period (Figure 47).
Distribution of ticks on individual animals
In a control or eradication campaign against the cattle tick,
B. microplus sampling is very important, "the last tick found is the
hard one to find" this is what Wharton (1974) stated.
The negative binomial distribution fitted from 30 to 100%
probabilities and mainly from the alternate and truncate form (Table
26). The concentration of the ticks were found mainly in the

187
upper-inner-1egs, estucheon, upper legs and tail base. This knowledge
will be useful under field conditions, in order to make a better sampling
of the ticks. Also to understand how ticks--in some cases--can escape
from the dipping vat chemicals, as is the particular case of the upper-
inner-legs. Those areas have thermoreceptors in the skin and cattle
tend to close the upper-inner-legs when they contact water, leaving
populations without chemical contact.
Development of an Integrated Pest Management
System for the Cattle Tick, Boovhilus micro-plus
in Morelos State
Figure 48 shows the areas of the arrangement for tick control
procedures in Morelos State, also shown is the distribution of dipping
vats already built. The study areas taken as a basis for the ecological
tick knowledge are Yecapixtla (north), Cuernavaca (center), and Zacatepec
(south). The most important area for tick fecundity is Cuautla (central)
located in an irrigated area. Tick predation is identified: Yecapixtla
(north), Cuernavaca (central) and Zacatepec (south). All these studies
were made on the non-paras itic stages.
For the parasitic stage studies were made in Yecapixtla, for
Creollo and Brahman crosses cattle (north) and Zacatepec, for European
cattle (south).
For the north area (Figure 48) it is proposed to improve fencing
of properties, in order to establish pasture spelling. The block diagram
(Figure 49) outlines the control methods proposed. Also an improvement
can be made in the method of treating cattle by sprayed chemicals.
Climate does help to improve dairy cattle and maintained in semi-stabi 1ized

Figure 48. Ecological areas in Morelos State (A, B, C,) location of
dipping vats and location of experimental areas (1 to 6).
A. North
B. Central
C. South
1. Yecapixt1 a
2. Cuautla
3. Yautepec
4. Cuernavaca
5. Zacatepec
6. Tequesqui tengo

en
oo

Legal and Quarantine Control
A. Chemical Control
Strategic dippjngs^ on switch (each 1 A days) and normal dipping
intervals (each 21 days)
.W E TSE A S 0 N
Jul y
to
December
Cattle on Properties or
Grazing Freely
(some fenced)
B. Immune Type of Contro
Breed for cattle tick
resistance
D. Cultural Control
Pasture spe11ing
6 months or 9 months
(if fenced)
C. Natural Biological Control
Favored predators existence
(pasture with open areas)
January
to
June
DRY SEASON
Cattle on Corn Stalks
(majority fenced)
D. Cultural Control
Change of water supply areas
for cattle.
Figure A9. Tick pest management control methods.
CD
o

191
conditions, and treat with chemicals in the wet season. If the area of
corn stalks is fenced, with the addition of an electric fence cattle can
be managed. This is also necessary to change water supply areas and
resting areas (those areas accounted mainly for reinfestation of ticks
on cattle).
For the central area (Figure 48) it is proposed to improve dairy
cattle but breeds for grazing on pasture (as the Australian lllawarra
shorthorn); to breed for cattle tick resistance and to improve pasture
[i.e., Bermuda grass); to improve feed supplement in order to have manage
ment of cattle and weight gains; to follow the tick pest management
control methods (Figure 49).
For the southern area (Figure 48) with COPLAMAR project it will
be an improvement of the cattle industry itself; to assess for breeding
cattle for tick resistance and to follow the control method proposed
in Figure 49- In irrigated areas or close to agricultural areas the
cattle tick ecosystem can be divided into four areas for rotation: two
on pastures (by using fences) and two on corn stalks by close areas for
water supply (with fences). This will allow pasture spelling for nine
months in each area. This will allow breaking the life cycle by reducing
the total longevity of the non-pa ras itic stages. As it was found in the
present study in the Zacatepec irrigated areas, the longevity studies
indicate that we are dealing with at least two strains of ticks. One
that can extend their life cycles and other that does not. These
differences are dependent upon the microclimate conditions of the tick's
habitat (Figure 50). More knowledge of tick ecology will allow the
improvement of this proposed program for the optimization of pest control
strategies in an economically and ecologically sound manner.

Man's Activities
Figure 50. A proposed component model of the tick system. 1. Susceptible cattle;
2. Resistant cattle.

CONCLUSIONS
Major conclusions formulated as a result of this research are
as follows:
1. The maximum total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of
B. microplus studied in covered vegetation tubes was 85 days
on pasture, 115 days on thicket and 134 days on primer vegetation.
2. There were no linear correlations between the number of days of
the non-paras itic stages and the monthly mean temperature of the
macroclimate and mesoclimate.
3. Exposing ticks in tubes restricts environmental choices and
prevents selection of suitable conditions, but it is indicative
of factors which produce mortality. Mortality of ticks placed
in tubes occurred because high temperatures (50C) and strong,
fluctuations within 24 hour period (33C) .
4. Engorged female ticks disturbed and undisturbed while laying eggs
will produce same egg quantity when maintained under the same
conditions of the present study.
5. Maximum fecundity does occur during the wet season (mean 2,883
eggs) in compar is ion with the dry season (mean 1,949 eggs).
6. There is a linear correlation between the mean weight of engorged
ticks and the number of eggs they produce.
7. For future studies on the non-paras itic stages of B. mioroplus or
one host ticks the cage described in the present study can be used.
This allows ticks to choose optimum temperature and himidity.
193

194
8. Boophilus microplus engorged female ticks are able to escape
environmental abiotic stress by moving into holes and burrows
or by burying themselves if the soil surface allows, they have a
broad cycle under those conditions.
9. The native fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (L.) was determined as a
predator of engorged female ticks, Boophilus microplus
(Canestrini).
10. Habitats preferred by ants for predation on ticks occur in clear
areas.
11. The maximum total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of B.
microplus studied in cages was 6.3 months.
12. Non-parasitic stages of tick cycle became shorter as the humidity
decreases.
13- Meteorological stations do not give exact information about the
ecological niches occupied by ticks but microclimate measurements
do.
14. Criollo cattle and Brahman crosses carried low levels of engorged
female ticks in comparison with European breeds of cattle.
15- Criollo cattle and Brahman crosses carried high levels of ticks
while grazing on pasture in comparison with cattle fed on corn
stalks.
16. Distribution of ticks on individual animals were clumped and
fitted to the negative binomial type of distribution on upper-
inner-legs, estucheon, upper legs and tail base.
In Morelos State it should be possible to implement a pasture
spelling control tick method by proper management of cattle.
17.

195
A pest management program for control of B. microplus ticks can
be incorporated for the study area (Morelos State, Mexico).

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX I
RAW DATA FOR THE PREOVI POS ITI ON, OVI POSITION,
LONGEVITY AND NON-PARAS I TIC STAGES OF THE CATTLE TICK,
BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

Appendix 1A. Raw data for the number of days to complete the
preoviposition periods of the cattle tick,
Boophilus mioroplus on the eight exposures of
the first phase (October 1977 to September 1979)
in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
H
abita
4_ JL
t s-
Number of Exposures
Pasture
Thicket
Primer
Vegetation
Mean
1: Oct. 21
6(2)
18(6)
18(6)
4.67
2: Oct. 26
18(6)
21 (7)
24(8)
7.00
3: Nov. 4
27(9)
30(10)
30(10)
9-67
4: Nov. 24
9(3)
36(12)
48(16)
10.33
5: Dec. 5
30(10)
42(14)
45(15)
13.00
6: Jan. 26
15(5)
15(5)
15(5)
5.00
7: Feb. 22
36(12)
36(12)
36(12)
12.00
8: Mar. 14
36(12)
36(12)
36(12)
12.00
Mean
7-37
9.75
10.50
Each number of habitats represent the addition of the number of days of
three tubes and nine engorged female ticks. The numbers in parentheses
are the means.
208

209
Appendix IB. ANOVA test for the preovipos ition period
Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico,
First phase.
Source of Variation
d. f.
Sum
of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
(1)
T reatments
23
1,019.87
44.34
71.4**
(Time + vegetation)
Error
48
298.00
6.21
Tota 1
71
1 ,317.87
UT
Ti me
(Exposures)
7
671.87
95.98
15.46**
Vegetation
(Habitats)
2
127.75
63.88
10.29*
Interaction
14
220.26
15.73
2.53
Error
48
298.00
6.21
Total
71
1,317.87
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
Significant difference (P < 0.05)
""Significant difference (P < 0.01)

210
Appendix 1C.
Raw data on the number of days to complete the
oviposition periods of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus on the eight exposures of the first
phase (October 1977 to September 1978) in
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
Number of Exposure
H a
Pasture
bita
Thicket
JL
t s
Primer
Vegetation
Mean
1
0
78(26)
90(30)
18.67
2
66(22)
75(25)
84(28)
25-00
3
0
69(23)
87(29)
17.33
4
84(28)
63(21)
87(29)
26.00
5
36(12)
69(23)
99(33)
22.67
6
84(28)
75(25)
102(34)
29.00
7
60(20)
66(22)
102(34)
25-33
8
57(19)
69(23)
90(30)
24.00
Mean
16.13
23.50
30.88
Each number of habitats represent the addition of the number of days of
three tubes and nine engorged female ticks. The numbers in parentheses
are the means. Zero means that ticks died in the preovi position period

Appendix ID. ANOVA test for the oviposition periods
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.
Source of Variation
d. f.
Sum
of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
(0
T reatments
23
5,424
253.83
23.10**
(Time + vegetation)
Error
48
490
10.21
Tota 1
71
5,914
TTF
Ti me
(Exposures)
7
940
134.29
13.15**
Vegetation
(Habitats)
2
2,610.75
1,305-38
127.85**
1 nteraction
14
1,873.25
133.80
13.10**
Error
48
490
10.21
Tota 1
71
5,914
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
** Significant difference (P < 0.01)

212
Appendix IE. Raw data of the number of days to complete the
longevity of the cattle tick, Boophilus mieroplus
on the eight exposures of the first phase (October
1977 to September 1978) in Yecapixtla, Morelos,
Mexico.
H a
bita
t s
Number of Exposures
Pasture
Thicket
Primer
Vegetation
Mean
1
0
228(76)
228(76)
50.67
2
114(38)
237(79)
255(85)
67.33
3
0
0
261(87)
29-00
4
108(36)
198(66)
198(66)
56.00
5
105(35)
219(73)
246(82)
63-33
6
90(30)
114(38)
174(58)
42.00
7
147(49)
165(55)
219(73)
59.00
8
126(42)
153(51)
204(68)
53.67
Mean
28.75
54.75
74.37
J-
Each number of habitats represent the addition of the number of days of
nine engorged female ticks. The numbers in parentheses are the means.
Zero means that ticks died without having the former period.

213
Appendix IF. ANOVA test for the longevity of larval periods.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.
Source of Variation d
.f.
Sum
of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
(1)
T reatments
(Time + vegetation)
23
48,911.00
2,126.57
61.34**
Error
48
1 ,664.00
34.67
Tota 1
71
50,575.00
TIT
Time
(Exposures)
7
9,531.00
1,361.57
39-27**
Vegetation
(Hab tats)
2
25,142.38
12,571.19
362.60**
Interaction
14
14,237.62
1,016.97
29.33**
Error
48
1 ,664.00
34.67
Tota 1
71
50,575.00
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
** Significant difference
(P <
0.01)

214
Appendix 1G. Raw data of the number of days to complete the
total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of
the cattle tick, Boophilus miavoplus of the
eight exposures of the first phase (October 1977
to September 1978) in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
H
a b i tat
JU
s
Number of Exposures
Pasture
Th icket
P rime r
Vegetation
Mean
1
6(2)
336(112)
348(116)
76.70
2
210(70)
345(115)
375(125)
103.33
3
27(9)
99(33)
390(130)
57.33
4
213(71)
309(103)
345(115)
96.33
5
183(61)
342(114)
402(134)
103.00
6
201(67)
216(72)
303(101)
80.00
7
255(85)
279(93)
369(123)
100.33
8
231(77)
270(90)
354(118)
95.00
Mean
55.25
91.50
120.25
J.
Each number of habitats represent
nine engorged female ticks and its
the addition
offspring.
of the number
The numbers in
of days of
parentheses
are the means.

215
Appendix 1H. ANOVA test for the total longevity of the non-
parasitic stages of the cattle tick, Boophilus
mioroplus Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First
phase.
Source of Variation
d. f.
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Ca1culated
(1)
T reatments
(Time + vegetation)
23
90,294
3,925.83
43.36**
Error
48
4,396
90.54
Tota 1
71
94,640
TTT
Ti me
(Exposures
7
16,700.00
2,385.71
26.35**
Vegetation
(Habitats)
2
50,925.00
25,462.50
281.23**
1nteraction
14
34,225.00
2,444.64
27.00**
Error
48
4,346
90.54
Tota 1
71
94,640
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
** Significant difference (P < 0.01)

216
Appendix II. Raw data of the number of days of the
non-paras itic stages of the cattle tick
Boophilus mievoplus in tubes, with soil
and without soil. Yecapixtla, Morelos,
Mexico. First phase.
Period
With
Soi 1
Tubes
Without
So i 1
Replicant
Preovipos ition
9.0
10.0
1
10.0
10.0
2
Ovi pos i t i on
28.0
29.0
1
12.0
29.0
2
! ncubation
36.0
36.0
1
27.0
35.0
2
Longevity of
36.0
40.0
1
Larvae
35.0
38.0
2
Tota 1
81.0
86.0
1
Longevity
72.0
83.0
2
Hypothesis
X = 21.67
S2 = 12.75
S2 =
26.00
13.19
: 7.^9 (x| = x2)
1 X
II
1 X
c
Do
not reject
1 2

APPENDIX 2
RAW DATA OF THE FECUNDITY OF THE
CATTLE TICK, B. MICROPLUS

Appendix 2A. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick,
B. rrdovoplus. First series. July 11 to August
5, 1977. Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
N u
m b e
r 0 f
T i c
k s
Date
A-l
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
Mean
Ju 1.
11
0
0
155
291
0
446
89.22
12
237
283
165
96
49
830
166.00
13
281
200
258
187
87
1,023
202.60
14
502
403
326
347
172
1,750
350.00
15
339
409
436
418
54
1,656
331.20
16
342
380
267
265
25
1,279
255.80
17
255
232
220
190
241
1,138
227-60
18
251
203
239
219
100
1,012
202.40
19
253
242
288
172
49
1 ,004
200.80
20
179
153
223
152
151
858
171.60
21
211
232
137
244
230
1,054
210.80
22
109
89
141
92
77
508
101.60
23
75
82
134
79
44
414
82.80
24
23
51
43
93
72
282
56.40
25
21
13
89
34
90
247
49.40
26
43
40
37
17
87
224
44.80
27
19
13
46
20
70
168
33.60
28
11
10
12
16
85
134
26.80
29
6
8
9
21
78
122
24.40
30
5
3
11
5
137
161
32.20
31
0
0
9
10
53
72
14.40
Aug.
1
0
1
4
0
15
20
4.00
2
JL
JL
6
0
0
6
2.00
3
4
4
0
8
2.66
4
3
1
1
5
1.66
5
0
3
0
3
1.00
6
JU
'c
0
0.00
Tota 1
3,162
3,047
2,262
2,976
1,967
14,414.00
n
(19)
(21)
(25)
(26)
(24)
Mean
166.42
145.09
130.48
114.46
81.95
X
2,882.80
Death of the tick.
213

219
Appendix 2B. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick,
B. miaroplus. Second series. September 13 to
October 1, 1977* Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
Date
N u
8-1
m b e
B-2
r of
B-3
T i c
B-4
k s
B-5
Mean
Sep.
13
0
305
690
5
3
1 ,003
200.60
14
74
420
310
73
181
1 ,058
211.60
15
144
440
302
160
153
1,199
239-80
16
352
393
167
173
169
1,254
250.80
17
409
240
279
220
232
1,380
276.00
18
192
179
272
294
202
1,139
227.80
19
230
119
287
241
231
1,108
221.60
20
236
81
161
103
283
864
172.80
21
260
80
37
264
174
815
163.00
22
289
66
10
283
83
631
126.20
23
102
42
28
215
73
461
92.20
24
104
17
12
238
66
437
87.40
25
47
9
9
114
10
190
38.00
26
38
6
3
74
8
129
25.80
27
23
5
3
4
13
48
9.60
28
18
4
0
11
10
43
8.60
29
9
0
0
3
6
18
3.60
30
8
0
1
3
3
15
3.00
Oct.
1
1
0
*
1
2
4
1.00
2
/V
/V
j.
0
0.00
Total
2,437
2,406
2,571
2,480
1 ,902
11,796.00
n
(18)
(16)
(18)
(19)
(19)
Mean
135-38
150.37
142.83
130.52
100.10
X
2,359.20
J-
Death of the tick.

220
Appendix 2C. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick,
B. nrieroplus. Third Series. October 21 to
November 21, 1977. Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
Date
N u
C-l
m b e
C-2
r o f
C-3
T i c
C-4
k s
C-5
Mean
Oct.
21
0
0
30
0
0
30
6.00
22
0
0
10
0
0
10
2.00
23
0
0
8
0
0
8
1.60
24
0
0
10
40
0
50
10.00
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
00.00
26
88
269
632
46
234
1 ,269
253.80
27
161
243
308
16
101
829
165.80
28
482
275
346
357
577
2,037
407.40
29
341
219
313
436
312
1 ,621
324.20
30
306
247
231
299
71
1,154
230.80
31
235
226
277
378
103
1,219
243.80
Nov.
1
194
273
143
188
158
956
191.20
2
182
399
182
391
315
1,469
293-80
3
111
242
39
137
259
788
157.60
4
55
86
40
39
148
368
73.60
5
0
96
31
152
279
558
111.60
6
33
98
14
55
115
315
63.00
7
14
50
10
9
51
134
26.80
8
10
54
9
8
41
122
24.40
9
0
61
6
0
0
66
13-20
10
0
32
6
0
0
38
7.60
11
0
10
3
0
0
13
2.60
12
8
11
1
0
0
20
4.00
13
3
8
1
2
7
21
4.20
14
14
8
1
6
11
40
8.00
15
0
3
2
17
6
28
5.60
16
0
0
0
12
0
12
2.40
17
3
0
1
0
0
4
0.80
18
0
2
0
3
1
6
1.20
19
1
0
JL
1
1
3
0.75
20
10
18
/V
.u
28
14.00
21
J-
A
0
00.00
Total
2,241
2,930
2,654
2,592
2,790
13,217-00
n
(26)
(26)
(28)
(27)
(25)
Mean
86.57
112.69
94.78
96.00
111.60
2,643.40
Death.

221
Appendix 2D. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick
B. mievoplus. Fourth Series. November 18 to
December 5, 1977- Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico.
N u
m b e
r o f
T i c
k s
Date
D-l
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
Mean
Nov. 18
0
220
503
237
272
1 ,232
246.40
19
260
344
410
198
273
1,485
297-00
20
519
355
340
372
480
2,066
413-20
21
433
380
291
312
478
1,894
378.80
22
106
190
219
181
204
900
180.00
23
131
100
186
264
180
861
172.20
24
183
132
108
73
109
605
121.00
25
89
48
0
31
28
196
39.20
26
50
42
38
52
23
205
41.00
27
22
10
29
15
70
146
29.20
28
3
10
32
10
8
63
12.60
29
10
6
19
10
3
48
9.60
30
6
2
15
0
0
23
4.60
Dec. 1
3
3
0
2
0
8
1.60
2
1
0
0
2
0
2
0.40
3
0
1
1
5
7
1.75
4
.U
1
3
0
4
0.58
5
0
1
1
2
0.66
6
JU
ju
'*
0
0.00
Tota 1
1,816
1,844
2,195
1,175
2,128
9,748.00
n
(14)
(17)
(18)
(18)
(12)
Mean
129.71
108.47
121.94
98.05
177-33
X
1 ,949.00
/V
Death of the tick.

222
Appendix 2E. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick
B. micpoplus. Fifth Series. February 13 to
March
2, 1977.
Cuaut1 a,
Morelos,
Mexico.
N u
m b e
r of
T i c
k s
Date
E-l
E-2
E-3
E-4
E-5
Mean
Feb.
13
201
413
528
396
501
2,039
407.80
14
353
480
323
422
301
1 ,881
376.20
15
232
355
180
243
319
1 ,329
265.80
16
0
116
120
102
89
427
85.40
17
0
102
73
81
108
364
72.80
18
89
63
50
84
76
362
72.40
19
20
18
39
60
75
212
42.40
20
89
16
42
26
31
204
40.80
21
13
11
38
18
52
132
26.40
22
10
8
22
6
0
46
9.20
23
23
26
8
6
0
63
12.60
24
28
0
0
5
18
51
10.20
25
10
1
5
1
0
21
4.20
26
6
0
0
0
0
6
1.20
27
3
0
0
Vi
3
0.60
28
0
1
2
3
0.60
Mar.
1
1
ju
0
1
0.20
2
JU
0
0.00
Total
1,078
1,599
1,428
1 ,452
1,572
7,129.00
n
(17)
(16)
(13)
(16)
(12)
Mean
63.41
99.93
109.84
90.75
131.00
X
1,425.80
Death of the tick.

223
Appendix 2F. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick
B. mrevoiplus. Sixth Series. May 3 to May 18,
1977.
Cuautla,
Morelos,
Mexico.
N u
m b e
r of
T i c
k s
Date
F-l
F-2
F-3
F-4
F-5
Mean
May 3
202
305
325
337
280
1,449
289.80
4
403
422
450
398
477
2,150
430.00
5
201
233
261
269
301
1,265
253-00
6
190
189
173
190
208
950
190.00
7
103
87
103
205
200
698
139-60
8
89
100
69
108
143
509
101.80
9
73
92
122
76
120
483
96.60
10
62
83
101
68
104
418
83.60
11
33
41
46
38
38
196
39.20
12
20
10
15
45
10
100
20.00
13
26
12
0
63
15
116
23.20
14
0
6
2
12
23
43
8.60
15
12
18
1
0
25
56
11.20
16
6
15
1
*'c
12
34
8.50
17
0
1
1
/V
2
1.41
18
J.
1
3
4
2.00
19
.u
0
00.00
Total
1 ,420
1,615
1,673
1,809
1,956
8,473-00
n
(14)
(16)
(16)
(12)
(14)
Mean
101.42
100.93
104.56
150.75
139-71
X
1 ,694.60
Death of the tick.

224
Appendix 2G. Raw data of the number of eggs of the cattle
tick, B. nricroplus of the sixth series
(disturbed and the check undisturbed) in
Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. 19771978.
D
1
i s t u
2
r b e d
3
- (S e r
4
I e s)
5
6
3,162
2,437
2,251
1 ,816
1,078
1 ,420
3,047
2,406
2,930
1,844
1,599
1 ,615
3,262
2,571
2,654
2,195
1,428
1 ,673
2,976
2,480
2,592
1,175
1,452
1,809
1 ,967
1,902
2,790
2,128
1,572
1,956
U
n d i s
t u r b (
2 d (S
e r i e
s)
2,723
2,840
2,504
1,403
1 ,413
1,357
3,135
2,365
2,783
1,491
1 ,426
1,366
3,320
2,548
2,605
1,526
1 ,530
1,358
3,122
1,963
2,415
1,273
1 ,200
1,250
1,803
1,701
2,528
1,315
1 ,336
1 ,863
Ti ck
Number
1
2
3
4
5
5

APPENDIX 3
RAW DATA OF THE NON-PARAS IT IC STAGES OF
THE CATTLE TICK, B. MICROPLUS

Appendix
3A.
Raw data
of
the non-
-parasitic stages of the
cattle
tick, B. mieroplus
in Yecapi
ixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
Second phase. 1978
-1979.
E
X P 0 S U
R E S*
Stages
C
o m m e
need an
d Mon
t h s
C
ove red
1)
on
1
2
3
*4
5
6
7
8
Bermuda Grass
Oct. 9
Nov. 12
Nov. 29
Dec. 28
Jan.
1*4
Feb. 10
Mar. 1
Apr. 1
T
8.6
1 1.0
15.3
2.0
7.0
1*4.0
0
0
Preovipos ition
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
C
12.0
13.0
18.0
18.0
19-0
18.0
7.0
9.0
T
9.6
5-6
22.6
10.0
10.0
0
0
0
Ovi pos ition
Oct.
Nov.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
C
2*4.0
3*4.0
27.0
28.0
28.0
28.0
30.0
3*4.0
T
10.3
5.6
23-3
0
0
0
0
0
Incubation
Oct.
Nov.
Jan.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
C
27.0
37.0
32.0
32.0
32.0
30.0
36.0
39-0
Longevity
of
Larvae
T
27.0
Nov.
0
10.3
0
0
0
0
0
Jan
Mar.
Mar
Apr.
Apr.
Jun.
Jun.
Aug.
C
6*4.0
85.0
65.0
68.0
60.0
65.0
60.0
90.0
Total
T
*46.0
0
*49.0
0
0
0
0
0
Longevity
Preov. inc.
Long. Larvae
C
103.0
135.0
115.0
119.0
111.0
113.0
103.0
138.0
Means in days of nine ticks (three in each tube) and five ticks (in one cage), in each observation; and
**5 ticks in 15 tubes and 25 ticks in live cages in each exposure. T, tube; C, cage.
1) Months covered or when ticks finished the stage.

227
Appendix 3B. Raw data of the non-paras itic stages of the cattle
tick, Boophilus mievoplus in Cuernavaca (Progreso)
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979.
EXPOSURES*
Stages on
Commenced and
Months
Covered
1)
African
1
2
3
4
5
Star Grass
Oct. 5
Jan. 5
Feb. 15
Mar. 5
Jul. 10
T
4.6
0
10.0
0
0
Preovipos ition
Oct.
Feb.
Oct.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Jul.
C
1 1.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
12.0
T
3.0
0
12.0
0
0
Ovi pos ition
Oct.
Mar.
Nov.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
Aug.
C
28.0
22.0
28.0
30.0
28.0
1ncubation
T
0
0
0
0
0
Nov.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
Aug.
C
37.0
30.0
33.0
36.0
34.0
T
0
0
0
0
0
Longevity of
Larvae
Jan.
Mar.
May
Jun.
Oct.
C
43.0
33-0
45.0
58.0
74.0
T
0
0
0
0
0
Total Longevity
C
91.0
73-0
90.0
108.0
120.0
Means in days of nine ticks (three in each tube) and five ticks (in one
cage), in each observation; and 45 ticks in 15 tubes and 25 ticks in
five cages in each exposure. T, tube; C, cage.
1) Months covered when ticks finished the stage.

228
Appendix 3C. Raw data of the non-paras 111c stages of the cattle
tick, Boophilus microplus In Zacatepec, Morelos,
Mexico. Second phase. 1978-1979.
E X
P0S
U R E
ju
S"
Stages on
Commenced
1 and
Months
Covered
1)
Bermuda (B)
1
2
3
and Setaria (S)
Oct
. 11
Feb
. 9
May
15
Grasses
B
S
B
S
B
S
T
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
0
0
Preovipos ition
Oct.
Oct.
Feb.
Feb.
Oct.
Oct.
Feb.
Feb.
May
May
C
5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
6.0
5.0
T
23.0
20.0
19.0
16.0
0
0
Ovi pos ition
Nov.
Nov.
Feb.
Feb.
Nov.
Nov.
Mar.
Mar.
Jun.
Jun.
C
30.0
28.0
28.0
24.0
34.0
32.0
T
30.0
26.0
0
0
0
0
Incubation
Dec.
Nov.
Dec.
Nov.
Mar.
Mar.
Jun.
Jun.
C
36.0
34.0
34.0
30.0
40.0
38.0
T
73.3
60.0
0
0
0
0
Longevity of
Feb.
Jan.
Larvae
Apr.
Mar.
Jul .
Jul .
Nov.
Oct.
C
123.0
110.0
126.0
115.0
140.0
119.0
T
106. 3
89.0
0
0
0
0
Total Longevity
C
164.0
148.0
164.0
149.0
186.0
162.0
Means in days of nine ticks (three in each tube) and five ticks (in one
cage), in each observation; and 45 ticks in 15 tubes and 25 ticks in
five cages in each exposure. T, tube; C, cage.
1) Months covered or when ticks finished the stage.

APPENDIX k
DATA ON MICROCLIMATE

Appendix 4A. Mircoclimate: temperature (C) in the
tubes and under the cage (6 cm under the
soil). Wet season. Cuernavaca (Progreso),
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase, 1979.
Day
Tube
1
Cage
D a
Tube
V 2
Cage
23-0
27.0
32.0
24.5
19.0
24.5
17.0
24.0
16.5
23.0
17.0
22.0
16.5
22.0
28.0
20.0
16.0
21.0
43.0
20.0
15.0
20.0
44.0
22.0
28.0
20.0
47.0
24.0
34.0
20.0
48.5
22.5
36.0
23-5
44.5
24.0
38.0
23.0
35.0
24.0
16.0
22.0
50.0
26.0
21.0
25.0
Max.
38.0
27.0
50.0
25.0
Min.
15.0
20.0
17.0
20.0
X
26.5
23-5
33.5
22.5
Var.
in C
23.0
7.0
33.0
5.0
230

231
Appendix 4B. Microclimate: temperature (C) at
different sites and humidity (in
per cent) in Cuernavaca (Progreso),
Morelos, Mexico. Dry season*, 1979-
S i tes
Half
C1oudy
Day
C1oudy
Day
Sunshine
Day
Inside the Tube
41.0
25.0
50.0
Out of the Tube
34.5
23.0
40.0
In the Cage
Soi1 Surface
29-5
22.5
39.0
In the Cage
Inside Soil
(6 cm deep)
22.2
20.5
26.0
Tube Inside Cage
35.0
22.5
22.0
V?
February, 1979.

APPENDIX 5
RANGES IN OVI POS ITI ON AND LONGEVITY OF LARVAE PERIODS
AT THREE LOCALITIES IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO

Append¡x
5A.
Ranges in
1 oca 1 ities
oviposition
in Morelos
periods at three
State, Mexico.
1978-1979.
Locality
Time and
Exposure
25
1
¡-400
Ranges (no. of eggs)
2 3 4
500-1400 1500-2000 2200-3000
2a
X
Y
1
Oct.
3
4
10
7
C
1
Oct.
7
12
6
3
Z
1
Oct.
4
10
12
4
9.39508b
Y
2
Nov.
2
10
12
10
C
2
Jan.
3
7
10
2
Z
2
Oct.
2
5
19
2
11.17759b
Y
6
Feb.
2
10
10
5
C
3
Feb.
2
4
20
3
Z
3
Feb.
2
3
20
3
7.67698b
Y
7
Mar.
3
6
12
7
C
4
Mar.
2
15
8
5
Z
4
Feb.
3
3
10
8
10.60741b
Y
8
Apr.
2
6
15
5
C
5
Jul .
10
8
8
2
z
5
May
4
8
16
6
17.5379
Contingency tables (chi
U.S.D.A. Washington, D.
-square test) Ref
C.
. Wad ley, F. M.
(1967)
. 73-73 pp.
Hypotheses: Yecapixtla (Y) = Cuernavaca (C) = Zacatepec (Z).
Hypotheses do not reject.
y
Hypotheses rejected (P < 0.05).
y
Hypotheses rejected (P < 0.01).
233

234
Appendix 5B. Ranges in longevity of larvae periods at three
localities in Morelos State, Mexico. 1978-1979.
Ranges
(no. of
larvae)
Locality
Time and
Exposure
1
< 100
2
20,000
3
< 100
Ia
X
Yecapixt1 a
1
Oct.
30
50
23
Cuernavaca
1
Oct.
18
20
5
Zacatepec
1
Oct.
10
30
83
69.827**
Yecapixtla
2
Nov.
70
40
25
Cuernavaca
2
Jan.
5
10
18
Zacatepec
2
Oct.
5
17
-8
104.263**
Yecapixtla
6
Feb.
60
30
25
Cuernavaca
3
Feb.
10
10
25
Zacatepec
3
Feb.
26
55
45
38.949**
Yecapixtla
7
Mar.
50
49
29
Cuernavaca
4
Mar.
8
20
30
Zacatepec
4
Feb.
25
30
60
30.385**
Yecapixtla
8
Apr.
30
30
51
Cuernavaca
5
Ju 1.
25
30
19
Zacatepec
5
May
63
61
16
38.407**
aContingency
72-73 pp. U
tables
.S.D.A
(chi-square test),
i. Washington, D.C.
Ref. Wad ley, F. M.
(1967).
Hypotheses:
Yecapixt1 a
= Cuernavaca =
Zacatepec.
Hypotheses rejected (P < 0.01).

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Mario Camino Lavin was born on July 9, 19^+0, in Cuernavaca,
Morelos, Mexico. After graduating from high school in Cuernavaca City
in I960, he entered the Department of Biological Sciences at the
University of Mexico in Mexico City. From 1964 to 1965, he completed
his thesis work on the population dynamics of aphids in alfalfa in
Mexico State. After graduation he joined the International Program,
United States of America-Mexico for the eradication of the screworm
fly in Mexico, working on the life cycle and behavior in Veracruz,
Mexico.
From 1968 to 1970 he went to the Graduate School of Chapingo,
Mexico (C.P., SARH) and completed his master's degree in entomology.
His thesis problem was on viruses transmitted by aphids on cucumber
at Morelos State, Mexico. He worked from 1971 to mid 1975 as a professor
at the Graduate School of Agriculture in South Tropical, Mexico, and
became involved in Veterinary Entomology Research. He went to SCIRO in
Australia for a training program of cattle ticks supported by FAO.
During September, 1975, he joined the National Campaign for tick erad
ication in Mexico and obtained a grant from CONACYT, Mexico,in order to
obtain his Ph.D. in the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the
University of Florida in Gainesille, Florida, United States of America.
In collaboration with his supervisory committee and monetary support
from Mexican Institutions (CONACYT-FCNCG) he developed his doctoral
research in Mexico, working on cattle tick pest management in Morelos
State, Mexico.
235

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
V
~~ J i.
Jerry F/r''B'u tier, CRaTrmSn
Profespo/ of Entomology and Nematology
I certify that I
conforms to acceptable
adequate, in scope and
Doctor of Philosophy.
have read this study and that in my opinion it
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
qua 1ity, as
i certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Dale H. Habeck
Professor of Entomology and Nematology
I certify that I
conforms to acceptable
adequate, in scope and
Doctor of Philosophy.
have read this study and that in my opinion it
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Microbiology

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Agriculture and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1980
Dean, Graduate School



Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
FOR THE CATTLE TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887)
IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO
By
Mario Camino-Lavin
August 1980
Chairman: Dr. J.F. 3utler
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology
This research involved ecological studies on the cattle tick,
Boophilus mcvoplus (Canestrini, 1887), for the development of an
integrated pest management system as a pilot program for the Morelos
State, Mexico, study area, taking into account climate, type of cattle,
and management.
The main studies were conducted by counting engorged female ticks
in the parasitic stage on native and introduced cattle. On native and
Brahman cross cattle, 80% of the ticks were found infesting 40% of the
animals compared to European cattle on which 80% of the ticks were
found on 70% of the animals. Seasonal tick populations were light in
the middle of both wet and dry seasons and were related to pasturing
procedures. The highest populations of the cattle tick were found at
the end of the wet season. A survey to determine body region preference
for this tick was made. Tick distribution on the host showed the


APPENDIX I
RAW DATA FOR THE PREOVI POS ITI ON, OVI POSITION,
LONGEVITY AND NON-PARAS I TIC STAGES OF THE CATTLE TICK,
BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS


197
Barnet, S. 1977* Course on ticks. Universite de Neuchatel1,
Switzerland. September.
Bauch, R. 1966. Book review of ticks. A monograph of the Ixodoidea.
Part V. On the genera Dermacentor3 Anocentor, Cosmiorrma,
Boophilus and Margaroporus. AngeW. Parasitol. 7(3):2l8 pp.
Bishop, F.C. 1913. The occurrence of the Australian cattle tick and
the brown dog tick in Key West, Florida. Entomol. News 24:
366-368.
Brossard, M. 1976. Relations immunologiques entre bovines et tiques,
plus particulierement entre bovins et Boophilus microplus. Acta
Tropica. 33(1):17~36.
Brown, A. W. A., and R. Pal. 1971. Insecticide Resistance in Arthro
pods. World Health Organization. Geneva. 21 pp.
Burns, E. C., and D. F. Melancon. 1977- Effect of imported fire ant
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) invasion of lone star tick (Acaria:
Ixodidae) populations. J. Med. Entomol. 14(2):247249.
Callow, L.L. 1977- Vaccination against Babesiasis in Australia.
CI AT. Ser. 12:63-71.
Canabez, F., and Bawden, R.J. 1977. Epizootiology of Anaplasmosis and
Babesiasis in Uruguay. CIAT. Ser. 12:41-144.
Christophers, S. R. 1907- Piroplasma canis and its life cycle in the
tick. Sci. Mem. Med. San. Dept., Govt, of India, N.S. 29:1-83.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1975- Cattle tick control commission.
Aust. Govt. Publ. Serv. Camberra, Australia.
Corrier, D. E., J. M. Cortes, K. C. Thompson, H. Riano, E. Becerra,
and R. Rodriguez. 1978. A field survey of bovine Anaplasmosis,
Babesiasis and tick vector prevalence in the eastern plains of
Colombia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 10(2):9192.
Curtice, Cooper. 1891. The biology of the cattle tick. J. Comp. Med.
Vet. Arch. 12:113-319.
Daniel, M. 1978. Microclimate as determining element in the distribution
of ticks and their developmental cycles. Folia Parasitol. 25(1):
91-94.
Davidson, R. L., J. R. Wiseman, and V. J. Wolfe. 1970. A system
approach to pasture problems in Australia. Proc. XI Int.
Grassland Cong. Queensland, Australia.


185
not independent of environment in this case, the configuration of vege
tation. These data are concordant with the results obtained by Harris
and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977) for predation of gravid
females of Amblyorma canericccnum ticks by the red imported fire ant,
Solenopsis invicta, in thickets. The same phenomenon was observed in
this study for predation of B. microplus ticks by the native fire ant,
S. geminata. In the same place predation was low from October 1978 to
July 1979 (just 5.91%). This was probably because pasture was left
without grazing cattle and became higher. The behavior of Solenopsis
spp. ants is favored in clear areas as Burns and Melancon showed (1977).
In Cuernavaca (Progreso) no predation of ticks by ants was observed
and in Zacatepec, Morelos, predation just occurred on setaria grass which
grows leaving clear spaces. From October 1978 to August 1979 a total
predation of 25-31% was observed but predation did not occur on Bermuda
grass, which grows high and without leaving clearing spaces. These
data are concordant with the behavior of the fire ants, previously
reported by Harris and Burns (1972) and Burns and Melancon (1977).
Parasitic Stage
Host preference studies
Tick counts on criollo and Brahman cross cattle in Yecapixtla,
Morelos during two consecutive years showed a light infestation during
1978 in comparison with 1977 counts (Figure 46) and the generation peaks
did occur during November and December (1977-1978) this happens because
the wet season (up to late September) does provide a high fecundity
then ticks are able to build high populations by late December in order


173
Table 27. Relationships between mean/variance, Morisita
index and K parameter of negative binomial for
distribution of cattle tick counts on native
cattle' in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico.
Areas
Counted
Mean/
Vari anee
Morisita
Index
K Parameter
! Face
11.1463
3.4731
0.2455
2 Jaw
3.4518
4.1874
0.2437
3 Ear
5.0010
4.3557
0.1910
4 Upper Neck
22.6965
5.3956
0.3356
5 Lateral Neck
57.6669
4.0801
0.3251
6 Shoulder
13.2549
2.7701
0.4287
7 Back
8.2350
1.9516
0.6405
8 Upper Dewlap
18.1359
3.0531
0.5967
9 Lower Dewlap
6.5435
5.8584
0.1451
10 Rib
20.5656
2.5620
0.5122
11 Anterior Belly
20.3852
2.3488
0.6859
12 Posterior Belly
8.3825
5.1727
0.1946
13 Rump
29.9107
3.6069
0.5754
14 Upper Legs
10.7817
2.2266
0.8093
15 Lower Legs
27.7082
3.6984
0.6650
16 Tail Base
6.3736
1.9440
0.7227
17 Tail
7.4593
3.6942
0.3449
1 8 Estucheon
11.0846
1.8928
0.8843
19 Rearbel1y
60.1397
2.9806
0.4311
20 Udder
35.5877
2.4888
0.6803
21 Upper Inner Legs
6.5450
1.7508
1.0302
'And Brahman cross.


214
Appendix 1G. Raw data of the number of days to complete the
total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of
the cattle tick, Boophilus miavoplus of the
eight exposures of the first phase (October 1977
to September 1978) in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
H
a b i tat
JU
s
Number of Exposures
Pasture
Th icket
P rime r
Vegetation
Mean
1
6(2)
336(112)
348(116)
76.70
2
210(70)
345(115)
375(125)
103.33
3
27(9)
99(33)
390(130)
57.33
4
213(71)
309(103)
345(115)
96.33
5
183(61)
342(114)
402(134)
103.00
6
201(67)
216(72)
303(101)
80.00
7
255(85)
279(93)
369(123)
100.33
8
231(77)
270(90)
354(118)
95.00
Mean
55.25
91.50
120.25
J.
Each number of habitats represent
nine engorged female ticks and its
the addition
offspring.
of the number
The numbers in
of days of
parentheses
are the means.


176
The equipment:
5 Pick-up Trucks (Datsan)
5 Jeeps
3 Pick-up Trucks (Dodge)
] Truck (Dodge, 8 tons)
1 Pick-up Truck (Safari, VW)
I Bus (Combi, VW)
1 Car (VW)
1 Pick-up Truck (Dina)
1 Pick-up Truck (Dodge) for Maintenance
1 Truck Moving Spray
4 Sprinkling Pumps, High Capacity
4 Sprinkling Pumps, Low Capacity
5 Pumps (to Extract Water from Dipping Vats)
61 Dipping Vats
20 Dipping Vats under Construction
4 Sleeve Sprays
The National Center of Animal Parasitology is the primary research
laboratory supplying information to the National Campaign for the cattle
tick eradication program and is located in Cuernavaca (Progreso). It will
be the main center for research on ticks and veterinary entomology in
Latin America and should be useful in the Campaign in both laboratory and
field work. This location will contribute to the cattle tick control or
eradication within Morelos State. Researchers and technicians must do
laboratory and field work in order to develop control and eradication
programs for the cattle tick in the whole Mexican infested areas.
A government program called COPLAMAR (Comisin Planificadora de las
Zonas Marginadas) is a commission for the planning for development of 16
areas in Morelos. The commission will promote the improvement of breeds
of cattle, improved pastures and build a pilot cattle ranch (experiment
station). This program will also help the campaign as a demonstration site
with facilities for cattle tick control and can develop I PM techniques.
Other programs that will help are being developed at the University
of Morelos and will include granting masters in animal parasitology.


88
There was no correlation between the number of days required for
the oviposition periods and the mean temperature of the macroclimate
or the mesoclimate (Table 2).
Figure 17 presents preoviposition periods (days) required for the
different types of habitats for the different months of the year.
Sample dates that accounted for the significant differences on pasture
were seen for exposures October, November and December. The main
differences were at the end of the year (October, November, December)
when some humidity was present. At the beginning of the year (January,
February, March) in all three habitats the preoviposition periods were
the same which corresponded to low humidity in the area of study.
Oviposition period at Yecapixtla. The number of days required
for engorged ticks to complete the oviposition period when exposed in
vegetative covered tubes showed a significant difference (ANOVA P <
0.01) due to the time of the year they were exposed. When comparisons
were made between time (month) and vegetation (type) both time and vegeta
tion were shown to be significantly important in the oviposition
period (Table 3).
When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure,
significant differences were seen between January 26, November 24,
February 22 (A) and December 5, October 21, November 4 (C-D) (Table 3).
No significant differences were seen between means of the exposures
January 26, November 4, February 22, October 26;these accounted for the
larger duration of the oviposition period (Table 3).
When habitats were evaluated as to type of vegetation, there were
significant differences (P < 0.01) seen between primer vegetation,
thicket and pasture (Table 3).


108
Table 8. ANOVA test for the number of eggs produced by ticks
for the six series time periods (disturbed) and the
check (undisturbed) of the cattle tick, B. mieroplus
in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. 19771978.
Variation
Factor
d.f.
Sum of Squares
Square Mean
F
Ca1culated
Subgroups
1 1
19,296,683.60
1,754,243.96
15.74"
Group (1)
Disturbed &
Undisturbed
1
371,464
371,464
3.33
Group (2)
Time (Six
Series)
5
17,223,219-70
3,444,643.98
30.90"
1nteraction
Group 1 vs.
Group 2
5
1 ,701,999-90
340,399-98
3.05
Error
48
5,350,753.60
111,474.03
Total
59
24,647,437.20
Significant
difference
(P < 0.01).


213
Appendix IF. ANOVA test for the longevity of larval periods.
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.
Source of Variation d
.f.
Sum
of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
(1)
T reatments
(Time + vegetation)
23
48,911.00
2,126.57
61.34**
Error
48
1 ,664.00
34.67
Tota 1
71
50,575.00
TIT
Time
(Exposures)
7
9,531.00
1,361.57
39-27**
Vegetation
(Hab tats)
2
25,142.38
12,571.19
362.60**
Interaction
14
14,237.62
1,016.97
29.33**
Error
48
1 ,664.00
34.67
Tota 1
71
50,575.00
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
** Significant difference
(P <
0.01)


70
were made with climate conditions (macroclimate, mesoclimate and micro
climate) with the period (in days) of the non-paras itic stages.
Predation of B. microplus
In order to determine if predators exist in the non-paras itic
stages of the cattle tick, B. microplus engorged females were exposed
under field conditions in three different localities: Yecapixtla
(October 1977 to September 1979), Cuernavaca (Progreso) (October 1978
to September 1979) and Zacatepec (October 1978 to September 1979).
Each time they were available a series of ticks was exposed. Each
series consisted of five cages made of mesh screen 40 cm high by 15
cm in diameter. Cages were placed in the soil and were separated by
less than one meter. Gravid females (4.0 to 8.0 mm) of B. nricroplus
were exposed in mesh cages through which they could not escape but
which did allow the entrance to smaller arthropods. In Yecapixtla
five cages (Figure 11) were placed in each of the three habitats
in the same place as the first and second phase of the non-parasitic
stages were conducted. The number of ticks per cage varied from 5
to 30. They were placed inside the cage with some earth and vegetation.
Cages were buried 5 cm deep as shown in Figure 11 and the top was
closed with mesh screen. The exposure cages were examined after one
week for tick remains by emptying the contents of the cage over a
piece of white flannel cloth (one square meter) in order to find the
exposed ticks and tick remains. Exposure times and the number of
females exposed in each series are given in the results tables. The
same exposure trials were recorded in Cuernavaca (Progreso) and
Zacatepec. In Cuernavaca pasture was African star grass. This is a


Number of Eggs
(Mean of Live Ticks)
Time (Days)
Figure 23. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus, of the first series. July-August 1977.


Date and Exposures
Time (Days)


55
Cattle Tick Ecology
Non-Paras itic Stages. First Phase
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla
The Yecapixtla experimental site was located about three kilometers
from the meteorologica1 station. Th i s meteorological station supplied
maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall. With these data mean
monthly temperature and total monthly rainfall were calculated (meso-
c1imate).
The non-paras itic studies of the first phase took place in Yeca
pixtla from October 1977 to September 1978.
Eight exposures of engorged female ticks were made. The
exposures were made in a property of the grazier Mr. Juvencio Yanez.
This is a 300 ha ranch with 200 head of criollo cattle and Brahman
crosses, native pasture was Paspalum spp. and Bermuda grass Cynodon
dactylon.
The study area of 1,850 sq. meters was fenced to prevent the
ticks from being disturbed by cattle. From July to September 1977,
the area was placed under a pasture spelling procedure in order to
prevent it from having natural infestations of ticks. Larval samples
were made by flagging (Wilkinson, 1957) with white flannel to be sure
the pasture was without seed ticks. The pasture in the area fenced
was Cynodon dactylon. At this time there were no dipping vats on
the property.
Tick exposures were made in three different habitats: thicket
(whose main plant was Covdia boissient), primer vegetation (whose main


LIST OF FIGURES
gure
1 Ecological areas for bovin cattle production In
Mexico 9
2 Scanning electron micrograph of the capitulum of
B. miaroplus male 21
3 Morelos State and its limits 48
4 Macroclimate conditions of four boundaries in Morelos
State where experiments were conducted 52
5 Tubes used for exposed ticks 57
6 Cage, a new design to study ticks on pastures 61
7 Placement of the cage 63
8 Ecological studies on ticks at Cuernavaca (Progreso)
at side of meteorological station 64
9 Ecological studies in Zacatepec 66
10 Equipment for microclimate recording 69
11 Cages utilized to measure the existence of predators. ... 71
12 Body areas of cows where tick distribution was
evaluated 75
13 Scanning electron micrograph of an engorged female
Boophilus microplus tick showing capitulum, hypostome,
and scutum 80
14 Scanning electron micrographs (ventral view) of coxa I
of Boophilus microplus female tick 82
15 Scanning electron micrograph (ventral view) of coxa I
of Boophilus microplus male tick 84
16 Climatic conditions during the first phase near the
tick study site at Yecapixtla, Morelos 86
17 Preovi position periods in the three types of vegetation
at Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico 89
vi i i


CONCLUSIONS
Major conclusions formulated as a result of this research are
as follows:
1. The maximum total longevity of the non-paras itic stages of
B. microplus studied in covered vegetation tubes was 85 days
on pasture, 115 days on thicket and 134 days on primer vegetation.
2. There were no linear correlations between the number of days of
the non-paras itic stages and the monthly mean temperature of the
macroclimate and mesoclimate.
3. Exposing ticks in tubes restricts environmental choices and
prevents selection of suitable conditions, but it is indicative
of factors which produce mortality. Mortality of ticks placed
in tubes occurred because high temperatures (50C) and strong,
fluctuations within 24 hour period (33C) .
4. Engorged female ticks disturbed and undisturbed while laying eggs
will produce same egg quantity when maintained under the same
conditions of the present study.
5. Maximum fecundity does occur during the wet season (mean 2,883
eggs) in compar is ion with the dry season (mean 1,949 eggs).
6. There is a linear correlation between the mean weight of engorged
ticks and the number of eggs they produce.
7. For future studies on the non-paras itic stages of B. mioroplus or
one host ticks the cage described in the present study can be used.
This allows ticks to choose optimum temperature and himidity.
193




56
vegetation was Ipomea muricoides) and grass (whose main grass was Cynodon
dactylon). Tick exposures were made in small vials (tubes) 8 mm in
length by 3 mm (Figure 5) made of metal screen used for tick studies
in Falcon Damp. Texas., U.S. Livestock Insects Lab. U.S.D.A. and
obtained through Dr. 0. H. Graham. Exposure times were October 21,
October 26, November 4, November 24, December 22, January 16,
February 22 and March 14.
The area was divided into 10 quadrants and random sites for
exposures were chosen. In each of these sites three tubes with three
engorged female ticks (8.0 to 11.0 mm) were placed at each site. All
tubes were covered with vegetation. Ticks used were collected on the
same day from cattle as close to the moment of dropping from native
cattle as possible. A sample of the engorged females was weighed.
Some ticks were left in tubes and covered with vegetation in order to
replace ticks which died in the first 3 to 6 days. Observations of
the duration of the non-paras itic stages were made. A sample of dead
preserved ticks (all stages) was sent for identification to Dr.
Harvey L. Cromroy of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida,
where scanning electron micrographs were taken with the scanning electron
microscope (Hitachi S-450). Ticks were cleaned and coated with a gold
coating with the IB-2 ion coater. Special attention was placed on
the mean features for B. miovoplus identification.
Pre-oviposition period
Each two or three days tubes were removed and ticks were checked
for mortality and egg laying. If ticks had died during this period,


5
Integrated Pest Management is the practical manipulation of mite,
tick or insect pest populations using any or all control methods in a
sound ecological manner (Watson et at., 1976).
In handling insect pest problems we have gone full cycle from the
early applied ecology days, to chemical control, to integrated control,
and finally to a multicomponent I PM system founded in ecological
principles. The basic elements upon which a sound I PM system rest
are: natural control, sampling, economic thresholds and tick biology
and ecology (Watson et at., 1976). With IPM it is usually desirable
to maintain low levels of the pest at all times. The factors needed
to understand the systems include climate, alternate host plants,
beneficial insects and man's activities (Watson et at. 1976).
Integrated Pest Management includes the integration of two or more
technologies to control one or more pests of a commodity with some
reduced injury level. It is an economic pest control, decision-making
aid. A definition is: the selection and integration of insect control
methods on the basis of anticipated economic, ecologica1 and sociologica1
consequences (Anonymous, 1979). It is an important mechanism to
transfer technology to producers. In other words IMP is the optimization
of pest control in an economically and ecologically sound manner.
The fundamental strategy of pest management is the coordinated
use of multiple tactics in a single integrated system with the goal
of maintaining pest numbers and resultant damage at economically
acceptable levels. IPM generally aims for a containment rather than
an eradication strategy (Anonymous, 1979). Models are not required
for most single IPM programs, but modelling is a very useful tool.


195
A pest management program for control of B. microplus ticks can
be incorporated for the study area (Morelos State, Mexico).


92
There was no correlation between the number of days required for
the oviposition periods and the mean temperature of the macroclimate or
mesoclimate (Table 4).
Figure 18 presents the oviposition period (days) required for the
sample dates from different types of habitat for the different months of
the year. Significant differences (P < 0.01) on pasture were seen for
exposures October, November and December (1, 3 and 5). In general the
longest oviposition times were for primer vegetation with little change
for the different months. Fewer days were required for ticks located in
thickets. By contrast ticks on pastures showed stable oviposition periods
in October, November and December. These months had the lowest rainfall
for the months studied.
Longevity of larvae at Yecapixtla. The number of days required for
larval ticks to complete the period for eclosin to the last larvae found
alive when exposed in vegetative covered tubes showed a significant
difference (ANOVA P < 0.01) due to the time of the year they were exposed.
When comparisons were made between time (month) and vegetation (type) both
time and vegetation showed to be significantly important in the longevity
of larval period.
When comparisons were made between the dates of exposure significant
differences were seen between October 26, December 15, February 22 (A),
and October 21, January 26, November 4 (D-E) These accounted for the
shortest duration of the longevity of larval period. Group "A" accounted
for the longest duration of the longevity of larval period (Table 5).
When habitats were evaluated as to type of vegetation, there
were significant differences (P < 0.01) seen between primer vegetation,
thicket and pasture (Table 5).


Per Cent of Predation
Predation of B. mioroplus engorged females by Solenopsis germinata ants in
three habitats in Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico.
Figure 45.


Number of Days
Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date and Exposure


72
clump grass which grows high (from 30 cm to 50 cm) but grows leaving
clear areas. Also in this area was Bermuda grass cross I which grows
high also (from 40 cm to 80 cm) but is not a clump grass and grows
without leaving clear areas. Chi-square analysis was made to evaluate
predation rates.
Specimens recorded as a predator were sent to Dr. J. F. Butler
at the University of Florida. Identification was made by Dr. W. Burn
and Dr. W. H. Whitcomb, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Parasitic Stages of the Tick
Yecapixtla. Host preference studies
Tick counts were made in Yecapixtla boundary on 150 animals to
determine tick preference as to animal breed. The breeds evaluated
were "criollo" or native cattle and Brahman crosses, Counts of engorged
female ticks (4.5 to 11.0 mm) were made in order to establish infestation
rates.
Counts were made while the animals were being milked. Engorged
female ticks were counted by hand. Counts were made on ten animals on
one side of the animal at all times and were chosen at random at least
once a month. When the cattle were grazing on pastures on the property
a sample of ten animals was chosen at random at milking time (from
June to December). But when cattle were being pastured on corn
stalks they were caught in the field with the aid of salt. Counts
were made for two years on the same property.


19
Scutum. Length, from 0.96 to 1.02; width, from 0.75 to 0.80;
longer than wide. Scapulae long, blunt; the interval deep, very wide.
Eyes distinct. Cervical grooves as broad divergent valleys, terminating
at posterolateral margins. Hairs few, scattered, absent in the valleys.
Punctations absent (Bauch, 1966).
Legs. Long, all about equally heavy. Terminal ventral spurs on
tarsus I, and both terminal and subterminal spurs on II, III, and IV
present (Bauch, 1966).
Length of tarsus I, 0.36; metatarsus, 0.30. Length of tarsus
IV, 0.39; metatarsus, 0.30 (Bauch, 1966).
Coxae. Coxae I and II with spurs broadly rounded, about equal,
wider than long. Coxa III, outer spur, smaller than on II; internal
spur absent. Coxa IV, external spur very short; internal spur absent.
Hairs few (Bauch, 1966).
Genital aperture. Between coxae I I.
Male
Body. Length from tips of palpi to posterior margin (not to tip
of caudal process) from 1.75 to 2.00; greatest width, 1.05 to 1.20.
Oval, widest at about the middle. Scutum not covering entire body at
sides; exposed parts striate and without hairs (Bauch, 1966).
Cap i tu 1 urn (Figure 2). Length from tips of palpi to tips of
cornua, from 0.33 to 0.40; width, 0.40 to 0.49. Basis about twice
as long as wide. Cornua bluntly pointed, a little raised over the
level of the posterior margin. A few hairs present on sides and top
of basis. Palpal article I not visible from above (Bauch, 1966).


100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Pasture
Th¡cket
Primer Vegetation
12 3 4 5 6 7 8
Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date and Exposure
7znztzmzzzm
lini'iiim
IIIIIIIEIIII
100


present study, ticks were under field conditions under the soil (6 cm
deep) in the cage case. The oviposition period (Table 14) and in genera
the non-parasitic stages of the present study can not be related to
macro and mesoclimate because the ticks were found at the soil level.
As each tick found its optimum environment within cage conditions they
laid 2,040 mean eggs. On the contrary ticks in tubes laid 1,652 mean
eggs (Table 17). It is important to point out that in a tube on the
soil surface four ticks lived producing only 93 eggs before death took
place on the 8th day of oviposition. The explanation of this and in
general of the experiments conducted in the first phase (with tubes
covered by vegetation) and in the second phase (with comparison of non-
parasitic stages registered in tubes and cages) comes with the micro
climate conditions. It is concordant with what Daniel (1978) reported
about the meteorological stations, they do not give exact information
about the ecological niches occupied by ticks, and one has to rely on
the microclimate conditions in determining the tick distribution and
developmental cycles. In the present study it was found that the
temperature at mid day can reach 50C inside the tubes while cage
temperatures were 25C (6 cm deep in the soil). The variation that
can exist inside the tubes from sunshine to midnight is in the order
of 33C while at tick level (cage, 6 cm deep) it was found just 5C
of variation (Figures 40 to 43).
Predation
The study carried out on predation in Yecapixtla, Mexico, from
November 1977 to December 1978 (Table 20) showed that predation by the
fire ant, Solenopsis geminata on B. micvcplus engorged female ticks are


The Cattle Industry in the United States of America
Cattle production in Mexico can be compared to that in the
United States of America with total cattle and calves at 110,864,000
head. The State of Texas accounts for the most animals produced with
13,900,000 head (Anonymous, 1978).
World-Wide Eradication Campaigns Against
Booyhilus microplus and B. annulatus
Bishop in 1913 reported the first collections of the cattle tick,
Boophilus mioroplus at Key West, Florida, in 1912. Smith and Kilbourne
in 1893 made their historic announcement of the role of the ixodid tick,
Boophilus annulatus, in the transmission of Texas fever (bovine babesiosis
among cattle in the southern United States. In 1906, it was estimated
that B. annulatus caused economic losses, directly and indirectly,
of 130,500,000 U.S. dollars per year, probably equivalent to a billion
or more 1976 dollars (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977).
An eradication campaign in the United States was formally
organized in 1909. Cattlemen enthusiastically supported and participated
in the tick eradication (Graham and Hourrigan, 1977)-
Survival of unfed larvae in pastures from which all cattle had been
removed was of vital importance as a basis for planning many control
programs. Pasture vacation was the primary control measure used by
many cattle raisers, especially in the more northern parts of the
infested area where tick survival was probably tenuous at best (Graham
and Hourrigan, 1977). In April 1910, the Bureau of Animal Industry
(BA I ) adopted arsenic as its recommended tick control agent. The
eradication program proceeded to an apparently successful conclusion


Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date and Exposures
v~o
OO


LITERATURE REVIEW
Insect Pest Management
In the United States there is an extension education system
designed to teach farmers, ranchers, and homeowners how to carry out
more effective pest control, protect pest natural enemies, implement
chemical and non-chemical means of controlling pests and apply
pesticides on an "as needed" basis (Smith and Pimentel, 1978). This
is because increased pest resistance is limiting the effectiveness
of many pesticides, as a sole control means.
During the past five years major steps have been made by the
public research and extension agencies to develop and demonstrate the
concepts and techniques of integrated pest management (I PM). Chemical
pesticides may be required in I PM programs; however, they are applied
only as a last resort to keep the pests from exceeding established
threshold levels (Smith and Pimentel, 1978).
More than 3 billion livestock are maintained to supply the
animal protein consumed annually in the United States. In addition to
the large amount of forage, this livestock population consumes about
ten times as much grain as is consumed by the total U.S. human popu
lation. In considering food energy and protein produced, grains and
some legumes like soybeans are produced more efficiently than fruits,
vegetables, and animal products. Expensive grain would tend to reduce
the quantity of grain for feeding livestock (Pimentel et at., 1980).
k


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216
Appendix II. Raw data of the number of days of the
non-paras itic stages of the cattle tick
Boophilus mievoplus in tubes, with soil
and without soil. Yecapixtla, Morelos,
Mexico. First phase.
Period
With
Soi 1
Tubes
Without
So i 1
Replicant
Preovipos ition
9.0
10.0
1
10.0
10.0
2
Ovi pos i t i on
28.0
29.0
1
12.0
29.0
2
! ncubation
36.0
36.0
1
27.0
35.0
2
Longevity of
36.0
40.0
1
Larvae
35.0
38.0
2
Tota 1
81.0
86.0
1
Longevity
72.0
83.0
2
Hypothesis
X = 21.67
S2 = 12.75
S2 =
26.00
13.19
: 7.^9 (x| = x2)
1 X
II
1 X
c
Do
not reject
1 2


172
made using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) of five types of
distributions. Cattle tick counts fitted primarily the negative
binomial distribution, then logarithmic and finally Neyman type A.
In one case the Poisson distribution (alternate form) was found to
fit tick distribution of the ears of cattle.
Table 27 shows the values of k parameter of the Negative Binomial
distribution. This index was useful because data fitted to the negative
binomial distribution was better than other distribution types. K
parameter became larger on upper-inner-1egs where ticks were hidden and
can escape from dipping vat chemicals, on estucheon, upper legs and tail
base where it is difficult in some cases to make tick counts. The
proximity to unit 2 K parameter indicates a more crowded tick population.
Morisita index became lower in the upper-inner-leg area (1,7508). The
lower the Morisita index (close to 1) indicates more crowded tick popu-
1ations.
Survey of Cattle Management Practices
in Morelos State
Management of cattle in Morelos State is primarily dual purpose
for production of meat and milk at the same time. Many cattle owners do
not recognize this dual purpose ignoring the dairy status. Animal
production is intensive close to the population centers with the animals
stabled or semistabled all year. Dairy cattle are managed by "ejidatar ios"
which are communal propriertors of a parcel of land given by the govern
ment. These cattle are generally semistabled during the months of
November to May, and are fed mainly on corn residues (dry corn stalks),
as well as rice and sugar cane sta1ks. The remainder of the cattle


28
sensory setae included mechanoreceptors, contact and olfactory chemo-
receptors and of special interest, on each inner cheliceral digit,
was a denticle bearing a papilla at its tip and a pit at its base.
The functions of these two newly described features are not known.
They may include contact chemoreception for sensing host chemicals.
It is only relatively recent that we have begun to understand that
the direct effect of tick infestation is more than that induced by
skin irritation and the loss of blood. Although abscesses resulting
from the attachment of Ambiyorma sp. to the teats of dairy cattle cause
serious harm and heavy tick infestations greatly reduce the value of
hides, there is also a profound systemic effect. Boophilus miaroplus
secretes a toxin which interferes with bovine metabolic processes
including liver function (O'Kelley st at. 1971). Heavily infested
cattle not only show damage to metabolic processes involved in protein
synthesis but this damage persists when they are subsequently maintained
free from ticks. It is possible that a permanent biochemical lesion can
be produced with heavy tick infestation (Springell et al. 1971).
Tatchell and Moorhouse in 1968 studied the attachment of larvae
of the cattle tick. During the first five hours, following arrival
on the host, some larvae attach immediately and begin penetration of
the epidermis.
The first observable changes in the dermis centers in the
capillaries, particularly the more superficial, which may become
dilated close to the mouth parts. Mast cells were present throughout
the sections of all hosts. Oedema was obvious with most attachments.
At 24 hours the main differences were in the greater degree and the


gure 13- Scanning electron micrograph of an engorged
female Boophilus ririovoplus tick showing
capitulum, hypostome, and scutum. The legs
are long and about equally developed.


22
In ventral view, palpal article I with a retrograde projection on
the inner side (shape variable). Inner edges of article 2 and 3 with a
few palpal setae (Bauch, 1966).
Hypostome. Essentially as in the female. Length, about 0.24.
Scutum. Mildly excavated at the sides near the spiracular plates.
Scapulae long, situated far apart. Lateral and posterior areas increas
ingly declivous to the margins. Posterior margin plain, not crenate.
Cervical grooves mild, divergent posteriorly; posterior to them, at about
the middle, rounded depressions. Posterior to these rounded depressions,
posterolateral and median grooves present. Hairs numerous on elevated
areas, absent in grooves and depressions. Surface throughout with
very fine granulations. Eyes small and often not easily seen (Bauch,
1966).
Shields. Terminating posteriorly with blunt, free points; surfaces
convex; hairs present (Bauch, 1966).
Legs. Shorter and heavier than in the female. Length of tarsus I,
0.33; metatarsus, 0.30. Length of tarsus IV, 0.36; metatarsus, 0.50
(Bauch, 1966).
Coxae. Coxa I with spurs very distinct, triangular, pointed;
internal spur wider than external; anterior process long, extending
beyond the scapula (visible from above). Coxa II with internal and
external spurs distinctly rounded, shorter than on 1, internal spur
wider. Coxa III with a still shorter, rounded, external spur; internal
spur as a rounded salience (similar to that on ll). Coxa IV with
spurs absent. Hairs few.
Genital aperture. Situated between coxae II (Bauch, 1966).


174
owners maintain their herds in semistabled conditions from November
to May with many continuing from December 15th to June 15th. At this
time, cattle are fed commercial feed at 2 kg/cow/day, while they also
graze 24 hours/day on corn stalks. These areas are sometimes but not
always fenced. Cows milked daily in the mornings are freed for grazing
for the rest of the day. Cattle owners place water troughs close to
the milking area.
Sugar cane fodder fields can be up to 3 km from the milking area
or stables. From 4:00 to 6:00 P.M. cattle are taken to the stables where
they spend the night and are fed the tips of fresh sugar cane.
During the period from June to October, cattle primarily graze
on native grass pastures. These animals are returned to the stables
for morning milking, at that time cattle are also fed commercial products.
Beef animals in this area generally are criollo cattle or Brahman
crossbred also brown Swiss or brown Swiss cross. All the cattle on
pastures grazed freely. When the cattle are fed on dry corn stalk forage,
their water supply is limited to small rivers, small damps or irrigation
d i tches.
Corn stalks experience new growth due to sporadic rainfall late in
the season and this is the only green feed that cattle consume at this
time. This dry season period places the cattle under stress conditions,
because of the lack of food and water.
A good percentage of the small cattle owners use half of their
land for grazing cattle and the other half for agricultural practices.
The following year they rotate the cattle to the part dedicated to
agriculture and vice versa.


212
Appendix IE. Raw data of the number of days to complete the
longevity of the cattle tick, Boophilus mieroplus
on the eight exposures of the first phase (October
1977 to September 1978) in Yecapixtla, Morelos,
Mexico.
H a
bita
t s
Number of Exposures
Pasture
Thicket
Primer
Vegetation
Mean
1
0
228(76)
228(76)
50.67
2
114(38)
237(79)
255(85)
67.33
3
0
0
261(87)
29-00
4
108(36)
198(66)
198(66)
56.00
5
105(35)
219(73)
246(82)
63-33
6
90(30)
114(38)
174(58)
42.00
7
147(49)
165(55)
219(73)
59.00
8
126(42)
153(51)
204(68)
53.67
Mean
28.75
54.75
74.37
J-
Each number of habitats represent the addition of the number of days of
nine engorged female ticks. The numbers in parentheses are the means.
Zero means that ticks died without having the former period.


171
Table 26. continued.
Areas
Neqative
Binomial
Neyman
Type A
Logarithmic
Poisson
C
T
C
T
T
15 Lowe r
30-50(s)
20-30
_
JL
_
_
Legs
50-70(A)
30-50

JU
16 Tail
10-20(S)
30-50
(s)
JU
-
Base
30-50(A)
70-80
30-50(A)
JU
-
17 Tail
70-80 (s)
30-50
-
JU
10-20(S)
20-30(A)
20-30
-
.u
10-20(S)
-
18 Estucheon
- (s)
50-70
20-30(s)
Vc
-
50-70(A)
80-90
10-20(A)
*
-
19 Rearbel 1y
20-30(S)
30-50
-
.u
- (S)
50-70(A)
50-70
-
JU
5-10(A)
-
20 Udder
70-80(s)
10-20
-
.u
-
30-50(A)
30-50
-
-
21 Upper
50-70(S)
50-70
-
-u
_
inner legs
80-90(A)
80-90
5 10(A)
*
C Complete; T Truncate
(S) Standard; (A) Alternate
* Not given by the program
i.d.f. Insufficient degrees of freedom


223
Appendix 2F. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick
B. mrevoiplus. Sixth Series. May 3 to May 18,
1977.
Cuautla,
Morelos,
Mexico.
N u
m b e
r of
T i c
k s
Date
F-l
F-2
F-3
F-4
F-5
Mean
May 3
202
305
325
337
280
1,449
289.80
4
403
422
450
398
477
2,150
430.00
5
201
233
261
269
301
1,265
253-00
6
190
189
173
190
208
950
190.00
7
103
87
103
205
200
698
139-60
8
89
100
69
108
143
509
101.80
9
73
92
122
76
120
483
96.60
10
62
83
101
68
104
418
83.60
11
33
41
46
38
38
196
39.20
12
20
10
15
45
10
100
20.00
13
26
12
0
63
15
116
23.20
14
0
6
2
12
23
43
8.60
15
12
18
1
0
25
56
11.20
16
6
15
1
*'c
12
34
8.50
17
0
1
1
/V
2
1.41
18
J.
1
3
4
2.00
19
.u
0
00.00
Total
1 ,420
1,615
1,673
1,809
1,956
8,473-00
n
(14)
(16)
(16)
(12)
(14)
Mean
101.42
100.93
104.56
150.75
139-71
X
1 ,694.60
Death of the tick.


Time (Days)
Figure 33. continued.
N>
^*4


30
importance than the plasma with their 6 to IX protein. It will be
seen that an adult female takes 350 ml of blood from a crossbred
Brahman and 300 ml of blood from a British animal. They calculated
daily blood loss amounts of 107 to 15^ ml in British animals in
contrast to a Brahman crossbred heifer, which lost on the average
no more than 1 ml of blood per day. Calves on normal rations can
tolerate losses of up to 200 ml of blood a day without marked ill
effect, for at least 7 weeks. However, it is obvious that the inter
action between host age, nutritional standards and tick numbers is
complex. Dropped fully engorged adult females contained more red cells
per individual and generally also more plasma, than engorged ticks
removed from the host.
Presence of ecdysone had been reported (Obenchain, 1979) in ticks,
Omithodorus moubata or at least these ticks contain material which has
moulting activity. This has not been studied in Boophilus microplus.
In ticks other than B. microplus the presence of a pheromone
has been demonstrated (Layton and Sonenshine, 1975).
Ixodid ticks use the salivary glands for osmoregulation during
feeding. During the sixth to seventh day of the last feeding they
concentrate the copious blood meal by injecting ~]h% of the ingested
water and 95% of the Na back into the host as saliva. The
fluid secretion appears to be controlled by catecho-
laminergic nerves. In this case it is the acinus III which became
active. During feeding acinus I produce cement and acinus II
produce enzymes which are very important in the immunological process
(Diehl et al. 1978).


Number of Eggs
(Mean of Li-ve Ticks)
Time
Figure 28. Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B.
mioroplus, of the sixth series. May 1978-


59
Mesoclimate at Cuautla
The Cuautla experimental oviposition site was located about two
kilometers from the meteorological station which recorded temperature
(maximum and minimum) and rainfall daily. Mean monthly temperature and
total monthly rainfall were calculated from these data (mesoclimate).
Fecundity at Cuautla
In the Cuautla boundary, a study of day-by-day oviposition was
conducted by exposing six series of engorged females. Each series
exposed consisted of 10 tubes as described for the exposure of
engorged females in Yecapixtla. An engorged female (8.0 to 11.0 mm in
length) was placed in each tube. More than 50 engorged female ticks
were collected for this study from native cattle, put in a large vial
and covered with vegetation in the field and held for more than 3 days.
Ten live engorged females were chosen, weighed and placed singularly in
each vial and the vials were covered with vegetation as in the Yecapixtla
study. When oviposition began the engorged females in five vials were
handled daily for removing the eggs laid. Eggs were collected in small
vials and taken to the laboratory to be counted with the aid of a
microscope, utilizing a hand cell counter. Egg masses were separated
with a hair brush in a petri dish filled with water; the bottom of the
petri dish was divided into quadrants and in this way eggs were easily
counted.
The other five tubes with an engorged female were allowed to
develop without handling. Just at the moment that oviposition was
completed eggs were counted in the same manner of handling the


Table 7. Mean total longevity of the non-pa r a si t ¡ c stages of B. mioroplus at
Yecapixtla (first phase) as affected by the type of vegetation and time of
year.
Date of Pasture Sig.Date of
Exposure (Days) Dif. Exposure
12 Primer
Ticket Sig. Date of Vegetation
(Days) Dif. Exposure (Days)
Sig.
Dif.
1,2
Period: Preoviposition
Feb.
22
12
A
Dec.
5
1 b
Nov.
2b
16
Mar.
\b
12
A
Nov.
2b
12
Dec.
5
15
Dec.
5
10
B
Feb.
22
12
A
Feb.
22
12
Nov.
i
9
Mar.
\b
12
B
Mar.
\b
12
Oct.
26
6
C
Nov.
b
10
Nov.
b
10
Jan.
26
5
Oct.
26
7
Oct.
26
8
Nov.
2^4
3
D
Oct.
21
6
L
Oct.
21
6
Oct.
21
2
Jan.
26
5
Jan.
26
5
Period:
Ovi pos ition
Nov.
2b
28
Oct.
21
26
Jan.
26
34
Jan.
26
28
A
Oct.
26
25
Feb.
22
34
Oct.
26
22
Jan.
26
25
Dec.
5
33
Feb.
22
20
B
.
Nov.
b
23
A
Mar.
l b
30
Mar.
1*4
19
f
Dec.
5
23
A
Oct.
21
30
Dec.
5
12
Mar.
]b
23
Nov.
b
29
Oct.
21
0
D
Feb.
22
22
Nov.
2b
29
Nov.
b
0
Nov.
2b
21
Oct.
26
28
A
o


highest tick populations on the rearbelly area, then upper-inner-legs,
estucheon and tail base.
Non-paras itic stage studies were conducted within tubes and cages
placed into the soil to evaluate tick survival and egg laying. Maximum
longevity observed for non-paras itic stages (adult female, eggs, and
larvae) was 190 days in Zacatepec, Morelos; 117 in Yecapixtla; and 96
days in Cuernavaco (Progreso). Meteorological stations near the trials
did not give precise enough information on ecological niches occupied by
ticks to correlate the monthly mean temperature and the tick life cycle.
The duration of the tick life cycle was found to be regulated by the
microclimate which in turn was controlled by tick preference and move
ment in cages as ticks buried into the soil to lay eggs at optimum
temperature.
Surveys on tick predation were made. Predation by ants, Solenopsis
geminata (L.) was found to be most important and varied depending on the
type of vegetation. Predation reached 60% in thicket areas then
decreased on pasture to 19% with the lowest predation seen in brushy
and woody begetation.
A proposed tick pest management system was designed and presented.
The management system was developed on a regional basis which incorporated
chemical and ecological information on ticks obtained in this study. The
control methods included pasture spelling, use of natural predators,
breeding for resistant cattle, management of cattle fed on corn stalk
forage, quarantine measures, and chemical control.
x i i


Number of Days
Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Figure 17- Preoviposition periods in the three types of vegetation at Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. First phase.
OO
CD


202
Pimentel, D., P. A. Oltenacu, M. C. Nesheim, J. Krummel, M. S. Allen,
and S. Chick. 1980. The potential for grass-fed livestock:
Resource constraints. Science 207(4433) :843848-
Powell, S. E. 1970. Sheep as a cattle tick host. Queensland Agr. J.
12:233-234.
Price, C. J., and J. E. Reed. 1973. arasitologia practica. Herrero
Hnos. Ed. pp. 84-85.
Rabb, R. L. and R. E. Guthrie. 1970. Concepts of pest management
Proc. Conf. held at North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, N.C.
25-27 March.
Rawlins, S. C., and A. Mansingh. 1978. Acaricidal susceptibility of
five strains of Boophilus microplus from four Caribbean countries.
J. Econ. Entorno 1. 71 (1)' 1 42-144.
Riek, R. F. 1956. Factors influencing the susceptibility of cattle to
tick infestation. Aust. Vet. J. 7:204-209.
Roberts, F. H. S. 1947. Ticks infesting domestic animals in Queensland.
Queensland Agr. J. 6:233-234.
Roberts, J. A. 1964. The taxonomic status of the genera Rhipicephalus
Koch and Boophilus Curtice (Acaria: ixodidae) occuring in
Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 13:491-523-
Roberts, J. A. 1971. Behavior of larvae of the cattle tick, Boophilus
microplus (Canestrini) on cattle of differing degrees of resistance.
J. Parasitol. 57(3) :651-656.
Roberts, J. A. and J. D. Kerr. 1976. Boophilus microplus passive
transfer of resistance in cattle. J. Parasitol. 62(3):485"489-
Roulston, W. J. 1967. Acaricide resistance in the cattle tick,
Boophilus microplus passive transfer of resistance in cattle.
J. Parasitol. 62(3) :485_489-
Ruesink, W. B. 1976. Status of the systems approach to pest management.
Ann. Rev. Entomol. 21:27-44.
Seebeck, R. M., 0. H. Springell, and J. C. O'Kelly. 1970. Alterations in
host metabolism by the specific and anorectic effects of the cattle
tick (Boophilus microplus). I. Food intake and body weight growth.
Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 24:373-380.
Seifert, G. W. 1971. Variations between and within breeds of cattle in
resistance to field infestations of the cattle tick (Boophilus
microplus). Aust. J. Agrie. Res. 22:159-168.


Temperature
Figure Al. Temperatures in tick habitat studied (tube or cage) at Cuernavaca (Progreso).
1500


65
cross 1, Cynodon dactylon with C. nemfluensis. Each area of pasture
occupied a surface of 5 by 8 meters (Figure 9).
Exposures were initiated in October 1978. For each exposure,
engorged females were taken from cattle as close to the moment of the
dropping (8.0 to 11.0 mm) as possible. The ticks were placed in a
plastic cage and observed for three hours to select those which were
completely engorged. Care was taken to prevent tick damage. Those ticks
which died in the first eight days were replaced by live ones of the
same age which were held for this purpose. Observations were made once
a week by choosing the first cage and carefully emptying the earth content.
When ticks were found, observations of the non-paras itic stages were
made and then they were replaced in the same position in the cage and
carefully covered with earth. Observations of the ticks in six tubes
were then made (three inside the cage and three outside the cage).
Tubes were not covered with vegetation. By the following week the
next cage and tubes were used in order to make observations. On the
fifth week observations were made on the first cage and tubes observed
during the first week.
There were different numbers of exposures made in the three areas
studied (Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec) because the total
cycle differed in the three areas. No ticks were carried out of the
test areas.
Mesoclimate at Yecapixtla, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Zacatepec
In Yecapixtla the meteorological climate (mesoclimate) was taken
in the same manner as in the first phase.


Monthly Mean Temperature
(_>
O
F¡gu re
T" l 1 1 1 i i i i 1 1 r
Temperature lllllllllllll
'978 0 N D 1979 J F M A M
Date
31.
Climate at Cuernavaca (Progreso) Morelos during the time of the experiments of the second
phase (mesocl¡mate)
Total Rainfal1 (mm)


en
oo


Table 12. The effect of localities on the non-pa ras itic stages of the cattle tick,
Boophilus miovoptus studied in cages, Morelos State, Mexico. Second
phase. 1978-1979.
Source of
Vari ation
d. f.
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
1, 2, 3
Tukey's Mean Test
Tota 1
17
503.76
Y
lt.25
A
Preovipos ition
2
3/*3. ^6
171.73
16.06*
C
11.80
Error
15
160.30
10.69
Z
3.00
6
Total
18
196.1J
Z
29.33
Ovi pos ition
2
15.11
7-56
0.67
Y
29.13
A
Error
16
181.01
11.31
C
27.20
Total
18
216.9**
Z
35-33
1 ncubation
2
16.75
8.38
0.67
C
3i. 00
A
Error
16
200.21
12.51
Y
33.13
Total
18
18,281.16
Z
122.00
A
Longevity of Larvae
2
15,823.26
7,911.63
51.50**
Y
69.63
B
Error
16
2,457-91
153.62
C
50.60
C
Tota 1
18
16,333-79
Z
162.17
1 A
Tota 1 Longevity
2
12,858.89
6,129.45
29.60**
Y
117.13
B
Error
16
3, 474. 91
217.18
C
96.40
C
Note: Means covered with uncommon letters are significantly different (P < 0.01).
Zacatepec, Cuernavaca (Progreso) and Yecapixtla.
^ANOVA (P < 0.01)** (p < 0.05)*.
Tukey's mean test as adapted from Snedecor, G. W. (1961). 321-327 pp. Iowa State Univ.


MONTHS
300
250
200
150
100
50
Figure 16.
Climatic conditions during the first phase (October 1977 to September 1978)
near the tick study site at Yecapixtla, Morelos (mesoclimate).
oo
CT'
Total Rainfall (mm)


51
program with funds from the Interamerican Bank for Development (BID),
the biggest effort conducted by the government for the livestock
indust ry.
It consists mainly of building dipping vats (promotion phase), the
offering of technical assistance to the grasiers and furnishing
inspectors for the campaign at the time of the cattle dipping (control
phase) and inspection of the animals in the eradication phase of the
cattle tick program (eradication phase or free phase). When
eradication is complete a quarantine phase will be maintained to
prevent reintroduction of ticks into the free areas.
Location and Climate
It is important to point out that Morelos State is located in the
transition zone between the center and south Pacific ecological live
stock areas. It is in the transitional zoogeographical areas which
divide the continent (neartic and neotropical).
Almost the entire Mexican Republic, with the exception of the
extreme northeast, has a rainfall season in the middle half of the hot
period of the year (May to October). The eastern and southern parts of
the country have a short dry period in the middle of the rainy season.
This season is called "canicula" in Spanish it is a dry August producing
a dry seasonal bimodal distribution in rainfall. The areas with this
phenomenon cover the Pacific Coast and the Sierra Madre of the south in
the states of Oaxaca-Guerrero, Morelos, Michoacn Colima and south
of Jalisco (Garcia, 1973). The recorded macroclimate of the study sites
can be seen in Table k: Cuautla 1,291 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.),


Oct Oct Nov Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Date of Exposure


Figure I. Ecological areas for bovin cattle production in Mexico: A, North;
B, North Pacific; C, Center; D, Gulf of Mexico; E, South Pacific.
1, Morelos State where experiments were conducted.


3
In the future for the control of bovine ticks, there will be a
Pest Management Program developed for each ecological area in Mexico.
There has to be intensive sampling and chemical control with buffer
areas to be operational in the states that border with the United
States of America, because of cattle exportation from Mexico.
The main objectives of the present work are (1) to elucidate the
tick, Boophilus microplus population dynamics in different seasons of
the year, (2) to evaluate tick distribution on the host, and (3) to
understand the natural control as affected by climate and the management
of cattle. Based on all of these ecological data the overall objective
is to propose an Integrated Pest Management System for the cattle tick,
Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) in Morelos State, Mexico.


24
margin nearly straight. Cornua absent. Palpal article I absent. In
ventral view, basis broadly rounded behind. Palpi with relatively
long hairs (Bauch, 1966).
Hypos tome. Short, broad, with about six broad, short, rounded
denticles in each file. Dentition 2/2. Length about 0.065 (Bauch,
1966).
Scutum. Length, 0.31; width, 0.42. Cervical grooves shallow,
short, converging posteriorly. Surface smooth, shining, impunctate,
and with hairs absent.
Coxae. Coxa I with a short, broad, internal spur; II and III
without spurs (Bauch, 1966).
Hosts
Boophilus miaroplus (Canestrini) was described as Haemaphysatis
miaropla from specimens that came from Paraguay. The tick had been
taken on cattle in the United States, on deer, horse and man from
Argentina, and from deer, ox, and horse from Brazil. It has been
reported from cattle in Danama as well as horse, dog, goat, and
deer. Valadez in 1923 (cited by Smith, 1973) mentions the tick under
the name Margaroporus cmnulatus australis as present in Mexico.
The usual host of the cattle tick is cattle, but Roberts in 1947,
reported in Queensland, Austra1ia, the common cattle tick, 5. miaroplus
annulatus, attacking not only cattle and horses, but also sheep, pigs,
deer, wallabies and kangaroos. The deer, Cervus elephas, were seen to
be heavily infested.
From November to February 1936-1937 tick collections were made on
different hosts in Florida (Orange, Osceola and Collier Counties) and


144
Table 16. Correlation evaluation between the duration of the
longevity of larval periods and the macroclimate
and mesoclimate. Second phase. 1978-1979.
Locality
Exposure
Longevity of
Larval Periods
Macroclimate in Days
Mean Temp
C Cage Tube
Mesoclimate
Mean Temp
C
Month
Yecapixt1 a
1
22.4
64.0
27.0
17.0
Jan.
2
24. 3
85.0
0
19.5
Mar.
3
24.3
65.0
10.3
19.5
Mar.
4
26.2
68.0
0
20.2
Apr.
5
26.2
60.0
0
20.2
Apr.
6
25.0
65.0
0
22.0
Jun.
7
25.0
60.0
0
22.0
Jun.
8
23.2
90.0
0
20.0
Aug.
Cuernavaca
1
18.9
43.0
0
18.5
Jan.
(Progreso)
2
22.0
33.0
0
23-2
Mar.
3
23.0
45.0
0
24.5
May
4
21.4
58.0
0
25.0
Jun.
5
20.0
74.0
0
19-7
Oct.
Zacatepec
1
22.5
123.0
73-3
21.2
Feb.
2
25.7
126.0
0
25.2
Ju 1 .
3
23-3
140.0
0
21.1
Nov.
Hypothesis
Cage
b = 3-398843
vs
r = 0.2337
Macro
r2 = 0.0547
R2 = 0.9453
Do not
reject hypothesis
Cage
b = 0.8973
vs
r = 0.0684
Meso
r2 = 0.00468
R2 = 0.99532
Do not
reject hypothesis


APPENDIX 5
RANGES IN OVI POS ITI ON AND LONGEVITY OF LARVAE PERIODS
AT THREE LOCALITIES IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO


Appendix 4A. Mircoclimate: temperature (C) in the
tubes and under the cage (6 cm under the
soil). Wet season. Cuernavaca (Progreso),
Morelos, Mexico. Second phase, 1979.
Day
Tube
1
Cage
D a
Tube
V 2
Cage
23-0
27.0
32.0
24.5
19.0
24.5
17.0
24.0
16.5
23.0
17.0
22.0
16.5
22.0
28.0
20.0
16.0
21.0
43.0
20.0
15.0
20.0
44.0
22.0
28.0
20.0
47.0
24.0
34.0
20.0
48.5
22.5
36.0
23-5
44.5
24.0
38.0
23.0
35.0
24.0
16.0
22.0
50.0
26.0
21.0
25.0
Max.
38.0
27.0
50.0
25.0
Min.
15.0
20.0
17.0
20.0
X
26.5
23-5
33.5
22.5
Var.
in C
23.0
7.0
33.0
5.0
230


Appendix ID. ANOVA test for the oviposition periods
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico. First phase.
Source of Variation
d. f.
Sum
of
Squares
Mean
Squares
F
Calculated
(0
T reatments
23
5,424
253.83
23.10**
(Time + vegetation)
Error
48
490
10.21
Tota 1
71
5,914
TTF
Ti me
(Exposures)
7
940
134.29
13.15**
Vegetation
(Habitats)
2
2,610.75
1,305-38
127.85**
1 nteraction
14
1,873.25
133.80
13.10**
Error
48
490
10.21
Tota 1
71
5,914
(1) One way classification
(2) Two way classification
** Significant difference (P < 0.01)


Date and Exposures
Mar
8
Feb
Jan
Dec
Nov
Nov
Oct
Oct
Figure
~1 I 1 I 1 1 1
iiiiiiimiiimiiiiiimimiimiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiii ves
YTC8
YT8
7
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIBIIIIIHIIIIIIIIi YC7
YTC7
" YT7
lllllllllllllltlllitllllllllllllllllllllll YC6
rjmm YTC6
YT6
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll VC5
llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll YC4
YT b
T
miiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii yc3
******>,*****- YTC3
" YT3
lllllllllllllllllllllflllllllllllllllllllllllllllll YC2
YTC2
mimimiiimmiiiifiiiimiiiiiiii vci
YTC 1
YT,
r
T
Tube in
_J I i I J 1 1 1 1 1
20 /4O 60 80 100 120 1*40 160 180 200
Time (Days)
33- Non-pa ras itic stages studied in cages, tubes in cages and tubes
localities in Morelos State.
Cage (C) llllllllllll
Cage (TC)
Tube (T)
Y = Yecapixtla
in three different


103
Figure 20 presents the non-paras itic stages (in days) required
for the sample dates on different types of habitat for the different
months of the year. In general the longest non-paras itic cycles were
in primer vegetation and thicket in comparison with the shortest non-
parasitic stage in pasture. All exposed ticks with the exception of
exposures October (1) and November (3) completed the total non-paras itic
stages.
When comparisons were made (t-test) between ticks located in tubes
with and without soil inside them there were no significant differences
seen (P < 0.01).
Figure 21 shows the percent of larval eclosin in the three
habitats during the eight exposure dates of the first phase. Larval
eclosin was very low (0 to 10%) on grass pasture, slightly higher
on thicket (0 to 50%) and highest on primary vegetation (50 to 80%).
Fecundity at Cuautla. The number of eggs produced by ticks for
the six time periods was evaluated (AN0VA) to determine the effect of
time of year (Figure 22) and handling on oviposition. The results for
samples taken from October 1977 to September 1978 for the disturbed
eggs (daily manipulation for egg counts) and undisturbed eggs (counted
at the end of the oviposition period) are given in Table 8. No
significant difference was demonstrated (P < 0.01) between the disturbed
and undisturbed ticks. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01)
between the six time periods within each series of disturbed or un
disturbed ticks. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) in
the interaction of disturbed and undisturbed ticks and the time of
year they were exposed (months), indicating that the handling (disturbance)
in any time (months) did not significantly affect survival.


15
first is the main agent in Mexico and can be recognized in the red
corpuscles by the pair of piriform globules in a short angle (Price
and Reed, 1973).
There is a vaccine against Babesia bigenrina and B. argentina in
Australia. The strain has to be collected in the place or country where
the vaccine is going to be applied (Callow, 1977)-
Mahoney and Mirre (1977) reported Babesia bovis as a synonym to
Babesia argentina while they had been working intensely on the
transmission mechanism by larvae of B. mioroplus.
In the case of Anaplasma marginale the transmission by the cattle
tick or other species of tick is not clear (Canabez and Bawden, 1977;
Corrier ev at., 1978).
Other diseases transmitted by the species of Boophilus are
isolations of Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (CHF-congo) Tick borne
virus has been isolated from B. deaoloratus (Koch) in Nigeria and
from B. mioroplus (Canestrini) in west Pakistan. In Ethiopia serological
and immunological tests have provided evidence of infection of adult
B. deaoloratus with Rickettsia oanori, and in Brazil B. mioroplus is
considered to be a vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Smith, 1973).
The Cattle Tick, Boophilus mioroplus
Taxonomy
The present status of the taxonomy of the cattle tick is as
follows: class Arachnida, suborder Ixodida; super family Ixodoidea;
family Ixodidae; and genus and species Boophilus mioroplus (Canestrini,
1887). Other names under synonymy are Boophilus (urobophilus)


156
Table 19- Total predation of gravid females of the
cattle tick Boophilus miovoplus (Can.)
exposed in different habitats in Yecapixtla,
Morelos, Mexico. First phase. 1977-1978.
Habitat
Females
Exposed Preyed Percentage
Females Upon of Predation
Thicket
60
38
63
Grass
63
12
19
Brush and Woody
Vegetation
81
6
7


66
Figure 9- Ecological studies in Zacatepec. Setaria
grass growth leaving open areas.


153
Figure 44. Cuticles of engorged female ticks of
B. microplus attacked by the native
fire ant, Solenopsis geminata.


142
Table 15. Correlation evaluation between the duration of
the oviposition periods and the macroclimate and
mesocllmate. Second phase. 1978-1979-
Loca 1ity
Exposure
Macroclimate
Mean Temp
C
Preovipos ition
Period
in Days
Cage Tube
Mesoclimate
Mean Temp
C
Month
Yecapixt1 a
1
22.8
24.0
9.6
18.0
Nov.
2
21.9
34.0
5-6
17.5
Dec.
3
22.4
27-0
22.6
17.0
Jan.
4
23.2
28.0
10.0
18.1
Feb.
5
23.2
28.0
10.0
18.1
Feb.
6
24.3
28.0
0
19-5
Mar.
7
26.2
30.0
0
20.2
Apr.
8
25.8
34.0
0
21.2
May
Cuernavaca
1
20.0
28.0
3-0
19-7
Oct.
(Progreso)
2
18.9
22.0
0
18.5
Jan.
3
20. 1
28.0
12.0
20.5
Feb.
4
23.2
30.0
0
24.5
Apr.
5
20.7
28.0
0
21.5
Aug.
Zacatepec
1
23-3
30.0
23-3
21.2
Nov.
2
25-3
28.0
19-0
24.2
Mar.
3
27.0
34.0
0
26.5
Jun.
Hypothesis
Tube
b
= 0.1567
Tube
b = 0.6304
vs
r
= 0.0436
vs
r = 0.2048
Ho: r = 0
Macro
r2
= 0.0019
Meso
r2 = 0.0419
Hi : r / 0
R2
= 0.9981
R2 = 0.9581
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothesis
Cage
b
= 0.8176
Cage
b = 0.5165
vs
r
= 0.5823
vs
r = 0.4293
Macro
r2
= 0.3391
Meso
r2 = 0.1843
R2
= 0.6609
R2 = 0.8157
Do not reject
hypothesis
Do not
reject hypothesis


175
From June to November milk production is within a range from
1 to 5 liters per cow, plus +2 liters which is destined to calves.
Most animal owners consider their livestock as a form of inherit
ance and ignore the quality of animal. Some cattle owners use poultry
manure as feed supplement and mix it with ground corn or sorghum (one
to two kg daily per cow).
Health and sanitation measures include an annual vaccination against
derriengue (rabies) and a triple vaccine against pasteurellosis, black leg
and malignant edema diseases. Parasite control with antihelminthics is
very irregularly administered to poorly nourished cattle or calves.
Actual Resources for Tick Control"
The budget for the eradication program in Morelos State in 1975
was 130,434.78 U.S. dollars (3 million Mexican pesos) per year.
Morelos State is (1980) in the promotion phase of tick eradication
program and has constructed 20.33% of the total dipping vats planned (300
dipping vats). It is also planning to use spray facilities to control
t i cks.
The staff working within the state in the eradication campaign are
as follows (20 staff members):
1 Officer-in-charge (veterinarian)
1 Supervisor
2 Chief of Areas (veterinarians)
10 Field Inspectors
1 Assistant
1 Administrator of Budget
1 Assistant of Administrator
1 Draftsman
2 Typists
Personal communication with the Officei in-charge, Ricardo Guerrero Rios
(Veterinarian) in the State of Morelos.


46
As the intimate mechanism of resistance becomes better known,
selection of resistant cattle can be used as a control method (Utech
etal., 1978; Wagland, 1979; Sutherst et at., 1979).
Acquired immune type of control
Snowball (1956) concluded that grooming, and other forms of
behavior, e.g. licking and rubbing, which produce tick mortality by
mechanical means must be considered in any study of natural mechanism
regulating cattle tick populations, and is acquired in the case of
European cattle.
Indian cattle are more resistant to B. microplus by selection
through long time periods but have low numbers of animals that carry
high numbers of ticks (Nagar et at., 1978).
Criollo cattle in Central America, which are probably the
dominant breed, have been shown to be more resistant to B. microplus
than European cattle. This helps to reduce the severity of the cattle
tick problem in those countries (ill loa and De Alba, 1957; Wharton,
1974b).


7
Recently (Anonymous, 1979), a workshop on Livestock Pest Manage
ment was held at Kansas State University. The committee members
recommended research be developed to determine the effect of abiotic
factors on survival, longevity and fecundity of ticks, and to assess
populations on different breeds of cattle. The primary idea was to put
into practice more than one control method with emphasis on cultural
control to be used in a regional basis (Anonymous, 1979)-
The Cattle Industry in Mexico
The cattle industry in Mexico is of an extensive type and is based
almost entirely on production from grazing animals. The only intensive
production occurs in the dairy animal industry close to the big popu
lation centers. Both improved breeds of cattle and good management
are utilized in the dairy industry. Breeding rates for beef cattle are
cl ose to 55 to 60% and the survival to sale is very low (13 to 14%). The
best meat production is in the "huastecas" in which slaughtered animal
weight averaged 200 kg or more. The national average is between 150
and 160 kg per animal. Milk production per cow per year is on the
average of one thousand liters. There exists a social problem with the
people working as middle man between the producer and the consumer
because they increase the price of milk and beef. The producer
earns just 25% of the final price of the meat (Anonymous, 1980).
The average consumption per habitant per year is 20 kg of red
meat and 8l liters of milk and its derivatives. In other developed
countries the consumption is higher in the population areas of higher
income. Since I960 the federal government has been working on a


50
improve the breeds of cattle. The animals, other than cattle, include
29,653 horses, 3h,k8S donkeys, 10,031 mules and 1.2 million chickens.
Agriculture is mixed with livestock production. The main agronomic
crops are corn, beans and sorghum which are cultivated during the wet
season. Rice and sugarcane are cultivated all year round and are
located in irrigated areas. Cattle are maintained in an area of
1^5,783 ha but because the management is not under any direct control
this land becomes more depleted year by year because of erosion. The
main livestock breeds are native cattle (creollum) and Brahman crosses.
Some agricultural land is rotated yearly between cattle and crops.
There are some dairy cattle (Holstein and Holstein crosses) which are
grazed close to the roads and main population centers (Cuernavaca,
Cuautla, Joiutla, Zacatepec) and in the dry season cattlemen feed
these animals sugarcane and rice residues. There are some animals
in stalls all the year round.
When a highly improved production breed is introduced in the
State it soon becomes infected with cattle tick fever transmitted by
Boophilus miovoplus. Introduction of European cattle has failed because
of the cattle tick problem (Guerrero Rios, Personal Communication).
Cattle Tick Eradication Campaign
The present cattle tick control program has been based on the use
of chemicals. A cattle tick campaign against Boophilus spp. and
conducted by the government started in 1969 to 1971 in some states of
the Mexican Republic such as Nuevo Leon, Tabasco and Veracruz. In 1976,
the campaign was initiated in the whole Mexican territory. It is a


179
was found between the mean monthly temperatures of the macroclimate and
mesoclimate registered at the meteorological station at Yecapixtla area
with the number of days that ticks spend laying eggs (Table 4). This
may be because no microclimate conditions were correlated with the
habitat's tick placement. The longevity of larvae showed a similar
behavior to the oviposition periods (Tables 5 and 6). Here the primer
vegetation effect stabilized the temperature and no significant differences
(P < 0.01) were found. This occurred on thicket, with the exception of
exposure 3 (early November) when larvae were found dead (Figure 19) no
significant correlation (P < 0.01) could be made with monthly mean
temperatures registered in the macroclimate and mesoclimate (Table 6).
Tukahirwa showed (1976) that temperature and humidity fluctuations
were smaller in sparce vegetation in comparison with woody vegetation.
This fact could be the explanation of the significant differences found
in the three different habitats as no temperatures were registered
within each habitat.
The maximum total longevity of the non-pa ras itic stages of the
cattle tick, B. microplus in Yecapixtla, Morelos was found to be 85 days
on pasture, 115 days on thicket and 134 days on primer vegetation (2.8,
3-8, and 4.5 months, respectively). The cattle are normally switched
to grazing on pasture on the properties from July to December (six months),
if the last tick dropped from an animal in late June the offspring larvae
will die of starvation before the cattle return to this pasture from the
corn stalks. This shows that a pasture spelling control method could be
incorporated for this area. What actually happens is that cattle owners
do not remove all the cattle from pastures in the dry season because they


80


LITERATURE CITED 196
APPENDICES 206
1 RAW DATA FOR THE PREOVI POSITION, OVI POSITION,
LONGEVITY AND NON-PARAS ITIC STAGES OF THE CATTLE
TICK, BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS 208
2 RAW DATA OF THE FECUNDITY OF THE CATTLE TICK,
B. MICROPLUS 218
3 RAW DATA OF THE NON-PARAS IT IC STAGES OF THE CATTLE
TICK, B. MICROPLUS 226
4 DATA ON MICROCLIMATE 230
5 RANGES IN OVI POS ITI ON AND LONGEVITY OF LARVAE PERIODS
AT THREE LOCALITIES IN MORELOS STATE, MEXICO 233
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 235


222
Appendix 2E. Raw data of the fecundity of the cattle tick
B. micpoplus. Fifth Series. February 13 to
March
2, 1977.
Cuaut1 a,
Morelos,
Mexico.
N u
m b e
r of
T i c
k s
Date
E-l
E-2
E-3
E-4
E-5
Mean
Feb.
13
201
413
528
396
501
2,039
407.80
14
353
480
323
422
301
1 ,881
376.20
15
232
355
180
243
319
1 ,329
265.80
16
0
116
120
102
89
427
85.40
17
0
102
73
81
108
364
72.80
18
89
63
50
84
76
362
72.40
19
20
18
39
60
75
212
42.40
20
89
16
42
26
31
204
40.80
21
13
11
38
18
52
132
26.40
22
10
8
22
6
0
46
9.20
23
23
26
8
6
0
63
12.60
24
28
0
0
5
18
51
10.20
25
10
1
5
1
0
21
4.20
26
6
0
0
0
0
6
1.20
27
3
0
0
Vi
3
0.60
28
0
1
2
3
0.60
Mar.
1
1
ju
0
1
0.20
2
JU
0
0.00
Total
1,078
1,599
1,428
1 ,452
1,572
7,129.00
n
(17)
(16)
(13)
(16)
(12)
Mean
63.41
99.93
109.84
90.75
131.00
X
1,425.80
Death of the tick.


Figure 25.
Number of eggs of the cattle tick, B. microplus, of the third series. October-
November 1977.


205
Wharton, R. H. and W. J. Roulston. 1970. Resistance of ticks to
chemicals. Ann. Rev. Entorno 1. 15:381-404.
Wharton, R. H. and B. W. Utech. 1970. The relation between engorge
ment and dropping of Boophilus mieroplus (Canestrini) (ixodidae)
to the assessment of tick numbers on cattle. J. Aust. Entomol.
Soc. 9:171-182.
Wilkinson, P. R. 1957- The spelling of pasture in tick control.
Aust. J. Agr. 8:414-423.
Wilkinson, P. R. 1970. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance
of cattle tick in Australia: Observations and hypotheses.
Acarologia. Tome XII; Fase. 3, France.
Willadsen, P. 1976. Allergenic activity of an esterase from Boophilus
mieroplus. Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc. 72(3):346-349
Zapata, M. R. and L. M. Camino. 1977. Study of the free phase of
Boophilus mieroplus (Can.) in Chontalpa, Tabasco, Mexico.
Abs. Entomol. 8(2):A21.


98
Table 6. The duration of the longevity of larvae at
Yecapixtla, Morelos, Mexico as influenced by
the macroclimate and mesoclimate. First
phase.
Exposure
Month
Macro (A)
TxC
Longevity of
Larvae Period
Mean in Days
Meso (B)
TxC
1
Dec.
21 .9
50.67
17.0
2
Jan.
22.4
67.33
16.5
3
Jan.
22.4
29.00
16.5
4
Feb.
23.2
23.2
17.6
5
Mar.
24.3
63.33
18.2
6
Apr.
26.2
42.00
19.5
7
May
25.8
59.00
22.7
8
Jun.
25.0
53.67
22.5
Hypothesis*
r = 0.0562
r =
0.1596
Ho: r = 0
r2 = 0.0032
2
r =
0.0255
Hi: r/0
R2 = 0.9968
r2 =
0.9745
Do not reject
b = 0.4171
b =
0.7744
(A) Macroclimate: Monthly
(B) Mesoclimate: Monthly
September 1978.
mean temperature
mean temperature
of twelve years,
for October 1977
to
Linear correl
Univ. Press.
ation ref.
Snedecor, G. W. (1961). 160-193 pp.
Iowa St.


62
with cloth. The top could be removed so observations of the ticks
inside could be made. Measurements were 25 cm in height and 18 by
30 cm in width. It has a 12 cm center ring made of wood. The bottom
of the cage was made of wood and covered with a mesh screen cage. This
bottom could be separated, buried in the soil and covered on the inside
with earth (Figure 7).
Five engorged females (8.0 to 11.00 mm) were placed in the cage.
These ticks were allowed to move freely inside the cage. Ticks which
died during the first preoviposition period (3 to 8 days) were replaced
with live ones of the same age.
At each locality (Vecapixtla, Cuernavaca and Zacatepec) five
cages were located for each exposure and each cage contained five
engorged females. Weekly observations were made by removing the soil
in the bottom of each cage and looking for the ticks. Each cage also
contained six tubes with an engorged female (8.0 to 11.0 mm). Three
of the tubes were inside the cage on the ground and were not covered
with vegetation during the trial. The second three tubes were placed
outside the cage. Each exposure consisted of five cages and 25 ticks
and of 30 tubes and 30 ticks.
Exposures were conducted in Yecapixtla boundary in the same area
where the first phase took place. In Cuernavaca the cages were placed
in a place called Progreso. The area occupied was 6 by 6 meters
(Figure 8). Pasture was African star, Cynodon plectostachius. In
Zacatepec boundary the cages were placed at an experiment station
of the Mexican government on experimental pasture areas. Pastures
were setaria grass, Setaria sphanoeata var. mandi and Bermuda grass


Figure 37- Comparison of oviposition periods studied in cages at three
localities. Second phase. 1978-1979.