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Audience response to interpersonal distance in live and in videotaped theatre scenes and its implications for teaching methodology

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Audience response to interpersonal distance in live and in videotaped theatre scenes and its implications for teaching methodology
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Frantz, Alice Humby, 1946-
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vii, 253 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Audiences ( jstor )
Control groups ( jstor )
Data analysis ( jstor )
Data collection ( jstor )
Experimentation ( jstor )
Magnetic storage ( jstor )
News content ( jstor )
Statistics ( jstor )
Theater ( jstor )
Theater directing ( jstor )
Acting -- Study and teaching -- Audio-visual aids ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Speech -- UF ( lcsh )
Personal space ( lcsh )
Speech thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 242-252).
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Also available online.
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by Alice Humby Frantz.

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University of Florida
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AUDIENCE RESPONSE TO INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE
IN LIVE AND IN lIDEOTAPED THEATRE SCENES
AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING METHODOLOGY










BY

ALICE HUMBY FRANTZ





















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE QUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1981






























Copyright 1981

by

Alice limnby Frantz















TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

ABSTRACT........................... .... .......... v

INTRODUCTION ... ................... ............... 1

ONE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM.................. 7

Introduction ............................. 7
Statement of the Problem............... 7
Definition of Audience Response........ 7
Definition of Interpersonal Distance... 8
Review of Literature ..................... 8
Message-Sending Capabilities of Space.. 8
Theatrical Space Message-Sending....... 15
Use of Television in Education......... 21
Perception of Television............... 23

TWO DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY ................ 25

Audience Response Data Collection........ 25
Written Methodologies .................. 26
Oral Methodologies ..................... 27
Mechanical Methodologies............... 27
Development of a New Data Collection
System................................. 30
Individual Response Devices........... 31
Response Light Panel.................... 33
Use of Videotape Recording/Playback
System with the VTR II........ ...... 35

THREE PROCEDURE.................................. 37

Experimental Design...................... 37
Scene Selection.................. ...... 38
Room Arrangement...... ................... .39
Equipment Layout....................... 40
Production Context..... ,... .... ..... ... 42
Audience Composition.................... 43
Instruction of the Audience .............. 44
Presentation of the Experiment........... 45

FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS .................. 46

Procedures Followed for Data Analysis.... 46

ii i








Testing Measures and Results........... 90

FIVE IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS FOR TEACHING
METHODOLOGY,........... ... ............ 100

Determination of Relevant Findings and
their Implications. ...,................ 100

APPENDICES

A OPENING SCENE FROM A DELICATE BALANCE ..... 105

B OPENING SCENE FROM NIGHT WATCH ..... ...... .11

C AUDIENCE ONE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE
ONE VIDEO..... ......... ... ........ ...... 117

D AUDIENCE ONE LIVE CO"MPARED WITH AUDIENCE
TWO VIDEO..................... ........... 138

E AUDIENCE ONE VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE
TWO VIDEO. ........... .... .. ...... ...... 159

F AUDIENCE THREE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE
THREE VIDEO,......... ......... .. ....... 180

G AUDIENCE THREE LIVE COMPARED 1WITH AUDIENCE
FOUR VIDEO .... .. ..... .... ,......... 201

H AUDIENCE THREE VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE
FOUR VIDEO. ................ .... .... ..... 222

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......... .. ....... ........ 242

Works Cited, .. ......... ... ....... 242
Sources Consulted......................... 246

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......... ...... ...... .. ...... 253
















iv














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


AUDIENCE RESPONSE TO INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE
IN LIVE AND IN VIDEOTAPED THEATRE SCENES
AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING METHODOLOGY

By

Alice Humby Frantz

March, 1981

Chairman: Richard L. Green
Major Department: Speech

This study dealt with one aspect of concern to acting

and directing teachers, namely the message-sending capabil-

ities inherent in the actor's use of theatrical space.

The validity of videotaping live theatre scenes and using

their playbacks to teach acting and directing students

about space has not been investigated. Thus emerged a two-

fold aim for this study. First, it tested experimentally

the hypothesis that audience response to interpersonal dis-

tance in live theatre scenes will differ from audience re-

sponse to videotapes of the same live theatre scenes.

Second, it utilized the experimental results to consider

the appropriateness of using videotapes in teaching actors

and directors about interpersonal distance in live theatre.

A mechanical data collection system, the VTR II, was

created which would allow instantaneous and continuous

V








audience responses during performance. This variable

theatre response device was made to be used in conjunction

with commercially available videotape recording/playback

systems. The individual devices allowed audience members

to continuously respond in one of three ways (that the

actors were too close together, "ok," or too far apart)

The Posttest-Only Control Group Design was used to

study audience response to the opening vignette of Edward

Albee's A Delicate Balance and of Lucille Fletcher's Ni ht

Watch. Each experimental group responded :to one scene :er-

formed live and then on videotape. The control groups only

viewed the scenes on videotape. The audiences for A

Delicate Balance consisted of ten males an:d s.' fer -al ,

while those for Night Watch had seven males and six fe-

males. University of Florida student volu te-rs comprised

all audiences.

For each vignette, three comparisons .ere .ade --the

experimental group to the live scene and the .ideotaped

scene, the experimental group to the live scene :.>ith the

control group to the videotaped scene, and trhe experim:ental

and control groups to the videotaped scene. The data were

tested to see whether at the .05 level or better in the re-

sponses between conditions there were significant differ-

ences. To facilitate data analysis, the responses of "too

far apart" and "too close together" were combined into the

"not ok" category.



vi








The chi-square test with the Yates Correction Factor

was applied to the data of each second of the scenes being

compared as a means of determining the degree of response

consistency. When necessary because of the small sample

size, the Fisher Exact Probability Test, the Tocher

Modification, the Tocher Ratio, and a table of random num-

bers were used. In all six comparisons there were in-

stances of significant differences, with instances of ten

or more consecutive seconds occurring in four of the com-

parisons. Considering the scene lengths were roughly nine

minutes, it is particularly notable that in two instances

for over a half a minute straight (40 seconds and 42

seconds) there were significant differences in audience

responses to one scene.

The findings of this study indicate the inadvisability

of trying to use videotape playbacks to teach actors and

directors about interpersonal distances in live theatre.




















vii














INTRODUCTION

This study tests experimentally the hypothesis that

"Audience response to interpersonal distance in live

theatre scenes will differ from audience response to

videotapes of the same live theatre scenes." It utilizes

the experimental results to consider the appropriateness

of using videotapes in teaching actors and directors about

interpersonal distance in live theatre.

An audience response device developed by the experi-

menter allows the experimental testing of the hypothesis.

A posttest-only control group design is used. University

of Florida student volunteers in audiences of sixteen form

the experimental and control groups. The experimental

group responds to performances of the opening vignette of

Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance seen live and then seen

on videotape. The control group responds to the videotape

of the initial live scene. Each audience member decides

whether the actors in each scene appear "too close to-

gether," appear "ok" (at the appropriate interpersonal

distance), or appear "too far apart," making continuous

responses accordingly on a hand-held, individual audience

response device. These responses register on a light

panel. Videotaping of that light panel situated beneath

an instantaneous replay monitor allows subsequent data

1





2


analysis of the experimental and control group audience re-

sponses. In order to see if the results of the data analy-

sis may be replicated, a repetition of the posttest-only

control group design on the opening vignette of Lucille

Fletcher's Night Watch occurs. The same audience response

device is used with University of Florida student volun-

teers in audiences of thirteen forming the experimental and

control groups. Again, the responses of the experimental

and control groups are analyzed.

A review of the literature in proxemics, theatre, tel-

evision, and education shows this study to be a new under-

taking. It draws upon the background of all four of these

areas, particularly in terms of observations and experimen-

tal studies which begin to flourish around 1950. While the

majority of the research fails to bear directly upon the

present study, some proves useful in establishing the va-

lidity of the present research.

In the area of proxeilics, writ ings by Heini P. Hediger

in the 1950's describe distancing norms in animals. Edward

T. Hall observes similar behavior in humans, making a major

contribution when he writes of the idea of distance zones

in human behavior. Following upon such descriptive writ-

ings, more behavioral scientists record observations and

record experimental findings showing that interpersonal

distance is a function of other behaviors interacting be-

tween people in a given situation at a given point in time.

This literature appears in a variety of places--from








descriptive writings in popular books and magazines to

findings of experimental studies reported in professional

journals.

A major breakthrough in theatrical audience response

studies occurs around 1950 with the development of Norman

C. Meier's Audience Response Recorder. As a result of his

instrumentation, within a few years dissertations appear on

topics such as Methodology in Audience Research (Hayes,

1950), An Experimental Study and Comparison of the

Responses of Men and the Responses of Women in Theatre

Audiences (Morgan, 1951), and An Experimental Study of Age

as a Factor in Audience Response in the Theatre (Clark,

1952). Since that time dissertation topics, thesis topics,

and professional journal articles from across the country

indicate continued interest in theatre performance re-

search. Additional audience response device developments

attest further to that interest. Occasionally theatre re-

search focuses on some aspect of space, such as in An

Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Stage

Placement Upon Audience Response (Curry, 1953), as in An

Experimental Study of the Attention-Value of Certain Areas

of the Stage (Lazier, 1963), and as in Richard Schechner's

writings about environmental theatre (1969, 1973).

Finally, in the areas of television and of education,

popular magazines and books and professional books and

journals discuss the role of television in education. With

the development of videotape in the mid-fifties begins








experimentation with its use in the classroom. In the

late 1960's, articles describe the use of videotaping in a

manner related to the present study (Gunther, Pugliesi,

1968; Pugliesi, Gunther, 1969). These articles deal with

the use of videotaping of live theatre scenes at a drama

festival so that actors may view the playbacks during cri-

tique sessions.

While the literature in the four areas evidences sup-

port that human normative spatial behavior exists and may

be recognized, that audience response studies may be valid-

ly conducted during theatre performance, and that televi-

sion may aid in education, none of the existing literature

deals specifically with the problem of this study. The

need for this investigation exists because in order to

teach actors and directors about the use of space on stage,

some teachers videotape scenes. Their use of videotape

playbacks to teach actors and directors about space is

based simply on faith that an audience will respond the

same to the videotape as to the live scene whether or not

the audience witnessed the initial scene from audience

seating. This study tests the validity of that assumption

and applies the findings to considerations of teaching

methodology.

Chapter One provides the background of the problem.

It begins with an introduction which states the problem and

defines terms used in the experimental hypothesis. The ma-

jor portion of the chapter consists of a review of the








literature. A section on the message-sending capabilities

of space establishes the existence of normative and recog-

nizable spatial behavior. A section on the use of theatri-

cal space for message-sending discusses the ways in which

the use of space in theatre affects the resulting produc-

tion. A section on the use of television in education

traces the increasing role of television in the classroom

with the advent of videotape. Finally, a section on the

perception of television and of three dimensions concludes

in questioning whether audiences will "see" the same thing

on videotape as they "see" live.

Chapter Two deals with data collection methodology.

In developing the rationale for the development of an audi-

ence response device, the chapter first presents existent

methodologies for audience response data collection. A de-

scription of the VTR II which the experimenter developed

follows, with an explanation of its particular advantages

for the present research.

Chapter Three explains the procedures used. Sections

follow detailing the experimental design, scene selection,

room arrangement, equipment layout, production context,

audience composition, instruction of the audience, and pre-

sentation of the experiment.

Chapter Four contains the data analysis and results of

the experiment. It recounts the procedures followed for

the data analysis along with the testing measures and re-

sults obtained.





6


Chapter Five presents a determination of relevant

findings and discusses the implications of the results in

terms of the appropriateness of using videotapes in teach-

ing actors and directors about interpersonal distances in

live theatre,

The Appendices contain the text of the opening

vignette of the two scenes used in this study (Edward

Albee's A Delicate Balance and Lucille Fletcher's Night

Watch), as well as the results obtained from the statisti-

cal procedures.

The Bibliography consists of two sections--one of

Works Cited and one of Sources Consulted. The reason for

inclusion of the latter is to aid other researchers, since

related works are scattered in such diverse areas,














CHAPTER I
BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Advances in technology made classroom use of videotape

economically feasible for aiding in instruction. This ac-

centuated the need for evaluative research of the potential

worth of videotape in the teaching of actors and directors.

The present study dealt with one aspect of concern to act-

ing and directing teachers, namely the message-sending cap-

abilities inherent in the actor's use of theatrical space.

Some teachers videotape scenes and use their playbacks to

teach acting and directing students about space, though the

validity of that methodology has not been investigated.

Thus emerged a twofold aim for this study. First, it test-

ed experimentally the hypothesis that audience response to

interpersonal distance in live theatre scenes will differ

from audience response to videotapes of the same live

theatre scenes. Second, it utilized the experimental re-

sults to consider the appropriateness of using videotapes

in teaching actors and directors about interpersonal dis-

tance in live theatre.

Definition of Audience Response

Audience respon3e in this study referred to continual

aesthetic judgments made by a group of university students
7





8


in a controlled experiment. Those judgments were register-

ed on a light panel through hand manipulation of a control

device allowing three types of responses to the distance

between two actors (too close together, ok, too far apart).

Definition of Interpersonal Distance

For the purposes of this study, interpersonal distance

consisted of the actual space aesthetically prehended be-

tween two actors engaged in a theatre scene. The actual

space consisted of the distance between two actors which

could have been measured using a standardized system of

measurement. Prehension, aesthetic perception, consisted

of the way in which an audience viewed a theatre scene when

asked to make judgments that involved the manner in which

one medium (space) of the scene interacted with all the

other media (i.e., time, sound, light) to create the form.

Thus, in this study, aesthetic prehension of actual space

dealt with audience response to appearances of the appro-

priateness of interpersonal distance in relationship with

the other media of the scene.

Review of Literature

Message-Sending Capabilities of Space

Acting and directing teachers acknowledge the message-

sending capabilities inherent in the actor's use of theat-

rical space. This concern is well-grounded. The impor-

tance of space in interactions has been substantiated by


1Virgil C. Aldrich, Philosophy of Art (Englewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963), pp. 22-23.





9.

research in other fields. First, research has established

that norms exist for spatial distancing between lower ani-

mals. Second, researchers have observed that norms exist

in human spatial distancing. Third, research has affirmed

that violations of the various norms can be identified.

From these three points a logical progression indicated

that since normative spatial behavior exists and since vio-

lations of the norms can be identified, it should be possi-

ble to use such knowledge in teaching actors and directors.

Because each of these three points provide a scientific

basis for what theatre artists have dealt with for hundreds

of years, a few examples of representative spatial research

will be discussed.

Typical of the descriptive studies were Heini P.

Hediger's observations regarding spatial distancing norms

between lower animals. Hediger called attention to the
2
concept of territorial behavior, defining territory as

". . that section of space that is defended by the occu-

pying individual or social unit (clan, herd, etc.) and that

has a definite size (within limits typical of a species) as

well as a specific internal structure."3 After taking into

account a captive animal's behavior patterns, Hediger show-

ed that allowances should be made in creating a territorial


2Heini P. Hediger, Wild Animals in Captivity, trans. by
Geoffrey Sircom (New York: Dover Publication, Inc., 1950),
pp. 4-18, 31-42.

3Heini P. Hediger, "The Evolution of Territorial Behavior,"
in Social Life of Early Man, ed. by Sherwood L. Washburn
(Chicago: Aldine PubFishing Company, 1961), p. 36.





10


environment to facilitate behaviorial adjustment. Hediger

explained how knowledge of animals's flight reactions and

critical distances plays a role in what behavior an animal

may be anticipated to exhibit in given circumstances.4

Hediger wrote about various spatial behaviors in lower

animal forms which are reflected in human behavior.

Human distancing behavior was seen to parallel the

territorial behavior of lower animals in many regards.

Anthropologist Edward T. Hall recognized such similar be-,~..

havior in man when he stated: "Man has developed his ter

ritory to an almost unbelievable extent. Yet we treat
\1
space somewhat as we treat sex. It is there but we don't

talk about it."6 Since Hall's extensive descriptive writ-

ings on the role of space in hu-man interactions, however,

research in the area has flourished. Hall not only delin-

eated distance zones associated with shifts in voice used

by humans in interaction, he also provided detailed de-

scriptions of numerous other human spatial behaviors.

Researchers with a diversity of interests studied the

importance of space in human behavior patterns. Their work

supported the pioneering work of Hall in identifying human


4Heini P. Hediger, Studies of the Psychology and Behavior
of Cautive Animals in Zoos and Circuses, trans. by Geoffrey
Sircom (New York: Criterion Books, 1955), pp. 16-23,
66-67.

5Hediger, "The Evolution . .," pp. 34-57.

6Edward T. Hall, "Space Speaks," in The Silent Language
(Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1959),
p. 188.





11


spatial norms. Patterson and Sechrest, for example, inves-

tigated the relationship between interpersonal distance and

impression formation.7 Their subjects (the people being

tested) rated the social activity of the confederate (a

person who appears to be a subject, but who actually is

helping the experimenter test the other person) in a dyad

(two people) in terms of his friendliness, aggressiveness,

extra-version, and dominance. The distances of the confed-

erates from the subjects varied by two foot intervals from

two feet to eight feet. The research of Patterson and

Sechrest indicated that subjects rated ccnfederates less

socially active as the distance increased, except that con-

federates seated closest to the subject also received rat-

ings indicating low social activity. The study indicated

that an interaction between interpersonal distance and im-

pression formation exists.

A description of how a group of acquaintances behaved

in John Kennedy's presence after he received the 1.960

Presidential nomination provided yet another look at the

interrelationship between impressions and interpersonal

distances:

Kennedy . .descended the steps of the
split-level cottage to a corner where his brother
Bobby and brother-in-law Sargent Shriver were
chatting, waiting for him. The others in the
room surged forward on impulse to join him. Then
they halted. A distance of perhaps thirty feet


Miles L. Patterson and Lee B. Sechrest, "Interpersonal
Distance and Impression Formation," in Journal of
Personality, Vol. 38, No. 2 (June, 1970), 161-166.





12



separated them from him, but it was impassable.
They stood apart, these older men of long-
established power, and watched him ... then,
one by one, in an order determined by the candi-
date's own instinct and judgment, he let them all
congratulate him. Yet no one could pass the
little open distance between him and them unin-
vited, because there was this thin separation
about him, and the knowledge they were there not
as his patrons but as his clients. They could
come by invitation only, for this might be a
President of the United States.8

This report, like the study by Patterson and Sechrest, lent

support to Hall's claim that norms for human distancing

exist.

Research affirmed that spatial violations of normative

behavior can be identified. A study by Horrowitz, Duff,

and Stratton9 is one of many finding this to be true. They

determined whether spatial norms for schizophrenics differ-

ed from the spatial norms of others. Their body-buffer

zone (the amount of space a person requires to be comfort-

able) study found that the schizophrenic group stood from

an object at a significantly greater mean distance than did

the non-schizophrenic group. The investigators considered

a person as being approachable from eight sides and as be-

ing able to approach with any of the eight sides. From an-

alyzing human approach data, graphs of distances plotted

around a top view of a human figure indicated the subjects,


8Theodore H. White, The Makina of the President 1960 (New
York: Pocket Books, Inc., i961), p. 205.

9Mardi J. Horrowitz, Donald F., Duff, and Lois 0. Stratton,
"Body-Buffer Zone," in Archives of General Psychiatry,
Vol. 11 (1964), 651-656.




13



all male non-schizophrenics, placed less distance between

themselves and a female than between themselves and a male.

In terms of rating their preferred distance between them-

selves and others, schizophrenics preferred larger body-

buffer zones than non-schizophrenics.

Casual observation, like scientific investigations, is

a method of recognizing behaviorial norm deviations, Franz

Boas noted over half a century ago: "Any action that dif-

fers from those performed by us habitually strikes us im-

mediately as ridiculous or objectionable, according to the

emotional tone that accompanies it."0 Boas identified a

relationship existing between actions and emotional tone,

implying that if deviations from the normative action

occurred, a deviation in emotional tone occurred to

counteract the effect of changed behavior or else the new

action appeared out of place. This suggests the idea that

interpersonal distance is only one component of human be-

havicr among many which are constantly interacting.

An equilibrium appears to exist among these interact-

ing behaviors. A change in one type of behavior causes al-

terations in other behaviors. Albert E. Sheflen and Norman

Ashcraft saw spacing as a function of involvement, activ-

ity, and the environment. Michael Argyle and Janet

10Franz Boas. Anthropolo v and Modern Life (New York: W.W.
Norton & Company, Inc. PuVlis- es, 19i7) p. 154.

'Albert E. Scheflen and Norman Ashcraft, Human Territories:
How We Behave in Soace-Time (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
TfentiTce-Hali. "Inc.. 1T-T pp. 109, 110, 129-131, 189-192.





14


Dean's research showed a direct correlation between eye

contact and distance as functions of affiliation or inti-
12
macy.12 Their work revealed that eye contact decreased as

proximity increased. As Argyle suggested several years

later:

. eye contact is one of several components of
"intimacy", along with physical proximity, inti-
macy of topic, smiling and tone of voice .
If we suppose that there is an overall equilibrium
for intimacy, it follows that when one of the com-
ponent elements is disturbed there will be some
complementary chagge among the others to restore
the equilibrium.13

A study of compensatory reactions to spatial intru-

sion4 indicated that deviations from normative behavior of

one person influenced subsequent behavior of the other per-

son. The subjects in the study adjusted their behavior to

the behavior of the confederates to achieve an equilibrium.

A study by Markel, Prebor, and B-andt5 investigated the

relationship between an aspect of speech (intensity) and

two other factors (sex and distance). That study showed

that subjects at both the "near" and "far" interpersonal

distance in same-sex-as-experimenter dyads possessed lower


12Michael Argyle and Janet Dean, "Eye-contact, Distance
and Affiliation," in Sociometry, Vol. 28 (1965), 289-304.

13Michael Argyle, The Psychology of Interpersonal Behavior
(Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books, 1967), p. 112.

14M. L. Patterson, S. Mullins, and J. Romano, "Compensatory
Reactions to Spatial Intrusion," in Sociometry, Vol. 34
(1971), 114-121.

15Norman N. Markel. Layne D. Prebor, and John F. Brandt,
"Biosocial Factors in Dyadic Communication," in Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 23, No. l(1972),
!i-13.





15


speaking intensities than subjects in opposite-sex-as-

experimenter dyads. In all four possible sex combinations

of dyads, increases in intensity reflected increases in in-

terpersonal distance. From studies such as these, inter-

personal distancing could be seen to be related to other

behavior. It contributed to the content of messages sent

and received.

Theatrical Space Message-Sending

Acting and directing teachers recognize that the use

of theatrical space by actors conveys messages to the audi-

ence. Directors are taught the importance of picturization

and composition. Picturization in this study refers to the

conceptual dramatic placement of characters in the stage

picture in a manner suggestive of their interpersonal re-

lationships. Composition in this study refers to the tech-

nique of achieving picturization.16 A common method of

directorial control of composition is known as blocking.

Blocking in this study refers to the instruction of actors

as to where on stage to position themselves in relationship

to each other and to their environment. Actors are taught

the importance of responding to the director's blocking in-

structions and the techniques which allow them to develop a

sense of when they are in the right place in relationship

to their total stage environment.


16Alexander Dean, Fundamentals of Play Directing (New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965), pp. 109, 173.





16


Directing texts sometimes disagree as to the specific-

ity of guidelines needed, but they tend to concur that pic-

turization and composition are essential to a study of

directing. They realize that the handling of space affects

the production as a whole. Francis Hodge, for example,

writes that "the mood values of small-space occupation are

quite different from those of large-space occupation."17

He also discusses the effect of distances between two

actors. He points out that variations in distance between

actors show operative forces between them. "Thus, two

actors may play at the extremes of the stage or very close

together, with each composition having explicit meanings."18

According to Hodge, actors closer than six feet together

enter into a climatic composition which should find reso-

lution in either an action of love such as an embrace or in

an action of hate such as a fight.

Samuel Selden devotes attention to actors in close

proximity.19 He sees close proximity between actors as an

indication to the audience of characters in accord. For an

example, Selden used a series of pictures of lovers on a

park bench. When the lovers quarreled or engaged in con-

flict, they moved to opposite ends of the bench and behaved


17Francis Hodge, Play Directing: Analysis Communication
and Style (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1971), p. 140.
1Ibid., 110.

19Samuel Selden, The Stage in Action (New York: Appleton-
Century-Crofts, Inc.,1941), pp. 251-253.




17



as individual characters. When the lovers resolved their

differences, they .moved close together on the bench, almost

appearing as one character. They reflected, their accord by

"getting together" literally as well as figuratively.

Selden suggests that to heighten the sense of strong con-

flict in a composition, a director should simply place op-

posing sides well apart on stage by either increasing their

horizontal distance apart by placing them at opposite sides

of the stage or by increasing their vertical distance apart

by placing them on different levels. He states: "The

greater amount of space there is between them, the greater

will seem to be the break of accord."20

Some researchers examined tenets stated in directing

texts to see if what they prescribed held up in actuality.

The work of Wade Chester Curry fell into this category.

Curry explored whether audiences exhibited a greater

emotional response when scenes occurred downstage than when

they occurred upstage.21 With audiences rating on a five-

point scale the "warmth" (the degree of emotional response)

of three scenes, Curry found no significant difference in

the warmth rating of one of the scenes when played upstage

as opposed to when played downstage. Curry concluded:

"The effect of stage area upon audience response is


20Ibid., 251.
21Wade Chester Curry, An Experimental Investigation of the
Influence of Stage Placement Upon Aud-ence Response. .T.
Tesi University ot Pittsburg, 193. Pp. 1-21, 24, 27,
30-32.





18


probably less important than recent writings on the subject

would lead us to believe."22

Ten years later the work of Gilbert Neil Lazier fell

into this same category. Lazier investigated the attention-
23
value of stage right versus stage left.23 The audience

viewed similar pantomimes performed by an actor in the

stage left area and an actor in the stage right area. Both

pantomimes occurred simultaneously. A 35 mm. camera re-

corded the direction of vision of the audience. Other

measures of audience attention used included intensity of

affective response, retention, opinion, and references to

actors. Lazier stated that ". . the hypothesis of this

study: 'The attention-value of the stage right area is

stronger than that of the stage left area.', was not sub-

stantiated by the measures administered."24 These studies

threw doubt upon certain specific tenets postulated in the

past. They served to remind people of the danger of fol-

lowing prescriptive suggestions made by directing texts re-

garding space without considering their validity.

Some researchers applied research from other fields to

theatre. An example of that approach may be seen in the

work of John C. Stockwell and Clarence W. Bahs. Drawing

22Ibid., 2.

23Gilbert Neil Lazier, An Experimental Study of the
Attention-Value of Certain Areas of the Stage. M.A.
Thesis. University of Pittsburgh, 1963.

24Ibid., 47.





19


upon findings in the field of psychology, among them upon

the body-buffer zone work of Horrowitz, Duff, and Stratton,

they applied relevant data to a study of how novice direc-

tors created compositions.25 Their study measured the ef-

fects of directors' body-buffer zones on their work.

Students without directing training who were in various

sections of an Introduction to Theatre class served as sub-

jects. Application of the methodology described by

Horrowitz, Duff, and Stratton26 yielded the body-buffer

zone for each subject. As each subject blocked a pair of

male and female actors, the experimenters maintained dis-

tance data logs of each dyad. The data of the body-buffer

zone of each individual compared with the distance data

obtained when they blocked dyads showed the relationship

between the body-buffer zone of novice directors and

proxemics (spatial relationships) in blocking. The find-

ings indicated that there was not a significant correlation

between the buffer zone scores of males and the proxemic

dimensions of blocking compositions. With females, however,

a positive and significant correlation was found between

their buffer zones and the distance dimension of blocking

compositions.


25John C. Stockwell and Clarence W. Bahs, "Body-Buffer Zone
and Proxemics in Blocking," in Empirical Research in
Theatre, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Summer, 1973), 27-40.

26Horrowitz, Duff, and Stratton, Ibid.





20


In actual practice, directors use a variety of means

of communicating to actors what spatial behavior is needed

to be in accord with the other production media. A common

method is to demonstrate the behavior they desire to il-

licit from the actors. There are, of course, differences

of opinion with regard to this method. Harold Clurman, a

respected professional director, expressed his concern with

the practice:

I believe such demonstrations dangerous. Yet they
are inevitably resorted to. The peril in demon-
strating to an actor how something is to be done
is that it leads to imitation on the actor's part.
If the director is a poor actor the result may be
grotesque. If he is an excellent actor--
Stanislavsky, Meyerhold, Reinhardt, for example--
the actor becomes "crippled," hopeless of match-
ing the director's brilliance.27

At least in Mr. Clurman's view, for a director to turn

actor and demonstrate hardly seems a desirable solution.

Most directors, whether they demonstrate behavior or not,

rely on using a combination of several methods, including

speaking metaphorically or paraphrasing to convey their de-

sires. Some directors draw upon such varied sources as

poetry, music, paintings, sculpture, and photography to

convey moods or ideas. Still others discuss subtext,

block movement and actions in infinite detail, and have

actors do improvisations. Directors continually seek bet-

ter methods of facilitating communication with actors re-

garding their use of stage space.

27Harold Clurman, On Directing (New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1972), p. -T-~.





21


Use of Television in Education

The development of television provided one possible

way of facilitating such communication. With the advent

of videotape in the mid-fifties, it became feasible to

experiment with its use in the classroom. Television pro-

vided a teaching tool and an opportunity for pupil self-

evaluation. In the area of theatre, practical application

of videotape was generally considered to aid in the learn-

ing process. At the University of Texas at El Paso, for

example, Charles B. Taylor offered his literature students

studying Shakespeare an option of either writing a tradi-

tional term paper or participating in a videotape project.28

The group of students selecting the videotape project op-

tion produced scenes they selected from Shakespeare. They

handled production aspects themselves, redoing their work

until satisfied with the product. The entire class and

the instructor viewed the finished product, offering com-

ments, making suggestions, and asking questions. Taylor

explained:

Hopefully, the students have learned a great deal
about Shakespeare and drama in the process of
this experience--how scenes are structured, how
action and character are developed, how poetic
dialogue works and is read, and how the plays of29
Shakespeare were, in a sense, the works of many.


28Charles B. Taylor, "To Videotape Or Not To
Videotape. . .," in Audio-Visual Instruction, 22
(January, 1977), 33-34, 39-40.
291bid., 40.




22



Another typical theatre-related use of videotape was

to record tryouts for productions. Florissant Valley

Community College, for example, recorded tryouts for "Spoon

River Anthology." After reading a speech for the director

several times and receiving suggestions, approximately two

minute records of each student's audition were made on

videotape. After the recording of all actors at tryouts,

playbacks began, allowing each actor the opportunity for

self-evaluation. "This experience was appreciated by the

actors who could thus evaluate themselves both individually

and in the perspective of all the actors who tried out."30

Of particular relevance to the present study was the

use of playbacks to assist communication between directors

and actors in discussions of pertormance behavior. Audio

taping of live performances allowed instructional use of

playbacks during critique sessions.31 Rudolph Pugliesi

wrote of doing that at a play festival.32 He and Robert

Gunther then tried using videotaping in the same fashion.30


30Art Meyer, "AV Innovations: Television Used with Drama
Tryouts," in Audiovisual Instruction, Vol. 12 (September,
1967), 728.
31
3 Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., "Time for Taping," in Educational
Theatre Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Oct., 1962), 236-239.

32Rudolph E. Pugliesi, "The Tape Recorder for Dramatic
Critique," in Educational Theatre Journal, Vol. 15 (1963)
62-65.

3Rudolph E. Pugliesi and Robert J. Gunther, "Innovations
in High School Theatre: A Symposium: I. Evaluating
Plays with Video-Tape," in The Speech Teacher, Vol. 18,
No. 2 (March, 1969), 99-101.





23


This heralded a step forward, for although audio tapes

aided in critique sessions, for discussion of the visual

elements of production, the actors had to rely on their

memories. Use of videotapes eliminated this problem.

Pugliesi and Gunther used playbacks to critique ". . stage

pictures, grouping and blocking, movement, stage business,

gesture and pantomime, facial expression, use of the body,

characterization, focus and relationships of characters,

technical unity, and voice and diction."34 The cast was

able to see the specifics under discussion. Pugliesi and

Gunther were interested in what teachers thought of the

possible use of videotaping in their school programs. The

following response typifies the answers of the teachers:

It would be extremely useful in the teaching of
stage movement. It is easier to show a student
what you are talking about than it is to try to
explain. It is better that the student see him-
self than it is to see an imitation done by the
teacher. . I would also like to use it for
studying eccentricities in movement, posture,
and gesturing.35

Perception of Television

While the use of videotape seems ideal for teaching

actors and directors about space in live theatre, this be-

lief is based on faith that audience perception of tele-

vision does not differ from audience perception of live

theatre. Whether or not this is true seems questionable.

34Robert Gunther and Rudolph Pugliesi, "Videotape at a
Drama Festival," in Audiovisual Instruction, Vol. 13 (Dec.,
1968), 1132.
35Ibid., 1133.





24


For instance, when viewing televised theatre a person is

filling in part of the visual information through a process

known as closure. While a television picture consists of a

screen showing rows of dots of varying intensities of

light, the audience is unaware for the most part that dots

of light rather than solid forms are being seen. Humans

are conditioned to organize informational pieces into

wholes; thus, the audience members automatically fill in

the missing elements, seeing a complete picture. This

closure process does not occur when an audience sees live

theatre. Another consideration is that in viewing live

theatre scenes the audience is seeing three-dimensions,

while in viewing the videotape the information is seen on a

two-dimensional television screen,

It seems possible that audience response to a video-

tape of a live theatre scene will be influenced by prior

exposure to the the live theatre scene. Viewers may or

may not "see" the same thing on videotape as they see live.

This study investigates the aesthetic perception of inter-

personal distance in dyads of actors in live scenes and in

videotapes of those scenes. It uses the experimental re-

sults to consider the appropriateness of using videotapes

in teaching actors and directors about interpersonal dis-

tance in live theatre.










....














CHAPTER II
DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY

Audience ResDonse Data Collection

Oral, written, and mechanical data collection proce-

dures were considered for their potential use or applica-

bility in comparing audience response to interpersonal

distance in live theatre scenes with audience response to

videotapes of the same theatre scenes. With some proce-

dures, such as when audience members respond to a question-

naire, data were obtained with the audience's knowledge or

control. In other procedures, such as if a hidden camera

photographed overt physical reactions of an audience, the

audience was not aware of or in control of the data being

obtained. The majority of methods examined proved unsuit-

able for the present study, particularly those mechanical

methods where data was obtained without the knowledge or

control of the audience and those oral and written methods

which appeared useful only before or after a performance.

While they will be discussed to provide a context for aud-

ience response research, it was the mechanical methods

occuriing with audience knowledge and control which most

influenced the development of a'new data. collection system

used in the present study.



25




26



Written Me thodologies

The most common written methods include spontaneous

mail returns, audience surveys and questionnaires, logged

information and diaries, and responses to shift-of-opinion

and rating scales. Spontaneous mail returns, for example,

provide a common source of information for a production

company following a performance. Audience surveys and

questionnaires deal with anything from what children prefer

in children's theatrel to more detailed studies about par-

ticular aspects of productions. Logged information and

diaries (used by compiler's of television ratings) are ways

of having audiences keep track of data under study. Shift-

of-opinion scales (where an earlier response of an audience

member is compared with a later response) were used by

Albert Furbay to study the influence of scattered versus
2
compact seating on audience response. Raring scales pro-

vide graduated continuums between antonyms along which re-

sponses may be registered. Sometimes a combination of

these methods is employed in a study, while in other re-

search, only a single method is needed. Although "paper

and pencil" studies prove particularly useful for pre and

post experiment measurement of audience states, they are


IClaire Jones, "What Do Children Want in Children's
Theatre?" in Theatre, Childhood and Youth, Issue 1
(January-March, 74), 22-29 & ed. note.

2Albert L. Furbay, "The Influence of Scattered Versus Com-
pact Seating on Audience Response," in Speech Monographs,
Vol. 32, No. 2 (June, 1965), 144-148.




27



not generally used during a production. Legible manipula--

tion of a writing instrument requires conscious thought

which could detract from aesthetic perception of the per-

formance.

Oral Methodloogies

Oral methods of audience response data collection gen-

erally take the form of answers to specific questions,

answers in personal interviews, telephone replies to sur-

veys, voluntary or requested testimonials, group discus-

sions, and verbal critiques. These standard oral methods

preclude usage during performance. Since socially accept-

able oral responses during events tend to be limited to

simple sound or ejaculative speech forms, the possibilities

for use of this method during performance are virtually

nil.

Mechanical Methodologies

Mechanical methods which gather data without the audi-

ence's knowledge or control seem to provide primarily phy-

siological measurements of response. These methods may be

as simple as taking audience blood pressure readings or as

complex as using an electromagnetic movement meter to mea-

sure audience member's gross body movements.3 A wide

variety of physiological measuring devices are available.

Other mechanical methods exist which aid in audience

response studies conducted during performance by allowing

3Elwood A. Kretsinger, "An Experimental Study of Gross
Bodily Movement As An Index to Audience Interest," in
Sneech Monographs, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Nov., 1952), 244-248.





28


data collection with audience knowledge or control. One

place commercially where such mechanical audience response

devices have found acceptance is in the television program-

ming field. Television networks ABC and NBC have pilot

programs tested by ASI Market Research, Inc. using devices

which have been installed in a Los Angeles theatre. Each

seat in the theatre, Preview House, is equipped with num-

bered dials on which audience members register responses.

The collected data ultimately appears on seismograph-like

charts for analysis. Likewise, CBS uses mechanical devices

to register audience response in its Viewer Session Room.

There off-the-street viewers see color television pilot

programs, with each individual continually registering re-

sponses on push button devices from which the results are
4
transferred to paper.

The commercially marketed mechanical response device

known as the Graphic Level Recorder has been accepted as a

valid research instrument in a variety of disciplines. The

device consists of pens which register audience response on

graph paper that is moving at a continuous rate underneath

the pens. Each pen registers a straight line on the graph

paper unless the push button connected to that pen is de-

pressed. With the depression of the button, the corre-

sponding pen registers a deviation from its neutral


4Niel Shister, "TV Programming Research," in TV Book: The
Ultimate Television Book, ed. by Judy Fireman (New York:
Workman Publishing Company, 1977), p. 306.




29



position straight line. Only with the release of the de-

pressed button does the pen return to its neutral line-

making position. While a useful device for recording audi-

ence response during performance, it is not a dependable

one, its major weakness being the frequency and unpredict-

ability with which the ink pens clog.

A variety of mechanical equipment in the University of

Iowa theatre made possible audience response studies con-

ducted during performance. One installation used to record

group audience response consisted of incorporating twin

Esterline-Angus Graphic Recorders, toggle switches for each

audience member, a tape recorder connected to a stage

microphone, a timing device, and a power control unit.5 A

second apparatus instailation recorded individual audience

response data.6 Called the Meier Audience-Response

Recorder7 after Norman C. Meier, its developer, it consis-

ted of a lap-held recorder which had a synchronous motor

pushing out a strip of wa'x-impregnated tape at a constant

rate. Individuals responded continuously to a theatre per-

formance by the hand manipulation of a pointer along a six

point rating scale. The pointer was connected to a stylus

which registered the response on the wax-impregnated tape.


5Edward C. Mabie, "The Responses of Theatre Audiences, Ex-
perimental Studies," in Speech Monographs, Vol. 19, No. 4
(November, 1952), 235-243.
Ibid.

7Norman C. Meier, "The Meier Audience-Response Recorder,"
in American Journal of Psychology. Vol. 63 (1950), 87-90.





30


Several audience response studies were the direct result of

the availability of this instrumentation.8

Development of a New Data Collection System

Consideration of existing methods of data collection,

particularly the feasibility of mechanical systems, result-

ed in the decision to develop a new mechanical data collec-

tion system. The graphic level recorder might have been

used instead, had it not been for its unreliable ink pens.

Push button or dial devices described in research litera-

ture also seemed possibilities, but such equipment was not

readily available. The experimenter saw the need for the

development of a flexible, inexpensive audience response

device system would allow instantaneous and continuous re-

sponses during theatre performances.

The resultant data system was a variable theatre re-

sponse device made to be used in conjunction with already

commercially available videotape recording/playback sys-

tems. Henceforth to be referred to as the VTR II, this

device which is powered by a six volt lantern battery


8See Edwin L. Clark, An Experimental Study of Age as a
Factor in Audience Response in the Theftre. Ph.D. Dissser-
tation. University of Iowa, 1952; Harold Lee Hayes,
Methodologv in Audience Response. Ph.D. Dissertation.
TUniversity of T ow:a, 1950; William R. Morgan, An
Experimental Study and Comparison of the Responses of Men
an3 the Responses of Women in Theatre Audiences. Ph.D.
Dissertation. University of Iowa, 1951.

9The VTR II developed from the ideas of this investigator
with the technical advice, suggestions, and assistance of
Howard B. Rothman, A.F.C. Wehlburg, Robert P. Idzikowski,
Wayne D. Harrington, David A. Campbell, & Russell E.
Pierce.





31


consists of two main components--individual response devices

and the response light panel to which they are connected

(see Fig. 1).

















a A B 's. I MO .A 1. I. 1&
AM3B IPSA f Mo lAM8 0 Ia 16hA s






Fig. 1--VTR II Data Collection System. Shown are four of
the twenty individual response devices, the response light
panel, and the six volt lantern battery power source.

Individual Response Devices

The individual response devices were designed for ease

of use during theatre pieces, at the same time as thought

was given to developing devices that would not bias the re-

sponses registered. With both considerations in mind,

moveable response devices were developed rather than per-

manently installed ones. They were lightweight and cylin-

drical in shape so that they could be easily hand-held. By

not being attached to each seat, they avoided the pitfall





32


of laterality (a possible source of bias) of permanently

installed response devices, as each audience member could

choose in which hand to hold the device.

Each audience member could respond in one of three

ways (that the actors were too close together, ok, or too

far apart) on a cylinder equipped with a di-polar toggle

switch which could be depressed in either direction to reg-

ister a response. When an audience member perceived the

actors' spatial relationship to be "ok," all that was nec-

essary was for the person to release the depressed switch.

The switch was spring-loaded so that it would then return

to the neutral position. To help prevent confusion, the

toggle switch end of each cylinder had the poles labeled

with luminescent tape (see Fig. 2), with two close together

lines indicating "too close together" and two far apart

lines indicating "too far apart." The determination as to

the positioning of the labeled poles of the toggle switch

in relationship to each audience member was a choice left

up to each individual. This was done to avoid possible

biasing of results which might be suspected if this were

pre-determined by the experimenter. Each cylinder contain-

ed Styrofoam filling to add stability and to help stifle

toggle switch noise. This served the additional function

of minimizing an audience member's hearing of and the pos-

sible influence of the responses of others.





33


























Fig. 2--Individual Audience Response Device of the VTR II.
The toggle switch may be left in the neutral position to
indicate "ok," or it may be moved toward the position of
the two close together lines indicating "too close together"
or toward the position of the two far apart lines indicating
"too far apart."

Response Light Panel

The development of a light panel to visually register

the responses made on the individual devices had several

advantages. Use of light emitting diodes, L.E.D.s, enabled

the light panel to be small and lightweight, yet capable of

clearly registering audience reactions. A compact power

unit, a six volt lantern battery, was sufficient to power

the forty L.E.D.s used. The light panel provided the ex-

perimenter with immediate feedback of audience reactions to

performances at the same time that the outflow of informa-

tion from the light panel could be video recorded for sub-

sequent playback and data analysis.





34


The panel consisted of two horizontal rows of twenty

L.E.D.s mounted on vector board (1 1/2" x 16 3/4") to which

a white paper stylus was attached (see Fig. 3). Below each

L.E.D., the stylus was labeled with a number corresponding

to the number of the response device by which it was con-

trolled. Each response device had two lights which regis-

tered responses on the light panel, one for each pole of

the di-polar switch. An "A" was added to L.E.D. labels for

lights registering "too close" responses, a "B" for "too

far" responses.















A I F sCa $A 8a n Is bS1a v9 w I&An f" iSA 19 a oR A65







Fig. 3--Audience Response Light Panel of the VTR II.

The response light panel was connected by cable to all

response devices and by wires to the power source, the lan-

tern battery. The wire on the back of the vector board led

to one end where there were five male pin connectors, each






35


of which handled power for four response devices. The

cable running from each response device led to one of five

female pin connectors with four response device cables

hooked to each connector (see Fig. 4). When the male and

female pin connectors were joined and the lantern battery

was attached to the positive and negative wires extending

out from the back of the vector board, the VTR II was com-

plete.

























Fig. 4--VTR II Data Collection System Viewed in Terms of
Wiring of Component Parts.

Use of Videotape Recording/Playback System with the VTR II

The instantaneous audience reactions registering on

the VTR II light panel provided immediate visualization of

responses. For the data analysis for this study, however,

a nermanent record of those responses was needed. To
Ij





36


accomplish that task, the audience response light panel was

placed on a table directly underneath the screen of a tele-

vision monitor. A television camera recorded the theatre

scenes showing on the monitor along with the responses of

the audience registering on the light panel beneath it. A

continuous record of instantaneous audience response to live

theatre and to videotapes of those scenes could, thus, be

made. The information was then available for playback and

analysis.













CHAPTER III
PROCEDURE

Experimental Design

This study tested the hypothesis: "Audience response

to interpersonal distance in a live theatre scene will dif-

fer from audience response to interpersonal distance in a

videotape of the same live theatre scene." Although it was

only necessary to test this hypothesis on one theatre

scene, it was applied to two different scenes from differ-

ent plays. As a result, the replicability of results could

be ascertained.

The experimental design chosen, the Posttest-Only

Control Group Design,1 allowed scene presentation in a se-

quence similar to that used in the classroom. This was im-

portant since the implications of this study were to be ap-

plied to teaching methodology. Audience One (the experi-

mental group) saw the opening scene of a play performed

live and then saw the playback of the scene on videotape.

Their responses to the videotape after prior exposure to

the live scene could then be compared to their initial re-

sponses to the live scene. Audience Two (the control

group) only viewed the scene on videotape. Their responses


Donald T. Campbell and Julian C. Stanley, Experimental and
Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research (Chicago: Rand
McNally College Publishing Company, T963), pp. 8, 25-26.

37





38


could then be compared to those of the experimental group.

The same procedure was used with a second theatre scene,

with Audience Three as the experimental group and Audience

Four as the control group.

Scene Selection

While two considerably different scenes could have

been selected to see if the experimental results could be

replicated, the experimenter chose to see if replicability

of findings would occur using similar scenes, leaving open

possibilities for investigations by others. The scenes

chosen for use in this study were the opening vignettes of

Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance2 (Appendix A) and Lucille

Fletcher's Night Watch3 (Appendix B). The decision to use

the initial scene of each play resulted from their similar

characteristics. Both scenes contain exposition providing

the audience with insight into the attitude of two main

characters toward their surroundings and toward each other.

The scenes are somewhat unusual in that the major charac-

ters of each play are the ones providing this information,

whereas minor characters often fulfill this function. The

deliberate selection of opening vignettes was done so the

audience would not be confused from viewing interior

scenes taken out of context.


2Edward Albee, A Delicate Balance (New York: Atheneum,
1966), pp. 3-12.

3Lucille Fletcher, Night Watch (New York: Random House,
1972), pp. 3-12.





39

It is common to have scenes between husbands and

wives, so such a combination was ideal for this study. In

both scenes, the action takes place in the couple's home.

The scenes are realistic in style, occur in the present,

are serious in tone, and have conflict arising between the

pairs. In A Delicate Balance, the conflict centers around

the couple's opposing attitudes towards the wife's sister,

Claire. In Night Watch, a conflict results when the wife

says she has seen a dead body in a neighboring building and

the husband finds it hard to believe, so is reluctant to

report it to the police. The initial tension over Claire

and over the dead body presages subsequent dramatic action

and creates suspense within the vignettes. In each scene,

the woman appears to be the stronger willed of the two.

The scenes are similar in duration. Each character

has either thirty-five or thirty-six individual times of

speaking. The running time of the scenes was approximately

nine minutes apiece.

Room Arrangement

In keeping with the application of the results of this

study to teaching methodology, a room was selected which

could in actuality serve as a theatre classroom. A rectan-

gular classroom (18'6" x 39'4") in Library East of the

University of Florida at Gainesville had sufficient space

for actors, audience, and video equipment.4 The actors had

rehearsed with the knowledge they would be allowed an

4Video equipment assistance was provided by James W. Flavin.






40


approximately ten foot square acting area. The experi-

menter chose to locate this area in one narrow end of the

room because it yielded possibilities for normal audience

seating in the central portion of the room. Two rows of

staggered seating were used to enable all audience members

to have a clear view of the playing area. Space for the

video equipment was at the opposite end of the room from

the acting area (see Fig. 5).

Equipment Layout

Individually numbered response devices were given to

each audience member, with their device number determining

their seat number. Cable from each device was run to the

equipment portion of the room where it was connected to the

response light panel. The VTR II was in working order once

the lantern battery power source was connected to the wires

from the response light panel. Both sat on a table behind

the audience, with the response light panel placed directly

under the screen of a television monitor, so that they

could be videotaped simultaneously (see Fig. 5).

Camera One, a black and white camera mounted on a tri-

pod, was centered behind the audience. It stood sufficiently

far back in the room to allow the videotaping of the entire

acting area. The one-inch videotape recorder for that

camera sat on a table at the rear of the room where it

would not be distracting to the audience. As each live

scene was presented, Camera One recorded that scene. At

the same time, Television Playback Monitor One provided an






41



r-_- --___--- --



APPROXIMATELY
TEN FEET SQUARE
ACTING AREA
II



PLAYBACK
MONITOR
TWO






12 34587 6 7 8 9 10


AUDIENCE SEATING

2019118 17 16 15 14 13 12 11

AUDIENCE SEATING

LIGHT PANEL AND
BATTERY UNDER
PLAYBACK MONITOR
CAMERA ONE
ONE



0000 CAMERA
TWO
VIDEOTAPE RECORDERS
FOR CAMERA ONE & TWO





Fig. 5--Room Arrangement and Equipment Layout for VTR II
Audience Response Study. (Gary Cunningham, Graphic Artist)





42


instant replay. As that occurred, the response panel reg-

istered the responses of the audience to the performance.

Camera Two, a black and white camera mounted on a tri-

pod, recorded the light panel with the instantaneous replay

on Playback Monitor One providing the background. The one-

inch videotape recorder for Camera Two sat on the table

with the other videotape recorder (see Fig. 5). The same

procedure was used every time .that audience responses need-

ed to be recorded.

Playback Monitor Two was used only when audiences were

responding to videotapes of the live scenes. When in use,

it was centered on its stand in front of the audience, po-

sitioned so that all audience members could see it. When

not in use, it was wheeled on its stand to the rear of the

room where it would not distract the audience.

Production Context

Actors with experience and established ability in

theatre were chosen to act in the scenes. The experimenter

viewed the scenes in advance of the study, determining that

the scenes were sufficiently well-rehearsed to be ready for

performance before an audience. As is often the case in

classroom situations, the actors were allowed to use furni-

ture pieces for a set along with costuming suggestive of

their characters. General classroom illumination was used

for lighting for the scenes.





43


Audi.ence Composition

Four audiences of University of Florida student volun-

teers from several Speech/Theatre classes taught by various

instructors5 were used. Audiences One and Two for A

Delicate Balance each consisted of ten males and six fe-

males. The males and females occupied corresponding seats

in Audience One (the experimental group) and in Audience

Two (the control group). As much as possible males and fe-

males were seated alternately. Thus, in Audiences One and

Two, the seating configurations were:


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Empty Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Empty

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
Empty Male Female Male Female Male Male Male Male Empty


The scene from Night Watch was seen by Audience Three (the

experimental group) and Audience Four (the control group).

In both groups the seven males and six females occupied

corresponding seats. Males and females were seated alter-

nately in the following configuration:


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Empty Empty Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Empty

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
Empty Empty Female Male Female Male Female Male Empty Empty


50ne substitute took the place of a student volunteer.
Volunteers from one type of theatre class received "crew
hours" for participating. Other instructors may have used
similar means to encourage students to volunteer.





44


Instruction of the Audience

It was important that all four audiences receive ex-

actly the same instructions. A written statement was pre-

pared in advance which explained the nature of the study

and provided instructions for using the individual response

devices. The following information was read by the experi-

menter to each audience:

In theatre, the use of space is thought to
help or to hinder the audience's consideration of
the theatre production as art. In order to teach
actors and directors about the use of space on
stage, some teachers videotape theatre scenes.
The use of videotape playbacks to teach actors and
directors about space is based simply on faith.
This investigation in which you are a participant
is designed to determine the relationship between
audience response to interpersonal distance be-
tween actors in live theatre scenes and audience
response to interpersonal distance between actors
in videotapes of the same theatre scenes.
At your seat is an individual audience re-
sponse device. You will be asked to make aesthe-
tic judgments throughout the scenes. There are
not any right or wrong answers--just your individ-
ual aesthetic judgments. Do not pay any attention
to how your neighbor responds. I am only inter-
ested in your own individual aesthetic judgment.
Please hold your audience response device at
this time. If at any point in the scene in your
aesthetic judgment the actors are too close to-
gether (taking all other aspects of the production
into consideration), push the switch in the direc-
tion of the two close together markings on the top
of your can. Continue pressing the switch in that
direction as long as in your aesthetic judgment
the actors are too close together. When the dis-
tance between them is "right" again, let loose of
the switch and it will pop back to neutral all by
itself.
If at any point in the scenes in your aesthe-
tic judgment the actors are too far apart (taking
all other aspects of the production into consider-
ation), push the switch in the direction of the
two far apart markings on the top of your can.
Continue pressing the switch in that direction as
long as in your aesthetic judgment the actors are





45


too far apart. When the distance between them is
"right" again, let loose of the switch and it will
pop back to neutral all by itself.
If in your aesthetic judgment the actors spa-
tial relationship is "right" (taking all other as-
pects of the production into consideration), do
not push the switch in either direction--leave it
in the neutral position.
You may now practice using the device. Each
response you make causes a light to go on on a
light panel. The light panel will be sitting un-
der a television set which provides an instantan-
eous replay of the scene you are viewing. A
camera will be videotaping the light panel and
the television replay. Later I will go back and
analyze the data recorded on the videotape,

Presentation of the Experiment

Each audience member decides whether the actors in

each scene appeared "too close together," appeared "ok" (at

the appropriate interpersonal distance), or appeared "too

far apart," making continuous responses accordingly on an

individual audience response device,













CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Procedures Followed for Data Analysis

After the data had been gathered, a series of steps

translated the acquired information into an appropriate

form for analysis. The first procedure used consisted of

dubbing the videotaped responses with numbers from a video-

timing device. On the dubs, the timing numbers appeared.

continually throughout each scene beginning with 0:00:0 and

progressing in tenth of second intervals. By relating the

audience responses to a time frame, a detailed analysis was

possible.1

The second procedure necessary in preparing the data

for analysis was to transfer the record of "what happened"

from videotape to paper. Lists were needed which would in-

dicate which persons made responses, in which mode (too

close together/too far apart) they were made, and at what

time the responses began and ended (Tables 1-6). This was

accomplished by playing back the videotapes on a one-inch

videotape recorder/player with "slow" and "stop" capabili-

ties. With the playback speed being controlled manually,

time could be taken to record the required data.


IKeying the on/off light responses to dialogue or action
would have proved a gross measurement unsuitable for the
present study.
46





47


TABLE 1
AUDIENCE ONE RESPONSE TO LIVE SCENE
FROM A DELICATE BALANCE

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.5 Off Off of -.5 Off

17 B 0:27:6 0:27:1 0:27 1:05:8 1:05:3 1:05
2 B 0:32:6 0:32:1 0:32 1:02:1 1:01:6 1:02
8 B 0:39:2 0:38:7 0:39 0:52:4 0:51:9 0:52
7 A 0:44:9 0:44:4 0:44 0:51:7 0:51:2 0:51
9 B 0:55:7 0:55:2 0:55 1:00:6 1:00:1 1:00
2 B 1:17:5 1:17:0 1:17 1:28:6 1:28:1 1:28
2 B 1:31:5 1:31:0 1:31 2:16:5 2:16:0 2:16
17 B 1:33:6 1:33:1 1:33 2:13:7 2:13:2 2:13
18 B 1:45:5 1:45:0 1:45 2:12:6 2:12:1 2:12
8 B 1:59:3 1:58:8 1:59 2:08:5 2:08:0 2:08
3 B 2:07:5 2:07:0 2:07 2:14:3 2:13:8 2:14
7 B 2:08:0 2:07:5 2:08 2:15:0 2:14:5 2:15
9 B 2:09:3 2:08:8 2:09 2:16:7 2:16:2 2:16
18 B 2:13:5 2:13:0 2:13 2:16:9 2:16:4 2:16
13 A 2:29:1 2:28:6 2:29 3:24:0 3:23:5 3:24
4 B 2:29:2 2:28:7 2:29 2:40:5 2:40:0 2:40
7 B 2:29:2 2:28:7 2:29 2:55:9 2:55:4 2:55
14 B 2:29:4 2:28:9 2:29 3:29:4 3:28:9 3:29
15 B 2:29:6 2:29:1 2:29 3:26:2 3:25:7 3:26
5 B 2:29:7 2:29:2 2:29 2:30:7 2:30:2 2:30
16 B 2:29:7 2:29:2 2:29 2:30:0 2:29:5 2:30
8 B 2:29:7 2:29:2 2:29 3:11:7 3:11:2 3:11
9 B 2:29:9 2:29:4 2:29 2:42:5 2:42:0 2:42
2 B 2:30:1 2:29:6 2:30 3:40:3 3:39:8 3:40
16 B 2:30:4 2:29:9 2:30 2:31:2 2:30:7 2:31
6 B 2:31:7 2:31:2 2:31 2:32:3 2:31:8 2:32
3 B 2:32:8 2:32:3 2:32 2:55:4 2:54:9 2:55
18 B 2:33:2 2:32:7 2:33 2:50:8 2:50:3 2:50
6 B 2:33:3 2:32:8 2:33 2:34:0 2:33:5 2:34
16 B 2:33:9 2:33:4 2:33 2:34:5 2:34:0 2:34
19 B 2:34:1 2:33:6 2:34 3:11:3 3:10:8 3:11
6 B 2:35:1 2:34:6 2:35 2:35:8 2:35:3 2:35
16 B 2:35:3 2:34:8 2:35 2:36:4 2:35:9 2:36
6 B 2:37:3 2:36:8 2:37 2:38:1 2:37:6 2:38
12 B 2:39:6 2:39:1 2:39 2:42:3 2:41:8 2:42
6 B 2:39:8 2:39:3 2:39 2:40:4 2:39:9 2:40
6 B 2:41:5 2:41:0 2:41 2:42:3 2:41:8 2:42
4 B 2:42:6 2:42:1 2:42 2:43:2 2:42:7 2:43
17 B 2:47:2 2:46:7 2:47 2:50:6 2:50:1 2:50
17 B 2:56:4 2:55:9 2:56 3:02:9 3:02:4 3:02
9 B 2:56:6 2:56:1 2:56 2:58:6 2:58:1 2:58
5 B 2:59:7 2:59:2 2:59 3:00:0 2:59:5 3:00
9 B 3:00:0 2:59:5 3:00 3:24:4 3:23:9 3:24
17 B 3:05:2 3:04:7 3:05 3:09:5 3:09:0 3:09
17 B 3:13:1 3:12:6 3:13 3:26:2 3:25:7 3:26





48



TABLE 1--Contihled

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.5 Off Off of -.5 Off

5 B 3:13:6 3:13:1 3:13 3:14:4 3:13:9 3:14
19 B 3:13:9 3:13:4 3:13 3:17:8 3:17:3 3:17
16 B 3:14:0 3:13:5 3:14 3:14:5 3:14:0 3:14
18 B 3:14:7 3:14:2 3:14 3:32:4 3:31:9 3:32
16 B 3:15:1 3:14:6 3:15 3:16:0 3:15:5 3:16
16 E 3:17:2 3:16:7 3:17 3:18:6 3:18:1 3:18
4 B 3:17:2 3:16:7 3:17 3:23:6 3:23:1 3:23
19 B 3:18:6 3:18:1 3:18 3:28:2 3:27:7 3:28
16 B 3:20:4 3:19:9 3:20 3:22:6 3:22:1 3:22
5 B 3:53:7 3:53:2 3:53 3:54:9 3:54:4 3:54
17 B 4:01:7 4:01:2 4:01 4:03:7 4:03:2 4:03
5 B 4:11:2 4:10:7 4:11 4:12:1 4:11:6 4:12
17 B 4:15:2 4:14:7 4:15 4:19:5 4:19:0 4:19
8 B 2:24:2 4:23:7 4:24 4:47:2 4:46:7 4:47
5 B 4:37:5 4:37:0 4:37 4:38:8 4:38:3 4:38
8 B 5:19:6 5:19:1 5:19 6:11:2 6:10:7 6:11
17 B 5:24:8 5:24:3 5:24 5:25:4 5:24:9 5:25
17 B 5:29:6 5:29:1 5:29 5:34:9 5:34:4 5:34
5 B 5:36:5 5:36:0 5:36 5:37:7 5:37:2 5:37
17 B 5:47:4 5:46:9 5:47 5:56:1 5:55:6 5:56
2 B 5:51:3 5:50:8 5:51 5:57:6 5:57:1 5:57
18 B 6:18:4 6:17:9 6:18 6:55:9 6:55:4 6:55
17 B 6:19:2 6:18:7 6:19 6:23:5 6:23:0 6:23
3 B 6:20:2 6:19:7 6:20 6:30:9 6:30:4 6:30
5 B 6:28:2 6:27:7 6:28 6:29:1 6:28:6 6:29
17 B 6:38:9 6:38:4 6:38 6:42:5 6:42:0 6:42
3 B 6:44:4 6:43:9 6:44 7:32:7 7:32:2 7:32
8 B 6:45:0 6:44:5 6:45 7:28:3 7:27:8 7:28
4 B 6:52:2 6:51:7 6:52 7:29:2 7:28:7 7:29
17 B 6:53:4 6:52:9 6:53 7:12:4 7:11:9 7:12
18 B 6:55:9 6:55:4 6:55 6:56:0 6:55:5 6:56
18 B 6:56:1 6:55:6 6:56 6:56:1 6:55:6 6:56
18 B 6:56:2 6:55:7 6:56 6:56:3 6:55:8 6:56
5 B 7:01:3 7:00:8 7:01 7:02:6 7:02:1 7:02
5 B 7:16:8 7:16:3 7:16 7:18:5 7:18:0 7:18
17 B 7:25:7 7:25:2 7:25 7:32:4 7:31:9 7:32
7 A 7:39:2 7:38:7 7:39 7:44:0 7:43:5 7:44
4 A 7:40:0 7:39:5 7:40 7:41:8 7:41:3 7:41
2 A 7:41:4 7:40:9 7:41 7:43:9 7:43:4 7:43
6 A 7:41:9 7:41:4 7:41 7:42:6 7:42:1 7:42
13 A 7:42:4 7:41:9 7:42 7:44:3 7:43:8 7:44
17 A 7:42:5 7:42:0 7:42 7:43:5 7:43:0 7:43
5 B 7:44:9 7:44:4 7:44 7:45:8 7:45:3 7:45
8 B 7:46:8 7:46:3 7:46 7:49:6 7:49:1 7:49
13 A 7:54:8 7:54:3 7:54 8:15:6 8:15:1 8:15
5 B 7:56:7 7:56:2 7:56 7:57:5 7:57:0 7:57
8 B 8:17:8 8:17:3 8:17 8:38:5 8:38:0 8:38





49


TABLE 1--Continued

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
SMode On of -.5 Off Off of -.5 Off

17 B 8:19:1 8:18:6 8:19 8:37:0 8:37:0 8:37
4 B 8:20:7 8:20:2 8:20 8:37:2 8:36:7 8:37
12 B 8:20:8 8:20:3 8:20 8:24:1 8:23:6 8:24
15 B 8:22:0 8:21:5 8:22 8:27:5 8:27:1 8:27
5 B 8:22:3 8:21:8 8:22 8:23:1 8:22:6 8:23
3 B 8:22:9 8:22:4 8:22 8:37:9 8:37:4 8:37
18 B 8:24:7 8:24:2 8:24 8:38:4 8:37:9 8:38
7 B 8:24:8 8:24:3 8:24 8:39:4 8:38:9 8:39
15 B 8:28:6 8:28:1 8:28 8:32:7 8:32:2 8:32
14 B 8:31:3 8:30:8 8:31 8:40:4 8:39:9 8:40
15 B 8:33:3 8:32:8 8:33 8:39:0 8:38:5 8:39
2 B 8:33:9 8:33:4 8:33 8:37:7 8:37:2 8:37
13 A 8:41:2 8:40:7 8:41 9:07:5 9:07:0 9:07
7 A 8:52:4 8:51:9 8:52 9:07:5 9:07:0 9:07
6 A 8:57:6 8:57:1 8:57 8:58:5 8:58:0 8:58
6 A 8:59:2 8:58:7 8:59 8:59:8 8:59:3 8:59






50


TABLE 2

AUDIENCE ONE RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF
SCENE FROM A DELICATE BALANCE

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.4 Off Off of -.4 Off

8 B 0:07:8 0:07:4 0:07 1:21:4 1:21:0 1:21
17 B 0:08:5 0:08:1 0:08 0:20:0 0:19:6 0:20
9 B 0:13:3 0:12:9 0:13 0:16:5 0:16:1 0:16
5 B 0:18:0 0:17:6 0:18 0:18:9 0:18:5 0:19
14 B 0:22:8 0:22:4 0:22 0:31:8 0:31:4 0:31
4 A 0:23:9 0:23:5 0:24 0:25:5 0:25:1 0:25
3 B 0:28:5 0:28:1 0:28 0:53:7 0:53:3 0:53
5 B 0:31:3 0:31:4 0:31 0:32:7 0:32:3 0:32
7 B 0:32:3 0:31:9 0:32 0:50:8 0:50:4 0:50
9 B 0:36:1 0:35:7 0:36 0:41:9 0:41:5 0:42
4 B 0:37:5 0:37:1 0:37 0:59:9 0:59:5 1:00
2 B 0:40:3 0:39:9 0:40 0:40:5 0:40:1 0:40
12 B 0:42:9 0:42:5 0:43 0:46:0 0:45:6 0:46
2 B 0:43:0 0:42:6 0:43 0:53:8 0:53:4 0:53
12 B 0:46:2 0:45:8 0:46 0:46:4 0:46:0 0:46
5 B 0:59:0 0:58:6 0:59 0:59:6 0:59:2 0:59
9 B 0:59:7 0:59:3 0:59 1:01:8 1:01:4 1:01
5 B 1:11:8 1:11:4 1:11 1:12:4 1:12:0 1:12
2 B 1:12:3 1:11:9 1:12 1:14:4 1:14:0 1:14
2 B 1:15:3 1:14:9 1:15 1:19:3 1:18:9 1:19
2 B 1:20:6 1:20:2 1:20 1:30:9 1:30:5 1:31
5 B 1:21:8 1:21:4 1:21 1:22:1 1:21:7 1:22
2 B 1:31:5 1:31:1 1:31 1:36:6 1:36:2 1:36
2 B 1:37:2 1:36:8 1:37 1:38:4 1:38:0 1:38
8 B 1:41:9 1:41:5 1:42 2:17:0 2:16:6 2:17
3 B 1:44:7 1:44:3 1:44 2:18:4 2:18:0 2:18
18 B 1:45:2 1:44:8 1:45 1:57:5 1:57:1 1:57
5 B 1:46:8 1:46:4 1:46 1:47:6 1:47:2 1:47
2 B 1:55:8 1:55:4 1:55 2:19:9 2:19:5 2:20
17 B 1:56:3 1:55:9 1:56 2:13:0 2:12:6 2:13
4 B 1:57:7 1:57:3 1:57 2:12:9 2:12:5 2:13
5 B 2:00:6 2:00:2 2:00 2:01:3 2:00:9 2:01
9 B 2:05:4 2:05:0 2:05 2:06:6 2:06:2 2:06
16 B 2:05:9 2:05:5 2:06 2:06:2 2:05:8 2:06
16 B 2:06:6 2:06:2 2:06 2:07:2 2:06:8 2:07
18 B 2:06:9 2:06:5 2:07 2:13:5 2:13:1 2:13
9 B 2:06:9 2:06:5 2:07 2:07:0 2:06:6 2:07
9 B 2:07.4 2:07:0 2:07 2:07:5 2:07:1 2:07
9 B 2:07:5 2:07:1 2:07 2:07:9 2:07:5 2:08
16 B 2:07:7 2:07:3 2:07 2:08:2 2:07:8 2:08
9 B 2:08:2 2:07:8 2:08 2:08:9 2:08:5 2:09
5 B 2:08:5 2:08:1 2:08 2:09:3 2:09:9 2:09
16 B 2:08:7 2:08:3 2:08 2:09:2 2:08:8 2:09
19 B 2:09:7 2:09:3 2:09 2:15:8 2:15:4 2:15





51


TABLE 2--Continued

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.4 Off Off of -.4 Off

16 B 2:10:0 2:09:6 2:10 2:10:5 2:10:1 2:10
16 B 2:11:3 2:10:9 2:11 2:11:7 2:11:3 2:11
16 B 2:12:4 2:12:0 2:12 2:12:6 2:12:2 2:12
5 B 2:13:8 2:13:4 2:13 2:14:8 2:14:4 2:14
7 A 2:21:4 2:21:0 2:21 2:27:2 2:26:8 2:27
2 A 2:24:7 2:24:3 2:24 2:25:8 2:25:4 2:25
2 B 2:28:6 2:28:2 2:28 3:06:1 3:05:7 3:06
6 B 2:28:6 2:28:2 2:28 2:29:0 2:28:6 2:29
16 B 2:28:8 2:28:4 2:28 2:29:3 2:28:9 2:29
7 B 2:28:9 2:28:5 2:29 3:05:2 3:04:8 3:05
15 B 2:29:6 2:29:2 2:29 3:27:5 3:27:1 3:27
17 B 2:29:7 2:29:3 2:29 2:51:3 2:50:9 2:51
16 B 2:29:8 2:29:4 2:29 2:30:0 2:29:6 2:30
8 B 2:29:8 2:29:4 2:29 3:16:3 3:15:9 3:16
3 B 2:30:0 2:29:6 2:30 2:46:2 2:45:8 2:46
18 B 2:30:0 2:29:6 2:30 2:37:8 2:37:4 2:37
5 B 2:30:1 2:29:7 2:30 2:30:8 2:30:4 2:30
6 B 2:30:6 2:30:2 2:30 2:31:2 2:30:8 2:31
14 B 2:30:7 2:30:3 2:30 2:45:1 2:44:7 2:45
4 B 2:31:1 2:30:7 2:31 2:39:8 2:39:4 2:39
19 B 2:31:4 2:31:0 2:31 2:51:7 2:51:3 2:51
6 B 2:32:2 2:31:8 2:32 2:32:8 2:32:4 2:32
6 B 2:33:8 2:33:4 2:33 2:34:5 2:34:1 2:34
12 B 2:33:9 2:33:5 2:34 2:37:6 2:37:2 2:37
6 B 2:36:3 2:35:9 2:36 2:37:0 2:36:6 2:37
5 B 2:36:4 2:36:0 2:36 2:37:4 2:37:0 2:37
9 B 2:39:4 2:39:0 2:39 2:42:3 2:41:9 2:42
5 B 2:41:0 2:49:6 2:41 2:41:8 2:41:4 2:41
9 B 2:42:3 2:41:9 2:42 2:42:5 2:42:1 2:42
9 B 2:43:1 2:42:7 2:43 2:43:3 2:42:9 2:43
9 B 2:46:2 2:45:8 2:46 2:52:9 2:52:5 2:53
4 B 2:47:1 2:46:7 2:47 3:25:6 3:25:2 3:25
19 B 2:52:6 2:52:2 2:52 3:01:3 3:00:9 3:01
9 B 2:52:9 2:52:5 2:53 3:00:5 3:00:1 3:00
6 A 2:54:1 2:53:7 2:54 2:55:8 2:55:4 2:55
9 B 3:00:5 3:00:1 3:00 3:03:8 3:03:4 3:03
19 B 3:01:9 3:01:5 3:02 3:28:2 3:27:8 3:28
17 B 3:05:6 3:05:2 3:05 3:10:0 3:09:6 3:10
5 B 3:13:1 3:12:7 3:13 3:14:1 3:13:7 3:14
3 B 3:13:7 3:13:3 3:13 3:30:5 3:30:1 3:30
16 B 3:14:0 3:13:6 3:14 3:14:3 3:13:9 3:14
18 B 3:14:4 3:14:0 3:14 3:21:0 3:20:6 3:21
14 B 3:14:6 3:14:2 3:14 3:23:8 3:23:4 3:23
16 B 3:14:8 3:14:4 3:14 3:15:1 3:14:7 3:15
16 B 3:16:1 3:15:7 3:16 3:16:4 3:16:0 3:16
16 B 3:17:1 3:16:7 3:17 3:18:0 3:17:6 3:18





52



TABLE 2--Continued

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.4 Off Off of -.4 Off

16 B 3:18:7 3:18:3 3:18 3:19:2 3:18:8 3:19
17 B 3:18:8 3:18:4 3:18 3:23:1 3:22:7 3:23
16 B 3:19:8 3:19:4 3:19 3:20:4 3:20:0 3:20
13 A 3:20:3 3:19:9 3:20 3:23:3 3:22:9 3:23
16 B 3:21:0 3:20:6 3:21 3:21:8 3:21:4 3:21
6 B 3:21:7 3:21:3 3:21 3:22:6 3:22:2 3:22
16 B 3:22:6 3:22:2 3:22 3:23:1 3:22:7 3:23
16 B 3:24:0 3:23:6 3:24 3:24:5 3:24:1 3:24
5 B 3:30:3 3:29:9 3:30 3:31:1 3:30:7 3:31
13 A 3:43:3 3:42:9 3:43 4:00:5 4:00:1 4:00
3 B 3:44:5 3:44:1 3:44 3:55:1 3:54:7 3:55
8 B 3:44:6 3:44:2 3:44 3:47:2 3:46:8 3:47
14 A 3:52:3 3:51:9 3:52 4:00:5 4:00:1 4:00
19 B 3:56:6 3:56:2 3:56 4:04:7 4:04:3 4:04
8 A 4:04:4 4:04:0 4:04 4:08:2 4:07:8 4:08
5 B 4:11:2 4:10:8 4:11 4:12:1 4:11:7 4:12
9 B 4:13:9 4:13:5 4:14 4:24:1 4:23:7 4:24
7 A 4:15:8 4:15:4 4:15 4:17:7 4:17:3 4:17
5 B 4:34:3 4:33:9 4:34 4:35:0 4:34:6 4:35
2 A 4:36:3 4:35:9 4:36 4:37:4 4:37:0 4:37
5 B 4:42:6 4:42:2 4:42 4:42:9 4:42:5 4:43
2 B 4:47:0 4:46:6 4:47 5:18:1 5:17:7 5:18
5 B 4:50:8 4:50:4 4:50 4:51:6 4:51:2 4:51
19 B 4:57:3 4:56:9 4:57 5:18:1 5:17:7 5:18
17 B 5:00:4 5:00:0 5:00 5:02:6 5:02:2 5:02
4 B 5:00:5 5:00:1 5:00 5:17:1 5:16:7 5:17
5 B 5:09:1 5:08:7 5:09 5:10:4 5:10:0 5:10
8 B 5:17:2 5:16:8 5:17 6:08:3 6:07:9 6:08
9 B 5:20:3 5:19:9 5:20 5:23:9 5:23:5 5:24
5 B 5:21:3 5:20:9 5:21 5:22:4 5:22:0 5:22
3 B 5:22:5 5:22:1 5:22 5:38:5 5:38:1 5:38
17 B 5:24:2 5:23:8 5:24 5:24:9 5:24:5 5:25
17 B 5:28:8 5:28:4 5:28 5:35:4 5:35:0 5:35
5 B 5:44:5 5:44:1 5:44 5:45:2 5:44:8 5:45
2 B 5:44:8 5:44:4 5:44 5:55:2 5:54:8 5:55
7 A 6:00:7 6:00:3 6:00 6:05:0 6:04:6 6:05
5 B 6:14:1 6:13:7 6:14 6:14:8 6:14:4 6:14
6 B 6:15:0 6:14:6 6:15 6:16:4 6:16:0 6:16
18 B 6:16:7 6:16:3 6:16 6:27:4 6:27:0 6:27
3 B 6:17:0 6:16:6 6:17 6:31:3 6:30:9 6:31
6 B 6:17:2 6:16:8 6:17 6:18:6 6:18:2 6:18
19 B 6:19:0 6:18:6 6:19 7:13:6 7:13:2 7:13
4 B 6:23:3 6:22:9 6:23 6:44:5 6:44:1 6:44
17 B 6:39:5 6:39:1 6:39 6:42:2 6:41:8 6:42
3 B 6:45:2 6:44:8 6:45 7:00:0 6:59:6 7:00





53


TABLE 2--Continued

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.4 Off Off of -.4 Off

8 B 6:52:1 6:51:7 6:52 7:33:7 7:33:3 7:33
17 B 7:09:6 7:09:2 7:09 7:14:6 7:14:2 7:14
5 B 7:14:0 7:13:6 7:14 7:14:7 7:14:3 7:14
4 B 7:27:7 7:27:3 7:27 7:36:5 7:36:1 7:36
5 B 7:29:9 7:29:5 7:30 7:31:0 7:30:6 7:31
7 A 7:38:7 7:38:3 7:38 7:43:0 7:42:6 7:43
17 A 7:39:2 7:38:8 7:39 7:42:9 7:42:5 7:43
4 A 7:39:3 7:38:9 7:39 7:45:2 7:44:8 7:45
6 A 7:39:4 7:39:0 7:39 7:40:8 7:40:4 7:40
14 A 7:40:2 7:39:8 7:40 7:42:6 7:42:2 7:42
15 A 7:40:2 7:39:8 7:40 7:42:4 7:42:0 7:42
2 A 7:40:3 7:39:9 7:40 7:43:7 7:43:3 7:43
12 A 7:40:5 7:40:1 7:40 7:43:5 7:43:1 7:43
13 A 7:40:6 7:40:2 7:40 7:43:0 7:42:6 7:43
6 A 7:41:5 7:41:1 7:41 7:42:3 7:41:9 7:42
9 A 7:41:7 7:41:3 7:41 7:42:6 7:42:2 7:42
5 B 8:00:5 8:00:1 8:00 8:01:4 8:01:0 8:01
6 B 8:06:7 8:06:3 8:06 8:07:5 8:07:1 8:07
2 A 8:06:9 8:06:5 8:07 8:14:0 8:13:6 8:14
9 B 8:09:6 8:09:2 8:09 8:14:2 8:13:8 8:14
8 A 8:09:9 8:09:5 8:10 8:15:6 8:15:2 8:15
6 A 8:11:6 8:11:2 8:11 8:12:8 8:12:4 8:12
17 A 8:17:1 8:16:7 8:17 8:17:4 8:17:0 8:17
17 B 8:17:6 8:17:2 8:17 8:37:8 8:37:4 8:37
3 B 8:20:0 8:19:6 8:20 8:39:3 8:38:9 8:39
4 B 8:23:3 8:22:9 8:23 8:29:8 8:29:4 8:29
12 B 8:24:4 8:24:0 8:24 8:28:0 8:27:6 8:28
7 B 8:26:0 8:25:6 8:26 8:37:8 8:37:4 8:37
9 B 8:30:9 8:30:5 8:31 8:32:9 8:32:5 8:33
4 B 8:31:1 8:30:7 8:31 8:38:0 8:37:6 8:38
8 B 8:32:1 8:31:7 8:32 8:39:3 8:38:9 8:39
9 B 8:33:5 8:33:1 8:33 8:34:2 8:33:8 8:34
9 B 8:34:3 8:33:9 8:34 8:34:6 8:34:2 8:34
14 B 8:35:4 8:35:0 8:35 8:38:8 8:38:4 8:38
13 B 8:37:7 8:37:3 8:37 8:38:7 8:38:3 8:38
7 A 8:42:0 8:41:6 8:42 8:49:4 8:49:0 8:49
13 A 8:49:1 8:48:7 8:49 9:05:9 9:05:5 9:06
2 A 8:49:7 8:49:3 8:49 9:05:7 9:05:3 9:05
3 B 8:56:9 8:56:5 8:57 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07
5 B 8:57:3 8:56:9 8:57 8:58:3 8:57:9 8:58
14 A 8:57:5 8:57:1 8:57 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07
16 B 8:57:6 8:57:2 8:57 8:58:1 8:57:7 8:58
19 B 8:58:5 8:58:1 8:58 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07
6 A 8:58:5 8:58:1 8:58 8:59:4 8:59:0 8:59
16 B 8:58:8 8:58:4 8:58 8:59:1 8:58:7 8:59
16 B 8:59:7 8:59:3 8:59 9:00:0 8:59:6 9:00





54



TABLE 2--Continued

Device
Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded
& Mode On of -.4 Off Off of -.4 Off
16 B 9:00:3 8:59:9 9:00 9:00:5 9:00:1 9:00
16 B 9:01:3 9:00:9 9:01 9:01:6 9:01:2 9:01
6 A 9:01:6 9:01:2 9:01 9:02:7 9:02:3 9:02
16 B 9:02:3 9:01:9 9:02 9:02:6 9:02:2 9:02
16 B 9:03:0 9:02:6 9:03 9:03:3 9:02:9 9:03
16 B 9:03:7 9:03:3 9:03 9:04:0 9:03:6 9:04
6 A 9:06:2 9:05:8 9:06 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07





55



TABLE 3
AUDIENCE TWO RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF
SCENE FROM A DELICATE BALANCE

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

14 B 0:28:4 0:28 2:17:8 2:18
4 B 0:28:9 0:29 1:02:4 1:02
15 B 0:29:4 0:29 2:17:1 2:17
2 B 0:29:8 0:30 0:33:1 0:33
19 B 0:30:8 0:31 1:02:0 1:02
13 B 0:33:6 0:34 1:02:2 1:02
2 B 0:34:9 0:35 0:45:3 0:45
5 B 0:39:2 0:39 1:38:8 1:39
18 B 0:41:4 0:41 1:46:2 1:46
17 B 0:41:4 0:41 0:43:4 0:43
17 B 0:45:3 0:45 0:47:0 0:47
2 B 0:47:5 0:48 1:03:1 1:03
17 B 1:01:1 1:01 1:05:0 1:05
2 B 1:09:1 1:09 1:19:5 1:20
19 B 1:10:9 1:11 1:28:6 1:29
6 A 1:16:6 1:17 1:22:8 1:23
7 B 1:24:8 1:25 1:54:8 1:55
19 B 1:28:9 1:29 2:16:2 2:16
2 B 1:28:9 1:29 1:56:6 1:57
6 B 1:35:5 1:36 1:40:2 1:40
5 B 1:39:4 1:39 1:56:3 1:56
18 B 1:47:7 1:48 1:57:3 1:57
13 B 1:56:6 1:57 2:15:1 2:15
3 B 1:57:7 1:58 2:16:3 2:16
18 B 1:57:9 1:58 2:04:5 2:05
4 B 2:03:1 2:03 2:17:8 2:18
12 B 2:04:1 2:04 2:05:3 2:05
2 B 2:05:0 2:05 2:15:7 2:16
6 B 2:07:2 2:07 2:16:1 2:16
8 B 2:08:2 2:08 2:17:5 2:18
9 B 2:08:9 2:09 2:13:7 2:14
19 B 2:28:6 2:29 2:33:9 2:34
2 B 2:28:8 2:29 3:22:8 3:23
17 B 2:28:9 2:29 3:24:2 3:24
3 B 2:29:9 2:30 3:31:7 3:32
8 B 2:32:5 2:33 2:44:9 2:45
12 A 2:35:3 2:35 2:36:5 2:37
14 B 2:38:1 2:38 3:41:1 3:41
19 B 2:53:6 2:54 3:28:6 3:29
18 B 2:54:9 2:55 3:23:2 3:23
16 B 3:16:1 3:16 3:18:3 3:18
7 B 3:16:6 3:17 3:23:5 3:24
8 B 3:17:2 3:17 3:23:5 3:24





56



TABLE 3--Continued

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
E Mode On Off Off Off

6 A 3:18:4 3:18 3:23:8 3:24
5 B 3:19:2 3:19 3:20:5 3:21
5 B 3:23:2 3:23 3:39:7 3:40
13 B 3:25:4 3:25 3:30:8 3:31
13 B 3:31:4 3:31 3:31:6 3:32
18 B 3:32:4 3:32 3:38:5 3:39
13 B 3:32:4 3:32 3:32:5 3:33
6 B 3:33:3 3:33 3:38:8 3:39
13 B 3:33:4 3:33 3:35:6 3:36
13 B 3:35:9 3:36 3:36:0 3:36
13 B 3:36:0 3:36 3:36:9 3:37
13 B 3:37:6 3:38 3:38:7 3:39
8 A 3:37:8 3:38 3:40:1 3:40
19 A 3:44:2 3:44 3:59:8 4:00
6 A 3:46:1 3:46 4:00:5 4:01
15 A 3:48:5 3:49 4:00:8 4:01
16 A 3:49:9 3:50 3:52:0 3:52
12 A 3:51:6 3:52 4:00:3 4:00
14 B 4:03:0 4:03 7:38:0 7:38
12 B 4:18:6 4:19 4:29:0 4:29
15 B 4:18:7 4:19 4:31:5 4:32
5 B 4:19:3 4:19 5:18:4 5:18
19 B 4:20:5 4:21 4:33:1 4:33
8 A 4:21:6 4:22 4:29:0 4:29
18 B 4:28:5 4:29 4:33:8 4:34
18 B 4:34:3 4:34 4:35:9 4:36
18 B 4:36:0 4:36 4:42:4 4:42
13 B 4:36:3 4:36 5:10:0 5:10
3 B 4:37:5 4:38 5:17:3 5:17
9 B 4:39:9 4:40 5:18:5 5:19
12 B 4:42:4 4:42 5:18:0 5:18
17 B 4:44:3 4:44 5:23:6 5:24
2 B 4:45:6 4:46 5:17:7 5:18
8 A 4:48:9 4:49 4:55:1 4:55
6 B 4:49:5 4:50 5:19:1 5:19
19 B 4:52:0 4:52 5:01:7 5:02
16 B 4:54:5 4:55 5:12:8 5:13
7 B 5:00:1 5:00 5:17:5 5:18
19 B 5:11:3 5:11 5:18:5 5:19
13 B 5:11:9 5:12 5:17:8 5:18
13 B 5:21:4 5:21 5:22:0 5:22
19 B 5:23:4 5:23 5:27:2 5:27
18 B 5:25:6 5:26 5:43:0 5:43
15 B 5:47:8 5:48 5:57:4 5:57
8 B 5:48:7 5:49 5:58:5 5:59





57



TABLE 3--Continued

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

13 B 6:11:2 6:11 6:25:1 6:25
8 B 6:12:1 6:12 6:34:3 6:34
5 B 6:15:8 6:16 6:35:9 6:36
3 B 6:16:8 6:17 6:28:1 6:28
6 B 6:17:3 6:17 6:40:6 6:41
12 B 6:17:3 6:17 6:39:3 6:39
9 B 6:21:2 6:21 6:25:6 6:26
9 B 6:25:7 6:26 6:26:6 6:27
13 B 6:25:9 6:26 6:27:0 6:27
9 B 6:26:8 6:27 6:26:9 6:27
9 B 6:26:9 6:27 6:38:5 6:39
13 B 6:27:2 6:27 6:27:9 6:28
13 B 6:28:4 6:28 6:29:8 6:30
13 B 6:30:1 6:30 6:49:7 6:50
9 B 6:38:9 6:39 6:51:4 6:51
13 B 6:50:9 6:51 6:51:6 6:52
9 B 6:51:5 6:52 6:52:0 6:52
13 B 6:52:1 6:52 6:58:4 6:58
5 B 6:52:3 6:52 7:01:5 7:02
4 B 7:02:2 7:02 7:33:1 7:33
13 B 7:04:0 7:04 7:19:8 7:20
19 B 7:12:7 7:13 7:15:8 7:16
18 B 7:15:0 7:15 7:38:4 7:38
19 B 7:15:8 7:16 7:33:5 7:34
12 B 7:17:6 7:18 7:24:2 7:24
13 B 7:19:8 7:20 7:20:3 7:20
5 B 7:19:8 7:20 7:33:5 7:34
13 B 7:20:4 7:20 7:20:6 7:21
6 B 7:22:3 7:22 7:36:4 7:36
13 B 7:26:5 7:27 7:26:7 7:27
13 B 7:27:9 7:28 7:28:7 7:29
15 A 7:39:3 7:39 7:44:0 7:44
2 A 7:39:8 7:40 7:42:1 7:42
14 A 7:40:3 7:40 7:42:5 7:43
17 A 7:40:5 7:41 7:43:1 7:43
6 A 7:40:6 7:41 7:44:2 7:44
9 A 7:41:1 7:41 7:42:6 7:43
14 B 7:43:9 7:44 7:47:9 7:48
3 A 7:54:6 7:55 7:59:3 7:59
14 B 7:54:9 7:55 8:00:1 8:00
17 A 7:59:4 7:59 8:08:0 8:08
3 A 7:59:5 8:00 7:59:7 8:00
8 A 8:02:7 8:03 8:13:8 8:14
14 B 8:03:0 8:03 8:10:6 8:11
14 B 8:15:5 8:16 8:17:5 8:18
15 B 8:16:1 8:16 8:37:7 8:38






58


TABLE 3--Continued

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

14 B 8:17:7 8:18 8:21:0 8:21
13 B 8:18:0 8:18 8:33:2 8:33
6 B 8:18:9 8:19 8:31:6 8:32
3 B 8:20:0 8:20 8:37:7 8:38
18 B 8:20:8 8:21 8:38:8 8:39
14 B 8:21:7 8:22 8:39:6 8:40
13 B 8:33:2 8:33 8:37:2 8:37
15 A 8:39:9 8:40 8:41:8 8:42
19 A 8:40:7 8:41 8:53:8 8:54
6 A 8:40:8 8:41 8:44:8 8:45
7 A 8:41:5 8:42 8:46:0 8:46
14 A 8:43:0 8:43 8:53:5 8:54
4 A 8:50:5 8:51 9:07:0 9:07
6 A 8:50:8 8:51 8:55:4 8:55
12 A 8:54:0 8:54 9:00:7 9:01
18 A 8:54:9 8:55 9:07:0 9:07
2 A 8:56:2 8:56 9:07:0 9:07
14 A 8:57:0 8:57 9:07:0 9:07
9 A 8:58:3 8:58 9:07:0 9:07
15 A 9:01:3 9:01 9:07:0 9:07
3 A 9:02:0 9:02 9:07:0 9:07
7 A 9:02:5 9:03 9:07:0 9:07
19 A 9:02:8 9:03 9:07:0 9:07
16 A 9:03:0 9:03 9:07:0 9:07
17 A 9:06:4 9:06 9:07:0 9:07
6 A 9:06:5 9:07 9:07:0 9:07





59




TABLE 4
AUDIENCE THREE RESPONSE TO LIVE SCENE
FROM NIGHT WATCH

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

4 B 0:25:4 0:25 0:57:4 0:57
13 B 0:26:6 0:27 1:03:8 1:04
18 A 0:37:1 0:37 0:38:6 0:39
4 B 0:59:4 0:59 1:01:6 1:02
17 B 1:02:9 1:03 1:12:0 1:12
18 B 1:11:4 1:11 1:18:3 1:18
3 B 1:40:6 1:41 1:47:9 1:48
7 B 1:41:5 1:42 1:50:9 1:51
5 B 1:48:0 1:48 2:05:5 2:06
15 B 2:03:7 2:04 2:04:6 2:05
15 A 2:05:4 2:05 2:11:1 2:11
6 A 2:06:4 2:06 2:10:4 2:10
15 A 2:31:0 2:31 2:33:3 2:33
14 B 2:31:6 2:32 2:40:0 2:40
17 A 2:45:8 2:46 3:27:0 3:27
14 B 3:08:1 3:08 3:22:6 3:23
17 B 3:28:7 3:29 3:31:0 3:31
17 B 3:31:6 3:32 3:31:6 3:32
17 B 3:31:7 3:32 4:19:4 4:19
6 B 3:36:0 3:36 3:39:5 3:40
7 B 3:37:9 3:38 4:23:8 4:24
6 B 3:44:4 3:44 4:21:2 4:21
14 A 3:52:4 3:52 3:54:1 3:54
15 B 3:55:1 3:55 4:22:6 4:23
18 B 3:57:8 3:58 4:22:4 4:22
3 B 4:00:4 4:00 4:13:6 4:14
4 B 4:01:2 4:01 4:02:9 4:03
13 B 4:02:0 4:02 4:23:9 4:24
4 B 4:03:3 4:03 4:15:5 4:16
14 B 4:03:4 4:03 4:32:5 4:33
16 B 4:03:9 4:04 4:25:7 4:26
5 B 4:07:0 4:07 4:29:7 4:30
9 B 4:07:7 4:08 4:26:5 4:27
8 B 4:10:6 4:11 4:25:3 4:25
17 B 4:32:0 4:32 5:02:2 5:02
8 B 4:56:6 4:57 5:05:5 5:06
6 A 5:06:1 5:06 5:23:2 5:23
14 A 5:06:6 5:07 5:23:2 5:23
7 A 5:06:8 5:07 5:23:8 5:24
4 A 5:07:4 5:07 5:23:1 5:23
15 A 5:10:0 5:10 5:23:4 5:23
9 A 5:10:1 5:10 5:23:6 5:24





60



TABLE 4--Continued

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

16 A 5:11:9 5:12 5:22:9 5:23
8 A 5:13:1 5:13 5:24:0 5:24
17 B 5:23:6 5:24 5:31:2 5:31
5 B 5:36:0 5:36 6:18:1 6:18
17 B 6:30:5 6:31 6:32:7 6:33
17 B 7:03:4 7:03 7:05:5 7:06
8 B 7:03:5 7:04 7:36:5 7:37
17 B 7:10:9 7:11 7:13:4 7:13
17 B 8:26:0 8:26 8:28:9 8:29





61




TABLE 5
AUDIENCE THREE RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF
SCENE FROM NIGHT WATCH

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

9 B 0:10:4 0:10 1:01:5 1:02
7 B 0:15:4 0:15 1:13:5 1:14
18 B 0:15:6 0:16 0:19:3 0:19
5 B 0:16:3 0:16 1:27:1 1:27
17 B 0:17:1 0:17 0:27:9 0:28
8 B 0:23:2 0:23 0:36:9 0:37
13 B 0:26:1 0:26 1:01:7 1:02
17 B 0:30:4 0:30 0:33:3 0:33
6 B 0:34:5 0:35 1:02:3 1:02
18 B 0:36:2 0:36 0:41:8 0:42
14 B 0:36:3 0:36 0:44:1 0:44
15 B 0:37:6 0:38 0:45:0 0:45
4 B 0:39:1 0:39 0:40:2 0:40
17 B 0:39:9 0:40 0:54:9 0:55
4 B 0:41:4 0:41 1:01:7 1:02
15 B 0:46:4 0:46 0:54:2 0:54
17 A 1:28:7 1:29 1:45:7 1:46
14 B 1:33:6 1:34 1:45:1 1:45
6 B 1:38:2 1:38 1:47:5 1:48
18 B 1:42:7 1:43 1:48:5 1:49
17 B 1:49:1 1:49 1:53:0 1:53
17 B 1:53:8 1:54 2:05:9 2:06
14 B 2:18:2 2:18 2:22:0 2:22
13 A 2:19:7 2:20 2:22:4 2:22
17 A 2:28:1 2:28 2:33:6 2:34
15 B 2:30:6 2:31 2:33:1 2:33
5 B 2:49:5 2:50 2:54:2 2:54
8 B 2:53:5 2:54 3:01:1 3:01
17 A 3:26:0 3:26 3:45:3 3:45
5 B 3:26:1 3:26 3:34:2 3:34
14 B 3:26:5 3:27 3:31:1 3:31
8 B 3:28:4 3:28 3:41:1 3:41
7 B 3:35:6 3:36 4:22:9 4:23
6 B 3:36:9 3:37 3:38:2 3:38
15 B 3:37:4 3:37 3:40:8 3:41
9 B 3:37:6 3:38 4:22:6 4:23
8 B 3:42:4 3:42 4:26:4 4:26
17 B 3:46:6 3:47 4:32:4 4:32
4 B 3:48:7 3:49 3:55:8 3:56
16 B 3:54:6 3:55 4:22:2 4:22
15 B 3:55:0 3:55 4:05:8 4:06





62



TABLE 5--Continued

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

6 B 3:55:2 3:55 4:14:6 4:15
4 B 3:55:9 3:56 4:03:5 4:04
3 B 3:57:5 3:58 4:00:1 4:00
3 B 4:00:1 4:00 4:17:6 4:18
5 B 4:03:2 4:03 4:28:1 4:28
4 B 4:04:7 4:05 4:06:2 4:06
4 B 4:06:7 4:07 4:14:3 4:14
18 B 4:09:9 4:10 4:25:1 4:25
15 B 4:10:0 4:10 4:14:1 4:14
13 B 4:16:4 4:16 4:24:1 4:24
3 B 4:17:8 4:18 4:18:2 4:18
4 B 4:19:8 4:20 4:21:6 4:22
7 A 4:31:4 4:31 4:31:8 4:32
7 A 5:05:4 5:05 5:39:3 5:39
4 A 5:05:7 5:06 5:23:9 5:24
6 A 5:05:9 5:06 5:20:9 5:21
8 A 5:07:1 5:07 5:40:3 5:40
15 A 5:07:9 5:08 5:23:3 5:23
3 B 5:09:6 5:10 5:10:2 5:10
14 A 5:10:2 ::10 5:23:6 5:24
16 A 5:10:3 5:10 5:23:4 5:23
13 A 5:10:5 5:11 5:23:4 5:23
3 A 5:10:6 5:11 5:24:1 5:24
9 A 5:10:9 5:11 5:23:0 5:23
18 A 5:16:8 5:17 5:23:5 5:24
5 A 5:20:2 5:20 5:23:8 5:24
6 A 5:21:8 5:22 5:24:2 5:24
17 B 5:24:0 5:24 5:30:7 5:31
17 A 5:36:2 5:36 5:38:0 5:38
5 B 5:37:8 5:38 6:35:2 6:35
14 B 6:05:7 6:06 6:08:9 6:09
18 B 6:15:3 6:15 6:21:6 6:22
17 B 6:17:3 6:17 6:26:5 6:27
18 B 6:28:5 6:29 6:34:3 6:34
17 A 7:26:2 7:26 7:57:5 7:58
8 B 7:48:2 7:48 8:24:6 8:25
17 A 8:01:1 8:01 8:02:6 8:03
17 A 8:04:7 8:05 8:05:7 8:06
9 A 8:13:3 8:13 8:19:1 8:19
5 B 8:29:2 8:29 8:31:0 8:31





63




TABLE 6
AUDIENCE FOUR RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF
SCENE FROM NIGHT WATCH

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

15 B 0:12:5 0:13 0:54:8 0:55
16 B 0:12:8 0:13 0:19:6 0:20
17 B 0:13:3 0:13 1:02:4 1:02
9 B 0:15:7 0:16 1:02:3 1:02
13 B 0:15:7 0:16 0:28:1 0:28
5 B 0:24:6 0:25 1:03:3 1:03
16 B 0:29:1 0:29 1:05:3 1:05
6 B 0:31:9 0:32 0:44:5 0:45
7 B 0:33:4 0:33 0:44:5 0:45
6 B 0:45:2 0:45 0:57:7 0:58
14 A 1:17:5 1:18 1:23:4 1:23
13 B 1:18:3 1:18 1:22:9 1:23
14 B 1:43:0 1:43 1:50:0 1:50
4 B 1:48:1 1:48 1:55:8 1:56
9 B 1:49:5 1:50 1:51:7 1:52
7 A 1:50:1 1:50 1:52:8 1:53
9 B 1:56:2 1:56 2:02:1 2:02
18 A 2:06:5 2:07 2:10:0 2:10
16 A 2:07:2 2:07 2:38:7 2:39
3 A 2:07:6 2:08 2:40:8 2:41
15 A 2:08:3 2:08 2:40:5 2:41
7 A 2:08:4 2:08 2:12:4 2:12
13 A 2:09:0 2:09 2:12:5 2:13
9 A 2:10:1 2:10 2:12:5 2:13
9 A 2:23:5 2:24 2:25:7 2:26
18 B 2:30:4 2:30 2:32:3 2:32
4 A 2:36:0 2:36 2:36:1 2:36
4 A 2:36:3 2:36 2:41:3 2:41
8 B 2:45:0 2:45 2:46:6 2:47
4 B 2:55:6 2:56 3:00:5 3:01
4 B 3:04:9 3:05 4:32:8 4:33
8 B 3:09:5 3:10 3:22:0 3:22
13 B 3:23:1 3:23 3:30:4 3:30
18 B 3:25:5 3:26 3:31:1 3:31
5 B 3:37:9 3:38 4:21:9 4:22
9 B 3:38:6 3:39 4:18:5 4:19
15 B 3:39:6 3:40 4:25:4 4:25
13 B 3:43:2 3:43 3:48:1 3:48
17 B 3:48:4 3:48 4:24:1 4:24
7 B 3:53:8 3:54 4:23:8 4:24
16 B 3:56:3 3:56 4:25:4 4:25
8 B 3:57:1 3:57 4:16:1 4:16





64




TABLE 6--Continued

Device
Number Time Rounded Time Rounded
& Mode On Off Off Off

3 B 3:57:2 3:57 4:23:6 4:24
6 B 3:57:2 3:57 4:03:2 4:03
14 B 3:58:8 3:59 4:26:4 4:26
13 B 4:00:1 4:00 4:16:0 4:16
6 B 4:03:9 4:04 4:04:1 4:04
6 B 4:04:7 4:05 4:25:1 4:25
18 A 4:27:8 4:28 4:28:8 4:29
18 A 4:43:9 4:44 4:50:9 4:51
17 B 5:06:5 5:07 5:07:0 5:07
13 A 5:06:7 5:07 5:23:4 5:23
17 A 5:07:1 5:07 5:23:7 5:24
7 A 5:07:6 5:08 5:23:6 5:24
15 A 5:07:8 5:08 5:23:3 5:23
4 A 5:08:6 5:09 5:24:2 5:24
9 A 5:08:8 5:09 5:24:2 5:24
5 A 5:09:9 5:10 5:23:3 5:23
18 A 5:10:5 5:11 5:23:1 5:23
8 A 5:12:9 5:13 5:23:3 5:23
3 A 5:12:9 5:13 5:24:2 5:24
6 A 5:14:4 5:14 5:24:0 5:24
14 A 5:16:5 5:17 5:23:5 5:24
14 B 6:06:6 6:07 6:21:0 6:21
13 B 8:15:1 8:15 8:23:3 8:23





65

The third procedure was to go through the data, apply-

ing a correction factor to bring the starting points of all

scenes from A Delicate Balance into line. This was neces-

sary because when the dubs were made with the video-timer,

the equipment had to be started manually. Once times were

dubbed on the tapes, by identifying a specific observable

movement it was possible to determine the correction factor

necessary to make the times synchronized for all tapes for

that scene. For A Delicate Balance, the times dubbed on

Audience Two's responses to the videotaped scene became the

basis, with Audience One's times for the live scene needing

a correction factor of -0.5 (Table 1) and Audience One's

times for the videotaped scene needing a correction factor

of -0.4 (Table 2). No correction factor was needed on the

scenes from Night Watch, as they had corresponding starting

times (Tables 4-6).

The fourth procedure consisted of rounding off the

time of each response to the nearest tenth second (Tables

1-6). Since reaction times of individuals differ even in

response to specific commands and since a more complicated

process (aesthetic response) was being asked of these aud-

iences, it seemed reasonable that to deal with data at a

more discrete level than seconds would not be pertinent to

the present investigation.

The fifth procedure was to place the data in each

table into bar graph form (Fig. 6-7). The data from A

Delicate Balance were graphed separately from the data from












Time in oooooooooori iir-r r rur- ^^r csi c~cq riM Cq tn t4) tn ttM n tO )tn 10 c tq
Minutes . . ..00000000000000000000000000000000000
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Live X oXx
Seat # o




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----------------- -X; X XX X

Aud. oo 0XXXXXXXXX
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Video x xxxxxxxxxxwwxx xx0
Seat # o ^M xxx xx



Seat X X



SAud.e t a t f

Video r-
Seat #






Fig. 6--Audience Response to the Opening Scene of Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance. Key
to audience response: O=actors are too close together/blank=ok/X=actors are too far apart.










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audience response: O=actors are too close together/blank=ok/X=actors are too far apart.


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68





90


Night Watch. The graphs placed "time in seconds" along the

horizontal axis. On the vertical axis the data for each

separate condition (live, video with prior exposure to live,

and video only) were placed next to each other, condition

by condition.

Testing Measures and Results

Of interest to the present study were three compari-

sons involving A Delicate Balance which would determine if

audience response to interpersonal distance in a live

theatre scene differs from audience response to interper-

sonal distance in a videotape of that same live theatre

scene. The three comparisons made were as follows:


Audience I Live compared with Audience I Video

Audience I Live compared with Audience 11 Video

Audience I Video compared with Audience II Video


The third of these comparisons was necessary. to see how

videotape responses of an audience with prior exposure to

the live scene will compare with the responses of an audi-

ence with no prior exposure to the live scene.

For all three comparisons the data were tested to see

whether there were significant differences at the .05 level

or better in the responses between conditions. To facilitate

data analysis the responses of "too far apart" and "too close

together" were combined into the "not ok" category.2


2Statistical advice was provided by Han J. Kim, Professor
of Statistics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.




91



The chi-square test" with the Yates Correction Factor4 was

applied to the data of each second of the scenes being com-

pared as a means of determining the degree of response con-

sistency. In addition, the Fisher Exact Probability Test

was applied, in particular to all the data where the ex-

pected frequencies were less than five in one or more of

the cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table (where the chi-

square test could not, therefore, be used).5 The Tocher

Modification was found when the same marginal total in a

2 x .2 contingency table could result from more extreme out-

comes than those yielded by the observed responses.6 In

cases where the probability of the more extreme outcomes

was found to be less than .05 (the level of significance

being used in this st.udy) and the probability of the Fisher

test was found to be greater than .05, then the Tocher

ratio was computed and a table of random numbers consulted.7

The results of each of these statistical procedures are

provided in Appendices C, D, and E.

7
3See Taro Yamane, Statistics: An Introductory Analysis
(3rd ed. ; New York: FTHar-Fer & Row, Publi-shers, 1973), pp.
761-789.

4See R. A.. Fisher, Statistical Methods for Research Workers
(11th ed., rev. New York: Hafner Publishing Company,
1950), pp. 92-95.

See Sidney Siegel, Nonparametric Statistics for the
Behavioral Sciences (New York: McGaw-Hll Book Company,
!956j, pp. 9 -- 1i .
6bid., pp. 101-104.

-7bid.




92




Tables 7, 8, and 9 summarize the results, indicating

at which seconds in each of the three comparisons there

were significant differences at the .05 level or better.

Thus, in the comparison of Audience I Live with Audience I

Video, 7 out of 547 seconds, or 1.2797% of the time, there

was a significant difference. In the comparison of

Audience I Live with Audience II Video, 134 out of 547

seconds, or 24.49725% of the time, there was a significant

difference. In the comparison of Audience I Video with

Audience II Video, 147 out of 547 seconds, or 26.86385% of

the time, there was a significant difference.

The same statistical procedures were applied to the

following three comparisons from Night Watch:


Audience III Live compared with Audience III Video

Audience III Live compared with Audience IV Video

Audience III Video compared with Audience IV Video


The results of each of the statistical procedures are pro-

vided in Appendices F, G, and H.

Tables 10, 11, and 12 summarize the results, indicat-

ing at which seconds in each of the three comparisons there

were significant differences at the .05 level or better.

Thus, in the comparison of Audience III Live with Audience

III Video, 39 out of 535 seconds, or 7.28971% of the time,


8procedural advice was provided by Charles J. Vanderziel,
Associate Professor of Economics, South Dakota State
University, Brookings, SD.





93



there was a significant difference. In the comparison of

Audience III Live with Audience IV Video, 47 out of 535

seconds, or 8.78504% of the time, there was a significant

difference. In the comparison of Audience III Video with

Audience IV Video, 18 out of 535 seconds, or 3.36448% of

the time, there was a significant difference.




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AUDIENCE R3SP0NSF TO INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE IN LIVE AND IN v'lDEOTArED THEATRE SCENES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR TI-ACHING METHODOLOGY BY ALICE HUMBY FRANTZ A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNTVER.SITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 19S1

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Copyright 1981 by Alice Kumby Frantz

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT v INTRODUCTION 1 ONE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM. 7 Introduction. • 7 Statement of the Problem. 7 Definition of Audience Response., 7 Definition of Interpersonal Distance... 8 ReA/-iew of Literature 8 Message-Sending Capabilities of Space.. 8 Theatrical Space Message-Sending....... 15 Use of Television in Education. 21 Perception of Television. 23 iHi,; ijA.L.'A. L.Uijijii>o i J. oi^ jvL i iiJj^ Jij'Ju i .....J. '-J Audience Response Data Collection Written Methodologies. ......... Oral Methodologies .... Mechanical Methodologies Development of a New Data Collection System. Individual Response Devices. Response Light Panel U s e c f Vide o t a p e R e c o r d i n g / F 1 ay b a c k System wi th the V'TR II.... • ••^99ta '-.up-p-;pTK'.r prill OP Experimental Design. Scene Selection Rook Arrangement Equipment Lavout ...,..<,...<. Production Context Audience Composition „ ,.,.,...,. Instruction of the Audience .,......,,.-.. Presentation o I" the Experiment........... FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Procedures Followed for Data Analysis..,. li 1 2 5 26 27 27 30 31 35 3 5 37 37 38 39 40 42 4 3 44 4 5 46 46

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Testing Measures and Results ..... ^ ..., 90 FIVE IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS FOR TEACHKIG METHODOLOGY .....,_._.,,,._,.._ IQO Determination, of Relevant Findings and their Implications. ,,,...„....., 100 Ax^PENDXCES A OPENING SCENE FROM A DFLICATE__BAIANCE 105 B OPENING SCENE FROM NK^HT IvAT'CH ,......,. Ill C AUDIENCE ONE LIVE COMPARED Vv'ITH AJDIENCE ONE VIDEO. ._..,....._..._.,..._.. 117 D AUDIENCE ONE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE TWO VIDEO 1 sR E AUDIENCE ONE VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE TWO VIDEO ., .... o ,..,... o ...... 159 F AUDIENCE THREE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE THREE VIDEO. .,........< .,,.,.„.,,...,, 180 G AUDIENCE THREE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE FOUR VIDEO. ...... .._._,,.„„..,..,._,,_ 201 H AUDIENCE THREE VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE FOUR VIDEO V 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............. ...,....._.. 242 Works Cited, ,....,,. 242 Sources Consulted. ,.,....,.,........,.,.. 246 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. .....,....,...< 255 IV

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Abstra.ct of Dissertation. Presenced to the Graduate Council of the University of rloricla in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy AUDIENCE RESPONSE TO INTERPERSONAL DISTANCE IN LIVE AND IN VIDEOTAPED THEATRE SCENES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING METHODOLOGY By Alice HUiiiby Frantz March, 1981 Chairman: Ricliard L. Green Major Departmep.t : Speech This study dealt with one aspect of concern to acting and directing teachers, naiiiely the messagesending capabilities inherent in the actor's use of theatrical space. The validity of videotaping live theatre scenes and using their playbacks to teach acting and directing students about space has not been investigated. Thus emerged a twofold aim for this study. First, it tested experimentally the hypothesis that audience response to interpersonal distance in live theatre scenes will differ from audience response to videotapes of the same live theatre scenes. Secondj it utilized the experimental results to consider the appropriateness of using videotapes in teaching actors and directors about interpersonal distance in live theatre A mechanical data collection system, the VTR II, \\'as created which would allow instantaneous and continuous V

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audience responses during performance. This variable theatre response device was made to be used in conjunction with commercially available videotape recording/playback systems. The individual devices allowed audience members to continuously respond in one o£ three ways (that the actors were too close together, "ok," or too far apart). The Posttest-Only Control Group Design was used to study audience response to the opening vignette of Edward Albee's A De licate Bal ance and of Lucille Fletcher's Night }:J^.i'S-h.Each experimental group responded to one scene performed live and then on videotape. The control g:-oups only viewed the scenes on videotape. The audiences for A Delicate Balance consisted of ten males and .^ix fe.niales, while those for Night Watch had seven iiiales and six females. University of Florida student volunteers comprised all audiences. For each vignette, three comparisons -;ere Kiade--the experimental group to the live scene and the videotaped scene, the experimental group to the live scene :-vith the control group to the videotaped scene, and the experimental and control groups to the videotaped scene. The data were tested to see whether at the .05 level or better in the responses between conditions there were significant differences. To facilitate data analysis, the responses of "too far apart" and "too close together" were combined into the "not ok" category. VI

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The chi-sq^uare test with the Yates Correction Factor was applied to tlie data of each second of the scenes being coripared as a means of determining the degree of response consistency. When necessary because of the small sample size, the Fisher Exact Probability Test, tlie Tocher Modification, the Tocher Ratio, and a table of random numbers were used. In all six comparisons tliere v/ere instances of significant differences, with instances of ten or Fiore consecutive seconds occurring in four of the comparisons. Considering the scene lengths were roughly nine minutes, it is part i.cularly notable that in two instances for over a half a minute straiglit (40 seconds and 42 seconds) there were significant differences in audience responses to one scene. The findings of this study indicate the inadvis ability of trying to use videotape playbacks to teach actors and directors about interpersonal distances in live theatre. VI 1

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INTRODUCTION This study tests experimentally the hypothesis that "Audience response to interpersonal distance in live theatre scenes will differ from audience response to videotapes of the same live theatre scenes." It utilizes the experimental results to consider the appropriateness ,of using videotapes in teaching actors and directors about interpersonal distance in live theatre. An audience response device developed by the experimenter allows the experimental testing of the hypothesis. A posttest-only control group design is used. University of Florida student volunteers in audiences of sixteen form the experimental and control groups. The experimental group responds to performances of the opening vignette of Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance seen live and then seen on videotape. The control group responds to the videotape of the initial live scene. Each audience member decides v/hether the actors in each scene appear "too close together," appear "ok" (at the appropriate interpersonal distance), or appear "too far apart." making continuous responses accordingly on a handheld, individual audience response device. These responses register on a light panel. Videotaping of that light panel situated beneath an instantaneous replay monitor allows subsequent data

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analysis of the experimental and control group audience responses. In order to see if the results of the data analysis raay be replicated, a repetition of the posttest -only control group design on the opening vignette of Lucille Fletcher's Ni ght Wa tch occurs. The same audience response device is used with University of Flo7-ida student \''olunteers in audiences of thirteen forming the experimental and control groups. Again, the responses of ihe experimental and control groups are analyzed. A r e V i e w o f the lit e r a t u r e i n p r o x e m i c s the a t r e ., t e 1 evision, and education shows this study to be a new undertaking. It draws upon the backgrcund of all four of these areas, particularly in teims of observations and experimental studies which begin to flourish around 1950. While the majority of the research fails to b-ear directly upon the present study, some proves useful in establishing the validity of the present research. In the area of proxeiincs, writings by Heini P. Hediger in the 1950' s describe distancing norms in animals. Edward T, Hall observes similar behavior in humans, making a major contribution when he writes of the idea of distance zones in human behavior. Follov/ing upon such descriptive writings, m,ore beha'/ioral scientists I'ecord observations and record experimental findings showing that interpersonal distance is a function of other behaviors interacting between people in a given situatioiL at a giv^en point in time. This literature appears in a variety of places -from, v*f-.-

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descriptive writings in popular books and magazines to findings of experiF.ental studies reported in professional journals. A major breakthrough in theatrical audience response studies occurs around 1950 with the development of Norman C, Meier's Audience Response Recorder. As a result of his instrumentation, within a few years dissertations appear on topics such as Methodology in Audience Research (Hayes, 1950) An Experimental Study and Comparison of the Responses of Men and the Responses of V/omen in Theatre Audiences (Morgan, 19 51), and An Experimental Study of Age as a Factor in Audie n ce Response in the Theatre (CI ark 1952). Since that time dissertation topics, thesis topics, and professional journal articles from across the country indicate continued interest in theatre performance research. Additional audience response device developments attest further to that interest. Occasionally theatre research focuses on som.e aspect of space, such as in An Exuerimental Investigation of the Influence of Stage Placement Upon Audience Resp onse (Curry, 195 3) as in An I Experimental Srudy of the At t ention-Value of Cert ain Areas of the Sta ge (Lazier, 1963), and as in Richard Schechner's writings about environmental theatre (1969, 1973). Finally, in the areas of television and of education, popular magazines and books and professional books and journals discuss the role of television in education. With [ the development of videotape in the midfifties begins i

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experimentation with its use in the classroom. In the late lS60's, articles describe the use o£ videotaping in a manner related to the present study (Gunther, Pugliesij 1968; Pugliesi, Gunther, 1969). These articles deal with the use o£ videotaping of live theatre scenes at a drama festival so that actors may view the playbacks during critique sessions. While the literature in the four areas evidences support that human normative spatial behavior exists and may be recognized, that audience response studies may be validly conducted during theatre performance, and that television may aid in education, none of the existing literature deals specifically with the problem of this study. The need for this investigation exists because in order to teach actors and directors about the use of space on stage,, some teachers videotape scenes. Their use of videotape playbacks to teach actors and directors about space is based simply on faith that an audience will respond the same to the videotape as to the live scene whether or not the audience witnessed the initial scene from audience seating. This study tests the validity of that assumption and applies the findings to considerations of teaching methodology. Chapter One provides the background of the problem. It begins with an introduction which states the problem and defines terms used in the experimental hypothesis. The major portion of the chapter consists of a review of the

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literature. A section, on the messagesending capabilities of space establishes the existence of normative and recognizable spatial behaA'"ior. A section on the use of theatrical space for message-sending discusses the ways in which the use of space in theatre affects the resulting production. A section on the use of television in education traces the increasing role of television in the classroom with the advent of videotape. Finally, a section on the perception of television and of three dimensions concludes in questioning whether audiences will "see" the same thing on videotape as they "see" live. Chapter Two deals with data collection methodology. In developing the rationale for the development of an audience response device the chapter first presents existent methodologies for audience response data collection. A description of the VTR II which the experimenter developed follows, with an explanation of its particular advantages for the present research. Chapter Three explains the procedures used. Sections follow detailing the experim-ental design, scene selection, room arrangem.ent, equipment layout, production context, audience composition, instruction of the audience, and presentation of the experiment. Chapter Four contains the data analysis and results of the experiment. It recounts the procedures followed for the data analysis along with the testing measures and results obtained. -ai..
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Chapter Five presents a determination of relevant findings and discusses the implications of the results in terms of the appropriateness of using videotapes in teaching actors and directors about interpersonal distances in live theatre. The Appendices contain the text of the opening vignette of the two scenes used in this study (Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance and Lucille Fletcher's Night Watch ) as well as the results obtained from the statistical procedures. The Bibliography consists of two sections-one of Works Cited and one of Sources Consulted. The reason for inclusion of the latter is to aid other researchers, since related works are scattered in such diverse areas,.

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CHAPTER I BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM Introduction Statement of the Problem Advances in technology made classroom use o£ videotape economically feasible for aiding in instruction. This accentuated the need for evaluative research of the potential worth of videotape in the teaching of actors and directors. The present study dealt with one aspect of concern to acting and directing teachers, namely the messagesending capabilities inherent in the actor's use of theatrical space. Some teachers videotape scenes and use their playbacks to teach acting and directing students about space, though the validity of that methodology has not been investigated. Thus emerged a twofold aim for this study. First, it tested experimentally the hypothesis that audience response to interpersonal distance in live theatre scenes will differ from audience response to videotapes of the same live theatre scenes. Seconds it utilized the experimental results to consider the appropriateness of using videotapes in T-eaching actors and directors about interpersonal distance in live theatre, Def inl tion of Audience R e sponse Audience response in this study referred to continual aesthetic judgments made by a group of university students

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8 in a controlled experiment. Those judgments were registered on a light panel through hand manipulation o£ a control device allowing three t3^pes of responses to the distance between two actors (too close together, ok, too far apart). Definition of Interpersonal Distance For the purposes of this study, interpersonal distance consisted of the actual space aesthetically prehended between two actors engaged in a theatre scene = The actual space consisted of the distance between two actors which could have been measured using a standardized system of measurement. Prehension, aesthetic perception, consisted of the way in v;hich an audience A/-iev\red a theatre scene when asked to make judgments that involved the manner in which one medium (space) of the scene interacted v:ith all the other media (i.e., time, sound, light) to create the form. Thus, in this study, aesthetic prehension of actual space dealt with audience response to appearances of the appropriateness of interpersonal distance in relationship with the other media of the scene. Review of Literatu re Message-Sending Capabilities of Space Acting and directing teachers acknowledge the messagesending capabilities inherent in the actor's use of theatrical space. This concern is well-grounded. The importance of space in interactions has been substantiated by 'Virgil C. Aldrich, Philosophy of Art (Englewood Cliffs N.J. : Prentice-Hall7 Inc., 1963), pp. 22-23. fc^ .._ *-V-. 'J^--

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.9. research in other fields. First, research has established that norms exist for spatial distancing beti'/een lower animals. Second, researchers have observed that norms exist in human spatial distancing. Third, research has affirmed that violations of the various norms can be identified. From these three points a logical progression indicated that since normative spatial behavior exists and since violations of the norms can be identified, it should be possible to use such knowledge in teaching actors and directors. Because each of these three points provide a scientific basis for what theatre artists have dealt with for hundreds of years, a few examples of representative spatial research will be discussed. Typical of the descriptive studies v/ere Heini P. Hfediger's observations regarding spatial distancing norms betiveen lower animals. Hediger called attention to the 2 concept of territorial behavior, defining territory as ", that section of space that is defended by the occupying individual or social unit (clan, herd, etc.) and that has a definite size (within lim.its typical of a species) as well as a specific internal structure." After taking into account a captive animal's behavior patterns, Hediger showed that allov/ances should be made in creating a territorial ^Heini P. Hediger, Wild Animals in Captivity trans, by Geoffrey Sircom (New York: Dover Publ'ication, Inc.. 1950), pp. 4-18, 31-42. •^Heini P. Hediger, "The Evolution of Territorial Behavior," in Social Life of E arl y Man ed. by Sherwood L. Washburn I'Chicagol Aldine Publishing Company, 1961), p, 36. •-,-— >r.'"1*-w.taw-r—

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10 environment to facilitate behaviorial adjustment, Hediger explained how knowledge o£ animals 's flight reactions and critical distances plays a role in what behavior an animal may be anticipated to exhibit in given circumstances. Hediger wrote about various spatial behaviors in lower animal forms which are reflected in human behavior. Human distancing behavior was seen to parallel the territorial behavior of lower animals in many regards o Anthropologist Edward T. Hall recognized such similar be-^_ havior in man when he stated: "Man has developed his ter\ ritory to an almost unbelievable extent. Yet we treat space somewhat as we treat sex. It is there but we don't talk about it." Since Hall's extensive descriptive writ ings on the role of space in huiuan interactions, hcv;e\'er research in the area has flourished. Hall not only delineated distance zones associated with shifts in voice used by humans in interaction, he also provided detailed descriptions of numerous other human spatial behaviors. Researchers with a diversity of interests studied the importance of space in human behavior patterns. Their work supported the pioneering work of Hall in identifying human ^Heini P. Hediger, Studies of the Psychology and Behav ior of Captive Anim als "in Zoos and Circuses ., trans, by G eoTSrey S ire cm (,Nev^ Yofn Criterion Books, 19 55 } pp 16-23, 66-67. 'Hediger, "The Evolution ," pp. 34-57, ^Edward T. Hall, "Space Speaks," in The Silen t Language (Garden City, New York: Doubleday ^"Company, Inc., 1959) p. 188,

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11 spatial norms. Patterson and Sechrest, for example, investigated the relationship between interpersonal distance and impression formation.'^ Their subjects (the people being tested) rated the social activity of the confederate (a person who appears to be a subject, but who actually is helping the experimenter test the ether person) in a dyad (two people) in terms of his friendliness, aggressiveness, extra-version, and dominance. The distances of the confederates from the subjects varied by two foot intervals from two feet to eight feet. The research of Patterson and Sechrest indicated that subjects rated confederates less social 1>active as the distance increased, except that confederates seated closest to the subject also received ratings indicating low social activity. The study indicated that an interaction between interpersonal distance and impress i n f o r m a t i o n exists. A description of how a group of acquaintances behaved in John Kennedy's presence after he received the 1960 Presidential nomination provided yet anotlier look at the interrelationship between impressions and interpersonal distances : Kennedy descended the steps of the split-level cottage to a corner where his brother Bobby and brother-in-law Sargent Shriver were chatting, waiting for him. The others in the room surged foriv-ard on impulse to join him. Then they halted. A distance of perhaps thirty feet Miles L. Patterson and Lee B. Sechrest, "Interpersonal Distance and Impression Formation," in J ournal of Personality Vol. 38, No. 2 (June, 19707, 161-166.

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12 separated them from him, but it was impassable. They stood apart, these older men of longestablished power, and watched him. thei) one by one, in an order determined by the candidate's own instinct and judgment, he let them all congratulate him. Yet no one could pass the little open distance between him and them uninvited, because there was this thin separation about him, and the knowledge they were there not as his patrons but as his clients. Tbey could com.e by invitation only, for this might be a President of the United States. '^ This report, like the study by Patterson and Sechrest, lent support to Hall's claim that norms for human distancing exist. Research affirmed that spatial violations of normative behavior can be identified. A study by Horrowitz, Duff, and Stratton^ is one of m.any finding this to be true. They determined whether spatial norms for schizophrenics differed from the spatial norms of others. Their body-buffer zone (the amount of space a person requires to be comfortable) study found that the schizophrenic group stood from an object at a significantly greater mean distance than did the non-schizophrenic group. The investigators considered a person as being approachable from eight sides and as being able to approach with any of the eight sides. From analyzing human approach data, graphs of distances plotted around a top view of a human figure indicated the subjects. ^Theodore H. Ylhite The Making of the President 1960 (New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 196lT7 p. 205. Viardi J, Horrowitz, Donald F.. Duff, and Lois 0^. Stratton "BodyBuffer Zone," in i^shiJ-.21^21.S2I}:2I3l--EliShi^^y'-' Vol. 11 (1964), 651-656.

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13 all male non-schizoplirenics placed less distance between themselves and a female than between them.selves and a male. In terms of rating their preferred distance betv/een thero.selves and. others, schizophrenics preferred larger bodybuffer zones than non-schizophrenics Casual observation, like scientific investigations, is a method of recognizing behavlorial norm deviations, Franz Boas noted over half a century ago: "Any action that differs from those performed by us habituall)-'' strikes us immediately as ridiculous or objectionable, according to the 10 emotional tone tnat accompanies it." Boas identified a relationship existing between actions and emotional tone, implying that if deviations fromi the normative action occurred, a deviatioii in emotional tone occurred to counteract the effect of changed behavior or else the newaction appeared out of place. This 5U.ggests the idea that interpersonal distance is only one com.ponent of human behavior among m.cny which are constantly interacting. An equilibrium appears to exist among these interacting behaviors. A change in one type of behavior causes alterations in other behaviors. Albert E. Sheflen and Norman Ashcraft saw spacing as a function of involvement, activity, and the environment.'^ Michael Argyle and Janet ''•^Franz Boas. Anthropology and Modern Life (New York: W.W. Norton ^ Ccmpany, Inc., Publishers 1928,), p. 154. ""^Albert E, Scheflen and Norman Ashcraft, Human T e r r i t o r i e s H o w W e B eh ay o J-^_ S"OjicejJ^ime fEngle'^ood Cliffs. N.J.T Preiitice-I-laliT "inct ,' 197&J ,"" p^.^iOg, 110, 129-131, 189-192.

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14 Dean's research showed a direct correlation between eye contact and distance as functions of affiliation or inti1 "^ macy. ^ Their v;ork revealed that eye contact decreased as proximity increased. As Argyle suggested sev'-eral years later: eye contact is one of several components of "intimacy", along with physical proximity, intimacy o£ topic, smiling and tone of voice, If we suppose that there is an overall equilibrium for intimacy, it follows that when one of the component elements is disturbed there will be some complementary change among the others to restore the equilibrium.-'--^ A study of compensatory reactions to spatial intrusion indicated that deviations from normative behavior of one person influenced subsequent behavior of the other person. The subjects in the study adjusted their behavior to the behavior of the confederates to achieve an equilibrium. A study by Markel, Prebor, and Biandt investigated the relationship between an aspect of speech (intensity) and two other factors (sex and distance). That study showed that subjects at both the "near" and "far" interpersonal distance in same-sex-as-experimenter dyads possessed lower 1 -I ^'^Michael Argyle and Janet Dean, "£ye-contact Distance and Affiliation," in Sociometry Vol. 28 (1965), 289-304, 13 Michael Argyle, The Psychology of Interpersonal Behavior (Baltimore, Marylan'Bl Penguin Books, 196 7) p. 112 = 1 A "^ M. L. Patterson, S, Mull ins, and J. Romano, "Compensatory Reactions to Spatial Intrusion," in Sociometry Vol. 34 (1971), 114-121. Norman N. Markel. Layne D. Prober, and John F. Brandt, "Biosocial Factors in Dyadic Com:nunication," in Journal of Personal ity and Social rsvcholo g_;f Vol, 23, No. 1 (1972) Tins.

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i I IS speaking intensities than subjects in opposite-sex-as~ experimenter dyads. In all four possible sex combinations o£ dyads, increases in intensity reflected increases in interpersonal distance. From studies such as these, interpersonal distancing could be seen to be related to other behavior. It contributed to the content of messages sent and receiv^ed. Theatrical Space Message-Sending Acting and directing teachers recognize that the use of theatrical space by actors conveys messages to the audience. Directors are taught the importance of picturization and composition. Picturization in this study refers to the conceptual dramatic placem.ent of characters in the stage picture in a manner suggestive of their interpersonal relationships. Composition in this study refers to the technique of achieving picturization. "^ A com.mon method of directorial control of composition is known as blocking. Blocking in this study refers to the instruction of actors as to where on stage to position themselves in relationship to each other and to their environment. Actors are taught the importance of responding to the director's blocking instructions and the techniques which allow them to develop a sense of when they are in the right place in relationship to their total stage environment. l^Alexander Dean, Fundamentals of Pl ay Directing (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965J 'pp. 109, 173.

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16 Directing texts sometimes disagree as to the specificity of guidelines needed, but they tend to concur that picturization and composition are essential to a study of directing. They realize that the handling of space affects the production as a whole. Francis Hodge, for example, writes that "the mood values of small-space occupation are 17 quite different from those of large-space occupation," He also discusses the effect of distances between two actors. He points out that variations in distance between actors show operative forces between them. "Thus, two actors may play at the extremes of the stage cr very close 18 together, with each composition having explicit meanings." According to Hodge, actors closer than six feet together enter into a climatic com.position which should find resolution in either an action of love such as an embrace or in an action of hate such as a fight. Samuel Selden devotes attention to actors in close 19 proximity. He sees close proximity between actors as an indication to the audience of characters in accord. For an example, Selden used a series of pictures of lovers on a park bench. When the lovers quarreled or engaged in conflict, they moved to opposite ends of the bench and behaved Francis Hodge, Play Directing: Analysis Communication and Style (Englewood Cliffs N.J : Prentice-Hall, Inc T 1971) p. 140. ^^Ibid. 110, ^9sam.uel Selden, The Stag e in Action (New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts, Inc., 1941) pp. 251-253.

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17 as individual, characters. When the lovers resolved their differences, they noved close together on the bench, almost appearing as one character. They reflected their accord by "getting together" literally as well as figuratively. Selden suggests that to heighten the sense of strong conflict in a composition, a director should simply place opposing sides well apart on stage by either increasing their horizontal distance apart by placing them at opposite sides of the stage or by increasing their vertical distance apart by placing them on different levels. He states: "The greater amount of space there is between them, the greater 20 will seem to be the break of accord." Some researchers exam.ined tenets stated in directing texts to see if what they prescribed held up in actuality. The work of Wade Chester Curry fell into this category. Curry explored whether audiences exhibited a greater em.otional response when scenes occurred downstage tlian v;hen they occurred upstage." With audiences rating on a fivepoint scale the "v/armth" (the degree of emotional response) of three scenes, Curry found no significant difference in the warmth rating of one of the scenes when played upstage as opposed to when played downstage. Curry concluded: "The effect of stage area upon audience response is 20ibi_d.. 2 51, "--Wade Cheste ^ ji ^ ^^ of _Sta ge__ _P l_a cement Up o n "AuGJ enc e" Response M A ThesT?^ ITnlver s'ity "oTTTttsbur gh', 195 3 ."""Tp 1-21, 24, 27. ''-Wade Chester Curry, An Experimental Investigation o f the -^ ^~" =^~" wtk: --------•i.T' i. .._ i ^ 30-32. -v ^i--^rfih,i-,—i.-Y>=-7:->a-t,—,T. ,—.-.

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18 probably less important than recent writings on the subject 22 would lead us to believe." Ten years later the work of Gilbert Neil Lazier fell into this same category. Lazier investigated the attention23 value of stage right versus stage left. The audience viewed similar pantomimes performed by an actor in the stage left area and an actor in the stage right area. Both pantomimes occurred simultaneously. A 35 mm. camera recorded the direction of vision of the audience. Other measures of audience attention used included intensity of affective response, retention, opinion, and references to actors. Lazier stated that "... the hypothesis of this study: 'The attentionvalue of the stage right area is stronger than that of the stage left area.', was not substantiated by the measures administered," These studies threw doubt upon certain specific tenets postulated in the past. They served to remind people of the danger of following prescriptive suggestions made by directing texts regarding space without considering their validity. Some researchers applied research from other fields to theatre. An example of that approach m.ay be seen in the work of John C. Stockwell and Clarence W. Bahs Drawing 22ibid. 2, ^^Gilbert Neil Lazier, An Experimental Study of the Attention-Value of Certain Areas of the Stage M.A, Thesis. University of Pittsburgh, lyoiT ^^Ibid. 47.

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19 upon findings in the field of psychology, among them upon the body-buffer zone work of Horroiritz, Buff, and Stratton, they applied relevant data to a study of how novice directors created compositions. Their study measured the effects of directors' body-buffer zones on their work. Students without directing training who were in various sections of an Introduction to Theatre class served as subjects. Application of the methodology described by 26 Horrowitz, Duff, and Stratton yielded the body-buffer zone for each subject. As each subject blocked a pair of male and female actors, the experimenters maintained distance data logs of each dyed. The data of the body-buffer zone of each individual compared with the distance data obtained when they blocked dyads showed the relationship between the body-buffer zone of novice directors and proxemics (spatial relationships) in blocking. The findings indicated that there v/as not a significant correlation between the buffer zone scores of males and the proxemic dimensions of blocking compositions. With females, however, a positi\"e and significant correlation was found between their buffer zones and the distance dimension of blocking compositions ^•^John C. Stockwell and Clarence W. Bahs "Body-Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking,'' in Empirical Research in Theatre Vol, 3, No. 1 (Summer ,' 1973) 27-40. ^^Horrowitz, Duff, and Stratton, Ibid

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20 In actual practice / directors use a variety of means of coranunicating to actors v;hat spatial behavior is needed to be in accord with the other production media. A coramon method is to deraonstrate the behavior they desire to illicit from the actors. There are, of course, differences of opinion with regard to this method. fiarold Clurrcan, a respected professional director, expressed his concern with the practice: I believe siich demonstrations dangerous. Yet they are inevitably resorted to. The peril in demonstrating to an actor how something is to be done is that it leads to imitation on the actor's part. If the director is a poor actor the result may be grotesque. If he is an excellent actorStanislavsky. Meyerhold, Reinhardt, for example-the actor becomes "crippled 5" hopeless of matching the director's brilliance ^"^ At least in Mr. Clarman's view, for a director to turn actor and demonstrate hardly seems a desirable solution. Most directors, whether they deraonstrate behavior or not, rely on using a combination of several m.ethods, including speaking metaphorically or paraphrasing to convey their desires. Some directors draw upon such varied sources as poetry, music, paintings, sculpture, and photography to convey moods or ideas. Still ethers discuss subtext, block movement and actions in infinite detail, and have actors do improvisations. Directors continually seek better methods of facilitating conuaunication with actors regarding their use of stage space. '•'Harold Clurman, On Directing (New York: The Macraillan Company 19 7 2), p ITS .'

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21 Use of Television in Education The development of television provided one possible way of facilitating such communication. With the advent of videotape in the mid-fifties, it became feasible to experiment with its use in the classroom. Television provided a teaching tool and an opportunity for pupil selfevaluation. In the area of theatre, practical application of videotape was generally considered to aid in the learning process. At the University of Texas at El Paso, for example s Charles B. Taylor offered his literature students studying Shakespeare an option of either v;riting a traditional term paper or participating in a videotape project,The grou.p of students selecting the videotape project option produced scenes they selected from Shakespeare. They handled production aspects themselves, redoing their vork until satisfied v^ith the product. The entire class and the instructor viewed the finished product, offering comments, making suggestions, and asking questions. Taylor explained: Hopefully, the students have learned a great deal about Shakespeare and drama in the process of this experience-hov; scenes are structured, ho^v action and character are developed, how poetic dialogue works and is read, and how the plays of.^^^ Shakespeare "vvere in a sense, tlie works of many,^"^Charles B. Taylor, "To Videotape Or Not To Videotape. .," in Audio-Visual Instruction, 22 (January, 1977), 33-34, 39-40. 29t Ibid. 40

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22 Anotlier typical theatrerelated \!se of videotape was to record tryouts for productions. Florissant Valley CoiEiEunity College, for example, recorded tryouts for "Spoon River Anthology." After reading a speech for the director several times and receiving suggestions, approximately two minute records of each student's audition were made on videotape. After the recording of all actors at tryouts, playbacks began, allowing each actor the opportunity for self-evaluation. "This experience was appreciated by the actors who could thus evaluate themselves both individually and in the perspective of all the actors who tried out.""""' Of particular relevance to the present study was the use of playbacks to assist communication between directors ar.d actors in discussions of pertormance behavior. Audio taping of live performances allowed instructional use of playbacks during critique sessions.^' fuKiolph Pugliesi wrote of doing that at a play festival.''" He and Robert Gunther then tried using videotaping in the sam.e fashion. '^'^ ^^Art Meyer, "AV Innovations: Television Used with Drama Trvouts," in Audiovisual Instru ction Vol. 12 (September, 1967), 728. ^ Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., "Time for Taping," in E ducational Theatre Journ al, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Oct., 1962} ," 236-239. •^^Rudolph E, Pugliesi, "The Tape Recorder for Dramatic Critique," in Educati onal Theatre J ournal Vol. 15 (1963) 62-65 ^•^Rudolph E. Pugliesi and Robert J. Gunther, "Innovations in Kigh School Theatre: A Symposium: 1. Evaluating Plays with Video-Tape," in Tlie S peech T^iif-h^er, Vol. 18, No. 2 (March, 1969), 99-101.

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23 This heralded a step forward, for although audio tapes aided in critique sessions, for discussion of the visual elements of production, the actors had to rely on their memories. Use of videotapes eliminated this problem. Pugliesi and Gunther used playbacks to critique ". stage pictures, grouping and blocking, movement, stage business, gesture and pantomime, facial expression, use of the body, characterization, focus and relationships of characters, 34 technical unity, and voice and diction." The cast was able to see the specifics under discussion, Pugliesi and Gunther were interested in what teachers thought of the possible use of videotaping in their school programs. The following response typifies the answers of the teachers: It would be extremely useful in the teaching of stage movement. It is easier to show a student what you are talking about than it is to try to explain. It is better that the student see himself than it is to see an imitation done by the teacher. ... I would also like to use it for studying eccentricities in movement, posture, and gesturing. 25 Perception of Television V/hile the use of videotape seems ideal for teaching actors and directors about space in live theatre, this belief is based on faith that audience perception of television does not differ from audience perception of live theatre. Whether or not this is true seems questionable. ^"^Robert Gunther and Rudolph Pugliesi, "Videotape at a Dram.a Festival," in Audiovisual Instruction Vol. 13 (Dec, 1968), 1132. ^'''Ibid. 1133

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Pi 1 24 or instance, when viewing televised theatre a person is illing in part of the visual information through a process known as closure. 'Awhile a television picture consists of a screen showing rows of dots of varying intensities of light, the audience is unaware for the most part that dots of light rather than solid forms are being seen. Humans are conditioned to organize informational pieces into wholes; thus, the audience members automatically fill in the missing elements, seeing a complete picture. This closure process does not occur when an audience sees live theatre. Another consideration is that in viewing live theatre scenes the audience is seeing three-dimensions, while in viewing the videotape the information is seen on a two-dimensional television screen,, It seems possible that audience response to a videotape of a live theatre scene will be influenced by prior exposure to the the live theatre scene. Viewers may or may not "see" the same thing on videotape as they see live. This study investigates the aesthetic perception of interpersonal distance in dyads of actors in live scenes and in videotapes of those scenes. It uses the experimental results to consider the appropriateness of using videotapes in teaching actors and directors about interpersonal distance in live theatre.

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CHAPTER II DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY Aud ience Respons e Data C ollection Oral, vrritten, and mechanical data collection procedures were considered for their potential use or applicability in comparing audience response to interpersonal distance in live theatre scenes with audience response to videotapes o£ the same theatre scenes. With some procedures ^ such as when audience members respond to a questionnaire, data were obtained with the audience's knowledge or control. In other procedures, such as if a hidden camera photographed overt physical reactions of an audience, the audience v/as not aware of or in control of the data being obtained. The majority of methods examined proved unsuitable for the present study, particularly those mechanical methods where data was obtained without the knowledge or control of the audience and those oral and written methods which appeared useful only before or after a performance. While they will be discussed to provide a context for audience response research, it was the mechanical methods occuriing with audience knowledge and control which most influenced the development of a new data collection system used in the present study.

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26 Writ t en M e t h o do 1 o g i'e s The inost common written methods include spontaneous mail returns, audience surveys and questionnaires, logged information and diaries, and responses to shi£t-o£-opinion and rating scales. Spontaneous mail returns, for example, provide a common source of information for a production company following a performance. Audience surveys and questionnaires deal with anything from what children prefer in children's theatre"^ to more detailed studies about particular aspects of productions. Logged information and diaries (used by compiler's of television ratings) are ways of having audiences keep track of data under study. Shiftof" opinion scales (where an earlier response of an audience member is compared with a later response) were us^d by Albert Furbay to study the influence of scattered versus 2 compact seating on audience response. Raxing scales provide graduated continuums between antonyms along which responses raay be registered. Sometimes a combination of these methods is employed in a study, while in other research, only a single method is needed. Although "paper and pencil" studies prove particularly useful for pre and post experiment measurement of ctudience states, they are "Claire Jones, "Vv'hat Do Children Want in Children's Theatre?" in Theatre Chil dhood and Youth, Issue 1 f T -7 January March 19 7 4), 222 9 § ed. note. "Albert L, Furbay, "The Influence of Scattered Versus Comnact Seating on Audience Response," in Sp£ech_ ^fonqgr£|32ls Vol. 32, No! 2 (June, 1965), 144-148.

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27 not generally used during a production. Legible manipulation of a \\'riting instrument requires conscious thought which could detract from aesthetic perception of the performance Oral Method o'logie s Oral methods of audience response data collection generally take the form of answers to specific questions, answers in personal interviews, telephone replies to surveys, voluntary or requested testimonials, group discussions, and verbal critiques. These standard oral methods preclude usage during performance. Since socially accept3l5le oral responses during events tend to be limited to simple sound or ejaculative speech forms, the possibilities for use of this method during performance are virtually nil i>l e c hanical Methodologies Mechanical methods which gather data without the audience's knowledge or control seem to provide primarily physiological measurements of response. These methods may be as simple as taking audience blood pressure readings or as complex as using an electromagnetic movement meter to measure audience member's gross body movements. A wide variety of physiological measuring devices are available. Other mechanical methods exist which aid in audience response studies conducted during performance by allowing •^Elwood A. Kretsinger, "An Experimental Study of (^ross Bodily Movement As An Index to yVadience Interest," in Sr;eech Monographs, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Nov,, 1952), 244-24S.

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28 data collection vrith audience knowledge or control. One place commercially where such mechanical audience response devices have found acceptance is in the television programming field. Television networks ABC and NBC have pilot programs tested by AST Market Research, Inc. using devices which have been installed in a Los Angeles theatre. Each seat in the theatre, Preview House, is equipped with numbered dials on which audience members register responses. The collected data ultimately appears on seismograph-like charts for analysis. Likewise, CBS uses mechanical devices to register audience response in its Viewer Session Room, There offthestreet viewers see color television pilot programs, vjith each individual continually registering responses on push button devices from which the results are 4 transferred to paper. The commercially marketed mechanical response device known as the Graphic Level Recorder has been accepted as a valid research instrument in a variety of disciplines. The device consists of pens which register audience response on graph paper that is moving at a continuous rate underneath the pens. Each pen registers a straight line on the graph paper unless the push button connected to that pen is depressed. With the depression of the button, the corresponding pen registers a deviation from its neutral '^Niel Shister, "TV Program^ming Research," in T V Book: The Ultimate Television Book ed. by Judy Fireman (Nev; York: Workman Publishing Company. 19 7 7), p. 306,

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29 position straight line. Only with the release o£ the depressed button does the pen return to its neutral linemaking position. While a useful device £cr recording audience response during performance, it is not a dependable one, its major v/eakness being the frequency and unpredictability with which the ink pens clog. A variety of mechanical equipment in the University of Iowa theatre made possible audience response studies conducted during performance. One installation used to record group audience response consisted of incorporating twin Esterline-Angus Graphic Recorders, toggle switches for each audi.ence member, a tape recorder connected to a stage microphone, a tim.ing device, and a power control unit. A second ar;paraTus installation recorded individual audience response data.^ Called the Meier Audience-Response Recorder' after Norman C. Meier, its developer, it consisted of a lap-held recorder which had a synchronous motor pushing out a strip of wa">-.impregnated tape at a constant rate. Individuals responded continuously to a theatre performance by the hand manipulation of a pointer along a six point rating scale. The pointer was connected to a stylus which registered the response on the waximpregnated tape. ^Edward C. Mabie, "The Responses of Theatre Audiences, Experimental Studies," in Spe ech M onog raphs Vol. 19, No.. 4 ^November, 1952), 235-243.' ^'ibid. 'Norman C. Meier, "The Meier Audience-Response Recorder," .n American Journal of Psycho logy, Vol. 6 3 (19 50), 87-90.

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30 Several audience response studies were the direct result of the availability of this instrumentation. Developine nt of a New Data Collection System Consideration of existing methods of data collection, particularly the feasibility of mechanical systems, resulted in the decision to develop a nexv mechanical data collection system. The graphic level recorder might have been used instead, had it not been for its unreliable ink pens. Push button or dial devices described in research literature also seemed possibilities, but such equipment was not readily available. The experimenter saw the need for the development of a flexible, inexpensive audience response device system would allow instantaneous and continuous res-oonses durincr theatre per-^ormances = The resultant data system v/as a variable theatre response device made to be used in conjunction with already commercially available videotape recording/playback sysq terns. Henceforth to be referred to as the VTR II, this device which is powered by a six volt lantern battery ^See Edwin L. Clark, An Expe ri menta l Study of Age as a Factor in Audience Response "in the Tfi ea'tre. Ph.D. DisssertaTTon. University of Iowa, 1952; Harold Lee Hayes, Methodologv in Audien ce Response. Ph.D. Dissertation. Urri veT^fty"~o'f Iowa, 1950;" William R. Morgan, An E X p e r i m e n. t al Study and Comparison of the Responses of Men ail d"~t"iie""~R ei p c-_n s e s^ f I'/o m.en' in T h eatre Audiences Ph.U^ D"i s s e~r"ta' tTo nT IJ n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1951. ^The YTR II developed from the ideas of this investigator with the technical^ advice, suggestions, and assistance of Howard B. Rothman, A.F.C. 1/ehlburg, Robert P. Idzikowski, Vfayne D. Harrington, David A. Campbell, ^ Russell E. Pierce

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31 consists o£ two main components--individual response devices and the response light panel to which they are connected (see Fig. 1) Fig. 1--VTR II Data Collection System. Shown are four o£ the twenty individual response devices, the response light panel 5 and the six volt lantern battery power source. I ndividual Response Devices The individual response devices were designed for ease of use during theatre pieces, at the same time as thought was given to developing devices that would not bias the responses registered. With both considerations in mind, moveable response devices were developed rather than permanently installed ones. They were lightweight and cylindrical in shape so that they could be easily hand-held. By not being attached to each seat, they avoided the pitfall r^t. -u ^

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32 o£ laterality (a possible source of bias) of permanently installed response devices, as each audience member could choose in which hand to hold the device. Each audience member could respond in one of three ways (that the actors were too close together, ok, or too far apart) on a cylinder equipped with a di-polar toggle switch which could be depressed in either direction to register a response. When an audience member perceived the actors' spatial relationship to be "ok," all that was necessary was for the person to release the depressed switch. The switch was springloaded so that it would then return to the neutral position. To help prevent confusion, the toggle switch end of each cylinder had the poles labeled with luminescent tape (see Fig. 2), with two close together lines indicating "too close together" and two far apart lines indicating "too far apart." The determination as to the positioning of the labeled poles of the toggle switch in relationship to each audience mem.ber was a choice left up to each individual. This was done to avoid possible biasing of results which might be suspected if this were pre-determined by the experimenter. Each cylinder contained Styrofoam filling to add stability and to help stifle toggle switch noise. This served the additional function of minimizing an audience member's hearing of and the possible influence of the responses of others.

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33 Fig. 2--Individual Audience Response Device of the VTR II l^hr^Ji f^ rr^^^ ""^y ^^ ^^ft i" the neutral position to indicate oK, or it may be moved toward the position o£ the two close together lines indicating "too clo==e together" "too?:r'apa:t?"''''" ''^ ^" '" ^^^^^^ ^^^^ indfc'atSg Response Li gh t Pa.nel The development of a light panel to visually register the responses made on the individual devices had several advantages. Use of light emitting diodes, L.E.D.s, enabled the light panel to be small and lightweight, yet capable of clearly registering audience reactions. A compact power unit, a six volt lantern battery, was sufficient to power the forty L.E.D.s used. The light panel provided the experimenter with immediate feedback of audience reactions to performances at the same time that the outflow of information from the light panel could be video recorded for subsequent playback and data analysis.

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34 The panel consisted of two horizontal rows o£ twenty L.E.D.s mounted on vector board (1 1/2" x 16 3/4") to which a white paper stylus was attached (see Fig. 3). Below each L.E.D., the stylus was labeled with a number corresponding to the number o£ the response device by which it was controlled. Each response device had two lights which registered responses on the light panel, one for each pole of the di-polar switch. An "A" was added to L.E.D. labels for lights registering "too close" responses, a "B" for "too far" responses. Fig. 3-Audience Response Light Panel of the VTR II. The response light panel was connected by cable to all response devices and by wires to the power source, the lantern battery. The wire on the back of the vector board led to one end where there were five male pin connectors, each

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35 of which handled power for four response devices. The cable running from each response device led to one of five female pin connectors with four response device cables hooked to each connector (see Fig. 4). When the male and female pin connectors were joined and the lantern battery was attached to the positive and negative wires extending out from the back of the vector board, the VTR II was complete. Fig. 4--VTR II Data Collection System Viewed in Terms of Wiring of Component Parts. Use of Videotape Recording/Playback System with the VTR II The instantaneous audience reactions registering on the VTR II light panel provided immediate visualization of responses. For the data analysis for this study, however, a Derinanent record of those responses was needed. To

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36 accomplish that task, the audience response light panel was placed on a table directly underneath the screen of a television monitor. A television camera recorded the theatre scenes showing on the monitor along with the responses o£ the audience registering on the light panel beneath it, A continuous record of instantaneous audience response to live theatre and to videotapes of those scenes could, thus, be made. The information was then available for playback and analysis

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CHAPTER III PROCEDURE Experimental Design This study tested the hypothesis: "Audience response to interpersonal distance in a live theatre scene will differ from audience response to interpersonal distance in a videotape of the same live theatre scene." Although it was only necessary to test this hypothesis on one theatre scene, it was applied to two different scenes from different plays. As a result, the replicability of results could be ascertained. The experimental design chosen, the Posttest-Only Control Group Design,"^ allowed scene presentation in a sequence similar to that used in the classroom. This was important since the implications of this study were to be applied to teaching methodology. Audience One (the experimental group) saw the opening scene of a play performed live and then saw the playback of the scene on videotape. Their responses to the videotape after prior exposure to the live scene could then be compared to their initial responses to the live scene. Audience Two (the control group) only viewed the scene on videotape. Their responses ^-Donald T. Campbell and Julian C. Stanley, Experimental and Qu asiEx perimenta l Designs for Resea rch (Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company, 1963), pp. Zb--iD. 37

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38 could then be compared to those of the experimental group The same procedure was used with a second theatre scene, with Audience Three as the experimental group and Audience Four as the control group. Scene Selection While two considerably different scenes could have been selected to see if the experimental results could be replicated, the experimenter chose to see if replicability of findings would occur using similar scenes, leaving open possibilities for investigations by others. The scenes chosen for use in this study v^^ere the opening vignettes of 2 Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance (Appendix A) and Lucille Fletcher's Night Watch ^ [Appendix B) The decision to use the initial scene of each play resulted from their similar characteristics. Both scenes contain exposition providing the audience with insight into the attitude of two main characters toward their surroundings and toward each other. The scenes are somewhat unusual in that the major characters of each play are the ones providing this information, whereas minor characters often fulfill this function. The deliberate selection of opening vignettes was done so the audience would not be confused from viewing interior scenes taken out of context. 2Edward Albee, A Delicate Balance (New York: Atheneum, 1966), pp. 3-12. ^Lucille Fletcher, Night Watch (New York: Random House, 1972), pp. 3-12,

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39 It is common to have scenes between husbands and wives, so such a combination ^^^as ideal for this study. In both scenes, the action takes place in the couple's home. The scenes are realistic in style, occur in the present, are serious in tone, and have conflict arising between the pairs. In A Delicate Balance the conflict centers around the couple's opposing attitudes towards the wife's sister, Claire. In Night Watch a conflict results when the wife says she has seen a dead body in a neighboring building and the husband finds it hard to believe, so is reluctant to report it to the police. The initial tension over Claire and over the dead body presages subsequent dramatic action and creates suspense within the vignettes. In each scene, the woman appears to be the stronger willed of the two. The scenes are similar in duration. Each character has either thirty-five or thirty-six individual times of speaking. The running time of the scenes was approximately nine minutes apiece. Room Arrangement In keeping with the application of the results of this study to teaching methodology, a room was selected v/hich could in actuality serve as a theatre classroom, A rectangular classroom (18 '6" x 39 '4") in Library East of the University of Florida at Gainesville had sufficient space for actors, audience, and video equipment.'^ The actors had rehearsed with the knowledge they would be allowed an 4.r. Video equipment assistance was provided by James W, Flavin.

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40 approximately ten foot square acting area. The experimenter chose to locate this area in one narrow end of the room because it yielded possibilities for normal audience seating in the central portion of the room. Two rows of staggered seating were used to enable all audience m.em.bers to have a clear view of the playing area. Space for the video equipment was at the opposite end of the room from the acting area (see Fig. 5). Equipment Layout Individually numbered response devices were given to each audience member, with their device num.ber determining their seat number. Cable from each device was run to the equipment portion of the room where it was connected to the response light panel. The VTR II was in working order once the lantern battery power source was connected to the v/ires from the response light panel. Both sat on a table behind the audience, with the response light panel placed directly under the screen of a television monitor, so that they could be videotaped simultaneously (see Fig. 5). Camera One, a black and white camera mounted on a tripod, was centered behind the audience. It stood sufficiently far back in the room to allow the videotaping of the entire acting area. The one-inch videotape recorder for that camera sat on a table at the rear of the room where it would not be distracting to the audience. As each live scene was presented, Camera One recorded that scene. At the same time. Television Playback Monitor One provided an

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41 r' 1 APPROXIMATELY TEN FEET SQUARE ACTING AREA l_. M I .J PLAYBACK MONITOR TWO LIGHT PANEL AND BATTERY UNDER PLAYBACK MONITOR ONE Fig. 5-Room Arrangement and Equipment Layout for VTR II Audience Response Study. (Gary Cunningham, Graphic Artist)

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42 instant replay. As that occurred, the response panel registered the responses o£ the audience to the performance. Camera Two, a black and white camera mounted on a tripod, recorded the light panel with the instantaneous replayon Playback Monitor One providing the background. The oneinch videotape recorder for Camera Two sat on the table with the other videotape recorder (see Fig. 5), The same procedure was used every time that audience responses needed to be recorded. Playback Monitor Two was used only when audiences were responding to videotapes of the live scenes. When in use, it was centered on its stand in front of the audience, positioned so that all audience members could see it. When not in use, it was wheeled on its stand to the rear of the room where it would not distract the audience. Production Context Actors with experience and established ability in theatre were chosen to act in the scenes. The experimenter viewed the scenes in advance of the study, determining that the scenes were sufficiently well-rehearsed to be ready for performance before an audience. As is often the case in classroom situations, the actors were allowed to use furniture pieces for a set along with costuming suggestive of their characters. General classroom illumination was used for lighting for the scenes. AUAl)^!r^<>vv*-n^<-T'-'!>i^r''^'*''i*^bi^t="<^<.-^^'j(-

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43 Aud j.erice Compo s it ion Four audiences of University of Florida student volunteers from several Speech/Theatre classes taught by various instructors were used. Audiences One and Two for A Delicate Balance each consisted of ten males and six females. The males and females occupied corresponding seats in Audience One (the experimental group) and in Audience Two (the control group). As much as possible males and females were seated alternately. Thus, in Audiences One and Tv/o, the seating configurations were; 123456789 10 Empty Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Empty 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 Empty Male Female Male Female Male Male Male Male Empty The scene from Night V/atch was seen by Audience Three (the experim.ental group) and Audience Four (the control group) > In both groups the seven males and six females occupied corresponding seats. Males and females were seated alternately in the following configuration: 123456789 10 Em.pty Em^pty Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Empty 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 Empty Empty Female Male Female Male Female Male Empty Empty One substitute took the place of a student volunteer. Volunteers from one type of theatre class received "crew hours" for participating. Other instructors may have used similar means to encourage students to volunteer.

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44 Instruction of the Audience It was important that all four audiences receive exactly the same instructions. A written statement v;as prepared in advance which explained the nature o£ the study and provided instructions for using the individual response devices. The following information was read by the experimenter to each audience: In theatre, the use of space is thought to help or to hinder the audience's consideration of the theatre production as art. In order to teach actors and directors about the use of space on stage, some teachers videotape theatre scenes. The use of videotape playbacks to teach actors and directors about space is based simply on faith. This investigation in which you are a participant is designed to determine the relationship between audience response to interpersonal distance between actors in live theatre scenes and audience response to interpersonal distance between actors in videotapes of the same theatre scenes At your seat is an individual audience response device. You will be asked to make aesthetic judgments throughout the scenes. There are not any right or wrong answersjust your individual aesthetic judgments. Do not pay any attention to howyour neighbor responds. I am only interested in your own individual aesthetic judgment. Please hold your audience response device at this time. If at any point in the scene in your aesthetic judgment the actors are too close together (taking all other aspects of the production into consideration), push the switch in the direction of the two close together markings on the top of your can. Continue pressing the switch in that direction as long as in' your aesthetic judgment the actors are too close together. When the distance between them is "right" again, let loose of the switch and it will pop back to neutral all by itself. If at any point in the scenes in your aesthetic judgment the actors are too far apart (taking all other aspects of the production into consideration), push the switch in the direction of the two far apart markings on the top of your can. Continue pressing the switch in that direction as long as in your aesthetic judgment the actors are

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45 too far apart. When the distance between them is "right" again, let loose of the switch and it will pop back to neutral all by itself. If in your aesthetic judgment the actors spatial relationship is "right" (taking all other aspects of the production into consideration) do not push the switch in either directionleave it in the neutral position. You may now practice using the device. Each response you make causes a light to go on on a light panel. The light panel will be sitting under a television set which provides an instantaneous replay of the scene you are viewing. A camera will be videotaping the light panel and the television replay. Later I will go back and analyze the data recorded on the videotape. Presentation of the Experiment Each audience member decides whether the actors in each scene appeared "too close together," appeared "ok" (at the appropriate interpersonal distance) or appeared "too far apart," making continuous responses accordingly on an individual audience response device.

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CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Procedures Followed for Data Analysis After the data had been gathered, a series of steps translated the acquired information into an appropriate form for analysis. The first procedure used consisted of dubbing the videotaped responses with numbers from a videotiming device. On the dubs, the timing numbers appeared continually throughout each scene beginning with 0:00:0 and progressing in tenth of second intervals. By relating the audience responses to a time frame, a detailed analysis was possible The second procedure necessary in preparing the data for analysis was to transfer the record of "what happened" from videotape to paper. Lists were needed which would indicate which persons made responses, in which mode (too close together/ too far apart) they were made, and at what I time the responses began and ended (Tables 1-6), This was i accomplished by playing back the videotapes on a oneinch j videotape recorder/player with "slow" and "stop" capabilities. V/ith the playback speed being controlled manually, time could be taken to record the required data. -"-Keying the on/off light responses to dialogue or action would have proved a gross measurement unsuitable for the present study. 46

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47 "i TABLE 1 AUDIENCE ONE RESPONSE TO LIVE SCENE FROM A DELICATE BALANCE Device Number Time Cor. Fac ^ Mode On of .5 17 B 0:27:6 0:27:1 2 B 0:32:6 0:32:1 8 B 0:39:2 0:38:7 7 A 0:44:9 0:44:4 9 B 0:55:7 0:55:2 2 B 1:17:5 1:17:0 2 B 1:31:5 1:31:0 17 B 1:33:6 1:33:1 18 B 1:45:5 1:45:0 8 B 1:59:3 1:58:8 3 B 2:07:5 2:07:0 7 B 2:08:0 2:07:5 9 B 2:09:3 2:08:8 18 B 2:13:5 2:13:0 13 A 2:29:1 2:28:6 4 B 2:29:2 2:28:7 7 B 2:29:2 2:28:7 14 B 2: 29: A 2:28:9 15 B 2:29:6 2:2S:1 5 B 2:29:7 2:29:2 16 B 2:29:7 2:29:2 8 B 2:29:7 2:29:2 9 B 2:29:9 2:29:4 2 B 2:30:1 2:29:6 16 B 2:30:4 2:29:9 6 B 2:31:7 2:31:2 3 B 2:32:8 2:32:3 15 B 2:33:2 2:32:7 6 B 2:33:3 2:32:8 16 E 2:33:9 2:33:4 19 B 2:34:1 2:33:6 6 B 2:35:1 2:34:6 16 B 2:35:3 2:34:8 6 B 2:37:3 2:36:8 12 B 2:39:6 2:39:1 6 B 2:39:8 2:39:3 6 B 2:41:5 2:41:0 4 B 2:42:6 2:42:1 17 B 2:47:2 2:46:7 17 B 2:56:4 2:55:9 I 9 B 2:56:6 2:56:1 5 B 2:59:7 2:59:2 9 B 3:00:0 2:59:5 17 B 3:05:2 3:04:7 17 B 3:13:1 3:12:6 ounded Time Cor. Fac. Rounded 0££ 0££ of -.5 Off 0:27 1:05:8 1:05:3 1:05 0:32 1:02:1 1:01:6 1:02 0:39 0:52:4 0:51:9 0:52 0:44 0:51:7 0:51:2 0:51 0:55 1:00:6 1:00:1 1:00 1:17 1:28:6 1:28:1 1:28 1:31 2:16:5 2:16:0 2:16 1:33 2:13:7 2:13:2 2:13 1:45 2:12:6 2:12:1 2:12 1:59 2:08:5 2:08:0 2:08 2:07 2:14:3 2:13:8 2:14 2:08 2:15:0 2:14:5 2:15 2:09 2:16:7 2:16:2 2:16 2:13 2:16:9 2:16:4 2:16 2 : 29 3:24:0 3:23:5 3:24 2:29 2:40:5 2:40:0 2:40 2:29 2:55:9 2:55:4 2:55 2:29 3:29:4 3:28:9 3:29 2:29 3:26:2 3:25:7 3:26 2:29 2:30:7 2:30:2 2:30 2:29 2:30:0 2:29:5 2:30 2:29 3:11:7 3:11:2 3:11 2:29 2:42:5 2:42:0 2:42 2:30 3:40:3 3:39:8 3:40 2:30 2:31:2 2:30:7 2:31 2:31 2:32:3 2:31:8 2:32 2:32 2:55:4 2:54:9 2:55 2:33 2:50:8 2:50:3 2:50 2:33 2:34:0 2:33:5 2:34 2:33 2:34:5 2:34:0 2:34 2:34 3:11:3 3:10:8 3:11 2:35 2:35:8 2:35:3 2:35 2:35 2:36:4 2:35:9 2:36 2:37 2:38:1 2:37:6 2:38 2:39 2:42:3 2:41:8 2:42 2:39 2:40:4 2:39:9 2:40 2:41 2:42:3 2:41:8 2:42 2:42 2:43:2 2:42:7 2:43 2:47 2:50:6 2:50:1 2:50 2:56 3:02:9 3:02:4 3:02 2:56 2:58:6 2:58:1 2:58 2:59 3:00:0 2:59:5 3:00 3:00 3:24:4 3:23:9 3:24 3:05 3:09:5 3:09:0 3:09 3:13 3:26:2 3:25:7 3:26

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48 TABLE 1-ContiTiued Device Number Time Cor, FaCo Rounded Time Cor .Fac. Rounded ^ Mode On of -.5 Off Off of -.5 Off 5 B 3:13:6 3:13:1 3:13 3:14:4 3:13:9 3:14 19 B 3:13:9 3:13:4 3:13 3:17:8 3:17:3 3:17 16 B 3:14:0 3:13:5 3:14 3:14:5 3:14:0 3:14 18 B 3:14:7 3:14:2 3:14 3:32:4 3:31:9 3:32 16 B 3:15:1 3:14:6 3:15 3:16:0 3:15:5 3:16 16 E 3:17:2 3:16:7 3:17 3:18:6 3:18:1 3:18 4 B 3:17:2 3:16:7 3:17 3:23:6 3:23:1 3:23 19 B 3:18:6 3:18:1 3:18 3:28:2 3:27:7 3:28 16 B 3:20:4 3:19:9 3:20 3:22:6 3:22:1 3:22 5 B 3:53:7 3:53:2 3:53 3:54:9 3:54:4 3:54 17 B 4:01:7 4:01:2 4:01 4:03:7 4:03:2 4:03 5 B 4:11:2 4:10:7 4:11 4:12:1 4:11:6 4:12 17 B 4:15:2 4:14:7 4:15 4:19:5 4:19:0 4:19 8 B 2:24:2 4:23:7 4:24 4:47:2 4:46:7 4:47 5 B 4:37:5 4:37:0 4:37 4:38:8 4:38:3 4:38 8 B 5:19:6 5:19:1 5:19 6:11:2 6:10:7 6:11 17 B 5:24:8 5:24:3 5:24 5:25:4 5:24:9 5:25 17 B 5:29:6 5:29:1 5:29 5:34:9 5:34:4 5:34 5 B 5:36:5 5:36:0 5:36 5:37:7 5:37:2 5:37 17 B 5:47:4 5:46:9 5:47 5:56:1 5:55:6 5:56 2 B 5:51:3 5:50:8 5 : 51 5:57:6 5:57:1 5:57 18 B 6:18:4 6:17:9 6:18 6:55:9 6:55:4 6:55 17 B 6:19:2 6:18:7 6:19 6:23:5 6:23:0 6:23 3 B 6:20:2 6:19:7 6:20 6:30:9 6:30:4 6:30 5 B 6:28:2 6:27:7 6:28 6:29:1 6:28:6 6:29 17 B 6:38:9 6:38:4 6:38 6:42:5 6:42:0 6:42 3 B 6:44:4 6:43:9 6:44 7:32:7 7:32:2 7:32 8 B 6:45:0 6:44:5 6:45 7:28:3 7:27:8 7:28 4 B 6:52:2 6:51:7 6:52 7:29:2 7:28:7 7:29 17 B 6:53:4 6:52:9 6:53 7:12:4 7:11:9 7:12 18 B 6:55:9 6:55:4 6:55 6:56:0 6:55:5 6:56 18 B 6:56:1 6:55:6 6:56 6:56:1 6:55:6 6:56 18 B 6: 56 : 2 6:55:7 6:56 6:56:3 6:55:8 6:56 5 B 7:01:3 7:00:8 7:01 7:02:6 7:02:1 7:02 5 B 7:16:8 7:16:3 7:16 7:18:5 7:18:0 7:18 17 B 7:25:7 7:25:2 7:25 7:32:4 7:31:9 7:32 7 A 7:39:2 7:38:7 7:39 7:44:0 7:43:5 7:44 4 A 7:40:0 7:39:5 7:40 7:41:8 7:41:3 7:41 2 A 7:41:4 7:40:9 7:41 7:43:9 7:43:4 7:43 6 A 7:41:9 7:41:4 7:41 7:42:6 7:42:1 7:42 13 A 7:42:4 7:41:9 7:42 7:44:3 7:43:8 7:44 17 A 7:42:5 7:42:0 7:42 7:43:5 7:43:0 7:43 5 B 7:44:9 7:44:4 7:44 7:45:8 7:45:3 7:45 8 B 7:46:8 7:46:3 7:46 7:49:6 7:49:1 7:49 13 A 7:54:8 7:54:3 7:54 8:15:6 8:15:1 8:15 5 B 7:56:7 7:56:2 7:56 7:57:5 7:57:0 7:57 8 B 8:17:8 8:17:3 8:17 8:38:5 8:38:0 8:38

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49 TABLE 1-Continued Device Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor .Fac, Rounded S Mode On of -.5 Off Off of -.5 Off 17 B 8:19:1 8:18:6 8:19 8:37:0 8:37:0 837 4 B 8:20:7 8 20:2 8:20 8:37:2 8:36:7 8 37 12 B 8:20:8 8 20:3 8:20 8:24:1 8:23:6 8 24 15 B 8:22:0 8 21:5 8:22 8:27:5 8:27:1 8 27 5 B 8:22:3 8 21:8 8:22 8:23:1 8:22:6 8 23 3 B 8:22:9 8 22:4 8:22 8:57:9 8:37:4 8 37 18 B 8:24:7 8 24:2 8:24 8:38:4 8:37:9 8 38 7 B 8:24:8 8 24:3 8:24 8:39:4 8:38:9 8 39 15 B 8:28:6 8 28:1 8:28 8:32:7 8:32:2 8 32 14 B 8:31:3 8 30:8 8:31 8:40:4 8:39:9 8 40 15 B 8:33:3 8 32:8 8:33 8:39:0 8:38:5 8 39 2 B 8:33:9 8 33:4 8:33 8:37:7 8:37:2 8 37 13 A 8:41:2 8 40:7 8:41 9:07:5 9:07:0 9 07 7 A 8:52:4 8 51:9 8:52 9:07:5 9:07:0 9 07 6 A 8:57:6 8 57:1 8:57 8:58:5 8:58:0 8 58 6 A 8:59:2 8 :58:7 8:59 8:59:8 8:59:3 8 .59

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TABLE 2 50 AUDIENCE ONE RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE SCENE EROM A DELICATE BALANCE OF Dev: ^ce Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor ,Fac Rounded S Mode On of ,4 Off Off of -.4 Off 8 B 0:07:8 0:07:4 0:07 1:21:4 1:21:0 1:21 17 B 0:08:5 0:08:1 0:08 0:20:0 0:19:6 0:20 J B 0:13:3 0:12:9 0:13 0:16:5 0:16:1 0:16 5 B 0:18:0 0:17:6 0:18 0:18:9 0:18:5 0:19 14 B 0:22:8 0:22:4 0:22 0:31:8 0:31:4 0:31 4 A 0:23:9 0:23:5 0: 24 0:25:5 0:25:1 0:25 3 B 0:28:5 0:28:1 0:28 0:53:7 0:53:3 0:53 5 B 0:31:3 0:31:4 0:31 0:32:7 0:32:3 0:32 / B 0:32:3 0:31:9 0:32 0:50:8 0:50:4 0:50 9 B 0:36:1 0:35:7 0:36 0:41:9 0:41:5 0:42 4 B 0:37:5 0:37:1 0:37 0:59:9 0:59:5 1:00 B 0:40:3 0:39:9 0:40 0:40:5 0:40:1 0:40 12 B 0:42:9 0:42:5 0:43 0:46:0 0:45:6 0:46 9 B 0:43:0 0:42:6 0:43 0:53:8 0:53:4 0:53 12 E 0:46:2 0:45:8 0:46 0:46:4 0:46:0 0:46 5 B 0:59:0 0:58:6 0:59 0:59:6 0:59:2 0:59 9 B 0:59:7 0:59:3 0:59 1:01:8 1:01:4 1:01 5 B 1:11:8 1:11:4 1:11 1:12:4 1:12:0 1:12 2 B 1:12:3 1:11:9 1:12 1:14:4 1:14:0 1:14 2 B 1:15:3 1:14:9 1:15 1:19:3 1:18:9 1:19 2 B 1:20:6 1:20:2 1:20 1:30:9 1:30:5 1:31 5 B 1:21:8 1:21:4 1:21 1:22:1 1:21:7 1:22 '7 B 1:31:5 1:31:1 1:31 1:36:6 1:36:2 1:36 B 1:37:2 1:36:8 1:37 1:38:4 1:38:0 1:38 8 B 1:41:9 1:41:5 1:42 2:17:0 2:16:6 2:17 :; B 1:44:7 1:44:3 1:44 2:18:4 2:18:0 2:18 18 B 1:45:2 1:44:8 1:45 1:57:5 I :57:1 1:57 5 B 1:46:8 1:46:4 1:46 1:47:6 1:47:2 1:47 z, B 1:55:8 1:55:4 1:55 2:19:9 2:19:5 2:20 17 B 1:56:3 1:55:9 1:56 2:13:0 2:12:6 2:13 4 B 1:57:7 1:57:3 1:57 2:12:9 2:12:5 2:13 5 ]5 2:00:6 2:00:2 2:00 2:01:3 2:00:9 2:01 9 B 2:05:4 2:05:0 2:05 2:06:6 2:06:2 2:06 16 B 2:05:9 2:05:5 2:06 2:06:2 2:05:8 2:06 15 B 2:06:6 2:06:2 2:06 2:07:2 2:06:8 2:07 18 B 2:06:9 2:06:5 2:07 2:13:5 2:13:1 2:13 •3 B 2:06:9 2:06:5 2:07 2:07:0 2:06:6 2:07 9 B 2:07:4 2:07:0 2:07 2:07:5 2:07:1 2:07 9 B 2:07:5 2:07:1 2:07 2:07:9 2:07:5 2:08 16 B 2:07:7 2:07:3 2:07 2:08:2 2:07:8 2:08 9 B 2:08:2 2:07:8 2:08 2:08:9 2:08:5 2:09 k B 2:08:5 2:08:1 2:08 2:09:3 2:09:9 2:09 16 B 2:08:7 2:08:3 2:08 2:09:2 2:08:8 2:09 19 B 2:09:7 2:09:3 2:09 2:15:8 2:15:4 2:15

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51 TABLE 2 --Continued Device Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Q Mode On of -,4 Off Off of -.4 Off 16 B 2:10: 2:09:6 2:10 2:10:5 2:10:1 2:10 16 B 2:11: 3 2:10:9 2:11 2:11:7 2:11:3 2:11 16 B 2:124 2:12:0 2:12 2:12:6 2:12:2 2:12 5 B 2:13: 8 2:13:4 2:13 2:14:8 2:14:4 2:14 7 A 2:214 2:21:0 2:21 2:27:2 2:26:8 2:27 2 A 2:24: 7 2:24:3 2:24 2:25:8 2:25:4 2:25 2 B 2:286 2:28:2 2:28 3:06:1 3:05:7 3:06 6 B 2:28: 6 2:28:2 2:28 2:29:0 2:28:6 2:29 16 B 2:288 2:28:4 2:28 2:29:3 2:28:9 2:29 7 B 2:28 9 2:28:5 2:29 3:05:2 3:04:8 3:05 15 B 2:29 6 2:29:2 2:29 3:27:5 3:27:1 3:27 17 B 2:29 7 2:29:3 2:29 2:51:3 2:50:9 2:51 16 B 2:29 8 2:29:4 2:29 2:30:0 2:29:6 2:30 8 B 2:29 8 2:29:4 2:29 3:16:3 3:15:9 3:16 3 B 2:30 2:29:6 2:30 2:46:2 2:45:8 2:46 18 B 2:30 2:29:6 2:30 2:37:8 2:37:4 2:37 5 B 2:30 1 2:29:7 2:30 2:30:8 2:30:4 2:30 6 B 2:30 6 2:30:2 2:30 2:31:2 2:30:8 2:31 14 B 2:30 n 2:30:3 2:30 2:45:1 2:44:7 2:45 4 B 2:31 1 2:30:7 2:31 2:39:8 2:39:4 2:39 19 B 2:31 4 2:31:0 2:31 2:51:7 2:51:3 2:51 6 B 2:32 2 2:31:8 2:32 2:32:8 2:32:4 2:32 6 B 8 2:33:4 2:33 2:34:5 2:34:1 2:34 12 B 2:33 9 2:33:5 2:34 2:37:6 2:37:2 2:37 6 B 2:36 3 2:35:9 2:56 2:37:0 2:36:6 2:37 5 B 2:36 4 2:36:0 2:36 2:37:4 2:37:0 2:37 9 B 2:39 4 2:39:0 2:39 2:42:3 2:41:9 2:42 5 B 2:41 2:49:6 2:41 2:41:8 2:41:4 2:41 9 B 2:42 3 2:41:9 2:42 2:42:5 2:42:1 2:42 9 B 2:45 1 2:42:7 2:43 2:43:3 2:42:9 2:43 9 B 2:46 2 2:45:8 2:46 2:52:9 2:52:5 2:53 4 B 2:47 1 2:46:7 2:47 3:25:6 3:25:2 3:25 19 B 6 2:52:2 2:52 3:01:3 3:00:9 3:01 9 B 2:52 9 2:52:5 2:53 3:00:5 3:00:1 3:00 6 A 2:54 1 2:53:7 2:54 2:55:8 2:55:4 2:55 9 B 3:00 .5 3:00:1 3:00 3:03:8 3:03:4 3:03 19 B 3:01 9 3:01:5 3:02 3:28:2 3:27:8 3:28 17 B 3:05 •6 3:05:2 3:05 3:10:0 3:09:6 3:10 5 B 3:13 1 : J. 3:12:7 3:13 3:14:1 3:13:7 3:14 3 E 3 : 1 3 .7 3:13:3 3:13 3:30:5 3:30:1 3:30 16 B 3:14 3:13:6 3:14 3:14:3 3:13:9 3:14 18 B 3:14 :4 3:14:0 3:14 3:21:0 3:20:6 3:21 14 B 3:14 : 6 3:14:2 3:14 3:23:8 3:23:4 3:23 16 B 3:14 :8 3:14:4 3:14 3:15:1 3:14:7 3:15 16 B 3:16 .1 3:15:7 3:16 3:16:4 3:16:0 3:16 16 B 3:17 :1 3:16:7 3:17 3:18:0 3:17:6 3:18

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52 TABLE 2-Continued Device Number Time Cor. Fac. Rounded Time Cor.Fac. Rounded ^ Mode On o£ -.4 0££ Off of -.4 0££ 16 B 3:18:7 3:18:3 3:18 3:19:2 3:18:8 3:19 17 B 3:18:8 3:18:4 3:18 3:23:1 3:22:7 3:23 15 B 3:19:8 3:19:4 3:19 3:20:4 3:20:0 3:20 13 A 3:20:3 3:19:9 3:20 3:23:3 3:22:9 3:23 16 B 3:21:0 3:20:6 3:21 3:21:8 3:21:4 3:21 6 B 3:21:7 3:21:3 3:21 3:22:6 3:22:2 3:22 16 B 3:22:6 3:22:2 3:22 3:23:1 3:22:7 3:23 16 B 3:24:0 3:23:6 3:24 3:24:5 3:24:1 3:24 5 B 3:30:3 3:29:9 3:30 3:31:1 3:30:7 3:31 13 A 3:43:3 3:42:9 3:43 4:00:5 4:00:1 4:00 3 B 3:44:5 3:44:1 3:44 3:55:1 3:54:7 3:55 8 B 3:44:6 3:44:2 3:44 3:47:2 3:46:8 3:47 14 A 3:52:3 3:51:9 3:52 4:00:5 4:00:1 4:00 19 B 3:56:6 3:56:2 3:56 4:04:7 4:04:3 4:04 8 A 4:04:4 4:04:0 4:04 4:08:2 4:07:8 4:08 5 B 4:11:2 4:10:8 4:11 4:12:1 4:11:7 4:12 9 B 4:13:9 4:13:5 4:14 4:24:1 4:23:7 4:24 7 A 4:15:8 4:15:4 4:15 4:17:7 4:17:3 4:17 5 B 4:34:3 4:33:9 4:34 4:35:0 4:34:6 4:35 2 A 4:36:3 4:35:9 4:36 4:37:4 4:37:0 4:37 5 B 4:42:6 4:42:2 4:42 4:42:9 4:42:5 4:43 2 B 4:47:0 4:46:6 4:47 5:18:1 5:17:7 5:18 5 B 4:50:8 4:50:4 4:50 4:51:6 4:51:2 4:51 19 B 4:57:3 4:56:9 4:57 5:18:1 5:17:7 5:18 17 B 5:00:4 5:00:0 5:00 5:02:6 5:02:2 5:02 4 B 5:00:5 5:00:1 5:00 5:17:1 5:16:7 5:17 5 B 5:09:1 5:08:7 5:09 5:10:4 5:10:0 5:10 8 B 5:17:2 5:16:8 5:17 6:08:3 6:07:9 6:08 9 B 5:20:3 5:19:9 5:20 5:23:9 5:23:5 5:24 5 B 5:21:3 5:20:9 5:21 5:22:4 5:22:0 5:22 3 B 5:22:5 5:22:1 5:22 5:38:5 5:38:1 5:38 17 B 5:24:2 5:23:8 5:24 5:24:9 5:24:5 5:25 17 B 5:28:8 5:28:4 5:28 5:35:4 5:35:0 5:35 5 B 5:44:5 5:44:1 5:44 5:45:2 5:44:8 5:45 2 B 5:44:8 5:44:4 5:44 5:55:2 5:54:8 5:55 7 A 6:00:7 6:00:3 6:00 6:05:0 6:04:6 6:05 5 B 6:14:1 6:13:7 6:14 6:14:8 6:14:4 6:14 6 B 6:15:0 6:14:6 6:15 6:16:4 6:16:0 6:16 18 B 6:16:7 6:16:3 6:16 6:27:4 6:27:0 6:27 3 B 6:17:0 6:16:6 6:17 6:31:3 6:30:9 6:31 6 B 6:17:2 6:16:8 6:17 6:18:6 6:18:2 6:18 19 B 6:19:0 6:18:6 6:19 7:13:6 7:13:2 7:13 4 B 6:23:3 6:22:9 6:23 6:44:5 6:44:1 6:44 17 B 6:39:5 6:39:1 6:39 6:42:2 6:41:8 6:42 3 B 6:45:2 6:44:8 6:45 7:00:0 6:59:6 7:00

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53 TABLE 2-Continued Device Number Time Cor. Fac. Roundec Time Cor. Fac. Rounded 5 Mode On of -A Off Off of -.4 Off 8 B 6:52:1 6:51:7 6:52 7:33:7 7:33:3 7:33 17 B 7:09:6 7:09:2 7:09 7:14:6 7:14:2 7:14 5 B 7:14:0 7:13:6 7:14 7:14:7 7:14:3 7:14 4 B 7:27:7 7:27:3 7:27 7:36:5 7:36:1 7:36 5 B 7:29:9 7:29:5 7:30 7:31:0 7:30:6 7:31 7 A 7:38:7 7:38:3 7:38 7:43:0 7:42:6 7:43 17 A 7:39:2 7:38:8 7:39 7:42:9 7:42:5 7:43 4 A 7:39:3 7:38:9 7:39 7:45:2 7:44:8 7:45 6 A 7:39:4 7:39:0 7:39 7:40:8 7:40:4 7:40 14 A 7:40:2 7:39:8 7:40 7:42:6 7:42:2 7:42 15 A 7:40:2 7:39:8 7:40 7:42:4 7:42:0 7:42 2 A 7:40:3 7:39:9 7:40 7:43:7 7:43:3 7:43 12 A 7:40:5 7:40:1 7:40 7:43:5 7:43:1 7:43 13 A 7:40:6 7:40:2 7:40 7:43:0 7:42:6 7:43 6 A 7:41:5 7:41:1 7:41 7:42:3 7:41:9 7:42 9 A 7:41:7 7:41:3 7:41 7:42:6 7:42:2 7:42 B 8:00:5 8:00:1 8:00 8:01:4 8:01:0 8:01 6 B 8:06:7 8:06:3 8:06 8:07:5 8:07:1 8:07 2 A 8:06:9 8:06:5 8:07 8:14:0 8:13:6 8:14 9 B 8:09:6 8:09:2 8:09 8:14:2 8:13:8 8:14 8 A 8:09:9 8:09:5 8:10 8:15:6 8:15:2 8:15 6 A 8:11:6 8:11:2 8:11 8:12:8 8:12:4 8:12 17 A 8:17:1 8:16:7 8:17 8:17:4 8:17:0 8:17 17 B 8:17:6 8:17:2 8:17 8:37:8 8:37:4 8:37 3 B 8:20:0 8:19:6 8:20 8:39:3 8:38:9 S:39 4 B 8:23:3 8:22:9 8:23 8:29:8 8:29:4 8:29 12 B 8:24:4 8:24:0 8:24 8:28:0 8:27:6 8:28 7 B 8:26:0 8:25:6 8:26 8:37:8 8:37:4 8:37 9 B 8:30:9 8:30:5 8:31 8:32:9 8:32:5 8:33 4 B 8:31:1 8:30:7 8:31 8:38:0 8:37:6 8:38 8 B 8:32:1 8:31:7 8:32 8:39:3 8:38:9 8:39 9 B 8:33:5 8:33:1 8:33 8:34:2 8:33:8 8:34 9 B 8:34:3 8:33:9 8:34 8:34:6 8:34:2 8:34 14 B 8:35:4. 8:35:0 8:35 8:38:8 8:38:4 8:38 13 B 8:37:7 8:37:3 8:37 8:38:7 8:38:3 8:38 -7 / A 8:42:0 8:41:6 8:42 8:49:4 8:49:0 8:49 13 A 8:49:1 8:48:7 8:49 9:05:9 9:05:5 9:06 2 A 8:49:7 8:49:3 8:49 9:05:7 9:05:3 9:05 3 B 8:56:9 8:56:5 8:57 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07 5 B 8:57:3 8:56:9 8:57 8:58:3 8:57:9 8:58 14 A 8:57:5 8:57:1 8:57 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07 16 B 8:57:6 8:57:2 8:57 8:58:1 8:57:7 8:58 19 B 8:58:5 8:58:1 8:58 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07 6 A 8:58:5 8:58:1 8:58 8:59:4 8:59:0 8:59 16 B 8:58:8 8:58:4 8:58 8:59:1 8:58:7 8:59 16 B 8:59:7 8:59:3 8:59 9:00:0 8:59:6 9:00

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54 TABLE 2-Continued Device Number Time Cor. Fac. Roundeo Time Cor .Fac = Rounded § Mode On of .4 Off Off of -.4 Off 16 B 9:00:3 8:59:9 9:00 9:00:5 9:00:1 9:00 16 B 9:01:3 9:00:9 9:01 9:01:6 9:01:2 9:01 6 A 9:01:6 9:01:2 9:01 9:02:7 9:02:3 9:02 16 B 9:02:3 9:01:9 9:02 9:02:6 9:02:2 9:02 16 B 9:03:0 9:02:6 9:03 9:03:3 9:02:9 9:03 16 B 9:03:7 9:03:3 9:03 9:04:0 9:03:6 9:04 6 A 9:06:2 9:05:8 9:06 9:07:4 9:07:0 9:07

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S5 TABLE 3 AUDIENCE TWO RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF SCENE FROM A DELICATE BALANCE Device Numb er § Mode 14 B 4 B 15 B 2 B 19 B 13 B 2 B 5 B 18 B 17 B 17 B B 17 B 2 B 19 B 6 A 7 B 19 B 2 B 6 B 5 B 18 B 13 B 3 B 18 B 4 B 12 B 2 B & B 8 B 9 B 19 B 2 B 17 B 3 B 8 B 12 A 14 B 19 B 18 B 16 B 7 B 8 B Time On 0: 28: 4 0: 28: 9 0: 29: 4 0: 29: 8 0: 30: 8 0: 33: 6 0: 34: 9 0: 39: 2 0: 41: 4 0: 41: 4 0: 45: 3 0: 47: 5 1: 01: 1 1: 09: 1 1: 10: 9 1: 16: 6 1: 24: 8 1: 28: 9 1: 28: 9 1: 35: 5 1 394 1 47 7 1 56 6 1 57 7 1 .57 :9 2 :03 1 2 :04 :1 2 :05 :0 2 :07 :2 2 :08 ;2 2 :08 :9 2 :28 :6 2 :28 :8 2 :28 :9 2 :29 :9 2 :32 :5 2 :35 :3 2 :38 :1 n :53 :6 2 :54 :9 3 :16 :1 3 :16 :6 3 :17 Rounded Off 0: 28 0: 29 0: 29 0: 30 0: 31 0: 34 0: 35 0: 39 0: 41 0: 41 0: 45 0: 48 1: 01 1: 09 1: 11 1: 17 1: 25 1: 29 1: 29 1: 36 1 39 1 48 1 57 1 58 1 58 2 :03 2 :04 2 :05 2 :07 2 :08 2 :09 9 :29 2 :29 2 :29 2 :30 2 : 33 2 :35 2 :38 2 :54 2 :55 3 :16 3 :17 3 :17 T ime Off 2: 17: 8 1: 02: 4 2: 17: 1 0: 33: 1 1: 02: 1: 02: 2 0: 45: 3 1: 38: 8 1: 46: 2 0: 43: 4 0: 47: 1: 03: 1 1: 05: 1: 19: 5 1: 28: 6 1: 22: 8 1: 54: 8 --> 16: 2 1: 56: 6 1. 40: 2 156: 3 1 57: 3 2 15: 1 2 16 3 2 04 5 2 :17 8 2 05 3 2 :15 .7 2 :16 :1 2 :17 :5 1 :13 '7 2 :33 :9 3 :22 :8 3 :24 :2 3 :31 : / 2 :44 :9 2 :36 :5 3 :41 :1 3 :28 :6 3 :23 ; 2 3 :18 :3 3 :23 :5 3 :23 :5 Rounded Off 2: 18 1: 02 2: 17 0: 33 1: 02 1: 02 0: 45 1: 39 1: 46 0: 43 0: 47 1: 03 1: 05 1: 20 1: 29 1: 23 1: 55 2 ; 16 1: 57 1 40 1 56 1 57 2 15 2 16 2 •05 2 •18 2 :05 2 :16 2 :16 2 :18 2 :14 2 :34 3 :23 3 :24 3 :32 2 :45 2 :37 3 :41 3 :29 3 :23 3 :18 3 :24 3:24

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56 Device Numb er f, Mode 6 A 5 B 5 B 13 B 13 B 18 B 13 B 6 B 13 B 13 B 13 B 13 B 8 A 19 A 6 A 15 A 16 A 12 A 14 B 12 B 15 B 5 B 19 B 8 A 18 B 18 B 18 B 13 B 3 B 9 B 12 B 17 B 1 B 8 A 6 B 19 B 16 B 7 / B 19 B 13 B 13 B 19 B 18 B IS B 8 B TABLE 3-Continued Time Rounded Time On Off Off 3:18:4 3:18 3:23:8 3:19:2 3:19 3:20:5 3:23:2 3:23 3:39:7 3:25:4 3:25 3:30:8 3:31:4 3:31 3:31:6 3:32:4 3:32 3:38:5 3:32:4 3:32 3:32:5 3:33:3 3:33 3:38:8 3:33:4 3:33 3:35:6 3:35:9 3:36 3:36:0 3:36:0 3:36 3:36:9 3:37:6 3:38 3:38:7 3:37:8 3:38 3:40:1 3:44:2 3:44 3:59:8 3:46:1 3:46 4:00:5 3:48:5 3:49 4:00:8 3:49:9 3:50 3:52:0 3:51:6 3:52 4:00:3 4:03:0 4:03 7:38:0 4:18:6 4:19 4:29:0 4:18:7 4:19 4:31:5 4:19:3 4:19 5:18:4 4:20:5 4:21 4:33:1 4:21:6 4:22 4:29:0 4:28:5 4:29 4:33:8 4:34:3 4:34 4:35:9 4:36:0 4:36 4:42:4 4:36:3 4:36 5:10:0 4:37:5 4:38 5:17:3 4:39:9 4:40 5:18:5 4:42:4 4:42 5:18:0 4:44:3 4:44 5:23:6 4:45:6 4:46 5:17:7 4:48:9 4:49 4:55:1 4:49:5 4:50 5:19:1 4:52:0 4:52 5:01:7 4:54:5 4:55 5:12:8 5:00:1 5:00 5:17:5 5:11:3 5:11 5:18:5 5:11:9 5:12 5:17:8 5:21:4 5:21 5:22:0 5:23:4 5:23 5:27:2 5:25:6 5:26 5:43:0 5:47:8 5:48 5:57:4 5:48:7 5:49 5:58:5 Rounded Off 3: 24 3: 21 3: 40 3: 31 3: 32 3: 39 3: 33 3: 39 3: 36 3: 36 3: 37 3: 39 3: 40 4: 00 4: 01 4: 01 3 : 52 4: 00 7: 38 4; 29 4 32 5 18 4 33 4 29 4 :34 4 :36 4 :42 5 :10 5 :17 5 :19 5 :18 5 :24 5 :18 4 :55 5 :19 5 :02 5 :13 5 :18 5 :19 5 :18 5 :22 5 :27 5 :43 5 :57 5 :59

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57 TAB LE 3 C o n t i nu e d Device Numl ler § Mode 13 B 8 B 5 B 3 B 6 B 12 B 9 B 9 B 13 B 9 B 9 B 13 B 13 B 13 B 9 B 13 B 9 B 13 B 5 B 4 B 13 B 19 B 18 B 19 B 12 B 13 B s B 13 B 6 B 13 B 13 B 15 A 2 A 14 A 17 A 6 A 9 A 14 B 3 A 14 B 17 A 3 A 8 A 14 B 14 B 15 B Time On 6:11:2 6:12:1 6:15:8 6:16:8 6:17:3 6:17:3 6:21:2 6:25:7 6:25:9 6:26:8 6:26:9 6:27:2 6:28:4 6:30:1 6:38:9 6:50:9 6:51:5 6:52:1 6:52:3 7:02:2 7:04:0 7:12:7 7:15:0 7:15:8 7:17:6 7:19:8 7:19:8 7:20:4 7:22:3 7: 26: 5 7:27:9 7:39:3 7:39:8 7:40:3 7:40:5 7:40:6 7:41:1 7:43:9 7:54:6 7:54:9 7:59:4 7:59:5 8:02:7 8:03:0 8:15:5 8:16:1 Rounded Off 6: 11 6: 12 6: 16 6: 17 6: 17 6: 17 6: 21 6: 26 6: 26 6: 27 6: 2 7 6: 27 6: 28 6: 30 6: 39 6: 51 6: 52 6: 52 652 7: 02 7 04 7 13 7 15 7 16 7 18 7 20 7 '20 7 .20 7 :22 7 :27 7 :28 7 :39 7 :40 7 :4C 7 :41 7 :41 7 :41 7 :44 7 :55 7 :55 7 :59 8 :00 8 :03 8 :03 8 :16 8 :16 T ime Off 6: 25: 1 6: 34: 3 6: 35: 9 6: 28: 1 6: 40: 6 6: 39: 3 6: 25: 6 6 : 26: 6 6: 27: 6: 26: 9 6: 38: 5 6: 27: 9 6: 29: 8 6: 49: 7 6: 51: 4 6: 51: 6 6: 52: 6: 58: 4 7: 01: 5 / 9 33: 1 7: 19: 8 7 15: 8 7 38: 4 7 335 7 24. 2 7 20 3 7 33 5 7 20 6 7 36 4 7 26 7 7 28 7 7 .44 7 :42 •1 7 :42 •5 7 :43 :1 7 ;44 :2 7 :42 :6 7 :47 :9 7 :59 :3 8 :00 :1 8 :08 :0 7 :59 :7 8 :13 :8 8 :10 :6 8 :17 :5 8 :37 :7 Off 6: 25 6: 34 6: 36 6: 28 6: 41 6: 39 6: 26 6: 27 6: 27 6: 27 6: 39 6: 28 6: 30 6: 50 6: 51 6: 52 6; 52 6: 58 7 ; 02 7 33 7 20 7 16 7 38 7 34 7 24 7 .20 7 :34 7 :21 7 •36 7 :27 7 :29 7 :44 7 :42 7 :43 7 :43 7 :44 7 1 :43 7 :48 7 :59 8 :00 8 :08 8 :00 8 :14 8 :11 8 :18 8 :38

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58 TABLE 3 Device Number ^ Mode 14 B 13 B 6 B 3 B 18 B 14 B 13 B 15 A 19 A 6 A 7 A 14 A 4 A 6 A 12 A 18 A 2 A 14 A 9 A 15 A 3 A 7 A 19 A 16 A 17 A 6 A Time On 8: 17:7 8: 18:0 8: 18:9 8: 20:0 8; 20:8 8: 21:7 8: 33:2 8: 39:9 840:7 8" 40:8 8 41:5 8 43:0 8 50:5 8 50:8 8 54:0 8 .54:9 8 56:2 8 •57:0 8 :58:3 9 01:3 9 :02:0 9 :02:5 9 :02:8 9 :03:0 9 :06:4 9 :06:5 --Continued Rounded Time Off Off 8:18 8:21:0 8:18 8:33:2 8:19 8:31:6 8:20 8:37:7 8:21 8:38:8 8:22 8:39:6 8:33 8:37:2 8:40 8:41:8 8:41 8:53:8 8:41 8:44:8 8:42 8:46:0 8:43 8:53:5 8:51 9:07:0 8:51 8:55:4 8:54 9:00:7 8:55 9:07:0 8:56 9:07:0 8:57 9:07:0 8:58 9:07:0 9:01 9:07:0 9:02 9:07:0 9:03 9:07:0 9:03 9:07:0 9:03 9:07:0 9:06 9:07:0 9:07 9:07:0 Rounded Off 8:21 8:33 8:32 38 39 40 37 42 54 45 46 54 ;07 :55 :01 :07 ;07 ;07 ;07 ;07 :07 ;07 :07 :07 :07 :07

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59 TABLE 4 AUDIENCE THREE RESPONSE TO LIVE SCENE FROM NIGHT WATCH Device Number Time Rounded Time Rounded § Mode On Off Off Off 4 B 0:25:4 0:25 0:57:4 • 0:57 13 B 0:26:6 0:27 1:03:8 1:04 18 A 0:37:1 0:37 0:38:6 0:39 4 B 0:59:4 0:59 1:01:6 1:02 17 B 1:02:9 1:03 1:12:0 1:12 18 B 1:11:4 1:11 1:18:3 1:18 3 B 1:40:6 1:41 1:47:9 1:48 7 B 1:41:5 1:42 1:50:9 1:51 5 B 1:48:0 1:48 2:05:5 2:06 15 B 2:03:7 2:04 2:04:6 2:05 15 A 2:05:4 2:05 2:11:1 2:11 6 A 2:06:4 2:06 2:10:4 2:10 15 A 2:31:0 2:31 2:33:3 2:33 14 B 2:31:6 2:32 2:40:0 2:40 17 A 2:45:8 2:46 3:27:0 5:27 14 B 3:08:1 3:08 3:22:6 3:23 17 B 3:28:7 3:29 3:31:0 3:31 17 B 3:31:6 3:32 3:31:6 3:32 17 B 3:31:7 3:32 4:19:4 4:19 6 B 3:36:0 3: 36 3:39:5 3:40 7 B 3:37:9 3:38 4:23:8 4:24 6 B 3:44:4 3:44 4:21:2 4:21 14 A 3:52:4 3:52 3:54:1 3:54 15 B 3:55:1 3:55 4:22:6 4:23 18 B 3:57:8 3:58 4:22:4 4:22 3 B 4:00:4 4:00 4:13:6 4:14 4 B 4:01:2 4:01 4:02:9 4:03 13 B 4:02:0 4:02 4:23:9 4:24 4 B 4:03:3 4:03 4:15:5 4:16 14 B 4:03:4 4:03 4:32:5 4:33 16 B 4:03:9 4:04 4:25:7 4:26 5 B 4:07:0 4:07 4:29:7 4:30 9 B 4:07:7 4:08 4:26:5 4:27 8 B 4:10:6 4:11 4:25:3 4:25 17 B 4:32:0 4:32 5:02:2 5:02 8 B 4:56:6 4:57 5:05:5 5:06 6 A 5:06:1 5:06 5:23:2 5:23 14 A 5:06:6 5:07 5:23:2 5:23 7 A 5:06:8 5:07 5:23:8 5:24 4 A 5:07:4 5:07 5:23:1 5:23 15 A 5:10:0 5:10 5:23:4 5:23 9 A 5:10:1 5:10 5:23:6 5:24

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60 TABLE 4-Continued Time Rounded Time Rounded On 0££ Off Off 5:11:9 5:12 5:22:9 5:23 5:13:1 5:13 5:24:0 5:24 5:23:6 5:24 5:31:2 5:31 5:36:0 5:36 6:18:1 6:18 6:30:5 6:31 6:32:7 6:33 7:03:4 7:03 7:05:5 7:06 7:03:5 7:04 7:36:5 7:37 7:10:9 7:11 7:13:4 7:13 17 B 8:26:0 8:26 8:28:9 8:29 Device Number § Mode 16 A 8 A 17 B 5 B 17 B 17 B 8 B 17 B

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61 TABLE 5 AUDIENCE THREE RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF SCENE FROM NIGHT WATCH Device Numt er &, Mc de 9 B 7 B 18 B 5 B 17 B 8 B 13 B 17 B 6 B 18 B 14 B 15 B 4 B 1 7 B 4 B 15 B 17 A 14 B 6 B 18 B 17 B 17 B 14 B 13 A 17 A 15 B 5 B 8 B 17 A 5 B 14 B 8 B 7 B 6 B 15 B 9 B 8 B 17 B 4 B 16 B 15 B lime On 0: 10: 4 0: 15: 4 0: 15: 6 0: 16: 3 0: 17: i 0: 23: 2 0: 26: 1 0: 30: 4 0: 34: 5 0: 36: 2 0: 36: 3 0: 37: 6 0: 39: 1 0: 39: 9 0: 41: 4 0: 46: 4 1 : 28: 7 1: 33: 6 1 38: 2 1 42: 7 1 49: 1 1 53: 8 2 18 2 2 :19 7 2 :28 1 2 :30 6 2 :49 .5 2 :53 :5 3 :26 :0 3 :26 :1 3 :26 :5 3 :28 :4 3 :35 :6 3 :36 :9 3 :37 :4 3 :37 :6 3 :42 :4 3 :46 :6 3 :48 :7 3 :54 :6 3 :55 :0 Rounded Off 0: 10 0: 15 0: 16 0: 16 0: 17 0: 23 0: 26 0: 30 0: 35 0: 36 0: 36 0: 38 0: 39 0: 40 0: 41 0: 46 1: 29 1: 34 1: 38 143 1" 49 1 54 2 18 2 20 28 2 .31 2 .50 2 :54 3 :26 3 :26 3 :27 3 :28 3 :36 3 :37 3 :37 3 :38 3 :42 3 :47 3 :49 3 :55 z :55 T ime Off 1: 01: 5 1: 13: 5 0: 19: 3 1: 27: 1 0: 27: 9 0: 36: 9 1: 01: 7 0: 33: 3 1: 02: 3 0: 41: 8 0: 44: 1 0: 45: 0: 40: 2 0: 54: 9 1: 01: 7 0: 54: 1: 45: 7 145: 1 1 47: 5 1 48: 5 1" 53: 2 05 9 2 22 2 •22 4 2 :33 6 2 :33 1 2 :54 .2 3 :01 1 3 :45 : 3 X :34 :2 3 :31 :1 3 :41 :1 4 :22 :9 3 :38 :2 3 :40 :8 4 :22 :6 4 :26 :4 4 :32 :4 3 :55 :8 4 :22 :2 4 :05 :8 Rounded Off 1; 02 1: 14 0: 19 1: 27 0: 28 0: 37 1: 02 0: 33 1: 02 0: 42 0: 44 0: 45 0: 40 0: 55 1: 2 0: 54 1: 46 1: 45 1 48 1. 49 1: 53 2 06 2 22 2 .22 2 .34 2 :33 2 :54 3 :01 3 :45 3 :34 3 :31 3 :41 4 :23 3 :38 3 :41 4 :23 4 :26 4 :32 3 :56 4 :22 4 :06

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62 TABLE 5-Continued Device Number Time Rounded Time Rounded § Mode On 0££ Off Off 6 B 3:55:2 3:55 4:14:6 4:15 4 B 3:55:9 3:56 4:03:5 4:04 3 B 3:57:5 3:58 4:00:1 4:00 3 B 4:00:1 4:00 4:17:6 4:18 5 B 4:03:2 4:03 4:28:1 4:28 4 B 4:04:7 4:05 4:06:2 4:06 4 B 4:06:7 4:07 4:14:3 4:14 18 B 4:09:9 4:10 4:25:1 4:25 15 B 4:10:0 4:10 4:14:1 4:14 13 B 4:16:4 4:16 4:24:1 4:24 3 B 4:17:8 4:18 4:18:2 4:18 4 B 4:19:8 4:20 4:21:6 4:22 7 A 4:31:4 4:31 4:31:8 4:32 7 A 5:05:4 5:05 5:39:3 5:39 4 A 5:05:7 5:06 5:23:9 5:24 6 A 5:05:9 5:06 5:20:9 5:21 8 A 5:07:1 5:07 5:40:3 5:40 15 A 5:07:9 5:08 5:23:3 5:23 3 B 5:09:6 5:10 5:10:2 5:10 14 A 5:10:2 5:10 5:23:6 5:24 16 A 5:10:3 5:10 5:23:4 5:23 13 A 5:10:5 5:11 5:23:4 5:23 3 A 5:10:6 5:11 5:24:1 5:24 9 A 5:10:9 5:11 5:23:0 5:23 18 A 5:16:8 5:17 5:23:5 5:24 5 A 5:20:2 5:20 5:23:8 5:24 6 A 5:21:8 5:22 5:24:2 5:24 17 B 5:24:0 5:24 5:30:7 5:31 17 A 5:36:2 5:36 5:38:0 5:38 5 B 5:37:8 5:38 6:35:2 6:35 14 B 6:05:7 6:06 6:08:9 6:09 18 B 6:15:3 6: 15 6:21:6 6:22 17 B 6:17:3 6:17 6:26:5 6:27 18 B 6:28:5 6:29 6:34:3 6:34 17 A 7:26:2 7:26 7:57:5 7:58 8 B 7:48:2 7:48 8:24:6 8:25 17 A 8:01:1 8:01 8:02:6 8:03 17 A 8:04:7 8:05 8:05:7 8:06 9 A 8:13:3 8:13 8:19:1 8:19 5 B 8:29:2 8:29 8:31:0 8:31

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TABLE 6 AUDIENCE FOUR RESPONSE TO VIDEOTAPE OF SCENE FROM NIGHT WATCH 63 Device Number § Mode 15 B 16 B 17 B 9 E 13 B 5 B 16 B 6 B 7 B 6 B 14 A 13 B 14 B 4 B 9 B 7 A 9 B 18 A 16 A 3 A 15 A 7 A 13 A 9 A 9 A 18 B 4 A 4 A 8 B 4 B 4 E 8 B 13 B 18 B rB 9 B 15 B 13 B 17 B B 16 B 8 B Time On 0:12:1 0:12:! 0:13:; 0:15:' 0:15: 0:24: 0:29 0:31 0:33 0:45 1:17 1; 1; 1; 1; 1: 2; 2: 2; 2 2 3; 3; 3; 3; 3: 7 6 1 X 9 4 2 18:3 43:0 48:1 49:5 50:1 3:38 39: 43: 48; 1:56:2 2:06:5 2:07:2 2:07:6 2:08:3 2:08:4 2:09:0 10:1 L. 3 : 5 30:4 36:0 36:3 2:45:0 2:55:6 04:9 09:5 23:1 25:5 37 53:8 56: 3 57:1 Rounded Off 0:13 0:13 0:13 0:16 0:16 0:25 0:29 0:32 0:33 0:45 18 18 43 48 50 50 56 07 07 :08 :08 :08 ;09 ;10 2:24 1; 1: 1: 1; 1: 1: 1: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2; 2: 2: 2: 2: 3; 3: 3; 3: 3; 3; 3; 3: 3: 3; 3: 3; 30 36 36 45 56 05 10 23 26 38 39 40 43 48 54 56 57 Time Off 0:54:8 0:19:6 02: 02: 0:28 03 05 4 3 1 3 3 5 5 7 23:4 22:9 50:0 55:8 51:7 52:8 0:44 0:44 0:57 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 02:1 2:10:0 2:38:7 40:8 40 12 12 12 25 32 36 2: 2: 2: o d^ < 2; 2 2: 2 4; 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 7 3 1 41:3 46:6 3:00:5 4:32:8 3:22:0 30 31 4 1 3: 3: 4:21:9 4:18:5 25:4 48:1 24:1 23:8 25:4 16:1 Rounded Off 0:55 0:20 1:02 1:02 0:28 1:03 1:05 0:45 0:45 0:58 1:23 1:23 1: 1: 1 1 2 50 56 57 53 02 2:10 2:39 2:41 41 12 13 13 2:26 2:32 36 41 47 01 33 22 30 31 22 19 25 48 24 4:24 4:25 4:16

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64 Device Number ?^ Mode 3 B 6 B 14 B 13 B 6 B 6 B 18 A 18 A 17 B 13 A 17 A 7 A 15 A 4 A 9 A 5 A 18 A 8 A 3 ft 6 A 14 A 14 B 13 B TABLE Time Rounded Time Rounded On Off Off Off 3:57:2 3:57 4:23:6 4:24 3:57:2 3:57 4:03:2 4:03 3:58:8 3:59 4:26:4 4:26 4:00:1 4:00 4:16:0 4:16 4:03:9 4:04 4:04:1 4:04 4:04:7 4:05 4:25:1 4:25 4:27:8 4:28 4:28:8 4:29 4:43:9 4:44 4:50:9 4:51 6-Continued Rounded Time Off Off 3:57 4:23:6 3:57 4:03:2 3:59 4:26:4 4:00 4:16:0 4:04 4:04:1 4:05 4:25:1 4:28 4:28:8 4:44 4:50:9 5:07 5:07:0 5:07 5:23:4 5:07 5:23:7 5:08 5:23:6 5:08 5:23:3 5:09 5:24:2 5:09 5:24:2 5:10 5:23:3 5:11 5:23:1 5:13 5:23:3 5:13 5:24:2 5:14 5:24:0 5:17 5:23:5 6:07 6:21:0 8:15 8:23:3 5:06:5 5:07 5:07:0 5:07 5:06:7 5:07 5:23:4 5:23 5:07:1 5:07 5:23:7 5:24 5:07:6 5:08 5:23:6 5:24 5:07:8 5:08 5:23:3 5:23 5:08:6 5:09 5:24:2 5:24 5:08:8 5:09 5:24:2 5:24 5:09:9 5:10 5:23:3 5:23 5:10:5 5:11 5:23:1 5:23 5:12:9 5:13 5:23:3 5:23 5:12:9 5:13 5:24:2 5:24 5:14:4 5:14 5:24:0 5:24 5:16:5 5:17 5:23:5 5:24 6:06:6 6:07 6:21:0 6:21 8:15:1 8:15 8:23:3 8:23

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65 The third procedure was to go through the data, applying a correction factor to bring the starting points of all scenes from A Delicate Balance into line. This was necessary because when the dubs were made \srith the videotimer, the equipment had to be started manually. Once times were dubbed on the tapes, by identifying a specific observable movement it was possible to determine the correction factor necessary to m.ake the times synchronized for all tapes for that scene. For A Delicate Balance the times dubbed on Audience Two's responses to the videotaped scene became the basis J with Audience One's times for the live scene needing a correction factor of -0.5 (Table 1) and Audience One's times for the videotaped scene needing a correction factor of -0.4 (Table 2). No correction factor was needed on the scenes from Night Watch as they had corresponding starting times (Tables 4-6), The fourth procedure consisted of rounding off the time of each response to the nearest tenth second (Tables 1-6). Since reaction times of individuals differ even in response to specific commands and since a more complicated process (aesthetic response) was being asked of these audiences, it seemed reasonable that to deal with data at a more discrete level than seconds would not be pertinent to the present investigation. The fifth procedure was to place the data in each table into bar graph form. (Fig. 6-7). The data from A Delicate Balance were graphed separately from the data from

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81 80:£ X X lO'Z X 90 :£ X S0:£ X P0-£ £0:£ Z0:£ I0'-£ X X 00--£ X X 6S:Z X X 8S--Z X X LS-Z X X 9S:Z X X SS:Z X VS-Z X X £S:Z X ZS:Z X IS:Z X OS^Z X ev-z 2P-Z T3 IV-Z X 3 917:Z X fi St/^Z X VV-Z o £V-Z u Zt7:Z 1 1 Il7'-Z 00 f--. Of :z X 00 6£:Z X 00 00 8£:Z X 00 00 fL, l£'Z X 00 00 9£--Z X 00 00 S£:Z X 00 V2-Z X 00 Z£-Z XO X 00 Z£:Z xo X 00 X I£:Z X 00 X 0£:Z 00 X 6Z:Z 00 8Z:Z 00 LZ'Z 00 9Z:Z 00 SZ:Z 00 t'Z:Z 00 £Z:Z 00 ZZ'-Z ox 00 £fS9Z86£t7S9Z8 £t'S9 /86£t7S9Z8 £1;S9Z86£t7S9Z8 IIIIII TIIITT IIIIIT p =!fe :t == (D 3 o o £ C O +-' • 0) -P (D +-i •M -H Td t-H > rt Ti l-H tS t3 tJ rt ^ S 3 !— 1 -H (U 3 i-i • H O 3 > -H o < l-( hJ W < -^ >in < H > LO -.*-'.V-^i'r<*rr*

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84 ZZ:S X 00 X 93:5 X 00 X SZ:S X 00 X t/Z^S 000 X 000000 xo 00 00 sz-s 0000 000 00000000000 0000000000 00 ZZ:S 0000 000 00000000000 0000000000 00 IZ:S 0000 000 00000000000 0000000000 00 OZ:S 0000 000 00000000000 0000000000 00 6i:S 0000 000 00 00000000 0000000000 00 8i:S 0000 000 00 00000000 0000000000 00 Zi:S 0000 000 00 00000000 0000000000 00 9i:S 0000 000 00 00000000 00000000 00 Si:S 0000 000 00 00000000 00000000 00 l7i:S 0000 000 00 00000000 00000000 00 £i:S 0000 000 00 00000000 000 0000 00 ZI^S 00 000 00 00000000 00 00 00 IT:S 00 00 00 00000000 00 00 00 OI^S 00 00 xo 000 000 00 00 60:S 00 000 00 80 --S 00 000 ZO:S 00 000 s 13 90:S X 00 CD SO:S X t'0:S X •H 4-> £0*-S X ZO:S X X IO:S X X 1 1 00:S X X J-6S:i7 X X • 8S:i7 X X •H LS-V X X PH 9S:i7 X SS:i7 X VS'V X £S'V X ZS:t? X TS:i7 X OS^I? X 6P-V X 8V-tf X LV-V X 9V-V X SV-f X \?P'V X £V-V X Zt?:t7 X It^^t' X £1/'. ;9Z86£17S9Z8 £17S9Z86£17S9Z8 £t7S9Z86£l7S9Z8 .r-l 0) IIIITI TIIIII IIIITI Time : Minut( Aud. Ill Live Seat # Aud Ill Video Seat # Aud. IV Video Seat #

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PAGE 96

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PAGE 97

90 Night. Watch The graphs placed "time in seconds" along the horizontal axis. On the vertical axis the data for each separate condition (live, video with prior exposure to live, and video only] were placed next to each other, condition bv condition. Testi ng Measures and Results Of interest to the present study were three comparisons involving A Delic ate B alance which would determine i£ audience response to interpersonal distance in a live theatre scene differs from audience response to interpersonal distance in a videotape of that same live theatre scene. The three comparisons made were as follows: Audi.ence 1 Live compared ^vi1'h Audience I Video Audience I Live compared with Audience II Video Audience I Video compared v.'ith Audience II Video The third of these com]>arisons was necessary to see how videotape responses of an audience with prior exposure to the live scene will compare v^'ith the responses of an audience v/ith no prior exposure to the live scene. For all three comparisons the data were tested to see \vhether there were significant differences at the .05 level or better in the responses between conditions. To facilitate data analysis the responses of "too far apart" and "too close 2 together" were com.bined into the "not ok" category. Statistical advice was provided by Han J. Kim, Professor of Statistics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.

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91 The chisquare test' with the Yates Correction Factor' was applied to the data of eacli second of the scenes being compared as a means of determining the degree of response consistency. In addition^ the Fisher Exact Probability Test was applied, in particular to all the data v/here the expected frequencies were less than five in one or more of the cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table (where the chisquare test could notj therefore, be used) ^ The Tocher Modification was found when the same marginal total in a 2 X .2 contingency table could result from more extrem.e outcomes than those yielded by the observed responses. In cases where the probability of the more extreme outcomes was found to be less than .05 (the level of significance beiiig used in this study} and the probability of the Fisher test was found to be greater than .05, then the Tocher ratio was computed and a table of random numbers consulted. The results of each of these statistical procedures are provided in Appendices C, Dj and E, ''See Taro Yamane Statist ics : An Intr od uctory Analy sis (3rd e d ; New Yo r k : Ha r i; e r §" Pxiw, PubTTsnersT 1973 TTvV 761-789. See R. A.. Fisher, Statistic al Methods for Resear c h Workers (11th ed. rev.: New Yorlc: Hafner Publishing Company, 19 50) pp. 92-95. -'See Sidney S'iegel, Nonparametric Statistics for the B e h a v_i or a_l__ Sci ence s "(In e w^ToTFT "Tic G raw -Hi il Book Comp any 19 5o"j,~pp, "96-111. ^Ibi_d. pp. 101-104. ^Ibid.

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92 Tables 7, 8, and 3 summarize the results, indicating at which seconds in each o£ the three conrnarisons there were significant differences at the .05 level or better. Thus, in the comparison of Audience I Live with Audience 1 Video, 7 out of 547 seconds, or 1.2 7971 of the time, there was a significant difference. In the comparison of Audience I Live with Audience II Video, 134 out of 547 seconds, or 24,497251 of the time, there v;as a significant difference. In the comparison of Audience I Video with Audience II Video, 14 7 out of 547 seconds, or 26.86385% of the time, there was a significant difference. The same statistical procedures were applied to the following three comparisons from Night Wa tch : Audience III Live compared v/ith Audience III Video Audience III Live compared xvith Audience IV Video Audience III Video com.pared with Audience IV Video The results of each of the statistical procedures are pro8 vided in Appendices P G, and H, Tables 10, 11, and 12 sum.marize the results, indicating at which seconds in each of the three com.parisons there were significant differences at the .05 level or better. Thus, in the com.parison of Audience III Live with Audience III Video, 39 out of 535 seconds, or 7.28971% of the time, q Procedural advice was provided by Charles J. Vanderziel, A.ssociate Professor of Econom/ics, South Dakota State Universityj Brookings, SD.

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93 there was a significant difference. In the comparison of Audience III Live v/i th Audience IV Video, 47 out of 535 seconds, or 8.78504% of the tirae, there was a significant difference. In the comparison of Audience III Video with Audience IV Video, 18 our of 535 seconds, or 3.36448% of the time J there was a significant difference.

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94 TABLE 7 AUDIENCE I LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE I VIDEO Number of Consecutive Seconds Significant at .05 Level or Better (Time V/hen Occurs') 7:01 7:40 1 1 8:11 8:22 9:00 9:02 Note: This comparison is drawn from the data available in Appendix C.

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95 TABLE 8 AUDIENCE I LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE II VIDEO Number o£ Consecutive bee onds 5 26 7 1 10 1 4 3 \1 1 40 3 4 7 1 4 1 1 2 Sign ificant at .05 Level or Better (Time When Occurs) ~ 0:53 0:54 1:01 1:05 1:09 ~ 1:34 1:36 1:42 1:44 2:33 2:42 3:33 3:36 3:39 3:52 3:54 4:21 4:31 4:33 4:40 5:19 6:17 6:19 6:24 6:27 6:31 6:37 7:27 7:31 7:34 8:43 8:45 9:01 9:02 Note: This comparison is drawn from the data available in Appendix D.

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96 TABLE 9 AUDIENCE I VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE II VIDEO Number of Consecutive Seconds 5 3 1 3 2 1 1 20 3 1 2 1 11 1 42 3 14 1 t J. 1 1 1 Significant at .05 Level or Better (Time \\\ii ^n Occurs) 54 = 0. 58 1 00 1: 03 1 .05 1 08 110 1 17 1: 18 1 20 1 22 1 25 144 2 30 2 32 2 34 2 36 = 2 37 3 :32 • 3 39 4 :20 4 :22 4 32 4 :36 4 :38 • 5 19 6 :32 6 34 7 :16 7 29 7 :33 7 :39 8 :21 8 :43 9:07 Note: This comparison is drawn from the data available in Appendix E.

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97 TABLE 10 AUDIENCE III LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE III VIDEO Number of Consecutive Seconds Significant at .05 Level or Better (Time When Occurs) 9 1 2 20 0:16 0:24 0:26 0:35 0:36 0:39 0:58 1 1:02 1 1 3:28 3:37 4:15 5:20 5:23 5:38 Note: This comparison is drawn from the data available in Appendix F.

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98 TABLE 11 AUDIENCE III LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE IV VIDEO Number of Consecutive Seconds Significant at .05 Level or Better (Time When Occurs) 11 5 8 2 0:16 0:26 0:32 0:36 0:40 0:47 0:49 0:50 0:54 0:55 2:09 2:13 2:24 2:26 1 1 S 2:30 3:57 3:59 4:03 1 3 5:19 5:21 5:23 Note: This comparison is drawn from the data available in Appendix G.

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99 TABLE 12 AUDIENCE III VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE IV VIDEO Nu-mber o£ Consecutive Signific ant at .05 Level o r Seconcfs Better (Time ivhen O ccursJ^ 1 1-43 6 2:08 2:13 3 2:24 2:26 4 2:36 2:39 1 3:37 1 4:15 1 5:38 I 6:21 Note: This comparison is drawn from the data available in Appendix H.

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CHAPTER V IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS FOR TEACHING METHODOLOGY Determination of Rele vant Findings and their IniDlicati ons From the results (Tables 7-12), the conclusion may be drawn that audience response to interpersonal difference in live theatre scenes at times-will significantly differ (at the .05 level or better) froni audience response to interpersonal distance in videotapes of the saiTie theatre scenes. For a clearer view of the potential effects of this significant difference in the teaching of actors and directors about space, a more detailed consideration of tlie results is necessary. Tlie data analysis yielded a second by second determination of whether a significant difference existed between the audience responses being compared, with the results noted in terms of consecutive seconds in Tables 7-12. While the pattern of the results from A Delicate Balance In A Delicate Balance th.e comparison of the experimental group with the control group to the videotaped scene had the greatest number of seconds of significant difference, while the comparison of the experimental group to the live and videotaped scene had the least number of seconds of significant difference. In Night Watch on the other hand, the comparison of the experimental group to the live scene with the control group to the videotaped scene had the greatest number of seconds of significant difference, while'' the comparison of the experimental and control groups to the videotaped scenes had the lea'st number of seconds of significant difference (see Tables 7-12). 100

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101 did not hold true for Night Watch, in all the comparisons there were at least some seconds v/hen there was a significant difference. It is possible that instances of only one second duration might be discussed in class, but since teachers generally focus discussion on segments of dramatic action or activity of longer duration, it seems improbable. Looking at the number of significant consecutive seconds of response in each co.Tirparison therefore, ^^;ill provide more relevant information for consideration by teachers. If significant differences are only considered where they occur for at least ten consecutive seconds, for example, then at least one instance occurs in four comparisons when that criteria is mec (Table 13). In fact, in two instances for over half a minute straight (40 seconds and 42 seconds) there were significant differences in audience responses to A De li c ate Balan ce. Considering the scene lengths were roughly nine minutes (9:07 for A Delicate Balance and 8:55 for Night Watch ) these intervals of disagreement between audiences have definite implications for teaching methodology. The findings of this study indicate that an audience responding to interpersonal distance in a live scene could be anticipated to respond somewhat differently to interpersonal distance when seen in a videotape replay of that same scene. Discrepancies could be expected to arise between how actors in a scene might view interpersonal distance seen in a videotape replay as opposed to how other members

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102 TABLE 13 INSTANCES OF SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE AT THE .05 LEVEL OR BETTER FOR TEN OR -MORE CONSECUTIVE SECONDS 1 L compared with 2 V =26 sec. 1:09 1:34 10 sec, 2:33 2:42 11 sec. 4:21 4:31 40 sec. 4:40 5:19 1 V compared with 2 V -~ 20 sec, 1:25 1:44 11 sec. 4:22 ~ 4:32 42 sec. 4:38 5:19 14 sec. 7:16 7:29 3 L compared with 3 V -20 sec. 0:39 0:58 3 L compared with 4 V -11 sec. 0:16 0:26 Note: In the above table, Arabic numerals followed by "L" indicate the Audience # seeing the performance live, vAile Arabic numerals followed by "V" indicate the Audience # seeing the performance on videotape.

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103 of the class who had seen the scene live first might view the same replay. For a student who saw the scene live and then on videotape to discuss it with another who had not first seen it live, differences in response could also be expected. These conclusions are not meant to serve as a general admonition against using videotape in teaching acting and directing classes (it may well be valid, for example, for showing consistency of characterization), but it is hoped it will discourage reliance on videotape recording of scenes as an instructional tool for teaching about interpersonal distances between actors. • n>-> ^r'-iFii^-o.-.Tji-e.'';

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APPENDIX A OPENING SCENE FROM A DEJ/rCATB BALANCE SOURCE: Edward Albee, A Delicate Balance (New York; Atheneum, 1966), pp. 3-12. ~; ,,,V,^, —

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AGNES: What I find most a.stonishin.g--aside from that belief of nine, w'hich never ceases to surprise ine by the very fact of its surprising lack of unpleasantness, the belief that I might very easily--as they say--lose my mind one day, not that I suspect I am about to, o.r am even nearby TOBIAS: There is no saner woman on earthy Agnes, AGNES: for I'm not that sort; merely that it is not beyond happening: some gentle loosening of the moorings sending the balloon adrift--and I think that is the only outweighing thing; adrift; the becoming a stranger in the Vv'orld, quite uninvolved, for I never see it as violent, only a drifting-what are you looking for, Tobias? TOBIAS: We will all go mad before you. The anisette. AGNES: Thank you, darling. But I could never do it-go adrift-for what would become of you? Still, what I find most astonishing, aside, as I said, from that speculation-and I wonder, too, sometimes, if I am the" only one of you to admit to it: not that I may go mad, but that each of you wonders if each of you might not-why on eai th do you want anisette? TOBIAS: I thought it might be nice. AGNES: Sticky, I will do cognac. It is supposed to be healthy-the speculation, or the assumption, I suppose, that if it occurs to you that you might be, then you are net; but I've never been much comforted by it; it follows, to my mind, that since I speculate I m.ight, some day, or early evening I think more likely-some autumn dusk-go quite mad, then I very well might. Some autumn dusk: Tobias at his desk^ looks up from all those awful bills ^ and sees his Agnes, mad as a hatter, chewing the ribbons on her dress. TOBIAS: Cognac? AGNES; Yes; Agnes Sit-bythe-fi re her mouth full of ribbons, her mind aloft, adrift; nothing to do with the poor old thing but put her in a bin somewhere, sell the house p move to Tucson, say, and pine in the good sun, and live to be a hundred and four. Thank you, darling. 105

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106 TOBIAS: Cognac is sticky, too, AGNES: Yes, but it's nicer. Sit by mej, hm? TOBIAS: To my mad lady, ribbons dangling, AGNES: And, of course, I haven't worn the ribbon dress since Julia's remarriage. Are you comfortable? TOBIAS: For a little. AGNES: What astonishes me most-aside from my theoretically healthy fear--nOj not fear, how silly of m_e--healthy speculation that I might some day become an embarrassment to you what I find most astonishing in this world, and with all my years ... is Claire. TOBIAS: Claire? Why? AGNES: That anyone--be they one's sister, or not--can be so well, I don't want to use an unkind word, 'cause we're cozy here, aren't we? TOBIAS: Maybe, AGNES: As the saying has it, the one thing sharper than a serpent's tooth is a sister's ingratitude, TOBIAS: The saying does not have it that way. AGNES: Should. Why are you moving? TOBIAS: It's getting uncomfortable, AGNES: Things get hot, move off, huh? Yes? TOBIAS: I'm not as young as either of us once was. AGNES: I'm as young as the day I married you-though I'm certain I don't look it--because you're a very good husband most of the time. But I was talking about Claire, or was beginning to, TOBIAS: Yes, you were.

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107 AGNES: If I were to list, the mountain of my burdens-if I had a thick pad and a month to spare-that bending my shoulders most with the possible exception of Julia's trouble with marriage ^ would be your-it must be instinctive, I think, or reflex that's more like it-your reflex defense of everything that Claire TOBIAS: Stop it, Agnes, AGNES: Are you going to throw something at me? Your glass? My goodness, I hope not that awful anisette all over everything. TOBIAS: No. AGNES: What then? TOBIAS? I shall sit very quietly AGNES: ... as always TOBIAS: yes, and I shall v/ill you to apologize to your sister for what I must in truth tell you I thought a most o AGNES: Apologize! To her? To Claire? I have spent my adult life apologizing for her; I will not double my humiliation by apologizing to_ her. One does not apologize to those for whom one Neat, Succinct, but one of the rules of an aphorism An epigram, I though. An epigram, is usually satiric, and you and T am grimly serious. Yes? I fear so. TOBIAS must? AGNES: TOBIAS AGNES : TOBIAS AGNES: TOBIAS: AGNES: To revert specifically from Claire to effect, what would you do were I to spill my marbles? her TOBIAS: Put you in a bin somewhere, sell the house and m.ove to Tucson. Pine in the hot sun and live forever.

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108 AGNES: Hmmm, I bet you would, TOBIAS: Hurry, though. AGNES: Oh, I'll try It won't be simple paranoia, though, I know that. I've tried so hard, to well, you know how little I vary; goodness, I can't even raise my voice except in the most calamitous of events, and I find that both joy and sorrow work their wonders on me more evenly, slowly, within than most; a suntan rather than a scalding. There are no mountains in my life nor chasms. It is a rolling, pleasant land verdant, my darling, thank you. TOBIAS: We do what we can, AGNES: Our motto. If we should ever go downhill, have a crest made, join things, we must have that put in Latin--We do what we can--on your blazers, over the mantel; maybe we could do it on the linen, as well. TOBIAS: Do you think I should go to Claire's room? AGNES: No. Either she will be down, or not. TOBIAS: We do what we can? AGNES: Of course. So, it will not be simple paranoia. Schizophrenia, on the other hand, is far more likely-even given the unlikelihood. I believe it can be chemically induced ... if all else should fail; i£ sanity, such as it is, should become too much. There are times when I think it would be so proper, if one could take a pill--or even inject--just remove, TOBIAS: You should take drugs, my dear, AGNES: Ah, but those are temporary; even addiction is a repeated temporary stilling. I ami concerned with peace.. not mere relief. And I am not compulsive~-like like some like our dear Claire, say, TOBIAS: By kind. Please?

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109 AGNES: I think I should want to have it fully even on the chance I could not come back. 'iVouldn't that be terrible, though? To have done it, induced, i£ naturally looked unlikely and the hope was there?^ Not be able to come back? Why did you put my cognac in the tiny glass? TOBIAS: Oh I'm sorry, AGNES: I'm not a sipper tonight; I'm a breather; ray nose buried in the glass, all the wonder there, and very silent. TOBIAS: I thought Claire was much better tonight. I didn't see any need for you to give her such a goingover. AGNES: Claire was not better tonight. Honestly, Tobias! TOBIAS: I thought she was. AGNES: Well, she was not TOBIAS: Still AGNES: Thank you, I have decided, all things considered, that I shall not induce, that all the years we have put up with each other's wiles and crotchets have earned us each other's company. And I promise you as well that I shall think good thoughts--healthy ones, positive--to ward off madness, should it come by uninvited. TOBIAS: You mean I have no hope of Tucson? AGNES: None, TOBIAS: Helas AGNES: You have hope, only, of growing even older than you are in the company of your steady wife, your alcoholic sister-in-law and occasional visits from our melancholy Julia. That is what you have, my dear Tobias, Will it do? TOBIAS: It will do. AGNES: I've never doubted that it would. Hark,

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APPENDIX B OPENING SCENE FROM NIGHT Vv^ATCH SOURCE: Lucille Fletcher, Night Wa.tch (New York: Random House, 1972), pp. 3-12.

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.JOHN: Elaine! For God's sake. Do you know -what time it is? ELAINE: Gh I'm sorry. Did I wake you, dear? JOHN: No, You SiTioked a pac-k? Another one? What's happening to you, Ellie? ELAINE: Me? Nothing ... I couldn't sleep. JOHN: Come o_n.! It's been three nights in a row. Cigarette butts all ox'-er the place Crossv/ord puzzles ELAINE: It's just my old in5omnia--it s inherited. Daddy had it. Granddaddy suffered from it. We are night owls, moon people. JOHN: Ellie I've heard all that before What's the problem? Me? ELAINE: Of course not, darling. JOHN: I couldn't make it hom.e any earlier for dinner, ELAINE: I understood that, dear. JOHN: It isn't Blanche, is it? ELAINE: Blanche--? JOHN: W8ll--she's beginning to get on m}^ nerves „ ELAINE: She's been nothing but a darling I've loved having her-JOHN: Then what is it? Insomnia isn't inherited. You've always had a reason Is it Carl? That bastard ELAINE: C-Carl? JOHN: Blanche said you'd been talking about him, ELAINE: That's nonsense. She brought him up. I didn't Look, you're a day person and I'm a night person. When you go to bed, you fall asleep like that. 'But I---well, sometimes-the very minute my head touches the pillow^ right away the candles light up. The m.usic begins. And I'm a girl in crinoline standing at the entrance to a gorgeous ballrooin But I can't go to a ball obviously 9 It .:> O 111

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112 JOHN: Okay okay. Something's got to be done about you, Ellie 9 9 4 ELAINE: What? Just bundle me off to Switzerland? JOHN: Well, why not try it? Nothing else seems to work. It could be a--vacation. What's so funny? ELAINE: You. You need a vacation, darling. Please. Stop prowling around, I'm perfectly all right, JOHN: Then what is it? ELAINE: Nothing, absolutely nothing. Don't make so m.uch of it--really, dear. I'll end up thinking I'm some sort of freak. JOHN: Oh, the hell with it, Ellie 9 ELAINE: John, darling, you're tired, I'm tired. But if there's something you i\rant to talk about anything special then let's just stay down here for a little while together, I'll make some coffee, like the old days. And I won't smoke. It might help-both of us JOHN: I'm sorry but it's late, and I'm hungry, if you don't mind--That was a pretty lousy dinner Helga cooked up tonight, ELAINE: I thought you were dieting., JOHN: Care for anything? Glass of milk maybe? ELAINE: No thanks, JOHN: Well, I'm starved, ELAINE: John Hold me please, JOHN: Ellie What the hell is the matter with you? You're like ice. You're shaking. Here-put this over you. Who the hell's been fooling with this thermostat? ELAINE: John! John--will you come up here? Please. Right away, please! John! John! John, will you please come up here? John! JOHN! JOHN: Now, what in God's name! What is it? What's the matter?

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113 ELAINE: Oh John, oh, John, it's horrible! It's horrible JOHN: What? What is? ELAINE: Just look out that window, please. It's--it's hideous. JOHN: What in hell are you talking about? ft o ELAINE: Right across where the shade's up Oh, my God. They've pulled it down. Did you see it? Didn't you see it? JOHN: What? ELAINE: A--dead man ... He was sitting there with his eyes wide open. Dead. Dead. Dead. JOHN: Oh, my God, what kind o£ crazy-ELAINE: He was there, John. The shade went up just as I was lighting a cigarette. I saw him. Just sitting there. His head was all loose and wobbly, his eyes were fixed. They had this glassy stare. They were looking at me, JOHN: Now, wait a minute, wait a minute. This is wild. How do you know the man was dead? ELAINE: Well, I've seen dead people before. He was bleeding, JOHN: Bleeding? From where? ELAINE: His mouth. There was this trickle of blood like a dark snake in the moonlight. I grabbed the drapes I'm going to call the police. We've got to right away „ JOHN: No, wait a second. Take it easy. Let's not get carried away. I'm perfectly willing to call, but let's get some things straight. ELAINE: John, we can't be like those people in the newspapers who watch people murdered outside their windows JOHN: You're sure he wasn't an illusion? The moonlight or shadows--?

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114 ELAINE: He was perfectly real! That shade's never moved in all the months we've been here. Oh please, let's call. We're wasting time. Those people will get away. JOHN: How old was this man? ELAINE: Oh-middle-aged. And his hair looked sort of silvery in the moonlight. He was sitting in a big wing chair.. JOHN: A wing chair? ELAINE: Yes, definitely. I could see the arms and the high curved back. Like that one, sort of. Only not of velour some sort of green brocade material, JOHN: Green brocade! At that distance? ELAINE: It's not that far away. I notice such things. Let's call. Why won't you call? JOHN: Okay, okay. Hello. I'm calling to report a bodyj, a dead body. My address? The Kips Bay district. 316 East Thirtieth Street. Manhattan. Wheeler. John Wheeler, ELAINE: All slumped down with his head back, staring at me, with those glassy eyes, JOHN: Hello. My name is John Wheeler. I live in Manhattan on East Thirtieth Street, And my wife thinks-ELAINE: Thinks, John! I saw him, JOHN: --she's just seen a mian's dead body in a building opposite the rear of our house. Look, Can't we get on with it, Sergeant? ELAINE: What's he saying? JOHN: Ellie, relax. He's getting me Homicide Hello. HELLO. Oh, sorry. My name is Wheeler, Lieutenant. 316 East Thirtieth Street. Manhattan. I'm calling to report what may have been a murder ... At least my wife says she saw this dead man in a tenement window-an abandoned tenement facing the rear of our house. He was sitting in a chair ELAINE: A green wing chair.

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115 JOHN: A green wing chair. Bleeding from the mouth a middle-aged man. What? No, not now. The shade's down. Yeah. No, My wife said the shade was up, and then it went down. Come on, Lieutenant That's what my wife says, and she's very, very sure. Ivheeler. IV-H-E-E-L-E-R, 316 East Thirtieth Street ... Yes. That'd put it on Twenty-ninth Street, middle of the block Right I'm on Wall Street Securities Securities IVhat? Yes Right Got it. Okay^ well, thanks a lot. Sonsabitches, ELAINE: Is he sending somebody? JOHN: Yes, but you'd think we' d committed a crime. Some cop's coming here to talk to us, ELAINE: Here? But it happened over there! JOHN: Ellie, I don't run the police department. They send somebody here--they send somebody there. Hell, I'd better get some pants on. Just take it easy, huh?

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APPENDIX C AUDIENCE ONE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE ONE VIDEO Key : A, B, C, D ^ four cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table Arabic #s followed by "L" = /f of audience (live scene) Arabic #s followed by "V" = # of audience (video scene) x^ = the chi-square test statistic (where the critical value at the .05 level when df = 1 is 3.84) Fisher = the Fisher exact probability Tocher ^ the exact probability with the Tocher Modification = j;iot applicable

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APPENDIX D AUDIENCE ONE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE TWO VIDEO Key: I A, B, Cj D = four cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table Arabic #s followed by "L" = # of audience (live scene) Arabic Ss followed by "V" = # of audience (video scene) X" = the chi-square test statistic (where the critical value at the .05 level when df = 1 is 3.84) Fisher = the Fisher exact probability Tocher = the exact probability with the Tocher Modification = not applicable

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APPENDIX E AUDIENCE ONE VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE TWO VIDEO Key: A, B, C, D = four cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table Arabic #s followed by "L" = # of audience (live scene) Arabic #s followed by "V" = # of audience (video scene) x^ = the chi-square test statistic (where the critical value at the .05 level when df = 1 is 3.84) Fisher = the Fisher exact probability Tocher = the exact probability with the Tocher Modification _= not applicable

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APPENDIX F AUDIENCE THREE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE THREE VIDEO Key : > A, B, C, D = four cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table Arabic #s followed by "L" = # of audience (live scene) Arabic #s followed by "V" = # of audience (video scene) x" = the chi-square test statistic (where the critical value at the .05 level when df = 1 is 3.84) Fisher = the Fisher exact probability Tocher = the exact probability with the Tocher Modification __ = jiot applicable

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APPENDIX G AUDIENCE THREE LIVE COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE FOUR VIDEO Key: A, B, C, D = four cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table Arabic #s followed by "L" = # o£ audience (live scene) Arabic #s followed by "V" = # of audience (video scene) X= the chisquare test statistic (where the critical value at the .05 level when df = 1 is 3.84) Fisher = the Fisher exact probability Tocher = the exact probability with the Tocher Modification __ = not applicable

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220 p a OS fH ^-> rp +J rP! -P iH CT> RS m M C >> •H o (U (=1 rt o ri OOLO ft •H O e W • nyon g Co g ^ d c o o; Oi -H T3 X3 ^ s s • m oj 3 Oh -H C£5 2: ard Publ >^ ^ o o u >> ^ -r-l •H (U o *-> Cii rH O 03 C/) H Cii and n-We W u o OJ 0) ( X ^ -H o oj 1:5 o K TS H < 0) COO 5^ .. S^ o o o n3 W Q) o o o 3 40 ^ o o o < P t/i o o o d) •H • • • d) (-/) tin r-: — 1 rH ed, se ssachu r-) If) Oj X o O GO Pi> o o o H rt il ^ -H p -^ OS t3 OJ o fDi II o o o (U ^ •U K) rt CD Ai o > K) Kl bO Sis II (— 1 tH rH o ^ pq t3 to oj Cfi ,i
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APPENDIX H AUDIENCE THREE VIDEO COMPARED WITH AUDIENCE FOUR VIDEO i Key: A, B, C, D four cells in a 2 x 2 contingency table Arabic #s followed by "L" # of audience (live scene) Arabic ffs followed by "V" = # of audience (video scene) x^ -= the chi-square test statistic (where the critical value at the .05 level when df = 1 is 3.84) Fisher -the Fisher exact probability Tocher = the exact probability with the Tocher Modification = not applicable

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0) • H O rH CD 01 • o o o o o o o o o ^,, g^ 2; ^ ?; iz; o o o o o o 22 ?:; 2: 2; z: ooooooooc ;?: a-. 12^ 5^ s?. 2^ z; 2 <^ o o o o PI c pi z; o u -p 5u c 1 1 LT, CTl 1 1 1 1 I • 1 ' 1 I CSl l--1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 i 1 i r<; <=J1 I 1 1 1 1 1 i i -^ CO 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 .-J vO i 1 1 1 1 I i • I 1 > 1 1 > 1 1 1 o O i 1 1 1 ' • 1 ^o ^o 1 1 1 1 I i 1 1 i 1 1 j ^^ r-^ I 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 i > 1 CO 00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 o O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 o O 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 s 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 > 1 C5 O 1 1 1 I 1 1 ' r C I I K') t^rCT/ CC OO CO CTi CO CO CTl CTl 00 I COCOCO'd-CDOCD'^KltO-^-^O I ri-~~o i-T; '^ •^=* u-i O vo LO LO I ~.. ...i C-'OOOOOOOOOOOO I o'~"0 0'— I'^-ooooooi.nLnocriCT-c-iC-iOv^D^^ooo^ i O O O O O O O O O O O Q CT; O^. O C' LD LO IT) O O --O O O LO I O O O O O LiT LO LO C~J 03 i-O UO O \0 O !-0 O ^D LO LD \0. i ^^r-^^-iI-^0000000000000000 I o o o o CDOOUOl-OOOrNlCVitvlOi— ir-!00(NlOOO O O CT' en CT; O O O VD vO O OO QO o o o o o _> 0!Nir<100rHT— IrHOrHi— lOCr-iOOO I o o o o ooooooooooooooooo o o o o O 133 <0 O O O O C.1 ^0 K1 K) LT) LO UO LO LD "5i•* ^ LO '-'"' l^ IJ^ i; O C > II O > m ^ o > il Time Sec. OOOOOOOOOrHrHr-lr-1t-Hr^-*'J^l-^'-'">'^'*'*^'^ '-"'-'"' ^^"^ — ) i-H >— ; r-W — H r-1 r-i i-H tH i-H rH ,— I ^ rH iH t--; i~o ro ^'^ to to to ^o Ki r-3 rj rsj CM r^ r-cXl a-, O ;-^ rv! ;0 ^:3LO \C r-CO CTi O i-H CO lO •=* LO O t-00 O O O O O O O O O iH i-H --'. r-^ ^-! r-H rH n-i r-i r-i r-3
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223 -p ri fn o AJ iJ C !-> rt (D o ^ o c H 2 i2 •W fH H O C W-n •H O W • e !1 1 1 1 o o 1 1 n3) 43 1 1 S R 1 1 oj ;3 1 1 Pi Z ?-4 • 1 1 i C) o 1 1 .q '-< t 1 O -P 1 1 O c3 1 t H K 1 i 00 1 ^ O 1 ^ 1 ^ "^ 1 O K> 1 o • 1 H O 1 (N3 1 fH cr> 1 !H LO i-O r ^ vO 1 •H • 1 Pi O 1 o o o o o 2 IS ^ o o o o o 2: 2: z 2 :^ o o ;2 z o r-O 1 ^^ UO O 1 Ol x—{ I— i 1 ^£3 Ln rH 1 (VI 00 r— 1 1 o o o o Sf; 2 2: 2; O O O I r ^O ^J:i \0 I 1 C3 O O I I O O O I I I— I rH 1— I 1 I CD CD C3 i I ... 1 I CD O O I O (Nl oq (N! o O r-J -^ •=:t r-H i-H to CO OO CO to to t— I "^ -^ "^ r-H rH r— i O CD O t-H I— i O O O O O O 00 cn CTi cn 00 CO O ^ "* CD O ^ tn LD tr> ^ ^ "^ O CD O ^ to CXI CNl OJ to to o o o o o o o o o ?: P2; 2; o o o ?: z 2 (^aoOLOOLOoooo^-Jooc(NlCNlolJ^lJ^Lnl-OL^LJ^L.olnLOOo O O O LO CD L.O O O O O O CO CO CO '-O \0 O LD LO LO UO LO UT LO U") LO o o i—lOOrHOi— IOCDOCrHv.O'OvDi-Hi— iOt-Hi— IrHt-Hr-HrHrHt— tr-lOO H OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCD 0C30000O000 o PI > II O "* o p; > II u to M o > II pq ^ r^ o > II < to o ^ 6 u •H 0) H CO LO LO ro vo r-c~i>^-. r~r-~ t-~ r-c--t--. f-i>r-~ 'o vo vo vo vo \c >-o vo o -o LO LOvO^vO^OLOvOOOOOOOCT, CDOOCrjCriCOCOOOOOODCOCOOOCOOOr--vO 1 J i cococo^-ovovD>^D^ov£>o^x3>0'0\Ovo\D^-. r~~i~^i-^c-~-f--i~--t^t-~t^oo oo i>r^ t>r-CO r-uo LO LO -^ K) lO t^) <=d"* LO LO LO LO LO lo LO LO lo LO o r--. CTl CD rH Cn! f"! ^JLO VO r-00 C) O t-H CO to 'CT LO vT) C"-CO CTl C2 — t 'VJ to ^ LO \0 Cv; to ^^ to rO to to to to lO r-") ^ "^i=3-Id'^t ^ -^ ^ "^ ^ LO LO lO to LO LO LO OOOOCDOOOOOOCDOOOOOCDOOOOOOOOOO

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224 rt Jh O ^-> +-> C •J-> oJ (U o ^ •H m i-i H o fcOLO •H o CO ^ u o o t:J rQ p; E CT3 3 Pi Jz; >-( (D o ^ • H O i-' o c3 H Pi !-i CD r-f ^-— 1 u o H CD H (in ooocoooo ooooooooo ooooooooo o o c O OJ C3 o ,— I ^ i-H l•-^ U-) CD O bT t-O K) t^ O O O l-^ iH 1—^ rH CTi 1—1 iH rH rH tH I— I CSl rW t— t CD O O O O O O o C3 O o O O o O o o a o o O o o o o t-l I— 1 1—1 rH tH rH rH rH • t-i rH rH t-H o o c o o o OOOOODCOODOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOC 00^*0000 0000000000000000 -^^^--^bOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO •^•^•^>^000'*'*'q--^^'=t'*^t'^O000000000 ^o to bO ro t-~Lo LT) CNi (-vj rj cNi r0 oooooooooooooooo oo<^icsir-jcNiLooocN!{virooo oo\C'v0'0ocr,oo-=J'^'^'-'^'i-'=*-=d-^-^0)Oooooooo c^or^r^r^r^tNlOOl-OLOLnLnL.^LnLOLnuoolOOOOooooo o OOOC>OOOiOOO 00 II LO LO "sf '^ ** r-^ rHrHOOOOOOOOOOOOCM(M vO O vC ^^ O VO Cv) r^J CNi CN! C-^ r^ (Nl c to K5 to K) to K2 to rH rH rH rH rH rH to j| rH rH rH rH rH r-i rH rH r-i rH rH rH .H rH tH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH ^ i>r~r-r~t~t--^-^ rH r-l -H rH rH rH rH r-^ rH I-^ rH INI OJ f-^l r-J C^J OI OJ O! C^ CM ^ ,— ) ,_| r-H rH rH rH rH rH .H r-^ r-< r-i -—i r-i t—i •,—> r-{ r-t \—{ r-\ r-{ to m r--coav Ot~ii-Nit-o'*LnvDr-.occriOrHiNito-^LOM3C--oocnorHcsito^ ^ ,j LO L--; LCv^) O O O O O O O O O rH rH ^ rH rH rH rH rH rH r-l r-J (Nl OJ CM rg ,p-l (^ •• •• •• *• •• •• '• "• • •• *• • • *" •' *' [--i C/j O O O O "H rH T-^ rH i—* t-H .H rH fH r-i rH tH iH I— I rH t—l rH rH ^-^ rH rH rH iH rH

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22; +-J oj 5h (U 4-> +J Pi +-> OJ vO I I o CD o o I I vO \C ^O Ki I K) K"; t-O I>1 LO LO LO 00 r t—l I— I I— ( O I (Vl c^;i C~-J o I • u • 1 o o o o I =* oo o I "Ct o -^ I K1 CS! CM 1 r-~to i-o I en [> r~1 o o o I K1 K) l-O I r-~ i>~ c^ I ex; CO CO I o a o I o o o I ... p o o o r--f-~. I>K) O CM CM to K5 t-O ir-, U~i i-T' CO O LO LO OQ CO 'X3 CJ^ CT) CTi [-CJ ^ vO f^ !>C-^ i-HrHrH'*riCZTlCTl'^-^^-JOOOOrHtNlrjOOCj [^ OOOOOOOOOC5 o o o c o o o o o o o o o o o o o o r-. ^^CM c CO CO r-: cvi r-j oooc:ooooocoooocz;ooooooocoLoo-*-=d-L.OLOLO ooooooooc:. oooocccooooovoototo^ooo CDOOOOOOOO-^'-'^Tl-^r-Hr— IrHt—lt— lv£JvO\X3 0-lOOO(TlC7iC7l LO LT! LO O LC LO LO LO LT) CM l>] CM CM I— I ^ t— t r-l I— I i-H rH ri ~ I^CM CM CM OOOr-JcDOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO (—• r~l CO o r~) o o r(^1 (Ml CM CM r-. t>r-r-r-~ O o o LO o LO LO LO LO LO r-1 r— ; CD C3 C-) o o o •^ •=d•^ '^^ o o o o O cr. cr-. CD-I Ci^ o 01 o^ cr, CTi cn O o O o o o o o tn LO L.0 LO LO LO 1J^ LO LTl a-: en rj^. C^J o CM rsi CM r-j (M • o O o o o o o f^~-. C3 o o o .— ( I— 1 !— H rH !-H o o o o o o o o o o o II o II II PQ -^ r^ o> II <; to Time Sec. OOOOOCOOOOCSCDOOOOOCDOi— ll— Ir-Hi— IrHC^r-ltOtOtO P_lr-HT— lrHrHrNiCMCMrM[OtOtOtOtO-^^- ^HrHi—lrHrHrHr-HrHr-lt— ll— (iHi— Ir-Hr-ir-lr-ii— !i— ll-^^^^-^r-^r^r^r^r^^^ (M (Nl C-J to OJ CnI CM CM C^J rH ^ rH r— ; O O O O O CTv CJ-i CT-. O >— I rH r-l O] r-] OJ ^—IrHi— ItHrHrHr— IrHiHi— IrHrHrHrHi— ii— IrH i— (i— I^Hr^^-^rHtH Lo^r--coa', o-— icMtO'=d-LO'or~-cocriOrH(N!tO'*Loor~-coc7>Oi— iCM r J (Ml CM CM C-l ^0 to to to to to to to to to -sd-^ "* "* "=! "=* '^ "^ '^ '-O IJ') LO ,HrH— StHi-Hi— it— !i— IrHr-lrHrHi— !<— I^Hi— lrHi-11— li— IrH rH i-i' rH rH rH rH i— I

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226 4-> oJ U 0) +-! 4-' Pi •!-> eS O O rCl *H o o o o '_' o o O O O m i-, ,1, 2 ??: 2 z z: 2: S: Z 5? H o Pi b/jLO H O w e fH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I O 0) 1 1 I 1 1 1 i 1 1 TJ ,£3 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 c e f 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 crj d 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 fii 2; 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 1 1 III! 1 1 1 1 (D o i 1 ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rCj -H 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 o +-> 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O Pj 1 I 1 1 i 1 lilt HC^ 1 1 1 L 1 1 1 1 1 o o o o o o o o o o i-^ o o CD o o o O O O CD CD o o O o o o O O O O /^ [— =d=* r— >=* '3'^ =+<=* <^ 13 rH rvj M t— 1 rj CNl N OJ CN] (Nl o O o O o o o o o o o o o o o S ^, S 2 t/5 o o n tn t/5 '/) U) f> a> n> Cl) o o o o o o o o >^ >.>H >" >-' 2; 2: 2 ;^ 2: 2; z; I— I CO u-> cr> o 00 •^ ^O 'O CM I O O I to to r^ c^ CO 00 o o o o • B o o to to c-00 00 00 i-~~, r-. o ^ ^ o o o rH I O CD O a) i-i OOOOC5-iJ^r-ll-'-Jl-nt---OOOOrsl:SlC3 oooooooooooooooi-ni-;3-M:>-^'^i-oooooi-ni.oo ooooooooooooooocnt--rjr-r--cnoocDO'0'Oo O'0 0i00^0'.0\0^v00000"*i— iOOCDOrHr-H;— ir— IrHOICTiO oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo fM X 0(Ni'Nio(~-orNir<;(N!f-virsioooor.a3r--t^rN]r--r--r--r-~-i-OLno C'=i--^-0-^'=^'*"*"^'*OOOO^vOiHtOi-HiHOOOOO'3^CriO O LO LT) C5 U-j Lf] LO LO LO tJ-) CD O O O 'J") O-l -^ O •^ -^jCri LO UO LT, LO CSl INI o 00C30OCD00CD00 CDOOtOl-Or-^l-OLOtOi— (r-!r-(i— iOOO o II INI rH l—i C 11 PQ -^ ,^ o > < >o (L> ci tJ •H (D H W r^ fM r^j 1— i rH rH ^slCMt^3^-JrNltvl^o^O^O^^tHoor--^ot---i>-oooc500000 ,-^ i-H rH r-i rH 1— I iH rH iH 1— t r— i r-H t-< i— i i— I rH rH iH c^ rj r^ to lo to to to NT to to to to to cN) (>j iH ^^-IrHrHrHr-Hi— IrHtHrHrHfHi — ^rHrHpHrHrHrHiHrHrHr-HrHrHrHrHrH to-cj-LOvCf^oocrvOi— lra CM Osi r--l r<| ra CM CM !>] CM (Nl CM CM CNl CNI CS)

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227 U <+4 0) P ^-1 o PI bCLO H O o 2; o o ?2 z to t/j tn G> O 0) O O O O O :2; 2 iz; 2: :z' to ti" t/1 O o O o o o o o o 2 2 5C >^ >H >H ?-" 2, 2 Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 o ^1 O OS 5-< O o o IT-t--oo oo o o I— I r-i O O l>O CTi 1 1 r-~ (Ni CTi r-1 1 rH 'Tt K1 K) \ 1 t—l Lo r-i r-1 1 o "^ O CO 1 ( OS! O O O I Kl to VO 1 1 to I>I>t-") 1 1 t~-00 oo LT1 1 00 O O rH 1 1 CD O O CSl 1 1 o O O O I o to i-o i>oo r-j t-~to oo CO LO rH i-H CO 00 c--c-~ ctj o o o r-=:d-^ I— I CO oo O "^ O O O O C 1— I o o o o o o o o to •H O C5 O t^") to to O CM f. ovooocNirjo c-r~~ r-t--C3 o o o o o o o o C7~. •H'=d-Tr'*"=d-t— It— lOOCDOOOO .^^LO,— looo^-lcvlCNlr^to^otJ^<^~ ^o O C5 CD LO l-O LO O CTi ai CTi r— i I— I o O O LO VO v^ ^ LO r J 03 CTi CnI C^J o to c--CTi C7) c^. cri r~t-^ Ol O LO U-i LO to o o r-J LT, \0 \0 vD *-C> to LO OOi— (CNltxllNlr-IOOOOOCDCrHOJCNiOjr'JrHT— I CD CD O o o o o o o O CD CD O II tOf")tO'ci-'