Riverine warfare:

Material Information

Riverine warfare: Naval combat in the second Seminole War, 1835-1842.
Buker, George E., 1923-
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
iv, 196 l. : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Barges ( jstor )
Boats ( jstor )
Canoes ( jstor )
Coasts ( jstor )
Keys ( jstor )
Military personnel ( jstor )
Navies ( jstor )
Schooners ( jstor )
Seas ( jstor )
War ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- History -- UF ( lcsh )
History thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842 ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: leaves 191-196.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1974. 22 cm.
General Note:
General Note:
Photocopy of typescript. Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms International, 1978.--21 cm.
Statement of Responsibility:
by George Edward Buker

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright George Edward Buker. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01034137 ( OCLC )
0026584230 ( ALEPH )


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t wish to expres ny gratitucto to Dr, John K, Mahon, ChRA:ian, DPat',ent of Hi story Dr, Samuel pr:totor, of the DepartEe tbe' of Histoy, and Miss Eliabeth Alexandr, d of th . Yong e :Library of Florida Histo:y for their aid, I at ind.ebted to the y H i..ori ca Q ...:: .! fo:r pemissin to use, In :1thsf:. Certation, article, "'Liutenant L:vin Y. Powell, U. 8, ,, K Pioneer of MI..erino. Warfare, L"Ic p .blised Ja Cnuary, 1969. v inlly I would like to acknowledeC t1 invaluable all :e r -d by y wife, Dorothy, ho contiLbutions ae by'n. enumera tin: f




JC T I 'V" ,c,? ..q - "

P~gi~e I P~:u~hern l ~:Ur of th~ew. Ti ;u~ 2,So~cr~ tI~tc of J~ i57



Riv:erine warfare is the ex: :tension of naval

power to restricted, and often shallow, coastal and inland -waterways. Currently the navy is engCUrge-cd n suoh a confl:t; in the Mekong De3lt. I.n Vietnat., This has. generated some interest in earler e rngagments of' a similar nature. The United States Nav.'s opt.::r tDion upon the wastox :-t:- river d i the Civil W.'r a lass..i example of this kind of combat. Yet ou navy 's first

u m.... It as during the. Second Seminole War,

1830.1802, ta* the assigned naval forcO 0lo0ly evolved

the oln .irn: n he Fo:::ida Ev ad s,

T'his type of conflict houl not be confuve with ..hlbicyn voa 0lt or river crossin op 'ation., Combo& under t. letter two conditions Is ba upo

two fors is n obstcle to be suaout The army,-y2


ampl-hibiouts > ssault technique cLevwlopod dIrving Wo:d!.l Wa I, galnx in the Eturopean th er, the Third Armi,, s bes .. of the lhine i. a modern study of river o:rossing, None of thee should be classified as riveino inarfare Muless of course the term is used in a very b::oa. oonn.oteation wherein naval combat is cons:ideed only in two environmental elements, either blue or shallow w ? ater, representing sea. and riverine

There is another type of unaterb:orne conflict which has soeimes been classified as :triveine warfare. This is the engagement bctwcen two nautical for cus vpo. inland waters. The rnva.l battles on Lak-i Ch!am:iplain inb. both the R.o voluti. on,::r \ .r arnd. the har of 1812 an..d on. lakes i :l. a nd Ontario .in t-he letter are examples of such struggles. The principal "rXeason forz excl:.udi.:n, g this cat:agory is i;hat the fo-:r of combat is neva. in its execution, notwith;tan.udi:o tho uce of cual. "vesse s in :r.e:::tricteid Mate=s, :'

.Whati th n : c: ::ivorine "w srfare? There mu.,st be

further qrAl:. fications ithin the initial st.atemot tIha it is th"e tension of naval power to rost ricted cod;st'.l an&d oi awdally the prime requic ite fo Sriverip a '. i at nwt in s T"teio aa tewa s0 Thes may c.nST of a l ,rge an, extensive river. syte..:i t 'avee:Cing hOt re rtofY, a coastal ao.a with d.Cp

exen2tlve swaap A Wln dS seorin} as a refuge and base of operations for an enemy, Pra.ctitCon: s of rive ine warfare employ such fluid concourses as the basic means by which to reach the ene:y, The thrust into the enemy's land would, in most o es, be r:et by mili.ta:ry rathe:r than naval resistnce, If this is so, then the maj 3or confrontatioS w ould not be naval in stu.ctu. .cr. Therfore, riverie forces must be combat trained amphibians organized for sustained operations in: .bonh elements, The basi combat unit. in such warfare, due to the operational terrain, will generally be small, In. summiation, riverine warfare I a SpCialized form of combat neither naval nor military, but a blending of the two, conducted in a riverine environment.

During thc three and a ha.f decades prior to

the Second SeminlrJe War: the ni. Ut States y dOevelp ed a cruise- co: :.ero-o aiding ph:oiloophy. Th l ;i us.e impossib i ib to employ cruisers to seek erhte at sea was elativel ea sy. The su:ces ul ngl as encomst w;2.t the enemy furth re hne this concept, an there

imect of the Frenchi fleet Off Yorktown escaped. Wany Amercan:s who looked only to thcir own maritime exploitits for navl gu5..nce. Foc the war an a whole, this meant single ship ou ising. There were only three i.nsta:nes of twrl:y xl.ti. chip operation the raid upon the EhamEas the battle of VaLooir Is:'land on :,e Champlain (both in
1776), and the IL -fate" d PenobsCOt E petition of 1779,

The quatisAar with Pracroe in the closing years of the eighteenth ceni;tur;y strengthened the crui u-.:. comm~eroe* strategy. Again Aerican suc:es out of contet with the over-all situation. France hA. suffered. serious defeats at the hands of the rtsh
fleet at Cape St, VinceM nt, Camperd.on, the She could spare few men-of- ar fo th Aorican conflict in the Caribbetn while the victorica British He1 uY so close to her shore The nascent; t Am eisVW : navy wuas free to o ngage the numerous small, shallow draft p rivateors as well as the few French cruisers which managed.,' to e0cape the Britiuh, Against this fn toe Whe Oit States Navy co:dutecd itself rather well. Is victcoies obsoured. the protective re oe cf the Britch niavy The result for the Americans uus to promote the a.ooptancc of the stn:tegy of fteg'o Q:' s uC

:In the Wr :. 1812 the single-ship o "orstr-ategy was. fuher strenthned. On the open o C' the:e tero t.ry-fi-ve sin.leship en. gemsnto betw8n. DriA tih 1i a ic aln l,', :m. n of-w Our : nvy :.ov(n t hoinc

of them., In. coV c:fe- aiding ovr7 1, 000 miercha.stmen ere. captured which inflicted encu{;,h injury upo Brib. 71taln to Trodvoe the political. desire to meet at the peacetable. In the final analysis, these exploits convin.c the Ame:jricans that the strategy of geie: c course vas a sound. naval phllosoplhy

The cu.iser-commeroe-, concept produced.

certain effect It promote individual ship hand:liVng and neglected multi-ship evolutions, When c to ship s4 fell in company the senior captain might act as a tempo y squadron comander, but each vessel received its orders i d.Epondently from th: 'Navy L 'J .Dpae..n, Under such a system the ship' s .captain. coul cdevel.op more initiative, b'ut comTplex operations (pei?,ci:,.lly among dive: e classes of veOsel ) ere. strlotly mite.. It las not until. after the War of 1812 that s(quaa- -.rc organization in 'thO navy for:alied., The M.ed-. terranean Squadron, formed in 1815 in resosne to the :theat to our co3eoe0 from the Brxi-bay stateswa the first to be e stab :i. ished. lter the Wen t In1a Squa.droun s added in 1822 to deal with piracy :i.n th Gulf of Mexico and the C : "bbean Sea.

;The sco:c.tar.y of the navy ran professional. affairs, 5inclutng naval operations, while the o of Coni ss ion: S (the s Eni profc Si onal group compo sed of thde navy 0aptAin) hadled technical r-tters and proomen ac fo 1i. -: D tm e..' Thuos t.


soCretary, at the seat of the government, actively participated in operatonal decision: with his coiianders
afloat. Tih:i.s further stenigthe:Y;ed the :role of ind. i.dual ship comands whi.e co:ayng the dovelopmcnt of integrated fleet operations It.os Oo p)rootcdte the practice of individual officers writing directly to the so etary.:i, :rather than through "the .chain of ooo:,emmand,

S:l.ngle-shif.p cruising eft little opportunity

for joint ay-nsavy operations T feto"w comon ventures could only be described, as cooperation btwooeen two independent organizations, and not as a jo int action of the two services. In conse quice .many naval officers misunde ;sto d the .roE and army officers failed to understand the seaoing functions of the navy,

The arui se cnece-aiing otstotgy fostuyte0

traMits and. attitudes among naval o:f;cc' which re t 'he antithesis of thoe& necessary for rvire Harfare, Riverine wafers needd ao naval coPtand faoilar with setting up and directing ople::: operations Ilizing a variety of diveso foes to achieve an. overall objective

ah.,erene o t'ohe strategy of py K OOcV .ylo a the d ovelo : o oh v h. o (2 for :iver ".ine .un.fae "i
Cb (9 11< ( 7''. V}, h ........... .. ...., -

the Indan War in Florida, Only alter the more flexible junior officers of the navy began to take common did this evolution towards rJverine. warfare take place


i 1 .i o e at of the w



I.,., /0

a T.3~J0O g~

Thrtheric t2 eate a: Theo rar

s rr

Ror-1A' F PowFY tKhunt ,r of the


'6 Key
W-, .
Senrhew theterof te a



As the time approached forn the removal of the Seminole Indians from their homeland, General.. DuTncRo. L. Clinc.h, the atrny commander in Florida, :.equ.std the assistance of a revenue cutter from the Treasury Dep artment, He proposed that this ship should cruisse alo:os the west coast of Flo:ri d, during the .month of Dec. e:ber, 1835, ordering the Indiana to move to Port Brooke. This oul'ad. be the fir t st ep in their i a.:.;. to the West. His roquest was mo xfied in 'ashn y:; no so that a navy vessel was assin,ed, The Se.,cler of the Navyxr MahlS on Dickr son issued th necessary i tino-, tions to Commodoro AlexandeDalas, comne o the W:st India Squadren on Octobe: 29, 1. i appeacred to be the extent of the servioe the nv y would be called upon to perform ,

'Major Francis L. O, leading two oo)rpan.o of' "e.ulars from Fort Brool:, to Foot King, mache. n a in the morning of Dcmbr 2, and wa wiype
....... 4. '. : c1 o :'15.. oS C Q 3 v o -5 rc <.:o" r,
out with his entire coman ofO 108, except for thyee'. men, Tht &ame m:rtoron anothv b. o shot and 'illed the Indan Agent iloy ThoTpsn cad his colPP2i

Lieutenant Constantino Smith near the agency at Fort King.T Three days later the Battle of t;he Withlaocochee was fought. Fear now Coaused white seIttlers to move into the p:optulated centers at St. Augustine,;cee and Fort Brooke on Tampa :Bay At the southern extremity of the peninsula, similar but lessen activity taking place. A group of hostile attackedc and murdered William Cooley's wifo, three childr-en, and Josephl Fllinon, the children s tutor, on January 4,. .836,
while Cooley w s away from his home on New River. The settlers. of this areas, i:ncludig the lighthouse keepers at Cape PL~r::'da, begs.n ;ving sou.'th to the larger CoN;.ni :es at Indian Key nd :Key West A3..ll of these activies brought a :flurry of calls to the naval forces :for aid,

George K, Walkr, the acting: gover:e;.r of Florida, requested th-::..t a small naval force be organic to operate along the shore and rivers of west Florida. Th govel:rr his1.lf John ,E at;on:, who h, a.ppen.ed Q1o be int Pona : oa the ( .;y aster Comman.'ant Thom0".s8 T2, Wvebb brou tt his sltoop of war Vra di.'.1.a int:o the bay, followed up thi request. He mad a diect reu isitiaon Lupon Captain bb for two ofic r, tw.u.enty-five o thirty I.en, to boats, some light artiey, side arms, a !:n a. il .lo. in add iti ho c. heated a sta.boa for thk o.,diion

o. Lut..: .wurd T o. Donty of


the Valn; departed Pens .olu vi' twenty -ni. no sfl,ors

ai marines in the steame towing two small boats Ducvghty wss ordered to eed to Temp.a Bay :runmrnig along te shore a.s close to :Land as :posable to search oust ny ::idia.s i :ho might be treTl' in by ca If he foumd any friedtJlVy Seminoles they were to be taken into protectiv c custody Hostile groups w to be cut off front shore and captured, Governor Eaton warned that Spanish fil hing vessels from Cuba miiht bb $ 6aYryin. g arms to the Secinolesi and, if there was an y reason to doubt theo of one of them, Doughty waS to
bring it in to the neares-t port for ad.juication, Enroute the steamer was found to 'be unseawor-:thy and. brought into St. Mar: ks. He re Doughty left parb of his o:U1mnd and. mado the remainder of the trip to tTemp:S.Bay in the tWo smU boats,

Ln the menitime Captain Franc s Belton, USA., 2nd Artillevy, covmanding at Fort Brooke, requosted aid ftrom the naval forces .at Pnsa.cola. H: report that the bay seea was infested with hostile Inian far more matCrous than his cnall acmman, Ris problems was complicated 'by the six ay transport vac els gather at Tampa, non of then: am:d, to' cc:ry te"

Th}e captain fKann th o In uls might uni rcle th by, pos 'l ... .l th e t:> HO r qu...y el R waship,: S B u\ (c, i -L-:: I" u .; '' :
,,::m .......... ... ....'- ... ,.a.L:;;);:-: if.; kJJ ? r _t I ..

munitio:c0s, ana Pome siall boats to defeld the puMli property at anchor within the bay, and the friendly Indian families who had been plsaed on some of the Islands for protection from the hostile. Belton's message sent by the public. schoonrc: Motto on tJanuary 5, arrived at Penacola twelve days later, The following day, in the absence of Commodore Dalla, s and in view of the emergency nature of this request, Captain William C. Bolton, US, cu:matnder of the navy yard, ordered the Vndala to Fort 3Brooke

Captain W ebb load. Three li:ht field pieces

for the army, brought o"n boa. last minute provisions, and cleared the bar at Pensacola on January 19, His departure uas so c:pcditi: ous t;hat the officers of the VarIN i. f-ailed to rcei pt for the suppliOes delivered before her departure, He had to spend six days standing off Tampa Bas. y we for the heavy fog to clear. In spite of the rapidity lth l.hich Wobb compli ed i th his orders, he did not reach his anchorage ocf adedens

dispatchc6 hip marine for.c in. meant brig wailig -, from Key West to Tampa: This detaroent onsIsted of Firot Lun U.t, Nathaiel S, -on, USC ba cergeon,

th:ire o:ffits.e Usvn scam ne nu .fi: tyO.. fa i.t T oinas,

At the ame time, the com)id.ore char-td the scholo; r BaMlana. to send L m.tenant George 1,. Bacoe, U:SN, with a small party of seamen to reconstruct the lihthuseC at Cape F;'.:ia, Bach.e's group a::ve d at indiaw Keyt an. f'ount. William Cooley, who -volunt'eerd to ect as guide, He brought them to Cape Florida, also callocd Key Bi3scayne on the morning of the twenity.-fourth, The sailors barred::: ed. the entrance and gr:-oun fCLoor windows of' the tower to protect the keepers : .Co to
maintain the light after they departed.

These initial operations by the ooet Indi.

Squadron were im.p:r .ptu taG-i.c.tin. :.manevers i.n TrespoInse to enemy actions either or ec:itual. For the next three years, with a. fcY exceptXons, the squadron's reaction to the Indian hostities continued to be totical. Commnodore Dullas and most of his co ...andc: offico:s al. M tO deelop a : state :lo pla1st.t hortyL. afte:4 r Jithe Vt:t l; :c .ho ....... t T:p '

Bay major Genonea. rEMut P. GTnr a,:reival frAi IMw that he p' od to tak eL the M with PAl av:'';.;:i-,

T hae u'..:. ,frovn t &i i; I f O'J ,- f" ?' ," : l t, ,
2 1:0 ("' i' :.]' O .L't7 1l :} '7' '5 ; t'


were to be lo odt board the transports anchored in the bay and left under the protection of the guns of the Vandal ia.

While thus employed, Webb ut ilized. the services of the revenuee cutter DPetr to return the r:emai:n.r of Lieutenant Doughty's expedition at St. Marks to Tampa
Bay Th.e hostiles re mo'oving to the iest coast and sout'hward o void Ga..ines's force in the field, and Colonel inds.a.y requested a naval. patrol "to prevent such movemnenCt.h The revenue cutter Wiuh:nQ COap tain Ez ciel Jones, as the only vessel ava..lab l but Its crew was too few for' such a.n assignment. There-, fore, Webb dispablbed L.'tietKnat Wlliem Sm.ith, A ssanistt Sugeon Charles A, HaMsser, arnd fifteen seamn to augment the cutter's crew. He or e::ed her c ptain to investigate a supposed :indian, onr: .p:'::ent' near the mouth of the

'The Wns -i'i ton depar'bed. immed-iately7, picked up compt'ont India:: uidOs 'fro Captain Dunce's fish f. nac.ho t -the .' th of '' bay, sail.od to the i Manatee, S nchored there on th, same da,- Jones and SmAh1 a6e a brief c:ploactory epedibtion before daTrk an ;

day th il:s do? oubt.en Prohed ten miles into the Intro bfore t ca oci t possibility of,

Thin trk took; '"':"' '.~ ni" l 6y; the only ,u.u it.. :nt i 'T. i : : -: -. r T: .mn rnV .n o. be 3..aO r:'. sol

Webb, in the Ientime, was p:reprnin a smA l boaut

expedition to more thorougly patrol the coast and rivers On the afternoon of March 17, 1836, the ro utine of the V'ndayls as .interI.ted by the boatain's pipe calling awayi tho shi p's boat xped:t:ition, Thins was the culmina13
tion of a little over a day's preparation. Supervision n of the provisioning was entrusted to Acting Sailing Master Stephen C. Rowan and Passed Midshipmen William-,

expedition under Lieutenant Levin M. Powell. Outfitting such an expedition n required planning, and Rowa requisitioned talking mallets, caulking iros, broad axe, jack plan, chisel, saw, spike gimblet auger, topmmul, adze, and wood axes from the carpeonter's department; muskets, a muskiet scrcper, psteols, a plstol scrmper, CartrWidgQAs, flints, priming powder, bayonets, an utlas:es front the gunnrVs departments and 210 pounds po:, 210 pounds beef, six gallons beans, six gallons rice, three gallons olasses, tuo gallons vinegar y- ... t Pour gl'ons whiskey, and 500 pound of bread from the purser. IJ ew, eanT hi, Pow ll, after drawing two boat's compasses, a obart, and spy glass from tho master's department, onsulted with the captain and Lieutnant Doughty. Finally, when the preparations rwee complex: d., the pscai r: a t.tI n. e h j ir white.' unifcya:, blue collars, and traw hato fUll info nuator and vouns chok, Satisfied ith hic inspection,

Lieutenant Powell reported his dearu :-ire to the officer of the deck, and a log entry was noting tho departure 17
of two out ters for the mouth of the Manatee,

Powel's speoifTo orders er:e to ""procd to the examination of the river Manat.,ee, the Mhull,tet Keys and to cruise along the main coast Nor h of Anclote Keys with a view to Interc:ept the hostile In:d:cans in their
retreat coactwise'" In other words, the navy vas to perform a flanking and barTassing action upon the Indians who wore being driven so.thwad along the west coast of Florida by the army, Enroute to the Manate Powell boarded the ani ia,- and passed O --ptain-' Jones additional orderEs to go south and investigate Charlotte Harbor, Powellt and his men spent JFriday, Match 18, se :trching along both 'bant of th n:: un, ee (to the head of boat navig a ti. ,io) but .no Indians were i Tc h following day he sailed for Anae Keys andt. arrv ed there on Monday. The sailors co:ohd the: area carefully and observe many signs of l: ians,. but from all indi.cations these were trach and noot of ucont origin. This seooh took a little ar two days after whioh on the- -fo h "the epetion l.. ed couth to le ys. Ther the on.s f seyaching W, employing the arean for Siuns of Insian was repeated, bet again he ralts pcre ne5ativs,

r no Tn n W been Vona., On......

of living in an open boat prompted PoWe: to) set sall. for .the Vnd:al on the morning of March 27 The 19
group arrived the following 'evenGing.

Three days later the ayh;rgton. returned from its ins'pec tion of Charl ott .e uHarbor, Captain Joanes reported that on M-J 2S i. 29, while Smith was on a boat expedition e:xamnIng the coast more closely, he sighted an indian encampment at the mouth of the Myaomca River, BSmith could count twenty-t.wo Ind3 ahns at this caSp, and he could see rany fires noa.r by Since it was that" the enemy w too nu r, :;,- ous for his sal. party, he decided to send his two Indian guides to rr.G. a parly, No sooner had the two landed then T'ey w' e not 'y a b and of war io: s, It was a tense moment until a)L i brlve rooognia 'e. one ofi tWE gu.ides. After tht the two pa"tos tld The ho stiles would have shot Khite man and were :Coluotant to give any 3.i nfor~tion. On their rotWrn the scouts 1ouL only report that the warriors wore belligccnt, determined, and more numerous than flith's force. There were no ... ...,... .e&t, no to TOi. pa

MCJTnwh3le shipboard rest fox Powell. and Bowain had .bn a veTy brief two days. T.Vhey an id(tp ACO 0. La 'd2fayette Mnyncy.. eCare dslUp atchd. with 0s and (roiin for fifteen C Oya, "to act a:i'S.t the I.Kans on the coast Ycuth of Toua Bay," Thi was the revs3ult of ". ,...r.>
0 ).C: t .'; }. E; .. ....................... ..... -


General WiYnfield Scott to 'Webb that he send rev'enue cutters or other naval veesols as could be mustered "to Charlotte arbour, with borders to take suCh position) on those wters and. so bloka.e the rivers of that country, as to out off most effectually a.1l. retreat

Powell. sai..led for Charlotte Harbor with two boats a launch and a cutter containing forty offiC. ."ers and men. At the entrance to the bay they came upon. two pi.rogues of fugitives from. the fishing ranobo at Josefa
Island. The: refugees reported that n ; th previous evening their settlement had been Rttcked by v, force of about twnty- five Ina ns led by Cif, : The revenue c oll ator's itd been ... ,roal and it vas believed that the crstcMs iuotor tM bon killed., Some of the residents had T: in 20.i;. bett', others h:1 b~ l:en the .omen and c hildr. .i. :the wi::'7 to elUdM the Indis who plundered th 2Kettlmnt,

Lieutenant Poce F direcjl his group to the strik. village. On the way hn pI.e up another boatload of fugitives, He iurge the pocK In it to

he u theUdom d.en end Children bien a uhe roue whilc his fae pu.. shed on to meet the enery. When the navy arrival at JoOfa IslaN the araud.s rs were on9canped on a cy a fw s avy, Aftn. hoping the :cvi:i.ans

to. invK tiAS. -l?'1M lomp:ng reCnint:%JAncuai A' hiSn:


party came upon a small group of Seminoles just south of Charlotte Bay and engaged them in combat, killing two and taking two prisonerr, Th :emainder of the expedi tion, in compa:ay nith the cutter Dallas. arrived shortly afterward andL the two captives were placed aboard the cutte for sa.f.eeping. While Powel was making arrartgements for his prisoraners, Rowan, trailing another band of Indna::s, continued on to Sanib: l Island, 24
but made no contact with the enemy,
Poell maintained his boat patrols along the

coast and around the keys scarlhing for Indians, Meantime some of the r residents of Ch.a.rl.otte Harbor found the body of Dr. H. ., Cre' s, the missing customs 25
inspe.tar, on a or: 'l island wh e he. had gone to hunt, Powo11.. i edirao lately set a course for the scene of the murder, As he neared it he noticed an canoe

but the natives were ablfo to regch lan:d befo, they could be ovCertalen, Powell oriderod the uAilore to open fire; one INO=,n ts kile an a: 6lr gav'e hi ce f up, A rch..O of san:ce r-vesled sme of Dr Cre.Es personal effects, Th .'s wacs sighted,

In o Yci;c nTme, th' a 'I, in3 wn.E..

able to fi t ui bod of indian warrio:cs S i .at) 1"', it Wl been attraod at Fort rOve,


awaiting so s intell g. nc of tlhe enemy wh.ereabcoutsls The arrival of the DPlsla1s brought information of ILicutenant Powell'.. s bush ith the Seminoles, but more important one of his prisoners confessed the ; the hostile had concentrated their familiess and supplies inland from Charlotte Harbor near the headwaters of
Pease Week, General. Scott ordered Colonel Persifeor F, Smith and. his Louis.s ana Vo Lunteers to proood. by boat to Charlotte. Captain Webb inst:pucted Powoll to cooperate with this force. The Volunteers comcno ed embarking on the troop transp>: rt in the .late after noon of April 10. Smith, holwevr, was unxiou to meet Powell b fo-re his force de;parta from; thjo vr e, and he left with his staff in tiwo bo:ts; a: Y!i. that msaYe ovening.

The folloing morning, au ,. w.'or.:y Me' fomi Boca Grande, Coloncl Smith not the nnAr expdition convoying th; e Joofa > l.and .5 .she.on : their families to Tampo, The combined assault group headed south and
9 -' ...,k.t ..
arrived at Charlotte Habor the next day. Powell, undera? Smith' s orders ao y, of the boat operation,sW the forces uprr the Ny.2ce: v.e.a, r as far a:; the dapth o. ox:ter would. allon: Upon reaching the head of boat navigation, his group wrs inorp QAtd.n. o Smith's vola teu c t, which mr.hed. up both "i...

of a r >n ;: i" I n .an- n. a .:o vill ~ a but


no indi 6cations that the Seminolos ha gathered in force, When Smith gavce the or;de to pr-oceed back to Tarra Bay, Powell returned also, He reported, on April 17, f"We arrived last night after an absence of twenty-six ayo Lhe is evidently include. i his first boat epe:;ueitcon: in his computation i and although gr.atly exposed in our open boats, and my people subec; ted to groeU hardship I am pleased to bear witness to the cheerfulness and in28
dust:ry which maTke:. their conduct."

The Vandal ia had greatly depleted her spplie

while acting as the basee for the revenue cutters and boat expeditions operating out of Tampa Bay. The s.loop of '-war Concord was : oder-e. to replace th Van dl Wh:. en asteI r Comma.nd.ant M5ervine :i brought the Concod to her anchorage off Gladcen s Point he found the vol.-unears e): barking in transports to Icave F ori a, an the regular. preparing to go into saom~. quarters. (It was gone: a lly believed summer in Florida was the sickly season durin which time military operation could not b co Lucted Fort Brooke's garison wns to be reduce to 200 or 300, Too few, Mix thought, to defend the poes The; general requested, that the Concord remain: i:.n the bay and the Wet India Squadron's marines ontinue to help garrison Fort Brooko, Mix conoucreod and in his report to the commodore, stated he would poriodically send a launch. o: other boat to crise ad p protect the f1sheries at the 29
mouth O p'a TN P..Bay
" .if). S G T, .....c ]%<.8 .' ~!cT]YO :_,, ... .. tg'.Ei

" 'i .. [ Q ).~ j <. .},.'L'. .,}.]


Toward s th end of the inntch ix reevted a a

requeOst fromn CGovcrnor hard K Call, who hac replaced Eaton in Mach, .1836, for a na-. vessel to be sent to Apalahicola to aid in preventing the C:iacks of Aliabama and Georgia froJm movin south and joining the Seminlos. The Conco:rd had too deep a draft. thus the Ws hitehin was sent, after her crew was aumented .by Leutenant H. A. Ad.ams with a party of sixty men from: the CoyoQ, She sortied on us 2, and anchored at St. Marks thr-e, days later. The Concord's detaohment set out immediately for the defense of Tallahassee, but the expsoted attack did not nmateralizeo, The governor, however, aoked Ad:s to conict a survey of the coast from St. Marks to Tampa to ad futu: o campa.1;n Atlaps thought tble. request to bo within the toor of his orces an.0 accO0epteild. the task, oHe 'ieturn.d to St. Marks to coanstyact boat for such scvice uw;th a. ca:Cto biglghe from the governor,

Shortly afte- this ho received an urgent estpMGess fro Call asking for i:edliato aid against 2, 000 Creek warrlor who wer supposed to have crosel the Chatt.hoocohee Riv.r on the(6ir way to T1aace Adam/e rOturnea to the di:t a,m ssembl. ed his .men xpeditiou; 0ly, 1 and clpartoG NOC the capital thy same day. Thust le marched in topany with an nfntyy detchsnt cComand.ed by Majow Sands, That 'ight i a:e the two AC QtIents twve "' pe. they rec..v. oAt e.- X.O to ..,

At first light the combined force was on the match. The day became very hot aud the sailors, unused to marching, suffered G .reatly. may throu a y their shoes, Within three miles of the, they l earned, the larm had. been false Once more Call e-pressed his thanks and apologized for the urgent and unnecessary appeal for aid Dallas lat'r conctedthat the marches and counternarchos were the result of "repr-ts aa 30
riot duly enquirer into." He felt the Floridians wrcs too sensitive to Indian hosti:itiocs to be objective on the subj aec

Adames sport to the governor on June 19 that

his ter of service had expire. and requcste. instr-uctions, Call released Adams tho left Tallahasee the next day. COn the -return trip one of ths quarter guiners mas accidcentally l ft behind in the capital,, The sailor departed. alone and imarmed to fO.) his shtu es On his wa to St., Marks hee as oi-ed by an. Indian a:imcd with a: :i.le and a knifo. At dua sth- Inan helpe d erect a shelter against the ruin. and s:ihare his manl of wI (I turkey. After s, the gnn ported he had b. too fat'rigued to worry about the dAngar of sloopilng with his a2and co nn At dayl:ight the Seminole took his 1rva and cisppe::aea i' d into the oe., The so co.untinu and on to St, arks who he rejoined the hac hir to luwont before she ce>nxtc.


On arch 17, a Spaniara arrive ati; Indlcin ey by canoe to trade. The citizens became suspicious of his actions and dotainod him. Tiihcey leaned he had two Indian companions :.hiding on another island about a mile, aiay A search party was formed itr:d lately and sent out to bri:g the in. After soe di.fficu.ty, both Indians wore captured brought back o to the key, and pla.oed in custody. The : nforCii. on obtained from them alarmed the citizens, for there was saId to be a-large 'n'uerb of Iost~lCls gathered near Cape Sable, just twentyeight mlles from Indian Key, iat'rally, bthe 3. oc.a. people appealed to Com.d.ore Dallas for prot action, and he sent the D.t.., Capti.n RFd.olph, to their aiC?

When the cutter arrived the thic. ~so:r, wer e placed on board for sa,fe kOeeping. The vessl r:nmainea from May 22 until June 17 when iCt ha:to l"eve for :re:provis:W. ng, The evening before she sailed the

shot and observe to .ink. the other apparently "ade good his escape. The following morning the old 32
Spaniard "bir in 'a very bad stat of health" died, Fearful that the escaped prisoner might return with othac, thbe ci tiz. n s""e r~anotheri appeal to Da.llas Again the Dextek was sent to cruise the waters about Indian KeyC .:

th.he n:-. Mi: a.l to Mixvivo erDna tin Wa'' ..


Iarge supply of powder stored on Indian key, Further, the brig Gil BIs had. been wr clked at Now River with thirty tons of lead on board, Both powder an. lead. should be kept from the enemy if at all possible, There wace no navy vessels. availab.3. e o car'ri.' a. parfl.ty to Indian Key and it was too great a distance for open boats He therefore made a roeqisition on Major Kney Wilson, now co;randinng at Fort Brooke, for the schooner., Iotto (which w ne under rmy contract) to transport his detachment,

The Motto left on June 7 with a. small group of sailors and marines. Lieutenant Thomas J. Leib found there was not a.n excoslve amount of powder stored on the key, At th' Gil :s, he examined tho wrok, even dive. d into tuhe ater .filled hold hbu; ouldo'dn't find rany lead. Then the ailors set fire to the hulk, On. leaving, the :i1 rol.ed. away her rudder breaki:o both guageons. T crew had to jury-rig a couple of socps over the stern, which lelayed their departure 33'
until late in the afternoon.

That eveni i thy were withi n seven miles of Cape Florida, an noti ed that th i gh'th:ouse was on fire, At aybrak they &tte: pted to bLea.t up to the cape to, By eleven. the schooner had. Tworkd it.s C y to B.,ar's Ou. Hre cl C .armed hi (d c ect, hol d out the; bo 0, and hae. for the light, h "hour lot-r 1(C h 'I u o( "b.n'ditiw;:
jii 35 U I;


loo-dted With pludOer from the iSht hnouseo He took both prizes in touw The current as agai:...nst them and finally Leib: had to dest roy the can :i.n order to reach the a.nohoiae off the Iighth]ous dCuring daylight hours. He left some men in the sloop boat to cover:1" his landing, It gas five in the afternoon before ho reached the lighthouse whexe he found the keep er. John JW. B, Thompson, on top of the tower badly burn: t anid won led.

Thompson told Leib that on the previous day he and his egro helper had. been attacked by a band of fifty to sixty Inidions, e had spotted the band as he was going from the house to the tower, and he had sprinted for 'the lighthouse yelling a war:ni:ng to his co panion to do likewiso The two men reached the building and barred the door just before the warriors arrived. Thompson st tioned the Negro by the entran.oe while he took three guns to the secco floor From his vantage point he kept th:,,: w.0 ,: at'; L'Vy .::-,t.. y until dark,
Mi i of the Seminole bull ets pun.tured the:"
oil tins stored in the towr. At duck tlhe firt: foo wa.s satu.atd ith. oil and a fie broke out,t Tholpson and his helper rctrea-ted. up the tower t o ecpe the flM,= Thoe.y were foed to le on the narrowly :edge t'o- o-avoi th. ViFi fir fro blor. The Negro W..
' . .... ... .

'I '55 '


is only o uned un the angles and feet. The flame shooting up the tWer was more dangerous than the enemy rifles The intense heat; became intolerable, Finally in desperation, TIho:mpson threw down a keI of gun po-wder in the hoes the explosion would end his mlsery. The blast shook the tower, but not kill him. Next h decided: to dive head first o ,r the rail, but "soCmthing dictated to me to return. nd lay do: n .agin I did so, and in two minutes the fire fell 3/4
to the bottom of the house." Thompson continued to lie motionless Rand eventually convinced the Indian he wa s dead. Th next morning -he watched Chem load his sloop bot with their plunor and dopar

1eib and. his men tried to get Thompson dow

from his pevch ninety feet above tbhe ground, but to no avail. At dark they had to leave him Kand return, lo .I.the J Ma 'o. The sail-ors made kites that night, n. early the next morning were back at the. towel t' ry again, but without success, Eventually My shot ramvod, with twine attached, from one of the guns to the perch. T':hompson w as' thin able to haul up heavier .line On it two sailo,5:rs climbed up to the le .: rigr-er a sling, and hoiscted the woun. d ma n .ow to the 'waiting o scueKs. Thuocon as taen to ny W;est and placed in the ho pital. Wh o the s honer left

Mile Cptain Mi: w Und for Leib to r"tur


the ship.' povi ons dropped to a very low level., Aftor onsultin; with thoe rew, hie ot the daily bead! ration to nine ounces per man, Under these circumstances the Coneord could re:w- in at Tampa until the first week in August, During ;hS tim te t crnvrew began to show, symptom of soo:rbuti o o brought by the lack of "fresh meat and vegetables but once in 148 days." To arrest this affliction Mix frequently sent lae parties of fifty to sixty m n to the shore "for otbathing and. amusement," and he increased the standards of clean-. linoes aboard shi p, lally, it was necessary to return to Penscolh The Con:Qoo-d departed Tanpa on the same day ..that Leib left Key Woest and when she arrived at th.e navy yuardlx cix:' ore::i-men were on itho 36
binnacle list for scorbuti,

The cOr

of Dot Croup & his party at Charlotte H2rbour,

spring of 1836, fo the iamp n agait the Cjki and Oc ..nano Dar A :,ll pon to ul


The fi : st steamer to arrive at Pen sacola vas the Ajei .cn, Lietenant Stephen Johnston, USN, was given command of her and provide with a crew of fifty sailors. The engineers, carpenter, and firemen however, we civilians. contra te. f or When th: e vossl wass prooured i Nhe Crloans, The next to arrive was the So'uthron; she 38
was reanmed. he M a De .Lieutenant Neil M. Howison, USN, comandin. The third and final, vessel was the Yala BJus.e ha whi- .ch was called the i: e:tenant Izard, Lieutenant Geoare M, Bache, USN, received this command. During the period b teea June 19 and July 17, 1836, these vessels mere dispatched. to the Chattahoochee River to cooperate wimh General Scott, who had been 39
shifted from the Seminole .o the Ceeek theater,

Scott s plans had changed by thoe tie the three vessels ree voused, The general kept the Li eutuiant ard to transport his troops and supplies, and sent the other two to Apalach.cola, Florida.

While opelo;ting with Scott, the only action Bache reported concerned the sailo:rs liberty; "The, crewr of the :C .ard. have been healthy and app ar to be content and. happy The neighborhoods of Columbus however in a very bad pla.e ..for Sailors, we cannot anchor in the Channel on account of interfering with the othqr Boat and are obliged. to make fast alorsi :e. h a. n h a afr M i:e across the Rive..

and a place called Sodon on the opiposte side in the extreme of Alabama where the arml of the law is not
very powerful, "

Governor Call had been place( in:1 supreoe.coommrrnd of the military throughout the territory. He was preparing for an assault upon tho Indian stronghold in the Cove of the Withlacooche All three steamboats were operating i Flor..da under Call's reactionn by mi..d-.u.E t anz. they were detailed to bring supplies up the Suwannee River in preparation for this campaign. Little enemy action took place. Eight Irian rafts were found, but no warriors. On onie occasion, il). Steaming. between St, Marcks and Camp Call at Suwannee Old Town, the r. ie:yan came upon and chased some Indlans in a canoe The Seminoles manPged to escape in shoal, water, but lot their canoe and equipment to the sailors,

In late smwer: sickness struck the crew of the

iNjo P, Cie. "t i ', :. violent sort of fever, Lieutenant Howison reported, "and doubtless acquired by working .ot hard and exposure to the suin, .ile engaged "gging sacks of corn and, oats on board, from warehouses nYar tho wharf draining the bad water of the river too may have assisted, The fact however is ncontestably estb lihe. that no white man C:an labour in the midday sunshine of this climate and be hea lthy in sner."11 Howison then continued uith the femiliar refrin of the ovey'wr! jyolueclyncl srvioan, and a ba1):


directed at the army, "The inhabitants of the country at this season aband.on i., he wrote, "and even negroes can with great difficulty be procured. at an expense of from three to five dollars a day, while the obedient man of war Sailor for QI,2 the month, must bear the burden of the public service, and lug along forag. for the army, which is snugly enoa.mpc near cool springs and shady trees awaiting ithe agreeable weather of Autumn to begin its la.bours." H-e returned to Pensacola due to the condition of his cr.i.

Lieutenant Johnston rep O:ted in early October

that the Aierican was in St. Joseph with a broken main shaft. He sent his men to Pensacola to recuperate from the effe cts of shipboard sickness.

The Lieutenanlt tardy had. the same problems Bache was among the victims, aW he haid to be relieved. 1y Lieutnant P apha Se mmoes. The governor cale upon Semoles to remain, for It was imperative he have one steamer to establish a depot on the Withlacoochee for his coming operations, Scanes consented, although he had to accept a draft of militiamen to complete his crew,

enues d.parted. Call on O Ltobor 2, w'.h 'lt General Loigh Head of the oria Milia and his command on board bour for te ith s .o.che The~ Iay%. had to remain six to eight miles off the m't.on of the river ux:::'til the abol c:l:.i b :o Un. h

Channel hence to the River itself is exceedingly shoal & intricate," Liutenant Semles wro,, te,"so much so, that; it is barely possible -that a vessel of the Izard's draught of water, can enter the river at all, GenL Read however, being anxlous that I should onter, & being conviA.nced myself that such an event would have a good effect upon the Indians, I 3lbouried with .great zeal to find a oeannel, & oo m ienced arping the Izard
into it. The tido here runs with great velocity & rises three or four feet, That part of the channel into whioh I had mi:ped, was surrounded with small oyster ba,s a.nd the zIard hav ing swung uponTw two of them, was left in this s.itu ti.on. by the tide, & being greatly weakened & wrecked by her previous hard service, gave .way amidships, filled Wit_ aer: a su"jdnk Sh~ e is so comploitlely a wreck that I shall abandon her so soon as I can reove her engine & stores 8 return to Penacola with my officers [& en by the first oppor

Semmes felt the steamer's loss had little effect upon Read's opra ti ons b tcase 'e general still had a large barge with '~lch to cary his supplies up river. However, Road faled to establish his Cepot on ime 1This causd Call 's main force to have to divert to. Fort D:irne, h...i d!3 :te the ca)aigr

Governor Call l . t. b I fop the loss of

the Ll.uomn t.led ..olf:

government t;o utilize naval officers who, he felt, had no exporienoc or training for navig ting in restricted river wu,.ters, Sem es, o.i the other hand, gave much of the blame for his loss to the crew of raw militia which had been recently recruited for the mission. These charges an.d coun.techges eventually. led to Se e s requesting a Court of Inquiry, but the Navy Department felt such action as not nees sary.

By NoveUber, 1836, the Ac:eri n :and Major Dade were back operating with the military in Florida. These two vessels continued to provide transportation and. carry supplies for the a:ry throughout he fir t eight months of 1837.

Commodore Dallas took the complaints of his off icer ssigned to steamboat duty very se-riously When Liutenant Howison complained to him of the ilakness of his crw aEnd of the :excessive work assigned Dallar wrote ack imm ed.ia.tely that.. .owon w as free to return to Pensacola anyt:1re he fel t It was neceoayto do so for the crew' s health, and thi. ti n could be taken "without consulting g anyone, Further, oitson was to infoecr the governor that while the ,stLR> .nwwere available to transport provisions and menw e he desired, the sailors were not to be 2u'!d: to load suppI, ie.s unless the troops were Sl0 l et 1o3Y. P. aOed. This attItude greatly impadnd co creation betreen the-i.militay u st-r forcs, By Agu.t of the folloin

the steamiboats and nade a request to do so to the navy, 45
In October the transfer ws complete,

for an office of flerank; a,:t this time, however,
the he rank in the UnitedStates

1805, wh o ly fourteen years old. A lieu texeenant bahe fo cartooc!f o1 h i" udest Idia. S rboth Co os John ( gers tl.e o CCvT.or toazard PerS y. He coa ni nd bS-O: twl)On lovea). 'c pnto::i the Madte

Squr o under Coi odore Stephen, Decatur in 815. As a mater coma t, he ptaine the John Am

participating in the expedition tnd Conodore MW Por yer to spe..s the W Indian pirates in 18M ,-, Appoint captain in 1828, Dallas ae ordered to estab,.listhe 'navy o ar at Pensadcla, loia, OnJuly 16, 1835, h assumed. commindd of the et Indiar Sqa.dron He brought to his command a knowlede of the territory of lO Ckound of ship operations In tA area, n thirtey-on year',s nav' ex porine i

% > r .., a '',: ..., ..,::, : > "", ::'"g.. >': 1 :;.. ..c, :t o~ '. ,,"' ,V.9k)'''O ,'

latter attributed made him espolially zealous to preserve his and the navy's honor in all dealings .with military or clviliran authorities,

The first news Dallas had of the outbreak of hostilities 'was a letter from William A.0 hitehcad. collector of customs at Key West, "Most painful inteligenoe has boon received to day from the lMain land," he wrote, "of the maassacre of the Company U. S. Troops with all their officers, while m ng from... Tampa Bay to Fort King. Intelligen. o also been received that the Indian"s in the vicinity of Cape Florida have likewi se massea.wrc? a family on the Coast and that the Inhabitants of all the Sett ents in that vicinity
are movingC on trds Key Vest This reached him on the evening of January 12 at Havana, Cuba, where the frigate n.l ltn the squadron's flagship, and the sloop of war F.' L we rn. anc hored. Although short of provisions, he sorticd at the first light in com'Lny with the St Loui The C.onstallation barely o eared the reef o n it approach to Key West, Once there Dallas decided t rt main and aid ithe

inbitant, e sent Master Comcanant Lawrence Rousseau of the ,. LoYus to :I:ensaola suppli s an. With instructor to ::1= the sloop of war VagQ A xu.l f or the scrhoonr o e sa l e ther b at Pen ols, to 0i COr e' m Bay tco aid the MI li v Ot Poyrin n2. for the safety Of tho fol a Fo t Broo o, DlAS

di spat ched his a:rine detac&-thment, under the c Ommadl2 of First ieutenant ldron in a merchant brig' which sailed from Key est on Jana:'y 17. He also cha:ted the schooner .Bah.a for Lieu te: nat Bache' smaJ ll party of seamen sent to reconstruct the lighthouse at Cape Florida, Later he requested permission from the Navy Department to charter a few small '.aft vessels for
direct support of the military.

When he fel t that his services at Key.wost were no longer needed, he depart e for Pensacola, His most imndiat. tas.: was to find replacementt s for the sal .,orL whose terna of service had expired, or would expire within the next few months. By mid-February, Dallas needed about 150 me.n to :in t.he squadr:io'g up to strength., He infonned the secretary of thc navy that he ;was going to senc an officer to N'.ew

0.1e ans to recr-:uit, On April 3, he reported that these efforts hadc beO. unsuccessful, A month pj-e viou, the commodore issued i:nstructins to the squadron's officers that he wou.Ld not accept their applications fr ~ leavo of absence, except under most WunRsual circumitanceS, He requetcd. that the department take no notice of an:y request which 0..did n.fot have his approval,

The first weel of. April Dallas had to supply. the St. , "with thirty men fr. the Co e.t.. l o' beore hie c dan T.f:he trouble WLrbt n Mexico ant Teas undo it a o

that the St Louis have a full crew prepared to protect .Americn co' er "oe in the gulf.

The Navy Department sent additional vessels to the squadron upon the outbreak of. hostilities :incluCing some revenue cutters borrowed from the Treasury Dpar;tment. FEarly in April Dallas reported the arrival of the sloop of war Concor after a voyage from the north which included stops at Havana., Key West, and Tampa Bay, "Like most of our vessels coming
from the North," he commented, "she requires repairs." On the same day the revenue cutter Washington arrived. at Pensacola for duty with the West India Squadron, "But," Dallas wrote, "as represented by her Commander, unf it for service, without parepairs and supplies of
arms, a;nmunition, men, &, ." Later, on April 20, the revenue cutter Jof e.':on an chores at Pensac ila to officially join. the 1squadcron. By the end of the month the revenue.cutter Dteer had also reported in. She brought le.'ttersl fram Lieutenant Waldron on the activities of the marine d.etachment at Fort Brooke. In March th.ey ha.been in the interior under Colonel Lindsay, had en'jaged in several skirmishes without suffering any loses, and had returned to the Fort on April 4, suffering fom fro tigue and exposure

Cormmodore Dallas inforie thi secretary. of the navy that the nativitiec of the Host India Squadroi wore so varied a wjaely nQttere throughout the


Ca ibbean and the Gulf of Mexico that he would remain at Pensacola where he co.ul exer-ise more efficient control over the squadron than at a:y other place, Ships going to Mexico or the coasts of Florida could be augmented by crews from his flagshp, and he was centrally located to receive dispatches from all points, At the time of his writing, the crew of the Constellstion. was depleted by on.e third, and she was unable to get
underway except in the direst emergency,

From the very outbreak of Indian Hostilities

there had been a conviction among military commanders that the Seminoles were receiving munitions of war from foreign sources, Cuban and Baha'mann fishi.g vessels were especially s spect On Ja.nury 21, 1836, Dickerson passed on to Dllas the opinion which Governor Eaton had sent to tnhe Wa:r Department that Spanish fishi 10
vessels were ngagd in munit.'ions trade with the Indians, The War Department continually requested naval action to prevent the supposed trade with the hostile :ndian..s, but was never satisfied that the navy was tak:!i effective measures,

Commodore Dallas was well aware of the possibility of arms arsigUT.S:ig and continually issued in stru.-, tions to prevent suh i t Srffi. In June 1836, the revenue butter Je;':o.on was e ordered ; to "cru se On the Coeart of Florida in the neThbourchood of Charlotte s Harbour & Tapa, with the vic; of rk.'venting: t.he

Introduction of suppl:ics to the In.d.ians and the expor;tation of slaves and property tsken. by them to Cuba
or elsewhere." lrlier, in orch, when the Wa.rish n:on reported to Master : Comord;.: andant tebb for instru actions she was ordered. "to Cruise along the Coast, from the Analoti c Keys to Charlotte Hr bour ith instructions to board and. Intercept all vessc.s that may be found with supplies for the enemy and bring them to this 12
place for fourth r instru.Ctio ns."

In October of the foll.)owing year, Dallas ordered the Jefferson to blween Indian 3Key, Key West
and Tampa Bay, That saime I on th he ordered the schooner Gxygmlus to "sail for BHavana, thence to Nassa .u, (Nesw :Povidence) with directions to certain if from either of those points munitions of war are supplied.
to the India:ns in lonid a, After that she cas to cruise between Cuba and. Florida to stop any Illicit traffic,

In the third yoear' of the war Dallas was si. issuing such instructions "You will proceed Mdiately with the U. S. Ship Boston under your command to Tampa Bay," he told Commander Edward B. Babbit "oormmunicatoe with the offlocr of the forces there, obtaining every Information that he may think proper to give, for the purpoCt of yo'u rendari every aid in yu Cr poer to .prevout tho introduction, of MUnof E;n, into MOM erid, for the UnP of the


Indclan. on leaving Tj, he continued, "you will cruise on the Coast of 'p ori. ay from the Tortuga.s as far as Cape Florida, boarding all vess ls that you may fall in with and par oularly by exa,:ninn fi shing. smacks and other small oaft, as it is by t'is means that (as it .s supposed.) p.cder & lead are Instrodu-cd 15
among the rIndcians, Yet at no tiMe did the o army seem confident that such trafflo had been stopped

T'he Flor tda conflict was only one of many re.spo) assigned to the West India Squadron. The merchants at Port;smouth, New Hampshire, reque: sted protection from. acts of piracy off the Haitian coasts in February, 1836, and Dallas had to direct sore of .6
the squa.drons vessels into these vatevrs A more, serious area was the Gulf of I eico whore Texas as engaged in a trvgle for it' s fr Keo n f Iom Nexico, Anong the activities In that quarter, thc e Wrron capture the schooner .i.. sailing uner Texan colors, off the mouth of the Mi csippi on 29,

The President ordered the squad ron to divert all aid possib e to keep the Cree: Indian uprising in Georgia and Alabama from merging into the Seincle Wa in O, Co:mmodore DMaS -was
in*stuct to n thre steamers provide' by the iarmy Thus In anos r to an earlier letter fromD .ai.l that th. wvnue cutter be tuine. back to th

TreasuryI Department at an early date, Dallas replied "There has been no time since their being under my direction that they have been more anted than at this ooent. I s-hall th .e:eore continue. e to employ thel ,j until I Asha: recOive your further instructions, The Indians art up, and doing, with no force in the land to prevent them from, at any time taking to the water in their Canoes, and doing great in.ju:ry to those inhabiting the Islands along the coast of Florida, I am satisfied that the active manner in which the Cutters have been employed does not suit the taste of some of their Comm :anders, but this I can not help. The @Comnw. er of the Washington makes sundry cn) points about man &,c ,.. of which, I have done a.ay withW by giving him a crew from this Ship (temporarily) I the Cutters arc continued in my cosm-and a n d this Gentleman is not more on the alert, I shall suspend him from his Command and put one of my eLi.ute on:
boa d. C

In addition to the official request for the squad's services, Dallas recevd many petition from co.. munitie for naval po l potection. The Jefferso:n C rc entlyv r .tur f.rom MO e:Xico, was ordered. to St. Josephs at the request of that town's s nayor and, aCdoy.:en Captain Jackson was in.truEt:: yC to reman' there as long an nec nssry, an thn to cruise b twn Cha r: Iot hrr ...and Tapa Bay on blou.>oi

duty, Earaier the cnmodo:e answred an appeal from Captain Jacob -o'utson and the citizens of Indian Key for naval protection from hostiles supposedly 21
gathe 'red o n the mainland near S able

The military command in Florida was poorly

defined uring the ea:ly months of the war and. this too added to Dallas's, Initially General Duncan L. Clinch had been. placed in milit..:U.ry c ommand of the territory during the prelimir : y stages of the Indian migration. However, the War Depa:rt nt had divided the nation into ar-my aeas such that Florida as spl t Into the eastern and western sectors; therefore, there were two additional military oo mmande2rs concerned wen "s, the hostilities comiened, General Edmund :P. Gains in the west, an. Ge:. -ral Winfiel Soott in the east, These two men were personally and professionally at odrds. General Scott was appointed the over:idall.. miMli.tany coNm..?iVnae. in F'lorid. in Ja:nuary 1836, Goneral Gaines left New Orleans for Tampa juxt as soon as he he:.a of the idian uprising, and bore he had been i:nfaoced of Scott's assignment. For a brief p ri.1od of time all thiee gr cnertals were in the field simultaneo cly,

The confusion over military comm.sanv;vxders di: d not' much disrupt naval ope<.ations. All thr ce laes dei.ed. the nvy to petroJ anda blockade the coast nd O' thmrt Seminole movenents through haassin5: mini ons 9,7- t.... hE .ct, )2 [; t,-(9S') O lxqe ]ii.OVCVA .tI.., "} > 2& 'Sb -):(


by small boat expeditions, The Washi ngton, Dextery and w. .ere initially transferred to the West India Squadron to cooperate with General Clinch, 22
although toohnicall3y they were under Dallas's command. Later, the Secretary of War Lewis requested Dickerson to in.t.ut the cutters to receive their orders frIm' Scott, "All.ow e also to sugge t," added Cass, "the propriety of your au.thorising. Comodor Dallas, with the Squadroin undiCer his command, to cooperate with' Ge.nrcal Scott in the subjugation and remova..l of the hostile Indi:enc I do not, of course, meanc to ask&' that Co.modoe; a.lls sEaould, in any manner, e".ve the orders of General Sctt, on be aoountable to ohim,; but that he may be empinowered to act in the same sr vice, 23
and requ ted to comnunicate freely with General o t," Such request wTas ci..iatol.y tpasscd On to the comoelor,

The man to profit most from the conFu

situation an;t the newly appointed governor, Rich)2d.J Keith Call. E desired to lead the military forces as well as be the executive I.hand of the t:.r it iy, Call'si. letters to his friend Pre sident Andrew kslson eventually b'ouht results. By nsJ 1i36, GCneral. Clinch hod rejtied ecaus1' of the sliht he felt e had res iv when Scott replaced him. Ga pas stationed on the Tera borac, ana Scott was in GeorGia suoie'


rare instances in our military history, the thCAiter commander w-as a civilian :who did not hold a re~gulae:. commission,

Call was par:ticulafrly sensitive to any breath of affront, yet in his dealings with others he was often arrogant, His method of demanding rather than requesting naval aid was greatly resented by Comwnodore Dal:las, xho at all times expected to be treated as becomes the senior naval officer of a theater. Thus it was inevitable a that these two m o shoul..d dUvelop an lsariosity tor.ds ecsAh other.

Call's P In was to utilize the Withlacchoe

hirer to bring up Jmen and supples for an attack upon the Indian at the Cove of the, Other groups wora to approach from the interior. In order to carry out this operation, he desired the navy to survey the mouth of the river, an. prevent supplies from rea 011 chin the Seminoles. He ways convinuccdt Q th-at 1the na vy was not providing an effective b. kA... C. Hwrote to Dalla in May, prio to ha mil itary aponment, station his blIef that S li Ush fisherman w operating in close cooperation with the Seminoles, "I have to request that i Small Cisers ne- you r command. an t .he Revenue Outte .y be onstantVy employed on the Coast with oMMrs Wo cut Off all

Toe goycoor VNAw et nin: nothing: which not bo'je n
44.. ... .... ... .. ... ' ' I '' ,: '{U ) I. ...... .

foreseen or o:ered executed by Dalla.s before his request, Therefore, it seemed to the commodore that the governor was calling his professional abilities into question, as well as trying to bring him within the ,army ohain of comelmand.

Dallas received Call's letter at the time when one of the governor's military aides was visitinSg Pensacola. He told the A:de that he did not like the "Style of Command" in the letter and would not .nswer sch a communication Dall:!.as went on to say th at a lthough he ha.d coope ated in the past, and would continue to do so in the future, ho would not give up command of his forces except under specific instct.ions fro-m r
Wa shingt on,

The gove rnor continued thi s ex:chb)ange a month'

:later '"On the 26th of May I made a request of you in my official capacity Twhoh appears to have received no attention whatever, Were I disposed to egard Etiquett more than duty I should not again trouble you, but th.s I a: not perili.t:e to d)o ... under my inst''rurctioens from the War Department, even if it wiere m di sposti..ti.on, I have the:efore to requ est that a competent i office .-er and cr :may be ordered from. the SquadronC. under your. command to a survey of the coast between the Tay

This sa: rvey will be h;by impo::snt in the. contrplate r ernoedi ti n ;.InsT the indi s', Thu vsso .. 1

employed in that service should be of light draug'ht and well furni shed with Boats, capable of being for26

This brought forth a reply from Dallas. "It is not a!y intention to cavil," he wrote, "or in a:a,, place obstacles in the way "to a full and perfect co-operti orn of the naval force under my command with any force that may be engaged against the Seminole Indians or others, previously to receipt of your letter of 2c6th May I whad distributed along the Seaboard of Flo:rida and Northern Coast of Cubsa the dif forent vessels of the with directions to examine and prevent any spplies from reahin. the Indlans or any captured, property beI. takelo from the terri'toi.T y All non on that coast have similar instructions Up to theo present moi~ent, I flatter myself, nothing has beel neglected or left undone that could in any way give effect to the movements of the militar-y forces in Florida," Co modoroe Dallas, Who could be as imperious as the governor,continueda "This eZplan&tion of what has been done is given not that I focl in the ie:ct called upon to make it but outi of courtesy to your situati on as Governor of 'the Tori.tory and th hJ gh con:ideratio.s which I entertain for you as a Gentleman," Then oontin .ing in a m:.': ore pleasant van Dallan said he would O col-oe extract of l tters hC had re eo v d:

of a partial survey of theentr ance to the Amiur [s :o River, Hei informed Ca:ll that a cutter had been cruising from Anolote Koys to Charlotte Harbor during February and Taroh on blockade duty, and as soon as a VOssel was available, he would continue the survey. "I must in co:nlusion," D:allas told Call "be pen:. itted to say that I shall be most happy to comiun:iioate with you in any manner most agreeable to yourself for the fall advanement of the objects of the present campaign . but in your communications I beg that for: the futur : your sugCOestios may bear less the character of orders than those theretofore received, I hope the Etiquette I have been found waiting in (not intention-S may not bC lost sight of in any ar [Pi j communicac ion that it may become nce sary to make to me as, Comman.ding Oflre:r of the Squadron: achi:e i the West Ind ies and Gulf of IMeico" Then, as a final waning, continued, "the orders and instructions I have resived shall literally and liberally be construed ande executed, but I can :.not reelve orders from any one but the head of the Department from whomiI al.l my instrunti:.;ons are derived and under whose direct':i.on 27
I am, apd shall continue to act."

iDaliras sent thi s or0:r esponen o between himself and. Gove:;:or C,:all to the s;otry: of th;e navy, ioon noi to be fasidious in tho exercise of my command,'" he ON ot Dieon. "but I Sh require all th


Courtesy of anguage in ny comrunl cOa otion that may be made to me from the military officers in Comman, that 28
my rank and a service of thirty years ent. itle me to," The secretary repl ied.i "The vies which you have expressed, anid the princple.s regulating your conduct as Commander of the U. S Naval force, are strictly correct" Then in an attempt to smooth ruffled feelings he wrote, "It is not doubted that you and Governo-r Call, a:e both actuated by pure and patriotic motives, and that you will still cordallyg and zealously proe-. serve, in all moe.sures of cooperation, calculated to advance the public interest, to secure harmony of action, and bringP, the War to a speedy and honourable
, issue "

Three days after sending thei letter complaining of the governor' conduct, s received the o:ochange between Capta.'in tMix of the Concord and Major Kenny Wilson, commanding at Fort Brooke This occasioned another -protest,

.The had written to Mix on May 18: WheLn .in" go~ o ionyour services in co-o peratingC.32 with the Army in Florida will: no longer be available, give an order to Lieut Waldron Commnding the DOtach. ment of arin .: at Fort irooke to rejoin m i rE pair 30
on boar. with th ; Lator in the onth Mix felt that the novel Kenows wer no longer necessary
at a. Q r 7 ( 2 wte to UlRls:o "I wish Lieut


Waldron to be prepared to embar:,h. . Will you be pleased to direct Lieti Walidron to repair on board this Ship . he will return to the Fort by the Cutter Washington after I sha have had an interview with
him." Mix waited two days before writing a second time. "Yor reasons ar e," he toldC 1Wilson,- "no doubt, fully sufficient for detaining the marines, but as they are unknown to me and as the Commanderi in Chnief of the Naval. forces required their services, you will see the propriety of my request that I may comm..,nicate
a copy to him,"

Wilson repli& "I have the honor to acknoledg.;e the receipt of you., letters of the 26th and 28th inst and must apo:Logie C for not having maI d an earlier reply to the former but as you did not then pre-sent3 the alternative which worl: lead you to apply for the M.arn.e force at this Post I did not cons er a Spei lfG reply necessary, I presmoe that you have heeto:ore been advised of the authority by which the.arines, under Li.eut, Waldran, are detained at this PO.M I am directed to retain them here -untI 21 the force shall. be augmenite by ::ecuits o o the e, and : ca:nnoot now ad3 .t te A. iht of tho Commander in Chief of the Naval forces of "the Ual:.ted States :in the West TnKdies to transfer to you the disocreS.tionary power of removal. The Mari no f c o 'still con.d. ores.. by oo s a very esaentya: psat of MA P an I should not feel


authorized to rc;'ove them without further inst:utotions 33
than those no@ in my possession. "

Dallas wrote to Dickers:on,5 when he forwarded this corresponence to the Dpartment, that "I: never had any idea of with.d:ra:ing the aines from Fort Brooke until. their place courl be supplied by troops properly belonging to such service; but I do contend, that belon..oginG to the Squadron under my command and as they proceeded to the relief of Fort B:ooke by my order, that they are still. under my control and that I have a right to remove them to their appropriate station a board of this ship, when314
ever I think proper."

Di ckerson brought this to the War Department, By the end of the month the sc:.retay wrote back "I have now the is not doubted, prove entirely satisfacto to you."

:In sp.ito of much command bickering there was usually cooperation. At the height of the army's winter campaign season, Dallas offered to man som of the army posts so that the soldiers could take the field with maximum str..gth. General Thomas M.. Jesup, now commanding in FLorida, accepted, and sailor ev. n rines garri oned Forts Clinc-, Poster,
and Brookae

At the beginning of the noxt sason, in the fall of 1837, the commao.ore felt the naval efforts had been slighted, He felt that Jesup had not sufficiently appreciate all the navy was doing_, It will afford mie pleasuree" h wrote Dickerson, "to do all in my power to ad. General Jc-sinup In his operations in Florida. I fear however that the same degree of alacrity cannot be expected from the navy as was exhibited dnc; last; winter, Liouts, Johnston, Powell a.nd. Hutor rendered every ser vice that could be asked front them, indeed more than. ould be fairly expected, nevertheless no mention of their services in the many, v 'ry ny General O:ders, louingO the meri'.ts, bravery, all ntry, perseverance etc. of Volunt:lC, militia and regular forcs e gaged in the War 1.In F. orlda (

Early In October, 183. Dtl Js sUWrizeod the squadr.:on. m', oveaents in a report to the department, The ConcoRd, Boston, and Natchez were cruising in rotation covering; ; te To s 1xas-Mexican coasts, The SI; Lou1 s wes enr .oute to to roi eve the air:M., The latter was to take the sick and disabl..ed of the squadron to Norfolk, The Gr -i: wl d ,ruis to Windward as fan as Haiti, 'lh Vah and W. n. had sortled with a lr..c epiti on. led by L eutrrwn Powell to bri. th war to th ; 0 : Somins b 'lievC. .Piathere in the Eiar;d( l "Enclosed," Dn"les

concluded, "you Vill find a copy of a .letter from the Governor of Florida, the first I have been honored with, which gives any detail of his intention or movement,'" Then in a rather smug tone he continued, "I am happy to say, that previous to its receipt all my pans had been laid and orders given., You will perceive that 38
they are in unison with his views and suggestions, ( Call. ras trcomendin-.. that a naval party scout the Everglades, ), as noted above, Dallas addres .d Call, in his correspondence, by his official title "The Governor of Florida" omitting his nIam,

Dallas applied standard naval techniques against the indians, The blockade instructions were oucine orders, point to point cr sing. a.nd. the l oops of ar salled, ell off shore because of thinr draft. Ouch an effort might be effective against a people who depended upon their ove:cras com-me:.e for their wel.l-being, but the Seminoles wero self-sufficient, exce pt for their weapons and. powder. Tihese two items could be brought to the Indians in small coactal vsselp at innumerable points along the peninsula without the ncesity of seaports, To guard against this illicit traffic would require extensive surveillance close to shore, This Dallas failed to do, although on several occ asons he requested small cr03ft to work close to land

The boat exp editions were also, for. the Or
part, o:aniKed lo:; n avol lines. They were tatica

maneuver r in' to sprolCfic tlVet SMadeN by the

Indians, The personel manning these xpedi:ltions were not CQurie, o p: opared fon sustained operations on both lan) an water, These expeditions were designed, for coastal and :ve opc:at..ions f:omn. the boats,

There is another c nidre.tin~ ~Dall: could not devote his full time to the Seminolen, nor could he sot aside a permanent force to concentrate upon the Florida Wa-r. His ships were spread too thin to exert strong pressure upon then wh.ic undoubtedly accounted for the laco of special effort on the part of the West IVndi S:quar. n o cope with the enemy under any but standard naia Mho.

Until the aroy' forcd th:- Seminol. Les inJto the Eerglades th;e reSwas n po social r so fo:r th navy to become m.uch involved in the conflict. In. spite of Dallas's efforts at blockade, the War, Departoment was not satisfied that the munitions traffic with t;he had been clse: o It w a aware of the in ad quay of 'the navy's performance, and it tried to adopt new solutions. As the Seminol es moved south into the Ieh~l;.de, le ary was the firs= to realtzie the importance of nvsal foTrce w'-rkig clo e to shr in harmony with .the land. forces. 'Th: ,r:la.des provided the terrain for Niveine arfaorc, Its cOa-linL indentasd anrd Island studded,

small en ouh to bc kept under 0lone surveillance, and its unexploxrc interior oul be reached only b' boat or can e.

TOuu 90ni g;-0 Z S C w c"- A'..
0 0 M O T C % 1 T A R &-r----' "WI S T H r )TQ f W0 *T r n O i l U T asp 21CUweg PU003 0q; j Mau xa -- <-1

1 m*

m~l mill
'-E9r iU/m~



The winter campaign of 1836.1837 began fo::e

Liutenant Powell on the morning of October 2, 1836, when the s Y .ii copanied. by the veveonu cutter Wa jsh:i(:9. sortied. from Pensacola Bay and. hu ad.ed for Kcy Nest. This small fore carried all of- the maries of th squad3o's ships th en in the Gulf of Mexico, except fo t.I (2etachenn it w to smen t the navy's smnl:?I'.nd pr2vi .,

belie to mbr about 200, gathered 1n thJ v nity c' pryio to ving Tampa the pr us July, Captain .two nd.ns fo Bunc.'.s rj.hoo the 0 lan to spy,C

Thy fell in th Chi A paty d tha a 110 numiba'r of Seminoles hpd built caoCs 'ith whih i tako their 00::1100e to the Islanas In tha Everel s,

(a:Dor., ot.. a tat.ecthe. uso to meo. .rrc: in h. I.. 3'' .. 't I 1: '' V A *'' '' 4 'I v ( .,..'

locality bsays nowing noI'4,). It miEht he ponsible,


it was surnidso1, to Su n rris a large number of warriors before the-y took to the wr-pah or, failing that, to deprive the hostile of one of their basic food buffs and let hunGer an sta.rveation tak. their toll. The plan called for the Ii g tgnli n1 to transport boats and personnel from Key West to C:ape F.lorida and to oontinuze to act a.s the supply base for e the he- operationns, This assault force was larger than Powell'sc earlier expeditions and was tailored for the r ission. In addition to the mobile support bae provided by the revenue cutter, the dctaohment' s fifty sailor=, led by Lieutenant William S ith of th e V 6 1,

six smaller r.a0? aft. .First. Lieutenant Waldron, USC, fron

a civilian volunt. eer Dr. he Fr 'edorick LeA,:.r. Furthermoie, Powell had the3 services of Mr. Stephen R. Maly a resident of Key Wr s t who had expeiec.e. iling th w of the K. y'.

Powell left Key West Oc tober 3, 1836, and three

days later, encoute to Cape Florida, he bw-ou:.-t his force into I:CdAn Ky, one of thle so!!: islands jist off the southen tip of the mainland, to raplenis. histwater supy

aLttVl Kaey L .rw.o, daestoyin' the go..ron and out bul. ing...
b.oagin. : t o .:.n Jo 3 a. Cn. Octob ar 8 the li
OWO].]. 9:1 { 'I> .,b .,2i.: Oobo 9 p z...::

attackedc, the schooner ary, a smaLl coastal Vessel of about fifteen tons, while she was ;'id ing at; anchor at h:ey Tavernier, just off the eastern shore of Key Largo. T'he. five crew members managed to scape by taking to the small.. boats, although two of the men were wounded in the fray, The Indians first plunderec the schooner an i the set her afire This war party was in no haste and remained in the
vicinity for several days, Seeins the smoke from their campfiroe:s, about thirty iles away, Pon. ll oh.aned, his plans ana deaied to make surpri ase a.sault. o the ban befoe proceed in.r to the Cape, He recalled his earlier difficu'lties ma.neuvtering the large navy li.unohns coss to the shoreline while attempting to oproach guerila bands und.eteoted, and so he procured two light boats, one fo. Captain Jacob Housm. of Indian Key, oo :o.gnt his for. smallest boats for his first attack upon the en .,L

His plan of operation was a pinoce m:.n:::i:
Lieutenant Sith p,.s to take a division of boats and circle the east end of Key Largo hile ell't s gup woul stretch over te main under cover of darknos and try to stay hidden near the coast. Powell: hoped he indi an.s w1od be traveling by water and, not expecting a trap, they might wove out away from the shore. He felt. confident that he could fo:e an en ... agement on the w:at'ur f he coul ..neuve:. er his sailors and marines between the Seminoles an laan;I this wouLdL be .obat. in the .navy' element, ,l waIte, until the dMY was Mel -long b:fo, deciding that the ene-,


unfortunately was not going to travel out upon o n water He ordered the force to prioced. alon the coast and try to flush the hostiles out, Shortly thereafter they came upon a canoe carrying two indians and the chase was on, The Seminoles were able to prolong the pursuit by remaining in the shallow. caters, but Powell urged his sailors on and the gap na:r-owoed. Jus as Powell ord.e:ced some of his men to open fire, the canoe turned into the shore and its occupants jumped out and fled inland Only then did Pow.ll :-ealize that the two Indians would spread the alarm, a.d by the time he arrive ed the whole Seminole force had vanished, The Indians had left their canoes, fishing equipment, and provisions behind, and befor-e Poell r:ceturned to Indian hey he destroyd ever 'rylthing that he thought had any value, Once agaSin the force reosmed its cou:rs for Cape Florida,

After such an auspicious start, Poie;:l wes:; determined to Yen:aine the coast thoroughly. Lieut;nant SN th was placed in charge of the large boats, and ; was instructed to take the outer passage to the Cape, while First Lieutenant W:aldronk and his mari.:nes accompanied Powell in the smnll boats and. sea cohed the passage between nKey Larg,:t'o anjl the mainland, Wh1.2.e Powell probed the inT:numeran:bie inlets and small keys which could hve furni ished a secluded retreat for the enemy has uncernd abo h b'poib il of an mbrs, Addedc to this hzard, nature took a tn and the forXoo 1ha.(.. to bat ag .. ainst norhea. a ralcst -


As a result it was October 21 lbefo.e it reached 'Cap Florida F rom this base Powe; ,ispatched exploring parties to seek out the eney. Th., first evening he cent Lieutenant Smit.h to the Miami River to inspect the former settlement there. The next night, October 22, Wald.ron, took a. large group up that river to the head. of boa-," nav ligation. He reported that the scttlem ents there had been utt early de royed some time before his ar.ival. These move nt: s were carried out at o d.o e tection. Powe was trying to engag an elusivee .guerril. l foe and did not want the Seminoles to disppa: r agz.n, Nethodically he widened his search, se.ri 'phEn alloy to explore along L title ii.v and Arch Ore a, ibut w. no positive results.. Powell wa;s convincod. that "-te.a ere no hosties in th iediato c i, he b l 1 ev that they were s:om:ewhere along New River probably hrve :'esti'- :n coontie. He was determined. to supi t

The pincer movement wo'- uld again.ibecome Poell'e

modlus ornci, .iAccompani.ed by tha marines, he would ascend to the .headwaes o f the-i R atoneL Rv-1'r e then arc:! ove" to I e i: ....' meantime Lieutenant S it was to approach 5by sea, Powell departed at nine :1n th evening and hi.s groupi rowed all night, arriving at te Ratones at ten the noxt morning, a distance of tWenty.five miles from Cape Florida, On the marb overlon: they ac"'ros a d.e a :r' oc.&,In IM viI.llgIe and set fire to th dwelli:.... Po. renoh" Vew Rive about 01 .tb mile


below the ELvergl.c ades and dc nstl an util a Jtnction was VmOde with the boat force from the sea on October 30, either rou had found any SeoinoLes. Therefoe, Poell establ'h.e a strong camp on the west bank of New Rive:r nd again sent out probing expeditions Smith was dis.pat hc. with three barges to operate as far north as Iadian River., Nanwhile, knowing that the area to the south w' clear of gueror:i'lla unit:, Powell decided to investigate the Eve rgl ad es, the terr l; ,,n:i. of the Sonei.. l.ol e :,

Powell started out with four of his li gh tert

boats and a scanty alf.lowane of provisions so as not to be burdened. The party inolud Drs Hassoler and Leitner, who wore interested in scientific information and Wil1 Cooley the guie, By this trek Powell hope to add to the sparse mil.taii kowl edge of the Seminoles ret rat. T coastal area of Florida" w firl well known by 1836 o, but the interior of the glades Iha not yet been penetrated b, white no. Powell' reportC of his attempt pointed out the finadquacy of keel boat inr such an area "e anchord our boats that night in the great inland basin of South Flo ria knon th Everglades, We t w .the coast tWh.,t 0noi es the glades, Forests of pines and C o OSZ e O.. L- Ol (O F in i Vi e cyp-eso enclosed us om on sid like a black vall? while on the other, the grass, which covers the whole spface of this shullo 1 c, offered no obstruction to th1e eye as it wande ed o ver tho reey w ate. Ho'r, on thi rin lad, g .,.. .o ~ b '. .,' ::,o y e b e n e~t e 'r abI:' b~
w b i 'L~ e )x e ;. :8 o 'f c .,;' s .~ p o ,c~ o f l : i i7 -, ..

or on the Islands in the glados, if there "were Indians, so oommanLdinu was our position, that their fires would certainly have been seen by-us. With the darn we pushed into the grassy sea before us, and ten.c;vord to approach an Island seen in the distance, Several other is lands were above the horizon as we progressed; but the boats, although the small.cst of our little fleet, cot:lad not near either of them. The matted saw-grass, which wounds like a raszor, and the deep eluloes, which intersect the glacdes, prevented access to them on foot,. I found it impracatbicablie to navigate the glades, at this stage of water, in keel. boats, though no labor had been spar ed and we reluctanntly
coimmenced our e ..turn to the oai)p."

On November 6 Lieutenant Smt.h returned and informed Povwe:ll that hero were no recent signs of Indians as far' north as the St. Luoie River. The latter co udcd that the S;eminoles had completed their harvest earlier and must now be operating in the northern part of Florida,: He then ordered the expedition to move southward and to continue to probe and explore the .;extremity of the pain.isula., Powell rounded the tip of Florida P moved northward up the west oost in.peoting the abandoned fi.; ranchos anid recording information about them for future use, He reache. Josefa Isleand. in Charl.otte Harb r Novembe '30 and. :::ecured shel.t;:Lr against a no r:thn gale: _, Two daysy later he s dtcic, rIt as ttee to retur to Key West due to the condition of his men ayl bxats Fierl, an e)a"ly'
~~.............. ....... .. ......... ......... ,.......... ...... k..i't0


December, Lieuten.nt Powoll's group began to report aboaard.
their respective comman-.nd. The cutter ,nDt:e.e arrived in Tampa Bay wth a pa't of the marines from the expedition !1
on December 23, aWd the remainder came in soon after, This initial a tempt to penetrate th e::verlades

provided the impetus for another expedition the following fall, Lieutent:~ants Pow'ell was. challenged by Florida's vast auatio land., teeming with its amphibian denizens, which must, he thought, be penetynted mili..ta:rily by an equally amphibious fore., Powell..:l wrote to Joel Poinsett, secretary of war, in September, 1.837, offering his se:rvice,:,e to l.ed a military expedition into the glazes. Be pointed out to the seretary that his previous expedition had ,penetrate. eiWh.cer to twenty miles into the glades in deep-hulled ship's cutters. This feet had. convinced him that with the proper boats the whole of south Flor d.a wa accessible to the militaryI e proposed that the :expedit: on be transportEod o New Ri.ver where in boate buil t under my'ion : a na y yard (or purchased) of tho lightest draught and to sto in nets" coIuldI be used for the actual
penetration Poinsett was impressed, an d Invited Powell to 'a h.S on ,

The "Pojct of an Expod. on to the Everglade s of South Fl.o:ida" was foally. by Powell to the Iar department I Ocober, ":It is proposal to A*.:rcumnaviga.te the Everglades discover the aforcsaid reteat, to cn.rdevourC to cupre the women (:.- & ohil:en, to fall uon the


war parties and to harass & terrify the nation, by this
unexpeted inroad from this quarter.," He suggested a force

of 100 seamen, 100 soldiers, and the necessary officers

from each service. The whole expedition was to be outfitted with "not less than twenty boats flat built and fitted 13
with sails oars do ," This offer was accepted and the details of ors.:aization oere left to Powell, By mid-October, he was in Charleston, South Carol ina gath'e:ing the equipage he conideroed necessary. He bought two boats and fourteen pirogues and ordered twelve boats constructed. Finally, he c ha:tered four schooners to transport the navy detach:.:ent: and equipment to St Augustine where the army personnel wre to be ;mbari ed, General Jesup had taken co:rencnd of the military
forces in Flori da from Governor Call on Deocmberi 9, 1836, Prior to that he had been in. charge of the Alabama secto. of the Creek campaign under Scott whore he had gained experience in Ind.ian fighting During his first winter nr Florida he divide!. the territory into two zones, The northern sector was similar to a ,ons of interim or, under Brigadier Geneal Walker K. Armi stead, and :wa serviced. principally by rda militiamen and the West India Squadr.con's sailor- who gairrisoned certain forts. This had freed the reevlare to pursue the Seminoles sou.I,.thward, For the winter c ;a iin sea, sonJ rf 1837-1838, Jesup age in divided the ter:ito i.nto the i two zones nd. C pa silj. offeno.sive operation to o;::Mao the Indi JPoinsett counseled:. General. Jesup to insure that the army officers assigned to Powell's 16
group would not outran the lieutenant. Jesu.p complied., although he protested that the force was too large to be an efficient, eplcring party and too small to be a combat group for the forthcoming operations, 17
and they would not be ready to move as soon as he wished. At the sa e time the general requested that Powell.'s group be placed. under hi s direct command Meanwih:..e, Secretary of the Na.vy Dickerson infLormed Dallas that Powell had. been selected to lead this expedltion, and, while he would expi oe the g:lades and render any aid needed 1by the army in its forthcoming cOalmpaign, ho ns to report dirsc tly to the rcommodore, Later, Powell mentions his instructions from the "Secretary at War" as the basic guidelines for the expedition when he wrote the final report of his activitie::Ls in South
Fl.orida to Dal:las., The command situatil.on was confuslng,

Uhen Powell:. arrived at St, Augustina, Gena: Jesup sent for him to :report to headquarters at Black Creek, JeCup plano to utilize three forces in sc:th1 Florida to sweep the area, and to :old the d:ian: _. while the :main as; t pushd south, Thi southernrn groups ere Colonel S'Mi '; :oisana Vol'ntcer 0. th. est, ope:ati,; fre t. rouh of the Caoohthe Elver; Colonel Machoy Taylor's lot Infunty Hebnin


in the center, covering the area between the Kissimmeo River and Pease Creek; and Powell's small mined force of sailors, Company I, 1st Artillery, and a detachment from the Washington City Volunteers to operate along the east
coast. It was at headquarters that Powell received his first movement orders he was directed to proceed to the St. Lucie iiverto i:nvesti'ate the possibility of opening comm2nuica@tions between Indian River and the St, for military probes into the interior of the peninsula,

In mic-December, Poe ll's command left St, Augustine for M osquito Inlet. There they off-load.ed from the schooners and sailed down the lagoon in the expedition's small boats to the Hau.over, a narrow stretch of land separating the lagoon from Indian River. The transports were directed to carry the bulk of the provisions ccwn the coast to rendezvous with Powell at indian. River. Some da ys earli. er, navy Lieutenant John T, Mc.Laugh n had :transporbed First Lieutenant John B, baruer'sk detac.lient of : three 21
companies of 1st Artillery to the baulover The two command s. re,.,a ned here throughout the month of Dec ember.

At first Powell kept hi men busy movinoig their thirty boats across the land from the lagoon to the river, A more pressing problc.:i for him was the lack of military cohehsive-. ness of his force. Th.:e:refor, he frequently exeri.ds .a, his conglomerate group in militia y formations asn el.lose order drill, tact certainly made necessary by the diverent' bagro,ulds o:f b: s fctOe of a...y reC-ogulsrs, b vo-lunte'ic'


militia, and navymen, especially the sailors. This per:..od was also beoeaficial to the off icers for like the men, they had only recently assembled for this expedition, Lieutenant Powell was experienced, but his officers we:e new to this typo of operations. Midhipmen Peter U, Muxrphy and William P, Mo.Ar .thr had been at the naval school at Norfolk until ord cered to this expedition in the fall, and Passed Midshipman Horace N, H arrison joined Powell at St, Avustln.e Surgeon Jacob Rhet-t Motte of Magrucder's co:rmma.nd wrote a mos't revealing eyewitness account of th.e drill formation of the expedition: "When drawn up in lin.e they presented, a curious blending of black and white, like the keys of a piano forte; ma:ry of the sailors being coloured men, There was also an odd alternation of tarpaulin hats and pcajackets, with forage caps and soldier trip roundabouts; soldiers and si.lors, white men and bl:acQk, being a-1. thirown into the ranks i ndiscriminately, a bcaI tiful secimen of mossaic, thusgmokfying sailor's ardour with sol er's

The d3?y after Christm; 183, the ex ped.ition ceparted.the ES aulover to explore n.dian River, Captain 23
Harvey Brow:.n and Joseph Johnston, te gr:cop s topo grapha tl e;iner, were to selc20 t ;an mark sites Vo::nC.'i: the route for ?epots; later Lieutenant Magruder's group was to follow and COn trt forts at the places selercter'd On the ove::.i; of the .u dy, D-ocmber 27, they arrive' at a l .oion rovituly seleted by General J..u... )


to be inspetea. As the boats pulled into the shore the men were start dc to glimpse a small ban of Seminoles break from cover and flee to the interior, Powell said 24
"their fleetness defied pursuit" Tlhe following night the group made .cap o hig on a oak bluff on the north bank of the St. S oeb~ib'an River. There was a brief period of rest until dark, then Powell had the men ascend the river looking' for f:ir es which would betray the hostile campsites, This search .sted all night and the r:iver was scouted to its headateir.s without disCO'vering the enemy, On the next day the group continued south and arrived at the mouth of Indian River, They made camp and prepared to wait for the transports, On Deceber 31 acgrudor's group joined them Whili.e at the inlet Powell sent Captains Brown and Murphy to scout the mmainla..nd and Lieutenant Harrison to reconno:tre the mouth of the St. Lucie River.

Fr esh supplies were reoiived. from': the transports

the .first week in Janu.y and Powell departed for the St. Lucie, He w. concerned for the physical comfort of his men, knm:ing from. prev ious duty the strength- sappinSg rigors of life in the-r wps. "I left;, Irvin's company of Washington City Volu:nteers at Port P.ierce, on my way iWe had three ki:e of troops in our litt l e band Soldiers, Volunteer C S''an- with their repective officers Perfect unanimity of cours e could not be expected anc se tho Volwutons h. not been inrued in the or.ii-l plan 25
It feil to their iw t to sarate Hie hJad not yetL earn:Cd


of the Ba'ttle of Okeclhobee which took pilce on December 25, and so he was not aware that la:,Se numbers of Indjians had 26
been forced into the :vex:rJlades by military pressure, Whether or not this would have if:Luenced his deOiaieon can not be determined. When the group reached the St. Luoie, it made camp "on the sea beach where we discharged the 27
boats of their heaviest adIng &: started u.p the river-," Again Powell traveled at night and "started an Ildi ian from his lair." The next day the force had a brief engagement with a small band an the north fork of the St. Luci., Powell and his m5en reached the headwaters where they made camp and waited Captain .Brown left to find General, Jesup to report their progress, Powell kept searecbin the area while awaiting a reply.

One day he sent a man back to the base camp a.

ha lf hour's wal fr:oi the party. The sailor lost the trail and strayed off. Two days late he was found in a state of exhaustion from his efforts to locate himself in that wild and desola te country,

It was at the headwaters of Jupiter River, as the oxpediti on w leaving th:.e interior, that Powell eng:.gag;d in his most A eou' confO:nat:ion with hostile I ndians., Around Janua:o y 10 o 11r 11 o l :38, while e:ploring: the St. Luci.e he discovered an Indlan tril with signs that a l rge band had r :ently i: oved southwardd, ita ary egaement w.s his prime purposE' so Po.:well out following the a. On:. the Cfifte th, he overtook a tending;.a0 Ra head who, when


captured, volunteered Information that thee were several Indian camps in the vicinity Twen.ty-three men were left to guard the boats and the squaw was pressed. into service as a guide, She led the group down a well-beaten trail. about five mile to a cypress swamp from which columns of smoke were rising, Lieutenant Powell formed hi s force into an extended lin of three divisions with acting Lieutenants Harrison and McArthur each leading a division of sailors. Lieutenant F'oler led the army group, The entire. force numbered about fifty-five sailors and. twnty-five soldiers. Previously Midshipman murphy and his men had been sent on detached duty,

It was fon:r o'clock in th: afternoon when the force came to the swamp, A war-whoop echoed ahead and instantly Powell ordered a charge, the Seminoles were superb guerrilla fighters using the terrain to maximum advantage. The.y would. o. fo u instant to shoot at the charging. line and then disappear again into the underbrush. The nerve-shatteing war-whoops, co:' as a .lw growl a..n(. d increasing in pitch to a shrill yell, followed each s'hot The steady ri fle fire from the underbrush, the :Indi.ns popping up here an, there for a Ait second, and the

,would have ee b more ratical, but thi was not On stndar Irce(i'9":i.OC 'i~o I~;,c"l,: :!.i 7," S:~ n~s: Tri a accidii i'il ~.~: .... ...... ..... .] ,i] 0 0 ,. .... ...t .... .... ; 9 ,L


battlefield procedure at the time. Thus casualties were rather one sided.

Acting Lieutenanct harrison was shot in the shoulder at the outset and his division was left without an officer to lead, Powell ordered Lieutenant to ente:r the swamp on the right and, acting Lieutenan t icArthur to lead the remaining two dvi sions along the original line of advance, One of the sailors near Powell was shot in the leg, but ho continued the fight and killed his opponent with a blast of "both barrels of Captain Powell's double 28
gun, loaded with buckshot"

The enemy was forced slowly backwards until the

warriors were at the edge of the more dense portion of the; cypress swap Here they heI and maintained a steady and unrelenting fie upon the advancing line, This fire from"t the unseen enemy force of unate :i.ned size took its toll upon the attakers, ,Liete.anut C.A:thur was seriously wounded and the expedition's s ureon, Doctor Leitner, was
killed, Some of the unofflored sailors began about, night awe app'roaching, and the number of wounded was increasing, :Fo l rea-lied his deteriorating position. and ordered a withdrawal.

While recrossing the swam.p the arry group came .uderg heavy fire and ,ieutaernnt Fouler was shot in the thigh and. sidc, forcing him out of action, Joh:nston i:i:mmedi.ately t-ook oba e and effectively directed the Year guard activity of tho anrmy roualrs,


The sailors were raw recruits to this type of land operations and with the approachi-ng darkness, the fin. er points of retreating and maintaining unit integrity weakened. The feeling of Tloneliness which can assail a man in combat, espeolial ly he who has not developed a strong sense of esprit de corps, took possession of some. The savages covingll in from behind, the l.engthen. ing shadows, and the safety of the boats provided a strong feel ing of insecurity for the Sailors which overcame their recently instilled disOiplie.n The sailors of the u r:i off icered division broke ranks and ran for the boats bfad the rest of the detachment followed in rout, the Seminoles could hvre pi l off the men at will
PoWalW nd Harrison, both wounded, wre able to keep the remaining sai:Lors in a ragged, yet effective military formation The brunt of the ear.: gua::d action fell. to the army detachment an.d through their efforts the retreat did not turn into a rout The firiSg was maint'Sained ti:I. ab:ou.t seven-.thirty in the ev07.ening hen the expedition finally i .:hed the boat.,s nd wa,-s able .o pull off, L",it onant Powell's final. roscapitulntion to Co:imm.odoe Dallas .iss: five KiMlled. ( one surgi eo:jn, tiwo se.amen, and two So.lA ir) an. tweilty-two woundedd (Noufr officers, incluOg'q Powell, one nDon.oonni ssioned officer, lev private, one bontsrain' mate, and five seamen), Later o, l picked up oun.... an who. ree had lost his w :y t.'during th acrta, rduc..i o. the' nuber killd to four..

In addition, one of the boats, containing a keg of powder, rum, and whiskey, s inadvertently left on the bank during the retreat because it was n not noticed in the darkness, Powre:L. brought his force back to Indian liver :Int where the wounded could be cared for, then sailed to Fort PFierce whe:e the injured 30
could receive hospital treatment.

IMeanwhile General Jesup led the main column

south along the coast from Fort Pierce. he detoured inlan,.d rather than ford the St. jLucic River, and on his way back to the coast engaged the Seminoles at the same :ocale whcre Powell had fought a few days earlier. The battlee of Lookahatchee on January 24l, 1838 involved a:n. estimated 200 or 300 -watri : or-, Enemy casualties were unknown, but the army suffered seven killed and thi-rtyone wounded, include g Ceneral Jesup The Indians retreated. into the interior where the army could not follow, in spite of its Dearbon wagon;::s with their big, wide wheels, and wate tight bodies The horses' s l's wore 1ton by the sawgrass a.nd the ph ysiceal effort expnded moving the vehicles th:rou.rh. the morass was: t:oo g:rat to endure. On the twenty-, sev'ent, the let: Artill ory reachel... d .. .Jupiter Ry, out of forage and with but two daMys of r nations, wellel arrived with s: lis on .that e l is boa,::s made sovoyral t;Kps provislon'r. bt to t Jupt.. ..until FebruS then the group was Or to M"l

for Iey Biscayne, General Jesup felt that by sending Colonel Benjcmin K. Pierce ith. a oat o the st Artillery and Powll's aallor :. to Key Biscayne by water his force could proceed southward by land and
trap the Indian:

Powell's defeat bothered him so much that before he left Indian River Inlet he sent an additional report, to the secretary of the navy, "It is now too late to refer to the original composition of the expedition which. was not in accordance with joint instructions of the Secretary of Wa .... yours, and my own, The seamen were all lands:en an?d three-fifths of the reulas er voLnees. could ha tug ht theu: to make watches as easily as to learn the one to hanle an oar and the other a musKet, Nor do I say this in reproach to either, but to show that service lico this required men who ha.d nothing to learn of the business
before the, "

Powel. insisted that his assault group be

strengthened with an add.iti onal company of regulars and that the volunteers be evl.uded, This was done and his command now consisted of himself as commander and acting Lieoutenants Jarrison and Muphy as divialon officers for the sailors, Fir.t [iutenant John B, CoMagu:.. rep..l C i. Lieutenant f O wer, cona'nd ed Company I mond L M i ute ant tK br't MoLCa.e, o ,.ana Company CrtInl Johnaton oOiinte& as tepophicQ_

officer; and Dr. Leoona:trd, acting surgeon, replaced, the deceased Dr, Leitner. With this group Powe.l sailed south and arr,:ived at -Key iscayne on February 11, He spent the rest of the month establishing a depot there and eroeting Fort Dallas on the mainland.

Early in Marich, after General Jesup received

information that Sam Jonces LChie ArpoiaJ, with the Mikasukis, was in the interior of the Everglades near New river, He ordered Lieutenant Colonel James to Key Biscx ayno and informed Powell that he should aid the colonel, At the same time, Jesup wrote to Comodore Dallas of Powell s performance: "Lt, Powe ll has not failJ.d, he has cooperated with me most efficiently and is now at the point where he can enter: the Everglades, He will penetrate them so soon as I shall have placedJ a force on New Ri.ver: sufficient to protS;o'c hi.s r movotements which wll be in a few days. His affair in this vi inity was most gallant though he was co.mpolled to retreat to 35
his 'boats with some loss." The force Jeo.p spoke of was Lieutenant:. Colonel Banklhead, with six Companis::.:.e of t-he 1 t and 4th Artillery; Major William Laudcrdale, with 200 'Tennesseo Vo::lunteers; Lieutenan Robtent Anderson, with a company of the 3rd Artillery; and Powell's group,

While the army forces moved towards the ranezvous on the cdSe of the glades al.on the north fork of New River: :l-Powell scoutdc. the inte;s:ior:. Just after enter the y erglaas he found a fresh trail :len,adin


into the interior, and he comni c d this iLnformati Ol to Colonel Bankhenad. The country h d experienced a drought and the normally wet glades had been turned into a muddy samp too dry for boats and too wet for walking. Bankhead prepared for this venture by leavin his horses on the mainland, depositing most of' his baggage on the first island he came to after entering the Eiverglades, and distributing his troops among the boats. The soldiers put their muskets and cartr idgeboxes in the boats to keep them dry while all hands pushed and towed the watercraft through miles of ooze and saw grass, Finally, on Manch 22, 1838, they reached the island in "the sea of m u.d where the Indians were encampe.

Bankhead attempted to psar y, but the Semino l s fired u on his flag of tu;cce. Tha colonel i:meiatey wont Into action ev though it was only about ant hou before sunset. HQ posted an extended line to cover the front of the hammock. Major Reynold Kirby, with five companies of artillery and two of the Tenn. 5essee Volunters, s Cspatch d to thea lef., flank where the water was shallow, and Powell was sent to the right flank were it was deep When his boats within gun range, the ', ;M.0:i opened fire, and he answered with a four powder in the bow. Bere t the navy cou!. link up with Kirby tho houtilEs realized the plan and :fl:ed in great ha:.ite l'v';g foo, laead., poider, and.


twenty shin canoes This sortie was important for it was one of the early attack after two years of war, into the asylum of the Everglades where the Indians had boasted 36
that "No white an coid go."

After this engagement Powell returned to Fort

Dallas to rep air his boats. Uhile he was thus engaged. he received instructions from General Jesup to release one of the artillery companies. Afterwar.ds he oontinud. his routine p.tnine gob: with a reduced force until Apiril, he eonaed hi.s expedition, at Key West, Ml oi f his -; en were suffering from scorbuti, and there were not .. o .gh provisions on the key for them. -owell p:rcval..ed upon Captain William A. Howard of the Madison. to take him to: havana for fresh veOgetAbles, When the cutter y2turned she loaded Magruder's company and took hem to Nw River, Powr..l brou.Lht his naval force up the 'west coast to

Lieutenant Powell did not feel his primaryT objective, exploing' the interior of the Ev:.glades, h, been acompoli shed, "Letters frn om G cu. J; up d t thoe return of the chmpanie 2 s of artillery-.. he wrote Po.nsett, "terminated the labours of the e xped.tion which I have the honor to command and without I regret to say the principal object for whi h it was fitte. out Nevertheless, the econdar1 y co nsideratons that f o o00 operation with. the army cor p to the f ull.. extent of it s ability, has I bel i evo been effoote,.


"Fallinsg in with the ary, at the outset and

constantly thereafter engaged in oxecutirng the wishes of the commanding general, the time at which the even., glades are navig;ablto passed by that a partial access to them, only was found practicable, The information obtained by the exzpedAbion is hence mostly confined to the coast and rivr:s but the princ.:pal benefit derived from its operations will be found in its being the pioneer to the southern corps and indirt;.ectly to the most 3s
important results of the last campaign."'

There is no explanation among Powell'.s official correspondence as to why he brought his plan to the War Department, Fe may have sounded out his own servi.c first, but' the type of expedition ho presented probably seemed to be a military u:dertahng., In any casa, he is the firsto show a concept of oombat riverine warfa re he attempted to blend the personnel of both services he devised special ateroraft for his mission; he wanted to use internal waterways to reach th enemy; finally, he was prepared for susta.ned operations in a riverine en-


Generalal. JTesup was convinced. that the West India

Squadron s blockade was ineffective, "I am apprehcnQ .v of the i.ndians obtaining powder from vana on ,the one side, he wrote Poinstt in AuIgusit, 1837, "and .Newv Providence on the other; and. if a small nval force, or even the cutters whioh were under the direction of the Navy last winter, could bo spared, much advantage would. result." This was forwarded to the secretary ss of the navy and treasury, and it brought action Comm.odcre Dallas sent the schooner Gra tu to Havana and Nassau to seek information on the arms smuggling. Afterwas she sailed off the southern tip of Floridla boarding ll suspicious v ssels, C apt i n sU. ha. Peak mad o a eg at-ive report at com:.pleti on of hi s cruise. The Treasury Department tunyd. ever tbo cutters Jefferson' and Ijackson to the squaro:i, nt DMi.s h thu op rate off.. 'Lth

Arm y prossur e: o forc!0 th e I ndianE southward. and creating .in.sGed enemy activity in that area Captain. Join; WohaL ton, of the CEO2yefont Roof lightship, had. mintained a gardon on Ky largo for.yars. On


June 25, 1837, he andi fou' t'n:e:d ewln rowed over to visit his orchard, Indlans wrave iti ni g for them an opened fire when they stepped out of their boat Whalton and one other were k .illed. in the first salvo, The remaining three, in spite of the fact that two of them. were wounded, mana .ged to set afloat the boat and, The Seminoleo manned a canoe to give chase, but wet their rifles while launching. W hey were able to use their weapons again, their quarry was well.. out of rangee and widening the a.d,

Later that month W!!insl:ow. Lewis of Boston arrived at Biscayne Bay to take over the duties of lighthouse keeper at Cape Florida, but on learning of Whalton' s murder he refusd. to stay, In the came area one of the small coastal vessel e.gagec in hunting ti:,tl s rv portced. being chased by a. war-party in canos

In January, 1838, :Dickeson informed the War

Department that the cutter g lS sn. had boon made av-iable to the navy, He wanted to know what duty to assign her, Poinsett replica. that the various disasters ouri in South Forida pointed up the need for naval protection in that area. The east coast fom Key Bi cayne south to Key West had always been c.dangrou8 after Uo o siing vessels, and had long supported a thi ving wrookin business. Nor that hostile Indians wee so active on land the r iska n greater. Th9s mnoe it :Daerative t armed aid En ofMrca to thone cast an shrae. it was the


end of MIarch befor:ie te ~~Madj: Captain '.William A. Howard, arrived at Pensacola, and June before she and the Cam~ b1l re ported to Gen:erel Zacha:iay Taylor, iwho had
repl.a.ced Geneal Jesup in ay, :1838.

Taylor's.. pln had been first to drive the Indis south of a line ou:;hly from Tampa Bay to St, Augustine, This would keep the Seoinols from "every portion of Florida worth protecting," The second part of his program was to out the lndi.ans in the south off f:ro a.ll trade with white men so that they would eventually desire to leave their barren: lands and migrate. Taylor wanted the cutters to cruise up both sides of the peninsula from a rendezvous point at Cape Sable, not only to aid distressed mariners, "but to stop arms "traffic and. visit the various army posts along the coast to check on their safety. They were to be his sea lin: in the chain of force set
up to i sol,.ae the 8 o .mi noles

The eoretary of war took active measures of his own beyond that of his thna;e:r ooman er:'s, He asked navy Lieutenant John T, M]Launghlin. his opinion concerning this problem: I.Laughl.:in submitted a written proposal in May, 1 838, D felt the ary-' n:ded high speed schooner of cixty or seve nty tons which would not draw more than five or ,. fett of :water; it sh ul' hr v a beam wie enough to store a baerge in eaoh waist; an, these bargee should daw:: no ore than eight inches, be
n)nl1_r. a. tni O r r,. Oe ::tr ftoft meu Th. am- nt

should consist of one twelve pounder on the schooner and two light swivel guns for the barges, In addition there should be Whitehall boat, light and fast, pulled by four oars, to overtake any of the Seminole canoes, Ponsett approved this and forward. the letter on to the navy, Three days later Dickerson replied that the navy did not have either the schooner or the small boats called for, "but if the Seoretary of War will provide them it will give me pleasure to furnish. D Offioo s & men for them as Trecommended" The offer was accepted, KMcLaughlin was sent to New York, ever before Poinsett. acknowl edged Dickerson's letter, where he purcaased the
yacht Wy e ofrom Jchn C Stevens,

The W've left N ew York on Aug'u;t 1, 183, headed. for South PFloria, Enroute she was force into Ocra:oke Inlet, iorth Carolina, to ride out a sto m off Capey Hiatteras. This del.ayeh d arri.:val at St. Agustire until A.ugust 21. McLarughlin rotot "Her::c conduct durn12.odg a continued series of South Westerly gales & heavy head Seas has prOved her to be as fine a sea-btoat as She wa knoin to be Sa.ea: With the exce:pti.on of two hunr.o;d miles She hau beaten h: e way frm- N. York & hr more 10
than realized all my expnotation of her She ailed'

station at Portmeth. .. fr, By Setebe 2, .L' .A i
A C" c' . C ,, o ;fl"O 'g-,.'v,[ C .....; ...... ... n to J : . K r :c ..."


the W..e two baro hoc'o an E.q.ett weore on patrol among the keys,
Three days later the brig A, of Portland, Maine, enroute to Boston from Sn Jago de Cuba,, n Into a strong blow from 'ho t he.rth,.ast.; As lthe winds increased In. intensity Captain Charlos Thomas took in sail. By the seventh the storm had reacohEd Soale proportions, All canvas had boon: furled and the briS was being steadily oblo"n dowtwind towards the Florida coast some. fifteen miles to the westwaid The captain decided to unfurl some of his sail in an effort to halt tho drift toward is la.i, It &as clanOgeous o.,:.' anid al 1. 8 s turneC d to in -.the attempt to beat against th .. 1;, however, the ..inds were too strong and carried away t hea'd of the bowsprit; Once again the crew shortena ati hoping to strike that delicate balance of usinr just enough canvas to mraintain way without further damage to tha rigging, It was no uses the elements were overpowering. The Alna was heaved to as the crew ch.toned ,il. 'J.:, as th last resort, Captain Thomas o Wrdred the :mains ail lowered and the brig headed for the c oat. He knw it was impossible to remain off-shore; therefore, he determined to beach his ship during daylight b. ain an Weot to save the crew,

As the .na hood swa roundt'owa. the 1 t ig land, t.l he; avy s:as ent oiver he:o carrl:...i.s all loos,;, gear on deko over the K .. it as a struggle for al hand just to remen arbonrd Onn cro*wann, John Shadx,


lost his grip and was washed over the id The remainder hung on grimly, Once the decision had been made to beach her and the brig headed towards land, it took very little time for the stormt tO slam the Emall ship upon the shore fifteen miles north of the Cape iFlorida light. The captain and cretw wit.ed fore a brief period after the. initial grounding until the winld and water had driven the A ng fiv y onto the coast before leaving the vesse, For the next fewo hours the men of the beache. brig worked feverishly lothng and supplies from the strict en vessel to inure their survival in case the AlA broke up,

The stom aba;tedi ad. th; crew remained in o ithe!ir

camp by the btrig :ating escuo. They were not orried for they had provisions and water enough for a month, There was little ap:prehnion concerning hostile Indian s among the 0taways Sunday morning Samuel Cammtt, o.. Portland, Maine, went aborK the wrei to retrieve the captain's spylass so thai; a fire could be :tgni.ted by th sun. Then he .ca cmpane.capt in. Tho ma on a soCuting. .alk to the south. They saw nthing and returned to camp after traveling a d'..stan' e of five or six miles, Had the two gone farther they might have cot a .war-party investi-. gating other shipping disastors,

Not too fa away, the Feinch brig CnTlen de% pgi o Captainu JulJ dullan hada been drivn ahoec with a loo of'


nln.e of her sixteen man crew., When the Indians visited this group they offered the Frenchmn aid and informed them that the Seminole nation was at war only with the Amerlcans, Nearby, three small fishing sloop the Alabama 12
tDread, and Caution of Nystic, Connecticut, w.ere rounded The seventeen American cre:en of those fishing smacks had been massacred by the Indians, with the exception of Joseph Noble of the Alb, He managed to reoch the m] en of the Courier ae Tampino and he passed himself off as a

The Flolda conflict first intruded upon the .Al..s crew at noon that day when a band of warriors made their appearance. A shot struck First ate Andrew J', P..mer as he v. .s packing some of his clothes which had been during in the sun, he died instantly. The two men nearest Punei. or, William iecd of Sale, Massachuostts, the ship's cook, and a Dutchoan ne ya started to flee. and were immediately pursued Captain Thomas tried. to calm the raining two crewmen, leader Wyer, Jr, of Portland, Maine, and Samuel Caramett, by saying that the natives would rnot hurt them if they did not run, Th,is advice o .as tril.nated abruptly by second shot which passed through Wyor's hand and .thigh The three ran down i14
the beach with the et enemy in full chase, Captain Thomas fell behin,, was overtakn, and 1 i d.. ; both Wyern. C.:iCammt.i eludcJ. their f- :i es by taking to th i ihe un.o;rb. ush,

The day being wam. and sutnny neither man2 had

his sho s on when the Indians attv :ed. Wye pressed on through the palm ttoes unmindful of the pain to his feet; Cammett on the other hand stopped running as soon as he lost sight of the Indians and hid him-, self until nightfai..

In the meantime, Reed and )yan wore captured. For the remainder of the day the two captives were forced to work .a:ond the eamp for tlhe Indians. At dusk they were taken out to be shot. The cook wa5 killed immediately, but yan., altho h shot at, managed to escape in the dariners During the initial confusion, while the warriors were hunting for him, va'n returned to the wrook of the l:in: and. hid in the hold, Monday the Se:,minoles stayed near the Wig, &d the Du tchma rM in hiding, but the following day the war ri= O:..:R iept n -I O ::, o time to hail, the .nssi "355 king sloopo Ameia :. Noinnt. C'yggy No sooine hsd his ro :cve been Woff cied. than thy ians turned to th o .lng,

mailing two meni, spaa:ted and alone ona hostile coast, almost drfis belief. Wyer pushed his o through the coe undatorbrush ll dy. That niigrht he continued n th occaso.ially f :aling and rsO -., for a few Minutes than getti up and moving on, Mondy he disco-wed his ot rore having a bloody


trail in the sand, and boundd them wrath flannel taken from his shirt He had nothi ng to eat onday or Tuesday. By Wednesday hunger fo:cc~d him to fight off numerous birds for the privilege of eating some of the dCead fhi which had be:,en w.ash2ed. up on the shoe, Just before sundown that day he saw, sOcom sail, but could not attract attention to himself, He had almost f:given up hope when the wrecker Mount Vrn!n, came into view and rescued. him.

Sam.uel Cammett remained hidden all Sunday after-noon, not daring to move until darkness, As Soon as he felt it safe to do so ho r tuRnd to the beach to travel north, He had only gone about five miles e.n he uniexpectdly encountered a sem pall p. of warriors.: Imeoiatly he ran into swamp c- serer.j h wattod eout in tho muddy iotes to hide The kIndiana rpra ; ou e:n :r l igL... the area, but they did not venture into the swrmp itself for fear of snakes, After hiding n hou.r or so, Camw;ett wvas a ble to escape undetected, an he again returned to the chore for caier traveling

At the end. of two days his neck was so awolen from mosoqui'to bite-s he could scarcely tur' n h is head, hikin Wyer, Commett :so subsisted on the dead fish thrown up by the sea, Wedneoday afternoon he saw fO'Zu : sloops oatin northwayd in a light wnd He managedC to keeop up with them throughout the reat of the ( w nd ight, but was not abl.o to co.m.nicate .ith them. At do.n4 he saw one of the aloop'. stand in torar the shore ao l a> ch sal l. .b oat OWfly


then did he realize he had been sighted, When he was brought alongside the first man to greet him was his friend Elezer Wyer, for the rescue sloop was the iount

The very Cay Cammett was rescued, Septembor 13,

1838,, .ncho ed at Key West, received the news of the shipping disasters.M imed underway Thri.Sng his so.tie he picked up the Wave's two barges which were returni.cng fro m a patrol among the keys, At the same tine ith Crgpgbell, First Lieutenant Napoleon L, Costet, command 'i, was also making its way to Ca,'pe Floridac to renr aid.. Enroute the cutter exchOnged signals with thoe Mo'it Ve non: and. learned that the Aln. was in the possession of the Indiars. The two war v.. essCels mt and procecod .up :liocayne Bay in company to anchor on the evening of Septemrber 17,.

Lieutenant McLaxughl in hol. a counc I of war aboard the Qyave Boat parties we oit:n :zed ~ quI andi"d d ispatched at midnight to investigate the w:rocks McLaughlin led the Wyve's party of thirty so m n and marines in his two barges. Second Lieutenant John Fa1unce, accCompanied by his c ' gu lid, Mr. ELagan, cilanded tihe cpbills group of twenty-three officers and men. It was five. o cloo: in the morning when they landed on the banks of Indian Creek near a well traveled Indian trail. Her they diS. o:c'v d th bunt remains of the fishing sloops : fre Mystio, which ad been fied by the SemiinolCes, As alight


increased, the sailors saw the l n eight or n e miles to the north and manned. their boats and headed for her.

At noon they spotted three canoes near the brig, Lieutenant Faulnce, Egan, and nine men were .landed to go inland through a swamp to take the Indians from behind while the remainder approach ed by water They were too few to outflank the enemy; Faunce ordered his en to charge hoping the Indians would flee in their canoes into the hands of the waterborne group. The engagemen was brief. The Seminoles, about fifteen offered little re.s:ist'ance they fled into the swamp leaving their canoLes an.d equipment behind. The cuttermou: killed. three .ndi. and woI.aded an equal n.uriber while: re 'iing n.o i.njur es themselves. They were too exhusted from the night.. exertion and the march through the swarp to pursue the Semi noes. After a brief rest they gathered up all of the ship'.. s papers which could be found., Then they setc fire to the nA;, They took possession of one of tihe captured canoes and destroyed the other two before departing. At half past seven that evening the group returned to their rspe tive ships

The following month men from the ,:,e"ll enaEnd a party of hostile in a minor skirmish nar Bear's Cut. Two of the Indians. h led c.ari oed powr L r pouchsc d.ecorate with eleven scalps which had been taken fromr, the o .t-.
awaysQ: of t he Soopto br gale


The Aing, the CoQ2;;1r do- T pico, and the three fishing smacks were not the only victims of the storm The brig T;g:nort of Kennebunk, Maine, was wrecked on Carys fort Reef, but her crew survived. The schooner Palestine of Bangor Maine, had to be abandoned in the Gulf of Mexico after receiving serious topside c:damage, An unknown brig lost all rigging sixty-five m:iLes north of Cape Plori&d and was riding on her anchors awaiting rescue, The _7ad son, which had been detached from the naval service and was returning to Portsmouth, Now iamnpshie, inn company with two wreckers, was ordered to investigate icLaug hlin felt there was no further need for the Wa'r on the cast coast and headed back to the reef 18
to resume station4

The maritime tragedies of the September gale

po'.nted up the necessity of,ng the n aval force off the southern tip of Florida. The folloinsg month General Taylor authorized McLaughlin to obtain a small vessel tio nwork:< with the Uave and her two barges on tho reef, I'Laghlin chalteed the s'Looe p P Ci o Tenry Banners and placed acting 3itenant Edmund T, Sh ubriacke
in commandtu ,

Indian sighting continued In mid-November,

Lieutenant; Coste found a largo crp of Indians while the fCal~.g:I va s'. off th.e ia i R.vr They so out.-. numbaered his =n11 crew that he was reluctant to attack, Wear the end of that month, Lienutnant Edbuun Shubr!iok


brought the P2n:L:he,- the .Shooo, and a schooner borrowed from Jacob ous:mn up to Key B.Sc.yne to form a boat expedition to the Boca aton, Beforu e s groupdembarke they saw a large party of Semin inoes on the beach, Shubrick3 refused to send his sailors out against a superior foe, even though the warriors built fires on the shore to entice 20
them to land

A few days later a boat came alongside and reported the gLrounding of the ste;o.,or i ,!lnt north, of Cape Florida,. Shubric. headed for the distressed vessel, Fifty miles beyond the cape he rescued the steamer's sixteen man crew, Enroute back, he sent acting Lie.tenant Charles B.0 owr.. in the Shooco and the schooner to the wreck of a Sp.n2sh bri: Howard saved,. the orew, thirty slaves, and rost of the cargo, but lost the ShoCco when the wind picked u.p and ble::w her off the reof. Shubrick arrived later and revoved quantities of lead from the br_ ; before he set her 'fi"These Indian hostili.. Y at the tip of the peninsula caused reactions on three levls of the federal gov-erinment The local theater, the War Department, and Congress, In. the theater, General Tyl.or had replaced the services of

acquate for the Servic \eq3Ui- (w Just oer two yer a

} atert Co he t7'C e c b the DvQ, Bn rn'l lt nw

The latter tw(o schooners were known as the sego during.
the-peiod of their service On the reef,) In washisobgton, the War Departm:int requested the na:v to add to the force now patrolling the reef, The West Inda .Squadron put two vessels on cruising stations between Dry Tortugas and Cape Florida on the east coast and St, Marks and Tortugas 22
on the west coast. At the same time, when the Treasury Depay ment requested the return of the Cm bell, Secret: ry Poinsett replied most empha ticaltly that this-was not the time to the number of vessels n Flo riO Rather, as recent events showed, more ships should be 23
Cmade available--and as soon as possib2,

The blockade of the peni .ul now consivsted

of three lines of u veilla nce The bays and iniets of the extreme southern tip were under the scrutiny of the oaC?ed. barges. Along the P re-f s3.lf were the schooner-,s Wae Oego,~ and the cutt O::1::., Farther, .; : sen sailed the two sloops of war Boton and P:..:"i,

In the Congress, at the session. after the mas.saores, additional funds were appropriated to the arm, "to c u off all.. communications bet en the Indlias of Florida an the islands of Providncs e n. and Cuba, and to pr;r:.t a rep-'titi oni of the outragee: s T. e l ,nWar Department used this money to add the sea stMeanoer Poaett to th blockade force in April, 1839

I: the :n cckad force had th:ee surveijance:

lines 5 t lacke. oetrl co...inVi.a.L. The too sloops


of war on the se.awar patrol were undir direct control of the com :iandor, West India Squadron, based at Pensacola, The mil..itry theater commander had. no noethod of coimmuni.. eating with thon, except via Posacol.a, Lieutenant McL Sghlin's group on the reef was also assigned to the squadron, but his vessels and sailing orders from the War Department When he had first assumed command of the ,Wav, he requested. orders from the navy but he w as referred. to the army. The secretary of war wrote: "I was under the impression that what is technically termed. 'sailing orders, would have to be given you from the Navy Department; but I find that it is thee considered that you have been placed wholly under the directions of this Department, and that, from here, must osue all orders and instructions both as to your time of Sailing, and as are necessary :to over your operations during your cruise," He was then instructed to sail as soon as possible for the reef., is primary mission was to prevent; intercurs beaten any vessel and. the In:adians, not only of munitions, but of all sorts of supplies. "The p0rformano ec of this duty is the principal object of the epatition but so far as it will not i.nterfere with that objet, you will also oooperatc with, an. render to the military forces in Florid.a, all the aid and, :.stance in your:i power;, Once on? station, McLaucnghlin woe d ve\: closely with the military commander, and ::dt ho A Ind a S 3quad.ron co.rol ovcr hin as


The treasury outte:r Cobell s chain of command

was the most nebulons, It would apea:r that this vessel was, from the stand point of u" I: zation, lost for almost a year. When the War Department first wanted to put a small vessel off the Floria Kety it asked the Treasury Departm nt for a cutter. (Apparently the department was unaware that General Taylor had. jus ordered the 13adison and. Cribell to cruise off t;he Keys on June 22, 1838. Sec-retaLry Levi Woodbury wrote to Poisett on July 5, 1838, suggesting that the Cmpbell, already under navy orders, would be well fitted fofor such duty Several da.ys later the request was, repeated to the navy. James K. :Pa'ing, now the navy secretary, transmitted the arm' desires to Commodore JDi.n on Jul..y Sand reported the fact to Poinsett the same day. To weekLs ,later, alla...s answered that the C !ob'll. hsd. never reported to hl!: but If It did he would. carry out the army's desire. Paul ing wrote, back on August 10i "Lt Coste will probably be found in the vicinity of Tmp:i ay whither he was ordered. by this Depacrtuent to proceed In October It and. to report to Major General Jes, or to the Commandcing Officer of the 26
U, S, Troops at that plce,"

In Dece.ober 1838, after the Crsrell had be on the reof almost ix months, Lioutenant Coste vrote to Paul.ding that had tablished hiS headquarters on Tea Tablle Key n ad b e i t pa "br ruldl.g. The secretary penned the following to thip revrts "See how LtU N, Cot,

Full Text




ACKKOV/LEDtiiiKIvTS I wlGh to o3:p3?(:;BG ray gratitude to Jjt, John K, Mahonj Chirui,an, Dc:pa:;/t'-K;}rb of History, Dt, Sainuel Proctor, of the Department of Hlstoi-yj. and Kiss Blis^sibetb Aleixander, of the 1\. Yy, Yonge Xjibra.ry of Florida History for their aidf X fera In del. ted to the J'lorida Hi,g.fc5?rl.oal Quarterl.y fo:!= pei'iRissiOii to Uf?e, In this dtRf^ertatiojip wv artlc3.e. "Lieutena.nt Lovin Mi PotjoIIj UtS^W^/ Pioneex^ of Kiverine V/arfarOj" v;tiich ireiB pivKllBtied i:o O'anuaryj 1969, I'incJ l;y j 3! ;iilrc to acj-mowledge tlio inv'sluable s.'Xci :rt5Vidorocl by wy x\iifej' Dor-othyj i?ho&e ocnti"'lbutioi:is boyoi-i,d en'aworatd.j'u::.


J b COI'3 TENTS AGEMOVJi.EDG-KEwTa 11 LIST OB' ILLUSTDATIOKS Iv 1 THE KEVJ ,A,K'D THK 0Lj3 1 2 WEST IMDIA SQUADROR 10 3 tb:e coi'iKODORJi; 36 k THE FIRST ATTEiPT 58 SHIPWESCKS Al;3:i IITniA]^ KA.SS ACHES oi 6 THE STEAI'IBR POIN3E;.r;(:' 99 7 Tr;!i; MostiiiiTO j/j.jj;;AO :i:l9 8 TEK H.OIIIDA ifiCPBDITIOi'; s I'^ll 9 S;?IAOG-[. KOa;AS 169 BlBLIOGMPiiy 191


LIST OF IIXUSTKATIOE'S J Pleura 1 „ Kortherii theater of tlie T/;rar 8 Fig-are 2. Southern theater of the trar 9 Piciire 3 The E-yergladeg 5? y Iv


CBAPTER t J THE Wm Mm Ti-IE OLD Riverine warfare is the ex'be;nslon of naval power to restricted, and often shal^.ovj^ coastal and inland waterTvciys. Currently tlit) navy Is engnged in siioh a confl;l'3t in the Kelcong Delta In Vietnam, This has. generated some intere&t in e&r3 :) bterio'prv^7.-,^ri-f'q of a slKllar nature. The United States Ne.Ty's opr;r;-.tiong lipon the ws&tern rivors durinn: the Gi\fll Vic:r is; ci clasalo exajiiple of thisii irind of coEil;at„ Yet onr navy's first pa:s'tioipation in nnoh operation g; hf:u! j-onf; vlrtr.S'li.y iiijn,otic?-;;d, It -iif'M dairing tho Second Sominols Vfer, iB3. ').... iStt:, th-t the €ia;r(.ffn?sru3lt or river oro?;sina; oporationa. Oofflb,}^t under thtta latter tTro c-onditions is based nncn the-; SMBViuptlon idio.t tho intej;7ening trnter Deti'Teen tho two forc.cs is en), o'bytR.ole to be sui-ionnted, O'he arm? InraGiont; of Morth ;^x'xn.,oa C;-; ri-^ 1 ,,. Wj.cij.y, Italy p aiid KorKianciy in tixe E;uropcan theater, and kiarjne Icndinga on GnadaGSiivil, ino dix,a.., c-nd Ohinaxm in t};;:.; racif:io Qre eraaplen of 1


J y amphibiocLe asiiscmlt tcchniqrieG deVf;a.opcd diu-ing World War II „ .Agalrxj In tho ETjr-opea.n t)ieatert the Third Ariay's bastrid5.,ng of tho Bhine is a modern studjof river c:'''osslr;cc None of theso slio-ald "bs classified as riTGj?ino vrapfare unlse of ooux'se the teita is used in a ve:cy 'b;i.'oad connotation wherein navxil coiiibsit is ooKBidojc-ed oiily in t^7o enY5, roviiiiontal ele}acntSp either blue or shallow? ^^ater, representing sea. and riverine warff;,re respoc-tivGl^", There is another type of i^aterborne oonfliot which h;;,:s soriiotimes been clasBified as riverine warfare c 1'his is the engageinont botwsen tvm nairbioal forces I'pon inlcmd waters „ The nG:\ral battles on Lake ChajiiplaS.n during both the Revolutiona.i-y War and the Ifer of 181 2 J and on lake a Erie and Ontario in the letter v;ar are examples of such strxigglofc;, Ihe princij reanon for excluding; this category is that the for/a of coffib£',t is npval. in its ereoutionj notwitiistanding tho use of email vossels in reot^riotod waters. V^hat then is riverine t^farfare? There Hnst bs further qrsliflcations than the statomont that it is the e:iton3ion of naval pcvjsr to restricted coastal and jjiland Tml;ers K'a.t'urally the prisae reci_ui.f;;ite for riverine -i-ra^/fc-re iro a tOTTe.ln interior imtcri'?ays. These may oc>rn:;iot of o. large euid extensive river pyoten travonrilns hor-;tilo toj/ritory-f a coaatol c:f-oa with deep bays or eKtUc-.rlG9 loading to of-iater^^ of popnlcvticn^ or


y extemslve swamp lands sej^Tln^ as a refuge end base of operations for an enemy, Praoti'Mcners of rives^ine TvBrfai'e employ such fj.uld ccncoui'ses as the basic means "by •Kiiioh to reach tho ene:-iy, Tbo thrust into the enewj/ s land woi'ldt in raost caecSj, be met by mllitarj' rathsr than naval re si stance If this In so^ then the i/iajor confrontations would not be naval in Btin5Gtn;?e„ Therefore riverine forces must be ccj^ibat trained amphibians organised for sustained operations in both elements. The basic oombat imit in snch VTa-VfaTe^ due to the operational terrain^ xelll geneiixilly bo email. In S'UDiimatlonf i-lverinG warfare in a tjpscialised form of combat neither naval nor militax-ys ''^'^^t a blonding of the twop conducted in a i^iverine envl3?oniiient l/uring tiio three and a half decades prior to the Second Soninole I-Jar tho Unitnd Btatos Ka^vy developed a crulser-coMmeroo-jraldins pJvilooophy, Iho lof^Rcy from the Eevolntionary War vk?.s the foimdation fo:^^ such a concept e Ifeval ve^ssols wore sent out to cri;dco tho high eoas and prey upon tire British merchant; fleet, Foi' oui' SKicdll truruggling nation to riio.t'ol:i the Breltish royal nsivy in ehips-of-tho-line u&s impossible ^ but to evaploy crnlsors to seek menchantmon at sea \r&,s rolati'vely eaey^ 'l;he snoceE:j;f ul 8in.ft;loT'Aj?&hip encountor;-; ifith the enony furthoic sLrcngthonod this concept ^ and there were enonrdi. of thc^n to foote:*" tlio bc>lj,cf tin-.t thi:^" wos the props j:' scope for naval opon(..'.tion.;'n Kio doeiyJ.vo


4 J irrrpj-ci; of the Prenoh fleet off YorlirtO'i'jn esoaped rmny v4mericans who looliod o5ily to thoir own maritiJiie eisplolts for nsi-Val guidir^noec For the 'war as a "cjhol.Cj this meant single £;hlp cruiaing. There "i^ero ODly thv-ee instances of t:raly niLlti-nhip operational the raid, upon the Bahamas the "battle of Valcour Island on hake Champlain (both in 1 1776 )t end the ill-fatod Penobf^cot Ki^pedltion of 1779, The qua£;i-Tjar with Prsnoe in the olof^ing years of the eight Ssonth century strengthened, the cnilsox-.* cojniaeroeraiding strategy Again Ainorican sucocsf^ Hae ont of conte:st with the ov'e:eall situationc Pranoo hi^d suffered serious defeats at the hunu.g of the British 2 fleet at Capo Stc Vincents, CampordoiTHf and the hile. She coulci sparo few men-of-vreir for tha Aisorioa-n o^onflict in tho Caribhsan while the vj.ctoricv:B British lie-fe so cloBO to her shores c The nascent .American navy vrae free to engftge the numerous small j alialloiij draft T-'-':'!™ vateors as "ifell as the few F;reDch crnltserf; irhich managed to escape the Britiph. Against thla foe tho United States havy conducted itGlf rathor i?rello Xt& Yiotories ohsciired .tho proteotive role of the Brltieh no;yy Tho resi0..t for tho AKeicicans tjg-s to pr'o-no'be the aooot;i-^taDCc of th,o st.-1-ategy of gij^prj/o do pom?^)^^ l:fi tho Vd'.r of 1812s. tho pinglo-ship ox^aiser strcitegy was fnithor atroHgthonod, On the opon Bcas thore Ti'roro tx-ronty-fivo oinglo-sliip onftBgeMicntc 'botiroon i3:t'itll'i and l..v-K;rio£n }r!cn-of-xvarc Om:* na'yy non thii-toen


y of -cnem^ Xn coJiiBerce-raidins over 1^000 Kerchantraen Tiere, captured, which iKi'lloted eiio-ugh injury upon Britain to t)roduee the political desire to in^eet at the peace... 14. table. In the fi>ml analj/slSp these exploits; con:7inoed the ixmericans the strategy of guerre de course vras a sound na.vjs.1 philosophy „ The concept produced certain effects It promoted individual ship h^sndling and neglected multi-ship evolutions. VJhen t\vO iahips fell in company the senior capt&iJri might act as a temporary squadron ooiimiaxidQV hut eo,oh vessel rooelved its orders independently fi-oia th;.: Ka'u-y Dopax-ui'ient, Under suc]i o. eystoia the ship's captain could develop more initiative J hut oojiipleic operations (especially amone diverise cla-ysos of vessels) wore strictly liinited. It uas not unti3after the War of iCl? that squadron organization in tho navy becGJue fo:nnali2eda The KediterraneanSqu&droHf forraed in iol5 in re&ponse to the threat to our ooiaiiieroc fro;ii the Barhais^y st&tessvras the first to be eetahSlshedt, lator the West India Squadron was added in 1822 to deal with piraoy in tho Gulf of Me:,;;ioo and tho Caribbean Sofi, Ths score t^iry of tho navy ran profess 5. onal affairsj ijncluding naval operational whilo tho Board of Cc^T;ij:'d, ssionoriH ('Ghe Bcnior ;professional group co^viposed of thrcie navy oaptaino) handled teohnioal ratters ancl proci,n:ej!ient ac}:)eoto: for tlio huvy DopartKentc Thus the


J sGoretaiyp at the seat of the go'^onmenti, actively pasi'ticlpEited in operational (leciyions v?lth his oom-uandsrR 5 afloat, This further Gtarensthened the role of individual ship cciijinands while delaying tho; doveloprasnt of integrated fleet operations. It al^o projsoted the praotice of individual officers writing directly to the secretary rather than throi-jgh. the chain of coioiaandc Singleship oruiBlng left little opportunity for ^oint am.ny-na'v'y operations o The few coEision ventures could only he dcacribsd as cooperation hetweon t"v?o independent orgffini2;atione5 and not as a joint aotion of the two services t In consequonoe nany naval officers misunderstood the inilJ.ta.ry rolOj and army of floors failed to undcrst&nd tho Gee^-goino; functions of the na\'~3'" The ci-i:iioer-co]:(Hjierce-ra3,ding Gtj:-ategy fostered traits and attitudes among naval officors whicii nere tJie antithesis of thoso nscesBary for rivei'lne nai-fare„ Riverine wayfaro needed? &, naval command familiar with setting up and directing ooyiplor opos'atlon" utilizing a variety of diverse forces to aohleve an ovoroll o'bjectivo;; a naval ooflroiand roady to accept tho principlos of joijit operations re.ther than the raore individuylietio conospt of cooperation^ an^ flnallyf a nfiVs,! coianand ti'uinod for militaiLy as noil as X)^:i:^sC\. oonoopts end ahlo tc> blend the txTo to liiatch a gi'^'on situation. Tiie rociult of yenrs of adherenoc 'bo tho strategy of (5uoa-x;e cie_ oourso deloyed the dovolopraont of o. pIiiloKiophy for ri'verino i;nrfare in


7 the Incijan VJar In Florida, Onlyafoer the more flexible juviior officere of the i-a'vy began to take coriyttana did this evolxxtloTi towards riverine vjarfare t^ike place.


a "•1 .., V d ) o O o fc.O


4 FT.^Hoo^^^ ^f^\h(^'^\ (I Rocks ... X / r,\C/lPt" AB4. owesT I M 01 P.N Key Pif^iirv^ ?; So-^vbl-ier}! theater of the v?a:c


CHAPTER 2 iW EST IlvDIA SOUADnON As the tliie app:roaclieci for' the removal of the Seminole Indians from their homeland. General Duncan L. Cllnc-hp the ax-Esj'' commander in Florida.f req,u3stccl the assistance of a revenne cutter fromthe TreyRiiry Departments He proposed that this ship should oruiso along the west coast of Florida p during the nionth of Decembej;-. 1835 ordering the Indiana to idovo to FoT-t BrookG t This ^ro'ald bo the fii^ot step in their jiin^'^'tii on to t):ie hostc His request was modified in IJashington so that a na'vj veseel was assigned. The Seorotary of the Mavy KaJuon Dickcrson isyued tho necessary Inif^ti notions to Cojaiaodoro Alexander J„ Dallas 5. O0;i!i:)ndor of 1 the West India Squadron, on OctoDor 29. iB35'Tnis appeared to he the extent of the sorvioe tho navy would h ofiilj.ed upon to perforn, Ma^Oj? Francis L, DadOj leading tno oonnanicn of rogu.lars froyii Foi't BrooLx: to Fox-t hingj ))iaroh,ed luto an oiai^uedi on t)-; moi-nins of Fcooiabor 20, fimd nas uipod out v-'itii hlK entire corainand of 103^ except fon three luO'A; 'Ihs.t oa:ne aftorn.oC'n 5nK>t:"ie:c' hand, sliot and L:llled the Indian Arront hilojr ThOJ\ipB':-n oy)A his cojapaDioji 10


Ideuteriant Constantino Siaith near the agency at Fort King. Three days later the Battle of the 1/itblaGoochee was fought t Pear now caused' vjhlte settlei^B to move into tho populated centers at St„ Ai^gustlncp Tallahassee. and Port Brooke on Tampa Bay, At the southern extreinits'' of the pcnlKsulaj, siiijiilar bi,vb lesser activity tfas taking place, A group of hostilen att£5,clred and murdered William Cooloy-s nifOp three Ojilldrens. and Josojph Flinton„ the children's tutor j on January 4^ 1836 „ 2 wliilo Goole^'mxs away frora his horae on New Elver. The settlers, of this arcaj. Including tho lighthouse keepers at Cape P'loridSf beg.-'.n wovlng south to the larger coiasunltieiS at Indian Koy and Key Wont, All of the SB ?,Gtiv-ities brought a flurry of calls to the naval forces for aid,,. George K, Uallrorp tho acting governor of Florida. roquGBtod that a small naval force ho organi?:ed to 3 operate alon.g the shore and rivers of hobv Florida,, Tho goyerncr hArneelf ^ John E, Eai;co,ip nho happened to bo in Ponsacola tho day IfeBtcr Gosinandant Thomas T^ Webb brought hie sloop of \7ar }fe^id|LLla into the bo.yf folloived up this requests He Kado a direct roCiU.isition tipcn Captain Hebb fo:p l;wo officorOf twenty-flT'o or thi:i?ty rmn.; tiio boats i sorac light artillery s, i^ide a?:ingj and provj. sloufu In additions he charted a stoaiaboat f or thi f::; crpcc' i 1 1 on. I-'ou?:* (irav l.ator Lieutttnant jJIdward T, Douplnty of


12 the Vandalia departed Peiosacola vath twentv-nino' sallaTB 5 ann marines in tiie steamer tov:ing tifo sma'll boats c Doughty X'jas ordered to proceed to Ttrxpa Bay running along the shoro as close to land as ;possible to search out !:xx)j Indians T'jho might be trsToling by oanoc. If he found any friendly Sominoleg they were to be taken into protective custody. Hostile' g^'oiips 'ifero to be cut off fi'oa G]-K:ri:;e and captured = Governor Eaton warned that Spanish fiehinn; vessels froa Cuba inight bo carrying e.TTfiB to the SoainoleSp and, if there W£is any reasc>n to doiibt the legitljiifioy of one of themj Dou*^bty niio to 6 bring It in to tho nearest port for adjudica/inon: Eiiroute the stemmr Ka found to be unseavrorthy and brought into St, Mark^o He3?e Doughty loft psirb of his co™n&nd and }; the rejjialndor of the trip to Tompa. Bay in the tuo s!t;s11 boats c In tho )aOo,ntime Captoln Frcnois S. Be'itoV', USA, 2nd Artillery p co;r;iandins at Fort Brooke ^ roquestod aid froju the naval forces at Ponoacola^ Ho roportcd that tho bay cireo, uaa ii^festod i^iith hostile far 5X!oro imneTcms thaii his KJiall coi-neiand; Hio probloai x-jas coffiplic?:o transporto.. Ho requootod a viarshipf


13 munitions J and soriie Baall boata t-o defend the public property at nxnohov i^slthin th bay, and the friendly Indian fgonilies vjho had been plafv-u5 on some of the islands for protection froa the hostiles, Bslton's message J, sent lyy the pnblio schooner Mq;bto on Jamiar^?' 5p arrived at J?encaoola twelve days later, TliC follonlng da2?"j, ir). the absence of Conmodore Dallas and in view of the emergency nature of this request Captain hil3.i£im C, Bo3„tonf USj'Jj ooiranandcr of tho nrvvy je.i-a.^ ordered the j^anda^y^a to Fort Brooke „ Captain Webb loaded three l^clit field pieces for the arvity^ brotight on board last minute provledons, and cleared the bar at Peneacola on January 19 < Hi a departure was so crpcdltlouG thsit the officers of the Vandalia f aij od to receipt for the supnlios dc3.ivored before lier departure. He had to spenci six days standing off Tampa Bay wyi'-ing for the heavy fog to clear. In spite of the rapidity 'with wbdoh Ifcb'b coapl-ied (rith hia orders f he did not roiaoh his anchorage off Gadadens Points about sixteen miles froja Port BroohOj until 8 J'annary 28 ^ The day the Jb^qA^Ajx sortied from PenoacolSj Commodore Dallas p fearing for the oafety of Port Brooke^ dispatched his laarine force in. a merohant brig sailing frojn ICoy VJest to Tawpa„ This detaciinient consisted of First Lieutenan.t Nathaniei. S, halcb/'on; UfihC', a curgeon^ three officcies. seven sicanienf awd fifty-Keven KarinoSc


14 At the same time, tlic ooLModore charted the j^cl-ioonor Bahagia to send. Lieutenant George I'-h BachOj USN^ trith a siaall ps.xty of seamen to reoonotruot the ].i.n:hthoiise at Cape Florida. Bache s ej"c>up aiTivcd at Indian Key and fotiJid I'Jilhiam Cooleyj, vriio voD/anteered to act as guide. He bivo'ught thoEi, to Cape 3?lorida, gIbo called Key BlsoaynOf on the morning of the twentyfoiirth. The sailory fca:rri caded the euitrance and ground floor vjindowa of the tovrer to protect the keepei/s loft to ^ ^ 9 maintain the light after thoy departed These, initial operations by tho Wect India Squadron viere ijaprojflptii tac-ticctl lasineiivers in response •!• to onciny actions eith^or antioipated, or aoti^al. For the nert th:ree yoars^ with a tc\r excoptlonSf the BV pAadro}i/B reaction to the Jndicn hostili'-ios oontintied to he t;;:otioal, Conniodore 33allas eind most of his co:rD-!ianding officers; failed to develop a strcitofg o plan for utilizinn; their foroes most offootl.'vely ac-ilnot tho SoKinoloSo Tho was <3. bzt1c-b of actions by individu-al tinj.ts roBponding 'bo fjpoclfio e^'ents nxthcui,the unity of Rii overall streitogy^ Shortly aftor the Y^ndo-lhlJi rrvnohored at Tav-na Bay ha.K-:" Genora.3, Edmund P. Gainen? arri'^^ed fro-i hevr Orleeais vriti; ?. largo ciotfLCiiiuont Gaj.nes InTovrnoC. ;/chb that ho 5ntond(?d to taho tho field tv:i th ?<.ll aVirhlo;ble forcoo,. inolndinp; tho lijorino;'node:!:' l!ioirL-'';}'Kniv; ['rm.xi'.'.'OYi, The oitiR.onSt friondly Indiono. rind 3i!J,litar;-^ stores


15 t'^ere to bo loaded aboard the transports anchored in tho bay and left under the protection of the guns of the VJhlle thus employedf Webb utilised the corvlces of the roverrae cutter Dexter to retiirn ths of Lieutenant Doufshty's expodxtion at St. Karhs to Tampa 10 Bay„ The hostlles irere jiioving to the i^est coo,st and south\mru to avoid Gaines's force In the fields and Colonel Lindsfij!requested a naval patrol to prevent such movements The revenue cutter MiiSMiSllSS;!' Captain Ezehiel JonoCf Toajs the only vesael readily availablo, but its crGT=T v?a.s too few for such an asGigniiient. Therefore, Wohb di&pa.tohod Li&utenant hillifaii Smith, /assistant Surgeon Ohai-rles A. Hassler^ and fifteen seaiacn to augment the cutter 'G oreiv\ He ordered her oaptaln to inv'estigate a suppOGC^d. Indian en&a.mp3:o.ent ncav the mouth of the Ms,na.teo River, Th.e Waslidni^^ton departed iKnediately, pickod up oorapetent Indian suidos frop-. Captain Bun,ce's fi'ming ranoho at tl-jo liiouth, of tl'-o bay^ sailed to the Manatee, 11 and anoh,ored thora on tho same day^ Jones emd Sinitri loade a brief Oi^rploratory expedition before davh and fovyv'i r'\f^nf t'f^nclsn of the recent evicaiJipTaent Tho nest day t/io oailors and cu'uto;men TTiarcIied ten miles into the intf-^rior before oonoodlng tho imporislbility of stSvblih-hina con'i;aot liitl) tia. hoe'Di'Les in 'coo v;ioinx'C3'' Thj ri tr'oh tcioh 'uhen al,l ccvyi the only uciof'ul inf oraation 1 gtithered vras tlvit trio Int'iaixe tppoi-aa?! to ho h.oad,ca soutia


16 Webb J in the laeantlrae, was preparing a snia].! "boat expedition to more thoroughly patrol the coast and rivers. On the afte:?noon of March 17, IO365 the noiraial routine of "^^'^ X^BilsyrAsi; ''"'^ Interrnptftd bj the boats-C'ra-in' s pipe calling away the ship's boat oxpeciitiont This was the ciiliaina tion of a little over a clay's preparation, Supervision of the picovisioning was entrusted to Acting Sailing Ik Master Stephen C^ Ronan and Passed Midshipman, VJilliaifi, M. Walkcn/j lyho were second and third in coHiiimnd of this espedition imder Lieirtenant LoYin M^ Powells Outfitting such an expedition reqi^ired planning „ and Rowan requisitioned calking jaalletSp oaiAking irons ^ broad axOf Jack -plcmo, chisel „ saWs spike gimblotp anger ^ topmanlr adEO; and wood axes frora the carpenter's departfliontr mn shots p a mnsket scraper ^ pi Bt els 5 a pistol ac:i?aperf cartvidg^Sf fJj.ntSf pricing powdor, bayonctK, and Gutlas;jes fron the gunnor''s depantraent j and 210 pounds porh^ 210 ponnds beef, six gallons beans, six gallons rice 5 thi'ee gallons HolasseSj, tno gallons vinegar f tuenty-four gal3-ons vml^heyj and -^^^500 ponnds of bread from the purser „ Meanwhile Povj-ell;, aftor drawing trjo boat's coitipasseas, a chart t and spy glass froru the maator^s det)art!nent ^ oonanlted 'nith tho captain 16 and Idoutonant Doughty. Pinn^.i.yp vrlion the propax-ii^tions vexQ co?nplotod,5 the sailorWf attired in theiD? vrtiite unlf oieini.if blue colla:rSp ojid fjtran hato folj, in for nustor and wsanons choclfo Satisfied n'.th his inopsction,


1? Lieutenant Povroll repQ->-'tcd his depaytxire to the officer of the cieck^ and a log entrey was made notiiog tho dopartupo 1? of two oiittera for the mouth of the Manatee. Powoll s Bpoclf io orders vjere to "prooecd to the examination of trie river Kanatee, the Mul],et Keys and to oruiee along the inaln coast North of Anclots Keys TJith a view to intercept the hofitile Indiarxs in their' 18 retreat coactwise." In other words; j the Davy 'tms to perforin a flanhing and harassing aotlon vpon tho Indians who ??ore being drivon southward along the west coast of Florida by the army, 3Snro'ito to the Haiirtse Powell boarded the ha.shJi'lston &5:id passed Captain Jones additional orders to go south and investlgato Charlotte Harbor Poi-roll and his men wpont Friday j March 18, searching alone; both bsnJcs of thft Naj'iatee (to tho head of boat navigation,) but no Indiana wars sighted. The following day ho sailed for Anolc/f-e Keys and arrived thsre 0)1 Monday. The Bailors noarchod the area carefnilj" and observed many signn of Indians, but fro-n all IndieationB these vrere old trachn and not^ of i-eoont origin^ Tois search tools: a little ever tno dayp after Twhich on the tnoxxt^nfo'nrth the orpedition flailed south to iJTVGBtigato I'Uillot hoys, Ihoro tho proooos of searoliing; anci, oxploring the area for signs of ir)/XlQ:a8 TJ&s repeatedp but ogain the rosnlts ncre negative, Tho weather had tiirnod atorny, proT'ioionci wore rrinjiHg Ion,, no Ind.iano h':id, been foimdp '-ind tho dit'^ooinf o:?''<;


18 of llvi37g In &n open boat; proinpted Povrell to set sail for the V'andalia on tliC morning of Karcb 27 The — 19 group axTived the follovrlns evening, Three days later the Washj-ngrfcon returned froia its ln8peotlon of Charlotte Harhor. Captain Jonea reported th&t on March 28 euo, 29 1 trtiile Smith was on a boat expedition essmliiine the coast more oXosoljs he sighted an Indian encampment at ths jsouth of the Hyaooa River, Smith ooi^d count twonty-ti^o Indians s,t this oaiapf and he oouj.d see lasnj" firos near hy. Since it v'as cilwious that the enemy were too niJiaev'ous for his su'all party ^ he decided to send his two Indian guidos to arxf^ngo a paxlcye ho sooner had the two landed then t'-ey 'Ke're met by e. hnnd of warriors. It •was a tense moraont until a br£-;v-e rocogniviod one of th.e guides. Aftor that the tno pa^/tioB talI.:od. Ths hostiles wonld have sh.ct white imn eryl T^ere :roluctant to give any info;s?Hation, On their rotnrn the soonto oou'ld only report thnt the warj?lors nere belliee-^'coritj detsrfflinsd an^ -aiore nno.erous than Snith^o force. Thero \-&:oe no ,^l further enooimtorSf and the Washington returned to Taaipa, MeanA-rhilOp shipboard rest for Poxj-eli and Honan h-iu boon a very brief tvro days. Thoy and nidfth,ipv:inn Lafayette Haynnrd viere dis]:>o.tohod viith eirns and provisions for fiftt;on doy^J^ "to act a^sainBt the InniJins on the 21 'oontb of Tompa B-,y/' This n'as the roarlt of a request frcra the no\i' Eirriy conioander in floricia,. hajor


19 General Wlnfield Sc-ottp to "VJebb that he send, revenue cutters or other naval vessels as could be mustered "to Chaxlotte harbour^ with orders to take su&h position on those waters and so blooJiade the rlvors of that countrs^ as to cut off Most effectually all retreat n ^^' to J 03? coMBi' 'T'Oth the Glados of the South," Powell sal3,ed for Charlotte H;r-i'bor two boats a launch and a cutter containing forty officers and men„ At the entrance to the bay they gc-mq upon tuo pirogues? of fWAiitlves froai the fishing I'ancho at Josef a 23 Islands Tho refugees reported that on the previous their settlement had been':ed by r, force of about tnenty-five IndioJiG led by Cibief liy-ho-dice. The revenue collector's establlfibjuont had been, deetroyod and it uas believed that the ouetoi^a inspeetor had been killed, Sorae of the resident had. fled in. enRll boats 1 othere had hidden the uomen and ohildj/on iij. the woods to elude the Indi^^ns nho plundered the settlements Lieutenant Powell i-aniodiatcly directed hia groim to tiie £;trioh;;n village „ On the T?e;r he^ p5,eh'<;;d up anc=ther boatload of fugitiveSc He urged the people i.n it to gathe3? up tiie no.aien and clij.3,dren hidden alon'j; the route xvhlle his force puslied on to meet the ene):oyr Whe}!. tJie 'j:i}^?:sf;f arrived at Joeefa Islfuid the marauders \vere onciovnped on a key a. fe-.? niles anay^ After helping the ci'vd.lione return to their hones ^ Kovjun \iks dlepatohed vjpi;}-?. fpiidee to in:\*r)stiA;ate, dfiie folj.ovnnp ino:cninr>;, April ') hie


20 party oarae upon a Biaall group of Seiuinoles lust south of Charlotte Eaj and engaged tliom :i.ri combat p killing two and taking two prisoner c Tbv: xcmainder of the expedition^ iri coiapany with the cutter DallciSf arrived shortly afteriTaa/d end the tvro ot.p'i^^-'v'es were plaoecl alsoard the cuttor for saf ekeeplias. While 3?ovrell w&& makina; ariawgesientG for his prisoners ^ Roi^Jan^ trailing aiiotV'OTbfO'vi of Indians, continued on to Sanibcl Island, but laadc no oontact with the enoBj^ PoTjell iriaintaiJiod his boat patrols along the coast and around the Is.eys searching for Indiana, Meantime some of the rosifionts of Charlotte Harbor found the body o£Dr. He B„ CrewG, the mj.ssing customs InspoGtor, on a BM^,all Island wr^ore he had gone to huni:^. Pox-foll iiuiaodiately et a course for the scene of the ntirder. As ho neared it ho noticed an Indian canoe just off Bhoro of an. adja"--'^^ is^land and ^Kr^/'o chase, but the na-bi'vos i^ere ablo to reach D.and boforo tho;j-' could be oYcrtaken. Po'noll ordered the ordlors to open fire J ono Indian was kidded airJ tlie othor ga'^?- hlro,eslf up. A rso;\rDh of the oancc revealed aorae of Dr. Crewe's personal effects. The DalJas waa sighted, 26 hailed r and recoived anotheiprleoxier. In the noa)ro3.mGv the aK^iy^ in throe tJingSs had raade a s^eop tJn^oush nortluirn Florida without being able tt' fSnd tho inain, body of India)) xvarriors. Since early April IB36, it had boon gathored at Fort Brooke,


21 avraiting some intelligence of the eneiay's VThereabouts, The arrival of tho Dalla§, brought info:cffiation of Lieutenant J'owell's "bruGh with tho SeiainoleBs "but more important one cf his priao;:oe3?s covifeacxicl that the hostiles had oonoentratecl theix^ fa;nilies and supplies jnl£i,nd frojft Charlotte Earhor near the headimtcrG of 2.7 Pease Creek. General Scott ordered Colonel P&rsifor F. SmitJi and his Louisiana Volunteers to prooocd by boat to Charlotte. Captain hobh inf^tructed Povroll to cooperate with this force. The Volmiteera ooniriencod embarking on the troop transportn in the late afternoon of ispril iO. Smith, hcKOVor, vma fxnxiouG to raeet PofTell boforo his force departed fro^A trso ares., emil he left with his staff In two bo:-\-i;p at niuo that sa^ie evening „ Tho folloi;lRs KiornlnG; shout Vviei^tj nilo from Boca Grande, Colonol Smith Piot t;i--e ntvy OApodition convoj'-ing z le Jo:>ofa Islanl f 5 shorroen a/^id their fcimilios to Tampo Th,e co;oblned assault [:Tov:}p he-aded f:outh and arrived at Chataotte Harbor the no:st day. Poi^ollf nndc^r SmitJi's o;"ders tooli charge of tiio boat operations, transporting tho forces up the hyo.coa Kivor as far ao the depth of TO.iter x^ould alio-;?. Upon reaohing th.c head of boat navigations his group 'vrnft incorx'orotod Ssiithds voliyiteer unitR^ which ju!:!rchod up l>oth l^anhs of tho river, Thoii^a f-ero oiGi--'o of tho rooont i50.sHir^s of a foiiso,!! bond oS: I:ndiair-; an.d a doGert;od^iO but


22 no indioeiticns that the SeminoleG had gathered in force. When Smith gave the order to pi-oceed bach to Taiapa Bay^ PowGll returned also. He reported on April 17, "he arrived la&t night after an absence of tiventy-six days I he Is evidently' inclx^dirig his first boat oxpedltioij in his coHpirbationsJ ^ and althon^jh greatly exposed in onr open boatSs; and raj people aulijcoted to great hardship I aw. pleased to boar witness to the cheerfulness and in™ dustry \vhich laarhed their condnot." The Vanx'halia had greatly depleted her supplies while acting as the base for the n?cvemie ci^tterc aad boat expeditions operating; ont of Tainpa Bayn The glioop of vrar Conoord was oxde^reci. to replace the Vanxlaljri,, V^'hen Kaster Comiaandant hervinc P. Mi::'' brorp;ht the £om:;ord to her anchorage off Gadscn's Point he found the vol'unteers erabarhlng in transports to leave rLorida^ ana the regulars preparing to go into au)i;ac:;r quartern (It was generally believed summer in Florida was the siohly season during which time 3j!iliti.;.ry opera.tiov)3 could not 1)0 conducted, ) Port Brooke 'a garrison was to be reduced to 2C0 or 300, Too feWf Mix thoughtj to defend the poet. The co;:inionding general rcquesitec. that the Concorrd reiiialn in the bay and the West Ixidia Squadron's marines contimie to help garrison Fort Brooke, Mix coj;>c\D/rod and ia, his rejjort to the coTBVfiodorOj f^itated he would pc;i-iodico.l3.y send a launch or other boats to crulee and protect the fisheries at the laouth of Tarica Bay „


23 Toviao-ds the end of the movith Mix roceived a Teque&t frcM Governor B,iohc.rd If. QoJl, Xaio had replaced Eaton in March,, 'lV>3o, ff>:£ na'val vessel to bs sent to Apalachicola to aid in preventing the Creeks of Alabama and Georeia from moYlng south sinxl ;ioJ.ning the Seminolos. ^^^ £2B?5i':55: 5^^^'"'^'C' f^-ep a draft f tliiiy the lfeBh5ji|£ton was eentf aftsr her crei-r v^as augiiiented by Lieutenant • H. A„ Msms uith a party of sixty nen from the CoiToord, She eoi'tied on Jiiixs 2.,. and anchorod at St„ Harha three days latere The Ocmoovd,' s dotaohmont set out ijujiiediately for the defense of Tallahassee ^ but the expootod attack did not inaterali2G, The gov'ornorp ho'i-jcverf aaked Adams to condiiot a suj/voy of the coast frori St. Mar^^s to Tampa to aio. future oainpaiBas, Adaas^ thorght this request to bo v;'ithin the tonor of his orders and. acoeptod the tash. Ue returned to St. Marhs to oonsfci-act boats for such sorvioe vjith a oarte b2.anohe froia the governor. Shortly after this ho received an urgent expreas froifl Call aBhin{>; for initnodlate aid against 2^000 Creeli warrioru vfho wcro supposed to have orossed the Chattahooehoe Rivor oa their way to Tallaha&sce. Adoss returned to tho shipp aonombled his men oxpeditiously^ and departed fcxr the capital the-; sa:ae day, Tho sailors marched in ooiapany with an inlantry detaohiaoirrfc oosfflaixded by ha.jor Sando. That r>ight -whS.lo tho tvro dotaohiaents wore CE'japed they reooivod arotbox' erprcso to wake hasto^ as tho. Greeks wore but tv;olve Kiloa i'rom Talliihc-ssee.


2^ At first light the coia'bined force \ms on the march. The day becariie rexj h.ot the cailors, tinused to marohincj Buffered, greatly^ -many throxr a'vray their shoes. Within thj-eo liilcs of the capital p they learned the alaira. had been false. Once more Gall expressed his thanks and apologized for the urgent and unnecessary appe&l for &id„ Dallas later coiaiacnted that the inarches and countei-marchos were the result of "reports & ala:!?ms 30 not duly cnq,nired Into." He felt the Ploridians were too sensitive to Indian hostilities to he objective Oil the subject t Adaias reported to the governor on J'axiO I9 that his terw of service had expired and requested inotruetionG Call released Adaias who left Tallahassee the next day. On. the retux-n trip one of the quarter gunners ims accidentally left behind in the capital,, The s&.ij.or departed alone and imarraed to foliovr his shipmr-.tes. On his VKiy to Sto iiarks he vras joined tiy an Indian armed with a rifle and a knife. At dush the Indian helped erect a shelter againet the rain and shared his mot-,1 of wild turkey c Afterwards tlie QVimev rex)orted he hed beoji too fa1;Sgued to worry about t!ie do-nger of sleoi>ing with his ar;aed companicnc At daylight the Seminole took hiB 3.eave and dlseppeared into the woods. The sailor continufid on to St. Harks vrhere he rejoined the haeh31 ington' just before she departed.


On March I?,, a Spaniard arrived at Indian Keyby canoe to trade. The citizens became feuyploious of his actions and detained hi!xi. They learned he had two Indian oompaniona hiding on anot)-ior Isdand about a raile at^ay. A search party was forraed iKiiiediately and sent out to bring; thew in. After soriie difficulty, both Indians wore captured,, brought back to the key^ £-,nd placed in cu.stociy„ The inf or:i!if:tion obtained from thom alarjned the citi?;GnSt for thore vrac said to be a large nmiiber of hostilet^ gathered near Cape Sable, just tx-ientyeight miles froiu Indian Key, Katxirallyj, the local people appealed to Couaaodcre Dallas for protection., and, he sent the Dei^rberp Captain Rudolph j to their aid. When the cutter arrived the three prisoners trere placed on board for safe keeping. The vobgoI remained from ]';ay 22. until June 1? when it had to leave for reprovieioning. The evening before she Hailed the tTiO Indians jumped over the side One of then uas shot and observed to cii-ikE the other apparojitly made gooci hir; escape. The follovTing morning the old Spaniard "beiug in a very bad state of health" died. Fearful that the escaped prisoner raight return with others f the cj.tlssens sient another appeal to Dallas. Again the Dext^Si: '^^^ sent to cruise tlie waters about Indian Keyu The Eicliooncr Motto brought the inf o:i:rs;.tion of the esciiue to la^^ina, Mix aleo leornod there nao a


CO large supply of powder stored on Indian key. Further, the brig Gil Kl.|i_3 iiad been wrcokeci. at New River x-Jith thirtj?' tons of lead on board Both po-^der and lead. should be kept from the enoiriy if at all possible. There were no navy vesselc aTallable to caxxj a party to Indian Key and it v:as too ip::e&.t a distance for open boats c H"e therefore made a requisition en Major Keney Wilsons now co}jimanding at Fort Broolre,, for the schooner Mot;t_q (vliioh xvaji under ax*my contract) to transport his d8tachra.ent„ The Motlx) left on June 7 with a Bmall group of sailora and marines, I^ieutenant Thomas J. Leib found there was not an excessive amount of powder stoj/cd on the key^ At the Gil Bl,aSp he examined the iireok closely even dj.ved into the x-rater filled hold^ bivh couldn't find any lead. Then the oailors yet fire to the hid.k. On leavings the Kotto rolled a?;ray her rudder bi'eaking both gudgeons c The 03?ew had to jury-rj.g a coiiple of sweons over the stern p x-jhioh uela/,'ed their departure 33 until late 5j!. the afternoon. That evonl)):2; they were nithivi seven miles of Cape Florida and noticed that tiio lighthouse was on fire. At daybreak tlioj attempted to beat up to the cape to lrn/estl(,iatet, By eleven, the schooner had xvi-orlced ite nay to Bear's C\:it. hoj^e l,elb armed hi^; detaoJriient ;, hoisted out the boat St a/id heaciod for the li|j;hto .An hour later he caine i^pon a canoe d;v-ifting in the ehoal waters c Nert \;as a deserted cO.oop beat


?,? loaded Trith -plmid.c^T from the lighthouse. He tooh both -pTlzGs in tovr. The curreiit was against them and fiiially Leib had to destroy the canciS in oi^dc:e= to reach tlie a.nohorsge off the lightliouso di:iring daylifdit hours He left eoms laen in the cloop boat to cover his landing. It t-. five in the afternoon before ho reached the lighth,ou8e vftiero he found the keepoD/, John, Wc, B. Thompson^ on top of the tct-jer badly burnt cin-d woimdedc. Thompson tcsld Leib that on the prs'vrious day he and his Negro helper had been attacked by a band of fifty to sisrty Indians. He had spotted the band as he viaB going frosn tlie house to tho toner, and hs had sj):elnted for tho ligrrthouf^e yelling a iJa^ning to his companion to do likewise. The .two men reachod th,e building and ba^rred the dooa? just before the warriors arrived, fhoaipson stationed the Negro by the entrance -idiile he took throe guns to the second floor. Prora his vant;-ige point ho kopt the .v/ariciovE", at bay 'until daj'k. Many of tho SoHinole biillets pnnotured tho oil tins sto:eed in the tonar. At dusk the fiyj-^it floor was saturated ivith oil and a fir-e broke ont, O^honpson and his h.elper retreated Kp the to-.?er to cGoapo the flaK,es„ They wore forced to lie on tho narrc-v' ledge to a^^'oid tho rifle fii-e froit' belovr, Ihe Hegro wap hit seven thrnee,, and he diod^ Klraonl.oualy 'i;honpeon


28 was only uounded in tho anliles and feet. The flame shooting up the tcyvmr vfas more dangororis than tho enemy riflBB, Oliie intense heat foecaiae intolerable Finally in clesperatlonj Thompson threvr down a keg of gun powder in t)ie hopes the ezplooion woi.5ld end his mXsevy, The "blast shooh tho tower^ but did not hill hlH. Ifest ho decided to dive head first over the rallp but "so}u3thins dictated to me to return and lay dovm agslni 1 did 80, and. in tvfo minutes the fire f c j 1 to the bottom of tne house.'* Thompson continued to lie jBotionleos and eventually convinced the Indians he vms dead. Tho next jTiOrning he vratched them load his sloop boat tvlth their plunder and depart, Leib OJiG. hi 8 Hen t:eied to get Thojupson dovm froin hio perch ninety feet above the ground ^ but to no avollt At darh they had to leax-'o hij^i and return to the Motto. The sailors made kites that night j and early the next morning were back at the. toxv'er to try again, but i^dthout success. iSventually they shot a raiirod^ with tnine attached f from ona of tho guns up to tho porch c Thompson T>?as thon able to haul up h.eavier iinOo On it t'O'o sailors clirnbed up to the lod^an 3^ieees3. a slings and hoisted the vfounded laa)! doue to the nailing rescuers^ Thompeon v-;a.g taken to JSey West and placed in tho lioepltal, hhen the sKdiooner left 35 in Augtistp he nee recuperating nicely. WhlK.e Captain Mis; united for Leib to retujon


29 the ship's provisions dropped to & very llo'w level After consultine with tho crew, he out tho daily br-ea a ration to nine ounces per man. Under theye oircumstanoea ^^^ 2iHl£.0Sl could remain at Taropa. until th.e first -week in .August < During thia time tha crow began to shcyn symptomg of scorbuti brought on by the lack of "fresh meat and but oncG in l^l'S days." To arrest this affliction Mix frequently acnt large parties of fifty to sixty won to the shoro' "for bathing and amusement p" and he increased tho standards of cleanliness aboard ship. Finally p it xms neees8a:ry to return to Pensacolac The Concord departed 'Usasrp;;!, on the same day that I,eib left Key Wast, and vjhen she arrived at the navy yard sixteen cronmen were on the 36 binnacle list for soorbuti "^^ 92Ii:9££^ ssent out many sfflSill boat parties ^ in additiou. to AacMs and Leib't; expeditions, during April th:eoueh July Passed Midshipman Bartlett and Sailing Haeter J P. HoKlnstry made a thorough survey of the coast around the I'/ithlaooochee, Theae activities "probably kept tho Enejay in cheeky as no aote of hostility have been committed by hiro since the maesaore 3? OT' }joou, Crev?^ & nls party at Charlotte Barbeur, The War Departr'iO;rt chartered stefaabeete In tho spring Of 1836^ for the campaign again et the Creek i.ndiffin?:' then on the tmrpath, 5n Alabar;a and Geor<:;ja, and Gonn.cdOj;e Da:Lla.G vme oallod uyon to sunply cx'enc


30 The first steaiueito arrive at Poxiyacola 'ijas the Aiiterioan. Lieutenant Stephoxi JobnGton^ USK^ was given coEiEiand of her and provided xvith a crevi" of fifty Bailors. The engineers s ef^.ipenterf and firejuonj hovreverf were civilians contracted for uhon the vessel was procured in hew Orlosiis. Tii,e next to arrive was the Southron; she was renamed the^^Ifejor l)ade„ Lio-atenant l^JOil M. Howison, USNf conmandine;. The third a.nd final vessel was the Yalla Biishsi^ which Tias called tlie MfiivJl^BSili^. lS.S:Jh Lieutenant Georgo M. Baches USh, recei-H-od this ooamand. During tho period hetweon June 19 and July 17, I836, these vessels xvere dispatched to the Chattahooohee River to coonerate v;lch General Scott, who had boon 39 Ghlfted frora tliO Seminole to tlic Creek theater. Scott 'B plans had changed by tho tine the three vessel. 8 renc'oiGVaused, Tho general kept the Li£aj;e=risait XKard to transport his troopa and supplies^ and sent tho other tno to Apalachioolaf Florida, Vlhilo oportiting with Soott^ the only action Baohe reported concerned the sailorn liberty? "Q'ho crew of t])e Iz&rd have been hsaltjij^ and appear to be contented and happy The neighbourhood of Golrabus however is a ve:py bad place for Sailors ,, wo cannot anchor in tbs Channel on account of interfering with tho othor Boats and are oblir^ed i'o nahe fast eJ.orjn;~. side tho barlii Thoro is a froo Dridgo a.croo;3 tho River


31 and a place called Sodora, on the opposite side in the extreme of Alabaraa \'jhere the arre of the law Is viot very pov;i-ful GoTcrnor Call hcid been placed, in sirprcsie^ coniviiand of the Military tliroughout the teiTitory^ He ra^.s preparing for an. asganlt upon the Indian stronghold In the Cove of the VJithlacoochee, All three steamboats wore oporatins in Florida under Call's direction by mid-A-u.gucrt:; and they were detailed to bring supplies up the Suwannee Elver in preparation for this campaign, LittJ.e oneirM*action took pla-ce. Eight Indjan rafts \vore found f but no warriors > On one occasion, wjiile steaming between St, Msvrhs and Camp Call at Suwannoe Old Toi-nij the M'^SaISS^' ^^C'i^e ux)on and chagod some Indians in a canoe. The Semlnoles managed to escape in &hoal vw.teTi but loet thoir canoe and equ^.prQont to the sailors In lato surfer sicJvnoss Gtruch the crow of the ^329JZ 2§iiS." ""'-^ is a violent sort of fever," Lieutenant Howlson reported, "and doubtless acquired by wor]i;ing hard and to the mm, vrhile engaged lugging Sachs of corn and oats on board; from v^arehouses near tho wharf drinlrlng the bad water of the river too may have ansistod, Tho fact hovcover is incontostably established that no white man can labour in the K;idday sun.shine of this climate and bo healthy in fnimwor." Howision t})aji ccntlnuod with tho ft:'.ruiliar refrain of the over\-7or]i:od and uvulorpaid fiiorvicojiian, and a ba/b


32 directed at the Bxmy "The inhabitants of the co'antxy at this season abandon it," he \-':cote, "and even negroes can x^lth gj^eat diffic-ulty be procured at an expense of from three to five dollars a dav-^ \vhij.e the obedient man of war Sailor for |)12 the months mtist bear the biorden of the public service, and Ix^g along forage for the ax-ay p "['vhicli is gniigly enoaiupcd near cool springs and shady trees awaiting the agreeable weather of Autinii^i to begin its labours." He returned to I'ensaoola due to the condition of hisj crew. Lieutenant Jolinston reported in early October that the ^Kgririan v;as in St. Joseph iJitli a broli:en maiji shaft. He sent his men to Pensaoola to recuperate from the effects of chipboard sickness,. The IJ:i?utgi3§ri.t iKard had the saiae probleEj Bache Vjas ainong the victims „ and lie had to be relieved, by X..ieutcnant Raphael SeinmeSo The governor called upon Semraes to regain ^ for it was imperative he have one stcaiaer to establish a depot on the Withlacoochee for his cojaing operation8„ Scmineo consented,, althcagh he had to accept a draft of )ailitlamen to complete his crew. Seiianes departed Carap Call on Octol:>er 2, with General Leigh Read of the Florida nilitia arid his command on boii.rd 5 bound for the Ilithlacoochee, The ]j2ard had to ressain b^jx to eight v^u'les off the inouth of the river until the chanricl oeuli.' be found. "The


33 Channel hence to the River itself la exoeedingljr shoal & intricate^" Lieutenant Seames vi:rotef"so waah sOp that it is barely possible that a vessel of tno lizard's draught of water ^ can enter the river at all „ Gen.l Read hoirevepp "being ansious tJiat I should enter, & being ooi-iVinced nycelf that such an event would have a good effect upon the Indians, 1 laboured with great' zeal to find a channel, & coasiencGd warping the Izard into ith Th.3 tide hej?e rune fjith great velocity & rises three or four feet. That part of the ohannol into which 1 had irarpedj was anrrounded with small oyster banhc^p and the iKsrci havj.rig swung upon two of themj K'HH left in this situation by the tide, &. being greatly weaherjed & wrfcohed by her provlous hard scx'^'ioOp gave i'?ay aaids^hipSf fillocl T-;lth i^ator and snnh. She is BO cosipletoly a vrreck that 1 shall abandon her so soon as I can X'Oj'iOve her engine & stores & retnrn to Pen^arvola with roy offioerB & aen by the first opportunity I, ." SemiRes felt the etearaer^s loss had little effect \ipon Hoiiid'G operations i, beoauce the general !?t311 had a large barge with nh:ioh to carry hl supplies up river, i' Hocjever. Read failed to establish depot on ti^-e, Q^his oauEOd Call's main force to have to divert to Port DranOp id-ioh disrupted the campaign. Governor Call Il.aj d the IxLoine for tlie loss of the Lj.eirfcenant Izard solely on tlie ^jrrangej^ient h;/ tho


3^ governmont to litillze naval officers who^ he feXtf had no experience or training for navigating in restrj.cted river waters. SemiGa^ oa the other handp gave much of tho blague for his loss to the crew of raw militia which had been recently recruited for the ralGsionc These ch.arges and coantorcharges eventually led to Sesiuiitts recniostins a Court of Inquiry, but the Navy .Department felt such action was not necessai:^. By Kovenbcr, 18 36, the A]s^elcan and Major 'Ite do were back operating with the military in Florida ^ These tvjo vessels continued to provide transportation and carry supplies for the ar;ay tliroughout the fii'at eight 3iionths of i837e CoxQmodore Dallas took tho coifijjlaints of his officerf; asGijj;nod to steamboat duty vex-y seriously. When Lieutenant Ilo'i'jison complained to hiia of tb ciclanearj of his crcn; and of the excessive work ass'lgnodj Dallac wrote back ijamediatelj" that Hovrlson was f'j:ee to return to Ponsaoola anyt:irno he folt it \>xi; nooocoary to do so for the orevj's healths and this aoticn could be taken "without coneulting anyone," Further, hovnvlslons and :!j.en whexever he desired f the Bailors were not to be u&ed to load supplies unloGo the troops were siraj.ll.arly aaaloyed. This attitude greatly i!;]peded coc^peration between tiie jriiJ.itary and Rteanier force ^j. By Auguet of tliO followine


35 year the ar^sy decided to XQBvxiio co:iiplete control oven :£ tlie steamlDoats and raade e request to do so to the navy, In October the transfer was coaploto.


CmPTim 3 THE comkoj:johe CoMiaodore Alexander J. Dallas had e:n ezoellent baoVgroimd for coj:imo.nd of the West India Squadron, (Tne title of eo'iimodore tkis honorific and bestO'iTGd wpon naval officers perforralng duties normally calling for, an of fitter of flag raiili;? at this time, howevert captain v?as the highect rank in tho United States J^avy.) He en.tert:d the navy as a luidshipuan on hovenihe 1805,, when only fourteen years old. A lieutenant dnri: the Ifer of 1612 J he servod under both Coinniodorcs O'ohn Hodgers and Oliver Jiazard Perry, He cojiiiiianded the tvrelve gun schooner SpJ^tflre in the Hediterj/ancan Sqiiadron under Conv:iodore Stephen Deoatrr in 1815, As a iiia&ter ooHia^andant ^ he captained the Jcnri Adajns, partio:),patin,e in the expedition under Cosnodore David Porter to ernprcss the We^b Indian pirates in i8;Vi-, Appointed caprain 5,n 1.828 ^ Dallas nae ordered to eatablish the narvj-ard at Pensaoola, Florida On July l6, 1835 r he aasuBed coramand of the deet liidia Squadron, He breuglri; to hie coviiKand a ]vno-idl.eda:e of the te:critory of .i.\lc:i.n.ea a berd'axrjunci of stiij) oaeratiOjis in that 1 arecif and tiiirty-one year 'a i'lavai experience. The a/T 36


37 latter attribute made him espooially aealous to preserve hi 8 and the navy^s honor in all dealings with military or civilian autjioritiss. The first news Dallas had of the oiithreak of hostilities T:as a letter frcxoi Hilliaia A, Whitehead ^ collector of oiistoas at Key Westc "Motrb painful intelligoncifo h&ii boon received to day from the Kain land^" ho -wrote f "cf tl),s massacre of the Company U,, S. Troops TTith all their officers,, xjhile marching fy^aisi Tampa Bay to Fort King. Intelligenco has also besn rooeived that the Indians in the vioinity of Cape Florida have likewise mafseacred. a family on the Coast and that the Inhabitants of all the Settlements in that vioj.nity 2 are Koving dovm toxrards Key hejst.'' This reached liira on the evening of Jannary 12 e/c Ifevanap Cixfmi vrtisre the frigate £on^jti!jyiatl£:it '^^^ squadron's flagship ^ and the sloop of Kar §t, J^idil ^'^'cre an,chored„ Although short of provisions s he sortiod at the first light in company X' tlis St. l^^^^l^ '^^'^Q 5.S:l§Jig3il;§M.2S. barely cleared the reef on its approach to Key West, Once there Dallas decided to reiiiain and aid tho lnh

38 diepatched his mBxlne detachment ^ iiiader the cOiiuTiand of First Lieutenant Ivsildron in a inerohant "brig vfhich sailed fTaa Key West on January 17, He chartod the Bohoonor Bahajiia for JAeutommt Baohe's SBiall ps;rt3r of seamen sent to reconstri:ict the lighthouse at Oape Ploridao Later he requested perijilssion from the Kavy DGparfeaent to charter a few small dx-aft vessels for direct support of the military. I'hen he felt tliat his services at Key. West were no longer needed p he departed for Peneacola. His most iJiMGdiats tasdc was to find replaoeinonts for the sailoi'S v/ho&e tens of service had expired ^ or would expire vrithin the next few months. By raj.d-PobTU&Ty f Dallas needed about 150 men to h:<:=ing the squadron up to strength. Ee info:niied the secretary of the navy that he vi'as going to send an officer to Kcw Orleans to rooruit. On i;,pril 3t he reported that these efforts had been imsncooBsfnl, A month previous, the coMiiodore issiied instructions to the £:q'aad:r on 8 officers that ho would not accept their applications for leave of absonoOf e;s;cGpt lender isost uimsual oircimotanceg. He requested that the department tahe no notice of 5 any reqrest which did not have his approval. The first week o;f Ajnril had to supply" the St, LoiAi^s \^^ith thirty iiion frc^jn the £ongtejy^ation before cho ooiilo dopart for a Mexioan cruif^e, The trouble between hoxieo and To::-a.3 i/isvdo it jnandatox-y


39 that the St. Louijs have a fulLl crew prepared to protect .Aiierican corianerGe In the (xx(j..f The Kavy Depai-taent sent additj.onal 'vecsjels to the squadron upon the ontbi-eak of, host31it:leSf Inoltiding sorae revenue cutters borrowed from the Treasury Dspcrtiuent^ Es.r3.y in iiprll Dalli.,as reported the arrival of the sloop of vrar Concord after a voyage from tho north miich included stops at Havana ^ Key West, ana Tampa Bay, "Like most of onr vessels co?]iln.g from the Worth /' ho coimnented "f^he requires repairs," On the same dety the revenue cutter W^.shjjigton arrived &t Pensacol.a for du.ty with the West India Squadron. "" 3^allas x-'roto, "8.e represented by her Commander j "unfit for service ^ without repairs and supplies of 7 arras J arijaunition, menp &Cp 8-.c.„" Later ^ on April 20, the revenue cutter JefTerson anchored at Pensaoola to officially join the squadron. By the end of the montb the revenue .cutter 'Dexter had also reported in, She brought letters from Ijioutonant Ifeldron on the activities of the marine detachjnent at Fort Brooke, In i'larc'-i they l-md been in the interior under Colonel Lindsay, had engaged in several skirmiohes T7ithout sxiffer3nf:^ any loaees, and had returned to the Fort 8 on April '^1-p siif faring frovo fatigue and exposure. Corniiiodore Pallaa infouiiied the secretary of tJie navy that the aetivitiofi of the Uost India Squadron wore GO v'arieid aiid v/idely aorebtered throughout the 6


^0 Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico that he vrould remain at Pensaooia where he could ezeroiss Kore efficient control o-y-er the sque-dron than at B'ny other place. Ships going to Mexico or the coapjts of Florida could be augmonted hy crews from his flagship j and he T:as centrally located to receive dispatches fj-ani all points. At the time of his vyritlngt the crew of the Ccinptells/tion was depleted by one third 5 and she tj-as unable to get 9 underway except in the direst einergency F"rom the very oixtbreak of Indian Hostilitlea there had been a conviction awong military oo;nmanders that the Semlnoles were receiving munitions of i>K?.r from foreign sources, Cuban and Baharitan fishing voKsels were especially suFspect^ On January 21. 18365 Dickerson passed on to Dallas the opinion vrhich Governor Eaton had sent to the War Department that Spanish fishing 10 vessels were engaged in munitions trnde with the Indians. The War Deparfauent contixraally requeated naval action to prevent the supposed trade Xjith the hostile Indians, but was never satisfied that the navy was taking effective Measures, CoMEOdore Dallas '<:?s,s ttoII nnare of the possibility of arias and continually isisued instructions to prevent ruch traffic. In June. 18365 the revenue cutl;er Jeffjsrson v^as ordered to "cruiee on the CoaP't of Florida in the neighbourhood of Cjiarlotto's Harbour &. Tarapap with the vicn' of preventing the


^1-1 introduction of supplies to the Indians and the exportation of slaves and property/' tai':en by tJiejn to CvI)Pl or elsetj-here. Earlier, In March, irtien the Wasb,inf;ton rej?orted to Master Coiuio'iandant Uo'bb for instructions she -vKis ordered '-to Cralee alontr; t}i.o Coast ( from the Anoloto Keys to Charlotte Harbour tilth Instructions to board and Intercept all -p-esscls that may be found x\rith srp'DlieG f oj;tho ene;~iy and brine; them to thi r place for further instructions," In October of the fo3J owing year, Dallas ordered the Jefferson to criiiBO botneen Indian Key. Key West, 13 and Tampa Bay, That same ij,onth he ordered the schooner £rarrpus to "sail for B'avanaj thence to Kassau, (New ProYldence) directions to aaoertain if froni either of those points Jiimiitions of war are supplied to the Indiana in 3?'lorida„" After that she vias to cruise bervieon Cuba, and Fioritla to stop any illicit In the third yea,3:' of tho war Dallas we.B still Issuine such instructions. "You will procoed iJiWiOdi..atoly with, the U. S. ShS.p Boston under your coinjaand to Taiapa Bay," ho told Commander Edimrd B, Babbit ^ "coiBKiunicatc with tho corauiandint; officer of the forces there s obtaining ovexy Inf oryaation tliat he liiay tliinlc proper to give, for the purpooe of your rendering every aid in your pouos:' to provont tho inti^oduction of munitions of nor, into Fjoricr:is for the ur:o of the


i^2 Indiana 8 On leaving TaAi'ipa^" he continued ^ "yoii ijill cruise on the Coast of Florida f say from tho Tortugas as far as Cape Florida ^ boarding all vesseD.s that you may fall in i;lth and particularly by examining fishing smaoks and other sinall oxaftj as it is by this Moang that (as It is siipposed) poicdev & lead are introduced 15 among the Indians c" ^'ct at no tiirie did the aiir/y seem confident that such traffic had been stopped. The Florida conflict was:; only one of many re.^ spcnsibilities assigned to tho West India Squadronc The iDorchants at I'ortsnouthf New Hampshire,, requested protection from acts of pli-aoy off the Haitian coacts in February, 18365 and Dallas had to direct coiac of 16 the squadron ^K vessels into these waters, A more serious area was the Gulf of Werico where Texas vas engaged in a strugglo for its froodon from Kexico, ibaong the activitloa in that quarter ^ the vj&jcr&n captured the schooner Zl}':i2r:-:Z^J!il:S,.f sailing under Texan colors, off tho rnox7th of tho MlsBlcsippl on April 2$, 1836 1? The Pret^idont ordc5rod the squadron to divert all aid possible to hoop the Creeh Indian uprisi-og in Geo:rgla and Alabaiaa fro}n Korging into tho Seminole War 3,n Florida, Spcolfioally ^ Coniaodore Dallas t;-as Instructod to Dan three steamers provided by the ariH^a Thus iw ancnjor to a,n earlier letter from Diol;oraon agki3ig t)::iat the ^-evomie ctittorb; bo tuined baoh to tho id


^'3 Treasuify Depart^sent at an 6ar}.y elates Dallas repl,ied5 "There has beon no ti&e since their being imder liiy direction that they have been wore 'smnted than at this momenta I sshall therefore to ejiiploy theru until X shai;i yoi^r further instructions. • The Indiari^i arc -upj and dolngf xrith no force In ths land to prevent them frosj. at any' time taking to the water in their Canoss^ and doisis e:^'eat injui'y to those inhabiting the Islands along the ocast of Florida I BM satisfied that the active iiiannev in whioh th& Cxittorc have been eiuployed does not suit tho taste of some of their GoMnanderSf but this I can not help„ The Coi;uaander of the Washington nialres s'undry coiiiplaints about mcin

ifif 20 dwtyc Earlier the coaModore anpvrQred an appeal from Captain Jacob HouBiuon and the citizens of Indian Key for naval protection from hootiles supposedly 2i gathered on the mainlaiid near Gape Sable „ The liillitary comBiand in Florida vfas poorD.y defined during the early irionths of the •Kar and this too added to Dallas's pj^obloms. Initially General Duncan L^ Clinch had been plaood in military ooiiiisand of ths territox-j?' diiring the prolirainary stages of the Indian nigration. However p the War L'^apartaent had divided the nation ln,to army areas suoh Florida Has split into the eastex'"n and western seotorBf therefore ^ there vjore two additional jnilltaiy coamandors conoernod T?h3n the hostilities ooKBienced, ^ General Edinxmd Ih Gaines in the west,, and General Wlnflcld Soott in the eastc These tno men vjore personally and professionally at odds^ Go^neral Scott was appointed the overall military conmiandor in Florida 3.n January 5 1836 1 Gonoral Gainos left WeTr Orleavis for Taj^ipa just as 800}! as he heard of the Indla)i iiprising> and. before he had been informed of Scott 'a assignment. For a brief period of time all three gonoral s were in tho fie3.d slmultauocrnly „ The confusion over military coi/ffiiandere^ did not 5nuoh dierupt naval operations,, All three loaders dosired the navy to pat:!;'ol and bloclcade the coast and thivart Seminole i.iOvo:;i&nta throrigh ha.rasslng raisajons


^^5 by sraall boat expeo.ltio}:idcre Dallas should j, in cvaj manners. j:H'^oeive the orders of Goneral Scott ^ or be accountable to h:jni but that he may be ecspowered to act in the eamo ser?'icOf and requested to aoiiUTiUiiicate freely with Genoi-al Scott Suoh request was imraediatoly paBBOd on to the oc^n^vnodOTe, The wan to profit most from the confuciod situation v;as the rxQ'i'flj appointed governoj?p Riohard Keith Call, He desired to lead the jnilitary forcojr! as well as bo the executi'\''e hoad of tho territory. Call ^8 lottorc to his f3?iend President Androw Jaohson evontusdO.y bx'0u?:;;ht results c By JunSf l&jSy Genoral Clinch had retired bocause of tho slicht he felt he had reeolvod uhon Soott I'-eplaccd hxLu Gaines was stationed on tlio Tozas bordor;, and Soott wau in Goorgia euppreseing the Creoh Indiona^ Thus %n one of tho


46 rare instances in our mill.ta.ry hlEtory, the theater coDimander Tras a civilian v^ho dJd not hold a regular cojiiaissionc Call Y?as paT-ticularly oensitive to any broath of affront (; yet in his dealings irith others he Tras often arrogant. His method of demand i-ather than Teq\iestxnQ naval aid was greatly rosented by CoBanodore Dallas, nho at all times expected to iio treated as becomes the senior naval officer of a theator. Thus it was inevitable that those tvio mon sho'uld develop an animosity toirairds each other ^ Call^e .plan was to utilize the Withlacooohee River to up men and snpplles for an attaoli nnon the Indian stronghold at the Cove of the Withlaooochee, Other groups noro to approach from the interior. In order to carry ont this operation^ he desired tne navy to survey the month of tho river j and prevent siipplies from reaching the Seminole s, Ee v?as convinced thot the navy was not providing an effec^tive blockade. He wrote to hallae^ in May., prior to his lailitary appointment f statln,.;3 his bolicf that Spanish flsherinen fyere operating In oloae cooperation nith the Scninoleis. "X have to roqnGot that the. Small CiiiiBors "iinder your comiaand and t]ie Eeveniio Cuttoi's ;: wy he constantly eianloyed on th.e Coast with ordors to cut off all ooranrnication botu'con tho Indiana end foreignors/' ihe governor vr-B .deisandin^i nothlrjo; which, not ooen


!i7 foreseen o:e ordered exeoutod 'by Dallas before h;l's request. Thereforef it seemed to the coiiMaodore that thti goYornor was calling his profeaeional abilities into question J ao well as trying to bring hici within the anay chain of command Dallas received Call's letter at the time ifheri one of the governor 'B military aide a Trac visiting; Pen??aoola. He told tho A3 de that he did not like the "Style of Coiiimand" in the letter and xvoiild not ansvxer siich'a communication. Dallas went on to say that althoush he had cooperated in the paet, and would continue to do so in the futui'Of he would not glvo up coiiijuand of his forces except under specific instructions from 25 Washington. The eovex-nor continued this exchange a ;iiont}i lators "On the 26'th of May 1 made a request of you in my official capacity which appears to have received no attention whatever. Were 1 difipoeed, to. regard Etiquette raore than duty 1 shoiild, not again trouble youj, but this 1 au not pesraitted to do \rodcr my instructions from the War DGpartiacnt ^ even if it were wy disposition, I have therefore to reciuest that a competent officer and crew m^iy be ordered fro;3!. the Squadron urjdor your coMiiend to jsake a survey of the coaet betTjeen the Day of TaTiipa and the Kouth of the 'vithlacooohee river. This sjui'vey tjill bo hiighly iinpox-tant in, tJ^e (-onteap3.atcd expedition aaal.nst tlje Indisinss ,. The vessel


!>A ;-o eaployecl in that serv'loe should be of light draught and well furninhed with Boats, caDshle of being for-^ 26 tified/^ This broiight forth a replj'' fjeoni Dallas, "It Is not iviy intention to cavils" he wrotOf "or in any manner place obstacles in the vxay to a fnll and perfect co-oper&;.tion of the naval force "under my ooMuand with any force that may be engaged against the Sealnole Indians or othoT-s, < proTionsly to receipt of your letter of 26th Kay j_Ij had distributed along tho Seaboard of Flo;rida and Northern Coaet of C-uba the dlf-ferent vessels of the Squadron xvith diroctio:os to examine gmd prevent 9y)j supplies from reaching the Indians or auy oaptured property being taken from the territory A3.1 vc;:Ssols noi? on that coast have similar instri5ctions. Up to the present raomentj I flatter myself ^ nothing has boon neglected or left undone that oou3,d in anv way give effect tC) the movements of the jiil3-itary forces in Florida." Co:mmodore Dallas,: who could be as iraperioue as the governor, continued I "This explanation of irhat has been done ie given not that I feel in the leaat called upon to make it but out of courtesy to your situation as Goveruor of the Territory and the high considerations wiiich I entertain for you as a Gentleiann, Then oontinuing in a more pleaeant vain Ballaf:: said he would enclose extracts of lettere he had received


/!.n c c C of a partial survey of th,9' entrance to tho i^Lmiura Tsic Eiver„ He informed Call that a cutter had been cruising from Anolote Kcvr to Chai-lottc Harbor d.urlng Febr-uary and March on blockade dutyt and as soon as a vessel X'?as available f he wonld continue the sio/vey, ''I raust in conclusion^ Dallas told Callj "be pe:fi;a5.tted to saythat I shall be moat happy to comiiiiijiicate with you in any manner most agreeable to yourself for the full advanoejiient of the objects of tho present cainpaign but in your communications 1 bog that fo3/ the future your suggestions may boar less the character of orders than thosG theretofore received, ... I hops the Etiquette I have been found X':'antins in (not intentionally) way not bo j.ost sight of in any fiu.4;uro sic coraaunl cat ions that it way becone noceBsary to jiitilie to me aB Commanding Officer of the Squadron acting in the West Indies and Gulf of Herico." Tyi.Gn, &.& a final xvariiingf Dallas continued f "the orders and inistructions 1 have received shall literally and liberally be construed, and executed ^ but I can nc:it receive orders from any one but the head of the Depart'iiont froia niiom all lay instructions are derived and under whose direction 2? I am,, and ehnll continue to act,." Dallas sent this corrocpondence betvreen hi)Qself and Governor Call to the sec:cetary of tlie navy^ "1 Bioan not to be fa&tldio'ue in tjo.o of my cojiunandf he nrotci DioIi:erfion, "'bat 1 f:lie.ll re^cuirc ai-1 the


50 Coi),r"tesy of I-angusge Ir) any coiimimi cation tliat may be made tc me from the military officers in Comaand. that 28 my rank and a service of thirty yoax'S entitle nie to," The seoretaii^y repliedj "The views trhich you have expressedj and the principles regulating your conduct as Commander of the U^ S, Naval foi^oe, are strictly correct." Then in an attejiipt to snooth ruffled feelings he vtTotQf "It 3 s not doubted that you and Governoj:' Calif are both actuated by pure and patriotic motives, and that you will still cordially and fi^ealously preserve > in all measures of cooperation, cal.culated to advance th,e public interest ^ to secure harmony of aotioUf and bring the War to a speedy and honourable 29 J. s Bue „ Three d.ays after eonding the letter complaining of the governor 'K conducts, Dallas received the oiiohange between Captain Hix of the £onco2::p; s^J^'-^ Major Kenny Wllso3i(, comDianding at Port Brooke This occasioned motner proresi;;, -•V1R. The coranodore had written to Kix en May 1 '"When i)i s;ou:r 5^n5Jiion your sorvicec in with the AriKV in Pj.orida will no longer be available, give an ordej;' to Lieut Waldron Cofflinonding the Detachment of harinec at Fort Brooke to K'e^oan sic repair 30 Lf""'"lJ on board V7ith thoMs r o" later in the 73.onth Kix fe].t t]'n:.t i-he ne.val foi-cics were no longer neoeseary at O'^ner-. jimy, and he wrote tc:: Uillsonj "1 wish Lieut


51 Waldron to be prepared to oii'barli, Will yovi bo pleased to direct Lleivt. Waldron to repair on board this Ship c he will retur)! td the P'ort by the Cutter Washington after I shall have had, an intervloT-j Tvith 31 hisji." Mix V;aj,ted two days before writing a second tiine^ "Your reaRons are/' he told \U.lfion, "no doubt ^ fully sxifficient for detaining thti marines ^ but as they are unknown to me cmA as the Commander in Chief of the Naval forces required their s&ttIocs, yci^'Fill see the propriety of my request that X may ccimnunicato 32 a copy to hin," Wilson replied? "I have the honor to acknovjledge the receipt of your letters of the 26t}i and 28th inst, and )}iufjt apologisje for not having made an earlier reply to the forraerj but ass you 6.16 not then present the alternative Mhich would lead you to apply for the Marino force at this Poot X dj.d not consider a ppecifio reply necessary ^ I presisae that you havo heretofore been ad\"isGd of the authority by \vhlch the. Marines „ under Lieut, Waldron p are detained at thir3 Postc I am diroGtecl to retain them here untdl the force shall, bo augi'iented by recruits or otherwise and 1 cannot novr adiiiS-t the righ't of the Cewieander i.n Chief of the Naval forces of the United States in the Weet Tj-jdies tO' transfer to you tJie di, scroti onary povrev of roinoval ^ The Karine force ia still ooneidered by no as a ver^ esr^entied pai't of this coMnnuic; p and X should net f eel


52 authorized to reiuov'e them Kithcat f'urthor inctj?uotlons than those nou In Ky posyesaion. Dallas wrc>te to Diclcorsont when he fortrarded this correspondence to the DGijartiaent ; that "1 never lisid any idea of withclravJing the Marines f:r'orn Port Brooke uiitll their place coiild be si:i.pplied hy troops properly belonging to such service? but I do contend^ that belonging to the Squadron under my coiiisand and as they originally proooedcd to the relief of Fort Broohe by my order ^ that they are still under my control and that I have a right to remove thoiii to their expropriate station a board of this shlPf whenever I think p3/0per/' Dicker son brought this to the War repartmcnt By the end of the month the soci^otary wrote; backs "1 have no'^r the pleasure to enclose for your Inf ornation copy of the order issued on the si^bjeot by General Jones Adjuttx-nt Gen"' of the U. S,, Mm;^ ^ which will f it is not doubted J prove entirely satisfactory i-o you," In spito of much coniriand biclioring there was usually cooperation^ At the height of the army's vrlnter oanpaign season, Dallas offered to wan aorae of the fs.riy posts so that the soldiers could take the field iTlth masrimuia £;tren£th„ General. ThOjaciS B> Jesupt non oojimanding; in Florida, aocopted, and sailors end ii:-;.rines gaj^riDOJied Forts Clinch. Posters and Brooke 35


53 At the 'beginning of the next seasODj. in the fall of 183? 5 the oojiiraodore felt the naval efforts had been alighted He felt that Jesup had not sufficiently appreoiated all the navy Wixs, doings "It will afford lae pleasures" he wrote Dickerson, '-to do all In my povTor to aid General Jesiip In his operations in Florida c 1 fear ho-^'evei' that the same dcgroe of alacrity camiot be expected from the navy ac was exhibited during; last vrinter. Licuts, Johnston^ Powell &.rs.d. Huntor renden;"ed every service that cou],d be aslied froui thosaj Indeed more than, could, be fairls?' eirpectedp nevertheless no nention of their se3;vices in the manv\ very rmny General Orders ^ lauding the merits J bravery, gallantry ^ perseverance etc, of volunteers 5 militia and rep;ular forces engaj^ed in the 37 ar in Horidsie Early in Octobers 5.^36, Dallas smmtiTlzed. the squadron's movetaents in a report to the department. The Co^liiortij Bo_ston;, and }i<^tohez^ -vreTo cruising in rotation covering; the Toxas-Mesican coasts, The St. Lou-ls nes erccouto to Tampa to D^elieve the ]f<^J^ep-. The latter was to talsie the siok ^:nd disabled of the squadron to I'k)rfol]"„ The Grawpus ivould o:ruiso to Windward as fa;t.' as ITaiti. The Ven^rlia and WS;Slfy.n£ton had sortiod nith a large e:spcdition led by Lieutenant Powell to bring the waj;to the Sevainoloj:^ believed £vathered in the ll/er/:^ladesa "ihiolonedf" Dalies


Sk 38 conoludedj "you will fir;d a copy of a letter f:eo}a the Governor of Plorida^ the first I have been honored with which gives any detail of his intention or movement." Then in a ratlier s?nug toie he continnedf "I am h&ppy to say^ that previous to its receipt all my plans had been laid and orders given, Xou will perceive that they are in unison with Yob views and suggestiojis, (Call was rcco!?iiDending that a naval party scout the Bver^!;lades, ) Genorallyf as noted above, Dallas addressee Call, in his corresjpondonce ^ by hlf3 official tit3.e "The Governor of Florida" omittins his name, Dallas applied standard naval techniques against the Indj.ans, The bloohade instructions were routine orders J point to point cruising, and the Blcops of war sailed uell off shore becauao of t}ieir draft. Such an effort Might be effective against a people who depended upon their overseas comi-iierce for their well.-.beingp but the Seminoles wore eelf.-suff ioientj Citcept for their weapons and powder. These t\j-o iteias could be brought to the Indiana j.n small coaotal vessely git innu5aerable points along the penineula without the neceslty of aeaportSs To guard against this ij.licit traffic would rec^ulre eztenelve surveillance close to shore, This Dallas failed to do, altho\igh on sevejral occasions he req_uesteci. eisiall ore ft to work close to land.. Trie boat erpeditlons were aleo^ for the jnofrfc psrtp orGani:<;ed along naval line£u They were tactical


55 m&.neuvei's reacting to f}poc5flc threp/ts mad.e hj the Indians „ The poraonnel jnamiinp; tiiese ezpeditions were not equipped or prepared tor sustained operations on both land and -iv-iter. These expeditions vjere designed for coasjfcal and river opex-ations ficom the boats. There Ic another conf-o.derati on, DaXlevfi could not devote hio full time to tiio SeminoleOj nor conld he sot aside a pex-manent force to concentrate upon the Florida War* His Phips vrero spread too thin to exert strong pros&ure upon the Indiana XThioh ^mdoubtedly accounted for the lack of special effort on the part of the WoGrb India cjuuadron to cope vxlth the enemj'" under any but standard nav-;;;-l !:neth.odSc Until the ar^^iy fov'ced the Scj:ainoles'5 into the E^verglades there was no f;;peoial reason for the navy to become much involved in the ccnflict. In spite of Dallas's efforts at blockade ^ the ha";' Departjuont was not satisfied that the munitionf^ traffic vjith the hosti].es had been closed. It vjas annre of the inadf^quacy of the navys perf oriiiance, and it tried to adf:;pt nen soli'itionB. As the Sera5.nolee jaoved south into the 33ve3?£;;ladeys the ansy was the fi:!;'et to realize the Irrportsmce of na:val forcee workinr^ cloee to Gbore in harmony xvj th the lend forces 5 Ihi! cX?eralades provided tlie terrai5:i for riverine vrarfare. Ite ceaetlii-tOj Indented ard islaJ-td studded j, was small enou^;h to be li:ept U3ide;i:^ doee 8i:;rvei].lancc5 boat or canoe


05 0.) r-i (0 xi ;:i r-o r-l -r-i CS O !1 (D rO F.:l O <> O -; iH rS f-i s-:! i''-4 I-I Pf C) Pi O'i ., rrj O O ti:! 'd r-i .in Bi fi r-: +> O •-! -:-^ O !> fH -rl 0) w o c/3 o -d S:! c;j r^ -H m; rf ,.c! U5 O -P O 03 c. d t-l o m o > r-i .H CO ; i o -'.-^ Tj (Q O 4-5 -H cri P.-P ;i) 'ci -i pj w a to £i -,-1 •,-) P^ fl 1 1 ^' e'i flj >^ -r-l r^i V.(' ,m' I' (^ ?-! ty > 1 A ^ii 'c:) O c^ .;.5 -H 'd 4^ Q) •ri ;"i 'ft 'H M r-l O l'' f-i OJ C" -,-; r! -H O pi ;:i iM r-l a' o r-l o ';.-! fn -(-i f-i ''"l O O CQ on io — t >-. :' V, W ] ] ,--, .j ^--J ?* o ;--! > ?:! P' r I Ci) 'd ,d T-l oO •i-> f-1 1"'^ H ^ ••.) ,-C "J ,<:4 .,-! fc-O O ^.0 ,-1 (--i o ..a ri f-l r-J 4-^ rj O O ct) t-A O tfj-i-j ':-! O ;;;,: to o ;>; o o o ,d >•! M -P ,i.J ..;J .c-i c! O .!) CO ''I ''' ;•< C-^ C-* ;-J 'i M W N-( .o •-^ ,^ .. f.'! f-y-H ,.p ti-sf^.TJ-^H :::$ O O ;;") ;'. .>.:> ,-) H'.( ^ J •rl ,i:! t! 1--I -;-^ ,r-i D( ^:-J -p .J..5 Cj O 'oO ^' erf O O c! CQ -d ,q' £.: r-l r-i 4~^ a> vl> ,d o .-1 ;! ?-! E-i ,ri j; 'li 'd




CHAPTER 4 TEE B'lIlS-r A'rTEMPO' The Mlirbex csmpaign of :l836~1837 be>i:an foic Lieutenant Po-trell on the viiorning of October 2^ iBlo. v;b,en *^^^X?aM£iiS;v accompai-i,lea by the .eevenwb cutto;r Waa];i;lrip;ton, soi'tied from Pensacola Bay and. headed for Key West. 1M.B email force carried all of the mpxinee of tho SQiiad't'on' g ships tho?n in the Gulf of Mesicoj except for tho 8t, 'Lnvltr detaobiaent. It iv?':c to augwsnt the j:^avy t; soamGn i-rid provide; a otrll^'c force eap;''.ble of dealing X'jith a gv<:Mifof Iiidlaiit:; beliorvod to number about gOO, gathered in tho vdcinitj cf Cape Ploi'ida or Ktw River. This had beon a.etey-so:^ nod v:herb prior tf le.;-,vi..g Taiapa the prcv^cnw July, Captain his sent two Xndi&.ne fj?.ov:]. Buncc b rcnoho to the ir:air-lrnii to Sj:::jn IlKjy fell in icith Ch.i6f Alligator 'd party and IcnrnGii tViat a l?v.xfi(? nimben of Seminoleo h^^^d bnilt oanoos nlth i-jhich to 1 ta.K"':; their fn;;iilie3 to tho 5 alands in th3 SverKladeSa ho-:v cn;i:'ontc to Key hsst, Ponell s-nd Coraiiandcn:* Thcnur-E Crribbj rhw ^^iiidal 1 ri' s nen commanding office.-; ^ j^ketohvn] i;he In/rviO. ontlino of i;ho f c^rthocsain;opei^-^tlon, It iind bo';u). rcpc.:i'too th^vc then indi;'ine hnj^v^stod coonti'-' (arro?:-root) J a t:nhn-:-i;,'-;nnc then n^d to Kcire bre:^d= in tin. n 2. loon.Lity' bsfor^;; I'iOving nont).iv:;-'.rdf It Taisd-''*-^ bG possibJ.en r'r, J-'--


59 it was sux'Kif^od, to sux-prJ se a large myafcer of warriors before they tooli to the Tjar-pothf ox^ failing thatf to (iepriYe t)ie hostiles of one of tboir iDat^ie foods buffs and let hynger awd &ta:evatlon take their toll. The plan called for the ]isM:Uln£5ton to transport boats and pera^onnel from Key West to Cape Florida and to continue to act as the supply base for the ensjuing operations. This assault force was larger tij&n Powoll 8 earliei' expeditions and Yias tailored for the iaicsion In addition to the mobile support bsse provided by tJie re"venue cutter, tho dotachmont f;> fifty sailors J led, by j^^ioutenant William Snlth of the Vand^-lia, manned two eohoonor boats ^ the CaraljUm and the Firefly ^ and six smaller oraft. First Id.eutenant Waldronj, USPOj frosi the frigate ^>oriTit€12^-}.ont ooiamanded the ninety-=f ivo sarinof:; assigned^ The nodical duties wore perforuied by the Z§S;fMlJ:5.'s surgeon Charles A. Haesler who wa a^sictod by a civill;-oi volunteer. Dr. E, FredorieJr Leitnon/ P?rrd;hor., morej Powell hnd the services of Hr. Stephen E, Mallory a resident of Key Usst who had e:;cperienoe tailing tho xsators of 'the Y^Sfi^rri, Povrell loft JCoy West Octobsr 3, I836, and three ci.ays j.,aterf enroute to Capo Florida, he bieortfcht his force into Indian} Key. one of tJie small islands just off ti:ie southern tip of the piainlandj to rei)lenish hlK imter supply. Earlier f o:a October 5^ a foi-eo of sono seventy Indians had attooked Key'a0p dostroj/iiu;: tlio garden and out-builclinge bclonginf; to Captain Joluj, Wijalton, On October 8, the ludianj


6o attacked the sohooner MarZ* ^ sraaai coastal vessel of about fifteen tons, rmile she ivas riding at anchor at Key Tavernlerp just off the eactern sho;r:'e of Jley Largo. Tiio five crevr mcjabers managed, to escape 'bj taking to the pii^iall "boats f although two of the Ken x-rero woimdcd in the tToj The Indians flr&it plundered the schooner and then set her afire, This war party was in no haste and regained In the 6 vicinity for several days. Seeing the SJ)ioke i^ro;-i their ca5iipfires, about thirty ).uilee amy, Ponall changed his pla^js and decided to mo,ke a surprise assanlt on the band before proceeding to the Cape. Ho rooalled hie earlier diffi^ culties maneuvering the large navy lannohoK o3 ori?; to the shoreline while attempting to approach gnej?rilla bands undetected and so he proourtd two light boats, ovio f;(') ? Captai.n Jacob Kousmc.n of Indl&n Key, to avignont his four smallest boats for his first attaok upon thts cneBiva Big p.ian of operation nas a pincer lao'/'oaonts Lieutenant Siaith V7a,8 to take a division of boats and circle the east end of Key Largo nhile Powc;ll g group n'ould stretch over the main under ooveiof darknoa&i and tx'j to stay hidden near the coast, Powell hoped tho Indiany would be traveling by v:aterj and^ not eisrpeoting a trap, they might move out a:vjay firom the shores Ke felt ccnfidont tjoat he could foroe an engage}aent on the water if he could pianauver his sailors and marines; betvjeen tlic Seminoles and land^ this would be ooriil^at in the navy's; elemoni-, Po7"cll waited until the day was-v;oll along boforto deciding tl'iat the enemy J-^ejt,*.*^-.!


61 imfort'imately vras not going to travel out iV[)on open i'?ater. He ordered the foroe to proceed along the coast and tryto flush the hoatjloa out. 'Shortly thereafter thoy eaiae upon a canoe carrying two l3:jdlans and the chase waa on. The Seminole a ymice ahle to prolong the pursuit by remaining in the shallonv^^itexcif but Pox-fell urged his sailors on and the gap narroned, Juet as PoT^rell ordered sojiie of his men to open flre^ the canoe turned into the shoro and ita occupants Juirtped out and fled inlands Only then did Powell leealize that the tvjo Indians would spread tho alarm j, and 'by tho time he arrived the vfhole Soiainole force had vanishedc The Indians had left their canoes ^ fishing equipment f and provisions behind, and before Powell returned to Indian Key he destj?oyed over;y thing that he thought had any value. Once again the force resided its course for Cape Florida c After Buch. an auspicious starts Po\?ell x^i'as determined to examine the coast thoroughly Lieutenant 3i-'}ith was placed in charge of the large boats ^ and he vras instructed to take the outer passage to the CapOp while First I-ieu-. tena.nt Vfeldron and his marines accoKipanied Powell m the small boats and searclied the passage betxveen Key Lara;o and the mainland. VJhile PoTfell probed tho Innumerable inlets and small keys wiiich cox:ild have furnished a Bocluded Tetreat for the en^ej^iy he iras ooneerned about tlie poa;:!lbility of an ajiibuexi. Addc:d to this hazard, nature took a h::^nd and tho fo:i'00 had. to beat against a northeast ijiale.


62 As a resul'l; It was October' 21 bofoi'e it reached 'Caps Florida Froia this base Poivell dlBpatched exploring parties to gcelL out tlte enewy The first cTening he sent Lieutenant Smith to the Mia)iii Elver to ir-speot the foriuer settlement there. The nest night j October 22, Waldron tooli a largo groi>p up tJif;.t ri'v'O'c' to the head, of boat navigation,, Ee reported that the' sc^ttlementy tliere had been utterly destroyed somo tiMO bofore his arxivals These moveaonts Tvoro carried o'nt at night to cludo detectionc Powoll tjas trying to engago an eluf^ivc guerrilla foe and did not x^ant the Seminole s to disappear again. Method! calls'" he widened his search ^ sending StopVion Kallory to e5;:plo5:e along Little Bi,vor and. Arch ( O'X'OOK. luit t^/j,th no positive results Powell V;as convinced that t;j.or3 xvore no hostlles in tljo iniHediato vicSnity, end ho 'delievod that they ivot's Rc';u;ewhere along New iliver pro'bably harvesting coontie„ Ho was dotermined to surprise thorm The pincer moveinent would again .bsco'io Powell i? ?I!£5?ii§ ^ESlSSSi.' Accompanied hy tJio Karinot;. be iroi^ld ascend to 'cho head;'"atGrs of the Ratoneo jiivor and th.en narch overland to Kow River. In tho rceantlJijo p Lieutenant SKith was to tiipprcaoh by sea. Powell departed &t nine in. the evening snid his g:coup rowed all nigiitf &a?ri^''ing at the Ratones tit ten tlie next morning 5 a diotanoe of tTccntj-fivo Miles froB'i Gape Florida „ On tiie march overland the;;/came across' a dooorbod lndio.n village and set firo to tho .divo"i lingoPowell jfcachod New Ilivor about eight niloG


63 below the l?7erglades and proceeded downstreaja mivil a jUDQtiOii ims mde with the boat force from the sea on October 30^ Koitber gro-up had found any Seniinoles. Therefore, Povmll established a strong caisp on the T^est bank of New Ilrve-,? and again sent out pr-obin^; o3n:,edition3„ Smith vas difTpatched three barges to operate as far north as Indian River „ Meannhije, hnowlnpt>>^.ttb ot'o-, to the c;otith nas clear of gnerrllla unit. Poxfell decided to in-v-e&tlgate the Everglades, the ter;ra inoogirba of bhe Sejainoleo. Poi?'ell started out vjlth fourof his lighteot boatB and a scanty allovranoe of provisions so an not to be burdened. Tlio party included Brp;, hasoler and Lei-cner, Trho were interested in scientific Inf orwatj.on, and Willia:^i Ccoley the guide „ By this treh Powoll honod to add to the sparss 3:ailitary knorrledge of tho Sowinoles' retreat, liio coastal f:,rea of Florida vjas fairly well knovjn by I836, but the intorior of tho glades had not yet heen penetrated by white men. Powell c report of hi attempt pointed out the Inadaquaey of keel boat a in such an, areas '-We ancho:ced our boats that nicht in the great inland basin of South Florj laa, known as the ]=;ver£lades. We had no-a a night view of the coast t]vri: enoin/Oles the glades. Forests of pines and oypress enoloeed us on one side liko a black v;all f while on the other, t}ie erase ^ nhieh eovere the vrhole euirrace of this siiallov' laiwa offered no obstruction to tlie e^^e p<^ it wandered o'vor tho drea:ey i-ragte. Here, on the nain land.


6k or on the ialaDds In the glaclos, If there vieve Indians, so oommanding ims ou5? poaj.tionj that their fires vrould certainly have been sec>i bj^'-us, VJith the da-im ira pushed Into the glassy sea before us^ and endea'vorod to approach an Island Been in the di^tanoe, Several other islands were chcj^ro tho horisson as vre proerejasedf but the boats, although the sEiallost of our little fleets could nol; near either of tJieiiu The matted sa-'i-jgrass, which' wounds like a ragor^ and the deep eluioes^ which intersect tho glades, prevented access to them on foot. I foiuid it impracticable to navigate tho glades, at this stage of tmterj in keel boats, though, no labor had been sparedi and we reluctant] y 9 covAmoncod our return to the camp." On Kovoiubsr 6 Lieutenant returned and InfoTmed Powell that there were no recent signs of Indiana as far north as the St. Lucie Eiver. The latter ooncluded that the Seminole s had completed their harvect earlier and must now be operating in the northern part of Florida He then orti.ered the expedition to move southward an.d to contijiue to probe and explore the eztreaity of the peninSu3,a, Powell rounded the tip of Florida and moved northward up the west coast inf^peoting the abandoned fishing ranchoE5 and recording inf orvriat5.ou abo'ut thev-j for future usee He reaohad Josef a Island in Charlot'be Iferbor KoveiQber 30 and f^;eourcd shelter agalnet a noxthorn gale, Tiro days later he decided rfc was tiiae to return to Koy Viect duo to the condition c-f his laen a.nd boat 8 o Finally, in early


65 December, Lieutenant Powell's /xj^cup began to rct^ort aboppd 10 their respective coiiimaiids. The cutter Dexter arrived in TaiEpa Bay x?itli a pai't of the marines fron tlie expedition on i)eGe;=iber 23 f anu the remainder came in soon after. This initial attempt to penetrate the Ever{slades provided the Irapetns for e.nother ozpeclition the following fallc Lieutenant Powsll was challenged hy Florida's vast aquatic landj teeming with its aiMphibian denizens, which must, he thought p be penetrated militarilj'bv an equally araphiblous force. Povjell -wrote to Joel E, Poinsett, secretary of mir, in Septejiibcrf 1837 ^ offering his services to lead, a mllitar;>? expedition into tlie glades. He pointed out to the seorot&ry that his previous expedition had penetrated eighteen to twentj" miles into the glades in deep-diulled ohipe cutters. This fe^^.t had convinced him that T?lth the proper boats the nhole of Eouth Florida TreiB acoeasiiae to the jnilitary, Ee propoeed that tlie expedition be traneportcd to New River vrhere in "boa'bs built under rnj direction £;.t a navy yard (or purohaoed) of tjio 13.ghtest draught and to ston in nests" could be used for the actuffi 12 penetration, Poinsett was iriipresGed and invited Powell to lfeshi3)gtonv The "Pro;)ect of an Expedition to the ICverglades of South Florida" vrac fojiinally prcsojited by Powell to the IJar Department in October „ "It is propoeod to cireujunavigate the Everglades discover the aforesaid retireatop to en--dearour to capture the women c: elij.ldi'en to fall ivno}'i the


66 ivar partiea .. and to harass & terrify the nation, by this unexpected inroad from thi^ qi^arter." He suggested a force of 100 seamen, 100 soldiers, and the necessary officers from each service. The whole erpedi.tic with "not less than twenty boats X'lith sails oars &o '• 1 -on \T&s to be outfitted flat brtilt and fitted ;' inig oifer was accept od and the details of organization were left to Powell, By mid-October, he was in Charleaton, South Carolina, gathering the equipage he connidered necessary. He bought two boats &nA fourteen plro^'ues and ordered tnelve boats constructed „ Finally, he chartered four schooners to trans™ port the navy detachiient and equij^iaent to St. AuPUPf-n^ Where the army personnel were to be ejubarked. "' General Jesup had taJcen coraaand of the military roroes in ^'lorido. froii Governor Cp'n on Deoemb^-p o i r-.'^ Prior to that he he,d been in charge of the Alabama sector of the Creek ocanpaign under Scott whore he had sained ex.^ pcrlenoe in Indian fightine. DuriHs his first .winter in t'lorida he divided the territory/into two gones. The northern aactor was similar to a zone of interior, under Brigadier General Walker K. Armistead, and was serviced principally by Florida uiilitiamen and the Weat Xnflla Squadron's bailors who garrisoned certain forts. I'his had freed the regulare to pursue tlie Serainoles 8outte/ard. For the winter cainpoian, yeason of 183?^^^183a. Jesup again divided "1". 1 '1 (> t' !-. • L-nti rerrirory j.nto tlie two zoney and. eraphasig^ed offensive 1 ; operation to force the Jxid.Uuif-i f:;outh


J Secretary Poinsett couiiGelcd General Jesup to insure that the army officers assigned to PoViOll's 16 groiAp -wo-uld not outranlv the lieutenant, Jesup complied f although he protested that the force was too large to be an efficient erplcring party and too small to be a combat group for the forthcoming operations, and they woi-ild not be ready to eioyc as coon aa he wished At the Kaae tii'-;e the general requested that Powell's group be placed imder his direct oommand. Keanwh:lle, Secretary of the Wavy Dickerson informed Dallas that PoKoll had been selected to lead this expedition, and; while he would expj ore the glades and render any aid needed by the arsny in ItB f orthooming campalfi-jif ho was 18 to report d,j,rectly to the commodore = Later f Powell mentions hie instructions from the ''Secretary at War" as the basic guidelines for the es:pedition when he wrote the final report of his activities i,n South 19 Florida to Pallas. The cosmaand situation was con. fusing t Ujien Powell arrived at St^ Augustine, Geneial Jesup sent for hiia to report to hoadqxiartero at Black Creek, Jecup planned to utiliEo three forces in south Floj?lda to G'fjeej) the area^ and to hold the Indiana while the ifiain aseault pushed aeut]i„ The ^jouthern groiyos were ColLonel Smith ^e^ iK-^uisiana Voluntoera in the \iK!-Bt-, operating froin tlie riouth of the Calooaahatchee Biver^ Colonel K.:ich.a'r'y Tay'l or'a let lnfa.ntry Jxegi^nent 17


68 in the centeie, covering the area, between the Kissl)-meo Elver and Pease Creek ^ and Powell b sma3,l mixed force of sailor e 5 Co:apany 1, 1st Artillery ^ and a detachment from the Wat:hington City Vol'unteei-s to operate alon^^' the east 20 ^ coast. It was at headqiuartGrs that Powell received his first 5i

69 J militia^ and navymenj esipeoially tiie sailors. This jseriod was also boviGflcial to the offioera, for like the men, the^^ had only recently asseiabled forthis expedition, Powell was expcj/ieacedj, but his officers were new to thio type of opsrGti,ons. KidGhj.pmoT), Peter U„ Murphy and Willisai Pc MoArthur had "been at the naval school at horfolli until ordered to this expedition in the fall, and Passed Midship™ man Horace N, Harrison joined Powell at St. Augustine, Surgeon Jguiob Rhett Motte of hsigruder's coreruand xgrote a most revealing eyeifitness account of the drill foraiatlon of the ezpeditiont "VJhen dravjn up in line they preaenbed a ciiPiouB blending of black and white ^ like the keys of a piano forte I many of the sailors being coloured men. There was als/o an odd alternation of tarpaulin hats and peajackets; ^ with forage caps sjiO. soldiers trip roundabouts 5 soldiers and oaiilorsj unite men and black, being all thro'ifn into the ranks indiBcriminatelyf a beautiful spcci).ien of mossalCf thus inodifying sailor's ardour V7ith soldier's ZZ discipline Th,e day after Chrlstioas, 103?, the expedition de™ parted the Haul over to explore Indian Hiver. Captain dj Karvey Broun and JoGoph 35, Johnston, tlie group's topographical engivieers v;'ere to select and iTiark sites along the route for depots^ latier Lieutenant Magruder's group X'jaa to follou and constrnot forts at the places selected „ Oil the evenirig of the s:uH>nd days December ?.'/ they ar'i/ivsd at a Ic-ea-taon prcuieualy t;;tod by General O'esup


70 J J to be inspected As the 'borate pul3,ed Into the shore the men v?ei-e startled to glisiipae a feiuall hand of Seminolos "brealc fron cover and flee to the interior „ Povrell Bald 2k"their fleetnsjjs defied purBuit/' The following night the gro\Ap made car-p on a hlgji oak bluff on the nc^rth bank of the St. Sebastian River „ Thero was a brief period of rest until dark, then Powell had the men ascend the river looking for firos which would bctj:ay the hostile carapslteg. This search lasted all ni{^ht and the river vkig scouted to its headTKiters va.thout dlfsoovering the enemy\ On the next day' the gY'oup continued south and arrived at the mouth of Indian RiYer. They Made camp and prepared to tjait for the transportSc On Deoember 31 Magruder^s group joined theRu Willie e.t the InD.ct Powell f;ent Captains Brow?i and Murphy to scout the iriainland and Lieutenant Earrison to reconnoitre the Piouth of t)i0 St. Lucie RiTer. Pregli supplies were received froM' the transports the fj.rst \vcek in January and 3?ov?ell departed for the St„ Lucie,, He vrae concerned for the physical comfort of hie meup Imonina fron i)rcriouo diity the strengthsapping rigors of life in the -sFamprs. "1 left Capt., Irvin's company of Waehlngton City Volunteers at Port Fierce j on my way^ We had three klndc of troops in our little band Soldiers Volunteers tSe;??iL'anj, with their reepeotive officers „ Perfect unaniralty of couree co'illd not be expected and as the Vol lurtec?:!';^ ]i-^e not been included in the original plan. 25 it fell to their lot to separate," He bad not yet learned


?1 o f the Battle cf Okeecjiobee whioh took place on December 25, J J B.n6.. so he v?as not ai^are that la:--e:e numbers of Inciia^is W^d 2.6 been forced into the Ifyergladeg by militarypressure „ Whether or not this vcmld. ha^re Influenced his docision can not be detenained. VJhen tho group x-oaehed tho St. Lucie. it made camp "on the sea beaah trhere we discharged tho 2? boats of their heaviest lading & gtarte)d up tho river, Again Powell travoled at ni^ht and "started an Indian from his lair," The ne;s:t day the force had a brief ongagernent with a small l)a,nd on tho north forh of the St. Lucie. PoTToll and his jiien roached the hoadi^aters where they made camp and tK?ilted. Captain Brown loft to find Genera], Jesup to report their progress Povrell kept searching the aroa while a,Tmitin£;; a roT>l,y. One day ho gent a man back to the base camp &.. half hour's mile froiu the party. The sailor lost the trail and strayed off „ Two day a later he vrao found in a stato of exhaustion from his efforts to locate hj.mwelf in that wild a.nd desolate oountryn It VKxu at the headvjaters of Jupiter Kiver, as the expedition ivaf-; leaving the interiorp that Ponell enp;a£;sc[ in his iiiost serAou:^ conf:eontation with hostile ]ridians. Around January 10 or il^ 1838, nhilc exploring the St„ Lucie he diocovered an Indian trail nith Kigns that a lf;:.r'ge band had recently moved southv'a3:dc hilita:ry en,i^aecijient was his prime purpose, so Povrell set out f olll.owins tho traij. Oil the fifteorbht he overtooli a oeuavr tending a herd vr})Os when


J ?2 captured f voliinteereci infoDnation that there were several Indian camps in tiie vicinity. Tweirbythree men vrere left to guard the boats and the squavj was pressed into service as a guide. She led the group down a w-ell-d)eaten trail about five Biiles to a cypreco swamp from. Tvhich colmms of smoke were rising. Lieutenant Ponell forced his force into an extended line of three divisions with acting Lieutenants Harrison and Ho.Arthur each leading a division of sailors. Lieutenant Fowler led the arsy group,, The entire force n'oiiibered about fifty-five sailors and twenty-five soldiers. Previouf^^ly Midshipman hurphy and his raon had been sent on detached duty^ It was four o^ clock in the afternoon wh-en the force came to the sv?aixp). A wair-whoop echoed ahead and instantly Powell ordored a charge^ liie Seminoles were superb guer3'illa fii.gnters using the terj/ain to ffiarimi:ari advantage, Thoy would eiaorgo for tm. instant to shoot at the charging line and then disappear again into th.e underbrush. The nerveshattering war-whoops „ cojimenoing as a low grovrl and Increasiiie; in pitch to a slirill ycll^ followeci, each shotc The steady rifle fire from the underbrush p t}:ie Indians popping up here and there for a e:o}.'yt second j and the J tresicheroTie snampy terrain added to the difficulty of keeping the inerperiencod Bailors in a coordinated line of advance,. Tactically a fluid line -at ill a inn? natural cover with one p;roup pj/oxriciir);?; fire support for another's advanco would ha'tre been iuore praot-ioalj but 'this vjas noi; ths:; standard


J J 73 battlefield procedure at the tiiiie^ Thus casualties were rather one Gided^ Acting Lj t;u tenant Iferrinon was shot in the shoulder at the outset and his division vjas left without an officer to leadt Powell ordered Lieutenant Fotfler to eixter the swamp on the rj.ght and acting Lieutenant McArthuu to lead the rejT'aininr;; two divifiions alonrt the original, line of advance „ One of the sailors near Powell na.s shot in the legf htit ho continued the fight and killed his opponent vrith a blast of "both barrels of Captain Powell's double >8 2Pgun. lo3,ded with, bixekshotc" The eneiay ivas forced gIowIj'' backwurds until, the warriors were at tlie edge of the more dense portion of the cypress swciTOp, Here they held and main.tainod a steady Eind.. unrelenting fire upon the advancing line„ Thie from the unseen enein^r force of lujdcterjained size took its toll upon the attackers. Lieutenant MoArthur vrac seriously wounded and the e3r:pedition* s surgeon ^ Doctor Leitnerj was 29 killed. Some of the unoff j.cored sailors began milling about p night Ytsiu approaching p and the nuBiber of wounded tras inorea£ing. Powell realized his deteriorating poeition and ordered, a w3.thdra,Tjal While reorosslng the swainp the arj'ay group cerne under heavy fire and I.ieutenant; Poviler was sJnot in the thigh and side J forcing hira ovrfc of action. Captain Johnston iismedistely tooJc oha'cge and ef f ecti'vely directed the rear guard actl'vity of tliC arjuy regulars ^


"ih J The sallc)ry TJ'^.i-e raw recruits to this tj-p of land operations and with the approaching ciarknoes, the finer poiJits of rcvtreating and iTiain,t?::inlns \ integrity vjeakened. The feeling of D.onelinens which can assail a Man in c-GiAbD,tj especially lie who has not developed a strcno; sen^e of esprit de corps p took possession of some. The savao;es roo'vlng in fron "behind ^ the lengthen shadows t and the safety of the boats provided a Dtrone; feeling of insecurity for the dailors which overcame their recently Inytilled discipline. The £3ailors of the un-officered division brolce ranks and ran for the boats! Kad the rest of the detachment followed in roirc^ the Seminoles could have pio]<:ed off the Ken at will. Powell and Hai'rieon, both wcandeds were abl? e to keep the re]nainins sailors in a raggedy yet effective, military fownation^ The brunt of the roar guard action fell to the array d.etachiiicnt and through their efforts the retreat did not turn into a rout. The firing wxua 5-oaintained unti]. about seventhirty in the evening when the expedition finally reached the boats and was able to pull off, Iiientenont Powell's final reeapitulrition to Commodore Dallas 'was? five killed (one surgeon 5 two eea™ men. and two Boleieru) and ti^enty-two wounded {four officerrij incluci.'ng Powell, one non-oominisaioned officeTj eleven privateOf one boatsv/ain'e Mate, and five seauien), I^ater lowell picked v:p a T^iourjded wa:o. vjho had loet his vjay during the retreats reducing the n-iUiiber killed to four.


?5 V J In ad(j.j.tion, one of the boats^ containing a keg of povrdepf ruHip and whislrovj Kaa Inticlvertantly left on the bginli during the ret;eeat bGoane;e it vjgg not noticed in the daiekness, Powell brought his fo??oe back to Indian Bi-ver Inlet wheare the wounded conld be cared forj then sailed to Fort Pierce nhe:ee the injnred '.0 oonld receive hospitwl. treatment Heamrjille General Oesup led the raain ooliyiin south sdong the coast froa Fort Pierce „ E,e detoiired Inland rather tiian ford th.o St. Lucie River, and on hie way back to the coast engaged the Serainoles at the same locale where Powell had fought a few days earlier. The liattle of Lookahatchee on January 2,h ^ 1838, involved an eirfciBiated 200 or 3OO tvarriors. Enemy casualties were unknowUf but th,e ariuy s\iffered seven. kil3,ed and thirty-one xvounded, General Jesup, The Indians retreated into the interior x-merc the array could not folloWf in spite of its Dearborn wagons with their bigj wide wheels ^ and xvatertight bodiee. The horraes's legs wore torn by the p;awgrass and the phyelcal effort expended movln.g the vehicles through the Korass vj'&b too great to endure „ On the twentyseventh p the let Artillery reached Jupiter Bay, out of forage and vrit]:. but 'fci-jo df-iys of rations „ I'oicell arrived wit}i pnpplles on. that STUae day, Bi.s boats made sovera!l t:!-ipe provieiofiirig the force at Ji:.piter Uxitil February h^ \ghen th.8 group v;as ordered to ss^.il


76 for Key Bisoayne. General Jcsvs) felt that by sending Colonel Benjarain K„ Pieirce xiitn a part of the 1st Artillery and Po-well's eallo:e^,; to Key Blscayne by I'fater his force oould proceed southward by land and 31 trap the Indianw^ Po-\vell y defeat bothered him so 5nneh that before he left Indian River Inlet he sent en additional report to the secrotarj'of the navy^ "It is now too late to refer to tho original composition, of the expedition which was not in accordance with joint instructions of the Secretary of War — jouvb, and my ownc The seamen wei'e all landsmen and three-f Iftho of the repnilars were yolunjtec'^:s„ 1 could have tanght them to Kahc watches as cafiily as to learn the one to handle an oar and the other a imBket, Nor do X say this in reproach to eithorf but to show that service like this required men who had Jiothing to learn of the business 32 32 before thcHu" Powell Insisted that his as earl t groi>p be strengthened, vrith an additional company of regulars and that the volunteers be excluded „ This was done and, his command now consisted of himself as coirraander and acting Lieutc^nants Ilarrieon and Murphy as division officers for the sailors „ Firet Lieutenant John B, Magruder, replaoirig I^ieutonant Poiaer,. cosjiianded Coijipany I? Second LieuteDant Robert Mcl.arej coynpianded Company Pj Captain Johnfrfcon eontiiuxed as topographical


7? .; officers and T)i\ I..eonaj:dt acting surgeon > rcplacied the deceased Dr, Leitner. With this group Powell sailed south and arrived at -Key Bitiicayne on February 11, He spent the rest of the month eistahlishing a depot 33 there and. eroctittb J'^ort Dallas on the jnalnland. Early in Kan^chj after General Jesup received 3^-K Inf orii!r:.tlon that Seijii Jones [jCihlef Ai^poika J^ with the MikasuklSp wac in the interior of the Ii;verg;iadeG near New Elver, He ordered Lieutenant Colonel Jaines Bankhead to Key Bisoayno and Informed Powell that he shoi;Q.d aid the colonels At the same timOj Jesup wrote to Coumiodore Dallas of Povrell s perf OKiancc t "Lt, Pox'jell has not failed f he has coopera/fcea with me most efficiently and is now at the jioint vzhere he can enter the Everglades, Ke wi3-l penetrate them so soon as 1 shall have placed a force on Kevr River sufficient to protf^ot his moveinentc which will be in a few day 3. His affair in this vicinity was most; gallant thoiigh he was ooinpelled to retreat to 35 his boats with some lossc" ^he force Jeaap spoke of was Lieutenant Colonel Bankhead^ with six companies of the 1st and ''Ith Artillery; Major William Lauderdale, with 200 D"ennessee Voliuiteersi; I-ieutenant Robert Anderson, V7ith a coKipany of the 3-"*3. Artiller3''5 and Powell f; group, While the arn-ry forces moved towards the rendezvous on the edge of the gladofj aj onr;; the noi-bh fork of hew Siver^ Pc^T^ell scouted tlie intei-ior,, Just after enteriu; :vcrr:. lades he a fresh trail iLeading


70 J into the Interior, and he coi^Taimicatcd this Information to Colonel Eankhead. The conntry had. experienced a drought and tlie no3-mally wet glades had been turned into a Kuddy snainp too dry for boats and too net for walj^lnsn BanJmead prepared for this ven,ture hy leaving his horses on the mainland ^ depoelting jnost of his "bsggage on the first Island he oane to afi^er onterlnfi;; the E-9-ergladeSj and dlstributinG' his troops araong the boatc. The soldiers put their MUfihets a):id cartridgebozes in the boats to keep thea drj?wlij.le all hands pushed and toned, the natercraft through mii.ea of ooze and san grass. Finally, on March 22, I838, they reached the island in the sea of mud where the Indians were enoainped. Bankhead attempted to parley:, but the SeralnoleB fired upon his flag of truce. The colone:]. inmediately wc:nt into action even thoiicch it iras onlj about an hour before suntsat^ He. posted an contended line to cover tlie front of the hammocks Kajor B.eynold Kirby, nith five ooiapanies of firtillery and tno of the Tennessee Volunteers, pras dispatched to the left flank where the water was shylloWf and Powell was sent to the right flank wiiere it uas deep., Khen hie boats came within gun range J the 8e}iiinolcs opened flrOf and he answered wit]i a four poxinderin t)ie bow^ Before the navy could linlc up wit;-] Kirbyf the hoetiles; realiEeci the plan aud fled in great haete IcniVkoi}; foodj lead^ povj'derj, and


V 79 t'K'onty skin cauoeso This sortie n&s important for it \-m3 oneof the e&xJ.y attackBf after two years of wai'j into the asylUDi of the Everglades where the Indians had boasted 36 that "Ko vrhlte Kan could go," After thio enga.geraejit PgvjgII returned to Fort Dallas to repair his hoats,. IJhile he vjas thus engaged he received i;:atructions fron General Jesup to release one of the artillery ooinpanles, Aftervjards he oontin\iftd his routine probing with a reduced force until April, Ha ended his expedition at Key West. Hany of his men were suffering frora, scorbutl. and there were not enough provif^iont; on the hey for thcvi, Powell prevailed upon Captain VJilliam Ac HoTfaa:-d of the Madi£on to take h,i;:a to Havana for fresh vegetables „ VJhen the oiitter returnedj she loaded Kagruder's companj'' and took bhea to Mevj River, P0W0I3 brought his naval force up the west coast to Penaacola. --^7 Lieutenant Ponoll did not feel his primary objective exploring the interioj;of the E-irergladeSj hac! been acoosiplishedc '*l^etters from Genl Jesup directing the return of the conipanies of artillery™," he i-'^rote Poinsett t "terminated the labours of the expe^dition nhioh V I have the hono3? to comraand and nitbout accompli ahings I regret to Hay the principal object for which it v:as fitted outt heverthelCBSf the secondary considerations that of co-operation with the e.X'yn'y corps ^ to the ful^l extent of its ability s has 1 believ?^ been effected.


80 J "F^illlns 3n vath the a3niiy at tht; outset o'of). constantlj thereafter engaged In oi<:ec" the vrlshes of the commanding generals the tirae at xrfiioh the everglades are navigable passed by so that a partial access to theiHf only was found practlcablo. The inf or):Matlon obtained by the expecii fcion is lience mostly confined to the coast and rivers but the principal benefit derived from its operations wij.1 be fo'ond in its being the pioneer to the southern corpo and indirectly?' leadjng to the most i3:;i;portant results of tiie last campaign," There is no explanation anong Powell's official correspondence as to why he brought his plan to the War Departiaent, he may have sounded out his own £;ervioe first, but the type of e.cpedition ho presented probablj'" seejued to be a military undertsihing. In an;y oaso^ he is the first to show a concept of combat resembling riverine warfares he attej'ij)ted to blend the personnel of both services i he devised special watercraft for his missions he wanted to use internal waterways to reach the enemy j irinallyj he was prepared for giustained operations in a riverine en™


CIT/iPTEH 5 J P;T HIPWRT<;CKS AHD INDIAN MASSACRE? jji;:i y General Jesup was oonvlnoed that the West India Squadron's bloolcade x-jas ineffective ^ "I e-ra apprehensive of the Xntflians obtaining powder fT'OBi Havana on. the one side J he vrrote Poinsett in Anguet^ 1837 1, "and Keir Providence on the others and if a sinall nG'i'"cvl fo^'ce, or even the cutters which were under the direction of the Mavy last winter j ooi^ld be spared, miieh advantsu^c would. 1 result," This wcs forwarded to the eeoretaries of the navy and treasury f and it bro'ught action, Comaodore Dallas sent the schooner G^iBIilSili-S '^'^ Havana and Ifessaii to seek inforwDtion on the arsis sniigfi,ling. Aftervjards she sailed off the sioutlisrn tip of FXo:i;-ida boarding all suspicious Vf:-:BHeli3c Captain JiO.isha Peck ipade a negative report at t}:;e coyapletion of his cruise. The Treasury I;opart53.ent t'uj^ned. over the cutters £eLlXSw£§?l!; ^'^''^^?J§-2.'^S2S to the sciUhidron, aiid Dallas hf.d theiM operate off t;7e 2 west coast of pj orida oooperatinr; witli the military., IhTi&Y prcsLSure wa.B forcina tlie Indiane southvaxrcl. and creatiufv increayed enoffiy activity in that s.rea, Captain John, hhalton.f of the CuA-yefort Beef lightship had maintained a garden on Y..^::^ ^-'arrce for. year fa On 81


J 82 June 25 1 1837 f ho and four imainiied. orewiaen roTreci over to visit his orchards Indians were waiting for theiB and opened fire when they stepped out of their boat, Whalton and one other vi'sre killed in the first salvo. The remaining three J in spite of the fact that tT~o of them were wounded f w^anaged to set afloat the boat and f].ee. The Sealnoleo raanned a canoe to give chasOp but wet their rifles T7hile launching VJhen they were^ to use their weapons again,, their quarry vjcis well out of range and 3 widening' the lead. Later that raonth VJinslow" Lewis of Boston arrivcid at Bisca3n:ie Bay to take over the duties of lighthouse keeper at Capo Pj.orlda-f but on leGtrning of Whalton 'a murdor he refused to Gtay^ 'hi. the same area one of the small coastal vessels engaged in hunting turtles reported being chased by a war-party in canoGs. In January, 1838^ Dicker son informed the Uar Department that the cutter |;fe:^i.&ion. had boon made avnilable to the navy^ He v'anted to know what duty to f-saign her, Poinsett replied that the various digasters occurring in South Florida pointed up the need for naval pi-otection in that area. The east coast frojii Key Eiscayne south to ) Key West had always been dangerous waten^ for sailing vessels f and had long smpported -?. thriving uTOoking business Not: that hostile Indians were go active on land the i^-ls'is waa greater. Th5 55 inade it ijiiperativc that armed aid bc; offered to tbore cast on sliC're. It wa.s the


83 y y end of March before the Hadi^sorif Carjtain Wj.lliam Ao Howard, arrived at Pencaoolaf and. June "before she and the CaT)TObel3. x'eBorted to Gejieral Zaohary Taylor^ who had 5 replaced General Jesup in Majp 1836 „ Taylor's plan had been first to drive the Indians soirbh of a JT'OiAghly from Tarapa Bay to Stc Augustine. Thl8 would heo}) the Seminoles froia "evevj portion of Florida wort'i protecting,'' The second part of his program wag to cut tho Indians in the so'uth off from all trad.e with white men so that thoy would eventually desire to leave their barren lands and raig-rate. Taylor wanted the cutters to cruise up both sidof3 of the penlnsiila from a rendezvous point at Cape Sable (. not only to aid distressed mariners f but to stop arme traffic and visit the various army posts along the coast to check on their safety. They were to be his sea linh In the chain of force sot 6 u.p to isolate the Sominolec The secretary of war took active measures of his own beyond that of his theater commander' 8, He asked navy Lieutenant John T, ilcLaushlln his opinion concerning r-i ( this proble;n, IIoiLaughlin submitted a written proposal in Mavp 1038 c he felt tlie army needed a high speed schooner of sixty or seventy tons which would not draw more than fi'?"e or aix feet of X'raterf it Bhoi^ld liave a beam wide enough to sto;i:?o a bsxrge in each waist j and, these bar[i;ee chould di'aw no more than, eird";'!inches, be 8 pulled by tc^^i earO; and Cf^rry fifteen men. The arraameiit


Bk should coriEds-lof one twelve pounder on the schooner and tvfo light swivel guns for tho bar-ges. In addition p there should be one Whitciiall bC)at, light and fast, pulled h? ToviT onrSf to overtake any of tlic Seminole canoes. Poinsett approved thie and forvrarded the letter on to the navy, Three days later DlcJcerson rcplj.ed that the navy did not have eltbor the sohooncr or the small boats called fo:c% "but if the Secretary of War will provide them it Trill give me pleasure to furnish of floors & men' for then &.s reooijunendod. The offer was acooptcd, MoLaugblin was sent to Mew Yorh:^ even beforo Poinsett acknotd, edged Dickorson s letter^ where he purchased the 9 yacht WgXS. f-John C, Stevons. ^h ]:!isl£ '^'^-'^ ^'^^ew York on A'agrst 1, I838, headed for South Florida = Enroute she waa forced into Ocracoke Inlet p North Carolina ^ to rido out a etoim off Cap Hatterae, This delayed her arrival at St Augustine until Augiwrb 21 „ McLaughlin vjjfotof "Her conduct during a continued eorieg of South Westerly gales & heavy head SeaB has proved her to bo as fine a ses-boat aB.Sh.e was knov^jii to be c. Seller With the e3:ception of feo hundred miles She hae beaten YiOj: vray frojii M, lork & hee laore 10 than realiJ^ed all my expectations of h,ero" She eailed tiie next clay for the Floride reef to join the Hadlson and Canjjbell already on etation. Before the IJa'ee arrived the fedleo}! reoei'X'ed ordere to ;!.'etu:cn to her revenue station at PortBsouth, hew HseipFlilre, By Septesber 2,


85 ^^^ HsS^'s tv7o bargGG Shooco and Eigiett wore on patrol among the keys, 11 Three dfeys later the brig toia^ of Tortl&jid., Haine, enroiite to Boston from San Jago cie Cv?oa, ran into a strong blow from the northeast. As the mIdxIb increasod In intensity Captain Charles Thoraas took in sail. By tho seventh tlie fatorm had reachad gale proportions. All canvas had been furled and tha brig v^as being steadily blomi do'fmwind toTjards the Florida coast some fifteen miles to the westward. The captain decided to -unfurl some of his sail in an effort to halt the drift tov:ards land. It ii&s dangerous irork and, all hands turned to in the atten^pt to boat against tho galos hovrever^ the -s-jinds ^exe too strong and carried away tho head of tho bowsprit. Once agt:in the crevr shortenad Ball hoping to atrikc that dellcato balance of using jf:at enxiugh canvas to maintain way without further damage to tl:; riggxng, It was no use J the elements wore ovcj/powering. The Alna was heaved to as the crew shortened &ail„ Ihonj ae tho i.ast resort, Captain ThoraR or dared the rcainrsail lowered and the brig headod for tho ooast^ he knc'a It wac imposBlble to remain off-shoi^es therefore, he dotor^nincd to boaoh his shin during daylight hours in an offort to aavo the crc=w. Afi the Alnsi'a head swuiig round to\K-a:6.. t3ie ta-Llting landp the heavy seas EWi:nv;'; over her carrying all loose gear on deck ov'er the side. It vras a st?;uggle for all hands just to rej;!.ain aboard „ One croinuanf John Shoafj


86 J lost his grip and was Tmshed over the cidii. The reDiainder hung on grimly. Once the decision had been ijiade to heach her and the brig headed toivard?;^ land, it tooh very little tlffie for the stoi?Sii to slara the aaall ship upon the shore fifteen lailes north of the Cape P'loridei light. The captaiK and oren i>mited for a brief period after the initial grorndir)g until the .T;ind and Tjater had driYon the ^Jifx f irnly onto the coai:;!t before leaving the vessel For the next few hours the men of the -beached brig worked feverishly off-^lcading clothing and si^pplies from the stricken vessel to insure their survival in cacie the Alna brohe r.p„ The storm abated and t}io crew reffiained in their caxap by the brig aTiaiting rescue. They were not TTorried for they had provisions and water enough for a )3ionth. There was; little apprehension concerning hoetile Indian?? among t!ie caGtawa.ys, Sunday raorning Samuel Cammettj of Portland f Maine p went aboe.rd the ureek to retrieve the captain's spyglaee so that a fire could be ignited by the sun^ Then he aooempanied Captain Thoi^as on a soouting walk to the soi-ith, TJiey saw nothing and retur:oed to camp after traveling a distance of five or six roilee. Had the two gone farther they might h£^ve laet a ^-jar^perty investi™ gating other shipping cli-sasterst. Wot too far im&:^ ^ the French brig Ccn:a;;_iei; do Topipico, Captain dale Julia.n, had been driven ashore rjith a lose of


87 nine of her sixteen man crew. When the Indians visited this group they offcrGcl. the Frenchir-en aid and Informed them that the ScBilnole nation was at war only with the Araerloans. hearh^^ three SB}all fishing sloops p the A:La'bmiia, Kceadj and Caution of Itystlo, Connecticut ^ were grounded. The seventeen Aijierican crewaen of these fishing smacks had been massacred by the Indif^n, T?lth the exception of Joseph Noble of the Alateym, Ke managed to roach the men of the Courier de Tarii£lc_o and he pasEiod hlinseli" off as a i'lcenchiiianc The PLorlda conflict fSrst intn?uded upon the Aim's orevj at noon that day when a band of narriors made their appecaance, A shot ytruok First Hate Andrew J, Pl-Ufsmer as he -tvas packln^^: some of his clothes which had been drying in the Bvn, He died instantly. The two men nearest PlwrnQiTt VIij,llaT.i heed of Ssilem, Massachusetts, the ship^s cookp end a Dutchman named liyan started to flee and were .iirnModiately pu'-sued. Captain Thomas tried to oalB the reji^ainlng two crewmen ^ Eleazer VJyer^ Jr, ^ of Portland f Maine ^ and Samuel Carnmettr W saying that the natives would not hurt them if they did not run. This advice mi.B torainated abruptly by a seoond shot which passed throngh >Jyor's hand and thigh, The three ran down the beach wltli the enemy in full chase. Captain Thomas fell bchlndf was overtaken, and killed? both Wyer and Caminett eluded tJieir foes by taking to the he.^ivy imdtjrbjandi.


88 J The day being \Tarm ana s'UiJny neither man hacl his shcoo on uhen the Indians attaoJi:edc Wyer pressed on thro^ugh thG paliaettoes unmindful of the pain to his feetf Canmett on the otlier hand stopped r-unnin.g as soon as ho lost sight of tho Indians and hid himself until nightfall. In the meantiTae, Reed bx)<^. Ryan wore captured. For the reir^alnder of the day the two captive^a v7C;ro forced to worli: aron?:).!! the canp for the Indians c At dusj£ they were tcken out to be &hotc The cook was killed immediately, birt; Ryan^ eilthcnr;* sliot t-X, managed to escape in tho dar'-nopy. During the initial confusion^ while the warriors wore hunting for h5.J3f Ryan returnod to the wroo/r of the and hid in tho holdc Monday the Seminoleg stayed near tho ted.g, and the Dntol'Eiian ronainod in hiding, but the following day the warriorcR departed c E^nni emerged on c'eoh In tlrae to hail the passing wycching sloops Mie;£iS9i -^-^'• liQ3J]lS; 1j112'&9Xl^ ^^o eooner hod. his resoivs been effected than the Indiana returned to the Mna Tlio struggle for eurvival endured by the :c'e~ raaining t\vo meiij aeparated and alone on. a hostile coast f almost defies belief, ^iji^ pushed his way through the donee iJindcrbrush alj.. da^r^ That Jilght he continued north oeoasionally falling and resting for a few j-iinu.te& then, getting up ancl, 3:'; on^ Monday ho dieoo-''e.L'ed his feet v;(a;e leaving a bloody


J 89 trail in the sandj ond bound them with flannel taken from his, shirt. Ho had nothing to eat Monday or Tuesday. By Wednesday hungoxforced hijii to fight off maiCj/o-us birds for the privilege of eating soraa of the dead flrah -^c-hich had been washed up on the shoro. Just boforo sundown that day he saiv sone sailf but could, not attract attention to hiwself. Ho had almost given ut) hope when the vyreoker li2il?i£ 2i;.?il5!l! t^ ca.M.e into view and rosoued hiin, Samuel Cammott remalnod hidden all Sunday afternoon, not daring to move until darkness As soon as he folt it safo to do BO ho rotmncd to tho beach to travoj. norths He had onj.j'gone P'.bout five riiles when he unoxpoctodly encountered a guiall party of warriors = Iraraediatoly he ran into a fivjoijip vjhoro> ho waded out in tho mtiddy ijaters to hide, Tho Indians f:prsr.d out encircling tho areap but tbey did not v'onture into the Evjc-vap it^^olf for fear of snakos. After hiding an hour or eo^ CaHiiiett xms able to osoape undetected J, aiid ho again roturned to the chore fo3? easier travolingo At the cris}. of ti-o days his nock was so sx?ollen frora nosquito bj.tcc ho oould scaroolj" turn his hoad„ Liko I'Jyerf Cs!amett also BUbsls'bed on t}ie dead fish tiiro'vn v:p by the sea.. Wednesday?" afternoon ho sax^j four sIooxjo coasting northward in a light nindc He ojianaged to keop up with thoia throughout tho roat of tho day and night i but fjas not ablo to ooiiirajnlcato u'ith theia. At dauri he Katr ojio of the sjloopo stand in tovjard tho shore jmd lauJich a svjall Only


90 J then dlci he realize he had been sighted. When he x^as brought alongside ^ the firnt nan to greet him was his friend EleaEer Vlyer, for the resoiJC sloop was the Mount Ve rncjji The very day CajTanett was rescued > Septe^nbcr 13 ^ 1830s McLaughlin, aiichored at Kg5>Most, received the news of the shipping disasters. He irarnedlatsly got undcnfay, marine: his sortie he picked i^p the l^Sive/ s tivo barges which were returning from a. patrol among tho ke;ys, At the samo time the Cam]dbell,, First Lieutenant Napoleon L. Costef commanding, -t-ras also making its '^jBy to Cape Pi or Ida to rendor aide Enroute tlie cutter exchanged ssignals with the Moiiirfc ^is^MSK ^'^'^^learned thfit the A]-na x&.z in the possession of the Indian!;';., The two war vessels mot and proceeded up Eiocayne Bay iw ooaipany to anchor on the evening of Septejabor 17 Lieutevjant McLaughlin hold a council of war aboard the Wave^„ Boat parties were organized ^ equipped, and dispatched at midnight to iirveetigate the wre&kB„ McLaughlin led the Wave's party of thirty eea:nic;n and marines in his two bargeen Second Lieutenant John Pauncej accoiupaniod by his civilian guide ^ Mj?„ B'aganj, coimuanded the Cairrpbcll s group of tvrent3""three offioerfj and x:i^m^ It waa five o'oloch in the raorning when they landed ori, the banhs of Indian Creoh near o. well traveled. trail. He:ee iliey diecovered the burnt re}aaln8 of the fishing sloopa froji Mystic s nhlch had been fix-ed by the Ssrainolea, As daylight


y 91 increased, the sailors saw the Alna eight od:^ nine Kilea to the north and manned their boats and headed for her. At noon they spotted th:eee canoes near the brig. Lieutenant PaimcCj. Eagan^ and nine men v^ere landed to go Inland through a swaiap to take the Indians f'roEi behind while the approached by water. They were too few to outflank the enemy? Paunce orde;ted his men to charge hoping the Indians vrould flee In their canoes into the hands of the T^aterborne group o The engagement vjas brief. The Semlnoles, about fifteen^ offered little resl£;tancej they fled into the svjaiop leaving their oanoes and equipment behind „ The cuttermsn killed three Indiane wounded an equal nu'mber x?hile reeei'vinr; no injuries themselves. They \7ere too exhausted froia the night's exertion and the jnarch through the suaEx^ to pursue the Seminolc^iS. After a brief rest they gathered xip all of the 'ship's paperti which could be found. Then, thejr set fire to the They tooi^ poisseonion of one of the captured canoes and destroyed the other two before de-. parting c At half past seren that evening the group re^. turned to thoir respective shipa. The follo\cing Bonth men fj-im the Csiiigbell^ engaged a party of hostiles in a minor GJciraiish near Bear's Cut. Two of the Indians killed carried powder pouchoa decorated with eleven scalps vihich had been taken from the oa^^tmrsiya of the September gale.


92 J The Alm^ the Cgaricr do IVimgico, and the three fishing spiaoks were not the only Tictiras of tha storm The brig Ez]12idc *^^ Kennebiink ^ Maine ^ vjas wreclrod on Carysfort Eeef, but her crow survl'v-ed. The schooner Palestj^ of Bangor > Maine ^ had to be abandoned in the Gulf of Mex'ico after receiving serious topside dryuaso. An unknoTni brig lost all rigging sixty-five miles north of Cape Florida and was riding on her anchors awaiting rescue t The h£cl3.sonp which had been detached f roia the naval service and vjhs returning to Portsmouth, Kew impshirej in company with t'no i'7rec3<:ergf was ordered to investigate, HcLaughlin felt there wa;5 no further need for the WjTvre on the east coast and headed back to the reef 18 to resuiae station^ The Maritime tragedies of the Septerober gale pointed up the necessity of increasing the iiaval force off the southern tip of Florida The following inonth Gen.eral Taylor authorised McLaughlin to obtain a small vessel to worli with the Wave and her two barges on the reef, hcLe.ughlin chartered the sloop Pjaiother fjr)ia Henry Benners and placed acting Lioixtenjuit Edraund T, Shubr3 ch 19 in coiimand^ Indian sighting continued ^ In liiid-NovcKbert Lieutencnit Coste found a large cpmp of Indians -ivhile the Ca^Tij^bell, 't'^as lyi)ig off the Micuai Bi-vor. They so outnuvabered his small crew that he we.e reD.uctant to attacJ:,, hear tht^ end of that iJionth,, Lieutcnirtnt Ecbrauid Shubrich


93 J brought the Pfintheir, the Shoqoo, and a schoo;ier borrovrad from Jacob Ilousrean up to Key Bieocyne to toTi^ a boat expedition to the Boca Baton. Before his group disembarked they saw a large party of Seminole s on the beach, Shubrick refused to send his sailors out against a superior foe, even though tho 'Karriors built fires on the shore to eutico 20 them to lavid A fetf days later a boat came alongside and reported the grounding of tho steamer Wiljnlngtori north of Cape Florida^ Shubrlch headed for tlio distressed vessel ^ Pifts'' miles beyond the capo ho rescued the steamer's sixteen man crow. Enroute back, he sent acting Lieutenant Char].es E„ Koivard in tlie Sliocco and the schooner to tho wreck of a Spanish, brig, Howard saved the crew, thirty slavoES, and most of tho cjargo^ but lost the Shooco when the wind pio];:od up and blew her off the roof, Shubrick arrived lat&r and roaoved quantities of lead from the brig before he set hor afire. Those Indian hostilities at the tip of the peninsula oauoed reaotiojie on three level y of the federal governraents The local theater, the War Department, and Congress c In the theater, General Taylor h&d replaced the services of ''^'^^^ !M^452Sf which had beeu returned to the Treaeury Department ^ with the >^^;ath.or. A month later he had HcLaughli)! erchange her for tiie ea)Teo;iej^ £ai:;^-I!:lnq VTliioh v:as more adequate for tho eervice reouirfvU (Just ove:e tx-ro 5' ears later the 5M•'^'£il^J-P, ^'^^'-' rejjl?ieed by the David B, Seiall


9^ The latter two schooners vrere known as the Otsep:o during the. period of their service on the reef,) In Waahingtonj, the War Department reciuestsci the na;\?y to aod to the force no?j patrolling the reef^ Tho West India Squad/^on pnt two vessels on oi^nisinj!; st&tions between Dry 'jccTtv^f^Rs and Cape Florida on the east coast and St, Marks and Tortugas 22 on the west coasts At the same timOs when tiie Treaf^nry Dcpartraent rocrnGsted the return of the Camj^bell Secretary Poinsett replied most emphatically that thisv;ac not the time to diiainiah tlie number of vegyels in Florida c Rather f as recent eirciits shovredp raore ships should bo maae ayailabie— and as soon as possible. The bloohado of the peninoulsi noiv con?3isted of threo lines of eiirveillfinoe. Tho ba^B and ingots of the extreme southorn tj,p v?oro under the ecrntiny of the oared barges, Aloiig tJie reef itself woro the schoonors }iS;Z£p 91i£.SESi! G,nd the cutter Ca]:vp]:)s0.1 Farther sea sailed the two sloops of vxar Bost(>n' and Oiittirlo, In the Congress p at the session aftcir the li'iassaoresj additional funds wore appropriated to tho a.yv>y ''to cut off all coanuni oat ions betnoen the Indians of Florida and the islands of Providence and Cuba^ and to prevent a repetition of the outrages ," The War Dopartsent used this money to add the Boa stearaer Po5n^sott to the bloohade force in Aprils 1839 .= If the u! oelcadc force hi^d three gu:r\/'elllanoe linet^s jt liiLclvOd central coordi5:jtitlon, 1,b,e tvo sloonc


95 of war on the seaxvard patTcl were mider direct control of the coKKandepj V'eat India Squadron ^ based at Pensaoola. The military theater coBiraander Imd no method of cominuni-v eating -frith thsa^ except via Pensaoola Lieutenant McLaughlin's group on the xcef vias also asBigned to the squadron, but his vessels and sailing order?^ onjiie from the War DiSpartnent When he had first acsmneci coKiwand of the Wave^ ho requested on-dere from the navj but he u'as referred to the txxmy. The secretary of war \jrotes '! uas under the impressBion that what is technically termed 'sailing orders ^ would have to bo g5,ven you fro;D the havy Departmont; but I find that it is tliere co3isidered that you hare been placed V7ho3.1y under the directions' of this Department, and that^ from here J must issue a3„l orders and Inytructiono both as to your time of Sailings and ay are necessary te govern sour operations during your cruieo," Ho was then instructed to sail as soon as possible for the reef. His priiiuary mission wae to px'ovent interoouree between any veB^el and the Indians f not only of munitions, but of all soicte of su,ppliee, "The porfor)nonce of this duty is ti\e principal object of the erpeditiouE but go far as it x?ill not interfere xTith thnt object V you v^ill alGO cooperate withj and J render to tlie ciilitary forcea in Florida > all tl'ie aid 25 and assistance in your povjor.*' Once on strtion^ HcLaugblin worhed very closely with the military commander, and the Uoyt India Scjuadron • e coiitrol over hia was minli'V',alo

PAGE 100

96 ) The treasury cutter Cam}5bell,s chain of coEimand was the most ne tval on s ;> It vrould appear that this vessel waS( froii the stand point of utj.11 nations lost for alraost a year. When the Ware Dopartj-rent first vfantcd. to put a small VGSGol off the Florida Ke^?^ It ashed the Treasury Department for a cutter, ( A;pp?o/ently the department was unaware that General Taylor had just ordered the Madison ^^^£§S]2M11 ''^^' cruise off the Keys on June 22, I838.) Secretary Levi Woodbury wrote to Poinsett on July 5^ 1838 ^ suggesting that the C|r]rp]33llf already under navy orders ^ would be well fitted for s'uch duty, SoTeral days later the request was repeated to tho navy, James K. Paulding. novr the navy secrotar}'', transnitted the army's deaires to Commodore Ifellaf^ on JiLly 11 f and reportod tiie fact to Poinsett the same day. Ttro vjeehs later 5 Dsillo.s answered that tho CaiiyDbellL had never reported to himj but if it did he would carry out tho aryny^o deslrea, Paulding wroto back on August 3.0$ "I.t Coste will probably bo found in the vicinity of Tampsi Bay idilther ha v^'as ordered by this Department to proceed in October last end to report to Ha^or General. Jesup or to the Coiomanding Officer of the 26 U. S, Troops at that place," In Deoeiiiber'f 1838^ after the Cig]i|!l)ell had been on the roof alniost six snonthe,, Lioutenant Costc nrote to Ps.uldlng that he had CEitabliGhed hiB headquarters on Tea Table Key and had na:'.';,ed it Fort Paulding, The seorotarj'X)cnned the following to this-: report? "See how Pt K„ Coote

PAGE 101

97 J 7 stands in relation to the Kaval Seryice-" Under this \m.B the .aJisueTi "He Ib under the orders of thic Dept. employed at the request of the Sec of War to cruise In the Eastern Coast of Florida &o lie reports regularly to Com Dalla.s." The structure of the blockade force was simplified vjhen ^^^" SaiSBlHil ^"'areturned to the Treasury Department later in the month. In reality there were three naval forces operating around the keysi Commodore Dallas' sea patrol, General Taylor's schooiiers and barges ^ and the revenue cutter. There mis no. unity of command^ nor even an officer assigned to coordinate the activities of this diverse c^^oup. Further, the 5n,dividuir!. Te^^hsels did not. carry a common rfvyy Sipuw"! Book to communicate themselves ^ (Later \>hen this force wae turned o^yer to the navy foicontrol McLaughlin asked that he be issued the Signal Book and Telegraphic Dictionary e Eia request vjas refused because the oecx^etai'y 28 felt his service did not require it. ) Such deoentral-iKatlon hindered naval operations off the reef. The immediate answer to Indian hostilitiea along the southern tip of the territo:i'y had been Gupplied by providing a naval force to that area. The haphazard manner i-^lth nhich it had, been provided promoted its inefficiency, This heterogeneous collection of naval vessels acted independently, cxoept nh.en accldently drann together in icoRTjonse to 80];ie disaster It looked an

PAGE 102

98 J on-thescene coainandea?, a common oDrganlsatloiij and an aggressive policy toivards the encK^'-, The blockade duty and minor shore ptitrols we:pe passive, O'^here wao no direct pressmro being exerted upon the Soiiiinole Indians within the Everglades,

PAGE 103

CHAPTER 6 J THE STEAMER ?0IK6E^ ; Alexander Hacorabf CoinniandinG General of the United States Aray, arrived in Florida in April, 1839, with instructions from VJashington to end the long d3:-avjn"out Indian conflict. Hacorib did not interfere in the routine duties of General Taylor, the military commander in Florida,, but confined hijiiself to arranging a meeting with the remaining Sejninole chiefs to end hostilities by treaty c The Seminole nation had been reduced to four bands inhabitinr;; the southG3.'n portj.on of the peninsulGi and, a fex^r smaller groups roaiainp^ in other areas of the territory „ The principal bands in the Eiverglades were led by Sam Jones, Hospetarhe. the Prophet ( and Chakaika^ Coacooohee led the best known and KOGt feared group in the north. The gcsneral succeeded in arranging &. talli with Chitto Tustenuggee and Halleok Itistenuggee. Chitto wae one of the vrpir chiefs of Scon Joj^ies'K band. This was certainly not a veiy representatir'e groups but Macomb did arran^^e a truce and eet anide the area south of Pease Ci-ef:h for the ScKinoler until Jiiore final arrangoinentc coul,d be 3:;ade, He i^ay have V'oped. Qc;'

PAGE 104

100 y that this agi^eeiueiii; \jou1cI be acceptable to tlie other hard-x5j?esEed chiefs once the terms if ere known. At any rate, on Hay 18, 1839, a general order was issued 1 proolaliiilng the ij-ar at an endo Naval operations were lira! ted the fourth year of the conflict, 'rhorc; were^ however p Hajor chaioges to the operational organisation of the sea forces assigned In January J 1839^ Coiiimodore Dallas Mas relieved by Captain Will. lam B, Shubriokc In the very lengthly instruction iysued by the Navy Department to the net'? cojjimodore there iias no jiiention of the Indian 'war in Florida,; or the ususil solicitation to cooperate v;ith the army in that quarter i altho-ugh^ there were detailed 03?derD on the squadron's condiJct with respect to the 2 French blockado of the Mexican gulf coast The squadron noi: consisted of the frigate ^AS£'IiM}ll3IL 'S'l-^ '^^"^^ sloops of war, Bos'ton^ ErdSf JiSX^Jiif ^SlSMSf 9l^§£l2.i Y^SMkMii sind ]ferr.eri„ The secretary expressed the h.opOj 3,n his instruction to Shubrickf that he C0U.1& supply a brig or schooner at a later date for shalj.oT? water missions ^ At the end of hi a second month in coiiiToand the new commodore reauested at least three gu,cb vessels-; J biit ho was told none were available 3 The eirmy added this sea Kteaa?er P^n^ett to its small force of vessels on duty around the peninaala In k April, At the same tlsae the two service secretaries agreed that the blockfrh; force should be xmc'er a eingle

PAGE 105

101 naval oCTimander on ths scsne, "In consequence of an arrangeiaent made bet'£'?uen the SecM-etary of war and this department f Paiilciing wrote to Coianander Isaac VJ&yo on April 5t 1839 f "you aro hereby appointed to the cOiaiyiand of the foroe to consist of the I) „ S. Steamer Poinsett ^ tha Schooner Wave and a certain nnjaber of barges, destined to oo-operate \'rith the leyid forces in Florida in the 5 suppresBic^n of India}! Hostilities .. Vfaon the Poiiisett Vf&s ready to steam south from Norfolk^ Paulding inf ox'raod Coinjjjodorc Shubrioh of Kayo's aasignment and included a statoaient of intents ''Ao this is considered by the Departrrtont as Bpocial eor^-'lcef distinct from any oonneoted wit'i yotir CoHiTKandp you will not interfere in 6 any mannor with hlH operations c" lot X'^hen Kayo asliod tjio seoreta3:'y to grant him permifffiion to hoist the fla.g of a squadron cosio,ond.erf Paulding replied that his force and isls&ion were not considered suff Sclent to vrarrant ? that dietinotiouc Cj.rouJiiBtanoGs wero such that there was little opportunity for the "Expedition for th(3 Suppression of Indian HogtilirfieSj Florida'(as Mayo's oo3iiJuand was officially callod) to actively participate in the Florida V/ar, When he arrj.'vod on July 12 f lo39t the territory Tjas technically at poac^ij and during his brief to'ur of duty he did ncvb bu'vo an oppoi~tunity to exercise his full ooairaandf for the V{avo depe.rted to go Merth before hayo srrj."v'edc hoj.augjilin had iiiany men. \fhosc: te??;a of

PAGE 106

102 service exidecl in Jiily, Ho -transferred thoGc of his crew who wou].d sifcn to remain for tvK) years to the Otsec:Op and he left to recruit roplacements. He arrived in Washington on Jnly 2 and did not return iintil December i at which timOf the J'pin-iiott was eniroute North with raechanical dif f iciO^tieo VJhen Mayo left Baltimore he decided to tow the four gunoarges assigned to the Pc>ins_3tt to deteriaine the practioahilj ty of taking them to Florida in this manner. By the time be reached Norfolk. he realiKod the great danger to the boats fi-oa any strong trindj and ho requested transportation for the barges vihich could not be carried aboard the steamer. Passed Midshipnan Waddell VTas assigned to bring the raenp stores f, and excesij barges to Key Biscayne ae soon as posBiblo, .TO left K or folk on j Juno 26s four deys later he was back? ho ran into a blovr fi'o^a the south just after rounding Cape Ilatteras. He tried to make j/b to Ocraooke Inlet, North Carolina ^ before his fuel supply was depletedp bu,t headvjinds made this impossible, Hattoras was on his lea, and he dared not reraain off shore waiting for t3i ulnd to die dovm. Further^ the Poinse;bt sprang a leak in one of the sponsons -vmioh forced hin? to turn aimy froia the stoxri to minimi !^e taking on watei 8 He Btocd northward rnnning w;iuh rhe srox'm mrc 1 .1, .1. 1abated; By thj o tine he did not have enough fuel to make any ports to the eouthp arid^ i)i. faotj he \jas compelled to burn eome of the ehlp's plan.lns in order to

PAGE 107

103 reach Cape Henry. Here ho iiiet thw steamer South Oarol^ and received enoiifrh x^ood to return to Norfolk, he departed again on July 3,, and three days later, after a fevihonrs stop enroute for v;^ood ^ wade it to Charleston, South Carolina c Ho reached Garey' b Ferry ,, Florida, 9 Ju3.y 12. Geno3?al Taylor vjas not there when Hayo arrived, so the oon-]/iander wrote to him of his intentions. He planned to vise Key Bieoayno at; his haae of operations and to distrihuto his barges along the keys as far as Key West or Dry Tortnge.s Eis instructions nerOj he saldj to oooperato \ any military operation if it became necessary to again suppress hostilities within the ter:oitoryp as woll as to perform blockade duty. He requested tho jrcneral to forvrard any Instructions 10 or inforjaation on to him at his rendezvous point, Taylor '8 answer reached kayo at Key BiKoayne. The general vas satisfied v,rit}i his plan of operation. He saidj frojQ information reaching h:ijii froM vri:ici( Florida 5 that tho Ql'allabassoe tribe would probably not accept haooKb's treaty. If this was so it would be necessary to patrol the waters botwoon St„ Karks and Cedar Ko^'to inoiif/o isolating thoiao He suggested Kayo send one of his sohooners Q.a soon as possible in anticipation of suoh an crv^ont ooouring„ Ma^yO decided to Bonci, the Vkov-c as soon as &he reported tc^ hi-n. After lociving Carey's Foxry Kayo brought his

PAGE 108

10^1 J steamer into Stc Augustixie ivtjere the local paper reported^ "The Polnoet-bp painted black, with h,e3white painted ports J looks abo'ut the guards as g£xy &.b a aloop of war, and above has as much top haiapor as a load of hay. She draws six feet water ^ and though scliooner rigged ^ will run a chance of getting 'anagged' on the reefs if a pretty considerable supply; of wood 1\< not in readiness. What with a small vesse].^ red hot boilers p a vertical smip sffiokej cinders and inangrove-key mosquitoSf the 11 officers and crew TRay anticipate delightfnl cruising," His firsb task^ after arriving at Key' BisoaynOf i-ras to ^,<^S. oufc woodcutting parties to gather fusl for the steamer Afterwards ^ he organj.?'od a Bmall force to enter the Everglades on an exploring expeditj,.on Captain Martin. Bur]i3p USA^ stationed at Key Biscayne, accojupanled the group to acquaint the cailors and marines with soxae of the peculiariti,es of the terrain. When Mayo returned to the Pojjg^ett, he found Mad Tiger (Catsha Tu^tenugge) and some twenty Indians a.board visiting, Mayo ordered hi a woc>d and v,'ater parties to proceed ??ell arijied and to 1 2 exercise carcp in spite of this show of good feelings ^ MeanxvhiD.Cf on the lower Giilf coaot, the ariw established a trading post, in accordance with the terms of Haconb-f! treaty; about fifteen miles up the Calooeahatohee Kiver. Colonel William S, Barney, USA, connianded the tweni;y-Ri2: man detaohraent protecting the post. This ej;;tablishment i^'as unexpectedly e.ttacked

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10 5 on tlie nig;ht of July 23,1^39 1 W Txar-parties from Hospetarkc end OialTalkft c bands acting In unison. Harney and thirteen others escaped? the rest were killed. This attsiok was the start of a rash of violence throughout the territory p and as the news spread, the AmericanG rounded up the Indians living peacefully near the various 13 arinj?" poats for shipment to tlie vrest. Mayo recei'ved notifioation of the raassacre at Key Biscayne on July 30 just after Had Tiger and his group had departed the £oin§£;^ Ks^yo ordered a landing party assembled and the cuttera launched ae soon as possible. He left linmedlatoly in hie gig and overtook one of the canoes after a three hour pull. Shortly'' thereafter Lieutenant Johr. A, Davis arrived in a cutter with ten men and captured another group of Indians. First Lieutenant Thosias T, SloaUf UShC, leading nine marines in the steamer' dinghy captured still another canoe. The gig being the fastest boat J .Kayo turned his pris^e over to Davis and set out af l;er Had Tiger who was now on the other aide of the V-!' bay. It iras an eshaiipiting task to overoome such a lead. I>iiring the chase Had Tiger "used every exertion to Make hie eecapep managing his sail and paddle g irith a great deal of tdrlll/' and Kayo added ^ "after getting him in my bc'cit,, be raad,'.:; an attempt to regain his Canoe Tdiich I had in. toWj but v:^as easily subdvied. in all J the sailors captured nine naxx-lovst six cquaws^ and five canoes. The prieoner;? v-ere turned over to ColoncH, llavnej at Key Bj.Gcayne. 15

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J 106 Pourdays Ister the merchajrl; ship G2?and Tio:;]£ of Boston T-jas fouiid beached on the FoKoy Rocks. The Poinsett crew manaQ;Gd to hove her off and bring her inside the reef to anchor. After twenty-four honrR of constant bailing and pumping „ the uater still continued to £;ain in the hold of the Grand ^Mrkp and tho inaeter decided to run her aground and save tlie rigging and £:;pars, A wreclcer appeared and made a contract \vith the captain for salvage ^ and Mayo left. ^^ £S?\E^?.SJl;:>: 5?eturnod to Key Biscayne where ^ two days later^ the transports from tl-^e North arrived x^ith the remaining barges Mayo soon began distributing his force as planned. On Y-^y^ Biscayne he had a Fiouoe built to otore the expedition's supplies t and a lieutenants eighteen n&ti, e:ad. a Dargc barge X'jere left there to patrol the coast Another group y!&& stationed ab Indian, Key. The south.-western anchor for this ohaj.n of barges tras Key est. During Mayo's stay at Key VJest^ a fishing vessel came in vjith a report that a white flag had been seen flying over the abandoned blockhouse near Capo Sable, Mayo thought thj.s saight be a signal from sorae 8tAr\rivor of Harney ^s massacre and so7"tied to the rescue, Ivhen he arrivsd f he dispatched foixr armed boate to scout the aroa, but notldng was found e 'me-n. ho proceeded up the west coaBt to visit the CalooBahatchoe „ He took two barges and two outtora up river to look at the fiite of the iiu:a5sacre and to hun.t for aurvlvorr^s, lie found the stoi'e ond the

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J 107 other buildings still standing, but all the contents had been plundered. After spending a few days Ge&rching the interior without disoc3v"ering&x\y si&tjKi, he sjet co'tTse 16 for l-aiaptu Mayo wished to consnlt v^ith Gerieral Taylor about the recent t:.^eaty 'v'iolationOf for ho wanted to know what effect they had upon the military sitnation. When he arrived at aray headquarters he had throe questions s HG,d general hostilities recosimenoed? Was he justified in uBing foroc to oaptiree all Indians whether hostile or not? Finally p if he made any captnrcsj how wore the Indians to be disposed of? Taylor said he consicJered the war had boon re. newedp and Kayo could tGl'"o oil action necessary to cnptiire or destroy any Indians he ccue npon„ He requested that the prisoners be sent to Port Ka^ion st St. Aiignstino for safe keepingo Taj'lor edded unofficially that he had \xqo:iA that Colonel Harney was holding talks with two of tho Seminole chiofg near Key Biscayne in -the hopes of dividing the hostile strongth. The gonoral rooomaiondod that Mayo make no show of foroe in that area imtil Jiavnev hf^(^ 1? completed his parley, Latorp Mayo wroto to Paulding of his intention to continue scouting the iJ'^orgladesf he wanted to din^oover the SeHii)iolos'' places of conoealmont ThiB waG, in his opinion-;, vital irjf ox'roatj.on if the i?:ai' vjas to be ronewod. At tho feamo tiiao he reported that ho could vrait no lona-or

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108 foi" the WaTCp and ho xms sending the Otsegio to cruise off the S-awannee Eiver in preparation for hostilities froi-ii 18 that quarter The Seiuiiioles were not the ori'ly enesiy; the Florida reef, Thci-e xo-as also diseaso .. espooially the fevor, A oevov-'e oi^tbres^k appeared einong Passed Hidshipnian Waddoll s bargo crew on Indian Key, Kayo i?-isited this group in late Septerabsr and found Waddell and laost of his men seriously ill. They were romoved to the Poinsett where two of the men diod m.thln a few hours. Haddell survived several <5.^y^s sil though all of this time dolirious. Some of the olti5?;ens of the ls;oy told Ha;ro that Waddell ^s "intellect T-^as muoh disordered for^ several days; befo;i?e he wBis taken illc" This xms apparent from tho condition of the caiap wlien I-Isyo a:eri-ved. The qtiarterKi ^•jore filthy, and tho brins hs^d escaped f:t;om the salt provisions ^ and the stench from the spoiled food vjas overpo't^Gi-ins,. Out of tho sixteen men oiipoaed to these conditions^ twelve of them vyore stricken and three died. Mldehlpman hayo Co Wathlns uas sent ashore I'Slth roplacements to. oloan wp the base £ind continue barge operations c Tuo d&ys later he and some of his incn came donn Trith th.e fever „ Ifeiyo did. not vjant to ^oopardiEo the steaiiior^s ctoxj by bringing thoa baoit aboar ra Insi^ead. ho sc;nt a surgeon achoro and conRtrwctod a "ooKiinodJ.ons sail-loft" aw a toiuporary hospital for all the invalid sailoi'So Surgeon \h0.3.iain Haxiroll Wcjod and Assistant

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10 c>o Surgeon Stephen A., KoCrooTy wero left to operate this inf irniaiy, Sho:etl5>after the goinsett departed in anevrcr to a Seminolo attsick near P'o;rt LaudsrdalGi, the fo:Gr spread to the Bicdical staff,, Doctor Wood 9J)A thrCiO of the attendants viaxe Incapaoitatodc 0;he cook was also laid low for a fc'iv dccyB^ and ho Tirac riiii^ible to attend to his duties One of the attendants died;, and inanpower v;"as so critical that oi-vlllans had to be hired to bury him. No sooner had Wood recoTered than tho asaistant eurgeon VJS.S struclr domi for a vmek. In the midst of all of this,, two men etole a boat and attempted to desert. They tferc captured b^^ the mraeXf with the eld of two other oivilians, and returnod to tho hospital. By the ond of Ootobor the fever had passed as suddenly as it had arriTod^ and Comiiiander Hayo discontinued his hospital on Indian K02 During the weeks Goloriol IJarney was cond'acting talks with the Indians. Mayo was quite pessii'iistic about the prooocdingSs Ho stroBScd his opinions rnany times in lot tors sent to tho soorotary^ "I spprohond that the object of tho Indians is to gain tiiae/' ho vjroto on Septoiabor 6, ''and get supplies ^ I do not thiJjJx thojf will leave tlio East coast where yojissoIb aro froquently cast on shore and pltindcrcd by thorn „" Tno days later he said? "Sam "Jones is anxious that a po:';'t of the ISastorn oea boa.rd bo alloTJOd thoKp I reoosiinondod to Col Harnoy not to allow thoj-,1 oiio foot of itp as their object io oyidontly 19

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110 that of plundering ve&selo cast on shore. As loDg as this treats-' is going on tho force xjnder y>xy command on tho East Coast can do nothing )i!.orc than look out for boats ti^adlng 20 with the Indians and for xvrecked veoseils." His dire predictions of the Indian's motives for X'ranting peace were fulfilled He xocoi-v'ed a report from Lieutenant DaTlff m\Q had been sent in tho gi^nboat 'HBxm^ to assist the Sisall garrison at Port Lauderdale ^ Davis virote that Chitto Tustenuggee had come into the post on SeptcEibsr 27 e.Yid. had invited Lieutenant Co Tompkins, the post oommanderf and Pavis to an Indian oereinoKy that evening. Tho t'ro aooepted, hoping to strengthen relations with the SoainoloSo Tompkins even volimteered to bring some wlilokev for tho colobration, Lsitor in the afternoon the two of floors changed thoir mindSp birb t'ifo of the men from Co;upan;y K voliintoored to bring the B'hi£;ke3?to tho Indians „ Privates HopJiins and Boycoj accompanied by tho Negro intoD/preter George p sot ont for tho oax;ip about six in the evening* It was only a sJiort dietanoe away and they ivere e;s;peotod back early„ Tompkins became vroi-rled. when tho mon failed to retuvn by eleven ^ and Davie offered to £3end out his gnnboat to search for them. The Ha.rney got wit?:dji a fetr hundvcd yards of iThox-e the Indians had, boon carapod before B'opkins wao founds Ho vjas severely woimdedj end ho reported the throe of the:oi had boon ambushed l-he nosrt doy Goovge rotnrnsd to tho post unscathods Ke had not boon hit duving tho action; bnt

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) 111 had dived into the underbrush and o:cemle6. atmyc The body of Private Boyoe was found floating downstream = Hopkins died a few days late:*:' of hi?^ woimds„ The fort braced itself for a major assault, Davis ssnt a incffsage to Key Biacayne to Lieutenant Hands?to bring group with the gunboat PgiA3.:d.ing_ to Fort Lauderdale t Handy responded irroiiediatoly „ lator Mayo brouglit; ell of his barges to the Miami Rlvor"— Port Lauderdale coapt,, The Seminoles^ after this ono encounter, 21 retroatod into tho interior ^ Kayo decided to enter tho Everglades after then. Using tv?o gunboats and t'wo £3italler boats he wont up Little Eiver and visited soiae of the old enoaRipments There uas no sign of an-y activity in that v'ioinity„ Next ho gisconded. Snalco Hiver to probe the gj.adoCc. Again lie found nothings He tried the Miami hivor and it wgvS the same 5 no Indiana „ Mayo covered about thirty miles along th.8 coast making penetrations up the various rivors without success „ Finally J ho d.eoided to steaK ixp the east ooast to St„ Augustine visiting the arjiiy poata along the vxay to chGiok on the aotivitj'' to the north. He diGpin'god his force along the ooast with Instruotionc to continue probins tho glad.eo for the enomy. Lieuteneint Davis and Midf:!hipi!ian Murray were based out of Fort Lauderdalea Thoy wore to uk-'G the gunbarc^'o Benton and E&rney, Jd.eutonant Sloan and. his xaarinoa Vvoro stationed at Fort Ke3ub3,e (ivayo's na;ue for Fort

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112 J where they could protect the crew'o woodcutters along the banjt:g of the Miami River, llj'hey manned the PeAilding and a sraaller boat, and uej;e to make excursions into the glades periodically on scoiiblng missions Passed MidBhlpyaan 'IriorKpson tms left in charge of the stores at Key Biccayne,, He had the ha;;/o and a cutter at his disposal? this latter group m&.b to bo move conoernsd x-si til patrolling the ooast seohing wrecked vessels. When Mayo had his force properly positionedp he departed for 23 St iiugUGtine^ Originally^ ho had planned to visit the army posts along the w^y ^ but he found his si.;!pply of fuel too critical to gIIow hiiM to doTiate fros'i his desjtinQ-tion, ezcept for a few h,0iirs stop at l^'ort Iiauderdale, When he reaclied St., .Augustine the Poinsett developed trouble p serious enough to return North for repairs o In Waohingtenf the War DepaDi^tmoat suggested relinquishing its control over the blockade force and turning the £oi;ia£iette )}^^J.9.,^ 9iLSPP^SL> ^^^ EllE^ over to the n,a.vyc (The Flirt Xflafs still on the building nays at Baltimore ) This u'as done^ and Paulding ixi.foiio,ad Mayo that his; baeic orders of the previous June from the War Department nexe to continue in forces but henceforth he was to report only to tlie Navy Department When Hayo arrived in dfeohlngtonf ho stated that he had left I)e,vie in coaiL!.an.d of idio n;.en tmd. bsrges rcTriaining on the coast He recoiumended that thiB groi:ip be separate

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113 and distinct from H&I.aushj-in* s fjohooners. He argued that "by hSiTing two separate ooiama/ids the can be entered at two different j^oints as Lts j)avls and McLaughlin will each h9;\?'e nufflcient fox;ce to effect that object." Paulding accepted this Tiew and offered 25 Lieutenant 3Davis coraraand of the barge force, Why Mayo i-rowld prefer to divide his ooiiijiiand is' difficult to dGter;iilne„ It may be that he was too well trained in the criAlser-ooriiraoroe-raiding philosophy to grasp the advantages of a TOiifisd ooramand, Thj.s older concept relied upon the operations of numerous individual units x^Jith little or no stress upon raultiship operations, Throughout his brief tour in Florida Mayo's stj/ategic and taotlcal planning showed little appreciation for the uniqueness of his situationc B.e was continually applying seagoing teohniquGs to his Indian problem. His first aseesGiaent just after his arrival on station,, h.eld that the steamer was the desired vehicle "iiJlth which to oppose the Serainoles. Ho reooiaffien,ded a minlmmi of twO; dnu'?ing n.o juore than twelve Inches of xmterj about thirty-five feet longj uith a creuof thirty, and the capabilitj'of carrying a rionths supply of provisions He suggested rifleproof Goctioas three to five feet highf uith looplioleSs bo installed around the sides in such a LUiUncr that thoy could, be shipped and unshipped frora tho rail. The i;-cain arriia.}acnts-houli^ bo a fear or six pounder f si3iiil&:vly protectodj firing through a porthole.

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J 1 1 ''JThis would bG in essence a'floatii^is fort^ for ho' felt it would bs futile to attempt to penetrate the Everglades in open boats with the crevf es;T)osod to gunfire froia the 26 donoe underbruehc When Mayo wrote this proposal he nade only a cursory exEmi nation into tho interior ^ principally -up the Galoossiiatcheo River „ It is ovident that ho was projecting an Indian defense of the glades sinilar to what might bo expooted of an indizstri&illy devo3.oped people x7ho were protecting their toims and x>-'''Ope^-'ty frorn. a river assault force ^ whereaPp the Ssminolos had no ouoh fixed positions to defend. Min.itarily they hod continually met superior force with brief roGictanco and tlien coraplete withdrav:al Tho realities of this situation do not appear in Mayors thlnkii.j.g. Later he 'boi^ar] to note the inaoequaoleE of the Btoamerc He pointed cut that the Fcdusott could not be used safely on the east coast from St. iraguetine to K.ey Bisoayne because there were no intermediate harbors available to it for shelter froiii storiiiSo Her liKdted fuel capacity alloued no deviation beti-ieon those fwo ports. She waSf therefore, of no operationtd value to that coast, Ke felt th,e stealer fms uell adapted for use from Key Bisoayne to the Diry Tortug&s, Admitting that she coi0.d not approach the elmlloiv bays and inlets nhich were the refiige of the Indians ^ he etated tliat thia v/as the 2? reaeon ha al'eays .i^ept a gunberge or tno in tovj^ His reliance upon bergcs points up hi a lacJi: of understanding

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115 of traTel in the Ev'erglades. 1'wo years before Ideutonant Povrell had fomid that even the ship's cutters were too deep"4ialloci to penetrate tho interior. Of course Mayo's only atteriLpts to gain acoess to the Seminole country had been v:p the various streaxis of the east coast and his one tx'ip up the Caloosahatohee River, He had never tried to enter the glsidos proppr,, Before ho :ieft Florida ho cauie to the conclusion that the Poliisott was uselesB on the coast emd vras very, expensive to 33JGd.ntalnc The steaiaer had to spond too much time in idloncsc v^iiile uoodoutting partie;j ohtfeinod fuel„ A day's cruise vjould consu-ne wood T-Jhich bad taken several dayti to gi^ither. All of this 't'j-a.s, ho foltp a waste of w.&amciiiex' vmich could ho eliiaiimted by u&in.g 28 sailing vosyolr;^ Ifeyo'^s final proposal was that the armed barges were sufficient to patrol the Florida shorellno, He said they could bo supplied by cl.opots suoli as he had established on K'^^2' BiseaynOo Theso bargosp carrying tents for their cveyw and a. i:7'i-ey% supply of rations ^ had a f£d.r range of action along the coast. He concluded this report uith a hint that hs had devisod new tactics. He added ho did not want to malio his proposal official and no iroul.d refraiii frcira puttiyig it in i=rriting„ The;ce was no further correspondencse upon this fjubjcct, nor did hayo retui'n. to riorid.r:', c

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116 None of these plansproposed b^,' Hayo go to the root of the proljlcin of hovr to clefCcit the SemlnoD.ey, In spite of his being on the bq-ouo, he did not grasp the situation p which may es.plein his recoMiiendation for dividing his com-rcandj yet another reason inay bo intras erv ice j ob3. on sy c Dm'ing the £oinsett's tear in Florida her officers felt their aBsignment \i&,b not fully appreciated by the Ma'vy Department f and limcli grudgingness vras displayed tonards the naval officcro serving; on the tvro aDT^ny schoonG;)"Sf the Iva;y;e an.d OtGej^o, Before dejjarting frora the Korbh} Commander Mayo h.i:;.d recniosted that he bo alloxjed to fly the pendant of a sqnadron ooDijnande:r. Later Surgeon Haxijell Wood afjked that he be given thci rank of fleet surgeon because of the many independent barge and schooner coi!\;sands which torero snbordinato to the fo3.nsett, Both of those requests were refused. When the secretary revolted two acting appointments laado hj r-Iayo,, the ooTrnaiider replied that "much younger officors are holding better stations in this fepedition^ Lieutenant yarauel E, Hunn trrote to the secretary that when he volunteered fo:j? dirty on, board the Poinseivb he had no idea of forfeiting hiR rights and pri"5/ileges as a lieutenaiit f yet when he arrived in Florida he found a passed raidehipinan holding a caamand within the Gixme station. Lieutenant Kelancthon Si! expressed sirailar views on finding his jiuiloro in rank pe:i; as captains of veseols attached to the saviie

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,1? &\itj station, He also reported he had "'been infoiivted that the offioej:^s coismanding these schooners vieve not to be interferred V7lth "because they had volunteered when their services xreve imporbanto" Both Mun^a and Smith were referring espeoially to Passed Midshipraan Shiibriok who held an ciotin;-': licMtenan-tfe position as commander of the 30 schooner fl*;^.Bg,g;o. CoBiiJiander Kayo conf j.rms this situation and his own attitude nhen he wrote Pan^.dlngg "I regret to be compelled again to state that great di.ssatisfaction e:sistf ajnongst the officers of this vessel in oonaequencG of their ^juniors having comKandSs and reports having jvst arrived that Ijicut Coradl' HoI..ai3ghlinp is nndervxay out In a fine schooner ^ and that ti^o young officers p are to have tvjo others., of tiii^ X know nothing officially bnt if so 1 have earnestly to request that thoir seniors on board 31 this vessel may bo detaahod." The 3iav£.l blooltadc organ! s-iat Ion prepared in 1839 became the funciauental Btruoture for the later development of riverine VT&.xf &tq, During tho je&:r all of the naval unite (5ngaged in the war against the Seainolobi had boon plf?.ood nndor one oominandp wliitJh was incide separate and distinct from the IJoErl; India. Squadron, This TKis a decided advantage booanso the latter was a soagoing organlEation not partionlarly orientated tovrai'ds land oporationr„ Unlilca the squadron ooniinodorOi, tho

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118 ooimander of this new force ooiJ-d concentrate upon the Indian war,, VJliat was needed wac a leader vfho appreolated the neoessitxr of exerting force uT^on the Indians within the lihrerrglades, OnOs not bound to old traditions, who had the inlti.ative and ingenuity to act aggressi'voljf against the Soralnoles,

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J THE MOSQUITO FLEET Lieutenant Kol.auglu In broiJ.sIib the Wave Into Washington or\ J-uly 2^ 1839? where she received some needed repaire iDefore being sent to the Mow ^Cork. Kavy lard for a co];ipD.ete overhaul Before leaving Ploridaj 1 he had reoonivnended the eiiiployioent of two oenterljoard schooners for dutj'off the reef. This proposal traR accepted by the I'Jar Depai'tment gavo t:o his the responGibi3.ity for the repai^r of the Wave as v-ell as the building of the second schooner, the Fll!%''^.^ -''' Baltimore B Ksiryland. The contract for the latter v-eesel T-ras gi'von to 'iohj?el Gardner andj by the end. of August j jUSt over §20 5 000 < had been obligated for her conr-trucifi oi I'lcbaughiLln was relieved as captain of the ];'' and given corojaand of the>'. 1b. Kovercbor^ Passed Kidshipyaan John Rodgera bocanio coxrimander of th,e VJa\^'ep his first sea coiainand, McLaughl:'! a. formilatod new oporational procedures to be used agajn.8t the Semi3:iolc8 while he was in the north Theyo wore da, scuGSOd any tiijiss v/ith Score taiy Pau3.ding. Briefly ho ft;lt that the blockado and coastal patrols wore too paasir'o to affeot the Seininoleru Force iicj

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120 ffi-ust be exerted v:poYk them In thair own terrain, and, the mrry ought to afiGuraea more rosponsible rc)le in the prosecution of the war. Flat bottora boats and canoos should be added to the schooners and barges already on the coasts I'he former oould carry men a.nd enpnlles into reaches of the inteD:'ior not aooessiblo by the streams floT?ins from the EvergladeOc The latter, liglitly loaded, would be for the actual Gtrilre force ^ This would „ he reasoned^ make it possible for the navy to bring t'le war to the SeiainoloB wherever they inj.ght be, SlEiilar to Lieutenant Powell ''s plan,. McLauglilin wanted the vrar brought directly to the Indianr; eo as to break down their resistance. In fact, he may hare received his initial idea frojri Poxjoll when the two iiiCt at the Karl over in the fall of 1837, At th.;at tiio.ep McLaughlin wa?;; in charge of a saall flotilla, of boats transporting; arwy forces along the Moaquito Lagoon, In any casCj liere was an c-yerall plan of operation utilizing the concept of riverine warfare „ An amphibia.n comraands employing a variety of craft to crploit the waterways iirto the inte:rior of the enemy's country ^ v?as his suggestion ae to the proper laothod of dealing vxith the Indiana of the Everglades, It wae a proceoure desigjied to the i/er t:o a peo];)lo who did not have an industriel coMpler or ffiilitar,y fo;etif 5 cations to be assaulted,, It was in fact partir^an war against e guerril]..a foe.

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121 J Paulding irnraediatel.y dij/eoted Mayo, vrhen he first reported, the iiGcessity of withdrawing the Poinofctt froTii Flo3:ida5 to leave hxi.i personnel and bax'ges on. the coast for KcLau^^hlin' s usoo That same day the secretary issued McLau{';hian his sailing orders, These included the "iiBUal exhortations to protect the shipv?X'eoked mariners 5 to harass the Indians, to cooperate vxith the military^ and a brief paragraph about the treaty alights oi' Spanis)! flshenaen frorii Cuba fishing in Florida wateirs. Commander Kayo's reoororiendation to divide the Florida naval force into two comraai^ids v^&s reoeived after these instructions had been cent. The suggestio)!, so in keeping 13-1 th the guerre de courKC strategy ^ caused Paulding to modify his original directions „ He offered Davis corruaand of the forces vjhich had boon entru&ted to hjiu by Kayo, McLaughlin viaB told that that portion of hie orders dealing with Kayo's force would be rescln,dedp if Davis 3 accepted this oorA?iiand^ Before McLaughlin left Washington he rasde a final effort to hctvc: the navy Signal Booka issued to his /I schooner force ^ aud this tii'ne he nus successful < It V!&3 another step towards integrating the naval forces in IlLorida into a clo^^iO knit co:;a:mando Early in January, l8^-;-0t tlie Kl.lJi;t ^-''^ v/iishington and the ^; at Kevx York departed for a :rende2;'vous in Florida c McLaughlin stopped at Charlestonp South Carolina j to piclc up sohie canoes

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122 and at St. Augustine for soinc flat bcbto^i boats Hhlch had been ordered ^ Tea Table Koy wao to be his base of operations j and the PliJlfe sailed dj.reoti.y there from St. Auf^ustine to off load Buppliea, Here the sailors vrere to b3 exercised in t>ie use of sraall ari-aSj beats, and canoGS before making any assault u]:)on the Everglades:. Lj.eutenant Davis hsid been invited to meet hiin there so that they could plan how best to utill^ie their two forces. At this conference Davis decided to £ive up his coiiiiiiando The seamen 5 marines, barges, and equlpiuent viere turned ovor to McLaughlin, The naval forces in south Florida were again under one coraiiiands and thia Kas the beginning 5 of the luoiyquito fleet. General Jesup, ao early as the spring of 181? s had su£;:gosted iinporting Cuban bloodhounds to track dovin the SesnlnoleSj, but the array had ne^'e'r carried out his suggestion-, In 1838 ^ Secretary Foinsett airthorized General Taylo3? to procure dop:B although the General does not seem to h.ave acted upon tbafc scheme. On the other hand. Governor Calll and the Florida legj.&j.ative coiincil did iiiipoj?t thir'by-tlirce dogs that j'ear and. set up a oa'iip in. hiddle Fj orii'^a for thci:c trainin^^a In January,, iS'i-O, Go'^eriior Reid; then the chief ereoutive of the territon?y^ offered Taylor soae blocclhounds to assist him in hie military operations Tt^o do^je nere accor>teds but Ta;y'lor later reported they been trained

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123 "CO tracK Kogv-ocs and -Kere Inoffecti-ve against IndiariB. Co"ifc;'ceRB was o'opOReci. to suoh tactics vrfien the facts 6 became known. McLa-iig:hlin'5i s-siliDg orclexfi contained perjiiisoion fo:e hint to purchase bloodhounds in Cubs-s "not tlo_jTUjTt ^SHlLi^S^Ji£M^£i?51.J5ii5-JMi^ '^''^^ ''^'^' "^^^ employed in secure n/t the bank of the St:ccams o;e Inlets ... to guard against ambuscades c" V/hen KoLaughlin wrote to the secretary In Januriry that ho vjaa going to to get the dogs, Paulding warned h,iM again that they were to be used only to pj?otect the foroe from ambush, A week later he rescinded perraission to use the dogs under any cirouju-. stances f citinf:; the public clamor as his reason for the chamre. Two months later Paulding shifted once nore, leavinj^ it up to McLauc;h].in whether or not the aninals were to be usodo The lieutenant elected to employ theinj but found out that they were of no aid, in the watery 8 haun.tG of the Everglade nu Two Burveilance barriers were set up, the schooners along the reef and the barges close to the nainland. The Otsego cruieed the west coast of the glades while the have covered the east coast. The Flir;t hold the center position sailing between Tea Table Key and Key Wefit so that McT,aufi;blin 'i^ould have frequent meetiio^rs with his subordinates^ The barges were placed under Passed Midehiprnan Hontgomery beviiaj wh.o lO'as ordered to cover the reef froQ Caps^ Sable eaat-irard between the keys and the mainland ^

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12^!The fi2:fi!ponel-ration of the gleden vjas to be Eiaclo from one of the rivers flovflnf^ jjito the west coaet. This Vfouldj McLaughlin foltf curpit-ise the Semlnoles, because all previous etteiiiptt;; by the navy had been made from the east coast. He fisrthev reaooned it vrould be easier for his expedition to emerge on the farailiar east coasts rather than the virtvially ime^Lplor-ed west coast, Alao^ the shoreline xms open and lesw hindered by sjjiaj.1 keys on the east coast j which would make contacting the schooners less of a problem A rendezv'o^is at Cape Sable was ordered for April 10, 1840, Frora there the groirp would sail north fox-ty miles to LostTa&n Key for the actual penetration. O'usb after the ro^oixp asser'ibledj Kfohaughlin and some of hin^ crew oa?!ie down with the fover and t3ie expeditj.on wura called off c The Fljn;^ headec), for tlie Pensacola Naval Hospital with all of the &lcl<: on board. Meanwhile, Lieutenant John Sodgers wae; to continue preliminary explorations along the weot coafrc while the schooners and barges resuirid their statioris. 9 C;!, hortly before the expedition was cancelled, the sailors from, the Otsego were eKamlning the coaEit, g'-'Lthey ravj ijrbo a large wa:c-party of aboub fiftv' to eS warriors c The twent3"™four sailoi'o and juarines assutaed a defensive formotion on the beachf about five in the aftei'jioonf and reti-irned a spirited fire Dircing t; s]s:irj=JiBi).i, v'hloh Ir:i::jtcd tvio e'oA ci half hour:^;. the fi^ailors

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12 "^j saw two or three HarriorG fall Tho f irlriA; attracted the attention of tiie Wa^re and Flirt and both vessels sent relnf oi'ceiiiontSc The Seininolesp Bcelnp; the additional boats > approaching f withdrew taking theixfallen v; theiTic When it was; ovor tliore \^e.B no ^ray of assessirig the3 damage done to the enomjr. There were no fatRlitiof;; 10 among the nsxval pex'sonnel Lieutenant McLaixghlin kept Yu.s vessels on station guarding tlie various passagouays tluxjugh the reef vrhile the barges kept a close check on the shore. At the eame time Siuall parties were sent out to explore and chart the western portion of the glades o Kore than half of that territory had been mapped by summer when his attention wac dlrectod to the east coarrtc B,oports reached the raosouito i ],,eet that a Keg:co named John^ who hed. been a slave of ])octor Crews before he had been captured by the Indians in 1835 ^ had recently escaped and turned himself in to the army at Fort Pallas John claiTnod to know the iiVerglades welly axid he offe:s?ed to lead the array to the Indian camps hidden thet"e„ 'P:Y,e arniy did not appear intereeted in his offer for they kept hirn locJieci up. oi)ioe^:hlin. theuaht that John vias just the guide to Icfid his erpeditiionc he sailed for the east coaet where '^silks T'ere o endue 'boo with the Negro (rho was hold in iron.;:; at Port Dallas, John was v-ill;in,e; to lead the naval forces to the village of CJjakaika's Spanish Indiana deep in the interior, Hokaui_;hlin. j.oado

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126 a request for John to guide lij. e sailors and marinca, but Lieutenant H. S. iDurtonp coinjiianding at the forts said that he tfas not authoriKcd to relcasio hii-p A written request was thon subMitted through channels forJohn, Meant-rhilOj, more talks wore held with the Negro before McLaughlin decided to move j.nto the Interior follotTing John's general directions. It tjara a difficult task without the, The email streams twisted and turned back upon themselves so often that it vras^ iinposaible to calculate by course and distance the. route traversed, The lieutenant could not take observations of fche heavens to locate hiiiiself becai:se the natural h,orizon ivas blocked out by the s'waiJip (!;ror;th„ The group bore southueet from its departure point on the Kiami Biver, It was a sloe, tedious, and torti::.ouf; march. Finally, they reached a palnietto 1 eland which vxas the first flj:ai ground tancc tl'jey entered tlic glades,. Here a positlona3. fix vjas obtained using an artificial horlk^on, vjhloh shoned tl'iat they vjcre twent;}' 3;iiles fros their starting .point bcbaughlin calculated fchtit he x-ias about the same distance {tn&ritj miles) east of the aost easterly ix-netratlon jiiadc on previoua expeditions fro:a the west coasts This waB encoura{;;ing inf o/.-ioation nhlch convinced ]:-lra that croeeings froia coaut to coast were entirely poesible. The group turned north to ojrijlore t'lie texu-ain on the other eide of the Wianil ru.vort Tne v-rho.Lo coanrr;vslde appeared to be one [large D.akCp one to fou'Lfeet deepj cc'Vered v?iti-], t^arrgra e f.g T?je force \a3c:'ed and puiled

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127 their boats through iiiatted. £rrebs as often as the3'rods in them. 'Hhey labored in heat vrhich soiJietlHos reached 120 falirenlielt at midday. Many times at night the sailors slept sluTiipod oTcr the thwartc of the boats bocauso thei^o v^as no dTy groiind on. which vo make carap, At last, after exploring both si.deo of the Kiaai Rivor for a diotanco of about tvTiinty miles, MoLauchlin returned to the schooners confident tliat it was pocsible to roach any place in the glades ;, but equally as sure that a competent guide was nsoessarj' to locate the Serninoles llvd-nf^; there. Deterjiiined to Rake another attempt at oroBgin(i the E;vergladois froDi vfest to east,, he sent bioutenant John Rodgers in the Wave to Capo lionano with eighteen canoes. Solgors deprirtod A\iP:m
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128 just one KlJ^e av?ay fit-oni the naval hospital Ee had crossed thirty miles of open \mter froH the mainland j.n twenty-eight canoes to Ixi/ini-; hie band to this settlomente They arrived on the ]^ey about tvio e,,u\,, and the warriors wore filing amonf?;at tlie houses when the alarm was sounded. Moot of the seventy inhabitants fled to the schooner hefiiAyUt vriiich uss aiiohoxed in the harbor. The Indians killed thirteen ancl set fire to raost of the dwellings. The most notable vi.ctl]^ i-reis Doctor Henry Perrinej who was a physician and botanist interested in Introducing tropical plants into Florida Congress granted him a tovniship on the mai.nland in I838 to ca:!:'ry out his experli;;entSp but hootl3.itiea prevented hlra from occ\ipying his landc He woved, with his family 5 to Indian Key In October of that year to the end of th.e vfar. At daybj/oaJL the hechlum brought netvs of the attack to Mldshlpioan hurray He set oirb In his barges Kiaimed hy his crew of five plus seven volunteers asong the ambulatory patients c Murrav' planned to approach the beacli where the Indian canoes were and desstroy theio with his four pounders c Tlils would cut off Chakaika's ineans of escape from the; hey so that when naval rolnf oj:ce}aents a3"rlved the Sejclnolea coiLld be attacked „ As he drew near^ the Indla:a.r3 gathered on the beach to oppose hlBu Chakalka even had the settleiient y eix pounder loaded with mufjket shot and fired upon the advancing naval forces t, One Esallor was geriouely •ivounded in the tJnighf

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129 "but most of the chot D^'attlcd haiv;lcsEvly off the bar£;es, Kurray returned fire uith his four pounders ^ which had to be mounted athwart ships „ At the end of his third discharge the guns recoiled overhoardj and Murray had to yield to gupc;rior fire poner, Sure Chakaiha's band would descend upon the hospital new that his weakness was so apparent ^ he returned to Tea Table Key to prepare his defense. The Indians ( however ^ loaded their plunder in thirty-four boatiSf six of them taken fa:*om tho white s^ and left for the, mainland at tvfo in the afternoon Murray estiiaated between four and eight people were in each boatf and that tho total nmnber rauot have been around I30 to Vl-O warriors, McLaugiiliii received an erpress fron; Murray at Key Biscayne the ne;
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1 J. 5 J on the Wa;\{;e, An hour lafccr she was undervjay only to become beoalKud when the wind dropped and shifted off her bo-w, Eodge;j'Ei launchod his canoes, manned with sixty offloero and iiien^ and Ic^ft the sojioonGr to paddle towards Indian Key, One of tj'ie laarine canoes s'WBmped in the high running se&Sr but the JBon were saved ^ the canoe rightodf and the groixn continued, although all of the armo and equipment had been lost froin the ovortunned canoe. The nest mornings after twenty''four hours of pulling over open waters, Rodgers arriYed at the key too late to render aidand vflthout having sighted any of Chakalka''& fleeing band McLaughlin iiijiiiediately cancelled hie intended aoout of the Siverglades and returned to Key Blscaync to get John to load hi a force on a punitive expedition agaijfjst Chakaih;a, By this time Burton h.;;;d received Colonel I'Kigg'o reply s "The j'Jegro who recently came into Fort Dallas fron the Indians ;, f Ib to! be kept in irons, and guarded with the utmost care, There was no posoibllitj?' of the moriouito f3,cet finding the Indians 13 without a guide, Chab:silka's raid oauaed grea.t alarm among the Inhabit^^intB of the Ivoys. The Gtss_go vras dj. spatch,ed to Y-,&j Vaca to eetablish a small garrieon to aid the Dettlei-s. Later PasjfiOd Kids]'.'ipivian G, Pi, Ik Hodgers cowjiianded a garrison and b^irgea on Key \i'egt, Jacob HousMgj'i al&o deiuanded that a force be kept en Indian Key, Ther-e were

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131 y not enough ncn. to continiie the prjjjiary inicaion, end, man these garrisons and the base at l^ea Table Key. McLaughlin reached an agx-eeriKsnt Kith Housriian vfherobjr Indian K'dy \ias turned over to thv; navjifor the duration of tho war nith somo li.and re nerved for H!ousman's personal use. When this agj/eement was fiignodj the hospital and supply depot were moved to Indian Key vfhere they remained for the remainder 13 of the conflict. The Flirt sailed north to replenish the force. She arrived in Philadelphia in late September foD? a tvjo month stayt TJhich was disappointing in many ways. Some brass six. pound field guns were needed for the bargoSf but were not available. Kcbaughlin wanted to add forty more marines to his force ^ and to equip 100 men with repeating Colt carbineSj, but both requests were denied by the departmoDtc Thenf two days before sailing nine croT-viiT embers rrui to be sent asihore for medical reasons without being replaced Ihue when the three schooners rendezvouBGd again at Key Bisoayne in December „ 1810 j fo;^' a new caiitrai!>'n seaFion, tlie e:M:peditlcn was already short seventy-two iiion,. Colonel Harney had ivanted to avenge himself against Chalraika for his part in the attack upon, Earncy s detachuient on the OalooeahatoJiee Eiver over a year and a half ear!li(-ia Ivhen Harney heard fibout JohUf he prevailed upon tl7,c ce^::;":)find,lng general to relc;ase hiin to 3,ead hi3 expedition Ivito the glades o,fter the Spanish Indians.

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13^ Permission vba^ graiited and In the first vreek of Deo.em'beT the colonel borrow'ed sixteen cEinoes froiji the mosc^uito fleet to transport his ninety men into the glades. John took thorn to a village deep in the swamps whore Chakaika folt secure from tJ'ie white men. Altho-as;h General Anaictead earlier had refusod iJarney perraisoion to disgulso his men as Indians when on patrol ^ the colonel novj violated this order by dressln,s and painting his force aa Se;ninole warriors. Thus arrayed, they closed in on tho village undetected even though it \vas a fovr hours after sunrise. The. attack caiAO as a cojuplete errpriee to the Indiana, and In t}ie brief fight x?hich followed Chaliaika was killed and his band broken npo The colonel returned to Port Da.llas fro-!? a f:^\iooeasful raid wh.lch took jast t'relve d&y'S, J'ohn^ who had so rnerrinp^Ly p;uided thei? tlr.cov.[y'^i 15 traojcleris vjasteSf recci'ved full credits Iileiitenant John RodgerSf vxho ^sas in charge while McLa'ughlln xvas awayj had aaple Oiiperlence in the Hvergl.ades Oil the west coast which inade hi)j aware of tiie futilJ.ty of searching such terra5.n withcut a guide „ When he heard of Barney's expedition under the guidance of JeL^n^ he brought tho ka,'v_e tMi6. 0}-,Bef.:Xf to Key Biscayne with an offer to joivi f'orcea with the colondl far the nert venture. A few dayy lat:r aoLaughj.ij') arriveci. from the north> approved of Hocig''--^ra' s a,ctionG,. and added the nten of the Kl-irb to the aasemoled grouj)^ l^aive?^ in a lotte:r to the Becrcta;:'y I'^e pointed, out that he had triel to uee Joiirj

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1 o ': the prevlcniB s'VJixnoTs andj if the Kogro had been jnade available p the naval forces might have aittacked. Chahaika's band before their raj.d upon' Indian Key^ orf if his fir:.^il reg;aest for the guide had been grantodp the Seminoles Biiglrb have becij st-r'uok before they had h,ad an opportUTiity to dietiflbiito their pltinder of ponder and lead. Colonel Ka3:'ne3^ reported thatp according to his guidoSf the sBall Sp&nieh boats hiiiiting turtles freqiiently broiight supplies to the SeminoleB^ He wanted to know what the na.vy was going to do about that situation. Lieutenant McLaiJ.2hlin was avJare that the Spanish fishing smacks coij.ld not bo restricted from Florida 'waters becanse of certain treat-y rights ^ He deoidod to clrovanvent this by Issuing instructions along the keys that his wohooners and barges would seijse all IndiYlduals found on uninhabitated shores as suspects engaged in illicit arms trade. Further^ the vern-iel of the suspect would be taken before the Ih S„ court on the grounds that theillegal actions of the crewiJiember forfeited the ship's riglrte granted by the treaty^ This was as far as he dared to pj/oceed without additionsil instriactiono froxa Ifeiyhington, The garrisons at Key Vacas and K,ey heat had been wlthdr&ATn before the coMmoncement of the expedition so that the men could be distinbuted araong the schooner;^. The Otsego and Ifeve were to sail along the nest coaet prepared to pick up the eailors when th.ey eBiergci or to supply thoj';. uj th pro'visionc if they rejnained in the

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134 ( glades beyond the laonth planned The forijiei' sohoojier was to cruise off Cape Sable and the latter off Capo Romano irfille the Fi\i'£^, ^^ei'^'f^ii-f^ed to the east alonn; the reefo Ninety saiJ.ors and sixty marines acoompanlo:-d the twenty dragoons and seventy soldiers of the 3d Artillery when the joint force started from 'Port Dallas oii the night of Doceraber 3'U 18'40, The group traveled in. sniaill fire iiian canoes t ezcept for four or five large caijoes xvhioh oarriod ten men eaoh. They x-/ere kept in single file about twenty paces apart. Absolute silence nas maintained and orders were transmitted by I'lhif/tlcs vaiich had been provided for the officers. Each man Tjas given rations for tvyanty days and sixty rou)idtJ of balj. otirtridge, and the Km.sI<:ots vr-i^re kept by tl'iO thnarts ready to 'be geis^ed at a moinents notice ^ Colonel Harnoy decided to move only at night in order to achieve the advantage of sarprlsc His goal, was Sara Jones's villa£i:oj whojreaSt I'lclarghlln planned^ not only to assist on this raid^ but to continue across the JfyergHades after borro-vlsig th,e ar/iy's guidesa when tho oo!Lon.el returned to the fort Although moving through the si-ra'Up in the dayliifl-it was sIovt^ in the dark the progroBS Vfaa at a snail's pace. They reached Chltto TusbenjiUijgoe' s carapp raidi-my botx-^'oen Io.ttle and hen 3:'j.verBp on the third ni/jjht, "When the isl£,nd was f;ig;hted the Bif^nal "to close up" v'as passed 6.ov{a the line^ Siiicjntj.y tlr-i canoee

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•L J J approacbsd and tool';; position around the isl.findc All hands were tense waiting for the next order to "move up and effect a landing." Sooirbs were sent cut to rooonnoitree Soiiie tine later they returned to report the enemy had fj.ed the esjup was do sorted The word was passed J "move up and land^ the Indiana have escaped." For the noiat few days the force scouted in all direotlonG 16 from its ha,so at Chitto's oa.mpe One ^olnt search party led by Lieutenant hoLaughlin X'ja.s sent to a nearby island. Half nay to their dcBtii'^ut? on four Indian, canoes nere sighted headed tovie^rds thorn. The ii.mer5..oang quickly sijroad out to ambush the uiasuspeoting Serninolos, Whon the Indiana discovered the trap it t\ras too late to flee J and almost too late to fight. In the esa,3hango: of fire th3?ee warriors trere killed and ono wounded,, while the iiiiiGricans suffered one man injnred. After tI)o :initial exchange of shots tho remaj.ning Sorainolec, realis'ing thsy wcro outniaiberedf abandoned their oa.noes to seeic shelter in the tall grass, OYory raan for himself. TJie gunfire brought Earncy Tjlth the rest of the beats to the Goene, The entire joint force ^ 2^10 strong spread out to find the seven narriors in hidings FIto xrere apprehended that dfiy. In the evening the ihaericans learned frosi their prisonoro that Chiiij ona of the warriors still at large ^ Xsf'as a reiiownod gu3.dc of tiie IHvoicgladcSc 'Cnc nest day a

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136 J party led by llileutcnant I'homas Sloan of the marines and Llexitenant IM-iird Orel of the artillery pioj^ed up and followed a traH for five miles before oTortakin^j and capturing a sauan, Ch:!a'o vrifo, A f
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137 ca]iip„ When Harnejr decided to xetiiTn^ he turned his guides Micoo and. John over to tha navy. McLaughlin T/rote of "the perfect harmon^'ifith which the t-vK) sei'Yioes blended on this occasion „ The movements of tho combined force were conducted exclusively by Col, i-feirnoy , whilst the associations of the office ^rs of the two services had the effect to increase those refined feelings of rocpeot and good vfill so conducive to the Interests of both, and which should be cultivated with no 18 sedulous a care," Ko doubt the naval forces learned much about partisan Vi&vfaTe froia Colonel Barne^'h who had demonstrated his t?ilents many times before but most espeoial3.y during his attack upon Chakaiha's vllloge, struck out vregtvja;ed visiting Council Island^ iillicator Island^ and the Prophet's deserted caap. hear the latter Lieutenant John Eodgcrs ODJiie upon an enemy canoe carr^/'ing four people, The warrior ^ who would not surrender^ was kli;Ledy while the squaw was captured along with her ttro children^ The group turned south to Cbakaifei f s old oaiiip where they foimd the shelotony of the Indiana killed du5?ing Barney '8 raJd lying on the ground und:^ sburbadc The sailors continued south tou'ards Harney's River for their* erit to the sea. They eiiierf'ied on the west coast on January 19? 184-1 ^ to become tlie first group o:fvrhlte raen to cross the full tridtn of the Evercladegic hcLaughlin sent tho officers and men of the

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9^MS£2 ^'^'^ liiiSix. '^^ their 3;'espGci;ive rendezvo-aa polnbc T'hile he led the Flirt's orew b-otobs Plorjcia Bay to 19 Indian Key Froji-i here he wi-ote to the department r-e que sting ijiore merio Kanpov-er vra.s the mosquito fleet's uiost pressing problem Jt.iBt after the oomraand was foriaed by tho merging of the bsTgc end sohoonor foj:oCj the now ociffinandfer had to req-uost I'eoriiits froa the north. At that time enlisted ratings were short thro-ughoiit the na'vy and Fanlding thonght BOvriou&ly of doing away with this epsoial group in Florida. He penned a note to the BeoTetsiJ:-j of "war to Bee if this foieoc vras still considex-ed necessary? for the proseoution of tlie vjar. Poinsett replied iii!;aedi;;:.tGlj' thai; it (•yas "vej^^y i))iportant'' that the coast should be 20 watched and olos&ly bloekadedc The unit's personnel problema took icany for.-.ic. lY, July-f while the £lirii ^"-s anciiorcd at Key \lest, the locsl Gh,eriff arrested three of th.e Kegro cre'i?aaoribe;rs who were on £;hore carrying ont ship's l/aBlr^ess., Tills tvas done lender, a territorial act passed en Pcbrnaxy 10, 1832 p aimed at preventing the migration of free KegrooB into Florida,; /mzioiifi to clear np this iiiatter idiile xQ&intainlng good relations v^iith tho Eoy s citi:;-:enSs Iiientonsnt ilcl'anghlin allovjed B'ranoia Stenairt; colored sailor, to bo aj?re3tod in his T)roscnoe. Ho Trarned the sheriff ''to bo ca.rofiil that ho nao e:.;:eroisir;g a 'Xsarx tXj nnthorriy, '' l;-f!aodiately after ti)o eirrectj ho

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.' gave an afficlaTit of the good cliaiacter of all of the men and their official reasoiiB for being ashore to J\i&qq hilliai-i A„ Harvlijj the United Stntes 3;)istrict jiiiape along TTith a reqiicst for a wr j t of liabeas corpo^s. This Kr:8 granted. Marvin found that the territorial act did. not refer to these cases r however, the Nogro sa5,lors had to pay costs! G'he Judge vjarned the sheriff against any fiiti;!re arrests of this natpre threatening to levy the cost on the sheriff thenext tlrae. Such acticna could have had serious consequences for the niosquito fleet because of the miaber of Negro sajlors involved c All of the servants of the Kl.irt plus several of the other cre-imerabers xfero hegro, McLaughlin wrote to the dcpartnent that many blaclcs worked in the boat crews p the "watering j and provisioning parties f making it neoessai-y for them to go ashore In the perfcriaance of ship's XTorh. Guidance was requested in this jsatter. Inreply, Washington approved of the actions taheiij ifjsued a vjarning to exoroiso great caution in sending Ifcgroes ashore in Key VJest, and failed coiiipletely to offer any solutio3i to prevent such act'ioris 21 for t]ie future, Hie sianpoTTer situai;ion grew vjorse as the suuuaer months jiasGOd. Finally, in Sopte-abor, the long teria enlistiiiont snilcM's were distributed among the various coraraando vjitJidn tl^e 3;iOGqui-bo fli:;:t while the Flirt \ms manned hy thcise x-rhose enliGti^ieni;e heid expired p vrere

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1^1' { about to expire J or worf? unfit for duty In Florida. ith this crew she headed, north for replace-. ments. After the sailors were discharged or transferred at Phlladolphiaf the Fli^Zii's Kiutrccr roll contained but thirteen neUj, fivo of them Negro. Once again Hc3::aue;hlin tried to get some direction from Washington conoerning his conduct if he sshould ha'^o the' same harassment froni local officj.als in Florida on his re turn c This time ths department referred vaguely to its original letter to him which offered nothing specific to guide him on an? 22 future action, After eroDQing the Everglades in January l84l, seventy-five laen uere needed to bring the mosquito fleet up to compliment c Paulding wrote that that niraber of sailors could not be procured in the norths but gave permission to go to Mobile or Nev' Orleans to recruit the force ^ a needs,, MoLaughlin sailed to Mobile where he was able to ship fifty-one men j.n Aprils This aliened hlra to reiaain on the coaat until June when r>noe gain it xms necessary to ^;o north to bring back the Gickj 23 disabled J and discharged ji:ien„ On this trip McLaughlin visited Vla.shington and presented a chart of the IS'verglades "showing our route of nearly five thousand m5,les throup:ii swaiapa g;.nd raorasa paddled over Ir Cp:noes, ^ ." He pointed out that the force nov? had its own guides ^ and nitb sufficient men it could go aJiy where in the glcciof-; to Bioet the Seminole warriors.

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;HAPrER 8 THE H/)HIDA EXPEDITION? A rivb;hine task forge A series of events took place betvyeen June of 184-0 p and i84ij vjhich caused the War and Ravy Department a to re-e-valuate their effox^ts In south Florida „ ColonGl Harnsy c?apturcd the mother of Coaoooohee in June, 18^10, and she led hiH to a village near the St„ Johns Eivor vyhere^ accordlns to hor^ the Indians had a trading: establishment supplied by fishli-yg boats from the keys, vlmn thio information reached h?;adquarters f General Armi stead wrote to the secretary of Vi&Ti "The naval oo^niaand Tjhioh is understood to he.vo boc-n ordered toFlorida for the purpose of intercepting such supplies has so far rendered no b&tvioo," Hg vfsnt on to oojijacnt that the Kl-lliS, ^^'^^ '"'^'^^^ dcop a draft to bo adapted to the duty requix'edj. and then directed soao critical rosnarhs at Lieutenant McLaughlin, "How this officer is row engaged I bm not informed ^ having neither scon him nor hod a reporb fron his 1 commaxid.'^ [Thle vm& the ease month in uhich hcLaughlin ^-•.C:.'^ t T-sas to nnke hi a firut request for John,) Arnisrend's letter i;as forvjardec! to Pauldinfwho replied tjiat the navy did not lieve ^rrv vccjiiol mora sultaKLo^ but ho I''-!-!

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V-12 \iOvCl(l bo pleased to cooperate "in bjyj oystera of laeasures 2 deemed norc effioaoioiiSo" The disastrous attaoK "by CUakailra on Indian liej the following month poivited out the.t the limited naval, force in that area VifsiB spread, too thin to keep the Indians off the open v^aters among the kej&, Poinsott wrote to PaiLi.dings "It v^sis hopsd that the cruisers kept 'Upon tha coast of Florida TjOi-Ll.d have afforded ample protection to the scttlenonts on the Tplands* ,. „ and suggested that the West India Sqiiadl^on be ordered to provide a boat e^rpedition to find the Indian oanoes and boats which he tho'wght mu^t bo hidden along tho coast. Both of these eventc denionfeitrated the inadeQ.iKioy of assignlns a sraaXl xiaval force to suoh a long kej?-. studded coastline 6 Later^ in the uinteri: the very suoceosf'i;il aohieveRienty of Colonel Harney and Lieutenant in inaeterin^; tho Eve:ro;lades gave ample proof that it i-ia.s possible to bring foa-oe to tho Sewiinoles In their nost remote retreata,. Finally, Colonel William J. Worth relioTod General /|i:i?ixii stead as commander of the armjy in Florida on Ka^r 31. J, iQ^-yl, He proposed to oea3, off tho southern portion of the texritorj' and to exert constant military piir^eos'aro upon tho Sesinoles in thoir Ever^lado refuge by UBint; hie troops as partisans. His instruoticn to his oomFiandorcp vvmt^ oiiccSnotf ''find tho cnoj-cy^ capture j 3

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V-O or e:;Ete5;M3inate Ekrly in the sumyier Worth v;e..E asked for hie opinion of the value anci the ro3.e of tho na^y for tho f erthcomiJig yearns He was enthusiastic about the naval 8'u.ppoi-t and high in Yils praise of .I-IoLaughliJic The lieuteRant later sent his thanks along with an 5 outline of his future plans, Beeaizse of the above CvcntQf the War and Ravy Department e decided to strensthoi}, McLa"aghlin's oomiaand. More TOf^sels irere attached to tho blockade force along the soathern extroisity of tho pGnisrioula Trtiile additional psrBonnel viqtq assigned to augraent the navys Florida Expedition so that the Se-ainoles of the K^erglades could be both itiolated and attaoked, Origirially the Revenue Service offered tho &:x:'Sij the cutters J£ffer§qnp Jaohj|on, and Van Bureiif bi^t MoX-auehlin refused the Jackson because of her deep draft (over eleven f&ot), and so th,G |}fedi£?,!Sl '^^'^-^ substituted for he3.% Tho War Department Imd another sohoonerii'f the PhQg.Jijjgc built at Gardner ^s 8]i:p3^ard imdex MsLanghlS.n^g siAporvision, The risx^j coatractod for thirtyfiv more eanoes to be delivered to Indi&n Key by late Mgu^itt, bringing the expedition* total to a hundred, When the noocitiito 6 fleet rendeEVouGed in the fall it had dxmbled in cAz&, HoLcmghlin rsguested and ;reoeived Signal Bcoha and Toltgraphio DiotlonariGs for all of bin vosqgIs. He also propoE^ad that the Plii^'s two sis pounders be replaced by Biz eighteen poundiir c.arronadi3& with

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V£->-)r]'ip,j) shot to bG uKted for clearing a hammock or to 7 cover an opposed boat landing ^ if the occasion arose. In addition^ eaulatins; Colonel xfcrney vmo favored Colt's repeating oarbinoo^ he sisked that I50 suoh arns "be supplied, From the records av-ailaKlej it Is if the Flii-t's armaiaent was changeds, but tho colt's were pro"Vided, When Lieute>ia.nt MoIjaiAgblin gathered his strengthened naval force at his base of operation;? on Indian Key in Ootober^ IS^fl, he immediately^ began preparations to carry out the colonel's oj?dGr calling for "acti'vity and enterprise," Th.e Fli^b and Otsego ?fere dispatched to patrol fclong tho ivost coast between the Caloosahatohee River and Cape Sable. The Vfe^ns wae sent to the east coast. The Kadison,, £offe3j;.gon> Van Burerip and 'ihoenlx, beca.'ase of their nex? crews <. were given an intonsd-vo ts^-ainins period along the KLorida roof before being 9 asoigned to a cruj.Blng stsiticnf MeanvihilOi, a pa.;rty of niarinoB and sailors was orgsni2;cd to. enter the glades to rendozvons nith an sccraj unit at Chahaiha's Island. From there tho joint force was to oondnet a KXfoep fo:^ Saa Jones who, ccoording to ax-niy Intelligence 5 xms enoaspod \ilth f ifty-!:::oven narriore on the 0(5 go of the big Oyp-jcess Svysm:g, Thic is a large snajiip thirty mllos Bcv.:bh of tho Ceac-osahatchc^e Elver between tho EveTfyXi-A-bs propoi' and tho Giilf of hozicjo. It covens an anon thiccty miloo noii-th ?ind south by fS.fty sttj.los east' ond ifoote 0?ho vegetation is so donoe tho.t

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Ik's the sua*B rojs never penotjfete to the earth's Gurfacej, and vrater stands vjlth a layer of green sline floating on top, Whon dieturbed^ toxic vapojfs arise causing ssny men to re:tchs Within the sxmiap there are a. fei'^ ridges or islands nhei/e the Indians li'U'ed whon they vrere forced away from, the -pine barrens alon^ the "borders of the Ever... 10 gladeSi, This vJac the area for the lO.orida ISrpedltlon' s first venture of the mm campaign season,, The General Order issiied to the gi?oi4p reflected the infli^ience of Colonel Karnoy^s partisan tactics of the previoiis year, dressed in nautical langi-ages "Th,e E^apedition ahout to enter the Everglades will "bo oomposed •Q of five detaoliBients, 1st froia the Wavop imdor 3".,t Coad LJchio] EodgOi'S 2nd frcm the Yen Burenp under Lt Goiad^'" [john B.l Mcix-ahandp 3rd from the OtcogOp Lt Coiud Qcainss sT] Biddle, -^I-tb, froEt the Phoenis, undeiLt Coind* C, R„ J:'h RcdserSf St)l'i the Imx-ines rinder ist Lieut. [ffhomas T, [ Sloan ™ „ r The Expodition will al't^ayg ffiOe in single file^ \mle8S otherifise ordei'odo Each dotac]:'iiaent ?Jill tsiko the place in the line nhich shall be ar-signed to it, and each boat fjlll preserve an interval of ten paces botnoen it & its nest in the adTanoc, At all times when the boats are imdervjay ,, the most rigid silence ie to bo observed, o <. >= When landing;; each boat Hill oojie to In the order of seSlinrs, to the ri^jht or left of itB c,dy&,noo as sliall bo diroctede „ c = ^Tljon Ijn.ndinc; foienoas-paents each dotsohiiioat ifill corat to on

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l^.!-6 the right oj? left; cf its advance and four, canoe 's length distance from it, lifech dotaohaent vd.ll oncaiap in front of its boats. = No offic'er or wbxi shall lea,v'e the linitG of tho ccimpf neither shall c gim hs disohrvji-gedp nor a fire bulltp at any tiiae without pei'^iigMion. ^ ."'^'^ The saj.lors and marines ^ 200 Btrongj ontcred the Everglades hj pacldlins vq> the Sh.a:di: River on October 10, iG^Mc It toolr fortr days to reach Chakaika*8 Island ^ a distance of fiftjxailes. Horo thyy jaet Captain Martin B-urke of the artillej:':\r who had earlier depay^ted froja Port Dallas with sixty-seYen raon. Tho ;|oint forcfc jna\;x;d to Prophet's Landing on the eastern edge of the Big Cypress Snsoup x-jhere saiall units fanned out to se£;.roh the vicinity ,. but no recent indioationf;^ of Indian activity were fonndo While at Pi'ophet'8 Landing acting Lleiiti^nant C, B,„ P, Rodgei-o had a dieoiplinary probl.eia with Joseph Burgess a hositmr&lns mate and the Gossvrain of one of his boats One evoning Burgees ^ who was entrusted with the liqnor empply for his boat crenf indulged hea'vily after gi^og honi:'G 'until he became drunk p noisy ^ and dissrderly. Although drunkenness vjas a x-atlier cojnraon offenss in the na\;y at that tiine^ Burgesiy's cacs nag aggravated bocanao the groi;ip vjas in hostile territoi-y on a combat iniosdon. There was no opportunity to oonvcno a Conrt hartial t;tnder the ciroyiiit;^nc;OL^ !;;o B.odg'3:PD held C;-:ptain* ;! hast and a-irprded tho Kan thirtysix lasjhow with tho cat-of-nine^. tail *J> .-.-ww^i. ^

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l^V/ This was Ci^ecutod even though it exceeded the tvjclve lashQs allowed to ccamn'i'n'li.xiQ off:^,cers bv the Act for the Better Governjiient of the Kavy of 1800 c Later^ when Hodserc had to ariewer to the secretary of the navy for this excessive pimishrientt he justified his actioiiG by pointing oirb that the thirty-sis l&.Bhes were less than whrit could haTe been avj"arded by a Court Martial for that offense and the cireiMstanoos under which it had been l)iiposed„ "I ooiild not dispense with his sei'vloesj Eodgers wrote ^ "we vjore in an eneisy's country f the Indians were suppoEied to be not far from "us^ i 1 therefore deemed it neoessaxy lyy a severe & summary punishment to maintain the effiolency of jiiy ooiflmandf by detoring the seaman of which it was composed from following the dana;erons e:i::B.ixpl.e sot them by their lesiding man.,'' (The secretary did not approve of Bodgers'a actions j, but he did not purono tha laatter fU2^thGJ%. ) When it boctimo apparent that no Seminolea were to be found near Prophet's landing^ the two sorvioe groi;!pg headed soiitiiwost through heavy iiianfi;rove swarans. They emerged onto a grassy lahe with saveral islands in it and off in the distance two Indiana vrere observed in a canoe, Iraraediately the chaso was on \vith tho encBiy leading tho pursuors to their oompj, which was eitnatod in the of & large enltivatod a:i;oa, but by the ti'/ic the oailorB and Biorinos, \v]-),o wore in, the advanoe^ arrived

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1 ,li o '•i-u all the Semlnoles had departed leaving jimoh of their equipment and three canoes behind. The trail wat; followed for two days 'bsforc It disappeared in the trackless Hastes of the glades c Then the /naericans turned back to destroy the slT'bj acres of pUEipkinj beans ^ peas, and other foodstuff es the Indiavis vfcre gro'^ving, Gjhey then resumed a coiiree southvjesterly to emorgc froin the EvGrglades about fiftosn milce north of Capo Romano. Prior to leaving the expeditioji to return to the Pli:iKt McLaughlin placed John Bodgers in cliareti with instructions to contim^e the scout north to the Caloosahatohee River, The Klix^ arrived at Pimta Basga-s an axiny post at the month of the Caloosahatohee on the 26th^ the day before Rodgers's force reported aboardo Durinri: tho tiiue thoj^ were in the Everglades, the viOBt had been buffeted, by a gale which had dons estwnsive damage &t Punta Baosa, The steamer I.£is had been left on d:ry ground with the receding of the ntorKi waters c The loss of the Bteainer disrnpted coramuni cat ions with Colonel Worth's headqnartorB at Tampa Bayi therefore j McLaughlin offered the servicer of hie vessel to transport troops and snpplies to the battorod post. 33iirin3 this period Worth and drevj xxp plans for another vontnre into the glade e for late Novcmberc This nae to be a three pronged assault npon tho Big Cypress S/nm^p, Tho ob^oct was to clooe off the escape routoe to tho north and c;at forcing the enoinv to retreat into tlK= nangrove swaiiina to the Ejouthvrestc 13

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149 Here the Indians would bo GiOi^^it befcvrcen the advanoinr^ land forces and the naval vessslo patrolling off shore. Before this aGi:ild be put into oparation array intelligonoe repoi-ted that thero had been a qiiarre]. between Sara Jones said the Prophet xvhich caused Jones's band to m
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150 Continuing eastvi&jcil 'McLaiAghlln reached. Lake Okeecholjee and Blslrted along tho southern shore In the canoes to give hio mon a rest from the rigor a of traveling through the interior. One evening -tvliile on the shores of thi8 lahOf the expedition' b surgeon was pe^rmltted to make a fire to prepare prescriptions for the sick. This v;r;o i:hft fiTfit fiT'B to ho built sinco entering the glacleg and It vxas iiiado insicle a osaijp hettle in the surgeon^ a cenoG, Travel along the lake had to ho discontinued after tlirce days 'because the high winds -and rough waters swamped several of the canoes. Tho groirp re-entered the Bi/erglades and proceeded eastimrd to the source of the Locha Katohie Bivor. here thoy turned south v?ard and, under forced raarchofj, directly for Key Biscayno so as to ho in positioji on the east coast to participate in the joint operations planned for the end of the month. At the conclusion of this soout, MoLaughlin reported to the secretary that "the season has been particularly unhealthy f, & the command has Suffered severoly froa its continued activity i:ind exposure, I'he modical renorts &iow fifteen deaths and eiglity cases ^tl'!"^ vn/lp-r' treatnonts most of them however I am harpy to 15 yay are oon'\?'&lot;;centt In aoltc o'^ .thiSs Lieutenant McLa'aghlin prepared 16 to ontor the hvorglades onoe again,. The Hioenix and ,„ .O -L, 1 .-, 0;fcsei^ uere assigned to cover the passes oi mo i^'osi; coast along Biddlo's Harbor j the Kadi son and ngvo >;ere to

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y 151 cruise alo/'ig the reef 1 the JejTe:rson avid Van Biiren were assigned to patrol the east coasts vrhile the FiiZ'i ^'^^^^ to remain at Key Bxscayne actins as a depot for the ezpeditlonc MoLauchlin departed from the Flirt and reached Prophet ^ s Landing on DeGembor 1^ IS'M, x^rhere ho established his base caiopc Lieutenant John EodgerSf with 150 raen-j was sent out to penetrate the Big Cypress Swamp on a soiithwesterly ooT^rso for twenty-five miles e He \ms instructed to search every trail discovered and to establish contact with the army troops moving in frora the Upper LandJ.Dg and Fort Keais hodgors's group returned five days l£te3? after wading ti'aist deep in aud-vrater nearly all of that tlEic without Eioeting friend or foe. The assuiaption tjasi that the Indians must fled the swamp before the arrival of tho li^illtary and naval forces. The following day McLaughlin took twenty-five men to the Upper Landing to find out if the ariPy group under Mri.jcr Thojnas Childo had r-iet \'rith any fsucocsso They too had a report on enemy movements, McLaughlin returned to own ca^p whore he received a from. Colonel Uorth th'vt Seim J'gjios vio.n reported to be in tho vicinity of the I;Ooha Eatohie on the east coast. The colonel sugget/ted that t)ic naval force might host b used in that aro-a; for the ariay had o'\?'r k'^O non conoenI? trated aroi:!nd thc^ hlg Cypi'ous Srrariip, Thlfr) Tiroi::ontGd nol/sughlin v?ith a p:eoble]ii booauso he had only nino days rations for the ontiro coii^iooind.

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152 His Indian guide usaiJired him that it would not take more than ten days to i-eaeh Fort Pierce on the Indian River, so the men wers pvit on half rations -imile theyretraced thclr steps across the nv-erelados towards the Looha Iiatohj.e, CouDoil Island was reached on December 12 X'rtiere the aioh and disablod Tjere detached to return to Key Blscayne? the remainder continued to tho northeast When thoy entered the cypress simiap near the headwaters of the Looha Hatchle the v/ater was sc lovj that it tyas almost isipoiasible to traverse the terrain. "It was one continnons portac^e over stiaaps & cypress knees, with 18 occasional glimpses of open n-ater/' This continued for six dayts during which time three Indian canoos were found f hut no ene):!iy, The group arrived back at Key Blscayne on the morning of December 23 without encountering any Soniinoles, The only coabat casualties occurred when five of the thirty colt rli'les carried bythe group exploded, Hox-i'cvers the rigors of tho moveBiont through the E-verglades took a ser-ere toll. At the completion of the expedition fifty men were given medical surveys and sent siorthf and 100 others were carried on the bIcI^ listf almost a quarter of the entire ooswrand, HcLaughlin oonmented that '-there is no di£; of a raalignant ti'pe kncnn amon;:^ thoia. but a general f^inlrins of the cystevn, 19 a 'regular cave-^in' of t'-ie eonetitution. heocirtoes:^' s attrition rate, due to thj.e eiehneee; u-as five deaths.

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153 The day the gi-oup arrived at Key Blsoayne a report vias sent to the secretary of the navy that as soon as the steamer Ga^fcon could tovj the vessels over the bar they xrould sail soiAth to Key to make arran|!;ementB for a now into the mangrove svramps of the southern tip of the penlneula, KcLa.ughlin -Ranted to keep pressure on the Indians. If he could not estahlinh contact with the eneray, he would at least keep them on the move aiid deny to them the opportunity of planting or harvesting crops for their sustenance. lielief was provided for the sailors of the Kinrb and Van Buren by sailing!; to Havana enroute to Indian Key. Kany of the Biea had been continuou.sly on patrol in the Evcrsladeg oVru-.A tiiel-p f5Trlva.l upon the Florida coast, and they 21 were in need of re^t and relaxation. The BMi was "brief. Lieutenant Marchand led a group of 120 men f:eon the Vexi Bureiij Wea/;e, and the marine detachtaejit to explore the area around Coooanut ]:sland on January 13. lS^f'2 ^^ey tvleci. to enter the Pelade s throush th2?ee different rivers on tne vi '-'^'^ west coast f but low vjatsr prevented canoe travel within the swa.inp and they coiild not reach their destination. At no time did thc;y find recent silgne of Indians „ The firat week in February Colonel Worth shipped 230 captured Indians west= He entiinated that there were about 300 free Serainoles still in Florida of vrhioh i/i.e 'H^rf,/5 -n-, ths^ Rycrrfladec. He recoHinended to WaBhington

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15A'' that the milita2:'y force "be reduced Qyid the remaAnln^ Indians be aliened to plant xincilsturbed in the sout;h, for he was eoKiVlnced that^ few es thej" were^ thej'could not he brought in, bj/" force. When this propossil vjas rejected by the War Department, Worth shifted his efforts north\m:cd to protect the settled areas ^ leaving the mosquito fleet to handle the southern sector. At this ti)!ief the colonel offered Port Dallas to McLaughlin as an o.dvanc0 basOs It was acoeptedj and First Lieutenant 23 Sloan miG gent to take cominand of the post. In the meantime 1, McLatishlin prepared and subaiitted a now plan to Colonel Worth, He proposed to divide his reraaining force of availc-ble sailors and marines into tvro ooliuimsj the ttro would enter the Everglades from opposite sides of the territory ^ one to scour tJie eastern cypress and the reaches of the Looha liatohie before reaching the rendessvous at Lake Okeechobee ^ the other group v?ould examine the EiangroveSj Big Cypress Swamp p vjid the headvyafcers of the Caloosahatchee before reaching the lal;;o„ With the Indian guide f^ provided by the arsiij/ J, the smval forces uould follov? every trail V'hich could be fou:ed in the h,oi)e3 of driving the Indians to bay. To increase their time iii the field Colonel Worth T-?as reouested to dc;3;joait provisions at old Fort Center on PiDheating Oreeh for nsival use. In this vray it would not be necesRary to leave the glades for reprovisioning. This av?eep v'ao expected to continue

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155 throughout February axid moat of l^Iaroh, ^^.11 the while the Tessele of the P],or:lda JSrpedition were to b kept on their cruising stations to prevent BJxy aid given to the Indians froin foreign souroesj and also to press attacks imon an^Sojaliiolesi who Jaight try to find rest along the shore or on the heys of the Florida reef. M&rchand, who was to coiiiaiand the vjestern pincer, VJB-S ord.ered to make another sweep of the crtreiiie southern area on his ^my to the west coast c Ke left Fort Dallas on Febriiary ][.l i^ith a detachment of aon from tho Van ^l-£Hlf Sl2§I-i^f ^^^^ HS-ISf ^'^''^traveled along the edge of the gladoB to the soirbhwoot searching among the j, slands to seawaid as well as j.nland. Low water kept the force from making very deep ponetratlo;ns into tbo Everglades, On ono of the roaiiote keys they found an Indian cache conBioting of a largo amouni' of prepared ooontlOj ranch clothing^ and cooking uteirisllsi all of this t-Hid doatroyed. Marcha>5d*'s operatlonsi wore so doD.ayed that he finally entered the glades by xjay of IJarnoyss Fir or instead of a Eio;i;e XJ^eeter!ly entry ^ About eight Jiiiles froin Coooanut Xs3.and the group wa-B prevented by j.ow wator fron proceeding any farther in oanoeGe Here Karohand halted and eieected a base carnp, Acti;-;ig Ideutonant C, F. F. Dodgers was cent oiat on a i^^cctitlrg 3!iisaJ.on to 8cour tho tors'ain to tho southwest of t]"o l;vU.caod.ed on footc The day before he returned

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56 0 to the canoes ho oaae upon throe Indians and gave chase. His men x^-ere so exhausted froi/i the five hoxir march of the morning that the Indians had an easy time outdistancing theiiu Only the two guides Chia and Joe got close enoui;i;h to fire et the Seminole^, and their shots were ineff cotiial. Kie f ollov-ring day Rodger y sent out saall groups to try and piclc v..p the trail, Itjo camps 'ViTere disooverod nearhy. One had been abandoned the previous day and the othe3? just hours before the sailors arrived c At the latter place ^ tht; fires were still burning and some of .the food YiB.B partially cooked c At these places two canoes and largo c[uantitiea of dried coontie were destro^redf Eodgere estimated there ^fcre about sixty or seventy people all toldo Trails from both camps led eastisrard, and Chia speoiilated that these ;people were moving towards tho coontie grounds along the east coast, Rodgort!! returned and told Ka.rchand who decided not to continue to the rendezvous at the Okeechobee j but to follo'w the Indians eastv7£;i'd. He moved his force to tiie deserted Pox't Henry ^ which was situated on a small inland in th,e gladc^s soiithvrcst of Fort Dallas about midway between Coooo.nut Islond and the fort^ and here he erected hio cajnp on February 2h ^ T'hroug;KJUt tho month of Haroh Marchr?j:)d h:ept Sjaa3J. parties constantly on the move in the area frojii Port Dallas on the no;pth to Coc^-oauu-b Inland in the west. This territory was tlio narrow otrcin of co;-!£;tal land

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1.57 borderij-jg the Kverrglades proper Many of the islands of thegj,ades were still accessible p.nd yisiteu by ^-^earo}). parties t There vrere a few sightings of canoes with ona or tvj'O Indiana in thoM. Moot of the time the Sewinolcs had to aband,on their eq-uipinent £ind take to the undaiebrush to eBOB;pe capture. While thore were no sl'irniifcihes worthy of th.e name J there was groat dectraction of Soninole property p oapccially their ciiltivatod food crops. All of this c'otivity tooh its toll upon tho onepij who novr traveled in r-iall faiaily groups, no\''ed conBtantlyp and had to resort to the most basic food gathering techniques for flubnx Btence The ha.rcj.sVij.ns endured l:)y the bailors and marines wero fr;l,90 extron^o^ Upon conplction of one miRCJion C. B, i-h hodf-^'O':-';-; men returned to Fort 'Henyyy "brohen 25 donn &: barefooted." Towards the end of ti:ii8 the men were phyfn.c>clly exhausted and Marohand conducted his searches along the coast so that his crew cryald travel in canoes. He reported ^ upon his return to Key Biecaynef that for "-bYie last forty days the officers and men lender wy coiriRiand have endured, great hardshlpf;;^ and. in thei:i> exliausted s'bate they vfill be unable to act 26 efficientD.y for sone weeks," This i^cout oaueed Kcla.ugblin to accept IJarchand s supposition that the en,e)Ay ^ estjieated to nujnbej? about 100 people p had retx-eated to the area around Cape Sable. It then became his intention to 3>:ecp th,e Seainoles at

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1 )0 rent in this western pine barrens i^ntil his fcsroo was ready. Lieutenant Bicldlo was {i;i^^~en a detachaent ulth instriictlons to nove into the sonfchorn Eangroves fand press the Indians "back to the barrens ^ but not to disturb them onoo they reached that place, It was his task to contain the enemy while the officers and inen of the Florida Expedition were gathered and rested before embarking upon this new operation now planned for late April. Among the recently returned groups xms the eastern i)inoer led by John Hodgers which had boon in 28 the interior since February 1^, HJJ3 detaclrnent consisted of the non froa. the Madison^ cojiisianded by lJ.eutenant Williasi Lewis Eorndon? froiJi the de|Tersonp under Passed Hldshipinan George PJenry Preble i and Gome marineOj led by Second Lieutenant E,. X). Tayloro They had scouted Lal;:c Okceehobeef the Elssiraiaee B,iverf and Lake '.i'ohop]:<:ellga 31aring all of this tlmSf about sixty day^f their hone was a dugout cypress canoe aboat thirty feet Dong and four feet wide-. It was steered by a large rudder uhile the Jiien ueed paddles most of the tiraOt although a si:nall square Pail was also provided „ Each diigout stovred a si:>i fc>ot looker ;i.n the aft section to carry the crew's stores and ai^iTiunition. This last was kept sealed in glass bottles to proscerre it fron the darapncef;:. Generally the officer Bj^read hie blankets on top c^f the locker to sleep at night while the men el opt at their thwarts „

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159 The only l-uxuxles added to' each o&itoe were a tent and some awning to partialis'' ehj.cld the cr^'w froa, the sim and 29 rain, Rodgerc csoBMenteds ^ "As an offset to these incorrvc^nionces there is a certain vjildness aboirfc tho life which iH not without its charBJand then the possibility of meeting t'lth Indianp! never suffers the esoitevnent tvholy to flag, 1 am conTinced it Is ranch easier fo:c a oi'y'ill2;ed man to becorae saTage than for the reireiese 30 to take place ," Although John Rodgers'fs group found and put the torch to a. good Kiany deserted Indian camps anci, cultivated fields f thes'-e was Ojaly one occasion when they got clo33 to the ene^^ij. This took placo just as the firtrfc canco emerged onto LaJre Tohoplieligof?roin one of that lake's manj cui;lets^ • iMiiuodiately a large fire i^aa seen on tho oppotiite shoic'o, Rodgers, fooling sure that the Seailnolef? had not de tec tod his force j guj.ckly concealed all of his canoog and waited for darknear;: before skirting the lake shore to investigate „ That no.ght hismen K^sde a coax)leto circuit of Tohopkeliga without finding o. firo or an enouy ca'ap. Tho follcaing day a thorough search confl:ra,cd tho fact that the group bad indeed boon sighted by the fieiiilnoles., During E,odgers5' £? sccut along the JJlBslmiaeo River ho reported that at times the surface of the rivor nas covered "by floating grasc and woody ^ so strongly jiiattod together thfAt the laen stood upon the maSy and ho.ulod

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loO the boats over 11, a^ over Blioals," He brought his group bade to Key Bisaayae on Api-il 11, after living for two months in canoes "with less rest, fe>7er l-axuries, and harder work, than fall to the lot of that ewtlniab^e 31 class of citis^onc v-ho dig; our ccuialg." While In the glades, Rodgers jaade nse of the arji?y sapplies left at Fort Center on Pish-eating Crechj and had left a garrison to protect these supplies when he returned to Key Biscayne, Thus McLaughlin had to sen>il. out a party .to bring this group in before the next operation, By the ond of April Lieut errant McLaughlin had his forces in Eotion throughout tJie southern portion of the Florida peninsiila. The most serious problen for the expedition was to obtain enough guides to execute the iaany tasks being undertaken siiimltanously Id.eutenant Biddle had his groiip at the eztrome sout)K;rn tip of the peninsula to hold the Indians in th£it direction, Lieu'tenant Sloan Mas conducting sweeps from Fort Dallas along the coontie grounds between the Kieni and Ken rivers. Lieutenantc;; Farchand and John RodgerK were oent to the west coast to lead small parties up the streams effiptj-ing into Biddle^ a Herbor, an area not yet visited by -sdaite nien„ Colonel hortli, at HoLaiiglxlin' s request, had a small group froju Foiirt Fierce sweep 1;he 8.rea f:ro;Ti 5 tf; baoe to Fort I.auderdale. The voBoels were on thoi:r stations oruising as eloae to shore as possible whi],e hoLaughlin^ based ^rpon reoe;::i;!: mf oriuation i-eoeived fro^n

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I6i ^'-'^'£!3:l2:"£,f ^''f^^^ 35^opa^inf^, an ambiish for hoLj'i^ile Indians, A fe'i^r day earlier tho Pli^rb had been dispatched to a shipKxeck at 26" 26^ North; about half way botueon Kew River and the Looha Hatobie on the east coast. The wreck was a I.oxqb centerboard schooner loaded with flour. She had been bui-nt and the part;^ trrni the Pl-;i!l'*^ could find no inf Oj/mation as to the^ nc:me of the schooner or the fate of hei* crevj^ but they discovered that the Indians, who had Ylslted the wreoh earlier, heC repacked and secreted large quantiticn of flour in tho buahos near-b3!' When K[oba\5ghlin hoard this he iJimiediately set out with the K-iJ'^ ^^'^ .lis''*'" ''''•''^3/oturn to the w;r*ecl; and sot an ambush. Ten dcjg the sfeilone hept vigal near the xji/ecJied schooner waitivig; for tho Indians to r8turi% At lost they gave up and doc^tuoysd tho cirChe, Later it viBS detorminod that the sooiita from Fort Piorce> 8ont out at McLaughlin 'a roquGst. ]ia,d Ofmsod the IndioJns to floe fro;i! tho.t quart or, During tho rotura south ,. rooutlng pai'tios were kep-i: ou;'; to ROfciUoh along tho suiore. At tho iiiout]-;. of the Hillsborouch Inlot thoy fouod tho trail of tno Indians. Tho sailors foj.lovied thoir oifpTO for 'bvio lays boforo coMing upon soveral n.v^ly mode clearingo k\t tJ-o head of the Siialce hivoro Hero tbc Sov\inoles t^oro oi'iltivating baOia.naSf. crime p oorUf and V:twy vegetables Iiioutono.nt John C„ Konryj consandor of tho ^vo.vo, noo loft vrlth. his

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162 detachment in conoealiucnt near the: fields tvith Inatruotions to remain in. hiding for the next ten days. Meanwhile, McLaughlin continued on the trail t-^ith the iao:a fi'Oivi the F3J;.5?tc I'Fhen the ti-ail vraB lost thoy returned tc the eJilp. Six days later HcnTy arrived aboard the Vfeve vjith a report that he h?-d destroyed the cultivated fields p Including two others more reccntlir found ^ hv.t had not' contacted, the Sejiiinoles, By the end of Kay the various groups were reporting back to th,e base at Indian Key, All had results similar to Mcl;aughlin' s and Henry's. Fir at Xjleutcnant Sloan found five settlements ^ one of tJioa within five railies of Fort DalD.aSf botvj-ecn Little Ei'ver and Aroh Creeh, which vrerc burned f As soon as his group ivas discovered by tbe Indienn, signal f iree sprang i^p in all directions and thoj'eafter e;ll the fields and Gettle:uients visited were deserted. In all;, eight cultivated areas and large quantities of gathered foodstores were destroyed, I lieutenant/ Taylor led a group of marj.nes out froM Port' PAj.las to cooperate vjith tlie nestern detachments of I'larchand and John Uodgera, He ican; compelled to retui-n before a junction X'"£ts made becau^se of the laclc of fresh vmteT, The dif ficulties Diet by his grou-p vjore so great that "'V'ate Klngsbirey fell in hiy trail and died freia sheer erhaiietion/' Both K:a:)--cba>id and Rodgers reported the tfate:'.' so '! oh that they had to tracjv their boats and canoes tbrougli 1:0:10 riud^ roots, and. sl:r:ape of

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163 tho drying S'^asnpB oyer trays oon>>truotGd from their boat seats. Kclaughlin reporteds "Service like this could not be of long contintianoOf without a great sacrifice 33 of mon.'' At the tirae he "vms imawire that this vms the 'W, final navel ops rat J. on of the viax, Colonel Worth oontinuod to make requests to Washington ths.t tho x^rar be brought to an end and that the few remaining Seialnoles be allowed to inhabit the Everglades unraolested. Finally ^ on May 10 ^ 3-8''r2;. Secretax-y of War John C„ Spenoor notified, the ooffiJiiandinJ3; general of tho ariay that tho field coiniaandcr in Florida 35 could ond hostjlitios at his discrotion„ As in all of ito warsj the United States domobiliEed rar)idly. 8';cretary of tho ha'vy Able P„ Upshur instructed the Florida vegGols to return to horfolk as soon as Colonel Worth deterrained, they could be spared Thus Lieutenpnt John T, McLaughlin brought the l^li^tj i^UiSz^SSSlt Van Bui^aiip and Kadis_on of the Ploj:n.da Expedition i,nto the navy base at Morfolk on July 19 18'^!'2, to end the cruise of the navvs first Riverine Task B'oroe„

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cjuj^'mR 9 KPILOGIJS The concept of riverine vjarfare^ that is UBing TvateriKiys to Invade the enemy's strongholds ^ ws.s slow to deve3.op during the Second Seialnole Ware It reached f3:'V!.ltlon ii'i the operations of Kcl.aughlin' s mosquito fleet, ospooially during the final campaign season The contrast heti-jeen the cruj. Ber-coiiiiiierce-raidins and riverine strategies can be noticed in the operations of the Vfest India Squadron and the Florida Ezpedj.tion. The West India Squadron used a passive off shore blockade with sin£:;le ship aseigntnentSs s.nd imooordinated boat X'&^"tiSo The Florida Expedition ubgcI the riore aggressive riverine strategy vrith multiship assignments off tine coasts^^^i"^ sustained coordinated canoe treks Into the interior At the end of the war the riverine tasli foi;ce of sohoonere; barges^ and dugout canoea were operating as a team to extend naval power throughout the Eve:r{iladei3, On,e of the moi^t critical differences between the two forKie of warfare was in attitude. The Squadron continaally applied naval solutj o'o.b to the eitivation, pr:Jncipally by off shore bloehaci.e. Most of its coastaD. 16^!-

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165 and river patrols ??ero i>ndsi-tniren for sccutin^; and haraBsirig the eneay. Thoy were not organised or carried oivfc to bring the uar to the Semiriolo nation as x-rere the later fsearch-and-destroy operations „ The exceptions wore the expeditions led by Lieutenant Pot'jsII,, yet his inajor effort in the xrt.ntr of lo3?-l838 \me undertaken by tlie War Department not the West India Sqvadron, Whereas 1, the I^aovida Expedition had for its goal, not merely harassing the enemy ^ but vigorous partiean activity to bring the 'vjar to all of the people of the Seminole nation In order to destroy resi stance Military tactics also unde3:^iT(3nt changes, PoxTell's unit performed tho standard mancj-uver of advanoing in line ab:!:eaat to attach tho eneayy in the swamp f just aa if thsy Yiore on a forrcal battlefield, McLaiighlinMa forces adopted tha partisan tactics xxsbA bo snooessfully t)y Colonel Harney e Both forces engaged in joint operations ^ but again there t;hs g dlffejrence in attitude, Co-BKiodorc Dallas never lost eight of the fact that the navy xms a separate serTxeo, hhile he world cooperate with the arey, it was £ilt?ays with t)-iis undorstanding firraly in laindi: Even in Povroll^'s jjoint operations nith the eiSrXiQf there vj&s & definite undertone of annoyance in his reports at f;;o::'iG of the jiiiSK^ions he had to perforjXi for General Jecup which too3r hira frcn Kiiat ho Ijoli-orcd to be hip prinoipol purpose HcLarghllnj on tdie otiior handj, viorhcd veriy t:o11 'i/ith the nilitary cor.i.:;andorSi '. o

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166 except for General Arjiiietead, Thi^ Diay be atfcribirfcea in part to his background ^ for he w&i^t a youn^ nav-al officer jiist starting hip oareoT when ho voXunteerod to serve with the amj in I836. Because of two toni-s cf dutywith the ar>ry In Fioriaa before he was aaeigned as the commander of the Florida ISxpeaition, it \ms probably eaBier for hiia to noy]!: wholeheartedly with the soldiers than raore senior no:sfcO. cffioers to x^haji the mllitai:^ opoj/ations were 3tx-Gi:ogo, This cooperation betT'-eon the Biosqnito fleet and the ej-cpjv wc; b/r.oi<-,v pressed by John T, Sprag-uiOi, Colonol l^orth^c aide-. de^. camp when he v^rotes "There was at one time to be seen in the Everglades tho dragoon in water from three to four feet deep 5 the sailo;i-' and marine wadins in th mud in the miclDt of cypress stimipSp and the eolclierSf infant3;^y and artillevy, altereaatoly on ths land, in the vsmtor, and in boats, (t & f! here was no distlnotion of oorps XiTpSo no jealousies^ but a laudable i-ivalry in concerting laeann to Planish a foe v:ho had eo effeotnally eluded all efforts ThG U, S, NfiTj uj3ed i;iverin9 uarte^e again dnring the CiTil lfe.r prinoipally in itn operations on the VQstoym TlYBTB, Fere tbe terrain p eneiBj and jailitary ob:joctie8 wero cinito different from tbe guerrilla opor&tiono in the s-;mi3po of south pj orida with the result that tlio forra of corabnt differed. The fundamental obicot^ TCMBlnod. tho Game, that is, to uoo inteir-nal watornays to bring crganijsed force to tho onoiw., vo

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167 Many of the naval officers active in the Scminolo War part:'.cij)atcd in the Civil Iferp and some of theoe men continued to esploit rTverlno Totirfaro, The most notable Vias Jolin Rodgers Tiho ii&n ordered to apecial duty in Ohio where he p'arahasod three SKiall steamers which heaoMQ tho nuoleug of the I-Iiesissippi Plotilla, Later s after psirticipatinj-; in the Port Boyel expedition^ ho cosmaDded 2 groups of giinhcate on both the Sa'vJ'annah and James rivers. GeoTt£& H-^ Preble T;iiS captain of .the gmiboat Eatahdip, UDder Parragut and engaged i aoperations up the Mississippi River to VickBbnrgs Near the end of the imr he led, with distinction J a naval brigade operating ;3ointly with the CirBy alorig the C'arolina, coast px^cparia-^ ths viay for 3 Sherraan^si arrival srij the sea. Lieutenant Mcil^aughliiij, who hdght have been best qualified 1^/ agej, teyapoi-nsenti, and exporleno to have organised tiio naval forces for riverino we.3:'fa;i:e in the Civil ha:k/p died on Jifiy 6p l8i]7, at hie homo in lfeshinston„ a yoiing Kan of thirt;^-si:;c, Tho pKietice of riverine uarfaro was almost for-gotten afte:e the Civil har, fh<;; VietnaBi oonf}.ict aH;ain provided the neoess^a.ry geosraphical eettlKg, and striking £;iinj.larities Kay bs obser'v'ecl. betwoen the naval operations of the SeJiiinole har and tho Vioti?a,vn War. In spite of the teobKolcglG:-! ohangefs^ the ov£;&niK;':tioii and niodiis otsexmrKii, '- bS;-£doally tho sfnae. The navti-l forces operati^.ig in and aroi-md th'i; Mehong 3,.)elta aj;-c orgpiniEied into throo fxnictional t^vo-upse

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168 Co::.stal Sury-aillanoG, Elver Patrol^ and Mobile Hivorlne Poi:-c>es. The first group has tlio ta£:k of pati/ off the ooAG'b using & varletj^ of small ships > j.ncluding Coatrb Guard CiJflGi;-s, and corresponds to MoLaughlin's schooiicra off the JJ^rorsladeo, 2he Illver Patrol Force brings naval poi^er to tho smaller, but still significant ln3-and T^atera'ays, Its funotion can be equated to the ginibarge^t used among tho F;iorid.a Iroys inside tbe reef. The Hobi}.e Riverine Forces per^foTPA the ssime searsh^anddestrojr operatioriG against the Vict Ooix^^ tlT-{,t the opro'^^ expediticvns! did against the Seainoles, "ElTor HaideDf I" ms a Mobile Hiverine Poroe operation oondoAoted In 3nid-Maroh, I967, very reminiscent of Eiany of McLaiislilln' s ei'pediticns, Hler ABSimlt Squadron 9 transijorted soldier?? f't^o-m o n?^vY p^vhcpir transport to tho mangroTe G^mr.rp& of the Eung Sat S.;3Gial Zone vfithin the delta „ When the cosibined a.r>j]j and navy fores made contiiCt with tho Vict CoDr^. the ene-ivoffe:ef^:d limited resistancoi befo:v?e fading aT-ay into the dopthw of tho svjanp. The tally at the ooncli:!siDn of the strli^e fras Urel:ve Viet Cong dead, rrmaevous ooMps arid b^^nkev'S destroyed ^ avid the capture of a Ip-t'-p-ft n^^Tb'^n6 of wGaponf3 find e-rpplieau Rives^iHs warfare, cciabat neitheanaval nor Hilita:ry, brt a blending of tho t\w, which T^aa first exploited diiriis^j the Second Scmiiiole War conti3ii:ies to be an adjimct of U, S. Naval oporatious today .=— e-u-l>*

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mi:E$ The f ollowiRg is a key to the alDlDjre'viations need. AG AGI.R ASPHA Cap to Itrs. Cdr. Itrss CO LAB ER I)oo Off, Itrs, Roeords Adjutant General Adjivbant General j. Letter's Eeoeivcd Affairs Letters Eocej.vod by the Secretary of the Ka"v-y P'roiu Captains Letters Eeceived, hy the Secretary of the Ka"^!'y Frcru Command,e:?G C ofiiffiaiici. i 11,^ f f 1 e -s r U, S. Es:oG"uti"\!"e Docranent U. Ko Houee of Rupressntativcs Doouiasnt B:logi*-a.pi"jy Kiles' ('/oelcly or Hati o)::ft.L ; iteo;j. s'cer Letters Seoolvecl by the Secretary of the Ife.y Fy^oin Officers Beloif the Rank of Qo}mnan(}.&T Letters Sent by the Sacpetavy of tl).e .H'a'tfy to Officers ''BeoorclK I-elntin^; to the Service of t-?)e Ka^/y ^'od the Karine Oo:r-'p;:: oj-) the Co-.:r;; of Floi-idcu :lC'>i;~.i,o'';?

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1?( ('0 kjteil 8 .!,,\Jti J SN SW SVJLH SVJLS SHl,/H USKIP u, Seriat';; r'coijnent Secretary of i;he Imvy Secreta3jy of the 0?reasury Office of the Secretary of War. ••Letters Received, Kain Serlee, 1801™18"?0." Office of theSecretary of V/ar^ "Letters 3cnt Relatinc^ to IJilitary Affairs, 1800™1889" Office of the Secretary of Wax'; "Begisterc of i,etters Booeivsci. Main Scries, l800-.^i870. Clarence E, Carter, The Territorial Papers of the United Stat5'g7™'ol7c7 XXI l:3D[ VT r~|lorMa "f^ Proceedings •"----'" — .->. CHAPTER 1 'p }-! p. tbA.6. upon the Bananas was c£:i:'ried oivb en Karch 3t I'r'/O; by CoKiuOdoro EseV BopklnG vrifcii a flset of four Tessels earrij^ing a marine landing force of 200, Port Nassau on Wo'if Providen.oe l£?land \ms taken rind qiJ&vitities of captui-ed munitions viero ootainad during the two TJOok ooou,p£tion.„ On Lake Gharaplaiii tho Bi'itioh planned, B.r). advance from Canada, into Now Yorkj and both sides hi^rriedly built f loots to G;;j,in control of the lal^e. The .Araerioa.ns lost tho ship ouilding race (fifteen to twenty">f ive) J but in the ensulnK lattle at Valccmr Iceland tiio British tlrietablc xfas delayed until it v?aa too late to acocraplish the proiootod invasion. The PenohKCOt Exp edition \ie.£. a joint operation und3:rtaken by J^asssohUKotts' State Kavy and tho CoJitinental Ifevj? again&t the Brr(-it?h ocouj)ylni2 OPLstiJiOf I'Ja1,no„ On July 25? 1779 1 tho Araerioai:.' force (twenty transports and f if toon vessels of tho State Jvavy and three from tho Continental Navy) landed in tho faco of opposition j but tho following month a Britioh naval BqiJadii'on arri"vod a.nd the Amorioons fled up the lonobsoot Hiver, Eventually tno f:5hipo ur:oondO:ined end. i^ho rejnaJ.ndor 'ncro dootroyed T)y thoir crev?o, Tfhich res\fj,tGd in. a great naval loss fc^n thc; Amer i cane ^ Knox ^ United Statos J-l^iry;. 11-12^ l^'-ilf 3^^

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171 In l?97f. the French Eepiibllcan naval forces were a eerious threat to the B:r: the Spanish and Dutch r-j. foi= they inol'aded ypanisn ana lAitch fleota as ivej.l. The French Brest fleet held the center position while the Spanish made up the left vflng; and. the Dutch i.he right v;^ing. In FeliTuaxy of that year^ Admiral SiiJohn Jervis^ with fifteen ships, met and defeated a Spanish fleet of twentj-'-eeven sail off Cape St, Vincent o Jervis captured four and seriously crippled ten of the left wirjg ships. The folloTTing October^ Adraira,! Adam Duncan engaged the D'utohf sij^teon strong j in a ffioloe and cetptured niiie. The next yeai-j Adrairal Horatio I'Jel son confronted Prenoh fleet off the Nllej where it had trc9ns}:;orted Napoleon's expedltionaj/y foroo; eir^A destroyed eleven of the thirteen vessels. Lewis, n, History of the 3. Potter p E. f Sea FovTor; 223 ^ k', Spro-at, A5;ie2;lcan Ifeval Pon;or, 78. of the na'5''a.i Soldier and 5. For a more complete discussion of the f-anctioning JL organization at thlfi time see Huntini-ton, Mo State f 200 CE&PTIR 2 1. Clinch to AG, 8 Oct.p l?!lloriJaf XXV, l82™8/!'5 Sjv to Dallas p 29 Oct. 1835 ^ Of f ^ "^"Ships'~oF'lJa.r 2. h'illla/a Gooley's name Xi&s also spoiled Coolie ^ li^S^i HSI:!^. Zl^ilieJj^SSf ^^ Jane I8361 Broxie, Ke^; }i§.^c ^^'S Whi'teheGd"l?o'l)alli>,Sp 11 Jan^ s encJ., to Dallas^to^Si^l 12 Jan. 1836," Capt, Itrs. 3. Ifelksr to GO J, n'>:^re3. jard, Pensaoolap I6 Dec, 1835. Cdr.. Itrs.

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172 Jt: £;aton to WeVbp ?:} 'Dec,, 29 Deo,, 30 Doo, vice versa,, 29 Deo.f Webb to SN, 29 Dec„^ Doughtv to Tfebb, 31 Ceo. 1835, Cdr. Itrs. 6. Eaton to Doughty p19 JaK,;, end, to Doi5£iiity to SK, 21 Jtoi, I836, Off, Itrs. 7. Bolton to CO^ Haval PorceE;, Pensacolas, 5 Jarsc i Bolton to Belton, 18 Jan, 1 Bolton to VJebbp 18 J&n, vice Tersa^ 19 <^'£n, f JoyncT' to j^olton,, 19 Jano anol, to Bolton to SHf :!, 8 I sic j Js^n, 18365 Capt, Itro. Be Webb to Eoltori.t 28 Jan;., 1 Feb, ^ vice vei'?5a, 29 Jan. 1836, ib,ia 9. Dallas to SM, 15 Jem., V'{ Jan.? Baohe to Dallas^ 26 Jan., enol= to Dallas to SN^ 2? Jan, 1836, ibid. 10<, Webb to Dallas, 13 Feb. ^ 22 Feb. I836, iblcU 11 f These fishing ranches were scattered along the trost coast of Florida, Their inhabitant.?, a mixed population of Spanishspeakins Cubans and Indiana j^ harvested and cured fish foithe Iiavar^i riarliCt, Prom the very ooDiuenoeaent of the xiar soriie Bloridlana wore coiioerned that Ciiban arms would x-eaoh the Seiiiinoles through the Spanish Indians isho worlied the Yarioiii5 fishing ranches. In a letter ptxblifshcd in the I'allahassee Jlx)rldlan,, W, I'Jyatt remarked s '''inrrKiQ years ago -whPai 1 examined this* country p 1 raet with a class of Dladians In Towns and at fiRh.eriess T^iho eecined to know nothing about idilte people es:cei)t the Spaniards ^ \-fith whon they wers Inteiraiisedt The Spaniards having Sonawfi for wives and the Indian men and half-brocds engaged as fisheraen ecad. sailors 6 If those Indians are not onoompassed on the land side by blocMioiissRs and on the pr&teiL-' by axned vessels or boats p so as to break up all ooBMimioation bst'wecn thcni and those Spanish fishermen^ and o\ir rims^.way KegxoeSp they jaay keep up a potty war wl1;h lis fo:i= tho next 5 years;. c 'i}^i§^^f ^3 '^eb^ I836. "rhe Indian Agont rJlley Thonipson felts based upon hearsay^ that those ranohos were composed of a ''l&ulej"5Sj motley ororJ5 t c [j=hq] will leave nothing nnattOBjpted to Induce tbs Iiidians to oppose emigrationp Thom'pson to Williara P„ '£ni^q}., 1 Jan. I835, ASPM, VI ^35'k" Captain William Buner [BuncoJ ^ an Amerioan^onner and operator of a fishing rancho at Tampa Bay, held a more favorable view, Buner'to 0?hDJivp8onf 9^Jl:n/ 1,835, Iblcl. ^ ^•!-84..85. From a legal point of view p Judge AugusV Hteele i'elt that these ranoho Indians? were excludod fron the goneral Indian einigrationf Steele to Thoapsoxip 10 Jan,, 1835? ibic].„ im, also Doddp "Captain B'uncs's TapiX)a Bay

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•1 '7 O rjL l835-^i8-fO''^ ;o''/'inpc"Gon ''A Petition Frc>a Some Latin-Amerioan Pi^jheiiiienp iC3o Between Soiithisrest Florida and Cuba" i Kei; Identity of Florida *s 'Spanish Indians 'o and his L.t'au. 12, Lindsay to VJebl iii liar, s Joneci to Webb, 18 Kar. ^ end Ploridian, 9 Apr. I836 Dallas to SN, 9 Apr, 1836^ Gaptc Itrs 13. V'cbb to Dallas f 2 Apr, 1836 ^ Records, 50... 52, i-^c Acting Sailing Master (Passed Micishlpsan) Stephen Clegg Rowan was born nean? Dubllnf Ireland, 03i December 25? I8O8, His parents settled in Ohio and he was appointed a raidshlpinan from that state on February 1, 1826 Serving as a lieutenant along the California coast durine; the Mexican WaPp ho later published his reoollootiona of that war in the hS:NIP, XIVV I888. During the Civil War ho remained with "the Union navy and for his actions along the North Carolina coast he was 2iiade e^rptain and coiiiiaodoro on the came day^ July 16, I862. ho beca'TiO coimnander-in-chief of the Asiatic scraadi'onf l868-~18?0j, with the rank of vice admiral. He retired February 265 1889^ and died the following year on March 31!. I890p in Hashinfcton. Lewi;?; C,, '^StODherGlege; Eoxmn/' DAB, XVI, 196-9?! "Obituary/' 15^. I'Ovin h3*-nn Powell was born in Virginia 1798. He was appointed a midahipiaan in on April 8, 181? f and lieutenant in 182G, In addition to hiB servioey in Florida related herOf he was coiaiiianding officer of the brig £oiisort and surveyed the coajit froiii Appslachicola to''Vb~Mlsslssipi.)i B.iver in iS^/O--^18^M During tJie Civil War ho ooamianded the USG PctoE from August 20, i86l, to June 29, 1862, on bloolcaoo' duty in tlie Gulf of Mexico ^ He was appointed reaD? adiairal on the retired list in l869f and died in Washington J Ih C, January 15. I885. There has boon some oor-fiw-ion among vario-is b5.ographioal sources as to Powell's middle name and the year of hj,s birth. In a petition for a naval acadejiiy,, insued by the coimnissioned and warrant officer?;; of the IJSS Constellation^ he signed hii:? fall name as Levin Mynn Poweirr the'petition "followc' the letter of 25 Jan, I83 Off E ItxSt Iho year of his birth is taken frosi his service record^ "Levin H. Powell, Officers' Service Abstraci-s, i?98..'l893. Ka^y Dapartmont Records of the Bureau of Waval Peryonnolf Record Group 2-^1' ^ Hational Archives. '^Levin Kinn Powoll '' NCA3, I, 383 F '^i^^Sf,' 2;i (k u.(y,. sessi, o pa::;&ira5 Official Heoord the Union Confederal Navies In the War of t'le

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-1 I-. 1 Rebe^.lion, Serios J^ o:is. I, IVj XVI, XVII, XVIII ^^^T^mSMlM^ "Obituary," '^{0:^1 York TjjmB, 17 Jan. loo:), lo, Tho provisions 3.isted arc baisecl i^pon those provided for Lieutenant E. T, Doughty s expedition in January s 18365 ana pro-rated for J?o-i-fel3, s group of forty-two men for a. period of ten days^ Doughty to We'bbp 31 T)&o, 1835 f Odx, ItrSc 17 1 The X§MSllE carried a launch £i.nd foiir cuttors of the following dimexisionss launch cutter cutter (two) cutter Chapelle, Sairt.ln^^ Na.vy, 50^^ and 5081 Vandalia ship's log, 1? Mar 7 "183 ST' Records, 135 ""'"" ^"""' 10, Poivell to Webb, 28 Kai% I836, SjDld, iMk-'o. 19 FovieVi to I'lebbf Ibid.. ;• Vandal ia shi-di lop;. 28 Har I856, ibid,, 135. length beam depth oar29' yt /j," 3i 4" 16 Zk' • 6' 6" 2^ 8'' 10 25* 6 Z' 3" 12 24 5' 10" 2'' 2'= 10 9 ^1 Jones to Webb J 1 Apr., end, to Dallas to SJ^; 9 Apr., I836, Capt. Itra. 136. ^-1= IsMS:i.?;iS, sihip*8 log, 31 Mai\ I8365 Records, 00 ;2, LlndGf.y to Webb, 21 Kar. end. to Dallas 9 /tpx'c 1836 f Capta Itrsio 23 A search of oontonporaiy maps of Florida dui-ing this poriod failed, to Identify Josef a Island;, yet Pcvrell laentionfs it in his report and again In connection vrith a later espeditionj, Powell to V/obb( 17 Apr., Records, 56-''5?t Potrell to Grabb, 8 Doc, I836, 2/K Powell to Webbp 17 tx^. ^S%, Beooxdf:;, S(^^-^.'^h 25^ '^r He Ph CrowB (Crc-;;e) appears to have been a frontier entreprenetn' interested, in many projects; Before movin-; to Charlotte Harbor ha lived in Wcbbvlllo, S'loridaf whoio ho had boon appoi):ited. one of tJ'iO trnstoos for the school lands for Jackson County in 1832, Later that yoa: 1 s:l-,rn!cr| hl„l b oush rscosBinended by the ScmlnoJ.o Olil Blount, he vjas unsucoosdfxil in receivine a position as physician on. the governaontsponsoredSeminole explox-ing partH' to vlovT the western lands assij^'ned to thcrra Finally p ho had been one of tho contractors asf.::oolated with rOi:)alrlnp; and rerouting of the road frojii Tallah:'v£;see to lonKacolap ''TPj^raorlda, Z}G:v, 568...59, 7'^^ 786, 788-..89.

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< f} r' 30 26, ^^iM^£-ii}3. %SiBi:^^.i 30 Apr, ? Kgy; West' Incmi rex Apr„ 1836, It was later "determlried tba?b i)r7 crei-ri"""™"""' and a Spaniard had been .killed by an Ijidian while all three were on a hunting expedition.. The Spaniard and Indian t^rere eitiployed by Crews at tlie time of the nrardsr-g, KZ H§il'^. IHSiii^lt^t ? ^'^^^^y \= ,L Ji. *-^ tv.J p J, J .i-. p ,.J., 'v-' r.W *^^ --f E35. Kls to Dallas, 23 Jyl.f end. to Dallas to Shj 1 Aaig.i Eis to Dallas, 5 Aaxs.s Mix to Lelb; 7 Jxil.s hlr to Day, 1 Aug.j ends, to Dallas to SJ^. ? Aug.? Leib to Dallas, 17 AAigc^ enol. to Dallas to WW, 19 Ang, 1836,, Captc Itrs, 3b Mis: to Dallas f 23 Jd, end < to Jisallas jftijOf ibid 37, Mix to Dallas, 5 Ai=g. ^rix^^y, to Dallas to Shj 7 Aucs; McKinstry to KiXj, 10 Jd ,, end, to DaXlafi to STh, 11 Aik% I836, ibid. 38, The ha;|OT Dade; s dimensions werog lenjrth i3'^-f' fcOtf beam oF^bofd T9""'feot5 overall beara 37 fect^ deT)th of hold 6 feed In SFiooth water she cod.d siohe nine miles ;per hoxir. The fdorlcan Tras sojaevrhat sroaller than the Majior Dado, Hunter to'" Bolt on 6 Jim, ^ Ga^:^ to Bolton to Shp "li ?iin. 1837. Tbie.

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1 V b 39. SW to sn, 2'f Kay, Slti.yp SN to Dallas, 25 May, Records, 6-7i vice vei-r-ia, 10 Jun. ? Dallas to Call, 10 Jvi'u ends, to Dallas to SK, 3 J-ulc? to SN, l4 Jun, 20 Jim. 26 Jim., 30 Jim,, 8 Jul. I Dallas to Call, 2 Jul., enol to Dallas to SN', 3 Julc? Scott to Dallas, 1 Jul,, oncl to Dallas to sk, l6 Jul. 1836, Capt. Itrso liQ, Eaohe to Dallas, 22 Jul,, enol„ to Dallas to SW, 30 Jul. 1836, rbDi. k'l, B.ouiGOJi -co Dallas, 15 Aug., end. to Dallas to SiAl, 31 AUa:t l"30r iiiiS',' 42, Warping Ib to jtioto a vessel by hai:iling on a line a.tta,ohed^ to^'a Duoyj ancho3:^p or fixed oDjoct. 43. Seiames to Dallas, 11 Oct J, eriol. to Dallas to SN, 19 Oct. 1836, iMd„ k Call to S, 2 Dec, TPsFlorida, XXV, 351? Seimes to Dallas,, 11 Oot.p oncir^tb IMlas to SW, 19 Oct., Capt, Itra.j Sermes to SM, 23 Nov., Offo Itrs. ? TicG versa, 8 DoCo I836, Off., Ships of War, k5,. Dallas to SK, 31 Aug,, Gapt„ Itrs.s SW to SN, 3 img,, SViLSi 3N to Dallas, 5 Aug., Offc, ^ihips ox Wart SN to S, ^!Oct„ 1837^ SVJmvi-U CEallEK 3 1, Na^, ?II1, 30?? Aggleton'^g SLclo£.aediG5 58-59 f Allon^'^ ifest I:sfii|m P3Jk^ '69. 2, v;hitehead to Dallas, 11 Jan= euol. to Dallas to m, 12 Jan. I836, Capt. ltrs= 3^ Ke^ M?^li JliSii^yiSZf '^' '''"' 5 Dallas to Ec 13 Jfcin.' I83F7 "Cap-fcT Itrsr 11 !K:CaU 4. Dallas to SN, 15 Jan., 1? JaJj. I836, 31:dd. 5„ Dal! las to SN, 5 FoD., l4 Fcb„ 19 Fob., 11 Mar., 3 Ap;^u. I836, IMA^ 6, Dallas; to SN, 8 Apr. I036, ibid. 7, Ibid.. 8, l^allas to SN, 23 Aau. 23 Apu. 1836, m^la *-,;— i.',';^-'*"

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177 9. Dallas to GK, 20 Hay 1836, ilDj 10. SW to Sj;J, 20 Jan., SWLS? SB to Dallas, 21 Jan. 1836, Off., Ships of War. 11. Dallas to SH, 20 Jun. 1836, Capt. Itrs. 12 e fetract from Webb to Dal3,aR„ 13 Mar. Iri Dallas to SN, 3 Jul. IB36, ij^id. 13. Dallas to SN, 11 Oct. 1837, ibid. 1^1. DallRo to SM, 19 Oct. 183?, ib.M. 15. Dallas to Babbitt, 2MSep. I838, end, to Babbitt to SNp 21 Jun, 1839 ^ Cdr. Itrs. 16. SM to Dallas, 2k Feb. I836, Off,, Ships of Ware l?c Dallasi to SN, 5 Kay I836; Capt. Itrs. 18. SU to SN, 2^1 Hay^ sVILSj SH to Dallas, 25 May I836, Records, S--?, 19. Dallas to SN, 20 Kay I836, Capt. Itrs, 20. Dallao to S'N 20 Jiai. 1836, ibid, 21. Jacob Housmaris et al = to Dallas j I6 Jiin. enclo to Dallas to SN^ 2^!Jun,"To36, ibjUl. 22. SN to Dallas, 9 J&n. 1886,, Off., Shi-o:^ of War. 2.;-'c i''-. i-'O cji\! ,>0 Jtui, lo„70s b!vLb. 24. Call to Dallas p 26 Day, end ^ to Dallas to SN, 3 Jiu c 1836, Capt. Iti's, 25. Dallas to SN, i]^A' 26. Cali to Dallas, 25 dvxi, enol, to Dallas to SN, 3 Jul. 18365 ib3,d, 27 Da:i.laa to Call, 2 Jul,, enol. to D-allas to SM 3 'li-i'l ( 1836 f ibidt. 28. Dallas to SpI, ibid. 29, SN to Dallas, I6 Jul. 1886, Off., 8hjps of War.

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1,7? 0. Dallas to Mix, -IB 118:^ 31. M:l.x to Wilson, 26 May, enol to Dallas to SN, 6 Jul < I836, Ibid,. Hix to Wilson, 28 Ifey 1836^ ibid. Wilson to Mix, 30 May j, 836, ibid, Dallas to Sil, 6 Jill. I836, ibM, Sa to Dallas, 2? Jul, 1836, Off., Ships J''3'' Oi (llc'vl, .Jj'f 36. Dallas to SM', 2 Jan. 1837^ Capt, Itrs. 37. DallaG to SKI 18 Sop. 183?^ HecordCp88, Dallas to SN, 2 Oct. I8365 Capt. Itrs. CHAPTim k 1. Mis; to Dallas f 6 Aup:,^ end. to Dal'laR to SMI 7 A-ug, 1836, Capt. Itr^; 2. Call to Dallas, l4 Sep., 'FPtFlpTl6&, XXV, 33i"'32p D:;illas to SM, 2 Oct. I836, Itecordsri^^ 3, Dr, E, FrederlcJs Leitner wa;? a German-born phjrBician and naturalist who had resided in Charleoton, S. C, for the previous seven years and had spent much of his tirsie investigating the fauna of southern F'U-r-^,da, A&If, VI, 181? Hotte, Journey, 18'lp 299. 4. Stephen R. Mallory, Sr. later Qonfederate secretary of the navy^ obtained leave froiii hla position Gis custoiiiS inspector to Eicoompany Ponell. In hiH diary he presents this expedition as a cheerful ^ oaro.^ free larhj quite contrary to raost reports? '=1 had a very pleasant and ?;omewhat independent position assigned,' to mSi, with the coiamand of a fjne body of seamen, and ray auperb longf center board Goliooner-riggGd t^haieboat and our party v-as most suocef3sfull3?" employed froiii O'upiter River to Tampa t throuh the Everglades and around the ooastj beating up the quarters of the Indiana ashore and afloat. Pro;.fi the pleasant climate as from half aquatic 5 half hunting sort of service, and the pleasant association of the officers the oairipalgn was to -Kie a i;iorrt agreeable one. In the fall follovjlng 1 again joined Cant. Poiioll in a similar service, over the sano ground p witli a larger force, nhlcli rendered

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179 low have hes.rd me often refer to the exciting iiicidents of the Indian service 5 though I never IvllleCi or wounded an Indian, I enjoyed capital hcalthf good, splr-its, and reaped much useful esperien,oep self reliance ,, and benefit generally froro my service.'" Clubbs,, "Stfcjphen Eussell Kalloryj" 52. 5 John VJhaltonp also spolloci Walton, vias the keeper of the Carysfort Eosf lightship 1 he w&s Icllled "by Indians the following year in the same garden, Il2£i^gi S£gMf 21 Jul/io37s Broime, Ke;jr West, 87. 6. CharloGton Courier, 3 Nov^s Plorldian, 26 Nov. ^335"'— — "' ."™^~7„ Captain Jacob Housnan \-:B.c a notorious vn?ecker who owned Indian Key A few citizens of Mcnroo County clairaed thsit "the undersigned know thut petitions with numerous signatures have boon sont to Congresn, praying for a port Entry at Indian Key. ., In one instance it is knom'if that laenj oonstituting a large expedition against the Indians ^ under the coianand of Lieut <, Powel [^sic^^ of the Ul S. Navy, signed one of these pstitions at Dnidlan Key's, several tlHjes overs tjith different signature Sf for a glas^s of grog each time/' 2?.Mi.5i;%i£[.§. XXp 252.-53, Powell confirmed this accusation £y^"^-~" letter to wllj.iaiii A, hitohG-;:d on Septojaber lip 1837, i?i3, llSR" llkQj Appendix A^ 7, Soo also Dodd, "Jaoob Hous5:'ian7'" 8,. The name Everglades was not usod on maps until 18235 Hannat Lals£ SMS:5yi2l^?!x5 33. 9. Powell to Ciabbf Doc, IO36, A&h, JV\ 2Q8-QQ, 10. Ibid, I Powell to Crabb, 18 Oct. 26 Cot,,, Cdr. Itrs.s Vanda:i3.,a ship's log^ 13 Oot„, 9 Deo^^ 15 Dec. l8367"RecofdQ, 137 r 139. 11. Dallas to SK, 23 Dt;o. I836, ibid.,, 78. 12. Powell to Sl'L 2'f Sep, 1837 f P-^898, SllGE, 13c Powell's lueraorand'avMj. 10 Oct, 1837? P"-919f ibid. 1837, 1^1' „ Powell to SN, 29 hov, 1837, Off, Itry. 15 c Kahonf SemJ,n.ole, H§£f ^-91 :t'f 16, SvJ to Powell, 14 Oot,r Sv/ to Jesups 1-^!Oct.

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180 17. Jesup to SW, 29 Oct iQj? HO. Dc^. 23.' 25 Cong., 2 S5ss„j Appendix:,. l88-89o —"--— 18, SW to Dallas t 1 Nov. 1837^ Reoords, li, 19 Powell to Dallas, 2 Ifey, end, to Dallas to m, 16 Jul. 1838, Capt. lt:cs. 20, Mahon, Seminx>le Ivar, 219-^20. 2i, Tho Haulovox-j oiSancl.s Point j was the site of Fort Ann during this war. Beoauae this was a gathering point for lato plonee'c-f? moving f?outb( the town of Titusville sprang up a few miles ciouth of the Haulovers Hellier^ IMlSci SASlSEf ^^'^ 22. Motte, JouTttes:* ^-^^^ 23. Joseph E. JGhnston^ later a Confedera.te general ( vms graduated froin V'est Point and resigned hio commission May 31 p 1837. While waiting for reappointment he volunteej:'ed for dxity In Florida = Johnston later accepted o, coKimisslon as first lieutenan.t in the topogi'aphical engineers in JunOp 1037 s,k^ he was cited for his actions; during the i'lorida War, Heltman, J^^^G^i:^}^ Hj^MM^^^ -'f !^"^'' 24' Powell to Dallas, 2 hay, end, to Dallas to SNf 16 Jul, 1838 p Capt. Itrs. 25,. Ibid, 26, The Battlo of Oheeohoheo is desorllDed in Mahon, Sealriole Warp 227-"'30t Powell departed for the Inter! or ""before the news of the battle reached Jupitar Inlet p Motte^ Joiw£^lSZf l?8'-80„ 27. Povrell to Dallas. 2 Ms.y ^ end. to Dallas to SH, 16 Jul. 1838, Capt. Itrs. 28 „ The title of captain is generally accorded to commanding: officers in the navy regardless of their rank, Nilesl, LIilj 401. 29,, Later reports indicate tiiat Dr, Loitnor did not die at this tlmOf but was capturod by the Indians and suhfioquontly killed by thOHf Hotto^ Jo-arney, l8i;-85. 30, Ihe conduct of the battle of Jupiter River is derived from raany sources 'Sh.e folloiving are the most pei'tinente Lieutenant Pov?oll r:i reportss Po\rcll to Dalla:;;, 1? JeWc .. Nilea% Llll, '^iciSi Powell to SH,

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181 2? Jaru s 6 Fel^ t Off. Itrs;^ Powell to Dallas, 2' May, end, to Dallas to SK\ 16 Jul 1338 ^ Capt< lt:eb„ Surgeon Motte^ who was at the carap on the Indian Elver Inlet, and Surgeon JarviSf who x-'ecelYed his information three days later at Carap Loj^dj both 'basically agree with Powell' g reports, Motte, Journey, l82"8'i'5 Jax-viSj "Diary/' 38--40. '—'^^ 31. Jawis, ibid., k6t Am, Vi. 159^60? Ifehon, 32. Powell to m, 6 Feb= I838, Off, Itrs, 33. A&iif ^'^-^ ^20 f Shappee, "Fort Dallas," 20.-2'+, y-K Sam Jones f as he was knovm to the Arusrioansp was a mediclnG man ovor seventy years old who had an intense hatred for the white man^ Mahonf Seininole ^'feTf 127-28, '""" *""™'' """"" 35, Jesup to Dallas, 5 Mar. I838, Recoi^ds, 92. 36, Powell to Dallas s, 2 Ray. end. to Dallas to SK, 16 Jul. I838, Captc ltrs„? i^i;N, VI, 268--^69f NlleBS LJV, 49? Spraguop Oi^e;in, 195-96:; Ploriaian, 21 Ap:cc 1838. ""^"" 37. Howard to Dallas, 26 i^pr to SN, 3 May 1838^ Capt. ItrSc encl. to Dallas 38c Powell to SW, 26 Apr. I838, P..^.l3l'':', Si^S, CHAPTER 5 XXV, -f-l-lD Jcsmp to SU, 10 Aug, 1837 ^ 35l5F3:,0£ida, 2, Si? to Dallas^ 6 Sep., Off,, Ships of War? vice versa,, 11 Oct. p 17 Oct. f l-lIJeo 1837? Peck to DallaSf 15 Jan. t end, to to SN', 15 Jan. I83S, Capt. Itrs. 3" H.9Si2-S^B;. SS^iS-l^il' '^'2 Ji^l. 1837 1 WillliaiiiSf Territcxryf 271V Woi;wie7'Ke;3r West;. 87 k-, Hanna, Florida's G;olden Sands, li^;-.15f A&E, VI,, 31 716. 5. SW to SNp 18 Jan,,, SULSi SN to Dallarj, 20 Ji'ji, ^ BeoordS; 11-0.2| vice verKa^ 26 Hare? Cspt, Itrc? Taylor to '.Howard, 22 Jun. 1838,. T..,i69j AGLK„

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182 6. Habon, SeMnole Via:c% 2)Vh Taylor to Howard, 22 Juru 1838, T-^4697"AGLH7 "'"''"'" 7. HoLaissi'-^lij'! '^iS-A Toliinteerod to serve in the army In October, ^1,836. lie had l^een attached to Lieutenant Colonel Ac C. Wo B'anning'tJ oonKiandf and he had been wounded in an cnfrageinent on Lalt:e Monroe ^ Florida, on Februars^ 8, 183? hlch had incapacitated him for six months/ In September he again requosted duty with the a3?ro.y. This time he served on the east coast transporting" troops along Indian Kivev and its laf^oons in small boats. McX^aughlin to M, 28 Oct.f 23 Dec^ 1836, 5 Sep„ 1838, Off. Itrs.f vice versaj l^Nov. 1835, Off., Ships of War? Sprague 'jQ^2iX^L HSi^ 1(^8"?0| Motte Journey ^ 1 5355 s 8, The xvaist is tho portion of the deck between the forecastle (forward) and Quarterdecl; (after deck behind the main mast), 9c McLaughlin to SVJ, 31 Kay/ end. to SW to SN, I Jun./SwLSi SN to SW, 4 Jun. h.^^294-, SKLRg vice versa, II Jun„, SMLSf McLaughlin to SN, 9 Jun. I838, Off. Itrs. j A&N, VI 1 J 2?, 10, McLausKiin to SN, 21 Miq. 1838, Off. Itrs. 11 The Alna was a 73 foot, II8 ton sclioonor built at' Alna, Maine, 1835. W?A, Ships Registers of Tort of Philadelphia, 1, 31. Samuel Pierce lists the Aim ai aTlMglSuilt at Alna, I831, "Inspection List of 560 Vessels Belonging to the District of Portland,, Made up to October 1st I837, by Sainuel Pleroe, mspoctor/^ manuscript fx-oy^ the original by iriobert B. Applebee, Historian of the PenobBcot Marine Kusoum, Sear sport, Kaino,, '' This is in the pocsession of Mr. Applebse, 12. The AJjibaina 'vfaa a ^1-2 foot, 3^ ton sloop built at Kei'London7"'Gomic 183? ? the Caption vjas a^^^ k6 foot, ^'-fton s:aoop built at Stoningtonp Oonn, I838? the' Dread viaa a 4^ffoot, 36 ton sloop built at Stonington, l8l87"a;tS: rebuilt in 1835, WP/i "Ships Eegistors of Port of Me-w London," Kational Archives Project, oopios in the G„ ,. Blunt White Library, Marin.e Historioal Association, Mystic, Gonno These vessels must have ^ boon among tho early Coiniootiout fishing ssiackG xdiicn besan spending tho wintors in the Gu].f of Mexico in the 1830 's and developed trade with Cuba, Goodo, FisbiM Industrie G, 1, 595^ 13, Kilos' LV, 102.^03.

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183 Ik, The Serulnoles were (ivmed. iilth small bove Tlfles of Spanish deaign produced, in Cuba. Bacsvuss of its siaall hitting power the AiRerican oas\;ialtios vfere gene:rally lights Mahori, SemiiTjDle Ifer^ :120"21. This fact posslblj?explains %er"s ama.slng physical abilities after being i-roundcd, 15. Letters by I'Jyex'j 3 Oct„ I838, and CajiiiiiGtt n,d<,5, qiioted from the 'JlSlS^2S^ i^^ilB^^^.S'I:.* reprinted in the Baiig.or PjaI]^^ '^.hSi E 9S!BI£lJ^i "20 Oot. 1838! statements made 'by Wyer and Cammett quoted from the Erening Merca^ntilo Journals repx'inted in the? Eang_or 16 c Faunoe identifies his guide only as Mr. Eagan„ Years later E, Z, C, Jiidsonf whose pen name was Ned Bi^ntline^ wrote an article about his adventures as the executive officer of tho Otsego In 1840. He mentions "Jim Eagan, our coast pilot f an old Ploridian" as a civilian with the navy during the war. The Eagans were among the first settlers in the Miaral aroa. John Eap:anf the father, received his Spanish grant of land in"l808, HollinQ;sworth, Dade County, 25-26? Pond, "Ned BujTblinej" 2'v-25. -...--^-. .. ...^.... -™-,.~ 17, McLaughlin to GN^ 19 Sep= 1 Faunoe to Coste. 19 Sepc s Coste to DallaSs 19 Sep., Cdr, Itrs,? McLaughlin to S>?f 20 Sep,? CoBte to M, 2'y Goto 1638^ Off, Itrs. 18, KcLaushlin to 3bi, 20 Sop, 1838, iJbicL 19, McLaughlin to SN, 1 Jul, 18^12, ibid. 20, Coste to SKj 26 Dec.i Shubriok to HoLaughlln, 1 Deo., end. to MoLaughllD to SK, 23 Deo, 1838, ijbid. 2i„ Taylor to McLaughlin, 22 Jan. 1839 T.-'^9, AGLRi KoLaughim to SN, 1 Jul. 18^]'2, Off„ Itrs. /.,C /: tli:-^ u o SI'L 31 Oou. 1838, Cdr. Itrs, 2k s?j to sk; 15 Oct. 1838, swl; SW to SNl k' Apr. 1839,. ibid/ W to Mol^aushlin, 2hJul. I83S, ibid, 26. ai to sy. 5 Jul., T-^920, sifflLRs m to svj, 11 Jill, 5 N."3i6, ibil'? Dallas to SIv, 25 Jul., Capt,. Itrs.j Yico versa^ 10 Aup;.t Off„„ Ships of Warj SN to Coste, -10 Mq. 1838, ^XPlIilorlda, XKY, 52?.

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im 27. CoBts to 3]\r, 26 Poc. 1838, Off, Itrs. 28, MoLaup;hlin to SK, ^!8ep,(, ? viao versa, 6 Sev. 1839 ^ Off,„ Ships of V/ar~"" CHAPTER 6 228.=29 1, Hahon, Seajjmxle Ifer, 255...57s; Sprague, Origin, 2„ The French tjloclcade toolc place during the so called "Pastry ifer" (Guerx^a dc los Paste3^ee) ^between France and Mexico in l83B"r'*~rt iiirs™bhe"reiurt"'of r-lotow_.s oonci.'o.ct by Mexican soldiers i"ho destroyed a bakery ovmed by a PrGnolxraan some five yes/rs before T]ie original damage im.s about if 000 pesos ^ but with the passage of time this claim had grown to 60^000 pesos. By 1838, the bali'er's and other Fji'enoh demands araoinated to 600„000 pesos f which the hiexioan governjnent rceftised to fsatisf;)^. 'Ihe French minister* 8,sked for his papers on April 20 [, 1838 ^ and^ befor-e the Bionth had ended, the French fleet arrived to blockade the Hexican coast, Adiiiiral Baudin waited for cool weather before landing on the fevexcoast at YeraoruE on Noveaber 2?^ 1838, Two weeks later as the French forces vjere withdratJingj Santa Amia? who had come cut of political retiremsntp led some Mexican forces in a charge upon the departing Frenchmen and lost his leg in the enstilng sliirmlshc This restored Santa Anna to the liraelights and launched hira upon another political venttire in Mexico's turbulent politics, Calloott, Santa Anna, 155? 3N to If. B, Shubrlok, 25 Jfin, 1839. Off„j Ships oFWar. 3. STsi to \h B, ShubricJr, 5 Apr,, 1839, ibi^.= ^!', The 3?oiiisetts diiaensions Tj-iorei length 133 feetj beam 22 fietr'^.epth of hold 9 feet, mean draft of water 6 feet,, She had a. mean speed of eight laiots, and carried a long thirty-tv;'o pounder pivot Q:'im, Stuart ^ 5. SN to Ksyo, 5 /;pr. 1839, Records, 1?, 6. SN to W. B Shub:cick, i^f Jun„ 18 >9, Off., Ships of Waro Y c Mayo to SN^ !'} Jiuit ,. C-d;:?, ItrSc? veraaj

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J. CO 8 Sponsons are projections on the side of vessels to increase their s'tability by creating an increased surface area^ 9. Mayo to SN, VI Jun. 26 Jmi. 30 J\m. 3 Jul., 6 Jul., 12 Jul. 1839 f Cdr. It3?s. 10. Hayo to Taylor, 12 Jul., end. to Kayo to SH, 25 J-ul. 1839 f Ibid, 11. Nlltslf 21.71 f 355^ 12. Mayo to SW, 25 Ji'il 1839 f <:'dr. Itrs. 13. Mahonf Sem^^no2.e Ifgir^ 26i...6^!-. 1^!-. Cutters are double-^-bankedp sqi^aresterned ship's boats, A gig is the name of the ship's; boat set'' aside for the coHiaandlng offioei-, A dinghy is a small boat for work alongside the ship. 15, Poinsett ship's Iok^ 30 SxiX,, 31 JfO.,? K&yo to SN, 3i)'^fulV""l839. Records, Vsh, 1^5. 16 „ Hayo to Sh^ h Aug. ^ 6 Ai^g. l6 Aasf 23 Aug. 1839, Gd:r:% Itx-s. 17. Mayo to Taylor^ 26 Aiig„? vice versa, 26 Aug. ends, to Mayo to SN, 26 kxxq,, 1839, lbld„ 18 Mayo to SWp 6 Sep. 1839, iMd. •-1,., 19. Mayo to SK, 2 Oct., 13 Oot=, 25 Got,, wit) ends. Wood to" Mayo ^ 28 Sep., 30 Sep. ^ -^.-OGt ^ and HcCreery to K&yo, 8 Oct. 1839 f Ihii' 20. K&yo to SN, 8 Sep., 1? Sep. 1839. 1^11 21. Davis to Kayo^ 29 Sep.. end. to Mayo to SKj 13 Oot.i; Mayo to 8K, 1 Oct. 1839 ^ Ibid. 22 < Fort Kerable was built by Mayo at a sj.ts not fas? from tho older deserted Port DallaOf Mayo to Sh, 13 Oot. •^ Pqc jJOJAl, 23. Mayo to SN, 15 Nov., 30 Nov. 1839^ ibl^o 2k. SVJ to SM, 17 Oct., SlJI-Ss m to Mayo, l8 Nov, 1839, Off., Bhipfi of War. 25 „ Mayo to SN, 27 Doc^ Cdr, Itrs,? SM to Davi?^f 30 Deo. 1839, Off.? Ships of Ifeia

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-1 O r 26. Ilayo to SM, 23 Aug. 1839,. Cd:c, Itrs.' 27, Mayo to SN, 8 Stsp. 1839, ibid. 28 „ Mayo to SN, 18 Bov, 1839 s Ij^M^ ^^'^^ adverse evaluation of the stesimer was undoubtedly well reoslved by SecretaT-y Paulding who was Icnown. to "bo a foe of steamers c At one time he declared his intention "never to consent to let our old ships perishs, and transfoiia ou,-:navy into a fleet of [stea)-ft] sea monste^rs, ..." Sprout (, iujerican Navail jPow^Zf H'^'^ 29 Kayo to SN^ 18 Koy. 2? Dec. 1839. Cdv-. Itrs. 30. Ifeyo to SKf 1? J-un,, 2 Oot.^ Gdro Itra.? vice versat 22 Oun^ Off.f Ships of Wars Wood to SH, 12 S8p„, Off. Itrs.s vice versa^ 10 Oct., Off,, Ships of War? Kunn to Sh^ 8 Sep.^ Off, Itrs.? vioe'vorsa, •12 Goto, Off., Shiios of Vfer? Siiith to m, 10 Sep. Off. Itrso? vico Torsa, 10 Oot„ 1839? Off., Ships of War 31c Kayo to SKf 15 Wo'V", l839(, Gdrc Itrs. CHAPTi;!! 7 1„ A conterhoard serveo the same funot;ion as a Ireelf hut it Ka^'' be raised and lowered at will so as to sIIot;!' a vey&^ol to sail in shaXlox'r tjatersj 2. MoLans;hlin to SK^ 2 Jx^l.^ Offo Itj/s. j McLaughlin to m, 10 Jnl., 10 Ai^g., M198, M-328, SWLHi vice versa, 19 Aiig.r 2 Sep.f SWLS? SN to John Rodgers, 9 Uov.s Off,, Shipfs of Ua^?i vioe versa, 12 Nov. 1839, Off Itrso 3„ B& to I fey o J 2 Doc.^ 8W to McLai^o;hlinp 30 Dec,? SK to Davis^ 30 Doo., Off.. Ships of hsrj Mayo to UB, 2? DoOo 1039, Cci:c, Itrs. k, MoLarighlin to Cbiof CI eric ^ Wavy Dopt, 10 Deo. 1839 5 Off„ Itrs. 5 This tor..ii was usedf pnooahliy for the first tl3iic in the American navy, by ths officers and ]acn sen?vlng under I-loI/aughl in Revere. Keel and Saddle, 2 5 Pondp 2?Ied Bun-bline," 2J-U HcLanchlii) 'to SN, l^iJan,, 20 Jan;7"""^f' Feb"" l8'ro„ Off, Itro. 6. Mahont §sml.noj[j^ Warp ?.G'j^':Gb, '"{ Sh to McLanGhlinp 2 Doo, 1839? Off,, Ships of War.

PAGE 191

iv Be Holaughlin to SK, 20 Jan., Off, Itrs,? loe vorsa, 5 Feb., 13 Feb., 50 /pr, 18^-0, Off,, Ships of War,, ltr£ 9. McLaughlin to SH, 8 /ipr. 22 May 184-0, Off, 10. Ec Shu crick to MoLaiir^hlln, i? is^pr, enol to McLaughlin to SN^ 8 Jul, l8^i-0, ibid. 11, MoLaushlin to SN, /| Aug. iS^'O, Ibj^,; .2, Hurray to Hclaughlinj 7 .Aug,? KoLaughlin 15 Aug. with eiji 15 Aug., 21 Aug. iS^i'O, Off. Itrs to SK, 11 /sup;,, 15 Aug., with eriol. Burton to KoIaughliUj 13 „ KcLaughlin to SH\ 11 Aug/, with enol Mol^a-aghlin to E„ Shubrickf 9 Augr IB^I-O^ and agreejnent betvreen McLaughlin and. HoussiisUf ibldr 1^l„ SK to l-icl,aushlin, 10 Oct,, 29 Oct., 11 Nov., Off„, Sl'lp^i of Wan vice ve}?Gaj 31 i^teo. iS'^Of Off, Itrs, 15. Mahon, Ssjai.nole Vfer, 282.. 8^-. 17 :?!'!ll'i 18. KoLaughliin. to Oh, 2^Jan. 184-1, Off, Itrs. 19. hoLaughim to SW^ 31 Doe, l8ifC„ 24 Jan. 18'M, ibid. 20. Sh to SH, 10 Jun, 104-0, 8hLS. 21. MoLa.Uffi;hlin to SN^ 10 Jul, ^ Off. Itrs,? vice versa, 30 Jia„ 1840, Off., Ships of Wart-. 22. HoLaughlln to SW^ 17 Sop„, Off, lt/:-s,i vioo Torsa, 19 Not, 1840^ Off,, Ships of War. 23. HoLaughlln to SH, 2 5 Jan, ^ 24ApUc, Off, Itrb.E vice versa p 13 Poh. 18':-1 Off., Ships of Hsr. 24. KcLaughlin to Sh, 2.6 Ju.i. l8hi, Off. Itus. O-JAPIKH 8

PAGE 192

188 ;, ON to 0, 23 .iulc lo^K), K..69, ibid. 3, OW to SN, 10 Sep. I8v0p OWLS, Ik Spragae, Florl:§S: IS:^^ ^7^-^-7 5t Mahon, Seminole Vfe/r, 297 box 4^ Dc .It'lCl, ST to S'iL 6 Jvilv. ^^-2l3J Qaarter-. master GeneiSr'to Sw^ 22 Jul., n.d., Q.^.33. Q-35, SWHI,Rj SN to HcLai3':chlin, 10 Julo, Off^^ Ships of Viari vice versa, I6 Jul„, 23 Jul. IS^'I, Off. Itrs, 7. ]?aixhan shot is a holloif shot filled Hith a fused ex-olosive charge. It Is naaed after a French artilles?y officer, Henri Joseph Paixhanj ivho in 1822 recoSiBiended such chsirges for use in the French navy, 8. McLaughlin to m, 1? Jvl,, I6 Aug., ? Sep, l8^Mp Off. Itrs. 9. Order No 1, Headquarters ^ Arroy in Florida ^ 8 Jtn. iS^t-l, reprinted in Spraguc, Florida ^l&r, 275r Mclaughlin to SM, 8 Oct. l8iM, Off„ Itrs. 10 Spraguop Florida, fer^ 271c 11, Gene'f^f'l Order, Florida Expedition, 5 Oot, 18^1, end. to hoLaughlin to SK, 16 Feb. 18^:'2, Off. Itrs, 12, C. R, ?< Eodgers to SF^ 12 Sep. 1842, ibid. 13, McLrvarf'sim to SW, 25 Oct.p ibl£k' Burhe 3 t^ov/^ reprinted in Sprague. Florida Wgir, to (Jhilda, 3 ..,Vi..,'_ [: „I.
PAGE 193

189 20. KoLaughlin to Sii, ZJ Doo, l&yi Off / Itrs. 21. McLaushlin to SN, 1? Jau„ 1&-1'2, ilAd, 22. Marohaiid to HcLaushllnp 2? Jan, ^ encl= to MoLaiighlln to SN, 30 Jan, 18^-2 5 ibid^ 23. VIorth to McLaughlin; 3 Jan., end. to McLanghlln to SH, l6 Jan. 18^-2, lM;d f Malion, Seslnole 24. McLaughlin to SN, 1? Jan. 18^2, Off, Itns. 25. McLaughlin to SW, 18 Mar, l8'!-2, IMJ,. 26= Marchand. to McLauglxLinj 2'^'l' Pe"b„ enol. to MoLaiighlJ.n to SN, 3 Mar<,i Karohand. to HcLaughlln, 23 Mar., ema., to McLai^shlin to SM, 2? Mais 18^2, IM^!;" 2?, McLaughlin to SN^ 2? Mar. 18^2, ibidc 28. McLaughlin to John Rodgers, 1 Feb. 18^2, reprinted i>i Spragus, Pj^rlda War^ 30l">82„ 29. Preble t "Canoe Expedition^ 31 30. Johnson f Joto Rodger s, .58-= 59. 31. John Eodgers to McLaughlin ^12 i^pis l8i!'2, reprinted in Sprague, PloT5,da Tfer, 38^1-86. 32. McLaughlin to SH, 26 Kay 1S42, Ofih ItrtJ. "VK lioLaughlin to SNp 29 Apr,, 26 Hay, MA.i MoLaughlin to Worthy ? Apr, l8^!-2f reprinted in Sprague, Florida Warp 282.83 35. Hahon, Seniinole War, 309-10. 36, SN to McLaughlin^ 5 ^fe'Jf Off., Ships of arf vrloe versa^ 9 Jim., 19 ^-^1= l8^-;-2, Off. ItrSo CHi\PTflh 9 1, Sprasue, Fl,orj.da War, 35'^ 2o Johnson (. J,o]in Rpdao:c;Sj Jc^jsiia, O Tl '>, ;-

PAGE 194

190 'JoJ:ii'i McL Off:lcers' Sei-vioe Abstracts, l?90-i893f ^^swy JJopa-tioerrb, B.eoords of the Bureau of Na.val Personnel ^ Record Group 2k^ National Archive gg "Obituary," Bo-^J-j liMt:lSBBl. Ili&S2J:iSSIB^s 6. Ibldc 7^

PAGE 195

BIBLIOGRAPHI Kamiooript Ifetorial Adjutant General's Office, "Lefbers Eeoeived," Reoord Groiip 9'K National ArohlvcK, Adjutant General's Office, "Letters acnt," E.eoord Group '9if Kational Archive 8, Department of Flo:e3,da, "Reocrds/' Record Groiip 98, National Archives, War Esaords Division, Early Wars JsTvlSf Hathfjn B, "Diary Kept While a. Sur^jjeon with ths Army in Florida, 1837-1839," K^oh lorl: Aoademy of Meclloine Klorof ilEied „ "John T.KcLaughlinj" Officers* Bexrloa AhBtraats, 17981893 f Havy Departmsntj Records of the Bureau of Kaval Pc^^sonnel J Heooi^d Croiip -^i-; hational ArchiYC8„ Letters Ecccivud by the Ssorefejy of the ifevy From ^^ Captains ("Captains' Letters" )i. l803....1fa., l8i:.o.~lbb:)j Record Gro-up 45 e KatiOBal A3?ohives. Letters RecelvecS l)y the; SecrotaiT cf the havy Prcm ^ Coffiwanders ("HaRiters' Commandant'" through lo.!/, 'c/nereafter^ "CoramaMers' Letters^O iQOk-^lQBS, Keoord Grotxp ^1-5 f h&tional Archives, Letters Eeolvcd by the Seci-a-lary of the Ka^y Ito;;:. Officerr; Bsl
PAGE 196

192 Off Of:? V-\ e "l&G Of the Seoj?ctary of Wa:i;% "Letters Bent Relating to Military Affairs, 1800.":l8o9, Eecord Group 10?, National Archives, •1oo of" the SaoTetai-y of War.. '^Registei=£ of Letters Beceivedj Kain Series, I800..i8?0," Reooi-d Group 10?, K'a t i caal ii rehi ve b ,rc3f Sara-aeln "Inepootion List of 3^0 Vessels Belonging to the District of Portland ^ Made u;p to C?ctober 1st 183? t bs Sa:ra;i^Jl Pierce p lnspec-oo:c, Ms prepared fT'rRe froM the original Toy Robert B„ Applehee^ Historian of the Penobscot Iferins Musemif Searsportp Maine. The K.s Xb in the possession of Mr^ Applehee. ^orfpdn Rol^tine^ to the Service of the Ifevy and the Ksxinc Corps on the Coar/t of Florida, l835"lB^^2," N&ticnal ArchiTcs, Office of Ka^ml Reoords. Micro-filmed. NeTvfe paper n ArKV anf. Navy Chronic"!^:! (l''a shins; ton, :0„ C). gangor (I-felneO ^Is-O^ Hhi^ §: Courier, Ch;irle£;;on (S'"^-'i.;]-i Carold,na) CJou:rie:r, pa;il;y wfetipn^^fl JllB?lli{:SBS,'2?'. (V/ashington, Id I;^:?d dfy:l}; ,!i^~!^;^^^i' Silep' vieeldly Ilefi^iytor (Ba3-tinors) in 1837 '"'""^iovfcd'"'to'1?i^BiH3ii5ton and becario the Nile£l (Sfc, Aucv-isi^in-;) i!2;Or.^.da Hs^rald. (lallahasooo) fior2iliiHi C;J thi paper lonal • •t-j-'i-"*

PAGE 197

193 Oth&r Souieoes Alleiif Garciiuer 11,. Orir Navy a)::id t)-jc West Indi?;:j.n. Pjj?ates. Sal Gin, Mass,, 19 29'. ira,e;riqan Stato PaToerss !SA2JJi§S;fli£*lH§,' 7volSe WasMVigtonr 183^1B60. ~ A-pp:S eton'B Cycj.qpaedla of Amerlx:an Blog;i^]2h;v> 6 vols, Eds, .„,^...^.^„..p^^^^^.^^ j5hi7'"fl'fVt^i'7 "iJew'York; 1887-..1889. Browne J Jefferson B. Key West? T]-)e Old and the Kejj. St. Ai^gustine, 19i2T ""'""" Bukey-^ George E. "Lieutenant Levin M. Powell ^ U.S.W., Pioneer of Riverine Warfare^" Ploflda Historical !^-^-i'^tQjfXZt XLVTl (Jan. J 1969-) /"253^75/"'" —-Callcotl..,, 1-vilfrid H. Banta Axyoai The. i?J?£SI £iC §^3; i5ll£lSE I'ilK) Onco l-fas Kcxioq, lSiiden7 Conn,, 196^-, Carter f Clarence E. (edj. ls^;'^?J::2J!5;^i J!t£^ 'U}'iltcd States f Vols. ''XIl-XXVir"'Flarj^ 3?Ikk VJa&hington 195^-=1962 „ Cliapelle, Hov^ard I. TM SlliH^Si:. S>,£ .^M I^^lJBlSSi 5511,3. n|; l'^*^:?y^ ?-ll9 i^i^-ESl §?ll^l5iiS;il iMlslisS^M'' •'^'^'^ lorkf i9^i-9. Clnl-bPis Occie, "Stephen Piussell ifellory^ Tne BlOer/^ KaHtar-'e thesiB^ Unlveireity of Florida, Galnef:ivil3,e, I936, Cohen Kfyer] K. J)'otioes of Pj.pricia bjiA the Cajijnoad £2;^. Cba ih o stb;'j. 3 „ ""oTI"'"! 83^"?" S?SpidHtea''"wi th' ah^nt oi'} Tdv 0, 2. I'ylert Jr.j in the Floridiana FacslBiile and Iteprlnb 6eraeK;s University of Florida 'Press, Gaj.nesvillOf i96^!-, Covinr-itonf Ol^nics W„ "A Petition Frora Some La.tln-A};;eriGan Pishermen. 1633 /' Tec|jie_sta, XIV (1954') ^ 6I-68. '^ Trade Between Southwest Florida and Cuba," ''^"""•Plrgfls, mjto:Ld X3QCVIII (Oct., 1959), 11^-28, Dintionarv of AiTierican, Bioorrgvehy Bids. Allen Joi)nson cnid "''^'i)Di:ii:^r"jiaiMier""ieF^ 1937 19^-^ 1958 c nold. Dorothj/'. "Captain Bimce's Tampa Bay Fisheries, 1835... :UU:-0," FlorM;x Historical Quarterly, XX\r (dan., 194-? ) ? Ja.oob houstian of Indian Key/' !;;5v9i:y:el!2iris Vlll \ 19 '"/' F „-•' -.9

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19'}O^eT&plovs on IrO^i^d^'lHt^B r "" Washington, I96B. Fitzpatriok, Donovanj anci, Saul Saphire, %Yy fiPiJ^Hl^zSi^^ teSli Ell3i3iE§ IdSQL^ Garden City, 1963 = GoodCf George Brovm. Tlie Fishing In(lust;|:^_GS of the United States, H5.stcxi^; and |ie;fchods„ 2 vols. Waah3!ngtonrr'T88l"^BB'2 Hanna, .Alfred J. ^ and Kathryn. ^.bbsy Hanna Florida's 2i2l^2Ii §SM§' Indianapol5 Sf 1950. Lake Okeephobee, Indianapolis ^ 19^^-8. Heitfflan„ Pranols B„ Historical Ref^stiiSl SBl £,2iiiSi2iisiSv: i?f Srl"^ Siid^i^ Statesf^iir 2 vols, Washington, 1903. HslliePf Walter R. Indian Biver? Sorida/s ^^^asure Coa,st„ Coo omit Grovci / FleT, T 19"^'5 c Hollingsworths Tracy, History of Dade County F:ior3._da, Coral Ga'blee, Pla., j^i~^ '-livjitlnfr/oon p S5t.Huel P„ The Soldier and the States The Theox'y and PolitlCB ^ 5 lvil5::M3 J!??i5X "^^^ Joim;3onv Robert Erwin„ Rear Admiral Jolm Eodj^^ers, 1812;;. 18821 Annapolis, 19677"" Kno3:, Dudley W, A Kisto??y of the Uni/fced States JBIX" Nevj Yoi-kf 2 9367 Lenis, Charles Lee. "Stephen Clegs Roxfanp" IVJ3, XVI, 1.96-'9?'. Le!'d,8, Michael JSi,i.e History oT the British Ifevy. Baltimore f I962. K&.hon, John K History of the Seoond Seiainole Vfer, i82i-i8l£2 = Gaine svill e p Fla „ 19 6? „ Motte, Jacob Bhett, Journey Into Hiki2i'3i2iiS* iil iM!l. S-urfjGon's Acqoimt of 'Life in"''Caiiip SST'Held DxaylnfK tE&'' Ct^ m:Ia' SemiM^ Ed, James P. B^und"ermi3i. "Gialnesv-'ille, Fla. 1953 National C>''clo*pfxcdla of Araeri_ca-n Biof^raj^]:!?/ ^-'-9 "V'Ols. evf'Toi%^ri^9?r^T96'^r '""' '"""'"" """ """^'"

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'-95 Neill, Uilfred T. "Tna Identity of FloD-icla's 'Spanxsn Indians S" Kiorlda Aiithrp^lof^t, VIII (Jim., 1955), i]-3-'57 "' """" """ "^ Pond, Predericlv Eugenn. P5.fe and Ml^IiiliiiS^ 51 IM^ Potterp Elser B. ( edj Sea Va^ev^ A Ife-yal K^oxx^ EngieTJCoci Cliffs, N. J,, i960. Potter,: [Woodburne]. Tncs War In Flo£i5£f Beinp; an Expo 8 it ion of I-fca GaAries'*and'''an Accurate M^storv |Gotr Bal^tlKiore ^ -^g;^-™"~ — Prelfle, GeorK Herr?y "A Canoe Expedition Into the Eh/'ergladois in l8^!-2," ]^m3:^^f '^ (19^1'5) SO-ol. Re-{r5ye5 Joseph IJarren. Keel and, Saddles A Eetj^sgeot of Fort;r Years of MM-Ita^jr li^'Mlil MSElifi' Bostonr'lWST" """"" Sh0.p]Kifip Nathan D, "Fort Dallas and the Naval Depot on Key Bisoayne, 1836^1926/' Tesnasta, XXI (196I), Sp3^ag-ae, John T. The Origin > Txof^esSf a.M Conolnjsion of the Florida War/"^"Kew York^TS^y? rep:rdnted vjith En In^trodii5fcIan''hy John K. liahon in the Floridiana Facsimile end Reprint Series ^ University of Florida Press s Gainesville f 19o4t Sprout, Harold, and Kargaret SproiUio Trie mjiG of Amorician Ka^al Po^o'ers 17'26"rL9i8, Princoronp h. ^^^^„,...„ Stuart, Cliarles B. Jj&^sl, and Kail Steamer j; of the Ml'SSi §iEkS' ^^^'^ Yorh, 1853. Sturtovantf William C, "Chakaika and the 'Spanish Indians' s Doonmentary Sources Compared with Sevoinolo Tradition," ;reauesta, XIII (1953). 35-73. United States Con^rress Barial Set, Waahlngton, ~"" "Co'u:!^™oF'''Xnciiili^ l^."™0;p oration 3 in Florida," KU Dgo., ?8. 25 Conn;.,, 2 Bos-^u ^ Jan. 8, I838. '^heiaorial of WilliP.:-! A. Whitoheads in answer to^ the petition of Tho},i^iS J. Smith, in. favor of rnaklnis Indian Key ^ port of entry," Sen, Doc. l4q; 35 Cong-., 3 BOSS., Jan/ 2'.|-, 1839.

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196 "Suvvcy of the Coast — ippalachicola to the Mouth or the' Mississippi f" Exe^,. DoOc 2^0^ 2? Cons., 2 seas., Apr 26 J 1842, United States Office of Kaval Becords and Library. Officlfiil Records of the Union and Gonfeclerate Kavi^es in 35}i"lIaF"c;!^3.h"l|3 Series I, 27 "toIs. Washingtoiif 189-!"1922 Williams ( John I.e&c The Territory of Pl^orida, New York, j83?j reprinted wi^'aF'Sfcrodiiotiori 'byHerbert Jh jSoherty^ Jr., in the I^ac simile and Reprint Series, University of Plorida Frees ^ Gainesville, 1962, PA, "Ships Registers of Port of New London f" National Archives. ^„ Shlgs Regioters of Port of Phil:aMkEMS:? i^IBSl^^S^' *""' V'olTTo' pH;i:adelp]iia/'*'l9'^-2'.

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BIOGEAPHIC/ii^ cIKETCH Georfi'S Edward BiiJser T^ras borM September 13 1 19^3 at Bangor f Balne, In June, 19'Mf ho gradimted from John Eapat B:igh School filtered the ImlverKd-fcy of Maine in the fall of 19'^'1. ^^^xth tho entry of the United States into V/orld War II, he entered the Ifeval A:v-lB.tlon Cadet program and was coiDmissionc-d &.s a naval aviator in Dece/ul 1 qii'^ From 19^-2 until 19^3 5io Bsrved on active dirfcy In the United States Kavy, and retired with the ranJi of coj3iKendsr. h-?^ retlremerxt ^ he entered Jgiotefionvllle University and in Angust, 196^;-, he received the dogroo of Bachelo:^:' of Arts, ma/tna onm laiide, Ee enrolleo in the Graduate School of the Univorsity of Florida and received tho degreo of Master of ArtB j.n August 1965. The following; year he x^as a.n instrnotor on the faculty of 3t<, Johns River Junior Colle^xo at Palatka, Florida. In the fall of 1966, he retnrr-d to the University of Florida to norlc tonard the degrse of Doctor of Philosop])y. Since Septoiiiher, I968, lie has hoen an Instruotor in History at JaoKsonville Unj.versity George Edward Buiccr is married to tho fuKncr Dorothy K, Arnold and is the father of two sons.

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This di fjE-ex'tatloii was prepared imdor tb.-? diractio;: of the chaJ.:rtoc;n of the candidate ti cTrperviBor;y" ooiuriitt&e and has boon approved L3;' &11 members of that oomnilttee. It Yras submitted to the Vetxn of the Colloge of Arcts and Soienoes and to the QxadMB.te Goinioilp iirid vras approved as ])art3,al fulfillment of the re-Qulreaents for tho dop:ree of Doctor of Philooophy. August, 1969 Bean f ™C^Tl elf l^^f^^^" axIT s and' Scienoos Dean. to ocJiool Supsq/Vl sor^' Oo^n'aittoe % lairjiifSJi. /!/( C^^i^^^

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