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Fruit flies of Florida (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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Title:
Fruit flies of Florida (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Creator:
Rohani Binti Ibrahim, 1950-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 356 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Abdomen ( jstor )
Fruit flies ( jstor )
Holotypes ( jstor )
Hyalin ( jstor )
Keys ( jstor )
Larvae ( jstor )
Male genitalia ( jstor )
Ovipositor ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Thorax ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Entomology and Nematology -- UF
Entomology and Nematology thesis Ph. D
Fruit-flies -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Orlando ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 348-355.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rohani binti Ibrahim.

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FRUIT FLIES OF FLORIDA
(DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)













By

ROHANI BINTI IBRAHIM

























A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1980































Dedicated

To these wonderful beings

my husband, Yusoh and children Sharila and Melissa Johannie













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS





I am deeply indebted to the following individuals and

institutions for their co-operation, for making their collections available to me or for providing information or both. The abbreviations given below are used throughout the text to indicate depositories and present locations of specimens used in this study; Dr. P. Wygodzindsky, American Museum Natural History, New York, New York (AMNH); Dr. J. F. McAlpine, Canada, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario (CNC); Dr. I. L. Pechman, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (CN); Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville (FSCA); Dr. D. H. Habeck, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (FSCA); Dr. M. K. Thayer, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

(CZ); Dr. C. L. Smith, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (UGA); and Dr. R. H. Foote and Mr. G. C. Steyskal, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (USNM).

Additional materials were collected during the period of

study. These field trips and visits to several museums were financially supported by the University of Agriculture, Malaysia and through assistance of the University of Florida (FDACS). A number of individuals assisted me in collecting specimens and setting up iii









rearing materials. I wish to extend my sincere thanks to the following; Dr. Y. Salleh, Mr. C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., Mr. R. A. Belmont, Ms. J. Gillmore, and Mr. H. A. Greenbaum.

I am grateful to my chairman, Dr. D. H. Habeck, and co-chairman, Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., and committee members, Drs. G. E. Allen and F. W. Zettler, for their continued guidance and support during this study. My thanks also goes to Dr. R. H. Foote, Mr. G. C. Steyskal, and Mr. A. Friedberg for their helpful suggestions and to Drs. J. F. Butler and D. V. Young, and Ms. T. C. Carlysle for their interest in illustration and photographic suggestions. A sincere appreciation goes to Dr. K. R. Langdon and Mr. C. Artaud for identifying the host plants and reviewing the host lists.

A special appreciation is expressed also to my husband,

Yusoh, who was most understanding during the preparation of this work and to dear friends, Ms. Thelma Carlysle, Francis Ward, Barbara Hollien, and Janice Sapp for their constant encouragement and comfort.

A very special gratitude goes to my family in Malaysia, who

have constantly given me encouragement and support. My two children Sharila and Melissa Johannie deserve my heartiest appreciation for being so wonderful throughout this work.

I also want to thank University of Agriculture, Malaysia for the financial support which made this study possible.

iv

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . .... ... iii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . vii

INTRODUCTION ....... ................ . . . 1

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . 3

BIOLOGY .... . . ............. . . . . . . ... 13

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE . . . . .... . . . . .. 43

METHODS AND MATERIALS. . . . . . . . . . . 46

Rearing. . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Morphological Studies. . . . . . . . . 48

CHECKLIST OF FLORIDA TEPHRITIDAE. ... ........... 50

Genus Toxotrypana Gestacker. . . . . . . 50
Genus Peronyma Loew. . . . . . . . . 50
Genus Procecidochares Hendel . . . . . . 50
Genus Paracantha Coquillett . . . . . . 50
Genus Eurosta Loew .. . . . . . . . . 51
Genus Acidogona Loew . . . . . . .. . 51
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy . . . .. . . 51
Genus Acrotaenia Loew . . . . . . . ... 51
Genus Euaresta Loew . . ................. 51
Genus Dioxyna Frey . . ................ 52
Genus Trupanea Schrank ................ 52
Genus Tephritis Latreille. . . .............. 52
Genua Dyseuaresta Hendel . . ............... 52
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin. . . ............ 52
Genus Myoleja Rondani . ............. 53
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel . . . . . . 53
Genus Stenopa Loew . . . . . . . .... 53
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken. . . . . . . 53
Genus Ceratitis Macleay. .... .... .. .. 54
Genus Anastrepha Schiner ..... .. . . . . 54
Genus Rhagoletis Loew. . . . . . . . . 54
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin. . . . . . . ... 55
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy . . . . ... 55



v












TABLE OF CONTENTS--CONTINUED

Page

Genus Euleia Walker. .... .............. 55
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett .... .. .. . . 55

TAXONOMIC TREATMENT. ........ ........ . . .. 56

Key to the Florida Genera of Tephritidae . . . . 56 Genus Acidogona Loew . . . . . . . . . 61
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy. ........ . . 63
Genus Acrotaenia Loew . . . . . . . . 66
Genus Anastrepha Schiner ............... . 68
Genus Ceratitis Macleay ..... . . . ... 91
Genus Dioxyna Frey . . . . ........ 96
Genus Dyseuaresta Hendel . . . . . . . . 105
Genus Euleia Walker. . . . . . . . . . 108
Genus Euaresta Loew ............. . . 110
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin. ....... ...... .. 115
Genus Eurosta Loew .............. .... 117
Genus Myoleja Rondani. . . . . . . . . 125
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken. . . . . .. . 132
Genus Paracantha Coquillett. . . . . . . . 149
Genus Peronyma Loew. . . . . . . . . 154
Genus Procecidochares Hendel . . . . . . . 157
Genus Rhagoletis Loew. . . . ................. 163
Genus Stenopa Loew . . . . . . . . . 176
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy . . . . . . 179
Genus Tephritis Latreille. . . . . . . ... 181
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett. . . . . . . . 184
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker . . . . . .. 189
Genus Trupanea Guettard ... ... ......... . 190
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel . . . . . . .. .. 202
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin . . . . . . . 214

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. . . ............. ... .... 218

LITERATURE CITED. ................ . . . ..... 348

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. ................ .. .... 356












vi


















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



FRUIT FLIES OF FLORIDA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)






By

Rohani Binti Ibrahim

June 1980

Chairman: Dr. D. H. Habeck Co-Chairman: Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. Major Department: Department of Entomology and Nematology

The'fruit fly fauna of Florida was studied for the first

time. Keys to genera and species are given along with descriptions of the 24 genera and 56 species including one new species. Data are presented in the following format: Synonymy, diagnosis, taxonomic notes, hosts, distribution, Florida records and discussion. Wings are figured for 56 species and male genitalia of 49 species are illustrated. Maps showing Florida distribution are provided for all species.









vii
















INTRODUCTION



The family Tephritidae is moderately large, withmore than 4,000 species distributed throughout the temperate, subtropical, and tropical areas of the world. In America, north of Mexico, there are approximately 275 described species. In Florida, there are 25 genera and 56 species of tephritids represented by the 5 subfamilies: Dacinae, Oedaspinae, Terelliinae, Tephritinae, and Trypetinae.

Many fruit lies are economically important, causing

tremendous losses each year to agriculture through their attack on various fruit, nut, and vegetable crops. Other species breed in flower heads, especially of composites, where they feed on the developing seeds, while others mine the stems or form galls on the stem and roots.

An extensive literature on the biology of the control

of certain species has been accumulated over the past 100 years because of their economic importance. Much biological and host data on Florida tephritids is available from literature reports, rearing records, and collecting data. Additional collecting and rearing, as well as ecological studies are needed before biological information on most species will be reasonably complete.








2


In spite of the widespread interest of these highly

ornamented flies and the widely scattered description of Florida tephritids, no monographic study of the family has been done for Florida fruit flies. Numerous generic revision during the past 25 years have clarified many of the problems, but much remains to be done. The purpose of this work is to provide workers with a key and descriptions to Florida fruit flies as well as to bring together host information and distribution records for each species. I hope this study will bring the taxonomy of this family up to date for Florida and will stimulate further research on Florida fruit flies to fill some of the gaps in our present knowledge.















GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY



Detailed accounts of tephritid morphology are provided

by Benjamin (1934), Foote and Blanc (1963), Bush (1966), and Novak (1974). This brief discussion focuses on the terminology used in the taxonomic studies of fruit flies.

Head (Fig. 1, 2). The frons (FR) lies between the eyes

(E) and extends from the vertex to the lunule (LU). The frons usually is pollinose and bears the upper and lower fronto-orbital bristles. The upper fronto-orbital bristles (UFO) usually consist of 2 pairs, but 1 or 3 pairs may be present. Two or 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles (LFO) usually are present, but may vary from 1-5 pairs. The lunule extends from the base of the frons to the antennal base.

Below the frons is the facial region (F), which extends from the antennae to the anterior oral margin. The gena (GN) extends vertically from the oral margin to the bottom of the compound eyes. Directly below the compound eyes are the genal bristles

(G). The anterolateral margin of the oral opening and post genae

(PG) occasionally is heavily setosed. The postocular bristles (POC) are always present and may be light or dark, slender, or robust, and blunt or sharp tipped.



3







4



The antennae are 3 segmented. The 3rd antennal segment (3AS) bears the arista (A) which may be varicolored. The 3rd segment is rounded especially, but sometimes has a distinct apicodoral point.

The proboscis is composed of the rostrum and labellum (L). In Genus, Dioxyna, the labellum is slender and attached by its anterior end to the rosturm, forming a geniculate mouthpart.

Thorax. (Fig. 4). The coloration and thoracic pattern

are usually useful for generic and species separation. The basic color of the thorax is black, brown, or yellow pollinose. The mesonotum is interrupted by an incompletetransverse suture (TS). The chaetotaxy of the mesonotum is of generic significance. The relative position of the dorsocentral (DC) and acrostichal bristles (ACR) to the suture and supra-alars (ASA) are of great value in identification. All species of Florida tephritids usually have the following bristles present: 1 pair of humeral (H), 1 pair of presutural

(PS), 1 pair of intraalars (IAL), 1 pair of acrostichals (ACR), 1 pair of dorsocentrals (DC), 2 pairs of notopleurals (N), and 1-2 pairs of scutellar bristles (SC). The scutellum can be distinctly enlarged cr swollen, shining dark brown or black, and the postscutellum and metanotum sometimes can bear color patterns of importance. Chaetotaxy of the legs is less significant except for the minute preapical setae on the venter of hind tibia of Neaspilota, and swollen femur in males of Euaresta. The coloration of femur may be important in identification.








5



The wings bear significant taxonomic characters and are

extensively used for identification. Color pattern and its relation to the veins are useful for species separation. The terminology used by Foote and Blanc (1963) is used for the wing veins and cells (2ig. 3). Among venation characters used are: the presence or absence of setae on the node and vein R 4 +5, position of vein r -m in relation to the stigma, the distance along vein M 1+2 separating vein r -m and m, and the presence or absence of a bulla in cell R5.

Abdomen (Fig. 5). The abdomen has 5 visible segments. The terga usually are a single color or are ornamented with a color pattern usually of generic or specific significance as in Acidogona and Xanthaciura. Genitalic characters often are useful. The female ovipositor (Fig. 6) is long and simple and consists of the ovipositor sheath (OVS), the basal sheath (BS),raspers (r), the distal sheath (DS), and the piercer. The tip of the ovipositor has significant taxonomic characters for species separation, especially in the genus Anastrepha. The tip may be short and broad, with many serrations, or long and tapering with larger rounded serrations. The male genitalia (Fig. 7) are either small and compact or large and robust. The epandrium (EP) may be highly arched or truncate; the chaetotaxy of the dorsum is of generic and specific significance. Surstyli (SS) may be elongate or blunt with the inner edges smooth or serrated. Theproctiger (PRG) lobe varies in size and shape and bears setae scattered over its entire surface. The











prenisetae (PRS) are a pair of dark tooth-like projections on the inner margins of the surstyli. The ejaculatory apodeme may be fan-shaped or spatulate depending on the species.

Eggs. The eggs are generally white and may be elongated

with a long tapering stalk as in the eggs of Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker and Paracantha culta (Wiedemann); others may be elliptical; the charion may be smooth or with reticulation and sculpturing; some are without such characters. Characters of the eggs rarely have been used in identification of fruit flies, because not much is known about their morphology. In the rearing and collecting work, workers seldom come across the egg or actually oook for eggs. More easily accessible taxonomic characters of adults had larvae are available and are extensively used in fruit fly taxonomy. Brief descriptions of the eggs of several species of tephritids can be found in Knab and Yothers (1914), Emmart (1933), Benjamin (1934), Tauber and Toschi (1965a), and Weems (1965, 1969).

Larva (Fig. 8). The larvae can be divided into 2 morphological groups; 1 group has a shortened barrel-shaped bodywhich is typical of the gall makers and some species that breed in composite flower-heads. Most species are muscidiform (Fig. 8), the body gradually tapering from a bluntly broad posterior end to a narrow head that possesses a pair of mouth hooks (MH). Full grown larvae are 3-15 mm long, white to light yellow. The exoskeleton, usually is smooth, but may be wrinkled in some species. Occasionally dark markings may be seen on the body which are of generic







7




and specific significance. Microscopic spines may be present on the dorsum of at least some of the segments. Band of spinules always present ventrally on every segment, presumably is an aid in locomotion.' The non-sclerotized head bears a pair of black retractible mouth hooks, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, and sensory organs. These structures provide diagonistic characters for separating genera and closely related species. The anterior spiracles (ASP) are a paired organ usually located dorsolaterally on the prothorax, each bearing distally a number of digits which varies from 3 in Neaspilota achilleae Johnson to as many as 53 in Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann). The caudal segment may be smooth or tuberculate; posterior spiracles occur on the dorsal half of the segment. Greene (1929), Benjamir (1934), and Phillips (1946) discussed in detail the larval characters of some of the Florida tephritids. The most recent works on the immatures of some tephritidspecies are those of Pruitt (1953), Bush (1962, 1965), and Steyskal (1975).

Pupa (Fig.9) The Puparium is of the usual stout cylindrical

form, with rounded ends ranging from straw colored to black, except that of Acinia fucata (Fabricius), which is bean-shaped, glossy rufous, brown dorsally and laterally. Length varies from 2-13 mm. Segmental sutures are clearly defined in most species; others are indistinct and poorly defined, like those of Euarestoides abstersus (Loew) and Tephritis subpura (Johnson). Anterior spiracles usually are like those of the larvae, but more likely to be highly pigmented







8



in some species, the caudal end often blackened. The posterior spiracles usually are located on spiracular plate. Greene (1929) and Benjamin (1934) briefly described the pupal characters of some tephritid species.





















Figure 1-2. Chaetotaxy and areas of the head; Fig; 1, lateral
view. Fig. 2. Front view; A: Arista; E: Eyes; F: Face;
FC: Facial carina; FR: frons; G. Genal bristles; GN: Gena; INV: Intravertical bristles; IV: Innervertial
bristle; L: Labella; LFO: Lower fronto-orbital bristles;
LU: Lunule; OC: Ocellar bristles; OV: Outervertical
bristles: PA: Parafacial; FO: Parafrontal; PG: Postgena;
POC: Postocular bristles; UFO: Upper fronto-orbital
bristles; IAS: ist antennal segment; 2AS: 2nd antennal
segment; 3AS: 3rd antennal segment;

Figure 3: Wing showing cells and venation.

Figure 4. Dorsal view, chaetotaxy and areas of thorax: ACR:
Acrostichal bristle; ASA: Anterior supra-alar bristle;
DC: Dorsocentral bristle; H: Humeral bristle; IAR: Intraalar bristle; N: Notopleural bristle; PAL: Postalar bristles; SCS: Scutoscutellar suture; SCT: Scutellum;
TS: Transverse suture.

Figure 5. Dorsal view of abdomen showing segmentation and
position of bristles; OVS: Ovipositor sheath; T:-Tergum.








10















-IV IN .. a-- O S. .o ." LU .........


POC


I 4












E AS.


"5 'C PA--- -- ..

























-oc











-.-- L -AA


















C-, ,.2.". ,A,
2, PAL:.. ... .(



.IA.














*:. Y I1
























Figure 6. Female ovipositor; BS: Basal sheath; DS: Distal
sheath; OVD: Oviduct; OVS: Ovipositor sheath; r: rasper.

Figure 7. Male genitalia; DP: Epandrium; F: Futella PRG:
Proctiger; PRS: Pronsisetae; PTH: Phallotheca! SS:
Surstylus.

Figure 8. Typical larva; A: Abdominal segment; ASP: Anterior
spiracle: MH: Mouth hook; T: Thoracic segment.

Figure 9. Typical pupa.





12











.' JAC.AATOqy 1r ., p
SI O OV





-- PRs






S.













-.Asp
PA7 A 5 A. A 3 A I T
--o, M

















BIOLOGY



As far as is known, all fruit flies deposit their eggs

directly into living healthy plant tissues. Eggs may be inserted to a depth of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in soft fruits or just beneath the skin in others; eggs of leaf-mining tephritids are inserted from the ventral surface into the parenchyma of leaf margin like those of Euleia fratria (Loew) and E. heraclei (Linnaeus). Females of some species may successively use the same ovipuncture or ovipunctures made by others to deposit their eggs. Up to 8 eggs/puncture have been observed, but 3-4 eggs are more common. Normally the larva emerges within a few days and begins to feed and burrow into the pulp of the hosts; some excavate galleries within the parenchyma of the leaf; others mine down to the ovaries, receptacles and corolla. Damage to the commercial fruits and vegetables can be substantial. Larvae of those that breed primarily on composites feed on the developing seeds and cause serious losses of viability. The infested fruits or vegetables ripen prematurely, deteriorate and drop to the ground. Composite feeding tephritids tend to pupate within the flower heads at the feeding site, such as Trupanea actinobola (Loew), Acidogona melanura (Loew) and Acinia fucata (Fabricius). Duration of stages



13







14




and host preference varies greatly with species. Christenson and Foote (1960) summarized the life history of several species of fruit flies. A few days to a week or more are required for attainment of sexual maturity, after the adult emerges, mating occurs and a new cycle is begun. Bush (1966) reported that adults of Rhagoletis live up to 70 days in the laboratory, but 20-30 under natural conditions. Adult longevity of Euleia fratria exceeds 13 weeks(Tauber and Toschi, 1965a).

Bateman (1972) divided the family into 2 major groups based on physiological and ecological characters. Many species that inhabit tropical and subtropical regions are multivoltine and have no obvious diapause. Several species endemic to Florida seem to fall into this group. The univoltine group inhabiting the more temperate region have winter diapause. All holarctic species of Rhagoletis essentially belong to this group (Bush, 1966). The range of environments to which these forms are exposed is extremely broad; no single environmental component determines their abundance. Bateman (1972) discussed in detail the principal components of the life system of fruit flies.

Little is known about the factors controlling diapause

in fruit flies; these characteristics are of considerably selective advantage as they insure supply of adults for several seasons. Most temperate species of fruit flies overwinter as diapausing pupae. Usually diapause must be broken by a period of low







15



temperature, some individuals require as many as 4 successive chillings before completing development (Boyce, 1934).

Many species of fruit flies are attacked by a complex of native larval parasites. The majority of these parasites exist at quite low densities even in the native hosts. Two hymenopterous parasites, Heteroschema punctata (Ashmead) and Colotrechnus ignotus BuArso, were reared from the immature stages of T. actinobola by Stegmaier (1968b). Marsh (1970) described a new species of parasite attacking larval of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) and A. interrupta Stone from Florida. Baranowski and Swanson (1970) introduced 45 females and 26 males of Parachasma cereus (Gahan) a parasite of A. suspensa in Homestead and found that 2 1/2 months after release,

3.4-25% of pupae from fruits about 0.4 miles (0.64 Km) from the point of release, were parasitized. Up to 43% of pupae from tropical almond were parasitized by these parasites. The effectiveness of some biological control efforts in fruit fly control hag- been evaluated by Clausen (1956).

Courtship and mating behavior in Tephritidae havebeen

extensively studied by many authors and may be-a complex process involving a variety of cues and sequences (Prokopy and Bush, 1973; Stoltzfusand Foote, 1965; and Tauber and Tauber, 1967). Prokopy et al. (1971) divided the mating behavior of Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh into 2 main processes and revealed that the site of male: female assemblyfor mating was exclusively on the fruits of the larval host plant. Zonosemata electa (Say) adults have been






16



observed initiating copulation on the fruits of their respective larval host plants (Peterson, 1923 and Burdett, 1935) The elements and the sequence of courtship displays of male and female E. fratria were discussed by Tauber and Toschi (1965a). Courtship behavior of A. suspensa was described by Nation (1972). Knowledge of this behavior is important not only because of its potential usefulness toward developing new, non-insecticide approaches to population management, but also because of its relevance to the possibility of rapid sympatric host formation and speciation especially with the Rhagoletis pomonella species complex (Bush 1966, 1969a, b). Sound production, the use of froth massess, body movements, and elaborate wing displays coupled with distinctive wing patterns are known to be important components in courtship (Stoltzfus and Foote, 1965). Bateman (1972) considers smell and hearing as the 2 most important sensory stimuli for mating response in Tephritidae.

Tephritidaearewell known as fruit flies, however, all

parts of plants are attacked including flower heads, leaves, stems, and roots. Of the 56 species recorded in Florida, at least 44 species have host records or probable host associations. Foote and Blanc (1963) compiled a list of host plants of California Tephritidae. An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies of North America as compiled by Wasbauer (1972). The list at the end of this section includes all known host plants of Florida Tephritidae arranged according to host plant families and fruit fly species.








17

The extent of those specificity is well studied for Rhagoletis species. Bush (1966) presented evidence that indicates that under both laboratory and field conditions, many species of Rhagoletis are capable of ovipositing in a wide range of fruits which are not their normal hosts.

The host plants of Florida Tephritidae are listed on the following pages.


Anacardiceae

Mangifera indica L. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker Spondias mombin L. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) Spondias purpurea L. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Spondias sp. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) Annonaceae

Annona reticulata L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Annona squamosa L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Apocynaceae

Carissa grandiflora

(E. H. Mey)A. DC. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Aquifoliaceae

Ilex caroliniana (Walt.)

Trelease Myoleja limata (Coquillett)

Ilex cassine L. Myoleja limata (Coquillett)






18




Ilex coriacea (Pursh) Chapm. Myoleja limata (coquillett) Ilex decidua Walt. Molea limata .(Coquillett) II.x alabra (L.) Gray Myoleja limata (Coquillett) Ilex opaca Ait. Myoleja lilata (Coquillett) Ilex vomitoria Ait. Myoleja timata (Coquillett) Araliaceae

Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Caricaceae

Carica papaya L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker Combretaceae

Terminalia catappa L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Terminalia muelleri Benth. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Compositae

Ageratum houstonianum Mill. Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)

Ageratum littorale Gray Trupanea ageratea Benjamin

Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin A~eratum sp. Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Euaresta bella (Loew)

Ambrosia sp. Euarestoides abstersus (loew)

Aster adnatus Nutt. Trupaneaactinobola (Loew)

Aster carolinianus Walt. Neaspilota achilleae Johnson Trupanea actinobola (Loew)

Aster concolar L. Nleaspilota achilleae Johnson

Aster dumosus L. Trupanea actinobola (Loew)






19




Aster dumosus L. var.

subulaefolius T &G Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Aster elliotii T &G Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Aster tortifolius Michx. Neaspiolta achilleae Johnson Neaspolita punctistigma Benjamin Baccharis glomeruliflora

Pers. Tephritis subpura (Johnson) Balduina angustifolia

(Pursh) Robinson Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)

Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips) Bidens bipinnata L. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Dioxvna thomae (Curran) Xanthaciura insecta (Loew) Bidens coronata (L.) Britt Xanthaciura insecta (Loew) Bidens laevis (L.) BSP Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Xanthacdura insecta (Loew) Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips) Bidens mitis (Michx) Sherff. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Xanthaciura insecta (Loew) Bidens pilosa L. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Euaresta bella (Loew) Xanthaciura insecta (Loew) Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips) Bidens pilosa L. var.

radiata Schultz. Bip. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)






20



Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)

Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC. Paracantha forficula Benjamin Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)

Carduus carolinianusWalt. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Paracantha culta (Wiedemann) Carduus nuttalii (DC.)

Pollard Paracantha culta (Wiedemann) Carduus spinosissimus Walt. Paracantha culta (Wiedemann) Carduus sp. Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin Paracantha culta (Wiedemann) Chrysopsis graminifolia

(Michx.) Ell. Neaspilota achilleae Johnson

Neaspilota punctisticma Benjamin Trupanea mevarna (Walker)

Conyza canadensis (L.)

Conquist Procecidochares australis Aldrich Coreopsis leavenworthii T &G Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Coreopsis nudata Nutt. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Coreopsis tripteris L. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Coreopsis sp. Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Cosmos sp. Dicxzyna picciola (Bigot) Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Trupanea eclipta Benjamin Erigeron quercifolius Lam. Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin Trupanea actinobola (Loew)

Erigeron strigosus Muhl.

ex Willd. Neaspilota achilleae Johnson














Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin Erigeron vernus (L.)

Torr. & A. Gray Neaspilota achilleae Johnson Neaspolta dolosa Benjamin Neaspilota punctistiqma Benjamin Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Erigeron ISp. Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Eupatroium coelestinum L. Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips) Gnaphalium obtusifoliumL. Trumanea dacetoptera Phillips Haplopappus divaricatus

(Nutt.) Gray Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Haplopappus phyllocephallus

DC. var. megacephallus

(Nash) Waterfall Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin Helenium flexuosum Raf. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) Heterotheca hyssopifolia

(Nutt.) R. W. Long Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin Heterotheca mariana (L.)

Shiners Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin Heterocheca nervosa (Willd.)

Shinners var.

microcephala (Small)

Shinners Neaspilota achilleae Johnson






22



Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips Trupanea mevarna (Walker) Heterotheca oligantha

(Chapm.) Harms. Neaspilota achilleae Johnson Trupanea mevarna (Walker) Heterotheca subaxillaries

(Lam.) Britt. & Rusby Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin

Procecidocharesaustralis Aldrich Xanthaciura insecta (Loew) Heterotheca trichophylla

(Nutt.) Shinners Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin Peronyma sarcinata (Loew) Heterotheca sp. Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin Tx upaea actinobola (Loew) Trupanea mevarna (Walker) Hieracium argyraeum Small Acidogona melanura (Loew) Neaspilota achilleae Johnson Hiera:cium gronovii L. Acidogona melanura (Loew) Neaspilota achilleae Johnson Hieracium scabrum Michx. Acidogona melanura (Loew) Hieracium sp. Neaspilota achilleae Johnson Acidogona melanura (Loew) Trupanea actinobola (Loew)






23



Melanthera aspera Jacq. var.

grabiuscla (Kuntze) Parks Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann) Melanthera nivea (L.) Small Dyseuaresta me*icana (Wiedemann) Melanthera parviflora Small Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann) Melanthera sp. Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann) Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin Placbea foetida (L.) DC. Acinia fucata (Fabricius) Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin Pluchea imbricata (Kearney)

Nash Acinia fucata (Fabricius)

Neaspilbta punctistigma Benjamin Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. Acinia fucata (Fabricius) Pluchea purpurescens (Sw.) DC. Acinia fucata (Fabricius) Pluchea rosea P. K. Godfrey Acinia fucata (Fabricius) Pluchea sp. Acinia fucata (Fabricius) Solidago caesia L. Trupanea actinobola (Loew) Solidago chapmanii T &G Eurosta donysa (Walker) Trupanea actinobla (Loew)

Solidago fistulosa Mill. Eurosta comma (Wiedemann) Eurosta floridensis Foote

Solidago gigantea Ait. Trupanea actinobla (Loew) Solidago stricta Ait. Procecidochares polita (Loew) Trupanea actinobola (Loew)

Solidago sp. Eurosta comma (Wiedemann) Eurosta donysa (Walker)

Eurosta floridensis Foote

Procecidocharea pilota (LoeW)







24



Trypanea actinobola (Loew)

Tagetes recta L. Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)

Trilisa paniculata (Walt.)

es J. F. Gmel. Cass Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)

Vernonia blodgetti Small Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp.

Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)

Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)

Vernonia scaberrima Nutt. Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp.

Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)

Vernonia. sp. To Qpo lgia obliqua (Say) Cornaceae

Cornus florida L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Cucurbitaceae

Momordica balsamina L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Ebanaceae

Diospyros yirginiana L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Diospyros sp. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Ericaceae

Vaccinium arboreum Marsh Rhagoletis mendax Curran Vaccinium formosum Andr. Rhagoletis mendax Curran Euphorbiaceae

Bischofes Javanica Blume Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Flacourtiaceae

Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn)

Warb. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)






25

Flacourtia indica Anastrepha suspensa Guttiferae

Garcinia livingstonei

T. Anderson Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) lauraceae

Persea americana Mill Anastrepha suspensa (LOew) Malpighiaceae

Malpighia glabra L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) MyrtaGeae

Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz)

Willd. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzsch

ex. O. Berg. Anastrepha suspesnsa (Loew)

Eugenia uniflora L. Anastrepha suspensa(Loew)

Myrciaria cauliflora (DEC.)

0. Berg. Anastrepha suspensa

Pimanta dioica (L.) Merrill Anastrcpha suspensa (Loew)

Pseudanafiomis ufbellulifera

Kausel AnAstreepa suspensa (Loew)

Psidium littorale var.

longipes- (0. Berg.)

Fosb. Anastrepha susepnsa (Lorew)

Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemenn) Psidium friedrichsthalianum

(0. Berg.) Niewdenzu Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)







26




Paidium guajava L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Anastrepha ocresia (Walker) Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker Psidium sp. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Syzygium samarangense (Blume)

Merril & L. M. Perry Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Moraceae

Ficus carica L. Anastrepha suspensa (Lcow ) Olacaceae

Schoepfia schreberi

J. F. Gmel. Anastrepha interrupta Stone Oleaceae

Chionanthus virginicus L. Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush

Osmanthus americanus (L.)

Gray Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush Oxalidaceae

Averrhoa carambola L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Punicaceae

Punica granatum L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Rosaceae

Aronia arbutifolia (L.)

Pers. Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)

Crataegus maloides Sarg. Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)











Crataegus sp. Rhagoletispomonella (Walsh)

Eriobotrya japonica (Thub.)

Lindl. Anastrepha susppnsa (Loew)

Prunus americana Marsh. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Prunus serotina Ehrh. Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)

Prunus umbellata Ell. Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)

Prunus sp. Anastrepha suspense (Loew) Rhagoletispomonella (Walsh) Pyrus communis L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Pyrus X lecontei Rehd. Anastrepha suspensa (loew) Rubus sp. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Rutaceae

Casimiora edulis Llave Acinia picturata (Snow)

Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)

Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)

Citrofortunella mitis

(Blanco) J. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Certitis capitata (Wiedemann) Citrus aurantium L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Citrus X paradisi Macfady Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Citrus sinensis (L.)

Osbeck Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Citrus X nobilis Lour.

"Temple" Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)







28




Citrus sp. Anastrepha supensa (loew)

Clausena lansium (Lour.)

Skeels Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Fortunella margarita (Lour.)

Swinqle Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Fortunella Sp. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Mlrraya-. paniculata (L.)

Jack Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Severinia buxifolia

(Poir.) Ten Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Triphasia trifolia

(Burm. f.) P. Wils. Anastrepha suspense (Loew) Sapindaceae

Litchi chinensis Sonn. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Manilkara bahamensis (Bak.)

Lam & Meeus Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone

Manilkara zapota (L.)

Van Royen Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone Anastrepha ocresia (Walker) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Pouteria campechiana (HBK)

Baehni Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Synsepalum dulcificum

(Schumch. & Thonn)

Daniell ex X. Bell. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)






29




Solanaceae

Capsicum frutescens L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Lycopersicon esculentum

Mill Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) Zonosemata electa (Say) Solanum aculeatissimum

Jacq. Zonosemata electa (say)

Solanum carolinense L. Zonosemata electa (Say)






30



Hosts by Fruit Fly Species


Acidogona melanura (Loew)

Hieracium argyraeum Small

Hieracium grynovii (L.)

Hieracium scabrum Michx.

Hieracium sp.

Acinia fucata (Fabricius)

Plchea foetida (L.) DC

Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.

Pluchea purpurescens (Se.) DC

Pluchea rosea Godfrey

Pluchea sp

Acrotaenia testudinea (Loew)

No host information

Anastrepha edentata Stone

No host information

Anastrepha interrupta Stone

Schoepfia schreberi J. F. Gmel Anastrephanigrifascia Stone

Manilkara bahamensis

(Bak.) Lam. & Meeuse

Manilkara zapota (L.) von Royen Anastrepha bbliqua (Macquart)

Mangifera indica L.






31




Psidium guajava L.

Spondias mombin L,

Spondias purpurea L.

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)

Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen

Psidium quajava L.

Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Annona reticulata L.

Annona oquamosa L.

Averrhoa carambola L.

Bischofia javariica Blume

Capsicum fritescens L.

Carica papaya L.

Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A. DC,

Chrysophyllum oliviforme L.

Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Igram & H. E, Moore

Citrus aurantium L.

Citrus X paradisi Macfady

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

Citrus sp.

Clausenalansium 'Lour.) Skeels

Diospyros virginiana L.

Diospyros sp.

Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn.) Warb.






32







Eriobotrya japonica (Thub) Lindle. Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz) Willd. Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzschex O. Berg. Eugenia uniflora L. Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merrill Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle. Fortunella sp. Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson Litchi chinensis Sonn. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Malpighia glabra L. Mangifera indica L. Manilklara zapota (L.) van Royen Momordica balsamina L. Murraya paniculata- (L.) Jack Myrciara cauliflora (DC.) 0. Berg. Persea americana Mill. Pimento dioica (L.) Merrill Pouteria campechiana (HBK) Baehni Prunus americana Marsh Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. prunus sp.

Pseudanamomis umbellulifera Kausel






33








Psidium littorale var. longipes (0. Berg.) Fosb, Psidium freidrischsthalianum (0. Berg.) Niewdenzu

Psidium guava L.

Psidium sp.

Punica granatum L.

P rus communis L.

Pyrus Vlecontei Rehd.

Rubus sp.

Severiria buxifolia (Poir.) Ten

Spondias purpurae L.

Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach..& Thonn.) Daniell ex S. Bell

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston

Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merril & L, M, Perry

Terminalia catappa L.

Terminalia muelleri Benth.

Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wils.

Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram '& H. E. Moore

Psidium littorale var. long( es (0. Berg.) Fosb,

Syzygium jamnos (L.)' Alston Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)

Balduina angustifolia (Poursh) Robinson

Bideas bipinnata L.






34







Bidens leavis (L.) BSP

Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff

Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schultz-Bip.

Carduus carolinianus Walt.

Coreopsis leavenworthii T. & G.

Coreopsis nudata Nutt.

Coreopsis tinctoria L.

Coreopsis tripteris L.

Cosmos sp.

Helenium flexuosum Raf.

Tagetes erecta L. Dioxyna thomae (Curran)

Bidens bipinnata L.

Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)

Melanthera aspera Jacq. var. grabiuscula (Kuntze) Parks

Melanthera nivea (L.) Small Melanthera parviflora Small

Melanthera sp.

Euaresta aequalis (Loew)

No host information Euaresta bella (Loew)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Bidens pilosa L.





35










Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)

Amirosia sp.

Trilisa paniculata (Walt. ex J. F. Gmel) Cass. Euleia fratria (Loew)

No host information

Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)

Solidago fistulosa Mill.

Solidago sp.

Eurosta donysa (Walker)

Solidago champmanii T &G

Solidago sp.

Eurosta fenestrata Snow

No host information

Eurosta-floridensis Foote

Solidago fistulosa Mill.

Solidago sp

Myoleja limata (Coquillett)

Ilex caroliniana (Walt.) Trelease

Ilex. cassine L.

Ilex. coriacea (Pursh) Chapm.

Ilex decidua Walt,

Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray

Ilexr opaca Ait.






36







Ilex. vomitoria Ait, Myoleja nigricornis

No host information Myoleja rhino Steyskal

No host information

Neaspilota achilleae Johnson

Aster carolinianus Walt.

Aster concolor L.

Aster tortifolius Michx.

Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell,

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Erigeron vernus (L.) ToTr. & A. Gray

Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinnervar. microcephala (Small) Shinners

Heterotheca oligantha (CHapm.) Harms.

Hieracium argyracum Small

Hieracium gronovii L.

Hieracium scabrum Michx. Neaspilota dolosa (Benjamin)

Carduus sp.

Erigeron quercifolius Lam.

Erigeron strigosts Muhl. ex Willd.

Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray

Haploppapus phyllocephallus DC, var. megacephallus (Nash) Waterfall






37







Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt, & Rusby Neaspilota floridana Rhhani n. sp.

Vernonia blodgettii Small

Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.

Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.

Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin

Aster tortifolius Michx.

Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell, Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray

He ergtheca hyssopifolia (Nutt.) R. W. Long

Heterotheca mariana (L.) Shinners

Heterotheca nervosa (Wild.) Shinners var. microcephala

Small Shinners

lieterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners

Heterotheca sp.

Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.

Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash Neaspilota vernonia (Loew)

No host information

Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)

Carduus carolinianus Walt.

Carduus nuttalii (DC.) Pollard

Carduus spinossissimus Walt.





38







Ca.rIs sp.

Paracantha forficula (Coquillett)

Borrichia frutescens (L.1 Ds. Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)

Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners Procecidochares atra (Loew)

No host information

Procecidochares australis Aldrich

-onvza canadenis (L.) Conquist

Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby Procecidochares polita (Loew)

Solidago stricta Ait.

Solidaeo sp.

Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush

Chionanthus virginicus L. Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Rhagoletis cornivora Bush

Cornus florida L.

Rhagoletis mendax Curran

Vaccinium arboreum Marsh.

Vaccinium formosum Andr. Rhaeoletis osmanthi Bush






39






Osmanthus americanus (L.) Gray Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.

Crataegus maloides Sarg.

Crataegus sp.

Prunus angustifolia Marsh.

Prunus umbellata Ell.

Prunus sp.

Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)

No host information

Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)

No host information

Tephritis subpura (Johnson)

Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers. Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)

Vernonia blodgetti Small

Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.

Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.

Vernonia sp.

Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker

Carica papaya L.

Mangifera indica L.

Psidium guajava L.

Trupanea actinobola (Loew)






40







Aster adnatus Nutt.

Aster carolinianus Walt.

Aster dumosus L.

Aster dumosus L. var. subulaefolius T & G

Aster elliottii T & G

Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson

Coreopsis sp.

Erigeron quercifolius Lam.

Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray

Erigeron sp.

Haploppapus divaricatus (Nutt.) Gray

Heterotheca sp.

Hieracium sp.

Solidago caesia L.

Solidago chapmanii T & G

Solidago gigantea Ait.

Solidago stricta Ait.

Solidago sp.

Trupanea agerataeBenjamin

Ageratum littorale Gray

Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.

Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala (Small)

Shiner s Shinners





41







Trupanea eclipta Benjamin

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Trupanea mevarna (Walker)

Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx) Ell

Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala (Small)

Heterotheca oligantha (Chapm.) Harms.

Heterotheca sp.

Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)

No host information

Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin

Ageratum littorale Gray Eupatoium coelestinum L.

Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)

Ageratum sp.

Bidens bipinnata L.

Bidens coranata (L.) Britt.

Bidens laevis (L.)

Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff

Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schultz-Bip.

Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.

Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Birtt & Rusby Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)

Ageratum houstonianum Mill.







42






Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson

Bidens laevis (L.) BSP

Bidens pilosa L.

Eupatorium coelestinum L. Zonosemata electa (Say)

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.

Solanum carolinense L.
















ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE



The family Tephitidae contains some of the most destructive fruit flies including Carribean, Mediterranean, Melon, and Oriental fruit flies and thus constitutes one of the most important families of Diptera. The larvae of many species live and feed on the fleshy part of various fruits, nuts, and vegetables and cause tremendous loss each year to agricultures worldwide. At least 13 species of the 275 known Tephritids in North America are of economic importance,

2 of these are known to occur in Florida (Foote, personal comm.).

Of the 56 species recorded from Florida, only 2 species, both of which are introduced, do extensive damage to commercial fruits and vegetables. The damage which could result from introduction of fruit flies into fly-free areas is so great that elaborate efforts have been taken to prevent their spread and establishment in new areas. When the Medfly reappeared in Florida in 1956, after an absence of 26 years following its eradication in 1929-30, more than

6 million acres were treated with insecticides. The campaign involved 46,499 survey traps, 701 state workers plus personnel contracted for aerial spraying and federal personnel and 264 fumigation sites. Nearly $10 million were expended by state and federal agencies (Oberbacher and Denmark, 1957).



-43






44




Several species of Anastrepha, Dacus, Rhagoletis and the single species Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann] and Toxotrupana curvicauda are highly destructive to commercially grown fruits and vegetables in U.S. The most serious fruit fly in Florida now are those in the genus Anastrepha. Anastrepha suspensa(Loew) indigenous to the West Indies, was first collected in Florida in 1931. Following the discovery of this species in 1965, since the discontinuation of eradication effort in 1937, more than 14,000 adults were trapped in Dade Co. (Weems, 1965), There were strong indications that it was a recently introduced strain of suspensa, rather than the reappearance of the old native train. Spray operations, and field experiments involving the Florida Department of Agriculture, USDA, and University of Flroida were set up to obtain accurate information on the seriousness of the introduction and to investigate improved methods of detection control, and eradication. Within its normal range of distribution the economic damage to commercial fruit crops caused by this species has been relatively small. However, a species insect or a particular strain of that species sometimes acts substantially different when introduced into new areas and may become a serious pest in those new areas. There is no assurance that A. suspensa could not become a major pest in Florida. Of less economic importance are Anastrepha interrupta Stone and A. obliqua (Macquart', both of which are found in the-southern tip of Florida. A. interrupta is known to attack fruits of Gulf graywig, Schoepfia shreberi J. F.Gmel.,






45





and A. obliqua is a major pest of mangoes in most tropical countries, however, in Florida, it attacks other tropical fruits of less ecomonic importance.

Other species of fruit flies of economic importance in the continental United States are the apple maggot fly Rhagoletis pomonella, attacking apples, pears, plums, and other deciduous fruits in northeast U.S. and southeast Canada, the walnut husk fly, R. completa Cresson, that attacks all Juglans spp., peaches and other fruits in western U.S. (Christenson and Foote, 1960). The eastern and western cherry fruit fly R. cingulata (Loew) and R. indifference Curran damage sweet and tart cherries (Bush, 1969).

One species of fruit fly, Procecidochares utilis Stone however, is regarded as beneficial and has been introduced into Hawaii for the control of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng (Stone, 1947).

Cultivated plants in Florida, particularly citrus, mango,

and papaya suffer serious damage from fruit fly attack. Horticultural plants such as those in the genus Ilex also suffer reduction in their marketvalue because of damage caused by the larvae of Myoleja limata (Coquillett).

Although fruit flies in most years are not of major economic importance in Florida, their potential to cause serious damage and the likelihood of their introduction exist and these pose a constant threat to Florida's agricultural and economic future.
















METHODS AND MATERIALS


Rearing


The seed infesting tephritids are comparatively easy

to rear to adults. Composite and other host plants infested with immature tephritids were collected at random in the field and brought into the laboratory for rearing. A dissecting microscope was used to find the immature stages in the buds and heads. Some of the larvae and pupae were removed, killed in boiling water, and preserved in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Larvae and pupae were crossreferenced with emerging adults. The remaining seed head portions of the plants were placed in rearing containers, 3745 ml cartons covered with a transparent plastic sheet, secured by a rubber band. Containers were checked daily to record adult emergence. Plants were kept until they dried or until adults emergence was completed, usually 4 weeks. Adults were pinned or mounted on points. Hundreds of specimens were collected by this method, providing host and seasonal distribution information. New host records can be obtained using this technique, not only for tephritids, but also for agromyzids, cecidomyids, microlepidoptera, and their parasites. Field work allowed biological observation for some species and provided additional distribution information.



46






47





Sweeping. Tephritid that commonly breed in composites and other plants were collected frequently by sweeping plants with a net. Unfortunately adults records do not necessarily indicate larval association with a host, although Bush (1966) has shown that adults, as well as immatures of some species of Rhagoletis are intimately associated with'their host plants. Many adult visitation records undoubtedly are accidentals and do not represent true host plants. Adult teprhitids are attracted to the flowers of many of these non-host plants.

Identification of host plants. Most of the hosts of

the common species of Tephritidae were recognized in the field, although some could be field identified only to genus. Samples of other plants were pressed and taken to the plant identification unit- of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, for identification.

Traps. Insect flight traps did not capture large numbers of tephritids but effectively sampled species composition in certain locations. Other traps such as McPhail traps and Steiner traps are of value in fruit fly survey work. Thousands of the traps have been used for detecting and surveying Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) during its eradication programs in 1929-30, 1956-58, 1962-63. Traps are still widely used to detect and survey the population of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). Different kinds of baits were developed and used in these traps over the years. Among these cottonseed protein hydrolasate + borax formulated in water, angelica seed oil, siglures, ENT 21478, and






48



hydrolyzed torula yeast + borax inwater. They were primarily developed for attraction of Mediterranean fruit fly and Caribbean fruit fly, but other kinds of Diptera were collected as indicated by Steyskal (1977a). Hundreds of thousand of specimens were collected from these traps in Florida over the years. An extensive trappingprogram is still being carried out in parts of penisular Florida for the early detection of exotic fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and Oriental fruit fly should any of these be accidentally introduced into Florida. The distribution maps provided distribution data obtained from AMNH, CNC, CU, FSCA, CCZ, UGA and USNM, whose specimens the author may or may not have seen.



Morphological Studies


Wings and ovipositors were prepared and mounted on slides in Canada balsam using the method described by Steyskal (1977b). Male genitalia and the last abdominal segments were dissected and stored in glycerine in vials. Temporary mounts of male genitalia were prepared by placing in teased genitalic structures in 3-4 drops of phenol on a convex microscope slide. This method is convenient because specimens can be moved into any position desired for examination and illustration.

Some of the specimens were drawn with the aid of camera lucida and/or Bausch and Lomb microprojector. Measurements were made sing an ocular micrometer. Photomicrographs of the wing and genitalia were made from some slides using a Zeiss Photo II







49


compound microscope with phase and interference contrast, using 26 x 36 mm Panatomic film.
















CHECKLIST OF FLORIDA TEPHRITIDAE



Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker Toxotrypana Gerstacker, 1860:191. Type species curvicauda Gerstacker,

by monotypy.

curvicauda Gerstacker, 1860:194.


Genus Peronyma Loew Peronyma Loew, 1873:250. Type species Trypeta sarcinata Loew,

by original designation.

sarcinata (Loew), 1862:218 (Trypeta).


Genus Procecidochares Hendel Procecidochares Hendel, 1914:91. Type species Trypeta atra Loew,

by original designation. atra (Loew), 1862:219 (Trypeta) australis Aldrich, 1929:9. polita (Loew), 1862:77 (Trypeta).


Genus Paracantha Coquillett Paracantha Coquillett, 1899:264. Type species, Trypeta culta Wiedemann,

by original designation.

culta (Wiedemann), 1830:486, 680 (Trypeta). forficula Benjamin, 1934:31.







5,1



Genus Eurosta Loew Eurosta Loew, 1873:280. Type species, Trypeta solidagninis Fitch

(Coquillett, 1910:543).

comma (Wiedemann), 1830:478 (Trypeta). donysa (Walker), 1849:1007 (Trypeta). fenestrata Snow, 1894:169. floridensis Foote, 1977:148.


Genus Acidogona Loew Acidogona Loew, 1873:285. Type species, Trypeta melanura Loew,

by original designation.

melanura (Loew) 1873:283. (Trypeta)


Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy

Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830:775. Type species, jaceae Robineau

Desvoidy (Rondani, 1871b:4:1871:4). picturata (Snow), 1894:173 (Tephritis).


Genus Acrotaenia Loew Acrotaenia Loew, 1873:274. Type species, Trypeta testudinea Loew,

by original designation.

testudinea (Loew) 1873:272 (Trypeta).


Genus Euaresta Loew Euaresta Loew, 1873:296. Type species, Trypeta festiva Loew

(Coquillett, 1910:540).

equalis (Loew), 1862:86 (Trypeta). bella (Loew), 1862:88 (Trypeta).












Genus Dioxyna Frey Dioxyna Frey, 1945:62. Type species, Trypeta sororcula Wiedemann,

by original designation.

picciola (Bigot), 1857:347 (Acinia). thomae (Curran), 1928:70 (Ensina).


Genus Trupanea Schrank TrupanaeSchrank, 1795:147. Type species, radiata Schrank, by

monotypy.

actinobola (Loew), 1873:326 (Trypeta). ageratae Benjamin, 1934:56. dacetoptera Phillips, 1923:148. eclipta Benjamin, 1934:57. mevarna (Walker), 1849:1023. (Trypeta).


Genus Tephritis Latreille Tephritis Latreille, 1804:196. Type species, Musca arnicae Linnaeus

(Cresson, 1914:278).

subpura (Johnson), 1909:114 (Euaresta).


Genus Dyseuaret Iendel DyseuarestaHendel, 1928:368. Type species, Euaresta adelphica

Hendel, by original designation. mexicana (Wiedemann), 1830:511 (Trypeta).


Genus Euarestoides Benjamin Euarestoides Benjamin, 1934:57. Types species, Trypeta abstersa

Loew, by original designation.








53



abstersus (Loew), 1862:221 (Trypeta).


Genus Myoleja Rondani Myoleja Rondani, 1856;112 Type species Tephritis lucida Fallen,

by original designation.

limata (Coquillett), 1699:263. (Aciura). nigricornis (Doane), 1899:183 (Aciura). rhino Steyskal, 1972:207.


Genus Xanthaciura Hendel Xanthaciura Hendel, 1914:86. Type species, Trypeta chrysura

Thomson, by original designation. chrysura (Thomson), 1869:580 (Trypeta) connexionis Benjamin, 1934:45. insecta (Loew), 1962:72 (Trypeta). tetraspina (Phillips), 1923:132 (Aciura).


Genus Stenopa Loew Stenopa Loew, 1873:234. Type species, Trypeta vulnerata Loew,

by original designation.

vulnerata (Loew), 1873:232 (Trypeta)


Genus Neaspilota Ostun Sacken

Neaspilota Osten Sacken, 1878:192. Type species, Trypeta alba

Loew, automatic.

achilleae Johnson,1900:328. dolosa Benjamin, 1934:39. floridana Rohani n.sp.







54



punctistigma Benjamin, 1934:38. vernoniae (Loew), 1861:346. (Trypeta) Genus Ceratitis Macleay Ceratitis Macleay, 1829:482. Type species, citriperda Macleay,

by monotypy.

capitata (Wiedemann), 1830:496. (Trypeta) Genus Anastrepha Schiner Anastrepha Schiner, 1868:263. Type species, Dacus serfentinus

Wiedemann, by original designation. edentata Stone, 1942:48. interrupta Stone, 1942:62. nigrifascia Stone, 1942:91 obliqua (Macquart) 1835:703 (Tephritis) ocresia (Walker), 1849:1016 (Trypeta) suspensa (Loew), 1862:69 (Trypeta).


Genus Rhagoletis Loew Rhagoletis Loew, 1862:44. Type species, Musca cerasi Linnaeus,

by monotypy.

Chionanthi Bush, 1966:482. cingulata cingulata (Loew), 1862:76 (Trypeta). cornivora Bush,1966:470 mendax Curran, 1932:7 osmanthi Bush, 1966:478 pomonella (Walsh), 1867:343(Trypeta).










Genus Zonosemata Benjamin Zonosemata Benjamin, 1934:17. Type species Trypeta electa Say,

by original designation.

electa (Say), 1830:185 (Trypeta) Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830:718. Type species, inermis

Robineau-Desvoidy (Coquillett, 1910:609 = longipennis

(Wiedemann).

longipennis (Wiedemann), 1830:483 (Trypeta).


Genus Euleia Walker Euleia Walker, 1835:81. Type species, Musca onopordinis Fabricius,

by monotypy.

fratria (Loew), 1862:67 (Trypeta).


Genus Tomcplagia Coquillett Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910:591, 615. Type species, Trypeta

obliqua Say, automatic.

obliqua (Say), 1830:186 (Trypeta).

















TAXONOMIC TREATMENT



Key to The Florida Genera of Tephritidae


1. Head bristles short; the fronto-orbitals weak; ocellar absent;

ovipositor very long and cylindrical ...... ... .Toxotrypana 1'. Head bristles well-developed, the fronto-orbitals strong;

ocellar present, ovipositor long and normal. ...... .. 2

2. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between

acrostichals bristles than to a line between supra-alar

bristles .................. . .. . ..... . . 3

2'. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between

supra-alarbristles thanto a line between acrostichal bristles



3. Third antennal segment with normal rounded tip; vein M1 +2

distinctly curvinganteriorly at apex (Fig~l15 . Anastrepha. 3'. Third antennal segment with sharp awl-shaped tips vein M1 +2

without distinct anterior curve at apex (Fig. 67. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .Zonosemata

4. One pair of upper fronto-orbital bristles. ....... . . 5

4'. Two or three pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles. ..... 7

5. Scutellum enlarge, shining black or dark brown, with 1 or 2

pairs of scutellars; antennae conspicuously longer than 1/2

length of face; males with normal fronto-orbital bristles. 6


56







57
5'. Scutellum normal, yellow to dark brown, with 2 pairs of

scutallers, antennae not longer than 1/2 of face length;

males with some of the lower fronto-orbital enlarged.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Strauzia

6. Scutellum with 1 pair of scutellars, dark brown and appearing

bilobed .......... ...... . . . . Peronyma

6'. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars, shining black. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Procecidocharea

7. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a line between supra-alar

bristles than to a transverse suture. ............ 8

7'. Dorsocentral bristles closer to the transverse suture than

to line between supra-alar bristles. . . . . . 13

8. Crossvein r -m situated approximately at midpoint of cell Ist


M2
8'. Crossvein r -m situated distinctly apical of midpoint of cell

Ist M2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

9. Third antennal segments distinctly pointed dorso-apically;

with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles; suctellum

normal; wing without basal maculations. ...... .Rhagoletis 9'. Third antennal segment rounded dorso-apically; with 2 pairs of

lower fronto-orbital bristles; scutellum swollen; wing with

basal maculations. ............ ..... Ceratitis

10. Posterior upper fronto-orbital bristles convergent; wing

hyaline, dark pattern of wing usually confined to stigma

and occasionally some of the veins (Fig. 36). .... .Neaspilota 10'. Posterior upperfronto-orbitalbristles not convergent; wing

with distinctyellow to dark brown pattern on the disc. ... 11










11. Some postocular. bristlepale; wing dark with hyaline and

semihyaline spots, more or less reticulated pattern (Fig. 26)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eurosta

11'. All postocular bristles black; wing with yellow to dark brown

band, not appearing reticulated . . .......... .12

12. Anterior oral margin strongly developed and projecting .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Euleia

12'. Anterior oral margin not strongly developed or projecting.

. . . . . . . . .. ... . . . .. .Myoleja

13. One or two pairs scutellar bristles, if '2 head with length

greater than height; mouth geniculate with labellum long

and slender. ........ . ............. . . 14

13'. Two pairs of scutellar bristles, head not longer than high

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

14. Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles, ...... ... 15

14'. Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. ..... 16 15. Head distinctly longer than high; proboscis geniculate,

labellum elongate. ................. Dioxyna

15'. Head usually with height distinctly greater than length;

proboscis not geniculate;' labellum not elongate. Dyseuaresta 16. Wing pattern with a preapical stellate dark pattern, with

large hyaline areas on basal 1/2 of wing disk (Fig. 58)

. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. Trupanea

16'. Wing without stellate pattern; with only small hyaline

areas confined to costa and anal margin (Fig. 63)

*... ....... . . . . . . . . .Xanthaciura







59



17. Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. ...... . 18

17'. Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. ....... 20

18. Three pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; 3xid. antennal

segment with apico-dorsalpoint; abdomen marked with black

spots. .......... . . . . . . Acidogona

18'. Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; 3rd antennal

segment rounded; abdomen without such markings. . . 19 19. Anterior oral margin not strongly projecting anteriorly;

male with fore femur swollen and with striations on epandrium;

stigma with hyaline spot .......... .. .Euaresta

19'. Anterior oral margin not projecting anteriorly; males without

such characters; stigma never with hyaline spots, always

with dark markings. .................. .Tephritis

20. Three pairs of upper frontal orbital bristles; wing pattern

with dark rays going to margin. .......... Paracantha

20'. Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; wing without such

pattern. ........ .. .......... .... .. 21

21. Wing with distinct oblique bands ....... . Tomoplagia

21'. Wing without such pattern; consisting of dark field with

hyaline spots, or with subapical stellate pattern, or with

basal maculation and distinct apical banding. .... ... .22

22. Wing broad, with distinct dark bands on a hyaline field or

with basal maculations and apical bands. .... . . 23

22'. ving elongate consisting of a dark field with hyaline spots

or with a dark subapical stellate pattern. ... ..... 24







60


23. Eye with height more than 1 1/2 times as great as width;

cell 2nd C more than twice as long as the short stigma;

wing with distinct dark bands (Fig. 53). . . . .Stenopa 23'. Eye height not exceeding 1 1/2 times as great as width;

cell 2nd C not more than twice as long as length of the

short stigma; wing with maculation and apical bands

(Fig. 14) .. . .. . . . . .Acrotaenia

24. Vein R4 +5 strong setose dorsally; wing pattern more or less

evenly reticulate; hyaline spots surrounded by a rim of infuscation darker than the yellowish parts of the wing

disc (Fig. 13 )... ... . . . ... .. . Acinia

24'. Vein R bare dorsally; wing pattern with a Trupanea-like
4+5

subapical stellate pattern and with yellowish spots on basal

1/2 of wing disc (Fig. 28) ...... ..... .. . .Euarestoides







61


Genus Acidogona Loew


Acidogona Loew, 1873, Smiths, Misc. Collect. 256(11):285 Type- species: Trypeta melanura Loew.

Readily differentiated from other Tephritinae by the predominantly brown wing with reticulate wing pattern and the distinct median and lateral spots on a yellow abdomen. All head and body bristles black; head comparatively broad from frontal view about 1/2-2/3 wider than high frons short and pubescent. Three pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, the upper 2 pairs set inside, 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Dorsum of thorax black with yellow scale-like bristles; humeral and lateralareas luteous. Dorsocentral bristles approximately in line with anterior supra-alars and close to transverse suture. Scutellum with 2 pairs of bristles. Legs yellow entirely. Abdomen luteous, dorsum covered with black bristles intermixed with yellow.

All known larvae breed singly in the flower heads of Hieracium. The only Nearctic species known, melanura (Loew), occurs in northeastern United States to Florida (Foote, 1965).



Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Figs. 12, 68, 117


Trypeta melanura Loew, 1873, Smiths. Misc. Collect. 256(11):

283 pl.XI,Fig. 6. Holotype T. Type locality: District of Columbia.







62,



Rather small species with characteristic wing markings, an entirely dark brown wing with the presence of hyaline spots in all the wing cells. Vein R4+5 with bristles occupying more than 1/2 the length of cell R. This predominantly yellow to brown species has characteristic dark markings on the scutellum and abdomen. Female ovipositor short, approximately 1.7 mm long; the ovipositor sheath black, as broad as length, measured 0.8 mm long; and piercer short 0.5 mm in length, abruptly pointed at apex, shaped as Fig. 6. Male genitalia as in Fig. 68, epandrium rounded, luteous with black markings on the sides; surstyli very long and slender, apex rounded; proctiger small and elongated.

Length body 3.7-3.4 mm; wing 3.6-3.7 mm. (N=8).

Hosts: Hieracium argyreaum Small

Hieracium gronovii L.

Hieracium scabrum Michx.

Hieracium sp.

Distribution: Massachussetts to Florida.

Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1? insect flight trap, 21-IX-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 1? insect trap 28-IX-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 1?, insect flight trap, 12-X-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 58 3?, bred from Hieracium gronovii, 22-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA): 38 3?, Hieracium gronovii, 13-21-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) Brevard, Co., Merritt Island, 48 60, bred from Hieracium argyraeum 2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSCA): Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 3S 2?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,







63



29-IV-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 16 5+, bred from Hieracium argyraeum5-I-1930 (Park & White, USNM); Indian River Co.: Indian River City, 108 6?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum, 13-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5S 29, bred from Hieracium argyraeum, 6-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Levy Co.: Cedar Key, 18 2?, bred Hieracium argyraeum, 18-III-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Orange Co.: Orlando, 68, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 17-25-1-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlovista, 98, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 10-18-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Polk Co.: Griffin, 5S 1?, bred drom Hieracium argyraeum, 16-19-V-1930 (Pope & White, USNM).

This species is commonly reared from all species of

Hieracium. It is generally distributed in Florida. This is the only Florida species with distinctive black markings on the abdomen. The immature stages were briefly described by Benjamin (1934).



Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy


Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Acad. Roy. des Sci. Mem. 2:775. Type species: jaceae Robineau-Desvoidy + corniculata (Zettersteadt).

Small yellowish pollinose species with all bristles yellowbrown. Wing with numerous hyaline spots on a dark field; hyaline spots surrounded by a rim of infuscation darker than yellowish parts of wing disc. Vein R4 + 5 with scattered setae extending over most of its length. Typically with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, and

3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Frons pubescent;












parafrontals with a band of pale hairs. All bristles strong; Dorsocentral bristles closer to transverse suture, in front of a line between anterior supra-alar bristles. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars. -Abdomen yellow except ovipositor sheath, tinged with brown.

The larvae breed in the flower heads of Pluchea. Only 1 North American species is known. A detailed discussion of the genus was given by Benjamin (1934). Foote and Blanc (1963) discussed its distribution in California.



Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Fiqs. 13, 69, 118


Musca fucata Fabricius, 1794. Entomol. Syst. 4:359. Type (sex unknown) "Americae meridionalis insulis."

Tephritis picttrata Snow, 1894, Kans. Univ. Quart. 2:173. Holotype S. Type-locality: Frazer, Florida.

Readily differentiated from other Florida fruit flies by the generic characters given above; with characteristic wing venation and markings (Fig. 13). Predominantly yellow species, with head slightly higher than long; face short, concave and epistomal margin slightly raised. Female ovipositor yellow to rufous, about 2.5 mm long. The ovipositor sheath approximately equal in length to piercer, being 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm long respectively. Piercer sharp at apex. Male genitalia small and compact (Fig.69). Epandrium highly arched with long erect bristles












dorsally. Surstyli curved inward and rounded at apices. Protiger small and elongated, with numerous short fine hairs.

Length: body 4-5.0 mm; wing 3, 4-3,4. (N=10).

Hosts: Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.

Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.

Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC.

Pluchea rosea Godfrey

Pluchea sp.

Distribution: California to Florida, New York to Georgia, Mexico and West Indies.

Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville 28 2?, CO2 baited insect flight trap. 13-VIII-1976 (G. B. Fairchild, FSCA): Newberry, 1+, 19-XI-1911 (AMNH); Collier Co.: Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, 1 19, insect flight trap, 6-7 IV-1972 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), Dade Co.: Coral Gables, 3S 3, Trema micranthus, 1-V-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), Hialeah, swept Solidago odora, 29-IX-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., FSCA); Homestead, 1?, 1-III-1924 (G. C..Steyskal, CNC); 1? ex Senecio, 28-IX-1948 (0. D. Link, FSCA) Royal Palm Hammock, l&, 4-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillicot, CNC) Duval Co.: Jacksonville 1, 3-XI-1911 (AMNH) 3S 20, fruit fly trap, 2-VIII-1960 L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Flager Co.: 18 2?, 8-VIII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Jefferson Co.: Monticello 1? 4-8-X-1914 (AMNH); Levy Co.: 2S 1, 19-VII-1958(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 7t 10?, 25-111-1967, (J. Novak, FSCA); 238 15? bred swept Pluchea











odorata, 24-11-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) 238 15?,bred from Pluchea odorata, 24-27-III-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr.s, FSCA); 20S 60?, bred from Pluchea odorata, 24-28-III-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) Key West,lS i0, bred from Pluchea odorata, 22-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 18 3?, bred from Pluchea odorata, 16-IV-1945 (NSNM); Orange Co., Orlando, 20S 12', bred from Pluchea imbricata 9-20-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);28,bred from Pluchea imbricata 9-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); Sarasota Co.: Venice, 2s, bred from Pluchea purpurescens, 12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Taylor Co.: Perry, ,6-IX-1970 (W. Atyeo, UGA).

It is generally widespread in Florida. Larvae breed commonly in Compositae; Pluchea. Larvae arebean-shaped and usually are densely covered with minute spines. Detailed description of the immature stages was given by Benjamin (1934).



Genus Acrotaenia Loew


Acrotaenia Loew, 1873, Smiths. Misc. Collect. 11(256):274. Type-species: Trypeta testudinea Loew

Readily differentiated by its distinctive wing markings.

Apical 1/3 of wing typically with 3 dark brown bands arising from dark field at costa and extending through cell 2nd M2 to posterior margin. The basal 1/2 of wing dark brown with numerous small hyaline spots which coalesce into longitudinal spots of some points. Posterior margin with large hyaline areas. Costal margin with large dark brown to black spots. Vein R4 -5 setose to almost its







67



length. Predominantly yellow brown to brown bristles, head higher than long. Two pairs of upper fronto-obitals, the anterior pair thickenedwith3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Thorax black rather densely gray pollinose with short yellow brown setae over dorsum. Dorsocentral bristles close to transverse suture and closer to a transverse line between supra-alar bristles than to a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum with two pairs of scutellars. Abdomen black densely gray pollinose with yellow brown setae dorsally.

Nothing is known about the biology of the species. The single species in North America is known from Florida and has been reported from Cuba and Puerto Rico. Foote (1960a) illustrated the wing and included the first record for United States.



Acrotaenia testudinea (Loew)
Figs. 14, 70, 119


Trypeta testudinea Loew, 1873, Smiths. Misc, Collect. 11(256): 272, pl XI Fig. 13. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba (Berlin Museum).

Mostly yellowish brown species with densely gray pollinose over mesonotum. Easily differentiated from the other Tephritidae by the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 14). Predominantly dark brown, with a combination of patterns typically for the genus. Female ovipositor sheath yellow tinged with brown on the proximal and distal apices, with numerous brown setae dorsally, about 1.0 mm long. Piercer 0.9 mm, long and slender, apex gradually tapers to a point.












Male genitalia as in Fig. 70. Epandrium dark brown to black, with numerous long setae dorsally and laterally, with a clump of long fine setae at the lower inner margin. Surstyli. short and broad, rather truncate at apices. Proctiger small and elongate with scattered setae lateroventrally.

Length:. body 4.0-4.2 mm wing 3.9-4.1 mm. (N=3).

Hosts: Unknown

Distribution: Elorida, Cuba, Puerto Rico.

Florida Records: Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 1 McPhail trap, 26-1-1936 (J. J. Cooper, FSCA).

This species is rare in collections. This is the only specimen represented in the United States. Detail description of this species was given by Loew (1873).



Genus Anastrepha Schiner


Anastrepha Schiner, 1868, Reise der Novana, 2:263. Typespecies: Dacus serfentinus Wiedemann.

Mostly yellow with thorax and abdomen densely yellow pollinose, with brown hairs nevermesonotum and abdomen. The major head and thoracic bristles black. Head yellow distinctlyhigher than long; epistorralmargin slightly concave in profile. Usually with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3-5 pairs of lower frontoorbital bristles. Thorax with a black spot behind wing and under squama. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between acrostidhal bristles than to a line between supra-alar bristles.







69



Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars. Wing marking with an inverted V-shaped and S-shaped brown bands, with other markings at the base. Vein M1 +2 distinctly curving anteriorly at apex. Vein R1 setose entire length. Vein R4 +5 setose to beyond r -m crossvein. Legs entirely yellow. Abdomen with numerous brown hairs on the tergites. Ovipositor sheath, a subcylindrical tapering tube, at least 2 times as long as width at the base.

The genus is restricted to the New World, and ranges from

latitude 270N to 350S. Members of this genus are the most important native pests of a broad spectrum of fruits, vegetables, and other crops in tropical and subtropical America. Of the 155 described species, only 16 are known to occur within the United States, and

6 species have been recorded from Florida. Studies on the biology and identification of Anastrepha species have been summarized at some length by Weems (1965, 1967a, 1967Y, 1968a, 1968b, and 1970). The revision of the genus by Stone (1942a)remains the standard work for the identification of the species. Steyskal (1977b) provided a pictorial key to all the species. Bush (1962) presented the cytotoxonomy of the larvae for some Mexican species in this genus.


Key to the Florida Species of Anastropha1


1. Wing pattern predominantly dark brown; distal arm of V-band

reduced or separated from proximal arm or narrowly joined to


1This key is designed for females. Satisfactory characters that can be used in a key have not yet been discovered for most males.











the side of latter at vein Ml +2 (Fig. 19); metanotom predominantly dark brownish to black. ......... ocresia (Walker)

1'. Not with this combination of characters ....... . .2

2. Piercer less than 2.0 mm long, apex tapered with many fine

or large rounded serrations. ............. .... 3

2'. Piercer at least 2.0 mm long, apex tapered but unserrated. . 5

3. Mesonotum yellow brown with rather broad median brown stripes;

median scutoscutellar black spot lacking. obliqua (Macquart) 3'. Mesonotum yellow brown, lacking any stripe; median scutoscutellar black spot present. ...... . . ... . .... 4

4. V-band narrowly joined to S-band (Fig. 20); apex of piercer

distinctly narrowed with larger rounded serrations; hyaline

spot on costa, beyond stigma reaching vein R4+ 5 just anterior of r crossvein. ............. .. suspensa (Loew)

4'. V-band separated from S-band (Fig.16): apex of piercer broad

with many fine serrations; hyaline spot confined to anterior 1 /2 of cell R1, only occasionally touching vein R2 +3

. . . . . . . . . . . . interrupta Stone

5. A dark brown transverse band on posterior margin of mesoscutum;

S-band with a shallow notch in cell Cul, margin of band rounded before it (Fig.17); piercer not more 2 mm; wing at most 7.5 mm

long. ........ ........... .. nigrifascia Stone

5'. Mesoscutum without such markings; S-band without any notch

(Fig.15); piercer 3.0-4.3 mm long; wing rarely more than 6 mm

long. ....................... . . .edentata Stone







71



Anastrepha edentata Stone
Figs 15, 71, 120


Anastrepha edentata Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Publ.
o
489:48, pl. 8, Fig. 7. Holotype +. Type locality: Key Largo, Florida (USNM).

Small yellowish species with 4 brown stripes on mesonotum. Head with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Mesonotum yellow with 2 long lateral stripes extending from anterior margin to the bases of dorsocentral bristles, and 2 short submedian stripes ending in areas between dorsocentrals, just anterior of acrostichals. Wing with yellow brown bands, costal and S-bands separated on vein R4 + 5, but may be separated or connected on vein R2 +3 or cell R may be infuscated totally by the

2 bands. V-band usually connected to S-band. Legs yellow. Anterior 1/2 of abdominal tergite brown with rows of dark brown setae, posterior 1/2 with yellow setae. Ovipositor sheath long, slender and tapering about 3.6 mm long. The piercer long, slender sharp-pointed, 3.4 long with apex gradually tapering to a rather rounded tip. Epandrium yellow (Fig. 71 ).with scattered long setae over the dorsum. Surstyli short and narrow, apices tapered to a sharp tip. Proctiger large, with long setae lateroventrally.

Length: body 6.5-7.8 mm; wing 6.3-7.5 mm (N=10)

Hosts: Unknown

Distribution: Florida, Puerto Rico,

Florida Records: MonroeCo_: l$ McPhail trap, 20-II-1936

(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); l?,McPhail trap, 14-IX-1936 (McDaniel, FSCA);











1 McPhail trap,16-IX-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); 16,McPhail trap, 21-IX-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA) 16 McPhail trap, 19-X-1936 (McDaniel FSCA); 16,McPhail trap, 29-VII-1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); Big Pine Key (paratype), 16, 24-X-1935 (Barcus & Moore, USNM); 1+, 26-XI-1935 (H. R. Winker, FSCA); 16 1l, McPhail trap, 21-24-IV-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1%,McPhail trap,
0
5-V-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); Key Largo, 1+, MPhailtrap, 31-VIII-1936, (Barcus & Stirling, FSCA); (paratypesa) 7 6?, 16-28-IX-1936 (Barcus & McDaniel, USNM); 16 1, McPhailtrap, 14-IX-1936) (Barsus & McDaniel, USNM); 16 1?,McPhail trap, 5-X-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); l ,McPhail trap, 19-XI-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA; 1,7-XII-1936 (D. F. Marcus, FSCA); I?, McPhail trap, 14-XII-1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 16 1?,McPhail trap, 29-XII-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); 1,McPhail trap, 2-1-1937 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); Key West, 16,10-IV-1936

(E. G. Hume, FSCA) ; l+,McPhail.trap, 4-V-1936 (J. T. Cooper, FSCA); (paratype) 1f,28-V-1936 (E. G. Hume, USNM). No Name Key,l16, McPhail trap, 15-1-1936 (R. B. Johnson, FSCA); 16, 7-11-1936 (J. F.'Cooper, FSCA); 16 McPhail trap, 25-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA, 16 13-III-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA) 18, McPhail trap 17-III-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA) 26 McPhail trap, 24-IX-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA), Sugar Loaf Key, 16, 7-XI-1936 (Barcus & Moore, FSCA);Tavernier, 16,McPhail trap, 14-IX-1936 (McDaniel, FSCA).

A. edentata is one of the G species which have been

established in Florida at some time. The records indicated that, it has not been found in Florida since 1936. There is a possibility











that this species has not survived in Florida. Nothing is known about the biology of this species. It is not considered to be of economic importance anywhere within its range. Females of this species are differentiated easily by the distinctly long slender, ovipositor which is about as long as or longer than the length of the body.



Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Figs. 16, 72, 121


Anastrepha interrupta Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agric. Misc.

Publ. 439:62, pl. 12, Fig. II. Holotype ?. Type locality: Jensen, Florida (USNM).

Readily differentiated from other Florida Anastrepha by the shape of the piercer and by the presence of a median black scutoscutellar spot. Head yellow, typicallywith 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Wing pattern as in Fig. 16 V-band separated from S-band. Hyaline spots on anterior 1/2 of cell R1 only occasionally touching vein R2 +3. Vein R4 +5 setose to beyond r -m crossvein, ending just at the base of V-band. Femalepositor about 3.5 mmlong. Ovipositor sheath

1.5 mmlong, entirely yellow with numerous brown hairs. Piercer long and slender, approximately 1.0 mmlong; apex short and broad, abruptly tapered to a sharp point with many fine serrations on lateral margin. Male genitalia as in Ffg. 72. Epandrium narrow







7-4



with few long setae on dorsum. Surstyli slender and attenuated, curved inward at apices, and with a clump of short setae.on inner margin. Proctiger small and elongate, with dense long setae lateroventrally.

Length: body 6.4-7.6 mm; wing 6.0-7.4 mm. (N=10)

Hosts: Schoepfia shreberi J. F, Gmel.

Distribution: Florida

Florida Records: Broward Co., 19 McPhail trap, 17-II-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1,, McPhail trap, 21-II-1936 (L. S. Light, Jr., FSCA); Coconut Grove, 1, McPhail trap, 16-XI-1936 (G. B. Merrill, FSCA); Deerfield (paratypes), 1 29, trap, 17-20-II-1936 (Barcus & Solomon, USNM); Ft. Lauderdale(paratype), i, 10-1-1936 (Solomon & Barcus, USNM); 2S 29, McPhail trap, 24-VII-1953 (FSCA); 39 29, at Chrysobalanus icaco, 14-VIII-1953 (0. D. Link FSCA); Dade Co.; 1, McPhail trap, 4-1-1936 (0. W. Calkin, FSCA); 20, 25-1-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 1S McPhail trap, 5-II-1936 (W. Ludlam, FSCA); 39 3?, McPhail trap, 15-19-II-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 59 29 McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 80, McPhail trap, 6-12-1-1937 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); i 27, McPhail trap, 21-VI-1654 (0. D. Link, FSCA). 1i, McPhail 8-V-1956 (Avery & Burke, FSCA); Opalocka, 39 59, McPhail trap(Grapefruit).. 5-IV-1962 (Brewton, FSCA); Coral Gables, 1l, McPhail trap, 15-VI-1949 (W. W. Calkins, FSCA); 1 2?, McPhail trap, 19-VII-1949 tO. D. Link, FSCA); I 19 McPhail trap, 27-VI-1949 (0. D. Link, FSCA); 19 1, McPhail trap, 9-IX-1949, (0. D. Link, FSCA); 3S 1, McPhail trap, 4-X-1949







75
0. W. Calkin, FSCA); 26 2 ex Schoepfia schreberi, 12-II-1951 (G. G. Butcher, USNM); 1S,ex Schoepfia schreberi,12-18-II-1951 (F. G. Butcher, USNM); Florida City, 2&,McPhail trap, 20-26-II-1936 (C. R. Roberts,FSCA); 16,McPhail trap, 7-XII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 26 McPhail trap, 21-23-XII, 1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); Homestead, 16, in McPhail, 23-1-1936 (C. R. Roberts,FSCA); 1i 1, in McPhail trap, 11-II-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 46, in McPhail trap, 14-VII-1936 (G. D. Barcus FSCA); 58 50 Schoepfia schreberi, 3-1-1951 (USNM) 16, 9-IV-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr. FSCA); l& 1 3-V1956-(Wolfenbarger, USNM) 1, Dry trap, 25-VI-1956 (R, P. Burke, USNM); 16 2?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1961 (C. I. Dowling, Jr., FSCA); 16, in McPhail trap, 10-1-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA), 16 1?, in McPhail trap in Mango tree, 21-III-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA); Miami, i8, in McPhail trap, 27-1-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1i 1 and in McPhail trap, 6-II-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 20, in McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (0. D. Link) FSCA); i8 1 13-X-1949 (0. W. Calkin, FSCA); 16,in fruit fly trap, 18-IV-1960 (M. S, Creamer, Jr. FSCA); 16 17, in McPhail trap, 15-IV-1960 (J. N. Todd, FSCA); 36, in McPhail trap, 21-XII-1961 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 38, in McPhail trap, 15-21-II-1962 (J.A. Stephens, FSCA); ib, in McPhail trap, 8-III-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA) Naranja, 36 3?, reared from fruits of Schoepfia schreberi, IV-1962 (R. M. Baranowski, USNM); Royal Palm Park (paratypes), 4 2?, trap in poisonwood tree, 29-1-1936 (Ludlam-Roberts, USNM); South Miami (paratypes), 2, trap, 3-1-1936 (Baker & Solomon, USNM); Lee Co.:Tice, 18rwet bait trap, 30-V-1956 (T. R. Adkins, USNM); Martin Co.: l6,in McPhail trap, 6-II-1936











(0. D. Link, FSCA); 28, in McPhail trap, 20-24-III-1936 (0. D. Link, FSCA); 16, 1+ in McPhail trap, 14-IV-1936 (0. D. Link, FSCA); i 1, in McPhail trap, 6-XI-1958 (G. W. Campell, FSCA) 16, in Wet fruit fly trap, 15-V-1959 (G. W. Campell, FSCA); Hobe Sound, 16 in McPhail trap, 1-111-1962 (E. E. Prange, FSCA); 16, McPhail trap in rose apple, 23-III-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Port Sewell, (paratype) 46, trap, 13-III-1936 (0. D. Link, USNM); 36 3?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit trees, 15-20-IV-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Salerno, 1, in McPhail trap in Mango tree, 30-III-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Sewell point, i, in McPhail trap, 12-V-1961 (E. Prange, FSCA); Stuart, 26,in McPhail trap. 14-IV-1936 (O. D. Link,FSCA); lS 1', in McPhail trap, 15-IV-1960 (E. W. Campell; FSCA); 28 28 in McPhail trap, 25-29V-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 1i, in McPhail trap, 26-1-1936 (T. J. Cooper, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Pk, 20-X-1954 (H. Denmark, FSCA); Palm Beach, West Palm Beach (paratype) 1+, trap, 12-III-1936 (C. D. Link, USNM); 1i 1, in McPhail trap in grapefruit 6-XI-1963 (M. L. Messec, FSCA), St. Lucie Co.:Ft. Pierce, +, in McPhail trap, 13-V-1936 (R. W. Lindner, FSCA); 28 38, in trap 11-V-1956 (R. A. Murphy, FSCA). Jensen, 26 29, in McPhail trap, 7-IV-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA). St. Lucie, l~, wet bait trap, 28-V-1956 (A. E. Irana, USNM)

Female of this species closely resembles suspensa, except for the shape of the piercer of the ovipositor and the infuscation on the wing. Unlike suspensa, this species has never been found to be of economic importance. Nothing is known about the biology,







77


although adults have been reared several times from the fruit of Schoepfia schreberi L.



Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Figs. 17, 73, 122


Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agric.

Misc. Publ. 439:91, pl. 19, Fig. 18. Holotype ?. Type locality: Big Pine Key, Florida (USNM).

Rather small yellow brown species. Easily differentiated from other Florida Anastrepha by the presence of a distinct transverse dark brown band across the posterior of mesoscutum at the base of the soutellum. Also by having the apex of the piercer unserrated and gradually tapering to more or less rounded tip. Head yellow with 2 pairs of upper front-orbital bristles and usually

5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Wing pattern predomin-antly brown, costal and S-band joined at vein R4 +5. S9-band reaching vein M1 +2 apically. V-band narrowly connected to S-band anteriorly with proximal arm of V-band constricted or broken in cell R5. Ovipositor sheath yellow 1.5 mm long; piercer long and slender with smoothmargin at apex, 2.3 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 73 Epandrium brown, dorsal and lateral surfaces with numerous long brown setae. Surstyli short, gradually tapered from epandrium and truncate at apices. Proctiger moderately large with long setae ventrally.

Hosts: Manilkara bahamensis (Bak.) Lam. & Meeuse

Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen.





78





Distribution: Restricted to southern Florida

Florida Records: Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, i, in McPhail trap, 19-UV-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 29-IC-1935 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA) 1i, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 2?, in McPhail trap, 10-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 1, 1 in McPhail trap, 21-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 8S 3?, in McPhail trap, 21-V-1935 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1S, in McPhail trap, 25-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 22S 128, fruit fly trap, 14-20-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); 4S 2?, trap, 24-28-V-1935 (J. F. Cooper, USNM); (paratypes) 46 2?, trap 24-28-V-1935 (J. F. Cooper USNM); Boca Chica Key, 1', in McPhail trap, 11-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); (paratype) 1, fruit fly trap, 15-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); Cudjoe Key, 1, irrMcPhail trap 9-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 1~,.in McPhail trap, 9-v-1935;(J. G. Bell, FSCA); 6S I in McPhail trap, 16-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 29 2?, in McPhail trap, 18-20-V-1935 (G. C. Bell, FSCA); (paratypes) 39 3?, fruit fly trap 20-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); 1?, 20-V-1935 (Bell & Moore, FSCA); Key Largo,Q, in McPhail trap 13-VII-1936 (Stirling & Barcus, FSCA); 1S, in McPahil trap, 16-VII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); Key West, 1?, in McPhail trap, 19-1-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 25-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 29-IV-1935, (Mendendez, FSCA); 1i, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (J, R. Lyle&T-FSCA), 18, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); I?, in. McPhail trap, 14-V-1935 (C. E. Shepard, FSCA); 1 fruit fly







7.9



trap, 1-VI-1960 (R. G. Milner, FSCA); Lower Matecumbo. Key, l~, in McPhail trap, 24-V-1935 (A. S. Mason, FSCA); No Name Key, 158 50, Mimusop emarginata, 3-VI-1933 (J. F. Copper, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 13-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 38, in McPhail trap;16-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 14 2?, reared from larva on Mimusops
0
emarginata 18-V-1935 (J. F. Cooper. USNM); 1+, in McPhail trap, 19-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 18 1+, in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935, G. D. Barcus, FSCA), 1 2?, in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); (paratypes) 136 37, Mimusops emarginata, 1-VI-1935 (J. F. Cooper, USNM); 1f, in McPhail trap, 17-VII-1935 (Barcus & Moore, FSCA); li 2?, Achras zapota, 26-11-1936 J. F. Coopers, FSCA); 16,Achras zapota, 7-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); Sugarloaf Key, 18, in McPhail trap, 16-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); lI in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); Torch Key, l,in McPhail trap, 21-V-1936 (J. C. Bell, FSCA).

Variation among the available specimen mainly involves the difference in the number of the lower fronto-orbital; most specimen have 5 pairs, but some have 6 pairs. Genitalia show some relationship to obliqua, but otherwise are distinct in many features. This species is restricted to the Florida Keys. It is not considered of economic importance and is rarely collected in traps. Not much is known about its biology, although adults have been reared several times from the fruits of Manilkara bahamensis and M. zapota.







80



Anastrepha oblioua (Macquart)
Figs. 18, 74, 123


Tephtitis obliqua (Macquart) 1835, Dipteres. Tome deuxieme,
0
Diptera 2:7.03. Holotype +. Type locality: Cuba (Paris Museum).

Medium-sized yellow brown species differented by the

generic characters in combination with the characters of the piercer and the prominent brown marking on the mesoscutum. Mesonotom yellow except for the brown marking over suture. With pleural stripe extending from behind the suture to posterior margin and the broad submedian stripe extending to posterior margin, broadens anteriorly reaching notopleuron the transverse suture. The bands of wing pattern yellow brown, Costal and S-band touching on vein R4 +5 just anterior of r crossvein. V-band complete usually connected to S-band, often broadly, Ovipositor sheath brown 1.8 mm long. Piercer

1.5 mm long, moderately stout with base distinctly widened and acutely serrated at apical 2/3 or more. Male genitalia as in Fig. 74. Epandrium brown with numerous fine setae over the dorsum. Surstyli gradually tapers, apex rounded. Proctiger elongate, with numerous fine setae laterally with a clump of setae ventrally.

Length: body 6.1-7.4 mm; wing 6.0-7.2 mm. (N=10)

Host: Mangifera indica L.

Spondias guajava L.

Spondias mombin L.

Spondias purpurea L.

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston







81,



Distribution: Southern Texas, Florida.

Florida Records: Monroe Co.: Key West, 28 on Cuban Plum 2-VI-1921 (L. R. Warner, FSCA); 1 at Margifera indica,23-VI-1922 (L. R. Warner, FSCA); 36 2+, reared from fruits,Spondias mombin, X-1932 (R. Hart, USNM); 18, at Spondias mombin, 19-X-1932 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); 1l, 12-X-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 1, reared fromSpondias sp., 21-X-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA);46 39, on Spondias purpurea, 21-X-1932 (Sealey, Ludlam & Merrill, FSCA); 46 3?, on Spondias mombin, 21-24-X-1932 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA) 16, at Annona squamosa, 24-X-1932 J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); 26, swept Spondias mombin, 27-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 1i, XI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 1I 29, ex Psidium guajava, 10-19-XI-1932 (McClanraan, FSCA); 96 2+, reared from guava, 15-VII-1933 (L. C. McAlister, USNM); 38 5r, reared from Spondias mombin, 1935 (J. F. Cooper, USNM); 28, in McPhail trap, 18-VII-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 18, in McPhail trap, 30-VII-1935 (L. A. Boagossa, FSCA); 1i, in McPhailtrap, 5-VIII-1935 (E. Solomon, FSCA); 19, in McPhail trap, 9-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 38 1, in McPhail trap, 12-14-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 38 1,in McPhail trap, 17-19-IX-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); l6 1 in McPhail trap, 26-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhailtrap, 10-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey,. FSCA); 28, in McPhail (trap, 6-X-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 18, in McPhail trap, 10-X-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA; 26 19, in McPhail trap, 8-12-X-1935 (L. A. Brogossa, FSCA); 1 in McPhail trap, 14-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 15-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCAP; 28 1+, in McPhail trap,







82




18-X-1934 (L. S. Bragossa, FSCA); 18, in McPhail trap, 21-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); li 19, in McPhail trap, 22-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);18,in McPhail trap, 25-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA) 12, in McPhail trap, 1-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 29, 7-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 18,in McPhail trap, 16-1-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1,,in McPhail trap, 9-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA).

This species was first reported from Florida in the early

1930's. It is one of the 6 species of Anastrepha recorded as native to Florida. Although a major pest of mango ihtropical countries, in Florida, it never has been positively associated with attacks on mango (Weems, 1970). The life history was discussed briefly by Weems (1970). A. obliqua resembles suspensa in wing pattern and serrations at the apex of piercer, but differs from it in lacking the pronounced median scutoscutellar black spot typically present in suspensa.



Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Figs. 19, 124


Trypeta ocresia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Ins. Brit. Mus. 4:1016. Holotype 9. Type locality: Jamaica (MCZ).

Differing from other known Florida Anastrepha species by the wing markings (Fig.19), by the pale yellow and black markings on the thorax and by having a banded abdomen. Thorax orange brown, with pald yellow and black markings. A brownish band on







83



scutoscutellar suture, with a median black spot.. Wing pattern predominantly dark brown. Costal and S-band connected in cell R3 and part of cell R. Hyaline spot on costal not touching vein R4 +5" Proximal arm of V-band usually extending forward to vein R4 +5' but not connected to S-band. Distal arm of V-band short, either separated from proximal arm or jointed at vein M1 +2" Abdomen with transverse brown-black bands on tergites II-IV. Bands on tergites III and IV narrow or broken medially. Ovipositor sheath long and slender, 3.4 mm long. Piercer long and slender, apex gradually tapers to approximately 30 mm long. Male genitalia have not been dissected for study since males were not obtained in the course of this study.

Length: body 6.8-7.4 mm; wing 6.9-7.6 mm (N=3)

Hosts: Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen

Psidium guajava L.

Distribution: Florida, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica.

Florida Record: Monroe Co.: Key Largo, 19, trap in sapodilla tree 3-VII-1936 (Barcus & Stirling, USNM).

This species has not been found in Florida since 1936, possibly because it has not survived in Florida, and possibly because of limited trapping in the Florida Keys. It is not considered to be of economic importance anywhere within its range. Nothings is known about the immature stages of this species. This species is distinctly different from other Florida Anastrepha because of its wing pattern and the banding on the tergites.











Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Figs. 20, 75, 125


Trypeta suspensa Loew, 1862, Smiths. Misc. Collect. 6(1): 69, pl. II, Fig. 5. Holotype o. Type locality: Cuba (MCZ).

A moderately small, yellow-brown species characterized by having rather long patterned wing (Fig. 20), by having the apex of the piercer serrated, and by the median black spot on the thorax. Head shaped as in other members of the genus, with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals and 5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Thorax with a distinct scutoscutellar spot. The wing bands, yellowbrown to brown. The costal and S-band touching or narrowly separated at vein R4 +5. V-band complete and usually narrowly connected to S-band. Entire abdomen densely yellow-brown setose. Ovipositor sheath 1.7 mm long, stout and tapering apically. The piercer

1.6 mm long, with widened base, the apex serrated and gradually tapers to a sharp point. Male genitalia as in Fig. 75. Epandrium yellow-brown with numerous long setae dorsally. Surstyli. long and slender, rather pointed at apices. Proctiger small with numerous long setae ventrally.

Length: body 5.1-6.8 mm; wing 5.0-6.7 mm (N=15).

Hosts: Annona reticulata L

Annona squamosa L.

Bischofia javanica Blume

Averrhoa carambola L.

Capsicum frutescens L.

Carica papaya L.






85

Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A, DC. Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex. Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J, Igram & H, E. Moore Citrus aurantium L Citrus X paradisi Macfady Citrus sihensis (L.) Obeck Citrus sp.

Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. Diospyros virginiana L. Diospyros sp.

Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn.) Warb Eriobotryajaponica (Thub.) Lindl. Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz) Willd. Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzschex O. Berg. Eugenia uniflcra L. Ficus carica L. Flacourtia indica (Burm. F..) Merrill Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle Fortunella sp. Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson Litchi chinensis Sonn. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Malpighia glabra L. Mangifera indica L. Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen Momordica balsamima L.







Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack

Persea americana Mill.

Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill

Pouteria compechiana(HBK) Baehni

Prunus americana Marsh

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.

Prunus sp.

Pseudanamomis umbellulifera Kausel

Psidium littorole var. longips (). Berg.) Fosb.

Psidium freidrischsthallanum (0. Berg.) Niedenzu

Psidium quajava L.

Psidium sp.

Punica granatum L Pyrus communis L

Pyrus X lecontei Rehd.

Rubus sp.

Severhii6- buxifolia (Poir.) Ten

Spondias purpurea L.

Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. &Thonn) Daniell ex S. Bell

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston

Syzygium samrangense (Blume)Merril &.L. M..Perry

Terminalia catappa L.

Terminalia muelleri Benth.

Trevesia palmata (Roxb.)Vis.

Triphasia trifolia (Burm, f.) P. Wils.

Distribution: South Florida, Greater Antilles.

Florida Records. Broward Co.: 1, in McPhail trap,

10-11-1936 (C.D. Barcus, FSCA); Ft. Lauderdale, 18, in McPhail trap,








87



21-II-936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); Dade Co.: 1 7-1-1937 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); Homestead, i~, in McPhail trap, 8-1-1936 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); i', in McPhail trap, 18-II-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA) 28, reared from Syzygium samarangense, 31-X-1966 (Dowling, Jr.,
0
& Swanson, FSCA); Coconut Grove (Miami), It, from trap in mulberry tree, 30-XII-1935 (Baker & Solomon, USNM); 18,reared from Mangifera indica, 18-VIII-1966 (R. W. Swanson, FSCA); Miami 2 1i?, fruit fly trap, 1969 (USNM); Miami Beach, 58 4?, reared from grapefruit Citrus X paradisi, 31-X-1966 (D. De Haven, FSCA); 68 59, reared from grapefruit, 4-XI-1966 (Don De Haven, FSCA); Desoto Co.: Arcadia, 1+, in McPhail trap in Surinam, 22-VIII-1966 (G. P. Lamb, FSCA); Hendry Co.: La Belle, 28 3?, McPhail trap in Rangpur lime tree, 20-VIII-1966 (C. E. Nelson, FSCA); HighlandsCo.: Avon Park, 18, citrus sp.,27-X-1969 (Ted Morri.S,FSCA); Lake Placid, 1?, on foliage of cattley quava, 22-VIII-1966 (0. H. Baker, FSCA); Sebring, 1, Kumquat, 29-XI-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 2?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 13-IX-1966 (Al Krause, FSCA); 1+ Punica granatum, 21-X-1969 (C. W. Hale, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap 9-II-1970 (A. L. Krause, FSCA); Indian River Co.: Vero Beach, 2?, in McPhail trap in Carissa, 10-XI-1966 (R. H. Kendrick, FSCA); LeeCo,: Estero, li,quava,Psidium quajava 31-XII1965 (C. P. Schille, FSCA); Manatee Co.: Bradenton, l1,stickyboard trap in quava, 10-VIII-1966 (Doyle C. Chancey, FSCA); 7?,in McPhail trap in quava tree, 28-X-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 4?, Steiner trap, 4-XI-1966 (D. E. Chancey, FSCA)j 68 49, in McPhail











trap in guava tree, 23-XI-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 6, Steiner trap in guava tree, 2-XII-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 7, Steiner trap,16-XII-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 306 4?, in McPhail trap in guava tree, 20-1-1967 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 4rinMcPhail trap in guava tree, 27-1-1967 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); Palmetto, 49, in McPhail trap in orange tree, 2-IX-1966 (C.J. Bickerner, FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 3, in McPhail trap, 11-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter, FSCA); 88 5?, in McPhail trap, 16-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter, FSCA); 28 59, in McPhail trap 21-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter, FSCA); Key West 19, in McPhail trap, 4-III-1932 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 18 1 ,at Psidium, 26-27-IX-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 1i, 12-X-1932 (FSCA); 28 19, at Psidium, 18-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 18 1, at Psidium, 20-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 28, swept guava, 28-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk & Ludlam, USNM);1,23-XI-1932 (FSCA); 28, in McPhail trap, 17-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);, 1 27, in McPhail trap, 20-21-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1i 1?, 23-IV-1930 (FSCA); 1i 1o, in McPhail trap, 25-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 29, in McPhail trap, 27-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1-, in McPhail trap, 28-IX-19-1934 (J. H. Sealey,.FSCA); i, 30-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1i, in McPhail trap, i0, 2-V-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 2+, in McPhail trap, 18-VI-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 28, in McPhail trap, 20-VI-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 18,in McPhail trap, 3-VII-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 18, in McPhail trap 25-VII-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); it, in McPhail trap, 18-II-1935 (E. Soloman, FSCA); 18 2?, in McPhail trap 18-17-II-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);








89


I& 1, in McPhail trap 23-II-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap 20-II-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 25-11-1935, (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 38, in McPhail trap 26-II-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,13-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 4?, in McPhail trap 13-14-111-1935 (J. H. Cooper, FSCA),; 38 1i, in McPhail trap, 15-III-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA) 2 20o, in McPhail trap, 16-III-;935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 16 39, in McPhail trap, 15-16-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA). 28 29, in McPhail trap, 18-III-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 58-2?, in McPhail trap 19-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 13 3%,in McPhail trapl8-19-III-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 28 1~, in McPhail trap, 20-22-III-1935 (J, F. Cooper, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 23-II-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1r, in McPhail trap, 22-VI-1935T.C. E. Shepard, FSCA)j 18, in McPhail trap, 24-IV-1935 (W.. R. Lyle, FSCA); 1 in McPhail trap, 26-II-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 18,in McPhail trap, 13-VII-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 28 5Y, in McPhail trap, 13-VII1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 28, in McPhail trap, 28, McPhail trap 30-VII-1935 (E. Solomon, FSCA); 28 2?, in McPhail trap, 12-VII1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 22-VII-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); i~, in McPhail, 22-VII-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 38 29, in McPhail trap, 30-VII-1935 (A. Brag3ssa, FSCA)j i, in McPhail trap, 13-IX-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1-, in McPhail trap, 8-X-1935 (A. Brogaossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 21-X-1935 (. J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 38 1~, quava thicket, 7-XII-1935 (L. C. McAlister, FSCA); 1, in McPhail trap, 27-1-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); iQ, in McPhail trap, 22-II-1936 (H. S. McClahan,






90



FSCA); 29-VI-1936 (H. H. Hume FSCA); 19, 14-III-1936 4H. H. Hume, FSCA), 1+, in McPhail trap, 28-VII-1936 (Hume & Herring, FSCA) 1lo, inMcPhail trap, 3-VII-1936 (H. Hume, FSCA); 1~, in McPhail trap,19"-VII-1967 (J. I. Foder, FSCA); No Name Key, 26 2-,in McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (H. K. Winter, FSCA); 1 in McPhail trap, 15-Vi-1936 (R. B. Johnson, FSCA); 1 in McPhail trap, 28-VI-1936 (R. F. Coopery:FSCA); Stock Island, 29, blacklight trap, 4-VIII-1966 (F. A. Buchanan, FSCA); Okeechobee Co.: Okeechobee:, 1, stickyboard trap in orange tree, 13-X-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); 1S 1 sticky board trap in sour-cherry tree, 1-XI-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Orange Col, Winter Garden, 1e in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 28-X-1966 (J. C. Grubbs, FSCA); Palm Beach Co.: Belle Glade, 1S, Rubus sp. "Brazo," 30-VI-1969 W. E. Wyles, FSCA); 1l Rubus sp. "Brazo" 3-VII-1969 (W. E. Wyles, FSCA); Boynton, 1S, in McPhail trap, 17-II-1936 (L. D. Link, FSCA); Pinellas Co.: St.petersburg, 1, in McPhail trap, 26-VIII-1966 (W. C. Carroll, FSCA); Polk Co.: Lake Wales, 1' 1i, in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 13-XIII-1966 (W. M. Keen, FSCA), 20+, in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 9-XI-1966 (W. M. Keen, FSCA).

Of the 6 Anastrepha species, suspensa is the most common and.is collected -throughout the year. It is indigenous to the West Indies. It was first identified as occurring in Florida in 1931 (Weems, 1965, 1966). This species is considered a serious pest of commercial citrus,mangoes, and peaches in Florida, although within its normal range of distribution, the











economic damage caused by this species has been relatively small, More than 80 species of plants, including tomatoes and bell peppers, are hosts of the Caribbean fruit fly. An eradication program for suspensa in Key West was established by the State Plant Board of Florida and the USDA in 1933. Traps were used to evaluate the progress of the eradication effort. Thousands of specimens were collected from these traps in Florida over the years. There is no assurance that A. suspensa could not become a major pest of citrus or other crops such as peaches and apples, found in Florida or neighboring states. An extensive trapping program is still being carried out in parts of peninsula Florida for this species and other exotic fruit flies. Superficially, this species is difficult to distinguish from A. interrupta except for the ovipositor of the female and .genitalia of the male.



Genus Ceratitis Macleay


Ceratitis Macleay, 1829, Zool. J. 4:482. Type species: citriperda Macleay= capitata (Wiedemann).

Members of this genus have distinctive patterns on the wings and mesonotum and a swollen scutellum. Head yellowish white,. with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, borne on distinct tubercles in the males, and the anterior pair often modified into long spatula-shaped bristles. Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles present. Mesonotoum shining black or brown with yellow to white markings; with a large densely gray











pollinose and white to yellowish pilose area over the median portion. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between supra-alar than a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum, swollen, shining black and with 2 pairs of strong scutellars. Wing short and broad with maculations on the basal portion. Median band yellow extending from costa to anal margin. An elongate brown spot extending along m crossvein. Abdomen yellow to dark brown with dark basal bands on tergitesII-V.

Members of this genus are economically important. The world's most important and widespread citrus pest, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) causes considerable economic losses wherever it occurs. The Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsh, ranks next in importance to Mediterranean fruit fly in Africa. The larvae feed in fruits and vegetables. Studies of the biology of Ceratitis capitatahas been summarized in depth by Christenson and Foote (1960) and taxonomic reviews of the species have been published by Hardy (1949).



Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Figs. 21, 76, 126


Trypeta capitata Wiedemann, 1824, Analecta Entomol. 4:55. Holotype S. Type locality: East Indies.

Rather small species. Head yellow, with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, the anterior pair in males always modified into long spatulate bristles, apex diamond shaped with fine longitudinal






93





striae. Mesonotum shining black with yellow to white marking along the suture at each side. Humeri yellow to whitish, each with a shining black spot at the base of bristle. Mesonotum densely gray pollinose, median portion with yellow to white pilose area. A median black vitta extends from anterior margin to about the suture. A pair of moderately large shining black spots in a line with notopleura. Pleurae yellow to white with black bristles. Scutellum swollen shining black except for a narrow, undulated yellow line across the base. Legs yellow. Wing broad, with characteristic maculations at the basal portion. A broad median yellow band extends vertically from costa. through cell Cul ending at vein Cu2 +2nd A. A brownish yellow costal band extends through cell R1, middle of cell R3 to apex of vein R4 +5, Vein R4 +5 with a dark spot about the middle of cell R5. An elongate brown spot along m crossvein. Ovipositor sheath yellow, tinged..with brown at apex, about 0.9 mm long. Piercer sharp pointed at apex, about 0.9 mm long. Extended ovipositor 2.5 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 76. Epand:rLum broad and yellow with numerous long dark brown setae dorsally. Surstyli short, add extended into slender apical lobes. Proctiger with scattered setae lateroventrally.

Length: body 5.6-6.0 mm; wing 4.8-5.5 mm. (N=15).

Host: Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram & H. E. Moore

Psidium littorale var. longipes (0. Berg.) Fosb.

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston,




Full Text
Fig. 126. Distribution map of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
specific locality record (), county record ().


79
trap, l-VI-1960 (R. G. Milner, FSCA); Lower Matecumbo Key, lS,
in McPhail trap, 24-V-1935 (A. S. Mason, FSCA); No Name Key, 15 5?,
Mimusop emarginata, 3-VI-1933 (J. F. Copper, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail
trap, 13-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 3(5, in McPhail trap; 16-V-1935
(Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); l 2?, reared from larva on Mimusops
o
emarginata 18-V-1935 (J. F. Cooper. USNM); 1+, in McPhail trap,
19-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); l 1?, in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935,
G. D. Barcus, FSCA), l5 2?, in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935 (Barcus &
Cruz, FSCA); (paratypes) 13<5 3?, Mimusops emarginata, l-VI-1935
(J. F. Cooper, USNM); 1?, in McPhail trap, 17-VII-1935 (Barcus &
Moore, FSCA); 1<5 2?, Achras zapota, 26-11-1936 J. F. Coopers, FSCA);
lS,Achras zapota, 7-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); Sugarloaf Key, 1(5,
in McPhail trap, 16-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); lS, in McPhail trap,
20-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); Torch Key, 1?, in McPhail trap, 21-V-1936
(J. C. Bell, FSCA).
Variation among the available specimen mainly involves the
difference in the number of the lower fronto-orbital- most speci
men have 5 pairs, but some have 6 pairs. Genitalia show some
relationship to obliqua, but otherwise are distinct in many features.
This species is restricted to the Florida Keys. It is not considered
of economic importance and is rarely collected in traps. Not much
is known about its biology, although adults have been reared several
times from the fruits of Manilkara bahamensis and M. zapota.


Fig. 143.
Distribution map of Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin;
specific locality record () county record ( ) .


57
5'. Scutellum normal, yellow to dark brown, With 2 pairs of
scutallers, antennae not longer than 1/2 of face length;
males with some of the lower fronto-orbital enlarged. .
Strauzia
6. Scutellum with 1 pair of scutellars, dark brown and appearing
bilobed Peronyma
6'. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars, shining black
Procecidochare g
7. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a line between supra-alar
bristles than to a transverse suture .8
71. Dorsocentral bristles closer to the transverse suture than
to line between supra-alar bristles 13
8. Crossvein r-m situated approximately at midpoint of cell 1st
8'. Crossvein r-m situated distinctly apical of midpoint of cell
1st M2 10
9.Third antennal segments distinctly pointed dorso-apically;
with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles; suctellum
normal; wing without basal maculations Rhagoletis
9'. Third antennal segment rounded dorso-apically; with 2 pairs of
lower fronto-orbital bristles; scutellum swollen; wing with
basal maculations Ceratitis
10.Posterior upper fronto-orbital bristles convergent; wing
hyaline, dark pattern of wing usually confined to stigma
and occasionally some of the veins (Fig. 36) Neaspilota
10'. Posterior upper fronto-orbital bristles not convergent; wing
with distinct yellow to dark brown pattern on the disc 11


40
Aster adnatus Nutt.
Aster carolinianus Walt.
Aster dumosus L.
Aster dumosus L. var. subulaefolius T & G
Aster elliottii T & G
Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Coreopsis sp.
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Erigeron sp.
Haploppapus divaricatus (Nutt.) Gray
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium sp.
Solidago caesia L.
Solidaqo chapmanii T & G
Solidago gigantea Ait.
Solidago stricta Ait.
Solidaqo sp.
Trupanea _acjerataeBenjamin
Ageratum littorale Gray
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var, microcephala (Small)
Shinners


60
23. Eye with height more than 1 1/2 times as great as width;
cell 2nd C more than twice as long as the short stigma;
wing with distinct dark bands (Fig. 53) Stenopa
23'. Eye height not exceeding 1 1/2 times as great as width;
cell 2nd C not more than twice as long as length of the
short stigma; wing with maculation and apical bands
(Fig. 14 ) Acrotaenia
24. Vein + strong setose dorsally; wing pattern more or less
evenly reticulate; hyaline spots surrounded by a rim of
infuscation darker than the yellowish parts of the wing
disc (Fig. 13 ) .Acinia
24'. Vein R^ + bare dorsally; wing pattern with a Trupanea-like
subapical stellate pattern and with yellowish spots on basal
1/2 of wing disc (Fig. 28)
Euarestoides


Fig. 139. Distribution map of Myoleja rhino (Steyskal;
fpecific locality record () county record ( ).


126
known to occur in Florida. There is no recent revision of the
genus. Blanc and Foote (1961) and Steyskal (1972) have keyed
the North American members of the genus.
Key of the Florida Species of Myoleja.
1. Cell 2nd M2 with a hyaline triangle, cell R5 dark brown with
a round hyaline spot anterior of m crossvein; cell Cup with 2
hyaline areas; abdomen largely blackish; male with 2 or 3
greatly enlarged lower fronto-orbitals. nigricornis Doone)
1'. Cell 2nd M2 with 2 hyaline areas, at least 1 extending into
cell R5; cell R5 dark brown with 3 hyaline areas; cell Cup
with one hyaline area, abdomen yellowish or blackish; male
lower fronto-orbital normal or enlarged 2
2. Cell R dark brown with a hyaline spot in the middle, apex
of cell 1st M2 with a hyaline cross band that extends to
costa; abdomen largely yellowish; male lower fronto-orbitals
greatly enlarged rhino Steyskal
2'. Cell R dark brown without hyaline spot; apex of cell 1st M2
with a hyaline spot often extended forward to form more or
less interrupted series with spots in the base of cell R5;
abdomen blackish, male lower fronto-orbitals normal
limata (Coquillett)


Figure 6. Female ovipositor; BS: Basal sheath; DS: Distal
sheath; OVD: Oviduct; OVS: Ovipositor sheath; r: rasper.
Figure 7. Male genitalia; DP: Epandrium; F: Futella PRG:
Proctiger; PRS: Pronsisetae; PTH: Phallotheca: SS:
Surstylus.
Figure 8. Typical larva; A: Abdominal segment; ASP: Anterior
spiracle: MH: Mouth hook; T: Thoracic segment.
Figure 9. Typical pupa.


Dedicated
To these wonderful beings
my husband, Yusoh and children
Shari la and Melissa Johannie


FSCA) ; 29-VI-1936 (H. H. Hume FSCA) ; 1-?, 14-III-1936 H. H.
Hume, FSCA) 1?', in McPhail trap, 28-VII-1936 (Hume & Herring,
FSCA) 1?, inMcPhail trap, 3-VII-1936 (H. Hume, FSCA); 1$, in
McPhail trap, 19^11-1967 (J, I. Foder, FSCA); No Name Key, 2$ 2-?,-
in McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (H. K. Winter, FSCA); 1?- in McPhail
trap, 15-V-1936 (R. B. Johnson, FSCA); 1?, inMcPhail trap,
28-VI-1936 (R. F, Cooper*,FSCA); Stock Island, 2?, blacklight
trap, 4-VIII-1966 (F. A. Buchanan, FSCA); Okeechobee Co.:
Okeechobee:, 1?, stickyboard trap in orange tree, 13-X-1966
(Ted Morris, FSCA); 1<£ 1?, sticky board trap in sour-cherry tree,
l-XI-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Orange Co*, Winter Garden, l'
in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 28-X-1966 (J. C. Grubbs, FSCA);
Palm Beach Co.: Belle Glade, 1$, Rubus sp. "Brazo," 30-VI-1969
W. E. Wyles, FSCA); 1 FSCA); Boynton, 1&, in McPhail trap, 17-11-1936 (L. D. Link, FSCA);
Pinellas Co.: St.Petersburg, 16*, in McPhail trap, 26-VIII-1966
(W. C. Carroll, FSCA); Polk Co.: Lake Wales, 1$ 1?, in McPhail
trap in grapefruit tree, 13-XIII-1966 (W. M. Keen, FSCA), 2+, in
McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 9-XI-1966 (W. M. Keen, FSCA).
Of the 6 Anastrepha species, suspensa is the most common
and.is collected throughout the year. It is indigenous
to the West Indies. It was first identified as occurring
in Florida in 1931 (Weems, 1965, 1966). This species is
considered a serious pest of commercial citrus, mangoes, and peaches
in Florida, although within its normal range of distribution, the


Fig. 125. Distribution map of Ar.astrepha suspensa (Loew) ;
specific locality record (), county record().


233


251


0.8 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig.po^;. Epandrium highly
arched, with scattered setae. Surstyli broad, curved inward
more or less truncate of apices. Proctiger small and elongate
with numerous long setae ventrally.
Length: body 4.3-4.7 mm; wing 3.9-4.5 mm, (R=8).
Hosts: Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers,
Distribution: New York to Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, Bivens Arm
Lake, 1<$, 27-1-1973 (J. B. Heppner, FSCA) ; Broward Co. :
Ft, Lauderdale, 1 Brevard Co.: Malabar, 3$ 5t, bred from stem of Baccharis
glomerulif lora, 5-10-V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,, USNM) ; Dade Co.:
Homestead, lc? 2?, in McPhail trap, 4-IV-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA);
Miami, 3$, ex Baccharis glomeruliflora, 3-VII-1960 (D. A. Palmer
FSCA); 1$, 10-VI-1972 (Will. Pierce, FSCA); Desoto Co.: Arcadia
1$, sweeping wax myrtle, 23-III-1977 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
Duval Co.: Jacksonville, 1?, 9-1-1967 (R. E. Kling,Jr,,
FSCA); Hendy Co.: 1^, in Mexican fruit fly trap, 19-III-1960
(Wilson, FSCA) ; Orange Co.: Orlando, 5'5 4?, bred from stem of
Baccharis glomeruliflora, 25-30-IV-12V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Seminole Co.: 1?, in Medfly trap, 12-III-1958
(R. L. Arnold, FSCA); Volusia Co.; Osteen, 28 2?, bred from
stem of Baccharis glomeruliflora, 21-25-V-19H (D. J. Nicholspn
USNM).


199
nothing is known about their immature stages; larvae are scarce,
and difficult to find.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Figs. 61, 110, 162
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin, 1934, USDA Tech. Bull. 401;'57,
Fig. 42. Holotype $. Type locality, Orlando, Orange Co., Florida.
Differing from other known species of Trupanea by the wing
markings (Fig. 61); having dark ray from stigma to vein r -m broken
or absent in cell R^, usually no spot on vein M3 + Cu^; distal end
of cell R completely hyaline; but occasionally a narrow band of
infuscation bordering vein r -m may occur. Chaetotaxy on thorax
typical of this genus with dorsocentral bristles located near the
suture; 1 pair of strong scutellars. Basal segment of female ovi
positor dark brown to black. About 0.9 mm long, extended oviposite
measures 2.5 mm. Piercer straight-sided, 0.8 mm long, tapered at
apex. Male genitalia brown, small and compact; epandrium highly
arched, with scattered long setae; surstyli curved inward, its
apex blunt; proctiger small (Fig. 110).
Length body, 2.8-3.6 mm; wing 3.0-3.2 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Distribution: Florida.
Florida Records: Duval Co.: Jacksonville 2$ 1?, 14-X-1932
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 1?, ll-XI-1965 (C. F. Zieger, FSCA); Monroe Co.:
Boca Chica Key, 1?, 16-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Paradise Key,
Everglades Nat'l Pk., 1?, 3-IV=1952 (G. S. Walley, CNC); Orange Co.:


Fig. 119. Distribution map of Acrotaenia
specific locality record ().
testudinea (Loew),


ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
The family Tephitidae contains some of the most destructive
fruit flies including Carribean, Mediterranean, Melon, and Oriental
fruit flies and thus constitutes one of the most important families
of Diptera. The larvae of many species live and feed on the fleshy
part of various fruits, nuts, and vegetables and cause tremendous
loss each year to agricultures worldwide. At least 13 species of the
275 known Tephritids in North America are of economic importance,
2 of these are known to occur in Florida (Foote, personal comm-)..
Of the 56 species recorded from Florida, only 2 species,
both of which are introduced, do extensive damage to commercial
fruits and vegetables. The damage which could result from intro
duction of. fruit flies into fly-free areas is so great that elaborate
efforts have been taken to prevent their spread and establishment in
new areas. When the Medfly reappeared in Florida in 1956, after an
absence of 26 years following its eradication in 1929-30, more than
6 million acres were treated with insecticides. The campaign
involved 46,499 survey traps, 701 state workers plus personnel
contracted for aerial spraying and federal personnel and 264 fumi
gation sites. Nearly $10 million were expended by state and federal
agencies (Oberbacher and Denmark, 1957).
43


133
Predominantly white or yellow pollinose body. Head bristles
weak. Usually with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, the posterior
pair converging and with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Meso-
notum finely pollinose, dorsocentral bristles situated distinctly
behind anterior supra-alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of long
scutellars. Legs yellow. Wing mostly hyaline, but may have
several dark markings on the disc, in addition to those in the
stigma. Vein setose; vein R4 +5 bare.
Members of this genus are recognized easily by the hyaline
wings. Adults commonly inhabit composites, and the larvae develop
in the flower heads. The genus is entirely Nearctic. Of 11 species
in the genus, 5 are known from Florida. There is no complete
revision of the genus, but Phillips (1923), Benjamin (1934),
Malloch (1942), and Quinsenberry (1949) provided keys to several
species in this genus.
Key to the Florida Species of Neaspilota
1. Wing with several dark markings on the disc, in addition to
the one in the stigma (Figs. 36, 40). 2
1'. Wing without such markings, or at least with dark markings
restricted to the stigma (Fig. 38,39) 3
2. Frons pubescent, apical dark markings on wing reaching
the apex of vein M]^ + 2 (Fig* 40) vernoniae Loew
2'. Frons bare; apical dark markings on the wing not reaching vein
+ 2 36) achilleae Johnson


80
Anastreoha obliaua (Macquart)
Figs. 18, 74, 123
Tephritis obliqua (Macquart) 1835, Dipteres. Tome deuxieme,
Dptera 2:703. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba (Paris Museum).
Medium-sized yellow brown species differented by the
generic characters in combination with the characters of the piercer
and the prominent brown marking on the mesoscutum. Mesonotom yellow
except for the brown marking over suture. With pleural stripe
extending from behind the suture to posterior margin and the broad
submedian stripe extending to posterior margin, broadens anteriorly
reaching notopleuron the transverse suture. The bands of wing pattern
yellow brown, Costal and S-band touching on vein +^ just anterior
of r crossvein. V-band complete usually connected to S-band,
often broadly, Ovipositor sheath brown 1.8 mm long. Piercer
1.5 mm long, moderately stout with base distinctly widened
and acutely serrated at apical 2/3 or more. Male genitalia as
in Fig. 74. Epandrium brown with numerous fine setae over the
dorsum. Surstyli gradually tapers, apex rounded. Proctiger
elongate, with numerous fine setae laterally with a clump
of setae ventrally.
Length: body 6.1-7.4 mm; wing 6.0-7.2 mm. (N=10)
Host: Mangifera indica L.
Spondias guajava L.
Spondias mombin L.
Spondias purpurea L.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston


142
j


216
setae that spread laterally. Surstyli short and slightly curved
inward, the apices rounded; the proctiger large and elongate, with
numerous fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: hody 6.5-7.6 mm; wing 5.7-6.7 mm. (N-12).
Hosts: Lycopersioon esculentum Mill,
Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
Solanum carolinense L.
Distribution: Oklahoma to Ontario and south to eastern Texas
and Florida.
Florida Records: Marion Co.: Silver Springs, 1?, McPhail
trap, 29-VI-1967 (E. W. Holder, FSCA); St. Johns Co.: 4# 4?, bred
from Solanum aculeatissimum, 18-VIII-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); Bakersville,
2$ 2?, larvae transferred from Solanum carolinense r 29-30-V-1930
(M. Dodd, USNM); Riverdale, 2l 6+, bred from Solanum aculeatissimum,
15-25-V-1931 (M. Dodd, USNM); St. Augustine; 68 4?, bred from
S-Olanum carolinense 9-V-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); 6$ 3?, bred from
Solanum carolinense, 14-VI-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); l 1?, bred from
Solonam carolinense, 1Q-VI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Volusia Co.:
Daytona Beach, l5, Solanum carolinense, 5-12-V-1930 (D. R. Nicholson,
USNM); Port Orange, 2& 1?, bred from Solanum aculeatissimum
4-9-IX-193U(USNM); 8S 1+, bred from Solanum aculeatissimum,
15-29-V-1931 (USNM).
This species can be distinguished further by its size,
being generally larger, an average of 7.0 mm. Most specimens
studied had 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals, but the number varies


269




DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Although considerable information on Florida tephritids exists,
it is widely scattered in the literature. In this dissertation, all
information pertaining to Florida tephridids, including taxonomic notes,
hosts, seasonal distribution, and information on immature stages, is
brought together, and keys to genera and species are included.
The hosts of 12 species of Florida Tephritidae are unknown. At
least 155 species of plants are known to be hosts of the other 44
species. Of these, 50% are Compositae, which serve as hosts for 29
species in 15 genera of fruit flies. Larvae feed on the developing
seeds and destroy all or most of the seeds in each head. The most
common tephritids associated with these plants are widespread and
generally occur where host plants occur. The Tephritidae associated
with Compositae are not considered of economic importance in Florida;
their value as biological agents in controlling weeds has not been
assessed. This aspect warrants further investigation.
The species of greatest economic importance in Florida and
elsewhere infest all kinds of fleshy fruits and vegetables. Cultivated
plants in Florida, particularly citrus, peach, and mango, have suffered
serious damage from the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, and
the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Anastrepha suspensa,
218


pollinose and white to yellowish pilose area over the median
portion. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between
supra-alar than a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum,
swollen, shining black and with 2 pairs of strong scutellars.
Wing short and broad with maculations on the basal portion.
Median band yellow extending from costa to anal margin. An elon
gate brown spot extending along m crossvein. Abdomen yellow to
dark brown with dark basal bands on tergites II-V.
Members of this genus are economically important. The
world's most important and widespread citrus pest, the Mediter
ranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) causes consider
able economic losses wherever it occurs. The Natal fruit fly,
Ceratitis rosa Karsh, ranks next in importance to Mediterranean
fruit fly in Africa. The larvae feed in fruits and vegetables.
Studies of the biology of Ceratitis capitata has been summarized
in depth by Christenson and Foote (1960) and taxonomic reviews of
the species have been published by Hardy (1949).
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Figs. 21, 76, 126
Trypeta capitata Wiedemann, 1824, Analecta Entomol.
4:55. Holotype ?. Type locality: East Indies.
Rather small species. Head yellow, with 2 pairs of upper
fronto-orbitals, the anterior pair in males always modified into
long spatulate bristles, apex diamond shaped with fine longitudinal


352
Malloch, J. R. 1941. The American genus Paracantha Coquillett.
Rev. de Entomol, 12:32-42.
1942. Notes on two genera of American flies of the family
Trypetidae. Proc. U.S, Natl. Mus, 92:1-20.
Marsh, P. M. 1970. A new species of fruit fly parasite from
Florida (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opinae).
Fla. Entomol. 53.:31-32.
Mason, A. C. 1922. Biology of the papaya fruit fly. Toxotrypana
curvicauda, in Florida. U.S. Dept, Agrie. Bull.
1081-1-10.
Munro, H. K. 1957. Trypetidae in Ruswenzori Expedition, 1934-
1935. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 2:85301054.
Nation, J. L. 1972. Courtship behavior and evidence of a sex
attractant in the male Caribbean fruit fly. Anastrepha
suspensa. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 65:1364-1367. .
Novak, J. A. 1974. A taxonomic revision of Dioxyna and Paroxyna
(Diptera: Tephritidae) for America north of Mexico
Melandria. 16:1-52.
Novak, J. A., and B. A. Foote. 1975. Biology and immature stages
of fruit flies; the genus Stenopa (Diptera: Tephritidae).
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48:42-51.
Oberbacher, M. F., and H. A. Denmark. 1957. Mediterranean fruit
fly eradication program in Florida (1956-1957):
Chronology and summary. State Plant Board of Fla.
Gainesville. 6p.
Peterson, A. 1923. The pepper maggot, a new pest of peppers and
eggplants. N.J. Agrie. Expt, Sta. Bull. 373:4-23
Phillips, V. T. 1923. A revision of the Trypetidae of northeastern
America. J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 31:119-154.
1946. The biology and identification of T.rypetid larvae.
Amer. Entomol. Soc. Mem. 12:1-161.
Pickett, A. D. 1937. Studies on the genus Rhagoletis (Trypediade)
with special reference to Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh).
Can. J. Res. 15:53-75.
Prokopy, R. J., E. W. Bennett, and G. L. Bush. 1971. Mating
behavior in Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae):
I. Site of assembly. Can. Entomol, 103:1405-1409.


166
5. Thoracic length ranges from 1.5-2.1 mm; larvae only in
fruits of Cornus florida (Cornaceae)
cornivora Bush
5'. Thoracic length ranges from 1.4-1.7 mm; larvae only in
^accinium arboreum Marsh, and Vaccinium formosum Andr.
. mendax Curran
Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata (Loew)
Figs. 47, 100, 149
Trypeta cingulata Loew, 1862, Smiths Mise. Collect. 6(1);76.
o
Holotype +. Type locality: Middle state.
Readily differentiated from the sibling species, chionanthi
and osmanthi by the fuscous apical spot on the wing, by the head and
body measurement, and by the ovipositor length. Predominantly
dark brown, with yellowish head. Thorax dark brown with whitish
pollinose microtrichia anctdecumbent setae arranged in 4 ill-
defined rows. Dorsocentral bristles on a line drawn between anterior
supra-alars. Scutellum dark brown with large dorsoapical white
spot, with 2 pairs of scutellars. Notopleural stripe white extend
ing from humeral to wing base. Legs yellow, sometimes tinged
with brown. Wing pattern as in Fig. 47, with upper arm of apical
fork broken by hyaline area. Female ovipositor short, about 2.4
mm; the ovipositor sheath dark brown to black, as long as broad
about 0.8 mm. The piercer 0.8 mm, apex gradually tapers to a
sharp point. Male genitalia as in Fig.100. Epandrium with long


Fig. 154.
Distribution map of Rhagoletis mendax Curran;
specific locality record () county record () .


Fig. 138.
Distribution map of Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
specific locality record (), county record ()


341


112
Distribution: A widespread species, occurring throughout
United States. Previously recorded from Alabama, California,
Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina.
Florida Records: Escambia Co.: Bratt, 7 1933(A. Blanton, USNM); 23(? 12?, 29-VIII-1033 (A. Blanton, USNM);
7$ 2?, 26-IX-1933 (A. Blanton, USNM); Gadsden Co.: Quincy, lcT 2?
D-Vac sample soybean field 20-IX-1977 (Y, Salleh, FSCA);
1$ 1?, D-Vac sample soybean, 5-X-1978 (Y. Salleh, FSCA);
1<£, D-Vac sample soybean, 5-X-1978 (Y. Salleh, FSCA) .
This species occurs only in the northern portion of
Florida.
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Figs. 27, 82, 132
Trypeta bella (Loew), 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect., 6(1);
88, pi. II. Fig. 23. Holotype (MCZ).
Predominantly black, very readily differentiated from aequalis
by its small size being only 2.9 mm. The presence of a bulla on
cell and the absence of brown patch on the apical wing margin
of celldistinguish bella from aequalis. The ovipositor sheath
dark brown, about 0.8 mm long. The piercer 0.5 mm, with gradu
ally pointed paex. Extended ovipositor 188 mm long. Male


CHECKLIST OF FLORIDA TEPHRITIDAE
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker
Toxotrypana Gerstacker, 1860:191. Type species curvicauda Gerstacker,
by monotypy.
curvicauda Gerstacker, 1860:194.
Genus Peronyma Loew
Peronyma Loew, 1873:250. Type species Trypeta sarcinata Loew,
by original designation.
sarcinata (Loew), 1862:218 (Trypeta).
Genus Procecidochares Hendel
Procecidochares Hendel, 1914:91. Type species Trypeta atra Loew,
by original designation.
atra (Loew), 1862:219 (Trypeta)
australis Aldrich, 1929:9.
polita (Loew), 1862:77 (Trypeta).
Genus Paracantha Coquillett
Paracantha Coquillett, 1899:264. Type species, Trypeta culta Wiedemann,
by original designation.
culta (Wiedemann), 1830:486, 680 (Trypeta).
forficula Benjamin, 1934:31.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Rohani Binti Ibrahim was born on December 13, 1950, in Pasir
Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia. She received her secondary education from
Suita Ibrahim School in Kelantan. In May 1972, she graduated with
a Diploma in Agriculture from College of Agriculture, Serdang,
Selangor.
Prior to entering the University of Florida, she joined the
Department of Agriculture, Kelantan, as an Agricultural Assistant.
In September 1972, she entered University of Florida to begin work
in Entomology with a scholarship from Public Service Department,
Malaysia. She received the Bachelor of Science degree with honors
in August 1974 and Master of Science degree in June 1976. In Fall
1976, she enrolled herself in a doctoral program with a scholarship
from University of Agriculture, Malaysia. Currently, she is a candi
date for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Rohani Binti Ibrahim is married to Yusoh Bin Salleh and has
2 lovely daughters, Sharila and Melissa Johannie. She is a member
of Entomological Society of America.
35-6


Fig. 142.
Distribution map of Neaspilota floridana Rohani,
specific locality record ().
n. sp.


Bidens pilosa 12-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); McIntosh, 10c?
15?, reared from Bidens pilosa 30-VIII-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Ocala, 4(5 16?, reared from Bidenslaevis, 23-XI-1929 (F. Walker,
USNM); 4(? 3?, swept weeds Bidens pilosa, 30-VIII-1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Wiersdale, 5<$ 3?, bred from Bidens pilosa, 12-VII-
1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Martin Co.: Indiantown, 95 8?
Bidens pilosa .17-11-1930 (Beavers, USNM) Monroe Co., Big Pine
Key, 2<5, swept weeds, 28-XII-1971 (W. H. Price, FSCA); 7(5 6?
reared from Carduus cardinianus, 24-30-III-1978 (I. B. Rohani,
FSCA); Boca Chica, 1?, swept roadside weeds, 8-V-1971 (W. H.
Pierce, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Park, 25, 30-XI-1961 (Munroe,
Glen, Holland & Chillcot, CNC); l5, l-XII-1961 (Munroe, Glen Holland
& Chillicot, CNC); 45 8?,Bidens pilosa, 7-V-1967 (B. V. Peterson,
CNC); 45, on flower of solidago stricta, 5-XII-1970 (H. R. Dodge,
FSCA); 2? 28-29-II1-1978 (C. L. Smith, UGA); Key Largo, 1?,
26-X11-1956(Camilla Weems, CU); 3o 1? 9-10-IV-1955 (F. W. Mead,
FSCA); 35 1?, M2 Light, 5-6-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillcot
CNC); 295 17?, swept Bidens pilosa, 24-III-1978 (Y. Salleh & I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Key West; 165 10?, 18-24-III-1930, bred from Bidens
pilosa (USNM); 45 1?, taken at light 26-III-1935 (E. G. Hume, CU) ;
3, on Flaveria linearla 27-VII-1952 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
lS 1?, 9-V-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC) 25, 2-II-1969 (USNM); Saddle
bunch Keys, 1?, on Flaveria linearia, 29-XII-1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr
CU); 3 1?, on Flaveria linearia, 29-XII-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
ANMH); Okaloosa Co., Eglin Home, 45 3?, on daisy-like composite,
25-IX-1966 (P. A. Thomas, FSCA); Orange Co.; Apopka, 185 12?,


331


FRUIT FLIES OF FLORIDA
(DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
By
ROHANI BINTI IBRAHIM
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1980

Dedicated
To these wonderful beings
my husband, Yusoh and children
Shari la and Melissa Johannie

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am deeply indebted to the following individuals and
institutions for their co-operation, for making their collections
available to me or for providing information or both. The abbrevi
ations given below are used throughout the text to indicate
depositories and present locations of specimens used in this study;
Dr. P. Wygodzindsky, American Museum Natural History, New York, New
York (AMNH); Dr. J. F. McAlpine, Canada, Department of Agriculture,
Ottawa, Ontario (CNC); Dr. I. L. Pechman, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York (CN); Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville (FSCA); Dr. D. H.
Habeck, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (FSCA); Dr. M. K.
Thayer, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
(CZ); Dr. C. L. Smith, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (UGA);
and Dr. R. H. Foote and Mr. G. C. Steyskal, National Museum of
Natural History, Washington, D.C. (USNM).
Additional materials were collected during the period of
study. These field trips and visits to several museums were finan
cially supported by the University of Agriculture, Malaysia and
through assistance of the University of Florida (FDACS). A number
of individuals assisted me in collecting specimens and setting up
iii

rearing materials. I wish to extend my sincere thanks to the
following; Dr. Y. Salleh, Mr. C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., Mr. R. A.
Belmont, Ms. J. Gillmore, and Mr. H. A. Greenbaum.
I am grateful to my chairman, Dr. D. H. Habeck, and co-chairman,
Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., and committee members, Drs. G. E. Allen and F. W.
Zettler, for their continued guidance and support during this study.
My thanks also goes to Dr. R. H. Foote, Mr. G. C. Steyskal, and Mr.
A. Friedberg for their helpful suggestions and to Drs. J. F. Butler
and D. V. Young, and Ms. T. C. Carlysle for their interest in illus
tration and photographic suggestions. A sincere appreciation goes
to Dr. K. R. Langdon and Mr. C. Artaud for identifying the host
plants and reviewing the host lists.
A special appreciation is expressed also to my husband,
Yusoh, who was most understanding during the preparation of this
work and to dear friends, Ms. Thelma Carlysle, Francis Ward, Barbara
Hollien, and Janice Sapp for their constant encouragement and
comfort. *
A very special gratitude goes to my family in Malaysia, who
have constantly given me encouragement and support. My two children
Sharila and Melissa Johannie deserve my heartiest appreciation for
being so wonderful throughout this work.
I also want to thank University of Agriculture, Malaysia for
the financial support which made this study possible.
iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pa9e
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT vii
INTRODUCTION 1
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY 3
BIOLOGY 13
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 43
METHODS AND MATERIALS 46
Rearing 46
Morphological Studies 48
CHECKLIST OF FLORIDA TEPHRITIDAE 50
Genus Toxotrypana Gestacker 50
Genus Peronyma Loew 50
Genus Procecidochares Hendel 50
Genus Paracantha Coquillett 50
Genus Eurosta Loew 51
Genus Acidogona Loew 51
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy 51
Genus Aero taenia Loew 51
Genus Euaresta Loew 51
Genus Dioxyna Frey 52
Genus Trupanea Schrank 52
Genus Tephritis Latreille 52
Genua Dyseuaresta Hendel 52
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin 52
Genus Myoleja Rondani 53
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel 53
Genus Stenopa Loew 53
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken 53
Genus Ceratitis Macleay 54
Genus Anastrepha Schiner 54
Genus Rhagoletis Loew 54
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin 55
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy 55
v

TABLE OF CONTENTSCONTINUED
Page
Genus Euleia Walker 55
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett 55
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT 56
Key to the Florida Genera of Tephritidae 56
Genus Acidogona Loew 61
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy 63
Genus Acrotaenia Loew 66
Genus Anastrepha Schiner 68
Genus Ceratitis Macleay 91
Genus Dioxyna Frey 96
Genus Dyseuaresta Hendel 105
Genus Euleia Walker 108
Genus Euaresta Loew 110
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin 115
Genus Eurosta Loew 117
Genus Myoleja Rondani 125
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken 132
Genus Paracantha Coquillett 149
Genus Peronyma Loew 154
Genus Procecidochares Hendel 157
Genus Rhagoletis Loew 163
Genus Stenopa Loew 176
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy 179
Genus Tephritis Latreille 181
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett 184
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker 189
Genus Trupanea Guettard 190
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel 202
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin 214
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 218
LITERATURE CITED 348
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 356

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
of Doctor of Philosophy
FRUIT FLIES OF FLORIDA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
By
Rohani Binti Ibrahim
June 1980
Chairman: Dr. D. H. Habeck
Co-Chairman: Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr.
Major Department: Department of Entomology and Nematology
The'fruit fly fauna of Florida was studied for the first
time. Keys to genera and species are given along with descriptions
of the 24 genera and 56 species including one new species. Data are
presented in the following format: Synonymy, diagnosis, taxonomic
notes, hosts, distribution, Florida records and discussion. Wings
are figured for 56 species and male genitalia of 49 species are
illustrated. Maps showing Florida distribution are provided for
all species.

INTRODUCTION
The family Tephritidae is moderately large, with more than
4,000 species distributed throughout the temperate, subtropical,
and tropical areas of the world. In America, north of Mexico,
there are approximately 275 described species. In Florida, there
are 25 genera and 56 species of tephritids represented by the 5
subfamilies: Dacinae, Oedaspinae, Terelliinae, Tephritinae, and
Trypetinae.
Many fruit lies are economically important, causing
tremendous losses each year to agriculture through their attack
on various fruit, nut, and vegetable crops. Other species breed
in flower heads, especially of composites, where they feed on
the developing seeds, while others mine the stems or form galls
on the stem and roots.
An extensive literature on the biology of the control
of certain species has been accumulated over the past 100 years
because of their economic importance. Much biological and host
data on Florida tephritids is available from literature reports,
rearing records, and collecting data. Additional collecting and
rearing, as well as ecological studies are needed before biologi
cal information on most species will be reasonably complete.
1

2
In spite of the widespread interest of these highly
i .
ornamented flies and the widely scattered description of Florida
tephritids, no monographic study of the family has been done
for Florida fruit flies. Numerous generic revision during the
past 25 years have clarified many of the problems, but much remains
to be done. The purpose of this work is to provide workers with
a key and descriptions to Florida fruit flies as well as to
bring together host information and distribution records for each
species. I hope this study will bring the taxonomy of this family
up to date for Florida and will stimulate further research on
Florida fruit flies to fill some of the gaps in our present know
ledge.

GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY
Detailed accounts of tephritid morphology are provided
by Benjamin (1934), Foote and Blanc (1963), Bush (1966), and Novak
(1974). This brief discussion focuses on the terminology used in
the taxonomic studies of fruit flies.
Head (Fig. 1, 2). The irons (FR) lies between the eyes
(E) and extends from the vertex to the lunule (LU). The irons
usually is pollinose and bears the upper and lower fronto-orbital
bristles. The upper fronto-orbital bristles (UFO) usually consist
of 2 pairs, but 1 or 3 pairs may be present. Two or 3 pairs of
lower fronto-orbital bristles (LFO) usually are present, but may
vary from 1-5 pairs. The lunule extends from the base of the irons
to the antennal base.
Below the irons is the facial region (F), which extends
from the antennae to the anterior oral margin. The gena (GN)
extends vertically from the oral margin to the bottom of the com
pound eyes. Directly below the compound eyes are the genal bristles
(G). The anterolateral margin of the oral opening and post genae
(PG) occasionally is heavily setosed. The postocular bristles
(POC) are always present and may be light or dark, slender, or
robust, and blunt or sharp tipped.
3-

4
The antennae are 3 segmented. The 3rd antennal segment
i -
(3AS) bears the arista (A) which may be varicolored. The 3rd
segment is rounded especially, but sometimes has a distinct
apicodoral point.
The proboscis is composed of the rostrum and labellum (L).
In Genus, Dioxyna, the labellum is slender and attached by its
anterior end to the rosturm, forming a geniculate mouthpart.
Thorax. (Fig. 4). The coloration and thoracic pattern
are usually useful for generic and species separation. The basic
color of the thorax is black, brown, or yellow pollinose. The meso-
notum is interrupted by an incomplete transverse suture (TS). The
chaetotaxy of the mesonotum is of generic significance. The rela
tive position of the dorsocentral (DC) and acrostichal bristles
(ACR) to the suture and supra-alars (ASA) are of great value in identi
fication. All species of Florida tephritids usually have the follow
ing bristles present: 1 pair of humeral (H), 1 pair of presutural
(PS), 1 pair of intraalars (IAL), 1 pair of acrostichals (ACR),
1 pair of dorsocentrals (DC), 2 pairs of notopleurals (N), and
1-2 pairs of scutellar bristles (SC). The scutellum can be dis
tinctly enlarged cr swollen, shining dark brown or black, and the
postseutellum and metanotum sometimes can bear color patterns of
importance. Chaetotaxy of the legs is less significant except
for the minute preapical setae on the venter of hind tibia of
Neaspilota, and swollen femur in males of Euaresta. The colora
tion of femur may be important in identification.

5
The wings bear significant taxonomic characters and are
extensively used for identification. Color pattern and its rela
tion to the veins are useful for species separation. The termin
ology used by Foote and Blanc (1963) is used for the wing veins
and cells (Fig. 3). Among venation characters used are: the
presence or absence of setae on the node and vein R 4+5,
position of vein r m in relation to the stigma, the distance
along vein M 1 +2 separating vein r -m and m, and the presence or
absence of a bulla in cell R5.
Abdomen (Fig. 5). The abdomen has 5 visible segments. The
terga usually are a single color or are ornamented with a color
pattern usually of generic or specific significance as in Acidogona
and Xanthaciura. Genitalic characters often are useful. The female
ovipositor (Fig. 6) is long and simple and consists of the ovi
positor sheath (OVS), the basal sheath (BS), raspers (r), the distal
sheath (DS), and the piercer. The tip of the ovipositor has signi
ficant taxonomic characters for species separation, especially in
the genus Anastrepha. The tip may be short and broad, with many
serrations, or long and tapering with larger rounded serrations.
The male genitalia (Fig. 7) are either small and compact or large
and robust. The epandrium (EP) may be highly arched or truncate;
the chaetotaxy of the dorsum is of generic and specific signifi
cance. Surstyli (SS) may be elongate or blunt with the inner
edges smooth or serrated. The proctiger (PRG) lobe varies in size and
shape and bears setae scattered over its entire surface. The

6
prenisetae (PRS) are a pair of dark tooth-like projections on the
inner margins of the surstyli. The ejaculatory apdeme may be
fan-shaped or spatulate depending on the species.
Eggs. The eggs are generally white and may be elongated
with a long tapering stalk as in the eggs of Toxotrypana curvicauda
Gerstacker and Paracantha culta (Wiedemann); others may be ellipti
cal; the charion may be smooth or with reticulation and sculpturing;
some are without such characters. Characters of the eggs rarely
have been used in identification of fruit flies, because not much
is known about their morphology. In the rearing and collecting work,
workers seldom come across the egg or actually oook for eggs. More
easily accessible taxonomic characters of adults had larvae are avail
able and are extensively used in fruit fly taxonomy. Brief descrip
tions of the eggs of several species of tephritids can be found in
Knab and Yothers (1914), Emmart (1933), Benjamin (1934), Tauber
and Toschi (1965a), and Weems (1965, 1969).
Larva (Fig. 8). The larvae can be divided into 2 morpho
logical groups; 1 group has a shortened barrel-shaped body which is
typical of the gall makers and some species that breed in composite
flower-heads. Most species are muscidiform (Fig. 8), the body
gradually tapering from a bluntly broad posterior end to a nar
row head that possesses a pair of mouth hooks (MH). Full grown
larvae are 3-15 mm long, white to light yellow. The exoskeleton,
usually is smooth, but may be wrinkled in some species. Occasion
ally dark markings may be seen on the body which are of generic

7
and specific significance. Microscopic spines may be present on
the dorsum of at least some of the segments. Band of spinules
always present ventrally on every segment, presumably is an aid in
locomotion. The non-sclerotized head bears a pair of black
retractible mouth hooks, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, and sensory
organs. These structures provide diagonistic characters for
separating genera and closely related species. The anterior
spiracles (ASP) are a paired organ usually located dorsolaterally
on the prothorax, each bearing distally a number of digits which
varies from 3 in Neaspilota achilleae Johnson to as many as 53
in Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann). The caudal segment may be
smooth or tuberculate; posterior spiracles occur on the dorsal
half of the segment. Greene (1929), Benjamin (1934), and Phillips
(1946) discussed in detail the larval characters of some of the
Florida tephritids. The most recent works on the immatures of some
tephritid species are those of Pruitt (1953), Bush (1962, 1965), and
Steyskal (1975).
Pupa (Fig. 9) The Puparium is of the usual stout cylindrical
form, with rounded ends ranging from straw colored to black, except
that of Acinia fucata (Fabricius), which is bean-shaped, glossy
rufous, brown dorsally and laterally. Length varies from 2-13 mm.
Segmental sutures are clearly defined in most species; others are
indistinct and poorly defined, like those of Euarestoides abstersus
(Loew) and Tephritis subpura (Johnson). Anterior spiracles usually
are like those of the larvae, but more likely to be highly pigmented

8
in some species, the caudal end often blackened. The posterior
spiracles usually are located on spiracular plate. Greene (1929)
and Benjamin (1934) briefly described the pupal characters of some
t.ephritid species.

Figure 1-2. Chaetotaxy and areas of the head; Fig; 1, lateral
view. Fig. 2. Front view; A: Arista; E: Eyes; F: Face;
FC; Facial carina; FR: frons; G. Genal bristles; GN:
Gena; INV: Intravertical bristles; IV: Innervertial
bristle; L: Labella; LFO: Lower fronto-orbital bristles;
LU: Lunule; OC: Ocellar bristles; OV: Outervertical
bristles: PA: Parafacial; FO: Parafrontal; PG: Postgena;
POC: Postocular bristles; UFO: Upper fronto-orbital
bristles; IAS: 1st antennal segment; 2AS: 2nd antennal
segment; 3AS: 3rd antennal segment;
Figure 3: Wing showing cells and venation.
Figure 4. Dorsal view, chaetotaxy and areas of thorax: ACR:
Acrostichal bristle; ASA: Anterior supra-alar bristle;
DC: Dorsocentral bristle; H: Humeral bristle; IAR: Intra-
alar bristle; N: Notopleural bristle; PAL: Postalar
bristles; SCS: Scutoscutellar suture; SCT: Scutellum;
TS: Transverse suture.
Figure 5. Dorsal view of abdomen showing segmentation and
position of bristles; OVS: Ovipositor sheath; T : Tergum.

10
I

Figure 6. Female ovipositor; BS: Basal sheath; DS: Distal
sheath; OVD: Oviduct; OVS: Ovipositor sheath; r: rasper.
Figure 7. Male genitalia; DP: Epandrium; F: Futella PRG:
Proctiger; PRS: Pronsisetae; PTH: Phallotheca: SS:
Surstylus.
Figure 8. Typical larva; A: Abdominal segment; ASP: Anterior
spiracle: MH: Mouth hook; T: Thoracic segment.
Figure 9. Typical pupa.

12

ti*

BIOLOGY
As far as is known, all fruit flies deposit their eggs
directly into living healthy plant tissues. Eggs may be inserted
to a depth of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in soft fruits or just beneath
the skin in others; eggs of leaf-mining tephritids are inserted
from the ventral surface into the parenchyma of leaf margin like
those of Euleia fratria (Loew) and EL heraclei (Linnaeus).
Females of some species may successively use the same ovipuncture
or ovipunctures made by others to deposit their eggs. Up to 8
eggs/puncture have been observed, but 3-4 eggs are more common.
Normally the larva emerges within a few days and begins to feed
and burrow into the pulp of the hosts; some excavate galleries
within the parenchyma of the leaf; others mine down to the ovaries,
receptacles and corolla. Damage to the commercial fruits and
vegetables can be substantial. Larvae of those that breed prim
arily on composites feed on the developing seeds and cause serious
losses of viability. The infested fruits or vegetables ripen
prematurely, deteriorate and drop to the ground. Composite
feeding tephritids tend to pupate within the flower heads at the
feeding site, such as Trupanea actinobola (Loew), Acidogona
melanura (Loew) and Acinia fucata (Fabricius). Duration of stages
13

14
and host preference varies greatly with species. Christenson
and Foote (1960) summarized the life history of several species
of fruit flies. A few days to a week or more are required for
attainment of sexual maturity, after the adult emerges, mating
occurs and a new cycle is begun. Bush (1966) reported that
adults of Rhagoletis live up to 70 days in the laboratory, but
20-30 under natural conditions. Adult longevity of Euleia
fratria exceeds 13 weeks(Tauber and Toschi, 1965a).
Bateman (1972) divided the family into 2 major groups
based on physiological and ecological characters. Many species
that inhabit tropical and subtropical regions are multivoltine
and have no obvious diapause. Several species endemic to Florida
seem to fall into this group. The univoltine group inhabiting
the more temperate region have winter diapause. All holarctic
species of Rhagoletis essentially belong to this group (Bush,
1966). The range of environments to which these forms are exposed
is extremely broad; no single environmental component determines
their abundance. Bateman (1972) discussed in detail the principal
components of the life system of fruit flies.
Little is known about the factors controlling diapause
in fruit flies; these characteristics are of considerably selective
advantage as they insure supply of adults for several seasons.
Most temperate species of fruit flies overwinter as diapausing
pupae. Usually diapause must be broken by a period of low

15
temperature, some individuals require as many as 4 successive
chillings before completing development (Boyce, 1934).
Many species of fruit flies are attacked by a complex of
native larval parasites. The majority of these parasites exist
at quite low densities even in the native hosts. Two hymenopterous
parasites, Heteroschema punctata (Ashraead) and Colotrechnus ignotus
Burks., were reared from the immature stages of T. actinobola by
Stegmaier (1968b). Marsh (1970) described a new species of parasite
attacking larval of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) and A. interrupta
Stone from Florida. Baranowski and Swanson (1970) introduced 45
females and 26 males of Parachasma cereus (Gahan) a parasite of
A. suspensa in Homestead and found that 2 1/2 months after release,
3.4-25% of pupae from fruits about 0.4 miles (0.64 Km) from the
point of release^ were parasitized. Up to 43% of pupae from tropical
almond were parasitized by these parasites. The effectiveness of
some biological control efforts in fruit fly control hag- been
evaluated by Clausen (1956).
Courtship and mating behavior in Tephritidae have been
extensively studied by many authors and may be a complex process
involving a variety of cues and sequences (Prokopy and Bush, 1973;
Stoltzfus and Foote, 1965; and Tauber and Tauber, 1967). Prokopy
et al. (1971) divided the mating behavior of Rhagoletis pomonella
Walsh into 2 main processes and revealed that the site of male:
female assembly for mating was exclusively 6a the fruits of the
larval host plant. Zonosemata electa (Say) adults have been

16
observed initiating copulation on the fruits of their respective
larval host plants (Peterson, 1923 and Burdett, 1935) The ele
ments and the sequence of courtship displays of male and female
E. fratria were discussed by Tauber and Toschi (1965a). Courtship
behavior of A. suspensa was described by Nation (1972). Knowledge
of this behavior is important not only because of its potential
usefulness toward developing new, non-insecticide approaches to
population management, but also because of its relevance to the
possibility of rapid sympatric host formation and speciation
especially with the Rhagoletis pomonella species complex (Bush
1966, 1969a, b). Sound production, the use of froth massess, body
movements, and elaborate wing displays coupled with distinctive
wing patterns are known to be important components in courtship
(Stoltzfus and Foote, 1965). Bateman (1972) considers smell and
hearing as the 2 most important sensory stimuli for mating res
ponse in Tephritidae.
Tephritidae are well known as fruit flies, however, all
parts of plants are attacked including flower heads, leaves, stems,
and roots. Of the 56 species recorded in Florida, at least 44
species have host records or probable host associations. Foote
and Blanc (1963) compiled a list of host plants of California
Tephritidae. An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies of
North America vias compiled by Wasbauer (1972). The list at the end of this
section includes all known host plants of Florida Tephritidae
arranged according to host plant families and fruit fly species.

17
The extent of those specificity is well studied for Rhagoletis
species. Bush (1966) presented evidence that indicates that
under both laboratory and field conditions, many species of
Rhagoletis are capable of ovipositing in a wide range of fruits
which are not their normal hosts.
The host plants of Florida Tephritidae are listed
on the following pages.
Anacardiceae
Mangifera indica L.
Anastrepha
obliqua (Macquart)
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Spondias mombin L.
Anastrepha
obliqua (Macquart)
Spondias purpurea L.
Anastrepha
l obliqua (Macquart)
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Spondias sp.
Anastrepha
obliqua (Macquart)
Annonaceae
Annona reticulata L.
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Annona squamosa L.
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Apocynaeeae
Carissa grandiflora
(E. H. Mey)A. DC.
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex caroliniana
Trelease
Ilex cassine L.
(Walt.)
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)

18
lie's coricea (Pursh) Chapm.
Mvoleia limata (coquillett)
Il£x decidua Walt.
Mvoleia limata (Coouillett)
Ildx glabra (L.) Gray
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Ilex opaca Ait.
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Her vomitoria Ait.
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Araliaceae
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Caricaceae
Carica papaya L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Combretaceae
Terminalia catappa L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Terminalia muelleri Benth.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Compositae
Aqeratum houstonianum Mill.
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Aqeratum littorale Grav
Trupanea aqeratea Benjamin
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Aqeratum sp.
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Ambrosia sp.
Euarestoides abstersus (loew)
Aster adnatus Nutt.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster carolinianus Wait.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster concolar L.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Aster dumosus L.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)

19
Aster dumosus L. var.
subulaefolius T & G
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster elliotii T&G
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster tortifolius Michx.
Neaspiolta achilleae Johnson
Neaspolita punctistigma Beniamin
Baccharis glomeruliflora
Pers.
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Balduina angustifoli
(Pursh) Robinson
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Bidens bipinnata L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Dioxvna thomae (Curran)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Bidens coronata (L.) Britt
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Xanthacdra insecta (Loew)
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Bidens mitis (Michx) Sherff.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Bidens pilosa L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Bidens pilosa L. var.
radiata Schultz. Bip.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)

20
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.
Paracantha forficula Benjamin
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus nuttalii (DC.)
Pollard
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus spinosissimus Walt.
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus sp.
Neaspilota dolosa Beniamin
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Chrysopsis graminifolia
(Michx.) Ell.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Neaspilota punctistioma Beniamin
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Conyza canadensis (L.)
Conquist
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Coreopsis leavenworthii T & G
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis nudata Nutt.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis tripteris L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis sp.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Cosmos sp.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Erigeron strigosus Muhl.
ex Willd.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson

21
Erigeron vernus (L.)
Torr. '& A. Gray
Ei'igeron Sp.
Bupatroium coelestinum L.
Gnaphalium obtusifoliumL.
Haplopappus divaricatus
(Nutt.) Gray
Haplopappus phyllocephallus
DC. var. megacepha1lu s
(Nash) Waterfall
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Heterotheca hyssopifolia
(Nutt.) R. W. Long
Heterotheca mariana (L.)
Shiners
Heterocheca nervosa (Willd.)
Shinners var.
riicrocephala (Small)
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Neaspolta dolosa Benjamin
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Shinners
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson

22
Heterotheca oligantha
(Chapm.) Harms.
Heterotheca subaxillaries
(Lam.) Britt. &Rusby
Heterotheca trichophylla
(Nutt.) Shinners
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium argyraeum Small
Hiera.ciro gronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Hieracium sp.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)

23
Melanthera aspera Jacq. var.
grabiuscla (Kuntze) Parks
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Dyseuaresta mekicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera parviflora Small
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera sp.
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney)
Nash
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Neaspilota punctistigmaBenj amin
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Pluchea purpurescens (Sw.) DC. Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Pluchea rosea P. K. Godfrey
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Pluchea sp.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius )
Solidaqo caesia L.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Solidaqo chapmanii T & G
Eurosta donysa (Walker)
Trupanea actinobla (Loew)
Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Eurosta floridensis Foote
Solidago gigantea Ait.
Trupanea actinobla (Loew)
Solidago stricta Ait.
Procecidochares polita (Loew)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Solidado sp.
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Eurosta donysa (Walker)
Eurosta floridensis Foote
Procecidocharea pilota (LoeW)

Trypanea actinobola (Loew)
Tagetes recta L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Trilisa paniculata (Walt.)
es J. F. Gmel. Cass
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
Vernonia blodqetti Small
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp
Tomoplaqia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia. sp.
Tomoplaaia obliqua (Say)
Cornaceae
Cornus florida L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Cucnrbitaceae.
Momordica balsamina L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Ebanaceae
Diospyros yirginiana Lt
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Diospyros sp.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Ericaceae
Vaccinium arboreum Marsh
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Vacciniura formosum Andr.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Euphorbiaceae
Bischofes Javanica Blume
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Flacourtiaceae
Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn;)
Warb.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Flacourtia indica
Anastrepha suspensa
Guttiferae
Garcinia livingstonei
T. Anderson
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Xauraceae
Persea americana Mill
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Lew)
Malpighiaceae
Malpighia glabra L.
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Myrtaseae
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz)
Willd.
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzsch
ex. 0. Berg.
Anastrepha
suspesnsa (Loew)
Eugenia uniflora L,
Anastrepha
suspensa(Loew)
Myrciaria cauliflora (DEC.)
0. Berg.
Anastrepha
suspensa
Pimanta dioica (L.) Merrill
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Pseudanamomis uifibelluli'f era
Kausel
An^streepa
suspensa
(Loew)
Psidium littorale var.
longipes (0. Berg.)
Fosb.
Anastrepha
susepnsa
(Lorew)
Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemenn)
Psidium friedrichsthalianum
(0. Berg.) Niewdenzu
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)

Psidium guajava L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Psidium sp. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Syzygium samarangense (Blume)
Merril & L. M. Perry Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Moraceae
Ficus carica L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew )
Olacaceae
Schoepfia schreberi
J. F. Gmel. Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Oleaceae
Chionanthus virginicus L.
Qsmanthus americanus (L.)
Gray
Oxalidaceae
Averrhoa carambola L.
Punicaceae
Pnica granaturn L.
Rosaceae
Aronia arbutifolia (L.)
Pers.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)

Crataegus sp.
Rhagoletis pomone11a (Walsh)
Eriobotrya japnica (Thub.)
Lindl
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Prunus americana Marsh.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Prunus prsica (L.) Batsch
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Prunus sertina Ehrh.
Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)
Prunus umhellata Ell.
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Prunus sp.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Rhagoltispomonella (Walsh)
Pyrus communis L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Pyrus X lecontei Rehd.
Anastrepha suspensa (loew)
Rubus sp.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Rutaceae
Casimiora edulis Llave
Acinia picturata (Snow)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Citrofortunella mitis
(Blanco) J.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Certitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Citrus aurantium L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Citrus X paradisi Macfady
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Citrus sinensis (L.)
Osbeck
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Citrus X nobilis Lour.
"Temple"
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Citrus sp.
Anastrepha supensa (loew)
Clausena lansium (Lour.)
Skeels
Fortunella margarita (Lour.)
Swingle
Fortunella Sp.
Mrraya paniculata (L.)
Jack
Severinia buxifolia
(Poir.) Ten
Triphasia trifolia
(Burm. f.) P. Wils.
Sapindaceae
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
Sapotaceae
Chrysophyllum oliviforme L.
Manilkara bahamensis (Bak.)
Lam & Meeus
Manilkara zapota (L.)
Van Royen
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Pouteria campechiana (HBK)
Baehni Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Synsepalum dulcificum
(Schumch. & Thonn)
Daniell ex X. Bell. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

Solanaceae
Capsicum frutescens L.
Lycopersicon esculentum
Mill
Solanum aculeatissimum
Jacq.
Solanum carolinense L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Zonosemata electa (Say)
Zonosemata electa (say)
Zonosemata electa (Say)

Hosts by Fruit
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Hieracium argyraeum Small
Hieracium qrpnovii (L.)
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Hieracium sp.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Plchca foetida (L.) DC
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Pluchea purpurescens (Sw.) DC
Pluchea rosea Godfrey
Pluchea sp
Acrotaenia testudinea (Loew)
No host information
Anastrepha edentata Stone
No host information
Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Schoepfia schreberi J. F. Gmel
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Manilkara bahamensis
(Bak.) Lam. & Meeuse
Manilkara zapota (L.) von Royen
Anastrepha pbliqua (Macquart)
Mangifera indica L.

31
Psidium guajava L.
Spondias mombin L,
Spondias purpurea L.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Anastrepha ocresi (Walker)
Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen
Psidium guajava L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Annona reticulata L.
Annona squamosa L.
Averrhoa carambola L.
Bischofia javariica Blume
Capsicum frutescens L.
Carica papaya L.
Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A. DC,
ChrysophyHum oliviforme L.
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Igram & H
Citrus aurantium L.
Citrus X paradisi Macfady
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Citrus sp.
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels
Diospyros virginiana L.
Diospyros sp.
E, Moore
Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn.) Warb.

Eriobotrya japnica (Thub'.) Lindle.
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz) Willd,
Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzschex 0. Berg.
Eugenia uniflora L.
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merrill
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle.
Fortunella sp.
Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Malpighia glabra L.
Mangifera indica L.
Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen
Momordica balsamina L.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Myrcira cauliflora (DC.) 0. Berg.
Persea americana Mill.
Pimento dioica (L.) Merrill
Pouteria campechiana (HBK) Baehni
Prunus americana Marsh
Prunus prsica (L.) Batsch.
prunus sp.
Pseudanamomis umbellulifera Kausel

Psidium littorale var. longipes (0. Berg.) Fosb,
Psidium freidrischsthalianum (O, Berg.) Niewdenzu
Psidium guava L.
Psidium sp.
Pnica granatum L.
Pyrus communis L.
Pyrus Xlecontei Rehd.
Rubus sp.
Severinia buxifolia (Poir.) Ten
Spondias purpurae L.
Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach..& Thonn.) Daniell ex S. Bell
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Syzyqium samarangense (Blume) Merril & L, M. Perry
Terminalia catappa L.
Terminalia muelleri Benth.
Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wils.
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis.
Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann)
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram .& H. E. Moore
Psidium littorale var. long~jpes (0. Berg.) Fosb,
Syzygium jamnos (L.) Alston
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Balduina angustifolia (Poursh) Robinson
Bidens bipinnata L.

Bidens leavis (L.) BSP
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schultz-Bip.
Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Coreopsis leavenworthii T. & G.
Coreopsis nudata Nutt.
Coreopsis tinctoria L.
Coreopsis tripteris L.
Cosmos sp.
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Tagetes erecta L.
Dioxyna thomae (Curran)
Bidens bipinnata L.
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera aspera Jacq. var. grabiuscula (Kuntze) Parks
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Melanthera parviflora Small
Melanthera sp.
Euaresta aequalis (Loew)
No host information
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
Bidens pilosa L.

35
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
Ambrosia sp.
Trilisa paniculata (Walt, ex J. F. Gmel) Cass.
Euleia fratria (Loew)
No host information
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp.
Eurosta donysa (Walker)
Solidago champmanii T & G
Solidago sp.
Eurosta fenestrata Snow
No host information
Eurostafloridensis Foote
Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Ilex caroliniana (Walt.) Trelease
Ilex cassine L.
Ilex., coricea (Pursh) Chapm.
Ilex decidua Walt.
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray
Ilex opaca Ait.

36
Ilex vomitoria Ait,
Myoleja nigricornis
No host information
Myoleja rhino Steyskal
No host information
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Aster carolinianus Walt.
Aster concolor L.
Aster tortifolius Michx.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell,
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinnervar. microcephala (Small) Shinners
Heterotheca oligantha (CHapm.) Harms.
Hieracium argyracum Small
Hieracium qronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Neaspilota dolosa (Benjamin)
Carduus sp.
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Erigeron strigoslis Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Haploppapus phyllocephallus DC. var. megacephallus (Nash) Waterfall

Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt, & Rusby
Neaspilota floridana Rhhani n. sp.
Vernonia blodqettii Small
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.
Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Aster tortifolius Michx.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell,
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Heterotheca hyssopifolia (Nutt.) R. W. Long
Heterotheca mariana (L.) Shinners
Heterotheca nervosa (Wild.) Shinners var. microcephala
Small Shinners
Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners
Heterobheca sp.
Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash
Neaspilota vernonia (Loew)
No host information
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Carduus nuttalii (DC.) Pollard
Carduus spinossissimus Walt.

38
Paracantha forfcula (Coquillett)
Borrichia frutescens (L.l D£.
Peronvma sarcinata (Loew)
Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners
procecidochares atra (Loew)
No host information
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Convza canadensis(L.) Conquist
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt. &
Procecidochares polita (Loew)
.Solidaao stricta Ait.
Solidaao sp.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush
Chionanthus virginicus L.
Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)
Prunus sertina Ehrh.
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush
Comus florida L.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Vaccinium arboreum Marsh,
Vaccinium formosum Andr,
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Rusby

Osmanthus americanus (L.) Gray
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Crataegus sp.
Prunus angustifolia Marsh.
Prunus umbellata Ell.
Prunus sp.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)
No host information
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
No host information
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia blodgetti Small
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.
Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.
Vernonia sp.
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Carica papaya L.
Mangifera indica L.
Psidium guajava L.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)

40
Aster adnatus Nutt.
Aster carolinianus Walt.
Aster dumosus L.
Aster dumosus L. var. subulaefolius T & G
Aster elliottii T & G
Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Coreopsis sp.
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Erigeron sp.
Haploppapus divaricatus (Nutt.) Gray
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium sp.
Solidago caesia L.
Solidaqo chapmanii T & G
Solidago gigantea Ait.
Solidago stricta Ait.
Solidaqo sp.
Trupanea _acjerataeBenjamin
Ageratum littorale Gray
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var, microcephala (Small)
Shinners

41
-Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx) Ell
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala (Small)
Heterotheca oligantha (Chapm.) Harms.
Heterotheca sp.
Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
No host information
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Ageratum littorale Gray
Eupatoium coelestinum L.
Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Ageratum sp.
Bidens bipinnata L.
Bidens coranata (L.) Biitt.
Bidens laevis (L.)
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schultz-Bip.
Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Birtt & Rusby
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Ageratum houstonianum Mill.

Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Bidens pilosa L.
Eupatorium coelestinum L.
Zonosemata electa (Say)
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
Solanum carolinense L.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
The family Tephitidae contains some of the most destructive
fruit flies including Carribean, Mediterranean, Melon, and Oriental
fruit flies and thus constitutes one of the most important families
of Diptera. The larvae of many species live and feed on the fleshy
part of various fruits, nuts, and vegetables and cause tremendous
loss each year to agricultures worldwide. At least 13 species of the
275 known Tephritids in North America are of economic importance,
2 of these are known to occur in Florida (Foote, personal comm-)..
Of the 56 species recorded from Florida, only 2 species,
both of which are introduced, do extensive damage to commercial
fruits and vegetables. The damage which could result from intro
duction of. fruit flies into fly-free areas is so great that elaborate
efforts have been taken to prevent their spread and establishment in
new areas. When the Medfly reappeared in Florida in 1956, after an
absence of 26 years following its eradication in 1929-30, more than
6 million acres were treated with insecticides. The campaign
involved 46,499 survey traps, 701 state workers plus personnel
contracted for aerial spraying and federal personnel and 264 fumi
gation sites. Nearly $10 million were expended by state and federal
agencies (Oberbacher and Denmark, 1957).
43

44
Several species of Anastrepha, Dacus, Rhagoletis and the
single species Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann") and Toxotrupana
curvicauda are highly destructive to commercially grown fruits
and vegetables in U.S. The most serious fruit fly in Florida now
are those in the genus Anastrepha. Anastrepha suspensa(Loew)
indigenous to the West Indies, was first collected in Florida in
1931. Following the discovery of this species in 1965, since the
discontinuation of eradication effort in 1937, more than 14,000
adults were trapped in Dade Co. (Weems, 1965), There were strong
indications that it was a recently introduced strain of suspensa,
rather than the reappearance of the old native train. Spray
operations, and field experiments involving the Florida Depart
ment of Agriculture, USDA, and University of Flroida were set up
to obtain accurate information on the seriousness of the introduc
tion and to investigate improved methods of detection control, and
eradication. Within its normal range of distribution the economic
damage to commercial fruit crops caused by this species has been'
relatively small. However, a species insect or a particular
strain of that species sometimes acts substantially different
when introduced into new areas and may become a serious pest in
those new areas. There is no assurance that A, suspensa could not
become a major pest in Florida. Of less economic importance are
Anastrepha interrupta Stone and A. obliqua (Macquart)', both of which
are found in the southern tip of Florida. A. interrupta is known
to attack fruits of Gulf graywig, Schoepfia shreberi J. F.Gmel.,

45
and A. obligua is a major pest of mangoes in most tropical countries,
however, in Florida, it attacks other tropical fruits of less eco-
monic importance.
Other species of fruit flies of economic importance in
the continental United States are the apple maggot fly Rhagoletis
pomonella, attacking apples, pears, plums, and other deciduous
fruits in northeast U.S. and southeast Canada, the walnut husk
fly, R. completa Cresson, that attacks all Juglans spp., peaches
and other fruits in western U.S. (Christenson and Foote, 1960).
The eastern and western cherry fruit fly R. cingulata (Loew) and
R. indifference Curran damage sweet and tart cherries (Bush, 1969).
One species of fruit fly, Procecidochares utilis Stone
however, is regarded as beneficial and has been introduced into
Hawaii for the control of Eupatorium adenophorum Sprang (Stone, 1947).
Cultivated plants in Florida, particularly citrus, mango,
and papaya suffer serious damage from fruit fly attack. Horticultural
plants such as those in the genus Ilex also suffer reduction in their
market value because of damage caused by the larvae of Myoleja
limata (Coquillett).
Although fruit flies in most years are not of major economic
importance in Florida, their potential to cause serious damage and
the likelihood of their introduction exist and these pose a constant
threat to Florida's agricultural and economic future.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
Rearing
The seed infesting tephritids are comparatively easy
to rear to adults. Composite and other host plants infested with
immature tephritids were collected at random in the field and
brought into the laboratory for rearing. A dissecting microscope
was used to find the immature stages in the buds and heads. Some
of the larvae and pupae were removed, killed in boiling water, and
preserved in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Larvae and pupae were cross-
referenced with emerging adults. The remaining seed head portions
of the plants were placed in rearing containers, 3745 ml cartons
covered with a transparent plastic sheet, secured by a rubber band.
Containers were checked daily to record adult emergence. Plants
were kept until they dried or until adults emergence was completed,
usually 4 weeks. Adults were pinned or mounted on points. Hundreds
of specimens were collected by this method, providing host and
seasonal distribution information. New host records can be obtained
using this technique, not only for tephritids, but also for agromyzids,
cecidomyids, microlepidoptera, and their parasites. Field work
allowed biological observation for some species and provided addi
tional distribution information.
46

Sweeping. Tephritid that commonly breed in composites
and Other plants were collected fre with a net. Unfortunately adults records do not necessarily
indicate larval association with a host, although Bush (1966)
has shown that adults, as well as immatures of some species of
Rhgoletis are intimately associated with'their host plants.
Many adult visitation records undoubtedly are accidentals and do
not represent true host plants. Adult teprhitids are attracted
to the flowers of many of these non-host plants,
Identification of host plants. Most of the hosts of
the common species of Tephritidae were recognized in the field,
although some could be field identified only to genus. Samples
of other plants were pressed and taken to the plant identification
unit of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, for identification.
Traps. Insect flight traps did not capture large numbers
of tephritids but effectively sampled species composition in
certain locations. Other traps such as McPhail traps and Steiner
traps are of value in fruit fly survey work. Thousands of the
traps have been used for detecting and surveying Ceratitis
capitata (Wiedemann) during its eradication programs in 1929-30,
1956-58, 1962-63. Traps are still widely used to detect and
survey the population of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). Different
kinds of baits were developed and used in these traps over the
years. Among these cottonseed protein hydrolasate + borax formu
lated in water, angelica seed oil, siglures, ENT 21478, and

48
hydrolyzed torula yeast + borax in water. They were primarily
developed for attraction of Mediterranean fruit fly and Caribbean
fruit fly, but other kinds of Diptera were collected as indicated
by Steyskal (1977a). Hundreds of thousand of specimens were col
lected from these traps in Florida over the years. An extensive
trapping program is still being carried out in parts of penisular
Florida for the early detection of exotic fruit flies such as
the Mexican fruit fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and Oriental
fruit fly should any of these be accidentally introduced into
Florida. The distribution maps provided distribution data
obtained from AMNH, CNC, CU, FSCA, CCZ, UGA and USNM, whose
specimens the author may or may not have seen.
Morphological Studies
Wings and ovipositors were prepared and mounted on slides
in Canada balsam using the method described by Steyskal (1977b).
Male genitalia and the last abdominal segments were dissected and
stored in glycerine in vials. Temporary mounts of male genitalia
were prepared by placing in teased genitalic structures in 3-4
drops of phenol on a convex microscope slide. This method is
convenient because specimens can be moved into any position
desired for examination and illustration.
Some of the specimens were drawn with the aid of camera
lucida and/or Bausch and Lomb microprojector. Measurements were
made rising an ocular micrometer. Photomicrographs of the wing
and genitalia were made from some slides using a Zeiss Photo II

compound microscope with phase and interference contrast, using
26 x 36 mm Panatomic film.

CHECKLIST OF FLORIDA TEPHRITIDAE
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker
Toxotrypana Gerstacker, 1860:191. Type species curvicauda Gerstacker,
by monotypy.
curvicauda Gerstacker, 1860:194.
Genus Peronyma Loew
Peronyma Loew, 1873:250. Type species Trypeta sarcinata Loew,
by original designation.
sarcinata (Loew), 1862:218 (Trypeta).
Genus Procecidochares Hendel
Procecidochares Hendel, 1914:91. Type species Trypeta atra Loew,
by original designation.
atra (Loew), 1862:219 (Trypeta)
australis Aldrich, 1929:9.
polita (Loew), 1862:77 (Trypeta).
Genus Paracantha Coquillett
Paracantha Coquillett, 1899:264. Type species, Trypeta culta Wiedemann,
by original designation.
culta (Wiedemann), 1830:486, 680 (Trypeta).
forficula Benjamin, 1934:31.

51
Genus Eurosta Loew
Eurosta Loew, 1873:280. Type species, Trypeta solidagninis Fitch
(Coquillett, 1910:543).
comma .(Wiedemann), 1830:478 (Trypeta) .
donysa (Walker), 1849:1007 (Trypeta).
fenestrata Snow, 1894:169.
floridensis Foote, 1977:148.
Genus Acidogona Loew
Acidogona Loew, 1873:285. Type species, Trypeta melanura Loew,
by original designation.
melanura (Loew) 1873:283. (Trypeta)
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy
Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830:775. Type species, jaceae Robineau
Desvoidy (Rondani, 1871b:4:1871:4).
picturata (Snow), 1894:173 (Taphritis).
Genus Acrotaenia Loew
Acrotaenia Loew, 1873:274. Type species, Trypeta testudnea Loew,
by original designation.
testudnea (Loew) 1873:272 (Trypeta).
Genus Euaresta Loew
Euaresta Loew, 1873:296. Type species, Trypeta festiva Loew
(Coquillett, 1910:540).
equalis (Loew), 1862:86 (Trypeta).
bella (Loew), 1862:88 (Trypeta).

52
Genus Dioxyna Frey
Dioxyna Frey, 1945:62. Type species, Trypeta sororcula Wiedemann,
by original designation.
picciola (Bigot), 1857:347 (Acinia).
thomae (Curran), 1928:70 (Ensina).
Genus Trupanea Schrank
Trupanae Schrank, 1795:147. Type species, radiata Schrank, by
monotypy.
actinobola (Loew), 1873:326 (Trypeta).
ageratae Benjamin, 1934:56.
dacetoptera Phillips, 1923:148.
eclipta Benjamin, 1934:57.
mevarna (Walker), 1849:1023. (Trypeta).
Genus Tephritis Latreille
Tephritis Latreille, 1804:196. Type species, Musca arnicae Linnaeus
(Cresson, 1914:278).
subpura (Johnson), 1909:114 (Euaresta).
Genus Dyseuareatn Hendel
DyseuarestaHendel, 1928:368. Type species, Euaresta adelphica
Hendel, by original designation.
mexicana (Wiedemann), 1830:511 (Trypeta).
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin
Euarestoides Benjamin, 1934:57. Types species, Trypeta abstersa
Loew, by original designation.

abstersus (Loew), 1862:221 (Trypeta).
Genus Myoleja Rondani
Myoleja Rondani, 1856;112 Type species Tephritis lucida Fallen,
by original designation.
limata (Coquillett), 1899:263. (Aciura).
nigricornis (Doane), 1899:183 (Aciura).
rhino Steyskal, 1972:207.
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel
Xanthaciura Hendel, 1914:86. Type species, Trypeta chrysura
Thomson, by original designation.
Chrysura (Thomson), 1869:580 (Trypeta)
connexionis Benjamin, 1934:45.
insecta (Loew), 1962:72 (Trypeta).
tetraspina (Phillips), 1923:132 (Aciura).
Genus Stenopa Loew
Stenopa Loew, 1873:234. Type species, Trypeta vulnerata Loew,
by original designation.
vulnerata (Loew), 1873:232 (Trypeta)
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken
Neaspilota Osten Sacken, 1878:192. Type species, Trypeta alba
Loew, automatic.
achilleae Johnson,1900:328.
dolosa Benjamin, 1934:39.
floridana
Rohani n.sp.

punctistigma Benjamin, 1934:38.
vernoniae (Loew), 1861:346. (Trypeta)
Genus Ceratitis Macleay.
Ceratitis Macleay, 1829:482. Type species, citriperda Macleay,
by monotypy.
capitata (Wiedemann), 1830:496. (Trypeta)
Genus Anastrepha Schiner
Anastrepha Schiner, 1868:263. Type species, Dacus serfentinus
Wiedemann, by original designation.
edentata Stone, 1942:48.
interrupta Stone, 1942:62.
nigrifascia Stone, 1942:91
obliqua (Macquart) 1835:703 (Tephritis)
ocresia (Walker), 1849:1016 (Trypeta)
suspensa (Loew), 1862:69 (Trypeta).
Genus Rhagoletis Loew
Rhagoletis Loew, 1862:44. Type species, Musca cerasi Linnaeus,
by monotypy.
Chionanthi Bush, 1966:482.
cingulata cingulata (Loew), 1862:76 (Trypeta).
cornivora Bush,1966:470
mendax Curran, 1932:7
osmanthi Bush, 1966:478
pomonella (Walsh), 1867:343 (Trypeta).

Genus Zonosemata Benjamin
Zonosemata Benjamin, 1934:17. Type species Trypeta electa Say,
by original designation.
electa (Say), 1830:185 (Trypeta)
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy
Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830:718. Type species, inermis
Robineau-Desvoidy (Coquillett, 1910:609 = longipennis
(Wiedemann).
longipennis (Wiedemann), 1830:483 (Trypeta).
Genus Euleia Walker
Euleia Walker, 1835:81. Type species, Musca onopordinis Fabricius,
by monotypy.
fratria (Loew), 1862:67 (Trypeta).
Genus Tomcplagia Coquillett
Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910:591, 615. Type species, Trypeta
obliqua Say, automatic.
obliqua (Say), 1830:186 (Trypeta).

TAXONOMIC TREATMENT
Key to The Florida Genera of Tephritidae
1. Head bristles short; the fronto-orbitals weak; ocellar absent;
ovipositor very long and cylindrical Toxotrypana
1'. Head bristles well-developed, the fronto-orbitals strong;
ocellar present, ovipositor long and normal 2
2. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between
acrostichals bristles than to a line between supraalar
bristles 3
2'. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line betwe-en
supra-alar bristles than to a line between acrostichal bristles
4
3. Third antennal segment with normal rounded tip; vein +2
distinctly curving anteriorly at apex (Riga .15 Anastrepha.
3'. Third antennal segment with sharp awl-shaped tips vein M-^ + 2
without distinct anterior curve at apex (Fig. 67
Zonosemata
4. One pair of upper fronto-orbital bristles 5
4'. Two or three pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles 7
5. Scutellum enlarge, shining black or dark brown, with 1 or 2
pairs of scutellars; antennae conspicuously longer than 1/2
length of face; males with normal fronto-orbital bristles. 6
56

57
5'. Scutellum normal, yellow to dark brown, With 2 pairs of
scutallers, antennae not longer than 1/2 of face length;
males with some of the lower fronto-orbital enlarged. .
Strauzia
6. Scutellum with 1 pair of scutellars, dark brown and appearing
bilobed Peronyma
6'. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars, shining black
Procecidochare g
7. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a line between supra-alar
bristles than to a transverse suture .8
71. Dorsocentral bristles closer to the transverse suture than
to line between supra-alar bristles 13
8. Crossvein r-m situated approximately at midpoint of cell 1st
8'. Crossvein r-m situated distinctly apical of midpoint of cell
1st M2 10
9.Third antennal segments distinctly pointed dorso-apically;
with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles; suctellum
normal; wing without basal maculations Rhagoletis
9'. Third antennal segment rounded dorso-apically; with 2 pairs of
lower fronto-orbital bristles; scutellum swollen; wing with
basal maculations Ceratitis
10.Posterior upper fronto-orbital bristles convergent; wing
hyaline, dark pattern of wing usually confined to stigma
and occasionally some of the veins (Fig. 36) Neaspilota
10'. Posterior upper fronto-orbital bristles not convergent; wing
with distinct yellow to dark brown pattern on the disc 11

53
11. Sgrae postocular bristle pal; wing dark with hyaline and
semihyaline spots, more or less reticulated pattern (Fig. 26)
EurOsta
11'. All postocular bristles black; wing with yellow to dark brown
band, not appearing reticulated 12
12. Anterior oral margin strongly developed and projecting. .
Euleia
12'. Anterior oral margin not strongly developed or projecting. .
' Myoleja
13. One or two pairs scutellar bristles, if 2 head with length
greater than height; mouth geniculate with labellum long
and slender 14
13'. Two pairs of scutellar bristles, head not longer than high
17
14. Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles, 15
14'. Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles 16
15. Head distinctly longer than high; proboscis geniculate,
labellum elongate Dioxyna
15'. Head usually with height distinctly greater than length;
proboscis not geniculate;' labellum not elongate. Dyseuaresta
16.Wing pattern with a preapical stellate dark pattern, with
large hyaline areas on basal 1/2 of wing disk (Fig. 58)
Trupanea
16'. Wing without stellate pattern; with only small hyaline
areas confined to costa and anal margin (Fig. 63)
.Xanthaciura

59
17.
17'
18.
18'
19.
19'
20.
20'
21.
21'
22.
22'
Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles 18
Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles 20
Three pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; 3rd antennal
segment with apico-dorsalpoint; abdomen marked with black
spots Acidogona
Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; 3rd antennal
segment rounded; abdomen without such markings 19
Anterior oral margin not strongly projecting anteriorly;
male with fore femur swollen and with striations on epandrimp;
stigma with hyaline spot Euaresta
Anterior oral margin not projecting anteriorly; males without
such characters; stigma never with hyaline spots, always
with dark markings Tephritis
Three pairs of upper frontal orbital bristles; wing pattern
with dark rays going to margin Paracantha
Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; wing without such
pattern 21
Wing with distinct oblique bands Tomoplagia
Wing without such pattern; consisting of dark field with
hyaline spots, or with subapical stellate pattern, or with
basal maculation and distinct apical banding 22
Wing broad, with distinct dark bands on a hyaline field or
with basal maculations and apical bands 23
Wing elongate consisting of a dark field with hyaline spots
or with a dark subapical stellate pattern
24

60
23. Eye with height more than 1 1/2 times as great as width;
cell 2nd C more than twice as long as the short stigma;
wing with distinct dark bands (Fig. 53) Stenopa
23'. Eye height not exceeding 1 1/2 times as great as width;
cell 2nd C not more than twice as long as length of the
short stigma; wing with maculation and apical bands
(Fig. 14 ) Acrotaenia
24. Vein + strong setose dorsally; wing pattern more or less
evenly reticulate; hyaline spots surrounded by a rim of
infuscation darker than the yellowish parts of the wing
disc (Fig. 13 ) .Acinia
24'. Vein R^ + bare dorsally; wing pattern with a Trupanea-like
subapical stellate pattern and with yellowish spots on basal
1/2 of wing disc (Fig. 28)
Euarestoides

61
Genus Acidogona Loew
Acidogona Loew, 1873, Smiths, Mise. Collect. 256(11):285
Type species: Trypeta melanura Loew.
Readily differentiated from other Tephritinae by the pre
dominantly brown wing with reticulate wing pattern and the distinct
median and lateral spots on a yellow abdomen. All head and body
bristles black; head comparatively broad from frontal view about
1/2-2/3 wider than high irons short and pubescent. Three pairs of
upper fronto-orbitals, the upper 2 pairs set inside, 2 pairs of lower
fronto-orbitals. Dorsum of thorax black with yellow scale-like
bristles; humeral and lateral areas luteous. Dorsocentral bristles
approximately in line with anterior supra-alars and close to trans
verse suture. Scutellum with 2 pairs of bristles. Legs yellow
entirely. Abdomen luteous, dorsum covered with black bristles
intermixed with yellow.
All known larvae breed singly in the flower heads of Hieracium.
The only Nearctic species known, melanura (Loew), occurs in north
eastern United States to Florida (Foote, 1965).
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Figs. 12, 68, 117
Trypeta melanura Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 256(11):
283 pi. XI, Fig. 6. Holotype ?. Type locality: District of Columbia.

62.
Rather small species with characteristic wing markings, an
entirely dark brown wing with the presence of hyaline spots in all
the wing cells. Vein R4 +5 with bristles occupying more than 1/2
the length of cell R. This predominantly yellow to brown species
has characteristic dark markings on the scutellum and abdomen.
Female ovipositor short, approximately 1.7 mm long; the ovipositor
sheath black, as broad as length, measured 0.8 mm long; and piercer
short 0.5 mm in length, abruptly pointed at apex, shaped as Fig. 6.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 68, epandrium rounded, luteous with black
markings on the sides; surstyli very long and slender, apex rounded;
proctiger small and elongated.
Length body 3.7-3.4 mm ; wing 3.6-3.7 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Hieracium argyreaum Small
Hieracium gronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Hieracium sp.
Distribution: Massachussetts to Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1? insect
flight trap, 21-IX-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 1? insect
trap 28-IX-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 1?, insect flight trap,
12-X-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 5(3 3?, bred from Hieracium
gronovii, 22-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA): 3<3 3?, Hieracium gronovii,
13-21-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) Brevard, Co'., Merritt Island,
4<3 6, bred from Hieracium argyraeum 2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
FSCA): Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 3<3 2?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,

62
29-IV-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 1<£ 5?, bred from Hieracium
argyraeum5-I-1930 (Park & White, USNM); Indian River Co.: Indian
River City, 10<3 6?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum, 13-V-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5$ 2?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,
6-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Levy Co.: Cedar Key, 1$ 2?,
bred Hieracium argyraeum, 18-III-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Orange
Co.: Orlando, 6S, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 17-25-1-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlovista, 9$, bred from Hieracium scabrum,
10-18-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Polk Co.: Griffin, 5 bred drom Hieracium argyraeum, 16-19-V-1930 (Pope & White, USNM).
This species is commonly reared from all species of
Hieracium. It is generally distributed in Florida. This is the
only Florida species with distinctive black markings on the abdomen.
The immature stages were briefly described by Benjamin (1934).
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy
Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Acad. Roy. des Sci. Mem.
2:775. Type species: jaceae Robineau-Desvoidy + corniculata
(Zetterstehdt).
Small yellowish pollinose species with all bristles yellow-
brown. wing with numerous hyaline spots on a dark field; hyaline
spots surrounded by a rim of infuscation darker than yellowish parts
of wing disc. Vein R^ + with scattered setae extending over most
of its length. Typically with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, and
3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Frons pubescent;

parafrontals with a band of pale hairs. All bristles strong; Dorso-
central bristles closer to transverse suture, in front of a line
between anterior supra-alar bristles. Scutellum with 2 pairs of
scutellars. Abdomen yellow except ovipositor sheath, tinged with
brown.
The larvae breed in the flower heads of Pluchea. Only
1 North American species is known. A detailed discussion of the
genus was given by Benjamin (1934). Foote and Blanc (1963) discussed
its distribution in California.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Fias. 13, 69, 118
Musca fucata Fabricius, 1794. Entomol. Syst. 4:359. Type (sex
unknown) "Americae meridionalis insulis."
Tephritis pictrata Snow, 1894, Kans. Univ. Quart. 2:173.
Holotype $. Type-locality: Frazer, Florida.
Readily differentiated from other Florida fruit flies by
the generic characters given above; with characteristic wing
venation and markings (Fig. 13). Predominantly yellow species,
with head slightly higher than long; face short, concave and
epistomal margin slightly raised. Female ovipositor yellow to
rufous, about 2.5 mm long. The ovipositor sheath approximately
equal in length to piercer, bing 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm long respec
tively. Piercer sharp at apex. Male genitalia small and compact
(Fig.69). Epandrium highly arched with long erect bristles

65
dorsally. Surstyli curved inward and rounded at apices. Pro
tiger small and elongated, with numerous short fine hairs.
Length: body 4-5.0 mm; wing 3, 4-3,§. (N=10).
Hosts:. Pluchea foetida (L.) DG.
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC.
Pluchea rosea Godfrey
Pluchea sp.
Distribution: California to Florida, New York to Georgia,
Mexico and West Indies.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville 2 insect flight trap. 13-VIII-1976 (G. B. Fairchild, FSCA): Newberry,
1?, 19-XI-1911 (AMNH); Collier Co.: Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, 1(? 1?,
insect flight trap, 6-7 IV-1972 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), Dade Co.:
Coral Gables, 3$ 3?, Trema micranthus, l-V-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA), Hialeah, lc?, swept Solidago odora, 29-IX-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier,
Jr., FSCA); Homestead, 1?, 1-III-1924 (G. C'.. Steyskal, CNC) ; 1?
ex Senecio, 28-IX-1948 (0. D. Link, FSCA) Royal Palm Hammock,
1<5, 4-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillicot, CNC) D:uval Co.:
Jacksonville 1$, 3-XI-1911 (AMNH) 3$ 2?, fruit fly trap, 2-VIII-1960
L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Flager Co.: 2?, 8-VIII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Jefferson Co.: Monticello 1? 4-8-X-1914 (AMNH); Levy Co.: 2 19-VII-1958(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key,
7c$ 10?, 25 -III-1967, (J. Novak, FSCA); 23<$ 15? bred swept Pluchea

odorata, 24-11-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) 23$ 15?, bred from
Pluchea odorata, 24-27-III-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr.s, FSCA); 20$ 60?
bred from Pluchea odorata, 24-28-III-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA)
Key West,l$ 1?, bred from Pluchea odorata, 22-XI-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); lc? 3?, bred from Pluchea odorata, 16-IV-1945
(NSNM); Orange Co., Orlando, 20$ 12?, bred from Pluchea imbricata
9-20-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 2$, bred from Pluchea imbricata
9-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); Sarasota Co.: Venice, 2$, bred
from Pluchea purpurescens, 12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Taylor Co.: Perry, 1$, 6-IX-1970 (W. Atyeo, UGA),
It is generally widespread in Florida. Larvae breed com
monly in Compositae; Pluchea. Larvae are bean-shaped and usually are
densely covered with minute spines. Detailed description of the
immature : stages was given by Benjamin (1934).
Genus Acrotaenia Loew
Acrotaenia Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 11(256):274.
Type-species: Trypeta testudnea Loew
Readily differentiated by its distinctive wing markings.
Apical 1/3 of wing typically with 3 dark brown bands arising from
dark field at costa and extending through cell 2nd M2 to posterior
margin. The basal 1/2 of wing dark brown with numerous small
hyaline spots which coalesce into longitudinal spots of some points.
Posterior margin with large hyaline areas. Costal margin with
large dark brown to black spots. Vein R4 +
setose to almost its

67
length. Predominantly yellow brown to brown bristles, head higher
than long. Two pairs of upper fronto-obitals, the anterior pair
thickened with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Thorax black
rather densely gray pollinose with short yellow brown setae over
dorsum. Dorsocentral bristles close to transverse suture and closer
to a transverse line between supra-alar bristles than to a line between
acrostichal bristles. Scutellum with two pairs of scutellars. Abdomen
black densely gray pollinose with yellow brown setae dorsally.
Nothing is known about the biology of the species. The single
species in. North America is known from Florida and has been reported
from Cuba and Puerto Rico. Foote (1960a) illustrated the wing and
included the first record for United States.
Acrotaenia testudnea (Loew)
Figs. 14, 70, 119
Trypeta testudnea Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise, Collect. 11(256):
272, pi XI Fig. 13. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba (Berlin
Museum).
Mostly yellowish brown species with densely gray pollinose
over mesonotum. Easily differentiated from the other Tephritidae by
the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 14). Predominantly dark brown,
with a combination of patterns typically for the genus. Female ovi
positor sheath yellow tinged with brown on the proximal and distal
apices, with numerous brown setae dorsally, about 1.0 mm long.
Piercer 0.9 mm, long and slender, apex gradually tapers to a point.

68
Male genitalia as in Fig. 70. Epandrium dark brown to black, with
numerous long setae dorsally and laterally, with a clump of long
fine setae at the lower inner margin. Surstyli short and broad,
rather truncate at apices. Proctiger small and elongate with
scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length:, body 4.0-4.2 mm wing 3.9-4.1 mm. (N=3).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Florida, Cuba, Puerto Rico.
Florida Records: Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 1? McPhail
trap, 26-1-1936 (J. J. Cooper, FSCA).
This species is rare in collections. This is the only speci
men represented in the United States. Detail description of this
species was given by Loew (1873).
Genus Anastrepha Schiner
Anastrepha Schiner, 1868, Reise der Novana, 2:263. Type-
species: Dacus serfentinus Wiedemann.
Mostly yellow with thorax and abdomen densely yellow pollinose,
with brown hairs never mesonotum and abdomen. The major head and
thoracic bristles black. Head yellow distinctly higher than long;
epistomalmargin slightly concave in profile. Usually with 2 pairs
of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3-5 pairs of lower fronto-
orbital bristles. Thorax with a black spot behind wing and under
squama. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between
acrosticihal bristles than to a line between supra-alar bristles.

62
Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars. Wing marking with an inverted
V-shaped and S-shaped brown bands, with other markings at the base.
Vein Mi + 2 distinctly curving anteriorly at apex. Vein setose
entire length. Vein R4 + 5 setose to beyond r-m crossvein. Legs
entirely yellow. Abdomen with numerous brown hairs on the tergites.
Ovipositor sheath, a subcylindrical tapering tube, at least 2 times
as long as width at the base.
The genus is restricted to the New World, and ranges from
latitude 27N to 35S. Members of this genus are the most important
native pests of a broad spectrum of fruits, vegetables, and other
crops in tropical and subtropical America. Of the 155 described
species, only 16 are known to occur within the United States, and
6 species have been recorded from Florida. Studies on the biology
and identification of Anastrepha species have been summarized at
some length by Weems (1965, 1967a, 1967b, 1968a, 1968b, and 1970).
The revision of the genus by Stone (1942a)remains the standard work
for the identification of the species. Steyskal (1977b) provided a
pictorial key to all the species. Bush (1962) presented the cyto-
toxonomy of the larvae for some Mexican species in this genus.
Key to the Florida Species of Anastrepha"*'
1. Wing pattern predominantly dark brown; distal arm of V-band
reduced or separated from proximal arm or narrowly joined to
^This key is designed for females. Satisfactory characters
that can be used in a key have not yet been discovered for most
males.

IQ
the side of latter at vein Mi +2 (Fig. 19) ; metanotom predomin
antly dark brownish to black ocresia (Walker)
1'. Not with this combination of characters 2
2. Piercer less than 2.0 mm long, apex tapered with many fine
or large rounded serrations 3
2'. Piercer at least 2.0 mm long, apex tapered but unserrated. 5
3. Mesonotum yellow brown with rather broad median brown stripes;
median scutoscutellar black spot lacking. obliqua (Macquart)
3'. Mesonotum yellow brown, lacking any stripe; median scutoscu
tellar black spot present 4
4. V-band narrowly joined to S-band (Fig. 20); apex of piercer
distinctly narrowed with larger rounded serrations; hyaline
spot on costa, beyond stigma reaching vein R4+5 just anterior
of r crossvein suspensa (Loew)
4'. V-band separated from S-band (Fig.i6): apex of piercer broad
with many fine serrations; hyaline spot confined to anterior
1/2 of cell R]_, only occasionally touching vein R2 + 3
interrupta Stone
5. A dark brown transverse band on posterior margin of mesoscutum;
S-band with a shallow notch in cell Cu^, margin of band rounded
before it (Fig.17); piercer not more 2 mm; wing at most 7.5 mm
long nigrifascia Stone
5'. Mesoscutum without such markings; S-band without any notch
(Fig.15); piercer 3.0-4.3 mm long; wing rarely more than 6 mm
long
edentata Stone

71
Anastrepha edentata Stone
Figs 15, 71. 120
Anastrepha edentata Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agrie. Mise. Publ.
o
489:48, pi. 8, Fig. 7. Holotype +. Type locality: Key Largo,
Florida (USNM).
Small yellowish species with 4 brown stripes on mesonotum. Head
with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 5 pairs of lower
fronto-orbital bristles. Mesonotum yellow with 2 long lateral stripes
extending from anterior margin to the bases of dorsocentral bristles,
and 2 short submedian stripes ending in areas between dorsocentrals,
just anterior of acrostichals. Wing with yellow brown bands, costal
and S-bands separated on vein R4 +5, but may be separated or con
nected on vein R2 +3 or cell R may be infuscated totally by the
2 bands. V-band usually connected to S-band. Legs yellow. Anterior
1/2 of abdominal tergite brown with rows of dark brown setae,
posterior 1/2 with yellow setae. Ovipositor sheath long,
slender and tapering about 3.6 mm long. The piercer long, slender
sharp-pointed, 3.4 long with apex gradually tapering to a rather
rounded tip. Epandrium yellow (Fig. 71 ) .with scattered long setae
over the dorsum. Surstyli short and narrow, apices tapered to a
sharp tip. Proctiger large, with long setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 6.5-7.8 mm; wing 6.3-7.5 mm (N=10)
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Florida, Puerto Rico,
Florida Records: MonroeCo.: 1<5 McPhail trap, 20-11-1936
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, McPhail trap, 14-IX-1936 (McDaniel, FSCA);

12
1$, McPhail trap,16-IX-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); l, McPhail
trap, 21-IX-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); l6 McPhail trap,
19-X-1936 (McDaniel FSCA); l, McPhail trap, 29-VII-1936
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); Big Pine Key (paratype) l, 24-X-1935
(Barcus & Moore, USNM); 1?, 26-XI-1935 (H. R. Winker, FSCA); l 1?,
McPhail trap, 21-24-TV-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1?, McPhail trap,
5-V-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); Key Largo, 1?, McPhail trap,
31-VIII-1936, (Barcus & Stirling, FSCA); (paratypes) 7$ 6?,
16-28-IX-1936 (Barcus & McDaniel, USNM); l 1?, McPhail trap,
14-1X-1936) (Barsus & McDaniel, USNM); l 1?, McPhail trap,
5-X-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); 1?,McPhail trap, 19-XI-1936
(McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA; 1?, 7-XII-1936 (D. F. Marcus, FSCA); 1?,
McPhail trap, 14-XII-1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); l 1?,McPhail
trap, 29-XII-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); 1?,McPhail trap,
2-1-1937 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); Key West, l,10-IV-1936
(E. G. Hume, FSCA); 1?, McPhail. trap; 4-V-1936' (J. JF. Cooper, FSCA) ;
(paratype) 1?, 28-V-1936 (E. G. Hume, USNM). No Name Key,l<5,
McPhail trap, 15-1-1936 (R. B. Johnson, FSCA); l£, 7-11-1936
(J. F.'Cooper, FSCA); l6 McPhail trap, 25-11-1936 (J. F. Cooper,
FSCA, 15 13-III-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA) 1<5, McPhail trap
17-III-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA) 25 McPhail trap, 24-IX-1936
(J. F. Cooper, FSCA), Sugar Loaf Key, l, 7-XI-1936 (Barcus &
Moore, FSCA); Tavernier, 1<5, McPhail trap, 14-IX-1936 (McDaniel, FSCA).
A. edentata is one of the G species which have been
established in Florida at some time. The records indicated that,
it has hot been found in Florida since 1936. There is a possibility

73
that this species has not survived in Florida. Nothing is known
about the biology of this species. It is not considered to be of
economic importance anywhere within its range. Females of this
species are differentiated easily by the distinctly long slender,
ovipositor which is about as long as or longer than the length of
the body.
Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Figs. 16, 72, 121
Anastrepha interrupta Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agrie. Mise.
Publ. 439:62, pi. 12, Fig. II. Holotype +. Type locality: Jensen,
Florida (USNM).
Readily differentiated from other Florida Anastrepha by
the shape of the piercer and by the presence of a median black
scutoscutellar spot. Head yellow, typically with 2 pairs of upper
fronto-orbital bristles and 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles.
Wing pattern as in Fig. 16 V-band separated from S-band. Hyaline
spots on anterior 1/2 of cell only occasionally touching vein
R^ Vein + ^ setose to beyond r-m crossvein, ending just at the
base of V-band. Femalepositor about 3.5 mm long. Ovipositor sheath
1.5 mm long, entirely yellow with numerous brown hairs. Piercer
long and slender, approximately 1.0 mm long; apex short and broad,
abruptly tapered to a sharp point with many fine serrations on
lateral margin. Male genitalia as in Fig. 72. Epandrium narrow

with few long setae on dorsum. Surstyli slender and attenuated,
curved inward at apices, and with a clump of short setae on inner
margin. Proctiger small and elongate, with dense long setae
7,4
lateroyentrally.
Length: body 6.4-7.6 mm; wing 6.0-7.4 mm. (N=10)
Hosts: Schoepfia shreberi J. F, Gmel.
Distribution: Florida
Florida Records: Broward Co., 1? McPhail trap, 17-11-1936
(G. D. Barcus, FSCA) ; lcT, McPhail trap, 21-11-1936 (L. S. Light, Jr.,
FSCA) ; Coconut Grove, 1 FSCA); Deerfield (paratypes), lc? 2?, trap, 17-20-11-1936 (Barcus &
Solomon, USNM); Ft. Lauderdale(paratype), 1 & Barcus, USNM); 2 at Chrysobalanus icaco, 14-VIII-1953 (O. D. Link FSCA); Dade Co.;
1?, McPhail trap, 4-1-1936 (0. W. Calkin, FSCA); 2$, 25-1-1936
(C. R. Roberts, FSCA); It? McPhail trap, 5-II-1936 (W. Ludlam, FSCA);
3$ 3?, McPhail trap, 15-19-11-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 5$ 2?
McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 8 6-12-1-1937 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1$ 2?, McPhail trap, 21-VI-1654
(0. D. Link, FSCA). 1 Opalocka, 3c? 5?, McPhail trap(Grapefruit). 5-IV-1962 (Brewton,
FSCA); Coral Gables, 1?, McPhail trap, 15-VI-1949 (W. W. Calkins,
FSCA); lc? 2?, McPhail trap, 19-VII-1949 TO. D. Link, FSCA); lcT 1?
McPhail trap, 27-VI-1949 (O. D. Link, FSCA); It? 1?, McPhail trap,
9-IX-1949, (O. D. Link, FSCA); 3
O. W. Calkin, FSCA); 2(5 2?, ex Schoepfia schreberi, 12-11-1951
75
(G. G. Butcher, USNM); 1(5, ex Schoepfia schreberi, 12-18-11-1951
(F. G. Butcher, USNM) ,- Florida City, 26, McPhail trap, 2026-11-1936
(C. R. Roberts, FSCA); l6, McPhail trap, 7-XII-1936 (G. D. Barcus,
FSCA); 26 McPhail trap, 21-23-XII, 1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);
Homestead, l5, in McPhail, 23-1-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); l 1?,
in McPhail trap, 11-11-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 45, in McPhail
trap, 14-VII-1936 (G. D. Barcus FSCA); 55 5, Schoepfia schreberi,
3-1-1951 (USNM) l6, 9-IV-1955 (H.' V. Weems, Jr.; FSCA); l5 1?, 3-V-
1956 (Wolfenba.rger, USNM) 1?, Dry trap, 25-VI-1956 (R, P. Burke,
USNM); 16 2?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1961 (C. I. Dowling, Jr., FSCA);
16, in McPhail trap, 10-1-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA)f l6 1?, in McPhail
trap in Mango tree, 21-III-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA); Miami, lS,
in McPhail trap, 27-1-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); l5 1? and
in McPhail trap, 6-II-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 2o, in McPhail
trap, 28-XII-1936 (O. D. Link) FSCA); l5 1?, 13-X-1949 (O. W. Calkin,
FSCA); 1&, in fruit fly trap, 18-IV-1960 (M. S, Creamer, Jr. FSCA);
16 1?, in McPhail trap, 15-IV-1960 (J. N. Todd, FSCA); 35, in
McPhail trap, 21-XII-1961 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 35, in McPhail
trap, 15-21-11-1962 (J.A. Stephens, FSCA); l5, in McPhail trap,
8-111-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA) Naranja, 35 3?, reared from fruits
of Schoepfia schreberi, IV-1962 (R. M. Baranowski, USNM); Royal
Palm Park (paratypes), 45 2?, trap in poisonwood tree, 29-1-1936
(Ludlam-Roberts, USNM); South Miami (paratypes), 25, trap, 3-1-1936
(Baker & Solomon, USNM); Lee Co.:Tice, l5,wet bait trap, 30-V-1956
(T. R. Adkins, USNM); Martin Co.: l5,in McPhail trap, 6-II-1936

76
(O. D. Link, FSCA) ; 2 FSCA); lS, 1? in McPhail trap, 14-IV-1936 (O. D. Link, FSCA); l 1?,
in McPhail trap, 6-XI-1958 (G. W. Campell, FSCA) l5, in wet fruit
fly trap, 15-V-1959 (G. W. Campell, FSCA); Hobe Sound, lS in McPhail
trap, 1-I1-1962 (E. E. Prange, FSCA); l5, McPhail trap in rose
apple, 23-III-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Port Sewell, (paratype) 4, trap,
13-III-1936 (O. D. Link, USNM); 3<$ 3?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit
trees, 15-20-IV-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Salerno, 1<$, in McPhail
trap in Mango tree, 30-III-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Sewell point,
lS, in McPhail trap, 12-V-1961 (E. Prange, FSCA); Stuart, 2<$, in
McPhail trap. 14-IV-1936 (0. D. Link,FSCA); l6 1?, in McPhail trap,
15-IV-1960 (E. W. Campell; FSCA); 2& 2? in McPhail trap, 25-29-
V-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 1<$, in McPhail
trap, 26-1-1936 (T. J. Cooper, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Pk, 20-X-1954
(H. Denmark, FSCA); Palm Beach, West Palm Beach (paratype) 1?,
trap, 12-III-1936 (C. D. Link, USNM) ; l5 1?, in McPhail trap in
grapefruit 6-XI-1963 (M. L. Messec, FSCA), St. Lucie Co.: Ft. Pierce,
1?, in McPhail trap, 13-V-1936 (R. W. Lindner, FSCA); 2& 3?, in trap
ll-V-1956 (R. A. Murphy, FSCA). Jensen, 25 2?, in McPhail trap,
7-TV-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA). St. Lucie, l5, wet bait trap,
28-V-1956 (A. E. Irana, USNM)
Female of this species closely resembles suspensa, except
for the shape of the piercer of the ovipositor and the infuscation
on the wing. Unlike suspensa, this species has never been found to
be of economic importance. Nothing is known about the biology,

although adults have been reared several times from the fruit of
Schoepfia schreberi L.
77
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Figs. 17, 73, 122
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Mise. Publ. 439:91, pi. 19, Fig. 18. Holotype ?. Type locality:
Big Pine Key, Florida (USNM).
Rather small yellow brown species. Easily differentiated
from other Florida Anastrepha by the presence of a distinct trans
verse dark brown band across the posterior of mesoscutum at the
base of the soutellum. Also by having the apex of the piercer
unserrated and gradually tapering to more or less rounded tip.
Head yellow with 2 pairs of upper front-orbital bristles and usually
5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Wing pattern predomin
antly brown, costal and S-band joined at vein R4 + ^.. S-band reach
ing vein + 2 apically. V-band narrowly connected to S-band
anteriorly with proximal arm of V-band constricted or broken in
cell R5. Ovipositor sheath yellow 1.5 mm long; piercer long and
slender with smooth margin at apex, 2.3 ram long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 73 Epandrium brown, dorsal and lateral surfaces with
numerous long brown setae. Surstyli short, gradually tapered
from epandrium and truncate at apices. Proctiger moderately
large with long setae ventrally.
Hosts: Manilkara bahamensis (Bak.) Lam. & Meeuse
Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen.

78
Distribution: Restricted to southern Florida
Florida Records: Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, ll in McPhail
trap, 19-UV-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 1$, in McPhail trap, 29-IC-1935
(G. D. Barcus, FSCA) 1?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (G. D. Barcus,
FSCA); 2?, in McPhail trap, 10-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 1 in McPhail trap, 21-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 8c? 3?, in McPhail
trap, 21-V-1935 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 22$ 12?, fruit fly trap, 14-20-37-1935
(G. B. Merrill, USNM) ; 4 USNM); (paratypes) 4 Boca Chica Key, Id*, in McPhail trap, ll-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA) ;
(paratype) 1?, fruit fly trap, 15-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM);
Cud joe Key, le?, in McPhail trap 9-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA) \
1?,. in McPhail trap, 9-V-1935, (J. G. Bell, FSCA); 6c? 1?, in
McPhail trap, 16-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 2 trap, 18-2Q-V-1935 (G. C. Bell, FSCA); (paratypes) 3 fruit fly trap 20-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); 1?, 20-V-1935
(Bell & Moore, FSCA); Key Largo,]i?T, in McPhail trap
13-VII-1936 (Stirling & Barcus, FSCA); le?, in McPahil trap,
16-VII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); Key West, 1?, in McPhail
trap, 19-1-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1 25-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 29-IV-1935,
(Mendendez, FSCA); 1$, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (J, R. Lyle^TSCA) ,
1?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in
McPhail trap, 14-V-1935 (C. E. Shepard, FSCA); 1?, fruit fly

79
trap, l-VI-1960 (R. G. Milner, FSCA); Lower Matecumbo Key, lS,
in McPhail trap, 24-V-1935 (A. S. Mason, FSCA); No Name Key, 15 5?,
Mimusop emarginata, 3-VI-1933 (J. F. Copper, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail
trap, 13-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 3(5, in McPhail trap; 16-V-1935
(Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); l 2?, reared from larva on Mimusops
o
emarginata 18-V-1935 (J. F. Cooper. USNM); 1+, in McPhail trap,
19-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); l 1?, in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935,
G. D. Barcus, FSCA), l5 2?, in McPhail trap, 20-V-1935 (Barcus &
Cruz, FSCA); (paratypes) 13<5 3?, Mimusops emarginata, l-VI-1935
(J. F. Cooper, USNM); 1?, in McPhail trap, 17-VII-1935 (Barcus &
Moore, FSCA); 1<5 2?, Achras zapota, 26-11-1936 J. F. Coopers, FSCA);
lS,Achras zapota, 7-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); Sugarloaf Key, 1(5,
in McPhail trap, 16-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); lS, in McPhail trap,
20-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); Torch Key, 1?, in McPhail trap, 21-V-1936
(J. C. Bell, FSCA).
Variation among the available specimen mainly involves the
difference in the number of the lower fronto-orbital- most speci
men have 5 pairs, but some have 6 pairs. Genitalia show some
relationship to obliqua, but otherwise are distinct in many features.
This species is restricted to the Florida Keys. It is not considered
of economic importance and is rarely collected in traps. Not much
is known about its biology, although adults have been reared several
times from the fruits of Manilkara bahamensis and M. zapota.

80
Anastreoha obliaua (Macquart)
Figs. 18, 74, 123
Tephritis obliqua (Macquart) 1835, Dipteres. Tome deuxieme,
Dptera 2:703. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba (Paris Museum).
Medium-sized yellow brown species differented by the
generic characters in combination with the characters of the piercer
and the prominent brown marking on the mesoscutum. Mesonotom yellow
except for the brown marking over suture. With pleural stripe
extending from behind the suture to posterior margin and the broad
submedian stripe extending to posterior margin, broadens anteriorly
reaching notopleuron the transverse suture. The bands of wing pattern
yellow brown, Costal and S-band touching on vein +^ just anterior
of r crossvein. V-band complete usually connected to S-band,
often broadly, Ovipositor sheath brown 1.8 mm long. Piercer
1.5 mm long, moderately stout with base distinctly widened
and acutely serrated at apical 2/3 or more. Male genitalia as
in Fig. 74. Epandrium brown with numerous fine setae over the
dorsum. Surstyli gradually tapers, apex rounded. Proctiger
elongate, with numerous fine setae laterally with a clump
of setae ventrally.
Length: body 6.1-7.4 mm; wing 6.0-7.2 mm. (N=10)
Host: Mangifera indica L.
Spondias guajava L.
Spondias mombin L.
Spondias purpurea L.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston

81
Distribution: Southern Texas, Florida.
Florida Records: Monroe Co.: Key West, 2<3 on Cuban Plum
2-VI-1921 (L. R. Warner, FSCA); 1? at Margifera indica, 23-VI-1922
(L. R. Warner, FSCA);3c5 2?, reared from fruits, Spondias mombin,
X-1932 (R. Hart, USNM) ; l, at Spondias mombin, 19-X-1932 (J. W.
Ludlam, FSCA); 1?, 12-X-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 1<3, reared from Spondias
sp. 21-X-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 4(3 3?, on Spondias purpurea,
21-X-1932 (Sealey, Ludlam & Merrill, FSCA); 4 3?, on Spondias mombin,
21-24-X-1932 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA) l6, at Annona squamosa, 24-X-1932
J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); 2<$, swept Spondias mombin, 27-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk,
FSCA); 1<$, XI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); lS 2?, ex Psidium guajava,
10-19-XI-1932 (McClanraan, FSCA); 9<$ 2+, reared from guava,
15-VII-1933 (L. C. McAlister, USNM); 3<$ 5?, reared from Spondias
mombin, 1935 (J. F. Cooper, USNM) ; 2<$, in McPhail trap, 18-VII-1935
(J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1<5, in McPhail trap, 30-VII-1935 (L. A,
Boagossa, FSCA); l, in McPhail trap, 5-VIII-1935 (E. Solomon, FSCA);
1?, in McPhail trap, 9-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 3($ 1$,
in McPhail trap, 12-14-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 3 1?,in
McPhail trap, 17-19-IX-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); lJ 1?, in McPhail
trap, 26-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhailtrap,
10-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey,, FSCA); 2, in McPhail (trap, 6-X-1935
(J F. Cooper, FSCA); 1<3, in McPhail trap, 10-X-1935 (J. F. Cooper,
FSCA; 26 1?, in McPhail trap, 8-12-X-1935 (L. A. Brogossa, FSCA); 1?
in McPhail trap, 14-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail
trap, 15-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCAP; 2<3 1?, in McPhail trap,

82
18-X-1934 (L. S. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 1<$, in McPhail trap, 21-X-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); l5 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-XI-1935 (J. H.
Sealey, FSCA^; 1<$, in McPhail trap, 25-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA)
1?, in McPhail trap, l-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 2$, 7-XI-1935
(L. A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 1 Cooper, FSCA); le, in McPhail trap, 9-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper,
FSCA).
This species was first reported from Florida in the early
1930's. It is one of the 6 species of Anastrepha recorded as native
to Florida. Although a major pest of mango in tropical countries,
in Florida, it never has been positively associated with attacks
on mango (Weems, 1970). The life history was discussed briefly by
Weems (1970). A. obliqua resembles suspensa in wing pattern and
serrations at the apex of piercer, but differs from it in lacking
the pronounced median scutoscutellar black spot typically present
in suspensa.
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Figs. 19, 124
Trypeta ocresia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Ins. Brit,
Mus. 4:1016. Holotype ?. Type locality: Jamaica (MCZ).
Differing from other known Florida Anastrepha species by
the wing markings (Fig.19), by the pale yellow and black markings
on the thorax and by having a banded abdomen. Thorax orange brown,
with pal yellow and black markings. A brownish band on

83
scutoscutellar suture, with a median black spot.. Wing pattern
predominantly dark brown. Costal and S-band connected in cell R3
and part of cell R. Hyaline spot on costal not touching vein R^ .
Proximal arm of V-band usually extending forward to vein R^ ,
but not connected to S-band. Distal arm of V-band short, either
separated from proximal arm or jointed at vein +2* Abdomen with
transverse brown-black bands on tergites II-IV. Bands on tergites
III and TV narrow or broken medially. Ovipositor sheath long and
slender, 3.4 mm long. Piercer long and slender, apex gradually
tapers to approximately 30 mm long. Male genitalia have not been
dissected for study since males were not obtained in the course of
this study.
Length: body 6.8-7.4 mm; wing 6.9-7.6 mm (N=3)
Hosts: Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen
Psidium guajava L.
Distribution: Florida, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica.
Florida Record; Monroe Co.: Key Largo, 1?, trap in
sapodilla tree 3-VII-1936 (Barcus & Stirling, USNM),
This species has not been found in Florida since 1936,
possibly because it has not survived in Florida, and possibly
because of limited trapping in the Florida Keys. It is not con
sidered to be of economic importance anywhere within its range.
Nothings is known about the immature stages of this species. This
species is distinctly different from other Florida Anastrepha be
cause of its wing pattern and the banding on the tergites.

84
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Figs. 20, 75, 125
Trypeta suspensa Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):
69, pi. II, Fig. 5. Holotype o. Type locality: Cuba (MCZ).
A moderately small, yellow-brown species characterized by
having rather long patterned wing (Fig. 20), by having the apex of
the piercer serrated, and by the median black spot on the thorax.
Head shaped as in other members of the genus, with 2 pairs of
upper fronto-orbitals and 5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles.
Thorax with a distinct scutoscutellar spot. The wing bands, yellow-
brown to brown. The costal and S-band touching or narrowly sepa
rated at vein +^. V-band complete and usually narrowly connected
to S-band. Entire abdomen densely yellow-brown setose. Ovipositor
sheath 1.7 ram long, stout and tapering apically. The piercer
1.6 mm long, with widened base, the apex serrated and gradually
tapers to a sharp point. Male genitalia as in Fig. 75. Epandrium
yellow-brown with numerous long setae dorsally. Surstyli long
and slender, rather pointed at apices. Proctiger small with
numerous long setae ventrally.
Length: body 5.1-6.8 mm; wing 5.0-6.7 mm (N=15).
Hosts: Annona reticulata L
Annona squamosa L.
Bischofia javanica Blume
Averrhoa carambola L.
Capsicum frutescens L.
Carica papaya L.

85
Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A, DG.
Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex.
Chrysophy 1 lumo 11viforme L.
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J, Igram & H,
Citrus aurantium L
Citrus X paradisi Macfady
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Citrus sp.
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels,
Diospyros virginiana L.
Dio.spyros sp.
Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn.) Warb
Eriobotryajpaponica (Thubl) Lindl.
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz) Willd.
Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzschex 0. Berg.
Eugenia uniflora L.
Ficus carica L.
Flacourtia indica (Burm. F) Merrill
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle
Fortunella sp.
Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Malpighia glabra L.
Mangifera indica L.
Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen
E. Moore
Momordica balsamina L.

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Persea americana Mill.
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill
Pouteria compechiana(HBK) Baehni
Prunus americana Marsh
Prunus prsica (L.) Batsch.
Prunus sp.
Pseudanamomis umbellulifera Kausel
Psidium littorole var. longips 0. Berg.)Fosb.
Psidium freidrischsthallanum (0. Berg,) Niedenzu
Psidium quajava L.
Psidium sp.
Pnica granatum L
Pyrus communis L
Pyrus X lecntei Rehd.
Rubus sp.
Severihi" buxifolia (Poir.) Ten
Spondias purpurea L.
Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach, &Thonn) Daniell
ex S. Bell
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Syzygium samrangense (Blume) Merr.il &. L.. M. .Perry
Terminalia catappa L.
Terminalia muelleri Benth.
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.)Vis.
> Triphasia trifolia (Burm, f.) P. Wils.
Distribution: South Florida, Greater Antilles,
Florida Records. Broward Co.: l, in McPhail trap,
10-11-1936 (C.D. Barcus, FSCA); Ft. Lauderdale, 1<$, in McPhail trap,

87
21-11-936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); Dade Co.; 1?, 7-1-1937 (J. H.
Sealey, FSCA); Homestead, 1?, in McPhail trap, 8-1-1936 (J. W.
Ludlam, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 18-11-1936 (C. R. Roberts,
FSCA) 2, reared from Syzygium samarangense, 31-X-1966 (Dowling, Jr.,
& Swanson, FSCA); Coconut Grove (Miami), 1, from trap in mulberry
tree, 30-XI]>1935 (Baker & Solomon, USNM); l, reared from Mangifera
indica, 18-VIII-1966 (R. W. Swanson, FSCA); Miami 26 1?, fruit fly
trap, 1969 (USNM); Miami Beach, 56 4?, reared from grapefruit
Citrus X paradisi, 31-X-1966 (D. De Haven, FSCA); 66 5?, reared from
grapefruit, 4-XI-1966 (Don De Haven, FSCA); Desoto Co.: Arcadia,
1+, in McPhail trap in Surinam, 22-VIII-1966 (G. P. Lamb, FSCA);
Hendry Co.: La Belle, 26 3?, McPhail trap in Rangpur lime tree,
20-VIII-1966 (C. E. Nelson, FSCA); Highlands Co.: Avon Park, l6,
citrus sp., 27-X-1969 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Lake Placid, 1?, on foliage
of cattley quava, 22-VIII-1966 (O. H. Baker, FSCA); Sebring, l6,
Kumquat, 29-XI-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa,
2?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 13-IX-1966 (Al Krause,
FSCA); 1? Pnica granatum, 21-X-1969 (C. W. Hale, FSCA); 1?,
in McPhail trap 9-II-1970 (A. L. Krause, FSCA); Indian River Co.:
Vero Beach, 2?, in McPhail trap in Carissa, 10-XI-1966 (R. H.
Kendrick, FSCA); Lee Co, : Estero, l6,quava, Psidium quajava 31-XII-
1965 (C. P. Schille, FSCA); Manatee Co.: Bradenton, l6,stickyboard
trap in quava, 10-VIII-1966 (Doyle C. Chancey, FSCA); 7?, in
McPhail trap in quava tree, 28-X-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 4?,
Steiner trap, 4-XI-1966 (D. E. Chancey, FSCA); 66 4?, in McPhail

trap in guava tree, 23-XI-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 6+, Steiner
trap in guava tree, 2-XII-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 7?, Steiner
trap, 16-XII-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 30c$ 4?, in McPhail trap
in guava tree, 20-1-1967 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 4?,inMcPhail trap
in guava tree, 27-1-1967 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); Palmetto, 4?, in
McPhail trap in orange tree, 2-IX-1966 (C.J. Bickerner, FSCA);
Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 3(5, in McPhail trap, ll-XII-1935 (H. K.
Winter, FSCA); 8c? 5?, in McPhail trap, 16-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter,
FSCA); 2(5 5?, in McPhail trap 21-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter, FSCA);
Key West 1?, in McPhail trap, 4-III-1932 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);
1(5 1?, at Psidium, 26-27-IX-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 1<5, 12-X-1932
(FSCA); 2(5 1?, at Psidium, 18-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 1(5 1?, at
Psidium, 20-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 2c$, swept guava, 28-X-1932
(M. Kisliuk & Ludlam, USNM) ; 1(5, 23-XI-1932 (FSCA); 2(5, in McPhail
trap, 17-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1<5 2?, in McPhail trap,
2 0-21-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1(5 1?, 23-IV-1930 (FSCA) ;
1$ 1?, in McPhail trap, 25-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 2?, in
McPhail trap, 27-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap
28-IX-19-1934 (J. H. Sealey,.FSCA); 1(5, 30-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey,
FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 1?, 2-V-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);
2?, in McPhail trap, 18-VI-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 2<$, in
McPhail trap, 20-VI-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);. 1<5, in McPhail trap,
3-VII-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);. 1<5, in McPhail trap 25-VII-1934
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 18-11-1935 (E. Soloman
FSCA); 1(5 2?, in McPhail trap 18-17-11-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);

89
1<5 1+, in McPhail trap 23-11-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1?, in
McPhail trap 20-11-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,
25-11-1935, (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 3(5, in McPhail trap 26-11-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,13-III-1935 (J. H.
Sealey, FSCA); 4?, in McPhail trap 13-14-III-1935 (J. H. Cooper,
FSCA)'; 3(5 1?, in McPhail trap, 15-III-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);
2 2?, in McPhail trap, 16-III-;935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); lS 3?,
in McPhail trap, 15-16-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA). 2(5 2?,
in McPhail trap, 18-III-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 5(5-2?, in
McPhail trap 19-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1<5 3?, in McPhail
trap 18-19-III-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 2 1?, in McPhail trap,
20-22-III-1935 (J, F. Cooper, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 23-11-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-VI-1935 ^C. E. Shepard,
FSCA) ; 1<5, in McPhail trap, 24-IV-1935 (W.. R. Lyle., FSCA) ; 1?, in
McPhail trap, 26-11-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1(5, in McPhail trap,
13-VII-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 2(5 5?, in McPhail trap, 13-V-
1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 2(5, in McPhail trap, 2<5, McPhail trap
30-VII-1935 (E. Solomon, FSCA); 2(5 2?, in McPhail trap, 12-VII-
1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-VII-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail, 22-VII-1935 (J. H. Sealey,
FSCA); 3(5 2?, in McPhail trap, 30-VII-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);
1?, in McPhail trap, 13-IX-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in.
McPhAil trap, 8-X-1935 (A. Brogaossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,
21-X-1935 (. J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 3<5 1?, quava thicket, 7-XII-1935
(L. C. McAlister, FSCA); 1(5, in McPhail trap, 27-1-1936 (J. F.
Cooper, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-11-1936 (H. S. McClahan,

FSCA) ; 29-VI-1936 (H. H. Hume FSCA) ; 1-?, 14-III-1936 H. H.
Hume, FSCA) 1?', in McPhail trap, 28-VII-1936 (Hume & Herring,
FSCA) 1?, inMcPhail trap, 3-VII-1936 (H. Hume, FSCA); 1$, in
McPhail trap, 19^11-1967 (J, I. Foder, FSCA); No Name Key, 2$ 2-?,-
in McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (H. K. Winter, FSCA); 1?- in McPhail
trap, 15-V-1936 (R. B. Johnson, FSCA); 1?, inMcPhail trap,
28-VI-1936 (R. F, Cooper*,FSCA); Stock Island, 2?, blacklight
trap, 4-VIII-1966 (F. A. Buchanan, FSCA); Okeechobee Co.:
Okeechobee:, 1?, stickyboard trap in orange tree, 13-X-1966
(Ted Morris, FSCA); 1<£ 1?, sticky board trap in sour-cherry tree,
l-XI-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Orange Co*, Winter Garden, l'
in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 28-X-1966 (J. C. Grubbs, FSCA);
Palm Beach Co.: Belle Glade, 1$, Rubus sp. "Brazo," 30-VI-1969
W. E. Wyles, FSCA); 1 FSCA); Boynton, 1&, in McPhail trap, 17-11-1936 (L. D. Link, FSCA);
Pinellas Co.: St.Petersburg, 16*, in McPhail trap, 26-VIII-1966
(W. C. Carroll, FSCA); Polk Co.: Lake Wales, 1$ 1?, in McPhail
trap in grapefruit tree, 13-XIII-1966 (W. M. Keen, FSCA), 2+, in
McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 9-XI-1966 (W. M. Keen, FSCA).
Of the 6 Anastrepha species, suspensa is the most common
and.is collected throughout the year. It is indigenous
to the West Indies. It was first identified as occurring
in Florida in 1931 (Weems, 1965, 1966). This species is
considered a serious pest of commercial citrus, mangoes, and peaches
in Florida, although within its normal range of distribution, the

91
economic damage caused by this species has been relatively small.
More than 80 species of plants, including tomatoes and bell peppers,
are hosts of the Caribbean fruit fly. An eradication program
for suspensa in Key West was established by the State Plant Board
of Florida and the USDA in 1933. Traps were used to evaluate the
progress of the eradication effort. Thousands of specimens were
collected from these traps in Florida over the years. There is
no assurance that A. suspensa could not become a major pest of
citrus or other crops such as peaches and apples, found in Florida
or neighboring states. An extensive trapping program is still
being carried out in parts of peninsula Florida for this species
and other exotic fruit flies. Superficially, this species is
difficult to distinguish from A. interrupta except for the ovi
positor of the female and genitalia of the male.
Genus Ceratitis Macleay
Ceratitis Madefy, 1829, Zool. J. 4:482. Type species:
citriperda Macleay = capitata (Wiedemann).
Members of this genus have distinctive patterns on the
wings and mesonotum and a swollen scutellum. Head yellowish
white, with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, borne on
distinct tubercles in the males, and the anterior pair often
modified into long spatula-shaped bristles. Two pairs of lower
fronto-orbital bristles present. Mesonotoum shining black or brown
with yellow to white markings; with a large densely gray

pollinose and white to yellowish pilose area over the median
portion. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between
supra-alar than a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum,
swollen, shining black and with 2 pairs of strong scutellars.
Wing short and broad with maculations on the basal portion.
Median band yellow extending from costa to anal margin. An elon
gate brown spot extending along m crossvein. Abdomen yellow to
dark brown with dark basal bands on tergites II-V.
Members of this genus are economically important. The
world's most important and widespread citrus pest, the Mediter
ranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) causes consider
able economic losses wherever it occurs. The Natal fruit fly,
Ceratitis rosa Karsh, ranks next in importance to Mediterranean
fruit fly in Africa. The larvae feed in fruits and vegetables.
Studies of the biology of Ceratitis capitata has been summarized
in depth by Christenson and Foote (1960) and taxonomic reviews of
the species have been published by Hardy (1949).
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Figs. 21, 76, 126
Trypeta capitata Wiedemann, 1824, Analecta Entomol.
4:55. Holotype ?. Type locality: East Indies.
Rather small species. Head yellow, with 2 pairs of upper
fronto-orbitals, the anterior pair in males always modified into
long spatulate bristles, apex diamond shaped with fine longitudinal

93
striae. Mesonotum shining black with yellow to white marking along
the suture at each side. Humeri yellow to whitish, each with a
shining black spot at the base of bristle. Mesonotum densely
gray pollinose, median portion with yellow to white pilose area.
A median black vitta extends from anterior margin to about the
suture. A pair of moderately large shining black spots in a line
with notopleura. Pleurae yellow to white with black bristles.
Scutellum swollen shining black except for a narrow, undulated
yellow line across the base. Legs yellow. Wing broad, with char
acteristic maculations at the basal portion. A broad median
yellow band extends vertically from costa through cell Cu^ ending
at vein Cu^ +2nd A. A brownish yellow costal band extends through
cell Rn, middle of cell R to apex of vein R Vein R
1 3 4+5 4+5
with a dark spot about the middle of cell R^. An elongate brown
spot along m crossvein. Ovipositor sheath yellow, tinged.with
brown at apex, about 0.9 mm long. Piercer sharp pointed at apex,
about 0.9 mm long. Extended ovipositor 2.5 mm long. Male geni
talia as in Fig. 76. Epand.rium broad and yellow with numerous long
dark brown setae dorsally. Surstyli short, and extended into
slender apical lobes. Proctiger with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 5.6-6.0 mm; wing 4.8-5.5 mm. (N=15).
Host: Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram & H. E. Moore
Psidium littorale var. longipes (o, Berg.) Fosb.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston,

94
Distribution: Hawaii, Florida. However, this species has
been eradicated from Florida in 1963.
Florida Records: Broward Co.: Ft. Lauderdale, 1(5
16-VII-1962 (W. Wolski, FSCA), 1?, in Steiner tap, 21-VII-1962
(W. Wolski, FSCA); 1?, 16-1-1963 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Lauderdale-
by-the-Sea. 1?, Steiner trap in calamondin, 11-1-1963 (M. O'Brien,
FSCA); 1+, Steiner trap, 4-II-1963 (G. F. Spencer, FSCA); West
Hollywood, 13(5 12?, Angelican seed oil trap, 1Q-VII-1956 (USNM);
2c5 1?, in Steiner trap, 26-VI-1962 (B. Lake, FSCA); Dade Co.:
3$, 19-IV-1956 (H. A. Denmark, USNM); 10<5 4?, 19-IV-1956
(H. A. Denmark, FSCA). 4<5, 20-IV-1956 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA);
4<5 1?, 30-IV-1956 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Coral Gables, 1?, in
Steiner trap, 12-VI-1962 (J. E. Hibbard, FSCA); Hialeah, 1<5, on
rose apple, 17-=VI-1962 (R. D. Williams & H. L. Gillis, FSCA); 2(5,
reared from Ceylon peach, 3-VII-1962 (L. P. Lucas, FSCA); Miami,
10(5 12?, Angelica seed oil trap, 5-8-VII-1956 (R. H. Foote,
USNM); 165(5 25?, in McPhail trap, 23-V-1956 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA);
1(5, in Steiner trap, 8-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton, USNM); 2<$ 1?, rose
apple, 13-VI-1962 (R. T* McMillan & J. R. McFarlin, FSCA);. 1(5 1?,
mango tree, 13-VI-1962 (R. T. McMillan & J. R. McFarlin, FSCA);
1(5, rose apple, 13-VI-1962 (R. T. McMillan & J. R. McFarlin, FSCA);
1?,Steiner trap, 16-VI-1962 (J. E. Hibbard, FSCA), 1?, in Steiner
trap, 16-VI-1962 (R. E. Woodruff, FSCA); 1(5, in Steiner trap,
18-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA); 1<5, 19-VI-1962 (J. E. Hibbard,
FSCA); 1<5 1?, in Steiner trap, 23-VI-1962 (C. R. Roberts &

95
W. S. Brewton, FSCA); 1(5 2?, in Steiner trap, 24-VI-1962 (R. Kendrick
& J. Luger, FSCA); 1(5 1?, in Steiner trap, 26-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton,
FSCA); 3(5, in Steiner trap, 26-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton & G. R. Seales,
FSCA); 1?, in Steiner trap, 28-VI-1962 (R. F. Patterson & D. E. Read,
FSCA); l, 5-VII-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA); 1<5, trap in calamondin,
7-VII-1962 tJ. Madison, FSCA); lc5, trap in calamondin, 12-VII-1962
(F. E. Brundage, FSCA); 1<5, 14-VII-1962 (J. Madison, FSCA); 1$,
Steiner trap or guava tree, 17-VI-1963 (L. H. Sherron, FSCA);
1?, Steiner trap in calamondin, 15-VII-1963 (L. H, Sherron, FSCA),1?
Steiner trap in mango, 15-VII-1963 (H. Creamer, FSCA) ; 1<5, in
Steiner trap, 22-VI-1962 (R. B. Rubin & B. D. Pate, FSCA); Miami
Spring, li, in Steiner trap, 19-VI-1962 (W. M. Keen & R. W. Davis,
FSCA); 20(5 12?, Angelical seed oil trap in old orchard, 26-VI-1956
(R. P. Burke, USNM); North Miami, l 1?, Steiner trap, 16-VI-1962
(J. Pott, FSCA); 1+ 5-VII-1962 (R. C. Page, FSCA); 1(5, 5-VIII-1962
(W. W. Burtless, FSCA); 2(5,5-VIII-1962 (Read and Patterson, FSCA);
Perrine, 1<5 1+, in Steiner trap, 28-VI-1962 (G. T. Smith & J. P.
Sharrer, FSCA); Monroe Ce. : Key Biscayne, 1?, in Steiner trap,
27-VI-1962 (J. Madison, FSCA); Orange Co.; Orlando, 3 1?, 1929
(USNM); 8(5 6?, IV-1929 (USNM); 1(5 1?, 9-IV-1929, (USNM) ; (W. W.
Yothers & C. B. Keck, USNM); 3<5 2?, 15-IV-1929 (J. C. Goodwin,
FSCA), 5(5 2?, 10-V-1929 (F. S. Blanton, CU) ; 2$, 13-V-1929
(F. H. Dillinges, USNM).
This species was introduced into Florida several times
and outbreaks of this fly, in 1929, 1956, and again in 1962

threatened the commercial citrus growing in the state (Ayers, 1957;
Ayers & Rohwer, 1956; and Weems, 1962). Trapping played an impor
tant part in detecting and surveying for these flies during the
eradication program. Several studies of the lures for these flies
were carried out (Rohwer, 1958; Simanton, 1958; Steiner et al_. 1957
and 1961). The traps, caught hundreds of thousands of these files
over the years. The co-operative effort of many agencies, the effec
tive trapping methods and spray programs contributed to the success
of the eradication program of the Mediterranean fruit fly in
Florida.
<2. capitata may be readily recognized by the distinctive
markings on the thorax and wing. Hardy (1949) and Weems (1962)
have reviewed the taxonomy and gave some details on their biology.
At least 100 species of fruiting plants have been recorded as
host of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Back & Pemberton, 1918).
Genus Dioxyna Frey
Dioxyna Frey, 1944, Comment. Biol. 8(10): 62. Type
species: Trypeta sorocula Wiedemann.
Closely resembles Paroxyna Hendel, readily differentiated
from other teprhitids which have 2 pairs scutellar bristles by
the elongated head, distinctly longer than high and by the absence
of preadeagal setae. Head bristles black, vertex as broad as maxi
mum width of eye, irons flat; proboscis geniculate, labellum
long and slender, 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, the posterior

97
pair pale and scale-like; 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Ground
color of thorax, black, dorsum densely gray pollinose; dorsocentral
bristles close to transverse suture; 1 pair of scutellar bristles.
Legs yellow,, except for a tinge of brown to black on femur in
some species; wing with numerous hyaline spots similar to that of
Paroxyna, but differs by having the stigma without a subhyaline
spot. Abdominal terga, dark brown to black, densely covered with
white scale-like setae.
Larvae of Dioxyna inhabit flower heads of various composites.
Many species of Bidens are host plants. The immature stages of the
members of this genus in Florida have been described by Benjamin
(1934) and Phillips (1946).
This genus is represented by only 2 species in North
America. Munro (1957) reviewed the genus and described additional
species. Members of this, genus are closely related to Paroxyna.
Early workers (Curran, 1934; Benjamin, 1934) included the Nearctic
species in the genus Paroxyna. Novak (1974) reyised these 2
genera and clarified their taxonortiid status.
Key to the Florida Species of Dioxyna
1. Legs with basal 1/2 of all femora blackish; wing with sub
hyaline spot restricted to cell R5 (Fig. 22); male epandrium
highly arched with scattered long setae (Fig. 77); surstyli
elongated; apex pointed
picciola (Bigot)

?8
1, Legs with basal 1/2 of all femora yellowish; wing with sub
hyaline spot on cell R3 and R5 (Fig. 23 ); male epandrium
robust, with dense thick setae (Fig. 78 ); surstyli broad and
blunt. thomae (Curran)
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Figs. 22, 77, 127
Acinia picciola Bigot, 1857, in Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. and
Nat. Cuba, 2nd part, Hist., Nat., 1856, 7:347. Type (sex not
known). Type locality: Cuba.
A very common, widespread, easily recognized species
characterized by having the basal .1/2 of all femora dark brown.
Scutellum with only 2 long black bristles. Head elongate with
epistoma and sides of face protruded; proboscis elongate and
geniculate. Wing markings as given in the key (Fig. 22 ). Female
ovipositor long, about 2 mm; the ovipositor sheath black, approxi
mately equal in length to the piercer, being 0.8 mm and 0.7 mm long
respectively; piercer long, apex gradually tapered into sharp point-.
Male genitalia small and compact; epandrium highly arched, surstyli
elongate and pointed inward;, proctiger elongate with numerous
scattered setae.
Length body: 2.5-3.6 mm; wing 2.4-2.7 mm(N=15).
Hosts: Baldiuna angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Bidens bipinnata L.
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP


99
Bidens mitis CMichx.) Sherff.
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schultz-Bip.
Carduus carolinianus Watt.
Coreopsis leavenworthii T & G.
Coreopsis nudata Nutt.
Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.
Coreopsis tripteris L.
Cosmos sp.
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Tagetes erecta L.
Distribution: Throughout United States (except for upper
New England States) Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Mexico, and
Central America.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2 17-11-1956 (R. V. Weems, Jr., CU) ; lc? 1?, on Melilotus alba; 5-III-1956
(R. A. Norse, CO); 2$ 1?, on Erigeron quercifolius, 2-V-1956 (R. A.
Morse, CO); on Erigeron quercifolius, 2-VII-1956 (R. A. Morse,
CU); Gainesville, lS, 28-X-1981 (P. W. Fattig, USA); 2$ 1?, reared
from Bidens pilosa, 14-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5 on Bidens pilosa, 31-X-1956 (R. A. Morse, CU) 1 pilosa, ll-XI-1956 (R. A. Morse, AMNH); 1$ 3?, on Bidens pilosa 11-XI-
1956 (R.-A. Morse, CU) ; 2$ 1?, on Lupinus augustifolius, 30-1-1957
(F S. Mead, FSCA); 1$ 1?, 24-VIII-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr., CU);
2c?, 4-XI-1958 (R. W. Woodruff, FSCA); 1?, 18-X-1960 (F. W. Mead,
FSCA); 2$ 1?, l-XII-1963 F. W. Mead, FSCA); 6c? 4?, on Madicago
sativa, 2-1-1964 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); 2$, on Prunus augustifolius

100
20-11-1966 (H. V. Weems, FSCA); 2 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2<$ 3?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 14-V-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 2$ 3?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 12.VII-1978
I. B. Rohani, FSCA) 9$ 6?, reared from Bidens pilosa 17-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 8c? 3?, reared from Bidens pilosa 23-VIII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 4c? 2?, reared from Bidens pilosa 24-VIII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Brevard CoBonoventure, 10c? 9?, reared
from Bidens pilosa 25-V-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM); 9c? 6?, reared
from Bidens pilosa, 29-30-V-1930 (C. R. Benjamin, USNM); 20$ 10?,
reared from Bidens pilosa, 2-17-VI-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM): Indian
River City, 2$ 1?, reared from Bidens pilosa (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Charlotte Co.: Andy town; 1$, on Bidens pilosa, 30-III-1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr.
FSCA); Citrus Co.: Crystal River, 8 7?, reared from Coreopsis
leavenworthii, 31-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Homosassa Spring,
9$ 4?, reared from Coreopsis leavenworthii, 3-4-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM; Inverness, 9$ 1?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 31-X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Hialeah, 5<£ 4?, ex flower head.
Bidens pilosa, 19-25-1-1971 (C. Stemaier, USNM); 2-V-1967, (P. V.
Peterson, CNC); 3c? 1?, swept weeds, 21-VI-1967 (R. A. Morse, FSCA);
Matheson Hammock, 12$ 5?, on Bidens pilosa, 31-III-1966 (H. V. Weems,
FSCA), Miami, 1?, 19-IV-1964 (O. R. Paulson, FSCA), 6$ 6?, 17-18-V-
1924 (S. Graenicher, CNC); 2$, on Citrus sp., 9-V-1932 (O. C. Link,
CU); 1$, on Citrus X paradisi, 24-11-1932 (O. D. Link, CU); Miami
spring; 1$ 2?, 17-IX-1948 (O. C. Link, CU); 1$, 17-1-1948 L. S.
Light, Jr., FSCA); Duval Co.: Fort George, 1$, 19-IX-1965

101
(C. F. Zeiger, FSCA) Jacksonville, 2$ 2?, 30-X-1963 (C. F. Zeiger,
FSCA) ; 1<$ 3?, 14-XI-1965 (C. F. Zeiger, FSCA). Gadsden, Co.:
1?, l-VIII-1956 (F. W. Mead, CU); Glades Co.: 2<$, swept weeds,
6-XII-1955 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); 1 2?, swept weeds, 6-VII-1955
(R. A. Morse, CU); 2, swept weeds, 6-XII-1955 (R. A. Morse,
AMNH); Hernando Co., 4?, Bidens pilosa, 3-X-1956 (R. A. Morse, CU) ;
Archbold Biol. Sta. 1<5 1?, 20-VI-1973 (C. R. Miller, CU) ; 5<$ 10?,
24-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC); Sebring, 26 1?,25-XI-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., CU) ; 10'<5 5?, reared from Bidens pilosa ,
22-III-1978 (T. B. Rohani, FSCA). Hillsborough Co., Tampa, 1 reared from Bidens pilosa,23-III-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 1+, Bidens
pilosa, 17-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 3<3 1$, Bidens
pilosa, 21-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Holmes Co. { Bonifay,
2<$ 1?, reared from Coreopsis nudata, 2-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Indian River Co., Sebastian, 2?, Bidens pilosa, 24-III-1930
(Conner, USNM); Lake Co.; 1<£, 14-VI-1955 (F. W. Mead, FSCA),
1?, 9-IV-1956 (R. A. Morse, CU); Leesburg, 60c? 40?, bred from
Bidens pilosa, 19-26-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, UNSM); Lee Co.; Pine-
land, 4(5 2?, 27-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC) ; Sanibell Is. 3<5 3?,
insect flight trap, ll-V-1973 (W. W. Wirth, USNM); Levy Co.;
Cedar Key, 34c? 17?, bred from Bidens pilosa, 28-31-X-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM), Manatee Co., Bradenton, 23, on flower of Aster,
17-X-1970 (H. R. Dodge, FSCA) ; lc$ 2?, on flower of Solidago
stricta, 6-1-1971 (H. R. Dodge) FSCA) ; Marion Co.: 2<$, at Rubus
4-IV-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr. FSCA ) ; Belleview, 2c$ 3?, bred from

Bidens pilosa 12-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); McIntosh, 10c?
15?, reared from Bidens pilosa 30-VIII-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Ocala, 4(5 16?, reared from Bidenslaevis, 23-XI-1929 (F. Walker,
USNM); 4(? 3?, swept weeds Bidens pilosa, 30-VIII-1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Wiersdale, 5<$ 3?, bred from Bidens pilosa, 12-VII-
1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Martin Co.: Indiantown, 95 8?
Bidens pilosa .17-11-1930 (Beavers, USNM) Monroe Co., Big Pine
Key, 2<5, swept weeds, 28-XII-1971 (W. H. Price, FSCA); 7(5 6?
reared from Carduus cardinianus, 24-30-III-1978 (I. B. Rohani,
FSCA); Boca Chica, 1?, swept roadside weeds, 8-V-1971 (W. H.
Pierce, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Park, 25, 30-XI-1961 (Munroe,
Glen, Holland & Chillcot, CNC); l5, l-XII-1961 (Munroe, Glen Holland
& Chillicot, CNC); 45 8?,Bidens pilosa, 7-V-1967 (B. V. Peterson,
CNC); 45, on flower of solidago stricta, 5-XII-1970 (H. R. Dodge,
FSCA); 2? 28-29-II1-1978 (C. L. Smith, UGA); Key Largo, 1?,
26-X11-1956(Camilla Weems, CU); 3o 1? 9-10-IV-1955 (F. W. Mead,
FSCA); 35 1?, M2 Light, 5-6-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillcot
CNC); 295 17?, swept Bidens pilosa, 24-III-1978 (Y. Salleh & I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Key West; 165 10?, 18-24-III-1930, bred from Bidens
pilosa (USNM); 45 1?, taken at light 26-III-1935 (E. G. Hume, CU) ;
3, on Flaveria linearla 27-VII-1952 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
lS 1?, 9-V-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC) 25, 2-II-1969 (USNM); Saddle
bunch Keys, 1?, on Flaveria linearia, 29-XII-1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr
CU); 3 1?, on Flaveria linearia, 29-XII-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
ANMH); Okaloosa Co., Eglin Home, 45 3?, on daisy-like composite,
25-IX-1966 (P. A. Thomas, FSCA); Orange Co.; Apopka, 185 12?,

bred from Bidens pilosa/ 21-24-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, USNM);
Orlando, 3(5 3?, bred from Bidens pilosa 4-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson;
USNM) ; 12(5 6?, bred from Bidens coronata, 20-26-XI-1929 (F. H.
Benjamin, USNM); Winter Garden, 7$ 4?, bred from Bidens laevis,
30-XII-1930; 2-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM; Osceola Co.; East
Lake 5<5 3+, Bidens pilosa 23-24-VI-1930 !(D. J. Nicholson, USNM,) ;
Palm Beach Oo.: West Palm Beach, 4&, 18-IX-1942 (D. E. Hardy, USNM);
Pasco Co., Zephyr Hill, 3$ 4+, swept Bidens pilosa 13-VI-1976
(R. A. Belmont, FSCA); Putnam Co. 2<5, sweeping grass 28-IV-1954
(H. A. Denmark, AMNH) ; Sarasota Co.; Nokomis, 2(5,10-V-1960 (P. E.
Woodruff, FSCA); Sarasota, 6<5 4+, swept Bidens clumps,12-13-11-1946
(J. G. Needham, FSCA); Seminole Co.: Lake Munroe, 2(5 2+, bred from
Bidens pilosa, 3-7-VII-1930 (A. B. Beavens, FSCA).
Large numbers of specimen have been seen and collected from
many, localities in Florida. Benjamin (1934) described the immature
stages. This is the most common tephritid reared from Bidens,
Di'oxyna thomae
Figs. 23., 78, 128
Ensina thomae Curian, 1928, N.Y. Acad. Sci. 11:70. Holotype
?. Type locality: St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.
Superficially resembling picciola (Bigot) but differs
by having all the femora yellowish, wing with subhyaline spots on
cell R3 and R5. Thorax and abdomen black, dorsum densely gray
pollinose. Female ovipositor much longer than picciola, about 3.4mm;

104
ovipositor sheath dark brown to black approximately 1.0 mm long;
the piercer very long, slender, gradually tapered into an elongate
sharp point, about 0.7mm in length. Male genitalia with a large
robust epandrium; dorsum of epandrium with dense thick setae,
surstyli broad and blunt, more or less rounded at apex, proctiger,
small with scattered setae.
Length: body, 2.0-4.0 mm; wing 2.8-3.0 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Bidens bipinnata L.
Distribution: Florida, Bermuda, Virgin Island (St. Thomas
Island), and West Indies.
Florida Records. Alachua Co.: 1$ 1?, 20-XII-1951
Gainesville, 1(5 1?, Blacklight trap, 3-X-1972 (F. W. Mead, FSCA);
2?, ll-X-1972 (H. R. Dodge, FSCA); lS,insect flight trap, 19-2I-X-
1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2?, insect flight trap, 24-X-1973
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), 1$ 1?, insect flight trap, 1-6-XII-1973
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Citrus Co.: Crystal River, 25(5 56?, bred
from Bidens bipinnata, 3-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholeson, USNM;; Martin Co.:
Waveland, 4$ 8?, 13-V-1937 (O. D. Link, FSCA), Orange Co.: Orlando
15$ 13?, bred from Bidens bipinnata, 8-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
5$ 7?, bred from Bidens bipinnata, ll-X-1930 (D. J. Nichoson, USNM);
46$ 44?, bred from Bidens bipinnata, 13-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Oceola Co.: East Lake,22$ 45?, bred from Bidens bipinnata,
23-26-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, USNM); Seminole Co.: Oviedo, 4$ 6?,
bred from Bidens bipinnata, 1-5-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
The Nearctic distribution of D. thomae is restricted to
Florida and Bermuda. Its distribution in Florida is not widespread

105
as picciola presumably because it is associated with only one host,
Bidens bipinnata. According to Benjamin (1934), on the basis of
current information, the immature stages of thomae cannot be
differentiated from those of picciola.
Genus Dyseuaresta Hendel
Dyseuaresta Hendel, 1928, Ehtomol. Mitt. 17:368, Type
species: Euaresta adelphica Hendel.
Closely resembles Euaresta, but differs by having only
1 pair of scutellars, the epandrium simple, without any striation
and the femora of males unmodified. Head slightly higher than
long; face gently concave as seen laterally. Arista long and
plumose. Antennae yellow, 3rd segment rounded at apex. Only 2
pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, the posterior pair pale,
scale-like; 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Thorax
largely black with grayish pollinose. Dorsocentral bristles
near transverse suture and in front of a line between anterior
supra-alars. Legs entirely yellow, normal. Wing typically dark
with discal and marginal hyaline spots. Abdomen dark brown to
black with short setae.
Not much is known about the biology of the species, but
like members of Euaresta, they develop in the flower heads and
ovaries of Compositae, The genus appears to be neotropical in
origin, with about 10 species. Only 1 species occurs in North
America.

106
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Figs. 24, 79, 129
Trypeta mexicana Wiedemann, 1930, Auss. Zweifl. Ins.,
2:684. Holo-type ?. Type locality: Mexico.
Readily differentiated by its dark brown to black body
and by the wing marking as in Fig. 24. Wing with many discal
and marginal hyaline spots on a dark background. Vein +
bare or sparsely setose. Cell R^ with a faint bulla. Middle
1/2 of cell Cu^ with large hyaline area. Female ovipositor long,
about 3.7 mm. The ovipositor sheath black with numerous black
setae, 1.4 mm long. The piercer strong, evenly tapered to a long
narrow tip at the apex, measures approximately 1.2 mm long. Male
genitalia as in Fig. 79. Epandrium wide and black dorsum with a
few long setae. Surstyli long, slender, andhieavily curved inward,
apices trucata. Proctiger small and elongate, with long fine setae
ventrally.
Length: body 3.0-4.0 mm; wing 2.5-3.2 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Melanthera aspera Jacq. var. grabiuscula (Knntze)
Parks
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Melanthera parviflora Small
Melanthera sp.
Distrisbution: Arizona, Texas, Florida, and West Indies, Mexico.
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Rockledge, 2$, ex Melanthera
nivea, 6-III-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM); 2$ 1?, reared from Melanthera.

107
sp., 21-22-X-1930 (Connors, USNM); 1+ reared from Melanthera
nivea 29-V-1930 (Benjamin, USNM); Collier Co.: 2?, l-XII-1955
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) ; Levy Co.: Williston, 6c?, bred from
Melanthera nivea, 9-10-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Monroe
Co.: Bahia Honda Key, 1+, tidal flat, 10-IV-1966 (D. H. Habeck,
FSCA); Big Pine Key, 1(5, 30-XII-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
Boca Chica Key, 1<5 3?, 16-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Cape Sable,
4 c? 2+, 21-III-1953 (W. R. M. Mason, CNC); Everglades Nat'l Pk.,
It, 20-X-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Grassy Key, le?, 3-IV-
1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Key Largo, le?, 26-XII-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); le? 26-XII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); 1<5, 26-XII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Loggerhead Key,
1(5 1?, 15-17-III-1973 (R. Thorington & J. Layne, USNM); Middle
Cape Sable; 2S 1+, 7-IV-1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Plantation
Key, 3(5, 27-XI-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Stock Is., 1<5,
9-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA). Palm Beach Co.: West Palm Beach,
1(5, 15-1-1957 (H. G. Dyar, USNM).
The wing pattern is similar to that of Euaresta bella
(Loew), but it is easily differentiated by the presence of only
2 hyaline areas in cell R^. Larvae infest flower heads of certain
composite plants. Stegmaier (1968a) studied the life history of
the species.

108
Genus Euleia Walker
Euleia Walker, 1836, Enlomol. rjag.3 (art 5) :81. Type species
Musca onopordinis Fabricius = Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus).
Predominantly a yellow to brown species; readily differ
entiated from other Trypetinae by its distinctive wing pattern
(Fig. ). All head and body bristles strong, shining black.
Head with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals; 2 pairs of upper fronto-
orbitals, the posterior pair reclinate, never convergent. Dorso-
central bristles in a line drawn between the anterior supra-alars,
2 pairs of scutellar bristles hietathorax with paired dark areas.
Distal 3rd of cell 1st M2 with 3 large hyaline area, middle of
cell R with a light spot.
Of the 2 species known from North America 1 occurs in
Florida This genus was reviewed by Foote (1959). The differences
between the North American member of this genus and the closely
related European species were discussed.
Euleia fratria (Loew)
Figs. 25, 80, 130
Trypeta fratria Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect., 6(1):
67, pl.il')> Fig. 4. Holotype S. Type locality: United States
(MC2) .
Readily differentiated from other Euleia by its stricking
wing pattern, especially on the outer 1/3 of the wing disc (Fig. 25 )

the posterior dark band ending at margin of 2nd M2 complete. Face
slightly receding, oral margin not produced forward; proboscis
short. Ovipositr short and broad, about 1.8 mm long. The ovi
positor sheath yellow tinged with brown, 0.7 mm long. Piercer
very short; about 0.5 mm long; apex of piercer gradually tapering
to a sharp point. Male genitalia longer than width; epandrium
yellow, with scattered long pale setae. Surstyli very long and :
slender, curved upward, and slightly pointed apically, at an angle
to each other. Proctiger elongated, project outward, pale yellow
with long pale setae scattered over its surface.
Length: body 3.4-3.7 mm; wing 3.2-3.5 mm (N=8).
Hosts: No host information for Florida specimens. Known
hosts for E. fratra are
Pastinaca sativa Linnaeus
Heracleum sphodyllium L. subspecies montanum
(Scheich. ex Gaudin) Briq.
Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.)DC.
Distribution: eastern Canada, northern 1/2 of the United
States, and Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 3& 1?, insect
flight trap, 9-V-1973 (W.W.Wirth, USNM); Duval Co.: Jacksonville,
le?, 8-VT- 1963 (C.F.Zeiger, FSCA) ; Volusia Co.: Oak Hill, ,
stickyboard trap in grapefruit, 3-IV-1969 (J.N.Pott, FSCA);
Port Orange, lcf, McPhail trap, 30-III-1968 (J.N.Pott, FSCA).

no
This species is known as the parsnip leaf-miner and is
closely related to EL. heraclei, a European species, widely known as
the celery fly. The differences between these 2 species were dis
cussed by Foote (1959). Bank (1912) gave a short taxonomic descrip
tion of the larvae. Foote and Blanc (1963), in their bulletin on
the Tephritidae of California, have compiled a list of Eh fratia
hosts. The bionomics of this species were studied in detail by
Tauber and Toschi (1965a).
Genus Euaresta Loew
Euaresta Loew, 1873, Smiths. Inst. Mise. Collect. 11
(256):296. Type species: Trypeta festiva Loew.
Small to medium-sized yellow to black flies with many discal
and marginal hyaline spots on the wing. Head with vertex broader
than maximum width of the eyes, with 2 pairs of lower and upper fronto-
orbitals. Ground color of thorax yellow to black. Dorsocentrals
near the transverse suture and in front of a transverse line through
supra-alars; 2 pairs of scutellar bristles. Males with swollen
fore femur and with distinct striation on the epandrium of genitalia.
The biology and habits of Euaresta are unknown. The genus
is widespread in North America, with 2 of the 8 Nearctic species
occurring in Florida. Foote and Blanc (1963) discussed briefly
the 5 California species. The most recent revision of this genus
is that of Quinsenberry (1950).

Ill
Key to the Florida Species of Euaresta
1. Ground color of thorax black; cell R of wing with one hyaline
spot; bulla distinctly present in cell (Fig. 27)
bella (Loew)
1'. Ground color of thorax yellow; cell R of wing with more than
one hyaline spots (usually 6); bulla usually absent, rarely
a faint one present (Fig. 26)
aequalis (Loew)
Euaresta aequalis (Loew)
Figs. 27, 81, 131
Trypeta aequalis Loew, 1862. Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):
86, pi. II, Fig. 20. Holotype cT. Type locality: Illinois (MCZ).
Differentiated from all known Euaresta by being predominantly
larger (5.85 mm) and by its distinctly yellow color. The hyaline
spot near the apex of cell R^ separated by a narrow brown area from
the wing margin. Cell R^ usually without a bulla, however, faint
one may be present. The ovipositor of female long (5.0 mm); the
sheath is about as long as the piercer, the sheath measures 2.0 mm
long, piercer 1.4 mm; slender and narrow, apex gradually tapers to
a sharp point. Male genitalia large and robust; epandrium truncate
with scattered long setae (Fig. 81). Surstyli elongated and curved
inward.
Length: body 5.1-5.3 mm; wing 4.7-5.0 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: No host information for Florida specimens
Xanthium sp. (Quinsenberry, 1950)

112
Distribution: A widespread species, occurring throughout
United States. Previously recorded from Alabama, California,
Colorado, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina.
Florida Records: Escambia Co.: Bratt, 7 1933(A. Blanton, USNM); 23(? 12?, 29-VIII-1033 (A. Blanton, USNM);
7$ 2?, 26-IX-1933 (A. Blanton, USNM); Gadsden Co.: Quincy, lcT 2?
D-Vac sample soybean field 20-IX-1977 (Y, Salleh, FSCA);
1$ 1?, D-Vac sample soybean, 5-X-1978 (Y. Salleh, FSCA);
1<£, D-Vac sample soybean, 5-X-1978 (Y. Salleh, FSCA) .
This species occurs only in the northern portion of
Florida.
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Figs. 27, 82, 132
Trypeta bella (Loew), 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect., 6(1);
88, pi. II. Fig. 23. Holotype (MCZ).
Predominantly black, very readily differentiated from aequalis
by its small size being only 2.9 mm. The presence of a bulla on
cell and the absence of brown patch on the apical wing margin
of celldistinguish bella from aequalis. The ovipositor sheath
dark brown, about 0.8 mm long. The piercer 0.5 mm, with gradu
ally pointed paex. Extended ovipositor 188 mm long. Male

113
genitalia small and compact. Epandrium highly arched, dark
brown and with scattered setae dorsally (Fig. 82). Surstyli
elongate and curved inward, apex rounded. Proctiger small with
numerous long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.8-3.2; wing 2.4-2.9 mm. IN=10).
Hosts: Unknown (Specimens are often caught on ragweed,
Ambrosia artemissifolia. (t-) and Bidens pilosa L.
Distribution: Florida, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Washington, and Wisconsin.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 8<5 4?, on Prunus angustifolia
17-III-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2<5, on Prunus angustifolia,
14-11-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Gainesville, 4<5 8?, at Bidens
pilosa, 11-XI-1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA), 1?, insect flight trap,
14-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & C. R. Artaud, FSCA) 1(5, insect
flight trap, 15-XI-1971 IH. V. Weems, Jr., & C. R. Artaud, FSCA);
1?, insect flight trap, 30-XI-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., & C. R.
Artaud, FSCA); 2(5 2?, Castanea pumila, ll-X-1972 (H. R. Dodge,
FSCA); 3(5, insect flight trap, 23-25-X-1973 (Hf V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA), 1<5 1?, 31-XII-1975 ,(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Dade Co.: Hialeah,
i<5, sweeping grasses and weeds, 14-VII-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr.,
o
FSCA); 1+, sweeping grasses and weeds, 17-III-1965 (C. E. Stegmier-,
Jr., FSCA); Flagler Co.: 1<5, 8-VII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr. FSCA);
Highlands Co.: Archbold Biol. Stat. 1?, 23-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson,
CNC) ; i<5 26-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC) ; 12<5 8?, swept Ambrosia
artemissifolia, zl III1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); sS 10?, insect

114
flight trap, 22-25-III-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & L. L. Lampert,
Jr., FSCA); l5 2?, insect flight trap, 17-20-VI-1978 (H. V. Weems,
Jr. & L. L. Lampert, Jr., FSCA); 5 21-IV-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & L. L. Lampert, Jr., FSCA); 2$
5?, insect flight trap, 17-V-1979 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & Lisa Klein,
FSCA); Sebring, 1?, 8-III-1958 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Jackson
Co.: Cavern St. Park, lo, 9-VII-1954 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); Jefferson
Co.: Monticello, 1?, 4-8-X-1941 (AMNH); Martin Co., 1<5 2+,.
5-XI-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Monroe, Co.: Boca Chica,
2$ 4?, sweeping roadside, 8-V-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Everglades
Nat'1 Pk., 2$, 30-XII-1953 (H. V. Weems, JR., FSCA); 1?, 15-XII-
1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillcot, CNC) 1? 7-V-1967 (B. V. Peterson,
CNC); Key Largo, l5 1?, 4-6-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland & Chillcot,
CNC); Orange Co.: Orlando, 6 (abdomen missing), sweeping ragweeds,
29-V-1929 (Evans, USNM); 1 2?, caught on ragweeds, 2-V-1930
(Benjamins Nicholson, USNM); 12$ 2, sweeping ragweeds, 13-V-1930
(E. Rivray, USNM); 2$, caught on ragweed,15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Sarasota Co.: Myakka River St. Pk., 1<5 2?, 5-VI-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Santa Rosa Co.: Milton, 2(5, 26-X-1932
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Volusia Co.: l5 1? 24-VII-1954 (H. V.
Weems, Jr., FSCA).
This species is very common and widespread and is easily
differentiated from other Florida tephritids by its peculiar
wing pattern with a distinct bulla on cell R5.

'115
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin
Euarestoides Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie, Tech. Bull.
401:57. Type species: Trypeta abstersa Loew.
Closely related to Euaresta, Tephritis, and Trupanea.
Readily distinguished by the characteristic wing pattern, consisting
of a yellow or brown reticulation in the proximal 1/2 and a dark
stellate preapical pattern and by the presence of 3 pairs of lower '
fronto-orbital bristles. The anterior oral margin normal, only
slightly produced. With 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles,
the posterior pair not convergent. Thorax mostly yellow, covered
with numerous yellow brown setae. Dorsocentral bristles nearer to
transverse suture than to a transverse line between the supra-
alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of strong dark brown to black
bristles. Abdomen yellow pollinose and densely covered with
yellow to brown setae.
Little is known about the biology of the members of this
genus; as far as is known, they inhabit flower ovaries. The genus
is spread throughout southern Canada, United States, and the
Neotropical Region. Of the 4 known Nearctic species, only 1 is
reported from Florida. Foote (1958), in his revision of the genus,
provided keys to all the species.
Euarestoides abstersus Loew.
Figs. 28, 83, 133
Trypeta abstensa Loew, 1862. Berlin Entomol. Zweitschr.
221. Holotype ?. Type Docality: North America (Vienna).

116
Readily differentiated from other known Euarestoides
by the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 28) by having a dark
area in the distal 1/2 of cell R, with a small hyaline spot close
to its center. In addition, the proximal yellowish 1/2 of the
wing with faint but discrete spots; apex of cell R,_ contains a
hyaline spot that is much wider than long. Gena with irregular
band with white setae. The ovipositor sheath yellow, densely
covered with numerous setae approximately 0.8 mm long. The
piercer short, about 0.6 mm long; the proximal 2/3 thin and
straight-sided, apex gradually tapers to a sharp point. Extended
ovipositor approximately 2.0 mm long. Male genitalia as in
Fig. 83. The epandrium highly arched. Surstyli elongate, narrow,
and sloping inward, apex rounded. Proctiger yellow, small, and
elongate, with scattered setae on its dorsum.
Length: body 3.4-3.5 mm; wing 3.2-3.4 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Ambrosia sp.
Trilisa paniculata (Walt, ex J. F. Gmel.) Cass.
Distribution: New York to Florida.
Florida Records: Dade Co.: Hialeah, 2$ 1?, swept Lippia>
Pluchea Ambrosia, 20-VII-1965 (C. E. Segmaier, Jr., FSCA); 1<£,
swept Pluchea sp. 21-VII-1965 (FSCA); Orange Co. : Bithlo; 1 off Trilisa paniculata, 17-XII-1929 (Chas. Kime, USNM); Conway,
19<$ 10?, bred from Trilisa paniculata, 20-29-XI-1929 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 1?, reared from Trilisa paniculata, 12-XI-
1929 (D. J. Nicholson NSNM) ; 1?, reared iron Trilisa paniculata
21-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM), 1?, ex head Solidago tortifolia
22-XI-1929 (F. H. Benjamin, USNM); 2?, ex head Trilisa paniculata

117
25-XI-1929 (F. H. Benjamin, USNM); 25$ 21?, reared from Trilisa
paniculata, 18-25-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 20$ 20?, reared
from Trilisa paniculata, 25-20-3X1-192 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
3^ 21?, ex Trilisa paniculata, 24-30-XI-1929 (F. H. Benjamin, USNM);
12$ 11?. reared from Trilisa paniculata, 5-XII-1929 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM).
In addition to the characters given above, this species
can be further distinguished by the distinct but rather narrow
extension of the preapical dark spot, 1 proximally bordering
the hyaline spot located immediately anterior to the crossvein,
the other extending from the apex of subcostal cell to a point
near vein R As far as is known, this species is restricted
4+5
to the Atlantic States. This species commonly breeds in flower
heads of Trilisa paniculata. Benjamin (1934) briefly described
the immature stages of this species. Detailed morphology of the
larvae was presented by Phillips (1946).
Genus Eurosta Loew
Eurosta Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 11(256).
Type species: Trypeta solidaginis Fitch.
Predominantly large dark brown species which can be dif
ferentiated by the following characters: Vertex about 2 times
the width of the eyes. Antennae short, with long plumose arista.
Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, the posterior pair
short and scale-like; 3 to 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles
present. Thorax with numerous small yellow setae. Dorsocentral

118
bristles closer to a transverse line between supra-alar bristles
than to a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum swollen,
with 1 to 2 pairs bristles, and sometimes 2 to-7 bristles present.
Wing broad consisting of a dark field interrupted by hayline spots.
Vein Rp setose over the entire length. Vein R^ + setose to beyond
r m crossvein. Abdomen broad, with numerous yellow to dark brown
setae.
Larvae form galls in stems and roots of a variety of
plants. The species appear to be host specific and each forms
a characteristic gall on its host plant. The genus is strictly
Nearctic and contains 10 species. Of these, 4 are known to occur
in Florida. Steyskal and Foote (1977) provided keys to the adults
of North American Eurosta.
Key to the Florida Species of Eurosta
1. Wing marked with a reticulate hyaline pattern; hyaline
spots small and faint; apical 1/.2 of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
vein normal 2
1*. Wing without such pattern; hyaline spots large and discrete
(Fig. 30); apical 1/2 of 2nd, 3rd, 4th vein undulating. .
... donysa (Walker)
2. Pale marking at the end of anal vein little developed, not
extending 1/2 way across cell Cup (Fig. 29); ovipositor
sheath short; lower margin of epandrium square and straight
comma (Wiedemann)

119
3. Anal pale spots of wing with discrete margin; (Fig. 31);
the piercer of female ovipositor long fenestrata Snow
3'. Anal pale spot reticulate, at least around wing margin
(Fig. 32) the piercer short floridensis Foote
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Figs. 29, 84, 134
Trypeta comma Wiedemann, 1830, Auss. Zweifl. Ins. 2:478.
Holotype ?. Type locality: Kentucky.
Readily differentiated by the wing markings (Fig. 29) and
by the head and thoracic chaetotoxy. Wing predominantly brown with
numerous tiny hyaline spots. The markings at the end of anal
vein pale and little developed. Head with 2 pairs of upper fronto-
orbital bristles, the posterior pair pale and scale-like, 3 pairs
of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutel-
lars. Ovidpositor sheath short, 2.1 mm. Piercer 1.5 mm long, apex
gradually tapers tosharp point. Extended ovipositor 5.3 mm
long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 84. Epandrium wide with long
setae laterally, lower margin of epandrium square. Surstyli
slender and narrow, apices trcate with 2 blunt tips. Proctiger
small with numerous long setae over the surface.
Length: body 7.2-7.8 ram; wing 7.1-7.5 (N=10).
Hosts: Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp.
Distribution: Colorado to Maine, south to north Florida

120
Florida Records: Hamilton Co.: Jasper, 85 2?, bred from
Solidaqo root galls, 19-26-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Lake
Co.: Groveland, 8-XII-1966 (W. P. Henderson, FSCA); Tavares,
8 4?, bred from Solidago sp. root gall, 6-13-XII-1930 (D, J. Nicholson
USNM) ; Orange Co. : Fort Christmas, 4<5 1?, bred from Solidago
fistulosa, 30-XII-1930'(D. JT.. Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 12(5 10?,
bred from root galls of Solidago sp., 3-14-XII-1929 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); 12(5 5?, bred from Solidago fistulosa 7-11-1-1931 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); 2?, bred from Solidago fistulosa galls,
15-16-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; 82(5 33?, bred from Solidago
fistulosa, 19-29-XII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlovista,
30(5 8?, bred from Solidago root galls, 5-12-1-1930 (D. J. Nichoson,
USNM); Seminole Co.: Oviedo, 5(5 2?, bred from Solidago sp. root
galls, 5-21-11931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 12(5 4?, bred from
Solidago root galls, 21-28-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
Probably the most commonly collected species of this genus
in North America and Florida. This species is differentiated from
other known Eurosta by the distinctive pattern on the wing; the
narrow crescentic hyaline mark at the apex of the wing is
broken into small spots by darkening about ends of 3rd and 4th
veins, also the pale marking at the end of anal vein is little
developed, not extending over 1/2 way across cell Cui.-
Larvae of this species normally feed singly in galls on
roots of golden rods. Benjamin (1934) and Phillips (1946) des
cribed the larval morphology.

121
Eurosta donysa Walker
Figs. 30, 85, 135
Trypeta donysa Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. Brit.
Mus. 4:1007. Holotype Type locality: unknown
A moderately large brown species characterized by having
wings with large and discrete hyaline spots (Fig. 30). Veins
, R undulating Hyaline area in the middle of cell Cu
14+5 r
large. Scutellum with 2-6 bristles, the apical pair normally
reduced. Male genitalia as in Fig. 85. Epandrium dark brown
broad with numerous scattered setae; lower margin of epandrium
square. Surstyli slender and narrow; apex truncate with blunt
lower lobe. Proctiger small, densely setose lateroventrally.
female ovipositor was not available for dissection.
Length: body 7.0-7.8 mm; wing 7.5-7.7 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Solidago champmanii T & G
Solidago Sp.
Distribuion: Known only from Florida
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Merritt Island, 1 12-III-1956 (H. W. Weetns, Jr., FSCA) ; Titusville, 3o, bred from
round stem gall Solidago sp., 10-III-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
4o 1?, bred from gall on stalk Solidago sp. 12-16-III-1931
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
EL donysa may be differentiated from other known Florida
Eurosta by the lack of reticulate hyaline pattern on the disc
and by the large and discrete hyaline spots on a dark field.
This psecies was described by Benjamin (1934) as nicholsoni

122
Benjamin. Foote (1964) indicated that donysa was conspecific
with nicholsoni and was the prior name. Larvae feed in small round
galls on stems of Solidago sp. The immature stages were briefly
described by Benjamin (1934) .
Burosta fenestrata Snow
Figs. 31, 86, 136
Eurosta fenestrate Snow, 1894, Kans. Univ. Quart. 2(3):
169, pi. VII, Fig. 7. Holotype ?. Type locality: Morrison,
Arizona.
Light brown species. Frontal bristles weak, with 2 pairs
of upper fronto-orbitals and 3 pairs of lower fronto-brbitals.
Mesonotum with yellow setae. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars..'
wing moderately broad, with hyaline areas almost similar to that of
comma. Differing from it by having apical 1/2 of cell Ri with
a small hyaline area along the costal (Fig. 31 ). Also by having
the apx of wing with narrow crescentric hyaline mark continuous,
not broken into 3 small spots by darkening about ends of veins
+ 4 anc^ mi+2 T^e hy3!-*-116 ar^a at the end of anal vein large
with discrete margins and extending through the middle of cell
Cu^ ending at middle of vein M3 + Cu. Abdomen slender, bright
brown, and mostly yellow setose. Female ovipositor not dissected.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 86, epandrium broad with scattered setae.
Like other members of this genus, surstyli narrow and long, with

123
rounded lobes at apices. Proctiger small and elongate, with scat
tered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 7.0-7.8 mm; wing 7.3-7.5 mm. (N=3).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Arizona, east to Oklahoma and Ontario, Florida.
Florida Records: The only record was given by Johnson
(1909) : St. Johns CO.:: St. Augustine, no date was given. The
specimen illustrated is from Colorado.
The above description is based on specimens from Colorado.
This species is normally found in central and northern North America,
east to Oklahoma and Ontario. It is very rare in Florida and has
never been collected since the last record of Johnson (1909).
Nothing is known about its immature stages and biology.
Eurosta floridensis Foote
Figs. 32, 137
Eurosta floridensis Foote, 1977, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 79(1):148, Fig. 7-10, 17. Holotype ?. Type locality:
Jasper, Florida (USNM).
Resembling other species in the genus in general appearnce,
but differentiated from them by the color pattern of wing. Wing
with numerous distinct, rounded light spots scattered over the disc.
Narrow hyaline arc spots restricted to apex of 2nd M2, usually a
small isolated spot immediately anterior to it at apex of cell R5,
Proximal light area of wing disc distinctly hyaline in cell Cu^,

124
usually with irregular margins. Female ovipositor long, about
5.4 mm. Ovipositor sheath dark brown and with scattered setae,
about 2.3 mm long. Piercer 1.6 mm long apex gradually tapers to
a sharp point. Male genitalia not dissected. Epandrium broad
and highly arched; lower margin of epandrium emarginate in profile.
Surstyli long, each developed into 2 short, more or less rounded
lobes at apex. Proctiger elongated, with numerous long setae
lateroventrally.
Length: body 6.8-7.4 mm; wing 6.7-7.4 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp.
Distribution: Known only from Florida
Florida Records: Hamilton Co.: Jasper (paratype) 1(5 1?,
bred from Solidago sp., 28-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); (holotype),
1?, bredlfrom Solidago sp., ll-18-Xir-1930 ID. J. Nicholson, USNM);
(paratype) 1?, bred from Solidago sp. 11-18-XII-1930 (D. J, Nicholson,
NSNM) ; (paratype) 1(5, bred from Solidago sp., 5-XII-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM);(paratype) 1?, bred from Solidago sp. 19-XII-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Marion Co.: Dunellon, (allotype) 1(5,
bred from Solidago sp. 61-XII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orange
Co.: Orlando, (paratype) 1?, bred from Solidago sp., 19-29-VII-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; (paratype) 1(5, bred from Solidago fistulosa,
29-XII-1930 (D. J. Nicholsorv, USNM); (paratype) 1+f bred from
Solidago sp. 21-28-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).

125
This species is apparently closely related to fenestrata.
It can be differentiated from the latter by the wing pattern, the
female ovipositor and by the characters on male genitalia. Nothing
is known abot its biology and immature stages. A detailed des
cription and illustration of this species was given in Steyskal
and Foote (1977).
Genus Myoleja Rondani
Myoleja Rondani 1856, Dipt. Ital. Prod. 1:112. Type
species: Tephritis lucida Fallen.
Predominantly yellow to dark brown species charaeterizd
by having 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, 3 pairs of lower fronto-
orbitals and rather weak cellars. Head and body bristles black.
Mesonotum densely setose with short decumbant yellow to black setae.
Dorseocentral variable in position, maybe only slightly behind
supra-alars or well behind these bristles nearer to the intra-
alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars. Wing with dark
infuscation and highly contrasting hyaline marking. Vein R4+ 5
setose to about the level of r- mcrossvein. Crossvein m parallel
or nearly so with r-m crossvein and perpendicular in position,
r-m crossvein situated distinctly beyond middle of cell 1st M2..
At least 1 triangular hyaline spot immediately beyond the apex of
the stigma.
Virtually nothing is known about the biology of the species.
The genus is Holarctic with 4 Nearctic species, 3 of which are

126
known to occur in Florida. There is no recent revision of the
genus. Blanc and Foote (1961) and Steyskal (1972) have keyed
the North American members of the genus.
Key of the Florida Species of Myoleja.
1. Cell 2nd M2 with a hyaline triangle, cell R5 dark brown with
a round hyaline spot anterior of m crossvein; cell Cup with 2
hyaline areas; abdomen largely blackish; male with 2 or 3
greatly enlarged lower fronto-orbitals. nigricornis Doone)
1'. Cell 2nd M2 with 2 hyaline areas, at least 1 extending into
cell R5; cell R5 dark brown with 3 hyaline areas; cell Cup
with one hyaline area, abdomen yellowish or blackish; male
lower fronto-orbital normal or enlarged 2
2. Cell R dark brown with a hyaline spot in the middle, apex
of cell 1st M2 with a hyaline cross band that extends to
costa; abdomen largely yellowish; male lower fronto-orbitals
greatly enlarged rhino Steyskal
2'. Cell R dark brown without hyaline spot; apex of cell 1st M2
with a hyaline spot often extended forward to form more or
less interrupted series with spots in the base of cell R5;
abdomen blackish, male lower fronto-orbitals normal
limata (Coquillett)

Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Figs. 33, 87, 138
127.
Acinia limata Coquillett, 1899, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
7:263. Holotype +. Type locality: New Bedford, Massachussetts
(USNM).
Predominantly dark brown species readily differentiated
by its distinct wing pattern (Fig. 33). Wing with dark brown
marking in the center of the disc. The anterior hyaline wedges
reaching cell R4 +5* the distal wedge extends into cell R5. Cell
R lacks a hyaline spot. The lower fronto-orbitals in male bristles
normal. Abdominal terga black. Ovipositor sheath short, dorsum
very dense brown to black setose and measures 1.2 mm. The piercer
narrow, blunt, and more or less rounded at apex, approximately
1.1 mm. Extended ovipositor about 3.2 mm long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 87. Epandrium highly arched, dorsum with numerous
setae. Surstyli long, and slightly curved inward, apex more or
less rounded. Proctiger large and elongate, the dorsum covered
with numerous scattered setae, the lateroventral surface covered
with long but less dense setae.
Length: body 3.6-5.2 mm; wing 3.2-4.4 mm. (N=10)
Host: Ilex caroliniana (Walt.) Trelease
Ilex cassine L.
Ilex coricea (Pursh) Chapm.
Ilex decidua Walt.
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray.

128
Ilex opaca Ait.
Ilex vomitoria Ait.
Distribution: Massachussetts to Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1<5 1?, Ilex
opaca, 14-XII-1971 (L. C. Kuitest, FSCA); Baker Co.: Maclenny,
1?, in McPhail trap, 27-X-1969 (Hugh Collins, FSCA); Citrus Co.:
Crystal River, 1(5 2?, Ilex vomitoria 24-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM) ; Homossassa, lc? 1+, from Ilex vomitoria (D. J. Nicholson &
J. C. Graves, USNM). Dade Co.: Cutler, 1?, in McPhail trap, 18-VII-
Q
1964 (H. S. Creamer, FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville, 1+, in
McPhail trap, 2-XI-1964 (L. W. Taylor, FSCA); 4 trap, 8-X-1968 (L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Hardee Co.: Wauchula, 15 in McPhail trap in grapefruit, 16-X-1968 (R. H. Rhodes, FSCA);
Highlands Co.: Sebring, 1<5 1?, in Steiner trap, 9-XI-1964 (Ted
Morris, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Antioch, l£ 8?, emerged from
Ilex cassine ll-XI-1929 (W. H. Pope, USNM); 4c? 3?, emerged from
Ilex cassine,12-25-XI-1929 (D. J. Nichoson, USNM); Riverview, 2$ 1?,
from Ilex cassine,8-IX-1930 (Pope & Mutz, USNM);) Tampa, lie? 8?,
reared from Ilex glabra, l-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 4c? 2,
bred from Ilex cassine,6-VI-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 2c? 1?,
in McPhail trap, 18-VIII-1967 (G. W. Barber, FSCA) ; 1 McPhail trap, 3-XI-1967 (T. J. Favordso, FSCA); Indian River Co.:
Vero Beach,1?, in Mexican fruit fly trap, 30-X-1959 (R. H. Kendrick,
FSCA); 1?, stickyboard trap, ll-X-1965 (R. H. Kendrich, FSCA);
Lake Co. : 7<5, emerged from Ilex cassine, 11-15-X-1929 .

(J. G. Wilson, USNM) ; Lake Jorita, 15<$ 12?, emerged from Hex
cassine,5-11-XI-1929 (M. Dodd, USNM), Levy Co.: Gulf Hammock
129
3<5, from Ilex cassine, VII-1930 (J. W. McGlaery, USNM);
Marion Co.: Ocala Nat'l Forest, 5<3 2+, Ilex opaca 4-13-X-1930
(F. S. Blanton, USNM); Monroe Co.: Everglades Nat'l Pk, 16 12+,
at Ilex cassine, III-1939 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); Orange Co.: Pine
Castle,2o, emerged from Ilex cassine,2-3-X-1929 (F. H. Benjamin,
USNM). Vineland, 8 Palm Beach Co.: West Palm Beach, 1<3, fruit fly, 7-1-1960 (M. L.
Messer, FSCA); 1(3, fruit fly trap 17-11-1961 (M. L. Messer, FSCA),
1?, fruit fly trap, 16-V-1961 (M. L. Messer, FSCA); 6(3, in McPhail
trap, 24-1-1962 (M. L. Messer, FSCA); 1<3, in McPhail trap,19-11-
1964 (M. L. Messer, FSCA); 1<3, in McPhail trap, 2-III-1966 (M. L.
o
Messer, FSCA); Pasco Co.: Dade City, 1+, in McPhail trap in grape
fruit trees, 28-X-1966, (O. D. Kennedy, FSCA); Polk Co.: in Steiner
trap, 26-VIII-1963 (R. E. Vild, FSCA); Haines City, 18(3 2+, emerged
from Ilex cassine.12-14-IX-1929 (C. A. Garatt, USNM); Putnam Co.:
Welaka, 2<$ 1?, reared from Ilex caroliniana, 8-9-VII-1930 (M. Dodd,
USNM); Seminole Co.: Altamonte Spg.; 2 cassine, 19-IX-1929 (J. G. Wilson, USNM); Volusia Co.: Coronado
Beach (New Smyrna Bch) ; 15<3 2?, emerged from Ilex vomitojia,
8-X-1929 (V. A. Newell, USNM).
This species is generally distributed throughout Florida.
It is the only American species whose biology is known. The
larvae feed singly in the berries of various species of holly.

Benjamin (1934) described briefly the immature stages of this
species. Phillips (1946) described in detail the morphology of
the larva and added Ilex decidua to the host list.
Myoleja nigricornis (Doone)
Figs. 34, 88
Aciura nigricornis Doane, 1899, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
7:183, pi. Ill, Fig. 7. Holotype, sex unknown. Type locality:
Pennsylvania.
Readily differentiated from all known Florida Myoleja by
having 2 large hyaline triangles on the anterior margin, through
cell R3 and a hyaline triangle through cell 2nd M2 (Fig. 34)
Middle of cell R with a hyaline spot. Vein R4 +5 setose. Male
with 2 or 3 greatly enlarged lower fronto-orbitals. Thorax and
abdomen subshining dark brown to black. Dorsocentral bristles
situated just slightly behind a line drawn between supra-alars.
Apical scutellar, rather small; Female ovipositor short, 2.0 mm;
the ovipositor sheath black, as broad as the length, approximately
0.7 mm long. Piercer short and thick, abruptly tapered to a sharp
apex with minutely serrated margin and approximately 0.7 mm long.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 88. Epandrium dark brown to black, with
numerous long black setae. Surstyli narrow and blunt, apices
truncate: Proctigeryellow, large and protruded, with numerous
long black setae laterodorsally and ventrally.

Length: body, 3.4-5.2 mm; wing 3.9-4.5 mm. (N=2).
Hosts: Unknown.
Distribution: Michigan to Maine, south to Florida.
Florida Records: Foote (1965) indicates that the species
is found in Florida. However, the specimens on hand are from New
York.
Nothing is known about the biology of this species. The
male of this species superficially resembles male of rhino
Steyskalin having the lower fronto-orbitals greatly enlarged
but is easily differentiated by its dark body and wing pattern.
Myoleja rhino Steyskal
Figs. 35, 89, 139
Myoleja rhino Steyskal, 1972, Fla. Entomol. 55:207,
Fig. 1. Holotype S. Type locality: Lake Placid, Highlands Co.:
Florida (USNM).
Superficilly. resembling nigricornis in having the lower
fronto-orbitals of male greatly enlarged, but differs in having
the wing pattern distinctly different, almost resembling Strauzia
longipennis (Wiedemann). The hyaline crossband from the costa
extends through cell 1st M2. Cell R with a distinct hyaline
spot. Vein R4+5 setose. Body polished, yellow brown. Dorso-
central bristles anterad of acrostichals 2/3 of distance between
latter. Ovipositor sheath yellow tinged with brown, about 1.2
mm long. Piercer slender, apex tapered to a very sharp point,

137
1,0 mm long. Extended ovipositor 5.2 mm long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 89- Epandrium brown with long setae mid-dorsally.
Surstyli narrow and blunt, truncate at apices. Proctiger large,
more Or less rounded and elongate, with scattered setae dorsally
and ventrally.
Hosts.Unknown.
Distribution: Known only from Florida.
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: 1?,10-III-1936 (L. S. Light, Jr.,
FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville,, li, in McPhail trap, 20-IX-1973
(L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., l 1+,
6-10-IV-1968 (FSCA); l£, 9-III-1902 (S. W. Frost, USNM) ; 1<5 1,
24-VI-1962 (S. W. Frost, USNM) Pasco Co.: San Antonio, 1+, in
McPhail trap, 29-III-1968 (O. D. Kennedy, FSCA); Polk Co., Winter
Haven, 1<5, 4-III-1965 (R. E. Vildi, FSCA); St. Johns Co.: St.
o
Augustine, 1+,in McPhail trap, l-V-1969 (E. Graham, FSCA),
Volusia Co., Orange City, 1 Nothing is known about the biology of this species. The
wing pattern is very similar to those of Strauzia longipennis
(Wiedemann) and M. caesio (Harris), but differs from the latter
species by the presence of a hyaline spot in cell R.
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken
Neaspilota Osten Sacken, 1878, Smiths. Mise. Collect.
16 (2):192. Type species: Trypeta alba Loew.

133
Predominantly white or yellow pollinose body. Head bristles
weak. Usually with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, the posterior
pair converging and with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Meso-
notum finely pollinose, dorsocentral bristles situated distinctly
behind anterior supra-alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of long
scutellars. Legs yellow. Wing mostly hyaline, but may have
several dark markings on the disc, in addition to those in the
stigma. Vein setose; vein R4 +5 bare.
Members of this genus are recognized easily by the hyaline
wings. Adults commonly inhabit composites, and the larvae develop
in the flower heads. The genus is entirely Nearctic. Of 11 species
in the genus, 5 are known from Florida. There is no complete
revision of the genus, but Phillips (1923), Benjamin (1934),
Malloch (1942), and Quinsenberry (1949) provided keys to several
species in this genus.
Key to the Florida Species of Neaspilota
1. Wing with several dark markings on the disc, in addition to
the one in the stigma (Figs. 36, 40). 2
1'. Wing without such markings, or at least with dark markings
restricted to the stigma (Fig. 38,39) 3
2. Frons pubescent, apical dark markings on wing reaching
the apex of vein M]^ + 2 (Fig* 40) vernoniae Loew
2'. Frons bare; apical dark markings on the wing not reaching vein
+ 2 36) achilleae Johnson

134
3. Fronto-facial angle rounded, frons pubescent (Fig. 38)
floridana n. sp.
3'. Fronto-facial angular; frons bare. 4
4. Stigma f both sexes with a distinct dark spot in basal 1-3
(Fig. 39); hind tibia of male with 2 erect preapical setae
that project ventrally punctistigma Benjamin
4'. Stigma usually completely hyaline, seldom with a faint spot
(Fig. 37); hind tibia of male without such characters
dolosa Benjamin
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Figs. 36, 90, 140
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson, 1900, Entomol, News 11;
328, Fig. 3. Holotype ?. Type locality; unknown.
Superficially resembling vernoniae, but differing by being
smaller, approximately 2.7-3.3 mm. Head bristles weak, frons bare.
Lower 1/2 of the sternopleura and anterior margin of the thorax
black; thorax bright lemon yellow, appears pollinose silvery gray
with tongu-like pattern in fresh specimens. Wing as in Fig. 36,
with several dark markings on the disc; the apical dark marking on
the wing reaching up to vein +,_. The ovipositor approximately 2.5
mm long. The piercer 0.8 mm long and with few serrations at the tip.
malegenitallia luteous, small and compact (Fig. 90). Epandrium narrow,
dorsum with long fine setae. Surstyli broad, apex truncate. Proctiger
small and elongate, dorsum with scattered fine setae, ventral margin
with thick setae.
Length; body 3.0-3.5 mm; wing 2.7-3,3 mm. (N=10).

135
Hosts: Aster carolinianus Wlat,
Aster concolor L.
Aster totifolius Walt.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Toor & A.-Gray
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala
Small) Shinners
He^erotheca obligantha (Chapm) Harms.
Hieracium argyraeum Small
Hieracium gronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Distribution: New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Maine to
Florida
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1?, insect flight
trap, 28-IX-1971 (H. V Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2, insect flight trap
13-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1?, insect flight trap, 3-XI-
1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr. S, C. R. Artaud, FSCA); 1<$, blacklight trap,
14-VII-1972 (F. W. Mead, FSCAP; 1$ 1?, 6-8-XI-1972 (H. R. Dodge-,
FSCA); 2$ 2+, reared from Hieracium gronovii, l-XI-1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); 1<$, reared from Aster dumosus, 1G-XI-1978 (E. B."
Rohani, FSCA); le? 1+, reared from Chrysopsis graminifolia, 19-XI-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Brevard So.: Indian River City, lc5 1?, bred
from Hieracium argyraem, 8-VI-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); lc£ 4?

136
bred from Hieracium argyraeum, 14-10-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Clay Co.: Keystone Heights, 7c?3?, bred from Hieracium gronovii ,
5-X-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 15c? 17?, bred from Hieracium gronovii,
9-13-X-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville, Pebbly
Beach, 1(?, 8-V-1908 AMNH) Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 3c? 2?, bred from
Hieracium argyraeum,l-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,USNM); Orange Co.:
Bithlo, 2 USNM); Conway, 2c?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,17-VI-1930 (Pope &
White, USNM); 1?, Citrus sp., 25-VII-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Orlando,
1 Hieracium argyraeum,27-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 50c? 20?,
bred Hieracium argyraeum,10-24-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
10 USNM); 13c? 5?, bred from Hieracium gronovii, 2-4-X-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM) ; 24c? 14?, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 8-10t-X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; 8c?, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 3-19-III-
1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; Orlovista, 4 scabrum,14-16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Plymouth, 4c? 3?, bred
from Hieracium argyraeum,26-VII-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); Polk
Co.: Griffin, 5 (Pope & White, USNM).
This species has been adequately described by Johnson
(1900) and Benjamin (1934). It is widespread and the most commonly
encountered Neaspilota in Florida. The biology and immature
stages of this species have been described by Benjamin (1934) .
The larvae and pupae of this species are identical to that of

13?
dolosa except for dark markings on the terminal segments of both
(Benjamin, 1934).
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Figs. 37, 91, 141
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin, 1934. U.S, Dept. Agrie. Tech.
Bull. 401:39, Fig. 29. Holotype Orange Co., Florida ,USNM).
Closely resembles floridana n. sp., but differs strikingly
by having the fronto-facial angle more angular and its iron bare.
Readily differentiated from punctistigma Benjamin, its close rela
tive by the absence of distinct dark spot in the stigma (Fig. 37) .
The ovipositor. sheath yellow, apex tinged with brown approximately
1.1.mm long, piercer 0.9 mm long, thin and pointed apically.
Extended ovipositor 2.9 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 91
pale yellow and small. Epandrium narrow, dorsum with scattered
long setae. Surstyli broadly rounded, almost truncate at apices.
Proctiger elongated, v/ith scattered long setae.
Length: body 2.8-3.8 mm; wing 2.2-2.8 mm. (N=6).
Hosts: Carduus sp.
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Happlopappus phyllocepallus DC var. megaphallus
(Nash) Waterfall
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt & Rusby
Distribution: Restricted to Florida

Florida Records: Alachua Co. : le?, at Aronia arbutifolia,
14-11-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); le?, Stachys floridana, 12-IV-
1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); Gainesville, le? 1?, sweeping weeds,
22-III-1956 (R. A. Morse, FACA); Brevard Co.: Indian River City,
2c? 1?, bred from Erigeron vernus, 14-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Cocoa, le? 2?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 17-VI-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 2c? 1?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries,
24-VI-1930 D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Miami, 2 1?, ex
flower head Erigeron strigosus, 4-IV-1971 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr.,
USNM); Miami Beach, lc? 1?, bred from Erigeron vernus, 19-V-1930
(D.. 3. Nicholson, UNSM) ; Duval Co. : Jacksonville, 1c? 2?, 14-X-1932
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Lake Co.: 3 FSCA); Clermont, 1 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5c? 1?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries
28-30-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Leesburg, ?' bred from
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 14-VII-1930 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson
USNM); ManteeCo.: Bradenton, 3c? 2?, swept Erigeron quercifolius,
17-IV-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) ; 1 quercifolius, 17-IV-1930 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Marion Co.: Belleview
2?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 14-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson
& E. T. Evans, USNM); Dunnellon, le?, 2-IX-1972 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA) : Orange Co. : Apopka, 2c? 2?, bred from Erigeron vernus
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Forest City (Maitland), 16 Heterotheca subaxillaries, 12-14-VII-1930 (D. J, Nicholson,USNM);
Orlando, 6c?, ]-V-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 4c? 6?, reared from

139
Erigeron vernus,9-V-1930 (C. S. Blanton, FSCA); 29c? 22, bred from
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 21-30-.VI-1930 (D. J, Nicholson, USNil)
8<3 3?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries 2-8-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM)
4c? 2?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries,30-VI-1930 (D, J, Nicholson,
USNM); Osceola Co.: Deer Park, 8c? 7?, 2-V-1930, bred from Heterotheca
subaxillaries, 2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Pasco Co.; Jasamin
Point (Dade City); 6 var. megacephalus, 24-30-1928 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Seminole
Co.: Oviedo, 1 Wakulla Co.: Newport, 3c? 1?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries ,
30-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
This species has not been collected outside of Florida
where it occurs throughout most of the state. The larvae feed
singly on flower heads of sexual composites. Their immature
stages vary in size proportionately with the corresponding adults
and are almost identical with those of achilleae (Benjamin, 1934).
Neaspilota floridana Rohani, n. sp.
Figs. 10, 38, 92, 142
Superficially resembling alba (Loew), a more northern
species, and some Florida species because of the entirely hyaline
wing and predominantly yellow pollinose body. It differs from
all other known Neaspilota by the characters on head, female
ovipositor and male genitalia (Fig. IOC.-J,92) .
This species was first brought to my attention by Mr,
Ammon Friedberg, c/o U.S. National Museum, when he revised the

14D
subfamily Terellinae. This was recognized as an undescribed species
because of the characters mentioned above. It was earlier identified
as Neaspilota alba (Loew) by Benjamin (1934).
Female. Predominantly yellow species. Head as in Fig. 10A.
Vertex and frons yellow pollinose, the fronto-facial angle rounded;
irons pubescent with whitish tomentum. Two pairs of upper fronto-
orbitals, 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals, the lower pair strong.
Face yellow, with slight concavity, epistomal margin slightly
expanded. Thorax entirely yellow pollinose, appearing silvery gray.
Chaetotaxy typical of the genus with dorsocentral bristles situated
distinctly behind supra-alars. Legs entirely yellow rufous, the
bristling as in other member of this genus. Wing entirely hyaline
except for yellowish tinge in the stigma similar to alba. Abdomen
polished yellow in ground color, dorsum rather dense gray pubescence.
The ovipositor sheath light yellow tinged with brown on the proximal
and distal ends, about 0.7 mm long; apex piercer abruptly tapered
to a sharp point (Fig. 10D). The largest spicules of raspers are
somewhat more narrow and acute than that of alba (Fig.lOE).
Spermatheca oval as in Fig. 10F. Extended ovipositor 2.3 mm long.
Male. Same as in ^ except for postabdominal characters.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 10G,H, 94. Epandrium highly arched; surstyli
elongated, curved inward, almost truncate at apex. Proctiger with
scattered long setae. Ejaculatory apdeme fan-shaped lightly
pigmented (Fig. 10J). Aedeagus as in Fig. 101.
Holotype ?, allotype, and 17 paratypes; Orange Co.: Orlando
(holotype) 19-VI-1930; (allotype), 24-VI-1930; (paratype) 2& 1?, 17-VI-
1930, (paratype) 1<£ 1?, 21-VI-1930; (paratype) 4cT 29, 24-VI-1930;

Fig. 10 A-J Neaspilota floridana. A. lateral view of the head.
B. wing o. c. dorsal view of ovipositor sheath.
D. dorsal view of piercer of est spicule of raspers. F. spermatheca. G. dorsal
view of & genitalia. H. profile view of $ genitalia.
I. tip of edeagus. J. ejaculatory apdeme.

142
j

Fig. 11 A-E. Neaspilota alba (Loew). a dorsal view of ovipositor
sheath. B. dorsal view of piercer of ^ ovipositor.
C. largest spicule of raspers. D. dorsal view of
$ genitalia. E. profile view of $ genitalia.

144

145
(paratype) 2$ 1?, 2-VI-1930 (paratype) 2$ 1?, 5-VII-1930; hoiotype
allotype, and paratypes are reared from Vemonia scaberrima Nutt,,
all collected by D. J. Nicholson; Charlotte Co, : Cleveland, (Paratype)
3 USNM); Marion Co.: Ocala (paratype) 5<^, bred from Vernonis gigantea
Walt.) Trel 14-VII-1930 (E. T-Evans &D. J, Nicholson, USNM), hoiotype
and allotype No. 76488 in USNM. paratypes in USNM and FSCA.
Neaspilota foridana is very close to N. alba. The differ-
neces between them lie chiefly on the setae of the sides of the proc-
tiger of the male genitalia of alba (Fig. 11D, E) the clusters of
setae on floridana are much longer, paler, and less dense than in
albta; the remainder of the proctiger in floridana bears longer
setae than in alba, which makes the clusters less outstanding. The
female ovipositor of alba, is much longer than floridana about 2.9 mm
long; the ovipositor sheath yellow tinged with brown on proximal end,
much longer than floridana, approximately 1.2 mm long; the piercer narrow
and apex gradually tapered to a point (Fig. 11B) measured about 0.8 mm long.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Figs. 39, 93, 143
Neaspilota puncristigma Benjamin 1934. U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 104:35, Fig. 28. Hoiotype Christmas, Orange Co., Florida
Resembling Neaspilota dolosa by the amost hayline wing,
by the shape of the fronto-facial angle, and by its bare irons.
Differing from it by having the stigma with a distinct proximal
as in Fig. 39 and by having the hind tibia of male with 2 erect preapical

146
setae that project ventrally, Abdomen entirely ypllowish, dorsum heavily
marked with brownish-black bands. Ovipositor long, 2.9 mm long, the
sheath rufous brown, about 1.1 mm long; the proximal end darkened. The
piercer approximately 0.8 mm long with its apex thin and pointed. The
male genitalia small and compact (Fig. 93) Epandrium highly arched, dorsum
with.5 to 6-mm long brown setae. Surstyli broadly rounded at apex. Proc-
tiger large, almost covering the apex of surstyli dorsally.
Length: body 2,6-3.0 mm; wing 2.3-2.7 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Aster tortifolius Michx.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A, Gray
Heterotheca hyssopifolia (Nutt.) R. W. Long
Heterotheca mariana (L.) Shinners
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala
(Small) Shinners
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam,) Britt. & Rusby
Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium gronovii L.
Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.
Distribution: Known only from Florida
Florida record: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, it, 20-IV-1952
(0. Peck, CNC); lc? reared from Heracium gronovii, 1-XI1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); 2$ 2?, reared from Aster dumosus, l-XI-1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Micanopy, 5<^ 1+, reared from Heterotheca trichophylla,
21-26-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSNM) ; Charlotte Co.: Charlotte, 4^2?
reared from Heterotheca trichophylla. 13-IV-1930 (Pope & White, USNM);

147
Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 5$ 2?, Aster tortifolius, 26-28-IV-1930(Pope
& White, USNM); 2$, reared from Heterotheca mariana,10-VIII-1930 (F, S.
Blanton, FSCA); Levy Co.: Bronson, 2$ 1?, eared from Pluchea foetida,
16-VI-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) ; Orange Co.: Bithlo, 5$ 6?, reared
from Aster tortifolius, 6-17-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 6$ 4+,
reared from Heterotheca trichophylla 21-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM),
5$, reared from Aster tortifolius 1-2-V-1930 (O. J. Nicholson, USNM),
2$ 1?, reared from Aster tortifolius, 29-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
SNM); 3$, reared from Pluchea foetida, 14-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Conway, 1$ 2?, reared from Aster tortifolius, 5-7-VII-1930
(D. F. Nicholson, USNM), Lockhart 10$ 9?, reared from Heterotheca
hyssopifolia, 16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 1$ 2?,
Erigeron tfernus, 2-V-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 3$, 9-V-1930(F. S.
Blaton, FSCA); 25$ 13?, reared from Erigeron verrius, 17-26-VI-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; 78$ 36?, reared from Heterotheca trichophylla,
17-26-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); USNM); Orlovista, 3$ 3?, reared
from Aster bifolia tus, 10-16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM). Orlovista
3$ 2?, reafed from Heterotheca sp. 16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Pine Castle, 2$ 6?, 14-21-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) Ft. Christmas,
(Christmas) 17$9?, reared from Pluchea foetida, 5-30-VI-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Orange & Seminole Co.: Golden Rod, 14$6?, reared
from Heterotheca trichophylla, 30-VII;-5-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Polk Co.: 4$ 2?, reared Heterotheca nervosa var. microcephala,
17-24-VI-1930 (Pope & White, USNM) ; Seminole Co. : Forest City, 15$ 8?,
reared from Heterotheca trichophylla 30-VI.-2-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Lake Mary, 8$ 2?, reared from Heterotheca trichophylla,

148
7-VII-1930 (D.J.Nicholson, USNM); Longwood, 15 Heterotheca trichophylla, 5-VII-1930 (D.J.Nicholson,USNM).
Johnson (1913) listed this species as Neaspilota signfera
Coquillett. This species is an abundant and frequently encountered
species in Florida. Habits are similar to those of other species
in;the genus. The larvae feed singly in the flower of various
composites. Larvae and puparia are almost identical to those of
achilleae(Benjamin,1934).
Neaspilota vernoniae Loew
Figs. 40, 94
Trypeta vernoniae Loew, 1861. Berl. Entomol. Zeitsch.
5:346. Holotype (£. Type locality: Pennyslvania.
A rather large species with an average length of 3.9 mm and
has the following characteristics. Head yellow, frons pubeseent.
Thorax lemon yellow with whitish pubescence. Wing pattern as in Fig.
40, with several dark markings on the disc similar to that of
achilleae except for the apical markings, reaching up to apex of vein
M^+2- Abdomen yellowish luteous with black hairs on the lateral
margins and on the last segment. Ovipositor sheath rufous, tinged with
dark brown at the distal tip, approximately 1.5 mm long. The piercer
1.5 mm long, apex abruptly tapered to a sharp point and with finely
serrated margin. Extended ovipositor 3.8 mm long. Male genitalia as in
Fig. 94. Epandrium narrow, with long fine setae dorsally. Surstyli
broad, with truncate apices. Proctiger with long setae lateroventrally.

149
Length: body 3.5-4;4 mm; wing 3.4-4.0 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: Unknown for Florids species. In Kansas,
Schwitzgebel and Wilbur (1943) reported Vernonia interior (Rydb.)
as the host for the species.
Distribution: Michigan to Massachussets, south to Kansas
and Florida.
Florida Records: Foote (1965) indicated that the species
was found in Florida, but no specific location was given. Nothing is
known about the immature stages of this species. The specimens used in
this study were obtained from Long Island, New York since no Florida
materials were available.
Genus Paracantha Coquillett
Paracantha Coquillett, 1899, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
7:254. Type species: Trypeta culta Wiedemann.
Members of this genus with distinctive wing pattern that
easily distinguished them for other tepritids. All known species
of Paracantha have the dark markings on the wings, ray-like in the
margin, and cell R¡_ with bulla always present. Head with conspicu
ous and contrasting black spots. Head and thorax ochraceous yellow,
with strong black and yellowish-white bristles. Three pairs of
upper fronto-orbital bristles set inside the line of lowerfront-
orbital bristles. Dorsocentral bristles in front of supra-alars,
closer to the transverse suture. Scutellum with 2 pairs of strong
black bristles. Abdomen yellowish brown, tergites with numerous
dark brown setae.

150
The larvae feed in the soft fleshy bases of the flowers of
Compositae. The biology and identification of thevimmature stages
of the 2 species recorded from Florida were discussed by Benjamin
(1934). The genus contains 10 species and ranges from northern
United States into Algentina, 5 species are Nearctic. Malloch (1941)
reviewed the genus and included a key to 9 species.
Key to the Florida Species of Paracantha
1. Cell Rj. with 2 dark rays terminating on wing margin (Fig. 41);
parafrontal spot anterior of eyes as large as 2nd antennal
segment; fore femur with 1 black_spot on posterior surface
. culta (Wiedemann)
1'. Cell R,_ with 3 dark rays terminating on wing margin (Fig. 42);
parafrontal spot 1/3 size of 2nd antennal segment; fore femur
with 2 black spots on posterior surface. ....
, .forfcula Benjamin
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Figs. 41, 95, 144
Trypeta culta Wiedemann, 1830, Auss. Zweifl. Ins. 2:486.
Syntypes c? and ?. Type locality: Savannah, Georgia (Corrected
to culta in index p. 480.
Predominantly/ ooknaceous yellow, very readily differen
tiated by the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 41), by the large
subtriangular velvety black parafrontal spot and by having the

151
fore femur with 1 black spot on the posterior surface. Head
similar in shape and bristling to other members of the genus, with
3 pairs of upper and lower fronto-orbitals. Closely resembling
forfcula, but the wing markings are distinctly different, with an
incomplete fuscous streak in between the 2 dark rays in cell R^,
also the front femora with only 1 black spot on its posterior
surface. Ovipositor sheath long, about 2.8 mm. Piercer 2.3 mm
long, slightly broadened just before the apex. Apex abruptly
tapered to a sharp point. Extended ovipositor 7.4 mm long. Epan-
drium ochraceous yellow with numerous long setae, lower inner
margin sharply serrated (Fig. 95). Surstyli short and broadly
rounded at apices.
Length: body 6.6-7.8 mm; wing 6.2-7.4 mm. (N=10),
Hosts: Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Carduus spinosissimus Walt.
Carduus nuttalii (DC.) Pollard
Carduus sp.
Distribution: Washington to Delaware, south to California
and Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2$ 3?, 28-III-1940 (J, R,
Watson, FSCA); 8-V-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Archer 1?,
23-111-1953 (H. F. Bowden, CNC); Gainesville, 2$ 3?, 21-III-1919
(G. B. Merrill, FSCA); lc£, 20-III-1924 (J. S. Rogers, MCZ) ;
6<$ 4+, bred from Carduus nuttalii,29-30-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM) ; 11<5 2?, bred from Carduus nuttalii, 4-10-VI-1930

152
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; lc?, ll-XV-1932 (T. H. Hubbell, MCZ) ?
1?, 24-III-1938 (A. N. Tissot, FSCA); Lochloosa, 1?, 5-IV-1953
(W. R. Mason, CNC); Baker Co.: Glen St. Mary, 1?, on Carduus
spinosissimus, 12-IV-1960 (E. W. Holder, Jr., FSCA) 1?, 15-IV-1960
(E. W. Holder, FSCA); Maclenny, 1?, reared from thistle (Carduus sp.)
9-V-1960 (E. W. Holder, FSCA); Olustee, 9 Carduus spinosissimus 20-rV-I-2-V-1979 (R. A. Belmont & I, B.
Rohani, FSCA) ; 2<$ 2?, reared from Carduus spinosissimus, 20-IV-1979
(R. A. Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 4c? 3?, reared from Carduus
spinosissimus, 10-V-1979 (R. A. Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Clay Co.: Orange Park, 1 Lake Co.: Tavares, 18 (F. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orange Co.: Bithlo, lie? 22?, reared from
Carduus spinosissimus,13-V-1930 (D J. Nicholson, USNM), Ft. Christmas
(Christmas); 1?, bred from Carduus spinosissimus, 17-V-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 5<$ 1?, bred from Carduus sp,, 3-V-1930
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 2c? 2?, bed from Carduus sp. 9-10-V-1930
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 32c? 16+, bred from Carduus spinosissmus ,
5-1.7-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; Osceola Co. : Deer Park,
1<5 1?, Carduus spinosissimus, 13-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Marion Co.: Ocala, 5<$ 4?, 8-V-1930 (Woodruff, USNM). 2c$ 5?, bred
from Carduus nuttalii, 4-8-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Polk
Co; : 3 USNM); 8<$ 10?, Carduus spinosissimus,29-IV-1930 (Pope & White,
USNM); St. Johns Co.: St. Augustine, 1
isa
MCZ) ; St. Lucie Co.: Fort Pierce, 2$ 1?, 9-VI-1938 (G. H.
Baker, FSCA).
This species is commonly encountered in Carduus spinosissimus.
Larvae pupated in flower head for 3-4 weeks before emerging to
adults. Pupae black.
Paracantha forficula Benjamin
Figs. 42, 96, 145
Paracantha forficula Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 4011:31, Fig. 23. Holotype £. Type locality: Cocoa
Beach, Brevard Co., Florida (USNM).
A moderately large and distinctive species differentiated
from other Paracantha by the wing markings (Fig. 42), by the
characters on the head and male genitalia. Cell R5 with 3 dark
rays reaching the apical margin; hyaline spots in cells Cu-^ and
2nd A with dark margins. Head with smaller parafrontal black spots.
Posterior surface of fore femora with 2 black spots. Ovipositor
sheath short, about 1.6 mm long; piercer 1.1 mm. short and broad,
apex abruptly tapered to a sharp end. Extended ovipositor 3.6
mm long. Epandrium with numerous long setae, the lower inner margin
smooth. Surstyli short, with rounded apices.
Length: body 4.7-5.0 mm; wing 4.7-4.8 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.
Distribution: Known only from Florida

154
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Cocoa Beach, 9c? 14?,
bred from Borrichia frutescens, 16-31-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Merritt Islands, 8c? 6?, Borrichia frutescens, 19-V-1930
(D. J. Nichoson, USNM) ; Wilson, 1<5, bred from Borrichia frutescens,
21-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Miami, 2 head of Borrichia frutescens, ll-VI-1966 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM);
Flagler Co.: Flager Beach, 2$ 1?, bred from Borrichia frutescens ,
19-V-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Monroe Co.: Boca Chica, 1 bred from Borrichia frutenscens, 12-13-V-1930 (Pope & White,
USNM); Marathon Key, 1?, ex-Borrichia frutescens, 24-VI-1970
(C. E. Stegmaier, USNM).
Larvae breed singly in the flower head of Borrichia
frutescens and about 3/4 the size of culta larvae (Benjamin,
1934) This species is very close to culta, but it is usually
smaller, with an average length of 4.7 mm, with 2 dark marks on the
fore femur and with a smaller parafrontal spot. Phillips (1923)
erroneously figured the wing of forficula as culta. This species
is not widespread and is rarely encountered in field collecting '
due to lack of good field work. Additional records were given by
Stegmaier (1967).
Genus Peronyma Loew
Peronyma Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 11(256):256.
Type species: Trypeta sarcinata Loew.
Readily differentiated from other known Florida tephritid
by its oblique dark pattern on the wing, by the swollen bilobed

155
scutellum and by having only 1 pair of upper fronto-orbital
bristles. Wing large and broad, with 4 dark brown oblique bands
on hyaline background, 3 dark bands radiating from dark markings
on costa, the apical band forked in cell R5 forming 2 arms that
extend to the posterior margin. Vein R2 heavily setose, vein
R4 +^ setose beyond r -m crossvein. Mesonotum dark brown to
black grayish pollinose with numerous short yellow setae. Pleurae
and metathorax rufous. Bases of bristles with prominent black
spots. Posterior nonopleuron black and greatly enlarged. Dorso-
central bristles closer to a transverse line between supra-alar
bristles than to a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum
dark brown medially and swollen, with black marking dorsolaterally,
and with 1 pair of scutellars. Legs brown. Abdomen dark brown
to black with numerous short brown setae.
Nothing is known about the biology of the species.
The genus contains only 1 species, which is restricted to south
eastern United States.
Peronyma sarcinata Loew
Figs. 43, 97, 14'6
Trypeta sarcinata Loew, 1862, Berlin. Entomol. Zitschr.
6:218. Holotype +. Type locality: Carolina.
Mostly dark brown species with swollen bilobed scutellum.
Head and thoracic bristles black. Head yellowish-brown with black
spots on parafacial region. Only 1 pair of upper fronto-orbital
bristles and 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles present.
Thorax with a pair of submedian black spots situated on the

156
transverse suture; posterior notopleuron swollen and darkened.
A pair of submedian strips extending length of mesonotum. Dorsum
of thorax and scutellum with numerous short, stout yellow setae.
Wing pattern as in Fig. 43. Node of vein R2 and posterior 1/2 of
stigma with rufous markings. Wing predominantly brown, the apical
bend forked in cell R5. Costal margin of the dark band more or less
¡serrated. Proximal anal areas dark brown except for a hyaline
area in cell Cu^. Abdomen dark brown with numerous dark setae.
Female ovipositor long, about 6.5 mm. The ovipositor sheath 2.5
mm, dark brown with numerous dark brown to black setae, the distal
tip tinged with black. The piercer long and slender, about 1.9
mm long, apex tapered gradually to a sharp point. The male geni
talia as in Fig. 97. Epandrium black with dense long black setae
dorsolaterally. Surstyli broad, apices truncate. Proctiger small
and elongate, with numerous fine setae dorsally and lateroventrally.
Length: body 4.5-6-0 mm; wing 5.0-6.5 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: Heterotheca trichophylla Nutt.
Distribution: North Carolina, south to Alabama and Florida.
Florida Records: Orange Co.: Apopka, 1?, reared from
galls; on crown growth of Heterotheca trichophylla,22-1-1931
(T. B. Kline & E. T. Evans, USNM); Bithlo, l from crown growth of Heterotheca trichophylla, 13-1-1931 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM).

157
This species is sparsely distributed in Florida. Larvae
feed on various parts of the host plant, Heterotheca trichophylla.
The immature stages were discussed by Benjamin (1934),
Genus Procecidochares Hendel
Procecidoshares Hendel, 1941, Wien. Entomol. Zeitschr.
33:91. Type species: Trypeta atra Loew.
Predominantly black with distinct dark bands on wing.
Easily differentiated from other Oedespinae by having a swollen,
shining black scutellum and contrasting yellowish-white mesonotal
hairs. Head and body bristles black. Only 1 pair of upper fronto-
orbital bristles. One pair of dorsocentral bristles always situated
immediately behind the transverse suture, presutural dorsocentrals
sometimes absent. Scutellum with 2 pairs of long bristles. Wing
hyaline, with dark brown to black basal spot and 3 transverse to
oblique bands. The proximal 2 bands connected to each other to
form a broad inverted V-band, the oblique distal band lies close
to costa. The abdomen densely covered with yellowish long setae
usually intermixed with darker setae.
The wing pattern, head structure and mesonotal adornments
are similar to members of the genus Procecidocharoides, a rather
distantly related genus within the same subfamily. The genus is
largely North American with 3 of 9 known species occurring in Florida.
Little is known of the species, many are gall makers on various plants;

15B
principally Artemissia, Chrysothamnus, Grindellia Solidago sp.
(Foote, 1960b). The latest complete revision of the genus is
that by Aldrich (1929).
Key to the Florida Species Of Procecidochares
1. Two pairs of dorsocentral bristles, 1 anterior and 1 posterior
to the suture; legs with femora black 2
1'. One pair of dorsocentral bristles, always posterior to the
suture; legs wholly yellow polita Loew
2. Acrostichal seta running into a large group of setae before
the suture, filling the space between the dorsocentrals;
the distal dark band touches the apical margin just anterior
of vein + australis Aldrich
2'. Acrostichal setae in a single or double row anteriorly; the
distal dark band touches the apical margin behind the vein
M, atra Loew
Procecidochares atra Loew
Figs. 44, 98
Trypeta atra Loew, 1862, Berlin Entomol. Zeitsch. 6:210.
Holotype Type locality: New York.
Differentiated from all known Florida Procecidochares by
having the following characters: thorax black, with round polished
areas on each side between dorsocentral bristles and notopleurae
surrounded by 1 or 2 rows of flattened white setae; with 2 rows
of white acrostichal setae. Two pairs of dorsocentral bristles

159
present, 1; anterior of the transverse suture and the posterior
to it. Legs yellow except for femorae, tinged with black. Wing
pattern as j,n Fig. 44; with 3 dark brown bands. The 2 proximal
bands connected anteriorly to form an inverted V-band that extends
to anal wing margin; the oblique distal band reaching the apical
wing margin behind vein +2 and separated from the proximal
band. Abdomen black, the dorsum covered with white setae inter
mixed with distinct black hairs. Female ovipositor long, approxi
mately 3.0 mm. Ovipositor sheath black, dorsum covered with
numerous black hairs, about 1.5 mm long. Piercer about 1.2 mm
long, gradually pointed at apex. Male genitalia black and small
is in Fig. 98. Epandrium highly arched, dorsum narrow and covered
with long black setae. Numerous short setae are found laterally.
Surstyli broad and slightly curved inward, apex rounded. Proc-
tiger small, elongate with numerous long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 3.0-4.0.mm; wing 2.7-3.0 mm. (N=5) .
Hosts: No' host information for Florida specimens. Known
to be reared from galls on SQ.lidago in Virginia.
Distribution: Kansas to Maine; south to Florida.
Florida Records: Only those of Johnson (1913): Duval
Co.: Atlantic Beach.
This species is known to inhabit galls of various species
of golden rod. Phillips (1946) discussed the morphology of the
of the larvae. This soecies is distinguished from australis by the
1 + 2
distal band which touches the apical margin of wing at vein M

160
Procedidochares australis Aldrich
Figs. 45, 99, 147
Procecidorchares australis Aldrich, 1929, Proc. U.S. Nat.
Mus. 76:9. Holotype + Waco, Texas (OSNM).
Closely resembles atra in having 2 pairs of dorsocentral
bristles and black femora. Differing from the latter by its wing
pattern and by the characters on the thorax and abdominal terga.
Mesonotal areas bewteen dorsocentral bristles with numerous short
blunt golden setae. The distal band of wing connected to
inverted V-band at apical 1/3 of vein + and touches apical
margin just anterior of vein. (Fig. 45), Ovipositor sheath
4+5
shining black with numrous black hairs, approximately 1.6 mm long,
Piercer long and slender, about 1.1mm; apex gradually tapers to
a sharp point. Extended ovipositor 3.0 mm long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 99. Epandrium wide with long fine setae on the dorsum.
Surstyli elongate and curved slightly inward, tip blunt. Pro
tiger elongate with few setae at apex.
Length: body 2.0-4.6 mm; wing 3.Q>-3..3mm. (N=12) .
Hosts: Conyza canadensis (L.) Conquist
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby
Distribution: Texas, South Carolina and Florida.
Florida Record: Alachua Co.: 1£, 24-IX-1954 (H. V.
Weems, Jr., USNM); Gainesville, 2?f reared ex-Heterotheca
subaxillaries, 14-X-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA), 1$ 1?, reared
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 13-21-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Bay Co.:

161.
Panama City, 1(5, 19-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, USNM) ; Dade Co.: Miami,
1(5, 27-IV-1973 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA) ; 1<5, 27-XV-1973 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA);
Lake Co.: Altoona, 1(5, in fruit fly trap. 14-III-1966 (C. L. Felshaw.
USNM); Marion Co., Ocala, 1<5, 5-XI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, USNM) ;
1?, swept Heterotheca aubaxillaries, 30-VIII-19/8 (I. B. Rohani,
FSCA); Orange Co., Orlando, 1, Heterotheca subaxillaries, 29-V-1930
o
(C. F. Benjamin, USNM); 1+, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries,
22-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 1?, bred from Heterotheca
subaxillaries, 30-VII-1930 (D* J. Nicholson, USNM); 16(5, bred from
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 21-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
lc?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 28-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM) 10(5, ex Heterotheca subaxillaries, 12-15-V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); 1?, galls on Heterotheca subaxillaries, V-1931 (USNM), 1?,
grass weeds, 4-VIII-1948 (O. D. Link, USNM); Orlovista; 1(5 1+,
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 9-11-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Pine Castle, 2<5, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 27-VIII-1930
(D. J. Nichoson, USNM); Pasco Co.: Hudson, l, 13-VII-1939
(I.,B. Beamer, USNM) Putnam Co., Palatka, 1?, reared from Hetero
theca subaxild^ries., 19-IX-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); St. Johns
Co., Crescent Beach, 9(5 2?, on Yucca aloifolia, 21-III-1974
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA).
Most of the available specimens do not have the distal
band connected to the V-band on vein R^ + 5 thus having a wing
pattern similar to that of polita Loew. It can be distinguished
from polita by having the hyaline areas on the anal margin of the

162
wing equal in width to 2nd proximal band. This species is commonly
reared from Heterotheca subaxillaries, the larvae caused galls on
the flower buds. Benjamin(1934) described the immature stages
of this species. Phillips (1946) briefly discussed the biology
and described in detail the morphology of the larva.
Procecidochares polita Loew
Figs. 46, 148
Trypeta polita Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):77,
o
pi. II. Fig. 12. Holotype +. Type locality: Washington (MCZ).
Readily differentiated from other Procecidochares by having
only 1 pair of dorsocentral bristles posterior of the transverse
suture and by having the femora extensively yellow. The hyaline
area in cell 2nd M2 separating the distal dark band from V-band
about 2 times the width of the 2nd brown band. The distal band
touched the apical wing margin just anterior of vein M + .
Abdomen black and rather denselv covered with white setae. Ovi
positor sheath black, dorsum with numerous black setae, approxi
mately 1.7 mm long. The piercer long and straight, measures about
1.3 mm long, with apex tapers gradually to a pointed end. Extended
ovipositor measure 4.2 mm long. Male genitalia small Epandrium
highly arched and wide, with numerous fine black setae. Surstyli
elongate, slightly curved inward with more or less rounded apices.
Protiger elongate with numerous long and fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 3.5-4.6 mm; wing 3.3-3.5 mm. (N=3).

163;
Hosts; Solidago stricta Ait.
Solidago sp.
Distribution; Kansas to Massachusetts, south to Mississippi
and Florida.
Florida Records: Dade Co.: Hialeah, 36 2$, ex-stem gall
Solidago stricta, 12-XI-1970 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM); l6 1?, galls
Solidago sp., 25-VI-1971 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM); Miami, l6 2?,
21-VIII-1924 (S. Graenicher, USNM).
Not much is known about the biology of the immature stages
of this species. The species causes galls on Solidago sp. This
species may be recognized by the absence of a presutural dorso-
central bristles and by the shining pleural tergites. Detailed
description was given by Loew (1862).
Genus Rhagoletis Loew
Rhagoletis Loew, 1862. Europ. Bohrf., p. 44. Type species:
Musca cerasi Linnaeus.
Predominantly black with yellow marking on bodies,' can be
distinguished by the following characters: Head slightly broad;
3rd antennal segment with distinct apicodorsal point, with 2
pairs of upper fronto-orbitals and 3 pairs of convergent lower
fronto-orbitals. Thorax light yellow to black with short decum-
bet thin setae and yellow pollinose microtrichia. Dorsocentral
bristles closer to a line between supra-alar bristles than to a
transverse suture. Notopleural stripe yellow, extending from

164
humeral callus to wing base. Scutellar with 2 pairs of scutellars.
Wing pattern consisting of transverse yellow to brownish-black
bands. Crossvein r-m near the center of 1st M2- Vein setoluse.
over entire 'length. Posterior margin of abdominal tergites with
white pollinose bands; bands can be entirely absent or greatly
reduced.
The larvae of all species feed on the fleshy pulp of fruits
and berries. Bush (1966), in his revision of the genus, noted the
degree of host specificity. Although most species are probably
aligophagous, some species show a definite preference for certain
host species within a genus or even for particular varieties
of a single species. The genus occurs in Europe and North, Central,
and South America. The population center of the genus, however, is
North America. Of the 18 known species from North America, 6
species are known from Florida, Four of the 6 species are sibling
species and present special problems in identification.
A comprehensive review of the North American species was
given by Cresson (1929). Curran (1932a)provided a key to several
species. Pickett (1937) reviewed the genus and provided additional
information on the taxonomic status of some species. The latest
taxonomic work on the genus is that of Bush (1966).

165
Key to the Florida Species of RhagoletiS
1.Wing with apicaj. band forked (Fig. 40, 49 )or upper prong
of fork separated from it by a hyaline area (Fig. 47) medial
band separated from basal and subapical bands; F-shaped pattern
of wing not prominent, surstyli with apical tuft of long
setae cingulata group. .2
1'. Wing with apical band entire (Fig. 50, 51, 52); medial band
jointed to basal and subapical band; F-shaped pattern promi
nent surstyli without apical tuft of setae
ppmonella group. .4
2. Apical band of wing with incomplete fork, upper prong sepa
rated from band by a hyaline area, usually associated with
Prunus sertina Ehrh. (Rosaceae). cingulata (Loew). .4
2'. Apical band of wing with a complete fork, infesting other
host plants (Oleaceae) 3
3. Average thoracic length 2.0 mm; larvae infest Chionanthus
virginicus L chionanthi Bush
3'. Average thoracic length 2.2 mm; larvae infest Osmanthus
americanus (L.) Gray osmanthi Bush
4. Thoracic length varies from 1.8-2.2 mm; larvae infest only.
fruits of the subfamily Pomoidea (Rosaceae)
pomonella Walsh
4'. Thoracic length varies from 1.4-2.1 mm; larvae infest fruits
of host plant of the families Ericaceae and Cornaceae
5

166
5. Thoracic length ranges from 1.5-2.1 mm; larvae only in
fruits of Cornus florida (Cornaceae)
cornivora Bush
5'. Thoracic length ranges from 1.4-1.7 mm; larvae only in
^accinium arboreum Marsh, and Vaccinium formosum Andr.
. mendax Curran
Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata (Loew)
Figs. 47, 100, 149
Trypeta cingulata Loew, 1862, Smiths Mise. Collect. 6(1);76.
o
Holotype +. Type locality: Middle state.
Readily differentiated from the sibling species, chionanthi
and osmanthi by the fuscous apical spot on the wing, by the head and
body measurement, and by the ovipositor length. Predominantly
dark brown, with yellowish head. Thorax dark brown with whitish
pollinose microtrichia anctdecumbent setae arranged in 4 ill-
defined rows. Dorsocentral bristles on a line drawn between anterior
supra-alars. Scutellum dark brown with large dorsoapical white
spot, with 2 pairs of scutellars. Notopleural stripe white extend
ing from humeral to wing base. Legs yellow, sometimes tinged
with brown. Wing pattern as in Fig. 47, with upper arm of apical
fork broken by hyaline area. Female ovipositor short, about 2.4
mm; the ovipositor sheath dark brown to black, as long as broad
about 0.8 mm. The piercer 0.8 mm, apex gradually tapers to a
sharp point. Male genitalia as in Fig.100. Epandrium with long

167
fine setae on dorsum. Surstyli long and slender, apex with a tuft
of short setae; apices rounded. PfoQtiger small and elongate
with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Lenth: body 4-4.6 mm; wing 3.8-3.9 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Prunus sertina. Ehrh.
Distribution: Michigan to New Hampshire, south to Florida.
o
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1+, bred from
Prunus sertina, 23rIV-193l (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; l3, bred from
Prunus sertina, 1-9V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
53, bred from Prunus sertina, 21-23-V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Duval Co.: Jacksonville, 1?, Insect flight trap, 10-VI-1964
(L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Plant City, 23 5?,
insect flight trap, 29-V-1967 (D. A. Vaughan, FSCA); Tampa, 1?,
10-IV-1957 H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 43, insect flight trap,, 14-V-
1965 (S. A. Fuller, FSCA); Lake Co.: Leesburg, l3, 14-IV-1962
(C. L. Felshaw, FSCA); Orange Co.: Plymouth, 43, bred from Prunus
sertina 3-4-V-1931 (W. S. Earle, USNM) 333, bred from Prunus
sertina 6-12-V-1931 (W. S. Earle, USNM); 8o3 12?, bred from Prunus
sertina 1-12-V-1931 (W.' S. Earle, USNM) ; lo3, bred from Prunus
sertina 10-12-V-1931 (W. S. Earle, USNM); Tangerine, 12 on Prunus sertina, 14-V-1929 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); Volusia Co.:
near Osteen, 1?, caught in the field, 1930 (E. Pell, USNM);
j*. c_. cingulata is the Florida member of the genus in which
the apical margin of the wing has a fuscous spot. Bush (1966)
discussed the diagnostic characters distinguishing cingulata from

168
indifferences. There is apparently little or no overlap in the
ovipositor length of this species and that of osmanthi Bush. Blanc
and Keifer (1955) discussed the taxonomy and host relationships of
the 2 geographical populations of Rhagoletis cingulata in North
America. The larva is a well known pest of cultivated cherries;
however, this host is not present in Florida. Benjamin (1934) and
Phillips (1946) and Weems (1972) discussed larval morphology and
biology of the species.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush
Figs. 48, 151
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush, 1966, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.
134(11):482. Holotype ?. Type locality: Apopka, Florida (USNM).
Bush (1966) gave the following diagnosis for separating
chionanthi from the closely related osmanthi, 1) the mean length
of the female ovipositor, chionanthi (0.95mm) and osmanthi (1.05mm),
2) a difference in host preference and emergence period. The
emergence is synchronized to coincide with ripening of the fruits
of Chionanthus virginicus L. Wing pattern as in Fig. 28. The
female ovipositor and male genitalia are not available for dissection.
Hosts: Chionanthus virginicus L.
Distribution: Georgia, Florida.
Florida Records: Orange Co.: 1<5 1^, reared from Chionanthus
virginicus, 30-IV-1930 (A. H. Reppard,USNM); 2$, bred from Chionanthus
virginicus, 10-13-V-1931 (A. H. Reppard, USNM); 3$, bred from
Chionanthus virginicus, 15-16-V-1931 (A. H. Reppard, USNM); Apopka,
4 1?, bred from Chionanthus virginicus, 12-IX-1929 (W. S. Earl, USNM);

169
Osceola Co.: Kissimmee, 7 icus, 15-3O-VII1-1930 (G. F. Harding, USNM); 3S 2?, bred from
Chionanthus virginicus, 5-26-V-1931 (G. F. Harding, USNM); (para-
types) 6$ 1+, bred fromChionanthusvirginicus, 15-26-V-1931 (G. F.
Harding, USNM).
\
Rhagoletis chionanthi fits the description of the cingulata
group except for the ovipositor length. It can be distinguished
easily from the northeastern specimens of cingulata on the basis
of color pattern, but in Florida cingulata, osmanthi, and chionanthi
are so similar, it is impossible to separate them on the basis of
color alone. Bush (1966) gave detailed discussion of the character
difference between these sibling species.
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Figs, 49, 101,.151
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush, 1966, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
134(11)-.478. Hlotype Type locality: Osceola Co.: Florida
(USNM).
A small to medium dark brown species with a distinct
apical fork on the wing. Mesonotum with cream to light yellow
pollinose microtrichia and decumbent setae arranged in 4 ill-
defined rows belong to cingulata group, can be differentiated
from cingulata cingulata (Loew) by the following characters as
described by Bush (1966); presence of a forked apical wing band;
with a longer piercer 0.8 mm; considerably larger thoracic length

ranges 19.2 mm; and by host preference, infests only Osmanthus
americanus (L.) Gray. Female ovipositor short, about 2.6 mm; the
ovipositor sheath dark brown, about 0.9 mm long. The piercer
0.9 mm, apex:, gradually tapers to a sharp point. Epandrium with
long fine setae dorsally. Surstyli elongate, apex rounded and
with a tuft of long fine setae. Proctiger similar to others in
the group (Fig. 101).
Length: body 3.6-4.0 mm; wing 3.6-3.8 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Osmanthus americanus (L.) Gray
Distribution: Known only from Florida.
Florida Records: Hillsborough Co.: (paratype) 1, bred
from Osmanthus americanus, 28-X-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 3&
bred from Osmanthus americanus, 28-X-1930 (Pope & White USNM);
3$. bred from Osmanthus americanus, 5-21-XI-1930 (B. G. Anderson,
USNM); Seffner, 1$ 3?, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 10-X-1930
(Pope & White, USNM); Thonotossas, 1$ 1?, bred from Osmanthus
americanus, 5-XII-1930 (W. H. Pope, USNM) Osceola Co.: Alligator
Lake, 10 3?, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 3S-10-XI-1930 (W. C.
Slight, USNM);(paratypes) 3$ 5?, bred from Osmanthus americanus,
18-XI-1930 (W. C. Slight, USNM); Pasco Co.: New Port Richey,
5$ 3?, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 3-XI-1930 (G. G. Norman,
USNM); Pinellas Co.: Tarpon Springs, loi 2?, bred from Osmanthus
americanus, 19-XI-1930 (M. Dodd, UNSM); Volusia Co.: 1$, bred
from Osmanthus americanus, 19-III-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); Coronado,
2&, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 10-18-IX-K1930' (Crew, USNM).

17 i
This species, as well as the closely related chionanthi,
is more extensively marked with yellow than the northeastern
population of cingulata. However, it is difficult to differentiate
between the Florida representatives of the cingulata group as they
have similar color patterns. It is more difficult to differeniate
osmanthi from chionanthi as both have a forked apical wing band;
however, osmanthi is slightly larger and can be allochronically
isolated from the latter. Bush (1966) discussed the diagnostic
characters of this species.
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Figs. 50, 102, 152
Trypeta pomonella Walsh, 1967, Amer. J. Hort. 2:343.
Lectotype ?. No locality (MCZ).
Differentiated from other known Rhagoletis by the wing
pattern (Fig. 50) and bicolored halteres. The medial band of
wing connected to apical band in cell and R2, and to subapical
band in cell R5 and part of cell 1st M2. Hyaline area between
apical band and costa narrow at junction of R-^ and costa, but
broadening posteriorly. Anterior margin of apical band smooth or
broken in step-like fashion. The medial band broadly joined
the basal band along Cu2 + 2nd A. Thorax black, dorsum with
numerous white short setae and white pollinose microtrichia
2 long submedian bands. Submedian bands extend from anterior
margin of mesonotum and posteriorly to a point in line with base

17:21
of prescutellars. The median bands short, separated by a wide
black band and reaching only to a point midway between dorso-
centrals and prescutellars. Legs yellow tinged with brown.
Abdomen black; tergites II-IV with white pollinose band along
posterior margin. Female ovipositor short, about 2.5 mm; ovi
positor sheath dark brown to black with numerous black setae,
0.1 mm long. The piercer slender, apex gradually tapers to
a point, 0.9 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 50. Epandrium
black with scattered setae dorsolaterally. Surstyli slender
and elongate with more or less rounded apices. Proctiger elongate
with scattered setae.
Length: body 4.2-4.6 mm; wing 3.8-4.2 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Crataegus sp.
Prunus angustifolia Marsh.
Prunus umbellata Ell.
Prunus sp.
Distribution: east of North Dakota to Nova Scotia, south
to east Texas and Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Ascot, 1?, Wild Plum
ll-XII-1930 (C. B. M. FSCA); 2puparia under wild pum,
10-12-VII-1930 (USNM); 1 V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nichoson, USNM); 3$, bred from
Prunus angustifolia, 1-4-V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson,

123
USNM); 4(? 1?, bred from puparia from soils under Prunus sp.
14-16-V-1931 (E. T. Evans, USNM); 3$, bred from Prunus sp.,
12-23-V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Gainesville,
1$, trap by window, 7-X-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1$, 23-X-
1965 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Hamilton Co.: Jasper, 6c? 2?, bred
from Crataegis maloides, 21-X-1939 (J. E. Graves & D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 1S 1?, stickyboard trap, 12-XI-1965
(T. J. Ravordso, FSCA); l 1?, stickyboard trap, 29-XI-1965 (T. J.
Ravordso, FSCA); Levy Co.: Chiefland, 3$ 1?, 29-V-1930 (McGlamery,
USNM); Liberty Co.: Torreya State Park, 1?, insect flight trap,
5-VII-1965 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Marion Co.: Belleview, lie?,
sparkleberry, 5-9-VI-1930 (F. Walker, SUNM).
The relationships of Rhagoletis species, cornivora
mendax and pomonella have been the subject of dispute. They
have nearly identical wing pattern and other external morpho
logical features that show considerable overlap. However,
important constant differences in surstyli, overall size between
these 3 species, and for the biological reasons stated by Bush
(1966), these species are considered as distinct species.
This species is only locally common in Florida and apparently
restricted to the northern 1/2 of the state. Bush (1966)'
discussed the taxonomic status and listed the known hymenopterous
parasites and host plants of this species. The immature stages
have been described by Illingworth (1912), Snodgrass (1924),
Benjamin (1934), and Phillips (1946).

17.4
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush
Figs. 51, 154
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush, 1966, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool,
134(11):470. Holotype S. Type locality: Lincoln, Mass. (MCZ).
Resembling other sympatric members of the pomonella group
(mendax Curran and pomonella Walsh) in most respects, except for
the shape and size of surstyli, ovipositor length, and host
preference (Bush 1966) Predominantly black with white to yellow
pollinose band along the margin of tergtes II-IV. Halteres bicolored.
Wing pattern similar to those of pomonella (Walsh)(Fig.51). Ovi
positor short, approximately 2.5 mm. Ovipositor sheath dark brown
to black, about 0.9 mm long. Piercer 0.8 mm long, apex pointed
gradually to a sharp point. Male genitalia got dissected. Epan-
drium dark brown, dorsum with few long brown setae. Surstyli
long and slender, apices with rounded tip. Proctiger moderately
long and elongate, with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 4.0-4.6 mm; wing 3.8-4.0 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Cornus florida L.
Distribution: Florida, Maine, Massachusetts.
Florida Records: Levy Co.: Williston, lS, bred from Cornus
florida, ll-X-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM), Polk Co., Lakeland, 1$ 1?,
bred from Cornus florida, 6-9-XI-1930 (pope & White, USNM); 3$ 1?,
bred from Cornis florida, 16-X-1930(Pope & White, USNM).
The wing pattern of this species is identical to that
of pomonella and mendax. Although Rhagoletis cornivora may be

175
distinguished from other sympatric members of the pomonella group
north of Georgia by the surstyli shape and ratio, ovipositor length
and host preference; females of Florida population of cornivora
cannot be distinguished from mendax or pomonella without host
data (Bush, 1966). Host data is the only sure way of differentia-
ing cornivora.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Figs. 52, 103, 154
Rhagoletis mendax Curran, 1932. Amer. Mus. Nov. 526:6-7.
Holotype Type locality: Maine (AMNH).
Belonging to the pomonella group and can be differentiated
from Florida cornivora and pomonella by the shape and angle of
surstyli and on the basis of host preference. Female ovipositor
2.5 mm long; ovipositor sheath dark 0.9 mm. The piercer long
and very sharp at apex, 0.8 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 103,
Epandrium dark brown to black, with scattered long setae. Sur
styli narrow and slender, apices more or less rounded. Proctiger
small and elongate with few setae lateroventrally.
Hosts: Vaccinium arboreum Marsh
Vaccinium formosum Andr.
Distribution: Primarily restricted to northeatern United
States and southeatern Canada.
Florida Records: Hillsborough Co.: Plant City, 3 Vaccinium arboreum, 4-8-X-1929 (W. D. White, USNM); 2c?, on sparkle-
berry 15-X-1929 (W. D. White, USNM); l£, on sparkleberry 21-X-1929

176
(W. D. White, USNM), Tampa, 1 6-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 7c?, bred from Vaccinium arboreum
10-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Levy Co.; Chiefland, 2$ 1?,
14-V-1930 (M. S.Glameny, USNM); lc?, bred from Vaccinium arboreum,
1-3-X-1930 (H. Hammond, USNM); Marion Co.: Belleview, 2$,
bred from sparkleberry, 16-XI-1929 (F. Walker, USNM). Putnam Co.;
o
1+, bred from Vaccinium arboreum, 14-X-1930 (USNM).
Although mendax, pomonella, and cornivora resemble each
other closely, there are constant differences between these species.
Bush (1966) stated that the surstyli differs markedly and that
mendax has different host requirements. Females, however, possess
no morphological characters that separate them from females of
pomonella and cornivora. In Florida, the adults of mendax have
been reared from 2 species of Vaccinium only. Woods (1915),
Lathrop and Nickles (1932), and Hall (1943) reviewed the biology
and the host relationship of this species.
Genus Stenopa Loew
Stenopa Loew, 1873. Smiths. Mise. Colect. 11(256)¡234.
Type species; Trypeta vulnerata Loew.
Readily differentiated from other Tephritinae by its dark
body and by the distinctive banding of the wing. Head rather
narrow, much higher than long, with numerous stout hairs. Genae
and parafrontal yellowish white, densely white tomentose. Front
narrow ochraceous yellow. Two pairs of upper fronto-orbitals

177
inside the line of lower fronto-orbitals, the posterior pair pale
and stout. Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Head
and thoracic bristles strong and bladk. Arista long and plumose.
Thorax predominantly black with whitish hairs. Dorsocentral
bristles closer to transverse suture than to a line between supra-
alar bristles. Scutellum shining black with 4 strong bristles.
Legs largely yellow with brown to black markings on the mid and hind
femora. Wings broad and typically with dark bands on hyaline
field. Abdomen dark brown to black on hyaline field.
Presently the genus contains 2 species, with only 1 species
reported from Florida. Both species are relatively rare. Not
much is known about the biology of the species except for Stenopa
vulnerata(Loew), which breeds on Senecio aureaus L. Novak and Foote
11975) presented the key to adults.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)
Figs. 53, 104
Trypeta vulnerata Loew 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect.
11(256):232. Holotype ?. Type locality: Massachusetts.
Moderately large species with an average of 5.6 mm and
with distinct wing pattern (Fig. 53) and shape of the head.
Wing broad, with black bands on a hyaline field. Wing pattern
consists of an S-shaped band; the forked proximal loop of S-band
elongate basally extending to humeral area, also connected to a
dark marking at the base of wing. The distal loop with subapical

178
arm, forming an F-shaped marking, widens posteriorly, extending
from just anterior of vein R2 +3 to apical margin. The hyaline
cross band on the disc, at least to the middle of cell 1st M2,
r-m crossvein situated near the center of cell 1st M->. Vein
Rj +^ bare and undulating, curving toward vein +2 Head
typically higher than long, eyes more or less oval and 2 times
higher than long. Frons narrow, ochraceous yellow with a faint
brown vittae in the middle. Scutellum shining black, greatly
swollen with 4 scutellars. Female ovipositor long, about 4.6
mm. Ovipositor sheath dark brown to black with numerous short
black setae, about 1.7 mm.long. The piercer long and slender,
about 1.5 mm, evenly tapered to a sharp point at apex, with
minutely serrated margin. Male genitalia as in Fig. 104. Epan-
drium broad and black dorsum with numerous long setae, Surstyli
broad and developed into 2 short rounded lobes at apices; the upper
lobes with dense short setae; lower lobes with more or less truncate
apical margin. Proctiger small, yellow, and elongate, with
numerous long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 5-6.5 mm; wing 5-6.5 mm. (N=10).
Host: Unknown for Florida species
Senecio aureus L. in northeastern Ohio
Distribution: Massachussetts southward and westward across
the entire United States.
Florida Records: Foote (1965) indicates that the species
is found in Florida, however, no specific location is given.

179
Not much is known on the biology of this species in Florida,
females oviposit into buds or young shoots of swamp ragwort,
Senecio aureus L., in northeastern Ohio. Larvae overwinter within
the plant tissues and form small stem galls. Novak and Foote
(1975) described the biology and the immature stages of this
species. The specimen illustrated is from North Carolina.
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy
Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci.
Inst... France 2:81. Type species: Trypeta longipennis
Wiedemann.
Grossly resembling Anastrepha, but immediately differ
entiated by its distinctive wing markings and by head and thoracic
chaetotxy. Head yellow, higher than long with moderately swollen
occiput. Eyes small, oval. Only 1 pair of upper fronto-orbitals
and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles, borne on distinct
ridge in males. Thorax predominantly yellow, with yellow to brown
setae on the dorsum. Dorsocentral bristles close to transverse
line between supra-alars than to a line between acrostichals.
Scutellum with 2 pairs of strong scutellars. Legs entirely yellow.
Wing with brownish banding on a hyaline field. Vein R4 +5
setose just beyond r-m crossvein. Vein Cu2 concave, resulting in
an elongation of cell 1st A along vein CU2 + 2nd A. Male with some
what narrower wing. Abdomen ochraceous yellow with numerous black
hairs on dorsum.

180
Virtually nothing is known about the biology of the species.
The genus is restricted to North America with only 1 species known.
Phillips (1923) discussed the 7 known varieties.
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
Figs. 54,105, 155
Trypeta longipennis Wiedemann, 1830, Auss. Zweifl. Inst.
2:483. Syntypes and Type locality: Nordamer, Ka.
Differentiated from other known Florida tephritid by
its distinctive wing pattern (Fig. 54). Cell R always with a
hyaline area in the middle. Cell 2nd M2 with a large hyaline area.
Hyaline crossband extends beyond cell 1st M2- Antennae short, not
more than 1/2 that of face. Male with posterior lower fronto-
orbital bristles enlarged, usually borne on distinct ridges.
Abdomen ochraceous yellow, with dark brown setae. Ovipositor sheath
long, distal tip tinged with dark brown 1.1 mm long. Piercer long
and slender, widest at distal 1/2, apex abruptly tapered to a point
and approximately 0.9 mm. Extended ovipositor 2.2 mm long. Male
genitalia as in Fig. 105. Epandrium yellow, with long fine setae on
the dorsum. Surstyli long and slender with truncate apices. Proc-
tiger small elongate,with numerous long pale setae dorsally and
lateroventrally.
Length: body 4.4-4.9 mm; wing 4.4-4.8 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Montana to Maine, south to California and
Florida.

181
Florida Records: Leon Co.: Tallahassee, 1<$, 6-V-1968
(G. H. Heinrich, FSCA); 1?, 7-V-1968 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA).
The variety shown is that of vittigera. Phillips (1923)
presented wing figures and a key to the 7 varieties described
by Loew (1S73). The single species, longipennis, is uncommon in
Florida. Nothing is known about its biology and immature stages.
Genus Tephritis Latreille
Tephritis Latreille, 1904. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Deterville
24:196. Type species: Musca ar'nicae Linnaeus.
Differentiated by having 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital
bristles, 2 pairs of scutellars and a reticulate wing pattern.
Head wider than high, all bristles strong, with 2 pairs of upper
fronto-orbital bristles, the posterior pair pale and scale-like;
2 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles present. Thorax grayish
pollinose, with whitish tomentum. Dorsocentral bristles close to
transverse suture. Legs entirely yellow. Wing with a reticulate
markings, with hyaline spots and dark rays reaching to the margin.
Apical 1/2 of vein ^ setose.
The reticulate wing pattern of this genus is likely to be
confused with that of other Florida genera, Dyseuaresta Euaresta,
Euarestoides, and Trupanea because of the reticulate wing pattern.
It differs from all other genera except Euaresta by having 2
pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles and from Dyseuaresta and

182
Trupanea by the presence of 2 pairs of scutellars. All Euaresta
species have some kind of hyaline marking on stigma. The fore
femora of males are swollen, and the male genitalia have conspi
cuous striations around the anal region.
Not much is known about the biology of these species.
Like members of Trupanea, they develop in the flower heads and
ovaries of various plants. An account of 'the life history and mat
ing behavior of Tephritis stigmatica (Coquillett) was presented
by Tauber and Toschi (1965b). The genus is widely distributed,
with 16 Nearctic species; only 1 species is known from Florida,
Quinsenberry (1951) and Foote (1960c) have revised the genus,
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Figs. 55, 106, 156
Euaresta subpura Johnson, 1909, Psyche 16:114. Holotype ?.
Type locality: Wildwood, New Jersey (MCZ).
Readily differentiated from other Tephritis by the wing
markings as shown in Fig. 55, in combination with the color of the
thorax* A predominantly yellow species, with bright yellow pollinose
thorax. A pair of dorsocentral bristles located at transverse
suture. Costal cell without distinct brownish spot and the
preapical dark brown area entire, not broken by many small con
fluent spots. Abdomen yellowish brown. Female ovipositor short,
about 2.0 mm long. Ovipositor sheath dark brown to black, 1.0 mm
long. Piercer wide and short, but sharp at apex, approximately

0.8 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig.po^;. Epandrium highly
arched, with scattered setae. Surstyli broad, curved inward
more or less truncate of apices. Proctiger small and elongate
with numerous long setae ventrally.
Length: body 4.3-4.7 mm; wing 3.9-4.5 mm, (R=8).
Hosts: Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers,
Distribution: New York to Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, Bivens Arm
Lake, 1<$, 27-1-1973 (J. B. Heppner, FSCA) ; Broward Co. :
Ft, Lauderdale, 1 Brevard Co.: Malabar, 3$ 5t, bred from stem of Baccharis
glomerulif lora, 5-10-V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,, USNM) ; Dade Co.:
Homestead, lc? 2?, in McPhail trap, 4-IV-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA);
Miami, 3$, ex Baccharis glomeruliflora, 3-VII-1960 (D. A. Palmer
FSCA); 1$, 10-VI-1972 (Will. Pierce, FSCA); Desoto Co.: Arcadia
1$, sweeping wax myrtle, 23-III-1977 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
Duval Co.: Jacksonville, 1?, 9-1-1967 (R. E. Kling,Jr,,
FSCA); Hendy Co.: 1^, in Mexican fruit fly trap, 19-III-1960
(Wilson, FSCA) ; Orange Co.: Orlando, 5'5 4?, bred from stem of
Baccharis glomeruliflora, 25-30-IV-12V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Seminole Co.: 1?, in Medfly trap, 12-III-1958
(R. L. Arnold, FSCA); Volusia Co.; Osteen, 28 2?, bred from
stem of Baccharis glomeruliflora, 21-25-V-19H (D. J. Nicholspn
USNM).

184
This species can be distinguished further by the broad
darH oblique band from the costa through the stigma and r-m
crossvein and by having a generally dark reticulate pattern.
The larvae feed in young stems of Baccharis glomeruliflora
Detailed descriptions of the immatures stages was given by
Benjamin (1934).
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett
Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 37:615
Type species: Trypeta obliqua Say.
Readily differentiated from other genera by its distinc
tive' wing pattern, usually consisting of 4 coherent oblique y.ellow
bands with narrow brown distal borders. Crossveins r-m and m
oblique and closely placed, both covered by the median band of
the wing pattern.
All head and body bristles yellow. Head higher than long,
with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3 pairs of
lower fronto-orbital bristles. Third antennal segment with rounded
apex. Body yellow with conspicuous black markings on the thorax
and abdomen. Mesonotum with numerous yellow setae. Dorsocentral
bristles closer to transverse suture than to a line in front of
anterior supra-alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of bristles.
Of the 43 known species, only 2 species occur in North
America, with obliqua (Say) being the only species known in Florida.

185
Aczel (1955) reviewed all the important species except for obliqua.
The larvae of many Tropical Tomoplaqia feed on fleshy fruits;
other feed on other parts of the host plants.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Figs. 56, 107, 157
Trypeta obliqua Say, 1830. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila,
6:186. Holotype Type locality: Indiana.
Rather yellow brown species with distinct oblique wing
pattern (Fig. 56). Mesonotum marked with 2 black spots, one on
each side. Venter of thorax near mid-coxae, hind coxae, and near
the base of 1st abdominal segment marked with black spots one
on each side. Scutellum shining translucent ochraceous yellow.
Abdominal tergites marked with 2 black spots. Ovipositor sheath
short and broad, light yellow; the distal tip tinged with brown
about 0.9 mm long. The piercer broad and blunt, approximately
0.7 mm long, apex rounded gradually; extended ovipositor 2.3
mm long. Male genitalia small, light brown (Fig. 107). Epandrium
highly arched; surstyli-short and straight-sided, with blunt
apices, more or less rounded. Proctiger small and elongated,
dorsum covered wtih numerous fine setae.
Length: body 3.3-4.0 mm; wing 3.8-4.0 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Vernonia blodgetti Small
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel,
Vernonia scaberriraa Nutt.
Vernonia sp.

186
Distribution: Nebraska to New York, south to Arizona:
northern Mexico, Florida and Cuba.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1?, in
McPhail trap, 13-XI-1967 (A. E. Graham, FSCA) ,- Broward Co.:
Fbl Lauderdale, 1S, in McPhail trap, 30-XII-1959 (G. W. Spencer,
FSCA); Plantation, 1?, in Steiner trap, 16-IV-1973 (J. A. Tucoulat,
FSCA); Collier Co.: lS, 24-XI-1969 (K. Hickman, FSCA); Dade Co.:
1<5 1?, 17-XI-1936 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Homestead, 4c$ 1?, on
Casimiroa edulis, 2-VII-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Miami, 1?,
I-XII-1953 (O. D. Link, FSCA) ; Hillsborough Co. : 6 from Vernonia scaberrima,ll-VI-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); Tampa,
1<5, bred from Vernonia blodgetti, 10-VI-1930 (F. S. Blanton,
FSCA); Thonotosassa, 19(? 6?, bred from Vernonia blodgetti,
8-20-VI-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); Indian River Co.: Vero Beach,
l?x in McPhail, 28-XI-1972 (R. H. Kendrich, FSCA); Lake Co.:
Fruitland Park, 3o 4+, bred from Vernonia sp., 23-28-VI-1930
(E. T. Evans, USNM); Marion Co.: Bay Lake, 1?, in Steiner trap,
9-1-1973 (J. C. Taylor, FSCA); Ocala, 2$ 1?, bred from Vernonia
gigantea, 14-VII-1930 (E. T. Evans, & D. J. Nicholson, USNM) 7.
Orange Co.: Orlando 5 II-14-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 6$, bred from Vernonia
scaberrima.J.7-19-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5<$ 2?, bred
from Vernonia scaberrima 21-26-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Palm Beach Co.: Terrytown, 1?, stickyboard trap in guava tree,
22-XI-1965 (W. W. Smith; FSCA); Santa Rosa Co.t Milton, 1?,
26-X-1832 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA).

187
It is generally distributed throughout Florida. Although
not abundant, this species is not rare. The immature stages
of this species were described by Benjamin (1934).
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker
Toxotrypana Gerstacker, 1860, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg.
21:194. Type species: Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker.
Differentiated from other Florida genera by the character
istic shape, size, general coloration and behavior. Predominantly
ochraceous yellow with black maculation on the thorax. Head
broad as thorax. Chaetotaxy greatly reduced, lacking many of
the major bristles of the head and thorax. One pair of upper
fronto-orbital bristles and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital
bristles present, but greatly reduced. Thorax with short yel
lowish brown setae on dorsum; humeral, presutural and dorso-
central bristles lacking, other bristles present, but greatly
reduced. Scutellum with 1 pair of short apical soutellars. Wing
long and narrow, anterior 1/3 of wing with prominent yellowing.
Vein R2 + 3 undulating and sexually dimorphic. Vein R2 + 3 in male with
distinct short fork on its distal 1/2 ; female lacking fork.
Vein R4+5 setose to 2/3 of the length. Cell 1st very long,
almost twice that of cell R^, Cross^vein m oblique. Legs yellow,
hind femora and coxae with brown to black markings. Abdomen
yellow long and slender.

188
The hiology of this species has been investigated (Knab
& Yothers, 1914; Mason, 1922; Benjamin, 1934; Baker et al., 1944).
The larvae commonly attack both wild and cultivated papayas and
have also been recorded to attack mango, the only other known host.
The genus contains only 1 species, the well-known papaya fruit fly
in the New World.
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Figs. 57, 358
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker, 1860, Stettin Entomol.
Ztg. 29:194. Holotype ?. Type locality: St. John, Virgin Island.
Predominantly yellow, easily differentiated by its charac
teristic resemblance to several species of vespid wasps in size,
form, and general coloration, as well as behavior. Thorax ochraceous
yellow except for the following black mark on the hind portion of
each humerus, extending ventrally, running between the front and
mid-coxae and extending dorsally in a loop on anterolateral por
tion of mesonotum. A pair of submedial vittae extending from the
anterior margin and ending just beyond the line in between supra-
alars. Posterior notopleuron with a short vitta which extends
posteriorly and ending just beyong postalars. Metanotum with 2
dark longitudinal stripes. Wing hyaline with distinct yellowing
along the costa. Female with very long slender abdomen and greatly
elongated ovipositor. Ovipositor sheath very narrow and long,
exceeding the length of abdomen, thorax, and head. Male genitalia
not dissected.

189
Length: body 9.5-25 mm; wing 7-11 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Carica papaya L.
Mangifera indica L.
Distribution: Florida, southern Texas
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Melbourne, it, in Carica
papaya, 10-V-1956 (J. D. Coston, FSCA); Broward Co.: 2$ 1?,
1962-1963, Medfly program (H. V. Weems, FSCA). Dade Co.: Cutler
Ridge, lS 2+, in McPhail trap, 27-III-1962 (R. T. McMillan, Jr.,
FSCA); Hialeah, lc5 1?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit, 20-III-1962
(W. S. Brewton, FSCA), 1?, in McPhail trap, 26-IV-1962 (W.. S. Brewton,
FSCA); 1<3, in Steiner trap in roseapple, ll-V-1962 (W. S. Brewton,
FSCA) 1<3 1?, on Carica Papaya, ll-V-1959, CL. J. Daigle, FSCA);
o o
Miami, 1+ in McPhail trap 5-IV-1962 (J. A. Stephensf FSCA); 1+,
in McPhail trap, ll-TV-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA), 2$ 1? in McPhail
trap, 12-iy-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA), 1(3 1+, in McPhail trap,
19-iy-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 1$, in McPhail trap in grape
fruit trap,25-IV-1962 (W. W. Brewton, FSCA); 2$ 2?, in McPhail trap
26-IV-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 1$ 1?, in McPhail trap, 17-V-
1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 1$ 1+, in McPhail trap, 23-y-1962
(W. S.. Brewton, FSCA); Miami Beach; 1$, in McPhail trap, 8-111-1962
(W. S. Brewton, FSCA); in McPhail trap, 21-111-1962 (W. S. Brewton,
FSCA) ; 1$ 1?, j.n McPhail trap in calamondin tree, 10-V-1962
(W. S. Brewton, FSCA);.. Miami Spring, 1$, in McPhail trap, 8-III-1962
(J. A. Stephens, FSCA); South Miami, Matheson Hamm., l£, in McPhail
trap, 16-111-1962 (R. T. McMillan, Jr., FSCA); Lee Co.: Ft. Myers,
lS, in McPhail trap, 11-IV-1962 (H. W. Collins, FSCA); 1$ 1?, in

190
McPhail trap, 18-V-1962 (H. W. Collins, FSCA); Manatee Co.; Palmetto
1$ 1?, from papaya, 29-IV-1962 (C. J. Bickner, FSCA); Orange Co.:
Beuna Vista, lS, 1-1914 (C. A. Mosier, AMNH); Sarasota Co.;
Sarasota, 1(5 1?, in McPhail trap, 2-XII-1969 (S. V. Hiatt, FSCA);
o
St. Lucie Co.: Ft. Pierce, 1+, in McPhail trap in mango tree,
20-IV-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA).
This species is recognized by the wing pattern and by the
characters discussed for the genus. This fly is one of the most
important pests of papaya wherever this fruit is grown. It was
introduced into Florida about 1905 and became established on the
Keys, where it eventually spread to all portions of the state where
papayas are grown. The biology and the immature stages of this
species were discussed in great length by Knab and Yothers (1914),
Mason (1922), Benjamin (1934), Phillips (1946), and Weems (1969),
Genus Trupanea Schrank
Trupanae Guettard, 1862, Acad. Roy. Sci. Hist. Mem. Math.
Phys. 1756:171. Unavailable name, author not using binomial.
Trupanea Shrank, 1795, Natur. Hist. und. Okon. Briefe
Donaumoor Mannhein, p. 147. Type species: radiata Shrank.
Predominantly gray pollinose, easily differentiated by
wing marking, a. distinct stellate pattern, usually restricted to
the apex of the wing (Fig. 58, 59, 60, 61, 62) and by having only
2 scutellar bristles. Head usually yellowish gray, with 2 pairs
of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital

191
bristles. Thorax and scutellum gray pollinose, with 1 pair of
dorsocehtral bristles situated near the transverse suture.
Abdomen densely gray pollinose. Ovipositor and male genitalia
shining brown or black.
Larvae infest flower heads, principally of Compositae.
The genus occurs world-wide; 5 of tne 20 North American species
are recorded from Florida. Because wing characteristics are so
easily seen and almost universally present, the key to North
American species of Trupanea published by early workers, Adams
(1904) Phillips (1923), Curran (1932b), and Malloch (1942) almost
excluded other characters in their identification. Foote (1960d),
in his revision of the genus, provided keys to male and female to
avoid difficulties with sexual dimorphism.
Key to the Florida Specie's of Trupanea
1. Two dark rays through cell 1st M2; proximal ray sometimes
broken in posterior 1/2 of cell and not attaining vein
M3 + Cu-^ or broken in center of cell 2
1. One dark ray through cell 1st M2; in addition, sometimes a
spot near the middle of that cell and a dark spot in line
with it on vein M3 + Cu^ 4
2. Distal ray through cell 1st M2 continuing to hind margin of
wing proximal ray ending at middle of cell 1st M2 (Fig. 60)-
dacetoptera Phillips

192
2'. Distal ray through cell 1st M2 only to vein M3 + Cup and
never beyond; proximal ray reaching vein M3 + Cup or some
times broken a dark spot may be present near the middle of
cell 1st M2 3
3. Hyaline area immediately distad of stigma rather pointed
posteriorly (Fig. 62) mevarna (Walker)
3*. Hyaline area immediately distad of stigma distinctly rounded
posteriorly or ending broadly on vein R4 + 5 (Fig. 59)
aqeratae Benjamin
4. Apex of cell R completely hyaline except for an occasional
narrow band of infuscation along vein r.* m 5
4'. Apex of cell R distinctly infuscated in addition to narrow
band along vein r m 6
5. Dark ray from stigma to vein r m broken or absent in cell R^
(Fig. 61) eclipta Benjamin
5'. Dark ray from stigma to vein r -,m complete in cell Rp and R3
(Fig. 58)- actinobola (Loew)
6. Hyaline area immediately distal of stigma more or less acute
apically, infuscation'on vein M^+ Cu^ in the form of spot entirely
lacking (Fig. 62) mevarna (Walker)
61. Hyaline area immediately distal of stigma rounded broadly
posteriorly; infuscation in the form of spot on M + Cup (Fig. 58)
-3 1
actinobola (Loew)

193
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Figs. 58, 108, 159
Trypeta actinobola Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect.,
11(256). Holotype Fitting the general characteristics of this genus, readily
differentiated from other Trupanea by havinq the head about as long
as high with a flat profile in both sexes. Winq with a single
ray throuqh cell 1st M^ (Fig. 58) commonlv endinq short of vein
+ Cu^: hyaline area immediately distad of stigma rounded poster
iorly: a spot near the middle of cell 1st M^ and a dark spot on
vein + Cu^ may be present: this is variable: some species do not
have this character. Female ovipositor verv similar to that of
eclipta. moderately long about 2.1 mm: the ovipositor sheath
black, about 0.8 mm long. The piercer 0.7 mm long, apex pointed
and minutely bilobed. Male genitalia as in Fig. 108. epandrium
highly arched with scattered setae. Surstyli short, blunt at apex.
Froctiger small,, with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.5-2.8 mm; wing 2.5-2.8 mm. (N=9).
Hosts: Aster adnatus Nutt.
Aster carolinianus Walt.
Aster dumosus L.
Aster dumosus L. var, subulaefolius T & G
Aster elliottii T & G
Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Coreopsis sp.

Erigeron quercifolius Lam
194
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Erigeron sp.
Happloppaptts divaricatus (Nutt) Gray
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium sp.
Solidago caesia L.
Solidago chapmanii T & G
Solidago gigantea Ait.
Solidago stricta Ait.
Solidago Sp.
Distribution: Idaho to Massachusetts, south to California,
Florida
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2$, 1?, 12-VII-1954 (H. A.
Denmark, FSCA); 2$2+, 25-IV-1955 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Gainesville,
6$ 3?, reared ex Erigeron quercifolius 20-V-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA)'
16c? 5?, reared ex Aster dumosus, 1-12- XI-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA)7
6c? 3?, reared ex Aster elliottii, 27-XI-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Brevard Co.: Merritt Island, 4c? 1?, 12-11-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Clay Co.: Orange Park; 3 CNC); Dade Co.: Coral Gables, llcT 5?, bred from Solidago sertina,
12-19-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Hialeah, lc? 2?, 29-IX-1965
(C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., FSCA); l3, swept unidentified compoiste,
21-VII-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., FSCA) Homestead,3? 3?, Erigeron
quercifolius, 15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Opalocka, 19c? 12?,
bred from Erigeron vernus, 15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM)
16c? 1?, bred from Erigeron sp. 12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholsor), USNM) ;
South Miami, 3c? 3?, Erigeron quercifolius, 15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,

195
USNM); Miami Beach, 9& 10?, Erigeron vernus, 15-V-1950 (D. J.
Nicholson, U.SM); Escambia, Co.: Pensacola 2?, 11-14-X-1941 (AMNH);
Lake Co.: 2$ 4?, 8-IV-1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); Leesburg, 6$ 4?,
reared ex Erigeron guercifolius, 10-14-1979 (J. Gilmore, & I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Levy Co.: 6& 3?, sweeping weeds, 13-IV-1955 (R. A.
Morse, FSCA); Gulf Hammock, 2? 23-IV-1952 (0. Peck, (NC); 4$ 1?,
23-IV-1952 (J. R. Vockoroth, CNC); Manatee Co.: Bradenton, 3$ 3?,
swept Erigron guercifolius, 17-IV-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 3$,
reared ex Erigeron guercifolius, 17-IV- 6-V-1979 (I. B. Rohani,
FSCA); Oneca, 1$, 29-III-L956 ^JohnC.Mattin, CMC);. .
Marion Co.: Silver Spring, lS, 5-IV-1953(W. R. M. Mason, CNC);
Martin Co.: Indiantown, 1 2?, Solidago chapmanii. 7-VI-1930
(Beaver, USNM) Nassau Co;: Callahan, 3& 1+, reared ex Haploppapus
divaricatus, 16-18-IV-1979 (I. B. Rohani & R. A. Belmont, FSCA)
4oS 30+, reared from Erigeron guercifolius, 16-27-IV-1979 (R. A.
Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 24$ 26?, reared ex Erigeron
guercifolius, 19-IV-1979 (R. A. Belmont.& I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Orange Co.: Orlando, 2c$, 24-X-1931 (FSCA); 8c? 2?, bred from Solidago
sp. 9-16-XI-1929, bred from solidago sp. (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
20S, emerged from Aster adnatus, 13-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Winter Garden, 2$, bred from Aster carolinianus, 9-XII-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Pasco Co.: l, 6-IV-1952 (J. R. Vockeroth,
CNC); Volusia Co.: 28, 24-VII-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Benson
Spring, 6$, bred from Erigeron vernus, 24-VI-1930 (Pope & White,
USNM).

196
This widespread and common species breeds in flower heads
of Compositae throughout Florida. It is extremely variable; most
individuals exhibit differences in the development of the single
ray through cell 1st M2 with apex of cell R with or without infusca-
tion. The variation of this species could be related to the breeding
habit of the species, but this deserves, additional study. Stegmaier
(1968b) studied the biology of this species and reported that the
immature stages infest the unopen and fully developed flower head
of daisy fleabane Erigeron strigossus. Two hymenopterous parasites,
Heteroschema punctata (Ashmead) and Colotrechnus ignotus Busks were
reared from these immatures. The puparium is similar to that of
mevarna (Benjamin, 1934).
Trupanea agerataeBenjamin
Figs. 59, 160
Trupanea ageratae Benjamin, 1934. U.S. Dept. Agrie. Tech.
Bull. 401:56, Fig. 40, Holotype Type locality: No Name Key,
Monroe Co., Florida (USNM).
A small grayish pollinose species with 2 dark rays through
cell 1st M2 of wing; the distal ray through cell 1st M2 only to
vein M3 + Cui; hyaline area immediately distal of stigma rounded
posteriorly. Marginal spot at apex of vein R2 + 3 near middle of
dark area surrounding it. Female ovipositor and male genitalia
are not available for dissection.

197
Length: body 2.6 nun; wing 2.5 nun. (Benjamin, 1934).
Hosts: Ageratum littorale Gray.
Distribution: Restricted fo Florida only.
Florida Records: Monroe Co.: No Name Key, (Holotype) 1<5,
bred from Ageratum littorale. 23-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
This species is similar to dacetoptera in having the distal
end of cell R highly infuscated, but differs by having the distal
ray through cel 1st only to vein M3 + Cu^ and never reaching
the hind margin. Similar to mevarna in having the distal ray only
to vein M^ + Cu-^ differs from it by having the hyaline area
immediately distal of stigma distinctly rounded posteriorly or
ending broadly on vein R^ + This species also closely resembles
texana Malloch; the 2 species may be separated by thir geographical
distribution and by having the marginal spot at apex of vein R^ + ^
near middle of dark area surrounding it. Detailed discussion on
the differences was given by Foote (1960d).
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Figs. 60, 109, 161
Trupanea dacetoptera. Phillips, 1923, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
31:138. Fig. 59. Holotype ?. Type locality: Karner, N.Y. CCO.
Differentiated from other known Trupanea by the distinctive
wing markings (Fig. 60 ); distal ray extending through cell 1st M2
to hind margin; proximal ray from the stigma to vein r -m complete or
nearly so; distal area near to vein r m in cell R broadly infuscated.

198
Head shape and chaetotaxytypical of the genus: yellowish
brown with pollinose gray; anterior oral margin not markedly
produced; 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, 3 pairs of lower fronto-
orbitals the anterior pair being weaker. Mesonotum gray pollinose
with one pair of dorsocentrals closer to the transverse suture.
Abdomen opaque; ovipositor sheath shining black, approximately
equal in length to the piercer, being 1.0 mm long respectively,
apex of the piercer, long, gradually tapered into a sharp point.
Extended ovipositor 3.0 mm. Male genitalia small; epandrium highly
arched; surstyli relatively short curved inward, apex blunt, more
of less truncate; proctiger small with scattered long setae (Fig. 109) .
Length: body 3.3-4.2 mm; wing 3-3.5 mm. (N=4) .
Hosts: Gnaphalium obtusifolium.' L.
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Schinner var. microcephala
(Small) Shinners
Distribution: N.Y.; Michigan; Maine to Florida.
Florida Records: Gadsden Co.; Chattahoochee, 1?, 30-IV-
1952 (O. Peck, CNC); Orange Co.: Orlando, 6$ 11+, bred from
Gnaphalium obtusifolium, 4-13-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM), 1$ 1?,
bred from Gnaphlium obtusifolium, 29-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
2c? 3$, bred from Gnaphalium obtusifolium, 12-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); 1<$ 1?, bred from Heterotheca nervosa var. microcephala,
l-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
This species is less common than some other species in the
genus, being found only in some Florida counties. Virtually

199
nothing is known about their immature stages; larvae are scarce,
and difficult to find.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Figs. 61, 110, 162
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin, 1934, USDA Tech. Bull. 401;'57,
Fig. 42. Holotype $. Type locality, Orlando, Orange Co., Florida.
Differing from other known species of Trupanea by the wing
markings (Fig. 61); having dark ray from stigma to vein r -m broken
or absent in cell R^, usually no spot on vein M3 + Cu^; distal end
of cell R completely hyaline; but occasionally a narrow band of
infuscation bordering vein r -m may occur. Chaetotaxy on thorax
typical of this genus with dorsocentral bristles located near the
suture; 1 pair of strong scutellars. Basal segment of female ovi
positor dark brown to black. About 0.9 mm long, extended oviposite
measures 2.5 mm. Piercer straight-sided, 0.8 mm long, tapered at
apex. Male genitalia brown, small and compact; epandrium highly
arched, with scattered long setae; surstyli curved inward, its
apex blunt; proctiger small (Fig. 110).
Length body, 2.8-3.6 mm; wing 3.0-3.2 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Distribution: Florida.
Florida Records: Duval Co.: Jacksonville 2$ 1?, 14-X-1932
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 1?, ll-XI-1965 (C. F. Zieger, FSCA); Monroe Co.:
Boca Chica Key, 1?, 16-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Paradise Key,
Everglades Nat'l Pk., 1?, 3-IV=1952 (G. S. Walley, CNC); Orange Co.:

2QQ
Orlando, 79> 49?, bred from Eclipta alba, 14-26-VIII-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); 2 1?, bred from Eclipta alba, 2-X-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); 19<$ 11?, bred from Eclipta alba, 9-30-IX-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); St. Lucie Co.: Ft. Pierce, 3<$, in lima
bean, 29-XII-1943 (USNM); Volusia Co.; Ormond Beach, 3?, 3-XI-1960
(R. E. Woodruff, FSCA).
This species is known only from Florida. It has been found
in only a few counties. Larvae feed in the flowers of Eclipta alba,
and the puparium is similar to that of mevarna (Benjamin, 1934).
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Figs. 62, 111, 163
Trypeta mevarna Walker, 1849, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus. 4:102.
o
Holotype +. Type locality: Florida.
Differentiated from other known Trupanea by the termination
of the distal ray through cell 1st M2 at vein M^ + Cui, by the acutely
pointed hyaline area distal of the stigma, and by having a prominent
marginal spot at the apex of vein R2 + 3 i-n the surrounding dark
area at a more central position. Body predominantly gray pollinose,
with similar chaetotaxy as other members of the genus. Female
ovipositor long, about 2.9 mm, the ovipositor sheath black, 1.0 mm
long; sharp point. Male genitalia brown as in Fig. 111. Epandrium
highly arched with numerous setae. Surstyli curved inward, apex
more or less truncate. Proctiger small with many scattered setae.

201
Length: body 3,5-4.0 mm; wing 3.4-3.9 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala
(Small) SkirtfterJa
Heterotheca oligantha (Chapm.) Harms.
Heterotheca sp.
Distribution: Rhode Island to Kansas; Alabama and Florida
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1?, sweeping
weed, 26-VIII-1955 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); lS, open vacant myrcinite-grass,
30-V-1967 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); Brevard Co.: Malabar, 3^, bred from
tender top of Heterotheca sp., 11-12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
1?,. bred from tender tip of Heterotheca sp., 22-25-V-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM) ; Duval Go.: Jacksonville, 1 2<$ 2?, 14-20-VIII-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA),- Holmes Co: Ponce
De Leon, 1?, reared from Heterotheca oligantha, 29-V-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Bonifay, l5 2?, bred from Heterotheca oligantha,
2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Lake Co.: Tavares, 2?, bred from
Heterotheca sp., 10-15-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Marion Co.r
Ocala, lS, 5-XI-1932 .(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Martin Co.: 1$, 5-XI-
1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Nassau Co.: 3+, reared from Heterotheca
oligantha, 16-18-IV-1979 (R. A. Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Orange
Co.: Orlando, 3$ 12?, bred from Chrysopsis graminifolia, 10-28-X-
1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM). Santa Rosa Co.: Milton, 1<$ 3?, 20-VIII-
1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Volusia Co.: Benson Spg., 1$ 1?,
bred from Heterotheca nervosa var. microcephala, 24-VI-1932 (Pope
& White, USNM).

2Q2.
This species is probably widespread throughout Florida. The
wing pattern of this species is extremely variable; this includes
the infuscation in the apex of cell R; proximal dark ray in cell 1st
M2 may be lacking in some species and in others may be represented
by a spot on vein M3 + Cu^, Trupanea mevarna closely resembles
dacetoptera, but can easily be differentiated from the latter by
the characters given in the keys and discussion. Larvae white,
feed on flower heads of several species of Heterotheca. Benjamin
(1934) briefly described the immature stages of this species.
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel
Xanthaciura Hendel, 1941, Wiener. Entomol. Ztg. 33:86.
Type species: Trypeta chrysura Thomson.
Members with predominantly dark brown to black body and
characteristic dark wing markings. Vertex of head narrower than
width of the eyes; head typically with 2 pairs of upper fronto-
orbitals and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Parafrontals with
a row of white scale-like bristles. Thorax almost always entirely
brown to black, sometimes tinged with yellow. Dorsocentral bristles
in front of supra-alar bristles, almost in line with suture.
Acrostichal bristles farther forward than usual for the family.
Scutellum with 1-2 pairs of long bristles. Wing dark brown with the
base of the anal margin hyaline, and with 2 hyaline wedges in the
middle of costa. Cell 2nd M^ with hyaline wedges. Legs entirely

203
yellow usually without exceptional armature except in chrysura
(Thomson)and insecta (Loew). Abdomen entirely yellow or tinged
with brown on the dorsum of the last 1 or 2 abdominal segments.
As far as is known, the larvae of all species inhabit the
flower heads of composites. Of the 14 species in the genus, only
4 are North American with all 4 species reported from Florida.
The latest revision is by Aczel (1949).
Key to the Florida Species o'f Xanthaciura
1. Wing with 2 hyaline spots in between vein R^ +^ and +2'
cell R without a hyaline spot; the wedge shaped areas on costa
extending just beyond vein R2 + 3 to on^-y 1/3 into cell R^
(Fig. 64) connexionis Benjamin
l1. Wing with 3 hyaline spots in between vein R4 + 5andM1+2; cell R
with a hyaline spot; the wedge shaped areas on costa extending
to beyond vein R2 + 3 into about 2/3 of cell R^ 2
2. ScuteHum with 1 pair of scutellars; the 2 dark rays extending
from the dark marking in cell 1st M2 across cell Cui to the
anal margin (Fig. 63, 65) 3
2'. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars; the dark rays extending
only to the middle of cell Cu^ (Fig.66 )
tetraspina (Phillips)

204
3. Thorax bicolored, black dorsally and yellow-brown ventrally;
vein R2 + 3 wavy, with a bend on its apical 1/2;
cell 1st M2 with 1 hyaline area (Fig. 65)
insecta Loew
3'. Thorax entirely black; vein +^normal; cell 1st with
2 hyaline areas (Fig. 63) chrysura (Thomson)
Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
Figs. 63, 112, 164
Trypeta chrysura Thomson, Dipt. Fregat. Eugenies Resa,
580. Type unknown. Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Small to moderately small species, easily differentiated
from other Florida Xanthaciura with 2-bristled scutellum by having
an entirely black thorax and by having 2 hyaline areas in cell 1st
M2> Also by having the proximal dark ray arising from the dark field
in cell 1st M2 through cell 2nd A. The apical 1/3 of middle and
hind femorae with a narrow brown or blackish band posteriorly.
Abdominal tergites II-V black, ovipositor sheath translucently
yellow with a wide black band at apex, about 0.6 mm long. The
piercer short, pointed at apex, 0.6 mm long. Extended ovipositor 2.1
mm. Male genitalia small (Fig.112). Epandrium dark brown with
scattered setae. Surstyli short, slightly curved inward, truncate
at apices. Proctiger small with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.5 mm; wing 2.2-3.4 mm. (N=3).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Costa Rica, Peru, Florida, Brazil.

205
Florida Record: Dade Co.: Everglades, 1<, 17-VI-1979
(A. Friedberg, FSCA).
Xanthaciura chrysura and tetrapina (Phillips) are the only
Florida species that have black thorax. The 2 species are
further distinguished by characters given in the key. Like insecta
(Loew), it has 3 dark rays through cell Cu^. It is differentiated
from the former by having 2 hyaline areas in cell 1st and by
having the base of the proximal ray in cell Cu^ board, and extending
beyond cell Cu^ ending in the middle cell 2nd A.
This species is relatively uncommon in collections and rarely
encountered in Florida possibly because its distribution is primarily
tropical. The specimens illustrated are from Peru.
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Figs. 64, 113, 165
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 401:45, Fig. 32. Holotype $. Type locality:
Florida City, Florida.
A rather small species, similar to insecta (Loew) in having
1 pair of scutellars. It differs from insecta by being smaller in
size averaging 2.4 mm and by the rufous yellow abdomen, with black
markings on tergites IV and V in the male and tergites III-V of
the female. Also by the wing pattern, cell R without a hyaline
spot; the wedge-shaped hyaline areas on the costa extending
just beyond vein R2+3? the 2 brown rays arising from the dark field

206
in cell 1st M2 extends only to the middle of cell Cu^; vein R2 +3
unusually short and strongly waved with 2 noticeable bends. Female
ovipositor 2.1 mm long. Ovipositor sheath yellow with black marking
distally measuring about 0.8 ram. Piercer sharp-pointed 0.7 mm long,
the distal 1/2 slightly bulged, Male genitalia yellow, tinged
with brown (Fig.113). Epandrium narrow, covered with numerous
long setae dorsally, short setae laterally. Surstyli curved inward
at apices; apex more or less truncate. Proctiger elongate, with
long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.0-2.8 mm; wing 2.2-2.6 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Ageratum littorale Gray
Eupatorium coelestinum L.
Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Distribution: Known only in Florida
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Merritt Island, 1$ 1+, bred
from Eupatorium coelestinum, 5-15-X-1930 (D. J, Nicholson, USNM);
o
Wilson, 2+, Eupatorium coelstinum, 8-16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Broward Co.: 1$ 1+, bred from Eupatorium coelestinum 5-V-1930
(U. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Florida City, 6$ 3?, bred from
Eupatorium coelestinum, 1-7-V-1931 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM); Hialeah,
l$f ex Eupatorium coelestinum, 8-IX-1970 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM);
Homestead, 4& 2?, bred from Eupatorium coelestinum, 15-16-V-1939
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Miami 1?, ex Mikania scandens, 21-XII-1948
(O.D. Link, FSCA); Opalocka, 5 1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Leon Co.: Tallhassee, 1l-XI-1949

207
(UGA); Monroe Co.; Lower Matecumbe Key, 4 2?, bred from Ageratum
littorale, 11-18-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Upper Matecumbe
Key, 1$ 2?, 30-III-1978 (C. L. Smith, UGA).
Xanthaciura connexionis is the only Florida member of the
genus in which only 2 hyaline spots are present in between veins
+ ^ andM^ +2 and cell R is without a hyaline spot. The apical
portion of vein R2 +-^is oblique to the costa. Apparently this
species is intermediate between insecta (Loew) and tetraspina
as it has 1 pair of scutellar setae like that of the former and
male genitalia and immature stages like those of the latter.
Benjamin (1934) briefly described the immature stages of this
species.
Xanthaciura insecta Loew
Figs. 65, 114, 166
Trypeta insecta Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):72.
pi. II, Fig. 8. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba.
Differing from other Florida Xanthaciura by having 3 dark
rays in cell Cu^; the proximal ray only to the middle of vein
CU2 + 2nd A. and the 2 distal rays reaching the anal margin of the
wing. Vein R^ slightly waved. Cell 1st M2 with only 1 hyaline area.
Thorax black dorsally and yellow ventrally. Abdomen yellow, with
black markings covering most of tergites IV-V. Ovipositor sheath
yellow tinged with black markings at its apex, measuring 0.8 mm
long. The piercer short and broad distally, measuring about 0.7
mm, gradually tapers to a sharp point, margin minutely serrated.

208
Extended ovipositor' 2.2 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 114.
Epandrium highly arched, with numerous long setae dorsally,
Surstyli modified into .2 lobes, greatly curved lobes at lower
apices and short densely setose lobes at upper apices. Proctiger
small and elongate, with long pale setae laterventrally.
Length: body 2.9-4.0 mm; wing 3.0-3.2 mm (N=20) .
Hosts: Ageratum sp.
Bidens bipinnata L.
Bidens coronata (L.) Britt.
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schutz-Bip.
Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam) Britt. & Rusby,
Distribution: Texas to North Carolina, south to Florida
north Mexico, West Indies, Bahama Islands.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2$, 30-XI-1951 (DOK, FSCA),
2<$ 2?, 16-XI-1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Gainesville, 1? ex Bidens
pilosa, ll-XI-1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); 2$ 4+, insect flight trap,
21-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 3$ 1?, insect flight trap.
29-X1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr.s, FSCA); 10. 4? insect flight trap,
7-18-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 7$ 4?, insect flight trap,
1-5~XI-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) / 3+, insect flight trap
7-10-XII-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1<5 1?, black light trap

209
2-X-1972 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); 2$, insect flight trap, 19-21-V-1973
(H. W. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 6o 2?, ex Biden pilosa, 31-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 10c? 12, reared from Bidens pilosa, 9-31-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 12$ 6?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 10-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 23$ 6?, reared from Biden pilosa 29-VII- 1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Brevard Co.: Bonaventura, 3$ 2?, bred from
Bidens pilosa. 25-V-1930 (Benjamin, USNM); Cocoa, 8$ 10?, Bidens
pilosa 17-VI-1930 (A. B. Beavers, USNM) ; Melbourne, 4$2?, bred from
Bidens pilosa, 19-VI-1930 (A. B. Beavers, USNM) Merritt Island, 1?,
29-XII-1963 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); Titusville, 2$ 1?, 8-VI-1931 (FSCA);
Citrus Co.: Inverness, 3$ 3+, bred from Bidens pilosa 28-X;
3-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Collier Co.: Ochpee, 1$ 1?,
10-VI-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) Dade Go.: 1$ 1?, insect flight
trap, 3-XI-1936 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Pk., 2$ 3?,
26-XII-1952 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,FSCA); Hialeah, 3$ 1?, swept
Heterotheca subaxillaries. 21-VII-1965 (FSCA), 1$, ex flower head
Bidens pilosa. 24-1-1971 (C. Stegmaier, Jr., USNM); Homestead 1?,
25-X-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); 2o, 30-X-1948 (O. D, Link, FSCA); 1?
Casimiroa edulis. 2-XII-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); 1$ 2?, sweeping
weeds, 6-VII-1955 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); Matheson Hamm, 9$, 8-11-
1955, (F. W. Mead, FSCA); 2$, at Bidens pilosa. 31-III-1966 (H. V.
Weems, Jr., FSCA); Miami, 2?, 5-XI-1911 (MCZ); 1$, 15-11-1923
(C. H. Curran, AMNH); 3$, reared from Bidens bipinnata. 7-X-1948
(O. D. Link, FSCA) ; 1?, 3-XL-1954 (O. D. Link, FSCA)/; Miami Spring,
1?, 17-IX-1948 (O. D. Link,FSCA); Ross & Costello Hamm; 1$ 1?,

2 ID
7-IV-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2$, 30-III-1963 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA) ,- lS, 6-VI-1963 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville,
1, in insect flight trap, 26-XI-1958 (L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Hardee
Co.: Wauchula, 5+, insect flight trap in grapefruit tree, 6-X-1968
(R. H. Rhodes, FSCA); Hendry Co.: 2^, sweeping weeds, 7-III-1955,
(R. A. Morse, FSCA); Clewiston, 2$ at Bidens pilosa, 18-X-1954
(H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Highlands, Co.: Archhold Biol. Station, 5$ 5+,
insect flight trap, 17-19-III-1975 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1$ ,
insect flight trap, 5-VI-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), 1$, 11-XIII-
1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 6$ 4+,
Bidens pilosa 21-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Indian River Co.:
Vero Beach, l£ 1?, in wet fruit fly trap, 6-III-1959 (R. H.. Kendrick,
FSCA); Jackson Co.: Cavern St. Pk., 1? 23-IV-1961 (W. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Lake Co.: Leesburg, 3<$ 3?, 1-11-III-1954 (M. Stathom, AMNH);
Mt. Dora, l£ 3?, bred from Bidens pilosa, 14-VII-1930 (E. T. Evans
& D., J. Nicholson, USNM) : T3vares,L$2? brd from Bidens pilosa, 19-VI-1930
(E. T. Evans, USNM); Leon Co.: Tallahassee l-XI-1949 (W. C., UGA);
Levy Co.: 1$ 4?, 13-III-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Manatee Co.:
Bradenton, l 1?, on flowers of Solidago stricta, 9-XII-1970
(H. R. Dodge, FSCA); Martin Co.: Indiantown, 2$ 2?, Bidens pilosa,
17-VI-1930 (Beavers, AMNH); Monroe, Co.: Everglades Nat'l Pk. l£,
taken in dense wood, 20-X-1954 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); 1?, 8-III-1955
(H. A. Denmark, FSCA); 1$, Borrichia frutescens, 12-III-1955 (H. A.
Denmark, FSCA); 3 FSCA); 1?, 25-XI-1977 (C. L. Smith, UGA); 1^,28-29-111-1978

211
(C. L. Smith, UGA) Big Pine Key, 1?, on foliage of Schinas sp.
15-11-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA), 2$ 1?, sweeping weeds, 22-III-1971
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); 1?, sweeping roadside weeds, 13-IV-1971)
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Boca Chica Key, l 1?, sweeping weeds,
ll-VII-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Key Largo; 1<$, 6-XI-1911 (MCZ) ;
2?, 30-III-1978 (C. L. Smith, UGA); 1$ 1?, 16-XI-1911 (AMNH); 1 under bark of dead tree, 2-IV-1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1?, taken
at light 19-X-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 11<$ 1?, 26-XII-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 6$, 9-IV-1955 (F. W. Mead, FSCA) 1$,
ll-IV-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Key West, 2S, sweeping weed
X-1970 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); 7$ 5$, Bidens pilosa, 18-24-III-1930
(Milner, USNM); Long Key, at light, l-V-1955 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA);
Plantaton Key, l£, at light, 27-XI-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
l£, in black light trap, 17-VII-1963 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Saddlebunch
Keys, 4$ 1?, on Flaveria linearis, 29-rXII-1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Stock Islard,- 1?, 3-X-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); 8$ 11,
black light trap XI-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA) 2?, 9-XI-1971
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); lS, 9-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Torch Key,
2$, 26-III-1935 (R. W.- Lindner, FSCA) Orange Co.: Apopka, 3$ 2?,
bred from Bidens pilosa, 21-VI-1929 (E. T. Evans, USNM); 18<£ 13?,
merged from Bidens pilosa, 9-28-IX-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM),
6$ 5?, ex Bidens pilosa, 24-30-IX-1929 ltjsNM) 3 6?, ex Bdens
pilosa 24-30-XI-1929 (MCZ), l2 2?, Bidens pilosa, 4-5-XII-1929
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); li 2?, bred from Bidens pilosa, X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); Seminole Co.: Winter Park, 4&, light

212
trap, 20-X-1940 (H. T. Fernald, FSCA) ; St, Lucie, Co.: Ft. Pierce, 3c$,
bred from Bidens pilosa, 17-18-XI-1930 (J. G. Grover, USNM); Volusia
Co.: Daytona, 1?, 7-IV-1919 (MCZ) ,- 5$, bred from Bidens pilosa,
3-8-VII-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM).
Extremely common and widespread species in the genus.
Although the wing pattern of insecta is very similar to that of
chrysura in having 3 dark rays in cell Cu^, it can be distinguished
from the latter by the proximal ray, which extends only to the middle
of vein CU2 + 2nd A.; the presence of only 1 hyaline area in cell
1st M2; and by the bicolored pleurae. The hyaline spots in between
veins +^and vein + may vary in size and shapes. In some
specimens, the proximal spot is totally absent. This species
commonly breeds in the flower heads of Bidens pilosa. The immature
stages were described by Benjamin (1934). Phillips (1946) discussed
in detail the larval morphology.
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Figs. 66, 115, 167
Aciura (Eucosmoptera) tetraspina Phillips, 1923, J. N.Y.
Entomol. Soc. 21:132, Fig. 16. Holotype ?. Type locality:
Columbia, Montana.
Slightly smaller than chrysura and insecta. Thorax black
entirely? scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars, the apical pair short.
Wing with 3 dark rays arising from dark field in cell 1st M2
extending only to middel Of cell Cu^ Vein R2 +3 normal. The 3
hyaline spots between veins R and M. more of less rounded.
4 + b 1+2

213
Cell R always with a hyaline spot. Abdomen largely yellowish, tergites
III-V dark brown. Ovipositor sheath dark brown, basal edge yel
lowish measured about 0.8 mm. The piercer short and slightly bulged
medially, about 0.7 mm long, apex gradually tapers to a sharp point.
Extended ovipositor 2.2 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig.115. Epan-
drium highly arched with scattered setae dorsal and laterally.
Surstyli truncate and curved inward at apices. Proctiger small and
elongate with fine short setae lateroyentrally.
Length: body 2.6-3.2 mm: wing 2.3-3.2 mm (N=8).
Hosts: Aqeratum houstanianum Mill.
Balduina angustiflolia (Pursh) Robinson
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Bidens pilosa L.
Eupatorium coelestlnum
Distribution: Utah to Indiana, south to nofthern Mexico
and Florida.
Florida Records: Lake Co.: Tavares, 3c$ 3?, bred from Bidens
pilosa, 24-26-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, USNM); Marion Co.: Ocala, 3$ 2?,
ex Bidens laevis, 23-25-XI-1929 IF. Walker, USNM), Orange Co.:
Orlando, 5^ 3?, bred from Balduina angustifolia, 12-20-XI-1929
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5$ 8?, bred from Ageratum houstonianum,
26-30-XII-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 3$ 1?, bred from Ageratum
houstonianum, 8-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); 3$ 3?, bred from
Ageratum houstonianum, 5-15-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
6$ 14?, bred from Ageratum houstonianum, 16-22-IX-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM) 12$ 10?, bred from Ageratum houstonianum, 1-10-X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM).

214
Easily recognized by the characters presented in the key,
tetraspina is further characterized by having an entirely black
thorax and by having vein R2 + 3 no3!- The known distribution
of this species suggests that in Florida, it probably does not occur
further south than central Florida.
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin
Zonosemata Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie, Tech,
Bull. 401:17-18. Type species: Trypeta electa Say.
Readily differentiated from other Trypetinae by the pre
dominantly yellow thorax with black maculations, a cream colored
notopleural.stripes, and brown crossbands on the wing. All head
and body bristles black, with the vertex of the head much narrower
than width of the eyes. Usually 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals
and 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals are present on the head.
Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line drawn between
postalars than to anterior supra-alars. Scutellum cream, tinged with
yellow except for 2 black spots at the lateral margin, with 2 pairs
of long black bristles. Wing consists.of brown transverse band, at
level with upper i/2 of subcostal cell, extending to cubical cell,
2nd and 3rd band in line with r-m and m crossveins, and a band over
the upper 1/2 of the apical margin of the wing. Vein R4 +^setulose.
Abdomen entirely yellow, rather thickly covered with brown-black
decumbent setae. The 5th terga with a dark brown to black marking
on each basalateral margin.

215
Tne genus probably originated in Central, possibly South
America. Of the 6 species known, 2 species are widely distributed
and abundant in the United States; only 1 species is reported from
Florida. The-biology of the 2 species has been discussed in some
detail by several authors: Peterson (1923), Benjamin (1934),
Burdette (1935), Cazier (1962), and Foott (1963). The latest
revision of the genus is that of Bush (1965).
Zonosemata electa (Say)
Figs. 67, 116, 168
Trypeta electa Say, 1830, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.
6:185-186. Holotype, unknown. Type locality: Indiana.
Easily differentiated from other known members of this
genus by having only a single pair of dark spots on the 5th terga,
and by the lack of black markings before the transverse suture on the
dorsum and on the sternopleuron. The median band of wing connected
to subapical band along the posterior magin. Scutellum with distinct
black spots laterally, just beneath the base of the 1st pair of
scutallars. Wing bases and sternopleuron with distinct dark markings.
Abdomen predominantly yellow, densely covered with brown decumbent hairs.
The ovipositor sheath, yellow, about 1.7 mm long, the apex tinged
with dark brown. The piercer slender and sharply pointed at apex,
approximately 1.6 mm long. The extended ovipositor 5.0 mm long.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 116. Epandrium nighly arched, the dorsum
yellow tinged with dark brown, covered with numerous long black

216
setae that spread laterally. Surstyli short and slightly curved
inward, the apices rounded; the proctiger large and elongate, with
numerous fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: hody 6.5-7.6 mm; wing 5.7-6.7 mm. (N-12).
Hosts: Lycopersioon esculentum Mill,
Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
Solanum carolinense L.
Distribution: Oklahoma to Ontario and south to eastern Texas
and Florida.
Florida Records: Marion Co.: Silver Springs, 1?, McPhail
trap, 29-VI-1967 (E. W. Holder, FSCA); St. Johns Co.: 4# 4?, bred
from Solanum aculeatissimum, 18-VIII-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); Bakersville,
2$ 2?, larvae transferred from Solanum carolinense r 29-30-V-1930
(M. Dodd, USNM); Riverdale, 2l 6+, bred from Solanum aculeatissimum,
15-25-V-1931 (M. Dodd, USNM); St. Augustine; 68 4?, bred from
S-Olanum carolinense 9-V-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); 6$ 3?, bred from
Solanum carolinense, 14-VI-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); l 1?, bred from
Solonam carolinense, 1Q-VI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Volusia Co.:
Daytona Beach, l5, Solanum carolinense, 5-12-V-1930 (D. R. Nicholson,
USNM); Port Orange, 2& 1?, bred from Solanum aculeatissimum
4-9-IX-193U(USNM); 8S 1+, bred from Solanum aculeatissimum,
15-29-V-1931 (USNM).
This species can be distinguished further by its size,
being generally larger, an average of 7.0 mm. Most specimens
studied had 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals, but the number varies

2175
with individuals. Commonly known as the pepper maggots, this species
is a pest of peppers. Peterson (1923), Benjamin (1934), Phillips (1946),
Bush (1966), and Styskal (1975) presented detailed descriptions of
both larval and adult stages.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Although considerable information on Florida tephritids exists,
it is widely scattered in the literature. In this dissertation, all
information pertaining to Florida tephridids, including taxonomic notes,
hosts, seasonal distribution, and information on immature stages, is
brought together, and keys to genera and species are included.
The hosts of 12 species of Florida Tephritidae are unknown. At
least 155 species of plants are known to be hosts of the other 44
species. Of these, 50% are Compositae, which serve as hosts for 29
species in 15 genera of fruit flies. Larvae feed on the developing
seeds and destroy all or most of the seeds in each head. The most
common tephritids associated with these plants are widespread and
generally occur where host plants occur. The Tephritidae associated
with Compositae are not considered of economic importance in Florida;
their value as biological agents in controlling weeds has not been
assessed. This aspect warrants further investigation.
The species of greatest economic importance in Florida and
elsewhere infest all kinds of fleshy fruits and vegetables. Cultivated
plants in Florida, particularly citrus, peach, and mango, have suffered
serious damage from the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, and
the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Anastrepha suspensa,
218

219
introduced from the West Indies, is the most common and widespread
species and poses some threat to Florida citrus. Anastrepha species
breed in fleshy fruits, and at least 2 species, A. interrupta and A.
nigrifascia, are endemic to south Florida.
The Mediterranean fruit fly became established in Florida in 1929,
1956, and 1962. Each time an intensive and expensive control campaign
was initiated, and the pest was eradicated from Florida. Continuous
trapping, especially in south Florida, hopefully will provide early
detection of any new reinfestation.
The genus Rhagoletis is Holarctic in origin and primarily inhabits
temperate climates. Its range extends into northern Florida, generally
following the distribution of the host plant species. Many of the
Florida species and distinct races of plants and animals had their
origins as isolated populations during the interglacial period. The
hosts of R. osmanthi and R. chionanthi are among the plants which have
distinct subspecies associated with the areas of Florida which were
affected by the geological changes. Both species are endemic and are
found in only a few localities in Florida. Although in North America
the genus contains economically important species, the 6 species
occurring in Florida are of little economic importance.
The pepper maggot fly, Zonosemata electa, is an important pest in
pepper growing areas of the United States and Canada. It causes only
minor damage to peppers in Florida since its distribution is generally
north of the major pepper growing areas.
Identification of fruit flies has been based primarily on the

220
characters of the wing, ovipositor, and male genitalia. Wing patterns
are used extensively for identification because the characteristic
markings are readily visible and in most cases are fairly constant.
Most fruit fly species whose courtship or pre-mating behavior have been
studied, display their wings to their potential mates. This would ex
plain why the wing patterns are so constant since they are important for
intra-specific species recognition. However, there is slight variation
in wing pattern for some species in the genus Trupanea. In cases where
wing patterns are similar, the ovipositors and/or male genitalia are
important characters for distinguishing between species. The ovipositor
characteristics are useful particularly in identifying females of the
genus Anastrepha. Male genitalia are useful in identification especially
with some species of Rhagoletis, Neaspilota, and Dioxyna.
Despite widespread occurrence of many species of tephritids,
information on their biology is scarce. Larvae of at least 32 species
of Florida tephritids have been described. Of these, 6 are known to be
host specific. The larvae of tephritids are divided into 2 basic shapes:
muscidiform, which is typical of those attacking fleshy fruits and some
vegetables, and a shortened barrel-shaped body, typical of gall makers
and some species that breed in composite flower-heads. Little is known
about the larvae of the remaining 24 species of Florida tephritids.
Much more collecting and rearing are necessary before we will have a
good understanding of the biologies and host ranges of our Florida species.
Studies on the diversity of plant and animal groups in peninsular
Florida have indicated that Florida has been an area for the evolution

221
and dispersion of flora and fauna of the southeastern Coastal Plain.
This situation is due to many factors, including the geographical position
and the physical and geological history of the state. It is not sur
prising that 56- species of the approximately 4,000 species of fruit flies
known throughout the world occur in Florida. At least 8 genera appear to
have originated in the Neotropics, 11 genera are Nearctic, 3 genera pre
sumably Palearctic, 2 genera Holarctic, and 1 genus is Ethiopian in
origin. Of the 25 genera of Tephritidae known from Florida, 17 have
representatives in the West Indies and/or Central America and 8 have
representatives elsewhere in North America. Of the 56 Florida species,
12 are endemic to Florida. At least 31 species occur in other parts of
the United States, while 13 species are common to Florida and West Indies.
It is likely that some of these eventually will be found in neighboring
states or in the West Indies.

Wing Patterns of Florida Tephritidae
Fig. 12. Acidogona melanura (Loew), ?
Fig. 13. Acinia fucata (Fabricius), ?
Fig. 14. Acrotaenia testudnea (Loew) (Loew), ?
Fig. 15. Anastrepha edentata Stone, ?
Fig. 16. Anastrepha interrupta Stone, +
Fig. 17. Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone, ?
Fig. 18. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), ?
Fig. 19. Anastrepha ocresia (Walker),?
Fir. 20. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), ?
Fig. 21. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), ?


Fig. 22.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot), +
Fig. 23.
Dioxyna thomae (Curran), ¥
Fig. 24.
Dyseuresta mexicana (Wiedemann), ¥
Fig. 25.
Euleia fratria (Loew), $
Fig. 26.
o
Euaresta aequalis (Loew), +
Fig. 27.
Euaresta bella (Loew), ?
Fig. 28.
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew), +
Fig. 29.
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann), ?
Fig. 30.
Eurosta donysa (Walker),?
Fig. 31.
Eurosta fenestrata Snow, $


Fig.
32.
Eurosta floridensis Foote, +
Fig.
33.
Myoleja limata (Coquillett),
?
Fig.
34.
Myoleja nigricornis (Doane),
t
Fig.
35.
Myoleja rhino Steyskal, ?
Fig.
36.
Neaspilota achilleae (Loew),
9
+
Fig.
37.
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin, 5
)
Fig.
38.
Neaspilota floridana Rohani,
n. sp
Fig.
39.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin,
Fig.
40.
Neaspilota vernoniae (Loew),
?
Fig.
41.
Parancantha culta (Wiedemann)
, ?


Fig.
42.
. O
Paracantha forfcula Benjamin, -t-
Fig.
43.
Peronyma sarcinata (Loew), ¥
Fig.
44.
Procecidochares atra (Loew),
Fig.
45.
Procecidochares australis Aldrich, ¥
Fig.
46.
Procecidochares polita (Loew), ¥
Fig.
47.
Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata (Loew),
Fig.
48.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush, ?
Fig.
49.
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush, ?
Fig.
50.
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), ¥
Fig.
51.
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush, ¥

229

Pig.
52.
. o
Rhagoletis raendax Curran, +
Fig.
53.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew), $
Fig.
54.
Strauzia longipennis Widedmann, ?
Fig.
55.
Tphri.tis subpura (Loew) ?
Fig.
56.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say), ?
Fig.
57.
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Fig.
58.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew), ?
Fig.
59.
Trupanea ageratae Benjamin, o
Fig.
60.
Trupanea dacetoptera. ?
Fig.
61.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin, ?

231

Fig.
62.
Trupanea mevarna Walker, ?
Fig.
63.
Xanthaciura
chrysura (Thomson), ?
Fig.
64.
Xanthaciura
connexionis Benjamin,
Fig.
65.
Xanthaciura
insecta (Loew), ?
Fig.
66.
Xanthaciura
tetrapina (Phillips,)
Fig.
67.
Zonosemata <
electa (Say), ?

233

Male Genitalia of Florida Tephritidae
Fig. 68.
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Fig. 69.
Acinia: fucata Fabricias
Fig. 70.
Acrotaenia testudinea (Loew)
Fig. 71.
Anastrepha edentafa Stone
Fig. 72.
Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Fig. 73.
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Fig. 74.
Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)
Fig. 75.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Fig. 77.
Dioxynapicciola (Bigot)

2 35

Fig.
78.
Dioxyna thomae
(Curran)
Fig.
79.
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Fig.
80.
Euleia fratria
(Loew)
Fig.
81.
Euaresta aequalis (Loew)
Fig.
82.
Euaresta bella
(Loew)
Fig.
83.
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
Fig.
84.
Eurosta comma
(Wiedemann)
Fig.
85.
Eurosta donysa
(Walker)
Fig.
86.
Eurosta fenestrata Snow
Fig.
87.
Myoleja limata
(Coquillett)

2 37
82

Fig.
88.
Myoleja nigricornis (Doane)
Fig.
89.
Myoleja rhino Steyskal
Fig.
90.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Fig.
91.
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Fig.
92.
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n.sp
Fig.
93.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Fig.
94.
Neaspilota vernoniae (Loew)
Fig.
95.
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Fig.
96.
Paracantha forficula Benjamin
Fig.
97.
Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)

239

Fig. 98.
Procecidochares atra (Loew)
Fig. 99.
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Fig. 100.
Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata (Loew)
Fig..101.
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Fig. 102.
Rhgoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Fig. 103.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Fig. 104.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)
Fig. 105.
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
Fig. 106.
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Fig. 107.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)


Fig. 108.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Fig. 109.
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Fig. 110.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Fig. 111.
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Fig. 112.
Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
Fig. 113.
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Fig. 114.
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Fig. 15.
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Fig. 116.
Zonosemata electa (Say)


Fig. 117. Distribution map of Acidogona melanura (Loew);
specific locality record ().

245

Fig. 118. Distribution of map Acinia fucata (Fabricius);
Specific locality record (), county record ().

247

Fig. 119. Distribution map of Acrotaenia
specific locality record ().
testudinea (Loew),

249

Fig. 120. Distribution map of Anastrepha edentata Stone.
specific locality record (), county record().

251

Fig. 121. Distribution map of Anastrepha interrupta Stone
specific locality record () county record ()

253

Fig. 122. Distribution map of Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone;
specific locality record ().

255.

Fig. 123. Distribution map of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart);
specific locality record ().

257

Fig. 124. Distribution map of Anastrepha ocresia (Walker);
specific locality record ().

259

Fig. 125. Distribution map of Ar.astrepha suspensa (Loew) ;
specific locality record (), county record().

261

Fig. 126. Distribution map of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
specific locality record (), county record ().

26a


Fig. 127. Distribution map of Dioxyna picciola (Biaot)
specific locality record (), county record ().

265

Fig. 128.
Distribution map of Dioxyna thomae (Curran);
specific locality record (), county record ().

263

Fig. 129. Distribution map of Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann);
specific locality record (), county record () .

269

Fig. 130. Distribution map of Euleia fratria (Loew);
specific locality record ().

271

Distribution map of Euaresta aegualis (Loew)
specific locality record ().
Fig. 131.

273

Fig. 132.
(-) .
Distribution map of Euaresta bella (Loew);
specific locality record () county record

275


Fig. 133. Distribution map of Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
specific locality record () .

27.7;

Fig. 134. Distribution map of Eurosta comma
specific locality record ().
(Wiedemann),

279

Distribution map of Eurosta donysa (Walker)
specific locality record ().
Fig. 135.

281

Fig. 136 Distribution map of Eurosta fenestrata Snow;
specific locality record ().

283

Fig. 137.
Distribution map of Eurosta floridensis Foote
specific locality record ().

285

Fig. 138.
Distribution map of Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
specific locality record (), county record ()

2'87

Fig. 139. Distribution map of Myoleja rhino (Steyskal;
fpecific locality record () county record ( ).

289

Fig. 140. Distribution of Neaspilota achilleae Johnson;
specific locality record ().

291

Distribution map of Neaspilota dolosa
specific locality record (), county
Benjamin;
record ( ).
Fig. 141

293

Fig. 142.
Distribution map of Neaspilota floridana Rohani,
specific locality record ().
n. sp.

295

Fig. 143.
Distribution map of Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin;
specific locality record () county record ( ) .

297

Fig. 144. Distribution map of Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
specific locality record (), county record ()

299

Fig. 145. Distribution map of Paracantha forfcula Benjamin;
specific locality record (#).

301
O

Fig. 146.
Distribution map of Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)
specific locality record () .

303

Distribution map of Procecidochares australis Aldrich;
specific locality record ().
Fig. 147.

305

Distribution map of Procecidochares polita (Loew)
specific locality record ().
Fig. 148.

307

Fig. 149. Distribution map of Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata
(Loew); specific locality record ().

309

Fig. 150. Distribution map of Ragoletis chionanthi Bush;
specific locality record () county record () .

311

Fig. 151. Distribution map of Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush;
specific locality record () county record (&)

3ia

Fig. 152. Distribution map of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh);
specific locality record ().

3 IS

Fig. 153. Distribution map of Ragoletis cornivora Bush;
specific locality record ().

317

Fig. 154.
Distribution map of Rhagoletis mendax Curran;
specific locality record () county record () .

319

Fig. 155. Distribution map of Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
specific locality record ().

321

Fig. 156. Distribution map of Tephritis subpura (Loew);
specific locality record () county record ().

323

Fig. 157. Distribution map of Tomoplagia obligua
specific locality record (), county record ()#

325

Fig. 158. Distribution map of Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker;
specific locality record (); county record ().

327

Distribution map of Trupanea actinobola (Loew);
specific locality record (), county record. () .
Fig. 159.

329

Fig. 160.
Distribution map of Trupanea ageratae Benjamin;
specific locality record ().

331

Fig. 161. Distribution map of Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
specific locality record () .

333

Fig. 162. Distribution map of Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
specific locality record ().

335

Distribution map of Trupanea mevarna
specific locality record (), county
(Walker);
record () .
Fig. 163.

327

Fig. 164. Distribution map of Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
specific locality record ().

339

Distribution map of Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
specific locality record (), county record ().
Fig. 165.

341

Distribution map of Xanthaciura insecta (Loew);
specific locality record () county record ().
Fig. 166.

I
3143

Fig. 167. Distribution map of Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
specific locality record ().

345

Fig. 168. Distribution map of Zonosemata electa (Say)
specific locality record ().

3:47

LITERATURE CITED
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348

349
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350
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Woods, W. C.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Rohani Binti Ibrahim was born on December 13, 1950, in Pasir
Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia. She received her secondary education from
Suita Ibrahim School in Kelantan. In May 1972, she graduated with
a Diploma in Agriculture from College of Agriculture, Serdang,
Selangor.
Prior to entering the University of Florida, she joined the
Department of Agriculture, Kelantan, as an Agricultural Assistant.
In September 1972, she entered University of Florida to begin work
in Entomology with a scholarship from Public Service Department,
Malaysia. She received the Bachelor of Science degree with honors
in August 1974 and Master of Science degree in June 1976. In Fall
1976, she enrolled herself in a doctoral program with a scholarship
from University of Agriculture, Malaysia. Currently, she is a candi
date for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Rohani Binti Ibrahim is married to Yusoh Bin Salleh and has
2 lovely daughters, Sharila and Melissa Johannie. She is a member
of Entomological Society of America.
35-6

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
/
A; ^
/>
/ jA
Dale H. Habeck, Chairman
Professor of Entomology and
Nematology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Howard V. Weems, Jr., Co-chairman
Adjunct Professor of Entomology
and Nematology
I certifiy that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
George E.
3^
Allen
Professor of Entomoloy
and Nematology

I certify taht I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor ofPhilosophy.
Professor of Plant Pathology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Agriculture and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
June 1980
Dean, Graduate School



149
Length: body 3.5-4;4 mm; wing 3.4-4.0 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: Unknown for Florids species. In Kansas,
Schwitzgebel and Wilbur (1943) reported Vernonia interior (Rydb.)
as the host for the species.
Distribution: Michigan to Massachussets, south to Kansas
and Florida.
Florida Records: Foote (1965) indicated that the species
was found in Florida, but no specific location was given. Nothing is
known about the immature stages of this species. The specimens used in
this study were obtained from Long Island, New York since no Florida
materials were available.
Genus Paracantha Coquillett
Paracantha Coquillett, 1899, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
7:254. Type species: Trypeta culta Wiedemann.
Members of this genus with distinctive wing pattern that
easily distinguished them for other tepritids. All known species
of Paracantha have the dark markings on the wings, ray-like in the
margin, and cell R¡_ with bulla always present. Head with conspicu
ous and contrasting black spots. Head and thorax ochraceous yellow,
with strong black and yellowish-white bristles. Three pairs of
upper fronto-orbital bristles set inside the line of lowerfront-
orbital bristles. Dorsocentral bristles in front of supra-alars,
closer to the transverse suture. Scutellum with 2 pairs of strong
black bristles. Abdomen yellowish brown, tergites with numerous
dark brown setae.


Hosts by Fruit
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Hieracium argyraeum Small
Hieracium qrpnovii (L.)
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Hieracium sp.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Plchca foetida (L.) DC
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Pluchea purpurescens (Sw.) DC
Pluchea rosea Godfrey
Pluchea sp
Acrotaenia testudinea (Loew)
No host information
Anastrepha edentata Stone
No host information
Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Schoepfia schreberi J. F. Gmel
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Manilkara bahamensis
(Bak.) Lam. & Meeuse
Manilkara zapota (L.) von Royen
Anastrepha pbliqua (Macquart)
Mangifera indica L.


2 35


4
The antennae are 3 segmented. The 3rd antennal segment
i -
(3AS) bears the arista (A) which may be varicolored. The 3rd
segment is rounded especially, but sometimes has a distinct
apicodoral point.
The proboscis is composed of the rostrum and labellum (L).
In Genus, Dioxyna, the labellum is slender and attached by its
anterior end to the rosturm, forming a geniculate mouthpart.
Thorax. (Fig. 4). The coloration and thoracic pattern
are usually useful for generic and species separation. The basic
color of the thorax is black, brown, or yellow pollinose. The meso-
notum is interrupted by an incomplete transverse suture (TS). The
chaetotaxy of the mesonotum is of generic significance. The rela
tive position of the dorsocentral (DC) and acrostichal bristles
(ACR) to the suture and supra-alars (ASA) are of great value in identi
fication. All species of Florida tephritids usually have the follow
ing bristles present: 1 pair of humeral (H), 1 pair of presutural
(PS), 1 pair of intraalars (IAL), 1 pair of acrostichals (ACR),
1 pair of dorsocentrals (DC), 2 pairs of notopleurals (N), and
1-2 pairs of scutellar bristles (SC). The scutellum can be dis
tinctly enlarged cr swollen, shining dark brown or black, and the
postseutellum and metanotum sometimes can bear color patterns of
importance. Chaetotaxy of the legs is less significant except
for the minute preapical setae on the venter of hind tibia of
Neaspilota, and swollen femur in males of Euaresta. The colora
tion of femur may be important in identification.


198
Head shape and chaetotaxytypical of the genus: yellowish
brown with pollinose gray; anterior oral margin not markedly
produced; 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, 3 pairs of lower fronto-
orbitals the anterior pair being weaker. Mesonotum gray pollinose
with one pair of dorsocentrals closer to the transverse suture.
Abdomen opaque; ovipositor sheath shining black, approximately
equal in length to the piercer, being 1.0 mm long respectively,
apex of the piercer, long, gradually tapered into a sharp point.
Extended ovipositor 3.0 mm. Male genitalia small; epandrium highly
arched; surstyli relatively short curved inward, apex blunt, more
of less truncate; proctiger small with scattered long setae (Fig. 109) .
Length: body 3.3-4.2 mm; wing 3-3.5 mm. (N=4) .
Hosts: Gnaphalium obtusifolium.' L.
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Schinner var. microcephala
(Small) Shinners
Distribution: N.Y.; Michigan; Maine to Florida.
Florida Records: Gadsden Co.; Chattahoochee, 1?, 30-IV-
1952 (O. Peck, CNC); Orange Co.: Orlando, 6$ 11+, bred from
Gnaphalium obtusifolium, 4-13-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM), 1$ 1?,
bred from Gnaphlium obtusifolium, 29-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
2c? 3$, bred from Gnaphalium obtusifolium, 12-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); 1<$ 1?, bred from Heterotheca nervosa var. microcephala,
l-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
This species is less common than some other species in the
genus, being found only in some Florida counties. Virtually


154
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Cocoa Beach, 9c? 14?,
bred from Borrichia frutescens, 16-31-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Merritt Islands, 8c? 6?, Borrichia frutescens, 19-V-1930
(D. J. Nichoson, USNM) ; Wilson, 1<5, bred from Borrichia frutescens,
21-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Miami, 2 head of Borrichia frutescens, ll-VI-1966 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM);
Flagler Co.: Flager Beach, 2$ 1?, bred from Borrichia frutescens ,
19-V-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Monroe Co.: Boca Chica, 1 bred from Borrichia frutenscens, 12-13-V-1930 (Pope & White,
USNM); Marathon Key, 1?, ex-Borrichia frutescens, 24-VI-1970
(C. E. Stegmaier, USNM).
Larvae breed singly in the flower head of Borrichia
frutescens and about 3/4 the size of culta larvae (Benjamin,
1934) This species is very close to culta, but it is usually
smaller, with an average length of 4.7 mm, with 2 dark marks on the
fore femur and with a smaller parafrontal spot. Phillips (1923)
erroneously figured the wing of forficula as culta. This species
is not widespread and is rarely encountered in field collecting '
due to lack of good field work. Additional records were given by
Stegmaier (1967).
Genus Peronyma Loew
Peronyma Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 11(256):256.
Type species: Trypeta sarcinata Loew.
Readily differentiated from other known Florida tephritid
by its oblique dark pattern on the wing, by the swollen bilobed


120
Florida Records: Hamilton Co.: Jasper, 85 2?, bred from
Solidaqo root galls, 19-26-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Lake
Co.: Groveland, 8-XII-1966 (W. P. Henderson, FSCA); Tavares,
8 4?, bred from Solidago sp. root gall, 6-13-XII-1930 (D, J. Nicholson
USNM) ; Orange Co. : Fort Christmas, 4<5 1?, bred from Solidago
fistulosa, 30-XII-1930'(D. JT.. Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 12(5 10?,
bred from root galls of Solidago sp., 3-14-XII-1929 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); 12(5 5?, bred from Solidago fistulosa 7-11-1-1931 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); 2?, bred from Solidago fistulosa galls,
15-16-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; 82(5 33?, bred from Solidago
fistulosa, 19-29-XII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlovista,
30(5 8?, bred from Solidago root galls, 5-12-1-1930 (D. J. Nichoson,
USNM); Seminole Co.: Oviedo, 5(5 2?, bred from Solidago sp. root
galls, 5-21-11931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 12(5 4?, bred from
Solidago root galls, 21-28-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
Probably the most commonly collected species of this genus
in North America and Florida. This species is differentiated from
other known Eurosta by the distinctive pattern on the wing; the
narrow crescentic hyaline mark at the apex of the wing is
broken into small spots by darkening about ends of 3rd and 4th
veins, also the pale marking at the end of anal vein is little
developed, not extending over 1/2 way across cell Cui.-
Larvae of this species normally feed singly in galls on
roots of golden rods. Benjamin (1934) and Phillips (1946) des
cribed the larval morphology.


Fig. 146.
Distribution map of Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)
specific locality record () .


62
Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars. Wing marking with an inverted
V-shaped and S-shaped brown bands, with other markings at the base.
Vein Mi + 2 distinctly curving anteriorly at apex. Vein setose
entire length. Vein R4 + 5 setose to beyond r-m crossvein. Legs
entirely yellow. Abdomen with numerous brown hairs on the tergites.
Ovipositor sheath, a subcylindrical tapering tube, at least 2 times
as long as width at the base.
The genus is restricted to the New World, and ranges from
latitude 27N to 35S. Members of this genus are the most important
native pests of a broad spectrum of fruits, vegetables, and other
crops in tropical and subtropical America. Of the 155 described
species, only 16 are known to occur within the United States, and
6 species have been recorded from Florida. Studies on the biology
and identification of Anastrepha species have been summarized at
some length by Weems (1965, 1967a, 1967b, 1968a, 1968b, and 1970).
The revision of the genus by Stone (1942a)remains the standard work
for the identification of the species. Steyskal (1977b) provided a
pictorial key to all the species. Bush (1962) presented the cyto-
toxonomy of the larvae for some Mexican species in this genus.
Key to the Florida Species of Anastrepha"*'
1. Wing pattern predominantly dark brown; distal arm of V-band
reduced or separated from proximal arm or narrowly joined to
^This key is designed for females. Satisfactory characters
that can be used in a key have not yet been discovered for most
males.


Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Bidens pilosa L.
Eupatorium coelestinum L.
Zonosemata electa (Say)
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.
Solanum carolinense L.


257


compound microscope with phase and interference contrast, using
26 x 36 mm Panatomic film.


335


201
Length: body 3,5-4.0 mm; wing 3.4-3.9 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala
(Small) SkirtfterJa
Heterotheca oligantha (Chapm.) Harms.
Heterotheca sp.
Distribution: Rhode Island to Kansas; Alabama and Florida
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1?, sweeping
weed, 26-VIII-1955 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); lS, open vacant myrcinite-grass,
30-V-1967 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); Brevard Co.: Malabar, 3^, bred from
tender top of Heterotheca sp., 11-12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
1?,. bred from tender tip of Heterotheca sp., 22-25-V-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM) ; Duval Go.: Jacksonville, 1 2<$ 2?, 14-20-VIII-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA),- Holmes Co: Ponce
De Leon, 1?, reared from Heterotheca oligantha, 29-V-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Bonifay, l5 2?, bred from Heterotheca oligantha,
2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Lake Co.: Tavares, 2?, bred from
Heterotheca sp., 10-15-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Marion Co.r
Ocala, lS, 5-XI-1932 .(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Martin Co.: 1$, 5-XI-
1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Nassau Co.: 3+, reared from Heterotheca
oligantha, 16-18-IV-1979 (R. A. Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Orange
Co.: Orlando, 3$ 12?, bred from Chrysopsis graminifolia, 10-28-X-
1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM). Santa Rosa Co.: Milton, 1<$ 3?, 20-VIII-
1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Volusia Co.: Benson Spg., 1$ 1?,
bred from Heterotheca nervosa var. microcephala, 24-VI-1932 (Pope
& White, USNM).


353
Prokopy, R. J., and G. L. Bush. 1972, Mating behavior in Rhagoletis
pomonella. Ill, Male aggregation in response to an arrestant.
Can Entomol. 104:275-283,
Pruitt, H. G. 1953, Identification of fruit fly larvae frequently
intercepted at ports of entry of the United States.
M.S, Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. 69p.
Quinsenberry, B. F. 1949. Notes and description of North American
Tephritidae. J. Kans, Entomol. Soc. 22:81-88,
1950. The genus Euaresta in the United States. J. N.Y. Entomol.
Soc. 58:9-38.
1951. The study of the genus Tephritis Latreille in the
Nearctic Region north of Mexico. J. Kans. Entomol.
Soc. 24:56-72.
Rohwer, G. G. 1943. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Florida:
past, present, and future. Fla. Entomol. 41:23-25.
Schwitzgebel, R. B., and D. A. Wilbur. 1943. Diptera associated
with iron weeds, Vernonia interior, in Kansas, J. Kans.
Entomol. Soc. 16:4-13. ,
Simanton, W. A. 1958. Studies of Mediterranean fruit fly lures
in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 51:679-682.
Snodgrass, R. E. 1924. Anatomy and metamorphosis of apple
maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh. J. Agrie. Res.
28:1-36.
Stegmaier, C. J., Jr. 1967. Notes on a seed feeding Tephritidae,
Paracantha forfcula (Diptera) in Florida. Fla.
Entomol. 50:157-160.
1968a. Host plant records of Dyseuaresta mexicana (Diptera:
Trephritidae) with notes on its life history in Florida,
Fla. Entomol. 51:19-21.
1968b. Notes on the biology of Trupanea actinobola (Diptera:
Tephritidae). Fla. Entomol. 51:95-99.
Steiner, L. F., D. Miyashita, and L. D. Christenson, 1957.
Angelica seed oil as Mediterranean fruit fly lures.
J.Econ. Entomol. 50:505.


305


15B
principally Artemissia, Chrysothamnus, Grindellia Solidago sp.
(Foote, 1960b). The latest complete revision of the genus is
that by Aldrich (1929).
Key to the Florida Species Of Procecidochares
1. Two pairs of dorsocentral bristles, 1 anterior and 1 posterior
to the suture; legs with femora black 2
1'. One pair of dorsocentral bristles, always posterior to the
suture; legs wholly yellow polita Loew
2. Acrostichal seta running into a large group of setae before
the suture, filling the space between the dorsocentrals;
the distal dark band touches the apical margin just anterior
of vein + australis Aldrich
2'. Acrostichal setae in a single or double row anteriorly; the
distal dark band touches the apical margin behind the vein
M, atra Loew
Procecidochares atra Loew
Figs. 44, 98
Trypeta atra Loew, 1862, Berlin Entomol. Zeitsch. 6:210.
Holotype Type locality: New York.
Differentiated from all known Florida Procecidochares by
having the following characters: thorax black, with round polished
areas on each side between dorsocentral bristles and notopleurae
surrounded by 1 or 2 rows of flattened white setae; with 2 rows
of white acrostichal setae. Two pairs of dorsocentral bristles


156
transverse suture; posterior notopleuron swollen and darkened.
A pair of submedian strips extending length of mesonotum. Dorsum
of thorax and scutellum with numerous short, stout yellow setae.
Wing pattern as in Fig. 43. Node of vein R2 and posterior 1/2 of
stigma with rufous markings. Wing predominantly brown, the apical
bend forked in cell R5. Costal margin of the dark band more or less
¡serrated. Proximal anal areas dark brown except for a hyaline
area in cell Cu^. Abdomen dark brown with numerous dark setae.
Female ovipositor long, about 6.5 mm. The ovipositor sheath 2.5
mm, dark brown with numerous dark brown to black setae, the distal
tip tinged with black. The piercer long and slender, about 1.9
mm long, apex tapered gradually to a sharp point. The male geni
talia as in Fig. 97. Epandrium black with dense long black setae
dorsolaterally. Surstyli broad, apices truncate. Proctiger small
and elongate, with numerous fine setae dorsally and lateroventrally.
Length: body 4.5-6-0 mm; wing 5.0-6.5 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: Heterotheca trichophylla Nutt.
Distribution: North Carolina, south to Alabama and Florida.
Florida Records: Orange Co.: Apopka, 1?, reared from
galls; on crown growth of Heterotheca trichophylla,22-1-1931
(T. B. Kline & E. T. Evans, USNM); Bithlo, l from crown growth of Heterotheca trichophylla, 13-1-1931 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM).


Genus Zonosemata Benjamin
Zonosemata Benjamin, 1934:17. Type species Trypeta electa Say,
by original designation.
electa (Say), 1830:185 (Trypeta)
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy
Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830:718. Type species, inermis
Robineau-Desvoidy (Coquillett, 1910:609 = longipennis
(Wiedemann).
longipennis (Wiedemann), 1830:483 (Trypeta).
Genus Euleia Walker
Euleia Walker, 1835:81. Type species, Musca onopordinis Fabricius,
by monotypy.
fratria (Loew), 1862:67 (Trypeta).
Genus Tomcplagia Coquillett
Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910:591, 615. Type species, Trypeta
obliqua Say, automatic.
obliqua (Say), 1830:186 (Trypeta).


Fig. 144. Distribution map of Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
specific locality record (), county record ()


Fig.
88.
Myoleja nigricornis (Doane)
Fig.
89.
Myoleja rhino Steyskal
Fig.
90.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Fig.
91.
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Fig.
92.
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n.sp
Fig.
93.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Fig.
94.
Neaspilota vernoniae (Loew)
Fig.
95.
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Fig.
96.
Paracantha forficula Benjamin
Fig.
97.
Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)


176
(W. D. White, USNM), Tampa, 1 6-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 7c?, bred from Vaccinium arboreum
10-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Levy Co.; Chiefland, 2$ 1?,
14-V-1930 (M. S.Glameny, USNM); lc?, bred from Vaccinium arboreum,
1-3-X-1930 (H. Hammond, USNM); Marion Co.: Belleview, 2$,
bred from sparkleberry, 16-XI-1929 (F. Walker, USNM). Putnam Co.;
o
1+, bred from Vaccinium arboreum, 14-X-1930 (USNM).
Although mendax, pomonella, and cornivora resemble each
other closely, there are constant differences between these species.
Bush (1966) stated that the surstyli differs markedly and that
mendax has different host requirements. Females, however, possess
no morphological characters that separate them from females of
pomonella and cornivora. In Florida, the adults of mendax have
been reared from 2 species of Vaccinium only. Woods (1915),
Lathrop and Nickles (1932), and Hall (1943) reviewed the biology
and the host relationship of this species.
Genus Stenopa Loew
Stenopa Loew, 1873. Smiths. Mise. Colect. 11(256)¡234.
Type species; Trypeta vulnerata Loew.
Readily differentiated from other Tephritinae by its dark
body and by the distinctive banding of the wing. Head rather
narrow, much higher than long, with numerous stout hairs. Genae
and parafrontal yellowish white, densely white tomentose. Front
narrow ochraceous yellow. Two pairs of upper fronto-orbitals


295


2 37
82


Fig. 136 Distribution map of Eurosta fenestrata Snow;
specific locality record ().


Fig. 127. Distribution map of Dioxyna picciola (Biaot)
specific locality record (), county record ().


186
Distribution: Nebraska to New York, south to Arizona:
northern Mexico, Florida and Cuba.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1?, in
McPhail trap, 13-XI-1967 (A. E. Graham, FSCA) ,- Broward Co.:
Fbl Lauderdale, 1S, in McPhail trap, 30-XII-1959 (G. W. Spencer,
FSCA); Plantation, 1?, in Steiner trap, 16-IV-1973 (J. A. Tucoulat,
FSCA); Collier Co.: lS, 24-XI-1969 (K. Hickman, FSCA); Dade Co.:
1<5 1?, 17-XI-1936 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Homestead, 4c$ 1?, on
Casimiroa edulis, 2-VII-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Miami, 1?,
I-XII-1953 (O. D. Link, FSCA) ; Hillsborough Co. : 6 from Vernonia scaberrima,ll-VI-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); Tampa,
1<5, bred from Vernonia blodgetti, 10-VI-1930 (F. S. Blanton,
FSCA); Thonotosassa, 19(? 6?, bred from Vernonia blodgetti,
8-20-VI-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); Indian River Co.: Vero Beach,
l?x in McPhail, 28-XI-1972 (R. H. Kendrich, FSCA); Lake Co.:
Fruitland Park, 3o 4+, bred from Vernonia sp., 23-28-VI-1930
(E. T. Evans, USNM); Marion Co.: Bay Lake, 1?, in Steiner trap,
9-1-1973 (J. C. Taylor, FSCA); Ocala, 2$ 1?, bred from Vernonia
gigantea, 14-VII-1930 (E. T. Evans, & D. J. Nicholson, USNM) 7.
Orange Co.: Orlando 5 II-14-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 6$, bred from Vernonia
scaberrima.J.7-19-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5<$ 2?, bred
from Vernonia scaberrima 21-26-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Palm Beach Co.: Terrytown, 1?, stickyboard trap in guava tree,
22-XI-1965 (W. W. Smith; FSCA); Santa Rosa Co.t Milton, 1?,
26-X-1832 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA).


17 i
This species, as well as the closely related chionanthi,
is more extensively marked with yellow than the northeastern
population of cingulata. However, it is difficult to differentiate
between the Florida representatives of the cingulata group as they
have similar color patterns. It is more difficult to differeniate
osmanthi from chionanthi as both have a forked apical wing band;
however, osmanthi is slightly larger and can be allochronically
isolated from the latter. Bush (1966) discussed the diagnostic
characters of this species.
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Figs. 50, 102, 152
Trypeta pomonella Walsh, 1967, Amer. J. Hort. 2:343.
Lectotype ?. No locality (MCZ).
Differentiated from other known Rhagoletis by the wing
pattern (Fig. 50) and bicolored halteres. The medial band of
wing connected to apical band in cell and R2, and to subapical
band in cell R5 and part of cell 1st M2. Hyaline area between
apical band and costa narrow at junction of R-^ and costa, but
broadening posteriorly. Anterior margin of apical band smooth or
broken in step-like fashion. The medial band broadly joined
the basal band along Cu2 + 2nd A. Thorax black, dorsum with
numerous white short setae and white pollinose microtrichia
2 long submedian bands. Submedian bands extend from anterior
margin of mesonotum and posteriorly to a point in line with base


160
Procedidochares australis Aldrich
Figs. 45, 99, 147
Procecidorchares australis Aldrich, 1929, Proc. U.S. Nat.
Mus. 76:9. Holotype + Waco, Texas (OSNM).
Closely resembles atra in having 2 pairs of dorsocentral
bristles and black femora. Differing from the latter by its wing
pattern and by the characters on the thorax and abdominal terga.
Mesonotal areas bewteen dorsocentral bristles with numerous short
blunt golden setae. The distal band of wing connected to
inverted V-band at apical 1/3 of vein + and touches apical
margin just anterior of vein. (Fig. 45), Ovipositor sheath
4+5
shining black with numrous black hairs, approximately 1.6 mm long,
Piercer long and slender, about 1.1mm; apex gradually tapers to
a sharp point. Extended ovipositor 3.0 mm long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 99. Epandrium wide with long fine setae on the dorsum.
Surstyli elongate and curved slightly inward, tip blunt. Pro
tiger elongate with few setae at apex.
Length: body 2.0-4.6 mm; wing 3.Q>-3..3mm. (N=12) .
Hosts: Conyza canadensis (L.) Conquist
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby
Distribution: Texas, South Carolina and Florida.
Florida Record: Alachua Co.: 1£, 24-IX-1954 (H. V.
Weems, Jr., USNM); Gainesville, 2?f reared ex-Heterotheca
subaxillaries, 14-X-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA), 1$ 1?, reared
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 13-21-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Bay Co.:


76
(O. D. Link, FSCA) ; 2 FSCA); lS, 1? in McPhail trap, 14-IV-1936 (O. D. Link, FSCA); l 1?,
in McPhail trap, 6-XI-1958 (G. W. Campell, FSCA) l5, in wet fruit
fly trap, 15-V-1959 (G. W. Campell, FSCA); Hobe Sound, lS in McPhail
trap, 1-I1-1962 (E. E. Prange, FSCA); l5, McPhail trap in rose
apple, 23-III-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Port Sewell, (paratype) 4, trap,
13-III-1936 (O. D. Link, USNM); 3<$ 3?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit
trees, 15-20-IV-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Salerno, 1<$, in McPhail
trap in Mango tree, 30-III-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Sewell point,
lS, in McPhail trap, 12-V-1961 (E. Prange, FSCA); Stuart, 2<$, in
McPhail trap. 14-IV-1936 (0. D. Link,FSCA); l6 1?, in McPhail trap,
15-IV-1960 (E. W. Campell; FSCA); 2& 2? in McPhail trap, 25-29-
V-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 1<$, in McPhail
trap, 26-1-1936 (T. J. Cooper, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Pk, 20-X-1954
(H. Denmark, FSCA); Palm Beach, West Palm Beach (paratype) 1?,
trap, 12-III-1936 (C. D. Link, USNM) ; l5 1?, in McPhail trap in
grapefruit 6-XI-1963 (M. L. Messec, FSCA), St. Lucie Co.: Ft. Pierce,
1?, in McPhail trap, 13-V-1936 (R. W. Lindner, FSCA); 2& 3?, in trap
ll-V-1956 (R. A. Murphy, FSCA). Jensen, 25 2?, in McPhail trap,
7-TV-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA). St. Lucie, l5, wet bait trap,
28-V-1956 (A. E. Irana, USNM)
Female of this species closely resembles suspensa, except
for the shape of the piercer of the ovipositor and the infuscation
on the wing. Unlike suspensa, this species has never been found to
be of economic importance. Nothing is known about the biology,


107
sp., 21-22-X-1930 (Connors, USNM); 1+ reared from Melanthera
nivea 29-V-1930 (Benjamin, USNM); Collier Co.: 2?, l-XII-1955
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) ; Levy Co.: Williston, 6c?, bred from
Melanthera nivea, 9-10-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Monroe
Co.: Bahia Honda Key, 1+, tidal flat, 10-IV-1966 (D. H. Habeck,
FSCA); Big Pine Key, 1(5, 30-XII-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
Boca Chica Key, 1<5 3?, 16-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Cape Sable,
4 c? 2+, 21-III-1953 (W. R. M. Mason, CNC); Everglades Nat'l Pk.,
It, 20-X-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Grassy Key, le?, 3-IV-
1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Key Largo, le?, 26-XII-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); le? 26-XII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); 1<5, 26-XII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Loggerhead Key,
1(5 1?, 15-17-III-1973 (R. Thorington & J. Layne, USNM); Middle
Cape Sable; 2S 1+, 7-IV-1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Plantation
Key, 3(5, 27-XI-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Stock Is., 1<5,
9-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA). Palm Beach Co.: West Palm Beach,
1(5, 15-1-1957 (H. G. Dyar, USNM).
The wing pattern is similar to that of Euaresta bella
(Loew), but it is easily differentiated by the presence of only
2 hyaline areas in cell R^. Larvae infest flower heads of certain
composite plants. Stegmaier (1968a) studied the life history of
the species.


203
yellow usually without exceptional armature except in chrysura
(Thomson)and insecta (Loew). Abdomen entirely yellow or tinged
with brown on the dorsum of the last 1 or 2 abdominal segments.
As far as is known, the larvae of all species inhabit the
flower heads of composites. Of the 14 species in the genus, only
4 are North American with all 4 species reported from Florida.
The latest revision is by Aczel (1949).
Key to the Florida Species o'f Xanthaciura
1. Wing with 2 hyaline spots in between vein R^ +^ and +2'
cell R without a hyaline spot; the wedge shaped areas on costa
extending just beyond vein R2 + 3 to on^-y 1/3 into cell R^
(Fig. 64) connexionis Benjamin
l1. Wing with 3 hyaline spots in between vein R4 + 5andM1+2; cell R
with a hyaline spot; the wedge shaped areas on costa extending
to beyond vein R2 + 3 into about 2/3 of cell R^ 2
2. ScuteHum with 1 pair of scutellars; the 2 dark rays extending
from the dark marking in cell 1st M2 across cell Cui to the
anal margin (Fig. 63, 65) 3
2'. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars; the dark rays extending
only to the middle of cell Cu^ (Fig.66 )
tetraspina (Phillips)


309


311


Fig. 153. Distribution map of Ragoletis cornivora Bush;
specific locality record ().


O. W. Calkin, FSCA); 2(5 2?, ex Schoepfia schreberi, 12-11-1951
75
(G. G. Butcher, USNM); 1(5, ex Schoepfia schreberi, 12-18-11-1951
(F. G. Butcher, USNM) ,- Florida City, 26, McPhail trap, 2026-11-1936
(C. R. Roberts, FSCA); l6, McPhail trap, 7-XII-1936 (G. D. Barcus,
FSCA); 26 McPhail trap, 21-23-XII, 1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);
Homestead, l5, in McPhail, 23-1-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); l 1?,
in McPhail trap, 11-11-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 45, in McPhail
trap, 14-VII-1936 (G. D. Barcus FSCA); 55 5, Schoepfia schreberi,
3-1-1951 (USNM) l6, 9-IV-1955 (H.' V. Weems, Jr.; FSCA); l5 1?, 3-V-
1956 (Wolfenba.rger, USNM) 1?, Dry trap, 25-VI-1956 (R, P. Burke,
USNM); 16 2?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1961 (C. I. Dowling, Jr., FSCA);
16, in McPhail trap, 10-1-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA)f l6 1?, in McPhail
trap in Mango tree, 21-III-1962 (C. J. Fay, FSCA); Miami, lS,
in McPhail trap, 27-1-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); l5 1? and
in McPhail trap, 6-II-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 2o, in McPhail
trap, 28-XII-1936 (O. D. Link) FSCA); l5 1?, 13-X-1949 (O. W. Calkin,
FSCA); 1&, in fruit fly trap, 18-IV-1960 (M. S, Creamer, Jr. FSCA);
16 1?, in McPhail trap, 15-IV-1960 (J. N. Todd, FSCA); 35, in
McPhail trap, 21-XII-1961 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 35, in McPhail
trap, 15-21-11-1962 (J.A. Stephens, FSCA); l5, in McPhail trap,
8-111-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA) Naranja, 35 3?, reared from fruits
of Schoepfia schreberi, IV-1962 (R. M. Baranowski, USNM); Royal
Palm Park (paratypes), 45 2?, trap in poisonwood tree, 29-1-1936
(Ludlam-Roberts, USNM); South Miami (paratypes), 25, trap, 3-1-1936
(Baker & Solomon, USNM); Lee Co.:Tice, l5,wet bait trap, 30-V-1956
(T. R. Adkins, USNM); Martin Co.: l5,in McPhail trap, 6-II-1936


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am deeply indebted to the following individuals and
institutions for their co-operation, for making their collections
available to me or for providing information or both. The abbrevi
ations given below are used throughout the text to indicate
depositories and present locations of specimens used in this study;
Dr. P. Wygodzindsky, American Museum Natural History, New York, New
York (AMNH); Dr. J. F. McAlpine, Canada, Department of Agriculture,
Ottawa, Ontario (CNC); Dr. I. L. Pechman, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York (CN); Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville (FSCA); Dr. D. H.
Habeck, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (FSCA); Dr. M. K.
Thayer, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
(CZ); Dr. C. L. Smith, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (UGA);
and Dr. R. H. Foote and Mr. G. C. Steyskal, National Museum of
Natural History, Washington, D.C. (USNM).
Additional materials were collected during the period of
study. These field trips and visits to several museums were finan
cially supported by the University of Agriculture, Malaysia and
through assistance of the University of Florida (FDACS). A number
of individuals assisted me in collecting specimens and setting up
iii


215
Tne genus probably originated in Central, possibly South
America. Of the 6 species known, 2 species are widely distributed
and abundant in the United States; only 1 species is reported from
Florida. The-biology of the 2 species has been discussed in some
detail by several authors: Peterson (1923), Benjamin (1934),
Burdette (1935), Cazier (1962), and Foott (1963). The latest
revision of the genus is that of Bush (1965).
Zonosemata electa (Say)
Figs. 67, 116, 168
Trypeta electa Say, 1830, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.
6:185-186. Holotype, unknown. Type locality: Indiana.
Easily differentiated from other known members of this
genus by having only a single pair of dark spots on the 5th terga,
and by the lack of black markings before the transverse suture on the
dorsum and on the sternopleuron. The median band of wing connected
to subapical band along the posterior magin. Scutellum with distinct
black spots laterally, just beneath the base of the 1st pair of
scutallars. Wing bases and sternopleuron with distinct dark markings.
Abdomen predominantly yellow, densely covered with brown decumbent hairs.
The ovipositor sheath, yellow, about 1.7 mm long, the apex tinged
with dark brown. The piercer slender and sharply pointed at apex,
approximately 1.6 mm long. The extended ovipositor 5.0 mm long.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 116. Epandrium nighly arched, the dorsum
yellow tinged with dark brown, covered with numerous long black


17.4
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush
Figs. 51, 154
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush, 1966, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool,
134(11):470. Holotype S. Type locality: Lincoln, Mass. (MCZ).
Resembling other sympatric members of the pomonella group
(mendax Curran and pomonella Walsh) in most respects, except for
the shape and size of surstyli, ovipositor length, and host
preference (Bush 1966) Predominantly black with white to yellow
pollinose band along the margin of tergtes II-IV. Halteres bicolored.
Wing pattern similar to those of pomonella (Walsh)(Fig.51). Ovi
positor short, approximately 2.5 mm. Ovipositor sheath dark brown
to black, about 0.9 mm long. Piercer 0.8 mm long, apex pointed
gradually to a sharp point. Male genitalia got dissected. Epan-
drium dark brown, dorsum with few long brown setae. Surstyli
long and slender, apices with rounded tip. Proctiger moderately
long and elongate, with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 4.0-4.6 mm; wing 3.8-4.0 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Cornus florida L.
Distribution: Florida, Maine, Massachusetts.
Florida Records: Levy Co.: Williston, lS, bred from Cornus
florida, ll-X-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM), Polk Co., Lakeland, 1$ 1?,
bred from Cornus florida, 6-9-XI-1930 (pope & White, USNM); 3$ 1?,
bred from Cornis florida, 16-X-1930(Pope & White, USNM).
The wing pattern of this species is identical to that
of pomonella and mendax. Although Rhagoletis cornivora may be


333


167
fine setae on dorsum. Surstyli long and slender, apex with a tuft
of short setae; apices rounded. PfoQtiger small and elongate
with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Lenth: body 4-4.6 mm; wing 3.8-3.9 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Prunus sertina. Ehrh.
Distribution: Michigan to New Hampshire, south to Florida.
o
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1+, bred from
Prunus sertina, 23rIV-193l (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; l3, bred from
Prunus sertina, 1-9V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
53, bred from Prunus sertina, 21-23-V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Duval Co.: Jacksonville, 1?, Insect flight trap, 10-VI-1964
(L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Plant City, 23 5?,
insect flight trap, 29-V-1967 (D. A. Vaughan, FSCA); Tampa, 1?,
10-IV-1957 H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 43, insect flight trap,, 14-V-
1965 (S. A. Fuller, FSCA); Lake Co.: Leesburg, l3, 14-IV-1962
(C. L. Felshaw, FSCA); Orange Co.: Plymouth, 43, bred from Prunus
sertina 3-4-V-1931 (W. S. Earle, USNM) 333, bred from Prunus
sertina 6-12-V-1931 (W. S. Earle, USNM); 8o3 12?, bred from Prunus
sertina 1-12-V-1931 (W.' S. Earle, USNM) ; lo3, bred from Prunus
sertina 10-12-V-1931 (W. S. Earle, USNM); Tangerine, 12 on Prunus sertina, 14-V-1929 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); Volusia Co.:
near Osteen, 1?, caught in the field, 1930 (E. Pell, USNM);
j*. c_. cingulata is the Florida member of the genus in which
the apical margin of the wing has a fuscous spot. Bush (1966)
discussed the diagnostic characters distinguishing cingulata from


62.
Rather small species with characteristic wing markings, an
entirely dark brown wing with the presence of hyaline spots in all
the wing cells. Vein R4 +5 with bristles occupying more than 1/2
the length of cell R. This predominantly yellow to brown species
has characteristic dark markings on the scutellum and abdomen.
Female ovipositor short, approximately 1.7 mm long; the ovipositor
sheath black, as broad as length, measured 0.8 mm long; and piercer
short 0.5 mm in length, abruptly pointed at apex, shaped as Fig. 6.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 68, epandrium rounded, luteous with black
markings on the sides; surstyli very long and slender, apex rounded;
proctiger small and elongated.
Length body 3.7-3.4 mm ; wing 3.6-3.7 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Hieracium argyreaum Small
Hieracium gronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Hieracium sp.
Distribution: Massachussetts to Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1? insect
flight trap, 21-IX-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 1? insect
trap 28-IX-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 1?, insect flight trap,
12-X-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 5(3 3?, bred from Hieracium
gronovii, 22-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA): 3<3 3?, Hieracium gronovii,
13-21-X-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) Brevard, Co'., Merritt Island,
4<3 6, bred from Hieracium argyraeum 2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
FSCA): Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 3<3 2?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,


163;
Hosts; Solidago stricta Ait.
Solidago sp.
Distribution; Kansas to Massachusetts, south to Mississippi
and Florida.
Florida Records: Dade Co.: Hialeah, 36 2$, ex-stem gall
Solidago stricta, 12-XI-1970 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM); l6 1?, galls
Solidago sp., 25-VI-1971 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM); Miami, l6 2?,
21-VIII-1924 (S. Graenicher, USNM).
Not much is known about the biology of the immature stages
of this species. The species causes galls on Solidago sp. This
species may be recognized by the absence of a presutural dorso-
central bristles and by the shining pleural tergites. Detailed
description was given by Loew (1862).
Genus Rhagoletis Loew
Rhagoletis Loew, 1862. Europ. Bohrf., p. 44. Type species:
Musca cerasi Linnaeus.
Predominantly black with yellow marking on bodies,' can be
distinguished by the following characters: Head slightly broad;
3rd antennal segment with distinct apicodorsal point, with 2
pairs of upper fronto-orbitals and 3 pairs of convergent lower
fronto-orbitals. Thorax light yellow to black with short decum-
bet thin setae and yellow pollinose microtrichia. Dorsocentral
bristles closer to a line between supra-alar bristles than to a
transverse suture. Notopleural stripe yellow, extending from


247


the posterior dark band ending at margin of 2nd M2 complete. Face
slightly receding, oral margin not produced forward; proboscis
short. Ovipositr short and broad, about 1.8 mm long. The ovi
positor sheath yellow tinged with brown, 0.7 mm long. Piercer
very short; about 0.5 mm long; apex of piercer gradually tapering
to a sharp point. Male genitalia longer than width; epandrium
yellow, with scattered long pale setae. Surstyli very long and :
slender, curved upward, and slightly pointed apically, at an angle
to each other. Proctiger elongated, project outward, pale yellow
with long pale setae scattered over its surface.
Length: body 3.4-3.7 mm; wing 3.2-3.5 mm (N=8).
Hosts: No host information for Florida specimens. Known
hosts for E. fratra are
Pastinaca sativa Linnaeus
Heracleum sphodyllium L. subspecies montanum
(Scheich. ex Gaudin) Briq.
Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.)DC.
Distribution: eastern Canada, northern 1/2 of the United
States, and Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 3& 1?, insect
flight trap, 9-V-1973 (W.W.Wirth, USNM); Duval Co.: Jacksonville,
le?, 8-VT- 1963 (C.F.Zeiger, FSCA) ; Volusia Co.: Oak Hill, ,
stickyboard trap in grapefruit, 3-IV-1969 (J.N.Pott, FSCA);
Port Orange, lcf, McPhail trap, 30-III-1968 (J.N.Pott, FSCA).


168
indifferences. There is apparently little or no overlap in the
ovipositor length of this species and that of osmanthi Bush. Blanc
and Keifer (1955) discussed the taxonomy and host relationships of
the 2 geographical populations of Rhagoletis cingulata in North
America. The larva is a well known pest of cultivated cherries;
however, this host is not present in Florida. Benjamin (1934) and
Phillips (1946) and Weems (1972) discussed larval morphology and
biology of the species.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush
Figs. 48, 151
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush, 1966, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.
134(11):482. Holotype ?. Type locality: Apopka, Florida (USNM).
Bush (1966) gave the following diagnosis for separating
chionanthi from the closely related osmanthi, 1) the mean length
of the female ovipositor, chionanthi (0.95mm) and osmanthi (1.05mm),
2) a difference in host preference and emergence period. The
emergence is synchronized to coincide with ripening of the fruits
of Chionanthus virginicus L. Wing pattern as in Fig. 28. The
female ovipositor and male genitalia are not available for dissection.
Hosts: Chionanthus virginicus L.
Distribution: Georgia, Florida.
Florida Records: Orange Co.: 1<5 1^, reared from Chionanthus
virginicus, 30-IV-1930 (A. H. Reppard,USNM); 2$, bred from Chionanthus
virginicus, 10-13-V-1931 (A. H. Reppard, USNM); 3$, bred from
Chionanthus virginicus, 15-16-V-1931 (A. H. Reppard, USNM); Apopka,
4 1?, bred from Chionanthus virginicus, 12-IX-1929 (W. S. Earl, USNM);


Crataegus sp.
Rhagoletis pomone11a (Walsh)
Eriobotrya japnica (Thub.)
Lindl
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Prunus americana Marsh.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Prunus prsica (L.) Batsch
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Prunus sertina Ehrh.
Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)
Prunus umhellata Ell.
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Prunus sp.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Rhagoltispomonella (Walsh)
Pyrus communis L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Pyrus X lecontei Rehd.
Anastrepha suspensa (loew)
Rubus sp.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Rutaceae
Casimiora edulis Llave
Acinia picturata (Snow)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Citrofortunella mitis
(Blanco) J.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Certitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Citrus aurantium L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Citrus X paradisi Macfady
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Citrus sinensis (L.)
Osbeck
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Citrus X nobilis Lour.
"Temple"
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)


350
Coquillett,D. W. 1899 Notes and descriptions of Trypetidae.
J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc- 7: 259
Cresson, E. T., Jr. 1929. A revision of the North American species
of fruit flies of the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera:
Trypetidae). Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 55: 401-414.
Curran, C. H. 1932a. New North American Diptera, with notes on
others. Amer. Mus. Nov. 526:1-13.
1932b. New species of Trypetidae, with key to the North American
genera. Amer. Mus. Nov. 556: 1-19.
1934. The families and genera of North American Diptera.
Henry Tripp, New York. 513p.
Emmart, E. E. 1933. The eggs of four species of fruit flies of
the genus Anastrepha. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash.
5: 184-191.
Foote, R. H. 1958. The genus Euarestoides in the United States
and Mexico (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol.
Soc. Amer. 51:288-293.
1959. Notes on the genus Euleia Walker in North America.
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 32*145-150.
1960a. Notes on some North American Tephritidae with descriptions
of two genera and two new species. (Diptera). Proc.
Biol. Soc. Wash. 73jl07-118.
1960b. A new North American fruit fly genus Procecidocharoides
(Diptera; Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
53:671-675.
1960c. The genus Tephritis Latreille in the Nearctic region
north of Mexico. Description of four new species and
notes on others (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Kans.
Entomol. Soc. 33;71-85.
1960d. Arevision of the genus Trupanea in America north of
Mexica (Diptera: Tephritidae). U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 1214:1-29.
1964. A new synonym in the genus Eurosta (Diptera: Tephritidae) .
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 66: 1.
Family Tephritidae, pp. 658-678. In A. Stone et al.,
(ed.). A catalog of the Diptera of America north of
Mexicoa. U.S. Dept. Agrie. Agriculture Handbook
276. 1696p.
1965.


Distribution map of Trupanea actinobola (Loew);
specific locality record (), county record. () .
Fig. 159.


Flacourtia indica
Anastrepha suspensa
Guttiferae
Garcinia livingstonei
T. Anderson
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Xauraceae
Persea americana Mill
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Lew)
Malpighiaceae
Malpighia glabra L.
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Myrtaseae
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz)
Willd.
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzsch
ex. 0. Berg.
Anastrepha
suspesnsa (Loew)
Eugenia uniflora L,
Anastrepha
suspensa(Loew)
Myrciaria cauliflora (DEC.)
0. Berg.
Anastrepha
suspensa
Pimanta dioica (L.) Merrill
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)
Pseudanamomis uifibelluli'f era
Kausel
An^streepa
suspensa
(Loew)
Psidium littorale var.
longipes (0. Berg.)
Fosb.
Anastrepha
susepnsa
(Lorew)
Ceratitis capitata
(Wiedemenn)
Psidium friedrichsthalianum
(0. Berg.) Niewdenzu
Anastrepha
suspensa
(Loew)


Fig. 149. Distribution map of Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata
(Loew); specific locality record ().


196
This widespread and common species breeds in flower heads
of Compositae throughout Florida. It is extremely variable; most
individuals exhibit differences in the development of the single
ray through cell 1st M2 with apex of cell R with or without infusca-
tion. The variation of this species could be related to the breeding
habit of the species, but this deserves, additional study. Stegmaier
(1968b) studied the biology of this species and reported that the
immature stages infest the unopen and fully developed flower head
of daisy fleabane Erigeron strigossus. Two hymenopterous parasites,
Heteroschema punctata (Ashmead) and Colotrechnus ignotus Busks were
reared from these immatures. The puparium is similar to that of
mevarna (Benjamin, 1934).
Trupanea agerataeBenjamin
Figs. 59, 160
Trupanea ageratae Benjamin, 1934. U.S. Dept. Agrie. Tech.
Bull. 401:56, Fig. 40, Holotype Type locality: No Name Key,
Monroe Co., Florida (USNM).
A small grayish pollinose species with 2 dark rays through
cell 1st M2 of wing; the distal ray through cell 1st M2 only to
vein M3 + Cui; hyaline area immediately distal of stigma rounded
posteriorly. Marginal spot at apex of vein R2 + 3 near middle of
dark area surrounding it. Female ovipositor and male genitalia
are not available for dissection.


181
Florida Records: Leon Co.: Tallahassee, 1<$, 6-V-1968
(G. H. Heinrich, FSCA); 1?, 7-V-1968 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA).
The variety shown is that of vittigera. Phillips (1923)
presented wing figures and a key to the 7 varieties described
by Loew (1S73). The single species, longipennis, is uncommon in
Florida. Nothing is known about its biology and immature stages.
Genus Tephritis Latreille
Tephritis Latreille, 1904. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Deterville
24:196. Type species: Musca ar'nicae Linnaeus.
Differentiated by having 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital
bristles, 2 pairs of scutellars and a reticulate wing pattern.
Head wider than high, all bristles strong, with 2 pairs of upper
fronto-orbital bristles, the posterior pair pale and scale-like;
2 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles present. Thorax grayish
pollinose, with whitish tomentum. Dorsocentral bristles close to
transverse suture. Legs entirely yellow. Wing with a reticulate
markings, with hyaline spots and dark rays reaching to the margin.
Apical 1/2 of vein ^ setose.
The reticulate wing pattern of this genus is likely to be
confused with that of other Florida genera, Dyseuaresta Euaresta,
Euarestoides, and Trupanea because of the reticulate wing pattern.
It differs from all other genera except Euaresta by having 2
pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles and from Dyseuaresta and


2Q2.
This species is probably widespread throughout Florida. The
wing pattern of this species is extremely variable; this includes
the infuscation in the apex of cell R; proximal dark ray in cell 1st
M2 may be lacking in some species and in others may be represented
by a spot on vein M3 + Cu^, Trupanea mevarna closely resembles
dacetoptera, but can easily be differentiated from the latter by
the characters given in the keys and discussion. Larvae white,
feed on flower heads of several species of Heterotheca. Benjamin
(1934) briefly described the immature stages of this species.
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel
Xanthaciura Hendel, 1941, Wiener. Entomol. Ztg. 33:86.
Type species: Trypeta chrysura Thomson.
Members with predominantly dark brown to black body and
characteristic dark wing markings. Vertex of head narrower than
width of the eyes; head typically with 2 pairs of upper fronto-
orbitals and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Parafrontals with
a row of white scale-like bristles. Thorax almost always entirely
brown to black, sometimes tinged with yellow. Dorsocentral bristles
in front of supra-alar bristles, almost in line with suture.
Acrostichal bristles farther forward than usual for the family.
Scutellum with 1-2 pairs of long bristles. Wing dark brown with the
base of the anal margin hyaline, and with 2 hyaline wedges in the
middle of costa. Cell 2nd M^ with hyaline wedges. Legs entirely


293


22
Heterotheca oligantha
(Chapm.) Harms.
Heterotheca subaxillaries
(Lam.) Britt. &Rusby
Heterotheca trichophylla
(Nutt.) Shinners
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium argyraeum Small
Hiera.ciro gronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Hieracium sp.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Peronyma sarcinata (Loew)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)


165
Key to the Florida Species of RhagoletiS
1.Wing with apicaj. band forked (Fig. 40, 49 )or upper prong
of fork separated from it by a hyaline area (Fig. 47) medial
band separated from basal and subapical bands; F-shaped pattern
of wing not prominent, surstyli with apical tuft of long
setae cingulata group. .2
1'. Wing with apical band entire (Fig. 50, 51, 52); medial band
jointed to basal and subapical band; F-shaped pattern promi
nent surstyli without apical tuft of setae
ppmonella group. .4
2. Apical band of wing with incomplete fork, upper prong sepa
rated from band by a hyaline area, usually associated with
Prunus sertina Ehrh. (Rosaceae). cingulata (Loew). .4
2'. Apical band of wing with a complete fork, infesting other
host plants (Oleaceae) 3
3. Average thoracic length 2.0 mm; larvae infest Chionanthus
virginicus L chionanthi Bush
3'. Average thoracic length 2.2 mm; larvae infest Osmanthus
americanus (L.) Gray osmanthi Bush
4. Thoracic length varies from 1.8-2.2 mm; larvae infest only.
fruits of the subfamily Pomoidea (Rosaceae)
pomonella Walsh
4'. Thoracic length varies from 1.4-2.1 mm; larvae infest fruits
of host plant of the families Ericaceae and Cornaceae
5


INTRODUCTION
The family Tephritidae is moderately large, with more than
4,000 species distributed throughout the temperate, subtropical,
and tropical areas of the world. In America, north of Mexico,
there are approximately 275 described species. In Florida, there
are 25 genera and 56 species of tephritids represented by the 5
subfamilies: Dacinae, Oedaspinae, Terelliinae, Tephritinae, and
Trypetinae.
Many fruit lies are economically important, causing
tremendous losses each year to agriculture through their attack
on various fruit, nut, and vegetable crops. Other species breed
in flower heads, especially of composites, where they feed on
the developing seeds, while others mine the stems or form galls
on the stem and roots.
An extensive literature on the biology of the control
of certain species has been accumulated over the past 100 years
because of their economic importance. Much biological and host
data on Florida tephritids is available from literature reports,
rearing records, and collecting data. Additional collecting and
rearing, as well as ecological studies are needed before biologi
cal information on most species will be reasonably complete.
1


116
Readily differentiated from other known Euarestoides
by the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 28) by having a dark
area in the distal 1/2 of cell R, with a small hyaline spot close
to its center. In addition, the proximal yellowish 1/2 of the
wing with faint but discrete spots; apex of cell R,_ contains a
hyaline spot that is much wider than long. Gena with irregular
band with white setae. The ovipositor sheath yellow, densely
covered with numerous setae approximately 0.8 mm long. The
piercer short, about 0.6 mm long; the proximal 2/3 thin and
straight-sided, apex gradually tapers to a sharp point. Extended
ovipositor approximately 2.0 mm long. Male genitalia as in
Fig. 83. The epandrium highly arched. Surstyli elongate, narrow,
and sloping inward, apex rounded. Proctiger yellow, small, and
elongate, with scattered setae on its dorsum.
Length: body 3.4-3.5 mm; wing 3.2-3.4 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Ambrosia sp.
Trilisa paniculata (Walt, ex J. F. Gmel.) Cass.
Distribution: New York to Florida.
Florida Records: Dade Co.: Hialeah, 2$ 1?, swept Lippia>
Pluchea Ambrosia, 20-VII-1965 (C. E. Segmaier, Jr., FSCA); 1<£,
swept Pluchea sp. 21-VII-1965 (FSCA); Orange Co. : Bithlo; 1 off Trilisa paniculata, 17-XII-1929 (Chas. Kime, USNM); Conway,
19<$ 10?, bred from Trilisa paniculata, 20-29-XI-1929 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 1?, reared from Trilisa paniculata, 12-XI-
1929 (D. J. Nicholson NSNM) ; 1?, reared iron Trilisa paniculata
21-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM), 1?, ex head Solidago tortifolia
22-XI-1929 (F. H. Benjamin, USNM); 2?, ex head Trilisa paniculata


5
The wings bear significant taxonomic characters and are
extensively used for identification. Color pattern and its rela
tion to the veins are useful for species separation. The termin
ology used by Foote and Blanc (1963) is used for the wing veins
and cells (Fig. 3). Among venation characters used are: the
presence or absence of setae on the node and vein R 4+5,
position of vein r m in relation to the stigma, the distance
along vein M 1 +2 separating vein r -m and m, and the presence or
absence of a bulla in cell R5.
Abdomen (Fig. 5). The abdomen has 5 visible segments. The
terga usually are a single color or are ornamented with a color
pattern usually of generic or specific significance as in Acidogona
and Xanthaciura. Genitalic characters often are useful. The female
ovipositor (Fig. 6) is long and simple and consists of the ovi
positor sheath (OVS), the basal sheath (BS), raspers (r), the distal
sheath (DS), and the piercer. The tip of the ovipositor has signi
ficant taxonomic characters for species separation, especially in
the genus Anastrepha. The tip may be short and broad, with many
serrations, or long and tapering with larger rounded serrations.
The male genitalia (Fig. 7) are either small and compact or large
and robust. The epandrium (EP) may be highly arched or truncate;
the chaetotaxy of the dorsum is of generic and specific signifi
cance. Surstyli (SS) may be elongate or blunt with the inner
edges smooth or serrated. The proctiger (PRG) lobe varies in size and
shape and bears setae scattered over its entire surface. The


136
bred from Hieracium argyraeum, 14-10-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Clay Co.: Keystone Heights, 7c?3?, bred from Hieracium gronovii ,
5-X-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 15c? 17?, bred from Hieracium gronovii,
9-13-X-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville, Pebbly
Beach, 1(?, 8-V-1908 AMNH) Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 3c? 2?, bred from
Hieracium argyraeum,l-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,USNM); Orange Co.:
Bithlo, 2 USNM); Conway, 2c?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,17-VI-1930 (Pope &
White, USNM); 1?, Citrus sp., 25-VII-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Orlando,
1 Hieracium argyraeum,27-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 50c? 20?,
bred Hieracium argyraeum,10-24-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
10 USNM); 13c? 5?, bred from Hieracium gronovii, 2-4-X-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM) ; 24c? 14?, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 8-10t-X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; 8c?, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 3-19-III-
1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; Orlovista, 4 scabrum,14-16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Plymouth, 4c? 3?, bred
from Hieracium argyraeum,26-VII-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); Polk
Co.: Griffin, 5 (Pope & White, USNM).
This species has been adequately described by Johnson
(1900) and Benjamin (1934). It is widespread and the most commonly
encountered Neaspilota in Florida. The biology and immature
stages of this species have been described by Benjamin (1934) .
The larvae and pupae of this species are identical to that of


137
1,0 mm long. Extended ovipositor 5.2 mm long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 89- Epandrium brown with long setae mid-dorsally.
Surstyli narrow and blunt, truncate at apices. Proctiger large,
more Or less rounded and elongate, with scattered setae dorsally
and ventrally.
Hosts.Unknown.
Distribution: Known only from Florida.
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: 1?,10-III-1936 (L. S. Light, Jr.,
FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville,, li, in McPhail trap, 20-IX-1973
(L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Sta., l 1+,
6-10-IV-1968 (FSCA); l£, 9-III-1902 (S. W. Frost, USNM) ; 1<5 1,
24-VI-1962 (S. W. Frost, USNM) Pasco Co.: San Antonio, 1+, in
McPhail trap, 29-III-1968 (O. D. Kennedy, FSCA); Polk Co., Winter
Haven, 1<5, 4-III-1965 (R. E. Vildi, FSCA); St. Johns Co.: St.
o
Augustine, 1+,in McPhail trap, l-V-1969 (E. Graham, FSCA),
Volusia Co., Orange City, 1 Nothing is known about the biology of this species. The
wing pattern is very similar to those of Strauzia longipennis
(Wiedemann) and M. caesio (Harris), but differs from the latter
species by the presence of a hyaline spot in cell R.
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken
Neaspilota Osten Sacken, 1878, Smiths. Mise. Collect.
16 (2):192. Type species: Trypeta alba Loew.


Fig. 167. Distribution map of Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
specific locality record ().


239


38
Paracantha forfcula (Coquillett)
Borrichia frutescens (L.l D£.
Peronvma sarcinata (Loew)
Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners
procecidochares atra (Loew)
No host information
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Convza canadensis(L.) Conquist
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt. &
Procecidochares polita (Loew)
.Solidaao stricta Ait.
Solidaao sp.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush
Chionanthus virginicus L.
Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew)
Prunus sertina Ehrh.
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush
Comus florida L.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Vaccinium arboreum Marsh,
Vaccinium formosum Andr,
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Rusby


BIOLOGY
As far as is known, all fruit flies deposit their eggs
directly into living healthy plant tissues. Eggs may be inserted
to a depth of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in soft fruits or just beneath
the skin in others; eggs of leaf-mining tephritids are inserted
from the ventral surface into the parenchyma of leaf margin like
those of Euleia fratria (Loew) and EL heraclei (Linnaeus).
Females of some species may successively use the same ovipuncture
or ovipunctures made by others to deposit their eggs. Up to 8
eggs/puncture have been observed, but 3-4 eggs are more common.
Normally the larva emerges within a few days and begins to feed
and burrow into the pulp of the hosts; some excavate galleries
within the parenchyma of the leaf; others mine down to the ovaries,
receptacles and corolla. Damage to the commercial fruits and
vegetables can be substantial. Larvae of those that breed prim
arily on composites feed on the developing seeds and cause serious
losses of viability. The infested fruits or vegetables ripen
prematurely, deteriorate and drop to the ground. Composite
feeding tephritids tend to pupate within the flower heads at the
feeding site, such as Trupanea actinobola (Loew), Acidogona
melanura (Loew) and Acinia fucata (Fabricius). Duration of stages
13


108
Genus Euleia Walker
Euleia Walker, 1836, Enlomol. rjag.3 (art 5) :81. Type species
Musca onopordinis Fabricius = Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus).
Predominantly a yellow to brown species; readily differ
entiated from other Trypetinae by its distinctive wing pattern
(Fig. ). All head and body bristles strong, shining black.
Head with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals; 2 pairs of upper fronto-
orbitals, the posterior pair reclinate, never convergent. Dorso-
central bristles in a line drawn between the anterior supra-alars,
2 pairs of scutellar bristles hietathorax with paired dark areas.
Distal 3rd of cell 1st M2 with 3 large hyaline area, middle of
cell R with a light spot.
Of the 2 species known from North America 1 occurs in
Florida This genus was reviewed by Foote (1959). The differences
between the North American member of this genus and the closely
related European species were discussed.
Euleia fratria (Loew)
Figs. 25, 80, 130
Trypeta fratria Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect., 6(1):
67, pl.il')> Fig. 4. Holotype S. Type locality: United States
(MC2) .
Readily differentiated from other Euleia by its stricking
wing pattern, especially on the outer 1/3 of the wing disc (Fig. 25 )


with few long setae on dorsum. Surstyli slender and attenuated,
curved inward at apices, and with a clump of short setae on inner
margin. Proctiger small and elongate, with dense long setae
7,4
lateroyentrally.
Length: body 6.4-7.6 mm; wing 6.0-7.4 mm. (N=10)
Hosts: Schoepfia shreberi J. F, Gmel.
Distribution: Florida
Florida Records: Broward Co., 1? McPhail trap, 17-11-1936
(G. D. Barcus, FSCA) ; lcT, McPhail trap, 21-11-1936 (L. S. Light, Jr.,
FSCA) ; Coconut Grove, 1 FSCA); Deerfield (paratypes), lc? 2?, trap, 17-20-11-1936 (Barcus &
Solomon, USNM); Ft. Lauderdale(paratype), 1 & Barcus, USNM); 2 at Chrysobalanus icaco, 14-VIII-1953 (O. D. Link FSCA); Dade Co.;
1?, McPhail trap, 4-1-1936 (0. W. Calkin, FSCA); 2$, 25-1-1936
(C. R. Roberts, FSCA); It? McPhail trap, 5-II-1936 (W. Ludlam, FSCA);
3$ 3?, McPhail trap, 15-19-11-1936 (C. R. Roberts, FSCA); 5$ 2?
McPhail trap, 28-XII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 8 6-12-1-1937 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1$ 2?, McPhail trap, 21-VI-1654
(0. D. Link, FSCA). 1 Opalocka, 3c? 5?, McPhail trap(Grapefruit). 5-IV-1962 (Brewton,
FSCA); Coral Gables, 1?, McPhail trap, 15-VI-1949 (W. W. Calkins,
FSCA); lc? 2?, McPhail trap, 19-VII-1949 TO. D. Link, FSCA); lcT 1?
McPhail trap, 27-VI-1949 (O. D. Link, FSCA); It? 1?, McPhail trap,
9-IX-1949, (O. D. Link, FSCA); 3

Male Genitalia of Florida Tephritidae
Fig. 68.
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Fig. 69.
Acinia: fucata Fabricias
Fig. 70.
Acrotaenia testudinea (Loew)
Fig. 71.
Anastrepha edentafa Stone
Fig. 72.
Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Fig. 73.
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Fig. 74.
Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)
Fig. 75.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Fig. 77.
Dioxynapicciola (Bigot)


(J. G. Wilson, USNM) ; Lake Jorita, 15<$ 12?, emerged from Hex
cassine,5-11-XI-1929 (M. Dodd, USNM), Levy Co.: Gulf Hammock
129
3<5, from Ilex cassine, VII-1930 (J. W. McGlaery, USNM);
Marion Co.: Ocala Nat'l Forest, 5<3 2+, Ilex opaca 4-13-X-1930
(F. S. Blanton, USNM); Monroe Co.: Everglades Nat'l Pk, 16 12+,
at Ilex cassine, III-1939 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); Orange Co.: Pine
Castle,2o, emerged from Ilex cassine,2-3-X-1929 (F. H. Benjamin,
USNM). Vineland, 8 Palm Beach Co.: West Palm Beach, 1<3, fruit fly, 7-1-1960 (M. L.
Messer, FSCA); 1(3, fruit fly trap 17-11-1961 (M. L. Messer, FSCA),
1?, fruit fly trap, 16-V-1961 (M. L. Messer, FSCA); 6(3, in McPhail
trap, 24-1-1962 (M. L. Messer, FSCA); 1<3, in McPhail trap,19-11-
1964 (M. L. Messer, FSCA); 1<3, in McPhail trap, 2-III-1966 (M. L.
o
Messer, FSCA); Pasco Co.: Dade City, 1+, in McPhail trap in grape
fruit trees, 28-X-1966, (O. D. Kennedy, FSCA); Polk Co.: in Steiner
trap, 26-VIII-1963 (R. E. Vild, FSCA); Haines City, 18(3 2+, emerged
from Ilex cassine.12-14-IX-1929 (C. A. Garatt, USNM); Putnam Co.:
Welaka, 2<$ 1?, reared from Ilex caroliniana, 8-9-VII-1930 (M. Dodd,
USNM); Seminole Co.: Altamonte Spg.; 2 cassine, 19-IX-1929 (J. G. Wilson, USNM); Volusia Co.: Coronado
Beach (New Smyrna Bch) ; 15<3 2?, emerged from Ilex vomitojia,
8-X-1929 (V. A. Newell, USNM).
This species is generally distributed throughout Florida.
It is the only American species whose biology is known. The
larvae feed singly in the berries of various species of holly.


Fig. 158. Distribution map of Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker;
specific locality record (); county record ().


259


161.
Panama City, 1(5, 19-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, USNM) ; Dade Co.: Miami,
1(5, 27-IV-1973 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA) ; 1<5, 27-XV-1973 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA);
Lake Co.: Altoona, 1(5, in fruit fly trap. 14-III-1966 (C. L. Felshaw.
USNM); Marion Co., Ocala, 1<5, 5-XI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, USNM) ;
1?, swept Heterotheca aubaxillaries, 30-VIII-19/8 (I. B. Rohani,
FSCA); Orange Co., Orlando, 1, Heterotheca subaxillaries, 29-V-1930
o
(C. F. Benjamin, USNM); 1+, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries,
22-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 1?, bred from Heterotheca
subaxillaries, 30-VII-1930 (D* J. Nicholson, USNM); 16(5, bred from
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 21-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
lc?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 28-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM) 10(5, ex Heterotheca subaxillaries, 12-15-V-1931 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); 1?, galls on Heterotheca subaxillaries, V-1931 (USNM), 1?,
grass weeds, 4-VIII-1948 (O. D. Link, USNM); Orlovista; 1(5 1+,
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 9-11-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Pine Castle, 2<5, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 27-VIII-1930
(D. J. Nichoson, USNM); Pasco Co.: Hudson, l, 13-VII-1939
(I.,B. Beamer, USNM) Putnam Co., Palatka, 1?, reared from Hetero
theca subaxild^ries., 19-IX-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); St. Johns
Co., Crescent Beach, 9(5 2?, on Yucca aloifolia, 21-III-1974
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA).
Most of the available specimens do not have the distal
band connected to the V-band on vein R^ + 5 thus having a wing
pattern similar to that of polita Loew. It can be distinguished
from polita by having the hyaline areas on the anal margin of the


327


Figure 1-2. Chaetotaxy and areas of the head; Fig; 1, lateral
view. Fig. 2. Front view; A: Arista; E: Eyes; F: Face;
FC; Facial carina; FR: frons; G. Genal bristles; GN:
Gena; INV: Intravertical bristles; IV: Innervertial
bristle; L: Labella; LFO: Lower fronto-orbital bristles;
LU: Lunule; OC: Ocellar bristles; OV: Outervertical
bristles: PA: Parafacial; FO: Parafrontal; PG: Postgena;
POC: Postocular bristles; UFO: Upper fronto-orbital
bristles; IAS: 1st antennal segment; 2AS: 2nd antennal
segment; 3AS: 3rd antennal segment;
Figure 3: Wing showing cells and venation.
Figure 4. Dorsal view, chaetotaxy and areas of thorax: ACR:
Acrostichal bristle; ASA: Anterior supra-alar bristle;
DC: Dorsocentral bristle; H: Humeral bristle; IAR: Intra-
alar bristle; N: Notopleural bristle; PAL: Postalar
bristles; SCS: Scutoscutellar suture; SCT: Scutellum;
TS: Transverse suture.
Figure 5. Dorsal view of abdomen showing segmentation and
position of bristles; OVS: Ovipositor sheath; T : Tergum.


51
Genus Eurosta Loew
Eurosta Loew, 1873:280. Type species, Trypeta solidagninis Fitch
(Coquillett, 1910:543).
comma .(Wiedemann), 1830:478 (Trypeta) .
donysa (Walker), 1849:1007 (Trypeta).
fenestrata Snow, 1894:169.
floridensis Foote, 1977:148.
Genus Acidogona Loew
Acidogona Loew, 1873:285. Type species, Trypeta melanura Loew,
by original designation.
melanura (Loew) 1873:283. (Trypeta)
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy
Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830:775. Type species, jaceae Robineau
Desvoidy (Rondani, 1871b:4:1871:4).
picturata (Snow), 1894:173 (Taphritis).
Genus Acrotaenia Loew
Acrotaenia Loew, 1873:274. Type species, Trypeta testudnea Loew,
by original designation.
testudnea (Loew) 1873:272 (Trypeta).
Genus Euaresta Loew
Euaresta Loew, 1873:296. Type species, Trypeta festiva Loew
(Coquillett, 1910:540).
equalis (Loew), 1862:86 (Trypeta).
bella (Loew), 1862:88 (Trypeta).


97
pair pale and scale-like; 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Ground
color of thorax, black, dorsum densely gray pollinose; dorsocentral
bristles close to transverse suture; 1 pair of scutellar bristles.
Legs yellow,, except for a tinge of brown to black on femur in
some species; wing with numerous hyaline spots similar to that of
Paroxyna, but differs by having the stigma without a subhyaline
spot. Abdominal terga, dark brown to black, densely covered with
white scale-like setae.
Larvae of Dioxyna inhabit flower heads of various composites.
Many species of Bidens are host plants. The immature stages of the
members of this genus in Florida have been described by Benjamin
(1934) and Phillips (1946).
This genus is represented by only 2 species in North
America. Munro (1957) reviewed the genus and described additional
species. Members of this, genus are closely related to Paroxyna.
Early workers (Curran, 1934; Benjamin, 1934) included the Nearctic
species in the genus Paroxyna. Novak (1974) reyised these 2
genera and clarified their taxonortiid status.
Key to the Florida Species of Dioxyna
1. Legs with basal 1/2 of all femora blackish; wing with sub
hyaline spot restricted to cell R5 (Fig. 22); male epandrium
highly arched with scattered long setae (Fig. 77); surstyli
elongated; apex pointed
picciola (Bigot)


87
21-11-936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); Dade Co.; 1?, 7-1-1937 (J. H.
Sealey, FSCA); Homestead, 1?, in McPhail trap, 8-1-1936 (J. W.
Ludlam, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 18-11-1936 (C. R. Roberts,
FSCA) 2, reared from Syzygium samarangense, 31-X-1966 (Dowling, Jr.,
& Swanson, FSCA); Coconut Grove (Miami), 1, from trap in mulberry
tree, 30-XI]>1935 (Baker & Solomon, USNM); l, reared from Mangifera
indica, 18-VIII-1966 (R. W. Swanson, FSCA); Miami 26 1?, fruit fly
trap, 1969 (USNM); Miami Beach, 56 4?, reared from grapefruit
Citrus X paradisi, 31-X-1966 (D. De Haven, FSCA); 66 5?, reared from
grapefruit, 4-XI-1966 (Don De Haven, FSCA); Desoto Co.: Arcadia,
1+, in McPhail trap in Surinam, 22-VIII-1966 (G. P. Lamb, FSCA);
Hendry Co.: La Belle, 26 3?, McPhail trap in Rangpur lime tree,
20-VIII-1966 (C. E. Nelson, FSCA); Highlands Co.: Avon Park, l6,
citrus sp., 27-X-1969 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Lake Placid, 1?, on foliage
of cattley quava, 22-VIII-1966 (O. H. Baker, FSCA); Sebring, l6,
Kumquat, 29-XI-1966 (Ted Morris, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa,
2?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit tree, 13-IX-1966 (Al Krause,
FSCA); 1? Pnica granatum, 21-X-1969 (C. W. Hale, FSCA); 1?,
in McPhail trap 9-II-1970 (A. L. Krause, FSCA); Indian River Co.:
Vero Beach, 2?, in McPhail trap in Carissa, 10-XI-1966 (R. H.
Kendrick, FSCA); Lee Co, : Estero, l6,quava, Psidium quajava 31-XII-
1965 (C. P. Schille, FSCA); Manatee Co.: Bradenton, l6,stickyboard
trap in quava, 10-VIII-1966 (Doyle C. Chancey, FSCA); 7?, in
McPhail trap in quava tree, 28-X-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 4?,
Steiner trap, 4-XI-1966 (D. E. Chancey, FSCA); 66 4?, in McPhail


285


Fig. 161. Distribution map of Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
specific locality record () .




212
trap, 20-X-1940 (H. T. Fernald, FSCA) ; St, Lucie, Co.: Ft. Pierce, 3c$,
bred from Bidens pilosa, 17-18-XI-1930 (J. G. Grover, USNM); Volusia
Co.: Daytona, 1?, 7-IV-1919 (MCZ) ,- 5$, bred from Bidens pilosa,
3-8-VII-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM).
Extremely common and widespread species in the genus.
Although the wing pattern of insecta is very similar to that of
chrysura in having 3 dark rays in cell Cu^, it can be distinguished
from the latter by the proximal ray, which extends only to the middle
of vein CU2 + 2nd A.; the presence of only 1 hyaline area in cell
1st M2; and by the bicolored pleurae. The hyaline spots in between
veins +^and vein + may vary in size and shapes. In some
specimens, the proximal spot is totally absent. This species
commonly breeds in the flower heads of Bidens pilosa. The immature
stages were described by Benjamin (1934). Phillips (1946) discussed
in detail the larval morphology.
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Figs. 66, 115, 167
Aciura (Eucosmoptera) tetraspina Phillips, 1923, J. N.Y.
Entomol. Soc. 21:132, Fig. 16. Holotype ?. Type locality:
Columbia, Montana.
Slightly smaller than chrysura and insecta. Thorax black
entirely? scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars, the apical pair short.
Wing with 3 dark rays arising from dark field in cell 1st M2
extending only to middel Of cell Cu^ Vein R2 +3 normal. The 3
hyaline spots between veins R and M. more of less rounded.
4 + b 1+2


19
Aster dumosus L. var.
subulaefolius T & G
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster elliotii T&G
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster tortifolius Michx.
Neaspiolta achilleae Johnson
Neaspolita punctistigma Beniamin
Baccharis glomeruliflora
Pers.
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Balduina angustifoli
(Pursh) Robinson
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Bidens bipinnata L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Dioxvna thomae (Curran)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Bidens coronata (L.) Britt
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Xanthacdra insecta (Loew)
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Bidens mitis (Michx) Sherff.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Bidens pilosa L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Bidens pilosa L. var.
radiata Schultz. Bip.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)


123
USNM); 4(? 1?, bred from puparia from soils under Prunus sp.
14-16-V-1931 (E. T. Evans, USNM); 3$, bred from Prunus sp.,
12-23-V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Gainesville,
1$, trap by window, 7-X-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1$, 23-X-
1965 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Hamilton Co.: Jasper, 6c? 2?, bred
from Crataegis maloides, 21-X-1939 (J. E. Graves & D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 1S 1?, stickyboard trap, 12-XI-1965
(T. J. Ravordso, FSCA); l 1?, stickyboard trap, 29-XI-1965 (T. J.
Ravordso, FSCA); Levy Co.: Chiefland, 3$ 1?, 29-V-1930 (McGlamery,
USNM); Liberty Co.: Torreya State Park, 1?, insect flight trap,
5-VII-1965 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Marion Co.: Belleview, lie?,
sparkleberry, 5-9-VI-1930 (F. Walker, SUNM).
The relationships of Rhagoletis species, cornivora
mendax and pomonella have been the subject of dispute. They
have nearly identical wing pattern and other external morpho
logical features that show considerable overlap. However,
important constant differences in surstyli, overall size between
these 3 species, and for the biological reasons stated by Bush
(1966), these species are considered as distinct species.
This species is only locally common in Florida and apparently
restricted to the northern 1/2 of the state. Bush (1966)'
discussed the taxonomic status and listed the known hymenopterous
parasites and host plants of this species. The immature stages
have been described by Illingworth (1912), Snodgrass (1924),
Benjamin (1934), and Phillips (1946).




157
This species is sparsely distributed in Florida. Larvae
feed on various parts of the host plant, Heterotheca trichophylla.
The immature stages were discussed by Benjamin (1934),
Genus Procecidochares Hendel
Procecidoshares Hendel, 1941, Wien. Entomol. Zeitschr.
33:91. Type species: Trypeta atra Loew.
Predominantly black with distinct dark bands on wing.
Easily differentiated from other Oedespinae by having a swollen,
shining black scutellum and contrasting yellowish-white mesonotal
hairs. Head and body bristles black. Only 1 pair of upper fronto-
orbital bristles. One pair of dorsocentral bristles always situated
immediately behind the transverse suture, presutural dorsocentrals
sometimes absent. Scutellum with 2 pairs of long bristles. Wing
hyaline, with dark brown to black basal spot and 3 transverse to
oblique bands. The proximal 2 bands connected to each other to
form a broad inverted V-band, the oblique distal band lies close
to costa. The abdomen densely covered with yellowish long setae
usually intermixed with darker setae.
The wing pattern, head structure and mesonotal adornments
are similar to members of the genus Procecidocharoides, a rather
distantly related genus within the same subfamily. The genus is
largely North American with 3 of 9 known species occurring in Florida.
Little is known of the species, many are gall makers on various plants;


279


291


349
Bateman, M. A. 1972. The ecology of fruit flies. Annu. Rev.
Entomol. 17:493-518.
Benjamin, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies.
with notes on their habits. Tech. Bull, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
401. 95 p.
Blanc, F.
L.,. and R. H. Foote. 1961, A new genus and five new
species of California Tephritidae. Pan-Pac. Entomol.
37:73-83.
Blanc, F.
L., and R. H. Keifer, 1955. The cherry fruit fly in north
America. Morphological differentiation between the eastern
and western subspecies of cherry fruit fly. Rhagoletis
cingulata (Loew). Calif. Dept. Agrie. Bull. 44:77-88.
Boyce, A. M. 1934. Bionomics of the walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis
completa. Hilgardia 8:363-579,
Burdett, R. C. 1935. The biology and control of pepper maggot,
Zonosemata electa Say. N.J. Agrie. Expt. Sta. Bull.
585. 24'p.
Bush, G.
L. 1962. The cytotaxonomy of the larvae of some Mexican
fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, Psyche 68:86-101.
1965.
The genus Zonosemata, with notes on the cytology of two
species. Psyche. 72:307-363.
1966.
The taxonomy, cytology, and evolution of the genus
Rhagoletis in North America (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool* 134:431-562.
1969a.
Sympatric host race formation and speciation in frugi-
vorous flies on the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera:
Tephritidae). Evolution 23:237-251.
1969b.
Mating behavior, host specificity, and the ecological
significance of sibling species in frugivorous flies
of the genus Rhagoletis. Amer. Nat. 103:669-672.
Cazier, M. A. 1962, Notes on the bionomics of Zonosemata vittigera
(Coquilletc), a fruit fly on Solanum (Dipteral Tephritidae)
Pan-Pac. Entomol. 23:181-186.
Christenson, K. C., and R, H. Foote. I960., Biology of fruit
flies, Annu. Rey, Entomol. 5:171-192.
Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of fruit flies. J. Econ.
Entomol. 49:176-178.


52
Genus Dioxyna Frey
Dioxyna Frey, 1945:62. Type species, Trypeta sororcula Wiedemann,
by original designation.
picciola (Bigot), 1857:347 (Acinia).
thomae (Curran), 1928:70 (Ensina).
Genus Trupanea Schrank
Trupanae Schrank, 1795:147. Type species, radiata Schrank, by
monotypy.
actinobola (Loew), 1873:326 (Trypeta).
ageratae Benjamin, 1934:56.
dacetoptera Phillips, 1923:148.
eclipta Benjamin, 1934:57.
mevarna (Walker), 1849:1023. (Trypeta).
Genus Tephritis Latreille
Tephritis Latreille, 1804:196. Type species, Musca arnicae Linnaeus
(Cresson, 1914:278).
subpura (Johnson), 1909:114 (Euaresta).
Genus Dyseuareatn Hendel
DyseuarestaHendel, 1928:368. Type species, Euaresta adelphica
Hendel, by original designation.
mexicana (Wiedemann), 1830:511 (Trypeta).
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin
Euarestoides Benjamin, 1934:57. Types species, Trypeta abstersa
Loew, by original designation.


191
bristles. Thorax and scutellum gray pollinose, with 1 pair of
dorsocehtral bristles situated near the transverse suture.
Abdomen densely gray pollinose. Ovipositor and male genitalia
shining brown or black.
Larvae infest flower heads, principally of Compositae.
The genus occurs world-wide; 5 of tne 20 North American species
are recorded from Florida. Because wing characteristics are so
easily seen and almost universally present, the key to North
American species of Trupanea published by early workers, Adams
(1904) Phillips (1923), Curran (1932b), and Malloch (1942) almost
excluded other characters in their identification. Foote (1960d),
in his revision of the genus, provided keys to male and female to
avoid difficulties with sexual dimorphism.
Key to the Florida Specie's of Trupanea
1. Two dark rays through cell 1st M2; proximal ray sometimes
broken in posterior 1/2 of cell and not attaining vein
M3 + Cu-^ or broken in center of cell 2
1. One dark ray through cell 1st M2; in addition, sometimes a
spot near the middle of that cell and a dark spot in line
with it on vein M3 + Cu^ 4
2. Distal ray through cell 1st M2 continuing to hind margin of
wing proximal ray ending at middle of cell 1st M2 (Fig. 60)-
dacetoptera Phillips


155
scutellum and by having only 1 pair of upper fronto-orbital
bristles. Wing large and broad, with 4 dark brown oblique bands
on hyaline background, 3 dark bands radiating from dark markings
on costa, the apical band forked in cell R5 forming 2 arms that
extend to the posterior margin. Vein R2 heavily setose, vein
R4 +^ setose beyond r -m crossvein. Mesonotum dark brown to
black grayish pollinose with numerous short yellow setae. Pleurae
and metathorax rufous. Bases of bristles with prominent black
spots. Posterior nonopleuron black and greatly enlarged. Dorso-
central bristles closer to a transverse line between supra-alar
bristles than to a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum
dark brown medially and swollen, with black marking dorsolaterally,
and with 1 pair of scutellars. Legs brown. Abdomen dark brown
to black with numerous short brown setae.
Nothing is known about the biology of the species.
The genus contains only 1 species, which is restricted to south
eastern United States.
Peronyma sarcinata Loew
Figs. 43, 97, 14'6
Trypeta sarcinata Loew, 1862, Berlin. Entomol. Zitschr.
6:218. Holotype +. Type locality: Carolina.
Mostly dark brown species with swollen bilobed scutellum.
Head and thoracic bristles black. Head yellowish-brown with black
spots on parafacial region. Only 1 pair of upper fronto-orbital
bristles and 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles present.
Thorax with a pair of submedian black spots situated on the


177
inside the line of lower fronto-orbitals, the posterior pair pale
and stout. Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Head
and thoracic bristles strong and bladk. Arista long and plumose.
Thorax predominantly black with whitish hairs. Dorsocentral
bristles closer to transverse suture than to a line between supra-
alar bristles. Scutellum shining black with 4 strong bristles.
Legs largely yellow with brown to black markings on the mid and hind
femora. Wings broad and typically with dark bands on hyaline
field. Abdomen dark brown to black on hyaline field.
Presently the genus contains 2 species, with only 1 species
reported from Florida. Both species are relatively rare. Not
much is known about the biology of the species except for Stenopa
vulnerata(Loew), which breeds on Senecio aureaus L. Novak and Foote
11975) presented the key to adults.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)
Figs. 53, 104
Trypeta vulnerata Loew 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect.
11(256):232. Holotype ?. Type locality: Massachusetts.
Moderately large species with an average of 5.6 mm and
with distinct wing pattern (Fig. 53) and shape of the head.
Wing broad, with black bands on a hyaline field. Wing pattern
consists of an S-shaped band; the forked proximal loop of S-band
elongate basally extending to humeral area, also connected to a
dark marking at the base of wing. The distal loop with subapical


299


Fig. 124. Distribution map of Anastrepha ocresia (Walker);
specific locality record ().


204
3. Thorax bicolored, black dorsally and yellow-brown ventrally;
vein R2 + 3 wavy, with a bend on its apical 1/2;
cell 1st M2 with 1 hyaline area (Fig. 65)
insecta Loew
3'. Thorax entirely black; vein +^normal; cell 1st with
2 hyaline areas (Fig. 63) chrysura (Thomson)
Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
Figs. 63, 112, 164
Trypeta chrysura Thomson, Dipt. Fregat. Eugenies Resa,
580. Type unknown. Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Small to moderately small species, easily differentiated
from other Florida Xanthaciura with 2-bristled scutellum by having
an entirely black thorax and by having 2 hyaline areas in cell 1st
M2> Also by having the proximal dark ray arising from the dark field
in cell 1st M2 through cell 2nd A. The apical 1/3 of middle and
hind femorae with a narrow brown or blackish band posteriorly.
Abdominal tergites II-V black, ovipositor sheath translucently
yellow with a wide black band at apex, about 0.6 mm long. The
piercer short, pointed at apex, 0.6 mm long. Extended ovipositor 2.1
mm. Male genitalia small (Fig.112). Epandrium dark brown with
scattered setae. Surstyli short, slightly curved inward, truncate
at apices. Proctiger small with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.5 mm; wing 2.2-3.4 mm. (N=3).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Costa Rica, Peru, Florida, Brazil.




3 IS


Fig. 10 A-J Neaspilota floridana. A. lateral view of the head.
B. wing o. c. dorsal view of ovipositor sheath.
D. dorsal view of piercer of est spicule of raspers. F. spermatheca. G. dorsal
view of & genitalia. H. profile view of $ genitalia.
I. tip of edeagus. J. ejaculatory apdeme.


Fig. 145. Distribution map of Paracantha forfcula Benjamin;
specific locality record (#).


219
introduced from the West Indies, is the most common and widespread
species and poses some threat to Florida citrus. Anastrepha species
breed in fleshy fruits, and at least 2 species, A. interrupta and A.
nigrifascia, are endemic to south Florida.
The Mediterranean fruit fly became established in Florida in 1929,
1956, and 1962. Each time an intensive and expensive control campaign
was initiated, and the pest was eradicated from Florida. Continuous
trapping, especially in south Florida, hopefully will provide early
detection of any new reinfestation.
The genus Rhagoletis is Holarctic in origin and primarily inhabits
temperate climates. Its range extends into northern Florida, generally
following the distribution of the host plant species. Many of the
Florida species and distinct races of plants and animals had their
origins as isolated populations during the interglacial period. The
hosts of R. osmanthi and R. chionanthi are among the plants which have
distinct subspecies associated with the areas of Florida which were
affected by the geological changes. Both species are endemic and are
found in only a few localities in Florida. Although in North America
the genus contains economically important species, the 6 species
occurring in Florida are of little economic importance.
The pepper maggot fly, Zonosemata electa, is an important pest in
pepper growing areas of the United States and Canada. It causes only
minor damage to peppers in Florida since its distribution is generally
north of the major pepper growing areas.
Identification of fruit flies has been based primarily on the


122
Benjamin. Foote (1964) indicated that donysa was conspecific
with nicholsoni and was the prior name. Larvae feed in small round
galls on stems of Solidago sp. The immature stages were briefly
described by Benjamin (1934) .
Burosta fenestrata Snow
Figs. 31, 86, 136
Eurosta fenestrate Snow, 1894, Kans. Univ. Quart. 2(3):
169, pi. VII, Fig. 7. Holotype ?. Type locality: Morrison,
Arizona.
Light brown species. Frontal bristles weak, with 2 pairs
of upper fronto-orbitals and 3 pairs of lower fronto-brbitals.
Mesonotum with yellow setae. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars..'
wing moderately broad, with hyaline areas almost similar to that of
comma. Differing from it by having apical 1/2 of cell Ri with
a small hyaline area along the costal (Fig. 31 ). Also by having
the apx of wing with narrow crescentric hyaline mark continuous,
not broken into 3 small spots by darkening about ends of veins
+ 4 anc^ mi+2 T^e hy3!-*-116 ar^a at the end of anal vein large
with discrete margins and extending through the middle of cell
Cu^ ending at middle of vein M3 + Cu. Abdomen slender, bright
brown, and mostly yellow setose. Female ovipositor not dissected.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 86, epandrium broad with scattered setae.
Like other members of this genus, surstyli narrow and long, with


GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY
Detailed accounts of tephritid morphology are provided
by Benjamin (1934), Foote and Blanc (1963), Bush (1966), and Novak
(1974). This brief discussion focuses on the terminology used in
the taxonomic studies of fruit flies.
Head (Fig. 1, 2). The irons (FR) lies between the eyes
(E) and extends from the vertex to the lunule (LU). The irons
usually is pollinose and bears the upper and lower fronto-orbital
bristles. The upper fronto-orbital bristles (UFO) usually consist
of 2 pairs, but 1 or 3 pairs may be present. Two or 3 pairs of
lower fronto-orbital bristles (LFO) usually are present, but may
vary from 1-5 pairs. The lunule extends from the base of the irons
to the antennal base.
Below the irons is the facial region (F), which extends
from the antennae to the anterior oral margin. The gena (GN)
extends vertically from the oral margin to the bottom of the com
pound eyes. Directly below the compound eyes are the genal bristles
(G). The anterolateral margin of the oral opening and post genae
(PG) occasionally is heavily setosed. The postocular bristles
(POC) are always present and may be light or dark, slender, or
robust, and blunt or sharp tipped.
3-


Fig. 152. Distribution map of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh);
specific locality record ().


Fig. 117. Distribution map of Acidogona melanura (Loew);
specific locality record ().


261


Distribution map of Trupanea mevarna
specific locality record (), county
(Walker);
record () .
Fig. 163.


195
USNM); Miami Beach, 9& 10?, Erigeron vernus, 15-V-1950 (D. J.
Nicholson, U.SM); Escambia, Co.: Pensacola 2?, 11-14-X-1941 (AMNH);
Lake Co.: 2$ 4?, 8-IV-1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); Leesburg, 6$ 4?,
reared ex Erigeron guercifolius, 10-14-1979 (J. Gilmore, & I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Levy Co.: 6& 3?, sweeping weeds, 13-IV-1955 (R. A.
Morse, FSCA); Gulf Hammock, 2? 23-IV-1952 (0. Peck, (NC); 4$ 1?,
23-IV-1952 (J. R. Vockoroth, CNC); Manatee Co.: Bradenton, 3$ 3?,
swept Erigron guercifolius, 17-IV-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 3$,
reared ex Erigeron guercifolius, 17-IV- 6-V-1979 (I. B. Rohani,
FSCA); Oneca, 1$, 29-III-L956 ^JohnC.Mattin, CMC);. .
Marion Co.: Silver Spring, lS, 5-IV-1953(W. R. M. Mason, CNC);
Martin Co.: Indiantown, 1 2?, Solidago chapmanii. 7-VI-1930
(Beaver, USNM) Nassau Co;: Callahan, 3& 1+, reared ex Haploppapus
divaricatus, 16-18-IV-1979 (I. B. Rohani & R. A. Belmont, FSCA)
4oS 30+, reared from Erigeron guercifolius, 16-27-IV-1979 (R. A.
Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 24$ 26?, reared ex Erigeron
guercifolius, 19-IV-1979 (R. A. Belmont.& I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Orange Co.: Orlando, 2c$, 24-X-1931 (FSCA); 8c? 2?, bred from Solidago
sp. 9-16-XI-1929, bred from solidago sp. (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
20S, emerged from Aster adnatus, 13-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Winter Garden, 2$, bred from Aster carolinianus, 9-XII-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Pasco Co.: l, 6-IV-1952 (J. R. Vockeroth,
CNC); Volusia Co.: 28, 24-VII-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Benson
Spring, 6$, bred from Erigeron vernus, 24-VI-1930 (Pope & White,
USNM).


113
genitalia small and compact. Epandrium highly arched, dark
brown and with scattered setae dorsally (Fig. 82). Surstyli
elongate and curved inward, apex rounded. Proctiger small with
numerous long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.8-3.2; wing 2.4-2.9 mm. IN=10).
Hosts: Unknown (Specimens are often caught on ragweed,
Ambrosia artemissifolia. (t-) and Bidens pilosa L.
Distribution: Florida, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Washington, and Wisconsin.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 8<5 4?, on Prunus angustifolia
17-III-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2<5, on Prunus angustifolia,
14-11-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Gainesville, 4<5 8?, at Bidens
pilosa, 11-XI-1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA), 1?, insect flight trap,
14-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & C. R. Artaud, FSCA) 1(5, insect
flight trap, 15-XI-1971 IH. V. Weems, Jr., & C. R. Artaud, FSCA);
1?, insect flight trap, 30-XI-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., & C. R.
Artaud, FSCA); 2(5 2?, Castanea pumila, ll-X-1972 (H. R. Dodge,
FSCA); 3(5, insect flight trap, 23-25-X-1973 (Hf V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA), 1<5 1?, 31-XII-1975 ,(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Dade Co.: Hialeah,
i<5, sweeping grasses and weeds, 14-VII-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr.,
o
FSCA); 1+, sweeping grasses and weeds, 17-III-1965 (C. E. Stegmier-,
Jr., FSCA); Flagler Co.: 1<5, 8-VII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr. FSCA);
Highlands Co.: Archbold Biol. Stat. 1?, 23-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson,
CNC) ; i<5 26-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC) ; 12<5 8?, swept Ambrosia
artemissifolia, zl III1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); sS 10?, insect


Fig. 123. Distribution map of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart);
specific locality record ().


188
The hiology of this species has been investigated (Knab
& Yothers, 1914; Mason, 1922; Benjamin, 1934; Baker et al., 1944).
The larvae commonly attack both wild and cultivated papayas and
have also been recorded to attack mango, the only other known host.
The genus contains only 1 species, the well-known papaya fruit fly
in the New World.
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Figs. 57, 358
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker, 1860, Stettin Entomol.
Ztg. 29:194. Holotype ?. Type locality: St. John, Virgin Island.
Predominantly yellow, easily differentiated by its charac
teristic resemblance to several species of vespid wasps in size,
form, and general coloration, as well as behavior. Thorax ochraceous
yellow except for the following black mark on the hind portion of
each humerus, extending ventrally, running between the front and
mid-coxae and extending dorsally in a loop on anterolateral por
tion of mesonotum. A pair of submedial vittae extending from the
anterior margin and ending just beyond the line in between supra-
alars. Posterior notopleuron with a short vitta which extends
posteriorly and ending just beyong postalars. Metanotum with 2
dark longitudinal stripes. Wing hyaline with distinct yellowing
along the costa. Female with very long slender abdomen and greatly
elongated ovipositor. Ovipositor sheath very narrow and long,
exceeding the length of abdomen, thorax, and head. Male genitalia
not dissected.


85
Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A, DG.
Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex.
Chrysophy 1 lumo 11viforme L.
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J, Igram & H,
Citrus aurantium L
Citrus X paradisi Macfady
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Citrus sp.
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels,
Diospyros virginiana L.
Dio.spyros sp.
Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn.) Warb
Eriobotryajpaponica (Thubl) Lindl.
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz) Willd.
Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzschex 0. Berg.
Eugenia uniflora L.
Ficus carica L.
Flacourtia indica (Burm. F) Merrill
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle
Fortunella sp.
Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Malpighia glabra L.
Mangifera indica L.
Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen
E. Moore
Momordica balsamina L.


71
Anastrepha edentata Stone
Figs 15, 71. 120
Anastrepha edentata Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agrie. Mise. Publ.
o
489:48, pi. 8, Fig. 7. Holotype +. Type locality: Key Largo,
Florida (USNM).
Small yellowish species with 4 brown stripes on mesonotum. Head
with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 5 pairs of lower
fronto-orbital bristles. Mesonotum yellow with 2 long lateral stripes
extending from anterior margin to the bases of dorsocentral bristles,
and 2 short submedian stripes ending in areas between dorsocentrals,
just anterior of acrostichals. Wing with yellow brown bands, costal
and S-bands separated on vein R4 +5, but may be separated or con
nected on vein R2 +3 or cell R may be infuscated totally by the
2 bands. V-band usually connected to S-band. Legs yellow. Anterior
1/2 of abdominal tergite brown with rows of dark brown setae,
posterior 1/2 with yellow setae. Ovipositor sheath long,
slender and tapering about 3.6 mm long. The piercer long, slender
sharp-pointed, 3.4 long with apex gradually tapering to a rather
rounded tip. Epandrium yellow (Fig. 71 ) .with scattered long setae
over the dorsum. Surstyli short and narrow, apices tapered to a
sharp tip. Proctiger large, with long setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 6.5-7.8 mm; wing 6.3-7.5 mm (N=10)
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Florida, Puerto Rico,
Florida Records: MonroeCo.: 1<5 McPhail trap, 20-11-1936
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, McPhail trap, 14-IX-1936 (McDaniel, FSCA);


12

ti*


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pa9e
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT vii
INTRODUCTION 1
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY 3
BIOLOGY 13
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 43
METHODS AND MATERIALS 46
Rearing 46
Morphological Studies 48
CHECKLIST OF FLORIDA TEPHRITIDAE 50
Genus Toxotrypana Gestacker 50
Genus Peronyma Loew 50
Genus Procecidochares Hendel 50
Genus Paracantha Coquillett 50
Genus Eurosta Loew 51
Genus Acidogona Loew 51
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy 51
Genus Aero taenia Loew 51
Genus Euaresta Loew 51
Genus Dioxyna Frey 52
Genus Trupanea Schrank 52
Genus Tephritis Latreille 52
Genua Dyseuaresta Hendel 52
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin 52
Genus Myoleja Rondani 53
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel 53
Genus Stenopa Loew 53
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken 53
Genus Ceratitis Macleay 54
Genus Anastrepha Schiner 54
Genus Rhagoletis Loew 54
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin 55
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy 55
v


ranges 19.2 mm; and by host preference, infests only Osmanthus
americanus (L.) Gray. Female ovipositor short, about 2.6 mm; the
ovipositor sheath dark brown, about 0.9 mm long. The piercer
0.9 mm, apex:, gradually tapers to a sharp point. Epandrium with
long fine setae dorsally. Surstyli elongate, apex rounded and
with a tuft of long fine setae. Proctiger similar to others in
the group (Fig. 101).
Length: body 3.6-4.0 mm; wing 3.6-3.8 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Osmanthus americanus (L.) Gray
Distribution: Known only from Florida.
Florida Records: Hillsborough Co.: (paratype) 1, bred
from Osmanthus americanus, 28-X-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 3&
bred from Osmanthus americanus, 28-X-1930 (Pope & White USNM);
3$. bred from Osmanthus americanus, 5-21-XI-1930 (B. G. Anderson,
USNM); Seffner, 1$ 3?, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 10-X-1930
(Pope & White, USNM); Thonotossas, 1$ 1?, bred from Osmanthus
americanus, 5-XII-1930 (W. H. Pope, USNM) Osceola Co.: Alligator
Lake, 10 3?, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 3S-10-XI-1930 (W. C.
Slight, USNM);(paratypes) 3$ 5?, bred from Osmanthus americanus,
18-XI-1930 (W. C. Slight, USNM); Pasco Co.: New Port Richey,
5$ 3?, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 3-XI-1930 (G. G. Norman,
USNM); Pinellas Co.: Tarpon Springs, loi 2?, bred from Osmanthus
americanus, 19-XI-1930 (M. Dodd, UNSM); Volusia Co.: 1$, bred
from Osmanthus americanus, 19-III-1930 (M. Dodd, USNM); Coronado,
2&, bred from Osmanthus americanus, 10-18-IX-K1930' (Crew, USNM).


124
usually with irregular margins. Female ovipositor long, about
5.4 mm. Ovipositor sheath dark brown and with scattered setae,
about 2.3 mm long. Piercer 1.6 mm long apex gradually tapers to
a sharp point. Male genitalia not dissected. Epandrium broad
and highly arched; lower margin of epandrium emarginate in profile.
Surstyli long, each developed into 2 short, more or less rounded
lobes at apex. Proctiger elongated, with numerous long setae
lateroventrally.
Length: body 6.8-7.4 mm; wing 6.7-7.4 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp.
Distribution: Known only from Florida
Florida Records: Hamilton Co.: Jasper (paratype) 1(5 1?,
bred from Solidago sp., 28-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); (holotype),
1?, bredlfrom Solidago sp., ll-18-Xir-1930 ID. J. Nicholson, USNM);
(paratype) 1?, bred from Solidago sp. 11-18-XII-1930 (D. J, Nicholson,
NSNM) ; (paratype) 1(5, bred from Solidago sp., 5-XII-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM);(paratype) 1?, bred from Solidago sp. 19-XII-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Marion Co.: Dunellon, (allotype) 1(5,
bred from Solidago sp. 61-XII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orange
Co.: Orlando, (paratype) 1?, bred from Solidago sp., 19-29-VII-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; (paratype) 1(5, bred from Solidago fistulosa,
29-XII-1930 (D. J. Nicholsorv, USNM); (paratype) 1+f bred from
Solidago sp. 21-28-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).


263


15
temperature, some individuals require as many as 4 successive
chillings before completing development (Boyce, 1934).
Many species of fruit flies are attacked by a complex of
native larval parasites. The majority of these parasites exist
at quite low densities even in the native hosts. Two hymenopterous
parasites, Heteroschema punctata (Ashraead) and Colotrechnus ignotus
Burks., were reared from the immature stages of T. actinobola by
Stegmaier (1968b). Marsh (1970) described a new species of parasite
attacking larval of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) and A. interrupta
Stone from Florida. Baranowski and Swanson (1970) introduced 45
females and 26 males of Parachasma cereus (Gahan) a parasite of
A. suspensa in Homestead and found that 2 1/2 months after release,
3.4-25% of pupae from fruits about 0.4 miles (0.64 Km) from the
point of release^ were parasitized. Up to 43% of pupae from tropical
almond were parasitized by these parasites. The effectiveness of
some biological control efforts in fruit fly control hag- been
evaluated by Clausen (1956).
Courtship and mating behavior in Tephritidae have been
extensively studied by many authors and may be a complex process
involving a variety of cues and sequences (Prokopy and Bush, 1973;
Stoltzfus and Foote, 1965; and Tauber and Tauber, 1967). Prokopy
et al. (1971) divided the mating behavior of Rhagoletis pomonella
Walsh into 2 main processes and revealed that the site of male:
female assembly for mating was exclusively 6a the fruits of the
larval host plant. Zonosemata electa (Say) adults have been


Distribution map of Xanthaciura insecta (Loew);
specific locality record () county record ().
Fig. 166.


106
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Figs. 24, 79, 129
Trypeta mexicana Wiedemann, 1930, Auss. Zweifl. Ins.,
2:684. Holo-type ?. Type locality: Mexico.
Readily differentiated by its dark brown to black body
and by the wing marking as in Fig. 24. Wing with many discal
and marginal hyaline spots on a dark background. Vein +
bare or sparsely setose. Cell R^ with a faint bulla. Middle
1/2 of cell Cu^ with large hyaline area. Female ovipositor long,
about 3.7 mm. The ovipositor sheath black with numerous black
setae, 1.4 mm long. The piercer strong, evenly tapered to a long
narrow tip at the apex, measures approximately 1.2 mm long. Male
genitalia as in Fig. 79. Epandrium wide and black dorsum with a
few long setae. Surstyli long, slender, andhieavily curved inward,
apices trucata. Proctiger small and elongate, with long fine setae
ventrally.
Length: body 3.0-4.0 mm; wing 2.5-3.2 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Melanthera aspera Jacq. var. grabiuscula (Knntze)
Parks
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Melanthera parviflora Small
Melanthera sp.
Distrisbution: Arizona, Texas, Florida, and West Indies, Mexico.
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Rockledge, 2$, ex Melanthera
nivea, 6-III-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM); 2$ 1?, reared from Melanthera.


Fig. 160.
Distribution map of Trupanea ageratae Benjamin;
specific locality record ().


FRUIT FLIES OF FLORIDA
(DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
By
ROHANI BINTI IBRAHIM
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1980


62
29-IV-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 1<£ 5?, bred from Hieracium
argyraeum5-I-1930 (Park & White, USNM); Indian River Co.: Indian
River City, 10<3 6?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum, 13-V-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5$ 2?, bred from Hieracium argyraeum,
6-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Levy Co.: Cedar Key, 1$ 2?,
bred Hieracium argyraeum, 18-III-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Orange
Co.: Orlando, 6S, bred from Hieracium scabrum, 17-25-1-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlovista, 9$, bred from Hieracium scabrum,
10-18-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Polk Co.: Griffin, 5 bred drom Hieracium argyraeum, 16-19-V-1930 (Pope & White, USNM).
This species is commonly reared from all species of
Hieracium. It is generally distributed in Florida. This is the
only Florida species with distinctive black markings on the abdomen.
The immature stages were briefly described by Benjamin (1934).
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy
Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Acad. Roy. des Sci. Mem.
2:775. Type species: jaceae Robineau-Desvoidy + corniculata
(Zetterstehdt).
Small yellowish pollinose species with all bristles yellow-
brown. wing with numerous hyaline spots on a dark field; hyaline
spots surrounded by a rim of infuscation darker than yellowish parts
of wing disc. Vein R^ + with scattered setae extending over most
of its length. Typically with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, and
3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Frons pubescent;


118
bristles closer to a transverse line between supra-alar bristles
than to a line between acrostichal bristles. Scutellum swollen,
with 1 to 2 pairs bristles, and sometimes 2 to-7 bristles present.
Wing broad consisting of a dark field interrupted by hayline spots.
Vein Rp setose over the entire length. Vein R^ + setose to beyond
r m crossvein. Abdomen broad, with numerous yellow to dark brown
setae.
Larvae form galls in stems and roots of a variety of
plants. The species appear to be host specific and each forms
a characteristic gall on its host plant. The genus is strictly
Nearctic and contains 10 species. Of these, 4 are known to occur
in Florida. Steyskal and Foote (1977) provided keys to the adults
of North American Eurosta.
Key to the Florida Species of Eurosta
1. Wing marked with a reticulate hyaline pattern; hyaline
spots small and faint; apical 1/.2 of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
vein normal 2
1*. Wing without such pattern; hyaline spots large and discrete
(Fig. 30); apical 1/2 of 2nd, 3rd, 4th vein undulating. .
... donysa (Walker)
2. Pale marking at the end of anal vein little developed, not
extending 1/2 way across cell Cup (Fig. 29); ovipositor
sheath short; lower margin of epandrium square and straight
comma (Wiedemann)


rearing materials. I wish to extend my sincere thanks to the
following; Dr. Y. Salleh, Mr. C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., Mr. R. A.
Belmont, Ms. J. Gillmore, and Mr. H. A. Greenbaum.
I am grateful to my chairman, Dr. D. H. Habeck, and co-chairman,
Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., and committee members, Drs. G. E. Allen and F. W.
Zettler, for their continued guidance and support during this study.
My thanks also goes to Dr. R. H. Foote, Mr. G. C. Steyskal, and Mr.
A. Friedberg for their helpful suggestions and to Drs. J. F. Butler
and D. V. Young, and Ms. T. C. Carlysle for their interest in illus
tration and photographic suggestions. A sincere appreciation goes
to Dr. K. R. Langdon and Mr. C. Artaud for identifying the host
plants and reviewing the host lists.
A special appreciation is expressed also to my husband,
Yusoh, who was most understanding during the preparation of this
work and to dear friends, Ms. Thelma Carlysle, Francis Ward, Barbara
Hollien, and Janice Sapp for their constant encouragement and
comfort. *
A very special gratitude goes to my family in Malaysia, who
have constantly given me encouragement and support. My two children
Sharila and Melissa Johannie deserve my heartiest appreciation for
being so wonderful throughout this work.
I also want to thank University of Agriculture, Malaysia for
the financial support which made this study possible.
iv


48
hydrolyzed torula yeast + borax in water. They were primarily
developed for attraction of Mediterranean fruit fly and Caribbean
fruit fly, but other kinds of Diptera were collected as indicated
by Steyskal (1977a). Hundreds of thousand of specimens were col
lected from these traps in Florida over the years. An extensive
trapping program is still being carried out in parts of penisular
Florida for the early detection of exotic fruit flies such as
the Mexican fruit fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and Oriental
fruit fly should any of these be accidentally introduced into
Florida. The distribution maps provided distribution data
obtained from AMNH, CNC, CU, FSCA, CCZ, UGA and USNM, whose
specimens the author may or may not have seen.
Morphological Studies
Wings and ovipositors were prepared and mounted on slides
in Canada balsam using the method described by Steyskal (1977b).
Male genitalia and the last abdominal segments were dissected and
stored in glycerine in vials. Temporary mounts of male genitalia
were prepared by placing in teased genitalic structures in 3-4
drops of phenol on a convex microscope slide. This method is
convenient because specimens can be moved into any position
desired for examination and illustration.
Some of the specimens were drawn with the aid of camera
lucida and/or Bausch and Lomb microprojector. Measurements were
made rising an ocular micrometer. Photomicrographs of the wing
and genitalia were made from some slides using a Zeiss Photo II


273


192
2'. Distal ray through cell 1st M2 only to vein M3 + Cup and
never beyond; proximal ray reaching vein M3 + Cup or some
times broken a dark spot may be present near the middle of
cell 1st M2 3
3. Hyaline area immediately distad of stigma rather pointed
posteriorly (Fig. 62) mevarna (Walker)
3*. Hyaline area immediately distad of stigma distinctly rounded
posteriorly or ending broadly on vein R4 + 5 (Fig. 59)
aqeratae Benjamin
4. Apex of cell R completely hyaline except for an occasional
narrow band of infuscation along vein r.* m 5
4'. Apex of cell R distinctly infuscated in addition to narrow
band along vein r m 6
5. Dark ray from stigma to vein r m broken or absent in cell R^
(Fig. 61) eclipta Benjamin
5'. Dark ray from stigma to vein r -,m complete in cell Rp and R3
(Fig. 58)- actinobola (Loew)
6. Hyaline area immediately distal of stigma more or less acute
apically, infuscation'on vein M^+ Cu^ in the form of spot entirely
lacking (Fig. 62) mevarna (Walker)
61. Hyaline area immediately distal of stigma rounded broadly
posteriorly; infuscation in the form of spot on M + Cup (Fig. 58)
-3 1
actinobola (Loew)


214
Easily recognized by the characters presented in the key,
tetraspina is further characterized by having an entirely black
thorax and by having vein R2 + 3 no3!- The known distribution
of this species suggests that in Florida, it probably does not occur
further south than central Florida.
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin
Zonosemata Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie, Tech,
Bull. 401:17-18. Type species: Trypeta electa Say.
Readily differentiated from other Trypetinae by the pre
dominantly yellow thorax with black maculations, a cream colored
notopleural.stripes, and brown crossbands on the wing. All head
and body bristles black, with the vertex of the head much narrower
than width of the eyes. Usually 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals
and 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals are present on the head.
Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line drawn between
postalars than to anterior supra-alars. Scutellum cream, tinged with
yellow except for 2 black spots at the lateral margin, with 2 pairs
of long black bristles. Wing consists.of brown transverse band, at
level with upper i/2 of subcostal cell, extending to cubical cell,
2nd and 3rd band in line with r-m and m crossveins, and a band over
the upper 1/2 of the apical margin of the wing. Vein R4 +^setulose.
Abdomen entirely yellow, rather thickly covered with brown-black
decumbent setae. The 5th terga with a dark brown to black marking
on each basalateral margin.


323


Fig. 155. Distribution map of Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
specific locality record ().


104
ovipositor sheath dark brown to black approximately 1.0 mm long;
the piercer very long, slender, gradually tapered into an elongate
sharp point, about 0.7mm in length. Male genitalia with a large
robust epandrium; dorsum of epandrium with dense thick setae,
surstyli broad and blunt, more or less rounded at apex, proctiger,
small with scattered setae.
Length: body, 2.0-4.0 mm; wing 2.8-3.0 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Bidens bipinnata L.
Distribution: Florida, Bermuda, Virgin Island (St. Thomas
Island), and West Indies.
Florida Records. Alachua Co.: 1$ 1?, 20-XII-1951
Gainesville, 1(5 1?, Blacklight trap, 3-X-1972 (F. W. Mead, FSCA);
2?, ll-X-1972 (H. R. Dodge, FSCA); lS,insect flight trap, 19-2I-X-
1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2?, insect flight trap, 24-X-1973
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), 1$ 1?, insect flight trap, 1-6-XII-1973
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Citrus Co.: Crystal River, 25(5 56?, bred
from Bidens bipinnata, 3-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholeson, USNM;; Martin Co.:
Waveland, 4$ 8?, 13-V-1937 (O. D. Link, FSCA), Orange Co.: Orlando
15$ 13?, bred from Bidens bipinnata, 8-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
5$ 7?, bred from Bidens bipinnata, ll-X-1930 (D. J. Nichoson, USNM);
46$ 44?, bred from Bidens bipinnata, 13-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Oceola Co.: East Lake,22$ 45?, bred from Bidens bipinnata,
23-26-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, USNM); Seminole Co.: Oviedo, 4$ 6?,
bred from Bidens bipinnata, 1-5-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
The Nearctic distribution of D. thomae is restricted to
Florida and Bermuda. Its distribution in Florida is not widespread


117
25-XI-1929 (F. H. Benjamin, USNM); 25$ 21?, reared from Trilisa
paniculata, 18-25-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 20$ 20?, reared
from Trilisa paniculata, 25-20-3X1-192 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
3^ 21?, ex Trilisa paniculata, 24-30-XI-1929 (F. H. Benjamin, USNM);
12$ 11?. reared from Trilisa paniculata, 5-XII-1929 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM).
In addition to the characters given above, this species
can be further distinguished by the distinct but rather narrow
extension of the preapical dark spot, 1 proximally bordering
the hyaline spot located immediately anterior to the crossvein,
the other extending from the apex of subcostal cell to a point
near vein R As far as is known, this species is restricted
4+5
to the Atlantic States. This species commonly breeds in flower
heads of Trilisa paniculata. Benjamin (1934) briefly described
the immature stages of this species. Detailed morphology of the
larvae was presented by Phillips (1946).
Genus Eurosta Loew
Eurosta Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 11(256).
Type species: Trypeta solidaginis Fitch.
Predominantly large dark brown species which can be dif
ferentiated by the following characters: Vertex about 2 times
the width of the eyes. Antennae short, with long plumose arista.
Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, the posterior pair
short and scale-like; 3 to 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles
present. Thorax with numerous small yellow setae. Dorsocentral


Fig. 132.
(-) .
Distribution map of Euaresta bella (Loew);
specific locality record () county record


Eriobotrya japnica (Thub'.) Lindle.
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.
Eugenia ligustrina (Swartz) Willd,
Eugenia luschnathiana Klotzschex 0. Berg.
Eugenia uniflora L.
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merrill
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle.
Fortunella sp.
Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Malpighia glabra L.
Mangifera indica L.
Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen
Momordica balsamina L.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Myrcira cauliflora (DC.) 0. Berg.
Persea americana Mill.
Pimento dioica (L.) Merrill
Pouteria campechiana (HBK) Baehni
Prunus americana Marsh
Prunus prsica (L.) Batsch.
prunus sp.
Pseudanamomis umbellulifera Kausel


169
Osceola Co.: Kissimmee, 7 icus, 15-3O-VII1-1930 (G. F. Harding, USNM); 3S 2?, bred from
Chionanthus virginicus, 5-26-V-1931 (G. F. Harding, USNM); (para-
types) 6$ 1+, bred fromChionanthusvirginicus, 15-26-V-1931 (G. F.
Harding, USNM).
\
Rhagoletis chionanthi fits the description of the cingulata
group except for the ovipositor length. It can be distinguished
easily from the northeastern specimens of cingulata on the basis
of color pattern, but in Florida cingulata, osmanthi, and chionanthi
are so similar, it is impossible to separate them on the basis of
color alone. Bush (1966) gave detailed discussion of the character
difference between these sibling species.
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Figs, 49, 101,.151
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush, 1966, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
134(11)-.478. Hlotype Type locality: Osceola Co.: Florida
(USNM).
A small to medium dark brown species with a distinct
apical fork on the wing. Mesonotum with cream to light yellow
pollinose microtrichia and decumbent setae arranged in 4 ill-
defined rows belong to cingulata group, can be differentiated
from cingulata cingulata (Loew) by the following characters as
described by Bush (1966); presence of a forked apical wing band;
with a longer piercer 0.8 mm; considerably larger thoracic length


68
Male genitalia as in Fig. 70. Epandrium dark brown to black, with
numerous long setae dorsally and laterally, with a clump of long
fine setae at the lower inner margin. Surstyli short and broad,
rather truncate at apices. Proctiger small and elongate with
scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length:, body 4.0-4.2 mm wing 3.9-4.1 mm. (N=3).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Florida, Cuba, Puerto Rico.
Florida Records: Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 1? McPhail
trap, 26-1-1936 (J. J. Cooper, FSCA).
This species is rare in collections. This is the only speci
men represented in the United States. Detail description of this
species was given by Loew (1873).
Genus Anastrepha Schiner
Anastrepha Schiner, 1868, Reise der Novana, 2:263. Type-
species: Dacus serfentinus Wiedemann.
Mostly yellow with thorax and abdomen densely yellow pollinose,
with brown hairs never mesonotum and abdomen. The major head and
thoracic bristles black. Head yellow distinctly higher than long;
epistomalmargin slightly concave in profile. Usually with 2 pairs
of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3-5 pairs of lower fronto-
orbital bristles. Thorax with a black spot behind wing and under
squama. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between
acrosticihal bristles than to a line between supra-alar bristles.


134
3. Fronto-facial angle rounded, frons pubescent (Fig. 38)
floridana n. sp.
3'. Fronto-facial angular; frons bare. 4
4. Stigma f both sexes with a distinct dark spot in basal 1-3
(Fig. 39); hind tibia of male with 2 erect preapical setae
that project ventrally punctistigma Benjamin
4'. Stigma usually completely hyaline, seldom with a faint spot
(Fig. 37); hind tibia of male without such characters
dolosa Benjamin
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Figs. 36, 90, 140
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson, 1900, Entomol, News 11;
328, Fig. 3. Holotype ?. Type locality; unknown.
Superficially resembling vernoniae, but differing by being
smaller, approximately 2.7-3.3 mm. Head bristles weak, frons bare.
Lower 1/2 of the sternopleura and anterior margin of the thorax
black; thorax bright lemon yellow, appears pollinose silvery gray
with tongu-like pattern in fresh specimens. Wing as in Fig. 36,
with several dark markings on the disc; the apical dark marking on
the wing reaching up to vein +,_. The ovipositor approximately 2.5
mm long. The piercer 0.8 mm long and with few serrations at the tip.
malegenitallia luteous, small and compact (Fig. 90). Epandrium narrow,
dorsum with long fine setae. Surstyli broad, apex truncate. Proctiger
small and elongate, dorsum with scattered fine setae, ventral margin
with thick setae.
Length; body 3.0-3.5 mm; wing 2.7-3,3 mm. (N=10).


301
O


Sweeping. Tephritid that commonly breed in composites
and Other plants were collected fre with a net. Unfortunately adults records do not necessarily
indicate larval association with a host, although Bush (1966)
has shown that adults, as well as immatures of some species of
Rhgoletis are intimately associated with'their host plants.
Many adult visitation records undoubtedly are accidentals and do
not represent true host plants. Adult teprhitids are attracted
to the flowers of many of these non-host plants,
Identification of host plants. Most of the hosts of
the common species of Tephritidae were recognized in the field,
although some could be field identified only to genus. Samples
of other plants were pressed and taken to the plant identification
unit of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, for identification.
Traps. Insect flight traps did not capture large numbers
of tephritids but effectively sampled species composition in
certain locations. Other traps such as McPhail traps and Steiner
traps are of value in fruit fly survey work. Thousands of the
traps have been used for detecting and surveying Ceratitis
capitata (Wiedemann) during its eradication programs in 1929-30,
1956-58, 1962-63. Traps are still widely used to detect and
survey the population of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). Different
kinds of baits were developed and used in these traps over the
years. Among these cottonseed protein hydrolasate + borax formu
lated in water, angelica seed oil, siglures, ENT 21478, and


I
3143


178
arm, forming an F-shaped marking, widens posteriorly, extending
from just anterior of vein R2 +3 to apical margin. The hyaline
cross band on the disc, at least to the middle of cell 1st M2,
r-m crossvein situated near the center of cell 1st M->. Vein
Rj +^ bare and undulating, curving toward vein +2 Head
typically higher than long, eyes more or less oval and 2 times
higher than long. Frons narrow, ochraceous yellow with a faint
brown vittae in the middle. Scutellum shining black, greatly
swollen with 4 scutellars. Female ovipositor long, about 4.6
mm. Ovipositor sheath dark brown to black with numerous short
black setae, about 1.7 mm.long. The piercer long and slender,
about 1.5 mm, evenly tapered to a sharp point at apex, with
minutely serrated margin. Male genitalia as in Fig. 104. Epan-
drium broad and black dorsum with numerous long setae, Surstyli
broad and developed into 2 short rounded lobes at apices; the upper
lobes with dense short setae; lower lobes with more or less truncate
apical margin. Proctiger small, yellow, and elongate, with
numerous long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 5-6.5 mm; wing 5-6.5 mm. (N=10).
Host: Unknown for Florida species
Senecio aureus L. in northeastern Ohio
Distribution: Massachussetts southward and westward across
the entire United States.
Florida Records: Foote (1965) indicates that the species
is found in Florida, however, no specific location is given.


Steiner
, L. F., G. G. Rohwer, E. L Ayers, and L. D. Christenson.
1961. The role of attractants in the recent Mediter
ranean fruit fly eradication program in Florida.
J. Econ. Entomol. 54:31-35,
Steyskal, G. C. 1972. A new species of Myoleja with a key to
North American species (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fla.
Entomol. 55:207-211.
1975. Recognition characters for larvae of the genus
Zonosemata (Diptera: Tephritidae). U.S. Dept.
Agrie. Coop. Econ, Ins. Rpt. 25:231-232.
1977a. History and use of the McPhail trap. Fla. Entomol.
60:11-16.
1977b. Pictorial Key to Species of the Genus Anastrepha
(Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomol. Soc. Wash., Wash.
D. C. 3 5p.
Steyskal, G. C., and R. H. Foote. 1977, Revisionary notes on
North American Tephritidae (Diptera), with keys and
descriptions of new species. Proc, Entomol. Soc,
Wash. 79:146-155.
Stoltzfus, W. B., and B. A. Foote, 1965. The use of froth
masses in courtship of Eutreta, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 67:263-264.
Stone, A. 1942a. The fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha.
U.S. Dept. Agrie. Mise. Publ. 439:10112.
1942b. New species of Anastrepha and notes on others.
J. Wash. Acad. Soc. 32:298-304.
1947. A new Procecidochares from Eupatorium stems
(Diptera: Tephritidae). Proc. Hawn, Entomol.
Soc. 13:97-99.
Tauber, M. J.., and C. A. Tauber. 1967. Reprodutive behavior
and biology of the gall-formers Aciurina ferruginea
(Doane)(Diptera: Tephritidae). Can, J. Zool.
45:907-913.
Tauber, M. J., and Toschi. 1965a. Bionomics of Euleia fratria
(Loew)(Diptera: Tephritidae). I. Life history
and mating behavior. Can. J. Zool. 43:369-379.


Distribution map of Procecidochares australis Aldrich;
specific locality record ().
Fig. 147.


parafrontals with a band of pale hairs. All bristles strong; Dorso-
central bristles closer to transverse suture, in front of a line
between anterior supra-alar bristles. Scutellum with 2 pairs of
scutellars. Abdomen yellow except ovipositor sheath, tinged with
brown.
The larvae breed in the flower heads of Pluchea. Only
1 North American species is known. A detailed discussion of the
genus was given by Benjamin (1934). Foote and Blanc (1963) discussed
its distribution in California.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Fias. 13, 69, 118
Musca fucata Fabricius, 1794. Entomol. Syst. 4:359. Type (sex
unknown) "Americae meridionalis insulis."
Tephritis pictrata Snow, 1894, Kans. Univ. Quart. 2:173.
Holotype $. Type-locality: Frazer, Florida.
Readily differentiated from other Florida fruit flies by
the generic characters given above; with characteristic wing
venation and markings (Fig. 13). Predominantly yellow species,
with head slightly higher than long; face short, concave and
epistomal margin slightly raised. Female ovipositor yellow to
rufous, about 2.5 mm long. The ovipositor sheath approximately
equal in length to piercer, bing 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm long respec
tively. Piercer sharp at apex. Male genitalia small and compact
(Fig.69). Epandrium highly arched with long erect bristles




2'87


93
striae. Mesonotum shining black with yellow to white marking along
the suture at each side. Humeri yellow to whitish, each with a
shining black spot at the base of bristle. Mesonotum densely
gray pollinose, median portion with yellow to white pilose area.
A median black vitta extends from anterior margin to about the
suture. A pair of moderately large shining black spots in a line
with notopleura. Pleurae yellow to white with black bristles.
Scutellum swollen shining black except for a narrow, undulated
yellow line across the base. Legs yellow. Wing broad, with char
acteristic maculations at the basal portion. A broad median
yellow band extends vertically from costa through cell Cu^ ending
at vein Cu^ +2nd A. A brownish yellow costal band extends through
cell Rn, middle of cell R to apex of vein R Vein R
1 3 4+5 4+5
with a dark spot about the middle of cell R^. An elongate brown
spot along m crossvein. Ovipositor sheath yellow, tinged.with
brown at apex, about 0.9 mm long. Piercer sharp pointed at apex,
about 0.9 mm long. Extended ovipositor 2.5 mm long. Male geni
talia as in Fig. 76. Epand.rium broad and yellow with numerous long
dark brown setae dorsally. Surstyli short, and extended into
slender apical lobes. Proctiger with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 5.6-6.0 mm; wing 4.8-5.5 mm. (N=15).
Host: Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram & H. E. Moore
Psidium littorale var. longipes (o, Berg.) Fosb.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston,


Fig. 164. Distribution map of Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
specific locality record ().


Fig. 130. Distribution map of Euleia fratria (Loew);
specific locality record ().


Fig. 108.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Fig. 109.
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Fig. 110.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Fig. 111.
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Fig. 112.
Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
Fig. 113.
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Fig. 114.
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Fig. 15.
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Fig. 116.
Zonosemata electa (Say)


180
Virtually nothing is known about the biology of the species.
The genus is restricted to North America with only 1 species known.
Phillips (1923) discussed the 7 known varieties.
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
Figs. 54,105, 155
Trypeta longipennis Wiedemann, 1830, Auss. Zweifl. Inst.
2:483. Syntypes and Type locality: Nordamer, Ka.
Differentiated from other known Florida tephritid by
its distinctive wing pattern (Fig. 54). Cell R always with a
hyaline area in the middle. Cell 2nd M2 with a large hyaline area.
Hyaline crossband extends beyond cell 1st M2- Antennae short, not
more than 1/2 that of face. Male with posterior lower fronto-
orbital bristles enlarged, usually borne on distinct ridges.
Abdomen ochraceous yellow, with dark brown setae. Ovipositor sheath
long, distal tip tinged with dark brown 1.1 mm long. Piercer long
and slender, widest at distal 1/2, apex abruptly tapered to a point
and approximately 0.9 mm. Extended ovipositor 2.2 mm long. Male
genitalia as in Fig. 105. Epandrium yellow, with long fine setae on
the dorsum. Surstyli long and slender with truncate apices. Proc-
tiger small elongate,with numerous long pale setae dorsally and
lateroventrally.
Length: body 4.4-4.9 mm; wing 4.4-4.8 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Montana to Maine, south to California and
Florida.


Ill
Key to the Florida Species of Euaresta
1. Ground color of thorax black; cell R of wing with one hyaline
spot; bulla distinctly present in cell (Fig. 27)
bella (Loew)
1'. Ground color of thorax yellow; cell R of wing with more than
one hyaline spots (usually 6); bulla usually absent, rarely
a faint one present (Fig. 26)
aequalis (Loew)
Euaresta aequalis (Loew)
Figs. 27, 81, 131
Trypeta aequalis Loew, 1862. Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):
86, pi. II, Fig. 20. Holotype cT. Type locality: Illinois (MCZ).
Differentiated from all known Euaresta by being predominantly
larger (5.85 mm) and by its distinctly yellow color. The hyaline
spot near the apex of cell R^ separated by a narrow brown area from
the wing margin. Cell R^ usually without a bulla, however, faint
one may be present. The ovipositor of female long (5.0 mm); the
sheath is about as long as the piercer, the sheath measures 2.0 mm
long, piercer 1.4 mm; slender and narrow, apex gradually tapers to
a sharp point. Male genitalia large and robust; epandrium truncate
with scattered long setae (Fig. 81). Surstyli elongated and curved
inward.
Length: body 5.1-5.3 mm; wing 4.7-5.0 mm. (N=5).
Hosts: No host information for Florida specimens
Xanthium sp. (Quinsenberry, 1950)


Fig. 157. Distribution map of Tomoplagia obligua
specific locality record (), county record ()#


283


Distribution map of Neaspilota dolosa
specific locality record (), county
Benjamin;
record ( ).
Fig. 141


Fig. 122. Distribution map of Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone;
specific locality record ().


94
Distribution: Hawaii, Florida. However, this species has
been eradicated from Florida in 1963.
Florida Records: Broward Co.: Ft. Lauderdale, 1(5
16-VII-1962 (W. Wolski, FSCA), 1?, in Steiner tap, 21-VII-1962
(W. Wolski, FSCA); 1?, 16-1-1963 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Lauderdale-
by-the-Sea. 1?, Steiner trap in calamondin, 11-1-1963 (M. O'Brien,
FSCA); 1+, Steiner trap, 4-II-1963 (G. F. Spencer, FSCA); West
Hollywood, 13(5 12?, Angelican seed oil trap, 1Q-VII-1956 (USNM);
2c5 1?, in Steiner trap, 26-VI-1962 (B. Lake, FSCA); Dade Co.:
3$, 19-IV-1956 (H. A. Denmark, USNM); 10<5 4?, 19-IV-1956
(H. A. Denmark, FSCA). 4<5, 20-IV-1956 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA);
4<5 1?, 30-IV-1956 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Coral Gables, 1?, in
Steiner trap, 12-VI-1962 (J. E. Hibbard, FSCA); Hialeah, 1<5, on
rose apple, 17-=VI-1962 (R. D. Williams & H. L. Gillis, FSCA); 2(5,
reared from Ceylon peach, 3-VII-1962 (L. P. Lucas, FSCA); Miami,
10(5 12?, Angelica seed oil trap, 5-8-VII-1956 (R. H. Foote,
USNM); 165(5 25?, in McPhail trap, 23-V-1956 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA);
1(5, in Steiner trap, 8-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton, USNM); 2<$ 1?, rose
apple, 13-VI-1962 (R. T* McMillan & J. R. McFarlin, FSCA);. 1(5 1?,
mango tree, 13-VI-1962 (R. T. McMillan & J. R. McFarlin, FSCA);
1(5, rose apple, 13-VI-1962 (R. T. McMillan & J. R. McFarlin, FSCA);
1?,Steiner trap, 16-VI-1962 (J. E. Hibbard, FSCA), 1?, in Steiner
trap, 16-VI-1962 (R. E. Woodruff, FSCA); 1(5, in Steiner trap,
18-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA); 1<5, 19-VI-1962 (J. E. Hibbard,
FSCA); 1<5 1?, in Steiner trap, 23-VI-1962 (C. R. Roberts &


84
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Figs. 20, 75, 125
Trypeta suspensa Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):
69, pi. II, Fig. 5. Holotype o. Type locality: Cuba (MCZ).
A moderately small, yellow-brown species characterized by
having rather long patterned wing (Fig. 20), by having the apex of
the piercer serrated, and by the median black spot on the thorax.
Head shaped as in other members of the genus, with 2 pairs of
upper fronto-orbitals and 5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles.
Thorax with a distinct scutoscutellar spot. The wing bands, yellow-
brown to brown. The costal and S-band touching or narrowly sepa
rated at vein +^. V-band complete and usually narrowly connected
to S-band. Entire abdomen densely yellow-brown setose. Ovipositor
sheath 1.7 ram long, stout and tapering apically. The piercer
1.6 mm long, with widened base, the apex serrated and gradually
tapers to a sharp point. Male genitalia as in Fig. 75. Epandrium
yellow-brown with numerous long setae dorsally. Surstyli long
and slender, rather pointed at apices. Proctiger small with
numerous long setae ventrally.
Length: body 5.1-6.8 mm; wing 5.0-6.7 mm (N=15).
Hosts: Annona reticulata L
Annona squamosa L.
Bischofia javanica Blume
Averrhoa carambola L.
Capsicum frutescens L.
Carica papaya L.


odorata, 24-11-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) 23$ 15?, bred from
Pluchea odorata, 24-27-III-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr.s, FSCA); 20$ 60?
bred from Pluchea odorata, 24-28-III-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA)
Key West,l$ 1?, bred from Pluchea odorata, 22-XI-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); lc? 3?, bred from Pluchea odorata, 16-IV-1945
(NSNM); Orange Co., Orlando, 20$ 12?, bred from Pluchea imbricata
9-20-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 2$, bred from Pluchea imbricata
9-IX-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); Sarasota Co.: Venice, 2$, bred
from Pluchea purpurescens, 12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Taylor Co.: Perry, 1$, 6-IX-1970 (W. Atyeo, UGA),
It is generally widespread in Florida. Larvae breed com
monly in Compositae; Pluchea. Larvae are bean-shaped and usually are
densely covered with minute spines. Detailed description of the
immature : stages was given by Benjamin (1934).
Genus Acrotaenia Loew
Acrotaenia Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 11(256):274.
Type-species: Trypeta testudnea Loew
Readily differentiated by its distinctive wing markings.
Apical 1/3 of wing typically with 3 dark brown bands arising from
dark field at costa and extending through cell 2nd M2 to posterior
margin. The basal 1/2 of wing dark brown with numerous small
hyaline spots which coalesce into longitudinal spots of some points.
Posterior margin with large hyaline areas. Costal margin with
large dark brown to black spots. Vein R4 +
setose to almost its


abstersus (Loew), 1862:221 (Trypeta).
Genus Myoleja Rondani
Myoleja Rondani, 1856;112 Type species Tephritis lucida Fallen,
by original designation.
limata (Coquillett), 1899:263. (Aciura).
nigricornis (Doane), 1899:183 (Aciura).
rhino Steyskal, 1972:207.
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel
Xanthaciura Hendel, 1914:86. Type species, Trypeta chrysura
Thomson, by original designation.
Chrysura (Thomson), 1869:580 (Trypeta)
connexionis Benjamin, 1934:45.
insecta (Loew), 1962:72 (Trypeta).
tetraspina (Phillips), 1923:132 (Aciura).
Genus Stenopa Loew
Stenopa Loew, 1873:234. Type species, Trypeta vulnerata Loew,
by original designation.
vulnerata (Loew), 1873:232 (Trypeta)
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken
Neaspilota Osten Sacken, 1878:192. Type species, Trypeta alba
Loew, automatic.
achilleae Johnson,1900:328.
dolosa Benjamin, 1934:39.
floridana
Rohani n.sp.


Bidens leavis (L.) BSP
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schultz-Bip.
Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Coreopsis leavenworthii T. & G.
Coreopsis nudata Nutt.
Coreopsis tinctoria L.
Coreopsis tripteris L.
Cosmos sp.
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Tagetes erecta L.
Dioxyna thomae (Curran)
Bidens bipinnata L.
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera aspera Jacq. var. grabiuscula (Kuntze) Parks
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Melanthera parviflora Small
Melanthera sp.
Euaresta aequalis (Loew)
No host information
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
Bidens pilosa L.


Fig. 22.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot), +
Fig. 23.
Dioxyna thomae (Curran), ¥
Fig. 24.
Dyseuresta mexicana (Wiedemann), ¥
Fig. 25.
Euleia fratria (Loew), $
Fig. 26.
o
Euaresta aequalis (Loew), +
Fig. 27.
Euaresta bella (Loew), ?
Fig. 28.
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew), +
Fig. 29.
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann), ?
Fig. 30.
Eurosta donysa (Walker),?
Fig. 31.
Eurosta fenestrata Snow, $


208
Extended ovipositor' 2.2 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 114.
Epandrium highly arched, with numerous long setae dorsally,
Surstyli modified into .2 lobes, greatly curved lobes at lower
apices and short densely setose lobes at upper apices. Proctiger
small and elongate, with long pale setae laterventrally.
Length: body 2.9-4.0 mm; wing 3.0-3.2 mm (N=20) .
Hosts: Ageratum sp.
Bidens bipinnata L.
Bidens coronata (L.) Britt.
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schutz-Bip.
Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam) Britt. & Rusby,
Distribution: Texas to North Carolina, south to Florida
north Mexico, West Indies, Bahama Islands.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2$, 30-XI-1951 (DOK, FSCA),
2<$ 2?, 16-XI-1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Gainesville, 1? ex Bidens
pilosa, ll-XI-1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); 2$ 4+, insect flight trap,
21-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 3$ 1?, insect flight trap.
29-X1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr.s, FSCA); 10. 4? insect flight trap,
7-18-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA): 7$ 4?, insect flight trap,
1-5~XI-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) / 3+, insect flight trap
7-10-XII-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1<5 1?, black light trap


2175
with individuals. Commonly known as the pepper maggots, this species
is a pest of peppers. Peterson (1923), Benjamin (1934), Phillips (1946),
Bush (1966), and Styskal (1975) presented detailed descriptions of
both larval and adult stages.


89
1<5 1+, in McPhail trap 23-11-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1?, in
McPhail trap 20-11-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,
25-11-1935, (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 3(5, in McPhail trap 26-11-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,13-III-1935 (J. H.
Sealey, FSCA); 4?, in McPhail trap 13-14-III-1935 (J. H. Cooper,
FSCA)'; 3(5 1?, in McPhail trap, 15-III-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);
2 2?, in McPhail trap, 16-III-;935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); lS 3?,
in McPhail trap, 15-16-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA). 2(5 2?,
in McPhail trap, 18-III-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 5(5-2?, in
McPhail trap 19-III-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1<5 3?, in McPhail
trap 18-19-III-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA); 2 1?, in McPhail trap,
20-22-III-1935 (J, F. Cooper, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 23-11-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-VI-1935 ^C. E. Shepard,
FSCA) ; 1<5, in McPhail trap, 24-IV-1935 (W.. R. Lyle., FSCA) ; 1?, in
McPhail trap, 26-11-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1(5, in McPhail trap,
13-VII-1935 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 2(5 5?, in McPhail trap, 13-V-
1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 2(5, in McPhail trap, 2<5, McPhail trap
30-VII-1935 (E. Solomon, FSCA); 2(5 2?, in McPhail trap, 12-VII-
1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-VII-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail, 22-VII-1935 (J. H. Sealey,
FSCA); 3(5 2?, in McPhail trap, 30-VII-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);
1?, in McPhail trap, 13-IX-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in.
McPhAil trap, 8-X-1935 (A. Brogaossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap,
21-X-1935 (. J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 3<5 1?, quava thicket, 7-XII-1935
(L. C. McAlister, FSCA); 1(5, in McPhail trap, 27-1-1936 (J. F.
Cooper, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-11-1936 (H. S. McClahan,


16
observed initiating copulation on the fruits of their respective
larval host plants (Peterson, 1923 and Burdett, 1935) The ele
ments and the sequence of courtship displays of male and female
E. fratria were discussed by Tauber and Toschi (1965a). Courtship
behavior of A. suspensa was described by Nation (1972). Knowledge
of this behavior is important not only because of its potential
usefulness toward developing new, non-insecticide approaches to
population management, but also because of its relevance to the
possibility of rapid sympatric host formation and speciation
especially with the Rhagoletis pomonella species complex (Bush
1966, 1969a, b). Sound production, the use of froth massess, body
movements, and elaborate wing displays coupled with distinctive
wing patterns are known to be important components in courtship
(Stoltzfus and Foote, 1965). Bateman (1972) considers smell and
hearing as the 2 most important sensory stimuli for mating res
ponse in Tephritidae.
Tephritidae are well known as fruit flies, however, all
parts of plants are attacked including flower heads, leaves, stems,
and roots. Of the 56 species recorded in Florida, at least 44
species have host records or probable host associations. Foote
and Blanc (1963) compiled a list of host plants of California
Tephritidae. An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies of
North America vias compiled by Wasbauer (1972). The list at the end of this
section includes all known host plants of Florida Tephritidae
arranged according to host plant families and fruit fly species.


Fig. 151. Distribution map of Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush;
specific locality record () county record (&)


Distribution map of Eurosta donysa (Walker)
specific locality record ().
Fig. 135.


Fig. 128.
Distribution map of Dioxyna thomae (Curran);
specific locality record (), county record ().


209
2-X-1972 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); 2$, insect flight trap, 19-21-V-1973
(H. W. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 6o 2?, ex Biden pilosa, 31-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 10c? 12, reared from Bidens pilosa, 9-31-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 12$ 6?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 10-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 23$ 6?, reared from Biden pilosa 29-VII- 1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Brevard Co.: Bonaventura, 3$ 2?, bred from
Bidens pilosa. 25-V-1930 (Benjamin, USNM); Cocoa, 8$ 10?, Bidens
pilosa 17-VI-1930 (A. B. Beavers, USNM) ; Melbourne, 4$2?, bred from
Bidens pilosa, 19-VI-1930 (A. B. Beavers, USNM) Merritt Island, 1?,
29-XII-1963 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); Titusville, 2$ 1?, 8-VI-1931 (FSCA);
Citrus Co.: Inverness, 3$ 3+, bred from Bidens pilosa 28-X;
3-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Collier Co.: Ochpee, 1$ 1?,
10-VI-1973 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA) Dade Go.: 1$ 1?, insect flight
trap, 3-XI-1936 (O. D. Link, FSCA); Everglades Nat'l Pk., 2$ 3?,
26-XII-1952 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,FSCA); Hialeah, 3$ 1?, swept
Heterotheca subaxillaries. 21-VII-1965 (FSCA), 1$, ex flower head
Bidens pilosa. 24-1-1971 (C. Stegmaier, Jr., USNM); Homestead 1?,
25-X-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); 2o, 30-X-1948 (O. D, Link, FSCA); 1?
Casimiroa edulis. 2-XII-1948 (O. D. Link, FSCA); 1$ 2?, sweeping
weeds, 6-VII-1955 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); Matheson Hamm, 9$, 8-11-
1955, (F. W. Mead, FSCA); 2$, at Bidens pilosa. 31-III-1966 (H. V.
Weems, Jr., FSCA); Miami, 2?, 5-XI-1911 (MCZ); 1$, 15-11-1923
(C. H. Curran, AMNH); 3$, reared from Bidens bipinnata. 7-X-1948
(O. D. Link, FSCA) ; 1?, 3-XL-1954 (O. D. Link, FSCA)/; Miami Spring,
1?, 17-IX-1948 (O. D. Link,FSCA); Ross & Costello Hamm; 1$ 1?,


207
(UGA); Monroe Co.; Lower Matecumbe Key, 4 2?, bred from Ageratum
littorale, 11-18-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Upper Matecumbe
Key, 1$ 2?, 30-III-1978 (C. L. Smith, UGA).
Xanthaciura connexionis is the only Florida member of the
genus in which only 2 hyaline spots are present in between veins
+ ^ andM^ +2 and cell R is without a hyaline spot. The apical
portion of vein R2 +-^is oblique to the costa. Apparently this
species is intermediate between insecta (Loew) and tetraspina
as it has 1 pair of scutellar setae like that of the former and
male genitalia and immature stages like those of the latter.
Benjamin (1934) briefly described the immature stages of this
species.
Xanthaciura insecta Loew
Figs. 65, 114, 166
Trypeta insecta Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):72.
pi. II, Fig. 8. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba.
Differing from other Florida Xanthaciura by having 3 dark
rays in cell Cu^; the proximal ray only to the middle of vein
CU2 + 2nd A. and the 2 distal rays reaching the anal margin of the
wing. Vein R^ slightly waved. Cell 1st M2 with only 1 hyaline area.
Thorax black dorsally and yellow ventrally. Abdomen yellow, with
black markings covering most of tergites IV-V. Ovipositor sheath
yellow tinged with black markings at its apex, measuring 0.8 mm
long. The piercer short and broad distally, measuring about 0.7
mm, gradually tapers to a sharp point, margin minutely serrated.


Florida Records: Alachua Co. : le?, at Aronia arbutifolia,
14-11-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); le?, Stachys floridana, 12-IV-
1956 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); Gainesville, le? 1?, sweeping weeds,
22-III-1956 (R. A. Morse, FACA); Brevard Co.: Indian River City,
2c? 1?, bred from Erigeron vernus, 14-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Cocoa, le? 2?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 17-VI-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 2c? 1?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries,
24-VI-1930 D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Miami, 2 1?, ex
flower head Erigeron strigosus, 4-IV-1971 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr.,
USNM); Miami Beach, lc? 1?, bred from Erigeron vernus, 19-V-1930
(D.. 3. Nicholson, UNSM) ; Duval Co. : Jacksonville, 1c? 2?, 14-X-1932
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Lake Co.: 3 FSCA); Clermont, 1 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5c? 1?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries
28-30-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Leesburg, ?' bred from
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 14-VII-1930 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson
USNM); ManteeCo.: Bradenton, 3c? 2?, swept Erigeron quercifolius,
17-IV-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) ; 1 quercifolius, 17-IV-1930 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Marion Co.: Belleview
2?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries, 14-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson
& E. T. Evans, USNM); Dunnellon, le?, 2-IX-1972 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA) : Orange Co. : Apopka, 2c? 2?, bred from Erigeron vernus
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Forest City (Maitland), 16 Heterotheca subaxillaries, 12-14-VII-1930 (D. J, Nicholson,USNM);
Orlando, 6c?, ]-V-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 4c? 6?, reared from


23
Melanthera aspera Jacq. var.
grabiuscla (Kuntze) Parks
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera nivea (L.) Small
Dyseuaresta mekicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera parviflora Small
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Melanthera sp.
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney)
Nash
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Neaspilota punctistigmaBenj amin
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Pluchea purpurescens (Sw.) DC. Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Pluchea rosea P. K. Godfrey
Acinia fucata (Fabricius)
Pluchea sp.
Acinia fucata (Fabricius )
Solidaqo caesia L.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Solidaqo chapmanii T & G
Eurosta donysa (Walker)
Trupanea actinobla (Loew)
Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Eurosta floridensis Foote
Solidago gigantea Ait.
Trupanea actinobla (Loew)
Solidago stricta Ait.
Procecidochares polita (Loew)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Solidado sp.
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Eurosta donysa (Walker)
Eurosta floridensis Foote
Procecidocharea pilota (LoeW)


289


METHODS AND MATERIALS
Rearing
The seed infesting tephritids are comparatively easy
to rear to adults. Composite and other host plants infested with
immature tephritids were collected at random in the field and
brought into the laboratory for rearing. A dissecting microscope
was used to find the immature stages in the buds and heads. Some
of the larvae and pupae were removed, killed in boiling water, and
preserved in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Larvae and pupae were cross-
referenced with emerging adults. The remaining seed head portions
of the plants were placed in rearing containers, 3745 ml cartons
covered with a transparent plastic sheet, secured by a rubber band.
Containers were checked daily to record adult emergence. Plants
were kept until they dried or until adults emergence was completed,
usually 4 weeks. Adults were pinned or mounted on points. Hundreds
of specimens were collected by this method, providing host and
seasonal distribution information. New host records can be obtained
using this technique, not only for tephritids, but also for agromyzids,
cecidomyids, microlepidoptera, and their parasites. Field work
allowed biological observation for some species and provided addi
tional distribution information.
46


LITERATURE CITED
Aczel, M. L. 1949. A revision of the genus Xanthaciura Hendel
(Trypetidae, Diptera) based on Argentine species.
De Acta Zool. Lilloana del Inst. 8:111-146.
1955. Fruit flies of the genus Tomoplagia Coquillett. Proc.
U.S. Natl.Mus. 104:321-411.
Adams, C. F. 1904. Notes on and descriptions of North American
Diptera. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 2:433-455.
Aldrich, J. M. 1929. A revision of the two-winged flies of the
genus Procecidochares in North America with an allied
new genus. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 76:1-13.
Ayers, E. L. 1957. The two Medfly eradication programs in Florida.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70:67-69.
Ayers, E. L., and G. G. Rohwer. 1956. The Mediterranean fruit
fly eradication program in Florida. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 69:12-15.
Back, E. A., and C. E. Pemberton. 1918. The Mediterranean fruit
fly. U.S. Dept. Agrie. Bull. 640:1-43.
Baker, A. C., W. E. Stone, C. C. Plummer, and M. McPhail. 1944.
A review of studies of the Mexican fruit fly and related
Mexican species. U.S. Dept. Agrie. Mise. Publ. 531 155p.
Banks, N. 1912. The structure of certain dipterous larvae with
particular reference to those in human foods. U.S. Dept.
Agrie. Bur. Entomol. Tech. Ser. 22:1-44.
Baranowski, R. M., and R. W. Swanson. 1970. Introduction of
Parachasma (= Opius) cereus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
into Florida as a parasite of Anastrepha suspensa
IDiptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Entomol. 53:161-162.
348


IQ
the side of latter at vein Mi +2 (Fig. 19) ; metanotom predomin
antly dark brownish to black ocresia (Walker)
1'. Not with this combination of characters 2
2. Piercer less than 2.0 mm long, apex tapered with many fine
or large rounded serrations 3
2'. Piercer at least 2.0 mm long, apex tapered but unserrated. 5
3. Mesonotum yellow brown with rather broad median brown stripes;
median scutoscutellar black spot lacking. obliqua (Macquart)
3'. Mesonotum yellow brown, lacking any stripe; median scutoscu
tellar black spot present 4
4. V-band narrowly joined to S-band (Fig. 20); apex of piercer
distinctly narrowed with larger rounded serrations; hyaline
spot on costa, beyond stigma reaching vein R4+5 just anterior
of r crossvein suspensa (Loew)
4'. V-band separated from S-band (Fig.i6): apex of piercer broad
with many fine serrations; hyaline spot confined to anterior
1/2 of cell R]_, only occasionally touching vein R2 + 3
interrupta Stone
5. A dark brown transverse band on posterior margin of mesoscutum;
S-band with a shallow notch in cell Cu^, margin of band rounded
before it (Fig.17); piercer not more 2 mm; wing at most 7.5 mm
long nigrifascia Stone
5'. Mesoscutum without such markings; S-band without any notch
(Fig.15); piercer 3.0-4.3 mm long; wing rarely more than 6 mm
long
edentata Stone


275



Fig. 98.
Procecidochares atra (Loew)
Fig. 99.
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Fig. 100.
Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata (Loew)
Fig..101.
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Fig. 102.
Rhgoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Fig. 103.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Fig. 104.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)
Fig. 105.
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
Fig. 106.
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Fig. 107.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)


179
Not much is known on the biology of this species in Florida,
females oviposit into buds or young shoots of swamp ragwort,
Senecio aureus L., in northeastern Ohio. Larvae overwinter within
the plant tissues and form small stem galls. Novak and Foote
(1975) described the biology and the immature stages of this
species. The specimen illustrated is from North Carolina.
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy
Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci.
Inst... France 2:81. Type species: Trypeta longipennis
Wiedemann.
Grossly resembling Anastrepha, but immediately differ
entiated by its distinctive wing markings and by head and thoracic
chaetotxy. Head yellow, higher than long with moderately swollen
occiput. Eyes small, oval. Only 1 pair of upper fronto-orbitals
and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles, borne on distinct
ridge in males. Thorax predominantly yellow, with yellow to brown
setae on the dorsum. Dorsocentral bristles close to transverse
line between supra-alars than to a line between acrostichals.
Scutellum with 2 pairs of strong scutellars. Legs entirely yellow.
Wing with brownish banding on a hyaline field. Vein R4 +5
setose just beyond r-m crossvein. Vein Cu2 concave, resulting in
an elongation of cell 1st A along vein CU2 + 2nd A. Male with some
what narrower wing. Abdomen ochraceous yellow with numerous black
hairs on dorsum.


265


2
In spite of the widespread interest of these highly
i .
ornamented flies and the widely scattered description of Florida
tephritids, no monographic study of the family has been done
for Florida fruit flies. Numerous generic revision during the
past 25 years have clarified many of the problems, but much remains
to be done. The purpose of this work is to provide workers with
a key and descriptions to Florida fruit flies as well as to
bring together host information and distribution records for each
species. I hope this study will bring the taxonomy of this family
up to date for Florida and will stimulate further research on
Florida fruit flies to fill some of the gaps in our present know
ledge.


101
(C. F. Zeiger, FSCA) Jacksonville, 2$ 2?, 30-X-1963 (C. F. Zeiger,
FSCA) ; 1<$ 3?, 14-XI-1965 (C. F. Zeiger, FSCA). Gadsden, Co.:
1?, l-VIII-1956 (F. W. Mead, CU); Glades Co.: 2<$, swept weeds,
6-XII-1955 (R. A. Morse, FSCA); 1 2?, swept weeds, 6-VII-1955
(R. A. Morse, CU); 2, swept weeds, 6-XII-1955 (R. A. Morse,
AMNH); Hernando Co., 4?, Bidens pilosa, 3-X-1956 (R. A. Morse, CU) ;
Archbold Biol. Sta. 1<5 1?, 20-VI-1973 (C. R. Miller, CU) ; 5<$ 10?,
24-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC); Sebring, 26 1?,25-XI-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., CU) ; 10'<5 5?, reared from Bidens pilosa ,
22-III-1978 (T. B. Rohani, FSCA). Hillsborough Co., Tampa, 1 reared from Bidens pilosa,23-III-1930 (Pope & White, USNM); 1+, Bidens
pilosa, 17-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 3<3 1$, Bidens
pilosa, 21-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Holmes Co. { Bonifay,
2<$ 1?, reared from Coreopsis nudata, 2-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Indian River Co., Sebastian, 2?, Bidens pilosa, 24-III-1930
(Conner, USNM); Lake Co.; 1<£, 14-VI-1955 (F. W. Mead, FSCA),
1?, 9-IV-1956 (R. A. Morse, CU); Leesburg, 60c? 40?, bred from
Bidens pilosa, 19-26-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, UNSM); Lee Co.; Pine-
land, 4(5 2?, 27-IV-1967 (B. V. Peterson, CNC) ; Sanibell Is. 3<5 3?,
insect flight trap, ll-V-1973 (W. W. Wirth, USNM); Levy Co.;
Cedar Key, 34c? 17?, bred from Bidens pilosa, 28-31-X-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM), Manatee Co., Bradenton, 23, on flower of Aster,
17-X-1970 (H. R. Dodge, FSCA) ; lc$ 2?, on flower of Solidago
stricta, 6-1-1971 (H. R. Dodge) FSCA) ; Marion Co.: 2<$, at Rubus
4-IV-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr. FSCA ) ; Belleview, 2c$ 3?, bred from


Distribution map of Procecidochares polita (Loew)
specific locality record ().
Fig. 148.


13?
dolosa except for dark markings on the terminal segments of both
(Benjamin, 1934).
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Figs. 37, 91, 141
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin, 1934. U.S, Dept. Agrie. Tech.
Bull. 401:39, Fig. 29. Holotype Orange Co., Florida ,USNM).
Closely resembles floridana n. sp., but differs strikingly
by having the fronto-facial angle more angular and its iron bare.
Readily differentiated from punctistigma Benjamin, its close rela
tive by the absence of distinct dark spot in the stigma (Fig. 37) .
The ovipositor. sheath yellow, apex tinged with brown approximately
1.1.mm long, piercer 0.9 mm long, thin and pointed apically.
Extended ovipositor 2.9 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 91
pale yellow and small. Epandrium narrow, dorsum with scattered
long setae. Surstyli broadly rounded, almost truncate at apices.
Proctiger elongated, v/ith scattered long setae.
Length: body 2.8-3.8 mm; wing 2.2-2.8 mm. (N=6).
Hosts: Carduus sp.
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Happlopappus phyllocepallus DC var. megaphallus
(Nash) Waterfall
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt & Rusby
Distribution: Restricted to Florida


175
distinguished from other sympatric members of the pomonella group
north of Georgia by the surstyli shape and ratio, ovipositor length
and host preference; females of Florida population of cornivora
cannot be distinguished from mendax or pomonella without host
data (Bush, 1966). Host data is the only sure way of differentia-
ing cornivora.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Figs. 52, 103, 154
Rhagoletis mendax Curran, 1932. Amer. Mus. Nov. 526:6-7.
Holotype Type locality: Maine (AMNH).
Belonging to the pomonella group and can be differentiated
from Florida cornivora and pomonella by the shape and angle of
surstyli and on the basis of host preference. Female ovipositor
2.5 mm long; ovipositor sheath dark 0.9 mm. The piercer long
and very sharp at apex, 0.8 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 103,
Epandrium dark brown to black, with scattered long setae. Sur
styli narrow and slender, apices more or less rounded. Proctiger
small and elongate with few setae lateroventrally.
Hosts: Vaccinium arboreum Marsh
Vaccinium formosum Andr.
Distribution: Primarily restricted to northeatern United
States and southeatern Canada.
Florida Records: Hillsborough Co.: Plant City, 3 Vaccinium arboreum, 4-8-X-1929 (W. D. White, USNM); 2c?, on sparkle-
berry 15-X-1929 (W. D. White, USNM); l£, on sparkleberry 21-X-1929


7
and specific significance. Microscopic spines may be present on
the dorsum of at least some of the segments. Band of spinules
always present ventrally on every segment, presumably is an aid in
locomotion. The non-sclerotized head bears a pair of black
retractible mouth hooks, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, and sensory
organs. These structures provide diagonistic characters for
separating genera and closely related species. The anterior
spiracles (ASP) are a paired organ usually located dorsolaterally
on the prothorax, each bearing distally a number of digits which
varies from 3 in Neaspilota achilleae Johnson to as many as 53
in Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann). The caudal segment may be
smooth or tuberculate; posterior spiracles occur on the dorsal
half of the segment. Greene (1929), Benjamin (1934), and Phillips
(1946) discussed in detail the larval characters of some of the
Florida tephritids. The most recent works on the immatures of some
tephritid species are those of Pruitt (1953), Bush (1962, 1965), and
Steyskal (1975).
Pupa (Fig. 9) The Puparium is of the usual stout cylindrical
form, with rounded ends ranging from straw colored to black, except
that of Acinia fucata (Fabricius), which is bean-shaped, glossy
rufous, brown dorsally and laterally. Length varies from 2-13 mm.
Segmental sutures are clearly defined in most species; others are
indistinct and poorly defined, like those of Euarestoides abstersus
(Loew) and Tephritis subpura (Johnson). Anterior spiracles usually
are like those of the larvae, but more likely to be highly pigmented


119
3. Anal pale spots of wing with discrete margin; (Fig. 31);
the piercer of female ovipositor long fenestrata Snow
3'. Anal pale spot reticulate, at least around wing margin
(Fig. 32) the piercer short floridensis Foote
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Figs. 29, 84, 134
Trypeta comma Wiedemann, 1830, Auss. Zweifl. Ins. 2:478.
Holotype ?. Type locality: Kentucky.
Readily differentiated by the wing markings (Fig. 29) and
by the head and thoracic chaetotoxy. Wing predominantly brown with
numerous tiny hyaline spots. The markings at the end of anal
vein pale and little developed. Head with 2 pairs of upper fronto-
orbital bristles, the posterior pair pale and scale-like, 3 pairs
of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutel-
lars. Ovidpositor sheath short, 2.1 mm. Piercer 1.5 mm long, apex
gradually tapers tosharp point. Extended ovipositor 5.3 mm
long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 84. Epandrium wide with long
setae laterally, lower margin of epandrium square. Surstyli
slender and narrow, apices trcate with 2 blunt tips. Proctiger
small with numerous long setae over the surface.
Length: body 7.2-7.8 ram; wing 7.1-7.5 (N=10).
Hosts: Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp.
Distribution: Colorado to Maine, south to north Florida


'115
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin
Euarestoides Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie, Tech. Bull.
401:57. Type species: Trypeta abstersa Loew.
Closely related to Euaresta, Tephritis, and Trupanea.
Readily distinguished by the characteristic wing pattern, consisting
of a yellow or brown reticulation in the proximal 1/2 and a dark
stellate preapical pattern and by the presence of 3 pairs of lower '
fronto-orbital bristles. The anterior oral margin normal, only
slightly produced. With 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles,
the posterior pair not convergent. Thorax mostly yellow, covered
with numerous yellow brown setae. Dorsocentral bristles nearer to
transverse suture than to a transverse line between the supra-
alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of strong dark brown to black
bristles. Abdomen yellow pollinose and densely covered with
yellow to brown setae.
Little is known about the biology of the members of this
genus; as far as is known, they inhabit flower ovaries. The genus
is spread throughout southern Canada, United States, and the
Neotropical Region. Of the 4 known Nearctic species, only 1 is
reported from Florida. Foote (1958), in his revision of the genus,
provided keys to all the species.
Euarestoides abstersus Loew.
Figs. 28, 83, 133
Trypeta abstensa Loew, 1862. Berlin Entomol. Zweitschr.
221. Holotype ?. Type Docality: North America (Vienna).


319


trap in guava tree, 23-XI-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 6+, Steiner
trap in guava tree, 2-XII-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 7?, Steiner
trap, 16-XII-1966 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 30c$ 4?, in McPhail trap
in guava tree, 20-1-1967 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); 4?,inMcPhail trap
in guava tree, 27-1-1967 (D. C. Chancey, FSCA); Palmetto, 4?, in
McPhail trap in orange tree, 2-IX-1966 (C.J. Bickerner, FSCA);
Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key, 3(5, in McPhail trap, ll-XII-1935 (H. K.
Winter, FSCA); 8c? 5?, in McPhail trap, 16-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter,
FSCA); 2(5 5?, in McPhail trap 21-XII-1935 (H. K. Winter, FSCA);
Key West 1?, in McPhail trap, 4-III-1932 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);
1(5 1?, at Psidium, 26-27-IX-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 1<5, 12-X-1932
(FSCA); 2(5 1?, at Psidium, 18-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 1(5 1?, at
Psidium, 20-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk, FSCA); 2c$, swept guava, 28-X-1932
(M. Kisliuk & Ludlam, USNM) ; 1(5, 23-XI-1932 (FSCA); 2(5, in McPhail
trap, 17-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1<5 2?, in McPhail trap,
2 0-21-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1(5 1?, 23-IV-1930 (FSCA) ;
1$ 1?, in McPhail trap, 25-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 2?, in
McPhail trap, 27-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap
28-IX-19-1934 (J. H. Sealey,.FSCA); 1(5, 30-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey,
FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 1?, 2-V-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);
2?, in McPhail trap, 18-VI-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 2<$, in
McPhail trap, 20-VI-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);. 1<5, in McPhail trap,
3-VII-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA);. 1<5, in McPhail trap 25-VII-1934
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 18-11-1935 (E. Soloman
FSCA); 1(5 2?, in McPhail trap 18-17-11-1935 (A. Bragossa, FSCA);


26a



321


44
Several species of Anastrepha, Dacus, Rhagoletis and the
single species Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann") and Toxotrupana
curvicauda are highly destructive to commercially grown fruits
and vegetables in U.S. The most serious fruit fly in Florida now
are those in the genus Anastrepha. Anastrepha suspensa(Loew)
indigenous to the West Indies, was first collected in Florida in
1931. Following the discovery of this species in 1965, since the
discontinuation of eradication effort in 1937, more than 14,000
adults were trapped in Dade Co. (Weems, 1965), There were strong
indications that it was a recently introduced strain of suspensa,
rather than the reappearance of the old native train. Spray
operations, and field experiments involving the Florida Depart
ment of Agriculture, USDA, and University of Flroida were set up
to obtain accurate information on the seriousness of the introduc
tion and to investigate improved methods of detection control, and
eradication. Within its normal range of distribution the economic
damage to commercial fruit crops caused by this species has been'
relatively small. However, a species insect or a particular
strain of that species sometimes acts substantially different
when introduced into new areas and may become a serious pest in
those new areas. There is no assurance that A, suspensa could not
become a major pest in Florida. Of less economic importance are
Anastrepha interrupta Stone and A. obliqua (Macquart)', both of which
are found in the southern tip of Florida. A. interrupta is known
to attack fruits of Gulf graywig, Schoepfia shreberi J. F.Gmel.,


229


355
1965b.
Life history and mating behavior of Tephritis
stigmatica (Coquillett)(Diptera: Tephritidae)
Pan-Pac Entomol. 41:73-79
Wasbauer,
M. S. 1972. An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies
of America north of Mexico (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Occasional papers 19. Bureau of Entomol, Dept. Agrie.,
Sacramento, 172p.
Weems, H.
V., Jr. 1962. Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis
capitata (Wiedemann). Fla. Dept. Agrie. Consumer
Serv., DPI, Entomol. Circ. 4, 2p,
1965.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)(Diptera: Tephritidae).
Fla. Dept. Agrie. Consumer Serv,, DPI, Entomol. Circ.
38. 4p.
1966.
The Caribbean fruit fly in Florida. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 79:401-403.
1967a.
Anastrepha interrupta Stone (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Fla. Dept. Agrie. Consumers Serv., DPI. Entomol. Circ.
61. 2p.
1967b.
Anastrephanigrifascia Stone (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Fla. Dept. Agrie. Consumer Serv., DPI. Entomol. Circ.
66. 2p.
1968a.
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)(Diptera: Tephritidae).
Fla. Dept. Agrie. Consumers Serv. DPI. Entomol.
Circ. 71. 2p.
1969.
Papaya fruit fly (Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker).
1960. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agrie.
Consumer Serv., DPT., Entomol. Circ. 86. Ip.
1970.
West Indian.fruit fly Anastrepha mombinpraebptans
Sein (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agrie.
Consumer Serv., DPI. Entomol. Circ. 101. 2p.
1972.
Woods, W.
Cherry fruit fly. Cherry maggot, Rhagoletis cingulata
(Loew)(Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Dept. Agrie.
Consumers Serv., DPI. Entomol. Circ. 116, 2p,
C. 1951. Blueberry insects in Maine. Maine Agrie.
Expt. Sta. Bull. 244:249-288.
Woods, W. C.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
/
A; ^
/>
/ jA
Dale H. Habeck, Chairman
Professor of Entomology and
Nematology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Howard V. Weems, Jr., Co-chairman
Adjunct Professor of Entomology
and Nematology
I certifiy that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
George E.
3^
Allen
Professor of Entomoloy
and Nematology


Osmanthus americanus (L.) Gray
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Crataegus sp.
Prunus angustifolia Marsh.
Prunus umbellata Ell.
Prunus sp.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew)
No host information
Strauzia longipennis (Wiedemann)
No host information
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Baccharis glomeruliflora Pers.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia blodgetti Small
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.
Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.
Vernonia sp.
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Carica papaya L.
Mangifera indica L.
Psidium guajava L.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)


65
dorsally. Surstyli curved inward and rounded at apices. Pro
tiger small and elongated, with numerous short fine hairs.
Length: body 4-5.0 mm; wing 3, 4-3,§. (N=10).
Hosts:. Pluchea foetida (L.) DG.
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC.
Pluchea rosea Godfrey
Pluchea sp.
Distribution: California to Florida, New York to Georgia,
Mexico and West Indies.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville 2 insect flight trap. 13-VIII-1976 (G. B. Fairchild, FSCA): Newberry,
1?, 19-XI-1911 (AMNH); Collier Co.: Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, 1(? 1?,
insect flight trap, 6-7 IV-1972 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), Dade Co.:
Coral Gables, 3$ 3?, Trema micranthus, l-V-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA), Hialeah, lc?, swept Solidago odora, 29-IX-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier,
Jr., FSCA); Homestead, 1?, 1-III-1924 (G. C'.. Steyskal, CNC) ; 1?
ex Senecio, 28-IX-1948 (0. D. Link, FSCA) Royal Palm Hammock,
1<5, 4-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillicot, CNC) D:uval Co.:
Jacksonville 1$, 3-XI-1911 (AMNH) 3$ 2?, fruit fly trap, 2-VIII-1960
L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Flager Co.: 2?, 8-VIII-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Jefferson Co.: Monticello 1? 4-8-X-1914 (AMNH); Levy Co.: 2 19-VII-1958(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key,
7c$ 10?, 25 -III-1967, (J. Novak, FSCA); 23<$ 15? bred swept Pluchea


14
and host preference varies greatly with species. Christenson
and Foote (1960) summarized the life history of several species
of fruit flies. A few days to a week or more are required for
attainment of sexual maturity, after the adult emerges, mating
occurs and a new cycle is begun. Bush (1966) reported that
adults of Rhagoletis live up to 70 days in the laboratory, but
20-30 under natural conditions. Adult longevity of Euleia
fratria exceeds 13 weeks(Tauber and Toschi, 1965a).
Bateman (1972) divided the family into 2 major groups
based on physiological and ecological characters. Many species
that inhabit tropical and subtropical regions are multivoltine
and have no obvious diapause. Several species endemic to Florida
seem to fall into this group. The univoltine group inhabiting
the more temperate region have winter diapause. All holarctic
species of Rhagoletis essentially belong to this group (Bush,
1966). The range of environments to which these forms are exposed
is extremely broad; no single environmental component determines
their abundance. Bateman (1972) discussed in detail the principal
components of the life system of fruit flies.
Little is known about the factors controlling diapause
in fruit flies; these characteristics are of considerably selective
advantage as they insure supply of adults for several seasons.
Most temperate species of fruit flies overwinter as diapausing
pupae. Usually diapause must be broken by a period of low


Fig.
78.
Dioxyna thomae
(Curran)
Fig.
79.
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann)
Fig.
80.
Euleia fratria
(Loew)
Fig.
81.
Euaresta aequalis (Loew)
Fig.
82.
Euaresta bella
(Loew)
Fig.
83.
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
Fig.
84.
Eurosta comma
(Wiedemann)
Fig.
85.
Eurosta donysa
(Walker)
Fig.
86.
Eurosta fenestrata Snow
Fig.
87.
Myoleja limata
(Coquillett)


150
The larvae feed in the soft fleshy bases of the flowers of
Compositae. The biology and identification of thevimmature stages
of the 2 species recorded from Florida were discussed by Benjamin
(1934). The genus contains 10 species and ranges from northern
United States into Algentina, 5 species are Nearctic. Malloch (1941)
reviewed the genus and included a key to 9 species.
Key to the Florida Species of Paracantha
1. Cell Rj. with 2 dark rays terminating on wing margin (Fig. 41);
parafrontal spot anterior of eyes as large as 2nd antennal
segment; fore femur with 1 black_spot on posterior surface
. culta (Wiedemann)
1'. Cell R,_ with 3 dark rays terminating on wing margin (Fig. 42);
parafrontal spot 1/3 size of 2nd antennal segment; fore femur
with 2 black spots on posterior surface. ....
, .forfcula Benjamin
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Figs. 41, 95, 144
Trypeta culta Wiedemann, 1830, Auss. Zweifl. Ins. 2:486.
Syntypes c? and ?. Type locality: Savannah, Georgia (Corrected
to culta in index p. 480.
Predominantly/ ooknaceous yellow, very readily differen
tiated by the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 41), by the large
subtriangular velvety black parafrontal spot and by having the


249


271


27.7;


327


Fig. 134. Distribution map of Eurosta comma
specific locality record ().
(Wiedemann),


although adults have been reared several times from the fruit of
Schoepfia schreberi L.
77
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Figs. 17, 73, 122
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Mise. Publ. 439:91, pi. 19, Fig. 18. Holotype ?. Type locality:
Big Pine Key, Florida (USNM).
Rather small yellow brown species. Easily differentiated
from other Florida Anastrepha by the presence of a distinct trans
verse dark brown band across the posterior of mesoscutum at the
base of the soutellum. Also by having the apex of the piercer
unserrated and gradually tapering to more or less rounded tip.
Head yellow with 2 pairs of upper front-orbital bristles and usually
5 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Wing pattern predomin
antly brown, costal and S-band joined at vein R4 + ^.. S-band reach
ing vein + 2 apically. V-band narrowly connected to S-band
anteriorly with proximal arm of V-band constricted or broken in
cell R5. Ovipositor sheath yellow 1.5 mm long; piercer long and
slender with smooth margin at apex, 2.3 ram long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 73 Epandrium brown, dorsal and lateral surfaces with
numerous long brown setae. Surstyli short, gradually tapered
from epandrium and truncate at apices. Proctiger moderately
large with long setae ventrally.
Hosts: Manilkara bahamensis (Bak.) Lam. & Meeuse
Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen.


151
fore femur with 1 black spot on the posterior surface. Head
similar in shape and bristling to other members of the genus, with
3 pairs of upper and lower fronto-orbitals. Closely resembling
forfcula, but the wing markings are distinctly different, with an
incomplete fuscous streak in between the 2 dark rays in cell R^,
also the front femora with only 1 black spot on its posterior
surface. Ovipositor sheath long, about 2.8 mm. Piercer 2.3 mm
long, slightly broadened just before the apex. Apex abruptly
tapered to a sharp point. Extended ovipositor 7.4 mm long. Epan-
drium ochraceous yellow with numerous long setae, lower inner
margin sharply serrated (Fig. 95). Surstyli short and broadly
rounded at apices.
Length: body 6.6-7.8 mm; wing 6.2-7.4 mm. (N=10),
Hosts: Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Carduus spinosissimus Walt.
Carduus nuttalii (DC.) Pollard
Carduus sp.
Distribution: Washington to Delaware, south to California
and Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2$ 3?, 28-III-1940 (J, R,
Watson, FSCA); 8-V-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Archer 1?,
23-111-1953 (H. F. Bowden, CNC); Gainesville, 2$ 3?, 21-III-1919
(G. B. Merrill, FSCA); lc£, 20-III-1924 (J. S. Rogers, MCZ) ;
6<$ 4+, bred from Carduus nuttalii,29-30-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM) ; 11<5 2?, bred from Carduus nuttalii, 4-10-VI-1930


Trypanea actinobola (Loew)
Tagetes recta L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Trilisa paniculata (Walt.)
es J. F. Gmel. Cass
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
Vernonia blodqetti Small
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp
Tomoplaqia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.
Neaspilota floridana Rohani n. sp
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Vernonia. sp.
Tomoplaaia obliqua (Say)
Cornaceae
Cornus florida L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Cucnrbitaceae.
Momordica balsamina L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Ebanaceae
Diospyros yirginiana Lt
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Diospyros sp.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Ericaceae
Vaccinium arboreum Marsh
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Vacciniura formosum Andr.
Rhagoletis mendax Curran
Euphorbiaceae
Bischofes Javanica Blume
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Flacourtiaceae
Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn;)
Warb.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)


31
Psidium guajava L.
Spondias mombin L,
Spondias purpurea L.
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Anastrepha ocresi (Walker)
Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen
Psidium guajava L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Annona reticulata L.
Annona squamosa L.
Averrhoa carambola L.
Bischofia javariica Blume
Capsicum frutescens L.
Carica papaya L.
Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A. DC,
ChrysophyHum oliviforme L.
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Igram & H
Citrus aurantium L.
Citrus X paradisi Macfady
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Citrus sp.
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels
Diospyros virginiana L.
Diospyros sp.
E, Moore
Dovyalis hebecarpa (G. Gardn.) Warb.


307


147
Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 5$ 2?, Aster tortifolius, 26-28-IV-1930(Pope
& White, USNM); 2$, reared from Heterotheca mariana,10-VIII-1930 (F, S.
Blanton, FSCA); Levy Co.: Bronson, 2$ 1?, eared from Pluchea foetida,
16-VI-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA) ; Orange Co.: Bithlo, 5$ 6?, reared
from Aster tortifolius, 6-17-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 6$ 4+,
reared from Heterotheca trichophylla 21-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM),
5$, reared from Aster tortifolius 1-2-V-1930 (O. J. Nicholson, USNM),
2$ 1?, reared from Aster tortifolius, 29-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
SNM); 3$, reared from Pluchea foetida, 14-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Conway, 1$ 2?, reared from Aster tortifolius, 5-7-VII-1930
(D. F. Nicholson, USNM), Lockhart 10$ 9?, reared from Heterotheca
hyssopifolia, 16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 1$ 2?,
Erigeron tfernus, 2-V-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 3$, 9-V-1930(F. S.
Blaton, FSCA); 25$ 13?, reared from Erigeron verrius, 17-26-VI-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; 78$ 36?, reared from Heterotheca trichophylla,
17-26-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); USNM); Orlovista, 3$ 3?, reared
from Aster bifolia tus, 10-16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM). Orlovista
3$ 2?, reafed from Heterotheca sp. 16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Pine Castle, 2$ 6?, 14-21-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) Ft. Christmas,
(Christmas) 17$9?, reared from Pluchea foetida, 5-30-VI-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Orange & Seminole Co.: Golden Rod, 14$6?, reared
from Heterotheca trichophylla, 30-VII;-5-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Polk Co.: 4$ 2?, reared Heterotheca nervosa var. microcephala,
17-24-VI-1930 (Pope & White, USNM) ; Seminole Co. : Forest City, 15$ 8?,
reared from Heterotheca trichophylla 30-VI.-2-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Lake Mary, 8$ 2?, reared from Heterotheca trichophylla,


17:21
of prescutellars. The median bands short, separated by a wide
black band and reaching only to a point midway between dorso-
centrals and prescutellars. Legs yellow tinged with brown.
Abdomen black; tergites II-IV with white pollinose band along
posterior margin. Female ovipositor short, about 2.5 mm; ovi
positor sheath dark brown to black with numerous black setae,
0.1 mm long. The piercer slender, apex gradually tapers to
a point, 0.9 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig. 50. Epandrium
black with scattered setae dorsolaterally. Surstyli slender
and elongate with more or less rounded apices. Proctiger elongate
with scattered setae.
Length: body 4.2-4.6 mm; wing 3.8-4.2 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Crataegus sp.
Prunus angustifolia Marsh.
Prunus umbellata Ell.
Prunus sp.
Distribution: east of North Dakota to Nova Scotia, south
to east Texas and Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Ascot, 1?, Wild Plum
ll-XII-1930 (C. B. M. FSCA); 2puparia under wild pum,
10-12-VII-1930 (USNM); 1 V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nichoson, USNM); 3$, bred from
Prunus angustifolia, 1-4-V-1931 (E. T. Evans & D. J. Nicholson,


Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Persea americana Mill.
Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill
Pouteria compechiana(HBK) Baehni
Prunus americana Marsh
Prunus prsica (L.) Batsch.
Prunus sp.
Pseudanamomis umbellulifera Kausel
Psidium littorole var. longips 0. Berg.)Fosb.
Psidium freidrischsthallanum (0. Berg,) Niedenzu
Psidium quajava L.
Psidium sp.
Pnica granatum L
Pyrus communis L
Pyrus X lecntei Rehd.
Rubus sp.
Severihi" buxifolia (Poir.) Ten
Spondias purpurea L.
Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach, &Thonn) Daniell
ex S. Bell
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Syzygium samrangense (Blume) Merr.il &. L.. M. .Perry
Terminalia catappa L.
Terminalia muelleri Benth.
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.)Vis.
> Triphasia trifolia (Burm, f.) P. Wils.
Distribution: South Florida, Greater Antilles,
Florida Records. Broward Co.: l, in McPhail trap,
10-11-1936 (C.D. Barcus, FSCA); Ft. Lauderdale, 1<$, in McPhail trap,


6
prenisetae (PRS) are a pair of dark tooth-like projections on the
inner margins of the surstyli. The ejaculatory apdeme may be
fan-shaped or spatulate depending on the species.
Eggs. The eggs are generally white and may be elongated
with a long tapering stalk as in the eggs of Toxotrypana curvicauda
Gerstacker and Paracantha culta (Wiedemann); others may be ellipti
cal; the charion may be smooth or with reticulation and sculpturing;
some are without such characters. Characters of the eggs rarely
have been used in identification of fruit flies, because not much
is known about their morphology. In the rearing and collecting work,
workers seldom come across the egg or actually oook for eggs. More
easily accessible taxonomic characters of adults had larvae are avail
able and are extensively used in fruit fly taxonomy. Brief descrip
tions of the eggs of several species of tephritids can be found in
Knab and Yothers (1914), Emmart (1933), Benjamin (1934), Tauber
and Toschi (1965a), and Weems (1965, 1969).
Larva (Fig. 8). The larvae can be divided into 2 morpho
logical groups; 1 group has a shortened barrel-shaped body which is
typical of the gall makers and some species that breed in composite
flower-heads. Most species are muscidiform (Fig. 8), the body
gradually tapering from a bluntly broad posterior end to a nar
row head that possesses a pair of mouth hooks (MH). Full grown
larvae are 3-15 mm long, white to light yellow. The exoskeleton,
usually is smooth, but may be wrinkled in some species. Occasion
ally dark markings may be seen on the body which are of generic


78
Distribution: Restricted to southern Florida
Florida Records: Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, ll in McPhail
trap, 19-UV-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 1$, in McPhail trap, 29-IC-1935
(G. D. Barcus, FSCA) 1?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (G. D. Barcus,
FSCA); 2?, in McPhail trap, 10-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 1 in McPhail trap, 21-V-1935 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 8c? 3?, in McPhail
trap, 21-V-1935 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); 1 (Barcus & Cruz, FSCA); 22$ 12?, fruit fly trap, 14-20-37-1935
(G. B. Merrill, USNM) ; 4 USNM); (paratypes) 4 Boca Chica Key, Id*, in McPhail trap, ll-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA) ;
(paratype) 1?, fruit fly trap, 15-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM);
Cud joe Key, le?, in McPhail trap 9-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA) \
1?,. in McPhail trap, 9-V-1935, (J. G. Bell, FSCA); 6c? 1?, in
McPhail trap, 16-V-1935 (J. C. Bell, FSCA); 2 trap, 18-2Q-V-1935 (G. C. Bell, FSCA); (paratypes) 3 fruit fly trap 20-V-1935 (G. B. Merrill, USNM); 1?, 20-V-1935
(Bell & Moore, FSCA); Key Largo,]i?T, in McPhail trap
13-VII-1936 (Stirling & Barcus, FSCA); le?, in McPahil trap,
16-VII-1936 (G. D. Barcus, FSCA); Key West, 1?, in McPhail
trap, 19-1-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1 25-IV-1934 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail trap, 29-IV-1935,
(Mendendez, FSCA); 1$, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (J, R. Lyle^TSCA) ,
1?, in McPhail trap, 3-V-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in
McPhail trap, 14-V-1935 (C. E. Shepard, FSCA); 1?, fruit fly


73
that this species has not survived in Florida. Nothing is known
about the biology of this species. It is not considered to be of
economic importance anywhere within its range. Females of this
species are differentiated easily by the distinctly long slender,
ovipositor which is about as long as or longer than the length of
the body.
Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Figs. 16, 72, 121
Anastrepha interrupta Stone, 1942, U.S. Dept. Agrie. Mise.
Publ. 439:62, pi. 12, Fig. II. Holotype +. Type locality: Jensen,
Florida (USNM).
Readily differentiated from other Florida Anastrepha by
the shape of the piercer and by the presence of a median black
scutoscutellar spot. Head yellow, typically with 2 pairs of upper
fronto-orbital bristles and 4 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles.
Wing pattern as in Fig. 16 V-band separated from S-band. Hyaline
spots on anterior 1/2 of cell only occasionally touching vein
R^ Vein + ^ setose to beyond r-m crossvein, ending just at the
base of V-band. Femalepositor about 3.5 mm long. Ovipositor sheath
1.5 mm long, entirely yellow with numerous brown hairs. Piercer
long and slender, approximately 1.0 mm long; apex short and broad,
abruptly tapered to a sharp point with many fine serrations on
lateral margin. Male genitalia as in Fig. 72. Epandrium narrow


83
scutoscutellar suture, with a median black spot.. Wing pattern
predominantly dark brown. Costal and S-band connected in cell R3
and part of cell R. Hyaline spot on costal not touching vein R^ .
Proximal arm of V-band usually extending forward to vein R^ ,
but not connected to S-band. Distal arm of V-band short, either
separated from proximal arm or jointed at vein +2* Abdomen with
transverse brown-black bands on tergites II-IV. Bands on tergites
III and TV narrow or broken medially. Ovipositor sheath long and
slender, 3.4 mm long. Piercer long and slender, apex gradually
tapers to approximately 30 mm long. Male genitalia have not been
dissected for study since males were not obtained in the course of
this study.
Length: body 6.8-7.4 mm; wing 6.9-7.6 mm (N=3)
Hosts: Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen
Psidium guajava L.
Distribution: Florida, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica.
Florida Record; Monroe Co.: Key Largo, 1?, trap in
sapodilla tree 3-VII-1936 (Barcus & Stirling, USNM),
This species has not been found in Florida since 1936,
possibly because it has not survived in Florida, and possibly
because of limited trapping in the Florida Keys. It is not con
sidered to be of economic importance anywhere within its range.
Nothings is known about the immature stages of this species. This
species is distinctly different from other Florida Anastrepha be
cause of its wing pattern and the banding on the tergites.


125
This species is apparently closely related to fenestrata.
It can be differentiated from the latter by the wing pattern, the
female ovipositor and by the characters on male genitalia. Nothing
is known abot its biology and immature stages. A detailed des
cription and illustration of this species was given in Steyskal
and Foote (1977).
Genus Myoleja Rondani
Myoleja Rondani 1856, Dipt. Ital. Prod. 1:112. Type
species: Tephritis lucida Fallen.
Predominantly yellow to dark brown species charaeterizd
by having 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, 3 pairs of lower fronto-
orbitals and rather weak cellars. Head and body bristles black.
Mesonotum densely setose with short decumbant yellow to black setae.
Dorseocentral variable in position, maybe only slightly behind
supra-alars or well behind these bristles nearer to the intra-
alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellars. Wing with dark
infuscation and highly contrasting hyaline marking. Vein R4+ 5
setose to about the level of r- mcrossvein. Crossvein m parallel
or nearly so with r-m crossvein and perpendicular in position,
r-m crossvein situated distinctly beyond middle of cell 1st M2..
At least 1 triangular hyaline spot immediately beyond the apex of
the stigma.
Virtually nothing is known about the biology of the species.
The genus is Holarctic with 4 Nearctic species, 3 of which are


211
(C. L. Smith, UGA) Big Pine Key, 1?, on foliage of Schinas sp.
15-11-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA), 2$ 1?, sweeping weeds, 22-III-1971
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); 1?, sweeping roadside weeds, 13-IV-1971)
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Boca Chica Key, l 1?, sweeping weeds,
ll-VII-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Key Largo; 1<$, 6-XI-1911 (MCZ) ;
2?, 30-III-1978 (C. L. Smith, UGA); 1$ 1?, 16-XI-1911 (AMNH); 1 under bark of dead tree, 2-IV-1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1?, taken
at light 19-X-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 11<$ 1?, 26-XII-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 6$, 9-IV-1955 (F. W. Mead, FSCA) 1$,
ll-IV-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Key West, 2S, sweeping weed
X-1970 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); 7$ 5$, Bidens pilosa, 18-24-III-1930
(Milner, USNM); Long Key, at light, l-V-1955 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA);
Plantaton Key, l£, at light, 27-XI-1955 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA);
l£, in black light trap, 17-VII-1963 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Saddlebunch
Keys, 4$ 1?, on Flaveria linearis, 29-rXII-1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Stock Islard,- 1?, 3-X-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); 8$ 11,
black light trap XI-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA) 2?, 9-XI-1971
(W. H. Pierce, FSCA); lS, 9-1-1972 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Torch Key,
2$, 26-III-1935 (R. W.- Lindner, FSCA) Orange Co.: Apopka, 3$ 2?,
bred from Bidens pilosa, 21-VI-1929 (E. T. Evans, USNM); 18<£ 13?,
merged from Bidens pilosa, 9-28-IX-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM),
6$ 5?, ex Bidens pilosa, 24-30-IX-1929 ltjsNM) 3 6?, ex Bdens
pilosa 24-30-XI-1929 (MCZ), l2 2?, Bidens pilosa, 4-5-XII-1929
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); li 2?, bred from Bidens pilosa, X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); Seminole Co.: Winter Park, 4&, light


91
economic damage caused by this species has been relatively small.
More than 80 species of plants, including tomatoes and bell peppers,
are hosts of the Caribbean fruit fly. An eradication program
for suspensa in Key West was established by the State Plant Board
of Florida and the USDA in 1933. Traps were used to evaluate the
progress of the eradication effort. Thousands of specimens were
collected from these traps in Florida over the years. There is
no assurance that A. suspensa could not become a major pest of
citrus or other crops such as peaches and apples, found in Florida
or neighboring states. An extensive trapping program is still
being carried out in parts of peninsula Florida for this species
and other exotic fruit flies. Superficially, this species is
difficult to distinguish from A. interrupta except for the ovi
positor of the female and genitalia of the male.
Genus Ceratitis Macleay
Ceratitis Madefy, 1829, Zool. J. 4:482. Type species:
citriperda Macleay = capitata (Wiedemann).
Members of this genus have distinctive patterns on the
wings and mesonotum and a swollen scutellum. Head yellowish
white, with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, borne on
distinct tubercles in the males, and the anterior pair often
modified into long spatula-shaped bristles. Two pairs of lower
fronto-orbital bristles present. Mesonotoum shining black or brown
with yellow to white markings; with a large densely gray


187
It is generally distributed throughout Florida. Although
not abundant, this species is not rare. The immature stages
of this species were described by Benjamin (1934).
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker
Toxotrypana Gerstacker, 1860, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg.
21:194. Type species: Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker.
Differentiated from other Florida genera by the character
istic shape, size, general coloration and behavior. Predominantly
ochraceous yellow with black maculation on the thorax. Head
broad as thorax. Chaetotaxy greatly reduced, lacking many of
the major bristles of the head and thorax. One pair of upper
fronto-orbital bristles and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital
bristles present, but greatly reduced. Thorax with short yel
lowish brown setae on dorsum; humeral, presutural and dorso-
central bristles lacking, other bristles present, but greatly
reduced. Scutellum with 1 pair of short apical soutellars. Wing
long and narrow, anterior 1/3 of wing with prominent yellowing.
Vein R2 + 3 undulating and sexually dimorphic. Vein R2 + 3 in male with
distinct short fork on its distal 1/2 ; female lacking fork.
Vein R4+5 setose to 2/3 of the length. Cell 1st very long,
almost twice that of cell R^, Cross^vein m oblique. Legs yellow,
hind femora and coxae with brown to black markings. Abdomen
yellow long and slender.


Fig. 129. Distribution map of Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann);
specific locality record (), county record () .


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FILES


82
18-X-1934 (L. S. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 1<$, in McPhail trap, 21-X-1935
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); l5 1?, in McPhail trap, 22-XI-1935 (J. H.
Sealey, FSCA^; 1<$, in McPhail trap, 25-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA)
1?, in McPhail trap, l-XI-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 2$, 7-XI-1935
(L. A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 1 Cooper, FSCA); le, in McPhail trap, 9-II-1936 (J. F. Cooper,
FSCA).
This species was first reported from Florida in the early
1930's. It is one of the 6 species of Anastrepha recorded as native
to Florida. Although a major pest of mango in tropical countries,
in Florida, it never has been positively associated with attacks
on mango (Weems, 1970). The life history was discussed briefly by
Weems (1970). A. obliqua resembles suspensa in wing pattern and
serrations at the apex of piercer, but differs from it in lacking
the pronounced median scutoscutellar black spot typically present
in suspensa.
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Figs. 19, 124
Trypeta ocresia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Ins. Brit,
Mus. 4:1016. Holotype ?. Type locality: Jamaica (MCZ).
Differing from other known Florida Anastrepha species by
the wing markings (Fig.19), by the pale yellow and black markings
on the thorax and by having a banded abdomen. Thorax orange brown,
with pal yellow and black markings. A brownish band on


Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Figs. 33, 87, 138
127.
Acinia limata Coquillett, 1899, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
7:263. Holotype +. Type locality: New Bedford, Massachussetts
(USNM).
Predominantly dark brown species readily differentiated
by its distinct wing pattern (Fig. 33). Wing with dark brown
marking in the center of the disc. The anterior hyaline wedges
reaching cell R4 +5* the distal wedge extends into cell R5. Cell
R lacks a hyaline spot. The lower fronto-orbitals in male bristles
normal. Abdominal terga black. Ovipositor sheath short, dorsum
very dense brown to black setose and measures 1.2 mm. The piercer
narrow, blunt, and more or less rounded at apex, approximately
1.1 mm. Extended ovipositor about 3.2 mm long. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 87. Epandrium highly arched, dorsum with numerous
setae. Surstyli long, and slightly curved inward, apex more or
less rounded. Proctiger large and elongate, the dorsum covered
with numerous scattered setae, the lateroventral surface covered
with long but less dense setae.
Length: body 3.6-5.2 mm; wing 3.2-4.4 mm. (N=10)
Host: Ilex caroliniana (Walt.) Trelease
Ilex cassine L.
Ilex coricea (Pursh) Chapm.
Ilex decidua Walt.
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray.


255.


Fig. 137.
Distribution map of Eurosta floridensis Foote
specific locality record ().


Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Britt, & Rusby
Neaspilota floridana Rhhani n. sp.
Vernonia blodqettii Small
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel.
Vernonia scaberrima Nutt.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Aster tortifolius Michx.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell,
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Heterotheca hyssopifolia (Nutt.) R. W. Long
Heterotheca mariana (L.) Shinners
Heterotheca nervosa (Wild.) Shinners var. microcephala
Small Shinners
Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners
Heterobheca sp.
Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.
Pluchea imbricata (Kearney) Nash
Neaspilota vernonia (Loew)
No host information
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Carduus nuttalii (DC.) Pollard
Carduus spinossissimus Walt.


Citrus sp.
Anastrepha supensa (loew)
Clausena lansium (Lour.)
Skeels
Fortunella margarita (Lour.)
Swingle
Fortunella Sp.
Mrraya paniculata (L.)
Jack
Severinia buxifolia
(Poir.) Ten
Triphasia trifolia
(Burm. f.) P. Wils.
Sapindaceae
Litchi chinensis Sonn.
Sapotaceae
Chrysophyllum oliviforme L.
Manilkara bahamensis (Bak.)
Lam & Meeus
Manilkara zapota (L.)
Van Royen
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Pouteria campechiana (HBK)
Baehni Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Synsepalum dulcificum
(Schumch. & Thonn)
Daniell ex X. Bell. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)


Fig.
32.
Eurosta floridensis Foote, +
Fig.
33.
Myoleja limata (Coquillett),
?
Fig.
34.
Myoleja nigricornis (Doane),
t
Fig.
35.
Myoleja rhino Steyskal, ?
Fig.
36.
Neaspilota achilleae (Loew),
9
+
Fig.
37.
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin, 5
)
Fig.
38.
Neaspilota floridana Rohani,
n. sp
Fig.
39.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin,
Fig.
40.
Neaspilota vernoniae (Loew),
?
Fig.
41.
Parancantha culta (Wiedemann)
, ?


Distribution map of Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
specific locality record (), county record ().
Fig. 165.


12
1$, McPhail trap,16-IX-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); l, McPhail
trap, 21-IX-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); l6 McPhail trap,
19-X-1936 (McDaniel FSCA); l, McPhail trap, 29-VII-1936
(J. H. Sealey, FSCA); Big Pine Key (paratype) l, 24-X-1935
(Barcus & Moore, USNM); 1?, 26-XI-1935 (H. R. Winker, FSCA); l 1?,
McPhail trap, 21-24-TV-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1?, McPhail trap,
5-V-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA); Key Largo, 1?, McPhail trap,
31-VIII-1936, (Barcus & Stirling, FSCA); (paratypes) 7$ 6?,
16-28-IX-1936 (Barcus & McDaniel, USNM); l 1?, McPhail trap,
14-1X-1936) (Barsus & McDaniel, USNM); l 1?, McPhail trap,
5-X-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); 1?,McPhail trap, 19-XI-1936
(McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA; 1?, 7-XII-1936 (D. F. Marcus, FSCA); 1?,
McPhail trap, 14-XII-1936 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); l 1?,McPhail
trap, 29-XII-1936 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); 1?,McPhail trap,
2-1-1937 (McDaniel & Barcus, FSCA); Key West, l,10-IV-1936
(E. G. Hume, FSCA); 1?, McPhail. trap; 4-V-1936' (J. JF. Cooper, FSCA) ;
(paratype) 1?, 28-V-1936 (E. G. Hume, USNM). No Name Key,l<5,
McPhail trap, 15-1-1936 (R. B. Johnson, FSCA); l£, 7-11-1936
(J. F.'Cooper, FSCA); l6 McPhail trap, 25-11-1936 (J. F. Cooper,
FSCA, 15 13-III-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA) 1<5, McPhail trap
17-III-1936 (J. F. Cooper, FSCA) 25 McPhail trap, 24-IX-1936
(J. F. Cooper, FSCA), Sugar Loaf Key, l, 7-XI-1936 (Barcus &
Moore, FSCA); Tavernier, 1<5, McPhail trap, 14-IX-1936 (McDaniel, FSCA).
A. edentata is one of the G species which have been
established in Florida at some time. The records indicated that,
it has hot been found in Florida since 1936. There is a possibility


148
7-VII-1930 (D.J.Nicholson, USNM); Longwood, 15 Heterotheca trichophylla, 5-VII-1930 (D.J.Nicholson,USNM).
Johnson (1913) listed this species as Neaspilota signfera
Coquillett. This species is an abundant and frequently encountered
species in Florida. Habits are similar to those of other species
in;the genus. The larvae feed singly in the flower of various
composites. Larvae and puparia are almost identical to those of
achilleae(Benjamin,1934).
Neaspilota vernoniae Loew
Figs. 40, 94
Trypeta vernoniae Loew, 1861. Berl. Entomol. Zeitsch.
5:346. Holotype (£. Type locality: Pennyslvania.
A rather large species with an average length of 3.9 mm and
has the following characteristics. Head yellow, frons pubeseent.
Thorax lemon yellow with whitish pubescence. Wing pattern as in Fig.
40, with several dark markings on the disc similar to that of
achilleae except for the apical markings, reaching up to apex of vein
M^+2- Abdomen yellowish luteous with black hairs on the lateral
margins and on the last segment. Ovipositor sheath rufous, tinged with
dark brown at the distal tip, approximately 1.5 mm long. The piercer
1.5 mm long, apex abruptly tapered to a sharp point and with finely
serrated margin. Extended ovipositor 3.8 mm long. Male genitalia as in
Fig. 94. Epandrium narrow, with long fine setae dorsally. Surstyli
broad, with truncate apices. Proctiger with long setae lateroventrally.


146
setae that project ventrally, Abdomen entirely ypllowish, dorsum heavily
marked with brownish-black bands. Ovipositor long, 2.9 mm long, the
sheath rufous brown, about 1.1 mm long; the proximal end darkened. The
piercer approximately 0.8 mm long with its apex thin and pointed. The
male genitalia small and compact (Fig. 93) Epandrium highly arched, dorsum
with.5 to 6-mm long brown setae. Surstyli broadly rounded at apex. Proc-
tiger large, almost covering the apex of surstyli dorsally.
Length: body 2,6-3.0 mm; wing 2.3-2.7 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Aster tortifolius Michx.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A, Gray
Heterotheca hyssopifolia (Nutt.) R. W. Long
Heterotheca mariana (L.) Shinners
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala
(Small) Shinners
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam,) Britt. & Rusby
Heterotheca trichophylla (Nutt.) Shinners
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium gronovii L.
Pluchea foetida (L.) DC.
Distribution: Known only from Florida
Florida record: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, it, 20-IV-1952
(0. Peck, CNC); lc? reared from Heracium gronovii, 1-XI1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); 2$ 2?, reared from Aster dumosus, l-XI-1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); Micanopy, 5<^ 1+, reared from Heterotheca trichophylla,
21-26-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSNM) ; Charlotte Co.: Charlotte, 4^2?
reared from Heterotheca trichophylla. 13-IV-1930 (Pope & White, USNM);


231


139
Erigeron vernus,9-V-1930 (C. S. Blanton, FSCA); 29c? 22, bred from
Heterotheca subaxillaries, 21-30-.VI-1930 (D. J, Nicholson, USNil)
8<3 3?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries 2-8-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM)
4c? 2?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries,30-VI-1930 (D, J, Nicholson,
USNM); Osceola Co.: Deer Park, 8c? 7?, 2-V-1930, bred from Heterotheca
subaxillaries, 2-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Pasco Co.; Jasamin
Point (Dade City); 6 var. megacephalus, 24-30-1928 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Seminole
Co.: Oviedo, 1 Wakulla Co.: Newport, 3c? 1?, bred from Heterotheca subaxillaries ,
30-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
This species has not been collected outside of Florida
where it occurs throughout most of the state. The larvae feed
singly on flower heads of sexual composites. Their immature
stages vary in size proportionately with the corresponding adults
and are almost identical with those of achilleae (Benjamin, 1934).
Neaspilota floridana Rohani, n. sp.
Figs. 10, 38, 92, 142
Superficially resembling alba (Loew), a more northern
species, and some Florida species because of the entirely hyaline
wing and predominantly yellow pollinose body. It differs from
all other known Neaspilota by the characters on head, female
ovipositor and male genitalia (Fig. IOC.-J,92) .
This species was first brought to my attention by Mr,
Ammon Friedberg, c/o U.S. National Museum, when he revised the


10
I


21
Erigeron vernus (L.)
Torr. '& A. Gray
Ei'igeron Sp.
Bupatroium coelestinum L.
Gnaphalium obtusifoliumL.
Haplopappus divaricatus
(Nutt.) Gray
Haplopappus phyllocephallus
DC. var. megacepha1lu s
(Nash) Waterfall
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Heterotheca hyssopifolia
(Nutt.) R. W. Long
Heterotheca mariana (L.)
Shiners
Heterocheca nervosa (Willd.)
Shinners var.
riicrocephala (Small)
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Neaspolta dolosa Benjamin
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Shinners
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson


206
in cell 1st M2 extends only to the middle of cell Cu^; vein R2 +3
unusually short and strongly waved with 2 noticeable bends. Female
ovipositor 2.1 mm long. Ovipositor sheath yellow with black marking
distally measuring about 0.8 ram. Piercer sharp-pointed 0.7 mm long,
the distal 1/2 slightly bulged, Male genitalia yellow, tinged
with brown (Fig.113). Epandrium narrow, covered with numerous
long setae dorsally, short setae laterally. Surstyli curved inward
at apices; apex more or less truncate. Proctiger elongate, with
long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.0-2.8 mm; wing 2.2-2.6 mm. (N=8).
Hosts: Ageratum littorale Gray
Eupatorium coelestinum L.
Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Distribution: Known only in Florida
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Merritt Island, 1$ 1+, bred
from Eupatorium coelestinum, 5-15-X-1930 (D. J, Nicholson, USNM);
o
Wilson, 2+, Eupatorium coelstinum, 8-16-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Broward Co.: 1$ 1+, bred from Eupatorium coelestinum 5-V-1930
(U. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Florida City, 6$ 3?, bred from
Eupatorium coelestinum, 1-7-V-1931 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM); Hialeah,
l$f ex Eupatorium coelestinum, 8-IX-1970 (C. E. Stegmaier, USNM);
Homestead, 4& 2?, bred from Eupatorium coelestinum, 15-16-V-1939
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Miami 1?, ex Mikania scandens, 21-XII-1948
(O.D. Link, FSCA); Opalocka, 5 1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Leon Co.: Tallhassee, 1l-XI-1949


128
Ilex opaca Ait.
Ilex vomitoria Ait.
Distribution: Massachussetts to Florida.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1<5 1?, Ilex
opaca, 14-XII-1971 (L. C. Kuitest, FSCA); Baker Co.: Maclenny,
1?, in McPhail trap, 27-X-1969 (Hugh Collins, FSCA); Citrus Co.:
Crystal River, 1(5 2?, Ilex vomitoria 24-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM) ; Homossassa, lc? 1+, from Ilex vomitoria (D. J. Nicholson &
J. C. Graves, USNM). Dade Co.: Cutler, 1?, in McPhail trap, 18-VII-
Q
1964 (H. S. Creamer, FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville, 1+, in
McPhail trap, 2-XI-1964 (L. W. Taylor, FSCA); 4 trap, 8-X-1968 (L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Hardee Co.: Wauchula, 15 in McPhail trap in grapefruit, 16-X-1968 (R. H. Rhodes, FSCA);
Highlands Co.: Sebring, 1<5 1?, in Steiner trap, 9-XI-1964 (Ted
Morris, FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Antioch, l£ 8?, emerged from
Ilex cassine ll-XI-1929 (W. H. Pope, USNM); 4c? 3?, emerged from
Ilex cassine,12-25-XI-1929 (D. J. Nichoson, USNM); Riverview, 2$ 1?,
from Ilex cassine,8-IX-1930 (Pope & Mutz, USNM);) Tampa, lie? 8?,
reared from Ilex glabra, l-X-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 4c? 2,
bred from Ilex cassine,6-VI-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 2c? 1?,
in McPhail trap, 18-VIII-1967 (G. W. Barber, FSCA) ; 1 McPhail trap, 3-XI-1967 (T. J. Favordso, FSCA); Indian River Co.:
Vero Beach,1?, in Mexican fruit fly trap, 30-X-1959 (R. H. Kendrick,
FSCA); 1?, stickyboard trap, ll-X-1965 (R. H. Kendrich, FSCA);
Lake Co. : 7<5, emerged from Ilex cassine, 11-15-X-1929 .


41
-Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx) Ell
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala (Small)
Heterotheca oligantha (Chapm.) Harms.
Heterotheca sp.
Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson)
No host information
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Ageratum littorale Gray
Eupatoium coelestinum L.
Mikania scandens (L.) Willd.
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Ageratum sp.
Bidens bipinnata L.
Bidens coranata (L.) Biitt.
Bidens laevis (L.)
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schultz-Bip.
Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.
Heterotheca subaxillaries (Lam.) Birtt & Rusby
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Ageratum houstonianum Mill.


isa
MCZ) ; St. Lucie Co.: Fort Pierce, 2$ 1?, 9-VI-1938 (G. H.
Baker, FSCA).
This species is commonly encountered in Carduus spinosissimus.
Larvae pupated in flower head for 3-4 weeks before emerging to
adults. Pupae black.
Paracantha forficula Benjamin
Figs. 42, 96, 145
Paracantha forficula Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 4011:31, Fig. 23. Holotype £. Type locality: Cocoa
Beach, Brevard Co., Florida (USNM).
A moderately large and distinctive species differentiated
from other Paracantha by the wing markings (Fig. 42), by the
characters on the head and male genitalia. Cell R5 with 3 dark
rays reaching the apical margin; hyaline spots in cells Cu-^ and
2nd A with dark margins. Head with smaller parafrontal black spots.
Posterior surface of fore femora with 2 black spots. Ovipositor
sheath short, about 1.6 mm long; piercer 1.1 mm. short and broad,
apex abruptly tapered to a sharp end. Extended ovipositor 3.6
mm long. Epandrium with numerous long setae, the lower inner margin
smooth. Surstyli short, with rounded apices.
Length: body 4.7-5.0 mm; wing 4.7-4.8 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.
Distribution: Known only from Florida


Length: body, 3.4-5.2 mm; wing 3.9-4.5 mm. (N=2).
Hosts: Unknown.
Distribution: Michigan to Maine, south to Florida.
Florida Records: Foote (1965) indicates that the species
is found in Florida. However, the specimens on hand are from New
York.
Nothing is known about the biology of this species. The
male of this species superficially resembles male of rhino
Steyskalin having the lower fronto-orbitals greatly enlarged
but is easily differentiated by its dark body and wing pattern.
Myoleja rhino Steyskal
Figs. 35, 89, 139
Myoleja rhino Steyskal, 1972, Fla. Entomol. 55:207,
Fig. 1. Holotype S. Type locality: Lake Placid, Highlands Co.:
Florida (USNM).
Superficilly. resembling nigricornis in having the lower
fronto-orbitals of male greatly enlarged, but differs in having
the wing pattern distinctly different, almost resembling Strauzia
longipennis (Wiedemann). The hyaline crossband from the costa
extends through cell 1st M2. Cell R with a distinct hyaline
spot. Vein R4+5 setose. Body polished, yellow brown. Dorso-
central bristles anterad of acrostichals 2/3 of distance between
latter. Ovipositor sheath yellow tinged with brown, about 1.2
mm long. Piercer slender, apex tapered to a very sharp point,


303


253


Fig. 162. Distribution map of Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
specific locality record ().


245


Distribution map of Euaresta aegualis (Loew)
specific locality record ().
Fig. 131.


Fig. 120. Distribution map of Anastrepha edentata Stone.
specific locality record (), county record().


Psidium guajava L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha ocresia (Walker)
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Psidium sp. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Syzygium samarangense (Blume)
Merril & L. M. Perry Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Moraceae
Ficus carica L. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew )
Olacaceae
Schoepfia schreberi
J. F. Gmel. Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Oleaceae
Chionanthus virginicus L.
Qsmanthus americanus (L.)
Gray
Oxalidaceae
Averrhoa carambola L.
Punicaceae
Pnica granaturn L.
Rosaceae
Aronia arbutifolia (L.)
Pers.
Crataegus maloides Sarg.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)


123
rounded lobes at apices. Proctiger small and elongate, with scat
tered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 7.0-7.8 mm; wing 7.3-7.5 mm. (N=3).
Hosts: Unknown
Distribution: Arizona, east to Oklahoma and Ontario, Florida.
Florida Records: The only record was given by Johnson
(1909) : St. Johns CO.:: St. Augustine, no date was given. The
specimen illustrated is from Colorado.
The above description is based on specimens from Colorado.
This species is normally found in central and northern North America,
east to Oklahoma and Ontario. It is very rare in Florida and has
never been collected since the last record of Johnson (1909).
Nothing is known about its immature stages and biology.
Eurosta floridensis Foote
Figs. 32, 137
Eurosta floridensis Foote, 1977, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 79(1):148, Fig. 7-10, 17. Holotype ?. Type locality:
Jasper, Florida (USNM).
Resembling other species in the genus in general appearnce,
but differentiated from them by the color pattern of wing. Wing
with numerous distinct, rounded light spots scattered over the disc.
Narrow hyaline arc spots restricted to apex of 2nd M2, usually a
small isolated spot immediately anterior to it at apex of cell R5,
Proximal light area of wing disc distinctly hyaline in cell Cu^,


329


Fig. 168. Distribution map of Zonosemata electa (Say)
specific locality record ().


14D
subfamily Terellinae. This was recognized as an undescribed species
because of the characters mentioned above. It was earlier identified
as Neaspilota alba (Loew) by Benjamin (1934).
Female. Predominantly yellow species. Head as in Fig. 10A.
Vertex and frons yellow pollinose, the fronto-facial angle rounded;
irons pubescent with whitish tomentum. Two pairs of upper fronto-
orbitals, 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals, the lower pair strong.
Face yellow, with slight concavity, epistomal margin slightly
expanded. Thorax entirely yellow pollinose, appearing silvery gray.
Chaetotaxy typical of the genus with dorsocentral bristles situated
distinctly behind supra-alars. Legs entirely yellow rufous, the
bristling as in other member of this genus. Wing entirely hyaline
except for yellowish tinge in the stigma similar to alba. Abdomen
polished yellow in ground color, dorsum rather dense gray pubescence.
The ovipositor sheath light yellow tinged with brown on the proximal
and distal ends, about 0.7 mm long; apex piercer abruptly tapered
to a sharp point (Fig. 10D). The largest spicules of raspers are
somewhat more narrow and acute than that of alba (Fig.lOE).
Spermatheca oval as in Fig. 10F. Extended ovipositor 2.3 mm long.
Male. Same as in ^ except for postabdominal characters.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 10G,H, 94. Epandrium highly arched; surstyli
elongated, curved inward, almost truncate at apex. Proctiger with
scattered long setae. Ejaculatory apdeme fan-shaped lightly
pigmented (Fig. 10J). Aedeagus as in Fig. 101.
Holotype ?, allotype, and 17 paratypes; Orange Co.: Orlando
(holotype) 19-VI-1930; (allotype), 24-VI-1930; (paratype) 2& 1?, 17-VI-
1930, (paratype) 1<£ 1?, 21-VI-1930; (paratype) 4cT 29, 24-VI-1930;


3ia


351
Foote, R. H., and F. L. Blanc. 1963. The fruit flies or Tephritidae
of California. Bull. Calif. Ins. Survey. 7:1-117.
Foott, W. H. 1963. The biology and control of the pepper maggot,
Zonosemata electa (Say)(Diptera: Trypetidae) in
southwestern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont.
93:75-81.
Greene, C. T. 1929. Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain
fruit flies. J. Agrie. Res. 38:489-504.
Hall, J. A. 1943. Notes on the dogwood fly, a race of Rhagoletis
pomonella (Walsh) Can. Entomol. 758:202.
Hardy, E. D. 1949. Studies in Hawaiian fruit flies. Proc.
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 51:181-205.
Illingworth, J. F. 1912. A study of the biology of the apple
maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella), together with an
investigation of methods of control. Cornell Univ.
Agrie. Expt. Sta. Bull. 324:129-187
Johnson, C. W. 1900. Some notes and descriptions of seven new
species and new genus of Diptera. Entomol. News.
11:323-328.
1909. Notes on the distribution of some Trypetidae with
description of a new species. Psyche 16:113-114.
1
1913. Insects of Florida. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.
32:37-90.
Knab, F., and W. W. Yothers. 1914. Papaya fruit fly. J. Agrie.
Res. Dept. Agrie. 2:447-53.
Lathrop, F. H., and C. B. Nickels. 1932. The biology and control
of blueberry maggot in Washington County, Maine.
U.S. Dept. Agrie. Tech. Bull. 275 76p.
Loew, H. 1862. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. I.
On the North American Trypetid. Smiths. Mise. Collect.
6(1):49-102.
1873. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. III.
Review of the North American Trypetina. Smiths. Mise.
Collect. 11(256):21^351.


205
Florida Record: Dade Co.: Everglades, 1<, 17-VI-1979
(A. Friedberg, FSCA).
Xanthaciura chrysura and tetrapina (Phillips) are the only
Florida species that have black thorax. The 2 species are
further distinguished by characters given in the key. Like insecta
(Loew), it has 3 dark rays through cell Cu^. It is differentiated
from the former by having 2 hyaline areas in cell 1st and by
having the base of the proximal ray in cell Cu^ board, and extending
beyond cell Cu^ ending in the middle cell 2nd A.
This species is relatively uncommon in collections and rarely
encountered in Florida possibly because its distribution is primarily
tropical. The specimens illustrated are from Peru.
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Figs. 64, 113, 165
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin, 1934, U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 401:45, Fig. 32. Holotype $. Type locality:
Florida City, Florida.
A rather small species, similar to insecta (Loew) in having
1 pair of scutellars. It differs from insecta by being smaller in
size averaging 2.4 mm and by the rufous yellow abdomen, with black
markings on tergites IV and V in the male and tergites III-V of
the female. Also by the wing pattern, cell R without a hyaline
spot; the wedge-shaped hyaline areas on the costa extending
just beyond vein R2+3? the 2 brown rays arising from the dark field


213
Cell R always with a hyaline spot. Abdomen largely yellowish, tergites
III-V dark brown. Ovipositor sheath dark brown, basal edge yel
lowish measured about 0.8 mm. The piercer short and slightly bulged
medially, about 0.7 mm long, apex gradually tapers to a sharp point.
Extended ovipositor 2.2 mm long. Male genitalia as in Fig.115. Epan-
drium highly arched with scattered setae dorsal and laterally.
Surstyli truncate and curved inward at apices. Proctiger small and
elongate with fine short setae lateroyentrally.
Length: body 2.6-3.2 mm: wing 2.3-3.2 mm (N=8).
Hosts: Aqeratum houstanianum Mill.
Balduina angustiflolia (Pursh) Robinson
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP
Bidens pilosa L.
Eupatorium coelestlnum
Distribution: Utah to Indiana, south to nofthern Mexico
and Florida.
Florida Records: Lake Co.: Tavares, 3c$ 3?, bred from Bidens
pilosa, 24-26-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, USNM); Marion Co.: Ocala, 3$ 2?,
ex Bidens laevis, 23-25-XI-1929 IF. Walker, USNM), Orange Co.:
Orlando, 5^ 3?, bred from Balduina angustifolia, 12-20-XI-1929
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5$ 8?, bred from Ageratum houstonianum,
26-30-XII-1929 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 3$ 1?, bred from Ageratum
houstonianum, 8-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, FSCA); 3$ 3?, bred from
Ageratum houstonianum, 5-15-VIII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
6$ 14?, bred from Ageratum houstonianum, 16-22-IX-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM) 12$ 10?, bred from Ageratum houstonianum, 1-10-X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM).


81
Distribution: Southern Texas, Florida.
Florida Records: Monroe Co.: Key West, 2<3 on Cuban Plum
2-VI-1921 (L. R. Warner, FSCA); 1? at Margifera indica, 23-VI-1922
(L. R. Warner, FSCA);3c5 2?, reared from fruits, Spondias mombin,
X-1932 (R. Hart, USNM) ; l, at Spondias mombin, 19-X-1932 (J. W.
Ludlam, FSCA); 1?, 12-X-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 1<3, reared from Spondias
sp. 21-X-1932 (R. Hart, FSCA); 4(3 3?, on Spondias purpurea,
21-X-1932 (Sealey, Ludlam & Merrill, FSCA); 4 3?, on Spondias mombin,
21-24-X-1932 (J. W. Ludlam, FSCA) l6, at Annona squamosa, 24-X-1932
J. W. Ludlam, FSCA); 2<$, swept Spondias mombin, 27-X-1932 (M. Kisliuk,
FSCA); 1<$, XI-1932 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); lS 2?, ex Psidium guajava,
10-19-XI-1932 (McClanraan, FSCA); 9<$ 2+, reared from guava,
15-VII-1933 (L. C. McAlister, USNM); 3<$ 5?, reared from Spondias
mombin, 1935 (J. F. Cooper, USNM) ; 2<$, in McPhail trap, 18-VII-1935
(J. F. Cooper, FSCA); 1<5, in McPhail trap, 30-VII-1935 (L. A,
Boagossa, FSCA); l, in McPhail trap, 5-VIII-1935 (E. Solomon, FSCA);
1?, in McPhail trap, 9-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA) ; 3($ 1$,
in McPhail trap, 12-14-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 3 1?,in
McPhail trap, 17-19-IX-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); lJ 1?, in McPhail
trap, 26-IX-1935 (L. A. Bragossa, FSCA); 1?, in McPhailtrap,
10-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey,, FSCA); 2, in McPhail (trap, 6-X-1935
(J F. Cooper, FSCA); 1<3, in McPhail trap, 10-X-1935 (J. F. Cooper,
FSCA; 26 1?, in McPhail trap, 8-12-X-1935 (L. A. Brogossa, FSCA); 1?
in McPhail trap, 14-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCA); 1?, in McPhail
trap, 15-X-1935 (J. H. Sealey, FSCAP; 2<3 1?, in McPhail trap,


Fig. 140. Distribution of Neaspilota achilleae Johnson;
specific locality record ().


135
Hosts: Aster carolinianus Wlat,
Aster concolor L.
Aster totifolius Walt.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell.
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Toor & A.-Gray
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinners var. microcephala
Small) Shinners
He^erotheca obligantha (Chapm) Harms.
Hieracium argyraeum Small
Hieracium gronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Distribution: New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Maine to
Florida
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 1?, insect flight
trap, 28-IX-1971 (H. V Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2, insect flight trap
13-X-1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1?, insect flight trap, 3-XI-
1971 (H. V. Weems, Jr. S, C. R. Artaud, FSCA); 1<$, blacklight trap,
14-VII-1972 (F. W. Mead, FSCAP; 1$ 1?, 6-8-XI-1972 (H. R. Dodge-,
FSCA); 2$ 2+, reared from Hieracium gronovii, l-XI-1978 (I. B.
Rohani, FSCA); 1<$, reared from Aster dumosus, 1G-XI-1978 (E. B."
Rohani, FSCA); le? 1+, reared from Chrysopsis graminifolia, 19-XI-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Brevard So.: Indian River City, lc5 1?, bred
from Hieracium argyraem, 8-VI-1930 (F. S. Blanton, FSCA); lc£ 4?


297


?8
1, Legs with basal 1/2 of all femora yellowish; wing with sub
hyaline spot on cell R3 and R5 (Fig. 23 ); male epandrium
robust, with dense thick setae (Fig. 78 ); surstyli broad and
blunt. thomae (Curran)
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Figs. 22, 77, 127
Acinia picciola Bigot, 1857, in Sagra, Hist. Fis. Pol. and
Nat. Cuba, 2nd part, Hist., Nat., 1856, 7:347. Type (sex not
known). Type locality: Cuba.
A very common, widespread, easily recognized species
characterized by having the basal .1/2 of all femora dark brown.
Scutellum with only 2 long black bristles. Head elongate with
epistoma and sides of face protruded; proboscis elongate and
geniculate. Wing markings as given in the key (Fig. 22 ). Female
ovipositor long, about 2 mm; the ovipositor sheath black, approxi
mately equal in length to the piercer, being 0.8 mm and 0.7 mm long
respectively; piercer long, apex gradually tapered into sharp point-.
Male genitalia small and compact; epandrium highly arched, surstyli
elongate and pointed inward;, proctiger elongate with numerous
scattered setae.
Length body: 2.5-3.6 mm; wing 2.4-2.7 mm(N=15).
Hosts: Baldiuna angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Bidens bipinnata L.
Bidens laevis (L.) BSP



53
11. Sgrae postocular bristle pal; wing dark with hyaline and
semihyaline spots, more or less reticulated pattern (Fig. 26)
EurOsta
11'. All postocular bristles black; wing with yellow to dark brown
band, not appearing reticulated 12
12. Anterior oral margin strongly developed and projecting. .
Euleia
12'. Anterior oral margin not strongly developed or projecting. .
' Myoleja
13. One or two pairs scutellar bristles, if 2 head with length
greater than height; mouth geniculate with labellum long
and slender 14
13'. Two pairs of scutellar bristles, head not longer than high
17
14. Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles, 15
14'. Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles 16
15. Head distinctly longer than high; proboscis geniculate,
labellum elongate Dioxyna
15'. Head usually with height distinctly greater than length;
proboscis not geniculate;' labellum not elongate. Dyseuaresta
16.Wing pattern with a preapical stellate dark pattern, with
large hyaline areas on basal 1/2 of wing disk (Fig. 58)
Trupanea
16'. Wing without stellate pattern; with only small hyaline
areas confined to costa and anal margin (Fig. 63)
.Xanthaciura


184
This species can be distinguished further by the broad
darH oblique band from the costa through the stigma and r-m
crossvein and by having a generally dark reticulate pattern.
The larvae feed in young stems of Baccharis glomeruliflora
Detailed descriptions of the immatures stages was given by
Benjamin (1934).
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett
Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 37:615
Type species: Trypeta obliqua Say.
Readily differentiated from other genera by its distinc
tive' wing pattern, usually consisting of 4 coherent oblique y.ellow
bands with narrow brown distal borders. Crossveins r-m and m
oblique and closely placed, both covered by the median band of
the wing pattern.
All head and body bristles yellow. Head higher than long,
with 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3 pairs of
lower fronto-orbital bristles. Third antennal segment with rounded
apex. Body yellow with conspicuous black markings on the thorax
and abdomen. Mesonotum with numerous yellow setae. Dorsocentral
bristles closer to transverse suture than to a line in front of
anterior supra-alars. Scutellum with 2 pairs of bristles.
Of the 43 known species, only 2 species occur in North
America, with obliqua (Say) being the only species known in Florida.


95
W. S. Brewton, FSCA); 1(5 2?, in Steiner trap, 24-VI-1962 (R. Kendrick
& J. Luger, FSCA); 1(5 1?, in Steiner trap, 26-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton,
FSCA); 3(5, in Steiner trap, 26-VI-1962 (W. S. Brewton & G. R. Seales,
FSCA); 1?, in Steiner trap, 28-VI-1962 (R. F. Patterson & D. E. Read,
FSCA); l, 5-VII-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA); 1<5, trap in calamondin,
7-VII-1962 tJ. Madison, FSCA); lc5, trap in calamondin, 12-VII-1962
(F. E. Brundage, FSCA); 1<5, 14-VII-1962 (J. Madison, FSCA); 1$,
Steiner trap or guava tree, 17-VI-1963 (L. H. Sherron, FSCA);
1?, Steiner trap in calamondin, 15-VII-1963 (L. H, Sherron, FSCA),1?
Steiner trap in mango, 15-VII-1963 (H. Creamer, FSCA) ; 1<5, in
Steiner trap, 22-VI-1962 (R. B. Rubin & B. D. Pate, FSCA); Miami
Spring, li, in Steiner trap, 19-VI-1962 (W. M. Keen & R. W. Davis,
FSCA); 20(5 12?, Angelical seed oil trap in old orchard, 26-VI-1956
(R. P. Burke, USNM); North Miami, l 1?, Steiner trap, 16-VI-1962
(J. Pott, FSCA); 1+ 5-VII-1962 (R. C. Page, FSCA); 1(5, 5-VIII-1962
(W. W. Burtless, FSCA); 2(5,5-VIII-1962 (Read and Patterson, FSCA);
Perrine, 1<5 1+, in Steiner trap, 28-VI-1962 (G. T. Smith & J. P.
Sharrer, FSCA); Monroe Ce. : Key Biscayne, 1?, in Steiner trap,
27-VI-1962 (J. Madison, FSCA); Orange Co.; Orlando, 3 1?, 1929
(USNM); 8(5 6?, IV-1929 (USNM); 1(5 1?, 9-IV-1929, (USNM) ; (W. W.
Yothers & C. B. Keck, USNM); 3<5 2?, 15-IV-1929 (J. C. Goodwin,
FSCA), 5(5 2?, 10-V-1929 (F. S. Blanton, CU) ; 2$, 13-V-1929
(F. H. Dillinges, USNM).
This species was introduced into Florida several times
and outbreaks of this fly, in 1929, 1956, and again in 1962


189
Length: body 9.5-25 mm; wing 7-11 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Carica papaya L.
Mangifera indica L.
Distribution: Florida, southern Texas
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Melbourne, it, in Carica
papaya, 10-V-1956 (J. D. Coston, FSCA); Broward Co.: 2$ 1?,
1962-1963, Medfly program (H. V. Weems, FSCA). Dade Co.: Cutler
Ridge, lS 2+, in McPhail trap, 27-III-1962 (R. T. McMillan, Jr.,
FSCA); Hialeah, lc5 1?, in McPhail trap in grapefruit, 20-III-1962
(W. S. Brewton, FSCA), 1?, in McPhail trap, 26-IV-1962 (W.. S. Brewton,
FSCA); 1<3, in Steiner trap in roseapple, ll-V-1962 (W. S. Brewton,
FSCA) 1<3 1?, on Carica Papaya, ll-V-1959, CL. J. Daigle, FSCA);
o o
Miami, 1+ in McPhail trap 5-IV-1962 (J. A. Stephensf FSCA); 1+,
in McPhail trap, ll-TV-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA), 2$ 1? in McPhail
trap, 12-iy-1962 (W. S. Brewton, FSCA), 1(3 1+, in McPhail trap,
19-iy-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 1$, in McPhail trap in grape
fruit trap,25-IV-1962 (W. W. Brewton, FSCA); 2$ 2?, in McPhail trap
26-IV-1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 1$ 1?, in McPhail trap, 17-V-
1962 (J. A. Stephens, FSCA); 1$ 1+, in McPhail trap, 23-y-1962
(W. S.. Brewton, FSCA); Miami Beach; 1$, in McPhail trap, 8-111-1962
(W. S. Brewton, FSCA); in McPhail trap, 21-111-1962 (W. S. Brewton,
FSCA) ; 1$ 1?, j.n McPhail trap in calamondin tree, 10-V-1962
(W. S. Brewton, FSCA);.. Miami Spring, 1$, in McPhail trap, 8-III-1962
(J. A. Stephens, FSCA); South Miami, Matheson Hamm., l£, in McPhail
trap, 16-111-1962 (R. T. McMillan, Jr., FSCA); Lee Co.: Ft. Myers,
lS, in McPhail trap, 11-IV-1962 (H. W. Collins, FSCA); 1$ 1?, in


Fig. 150. Distribution map of Ragoletis chionanthi Bush;
specific locality record () county record () .


221
and dispersion of flora and fauna of the southeastern Coastal Plain.
This situation is due to many factors, including the geographical position
and the physical and geological history of the state. It is not sur
prising that 56- species of the approximately 4,000 species of fruit flies
known throughout the world occur in Florida. At least 8 genera appear to
have originated in the Neotropics, 11 genera are Nearctic, 3 genera pre
sumably Palearctic, 2 genera Holarctic, and 1 genus is Ethiopian in
origin. Of the 25 genera of Tephritidae known from Florida, 17 have
representatives in the West Indies and/or Central America and 8 have
representatives elsewhere in North America. Of the 56 Florida species,
12 are endemic to Florida. At least 31 species occur in other parts of
the United States, while 13 species are common to Florida and West Indies.
It is likely that some of these eventually will be found in neighboring
states or in the West Indies.


35
Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
Ambrosia sp.
Trilisa paniculata (Walt, ex J. F. Gmel) Cass.
Euleia fratria (Loew)
No host information
Eurosta comma (Wiedemann)
Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp.
Eurosta donysa (Walker)
Solidago champmanii T & G
Solidago sp.
Eurosta fenestrata Snow
No host information
Eurostafloridensis Foote
Solidago fistulosa Mill.
Solidago sp
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Ilex caroliniana (Walt.) Trelease
Ilex cassine L.
Ilex., coricea (Pursh) Chapm.
Ilex decidua Walt.
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray
Ilex opaca Ait.


190
McPhail trap, 18-V-1962 (H. W. Collins, FSCA); Manatee Co.; Palmetto
1$ 1?, from papaya, 29-IV-1962 (C. J. Bickner, FSCA); Orange Co.:
Beuna Vista, lS, 1-1914 (C. A. Mosier, AMNH); Sarasota Co.;
Sarasota, 1(5 1?, in McPhail trap, 2-XII-1969 (S. V. Hiatt, FSCA);
o
St. Lucie Co.: Ft. Pierce, 1+, in McPhail trap in mango tree,
20-IV-1962 (E. Prange, FSCA).
This species is recognized by the wing pattern and by the
characters discussed for the genus. This fly is one of the most
important pests of papaya wherever this fruit is grown. It was
introduced into Florida about 1905 and became established on the
Keys, where it eventually spread to all portions of the state where
papayas are grown. The biology and the immature stages of this
species were discussed in great length by Knab and Yothers (1914),
Mason (1922), Benjamin (1934), Phillips (1946), and Weems (1969),
Genus Trupanea Schrank
Trupanae Guettard, 1862, Acad. Roy. Sci. Hist. Mem. Math.
Phys. 1756:171. Unavailable name, author not using binomial.
Trupanea Shrank, 1795, Natur. Hist. und. Okon. Briefe
Donaumoor Mannhein, p. 147. Type species: radiata Shrank.
Predominantly gray pollinose, easily differentiated by
wing marking, a. distinct stellate pattern, usually restricted to
the apex of the wing (Fig. 58, 59, 60, 61, 62) and by having only
2 scutellar bristles. Head usually yellowish gray, with 2 pairs
of upper fronto-orbital bristles and 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbital


100
20-11-1966 (H. V. Weems, FSCA); 2 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2<$ 3?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 14-V-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 2$ 3?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 12.VII-1978
I. B. Rohani, FSCA) 9$ 6?, reared from Bidens pilosa 17-VII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 8c? 3?, reared from Bidens pilosa 23-VIII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 4c? 2?, reared from Bidens pilosa 24-VIII-1978
(I. B. Rohani, FSCA); Brevard CoBonoventure, 10c? 9?, reared
from Bidens pilosa 25-V-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM); 9c? 6?, reared
from Bidens pilosa, 29-30-V-1930 (C. R. Benjamin, USNM); 20$ 10?,
reared from Bidens pilosa, 2-17-VI-1930 (C. F. Benjamin, USNM): Indian
River City, 2$ 1?, reared from Bidens pilosa (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Charlotte Co.: Andy town; 1$, on Bidens pilosa, 30-III-1966 (H. V. Weems, Jr.
FSCA); Citrus Co.: Crystal River, 8 7?, reared from Coreopsis
leavenworthii, 31-X-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Homosassa Spring,
9$ 4?, reared from Coreopsis leavenworthii, 3-4-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM; Inverness, 9$ 1?, reared from Bidens pilosa, 31-X-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Dade Co.: Hialeah, 5<£ 4?, ex flower head.
Bidens pilosa, 19-25-1-1971 (C. Stemaier, USNM); 2-V-1967, (P. V.
Peterson, CNC); 3c? 1?, swept weeds, 21-VI-1967 (R. A. Morse, FSCA);
Matheson Hammock, 12$ 5?, on Bidens pilosa, 31-III-1966 (H. V. Weems,
FSCA), Miami, 1?, 19-IV-1964 (O. R. Paulson, FSCA), 6$ 6?, 17-18-V-
1924 (S. Graenicher, CNC); 2$, on Citrus sp., 9-V-1932 (O. C. Link,
CU); 1$, on Citrus X paradisi, 24-11-1932 (O. D. Link, CU); Miami
spring; 1$ 2?, 17-IX-1948 (O. C. Link, CU); 1$, 17-1-1948 L. S.
Light, Jr., FSCA); Duval Co.: Fort George, 1$, 19-IX-1965


220
characters of the wing, ovipositor, and male genitalia. Wing patterns
are used extensively for identification because the characteristic
markings are readily visible and in most cases are fairly constant.
Most fruit fly species whose courtship or pre-mating behavior have been
studied, display their wings to their potential mates. This would ex
plain why the wing patterns are so constant since they are important for
intra-specific species recognition. However, there is slight variation
in wing pattern for some species in the genus Trupanea. In cases where
wing patterns are similar, the ovipositors and/or male genitalia are
important characters for distinguishing between species. The ovipositor
characteristics are useful particularly in identifying females of the
genus Anastrepha. Male genitalia are useful in identification especially
with some species of Rhagoletis, Neaspilota, and Dioxyna.
Despite widespread occurrence of many species of tephritids,
information on their biology is scarce. Larvae of at least 32 species
of Florida tephritids have been described. Of these, 6 are known to be
host specific. The larvae of tephritids are divided into 2 basic shapes:
muscidiform, which is typical of those attacking fleshy fruits and some
vegetables, and a shortened barrel-shaped body, typical of gall makers
and some species that breed in composite flower-heads. Little is known
about the larvae of the remaining 24 species of Florida tephritids.
Much more collecting and rearing are necessary before we will have a
good understanding of the biologies and host ranges of our Florida species.
Studies on the diversity of plant and animal groups in peninsular
Florida have indicated that Florida has been an area for the evolution


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
of Doctor of Philosophy
FRUIT FLIES OF FLORIDA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
By
Rohani Binti Ibrahim
June 1980
Chairman: Dr. D. H. Habeck
Co-Chairman: Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr.
Major Department: Department of Entomology and Nematology
The'fruit fly fauna of Florida was studied for the first
time. Keys to genera and species are given along with descriptions
of the 24 genera and 56 species including one new species. Data are
presented in the following format: Synonymy, diagnosis, taxonomic
notes, hosts, distribution, Florida records and discussion. Wings
are figured for 56 species and male genitalia of 49 species are
illustrated. Maps showing Florida distribution are provided for
all species.


162
wing equal in width to 2nd proximal band. This species is commonly
reared from Heterotheca subaxillaries, the larvae caused galls on
the flower buds. Benjamin(1934) described the immature stages
of this species. Phillips (1946) briefly discussed the biology
and described in detail the morphology of the larva.
Procecidochares polita Loew
Figs. 46, 148
Trypeta polita Loew, 1862, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 6(1):77,
o
pi. II. Fig. 12. Holotype +. Type locality: Washington (MCZ).
Readily differentiated from other Procecidochares by having
only 1 pair of dorsocentral bristles posterior of the transverse
suture and by having the femora extensively yellow. The hyaline
area in cell 2nd M2 separating the distal dark band from V-band
about 2 times the width of the 2nd brown band. The distal band
touched the apical wing margin just anterior of vein M + .
Abdomen black and rather denselv covered with white setae. Ovi
positor sheath black, dorsum with numerous black setae, approxi
mately 1.7 mm long. The piercer long and straight, measures about
1.3 mm long, with apex tapers gradually to a pointed end. Extended
ovipositor measure 4.2 mm long. Male genitalia small Epandrium
highly arched and wide, with numerous fine black setae. Surstyli
elongate, slightly curved inward with more or less rounded apices.
Protiger elongate with numerous long and fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 3.5-4.6 mm; wing 3.3-3.5 mm. (N=3).


Benjamin (1934) described briefly the immature stages of this
species. Phillips (1946) described in detail the morphology of
the larva and added Ilex decidua to the host list.
Myoleja nigricornis (Doone)
Figs. 34, 88
Aciura nigricornis Doane, 1899, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
7:183, pi. Ill, Fig. 7. Holotype, sex unknown. Type locality:
Pennsylvania.
Readily differentiated from all known Florida Myoleja by
having 2 large hyaline triangles on the anterior margin, through
cell R3 and a hyaline triangle through cell 2nd M2 (Fig. 34)
Middle of cell R with a hyaline spot. Vein R4 +5 setose. Male
with 2 or 3 greatly enlarged lower fronto-orbitals. Thorax and
abdomen subshining dark brown to black. Dorsocentral bristles
situated just slightly behind a line drawn between supra-alars.
Apical scutellar, rather small; Female ovipositor short, 2.0 mm;
the ovipositor sheath black, as broad as the length, approximately
0.7 mm long. Piercer short and thick, abruptly tapered to a sharp
apex with minutely serrated margin and approximately 0.7 mm long.
Male genitalia as in Fig. 88. Epandrium dark brown to black, with
numerous long black setae. Surstyli narrow and blunt, apices
truncate: Proctigeryellow, large and protruded, with numerous
long black setae laterodorsally and ventrally.


Fig. 156. Distribution map of Tephritis subpura (Loew);
specific locality record () county record ().


bred from Bidens pilosa/ 21-24-VI-1930 (E. T. Evans, USNM);
Orlando, 3(5 3?, bred from Bidens pilosa 4-XI-1929 (D. J. Nicholson;
USNM) ; 12(5 6?, bred from Bidens coronata, 20-26-XI-1929 (F. H.
Benjamin, USNM); Winter Garden, 7$ 4?, bred from Bidens laevis,
30-XII-1930; 2-1-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM; Osceola Co.; East
Lake 5<5 3+, Bidens pilosa 23-24-VI-1930 !(D. J. Nicholson, USNM,) ;
Palm Beach Oo.: West Palm Beach, 4&, 18-IX-1942 (D. E. Hardy, USNM);
Pasco Co., Zephyr Hill, 3$ 4+, swept Bidens pilosa 13-VI-1976
(R. A. Belmont, FSCA); Putnam Co. 2<5, sweeping grass 28-IV-1954
(H. A. Denmark, AMNH) ; Sarasota Co.; Nokomis, 2(5,10-V-1960 (P. E.
Woodruff, FSCA); Sarasota, 6<5 4+, swept Bidens clumps,12-13-11-1946
(J. G. Needham, FSCA); Seminole Co.: Lake Munroe, 2(5 2+, bred from
Bidens pilosa, 3-7-VII-1930 (A. B. Beavens, FSCA).
Large numbers of specimen have been seen and collected from
many, localities in Florida. Benjamin (1934) described the immature
stages. This is the most common tephritid reared from Bidens,
Di'oxyna thomae
Figs. 23., 78, 128
Ensina thomae Curian, 1928, N.Y. Acad. Sci. 11:70. Holotype
?. Type locality: St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.
Superficially resembling picciola (Bigot) but differs
by having all the femora yellowish, wing with subhyaline spots on
cell R3 and R5. Thorax and abdomen black, dorsum densely gray
pollinose. Female ovipositor much longer than picciola, about 3.4mm;


Pig.
52.
. o
Rhagoletis raendax Curran, +
Fig.
53.
Stenopa vulnerata (Loew), $
Fig.
54.
Strauzia longipennis Widedmann, ?
Fig.
55.
Tphri.tis subpura (Loew) ?
Fig.
56.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say), ?
Fig.
57.
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Fig.
58.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew), ?
Fig.
59.
Trupanea ageratae Benjamin, o
Fig.
60.
Trupanea dacetoptera. ?
Fig.
61.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin, ?


TABLE OF CONTENTSCONTINUED
Page
Genus Euleia Walker 55
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett 55
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT 56
Key to the Florida Genera of Tephritidae 56
Genus Acidogona Loew 61
Genus Acinia Robineau-Desvoidy 63
Genus Acrotaenia Loew 66
Genus Anastrepha Schiner 68
Genus Ceratitis Macleay 91
Genus Dioxyna Frey 96
Genus Dyseuaresta Hendel 105
Genus Euleia Walker 108
Genus Euaresta Loew 110
Genus Euarestoides Benjamin 115
Genus Eurosta Loew 117
Genus Myoleja Rondani 125
Genus Neaspilota Osten Sacken 132
Genus Paracantha Coquillett 149
Genus Peronyma Loew 154
Genus Procecidochares Hendel 157
Genus Rhagoletis Loew 163
Genus Stenopa Loew 176
Genus Strauzia Robineau-Desvoidy 179
Genus Tephritis Latreille 181
Genus Tomoplagia Coquillett 184
Genus Toxotrypana Gerstacker 189
Genus Trupanea Guettard 190
Genus Xanthaciura Hendel 202
Genus Zonosemata Benjamin 214
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 218
LITERATURE CITED 348
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 356


59
17.
17'
18.
18'
19.
19'
20.
20'
21.
21'
22.
22'
Two pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles 18
Three pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles 20
Three pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; 3rd antennal
segment with apico-dorsalpoint; abdomen marked with black
spots Acidogona
Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; 3rd antennal
segment rounded; abdomen without such markings 19
Anterior oral margin not strongly projecting anteriorly;
male with fore femur swollen and with striations on epandrimp;
stigma with hyaline spot Euaresta
Anterior oral margin not projecting anteriorly; males without
such characters; stigma never with hyaline spots, always
with dark markings Tephritis
Three pairs of upper frontal orbital bristles; wing pattern
with dark rays going to margin Paracantha
Two pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles; wing without such
pattern 21
Wing with distinct oblique bands Tomoplagia
Wing without such pattern; consisting of dark field with
hyaline spots, or with subapical stellate pattern, or with
basal maculation and distinct apical banding 22
Wing broad, with distinct dark bands on a hyaline field or
with basal maculations and apical bands 23
Wing elongate consisting of a dark field with hyaline spots
or with a dark subapical stellate pattern
24


185
Aczel (1955) reviewed all the important species except for obliqua.
The larvae of many Tropical Tomoplaqia feed on fleshy fruits;
other feed on other parts of the host plants.
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Figs. 56, 107, 157
Trypeta obliqua Say, 1830. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila,
6:186. Holotype Type locality: Indiana.
Rather yellow brown species with distinct oblique wing
pattern (Fig. 56). Mesonotum marked with 2 black spots, one on
each side. Venter of thorax near mid-coxae, hind coxae, and near
the base of 1st abdominal segment marked with black spots one
on each side. Scutellum shining translucent ochraceous yellow.
Abdominal tergites marked with 2 black spots. Ovipositor sheath
short and broad, light yellow; the distal tip tinged with brown
about 0.9 mm long. The piercer broad and blunt, approximately
0.7 mm long, apex rounded gradually; extended ovipositor 2.3
mm long. Male genitalia small, light brown (Fig. 107). Epandrium
highly arched; surstyli-short and straight-sided, with blunt
apices, more or less rounded. Proctiger small and elongated,
dorsum covered wtih numerous fine setae.
Length: body 3.3-4.0 mm; wing 3.8-4.0 mm. (N=10).
Hosts: Vernonia blodgetti Small
Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Trel,
Vernonia scaberriraa Nutt.
Vernonia sp.


17
The extent of those specificity is well studied for Rhagoletis
species. Bush (1966) presented evidence that indicates that
under both laboratory and field conditions, many species of
Rhagoletis are capable of ovipositing in a wide range of fruits
which are not their normal hosts.
The host plants of Florida Tephritidae are listed
on the following pages.
Anacardiceae
Mangifera indica L.
Anastrepha
obliqua (Macquart)
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Spondias mombin L.
Anastrepha
obliqua (Macquart)
Spondias purpurea L.
Anastrepha
l obliqua (Macquart)
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Spondias sp.
Anastrepha
obliqua (Macquart)
Annonaceae
Annona reticulata L.
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Annona squamosa L.
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Apocynaeeae
Carissa grandiflora
(E. H. Mey)A. DC.
Anastrepha
suspensa (Loew)
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex caroliniana
Trelease
Ilex cassine L.
(Walt.)
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)


61
Genus Acidogona Loew
Acidogona Loew, 1873, Smiths, Mise. Collect. 256(11):285
Type species: Trypeta melanura Loew.
Readily differentiated from other Tephritinae by the pre
dominantly brown wing with reticulate wing pattern and the distinct
median and lateral spots on a yellow abdomen. All head and body
bristles black; head comparatively broad from frontal view about
1/2-2/3 wider than high irons short and pubescent. Three pairs of
upper fronto-orbitals, the upper 2 pairs set inside, 2 pairs of lower
fronto-orbitals. Dorsum of thorax black with yellow scale-like
bristles; humeral and lateral areas luteous. Dorsocentral bristles
approximately in line with anterior supra-alars and close to trans
verse suture. Scutellum with 2 pairs of bristles. Legs yellow
entirely. Abdomen luteous, dorsum covered with black bristles
intermixed with yellow.
All known larvae breed singly in the flower heads of Hieracium.
The only Nearctic species known, melanura (Loew), occurs in north
eastern United States to Florida (Foote, 1965).
Acidogona melanura (Loew)
Figs. 12, 68, 117
Trypeta melanura Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect. 256(11):
283 pi. XI, Fig. 6. Holotype ?. Type locality: District of Columbia.


45
and A. obligua is a major pest of mangoes in most tropical countries,
however, in Florida, it attacks other tropical fruits of less eco-
monic importance.
Other species of fruit flies of economic importance in
the continental United States are the apple maggot fly Rhagoletis
pomonella, attacking apples, pears, plums, and other deciduous
fruits in northeast U.S. and southeast Canada, the walnut husk
fly, R. completa Cresson, that attacks all Juglans spp., peaches
and other fruits in western U.S. (Christenson and Foote, 1960).
The eastern and western cherry fruit fly R. cingulata (Loew) and
R. indifference Curran damage sweet and tart cherries (Bush, 1969).
One species of fruit fly, Procecidochares utilis Stone
however, is regarded as beneficial and has been introduced into
Hawaii for the control of Eupatorium adenophorum Sprang (Stone, 1947).
Cultivated plants in Florida, particularly citrus, mango,
and papaya suffer serious damage from fruit fly attack. Horticultural
plants such as those in the genus Ilex also suffer reduction in their
market value because of damage caused by the larvae of Myoleja
limata (Coquillett).
Although fruit flies in most years are not of major economic
importance in Florida, their potential to cause serious damage and
the likelihood of their introduction exist and these pose a constant
threat to Florida's agricultural and economic future.


I certify taht I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor ofPhilosophy.
Professor of Plant Pathology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Agriculture and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
June 1980
Dean, Graduate School


281


114
flight trap, 22-25-III-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & L. L. Lampert,
Jr., FSCA); l5 2?, insect flight trap, 17-20-VI-1978 (H. V. Weems,
Jr. & L. L. Lampert, Jr., FSCA); 5 21-IV-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & L. L. Lampert, Jr., FSCA); 2$
5?, insect flight trap, 17-V-1979 (H. V. Weems, Jr. & Lisa Klein,
FSCA); Sebring, 1?, 8-III-1958 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Jackson
Co.: Cavern St. Park, lo, 9-VII-1954 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); Jefferson
Co.: Monticello, 1?, 4-8-X-1941 (AMNH); Martin Co., 1<5 2+,.
5-XI-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Monroe, Co.: Boca Chica,
2$ 4?, sweeping roadside, 8-V-1971 (W. H. Pierce, FSCA); Everglades
Nat'1 Pk., 2$, 30-XII-1953 (H. V. Weems, JR., FSCA); 1?, 15-XII-
1961 (Munroe, Holland, & Chillcot, CNC) 1? 7-V-1967 (B. V. Peterson,
CNC); Key Largo, l5 1?, 4-6-XII-1961 (Munroe, Holland & Chillcot,
CNC); Orange Co.: Orlando, 6 (abdomen missing), sweeping ragweeds,
29-V-1929 (Evans, USNM); 1 2?, caught on ragweeds, 2-V-1930
(Benjamins Nicholson, USNM); 12$ 2, sweeping ragweeds, 13-V-1930
(E. Rivray, USNM); 2$, caught on ragweed,15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,
USNM); Sarasota Co.: Myakka River St. Pk., 1<5 2?, 5-VI-1954
(H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Santa Rosa Co.: Milton, 2(5, 26-X-1932
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); Volusia Co.: l5 1? 24-VII-1954 (H. V.
Weems, Jr., FSCA).
This species is very common and widespread and is easily
differentiated from other Florida tephritids by its peculiar
wing pattern with a distinct bulla on cell R5.


121
Eurosta donysa Walker
Figs. 30, 85, 135
Trypeta donysa Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. Brit.
Mus. 4:1007. Holotype Type locality: unknown
A moderately large brown species characterized by having
wings with large and discrete hyaline spots (Fig. 30). Veins
, R undulating Hyaline area in the middle of cell Cu
14+5 r
large. Scutellum with 2-6 bristles, the apical pair normally
reduced. Male genitalia as in Fig. 85. Epandrium dark brown
broad with numerous scattered setae; lower margin of epandrium
square. Surstyli slender and narrow; apex truncate with blunt
lower lobe. Proctiger small, densely setose lateroventrally.
female ovipositor was not available for dissection.
Length: body 7.0-7.8 mm; wing 7.5-7.7 mm. (N=4).
Hosts: Solidago champmanii T & G
Solidago Sp.
Distribuion: Known only from Florida
Florida Records: Brevard Co.: Merritt Island, 1 12-III-1956 (H. W. Weetns, Jr., FSCA) ; Titusville, 3o, bred from
round stem gall Solidago sp., 10-III-1931 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
4o 1?, bred from gall on stalk Solidago sp. 12-16-III-1931
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
EL donysa may be differentiated from other known Florida
Eurosta by the lack of reticulate hyaline pattern on the disc
and by the large and discrete hyaline spots on a dark field.
This psecies was described by Benjamin (1934) as nicholsoni


2 ID
7-IV-1959 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 2$, 30-III-1963 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA) ,- lS, 6-VI-1963 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Duval Co.: Jacksonville,
1, in insect flight trap, 26-XI-1958 (L. W. Taylor, FSCA); Hardee
Co.: Wauchula, 5+, insect flight trap in grapefruit tree, 6-X-1968
(R. H. Rhodes, FSCA); Hendry Co.: 2^, sweeping weeds, 7-III-1955,
(R. A. Morse, FSCA); Clewiston, 2$ at Bidens pilosa, 18-X-1954
(H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Highlands, Co.: Archhold Biol. Station, 5$ 5+,
insect flight trap, 17-19-III-1975 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); 1$ ,
insect flight trap, 5-VI-1978 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA), 1$, 11-XIII-
1953 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Hillsborough Co.: Tampa, 6$ 4+,
Bidens pilosa 21-IV-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Indian River Co.:
Vero Beach, l£ 1?, in wet fruit fly trap, 6-III-1959 (R. H.. Kendrick,
FSCA); Jackson Co.: Cavern St. Pk., 1? 23-IV-1961 (W. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Lake Co.: Leesburg, 3<$ 3?, 1-11-III-1954 (M. Stathom, AMNH);
Mt. Dora, l£ 3?, bred from Bidens pilosa, 14-VII-1930 (E. T. Evans
& D., J. Nicholson, USNM) : T3vares,L$2? brd from Bidens pilosa, 19-VI-1930
(E. T. Evans, USNM); Leon Co.: Tallahassee l-XI-1949 (W. C., UGA);
Levy Co.: 1$ 4?, 13-III-1954 (H. V. Weems, Jr., FSCA); Manatee Co.:
Bradenton, l 1?, on flowers of Solidago stricta, 9-XII-1970
(H. R. Dodge, FSCA); Martin Co.: Indiantown, 2$ 2?, Bidens pilosa,
17-VI-1930 (Beavers, AMNH); Monroe, Co.: Everglades Nat'l Pk. l£,
taken in dense wood, 20-X-1954 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); 1?, 8-III-1955
(H. A. Denmark, FSCA); 1$, Borrichia frutescens, 12-III-1955 (H. A.
Denmark, FSCA); 3 FSCA); 1?, 25-XI-1977 (C. L. Smith, UGA); 1^,28-29-111-1978


TAXONOMIC TREATMENT
Key to The Florida Genera of Tephritidae
1. Head bristles short; the fronto-orbitals weak; ocellar absent;
ovipositor very long and cylindrical Toxotrypana
1'. Head bristles well-developed, the fronto-orbitals strong;
ocellar present, ovipositor long and normal 2
2. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line between
acrostichals bristles than to a line between supraalar
bristles 3
2'. Dorsocentral bristles closer to a transverse line betwe-en
supra-alar bristles than to a line between acrostichal bristles
4
3. Third antennal segment with normal rounded tip; vein +2
distinctly curving anteriorly at apex (Riga .15 Anastrepha.
3'. Third antennal segment with sharp awl-shaped tips vein M-^ + 2
without distinct anterior curve at apex (Fig. 67
Zonosemata
4. One pair of upper fronto-orbital bristles 5
4'. Two or three pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles 7
5. Scutellum enlarge, shining black or dark brown, with 1 or 2
pairs of scutellars; antennae conspicuously longer than 1/2
length of face; males with normal fronto-orbital bristles. 6
56


8
in some species, the caudal end often blackened. The posterior
spiracles usually are located on spiracular plate. Greene (1929)
and Benjamin (1934) briefly described the pupal characters of some
t.ephritid species.


152
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; lc?, ll-XV-1932 (T. H. Hubbell, MCZ) ?
1?, 24-III-1938 (A. N. Tissot, FSCA); Lochloosa, 1?, 5-IV-1953
(W. R. Mason, CNC); Baker Co.: Glen St. Mary, 1?, on Carduus
spinosissimus, 12-IV-1960 (E. W. Holder, Jr., FSCA) 1?, 15-IV-1960
(E. W. Holder, FSCA); Maclenny, 1?, reared from thistle (Carduus sp.)
9-V-1960 (E. W. Holder, FSCA); Olustee, 9 Carduus spinosissimus 20-rV-I-2-V-1979 (R. A. Belmont & I, B.
Rohani, FSCA) ; 2<$ 2?, reared from Carduus spinosissimus, 20-IV-1979
(R. A. Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA); 4c? 3?, reared from Carduus
spinosissimus, 10-V-1979 (R. A. Belmont & I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Clay Co.: Orange Park, 1 Lake Co.: Tavares, 18 (F. J. Nicholson, USNM); Orange Co.: Bithlo, lie? 22?, reared from
Carduus spinosissimus,13-V-1930 (D J. Nicholson, USNM), Ft. Christmas
(Christmas); 1?, bred from Carduus spinosissimus, 17-V-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); Orlando, 5<$ 1?, bred from Carduus sp,, 3-V-1930
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 2c? 2?, bed from Carduus sp. 9-10-V-1930
(F. S. Blanton, FSCA); 32c? 16+, bred from Carduus spinosissmus ,
5-1.7-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM) ; Osceola Co. : Deer Park,
1<5 1?, Carduus spinosissimus, 13-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM);
Marion Co.: Ocala, 5<$ 4?, 8-V-1930 (Woodruff, USNM). 2c$ 5?, bred
from Carduus nuttalii, 4-8-VI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Polk
Co; : 3 USNM); 8<$ 10?, Carduus spinosissimus,29-IV-1930 (Pope & White,
USNM); St. Johns Co.: St. Augustine, 1

159
present, 1; anterior of the transverse suture and the posterior
to it. Legs yellow except for femorae, tinged with black. Wing
pattern as j,n Fig. 44; with 3 dark brown bands. The 2 proximal
bands connected anteriorly to form an inverted V-band that extends
to anal wing margin; the oblique distal band reaching the apical
wing margin behind vein +2 and separated from the proximal
band. Abdomen black, the dorsum covered with white setae inter
mixed with distinct black hairs. Female ovipositor long, approxi
mately 3.0 mm. Ovipositor sheath black, dorsum covered with
numerous black hairs, about 1.5 mm long. Piercer about 1.2 mm
long, gradually pointed at apex. Male genitalia black and small
is in Fig. 98. Epandrium highly arched, dorsum narrow and covered
with long black setae. Numerous short setae are found laterally.
Surstyli broad and slightly curved inward, apex rounded. Proc-
tiger small, elongate with numerous long fine setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 3.0-4.0.mm; wing 2.7-3.0 mm. (N=5) .
Hosts: No' host information for Florida specimens. Known
to be reared from galls on SQ.lidago in Virginia.
Distribution: Kansas to Maine; south to Florida.
Florida Records: Only those of Johnson (1913): Duval
Co.: Atlantic Beach.
This species is known to inhabit galls of various species
of golden rod. Phillips (1946) discussed the morphology of the
of the larvae. This soecies is distinguished from australis by the
1 + 2
distal band which touches the apical margin of wing at vein M


164
humeral callus to wing base. Scutellar with 2 pairs of scutellars.
Wing pattern consisting of transverse yellow to brownish-black
bands. Crossvein r-m near the center of 1st M2- Vein setoluse.
over entire 'length. Posterior margin of abdominal tergites with
white pollinose bands; bands can be entirely absent or greatly
reduced.
The larvae of all species feed on the fleshy pulp of fruits
and berries. Bush (1966), in his revision of the genus, noted the
degree of host specificity. Although most species are probably
aligophagous, some species show a definite preference for certain
host species within a genus or even for particular varieties
of a single species. The genus occurs in Europe and North, Central,
and South America. The population center of the genus, however, is
North America. Of the 18 known species from North America, 6
species are known from Florida, Four of the 6 species are sibling
species and present special problems in identification.
A comprehensive review of the North American species was
given by Cresson (1929). Curran (1932a)provided a key to several
species. Pickett (1937) reviewed the genus and provided additional
information on the taxonomic status of some species. The latest
taxonomic work on the genus is that of Bush (1966).


Fig. 121. Distribution map of Anastrepha interrupta Stone
specific locality record () county record ()


Fig.
62.
Trupanea mevarna Walker, ?
Fig.
63.
Xanthaciura
chrysura (Thomson), ?
Fig.
64.
Xanthaciura
connexionis Benjamin,
Fig.
65.
Xanthaciura
insecta (Loew), ?
Fig.
66.
Xanthaciura
tetrapina (Phillips,)
Fig.
67.
Zonosemata <
electa (Say), ?


20
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC.
Paracantha forficula Benjamin
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Carduus carolinianus Walt.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus nuttalii (DC.)
Pollard
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus spinosissimus Walt.
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Carduus sp.
Neaspilota dolosa Beniamin
Paracantha culta (Wiedemann)
Chrysopsis graminifolia
(Michx.) Ell.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Neaspilota punctistioma Beniamin
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Conyza canadensis (L.)
Conquist
Procecidochares australis Aldrich
Coreopsis leavenworthii T & G
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis nudata Nutt.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis tripteris L.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Coreopsis sp.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Cosmos sp.
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
Trupanea eclipta Benjamin
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Neaspilota dolosa Benjamin
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Erigeron strigosus Muhl.
ex Willd.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson


Psidium littorale var. longipes (0. Berg.) Fosb,
Psidium freidrischsthalianum (O, Berg.) Niewdenzu
Psidium guava L.
Psidium sp.
Pnica granatum L.
Pyrus communis L.
Pyrus Xlecontei Rehd.
Rubus sp.
Severinia buxifolia (Poir.) Ten
Spondias purpurae L.
Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach..& Thonn.) Daniell ex S. Bell
Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Syzyqium samarangense (Blume) Merril & L, M. Perry
Terminalia catappa L.
Terminalia muelleri Benth.
Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wils.
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis.
Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann)
Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J. Ingram .& H. E. Moore
Psidium littorale var. long~jpes (0. Berg.) Fosb,
Syzygium jamnos (L.) Alston
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot)
Balduina angustifolia (Poursh) Robinson
Bidens bipinnata L.


67
length. Predominantly yellow brown to brown bristles, head higher
than long. Two pairs of upper fronto-obitals, the anterior pair
thickened with 3 pairs of lower fronto-orbitals. Thorax black
rather densely gray pollinose with short yellow brown setae over
dorsum. Dorsocentral bristles close to transverse suture and closer
to a transverse line between supra-alar bristles than to a line between
acrostichal bristles. Scutellum with two pairs of scutellars. Abdomen
black densely gray pollinose with yellow brown setae dorsally.
Nothing is known about the biology of the species. The single
species in. North America is known from Florida and has been reported
from Cuba and Puerto Rico. Foote (1960a) illustrated the wing and
included the first record for United States.
Acrotaenia testudnea (Loew)
Figs. 14, 70, 119
Trypeta testudnea Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise, Collect. 11(256):
272, pi XI Fig. 13. Holotype ?. Type locality: Cuba (Berlin
Museum).
Mostly yellowish brown species with densely gray pollinose
over mesonotum. Easily differentiated from the other Tephritidae by
the distinctive wing markings (Fig. 14). Predominantly dark brown,
with a combination of patterns typically for the genus. Female ovi
positor sheath yellow tinged with brown on the proximal and distal
apices, with numerous brown setae dorsally, about 1.0 mm long.
Piercer 0.9 mm, long and slender, apex gradually tapers to a point.


197
Length: body 2.6 nun; wing 2.5 nun. (Benjamin, 1934).
Hosts: Ageratum littorale Gray.
Distribution: Restricted fo Florida only.
Florida Records: Monroe Co.: No Name Key, (Holotype) 1<5,
bred from Ageratum littorale. 23-XI-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM).
This species is similar to dacetoptera in having the distal
end of cell R highly infuscated, but differs by having the distal
ray through cel 1st only to vein M3 + Cu^ and never reaching
the hind margin. Similar to mevarna in having the distal ray only
to vein M^ + Cu-^ differs from it by having the hyaline area
immediately distal of stigma distinctly rounded posteriorly or
ending broadly on vein R^ + This species also closely resembles
texana Malloch; the 2 species may be separated by thir geographical
distribution and by having the marginal spot at apex of vein R^ + ^
near middle of dark area surrounding it. Detailed discussion on
the differences was given by Foote (1960d).
Trupanea dacetoptera Phillips
Figs. 60, 109, 161
Trupanea dacetoptera. Phillips, 1923, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc.
31:138. Fig. 59. Holotype ?. Type locality: Karner, N.Y. CCO.
Differentiated from other known Trupanea by the distinctive
wing markings (Fig. 60 ); distal ray extending through cell 1st M2
to hind margin; proximal ray from the stigma to vein r -m complete or
nearly so; distal area near to vein r m in cell R broadly infuscated.


36
Ilex vomitoria Ait,
Myoleja nigricornis
No host information
Myoleja rhino Steyskal
No host information
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Aster carolinianus Walt.
Aster concolor L.
Aster tortifolius Michx.
Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Ell,
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Heterotheca nervosa (Willd.) Shinnervar. microcephala (Small) Shinners
Heterotheca oligantha (CHapm.) Harms.
Hieracium argyracum Small
Hieracium qronovii L.
Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Neaspilota dolosa (Benjamin)
Carduus sp.
Erigeron quercifolius Lam.
Erigeron strigoslis Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Haploppapus phyllocephallus DC. var. megacephallus (Nash) Waterfall


Erigeron quercifolius Lam
194
Erigeron vernus (L.) Torr. & A. Gray
Erigeron sp.
Happloppaptts divaricatus (Nutt) Gray
Heterotheca sp.
Hieracium sp.
Solidago caesia L.
Solidago chapmanii T & G
Solidago gigantea Ait.
Solidago stricta Ait.
Solidago Sp.
Distribution: Idaho to Massachusetts, south to California,
Florida
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2$, 1?, 12-VII-1954 (H. A.
Denmark, FSCA); 2$2+, 25-IV-1955 (H. A. Denmark, FSCA); Gainesville,
6$ 3?, reared ex Erigeron quercifolius 20-V-1979 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA)'
16c? 5?, reared ex Aster dumosus, 1-12- XI-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA)7
6c? 3?, reared ex Aster elliottii, 27-XI-1978 (I. B. Rohani, FSCA);
Brevard Co.: Merritt Island, 4c? 1?, 12-11-1956 (H. V. Weems, Jr.,
FSCA); Clay Co.: Orange Park; 3 CNC); Dade Co.: Coral Gables, llcT 5?, bred from Solidago sertina,
12-19-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Hialeah, lc? 2?, 29-IX-1965
(C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., FSCA); l3, swept unidentified compoiste,
21-VII-1965 (C. E. Stegmaier, Jr., FSCA) Homestead,3? 3?, Erigeron
quercifolius, 15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); Opalocka, 19c? 12?,
bred from Erigeron vernus, 15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM)
16c? 1?, bred from Erigeron sp. 12-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholsor), USNM) ;
South Miami, 3c? 3?, Erigeron quercifolius, 15-V-1930 (D. J. Nicholson,


Fig. 133. Distribution map of Euarestoides abstersus (Loew)
specific locality record () .


Wing Patterns of Florida Tephritidae
Fig. 12. Acidogona melanura (Loew), ?
Fig. 13. Acinia fucata (Fabricius), ?
Fig. 14. Acrotaenia testudnea (Loew) (Loew), ?
Fig. 15. Anastrepha edentata Stone, ?
Fig. 16. Anastrepha interrupta Stone, +
Fig. 17. Anastrepha nigrifascia Stone, ?
Fig. 18. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), ?
Fig. 19. Anastrepha ocresia (Walker),?
Fir. 20. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), ?
Fig. 21. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), ?


18
lie's coricea (Pursh) Chapm.
Mvoleia limata (coquillett)
Il£x decidua Walt.
Mvoleia limata (Coouillett)
Ildx glabra (L.) Gray
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Ilex opaca Ait.
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Her vomitoria Ait.
Myoleja limata (Coquillett)
Araliaceae
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Caricaceae
Carica papaya L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstacker
Combretaceae
Terminalia catappa L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Terminalia muelleri Benth.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Compositae
Aqeratum houstonianum Mill.
Xanthaciura tetraspina (Phillips)
Aqeratum littorale Grav
Trupanea aqeratea Benjamin
Xanthaciura connexionis Benjamin
Aqeratum sp.
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
Euaresta bella (Loew)
Ambrosia sp.
Euarestoides abstersus (loew)
Aster adnatus Nutt.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster carolinianus Wait.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Aster concolar L.
Neaspilota achilleae Johnson
Aster dumosus L.
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)


2QQ
Orlando, 79> 49?, bred from Eclipta alba, 14-26-VIII-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); 2 1?, bred from Eclipta alba, 2-X-1930 (D. J.
Nicholson, USNM); 19<$ 11?, bred from Eclipta alba, 9-30-IX-1930
(D. J. Nicholson, USNM); St. Lucie Co.: Ft. Pierce, 3<$, in lima
bean, 29-XII-1943 (USNM); Volusia Co.; Ormond Beach, 3?, 3-XI-1960
(R. E. Woodruff, FSCA).
This species is known only from Florida. It has been found
in only a few counties. Larvae feed in the flowers of Eclipta alba,
and the puparium is similar to that of mevarna (Benjamin, 1934).
Trupanea mevarna (Walker)
Figs. 62, 111, 163
Trypeta mevarna Walker, 1849, List. Dipt. Brit. Mus. 4:102.
o
Holotype +. Type locality: Florida.
Differentiated from other known Trupanea by the termination
of the distal ray through cell 1st M2 at vein M^ + Cui, by the acutely
pointed hyaline area distal of the stigma, and by having a prominent
marginal spot at the apex of vein R2 + 3 i-n the surrounding dark
area at a more central position. Body predominantly gray pollinose,
with similar chaetotaxy as other members of the genus. Female
ovipositor long, about 2.9 mm, the ovipositor sheath black, 1.0 mm
long; sharp point. Male genitalia brown as in Fig. 111. Epandrium
highly arched with numerous setae. Surstyli curved inward, apex
more or less truncate. Proctiger small with many scattered setae.


339


145
(paratype) 2$ 1?, 2-VI-1930 (paratype) 2$ 1?, 5-VII-1930; hoiotype
allotype, and paratypes are reared from Vemonia scaberrima Nutt,,
all collected by D. J. Nicholson; Charlotte Co, : Cleveland, (Paratype)
3 USNM); Marion Co.: Ocala (paratype) 5<^, bred from Vernonis gigantea
Walt.) Trel 14-VII-1930 (E. T-Evans &D. J, Nicholson, USNM), hoiotype
and allotype No. 76488 in USNM. paratypes in USNM and FSCA.
Neaspilota foridana is very close to N. alba. The differ-
neces between them lie chiefly on the setae of the sides of the proc-
tiger of the male genitalia of alba (Fig. 11D, E) the clusters of
setae on floridana are much longer, paler, and less dense than in
albta; the remainder of the proctiger in floridana bears longer
setae than in alba, which makes the clusters less outstanding. The
female ovipositor of alba, is much longer than floridana about 2.9 mm
long; the ovipositor sheath yellow tinged with brown on proximal end,
much longer than floridana, approximately 1.2 mm long; the piercer narrow
and apex gradually tapered to a point (Fig. 11B) measured about 0.8 mm long.
Neaspilota punctistigma Benjamin
Figs. 39, 93, 143
Neaspilota puncristigma Benjamin 1934. U.S. Dept. Agrie.
Tech. Bull. 104:35, Fig. 28. Hoiotype Christmas, Orange Co., Florida
Resembling Neaspilota dolosa by the amost hayline wing,
by the shape of the fronto-facial angle, and by its bare irons.
Differing from it by having the stigma with a distinct proximal
as in Fig. 39 and by having the hind tibia of male with 2 erect preapical


317


punctistigma Benjamin, 1934:38.
vernoniae (Loew), 1861:346. (Trypeta)
Genus Ceratitis Macleay.
Ceratitis Macleay, 1829:482. Type species, citriperda Macleay,
by monotypy.
capitata (Wiedemann), 1830:496. (Trypeta)
Genus Anastrepha Schiner
Anastrepha Schiner, 1868:263. Type species, Dacus serfentinus
Wiedemann, by original designation.
edentata Stone, 1942:48.
interrupta Stone, 1942:62.
nigrifascia Stone, 1942:91
obliqua (Macquart) 1835:703 (Tephritis)
ocresia (Walker), 1849:1016 (Trypeta)
suspensa (Loew), 1862:69 (Trypeta).
Genus Rhagoletis Loew
Rhagoletis Loew, 1862:44. Type species, Musca cerasi Linnaeus,
by monotypy.
Chionanthi Bush, 1966:482.
cingulata cingulata (Loew), 1862:76 (Trypeta).
cornivora Bush,1966:470
mendax Curran, 1932:7
osmanthi Bush, 1966:478
pomonella (Walsh), 1867:343 (Trypeta).


193
Trupanea actinobola (Loew)
Figs. 58, 108, 159
Trypeta actinobola Loew, 1873, Smiths. Mise. Collect.,
11(256). Holotype Fitting the general characteristics of this genus, readily
differentiated from other Trupanea by havinq the head about as long
as high with a flat profile in both sexes. Winq with a single
ray throuqh cell 1st M^ (Fig. 58) commonlv endinq short of vein
+ Cu^: hyaline area immediately distad of stigma rounded poster
iorly: a spot near the middle of cell 1st M^ and a dark spot on
vein + Cu^ may be present: this is variable: some species do not
have this character. Female ovipositor verv similar to that of
eclipta. moderately long about 2.1 mm: the ovipositor sheath
black, about 0.8 mm long. The piercer 0.7 mm long, apex pointed
and minutely bilobed. Male genitalia as in Fig. 108. epandrium
highly arched with scattered setae. Surstyli short, blunt at apex.
Froctiger small,, with scattered setae lateroventrally.
Length: body 2.5-2.8 mm; wing 2.5-2.8 mm. (N=9).
Hosts: Aster adnatus Nutt.
Aster carolinianus Walt.
Aster dumosus L.
Aster dumosus L. var, subulaefolius T & G
Aster elliottii T & G
Balduina angustifolia (Pursh) Robinson
Coreopsis sp.


182
Trupanea by the presence of 2 pairs of scutellars. All Euaresta
species have some kind of hyaline marking on stigma. The fore
femora of males are swollen, and the male genitalia have conspi
cuous striations around the anal region.
Not much is known about the biology of these species.
Like members of Trupanea, they develop in the flower heads and
ovaries of various plants. An account of 'the life history and mat
ing behavior of Tephritis stigmatica (Coquillett) was presented
by Tauber and Toschi (1965b). The genus is widely distributed,
with 16 Nearctic species; only 1 species is known from Florida,
Quinsenberry (1951) and Foote (1960c) have revised the genus,
Tephritis subpura (Johnson)
Figs. 55, 106, 156
Euaresta subpura Johnson, 1909, Psyche 16:114. Holotype ?.
Type locality: Wildwood, New Jersey (MCZ).
Readily differentiated from other Tephritis by the wing
markings as shown in Fig. 55, in combination with the color of the
thorax* A predominantly yellow species, with bright yellow pollinose
thorax. A pair of dorsocentral bristles located at transverse
suture. Costal cell without distinct brownish spot and the
preapical dark brown area entire, not broken by many small con
fluent spots. Abdomen yellowish brown. Female ovipositor short,
about 2.0 mm long. Ovipositor sheath dark brown to black, 1.0 mm
long. Piercer wide and short, but sharp at apex, approximately


3:47


Fig. 11 A-E. Neaspilota alba (Loew). a dorsal view of ovipositor
sheath. B. dorsal view of piercer of ^ ovipositor.
C. largest spicule of raspers. D. dorsal view of
$ genitalia. E. profile view of $ genitalia.


threatened the commercial citrus growing in the state (Ayers, 1957;
Ayers & Rohwer, 1956; and Weems, 1962). Trapping played an impor
tant part in detecting and surveying for these flies during the
eradication program. Several studies of the lures for these flies
were carried out (Rohwer, 1958; Simanton, 1958; Steiner et al_. 1957
and 1961). The traps, caught hundreds of thousands of these files
over the years. The co-operative effort of many agencies, the effec
tive trapping methods and spray programs contributed to the success
of the eradication program of the Mediterranean fruit fly in
Florida.
<2. capitata may be readily recognized by the distinctive
markings on the thorax and wing. Hardy (1949) and Weems (1962)
have reviewed the taxonomy and gave some details on their biology.
At least 100 species of fruiting plants have been recorded as
host of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Back & Pemberton, 1918).
Genus Dioxyna Frey
Dioxyna Frey, 1944, Comment. Biol. 8(10): 62. Type
species: Trypeta sorocula Wiedemann.
Closely resembles Paroxyna Hendel, readily differentiated
from other teprhitids which have 2 pairs scutellar bristles by
the elongated head, distinctly longer than high and by the absence
of preadeagal setae. Head bristles black, vertex as broad as maxi
mum width of eye, irons flat; proboscis geniculate, labellum
long and slender, 2 pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, the posterior


345


no
This species is known as the parsnip leaf-miner and is
closely related to EL. heraclei, a European species, widely known as
the celery fly. The differences between these 2 species were dis
cussed by Foote (1959). Bank (1912) gave a short taxonomic descrip
tion of the larvae. Foote and Blanc (1963), in their bulletin on
the Tephritidae of California, have compiled a list of Eh fratia
hosts. The bionomics of this species were studied in detail by
Tauber and Toschi (1965a).
Genus Euaresta Loew
Euaresta Loew, 1873, Smiths. Inst. Mise. Collect. 11
(256):296. Type species: Trypeta festiva Loew.
Small to medium-sized yellow to black flies with many discal
and marginal hyaline spots on the wing. Head with vertex broader
than maximum width of the eyes, with 2 pairs of lower and upper fronto-
orbitals. Ground color of thorax yellow to black. Dorsocentrals
near the transverse suture and in front of a transverse line through
supra-alars; 2 pairs of scutellar bristles. Males with swollen
fore femur and with distinct striation on the epandrium of genitalia.
The biology and habits of Euaresta are unknown. The genus
is widespread in North America, with 2 of the 8 Nearctic species
occurring in Florida. Foote and Blanc (1963) discussed briefly
the 5 California species. The most recent revision of this genus
is that of Quinsenberry (1950).


Fig. 118. Distribution of map Acinia fucata (Fabricius);
Specific locality record (), county record ().


Solanaceae
Capsicum frutescens L.
Lycopersicon esculentum
Mill
Solanum aculeatissimum
Jacq.
Solanum carolinense L.
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Zonosemata electa (Say)
Zonosemata electa (say)
Zonosemata electa (Say)


144


105
as picciola presumably because it is associated with only one host,
Bidens bipinnata. According to Benjamin (1934), on the basis of
current information, the immature stages of thomae cannot be
differentiated from those of picciola.
Genus Dyseuaresta Hendel
Dyseuaresta Hendel, 1928, Ehtomol. Mitt. 17:368, Type
species: Euaresta adelphica Hendel.
Closely resembles Euaresta, but differs by having only
1 pair of scutellars, the epandrium simple, without any striation
and the femora of males unmodified. Head slightly higher than
long; face gently concave as seen laterally. Arista long and
plumose. Antennae yellow, 3rd segment rounded at apex. Only 2
pairs of upper fronto-orbital bristles, the posterior pair pale,
scale-like; 2 pairs of lower fronto-orbital bristles. Thorax
largely black with grayish pollinose. Dorsocentral bristles
near transverse suture and in front of a line between anterior
supra-alars. Legs entirely yellow, normal. Wing typically dark
with discal and marginal hyaline spots. Abdomen dark brown to
black with short setae.
Not much is known about the biology of the species, but
like members of Euaresta, they develop in the flower heads and
ovaries of Compositae, The genus appears to be neotropical in
origin, with about 10 species. Only 1 species occurs in North
America.


99
Bidens mitis CMichx.) Sherff.
Bidens pilosa L.
Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schultz-Bip.
Carduus carolinianus Watt.
Coreopsis leavenworthii T & G.
Coreopsis nudata Nutt.
Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.
Coreopsis tripteris L.
Cosmos sp.
Helenium flexuosum Raf.
Tagetes erecta L.
Distribution: Throughout United States (except for upper
New England States) Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Mexico, and
Central America.
Florida Records: Alachua Co.: 2 17-11-1956 (R. V. Weems, Jr., CU) ; lc? 1?, on Melilotus alba; 5-III-1956
(R. A. Norse, CO); 2$ 1?, on Erigeron quercifolius, 2-V-1956 (R. A.
Morse, CO); on Erigeron quercifolius, 2-VII-1956 (R. A. Morse,
CU); Gainesville, lS, 28-X-1981 (P. W. Fattig, USA); 2$ 1?, reared
from Bidens pilosa, 14-VII-1930 (D. J. Nicholson, USNM); 5 on Bidens pilosa, 31-X-1956 (R. A. Morse, CU) 1 pilosa, ll-XI-1956 (R. A. Morse, AMNH); 1$ 3?, on Bidens pilosa 11-XI-
1956 (R.-A. Morse, CU) ; 2$ 1?, on Lupinus augustifolius, 30-1-1957
(F S. Mead, FSCA); 1$ 1?, 24-VIII-1957 (H. V. Weems, Jr., CU);
2c?, 4-XI-1958 (R. W. Woodruff, FSCA); 1?, 18-X-1960 (F. W. Mead,
FSCA); 2$ 1?, l-XII-1963 F. W. Mead, FSCA); 6c? 4?, on Madicago
sativa, 2-1-1964 (F. W. Mead, FSCA); 2$, on Prunus augustifolius


Fig.
42.
. O
Paracantha forfcula Benjamin, -t-
Fig.
43.
Peronyma sarcinata (Loew), ¥
Fig.
44.
Procecidochares atra (Loew),
Fig.
45.
Procecidochares australis Aldrich, ¥
Fig.
46.
Procecidochares polita (Loew), ¥
Fig.
47.
Rhagoletis cingulata cingulata (Loew),
Fig.
48.
Rhagoletis chionanthi Bush, ?
Fig.
49.
Rhagoletis osmanthi Bush, ?
Fig.
50.
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), ¥
Fig.
51.
Rhagoletis cornivora Bush, ¥


325