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The Weeden Island ceramic complex

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The Weeden Island ceramic complex an analysis of distribution
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Steinen, Karl T
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English
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viii, 343 leaves : ill., graphs, maps ; 28 cm.

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Archaeology ( jstor )
Bowls ( jstor )
Ceramic materials ( jstor )
Coastal plains ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Decorative ceramics ( jstor )
Effigies ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Gulfs ( jstor )
Middens ( jstor )
Anthropology thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Florida ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Florida ( lcsh )
Weeden Island (Fla.) ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 330-342).
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Also available online.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Karl T. Steinen.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Karl Terry Steinen. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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0025603741 ( ALEPH )
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E78.F6 S73 1976a ( lcc )

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THE WEEDEN ISLAND CERAMIC COMPLEX:
AN ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION


















By
Karl T. Steinen









A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1976

























Copyright 1976 By Karl T. Steinen


























DEDICATED TO:

Nancy Sears Steinen












TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ................................................... vi-Introduction........................... ................ 1

Chapter I: Cultural Evolution in the Southeast
to Weeden Island...........................4
Paleo Indian............................ 4
Archaic ................................5
Formative ..............................5
Sacred and Secular .....................9
Sacred Development:Yent, Green Point
and Weeden Island................... 11
Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia........16 Midden................................19
Mounds ................................20

Chapter II Ceramic Analysis and Sacred and Secular
Distribution ..............................27
Three Series........................... 33
Secular Ceramic Analysis ..............34
Weeden Island Distribution: Sacred ....65 Data Presentation .....................71
Northwest Coast and Inland Pottery
Deposit Types ......................72
Western Panhandle .....................73
Central Panhandle .....................74
Three Rivers........................... 78
Eastern Panhandle .....................80
Chattahoochee River ...................82
Peninsular Coast...................... 83
Northcentral Florida..................85
Miscellaneous Sites ...................86
Discussion ............................87
A Definition of Weeden Island .........88

Chapter III Hypothesis and Tests ....................103
The Northwest Florida Coast and Adjacent Areas of Alabama and Georgia............................ 105
Weeden Island Genesis ................105
Weeden Island Origins ................110
Chronology and Temporal Placement .... 114

Chapter IV Some Suggestions for Future Weeden
Island Research ............. ....... 150
Problem I: Secular Ceramics........... 150
Problem II: Sacred Ceramics .........153
Problem III: Complicated Stamped
Pottery .. .........................154
Problem IV........................... 154

iv







Chapter IV continued
Problem V: Excavations.............. 157
Problem VI: Cultural Relationships..157
Problem VI: Sacred Ceramics and
Mounds .............................158

Chapter V Summary. .................................161

Appendix A Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
Western Panhandle Area...................168

Appendix B Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
Central Panhandle Area ...................199

Appendix C Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
Peninsular Coast Area....................230

Appendix D Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
Eastern Panhandle Area................... 251

Appendix E Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
North Central Florida Area................ 260

Appendix F Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
3 Rivers Area.............................266

Appendix G Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
Chattahoochee River Area.................292

Appendix H Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data:
Alabama River Area....................... 321

Bibliography........................................... 33Q

Biographical Sketch................................... 34























v













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy




THE WEEDEN ISLAND CERAMIC COMPLEX:
AN ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION By

Karl T. Steinen

December, 1976

Chairman: Jerald T. Milanich Major Department: Anthropology

The Weeden Island ceramic complex is examined in an attempt to define origins and cultural dynamics of this widespread but little understood southeastern archaeological phenomena. Based on the analysis, a new definition of Weeden Island is presented and a series of hypotheses concerning origins, development and social structure are tested. Finally, a series of research problems are formulated and a set of suggested methods for their testing are presented.

The analysis of secular ceramics focuses on the Weeden Island, check stamped, and complicated stamped series in-defined geographic areas. This analysis shows that with the exception of peninsular Florida, there is not a great amount of observable difference in the distribution of the three


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series within the Weeden Island region.

The analysis of sacred ceramics examins vessels from selected mounds. Due to the un-systematic discarding of plain and check stamped vessels by C.B. Moore, no meaningful cluster analysis or presence/absence analysis could be conducted on this material.

Several patterns are apparent from the analysis of the ceramic data: (1) the east side pottery deposit mounds are found from the Choctowhatchee Bay in the west to the Warrior River in the east, as far north as Early County, Georgia and Pulaski County, Georgia; (2) the heaviest concentration of mounds is along the Apalachicola River and areas adjacent to its mouth on the Gulf Coast; and, (3) continuous use mounds are known from the Warrior River south to Tampa Bay.

The cultures using the Weeden Island series of ceramics are seen as developing in place with heavy influence from the Troyville/Coles Creek cultures of the lower Mississippi Valley. Sacred Weeden Island developed out ot the late Green Point complex on the Northwest Florida coast. Secular Weeden Island developed as a result of the addition of the new ceramic modes of incision and punctation to the already present complicated and check stamped ceamics. In both cases, the addition of the ceramic modes expressed in the Weeden Island series is viewed as evidence of the presence of a new social system based on maize horticulture and a complex form of politico/religious social control.


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The socio/political organization of the Weeden Island cultures is believed to have been a chiefdom similar to the historically known Natchez. A central great chief resided at the Kolomoki site and two subsidiary chiefs resided at the McKeithen and Mitchell sites. There was a central unifying religion, and a system allowing redistribution of goods from various physiographic zones, including the coast, inland river valleys, and inland forrest areas of the coastal plain.

Finally, a series of research problems designed to futher our understanding of the Weeden Island phenomena are presented with suggested methods of testing them. The basic orientation of these problems is the improvement of the data base so that complex questions 6f chronology and cultural dynamics can be asked and answered.



























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INTRODUCTION



The archaeologically known Weeden Island ceramic series of sand tempered, punctated, incised and red painted pottery was first defined by Gordon R. Willey (1949) in his monumental Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Since this first definition, archaeologists have recognized the wide distribution of the series within the southeast United States Gulf Coastal Plain. Weeden Island, by definition, is recognized by the presence of Weeden Island series ceramic types in a midden or mound context. The Weeden Island region, in turn, is that geographical area in which the Weeden Island ceramic series is found.

Weeden Island was a topic of research in archaeology before it was even defined. Clarence B. Moore, a Philadelphian, toured the southeast in his steamboat, "Gopher", during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, excavating Weeden Island and other mounds. He singlehandedly excavated the great majority of known Weeden Island Mounds from the Chattahoochee River to Tampa Bay and along the Gulf Coast of Florida.

Interest in the Weeden Island materials has not waned since Moore departed the Gulf Coast. Jesse W. Fewkes excavated the Weeden Island site on Tampa Bay in 1924


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(Fewkes 1924). James Bell excavated a series of mounds containing some Weeden Island ceramics in North-central Florida in 1883. Willey and Richard B. Woodbury (1942) carried out a survey and test program in Northwest Florida. Following this, Sears (1951a, 1951b, 1956, 1957)' excavated the Kolomoki site near Blakely, Georgia. The federally sponsored river basin surveys from the late 1940s to the present produced a wealth of information concerning the distrubution of Weeden Island ceramics. In short, the data base for the study of Weeden Island is broad and inclusive.

Theoretical interest in Weeden Island has not lagged behind the data collection. William H. Sears has authored a series of papers concerning Weeden Island social, political and religious organization (Sears 1968, 1973, Ms.a, Ms.b). More recently, Jerald T. Milanich organized a symposium on Weeden Island at the 39th annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology. This symposium served as the forum for presenting several papers which made an effort to re-think the concept of Weeden Island.

The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the occurrence of the Weeden Island ceramic series in an attempt to analyze recognizable patterns. From this analysis, a definition of Weeden Island is constructed and a series of hypotheses concerning origins, development and social structure are tested. A series of integrated research problems are presented with suggested methods of solving them. These are designed to increase the




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applicability of the data to complex questions of anthropological orientation. Chapter I is a summary of cultural developments in the Weeden Island region.














CHAPTER I

CULTURAL EVOLUTION IN THE SOUTHEAST TO WEEDEN ISLAND



To understand both the development and origins of Weeden Island and the complexities of the midden and mound deposits, a rudimentary understanding of cultural evolution in the Southeast is needed. Isolating the Weeden Island ceramic series from its developmental complex does not allow for a full understanding of the complexities of the observable patterns. It is in this light that the following synthesis of southeastern prehistory is presented.

Much of what we know of cultural development in the

southeast is confined to the interpretations based on ceramics. Too little has been written on adaptation, ecological relationships or settlement patterns. For this reason, the discussion for this chapter will be confined, for the most part, to ceramic development.

Paleo-Indian

The earliest occupation of the Gulf Coastal Plain was by Paleo-Indian groups who practiced a nomadic biggame hunting subsistence system, manufactured lanceolate points, and, presumably, had band social structure.





4




5



Archaic

The Archaic period reflects a change in subsistence from earlier emphasis on big game. Two patterns, similar yet distinct, now appear. Inland, forest adapted huntinggathering-fishing was practiced with reliance upon nuts and game (Caldwell 1958). In coastal and riverine situations shellfish were exploited in addition to the normal huntinggathering-fishing pattern. The first subsistence pattern is represented by dirt middens, the second by shell middens.

Formative

The concept of Formative used here is a combination of the Colonial and Theocratic formative concepts developed by James A. Ford (1969:5). It is a period characterized by the use of ceramics, horticulture, mound structures, and a well developed political-religious system. Weeden Island and pre-Weeden Island formative periods, which are each definable on the basis of distinctive ceramic traditions, can be grouped into three series, fiber tempered; carved paddle stamped (check,simple, and curvilinear complicated stamped); and incised and punctated. They are as follows.

Fiber Tempered. The earliest Formative cultures

in the southeast are found along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts and up the Savannah River. Dating to 2500 B.C., these ceramic cultures represent an internal development or are the result of diffusion (Marrinan 1975; Ford 1969; Stoltman 1974). Few discernable changes appear in these early Formative cultures for 1500 years, the




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time range of their characteristic fiber tempered pottery.

Carved Paddle Stamped. Stratigraphic evidence from the mouth of the Savannah River and along the adjacent Georgia coast suggests that there was an in situ development of gritty sand tempered ceramic wares from the fiber tempered ware. It was here that the Refuge series, which is predominantly simple stamped, developed from the coastal series of fiber tempered ceramics into Deptford Simple Stamped, which apparently is the earliest type of the Deptford series (Waring 1968:198-208; 216-221; Marrinan 1975).

Deptford. This second Formative period is marked by the presence of the Deptford series of sand and grit tempered ceramics with check and simple stamped surfaces and (rarely) tetrapodal supports (Waring 1968:135-151; Milanich 1971a). This check and simple stamped series developed out of the coastal Refuge series by ca. 500 B.C. and apparently spread from the Atlantic Coast across the Georgia Coastal Plain to the Gulf Coast of Florida.

Cartersville. This check and simple stamped ceramic series is found above the fall line in Georgia after ca. 100 B.C./A.D. 1 and extends inot extreme western North Carolina (Caldwell 1958; Fairbanks 1953). Tetrapods are also present on some vessels. Late Cartersville Check Stamped vessels differ from Deptford, having a plain band above the shoulder (Caldwell, Thompson and Caldwell 1952: 323-325). The developmental relationship of Deptford to Cartersville has not been established. By A.D. 1, however,




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check stamped ceramics extended from the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts up the Chattahoochee and Savannah river v alleys respectively, to the piedmont. While it was not directly in line to the development of the Weeden Island complex, it has been suggested (Sears Ms.a:25-27) that Cartersville Check Stamped was contributory to the development of the later Wakulla Check Stamped.

Wakulla Check Stamped. This is the check stamped

ceramic type which is associated with Weeden Island ceramic complexes. It occurs in varying percentages throughout the Weeden Island area, in both mound and midden context. While it was originally restricted to a late, or Weeden Island II, context (Willey 1949:396-3970, other evidence tends to indicate a continual use of the check stamped motif from Deptford through historic contact on the Gulf (Sears 1963) and Atlantic Coasts (Milanich and MacHover 19750. Changes in vessel shape and decorated area through time have suggested to Sears (Ms.a:24-37) that the origins of Wakulla Check Stamped may lie in the diffusion of the Cartersville Check Stamped down the Chattahoochee River Valley. The widespread distribution of check stamped ceramics in the eastern Alabama Coastal Plain and the Alabama-Georgia-Florida tri-stata area has suggested a similar possibility to Milanich (1974b).

Swift Creek. The curvilinear complicated stamped

ceramic tradition developed along the Chattahoochee River




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and in other areas below the fall line (McMichael 1960). Generally referred to in its primary stages as Early Swift Creek Complicated Stamped or Swift Creek I, this ceramic tradition has been shown to have developed out of Deptford or Cartersville Check Stamped at the Mandeville site in Clay County, Georgia (Keller et al. 1962). During this period, check stamping is partially replacec by the complicated stamped motif on the surface of the ceramics. While developing from check stamping, it does not entirely replace it. This is demonstrated by the long continuity of check stamping at the Tucker site in Franklin County, Florida, and the numerous known sites which have both check stamp and complicated stamped ceramics (See Chapter II of this dissertation).

Punctated-Incised. A third series of ceramics appears

on the Gulf Coastal Plain after the development of the curvilinear complicated stamped materials. It is post-Deptford nad post-Early Swift Creek in nature, but contemporary with at least a portion of the curvilinear complicated stamped tradition known as Late Swift Creek. Assigned various names, but grouped predominantly into the Weeden Island series, these types exhibit a strong resemblance to the Troyville/Coles Creek materials from the Mississippi Valley (Sears Ms.b:22; Willey 1945:242-245). While the fiber tempered Refuge, Deptford, and Cartersville ceramic series pre-date Weeden Island, the remaining series constitute temporally and geographically overlapping assemblages




9



within Weeden Island. These three ceramic series--check stamping, curvilinear complicated stamping and incised and punctated--constitute the Weeden Island ceramic complex.



Sacred and Secular



It has been recently suggested that ceramic styles

in the prehistoric southeast reflect two different segments of social life, the sacred or ceremonial, and the secular or village (Sears 1973). In his salvage excavations at the Weeden Island site on Tampa Bay, Sears (1971a) recognized a difference between those ceramics recovered from the village (secular) area and those recovered from the ceremonial (sacred) mounds. That is, the village ceramics were of one type--sand tempered and undecorated--while the ceremonial ceramics were of the classic Weeden Island incised and punctated types. Such a difference was pointed out earlier for the Kolomoki site (Sears 1956:71), and for other southeast cultures (Sears 1967). In 1973, Sears further clarified and expanded this concept by presenting a detailed discussion of the concepts and cultural dynamics involved. The following discussion is based on Sears' work (1973).

He postulates two lines of cultural/ceramic development in the southeast. The dichotomy is based primarily on the presence of different ceramic assemblages found in mound and midden contexts. As cultures integrate aspects of ceremonial life with village life, new traits, via




10



diffusion or invention, may appear in one aspect of a culture before being integrated into other aspects. However, certain paraphernalia or behavior may remain solely associated with a specific cultural system. When material items are so restricted--as with aboriginal ceramic vessels, communion vessels, or choir robes--they often reflect behavior patterns which are similarly restricted in distribution. Thus, in the southeast, the presence of various types of ceramic vessels and decorative motifs which appear only in sacred contexts reflects behavior patterns and beliefs found in sacred contexts (but not secular ones). Sears, in postulating this separate sacred/secular developmental dichotomy for ceramics, has proposed a model which explains the southeast culture patterns at contact. That is, while secular traits (house styles, dress, village utilitarian pottery, etc.) among various tribes differed, many aspects of ceremonial life were shared. (It should be remembered that among southeast aborigines, ceremonial activities and beliefs were intimately entwined with political organization.) Thus, religious motifs and political organization (including terminology for the various chiefs in the political hierarchy) among the Florida Timucuans There very similar to those of various Georgia and Alabama Creeks. But the two spoke unrelated languages, had different tools and village pottery, and differed in many other ways. This was true among the various prehistoric Weeden Island peoples.








Sacred Development: Yent, Green Point and Weeden Island



The development of aboriginal ceremonialism along

the northwestern coast of Florida and up the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers as far north as Clay County, Georgia, has been described by Sears. In his "Hopewellian Affiliations of Certain Sites on the Gulf Coast of Florida" paper (1962), later refined in his 1973 paper on sacred/ secular development, Sears has documented the Yent/Green Point/Weeden Island ceremonial continuum for the Weeden Island region.

The Yent Complex represents the first appearance of burial mounds in the region. It is characterized by a variety of religious paraphernalia and practices--copper panpipes, elongate plummets, double-ended plummets, copper work, cut carnivore jaws and carnivore teeth, cymbalshaped copper ornaments, cut shell ornaments, continuous use type mounds, unique vessel shapes, unique vessel decoration, functional tetrapods, and vessels of foreign origin. Yent is the Hopewellian ceremonial expression of the Deptford pottery producing people. While the demonstrable relationship between the Deptford middens and the Yent Complex mounds is minimal, it is sufficient to justify the stated relationship (Sears 1962:6-11).

The Green Point Complex developed from the Yent

Complex. It is characterized by the development of east side deposit burial mounds out of the earlier continuous




12



use mounds; stubby tetrapods on ceramics; the ceramic types Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (early variety), St. Andrews Complicated Stamped (early variety), and Zoned Rocker Stamped; plain vessels, and, in some instances, imported vessels (Sears 1962:11-13). Green Point is the ceremonial counterpart of the Early Swift Creek series. The substantial ceramic overlap between the middens and the mounds supports the association (Sears 1962:17). As shown by the scarcity of Hopewellian goods in the Green Point mounds, "...there has been a shift from a welldeveloped set of mid-western contacts, restricted to the ceremonial level, to a beginning contact, again apparently mostly at the ceremonial level, with the Lower Mississippi Valley (Sears 1973:33-34). This lack of differentiation between the sacred and secular traditions is not explained by the breakdown with the mid-western ceremonialism. It may, however, represent a period of cultural adjustment to new sources of ceremonial goods and new cultural/ceremonial contacts. The adjustment period, calling for internal production of ceramics for ceremonial use, and requiring the people to draw on their own cultural inventory, would seem to necessitate the utilization of the known secular decorative and form modes. Important to the understanding of the evolution of Weeden Island ceremonialism is the beginning of east side deposit mounds in Green Point, a marker for the succeeding Weeden Island period.




13



Unlike Green Point/Swift Creek ceramic inventories,

the Weeden Island ceremonial vessels are very different from the village (secular) ceramics. A glance through Willey (1949), Moore's various publications (1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1918), and Sears' Kolomoki report (1956) deomnstrates this clearly. Weeden Island ceremonial ceramics are characterized by the presence of a number of types, almost all defined by Willey (1949:407-408). The sacred vessels found in mounds have "...a whole series of special forms, appendages, decorative perforations, and such odd features as pre-cut kill holes and combinations of decorations which never occur on the utilitarian vessels. For example, the effigy forms, including ceramic sculpture, almost never occur in middens anywhere" (Sears Ms.b:45). Not only are the midden ceramics often completely different from those found in the mounds, but there is a regional differentiation of Weeden Island mound types. These points will be documented and developed in later chapters.

Originally recognized by Willey and Woodbury (1942) and further defined by Willey (1945;1949), the Weeden Island ceramic complex consists of incised, punctated, check stamped, complicated stamped, simple stamped, and plain ceramics. Included in the Weeden Island complex, as adapted from Willey (1949:408-409) are

Weeden Island Series: Weeden Island Plain
Weeden Island Punctated
Weeden Island Incised
Weeden Island Zoned Red




14



Weeden Island Red (Sears 1956) Carrabelle Incised Carrabelle Punctated Indian Pass Incised Keith Incised Tucker Ridge-pinched Hare Hammock Surfaceindented (minority)

Complicated Stamped Series: Swift Creek Complicated Stamped
Kolomoki Complicated Stamped
Little Kolomoki Complicated Stamped
Blakely Complicated Stamped Mound Field Complicated Stamped (minority,), Crooked River Complicated Stamped (late)(minority) St. Andrews Complicated Stamped
Tampa Complicated Stamped Sun City Complicated Stamped (minority) Old Bay Complicated Stamped (minority)

Hillsborough Series: Hillsborough Shell Stamped (minority)
Ruskin Dentate Stamped (minority)
Ruskin Linear Punctated (minority)

Papys Bayou Series: Papys Bayou Incised (minority)
Papys Bayou Punctated (minority)
Papys Bayou Diagonal Incised (minority)

Little Manatee Series: Little Manatee Zoned Stamped (minority) Little Manatee Shell Stamped (minority) Little Manatee Complicated Stamped (minority)

St. Johns Series: St. Johns Plain (minority) St. Johns Check Stamped (minority)




15



Dunns Creek Red (minority) St. Johns Roughened (minority)
St. Johns Cord-marked (minority)

Pasco Series: Pasco Plain (minority) Pasco Check Stamped (minority)
Pasco Red (minority)


Miscellaneous: Wakulla Check Stamped Thomas Simple Stamped (minority)
West Florida Cord-marked (minority)
Mound Field Net-marked (minority)
St. Petersburg Incised (minority)
Gainesville Linear Punctate (minority)

Found in various areas in differing percentages, these

types constitute the Weeden Island ceramic complex. However, when Willey defined and discussed Weeden Island, he lumped the midden and mound materials together, inadvertently obscuring the significance of the various unique and elaborate vessels deposited in the mounds.

In addition, many of the types labelled., ".minority", in the preceding list are found only in peninsular Florida. The Papys Bayou, Pasco, and St. Johns and Hillsborough series are the best examples of.this. The argument is presented in Chapter II of this dissertation to exclude -. these series from the definition of Weeden Island.

Treating an incised, pedestaled duck effigy as a single Weeden Island Incised vessel does not aid us in answering




16



questions of ceremonial association and complexity, political structure, or the basic questions of temporal and spatial distribution. If anything, it obscures the soughtfor patterns. Elucidation of problems and of ceremonialism, dating and cultural organization will come about only when the double tradition approach is used.

By lumping the two traditions together, the definable political and religious systems are obscured in a mass of conflicting data. It is because the sacred materials are different, in both nature and context, from the secular that we are able to recognize, define and explain various political and religious structures. The evolution of these systems is again recognizable by change within the sacred tradition, which would not be as recognizable or understandable if it was lumped with the secular.



Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia



The Kolomoki site, Early County, Georgia, has long been one of the major problems in Weeden Island studies. The nature of the site, a large, multi-mound ceremonial center with a two-component Weeden Island complex midden, marks it as important to any consideration of Weeden Island. Because of its complexity and its significance to a model of Weeden Island, a detailed description of this site is presented here.














Kolomoki Site


KOLOMOKI





SMd C




SMd E MdD PLAZA MdA


MIDDEN
EDEN ISLAND .OLO K o Md B OMd F @Md G OMdH /

WEEDEN ISLAND









Figure 1




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Surface collections by Charles H. Fairbanks (1946)

established that Kolomoki was a Weeden Island site of very odd nature. Subsequent excavations by Sears in the late 1940s and early 1950s thoroughly explored most of the mounds and extensively tested the midden area (Sears 1951,1956: map at end). The chronology established by Sears, based on seriation of the midden material, has been questioned since it was first published (Caldwell 1958:56-57).

The midden material at Kolomoki included three major

elements--plain sherds, Weeden Island sherds, and complicated stamped sherds. These parallel the classic Weeden Island and Swift Creek types defined by Willey for the Gulf Coast (1949:338-383;409-449). The normal chronology, if Willey's coastal sequence is followed, would be to have those elements of the midden with complicated stamped materials pre-date those elements with check stamped and the Weeden Island series. It is here that Sears deviated from the norm and stated that the Kolomoki period midden areas with complicated stamped materials were later than those areas with the Weeden Island series, and were as late as those found elsewhere with check stamped assemblages.

The midden area at Kolomoki extends south outside the actual park boundary. Sears placed about forty test units in the midden and conducted extensive surface collections and posthole tests during his excavation program. Three things became apparent. First, there were at least two




19


distinct ceramic assemblages in the midden, one with only complicated stamped and plain pottery and the other with primarily punctated, incised, plain, a different form of complicated stamped pottery, and a very low percentage of check stamped pottery. Second, the midden was arranged in a formal manner around a plaze which fronted a large truncated mound. Third, there was no observable vertical stratigraphy.

Figure 1 illustrates the site plan of Kolomoki. A brief discussion of the midden and mounds, adapted from Sears (1956) follows.

Midden

Weeden Island. Confined to the south side of the park and site area and extending east of Md. A, the Weeden Island midden contained the following types: Weeden Island Red, Mound City (Field?) Net-marked, Carrabelle Punctate, Weeden Island Incised, Tucker Ridge-pinched, Napier Complicated Stamped, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, miscellaneous incised sherds, Weeden Island Plain (rims), and plain sand tempered (Sears 1951a:29).

The midden continues for an undetermined distance over the south boundary of the park onto the property of Willy Tom Smith, of Blakely, Georgia. Kolomoki. The Kolomoki midden forms an arc around the open plaza area, cuts between Md. D and Md. E, and extends east of Md. A on both the north and south. It intermingles with the Weeden Island midden area on the south. The area




20


between the truncated Md. A and Md. D is a vacant plaza area. Materials recovered from the Kolomoki midden consist almost entirely of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, Kolomoki Plain (sand tempered plain) and low percentages of a few other types. The point is that the Weeden Island series was not present, or was present only in small quantities.

Mounds

Mound A. This mound, located at the eastern end of the plaza is 325x200 feet at the base and slightly over 56 feet at its highest point. The summit is divided into two levels, much in the same manner as the substructure mound at Hiwassee Island (Lewis and Kneberg 1946:fig.8). However, at Kolomoki, there are no indications of any ramp. Sherds found on the mound summit demonstrate that at least two caps of the mound were built during the Kolomoki period (Sears 1956:10).

Mound B. This mound on the south side of Md. A "...consisted of a collection of postholes.. Very large posts, twenty-four to thirty inches in diameter, were erected successively in this small area.... Later posts often cut through the remains of earlier ones, so that in only a few instances were complete outlines produced.... The ceramic assemblage contains sherds of all periods, as is true of the top soil of adjacent areas, indicating that the end point...at least of post construction fell in the Kolomoki period" (Sears 1956:10-11).




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Mound C. Adjacent to Md. A on the north, this mound's function is not understood. Fill consisted of basket loads of earth, including top soil, midden, red clay, yellow clay, and white sand. Sometimes the materials were discrete, sometimes mixed (Sears 1956:11). Mound D. This mound was the second largest at the site and was an elaborate burial mound. It was constructed as a single ceremony in four different stages, with an east side ceramic deposit 10 x 20 feet in extent, of varying depth, and containing at least sixty-five vessels of various forms. The mound construction included erecting a scaffold which was included in four of the five stages of construction. There were a succession of interments, suggesting retainer sacrifice (Sears 1953;1956).

Mound E. This mound, located 1200 feet west of Md. D, is a smaller version of Md. D. There was a sub-mound crematory pit with rock fill; two bodies, with heads pointed east (a characteristic of all burials at the site), were on the sloping edges of the pit. The earth fill over this, with a rock cap, produced a core mound. A single body, with copper-covered cymbal-shaped ornament was placed by the pit. Fifty-four complete vessels were placed on the eastern ground surface of the mound, and a final cap, containing large rocks, was added as the final cover (Sears 1956:12).

Mound F. Mound F, located 400 feet south of Md. E, is 50 x 60 x 6 feet in size. Essentially it is a small white clay




22


truncated mound with a cap of sandy clay over it. The suggested use is as a ceremonial adjunct to Md. E (Sears 1956:13).

Mound H. This mound is south of Md. D. In size and content, Md. H is the same as Md. F. The suggested use is the same as Md. F, but for Md. D (Sears 1956:13).

The determination for the late placement of the

Kolomoki midden was based on several factors. One is that Sears traced the modal development of the stamp design used in the manufacture of Little Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, associated with the Weeden Island materials, into the larger Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, to the later Blakely Complicated Stamped, which is considered stylistically closest to the known end point of Complicated Stamped developement, the Lamar variety (Sears 1956:15-17, 30-46). Other determinants for placing Kolomoki later were the sequence of mound construction and sherds found in mound fill, and the nature of the site plan. Sherds found in the mounds, which were all of the Kolomoki period, and in the midden under Md. D, indicate that they all post-date the Weeden Island midden (Sears 1956:10-13). The site plan, with Mds. A, B, C, and D arranged around the open plaza and Mds. E, F, G, and H placed directly to the west and south indicates that these elements of the site were intentionally organized in this manner. The Weeden Island period midden, on the other hand, is only on the southern side of the




23


site, and has no apparent internal organization.

The major break with the normally accepted sequence,

as mentioned above, is the placing of a complicated stamped complex after the punctated/incised Weeden Island materials. Sears' point is that at Kolomoki, there is a continuing development of the complicated stamp through time, first recognizable as Little Kolomoki Complicated Stamp in the Weeden Island midden areas. This type had a small stamp "...usually rounded on upper surfaces...stamp shallow... base slightly convex, no flat bases, present in samples" (Sears 1956:16). It is technically Swift Creek II in nature. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, on the other hand, has a larger stamp motif, "...fairly well cut applied without a great deal of overlapping... (bases) flat either square or disc" (Sears 1951a:9-10). Blakely Complicated Stamped, the final development of the complicated stamp at the site, is described as having a very heavy and bold stamp, simple elements, and flat or convex bases (Sears 1956:17). The developmental progression is the same as that described by Willey for the development of Swift Creek, from the simple design elements to the larger, more boldly applied, less intricate designs of the later material. Thus, Sears describes Kolomoki Complicated Stamped as the regional development of Late Swift Creek pottery and the cultural equivalent of Late Weeden Island (Sears 1956:50-75).

Complicated stamping as a whole, on the Gulf Coastal Plain, evolves into the type Lamar Complicated Stamped,




24



with a large heavy stamp of simple design. Lamar is the end-poing of the developing Kolomoki-Blakely Complicated Stamped types.

Many archaeologists do not accept Sears' conclusions concerning the Kolomoki sequence because the culture (ceramic) sequence does not exactly follow Willey's coastal ceramic sequence (Willey 1949:fig. 76). Sears' point, long misunderstood, was that in Georgia, the complicated stamped tradition continued to develop, and did not disappear as it did in some other areas. Unfortunately, to this day, clear stratigraphic evidence for either argument has not been found. Caldwell's (Ms.) Fairchild's Landing manuscript, which supposedly demonstrates Kolomoki Complicated Stamped under Weeden Island materials, is inconclusive. The absence of accurate and complete sherd counts and profiles in the report makes it impossible to determine the actual sequence. However, the manuscript gives the idea that Kolomoki and Weeden Island were at least partially contemporaneous.

Is there a Weeden Island/Kolomoki continuum? In the

early Kolomoki reports, Sears (1951a)discusses the Kolomoki period at Kolomoki as being separate and different from the Weeden Island period. In later discussions (Sears 1956:30-46; 1973:34-36; Ms.a:55; Ms.b:23-30), it has been treated as being a development out of Weeden Island. Because of the uncertainty surrounding Kolomoki, it seems best for the purposes of this dissertation, to treat




25



Kolomoki, both the site and the ceramic complex, as a temporal and/or spatial variant of Weeden Island. Chapter II documents the distribution of the Weeden Island sacred and secular ceramic assemblages referred to above, including Kolomoki. The nature of the complex temporal and geographical distribution of Weeden Island ceramics becomes more apparent from this summary.

Further adding to the confusion surrounding the Weeden Island ceramic complex is the fact that in many areas, particularly in peninsular Florida, the midden materials have practically no Weeden Island series sherds in them. Excavations at two very late Cades Pond sites (8-Al-346 and 8-Al-472) in Alachua County, Florida, have revealed less than four per cent decorated sherds. Similarly Sears' (1971a) work on the Weeden Island site recovered no decorated sherds from the village midden. All three of these village sites are temporally and culturally associated with mounds containing Weeden Island series ceramics. Clearly, such sites are greatly different from Weeden Island villages where decorated Weeden Island series types constitute a much higher percentage of the secular inventory (eg. Kolomoki, where the Weeden Island complex accounts for 4L to 60 percent).

Thus, it is apparent that throughout the Weeden Island region, village inventories differ in relative frequencies of pottery types, as do the sacred and secular inventories.




26



These perplexing (and for the archaeologist, confusing) situations are further documented and explained in Chapters II and III.














CHAPTER II

CERAMIC ANALYSIS AND SACRED AND SECULAR DISTRIBUTION



The purpose of this chapter is to delineate and

analyze the distribution of the sacred and secular Weeden Island ceramic complexes in the southeast. Attempts were made to look at all published reports with Weeden Island materials in them. While the list of sites is extensive, it by no means represents all known Weeden Island sites. However, all of the known areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain are represented in the sample utilized here.

Ceramic analysis, the basis for this chapter, is the process of examining ceramics with a specific problem in mind. Generally related to time and space variables, the processes of analysis vary with the problem. However, the basic approach is similar in all cases. It consists of a detailed inspection of each sherd in an attempt to isolate various physical properties,-i.e., color, porosity, decorative motifs, hardness, tempering, clay, type of punctation, etc., or clusters of these properties which show some form of patterning reflective of temporal and/or spatial clustering. The end point is a ceramic typology which is applicable to the specific question. Classification, on the other hand, is the process of putting a sherd or collection of 27




28



sherds into preconceived typological pigeonholes. It is a process of organization of data, not analysis. It is with these two processes that the existing Weeden Island data falls short. In many cases, the Weeden Island data comes from salvage and survey programs which had limited scope both spatially and theoretically. Sherds were placed in the Willey-defined types according to superficial similarity, with few attempts to define or isolate temporal or regional variants. The ceramics were classified, not analyzed.

The use of ceramic analysis has had a long and

fruitful history in archaeology. To be implemented, however, certain minimum definitions must be understood. Terms and definitions used here represent a school of thought originating with Irving Rouse (1939), and extending through Gordon R. Willey (1949), James A. Ford (1954), and William H. Sears (1960b).

Mode. The basic analytical unit is the mode. "It refers to the attributes which artifacts of a given kind have in common" (Rouse 1939:11). A mode may be a process of manufacture, kind of temper, color, hardness, surface modification, shape, or any aspect of the artiface that can be recognized. An underlying and very important aspect of the mode is modal analysis (Sears 1960:325). Here, ceramics are analyzed with specific problems in mind. "Above the level of the mode, the dimensions of the units are conditioned by problems of prehistory and communication" (Sears 1960:324).




29



Type. The type is a combination of two or more modes which can be demonstrated to have temporal and spatial significance. Modes represent recognizable technological standards of the community. The type, on the other hand, is a combination of those modes with allowance for variation and individual, idiosyncratic expressions. In essence, the ideal of the type is an average of the recognized cluster of modes. It represents a cluster of cultural standards with some acceptable spacetime dimensions. An outstanding example of this is the type Carrabelle Punctated. Willey (1949:425) describes the decorative motif as follows: "A good deal of variation as to kinds of punctations used. These variations tend to grade into each other. They are: Fingernail punctations placed longitudinally or parallel to the vertical axis of the vessel; stick made punctations; rectanguloid and trianguloid with considerable size range; round bottom dents or shallow stick punctations with paste slightly pinched and piled up near punctation. Field of punctation may be underlined with an incised line...."

Series. A series is a number of types which have

morphological similarity. "Usually companion types in the same series have about the same temporal and spatial distribution although minor differences may exist on this point" (Willey 1949:6).




30



Complex. A complex is "...the group of pottery types on the various series of types that occur together in the same general area at the same time" (Willey 1949:5).

Tradition. Willey and Phillips (1958:37) define

tradition as "...temporal continuity represented by persistent configurations in single technologies or other systems of related forms". As applied to ceramics, a tradition refers to gradual changes of the ceramic complex in a given geographic area, through time. That is to say, it is a recognizable, temporally long lasting, ceramic complex. Ceramic traditions should not be confused with cultural traditions (Goggin 1949), which represent recognizable, long lasting, cultural patterns.

These concepts of ceramics and ceramic analysis are

fundamental to the presentation and interpretation of data in this dissertation. While archaeological research has been conducted for close to one hundred years in the southeast, we have, in many cases, little data concerning prehistoric cultures beyond lists of ceramics and other artifacts. Essentially, for many sites and areas, the available data consist of lists of ceramics. For this reason, the definition and discussion of Weeden Island presented here will be heavily dependent on ceramics and their distribution. There is not enough data to properly discuss subsistence, non-ceramic artifacts, or most other aspects of the Weeden Island cultures involved, ,\Attempts such as those of Milanich (1971b; 1976) for the Deptford culture and

A '




31



Alachua traditions are noteworthy, but unmatchable for Weeden Island as a whole at this time. However, the basis for initially delineating such cultures lies in ceramic analysis, and the present study should help in future attempts to thoroughly define the various regional Weeden Island groups.

The use of modes, types, series and assemblages in ceramic analysis offers the archaeologist a very useful and accurate method for measuring time and space variables. More importantly, it allows for the recognition of culture contact through "trade sherds", those potsherds which do not fit typologically with the indigenous materials, but are obviously from another, geographically removed, ceramic series. When the archaeologist is able to handle and analyze the material, useful typologies can be developed. However, when analysis is ignored in favor of classification, the ability to recognize temporal and spatial variables suffers.

Problems involved with using other people's data and their conclusions, especially the pre-1960s materials, include the lack of problem-oriented research and methodological and interpretational inadequacies. Before the advent of a conscious effort to obtain scientifically sound anthropological data (Taylor 1948; Sears 1962; Binford 1962) the collection and description of data was the endpoint of most archaeological research. The tendency toward narrow views of what constituted archaeological cultural




32



areas with emphasis placed on state boundaries--not natural or known prehistoric regions--has biased and narrowed our view of interacting cultures. Also, the early tendency to practice inductive reasoning, especially the postulating of culture histories for large geographical areas using the information from one site or area, has led to gross errors of understanding.

Thus, much of the ceramic data presented in many Weeden Island reports suffers from insufficient analysis and from the practices of (1) attempting to classify all types in the same time-space typological scheme set forth by Willey (1949) for the Florida Gulf Coast; or, (2) giving sherds new names to reflect state or area (though not physical) differences.

In order forthe present study to make maximum use of the data in such reports, several alterations were necessary. Oddball ceramic types have been re-named (but not re-analyzed) to fit currently accepted standards. Specific examples are noted in the text. In many cases, however, it is not possible to enrich the material. Specifically, Weeden Island Plain (Willey 1949:409-411) is a type which can only be recognized through rim sherds. The distinctive folded, thickened, or underlined rim (with the incised line imitating the rim fold) is the only way to recognize this type. The body sherds are undistinguishable from the chatchall sand tempered plain category. However, many archaeologists classify smooth surfaced, sand tempered plain body





33



sherds as Weeden Island Plain. If the author did not state in the report that only such rim sherds were typed as Weeden Island Plain, one has no way of telling if body sherds were included in the count. For this reason, the published reports must be taken at face value.



Three Series



As mentioned previously, there are three series of

ceramics which make up the Weeden Island complex in northwest Florida and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama. The type sand tempered plain can be considered a constant, while the incised-punctated series, the check stamped series, and the complicated stamped series all vary in frequency of occurence at sites across the Gulf Coastal Plain in the Weeden Island region. Sears (Ms.b:21-30) has published a preliminary study which attempts to sort out all the problems of interaction of these three series. Basing his conclusions on materials recovered from his Gulf Coast survey, Sears discusses the distributions and combinations of the various materials. This is the basic approach to be taken in this chapter. These three Weeden Island ceramic series include the following:

Weeden Island Series. Listed and defined in Chapter I. These are the punctated, incised and red-painted types.

Complicated Stamped Series. 'Included in this




34



series listed in Chapter I. For practical purposes, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Late Variety) is the most representative and wide-spread of the series. Other types such as Sun City Complicated Stamped, Tampa Complicated Stamped, and Crooked River Complicated Stamped occur in small percentages on a number of sites. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, which was defined out of the all-inclusive Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Late) is an important variant of the complicated stamped series.

Check Stamped (Wakulla) Series. A single type, Wakulla Check Stamped, is used in this dissertation. Other types such as Wilson Check Stamped, Henderson Check Stamped, and Bear Creek Check Stamped, which are typologically similar to Wakulla, and which are confined to Alabama, are lumped into the Wakulla type.



Secular Ceramic Analysis



The ceramics were analyzed with two major problems

in mind. The first problem was to differentiate regions; the second was to show the total distribution of the Weeden Island complex and the individual series.

Although the existing ceramic data are, with only two exceptions, the results of classification and not problem oriented analysis, they were used to form the basis for a statistical cluster analysis. The purpose of this analysis was to differentiate cultural areas based on




35



distributions of the series. For analytical purposes, the

southeast was divided into eight sub-areas. They are:

1. Western Panhandle:

Escambia County, Florida
Santa Rosa County, Florida
Okaloosa County, Florida
Walton County, Florida Holmes County, Florida Baldwin County, Alabama
Clark County, Alabama Mobile County, Alabama

2. Central Panhandle:

Bay County, Florida
Washington County, Florida
Calhoun County, Florida
Covington County, Alabama
Gulf County, Florida
Liberty County, Florida Franklin County, Florida Wakulla County, Florida
Leon County, Florida

3. Eastern Panhandle:

Jefferson County, Florida
Madison County, Florida
Taylor County, Florida
Hamilton County, Florida Suwannee County, Florida Columbia County, Florida
Lafayette County, Florida

4. Peninsular Coast:

Dixie County, Florida Levy County, Florida
Citrus County, Florida
Hernando County, Florida
Pasco County, Florida
Pinellas County, Florida
Hillsborough County, Florida
Manatee County, Florida

5. North-Central Florida

Alachua County, Florida




36



6. Three Rivers Area:

Gadsden County, Florida Jackson County, Flroida Houston County, Alabama
Seminole County, Georgia
Decatur County, Georgia

7. Chattahoochee River:

Miller County, Georgia
Early County, Georgia
Quitman County, Georgia
Clay County, Georgia
Stewart County, Georgia
Chattahoochee County, Georgia
Henry County, Alabama
Barbour County, Alabama Russell County, Alabama

8. Alabama River:

Monroe County, Alabama
Loundes County, Alabama Autauga County, Alabama
Wilcox County, Alabama

These areas were defined for two reasons. First, they offer a useable size to sub-divide the known Weeden Island region. Each is small enough to allow for the manipulation of data, but large enough to allow for a limited number of divisions of the entire Weeden Island region. Second, the areas were defined so as to delineate western, central, eastern, northern, and southern geographic areas. This allows for an attempt at defining regional varieties of the Weeden Island ceramic complex.

Sand tempered plain, a catch-all category for undecorated sand tempered sherds lacking the distinctive Weeden Island folded rims, was not included in the analysis for two reasons. First, the plain body sherds from the Weeden




37



Island complex cannot be distinguished from those of any other ceramic series. Therefore, in mixed collections, which most of the sample is, the Weeden Island associated sand tempered plain sherds cannot be sorted out from earlier of later contexts. Second, there has been an unsystematic effort by some classifiers to break down the category into smooth and rough varities. For these two reasons, we must limit the discussion of sand tempered plain to the fact that it represents from 30 to 60 percent of the midden ceramics on the Florida northwest coast and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama, and up to 99 percent of the collections from peninsular Florida.

From the available collections, the Weeden Island complexes were isolated and broken down into types and series ('ApipEndices A-H ). The three ceramic series were then calculated for each area and the mean (x) and the standard deviation (s) were determined for frequency of occurence (percentage). The results are:

Western Panhandle: n=43 (n is number of sites; K and
(s calculated for all sites):
Weeden Island:
x=51.16
s=38.28
Range 5.0-100.0

Check Stamped:
R=32.45
s=30.13
Range 0-94.9

Complicated Stamped:
x= 8.43
s=20.56
Range 0-97.0

















Figure 2

Map showing geographic, political and analytical areas. 1. Western Panhandle
2. Central Panhandle 3. Eastern Panhandle
4. 3 Rivers
5. Chattahoochee River
6. Alabama River
7. Peninsular Coast
8. Northcentral Florida




























~v #
J
PrPF























0-0
6E
.01p







6 E^




40



Central Panhandle: n=45

Weeden Island: R=29.48 s=35.31 Range 0.2-100.0

Check Stamped: R=29.48 s=35.31 Range 0.0-96.7

Complicated Stamped e=19.16 s-32.17 Range 0.0-99.4


Eastern Panhandle: n=l Weeden Island: = 80 10 s=00.00 Range None

Check Stamped: R=5.30 s=0.00 Range None

Complicated Stamped: R=14.60 s=00.00 Range None


Three Rivers: n=27 Weeden Island x=55.60 s=31.28 Range 3.8-100.0

Check Stamped x=34.92 s=31.83 Range 0.0-96.0

Complicated Stamped: R=10.38
s=22.28 Range 0.0-96.0




41



Chattahoochee River: n=44

Weeden Island:
R=72.90 s=26.65 Range 4.5-100.0

Check Stamped:
x=19.78 s=24.62 Range 0.0-90.4

Complicated Stamped: x= 6.76 s=15.20 Range 0.0-82.3


Alabama River: n=10

Weeden Island: x=12.40 s=10.09 Range 0.4-25.8

Check Stamped: R=50.68 s=34.56 Range 0.9-93.6

Complicated Stamped: x= 4.24 s= 6.90 Range 0.0-17.9

Peninsular Coast: n=ll1

Weeden Island: x=23.30 s=33.75 Range 5.2-78.9

Check Stamped: R=12.53 s=16.98 Range 0.0-54.5

Complicated Stamped:
=10.6 s=21.40 Range 0.0-67.8

Minority
3=53.18 s=36.06 Range 0.0-97.2




42



North Central Florida: n=2

Weeden Island: x=98.15
s= 2.16
Range 96.3-100.0

Check Stamped: x= 3.7
s=0.0
Range 0.0-3.7

Complicated Stamped: x=0
s=0
Range 0.0-0.0


To allow for a direct comparison of the different

means, the standard score (z score) of each series in each

area was computed. This statistical transformation changes

each of the computed means to a set mean with a set standard

deviation. For analytical purposes, the mean of 50 and the

standard deviation of 20 was chosen. The formula for this

transformation is (Dixson and Massey 1969:31-32):

z = 50 + 20 xl-l

z = standard score
xl= the number being transformed R = the mean of the distribution
s = the standard deviation of the distribution
50= the standardized mean
20= the standardized deviation

The z scores, as computed by series and area are:

Weeden Island Series: 1. Western Panhandle: 48.84 2. Central Panhandle: 34.34 3. Eastern Panhandle: 68.19 4. Three Rivers: 51.81
5. Chattahoochee River: 63.38 6. Alabama'River: 22.92 7. Peninsular Coast: 30.21 8. North Central Fla.:80.26




43



Check Stamped Series: 1. Western Panhandle: 57.18 2. Central Panhandle: 73.86 3. Eastern Panhandle: 27.77 4. Three Rivers: 59.86
5. Chattahoochee River: 43.45 6. Alabama River: 73.93 7. Peninsular Coast: 35.60 8. Northcentral Fla.: 26.03

Complicated Stamped Series
1. Western Panhandle: 46.67 2. Central Panhandle: 89.16 3. Eastern Panhandle: 71.10 4. Three Rivers: 54.39
5. Chattahoochee River: 40.05 6. Alabama River: 30.07 7. Peninsular Coast: 55.26 8. Northcentral Fla.: 0.00

















Figure 3

Frequency distribution of mean percents of ceramic series by areas.
1. Weeden Island Series 2. Check Stamped Series
3. Complicated Stamped Series




45







100


9080 1 70 1


60


50- 1 40


/ 2/ 30 2
1







0
3 2 3



W C E 3 C A P N P P P R h I e C a a a i a a n F n n n v t C I
-t
a


















Figure 4

Z scores of mean percents of the Weeden Island Series by analytical areas.




47








100


9080706050


40 302010


O--S~-IP- ---W C E 3 C A P N P P P R h I e C a a a i a a n F n n n v t I t a.

















Figure 5

Z scores of mean percents of the Check Stamped Series by analytical areas.




49








100. 90


8070


60 50


40


301


20 10




W C E 3 C A P N P P P R h' I e C a a a i a a n F
n n n v t C
a
















Figure 6

Z scores of mean percents of the Complicated Stamped Series by analytical areas.




5.1







100


90


80 70 60 50


40 30 20 10




W C E 3 C A P N P P P R h I e C
a a a i a a n
n n n v C F
t




52



The analyzed data show extreme variability in seven of eight areas. The exception is northcentral Florida, where the check stamped and complicated stamped series are very poorly represented. In other areas, the variability of series representation is extreme.

There is an apparent tendency for the Weeden Island series to be most strongly represented in the Eastern Panhandle, Chattahoochee River, and northcentral Florida areas. Check stamping is most strongly represented in the Central Panhandle and Alabama River areas. Complicated stamping has the smallest representation of the three series in all three areas.

The extreme variability involved suggests that with the exception of northcentral Florida, no one area is dominated by a praticular series. This, in turn, makes defining regional variations of Weeden Island, at this point, impossible.. The current lack of refinement in the data base, which can be corrected only through a complete and thorough analysis of the collections, prevents any real determinations at this time. The apparent dominance of the Weeden Island series in the northcentral Florida area is skewed because the decorated materials in this area usually account for less than 5% of the sample.

The large standard deviations for the non-transformed means are a reflection of the extreme range, often 0-100, of the different series in the individual collections.





















Figure. 7

Distribution of representative sites with Weeden Island Series ceramics in the midden.





54





















X5 -,





IP~



















r




















Figure 8

Distribution of representative sites with Check Stamped Series ceramics in the midden.




56




















Figure 9

Distribution of representative sites with Complicated Stamped Series ceramics in the midden.




58




59



The extrmem amount of overlap of the three series, both geographically and in the collections, is evident from comparing the graphs and maps. Areas of "pure" sites (sites of predominantly one series) are rare. Most noticeable is the area in the Three Rivers and Central Panhandle areas. Here, such sites as Sycamore (8-GD-19), and many of the sites in Liberty County, Florida, on the Apalachicola, Montgomery Field (9-DR-10) and Hales Landing (9-DR-15) are predominantly, if not exclusively, check stamped and plain in nature. On the coast, Bay and Franklin counties have the heaviest concentration of "pure" check stamped sites. Here, the most noticeable examples are the upper levels of the Tucker Site, Franklin County (Sears 1963). Further west in Lowndes and Autauga counties, Alabama, west of Montgomery, the ceramic component of most sites is predominantly the Henderson and Bear Creek variants of Wakulla Check Stamped.

Distribution of "pure" complicated stamped sites is

similar to the check stamped sites. Site 8-JA-63, Jackson County, Florida, and the Kolomoki period midden at Kolomoki, are the two best examples for the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers. Wheeler Springs, Okaloosa County, Florida; Red Bay (WL-56), Walton County, Florida; and Pits 1 and 2 at Carabelle (FR-2), Franklin County, Florida, are the most obvious examples of this kind of site for the coast. The Shelley midden, Pulaski County, Georgia, and the Andrew Site, Houston County, Georgia (W. Georgia College collections)., both on the central Ocmulgee River, are




60



examples of "pure" complicated stamped sites.

"Pure" Weeden Island series sites are more common than the others. On the coast there are: Ft. Walton, OK-6, Pit I, Okaloosa County, Florida; Postl's Lake III, OK-72, Okaloosa County, Florida; Davis Point West, BY-7, Bay County, Florida. On the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee and Flint rivers there are JA-12, Jackson County, Florida; 1-HO-6, Houston County, Alabama; the Weeden Island period midden at Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia; 9-CLA-7, Clay County, Georgia; White Springs, 9-DR-7, Decatur County, Georgia. In various other areas, sites including, Mitchell Site, Covington County, Alabama; Kimbrough Gravel Pit, Wilcox County, Alabama; and the McKeithen Site (8-CL-17), Columbia County, Florida, are also "pure" Weeden Island series. In most cases, including the "pure"sites, sand tempered plain comprises a substantial percentage of the midden materials. There are also fairly substantial representations of the three series in all three kinds of sites.

Distribution of sites with predominantly (over 50%) one series is mixed and parallels the pattern illustrated in Figures 2-5. This reinforces the conclusion that at any given point in time or space the three series were functioning together or in different combinations. Differences in percentages of series within sites and within areas are examples of cultural differences and temporal changes.




61



Using the concept of temporal change as the only explanation of this observed pattern of ceramic differences, as Willey (1949) and Percy and Brose (1974) have done, does not explain the data. A testable hypothesis, to serve as a substitute for an explanation at this point, is that the differences in series and type representation is the result of cultural, i.e., kin group differences. Each series or type or modal cluster within a series is representative of a lineage or clan which was a part of the society. Differential representation of types, series, and modal clusters represents differential representation of these lineages or clans at sites.

Two areas which alter the interpretation of the ceramic distribution are northcentral Florida and the peninsular coast. Here, the middens are overwhelmingly plain, either sand tempered or sand and limestone tempered. The Weeden Island complexes comprise very small percentages of the secular materials. Thus, for practical purposes, the line delineating the southeasterly extent of the series should be drawn somewhere near the Aucilla River, not down the peninsular coast as illustrated.

The distribution, in quantity, of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, causes some major problems. Defined after Willey's survey (1949), it is in many cases largely ignored and left unrecognized in collections. DeJarnette's recent publication on the Chattahoochee River (1975) undoubtedly includes Kolomoki Complicated Stamped sherds under the Swift Creek




















Figure 10

Known distribution of predominantly Kolomoki Complicated Stamped sites in the southeast.




63




64


label. The basic fault here is that the research for this report was conducted in the 1940s, prior to the Kolomoki publications, and was not up-dated before publication. Research included in the book but conducted after the Kolomoki excavations either did not recover Kolomoki Complicated Stamped or did not recognize it. The still unpublished Fairchild's Landing report (Caldwell Ms.) discusses Kolomoki Complicated Stamped to some extent, and Bullen (1958) lists JA-63, a "pure" Kolomoki site from Jackson County, Florida. Mound Field (Willey 1949:55-60) Wakulla County, Florida, also contains substantial deposits of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, as does the Hall Site, Wakulla County, Florida (Sears 1956).

It is obvious that Kolomoki Complicated Stamped is not confined to a small area immediately surrounding the Kolomoki site. It is found on the Gulf Coast, and the Andrew Site, Houston County, Georgia, has a fairly substantial deposit of this type in midden context, illustrating an eastern distribution of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped. It is suggested here that until further analysis can be conducted, Kolomoki Complicated Stamped is an important element of the ceramic complex of many sites in the southeast, but has thus far been lumped into the type Swift Creek Complicated Stamped. Until we can successfully sort this type out of future collections we will not be able to successfully discuss the problems and dynamics of Kolomoki, both as a site and as a ceramic complex.




65



Weeden Island Distribution: Sacred



The intent of this section is to investigate the

structure and content of mounds which contain Weeden Island series ceramics. This, in turn, will lay the foundation for discussing the distribution and form of political and religious organization present within the cultures that produced Weeden Island ceramics.

Differential disposal of the dead has been recognized as representing stratification within a society (Binford 1971), with the more elaborate burials afforded those individuals in the society With the highest status (Peebles 1971). The Weeden Island burial mounds are examples of-this differential disposal of the dead. In fact, we do not have any data on how the average person was buried.

Thus, the most elaborate burials or mound structures represent the disposal of the highest members of the society. Peebles' (1971) work with the Moundville materials has demonstrated this for a Mississippian population, as have Larson (1971) for the Etowah site and Brown (1971) for the Spiro site. Extending the models backward in time serves as an explanatory tool for the Weeden Island materials.

The bulk of known Weeden Island mounds were excavated by C.B. Moore during the late 1800s and early 1900s. By current standards, Moore's excavations were poor, but by the standards of his period, they were good. In fact,




66


Moore probably saved great amounts of information by excavating when he did. Many of the mounds he dug on the northwest coast of Florida had previously been dug into by unknown persons. Moore had the desire and resources to preserve his materials and publish the data, two actions that probably would not have been carried out by the other excavators.

Moore's excavations, however, suffered from his preoccupation with the recovery of exotic materials. The unique Weeden Island effigy vessels were ideal for this orientation. In many instances, he did not retain the plain and check stamped materials, let alone illustrate them. After a thorough study of Moore's field notes William H. Sears (personal communication) has concluded that the collections are highly biased in favor of the elaborately decorated and exotic vessels, and the plain and check stamped vessels were not always collected or noted. This makes a thorough analysis of the sacred ceramics difficult to perform. The sample is not random, it is highly biased in favor of the unique vessels. Therefore, any attempt at cluster analysis, either formal or informal, would not demonstrate the true picture.

This reduces the ability to analyze the sacred Weeden Island materials. For the purposes of this dissertation, a descriptive approach has been chosen. This will outline the nature of the mound materials as they are known, and relate them to mound structure.




67



There are two recognizably different ceremonial mound types in the Weeden Island region: continuous use mounds on the Gulf Coast and east side pottery deposit mounds.on the northwest Florida coast and inland Georgia and Alabama. There is, however, an observable overlap of sacred ceramics in the middens of these regions. This could conceivably allow the determination of the relationship of sacred (mound) and secular (midden) complexes by matching sacred series sherds recovered from the middens with those from the incomplete vessels recovered from the mounds.

While Weeden Island ceramic types, as defined by Willey (1949:446-448) are applicable to some mound materials, his definitions do not work for others. A quick look at Willey's attempts to apply the standard type names to Moore's illustrations (Moore 1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1918) shows the difficulty. It approaches the meaningless to apply the term "Weeden Island Plain" to a human effigy vessel recovered from a burial mound, when the same term is used for a plain bowl recovered from a midden. The anthropological signifncance of the human effigy included in a burial mound would be far greater than that possessed by a simple cooking pot. The existing typology and classification fails to make obvious the distinction. The nature of the ceramic materials included in the Weeden Island mounds is, to say the least, odd. They range from "common" Weeden Island Plain bowls to highly incised and punctated globular pots to derived effigy pots to pedestaled effigys to human




68


effigies (Sears 1956: 22-23). In many cases the vessels are stylistically the same as those found in middens, but are usually of better construction and execution of design. Another often overlooked aspect of the mound materials is that many vessels are small, often holding less than one pint. Normal midden vessels would hold at least one quart.

Handling the sacred ceramics on a descriptive basis

presents multiple problems. The truly unique nature of many of the vessels prevents accurate, meaningful descriptions. The sheer number of known vessels, often more than thirty per mound, prevents illustration, or even brief description, of the total collection. Fortunately, C.B. Moore (1901; 1902; 1903; 1907; 1918) illustrates and describes most of the vessels he recovered, especially the more intriguing ones. Willey (1949:197-346) provides a typological breakdown of the materials, and some illustrations. He also includes classifications and brief descriptions of some pots that Moore did not illustrate. Sears (1956:20-30,57-68) provides an analytical discussion of the ceramics, some illustrations, and a suggested developmental continuum of mounds and vessels, which he no longer feels is valid. From these sources, one can gain a good "feel" of the Weeden Island ceramics, and the reader is directed to these sources to supplement the discussion of the Weeden Island sacred ceramics presented below.




69


Pottery Deposit Type Mounds: The features of this type of mound are consistent in their occurence. Most of the data available are from Moore's excavations on the northwest Florida coast and up the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. Mounds D and E at Kolomoki are the best described examples of such mounds. These mounds are characterized by: (1) a deposit of vessels and sherds, made for ceremonial use, on the eastern or northeastern sides of the mounds; the deposits often continue to the center of the mounds; (2) all features of the mounds are oriented to the east side and the center of the mound;

(3) a central burial in a specially prepared tomb is probable. This cannot be documented for most of Moore's descriptions. However, the Kolomoki excavations and some of Moore's descriptions show that this is probably the norm.

Sears (1958:275) illustrates the known distribution

of these mounds. There is a marked clustering at the mouth of the Apalachicola River, along the adjacent coast to the east and west, and extending up the river. There is a noticeable decline in the number of sites once the confluence of the Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola is reached. However, this decline may be the result of sampling error, as we know little of the Flint and Spring Creek (the third source for the Apalachicola) above Bainbridge, Georgia. Informants in southwest Georgia have told this writer of at least nine mounds on Spring Creek which have been ransacked by local collectors. This information suggests a




70


greater density of mounds north of the Three Rivers area. Our knowledge of the Chattahoochee River valley is extensive enough, however, to allow us to say that the concentration of mounds on that river is indeed low. One explanation for this is presented in a survey report of Early County, Georgia (Steinen:1976a)which is discussed in Chapter III of this dissertation. The western boundary of this mound type in Okaloosa County, Florida, and the eastern boundary is Taylor County, Florida.

Jerald T. Milanich (personal communication) has

suggested that the east side pottery deposit mounds extend east of the Aucilla River into Suwannee and Columbia Counties Florida. Almost no archaeology has been carried out by professional archaeologists in this area, although collections of local amateurs contain the full range of Weeden Island sacred and secular ceramics found in northwest Florida.

Continuous Use Type Mounds: "Characteristics are scattering of burials vertically and horizontally, sometimes in very large numbers, without definite signs of layers, developed surfaces, or internal structures. Artifacts, if present at all, occur most often directly associated with the burials" (Sears 1958:277). This type of mound is numerous and is distributed primarily between the Warrior River and Tampa Bay.




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Data Presentation



The sheer number of known Weeden Island burial mounds and their included material makes a detailed discussion extremely difficult. Moore's publications provide the basic descriptive data (Moore 1901; 1902; 1903; 1907; 1918); Willey (1949) provides a sometimes useable typological breakdown; and Sears (1956) gives a theoretical approach.

By rough count there are fifty-eight mounds containing Weeden Island series ceramics on the Gulf Coast from Santa Rosa County, Florida, to the Warrior River; thirty-one south of the Warrior River; at least twenty-one on the Apalachicola Flint, and Chattahoochee rivers and Spring Creek; and one on the middle Ocmulgee River. Inland Florida contains another ten or more mounds, for a total of over 120 mounds. Using ten vessels per mound as a conservative estimate, the sacred ceramic assemblage for the entire Weeden Island time period is well in excess of 1,000. The ceremonial nature of the vessels suggests that each represents a separate artistic and ceremonial expression (Sears 1973).

The terminology for ceramic descriptions presented here follows common practice as well as specific cases defined by Sears (1956) and further explained later in this chapter. Form refers to the vessel shape. Subtypes of this category are utilitarian forms, abstract forms, free effigy forms, pedestaled effigy forms and derived effigy forms. Shape is self-explanatory. It is a descriptive




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category and is used to designate the nature of the vessel. Decoration is also a descriptive category. It describes the manner in which the vessel was treated to modify the surface.

When possible, the following discussion of sacred

ceramics is organized by the analytical areas defined above. The vessels are presented in descriptive form with the number "l" representing form, number "2" representing shape and number "3" representing decoration. The data is further condensed into tabular form in Appendices A-H.



Northwest Coast and Inland Pottery Deposit Types



Identifiable Weeden Island mounds are scarce west of Choctowhatchee Bay. The westernmost mound is the Mound Near Maester Creek near Pensacola Bay (Moore 1901:33-434), which is an abberant form since the Weeden Island series vessels that were recovered come from the west side of the mound. The Rocky Bayou mound (Moore 1901:455) on Choctowhatchee Bay is identifiable as Weeden Island on the basis of the recovery of a gourd-shaped ceramic vessel, a shape that is found in other Weeden Island mounds. However, once the eastern half of Choctowhatchee Bay is reached the number of mounds increases greatly. Mounds were selected to show the great variety of materials contained in them. They are presented in a descriptive manner in the body of the chapter and reduced to tabular form in Appendix A-H.




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Western Panhandle



Point Washington, Choctowhatchee Bay, Walton County, Florida (Moore 1904:465-474):

Vessels:
Fig. 62 1. Utility
2. Jar
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 63 1. Utility
2. Flaring rim jar
3. Weeden Island Incised/ Keith Incised combination

Fig. 64 1. Utility
2. Incurvate rim bowl with neck
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 65 1. Utility
2. Beaker
3. Tucker Ridge Pinched

Fig. 66 1. Abstract
2. Double bowl (stacked)
3. Carrabelle Punctate

Fig. 67 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Owl effigy
3. Free Incision

Fig. 68 1. Abstract
2. Double bowl with human (?) effigy head (side by side)
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 69 1. Utility
2. Necked jar
3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:63)

Fig. 70 1. Utility
2. Incurvate rim bowl
3. Extremely deep incision

Fig. 72 1. Utility
2. Flaring rim bowl
3. Carrabelle Punctate





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Fig. 73 1. Utility
2. Necked jar
3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:63)

Fig. 74 1. Abstract
2. Conoidal base beaker
3. Weeden Island Zoned Red/ Free Incised

Fig. 75 1. Abstract
2. Conoidal based beaker
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised



Central Panhandle



Sowell Site, Bay County, Florida (Moore 1902:167)

Vessels:
Fig. 68 1. Utility
2. Beaker
3. Weeden Island Punctated

Fig. 69 1. Utility
2. Incurved rim bowl
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 70 1. Utility
2. Round bottom jar
3. Carrabelle Incised

Fig. 72 1. Utility
2. Round bottom jar
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 73 1. Abstract 2. Open bowl
3. Bird head adornos, free punctation

Fig. 75 1. Utility
2. Incurved rim bowl
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 76 1. Abstract
2. Jar with contracting base
3. Unique incision




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Fig. 77 1. Derived effigy
2. Open bowl with crested bird head and tail adornos
3. Weeden Island Plain

Fig. 78 1. Utility
2. Collared jar
3. St. Petersburg Incised (local copy of Coles Creek Incised)

Fig. 79 Sherd, Tampa Complicated Stamp

Tucker Site, Franklin County, Florida (Moore 1902:257-265)

Vessels:
Fig. 214 1. Derived effigy
2. Boat shaped bowl with bird head adorno, flat base
3. Plain

Fig. 215 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Bird effigy
3. Free incision, punctates

Fig. 216 1. Derived effigy
2. Cat head on double bowl
3. Plain

Fig. 217 1. Abstract
2. Bowl
3. Red Paint

Fig. 219 1. Utility
2. Necked bowl
3. Tucker Ridge-pinched

Fig. 220 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Owl head on pedestaled bowl
3. Plain

Fig. 221 1. Utility
2. Necked jar
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 223 1. Utility
2. Necked jar
3. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped

Fig. 224 1. Utility
2. High neck jar
3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped




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Fig. 225 1. Abstract
2. Narrow necked jar 3. Free incision with perforations

Mound Field, Wakulla County, Florida (Moore 1902: 306-320):

Vessels:
Fig. 286 1. Utility
2. Bowl
3. Weeden Island Punctated

Fig. 287 1. Derived effigy
2. Bird (?) head head and tail on bowl
3. Red Paint and perforations

Fig. 288 1. Derived effigy
2. Straight sided bowl with bird head adorno
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 289 1. Derived effigy
2. Owl head on straight sided bowl
3. Plain

Fig. 290 1. Abstract
2. Beaker with eight lobes
3. Red Paint

Fig. 291 1. Derived effigy
2. Bird with bird adorno
3. Plain

Fig. 292 1. Abstract
2. One-half of compound vessel
3. Free incision

Fig. 294 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Owl on globular bowl pedestal

Fig. 295 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl with neck 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamp (Sears 1956:62)




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Fig. 296 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl with contracting neck
3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:62)

Fig. 297 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Deer (?)
3. Red Paint

Fig. 298 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Horned Owl with obe wings
3. Red Paint

Fig. 300 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Bird
3. Free incised

Fig. 301 1. Utility
2. Beaker
3. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:62)

Davis Field, Calhoun County, Florida (Moore 1903: 468-473)

Vessels:
Fig. 131 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Bird, globular bowl-shaped body
3. Free incision with punctates and perforations

Fig. 133 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Questionable, may be abstract
3. Free incision with perforations, red paint

Fig. 134 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Bird
3. Free incision with perforations

Fig. 136 1. Abstract
2. Multiple superimposed bowl/ beaker form
3. Plain




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Mound at Bristol, Liberty County, Florida
(Moore 1903:474-489)

Vessels:
Fig. 137 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl with extremely high neck
3. Wakulla Check Stamped

Fig. 138 1. Utility
2. Bowl
3. Weeden Island Zoned Incised

Fig. 139 1. Utility
2. Contracting base beaker
3. Wakulla Check Stamped

Fig. 140 1. Derived effigy
2. Tall bowl with bird head adorno
3. Free incision, perforations, Red Paint

Fig. 141 1. Derived effigy
2. Constricted neck bowl with two bird heads
3. Perforations and Red Paint

Fig. 142 1. Utility
2. Open bowl
3. Lobed sides

Fig. 143 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl with neck 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956)


Three Rivers


Aspalaga Landing, Gadsden County, Florida (Moore 1903:481-487)

Vessels:
Fig. 146 1. Abstract
2. Globular necked bowl with appliques
3. Punctate (?)




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Fig. 147 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl with expanding neck
3. Crystal River Incised (Willey 1949:247) red paint

Fig. 148 1. Utility
2. Globular necked bowl 3. Crystal River Incised (Willey 1949:247)

Fig. 150 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Human effigy
3. Plain, perforations in eyes and ears

Fig. 151 1. Abstract
2. Open bowl superimposed on jar, tetrapods (Small)
3. Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (early)

Mound Near Hare's Landing (Moore 1907:429-437)

Vessels:
Fig. 2 1. Utility
2. Shape
3. Free Punctation

Fig. 3 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Necked, rounded beaker on pedestal
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised, Red Paint

Fig. 5 1. Utility
2. Constricting neck jar
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 7 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Unique "pitcher"
3. Free incised, handle, perforations, red paint

Fig. 8 1. Derived effigy
2. Beaker with head adorno 3. Perforations, red paint

Fig. 9 1. Utility
2. Tall compressed bowl
3. Perforations, red paint




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Fig. 10 1. Derived effigy
2. Beaker form with head and neck adornos
3. Perforations, red paint

Fig. 11 1. Utility
2. Jar
3. Carrabelle Punctate


Fulmer's Upper Landing, Houston County, Alabama
(Moore 1907:438-445)

Vessels:
Fig. 17 1. Utility
2. Flat bottomed beaker
3. Zoned incised and punctate, Keith/Carrabelle Punctate combination

Fig. 18 1. Utility
2. Beaker
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 20 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl with neck
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 22 1. Utility
2. Beaker
3. Weeden Island Zoned Red

Fig. 24 1. Utility
2. Bowl with contracting base 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised


Eastern Panhandle

Aucilla River Mound, Taylor County, Florida
(Moore 1902: 325-330)

Vessels:
Fig. 313 Dog Head adorno

Fig. 314 1. Utilitarian
2. Large mouth cup
3. Zoned Weeden .Island Punctated




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Fig. 315 1. Derived effigy
2. Bird with head and tail adorno
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

Fig. 316 1. Abstract
2. Compartmented vessel
3. Plain

Fig. 317 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Globular bowl with pedestaled bird
3. Free incision

Fig. 319 1. Abstract
2. Compartmented bowl
3. Plain


(Moore 1918: 564-567)

Fig. 37 1. Utilitarian
2. Wide mouth jar
3. Kilomoki Complicated Stamp

Fig. 38 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Human effigy 3. Red paint (?)


McKeithen Site, Columbia County, Florida (Jerald T. Milanich, Personal Communication)

Vessels:
#1. 1. Abstract
2. Quadralateral globular bowl 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised

#2. 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Crested bird, very large diameter pedestal
3. Free incision, red paint

#3. 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Bird
3. Free incision, red paint

#4. 1. Pedestaled effigy
2. Crested bird, very large diameter pedestal
3. Free incision, red paint

#5-7. elements of derived effigy pots




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#8. 1. Utility
2. Open bowl
3. Weeden Island Red #9. 1. Utility
2. Open Bowl
3. Weeden Island Red #10. 1. Utility
2. Open bowl
3. Weeden Island Plain (?) #11. 1. Utility
2. Open bowl
3. Scalloped punctated rim and lip; body is plain #12. 1. Utility
2. Quadralateral bowl
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised #13. 1. Utility
2. Shallow plate
3. Weeden Island Red #14. 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl 3. Undetermined


Chattahoochee River Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia (Sears 1956):
Mound D.

Full descriptions and illustrations are presented in

Sears (1953:26-39; Pl. ii). Sixty-five whole or restorable vessels were recovered. They range from human effigies to pedestaled effigies to derived effigies to utility forms. The number of pedestaled effigies is truly impressive. Red paint is a common mode. Round base jars of a Mississippian form are present (Sears. 1953:pl. xxv). Incision, mostly free, punctation, and preforations are the dominant decorative techniques. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped is represented, however there is no check stamping.




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Mound E (Sears 1951b)

Full descriptions and illustrations of Mound E ceramics are presented by Sears (1951b pl. I-XIV).

Materials differed from Mound D in having most complicated stamped vessels and fewer pedestaled ones. Most of the Mississippian forms present at the site are in this deposit. Perforations are fewer. There are many more vessels which could be classified as utility form. Mercier Red on Buff is represented by eleven vessels.



Peninsular Coast: Continuous Use Type Mounds



South of the Warrior River, in Taylor County, Florida there is a major shift in mound construction. The east side deposit, single ceremony mounds appear to drop out, and continuous use type mounds, without any apparent ceramic cache, replace them.

Fowlers Landing, Levy County, Florida (Moore 1903:
364-371) Vessels:
Fig. 1 1. Utility
2. Elongate bowl
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 3 1. Utility
2. Jar
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised; Unique applique around rim. Fig. 5 1. Abstract
2. Superimposed globular bowls
3. Plain




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Mound Near the Chassahawitzka River (Moore 1903:
413-414)

Moore mentions plain, red painted, check stamped and punctated sherds. One crested bird head adorno usually found on derived effigies was recovered. One sherd of St. Petersburg Incised was also recovered. No complicated stamped materials were recovered from the mound.

Mound Near Bayport, Hernando County, Florida (Moore
1903:415-424)

Vessels:
Fig. 72 1. Utility
2. Globular bowl
3. Unclassified incised Fig. 74 1. Derived effigy
2. Globular bowl with bird head rim adornos
3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 76 1. Abstract 2. Tall jar
3. Double globular bowls Fig. 77 1. Abstract 2. Tall jar
3. Plain, "projecting base" Fig. 78 1. Utility
2. Quadralateral jar
3. Plain

Fig. 79 1. Abstract
2. Tall jar, constricted neck, "projecting base"
3. Plain

Weeden Island Mound, Pinellas County, Florida

Fewkes (1924) illustrates the vessels found in the

Weeden Island mound. All forms are utility with one possible exception which may be described as abstract. Shape runs from blobular bowl through tall beaker. Decorative motifs include Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Zoned




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Red, Wakulla Check Stamped, Weeden Island Punctated, Indian Pass Incised, Weeden Island Zoned Plain, and Pinellas Incised. Plate 14b illustrated an unclassified complicated stamped sherd. Human effigy face adornos were recovered. In most cases, incision and punctation were of the zoned variety. Willey further classifies other materials, which include a few more sherds of the Weeden Island series, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped sherds, plus Englewood and Safety Harbor ceramics. Wakulla Check Stamped and Carrabelle Incised are the most common types (Willey 1949:110).

Palmer Mound, Sarasota County, Florida (Bullen &

Bullen 1976)

Bullen lists the ceramics recovered from the Palmer mound (Bullen & Bullen 1976:42) in tabular form. Of the 8,569 sherds recovered from the mound only 26 sherds, or 0.30 percent were of the Weeden Island series. The bulk of the material (80.82 percent) was sand tempered plain). No effigy or pedestaled vessels were recovered.



Northcentral Florida



Melton Mound #1, Alachua County, Florida (Smith 1971)

Sherds were evenly distributed through the mound fill. No decorated Weeden Island series sherds were recovered. Sand tempered plain, St. Johns series and Deptford series sherds constituted the bulk of the material. Burials tended to be in the central part of the mound.




86



Melton Mound #2, Alachua County, Florida (Bell 1883)

This mound is poorly reported, but appears to have had an east side pottery deposit. One effigy vessel was recovered by an excavator other than Bell. The form is not possible to determine from the description. Florida State Museum collections show mostly St. Johns Plain, Dunns Creek Red, and sand tempered plain materials. Late Swift Creek Complicated Stamped is present. There are no decorated Weeden Island series known.

Melton Mound #3, Alachua County, Florida (Sears 1957)

West side sherd deposits contained:

WI Red 1
Carr. Punc. 1 (Note: Bulk of materials
Okla. Inc. 1 are St. Johns series.)

Other areas of mound:

WI Red 23 WI Inc. 1
IP Inc. 2 (Note: Bulk of materials
SCCS II 1 are St. Johns series.)
Kolo. CS 1 Md. Fld. CS 1 Oklawaha Plain 1 Oklawaha Inc. 1



Miscellaneous Sites



Shelly Mound, Pulaski County, Georgia (West Georgia
College Collections)

Vessels in the pottery-deposit-type mound are
(approximate count):




87



SCCS II &
Kolo. CS 7 Sand tempered Pl. 6 Ovate sand tempered Pl. 6 WI PI. 16 Vertical Inc. 1 Random Punc. 1 Unique CS (Woodstock?) 1



Discussion



From the inspection of sacred ceramics, their distribution, and the mounds, several generalizations can be drawn. In the following chapter these are incorporated into the data base for testing hypotheses concerning sociopolitical organization.

Two broad geographical areas can be delineated for

mounds possessing Weeden Island ceramics. On the northwest Florida coast as far west as Choctowhatchee Bay and as far southeast as the Warrior River, and in adjacent areas of Alabama and Georgia, as far north as Columbia Crossing, Georgia, the east side pottery deposit mounds are present.

The peninsular coast and northcentral Florida mounds appear to be primarily continuous use type mounds. Exceptions to this pattern may be the Melton mounds in Alachua County, Florida. However, the descriptions in Bell's report (1883) are so poor that no definite statement can be made.

The correlation of mound ceramics with midden ceramics is poor at best. While no statistical correlation was




88


carried out, due to the biased nature of the mound vessels, the pattern is clear. The mound vessels appear to be in free association with the midden ceramics. Series and decorative modes may be present in one context and absent in another without any apparent pattern. St. Johns series ceramics, on the other hand, are present in fairly high percentages in the peninsular coast and northcentral Florida middens and mounds. These are absent in the middens of the northwest coast and inland Georgia and Alabama. Likewise, complicated stamped vessels and sherds are present in the northern mounds and middens, but are generally absent in the southern mounds and middens. An explanation for this is presented in the following chapter. Pedestaled effigies tend to cluster along the Apalachicola River and at its mouth. The distribution of these forms parallels the distribution of the pottery deposit mounds and complicated stamped ceramics. An explanation for this is also presented in the following chapter.



A Definition of Weeden Island



From the analyzed data concerning the sacred and secular materials and their contexts and distributions, a definition of the Weeden Island ceramic complex can be derived. It is designed to serve as an explanatory construct and to aid in the future collection, analysis and synthesis of Weeden Island data.




89


Northwest Florida Coast and Adjacent Areas. In this large region, Weeden Island is determined by the presence of the Weeden Island ceramic series in either the sacred and/ or the secular contexts.



I. Secular: Secular Weeden Island is confined to

the northwest Florida, Alabama and Georgia area

as far west as Mobile Bay, north along the

Apalachicola-Chattahoochee rivers to the fall line, and north on the Flint River and Spring Creek at least as far as Bainbridge. The more

northern extent of these rivers is archaeologically

unknown. In Alabama, the northernmost extension

of Weeden Island in in the area west of Montgomery.

The southern extent of Weeden Island is Columbia

and Suwannee counties in Florida.

A. Suggested sub-types.

1. Weeden Island. Defined by having

majority of decorated materials of the punctated-incised series: Minority decorated types include Wakulla Check Stamped, complicated stamped, and cordmarked. 30-70% of these collections are plain.

2. Wakulla-Weeden Island. Defined by having majority of decorated materials of the Wakulla Check Stamped type. Minority





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decorated types will be of the punctatedincised and complicated stamped series.

Sand tempered plain will be present in smaller percentages than in other subtypes. (This is due to the fact that the Wakulla vessels were stamped over

their entire surfaces.)

3. Swift Creek II-Weeden Island. Defined

by the majority of the decorated midden

materials being of the Swift Creek II

type. Punctated-incised series and the types Wakulla Check Stamped and Kolomoki

Complicated Stamped may be present in

varying percentages. Sand tempered plain

constitutes a large percentage of the

collections.

4. Kolomoki-Weeden Island. Defined by having

Kolomoki Complicated Stamped as the dominant decorated type. Punctated-incised series, Wakulla Check Stamped, and Swift Creek II types may or may not be present in varying percentages in the collection.

Sand tempered plain constitutes 40-70% of

the sample. This is due to the Kolomoki stamp usually being applied only to the

neck of the vessel.




91



5. Combined-Weeden Island. There are no

dominant series; all three appear in almost equal frequency.

II. Sacred: Known for the same region as secular

Weeden Island, with a possible extension into Dixie

County, Florida. It is marked by the following:

A. East side deposit mounds. Deposit may be

of sherds, whole vessels broken or intact,

or both.

B. Sacred ceramics.

1. Utility forms. "These are vessels which

had, or could have had, normal utilitarian function, such as containers and cooking vessels" (Sears 1956:23).

These vessels, while similar to secular

vessels, are usually better made.

2. Abstract Forms. "...vessels which are

remotely functional, that is, have bases,

walls and orifices, but have developed these features in rather exotic styles.

The vessel forms produced are heavily

modified from functional forms, but not

in the direction of either life forms

or of greater functional utility" (Sears

1956:23).

3. Effigy Forms.

a. Free effigy. "In these forms the




92


intent seems to have been an accurate, if greatly stylized, representation of life forms. They tend

to lack pedestals or other modifications designed to aid them in maintaining an upright position, as well

as spouts or other or.fices" (Sears 1956:22). Cut out areas are common.

b. Pedestaled effigies. Life forms on

pedestals, which range from rudimentary to well defined. "The effigies most often are birds, with the duck, owl and raptorial bird-important in that order of frequence--are usually well made. The

intent to produce life forms is clear although they are often rather heavily

sytlized..." (Sears 1956:23).

c. Derived effigies. "Such effigies are

defined as those forms in which a

functional vessel form is modified,

usually by the addition of such features as heads, to produce a

variable degree of resemblance to

life forms" (Sears 1956:23).

4. Decoration and surface treatment. The

standard methods for decorating or treating




Full Text

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THE WEEDEN ISLAND CERAMIC COMPLEX: AN ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION By Karl T. Steinen A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1976

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Copyright 1976 By Karl T. Steinen

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DEDICATED TO: Nancy Sears Steinen

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract vi Introduction 1 Chapter I: Cultural Evolution in the Southeast to Weeden Island 4 Paleo Indian 4 Archaic 5 Formative 5 Sacred and Secular 9 Sacred Development :Yent, Green Point and Weeden Island 11 Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia 16 Midden 19 Mounds 2 Chapter II Ceramic Analysis and Sacred and Secular Distribution. 27 Three Series 33 Secular Ceramic Analysis 34 Weeden Island Distribution: Sacred.... 65 Data Presentation 71 Northwest Coast and Inland Pottery Deposit Types 72 Western Panhandle 73 Central Panhandle 74 Three Rivers 7 8 Eastern Panhandle 80 Chattahoochee River 8 2 Peninsular Coast 83 Northcentral Florida 8 5 Miscellaneous Sites 86 Discussion 87 A Definition of Weeden Island 88 Chapter III Hypothesis and Tests 103 The Northwest Florida Coast and Adjacent Areas of Alabama and Georgia 105 Weeden Island Genesis 105 Weeden Island Origins 110 Chronology and Temporal Placement .... 114 Chapter IV Some Suggestions for Future Weeden '. Island Research 150 Problem I : Secular Ceramics 150 Problem II : Sacred Ceramics 153 Problem III: Complicated Stamped Pottery.. 154 Problem IV 154 iv

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Chapter IV continued Problem V: Excavations 157 Problem VI: Cultural Relationships .. 157 Problem VI : Sacred Ceramics and Mounds 158 Chapter V Summary. 161 Appendix A Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: Western Panhandle Area 168 Appendix B Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: Central Panhandle Area 199 Appendix C Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: Peninsular Coast Area 23Q Appendix D Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: Eastern Panhandle Area 251 Appendix E Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: North Central Florida Area 260 Appendix F Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: 3 Rivers Area 266 Appendix G Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: Chattahoochee River Area 2 92 Appendix H Tabular Presentation of Numerical Data: Alabama River Area. 321 Bibliography 3 30 Biographical Sketch 343 v

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE WEEDEN ISLAND CERAMIC COMPLEX: AN ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION By Karl T. Steinen December, 1976 Chairman: Jerald T. Milanich Major Department: Anthropology The Weeden Island ceramic complex is examined in an attempt to define origins and cultural dynamics of this widespread but little understood southeastern archaeological phenomena. Based on the analysis, a new definition of Weeden Island is presented and a series of hypotheses concerning origins, development and social structure are tested. Finally, a series of research problems are formulated and a set of suggested methods for their testing are presented. The analysis of secular ceramics focuses on the Weeden Island, check stamped, and complicated stamped series indefined geographic areas. This analysis shows that with the exception of peninsular Florida, there is not a great amount of observable difference in the distribution of the three vx

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series within the Weeden Island region. The analysis of sacred ceramics examins vessels from selected mounds. Due to the un-systematic discarding of plain and check stamped vessels by C.B. Moore, no meaningful cluster analysis or presence/absence analysis could be conducted on this material. Several patterns are apparent from the analysis of the ceramic data: (1) the east side pottery deposit mounds are found from the Choctowhatchee Bay in the west to the Warrior River in the east, as far north as Early County, Georgia and Pulaski County, Georgia; (2) the heaviest concentration of mounds is along the Apalachicola River and areas adjacent to its mouth on the Gulf Coast; and, (3) continuous use mounds are known from the Warrior River south to Tampa Bay. The cultures using the Weeden Island series of ceramics are seen as developing in place with heavy influence from the Troyville/Coles Creek cultures of the lower Mississippi Valley. Sacred Weeden Island developed out ot the late Green Point complex on the Northwest Florida coast. Secular Weeden Island developed as a result of the addition of the new ceramic modes of incision and punctation to the already present complicated and check stamped ceamics. In both cases, the addition of the ceramic modes expressed in the Weeden Island series is viewed as evidence of the presence of a new social system based on maize horticulture and a complex form of politico/religious social control. vii

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The socio/political organization of the Weeden Island cultures is believed to have been a chiefdom similar to the historically known Natchez. A central great chief resided at the Kolomoki site and two subsidiary chiefs resided at the McKeithen and Mitchell sites. There was a central unifying religion, and a system allowing redistribution of goods from various physiographic zones, including the coast, inland river valleys, and inland forrest areas of the coastal plain. Finally, a series of research problems designed to futher our understanding of the Weeden Island phenomena are presented with suggested methods of testing them. The basic orientation of these problems is the improvement of the data base so that complex questions of chronology and cultural dynamics can be asked and answered. vi 11

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INTRODUCTION The archaeologically known Weeden Island ceramic series of sand tempered, punctated, incised and red painted pottery was first defined by Gordon R. Willey (1949) in his monumental Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast Since this first definition, archaeologists have recognized the wide distribution of the series within the southeast United States Gulf Coastal Plain. Weeden Island, by definition, is recognized by the presence of Weeden Island series ceramic types in a midden or mound context. The Weeden Island region, in turn, is that geographical area in which the Weeden Island ceramic series is found. Weeden Island was a topic of research in archaeology before it was even defined. Clarence B. Moore, a Philadelphian, toured the southeast in his steamboat, "Gopher", during the late 19th and early 2 0th centuries, excavating Weeden Island and other mounds. He singlehandedly excavated the great majority of known Weeden Island Mounds from the Chattahoochee River to Tampa Bay and along the Gulf Coast of Florida. Interest in the Weeden Island materials has not waned since Moore departed the Gulf Coast. Jesse W. Fewkes excavated the Weeden Island site on Tampa Bay in 1924

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(Fewkes 1924). James Bell excavated a series of mounds containing some Weeden Island ceramics in North-central Florida in 1883. Willey and Richard B. Woodbury (1942) carried out a survey and test program in Northwest Florida. Following this, Sears (1951a, 1951b, 1956, 1957) excavated the Kolomoki site near Blakely, Georgia. The federally sponsored river basin surveys from the late 1940s to the present produced a wealth of information concerning the distrubution of Weeden Island ceramics. In short, the data base for the study of Weeden Island is broad and inclusive. Theoretical interest in Weeden Island has not lagged behind the data collection. William H. Sears has authored a series of papers concerning Weeden Island social, political and religious organization (Sears 1968, 1973, Ms. a, Ms.b). More recently, Jerald T. Milanich organized a symposium on Weeden Island at the 39th annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology. This symposium served as the forum for presenting several papers which made an effort to re-think the concept of Weeden Island. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the occurrence of the Weeden Island ceramic series in an attempt to analyze recognizable patterns. From this analysis, a definition of Weeden Island is constructed and a series of hypotheses concerning origins, development and social structure are tested. A series of integrated research problems are presented with suggested methods of solving them. These are designed to increase the

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applicability of the data to complex questions of anthropological orientation. Chapter I is a summary of cultural developments in the Weeden Island region.

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CHAPTER I CULTURAL EVOLUTION IN THE SOUTHEAST TO WEEDEN ISLAND To understand both the development and origins of Weeden Island and the complexities of the midden and mound deposits, a rudimentary understanding of cultural evolution in the Southeast is needed. Isolating the Weeden Island ceramic series from its developmental complex does not allow for a full understanding of the complexities of the observable patterns. It is in this light that the following synthesis of southeastern prehistory is presented. Much of what we know of cultural development in the southeast is confined to the interpretations based on ceramics. Too little has been written on adaptation, ecological relationships or settlement patterns. For this reason, the discussion for this chapter will be confined, for the most part, to ceramic development. Pa leoIndian The earliest occupation of the Gulf Coastal Plain was by Paleo-Indian groups who practiced a nomadic biggame hunting subsistence system, manufactured lanceolate points, and, presumably, had band social structure.

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Arc haic The Archaic period reflects a change in subsistence from earlier emphasis on big game. Two patterns, similar yet distinct, now appear. Inland, forest adapted huntinggathering-fishing was practiced with reliance upon nuts and game (Caldwell 1958) In coastal and riverine situations shellfish were exploited in addition to the normal huntinggathering-fishing pattern. The first subsistence pattern is represented by dirt middens, the second by shell middens. Formative The concept of Formative used here is a combination of the Colonial and Theocratic formative concepts developed by James A. Ford (1969:5). It is a period characterized by the use of ceramics, horticulture, mound structures, and a well developed political-religious system. Weeden Island and pre-Weeden Island formative periods, which are each definable on the basis of distinctive ceramic traditions, can be grouped into three series, fiber tempered; carved paddle stamped (check, simple and curvilinear complicated stamped) ; and incised and punctated. They are as follows. Fiber Tempered The earliest Formative cultures in the southeast are found along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts and up the Savannah River. Dating to 2500 B.C. these ceramic cultures represent an internal development or are the result of diffusion (Marrinan 1975; Ford 1969; Stoltman 1974). Few discernable changes appear in these early Formative cultures for 1500 years, the

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time range of their characteristic fiber tempered pottery. Carved Paddle Stamped Stratigraphic evidence from the mouth of the Savannah River and along the adjacent Georgia coast suggests that there was an in situ development of gritty sand tempered ceramic wares from the fiber tempered ware. It was here that the Refuge series, which is predominantly simple stamped, developed from the coastal series of fiber tempered ceramics into Deptford Simple Stamped, which apparently is the earliest type of the Deptford series (Waring 1968:198-208; 216-221; Marrinan 1975). Deptford This second Formative period is marked by the presence of the Deptford series of sand and grit tempered ceramics with check and simple stamped surfaces and (rarely) tetrapodal supports (Waring 1968:135-151; Milanich 1971a) This check and simple stamped series developed out of the coastal Refuge series by ca. 500 B.C. and apparently spread from the Atlantic Coast across the Georgia Coastal Plain to the Gulf Coast of Florida. Cartersville This check and simple stamped ceramic series is found above the fall line in Georgia after ca. 100 B.C./A.D. 1 and extends inot extreme western North Carolina (Caldwell 1958; Fairbanks 1953). Tetrapods are also present on some vessels. Late Cartersville Check Stamped vessels differ from Deptford, having a plain band above the shoulder (Caldwell, Thompson and Caldwell 1952: 323-325) The developmental relationship of Deptford to Cartersville has not been established. By A.D. 1, however,

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check stamped ceramics extended from the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts up the Chattahoochee and Savannah river v alleys respectively, to the piedmont. While it was not directly in line to the development of the Weeden Island complex, it has been suggested (Sears Ms.a:25-27) that Cartersville Check Stamped was contributory to the development of the later Wakulla Check Stamped. Wakulla Check Stamped This is the check stamped ceramic type which is associated with Weeden Island ceramic complexes. It occurs in varying percentages throughout the Weeden Island area, in both mound and midden context. While it was originally restricted to a late, or Weeden Island II, context (Willey 1949:396-3970, other evidence tends to indicate a continual use of the check stamped motif from Deptford through historic contact on the Gulf (Sears 1963) and Atlantic Coasts (Milanich and MacHover 19750. Changes in vessel shape and decorated area through time have suggested to Sears (Ms. a: 24-37) that the origins of Wakulla Check Stamped may lie in the diffusion of the Cartersville Check Stamped down the Chattahoochee River Valley. The widespread distribution of check stamped ceramics in the eastern Alabama Coastal Plain and the Alabama-Georgia-Florida tri-stata area has suggested a similar possibility to Milanich (1974b) Swift Creek The curvilinear complicated stamped ceramic tradition developed along the Chattahoochee River

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and in other areas below the fall line (McMichael 1960) Generally referred to in its primary stages as Early Swift Creek Complicated Stamped or Swift Creek I, this ceramic tradition has been shown to have developed out of Deptford or Cartersville Check Stamped at the Mandeville site in Clay County, Georgia (Keller et al. 1962) During this period, check stamping is partially replacec by the complicated stamped motif on the surface of the ceramics. While developing from check stamping, it does not entirely replace it. This is demonstrated by the long continuity of check stamping at the Tucker site in Franklin County, Florida, and the numerous known sites which have both check stamp and complicated stamped ceramics (See Chapter II of this dissertation) PunctatedIncised A third series of ceramics appears on the Gulf Coastal Plain after the development of the curvilinear complicated stamped materials. It is post-Deptf ord nad post-Early Swift Creek in nature, but contemporary with at least a portion of the curvilinear complicated stamped tradition known as Late Swift Creek. Assigned various names, but grouped predominantly into the Weeden Island series, these types exhibit a strong resemblance to the Troyville/Coles Creek materials from the Mississippi Valley (Sears Ms.b:22; Willey 1945:242-245). While the fiber tempered Refuge, Deptford, and Cartersville ceramic series pre-date Weeden Island, the remaining series constitute temporally and geographically overlapping assemblages

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within Weeden Island. These three ceramic series--check stamping, curvilinear complicated stamping and incised and punctated--constitute the Weeden Island ceramic complex. Sacred and Secular It has been recently suggested that ceramic styles in the prehistoric southeast reflect two different segments of social life, the sacred or ceremonial, and the secular or village (Sears 1973) In his salvage excavations at the Weeden Island site on Tampa Bay, Sears ( 1971a) recognized a difference between those ceramics recovered from the village (secular) area and those recovered from the ceremonial (sacred) mounds. That is, the village ceramics were of one type--sand tempered and undecorated--while the ceremonial ceramics were of the classic Weeden Island incised and punctated types. Such a difference was pointed out earlier for the Kolomoki site (Sears 1956:71), and for other southeast cultures (Sears 1967). In 1973, Sears further clarified and expanded this concept by presenting a detailed discussion of the concepts and cultural dynamics involved. The following discussion is based on Sears' work (1973). He postulates two lines of cultural/ceramic development in the southeast. The dichotomy is based primarily on the presence of different ceramic assemblages found in mound and midden contexts. As cultures integrate aspects of ceremonial life with village life, new traits, via

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10 diffusion or invention, may appear in one aspect of a culture before being integrated into other aspects. However, certain paraphernalia or behavior may remain solely associated with a specific cultural system. When material items are so restricted — as with aboriginal ceramic vessels, communion vessels, or choir robes — they often reflect behavior patterns which are similarly restricted in distribution. Thus5jr_ in the southeast./. ;the presence of various types of ceramic vessels and decorative motifs which appear only in sacred contexts reflects behavior patterns and beliefs found .in ...sacred contexts (but not secular ones). Sears, in postulating this separate sacred/secular developmental dichotomy for ceramics, has proposed a model which explains the southeast culture patterns at contact. That is, while secular traits (house styles, dress, village utilitarian pottery, etc.) among various tribes differed, many aspects of ceremonial life were shared. (It should be remembered that among southeast aborigines, ceremonial activities and beliefs were intimately entwined with political organization.) Thus, religious motifs and political organization (including terminology for the various chiefs in the political hierarchy) among the Florida Timucuans vere very similar to those of various Georgia and Alabama Creeks. But the two spoke unrelated languages, had different tools and village pottery, and differed in many other ways. This was true among the various prehistoric Weeden Island peoples.

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11 Sacred Development: Yent, Green Point and Weeden Island The development of aboriginal ceremonialism along the northwestern coast of Florida and up the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers as far north as Clay County, Georgia, has been described by Sears. In his "Hopewellian Affiliations of Certain Sites on the Gulf Coast of Florida" paper (1962) later refined in his 1973 paper on sacred/ secular development, Sears has documented the Yent/Green Point/Weeden Island ceremonial continuum for the Weeden Island region. The Yent Complex represents the first appearance of burial mounds in the region. It is characterized by a variety of religious paraphernalia and practices--copper panpipes, elongate plummets, double-ended plummets, copper work, cut carnivore jaws and carnivore teeth, cymbalshaped copper ornaments, cut shell ornaments, continuous use type mounds, unique vessel shapes, unique vessel decoration, functional tetrapods and vessels of foreign origin. Yent is the Hopewellian ceremonial expression of the Deptford pottery producing people. While the demonstrable relationship between the Deptford middens and the Yent Complex mounds is minimal, it is sufficient to justify the stated relationship (Sears 1962:6-11). The Green Point Complex developed from the Yent Complex. It is characterized by the development of east side deposit burial mounds out of the earlier continuous

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12 use mounds; stubby tetrapods on ceramics; the ceramic types Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (early variety) St. Andrews Complicated Stamped (early variety) and Zoned Rocker Stamped; plain vessels, and, in some instances, imported vessels (Sears 1962:11-13). Green Point is the ceremonial counterpart of the Early Swift Creek series. The substantial ceramic overlap between the middens and the mounds supports the association (Sears 1962:17). As shown by the scarcity of Kopewellian goods in the Green Point mounds, "...there has been a shift from a welldeveloped set of mid-western contacts, restricted to the ceremonial level, to a beginning contact, again apparently mostly at the ceremonial level, with the Lower Mississippi Valley (Sears 1973:33-34). This lack of differentiation between the sacred and secular traditions is not explained by the breakdown with the mid-western ceremonialism. It may, however, represent a period of cultural adjustment tonew sources of ceremonial goods and new cultural/ceremonial contacts. The adjustment period, calling for internal production of ceramics for ceremonial use, and requiring the people to draw on their own cultural inventory, would seem to necessitate the utilization of the known secular decorative and form modes. Important to the understanding of the evolution of Weeden Island ceremonialism is the beginning of east side deposit mounds in Green Point, a marker for the succeeding Weeden Island period.

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13 Unlike Green Point/Swift Creek ceramic inventories, the Weeden Island ceremonial vessels are very different from the village (secular) ceramics. A glance through Willey (1949), Moore's various publications (1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1918), and Sears' Kolomoki report (1956) deomnstrates this clearly. Weeden Island ceremonial ceramics are characterized by the presence of a number of types, almost all defined by Willey (1949:407-408). The sacred vessels found in mounds have "...a whole series of special forms, appendages, decorative perforations, and such odd features as pre-cut kill holes andcombinations of decorations which never occur on the utilitarian vessels. For example, the effigy forms, including ceramic sculpture, almost never occur in middens anywhere" (Sears Ms.b:45). Not only are the midden ceramics often completely different from those found in the mounds, but there is a regional differentiation of Weeden Island mound types. These points will be documented and developed in later chapters. Originally recognized by Willey and Woodbury (1942) and further defined by Willey (1945 ; 1949) the Weeden Island ceramic complex consists of incised, punctated, check stamped, complicated stamped, simple stamped, and plain ceramics. Included in the Weeden Island complex, as adapted from Willey (1949:408-409) are Weeden Island Series: Weeden Island Plain Weeden Island Punctated Weeden Island Incised Weeden Island Zoned Red

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14 Weeden Island Red (Sears 1956) Carrabelle Incised Carrabelle Punctated Indian Pass Incised Keith Incised Tucker Ridge-pinched Hare Hammock Surfaceindented (minority) Complicated Stamped Series: Swift Creek Complicated Stamped Kolomoki Complicated Stamped Little Kolomoki Complicated Stamped Blakely Complicated Stamped Mound Field Complicated Stamped (minority 1 ) 1 Crooked River Complicated Stamped (late) (minority) St. Andrews Complicated Stamped Tampa Complicated Stamped Sun City Complicated Stamped (minority) Old Bay Complicated Stamped (minority) Hillsborough Series: Hillsborough Shell Stamped (minority) Ruskin Dentate Stamped (minority) Ruskin Linear Punctated (minority) Papys Bayou Series: Papys Bayou Incised (minority) Papys Bayou Punctated (minority) Papys Bayou Diagonal Incised (minority) Little Manatee Series: St. Johns Series: Little Manatee Zoned Stamped (minority) Little Manatee Shell Stamped (minority) Little Manatee Complicated Stamped (minority) St. Johns Plain (minority)St. Johns Check Stamped (minority)

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15 Dunns Creek Red (minority) St. Johns Roughened (minority) St. Johns Cord-marked (minority) Pasco Series: Pasco Plain (minority) Pasco Check Stamped (minority) Pasco Red (minority) Miscellaneous: Wakulla Check Stamped Thomas Simple Stamped (minority) West Florida Cord-marked (minority) Mound Field Net-marked (minority) St. Petersburg Incised (minority) Gainesville Linear Punctate (minority) Found in various areas in differing percentages, these types constitute the Weeden Island ceramic complex. However, when Willey defined and discussed Weeden Island, he lumped the midden and mound materials together, inadvertently obscuring the significance of the various unique and elaborate vessels deposited in the mounds. In addition, many of the types laj^l^ed^^jju^axoi^ in the preceding list are found only in peninsular Florida. The Papys Bayou, Pasco, and St. Johns and Hillsborough series are the best examples of this. The argument is presented in Chapter II of this dissertation to exclude *x~ these series from the definition of Weeden Island. Treating an incised, pedestaled duck effigy as a single Weeden Island Incised vessel does not aid us in answering

PAGE 24

questions of ceremonial association and complexity, political structure, or the basic questions of temporal and spatial distribution. If anything, it obscures the soughtfor patterns. Elucidation of problems and of ceremonialism, dating and cultural organization will come about only when the double tradition approach is used. By lumping the two traditions together, the definable political and religious systems are obscured in a mass of conflicting data. It is because the sacred materials are different, in both nature and context, from the secular that we are able to recognize, define and explain various political and religious structures. The evolution of these systems is again recognizable by change within the sacred tradition, which would not be as recognizable or understandable if it was lumped with the secular. Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia The Kolomoki site, Early County, Georgia, has long been one of the major problems in Weeden Island studies. The nature of the site, a large, multi-mound ceremonial center with a two-component Weeden Island complex midden, marks it as important to any consideration of Weeden Island. Because of its complexity and its significance to a model of Weeden Island, a detailed description of this site is presented here.

PAGE 25

17 UJ •H Jiz O _o O J

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18 Surface collections by Charles H. Fairbanks (1946) established that Kolomoki was a Weeden Island site of very odd nature. Subsequent excavations by Sears in the late 1940s and early 1950s thoroughly explored most of the mounds and extensively tested the midden area (Sears 1951,1956: map at end) The chronology established by Sears, based on seriation of the midden material, has been questioned since it was first published (Caldwell 1958:56-57). The midden material at Kolomoki included three major elements — plain sherds, Weeden Island sherds, and complicated stamped sherds. These parallel the classic Weeden Island and Swift Creek types defined by Willey for the Gulf Coast (1949:338-383;409-449) The normal chronology, if Willey' s coastal sequence is followed, would be to have those elements of the midden with complicated stamped materials pre-date those elements with check stamped and the Weeden Island series. It is here that Sears deviated from the norm and stated that the Kolomoki period midden areas with complicated stamped materials were later than those areas with the Weeden Island series, and were as late as those found elsewhere with check stamped assemblages. The midden area at Kolomoki extends south outside the actual park boundary. Sears placed about forty test units in the midden and conducted extensive surface collections and posthole tests during his excavation program. Three things became apparent. First, there were at least two

PAGE 27

19 distinct ceramic assemblages in the midden, one with only complicated stamped and plain pottery and the other with primarily punctated, incised, plain, a different form of complicated stamped pottery, and a very low percentage of check stamped pottery. Second, the midden was arranged in a formal manner around a plaze which fronted a large truncated mound. Third, there was no observable vertical stratigraphy Figure 1 illustrates the site plan of Kolomoki. A brief discussion of the midden and mounds, adapted from Sears (1956) follows. Midden Weeden Island Confined to the south side of the park and site area and extending east of Md. A, the Weeden Island midden contained the following types: Weeden Island Red, Mound City (Field?) Net-marked, Carrabelle Punctate, Weeden Island Incised, Tucker Ridge-pinched, Napier Complicated Stamped, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, miscellaneous incised sherds, Weeden Island Plain (rims), and plain sand tempered (Sears 1951 a: 29). The midden continues for an undetermined distance over the south boundary of the park onto the property of Willy Tom Smith, of Blakely, Georgia. Kolomoki The Kolomoki midden forms an arc around the open plaza area, cuts between Md. D and Md. E, and extends east of Md. A on both the north and south. It intermingles with the Weeden Island midden area on the south. The area

PAGE 28

20 between the truncated Md. A and Md. D is a vacant plaza area. Materials recovered from the Kolomoki midden consist almost entirely of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, Kolomoki Plain (sand tempered plain) and low percentages of a few other types. The point is that the Weeden Island series was not present, or was present only in small quantities. Mounds Mound A This mound, located at the eastern end of the plaza is 325x200 feet at the base and slightly over 56 feet at its highest point. The summit is divided into two levels, much in the same manner as the substructure mound at Hiwassee Island (Lewis and Kneberg 1946: fig. 8). However, at Kolomoki, there are no indications of any ramp. Sherds found on the mound summit demonstrate that at least two caps of the mound were built during the Kolomoki period (Sears 1956:10) Mound B This mound on the south side of Md. A "...consisted of a collection of postholes.. Very large posts, twentyfour to thirty inches in diameter, were erected successively in this small area.... Later posts often cut through the remains of earlier ones, so that in only a few instances were complete outlines produced.... The ceramic assemblage contains sherds of all periods, as is true of the top soil of adjacent areas, indicating that the end point... at least of post construction fell in the Kolomoki period" (Sears 1956:10-11).

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21 Mound C Adjacent to Md. A on the north, this mound's function is not understood. Fill consisted of basket loads of earth, including top soil, midden, red clay, yellow clay, and white sand. Sometimes the materials were discrete, sometimes mixed (Sears 1956:11). Mound D This mound was the second largest at the site and was an elaborate burial mound. It was constructed as a single ceremony m four different stages, with an east side ceramic deposit 10 x 20 feet in extent, of varying depth, and containing at least sixty-five vessels of various forms. The mound construction included erecting a scaffold which was included in four of the five stages of construction. There were a succession of interments, suggesting retainer sacrifice (Sears 1953;1956). Mound E This mound, located 1200 feet west of Md. D, is a smaller version of Md. D. There was a sub-mound crematory pit with rock fill; two bodies, with heads pointed east (a characteristic of all burials at the site) were on the sloping edges of the pit. The earth fill over this, with a rock cap, produced a core mound. A single body, with copper-covered cymbal-shaped ornament was placed by the pit. Fifty-four complete vessels were placed on the eastern ground surface of the mound, and a final cap, containing large rocks, was added as the final cover (Sears 1956:12) Mound F Mound F, located 400 feet south of Md E, is 50 x 60 x 6 feet in size. Essentially it is a small white clay

PAGE 30

22 truncated mound with a cap of sandy clay over it. The suggested use is as a ceremonial adjunct to Md. E (Sears 1956:13) Mound H This mound is south of Md. D. In size and content, Md. H is the same as Md. F. The suggested use is the same as Md. F, but for Md D (Sears 1956:13). The determination for the late placement of the Kolomoki midden was based on several factors. One is that Sears traced the modal development of the stamp design used in the manufacture of Little Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, associated with the Weeden Island materials, into the larger Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, to the later Blakely Complicated Stamped, which is considered stylistically closest to the known end point of Complicated Stamped developement the Lamar variety (Sears 1956:15-17, 30-46) Other determinants for placing Kolomoki later were the sequence of mound construction and sherds found in mound fill, and the nature of the site plan. Sherds found in the mounds, which were all of the Kolomoki period, and in the midden under Md. D, indicate that they all post-date the Weeden Island midden (Sears 1956:10-13). The site plan, with Mds. A, B, C, and D arranged around the open plaza and Mds. E, F, G, and H placed directly to the west and south indicates that these elements of the site were intentionally organized in this manner. The Weeden Island period midden, on the other hand, is only on the southern side of the

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23 site, and has no apparent internal organization. The major break with the normally accepted sequence, as mentioned above, is the placing of a complicated stamped complex after the punctated/incised Weeden Island materials. Sears' point is that at Kolomoki, there is a continuing development of the complicated stamp through time, first recognizable as Little Kolomoki Complicated Stamp in the Weeden Island midden areas. This type had a small stamp "...usually rounded on upper surf aces ... stamp shallow... base slightly convex, no flat bases, present in samples" (Sears 1956:16). It is technically Swift Creek II in nature. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, on the other hand, has a larger stamp motif, "...fairly well cut applied without a great deal of overlapping. .. (bases) flat either square or disc" (Sears 1951a:9-10). Blakely Complicated Stamped, the final development of the complicated stamp at the site, is described as having a very heavy and bold stamp, simple elements, and flat or convex bases (Sears 1956:17). The developmental progression is the same as that described by Willey for the development of Swift Creek, from the simple design elements to the larger, more boldly applied, less intricate designs of the later material. Thus, Sears describes Kolomoki Complicated Stamped as the regional development of Late Swift Creek pottery and the cultural equivalent of Late Weeden Island (Sears 1956:50-75). Complicated stamping as a whole, on the Gulf Coastal Plain, evolves into the type Lamar Complicated Stamped,

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24 with a large heavy stamp of simple design. Lamar is the end-poing of the developing Kolomoki-Blakely Complicated Stamped types. Many archaeologists do not accept Sears' conclusions concerning the Kolomoki sequence because the culture (ceramic) sequence does not exactly follow Willey's coastal ceramic sequence (Willey 1949:fig. 76). Sears' point, long misunderstood, was that in Georgia, the complicated stamped tradition continued to develop, and did not disappear as it did in some other areas. Unfortunately, to this day, clear stratigraphic evidence for either argument has not been found. Caldwell's (Ms.) Fairchild's Landing manuI. script, which supposedly demonstrates Kolomoki Complicated Stamped under Weeden Island materials, is inconclusive. The absence of accurate and complete sherd counts and profiles in the report makes it impossible to determine the actual sequence. However, the manuscript gives the idea that Kolomoki and Weeden Island were at least partially contemporaneous Is there a Weeden Island/Kolomoki continuum? In the early Kolomoki reports, Sears (1951a) discusses the Kolomoki period at Kolomoki as being separate and different from the Weeden Island period. In later discussions (Sears 1956:30-46; 1973:34-36; Ms.a:55; Ms.b:23-30), it has been treated as being a development out of Weeden Island. Because of the uncertainty surrounding Kolomoki, it seems best for the purposes of this dissertation, to treat

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25 Kolomoki, both the site and the ceramic complex, as a temporal and/or spatial variant of Weeden Island. Chapter II documents the distribution of the Weeden Island sacred and secular ceramic assemblages referred to above, including Kolomoki. The nature of the complex temporal and geographical distribution of Weeden Island ceramics becomes more apparent from this summary. Further adding to the confusion surrounding the Weeden Island ceramic complex is the fact that in many areas, particularly in peninsular Florida, the midden materials have practically no Weeden Island series sherds in them. Excavations at two very late Cades Pond sites (8-A1-346 and 8-A1-472) in Alachua County, Florida, have revealed less than four per cent decorated sherds. Similarly Sears' (1971a) work on the Weeden Island site recovered no decorated sherds from the village midden. All three of these village sites are temporally and culturally associated with mounds containing Weeden Island series ceramics. Clearly, such sites are greatly different from Weeden Island villages where decorated Weeden Island series types constitute a much higher percentage of the secular inventory (eg. Kolomoki, where the Weeden Island complex accounts for 4,0 to 6 percent) Thus, it is apparent that throughout the Weeden Island region, village inventories differ in relative frequencies of pottery types, as do the sacred and secular inventories.

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26 These perplexing (and for the archaeologist, confusing) situations are further documented and explained in Chapters II and III.

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CHAPTER II CERAMIC ANALYSIS AND SACRED AND SECULAR DISTRIBUTION The purpose of this chapter is to delineate and analyze the distribution of the sacred and secular Weeden Island ceramic complexes in the southeast. Attempts were made to look at all published reports with Weeden Island materials in them. While the list of sites is extensive, it by no means represents all known Weeden Island sites. However, all of the known areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain are represented in the sample utilized here. Ceramic analysis, the basis for this chapter, is the process of examining ceramics with a specific problem in mind. Generally related to time and space variables, the processes of analysis vary with the problem. However, the basic approach is similar in all cases. It consists of a detailed inspection of each sherd in an attempt to isolate various physical properties,-!, e. color, porosity, decorative motifs, hardness, tempering, clay, type of punctation, etc., or clusters of these properties which show some form of patterning reflective of temporal and/or spatial clustering. The end point is a ceramic typology which is applicable to the specific question. Classification, on the other hand, is the process of putting a sherd or collection of 27

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28 sherds into preconceived typological pigeonholes. It is a process of organization of data, not analysis. It is with these two processes that the existing Weeden Island data falls short. In many cases, the Weeden Island data comes from salvage and survey programs which had limited scope both spatially and theoretically. Sherds were placed in the Willey-def ined types according to superficial similarity, with few attempts to define or isolate temporal or regional variants. The ceramics were classified, not analyzed. The use of ceramic analysis has had a long and fruitful history in archaeology. To be implemented, however, certain minimum definitions must be understood. Terms and definitions used here represent a school of thought originating with Irving Rouse (1939) and extending through Gordon R. Willey (1949) James A. Ford (1954), and William H. Sears (1960b). Mode The basic analytical unit is the mode. "It refers to the attributes which artifacts of a given kind have in common" (Rouse 1939:11). A mode may be a process of manufacture, kind of temper, color, hardness, surface modification, shape, or any aspect of the artiface that can be recognized. An underlying and very important aspect of the mode is modal analysis (Sears 1960:325). Here, ceramics are analyzed with specific problems in mind. "Above the level of the mode, the dimensions of the units are conditioned by problems of prehistory and communication" (Sears 1960:324)

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29 Type. The type is a combination of two or more modes which can be demonstrated to have temporal and spatial significance. Modes represent recognizable technological standards of the community. The type, on the other hand, is a combination of those modes with allowance for variation and individual, idiosyncratic expressions. In essence, the ideal of the type is an average of the recognized cluster of modes. It represents a cluster of cultural standards with some acceptable spacetime dimensions. An outstanding example of this is the type Carrabelle Punctated, Willey (1949:425) describes the decorative motif as follows: "A good deal of variation as to kinds of punctations used. These variations tend to grade into each other. They are: Fingernail punctations placed longitudinally or parallel to the vertical axis of the vessel; stick made punctations; rectanguloid and trlanguloid with considerable size range; round bottom dents or shallow stick punctations with paste slightly pinched and piled up near punctation. Field of punctation may be underlined with an incised line...." Series A series is a number of types which have morphological similarity. "Usually companion types in the same series have about the same temporal and spatial distribution although minor differences may exist on this point" (Willey 1949:6)

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30 Complex A complex is "...the group of pottery types on the various series of types that occur together in the same general area at the same time" (Willey 1949:5). Tradition Willey and Phillips (1958:37) define tradition as "...temporal continuity represented by persistent configurations in single technologies or other systems of related forms". As applied to ceramics, a tradition refers to gradual changes of the ceramic complex in a given geographic area, through time. That is to say, it is a recognizable, temporally long lasting, ceramic complex. Ceramic traditions should not be confused with cultural traditions (Goggin 1949) which represent recognizable, long lasting, cultural patterns. These concepts of ceramics and ceramic analysis are fundamental to the presentation and interpretation of data in this dissertation. While archaeological research has been conducted for close to one hundred years in the southeast, we have, in many cases, little data concerning prehistoric cultures beyond lists of ceramics and other artifacts. Essentially, for many sites and areas, the available data consist of lists of ceramics. For this reason, the definition and discussion of Weeden Island presented here will be heavily dependent on ceramics and their distribution. There is not enough data to properly discuss subsistence, non-ceramic artifacts, or most other aspects of the Weeden Island cultures involvBdUN Attempts such as those of Milanich (19 71b; 1976) for /the Deptford culture and i

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31 Alachua traditions are noteworthy, but unmatchable for Weeden Island as a whole at this time. However, the basis for initially delineating such cultures lies in ceramic analysis, and the present study should help in future attempts to thoroughly define the various regional Weeden Island groups. The use of modes, types, series and assemblages in ceramic analysis offers the archaeologist a very useful and accurate method for measuring time and space variables. More importantly, it allows for the recognition of culture contact through "trade sherds", those potsherds which do not fit typologically with the indigenous materials, but are obviously from another, geographically removed, ceramic series. When the archaeologist is able to handle and analyze the material, useful typologies can be developed. However, when analysis is ignored in favor of classification, the ability to recognize temporal and spatial variables suffers Problems involved with using other people's data and their conclusions, especially the pre-1960s materials, include the lack of problem-oriented research and methodological and interpretational inadequacies. Before the advent of a conscious effort to obtain scientifically sound anthropological data (Taylor 1948; Sears 1962; Binford 1962) the collection and description of data was the endpoint of most archaeological research. The tendency toward narrow views of what constituted archaeological cultural

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32 areas with emphasis placed on state boundaries— not natural or known prehistoric regions — has biased and narrowed our view of interacting cultures. Also, the early tendency to practice inductive reasoning, especially the postulating of culture histories for large geographical areas using the information from one site or area, has led to gross errors of understanding. Thus, much of the ceramic data presented in many Weeden Island reports suffers from insufficient analysis and from the practices of (1) attempting to classify all types in the same time-space typological scheme set forth by Willey (1949) for the Florida Gulf Coast; or, (2) giving sherds new names to reflect state or area (though not physical) differences In order f or the present study to make maximum use of the data in such reports, several alterations were necessary. Oddball ceramic types have been re-named (but not re-analyzed) to fit currently accepted standards. Specific examples are noted in the text. In many cases, however, it is not possible to enrich the material. Specifically, Weeden Island Plain (Willey 1949:409-411) is a type which can only be recognized through rim sherds. The distinctive folded, thickened, or underlined rim (with the incised line imitating the rim fold) is the only way to recognize this type. The body sherds are undistinguishable from the chatchall sand tempered plain category. However, many archaeologists classify smooth surfaced, sand tempered plain body

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33 sherds as Weeden Island Plain. If the author did not state in the report that only such rim sherds were typed as Weeden Island Plain, one has no way of telling if body sherds were included in the count. For this reason, the published reports must be taken at face value. Three Series As mentioned previously, there are three series of ceramics which make up the Weeden Island complex in northwest Florida and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama. The type sand tempered plain can be considered a constant, while the incised-punctated series, the check stamped series, and the complicated stamped series all vary in frequency of occurence at sites across the Gulf Coastal Plain in the Weeden Island region. Sears (Ms. b: 21-30) has published a preliminary study which attempts to sort out all the problems of interaction of these three series. Basing his conclusions on materials recovered from his Gulf Coast survey, Sears discusses the distributions and combinations of the various materials. This is the basic approach to be taken in this chapter. These three Weeden Island ceramic series include the following: Weeden Island Series Listed and defined in Chapter I. These are the punctated, incised and red-painted types. Complicated Stamped Series Included in this

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34 series listed in Chapter I. For practical purposes, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Late Variety) is the most representative and wide-spread of the series. Other types such as Sun City Complicated Stamped, Tampa Complicated Stamped, and Crooked River Complicated Stamped occur in small percentages on a number of sites. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, which was defined out of the all-inclusive Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Late) is an important variant of the complicated stamped series. Check Stamped (Wakulla) Series A single type, Wakulla Check Stamped, is used in this dissertation. Other types such as Wilson Check Stamped, Henderson Check Stamped, and Bear Creek Check Stamped, which are typologically similar to Wakulla, and which are confined to Alabama, are lumped into the Wakulla type. Secular Ceramic Analysis The ceramics were analyzed with two major problems in mind. The first problem was to differentiate regions; the second was to show the total distribution of the Weeden Island complex and the individual series. Although the existing ceramic data are, with only two exceptions, the results of classification and not problem oriented analysis, they were used to form the basis for a statistical cluster analysis. The purpose of this analysis was to differentiate cultural areas based on

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35 distributions of the series. For analytical purposes, the southeast was divided into eight sub-areas. They are: 1. Western Panhandle: Escambia County, Florida Santa Rosa County, Florida Okaloosa County, Florida Walton County, Florida Holmes County, Florida Baldwin County, Alabama Clark County, Alabama Mobile County, Alabama 2. Central Panhandle: Bay County, Florida Washington County, Florida Calhoun County, Florida Covington County, Alabama Gulf County, Florida Liberty County, Florida Franklin County, Florida Wakulla County, Florida Leon County, Florida 3. Eastern Panhandle: Jefferson County, Florida Madison County, Florida Taylor County, Florida Hamilton County, Florida Suwannee County, Florida Columbia County, Florida Lafayette County, Florida 4. Peninsular Coast: Dixie County, Florida Levy County, Florida Citrus County, Florida Hernando County, Florida Pasco County, Florida Pinellas County, Florida Hillsborough County, Florida Manatee County, Florida 5. North-Central Florida Alachua County, Florida

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36 6. Three Rivers Area: Gadsden County, Florida Jackson County, Flroida Houston County, Alabama Seminole County, Georgia Decatur County, Georgia 7. Chattahoochee River: Miller County, Georgia Early County, Georgia Quitman County, Georgia Clay County, Georgia Stewart County, Georgia Chattahoochee County, Georgia Henry County, Alabama Barbour County, Alabama Russell County, Alabama 8. Alabama River: Monroe County, Alabama Loundes County, Alabama Autauga County, Alabama Wilcox County, Alabama These areas were defined for two reasons. First, they offer a useable size to sub-divide the known Weeden Island region. Each is small enough to allow for the manipulation of data, but large enough to allow for a limited number of divisions of the entire Weeden Island region. Second, the areas were defined so as to delineate western, central, eastern, northern, and southern geographic areas. This allows for an attempt at defining regional varieties of the Weeden Island ceramic complex. Sand tempered plain, a catch-all category for undecorated sand tempered sherds lacking the distinctive Weeden Island folded rims, was not included in the analysis for two reasons. First, the plain body sherds from the Weeden

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37 Island complex cannot be distinguished from those of any other ceramic series. Therefore, in mixed collections, which most of the sample is, the Weeden Island associated sand tempered plain sherds cannot be sorted out from earlier of later contexts. Second, there has been an unsystematic effort by some classifiers to break down the category into smooth and rough varities. For these two reasons, we must limit the discussion of sand tempered plain to the fact that it represents from 30 to 60 percent of the midden ceramics on the Florida northwest coast and adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama, and up to 9 9 percent of the collections from peninsular Florida. From the available collections, the Weeden Island complexes were isolated and broken down into types and series (Appendices. A-H ) The three ceramic series were then calculated for each area and the mean (x) and the standard deviation (s) were determined for frequency of occurence (percentage) The results are: Western Panhandle: n=43 (n is number of sites; x and (s calculated for all sites) : Weeden Island: x=51.16 s=38.28 Range 5.0-100.0 Check Stamped: x=32. 45 s=30.13 Range 0-94.9 Complicated Stamped: x= 8.4 3 s=20.56 Range 0-97.0

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Figure 2 Map showing geographic, political and analytical areas. 1. Western Panhandle 2. Central Panhandle 3. Eastern Panhandle 4. 3 Rivers 5. Chattahoochee River 6. Alabama River 7. Peninsular Coast 8 Northcentral Florida

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39

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40 Central Panhandle: n=45 Weeden Island: x=2 9.4 8 s=35.31 Range 0.2-100.0 Check Stamped: x=29.48 s=35.31 Range 0.0-96.7 Complicated Stamped x=19.16 s-32.17 Range 0.0-99.4 Eastern Panhandle: n=l Weeden Island: x=80.10 s=00.00 Range None Check Stamped: x=5.30 s=0. 00 Range None Complicated Stamped: x=14.60 s=00.00 Range None Three Rivers: n=27 Weeden Island x=55. 60 s=31.28 Range 3.8-100.0 Check Stamped x=34.92 s=31.83 Range 0.0-9 6.0 Complicated Stamped: x=10.38 s=22.28 Range 0.0-9 6.0

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41 Chattahoochee River: n=44 Weeden Island: x=72.90 s=26.65 Range 4.5-100.0 Check Stamped: x=19.78 s=24.62 Range 0.0-9 0.4 Complicated Stamped: x= 6.7 6 s=15.20 Range 0.0-82.3 Alabama River: n=10 Weeden Island: x=12.40 s=10.09 Range 0.4-25.8 Check Stamped: x=50.68 s=34.56 Range 0.9-93.6 Complicated Stamped: X= 4.2 4 s= 6.90 Range 0.0-17.9 Peninsular Coast: n=ll Weeden Island: x=23.30 s=33.75 Range 5.2-78.9 Check Stamped: x=12.53 s=16.98 Range 0.0-54.5 Complicated Stamped: £=10.6 s=21.40 Range 0.0-67.8 Minority x=53.18 s=36.06 Range 0.0-97.2

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42 North Central Florida: n=2 Weeden Island: x=98.15 s= 2.16 Range 96.3-100.0 Check Stamped: x= 3.7 s = 0.0 Range 0.0-3.7 Complicated Stamped: x=0 s = Range 0.0-0.0 To allow for a direct comparison of the different means, the standard score (z score) of each series in each area was computed. This statistical transformation changes ea.ch of the computed means to a set mean with a set standard deviation. For analytical purposes, the mean of 50 and the standard deviation of 20 was chosen. The formula for this transformation is (Dixson and Massey 1969:31-32): z = 50 + 20 2E1J* z = standard score X]_= the number being transformed x = the mean of the distribution s = the standard deviation of the distribution 50= the standardized mean 20= the standardized deviation The z scores, as computed by series and area are: Weeden Island Series: 1. Western Panhandle: 48.84 2. Central Panhandle: 34.34 3. Eastern Panhandle: 68.19 4. Three Rivers: 51.81 5 Chattahoochee River: 63.38 6. Alabama River: 22.92 7. Peninsular Coast: 30.21 8. North Central Fla.:80.26

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43 Check Stamped Series: 1. Western Panhandle: 57.18 2. Central Panhandle: 73.86 3. Eastern Panhandle: 27.77 4. Three Rivers: 59.86 5. Chattahoochee River: 43.45 6. Alabama River: 73.93 7. Peninsular Coast: 35.60 8. Northcentral Pla. : 26.03 Complicated Stamped Series 1. Western Panhandle: 46.67 2. Central Panhandle: 89.16 3. Eastern Panhandle: 71.10 4. Three Rivers: 54.39 5. Chattahoochee River: 40.05 6. Alabama River: 30.07 7. Peninsular Coast: 55.26 8. Northcentral Fla.: 0.00

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Figure 3 Frequency distribution of mean percents of ceramic series by areas. 1. Weeden Island Series 2. Check Stamped Series 3. Complicated Stamped Series

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45 100 9080. 7060 5040 30 — j 20 10_ w C E 3 p P P R a a a i n n n V c h a t t

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Figure 4 Z scores of mean percents of the Weeden Island Series by analytical areas.

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47 100. 9080. 70. 60 5040 30 — 20 — 10_ 6 o o i 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 w c E 3 C A P N p p P R h S e C 3 a a a a n F n n n V t t C J 2

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Figure 5 Z scores of mean percents of the Check Stamped Series by analytical areas.

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100 90— 80 49 70 — 60 — 50 — 40 — 30 — 20 — 10_ 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 w C E 3 C A P N p P P R h 1 e C a a a i a a n F n n n V t t C 1 a

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Figure 6 Z scores of mean percents of the Complicated Stamped Series by analytical areas.

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51 100 = 90— 8070_ 60 — 50. 40 30. 20 10P a n P a El P a n R i v A c h 3 t t A I a i — i — r p e n C

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52 The analyzed data show extreme variability in seven of exght areas. The exception xs northcentral Florida, where the check stamped and complicated stamped series are very poorly represented. In other areas, the variability of series representation is extreme. There is an apparent tendency for the Weeden Island series to be most strongly represented in the Eastern Panhandle, Chattahoochee River, and northcentral Florida areas. Check stamping is most strongly represented in the Central Panhandle and Alabama River areas. Complicated stamping has the smallest representation of the three series in all three areas. ': The extreme variability involved suggests that with the exception of northcentral Florida, no one area is dominated by a praticular series. This, in turn, makes defining regional variations of Weeden Island, at this point, impossible. The current lack of refinement in the data base, which can be corrected only through a complete and thorough analysis of the collections, prevents any real determinations at this time. The apparent dominance .of the Weeden Island series in the northcentral Florida area is skewed because the decorated materials in this area usually account for less than 5% of the sample. The large standard deviations for the non-transformed means are a reflection of the extreme range, often 0-100, of the different series in the individual collections.

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54

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56

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<7l Q) M H En Q) •H e 0) -p G •H CO O H B n3 M
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59 The extrmem amount of overlap of the three series, both geographically and in the collections, is evident from comparing the graphs and maps. Areas of "pure" sites (sites of predominantly one series) are rare. Most noticeable is the area in the Three Rivers and Central Panhandle areas. Here, such sites as Sycamore (8-GD-19), and many of the sites in Liberty County, Florida, on the Apalachicola, Montgomery Field (9-DR-10) and Hales Landing (9-DR-15) are predominantly, if not exclusively, check stamped and plain in nature. On the coast, Bay and Franklin counties have the heaviest concentration of "pure" check stamped sites. Here, the most noticeable examples are the upper levels of the Tucker Site, Franklin County (Sears 1963) Further west in Lowndes and Autauga counties, Alabama, west of Montgomery, the ceramic component of most sites is predominantly the Henderson and Bear Creek variants of Wakulla Check Stamped. Distribution of "pure" complicated stamped sites is similar to the check stamped sites. Site 8-JA-63, Jackson County, Florida, and the Kolomoki period midden at Kolomoki, are the two best examples for the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers. Wheeler Springs, Okaloosa County, Florida; Red Bay (WL-56) Walton County, Florida; and Pits 1 and 2 at Carabelle (FR-2), Franklin County, Florida, are the most obvious examples of this kind of site for the coast. The Shelley midden, Pulaski County, Georgia, and the Andrew Site, Houston County, Georgia (W. Georgia College collections), both on the central Ocmulgee River, are L

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60 examples of "pure" complicated stamped sites. "Pure" Weeden Island series sites are more common than the others. On the coast there are: Ft. Walton, OK6, Pit I, Okaloosa County, Florida; Postl's Lake III, OK-72, Okaloosa County, Florida; Davis Point West, BY-7, Bay County, Florida. On the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee and Flint rivers there are JA-12, Jackson County, Florida; l-HO-6, Houston County, Alabama; the Weeden Island period midden at Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia; 9-CLA-7, Clay County, Georgia; White Springs, 9-DR-7, Decatur County, Georgia. In various other areas, sites including, Mitchell Site, Covington County, Alabama; Kimbrough Gravel Pit, Wilcox County, Alabama; and the McKeithen Site (8-CL-17), Columbia County, Florida, are also "pure" Weeden Island series. In most cases, including the "pure" sites, sand tempered plain comprises a substantial percentage of the midden materials. There' are also fairly substantial representations of the three series in all three kinds of sites Distribution of sites with predominantly (over 50%) one series is mixed and parallels the pattern illustrated in Figures 2-5. This reinforces the conclusion that at any given point in time or space the three series were functioning together or in different combinations. Differences in percentages of series within sites and within areas are examples of cultural differences and temporal changes

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61 Using the concept of temporal change as the only explanation of this observed pattern of ceramic differences, as Willey (1949) and Percy and Brose (1974) have done, does not explain the data. A testable hypothesis, to serve as a substitute for an explanation at this point, is that the differences in series and type representation is the result of cultural, i.e. kin group differences. Each series or type or modal cluster within a series is representative of a lineage or clan which was a part of the society. Differential representation of types, series, and modal clusters represents differential representation of these lineages or clans at sites. Two areas which alter the interpretation of the ceramic distribution are northcentral Florida and the peninsular coast. Here, the middens are overwhelmingly plain, either sand tempered or sand and limestone tempered. The Weeden Island complexes comprise very small percentages of the secular materials. Thus, for practical purposes, the line delineating the southeasterly extent of the series should be drawn somewhere near the Aucilla River, not down the peninsular coast as illustrated. The distribution, in quantity, of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, causes some major problems. Defined after Willey 's survey (1949) it is in many cases largely ignored and left unrecognized in collections. DeJarnette's recent publication on the Chattahoochee River (19 75) undoubtedly includes Kolomoki Complicated Stamped sherds under the Swift Creek

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o H Q) U p •H P en (d cu XI -p o m si -p G H m d) -P H en 1 +J (XI T3 Q) -P Ifl O. -H nH I O U H e o rH O >, -p m c g o t3 CD M m o c o H P •H H •P en H o c

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63

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64 label. The basic fault here is that the research for this report was conducted in the 1940s, prior to the Kolomoki publications, and was not up-dated before publication. Research included in the book but conducted after the Kolomoki excavations either did not recover Kolomoki Complicated Stamped or did not recognize it. The still unpublished Fairchild's Landing report (Caldwell Ms.) discusses Kolomoki Complicated Stamped to some extent, and Bullen (1958) lists JA-63, a "pure" Kolomoki site from Jackson County, Florida. Mound Field (Willey 1949:55-60) Wakulla County, Florida, also contains substantial deposits of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, as does the Hall Site, Wakulla County, Florida (Sears 1956) It is obvious that Kolomoki Complicated Stamped is not confined to a small area immediately surrounding the Kolomoki site. It is found on the Gulf Coast, and the Andrew Site, Houston County, Georgia, has a fairly substantial deposit of this type in midden context, illustrating an eastern distribution of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped. It is suggested here that until further analysis can be conducted, Kolomoki Complicated Stamped is an important element of the ceramic complex of many sites in the southeast, but has thus far been lumped into the type Swift Creek Complicated Stamped. Until we can successfully sort this type out of future collections we will not be able to successfully discuss the problems and dynamics of Kolomoki, both as a site and as a ceramic complex.

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65 Weeden Island Distribution: Sacred The intent of this section is to investigate the structure and content of mounds which contain Weeden Island series ceramics. This, in turn, will lay the foundation for discussing the distribution and form of political and religious organization present within the cultures that produced Weeden Island ceramics. Differential disposal of the dead has been recognized as representing stratification within a society (Binford 1971) with the more elaborate burials afforded those individuals in the society With the highest status (Peebles 1971). The Weeden Island burial mounds are examples of this differential disposal of the dead. In fact, we do not have any data on how the average person was buried. Thus, the most elaborate burials or mound structures represent the disposal of the highest members of the society. Peebles' (1971) work with the Moundville materials has demonstrated this for a Mississippian population, as have Larson (1971) for the Etowah site and Brown (1971) for the Spiro site. Extending the models backward in time serves as an explanatory tool for the Weeden Island materials. The bulk of known Weeden Island mounds were excavated by C.B. Moore during the late 1800s and early 1900s. By current standards, Moore's excavations were poor, but by the standards of his period, they were good. In fact,

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66 Moore probably saved great amounts of information by excavating when he did. Many of the mounds he dug on the northwest coast of Florida had previously been dug into by unknown persons. Moore had the desire and resources to preserve his materials and publish the data, two actions that probably would not have been carried out by the other excavators Moore's excavations, however, suffered from his preoccupation with the recovery of exotic materials. The unique Weeden Island effigy vessels were ideal for this orientation. In many instances, he did not retain the plain and check stamped materials, let alone illustrate them. After a thorough study of Moore's field notes William H. Sears (personal communication) has concluded that the collections are highly biased in favor of the elaborately decorated and exotic vessels, and the plain and check stamped vessels were not always collected or noted. This makes a thorough analysis of the sacred ceramics difficult to perform. The sample is not random, it is highly biased in favor of the unique vessels. Therefore, any attempt at cluster analysis, either formal or informal, would not demonstrate the true picture. This reduces the ability to analyze the sacred Weeden Island materials. For the purposes of this dissertation, a descriptive approach has been chosen. This will outline the nature of the mound materials as they are known, and relate them to mound structure.

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67 There are two recognizably different ceremonial mound types in the Weeden Island region: continuous use mounds on the Gulf Coast and east side pottery deposit mounds. on the northwest Florida coast and inland Georgia and Alabama. There is, however, an observable overlap of sacred ceramics in the middens of these regions. This could conceivably allow the determination of the relationship of sacred (mound) and secular (midden) complexes by matching sacred series sherds recovered from the middens with those from the incomplete vessels recovered from the mounds. While Weeden Island ceramic types, as defined by Willey (1949:446-448) are applicable to some mound materials, his definitions do not work for others. A quick look at Willey' s attempts to apply the standard type names to Moore's illustrations (Moore 1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1918) shows the difficulty. It approaches the meaningless to apply the term "Weeden Island Plain" to a human effigy vessel recovered from a burial mound, when the same term is used for a plain bowl recovered from a midden. The anthropological signifncance of the human effigy included in a burial mound would be far greater than that possessed by a simple cooking pot. The existing typology and classification fails to make obvious the distinction. The nature of the ceramic materials included in the Weeden Island mounds is, to say the least, odd. They range from "common" Weeden Island Plain bowls to highly incised and punctated globular pots to derived effigy pots to pedestaled effigys to human

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68 effigies (Sears 1956: 22-23). In many cases the vessels are stylistically the same as those found in middens, but are usually of better construction and execution of design. Another often overlooked aspect of the mound materials is that many vessels are small, often holding less than one pint. Normal midden vessels would hold at least one quart. Handling the sacred ceramics on a descriptive basis presents multiple problems. The truly unique nature of many of the vessels prevents accurate, meaningful descriptions. The sheer number of known vessels, often more than thirty per mound, prevents illustration, or even brief description, of the total collection. Fortunately, C.B. Moore (1901; 1902; 1903; 1907; 1918) illustrates and describes most of the vessels he recovered, especially the more intriguing ones. Willey (1949:197-346) provides a typological breakdown of the materials, and some illustrations. He also includes classifications and brief descriptions of some pots that Moore did not illustrate. Sears (1956:20-30,57-68) provides an analytical discussion of the ceramics, some illustrations, and a suggested developmental continuum of mounds and vessels, which he no longer feels is valid. From these sources, one can gain a good "feel" of the Weeden Island ceramics, and the reader is directed to these sources to supplement the discussion of the Weeden Island sacred ceramics presented below.

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69 Pottery Deposit Type Mounds : The features of this type of mound are consistent in their occurence. Most of the data available are from Moore's excavations on the northwest Florida coast and up the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. Mounds D and E at Kolomoki are the best described examples of such mounds. These mounds are characterized by: (1) a deposit of vessels and sherds, made for ceremonial use, on the eastern or northeastern sides of the mounds; the deposits often continue to the center of the mounds; (2) all features of the mounds are oriented to the east side and the center of the mound; (3) a central burial in a specially prepared tomb is probable. This cannot be documented for most of Moore's descriptions. However, the Kolomoki excavations and some of Moore's descriptions show that this is probably the norm. Sears (1958:275) illustrates the known distribution of these mounds. There is a marked clustering at the mouth of the Apalachicola River, along the adjacent coast to the east and west, and extending up the river. There is a noticeable decline in the number of sites once the confluence of the Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola is reached. However, this decline may be the result of sampling error, as we know little of the Flint and Spring Creek (the third source for the Apalachicola) above Bainbridge, Georgia. Informants in southwest Georgia have told this writer of at least nine mounds on Spring Creek which have been ransacked by local collectors. This information suggests a

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70 greater density of mounds north of the Three Rivers area. Our knowledge of the Chattahoochee River valley is extensive enough, however, to allow us to say that the concentration of mounds on that river is indeed low. One explanation for this is presented in a survey report of Early County, Georgia (Steinen : 1976a) which is discussed in Chapter III of this dissertation. The western boundary of this mound type in Okaloosa County, Florida, and the eastern boundary is Taylor County, Florida. Jerald T. Milanich (personal communication) has suggested that the east side pottery deposit mounds extend east of the Aucilla River into Suwannee and Columbia Counties Florida. Almost no archaeology has been carried out by professional archaeologists in this area, although collections of local amateurs contain the full range of Weeden Island sacred and secular ceramics found in northwest Florida. Continuous Use Type Mounds : "Characteristics are scattering of burials vertically and horizontally, sometimes in very large numbers, without definite signs of layers, developed surfaces, or internal structures. Artifacts, if present at all, occur most often directly associated with the burials" (Sears 1958:277). This type of mound is numerous and is distributed primarily between the Warrior River and Tampa Bay.

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71 Data Presentation The sheer number of known Weeden Island burial mounds and their included material makes a detailed discussion extremely difficult. Moore's publications provide the basic descriptive data (Moore 1901; 1902; 1903; 1907; 1918); Willey (1949) provides a sometimes useable typological breakdown; and Sears (1956) gives a theoretical approach. By rough count there are fifty-eight mounds containing Weeden Island series ceramics on the Gulf Coast from Santa Rosa County, Florida, to the Warrior River; thirty-one south of the Warrior River; at least twenty-one on the Apalachicola Flint, and Chattahoochee rivers and Spring Creek; and one on the middle Ocmulgee River. Inland Florida contains another ten or more mounds, for a total of over 120 mounds. Using ten vessels per mound as a conservative estimate, the sacred ceramic assemblage for the entire Weeden Island time period is well in excess of 1,000. The ceremonial nature of the vessels suggests that each represents a separate artistic and ceremonial expression (Sears 1973) The terminology for ceramic descriptions presented here follows common practice as well as specific cases defined by Sears (1956) and further explained later in this chapter. Form refers to the vessel shape. Subtypes of this category are utilitarian forms, abstract forms, free effigy forms, pedestaled effigy forms and derived effigy forms. Shape is self-explanatory. It is a descriptive

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72 category and is used to designate the nature of the vessel. Decoration is also a descriptive category. It describes the manner in which the vessel was treated to modify the surface, When possible, the following discussion of sacred ceramics is organized by the analytical areas defined above. The vessels are presented in descriptive form with the number "1" representing form, number "2" representing shape and number "3" representing decoration. The data is further condensed into tabular form in Appendices A-H. Northwest Coast and Inland Pottery Deposit Types Identifiable Weeden Island mounds are scarce west of Choctowhatchee Bay. The westernmost mound is the Mound Near Maester Creek near Pensacola Bay (Moore 1901:33-434), which is an abberant form since the Weeden Island series vessels that were recovered come from the west side of the mound. The Rocky Bayou mound (Moore 1901:455) on Choctowhatchee Bay is identifiable as Weeden Island on the basis of the recovery of a gourd-shaped ceramic vessel, a shape that is found in other Weeden Island mounds. However, once the eastern half of Choctowhatchee Bay is reached the number of mounds increases greatly. Mounds were selected to show the great variety of materials contained in them. They are presented in a descriptive manner in the body of the chapter and reduced to tabular form in Appendix A-H.

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73 Western Panhandle Point Washington, Choctowhatchee Bay, Walton County, Florida (Moore 1904:465-474): Vessels : Fig. 62 l. Utility 2 Jar 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 63 1. Utility 2. Flaring rim jar 3. Weeden Island Incised/ Keith Incised combination Fig. 64 1. Utility 2 Incurvate rim bowl with neck 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 65 1. Utility 2 Beaker 3. Tucker Ridge Pinched Fig. 66 1. Abstract 2. Double bowl (stacked) 3. Carrabelle Punctate Fig. 67 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Owl effigy 3. Free Incision Fig. 68 1. Abstract 2. Double bowl with human (?) effigy head (side by side) 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 69 1. Utility 2. Necked jar 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:63) Fig. 70 1. Utility 2. Incurvate rim bowl 3. Extremely deep incision Fig. 72 1. Utility 2. Flaring rim bowl 3. Carrabelle Punctate

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74 Fig73 1. Utility 2. Necked jar 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:63) Fig. 74 1. Abstract 2. Conoidal base beaker 3. Weeden Island Zoned Red/ Free Incised Fig. 75 1. Abstract 2. Conoidal based beaker 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Central Panhandle Sowell Site, Bay County, Florida (Moore 1902:167) Vessels : Fig. 68 1. Utility 2 Beaker 3. Weeden Island Punctated Fig. 69 l. Utility ; 2. Incurved rim bowl 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 70 l. utility 2. Round bottom jar 3. Carrabelle Incised Fig. 72 1. utility 2. Round bottom jar 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 7 3 1. Abstract 2 Open bowl 3. Bird head adornos free punctation Fig. 75 1. utility 2 Incurved rim bowl 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 76 1. Abstract 2. Jar with contracting base 3. Unique incision

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75 Fig. 77 1. Derived effigy 2. Open bowl with crested bird head and tail adornos 3. Weeden Island Plain Fig. 78 1. Utility 2. Collared jar 3. St. Petersburg Incised (local copy of Coles Creek Incised) Fig. 79 Sherd, Tampa Complicated Stamp Tucker Site, Franklin County, Florida (MOore 1902:257-265) Vessels : Fig. 214 1. Derived effigy 2 Boat shaped bowl with bird head adorno, flat base 3. Plain Fig. 215 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Bird effigy 3. Free incision, punctates Fig. 216 1. Derived effigy 2. Cat head on double bowl 3. Plain Fig. 217 1. Abstract 2 Bowl 3. Red Paint Fig. 219 1. Utility 2 Necked bowl 3. Tucker Ridge-pinched Fig. 220 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Owl head on pedestaled bowl 3. Plain Fig. 221 l. utility 2. Necked jar 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 223 1. Utility 2. Necked jar 3. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped Fig. 224 1. Utility 2. High neck jar 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped

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76 Fig. 225 l. Abstract 2. Narrow necked jar 3. Free incision with perforations Mound Field, Wakulla County, Florida (Moore 1902: 306-320) : ~ Vessels : Fig286 l. Utility 2 Bowl 3. Weeden Island Punctated Fig. 287 1. Derived effigy 2. Bird (?) head head and tail on bowl 3. Red Paint and perforations Fig. 288 1. Derived effigy 2. Straight sided bowl with bird head adorno 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 289 1. Derived effigy 2. Owl head oh straight sided bowl 3. Plain Fig. 290 1. Abstract 2. Beaker with eight lobes 3. Red Paint Fig. 291 i. Derived effigy 2. Bird with bird adorno 3. Plain Fig. 292 1. Abstract 2. One-half of compound vessel 3 Free incision Fig. 294 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Owl on globular bowl pedestal Fig. 295 1. Utility 2. Globular bowl with neck 3 Mound Field Complicated Stamp (Sears 1956:62)

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77 Fig296 l. utility 2. Globular bowl with contracting neck 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:62) Fig297 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Deer (?) 3. Red Paint Fi g298 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Horned Owl with obe wings 3. Red Paint Fig. 300 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Bird 3. Free incised Fig. 301 l. utility 2 Beaker 3. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956:62) Davis Field, Calhoun County, Florida (Moore 1903468-473) — Vessels : Fig. 131 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Bird, globular bowl-shaped body 3. Free incision with punctates and perforations Fig. 133 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Questionable, may be abstract 3. Free incision with perforations, red paint Fig. 134 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Bird 3. Free incision with perforations Fig. 136 1. Abstract 2. Multiple superimposed bowl/ beaker form 3. Plain

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78 Mound at Bristol, Liberty County, Florida (Moore 1903:474-489) Vessels : Fig. 137 1. Utility 2. Globular bowl with extremely high neck 3. Wakulla Check Stamped Fig. 138 l. utility 2 Bowl 3. Weeden Island Zoned Incised Fig139 1. Utility 2. Contracting base beaker 3. Wakulla Check Stamped Fig. 140 1. Derived effigy 2. Tall bowl with bird head adorno 3. Free incision, perforations, Red Paint Fig. 141 i. Derived effigy 2. Constricted neck bowl with two bird heads 3. Perforations and Red Paint Fig. 142 l. utility 2. Open bowl 3. Lobed sides Fig. 143 1. utility 2. Globular bowl with neck 3. Mound Field Complicated Stamped (Sears 1956) Three Rivers Aspalaga Landing, Gadsden County, F lorida (Moore 1903:481-487) ~ Vessels: Fig146 1. Abstract 2. Globular necked bowl with appliques 3. Punctate (?)

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79 Fig147 1. Utility 2. Globular bowl with expanding neck 3. Crystal River Incised (Willey 1949:247) red paint Fig148 1. Utility 2. Globular necked bowl 3. Crystal River Incised (Willey 1949:247) Fig150 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Human effigy 3. Plain, perforations in eyes and ears Fig. 151 l. Abstract 2. Open bowl superimposed on jar, tetrapods (Small) 3. Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (early) Mound Near Hare's Landing (Moore 1907:429-437) Vessels: Fig. 2 i. utility 2 Shape 3. Free Punctation Fig3 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Necked, rounded beaker on pedestal 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised, Red Paint Fig. 5 l. utility 2. Constricting neck jar 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig7 l. Pedestaled effigy 2. Unique "pitcher" 3. Free incised, handle, perforations, red paint Fig8 l. Derived effigy 2. Beaker with head adorno 3. Perforations, red paint Fig. 9 i. utility 2. Tall compressed bowl 3. Perforations, red paint

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80 Fig10 1. Derived effigy 2. Beaker form with head and neck adornos 3. Perforations, red paint Fig11 1Utility 2 Jar 3. Carrabelle Punctate Fulmer's U pper Landing, Houston County, Alabama (Moore 1907: 438-445) ~~ Vessels: Fig. 17 l. utility 2. Flat bottomed beaker 3. Zoned incised and punctate, Keith/Carrabelle Punctate combination Fig18 1. Utility 2. Beaker 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig20 1. Utility 2. Globular bowl with neck 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 22 i. utility 2. Beaker 3. Weeden Island Zoned Red Fig24 i. utility 2. Bowl with contracting base 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Eastern Panhandle Aucilla River Mound, Taylor County, F lorida (Moore 1902: 325-330) Vessels : Fig. 313 Dog Head adorno Fig314 i. utilitarian 2 Large mouth cup 3. Zoned Weeden .Island Punctated

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Fig. 315 1. Derived effigy 2. Bird with head and tail adorno 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 316 1. Abstract 2. Compartmented vessel 3. Plain Fig. 317 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Globular bowl with pedestaled bird 3. Free incision Fig. 319 1. Abstract 2 Compartmented bowl 3. Plain (Moore 1918: 564-567) Fig37 1. Utilitarian 2. Wide mouth jar 3. Kilomoki Complicated Stamp Fig38 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Human effigy 3. Red paint (?) McKeithen Site, Columbia County, Florida (Jerald T. Milanich, Personal Communication) Vessels: #11. Abstract 2. Quadralateral globular bowl 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised # 2 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Crested bird, very large diameter pedestal 3. Free incision, red paint # 3 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Bird 3. Free incision, red paint # 4 1. Pedestaled effigy 2. Crested bird, very large diameter pedestal 3. Free incision, red paint #5-7. elements of derived effigy pots

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82 #8. 1. Utility 2. Open bowl 3. Weeden Island Red #91. Utility 2. Open Bowl 3. Weeden Island Red # 10 1. Utility 2. Open bowl 3. Weeden Island Plain (?) #H1. Utility 2. Open bowl 3. Scalloped punctated rim and lip; body is plain # 12 1. Utility 2. Quadralateral bowl 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised # 13 1. Utility 2. Shallow plate 3. Weeden Island Red #141. Utility 2. Globular bowl 3. Undetermined Chattahoochee Ri ver Kolomoki, Early County, Georgia (Sears 1956) : Mound D Full descriptions and illustrations are presented in Sears (1953:26-39; PI. ii) Sixty-five whole or restorable vessels were recovered. They range from human effigies to pedestaled effigies to derived effigies to utility forms. The number of pedestaled effigies is truly impressive. Red paint is a common mode. Round base jars of a Mississippian form are present (Sears. 1953:pl. xxv). Incision, mostly free, punctation, and pref orations are the dominant decorative techniques. Kolomoki Complicated Stamped is represented, however there is no check stamping.

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83 Mound E (Sears 1951b) Full descriptions and illustrations of Mound E ceramics are presented by Sears (1951b pi. I-XIV) Materials differed from Mound D in having most complicated stamped vessels and fewer pedestaled ones. Most of the Mississippian forms present at the site are in this deposit. Perforations are fewer. There are many more vessels which could be classified as utility form. Mercier Red on Buff is represented by eleven vessels. Peninsular Coast: Continuous Use Type Mounds South of the Warrior River, in Taylor County, Florida there is a major shift in mound construction. The east side deposit, single ceremony mounds appear to drop out, and continuous use type mounds, without any apparent ceramic cache, replace them. Fowlers Landing, Levy Coun ty, Florida (Moore 1903: 364-371) Vessels: Fig1 1. Utility 2. Elongate bowl 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig3 1. utility 2 Jar 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised; Unique applique around rim. Fig5 1. Abstract 2. Superimposed globular bowls 3. Plain

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84 Mound Near the Chassahawitzka River (Moore 1903: 413-414) Moore mentions plain, red painted, check stamped and punctated sherds. One crested bird head adorno usually found on derived effigies was recovered. One sherd of St. Petersburg Incised was also recovered. No complicated stamped materials were recovered from the mound. Mound Near Bayport, Hernando County, Florida (Moore 1903:415-424) Vessels: Fig. 72 1. Utility 2. Globular bowl 3. Unclassified incised Fig. 74 1. Derived effigy 2. Globular bowl with bird head rim adornos 3. Zoned Weeden Island Incised Fig. 76 1. Abstract 2. Tall jar 3. Double globular bowls Fig. 77 1. Abstract 2. Tall jar 3. Plain, "projecting base" Fig. 78 1. Utility 2. Quadralateral jar 3. Plain Fig. 79 1. Abstract 2. Tall jar, constricted neck, "projecting base" 3. Plain Weeden Island Mound, Pinellas County, Florida Fewkes (1924) illustrates the vessels found in the Weeden Island mound. All forms are utility with one possible exception which may be described as abstract. Shape runs from blobular bowl through tall beaker. Decorative motifs include Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Zoned

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85 Red, Wakulla Check Stamped, Weeden Island Punctated, Indian Pass Incised, Weeden Island Zoned Plain, and Pinellas Incised. Plate 14b illustrated an unclassified complicated stamped sherd. Human effigy face adornos were recovered. In most cases, incision and punctation were of the zoned variety. Willey further classifies other materials, which include a few more sherds of the Weeden Island series, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped sherds, plus Englewood and Safety Harbor ceramics. Wakulla Check Stamped and Carrabelle Incised are the most common types (Willey 1949:110). Palmer Mound, Sarasota County, Florida (Bullen & Bullen 1976) Bullen lists the ceramics recovered from the Palmer mound (Bullen & Bullen 1976:42) in tabular form. Of the 8,569 sherds recovered from the mound only 2 6 sherds, or 0.30 percent were of the Weeden Island series. The bulk of the material (80.82 percent) was sand tempered plain). No effigy or pedestaled vessels were recovered. Northcentral Florida Melton Mound #1, Alachua County, Florida (Smith 1971) Sherds were evenly distributed through the mound fill. No decorated Weeden Island series sherds were recovered. Sand tempered plain, St. Johns series and Deptford series sherds constituted the bulk of the material. Burials tended to be in the central part of the mound.

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86 Me lton Mound #2, Alachua County, Florida (Bell 1883) This mound is poorly reported, but appears to have had an east side pottery deposit. One effigy vessel was recovered by an excavator other than Bell. The form is not possible to determine from the description. Florida State Museum collections show mostly St. Johns Plain, Dunns Creek Red, and sand tempered plain materials. Late Swift Creek Complicated Stamped is present. There are no decorated Weeden Island series known. Melton Mound #3, Alachua County, Florida (Sears 1957) West side sherd deposits contained: WI Red 1 Carr. Punc 1 Okla. Inc. l Other areas of mound: WI Red 2 3 WI Inc. 1 IP Inc. 2 SCCS II 1 Kolo. CS 1 Md. Fid. CS 1 Oklawaha Plain 1 Oklawaha Inc. 1 (Note: Bulk of materials are St. Johns series.) (Note: Bulk of materials are St. Johns series.) Miscellaneous Sites Shelly Mound, Pulaski County, Georgia (West Georgia College Collections) Vessels in the pottery-deposit-type mound are (approximate count) :

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87 sees II & Kolo. CS 7 Sand tempered PI. 6 Ovate sand tempered PI. 6 WI PI. i 6 Vertical Inc. i Random Punc. 1 Unique CS (Woodstock?) 1 Discussion From the inspection of sacred ceramics, their distribution, and the mounds, several generalizations can be drawn. In the following chapter these are incorporated into the data base for testing hypotheses concerning sociopolitical organization. Two broad geographical areas can be delineated for mounds possessing Weeden Island ceramics. On the. northwest Florida coast as far west as Choctowhatchee Bay and as far southeast as the Warrior River, and in adjacent areas of Alabama and Georgia, as far north as Columbia Crossing, Georgia, the east side pottery deposit mounds are present. The peninsular coast and northcentral Florida mounds appear to be primarily continuous use type mounds. Exceptions to this pattern may be the Melton mounds in Alachua County, Florida. However, the descriptions in Bell's report (1883) are so poor that no definite statement can be made. The correlation of mound ceramics with midden ceramics is poor at best. While no statistical correlation was

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88 carried out, due to the biased nature of the mound vessels, the pattern is clear. The mound vessels appear to be in free association with the midden ceramics. Series and decorative modes may be present in one context and absent in another without any apparent pattern. St. Johns series ceramics, on the other hand, are present in fairly high percentages in the peninsular coast and northcentral Florida middens and mounds. These are absent in the middens of the northwest coast and inland Georgia and Alabama. Likewise, complicated stamped vessels and sherds are present in the northern mounds and middens, but are generally absent in the southern mounds and middens. An explanation for this is presented in the following chapter. Pedestaled effigies tend to cluster along the Apalachicola River and at its mouth. The distribution of these forms parallels the distribution of the pottery deposit mounds and complicated stamped ceramics. An explanation for this is also presented in the following chapter. A Definition of Wee den Island From the analyzed data concerning the sacred and secular materials and their contexts and distributions, a definition of the Weeden Island ceramic complex can be derived. It is designed to serve as an explanatory construct and to aid in the future collection, analysis and synthesis of Weeden Island data.

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89 Northwest Florida Coast and Adjacent Areas In this large region, Weeden Island is determined by the presence of the Weeden Island ceramic series in either the sacred and/ or the secular contexts. I. Secular: Secular Weeden Island is confined to the northwest Florida, Alabama and Georgia area as far west as Mobile Bay, north along the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee rivers to the fall line, and north on the Flint River and Spring Creek at least as far as Bainbridge. The more northern extent of these rivers is archaeologically unknown. In Alabama, the northernmost extension of Weeden Island in in the area west of Montgomery. The southern extent of Weeden Island is Columbia and Suwannee counties in Florida. A. Suggested sub-types. 1. Weeden Island. Defined by having majority of decorated materials of the punctated-incised series: Minority decorated types include Wakulla Check Stamped, complicated stamped, and cordmarked. 30-70% of these collections are plain. 2. Wakulla-Weeden Island. Defined by having majority of decorated materials of the Wakulla Check Stamped type. Minority

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90 decorated types will be of the punctatedincised and complicated stamped series. Sand tempered plain will be present in smaller percentages than in other subtypes. (This is due to the fact that the Wakulla vessels were stamped over their entire surfaces.) Swift Creek II-Weeden Island. Defined by the majority of the decorated midden materials being of the Swift Creek II type. Punctated-incised series and the types Wakulla Check Stamped and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped may be present in varying percentages. Sand tempered plain constitutes a large percentage of the collections. Kolomoki-Weeden Island. Defined by having Kolomoki Complicated Stamped as the dominant decorated type. Punctated-incised series, Wakulla Check Stamped, and Swift Creek II types may or may not be present in varying percentages in the collection. Sand tempered plain constitutes 40-70% of the sample. This is due to the Kolomoki stamp usually being applied only to the neck of the vessel.

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91 5. Combined-Weeden Island. There are no dominant series; all three appear in almost equal frequency. II. Sacred: Known for the same region as secular Weeden Island, with a possible extension into Dixie County, Florida. It is marked by the following: A. East side deposit mounds. Deposit may be of sherds, whole vessels broken or intact, or both. B. Sacred ceramics. 1. Utility forms. "These are vessels which had, or could have had, normal utilitarian function, such as containers and cooking vessels" (Sears 1956:23). These vessels, while similar to secular vessels, are usually better made. 2. Abstract Forms. "...vessels which are remotely functional, that is, have bases, walls and orifices, but have developed these features in rather exotic styles. The vessel forms produced are heavily modified from functional forms, but not in the direction of either life forms or of greater functional utility" (Sears 1956:23) 3. Effigy Forms. a. Free effigy. "in these forms the

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92 intent seems to have been an accurate, if greatly stylized, representation of life forms. They tend to lack pedestals or other modifications designed to aid them in maintaining an upright position, as well as spouts or other orifices" (Sears 1956:22). Cut out areas are common. b. Pedestaled effigies. Life forms on pedestals, which range from rudimentary to well defined. "The effigies most often are birds, with the duck, owl and raptorial bird — important in that order of frequence — are usually well made. The intent to produce life forms is clear although they are often rather heavily sytlized..." (Sears 1956:23). c. Derived effigies. "Such effigies are defined as those forms in which a functional vessel form is modified, usually by the addition of such features as heads, to produce a variable degree of resemblance to life forms" (Sears 1956:23). 4. Decoration and surface treatment. The standard methods for decorating or treating

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93 the surface of vessels are used in the sacred ceramics. Many times they are only rudimentarily related to counterparts in the secular assemblages a. Plain. Two categories or types are present. (1) Sand tempered plain. Common undecorated, sand tempered bowls. Lip treatment is plain, no folds, thickening, or underlining. (2) Weeden Island Plain. Sand tempered bowls with folded, thickened or underlined rims. b. Complicated Stamped. Two types, Swift Creek II and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, are present. Swift Creek II is found on open bowls, cazeula bowls and beakers, the stamping is confined to a band below the rim, and the bases are flat. c. Incision. Two forms, free and zoned, are found. Free incision occurs when the incised lines are used to depict life forms or geometric forms, i.e. ,bird wings on vessels. Zoned incision is when the incising is used in zones to form either a life or a geometric design. It is often combined with punctations.

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94 Techniques are often different than in secular deposits. Combinations of modes of incisions of secular types is common. d. Punctations. Punctations are not common on sacred vessels. They are usually found in combination with zoned incision. Free punctation is known from one vessel in Pulaski County, Georgia. e. Perforation. The use of perforations in the vessel walls, either independently or in conjunction with incision, is most common on pedestaled effigies. f. Painting. There are three forms present, Weeden Island Red, a term used to classify vessels, bowls, and "plates" which have an overall coating of red paint on the interior or exterior surfaces, or on both; Zoned Red, the use of red paint in combination with zoned areas on incised pots; and Red and White, which is rare, found only in Mound D at Kolomoki (Sears 1956:25). Black and red paint have been found on one sherd from the McKeithen site in Columbia County, Florida. C. Mound structure. The size of mounds varies greatly. The average size would be 20-25

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95 D yards in diameter and three to six feet high, although both larger and smaller examples are known. The shape is usually conical. Internal structure can range from highly complex, such as the elaborate Mounds D and E at Kolomoki to fairly simple, as with the Point Washington mound (Sears 1956; Moore 1904:465-474). The most consistent similarities are the east side deposit of ceramics, which usually starts on the extreme east side of the mound and continues to a seemingly important interment at the center of the mound. Secondary burials, skull burials, and other primary burials are also included in the mound. Patterns indicate that construction of the mounds was one continuous process, representing a single ceremony. Ceremonial centers. The ceremonial centers are marked by (1) truncated substructure mound; (2) at least one burial mound, and; (3) vacant plaza fronting the truncated mound with structured midden area around the plaza. From the mound materials recovered from two of the three known ceremonial centers pedestaled effigies are included in the deposits.

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96 Peninsular Florida This Weeden Island region is recognized by the presence of Weeden Island series of ceramics in sacred and secular contexts. The distribution is known primarily for the Gulf Coast and secondarily for the northcentral Florida area. These areas are discrete environmenatlly, culturally and ceremonially. A. Gulf Coast Secular. Sites in this area are scattered shell mounds on the Gulf/Marsh ecotone and extend up the fresh water rivers (Steinen 1976b; Kohler 19 75) The ceramic component is primarily sand or limestone-tempered plain bowls. Minority representation of St. Johns and punctated-incised ceramic series are common. The punctated-incised series is represented by less than 10% of the total collection from any site and plain generally represents over 95% of the decorated sample. The suggested name is the same as that applied to the secular ceramics, i.e., Pasco. No Weeden Island prefix or suffix is suggested. B. Gulf Coast Sacred. Characterized by continuous use type mounds. About the only way to differentiate the Weeden Island associated burials from others is by the deposits of Weeden Island series ceramics, either sherds of vessels. No effigy vessels or decorated or abstract vessels are known for the area. Association of mounds and ceremonialism to secular deposits is determined

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D. 97 by proximity to midden area. The suggested name is Weeden Island Complex. This term is used to differentiate it from Weeden Island Sacred of 'the northwest coast and adjacent areas which is derived from the preceding Yent and Green Point Complexes associated with the Deptford and Swift Creek secular materials. Northcentral Florida Secular. These sites are scattered dirt middens of moderate size. The nature of sites ranges from shallow with no indication of subterranean pits (Steinen 1975) to intensive with many storage pits (Cuumba 1972) The ceramic component is overwhelmingly sand tempered plain, with admixture of St. Johns material, including St. Johns Check Stamped in the later stages (Steinen 1975) Weeden Island punctated-incised sherds occur in small percentages. The suggested name is the same as applied to the secular ceramics, Cades Pond. Northcentral Florida Sacred. Defined by the presence of Weeden Island series ceramics in the burial mounds. The nature of ceremonialism is so greatly different from the Weeden Island Sacred and Weeden Island Complex that it qualifies for a new name. Due to the uniqueness of the ceremonial materials and patterns, and their being seemingly confined to the Cades Pond

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93 area, it is suggested that the name "Cades Pond Sacred" be used to differentiate it from other forms of ceremonialism in the southeast. The above set of definitions, drawn from observed patterns of materials and distributions represents an attempt to order the data in a manner so that it can be better used in the understanding of cultural dynamics in the southeast. It is unfortunate that the type site for Weeden Island is in an area that is not of the "classic" Weeden material, either sacred or secular. However, continuing to use the same terminology for the three known areas will not aid us in 'studying the Weeden Island problem. Hopefully, the above description or reconstruction and re-definition of Weeden Island will help somewhat in future discussions The numerical data that is the basis for the above presentation is presented in tabular form in appendices A H. References given there are keyed to the bibliography by letters placed in the left margine.

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CHAPTER III HYPOTHESES AND TESTS Archaeologically observed patterns of artifact distribution reflect the behavior patterns of those people responsible for their production and use. Distribution of the Weeden Island ceramic series, consequently, can be used to interpret Weeden Island cultural dynamics. In this chapter, a series of models regarding Weeden Island culture are presented and tested against the ceramic distribution data. Those hypotheses which fit the data must eventually be tested against new empirical data before a final understanding of Weeden Island can ge achieved. One of the errors in much of the Weeden Island analysis has been the dogmatic adherence to Willey's (1949) coastal sequence. In the past the well known and documented ceramic differences for Weeden Island within its entire region have been considered temporal in nature; however, the arguments for this interpretation have never been convincing to this writer. Application of a ceramic chronology determined from a sample derived from a relatively small area to the entire Weeden Island region is not scientifically sound. It negates the possibility of separate, sub-regional variations in both ceramic types and sequences. Researchers have for too long overlooked 103

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104 the possibility that the differences are determined by cultural, not temporal, dynamics, which would be manifested in spatial distributions of the different ceramic complexes. The analysis of secular ceramics presented in Chapter II of this dissertation demonstrated that the three series comprising the Weeden Island ceramic complex overlap to a great extent throughout the Weeden Island region. Further, the distribution of "pure" sites is not confined to any one area, and they are present throughout the Weeden Island region. The basic premise that underlies the series of hypotheses presented in this chapter is that the observed ceramic modes and types present in the Weeden Island series and complexes are representative of the kin system of the involved cultures. This premise has been demonstrated to be true with the Arikara (Deetz 1963) and among the Southwest Pueblo cultures (Longacre 1968) and should be considered at least a testable hypothesis for Weeden Island. The use of ceramic complexes to identify cultural groups is known to be valid for historically known cultures. The Iroquois (Ritchie 1965:200-325; Ritchie and MacNeish 1949); the Cherokee (Fenton and Gulick 1961); and the Arikara (Deetz 1963) are excellent examples. The following are a series of hypotheses tested against the analyzed data and general' models of cultural organization. They were formulated in an attempt to clarify and define the cultural dynamics involved with Weeden Island.

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105 The Northwest Florida Coast and Adjacent Areas of Alabama and Georgia Weeden Island Genesis Sacred: Hypothesis The development of sacred Weeden Island is a combination of exotic and internally developing traits, patterns and beliefs. These factors reflect the cultural systems involved. The recognizable beginnings of Weeden Island sacred life lie in the Green Point complex as defined and used by Sears (1962) Green Point, as described in Chapter I of this dissertation, is the sacred aspect of Early Swift Creek on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Sears states that "...Green Point, Huckleberry Landing, Anderson's Bayou and Alligator Bayou have predominantly Early Swift Creek and St. Andrews Complicated Stamped pots, with a few zoned rocker stamped specimens of western origin or inspiration. The very last of these structures are of the patterned type with east side pottery deposits" (Sears 1962:16). The western origins or western inspiration for the vessels are, according to Sears (1962:12-13), from the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Green Point is the sacred aspect of life during a period of adjustment on the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. This period of adjustment, calling for internal production of ceramics for ceremonial use and requiring the people to draw on their own cultural inventory, would seem to

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106 necessitate the utilization of the known-secular-decorative and form modes. For our purposes, the most important development in Green Point ceremonialism is the beginning of east side deposit mounds, a marker for the following Weeden Island period (Sears 1962:11-12). Green Point developed from the midwestern inspired Yent complex after the cessation of the external contacts. This is demonstrated by the gradual disappearance of the classic Hopewellian artifacts in the mounds and by the increased use of domestic materials and designs (Sears 1962 Table 1) Materials and ideas from the Red River Mouth tradition of the Lower Missisisppi Valley replaced those of the Hopewellian tradition (Sears Ms. b:29). Secular: Hypothesis. The development of secular Weeden Island is a combination of exotic and internally developing traits, patterns and beliefs. These factors reflect the cultural systems involved. The Weeden Island cermaic modes did not develop in the Weeden Island area. The punctation and incision techniques have no observable developmental sequence east of Mobile fey Three well-established ceramic traditions were functioning on the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain prior to Weeden Island. They were plain, check stamping, and complicated stamping. The incised and punctate techniques and motifs are observable as having developed in the lower valley during Tchefuncte and Marksville times. Exact decorative counterparts to the Weeden Island series

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107 are known from the Troyville series of Louisina (Ford 1951) The main difference between the Weeden Island series and the Troyville series is that the Weeden Island series uses sand tempering and the Troyville series uses clay. The only Weeden Island ceramics from known stratigraphic contexts are from the panhandle Gulf Coast. Willey's test at the Carrabelle site (FR-2) in Franklin County, Florida, shows that Weeden Island Plain, Weeden Island Incised and Carrabelle Punctated are present in small percentages in the upper levels of the test pits I-IV, and are, at this point, stratigraphically contemporaneous with the Swift Creek, Deptford and Franklin Plain materials (Willey 1949:49-52). Pit V, on the other hand, shows that Weeden Island Incised, Weeden Island Plain, Carrabelle Incised and Carrabelle Punctated are in the upper four levels with Swift Creek Complicated Stamped the dominant decorated type for six levels of excavation. Deptford Bold Check Stamped is represented by only two of 334 sherds (Willey 1949:38-54). Mound Field (WA-8) in Wakulla County, Florida, yeilds similar evidence. Here, Weeden Island Plain is represented in all eight levels of both Pit I and II, with Weeden Island Incised, Carrabelle Punctated, Carrabelle Incised, Keith Incised, Indian Pass Incised, Tucker Ridge-pinched, and Wakulla Check Stamped represented in various percentages in the upper six levels. Swift Creek (Kolomoki) Complicated

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108 is represented in all levels in amounts roughly equal to or exceeding the Weeden Island (incised-punctated) series types (Sears 1956:68). Ofnote here are the low percentages of Wakulla Check Stamped (0.1-0.8%), which overlap with the Swift Creek Complicated Stamped (Willey 1949:62). The Sowell Site (BY-3) in Bay County, Florida, has a different picture all together. Here, the upper level of the tests contain Ft. Walton Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, Pensacola Plain, and Leon Check Stamped materials. Weeden Island complex types represented are Weeden Island Plain, Weeden Island Incised, Carrabelle Incised, Carrabelle Punctated, Indian Pass Incised, Tucker Ridge-pinched, St. Petersburg Incised, Wakulla Check Stamped, and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped. Swift Creek sherds are not common, but do overlap considerably with the Wakulla Check Stamped in Pit II and IV. Wakulla Check Stamped is absent from the lowest levels of the two deepest test pits; however, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped is represented by only three shreds, while Wakulla Check Stamped materials are absent. In total numbers, Swift Creek Complicated Stamped is represented by only eleven sherds, making it an extreme minority type at the site (Willey 1949:64-71). At the Fort Walton site, (OK-6) in Okaloosa County, Florida, Weeden Island decorated types, Weeden Island Plain, Weeden Island Incised, Carrabelle Incised, Carrabelle Punctated, Keith Incised, Indian Pass Incised,

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109 Tucker Ridge-pinched, Wakulla Check Stamped, and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped are represented in most levels in varying quantities. Wakulla Check Stamped and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped overlap signif icangly in Pits II and III. Pit I has little representation of either type, but Wakulla is more numerous. Pit IV is predominantly Deptford in nature. Wakulla Check Stamped and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, Carrabelle Punctated, Carrabelle Incised, and Weeden Island Plain are minority types with some overlap. In Pit VI, the Weeden Island decorated types are represented in various levels, with Wakulla Check Stamped and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped overlapping significantly in the middle levels. SwiftCreek Complicated Stamped is a minority type for the collection. Sand tempered plain is here, as it is everywhere, the most numerous type. Pit VII shows a similar picture, with the Swift Creek Complicated Stamped materials represented in the lower levels to the exclusion of Wakulla Check Stamped. However, Weeden Island Plain is represented in all eleven excavation levels and most of the other represented Weeden Island series types are also present (Willey 1949:71-88) Gulf Breeze, (SA-8) Santa Rosa County, Florida, shows a similar picture with a slow addition to the indigenous types and a continuation of the existing ceramic traditions (Willey 1949:89-94 ). There was no drastic, complete replacement of ceramic types and series as would

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110 be indicative of a movement of new peoples representing a population replacement (Deetz 1968:38). The pattern is of addition, not replacement, of series, types and modes. This would be indicative of long term, constant contact with a donor culture. The lack of evidence demonstrating movements to any significant degree of Troyville and Coles Creek types east of Mobile Bay (Wimberly 1960) rules out the migration of peoples to the east. However, the recurrence of the Red River Mouth tradition ceramic modes in the east argues for a stronger contact than is present with Deetz s "Stimulous Diffusion" which is "...characterized by a lack of significant degree of recurrent association in receiver and donor cultures. Similarities exist only on the attribute level and the method of employing these attributes may be quite different in each assemblage. This mode of occurence ... indicates such processes as visiting, limited social intercourse, and unstructured, temporary exchange of people between groups Weeden Island Origins Hypothesis The origins of sacred and secular traits observable in Weeden Island, i.e. punctated and incised ceramic modes, are from the lower Missisisppi Valley Troyville/Coles Creek series. These modes reflect the diffusion of new elements or forms of cultural organization, i_^e^, clans added to the existing systems. The initial recognition of developing sacred Weeden

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Ill Island, as mentioned above, is in the late Green Point complex, with its east side deposit mounds. Midden materials outlined above suggest a parallel secular development. Green Point is viewed here as a period of adjustment to the decline of midwestern Hopewellian contacts, a period when the local Hopewellian affiliated cultures were forced to "make do on their own". The secular cultures (or complexes) developed into late Marksville and Coles Creek in Louisiana and Early Swift Creek (secular) and Green Point (sacred) in the Florida panhandle. With the demise of the Hopewellian ceremonialism, a system which was probably based on some form of "developing system of supernatural controls required by an agricultural (maize) economy base" (Sears 1971b: 325) developed. Issaquena and Green Point/Early Swift Creek developed separately but from basically the same village agricultural base. Through time and archaeologically demonstrable contact in southern Alabama with the Miller ceramic series, the Troyville/ Coles Creek (Ford 1951) and Weeden Island ceramic series continued their great similarity. At this point, the writer suggests that the adoption of the Troyville/ Coles Creek ceramic modes, in both sacred and secular context, parallels the demonstrable ceremonial change from Green Point to Weeden Island. This change is representative of the appearance of a new set of social ideas, consisting primarily of a more complex form of sociopolitical organization. The new ceramic modes would be

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112 indicative of the new elements in the social system, possibly clan concepts, which diffused with the new ; socio-political system. Adopting a more developed, stronger, and probably more economically productive system which was essentially a parallel, complementary development of their own would have been fairly easy. Ideas and technology were adopted from the Lower Valley. Constant contact between the two areas, with parallel political and religious development occurred through time and eventually developed, with external influence, into the Natchez form of political organization, i.e. chief doms (Sears 1954; Swanton 1911) This approach to Weeden Island development serves to explain the differences in midden composition in the areas. Secular Weeden Island, which is recognized through ceramics, consisted of the addition of some new social elements, reflected in the Weeden Island series, into the area. The three existing ceramic traditions continued to function, sometimes discretely, sometimes in combination with each other and one or more of the new (Weeden Island) types. However, with the many sites known where all four traditions are present, we can safely say that the new elements were adopted by most people. Differential presence of modes of types of the Weeden Island complex in individual middens would reflect the presence and absence of the social group associated with that mode or type.

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113 Unfortunately, due to limited excavation reports, this concept of secular Weeden Island lacks temporal control. While we do have adequate spatial controls, differential distribution of the check stamped, complicated stamped, and plain traditions, and differential distribution of the Weeden Island punctated-incised types would make a general overall evolutionary sequence almost impossible to determine. Willey's Weeden Island I and II, based on the dropping out of the complicated stamped series and the addition of the check stamped series, and more recently Percy's six stage sequence are, in the light of this approach, unusable. The changes in percentages and modes of types will reflect internal changes in villages, not the whole Weeden Island area. Differential distributions of these long-lasting ceramic series make the overall developmental scheme impossible to determine with the existing data. Troyville/Coles Creek ceremonialism, while poorly known, does not appear to be very similar to Weeden Island ceremonialism. Mound C at Greenhouse lacks the essential east side deposit of ceramics and central burial. If this is so, then the hypothesized system that was transmitted was grafted onto the in-place developing Green Point ceremonialism, which became Weeden Island. The new concepts of socio-political organization were added to the developing ceremonialism of the Green Point complex. What was transmitted were ideas of social organization and accompanying ceramic modes and modal clusters. The modes

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\ 114 would, in this case, be indicative of divisions of the new social order, an order circumscribed around kin-based, ascribed status differences. The transmittance of modes (ideas) instead of whole types would be a reflection of the incomplete transference of a total culture. This writer suggests that once Weeden Island and Troyville/ Coles Creek became established as cultural entities, they interacted to a great extent, which continued to increase their similarity. Chr onology and Temporal Placement Secular: Hypothesis. Existing data, due to (1) lack of regional stratigraphic excavations; (2) small sample size of surface collections; (3) classification of collections rather than analysis; and (4) lack of radiocarbon dates does not allow for the establishment of a Weeden Island chronology at this time. Placing Weeden Island and Kolomoki temporally and chronologically is difficult. There is a range of radiocarbon dates for Weeden Island and Kolomoki materials which tend to disagree (See Table 1) The generally accepted date for beginning Weeden Island is AD 600. The termination of Weeden Island is another question altogether. Brose and Percy (1974) suggest AD 1000. W.H. Sears has recently suggested a terminating date of AD 1400 at the latest (Sears Ms c : 27-30) Most feel that AD 1200 is a safe estimate for the ending

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115 of Weeden Island, and recent evidence from southcentral Georgia lends support to the later dates, at least for the eastern portion of the Weeden Island region. To be able to determine chronological change, there must be a method of identifying that change. Ceramically, this would be carried out through the change in percentages of use of ceramic types or modes. Stratigraphic excavations are the ideal source of this information with the actual ordering of sites and determination of the ceramic chronology being determined by seriation. This process entails the actual analysis of the material asking the question of chronology. How does a defined type change through time? Is Weeden Island Incised the same for five hundred to eight hundred years of manufacture? Classification will not answer these questions, but problem-oriented analysis will. Absolute dating methods aid in the establishment of a chronology, but they cannot be employed independently of the ceramic analysis. A series of radiocarbon dates will demonstrate that there is indeed a temporal paramater involved, but it will do nothing to tell us what the cultural changes were. Sacred: Hypothesis Weeden Island mounds represent the end point of Weeden Island occupation at a site or in a given area. Therefore the temporal ordering of mounds is difficult or impossible.

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116 TABLE 1 CARBON 14 DATES Weeden Island: Uchec Site, Russel County, Alabama 1220 250 yrs (SI-341) AD 730 Lynn's Fish Pond Site 950 140 yrs. Barbour County, Alabama AD 1000 (SI-339) Robert Burtz Site, 1310 120 yrs, Barbour County, Alabama AD 64 (SI-337) Weeden Island Site 1550 130 yrs. Pinellas County, Florida AD 400 (M-1598) 8-JA-63, Jackson County, Florida 1600 250 yrs. (M-396) AD 350 Asbury Thornton Site, 1450 100 yrs. Clay County, Georgia AD 500 (SI-338) Kolomoki, Md. D. 2120 300 yrs. Early County, Georgia 170 B.C. (M-50) Kolomoki, Md.E, 19 20*300 yrs. Early County, Georgia • AD 3 (M-49) Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 1090 85 yrs. (1-7253) AD 860 Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 1090 85 yrs. (1-7253) A.D. 860 Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 1145 85 yrs. (1-7254) AD 805 Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 1055 85 yrs. (1-7255) AD 895 Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 1125 85 yrs. (1-7256) AD 825 Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 1295 85 yrs. (1-7527)

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117 Table 1 Continued Sycamore Site, Gadsen County, Florida 955 85 yrs. (1-7528) AD 995 LO-32, Lowndes County, Alabama 1420 100 vrs (GXO-598) AD 530 Y AU-7, Autauga County, Alabama 1030 105 vrs (GXO-599) Etowah: Browns Mount Site, Bibb County, Georgia 970 150 vrs (M-940) AD 980 Etowah, Md. C, Mantle 2 225-150 yrs. Bartow County, Georgia AD 1725 (M-1060) Etowah, Md. C, Burial #155 670 200 yrs. Bartow County, Georgia AD 1280 (M-1061) Etowah, Md. C, Burial #164 450 200 yrs. Bartow County, Georgia AD 1500 (M-1062) Etowah, Md. C, Burial #57 910 200 yrs. Bartow County, Georgia AD 500 (M-542) Etowah, Md. C, Burial #38 725 200 yrs. Bartow County, Georgia AD 1225 (M-402) Etowah, Md. C 850 + 150 yrs Bartow County, Georgia Ad 1100 (M-1064) Willbanks Site, Cherokee County, Georgia 340 150 yrs (M-112) AD 1610

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118 The analysis of mound materials presented in Chapter II of this dissertation indicates that inclusions are widely varied. Many mounds include examples of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped vessels. Writing of mound contents, Sears says, "All contain Weeden Island specimens which are usually in unique shapes, have unusual combinations of decoration or some other unique feature. Associated with these technically Weeden Island specimens are a check stamped pot or two and a few complicated stamped specimens. This latter category almost invariably includes Kolomoki Complicated Stamped..." (1973:36). Sears (1952 a: 105) lists the following sites in northwestern Florida-southwestern Georgia as having KolomokiComplicated Stamped ceramics: Holley; Porters Bar; Tucker; Hall; Mound Field; Warrior River, Mound A; Warrior River, Mound B; Bird Hammock; Lewis Place, Mound Near Point Washington; Kemps Landing; Marsh Island; Munnerlyns Landing; Chipola Cut-off; and Tarpon Springs. The ceramics included in the pottery caches within the mounds are often broken, and not all of the sherds from some vessels are included. Moore mentions this, and attempts to reconstruct vessels from Kolomoki (see photos) and McKeithen sites further demonstrate that complete vessels were often not included in the mounds. The inclusion of single skull burials and secondary burials in many Weeden Island mounds, including Kolomoki Mounds D and E (Sears 1956:11-12) suggests that more than one generation

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119 of people were buried in the mound. Sears (1973) has suggested that ceramics and sherds included in the mounds represent years of accumulation in the villages. This is indicated by the extremely worn appearance of some of the sherds found in ceremonial context. The Kolomoki excavations, as shown by the lack of observable humus lines within Mounds D and E at the site, demonstrate that the process of mound building represents a single ceremony that lasted a short period of time (Sears 1956:11-12). This data, indirect as it may be, indicates a pattern for the burial mounds. If it is granted that there were fewer mounds than villages (120 mounds to 200 villages) and a minimum of 500 years duration for the Weeden Island period, it would be impossible for only one mound to have been constructed every generation. The inclusion of partial and secondary burials suggests that the mound burials represented several generations of people being buried, not one. The inclusion of several generations in a mound, and the need for more than one mound to be used or constructed at a given time for the northwest coast Weeden Island area indicates that the mounds represent the end point of Weeden Island occupation in an area with the mound being constructed as part of the ceremonial closing of the site. Ceramic vessels and defleshed bodies would have been stored in temples in the villages until it was time for burial. If this is the pattern, then the vessels

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120 included in the mounds may represent over 100 years of accumulation. If the vessels were made during the entire period before being included in the mounds, then ordering the mounds by ceramic attributes may not be possible. The overlapping of village occupation, of vessels, and mound construction sequence for the area would certainly muddle any stylistic analysis. Further, it has been suggested (Sears personal communication) that the effigy vessels and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped materials were made at Kolomoki and disseminated out to the supporting villages. If this is true, then stylistic analysis to determine temporal and spatial boundaries would be further complicated by the one point of distribution. This writer feels that the vessels included in the mounds represent vessels made for a specific sacred purpose. Each is unique and meaningful. Classifying them by type and category (effigy, pedestaled effigy, etc.) may organize the materials, but it will not tell us anything about use or meanings. Only when we include the data in the proper context and work out associations will we be able to decipher the meaning of the different designs and shapes (Binford 1962) Linkage of Ceramonial Centers. Hypothesis 1. Ceramic similarity, both sacred and secular, of the three known Weeden Island ceremonial centera allows for the determination of cultural linkages.

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121 Linkage of Ceremonial Centers: Hypothesis 2. The Kolomoki Complicated Stamped and Weeden Island series are co-eval, not sequential. The question of Kolomoki, both the site and the ceramic type, remains to be considered. As stated in Chapter II, some writers have argued that Sears' continuum of Kolomoki after Weeden Island is not correct, and that in reality it was the reverse, with Kolomoki preceding the Weeden Island materials. Recent evidence from Florida and southcentral Georgia sheds some more light on this problem and suggests a third answer. The McKeithen site, a Weeden Island ceremonial center in Columbia County, Florida, contains classic Kolomokitype pedestaled effigy vessels in one mound. The midden has predominantly sand tempered plain sherds and sherds of the Weeden Island punctated-incised series, as well as a small percentage of Leon-Jefferson, Leon Check Stamped, and Mission Red Filmed sherds. The Shelly Mound, in Pulaski County, Georgia, on the central Ocmulgee River, contained over thirty vessels. Included in them were vessels of the following types: Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, Swift Creek II, Weeden Island Plain, sand tempered plain, one unidentified punctated vessel, and one unidentified incised vessel. No effigy or decorated Weeden Island series vessels are present in the collections. The midden next to the mound contained plain, cord marked, and

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122 Etowah Complicated Stamped sherds. A collector from the area informed this writer that a friend of his has collected Etowah Complicated Stamped from the same area. The Andrew's site, Houston County, Georgia, upstream from the Shelly site, contained mostly plain and complicated stamped materials, with a fair representation of the Weeden Island series. Among the complicated stamped sherds was Kolomoki Complicated Stamped. Weeden Island sacred sherds were recovered from the site, and included a bird head, tail, and "toy" pots. Check stamping was extremely scarce at both sites. At Kolomoki, Troyville/Coles Creek ceramic modes are evident in the pottery. Yokena Incised and French Fork Incised, Troyville/Coles Creek trade sherds further demonstrating the cultural contact, were recovered from the midden (Sears 1956:110). Aside from the decorative techniques, the overall pot -shape, which is a small globular collared bowl, with flat disc or round bases, on Kolomoki Complicated Stamped vessels, are strongly reminiscent of Troyville/Coles Creek materials. Further, the Mississippian "flavor" in pots from mounds D and E (Sears 1956:114) argue for a late date for the site. Using the ceramic data from Kolomoki, Mitchell, McKeithen, and Shelly sites, this writer feels that it is possible to corroborate the earlier conclusions, that Weeden Island series ceramics and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped were co-eval, and not sequential; and to make several statements concerning chronology. First, the

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123 following distributions are apparent: (1) McKeithen: Kolomoki Pedestaled effigies in burial mound, Weeden Island series inmidden. No Kolomoki Complicated Stamped in mounds, some in midden; (2) Kolomoki: Kolomoki Complicated Stamped in middens and mounds. Pedestaled effigies in mounds. Weeden Island series in part of the middens and mounds; (3) Mitchell: Weeden Island series in the midden, mound content unknown; and (4) Shelly: Kolomoki Complicated Stamped in the mounds, no effigies or Weeden Island decorated types. Midden is plain, cord marked, and Etowah Complicated Stamped. Kolomoki, McKeithen and Shelly can be linked through the common elements in the mounds. Kolomoki and McKeithen are linked by the pedestaled effigies; Kolomoki and Shelly by the Kolomoki Complicated Stamped vessels. Therefore, McKeithen and Shelly, because of similar relationship to Kolomoki, must be temporally the same. Mitchell can be linked to Kolomoki and McKeithen by similar midden content. This, then links all four sites through either the sacred or secular materials. If true, then the Weeden Island and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped materials should be coeval. My support of Sears' contention for placing the Kolomoki component after Weeden Island component at Kolomoki is detailed in Chapter II. The late temporal placement of the Kolomoki component of the site and the ceramic type is corrorborated by the finding of a Kolomoki burial mound in association with the Etowah Complicated

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124 Stamped materials at Shelly. The reason for the different midden materials at the four sites is that they represent four different regional developments of the secular tradition. At McKeithen and Mitchell, the Weeden Island series, with small amounts of Complicated stamped and check stamped continued to be used. At Kolomoki, that element of the society which manufactured the complicated stamped pottery developed through time into the dominant social group at that site and continued a ceramic tradition which lasted to the historic period. The Shelly site offers a new dimension to Weeden Island-'; studies. Previously we knew little of the area east of the Flint River. The Shelly materials suggest that Weeden Island ceremonialism functioned with a fifth secular ceramic series, the cord marked and rectilinear complicated stamped materials of Caldwell's Middle East Tradition (Caldwell 1958:23-27). Sears (personal communication) considers this rectilinear complicated stamp a development of the South Appalachian ceramic tradition. Further research is needed to determine the actual nature of this interaction. For a closing date of Weeden Island then, we may place it somewhere between 1200 and 1400 AD, depending on the location. Politica l and Religious Organization: Hypothesis 1. Presence of recognizable ceremonial centers and differential disposal of the dead indicates that Weeden Island was a stratified chiefdom level society.

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125 Political and Religious Organization: Hypothesis 2. Political and religious contacts can be determined through analysis of sacred and secular artifacts, structures and patterns The study of the distribution of ceremonial structures and middens can provide a great amount of information concerning the religious and political structure of prehistoric cultures. This approach, outlined by Sears (1968), provides the basis for what is referred to as Political Archaeology Sears' discussion deals with what he terms the state. Basing his definitions on Hoebel (1949:377) and Gearing (1962:76), he outlines the three basic needs in identifying the prehistoric state. However, the use of the term state has become more stringent recently, due to renewed interest in complex societies and most archaeologists now agree that Weeden Island was a chiefdom level of socio-political organization. To minimize debate, the term political organization is substituted here for either state or cheifdom. Political organization is defined as that system within a society that in some way controls or decides the actions of the members of that society. This, obviously, can function on many levels of political society (Fried 1967) To identify a prehistoric political organization, we need to: 1. Define the social group (culture) which is presumed to be composed of a number of communities;

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126 2. Define the territory of the culture. This, in application, would be the same as identifying the culture; and 3. Identify and define the sub-group (political organization) within the society which exerts the political control over the rest of the population (Sears 1968:135) In the case of Weeden Island, the group, or groups, can be, and are, defined by the possession of specific ceramic complexes, which include the Weeden Island incisedpunctated types in the midden. The territory is defined and identified by the areal distribution of these various midden complexes. Thirdly, the controlling element is de' fined by the sacred ceramics and their distribution in both midden and mound deposits. There have been several discussions of Weeden Island ceremonial and social structure (Sears 1954; 1968; Fairbanks 1965; Brose and Percy 1974). These models center around explanation of the complexity of the Weeden Island system. The following discussion will draw on them, with expansion from recently available data. Sears (1954) has discussed the great similarity between the historic Natchez type social system (Swanton 1911:67-118) and Weeden Island. Principal Natchez traits which bear great similarity to Weeden Island are: elaborate burial mounds; ceremonial centers; stratified societies (marked by differential disposal of the dead) ;

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127 settlement pattern; substructure mounds; and physical placement. The Natchez type of social organization is known ethnohistorically for most of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The Natchez proper in the lower Mississippi Valley (Swanton 1911) the Apalachee in northwest Florida (Swanton 1911:116-118), and some of the Timucua of the Florida Peninsula (Swanton 1911:234-376), represent some documented examples of the Natchez social organization. The Natchez social system is marked by: 1. A central town with outlying subsidiary towns and villages. "This great chief commands all the chiefs of the eight other villages ... the chiefs of the other villages send him what has been obtained from the dances of their villages... this grand chief is as absolute as a king" (Penicout in Swanton 1911:100). 2. A single, great, omnipotent chief who politically dominated subsidiary chiefs and the whole population. Of the Calusa, Goggin and Sturtevant (1964:190) write "The top status was that of the chief at this main town, whom the Spanish referred to as el cacique or occasionally el rey." Other towns had local headmen. "He is absolute master of the life and goods of his subjects, he disposes of them according to his pleasure, his will is his reason (DuPratz in Swanton 1911:106).

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128 3. A stratified society. Clearly defined social classes with distinct socio-political roles. Swanton (1911:107) summarizes the Natchez system in descending order as: Suns — Children of Sun mothers and Stinkard fathers; Nobles --Children of Noble mothers and Stinkard fathers or of Sun fathers and Stinkard mothers; Honored people — Children of Honored women and Stinkard fathers or of Noble fathers and Stinkard mothers; Stinkards — Children of Stinkard mothers and Honored men or of Stinkard fathers and Stinkard mothers 4. An elaborate burial system for'suns. Descriptions are elaborate and gory. Swanton describes several. All include human sacrifice; elaborate ceremonialism in the case of the Great Sun, his house being destroyed and a new mantle being built on the ceremonial mound, and bones being stored in the temple building. 5. A substructure mound. "...they raise a mound of artificial soil on which they build his (the Great Sun's) cabin, which is the same construction as the temple" (LaPetit in Swanton 1911:102). 6. A great chief closely tied to subsistence and ceremonialism. "Evening and morning the grand chief and his wife, who alone have the right to

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129 enter the temple, come there to worship their idols, and when they come out they recount to the people who await them before the door a thousand lies — whatever they happen to think of" (DuPratz in Swanton 1911:159). "These feasts are equally religious and political, religious in that they appear to be instituted to thank the Great Spirit for the benefits he has sent them, political in that the subjects pay their sovereign the tribute which they owe" (DuPrazt in Swanton 1911:110). In summary, we can say that the Natchez system is a highly stratified theocracy with elaborate morturay ceremonialism and a form of redistributive economy. Weeden Island similarities to the Natchez social system are marked. Most have been outlined above, however they will be summarized, and a suggested match to their Natchez parallels presented below. 1. A central town with outlying subsidiary towns and villages. The central town or ceremonial center would be Kolomoki. Subsidiary ceremonial centers, regional centers, are Mitchell site in Alabama and McKeithen site in Florida. Outlying villages and homesteads are the scattered middens and midden/mound sites known for the area. 2. A single, great omnipotent chief. This is suggested from elaborate burials in Mounds D and E at Kolomoki, Size of the mounds, richness of the

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130 inclusions, sophistication and number of vessels all, when compared to other Weeden Island mounds, indicate that this was where the most important individual in the Weeden Island culture lived. 3. Stratified society. Sears (1954:340), Peebles (1971:68-91), Binford (1971:6-29), Larson (1971: 58-67), and Brown (1971:92-112) demonstrate that the status of the individual at death usually reflects his status in the society. The Weeden Island mounds and the inclusions represent the burial of the persons of the highest status. Actually they represent the only known burials for the period. 4. An elaborate burial ceremony for the head chief. See #3 above. Evidence for retainer sacrifice was found in Mound E at Kolomoki with two bodies resting on the edges of the cremation pit. Storage of bodies in the temple is demonstrated by the single skull and secondary burials known for most Weeden Island mounds. '>. Sub-structure mounds. Mound A at Kolomoki, and the truncated mounds at McKeithen and Mitchell sites are the examples for this in Weeden Island, i. A great chief closely tied to subsistence and religion. This is assumed, based on evidence for stratification in the society and ethnohistoric analogy.

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131 Sears (1952b) discusses the close relationships between Kolomoki Mound D and Natchez mortuary ceremonialism from the seventeenth century. He cites similarities between the two as follows (Sears 1952b: 4-5): 1. The death of an individual begins a series of elaborate and costly ceremonies. 2. The presence of a litter and retainers in Mound D (Sears 1952b: 6) suggests that it was used to transport the body of the paramount individual. 3. "The erection of a small replica of the temple mound over these graves and the rather definite alignment and spatial relationship between the graves is analogous to the Natchez burials in the temple mound and in front of it, also in definite pattern" (Sears 1952b: 5). 4. Extended bodies in log tombs indicate human sacrifices similar to the Natchez. 5. The mass cremation and single skull burials are suggestive of "housecleaning" the temple. 6. The pottery deposit, which has no parallel in the Natchez system, indicates that a more elaborate and costly ceremonialism was functioning at Kolomoki. He further states (1952b: 5-6 ) that there is an apparent tendency to a more elaborate ceremonialism at Mound D than is observable with the Natchez.

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132 Because of the obvious similarity of Weeden Island to the Natchez system, this writer feels confident that we can use the Natchez system as a base for understanding and explaining Weeden Island dynamics and patterns. Sears (1954: 339) says it clearly: "It now seems probable that this type of social organization was found among groups other than the Natchez in historic times and that at an earlier level, perhaps 1100-1300, it was the prevailing mode of social organization characteristic of a culture area roughly coincident with the lower Gulf Coastal Plain from east Texas to Tampa Bay in Florida." The roots of this system probably lie in the earlier Hopewellian ceremonialism known throughout the area. Through time, interaction, and response to similar ecological and cultural stresses, the earlier Hopewellian ceremonialism, with its limited political control (Sears 1968:137-140), developed in the various areas to the highly stratified, agriculturally based societies that confronted the Spanish and French in the sixteenth century. The similar Hopewellian-related origins and the established cultural contact which is demonstrabel in both sacred and secular contexts, especially with Weeden Island, is the key to understanding the dynamics behind the similar cultural systems Figure 13 illustrates the distribution of the three known ceremonial centers in relation to the known distribution of Weeden Island ceramics. This distribution and

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137 the nature of the village sites and mound sites allow us to make speculative suggestions concerning the political and social organization of Weeden Island peoples. Based on the similarities to the Natchez model, it is suggested that Weeden Island functioned with a central ceremonial center at Kolomoki, two known regional ceremonial centers at McKeithen and Mitchell, and a series of subordinate political/religious leaders living in the villages. The pattern of authority is illustrated in figure 13. All authority emanated from the great chief at Kolomoki and was distributed proportionally to the regional centers and village leaders. In turn, allegiance and tribute were paid through the system, and eventually accrued to the great chief at Kolomoki. The hierarchial organization allows everyday contact between elements of the religious/political organization and the common people. The religious/political leaders would be of the noble class, and the inhabitants of the village "stinkards." Those who lived in the ceremonial centers, both the primary and secondary, would be of all three classes — suns, nobles, and stinkards. This contact between the political organization of the society and the stinkards on an everyday level would allow for a rigid organization of the society, the stinkards producing subsistence items for redistribution, the allocation of labor, and the collection of tribute. The population could

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138 be easily organized to perform seasonal ceremonies (Swanton 1911:110-123), participate in the elaborate burial ceremonies, and work in construction of the mounds, both burial and sub-structure. In turn, when elements of the population were being used in construction activities, the basic work schedule of hunting/gathering/gardening/ needed to be adjusted to make up for the absent workers. Distribution of known mounds and village sites indicates both riverine-forest and coastal adaptations. Sears (Ms.c:29) states that sites are not generally known in the piney flatlands inland from the coast and away from the rivers and developed streams. Larson (1969:314-325). draws basically the same conclusion when he discusses the great green desert of the Gulf Coastal Plain. This pattern of environmental adaptation suggests strongly that there was some form of developed redistributive system functioning with coastal sites supplying marine resources and inland sites, located on the rivers and streams, supplying agricultural and non-marine commodities. This redistribution system, discussed by Fairbanks (1965:57-62) helps to explain the distribution of known Weeden Island sites. Service (1962:145) notes that chief doms often exist in ecologically varied situations. With strong religious and political control of the population, direction of the redistributive economy would lie in the hands of the village, regional and central chiefs. Movement of foodstuffs to a central (or series of central)

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139 storehouses, and the redistribution of the goods out, would be determined by the leaders on different levels and the ultimate source of authority in these matters would rest with the great chief at Kolomoki. Further, the concentration of sites on the coast adjacent to and up the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee rivers would suggest that there was indeed a movement up and down the river. The bulk of the mounds are in this area, as are most of the village sites, indicating that this area was the center of Weeden Island occupation, with the logical extension up the rivers for horticultural activities. While there is no direct evidence to support this supposed redistributive network, the fact that recognizably similar cultures, on both the sacred and secular levels inhabited different environments suggests strongly that it is so. Until more complete data are available, this suggestion must be considered a hypothesis at this time. Placement of the three ceremonial centers on the periphrey of the Weeden Island areas is a question that needs to be approached. If these centers were in actuality the points of religious and political control of the society it would seem logical that they would be located in a central place to better serve the population. Another possibility is that these three ceremonial centers were located in prime agricultural areas to allow for the large populations which apparently lived there. The placement of

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140 Kolomoki on the northern frontier of the Weeden Island area may have been because of external contacts or trade. The obvious Mississippian influence in some of the sacred ceramics indicates contact. These influences are generally absent from other mounds, and from the secular ceramics. This seems to indicate that Kolomoki was located so that it could interact directly with external cultures. McKeithen and Mitchell, in the southeastern and southwestern parts of the Weeden Island area, were probably placed to fulfill the needs of the system in these areas. Trigger writes: "The overall distribution of settlements is also affected by political organization. Internal security may require garrisons of administrative towns in various sections of the country. Hsiao-tung Gei (1953:90-100) describes the ch'engs or administrative towns of imperial China as instruments of power in the hands of the ruling class. The emperor's representatives and the state bureaucracy lived in these towns and administered the country from them" (1968:68) An alternative explanation of the observed settlement pattern and distribution of ceremonial centers is that there were three separate Weeden Island "cultures", each with a separate, independent ceremonial center. Kolomoki, McKeithen, and Mitchell represented the separate ceremonial centers dominating individual areas. The pattern would be that of three (or more) separate political entities sharing a distinctly similar set of

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141 political and religious systems. The model of an "Interaction Sphere" would be applicable here. The three separate areas would interact in the exchange of material goods, and perhaps even elements of the population, but they would remain distinct political entities. This explanation must serve as a testable hypothesis. To support it, two things need to be established which so far have not been established. The first is that there is a recognizable difference between the three politico/ religious organizations involved. The second factor which must be established is that there is a definable difference between the three culture areas involved. These two factors should be grouped under the need to define sacred and secular regional variations of Weeden Island. Until these variations are recognized in the data base and found to apply to this suggested tripartate division of the Weeden Island area, this interpretation of the data must be considered hypothetical in nature. Following the rule of Occams Razor, which states that the explanation of unknown phenomena must be sought first in terms of known quantities, the second model should be rejected at this time since the existing data do not support it. On the other hand, the apparent homogeniety of the data supports the model of a single politico/ religious unit presented above. The discussion presented above is based on one central ceremonial center with two regional sub-centers. This,

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142 however, may be the result of sampling error. So far, only two sites that can be recognized as ceremonial centers have been recorded. It is possible that there are more in unsurveyed areas. Peninsular Florida: Hypothesis. Differential use of ceramic types and series in secular and sacred deposits, mound types and internal structure indicates a different complex from the non-peninsular Weeden Island complex. Peninsular Florida presents a completely different set of patterns than does the northwest coast. Going beyond presence/absence trait lists, the archaeologist must ask questions and make observations concerning cultural patterns and systems. These patterns reflect cultural similarities or differences. When there is a major change in the pattern observable in the archaeological record, it is indicative of differences in cultural systems. This is what marks the peninsular cultures as being different from the northwest coast. The basic patterns in peninsular Florida, south of the Aucilla River, with the exception of the area of the McKeithen site, which has been treated as an extension of the panhandle, have been described in Chapter II of this dissertation. They represent a different pattern of Weeden Island, one that cannot be explained by the above discussion. The secular village assemblages are predominantly sand tempered plain bowls or limestone tempered plain bowls. Weeden Island series types listed for this area in

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143 Chapter II are minority types, as mentioned in the text. The complicated stamped materials are almost completely absent. This Florida bowl tradition (Sears Ms. a: 5-9) seems to have been present from the first known appearance of ceramics to European contact. The sacred assemblage found in continuous use type mounds does not contain the pedestaled effigy vessels and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped vessels so common in the northern Weeden Island region. These two factors suggest that the cultures of the peninsular areas are different from those to the north. The continuation of the same burial mode and the same village ceramics through time (the only change in the latter was the addition of Weeden Island vessels to the sacred ceramic assemblage and the addition of small amounts of the punctated-incised ceramics to the to the secular deposits) suggests that in the peninsula, "Social structure. .changed very little from some centuries B.C. to the contact period. What did change was the ceremonial accouterments, the pottery styles" (Sears Ms.a:49). In the peninsula the sources for the sacred goods shifted to the northern Weeden Island cultures, paralleling the loss of contacts with the midwestern Hopewellian cultures. While Yent-Green Point-Weeden Island ceremonialism developed in the northwest coast area, the peninsular Florida region continued to develop its own traditions with strong influences from the northwest Florida coast. The parallel

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144 to this is the Weeden Island-Troyville situation with shared ceramic modes, similar social structures, but completely different forms of ceremonialism. The Cades Pond area, centered in Alachua County, Florida, represents another problem. Cades Pond ceremonialsim is not well known. Most mounds have been looted, incompletely excavated, or badly damaged by natural forces. In one case, in the excavation of an apparent ceremonial center, there are apparently no notes on the excavations, or any written report in existence. Milanich (Ms. a) summarizes what he feels is the Cades Pond ceremonial sequence. The early stages of Cades Pond ceremonialism are not Weeden Island in nature or content. The mound ceramics are mostly sand tempered plain and St. Johns Plain. The village materials, in the early stages, are 99% sand tempered plain. In succeeding stages, as at the Cross Creek Village and mound site, mound materials are still dominantly sand tempered plain and St. Johns Plain, however, there are instances of punctated and incised sherds. All ceramics were recovered from mound fill, not intentional deposit. At the Melton Mound #1, ceramic materials were recovered from mound fill, but none were of the Weeden Island series. Melton Mound #2, excavated by James Bell (1883:635-637), the last (probably) Cades Pond mound constructed, apparently had a large number of secondary burials and at least one Weeden Island effigy vessel. Melton Mound #3 (Sears 1956) contained a west side sherd

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145 deposit composed mostly of St. Johns and sand tempered plain sereis sherds, scattered pottery deposits on a primary mound, and several secondary burials in the mound fill. This pattern of ceremonialism for Cades Pond represents a rather bizarre incorporation of Weeden Island materials. None of the mound descriptions bear much resemblance to either Green Point mounds or Weeden Island mounds for the early stages of the developed Weeden Island ceremonialism. It is apparently another example of a regional use of Weeden Island ceramics. Weeden Island ceramics, probably exotic, were used, but the ceremonial pattern with its associated social structure was not. The' abundance of St. Johns series sherds and vessels marks Cades Pond as being distinct from the northwest Florida Weeden Island ceremonialism. In both the Cades Pond area and the peninsular coast, village ceramics were plain, either sand tempered or limestone tempered. Instances of decorated materials in the village range from a low of only a few sherds for A-169 to less that 5% for A-346, both sites in Alachua County, Florida (Cumbaa 1972; Steinen 1975) Coastal middens have the same percentages (Kohler 1975; Willey 1949). It is obvious from this that the decorated materials, particularly the Weeden Island series, must have some greater meaning in the middens than do the plain materials. Two possibilities exist, first that they are "trade sherds",

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146 evidence of culture contact with the panhandle coast; or second; that they are sherds which were lost in the middens during ceremonial proceedings. They are far too few to have served as ordinary cook pots. Peninsular Florida also presents a terminological problem. Using the term Weeden Island both sacred and secular, to apply to the "classic" Weeden Island of the northwest coast as well as the Cades Pond and peninsular coast materials, adds an extremely confusing aspect to the problem. The three areas and the cultures involved are obviously not the same, ceremonially, secularly or dynamically. New terminology needs to be developed to fit the problem. Perhaps Cades Pond is the ideal example. Here a distinct name is applied to the secular materials which clearly differentiates them from sacred Weeden Island materials. Ceremonially, however, the problem remains. The recovery of a few Weeden Island sherds in a secular context have caused these Cades Pond mounds to be classified by some as Weeden Island. The peninsular Gulf Coast is a similar situation. The village materials bear separate names, eg Pasco or Perioc, while the mounds are labelled Weeden Island. Here, however, the ceremonial materials and deposits have a much greater relationship to the northwest coast, and do not represent as abstract a problem as the Cades Pond materials. The Crystal River site (Ci-1) (Moore 1903 ; 1907 ;Willey 1949)

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147 is an example for this area. The site consists of two truncated mounds; two burial mounds, one with an apron and encircling embankment; and an extensive midden area. The secular ceramics are predominantly Pasco Plain (Bullen 1953) while the sacred ceramics are of the Yent Complex, or are Weeden Island types (Willey 1949; Sears 1973:33). Many of the Weeden Island series sherds, as well as the rystal River "types" (Willey 1949:389-392) have micaceous paste indicative of a panhandle or southern Georgia origin. In addition, both of the truncated mounds probably belong to the Weeden Island period at the site (Bullen 1953a) We need to develop a uniform terminology to fit the situation. Mound Distributions: Hypothesis. East side deposit mounds, and the social system that they signify are the product of a specific element of the Weeden Island society. The differential distribution of the two recognizable Weeden Island mound types appears to parallel the distribution of the complicated stamped series in the Weeden Island complexes. The peninsular coast has numerically small to nonexistant deposits of the complicated stamped series in its middens. In turn, the St. Johns series' is present here although it is absent to the north. This pattern is paralleled by the absence of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped vessels and pedestaled effigy vessels in the continuous use mounds of the peninsular coast. It is possible to suggest at this point that the east

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14 8 side deposit mounds, and the form of social organization that they represent, were constructed for the benefit of that element of the society that produced and used the complicated stamped vessels in the midden. The origins of the east side deposit mounds were in the Swift Creek Complicated Stamped-related Green Point complex. Thus, the origins of the ceremonialism were associated with a secular tradition that produced complicated stamped ceramics With the addition of the Weeden Island series, both sacred and secular, and the suggested changes in social structure, the complicated stamped makers continued to be the dominant religio/political element of the society. On the peninsular coast, where the complicated stamped wares is at best poorly represented, the east side deposit mounds did not develop or become part of the culture. On the peninsular coast, the continuous use type mounds invariably contained St. Johns series sherds as did many of the middens. Northcentral Florida presents a similar picture.. The St. Johns series is present in both sacred and secular context, almost to the exclusion of the Weeden Island series in many cases. This suggests that strong ties with the St. Johns area were maintained by both of the analytical areas, and their inhabiting cultures. Milanich (personal communication) has suggested that these St. Johns series materials were probably made in western or northcentral Florida, not traded in the Cades Pond area or Gulf Coast. The similarity of material is

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149 between the peninsular coast and northcentral Florida, and not with the St. Johns area. If the above suggestions are true, and they are testable with the proper forms of data collection and analysis, then the reason for the differences in peninsular Weeden Island and the northwest coast variety lie in the long lasting complicated stamped tradition. In turn, the midden differences between Kolomoki and the Mitchell and McKeithen sites may be representative of their relative status in the political religious system with the complicated stamped Kolomoki midden representing the elite at its strongest place of residence, and the complicated stamped-poor Mitchell and McKeithen sites being secondary sites. Again, this is a testable idea and is far from proven at this point.

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CHAPTER IV SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WEEDEN ISLAND RESEARCH The models presented in the preceding chapter explain the existing data, but they by no means provide a complete understanding of Weeden Island cultural dynamics. The major problem is that the data concerning Weeden Island is not of sufficient quantity, quality, or scope to use for anthropological tests, or even for more complex culture historical synthesis. The following problems (and suggested methods for testing them) are designed to demonstrate the approaches that should be employed in Weeden Island culture reconstructions in the future. In turn, these problems can serve to generate test hypotheses for specific research projects concerning Weeden Island in northwest Florida and the Alabama and Georgia coastal plains Problem I: Secular Ceramics While relatively much is known about Weeden Island site distributions, numbers of mounds, nature of settlement patterns and other aspects of the Weeden Island culture, there is little detailed data concerning temporal and spatial distribution. When Willey first defined the Weeden Island ceramic series he did so in order to provide 150

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151 temporal and spatial paramaters for the Gulf Coast. A heristic device, the typology served as he wished it to, i e delineated geographic boundaries of the Weeden Island ceramic series within the defined survey area. However, with the changes made in the data base since 1949, there have been only a few attempts to analyze the ceramic data and to redefine the original typology. And there has not been a published attempt to analyze ceramic types within the Weeden Island series to ascertain how they change through space and time. Archaeologists have functioned under the assumption that the types do not vary through time or space. Instead, the presence or absence of .a given type or series is treated as the important variable. This lack of temporal or spatial change is doubtful. The lack of analysis of the ceramic data, either the existing collections or ceramics that are being currently excavated, restricts our ability to define the regional and temporal variants of the Weeden Island series. The "re-thinking" of Weeden Island occurring in recent years has demonstrated the need for the identification, spatially and temporally, of the Weeden Island clutural sub-groups. This can only be accomplished by sophisticated ceramic analysis designed to disclose clustering of attributes which can then be determined to be the result of temporal or spatial differentiation. Such analysis would establish a new set of Weeden Island pottery types which would conform to the two basic needs of a type as the term

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152 is generally used--to delineate temporal and spatial boundaries The existing ceramic collections could be used for this problem since they represent collections from different areas of the coastal plain. The first step in the process would be to establish the various modes or factors to be analyzed. These attributes would include paste, decoration type and variations, i.e. type of punctation or incision, rim shape, vessel shape, base shape, combinations of decoration, depth of decoration, width of incised lines or punctations, zoning of decoration, and almost any observable or measurable aspect of the sherd. The analysis should also include questions such as geographical location, proximity to a source of water, village or ceremonial context, village or mound, soil type, etc.. After the attributes have been established, the next step would be to run statistical analyses of the attribute data to determine which are significant. Tests such as factor analysis provide groupings of factors (in this case modes and modal clusters) Existing computer mapping programs such as SYMAP could conceivably be employed to plot the distribution of modes, modal clusters and types to determine spatial clustering patterns. The end point of the process would be the establishment of an expanded typology for the Weeden Island series. The new types would be considered either separate types or

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153 varities of types (Sears 1960b; Phillips 1958), which were described in time and space. Problem II: Sacred Ceramics Another Weeden Island problem is the establishment of demonstrable contacts between villages with mounds and ceremonial centers needed to link villages to the sacred/ political systems of the society. This could be accomplished by determining where the sacred ceramics were manufactured. The test hypothesis would be that the ceremonial vessels were made in one place (Kolomoki) and distributed out from there. This hypothesis could be tested by employing a physio-chemical analysis of the sacred vessels. By tracing the origins of the elements which make up the vessels--the clay and temper, as well as the combinations of these elements — it is sometimes possible to tell where a specific vessel was made. The variables involved would be broken down into the vessel form, shape and decoration. If all of these cluster as to origin, then it may be stated with some confidence that the vessels were produced at a single place. If each clusters separately, then the conclusion would be that they had separate points of origin. If there is no clustering, then the conclusion would be that they were locally produced. The question of where the vessels were produced would be determined through the comparison of the vessel clay with available sources of clay. Comparison of trace elements in each would determine specific origins.

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154 A factor analysis of the sacred ceramics similar to that suggested for the secular ceramics may prove useful in establishing regional clusters of mounds. Caution must be exercised, due to the bias Moore has introduced into the problem by not always retaining the plain and check stamped vessels. Problem III: Complicated Stamped Pottery As mentioned in Chapter II, recognition of Kolomoki Complicated Stamped pottery is a problem in Weeden Island studies. It is presently known from a limited number of sites on the Chattahoochee River and on the Gulf Coast. Swift Creek Complicated Stamped, on the other hand, has a wide distribution below the fall line in Georgia, Alabama, and northwest Florida. A re-analysis of the complicated stamped series for the entire Weeden Island area needs to be conducted to determine the presence or absence of this type. By seriating Kolomoki Complicated Stamped with the newly established ceramic types and chronologies, its temporal position could be determined. Problem IV: Survey While there has been a considerable effort expended on archaeological survey that relates to the Weeden Island problem, very little of it has been problem oriented in nature. The bulk of the data concerning site placement is the result of survey along the coast or the major rivers. There has been little systematic effort to investigate the areas away from the major rivers.

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155 A recent survey of Early County, Georgia, the area immediately surrounding the Kolomoki site, has provided some useful information concerning Wee den Island settlement patterning (Steinen 1976a). Here, the Weeden Island settlement pattern showed a marked bi-polar pattern. There was an intense occupation along the Chattahoochee riverbottom, and another in the area immediately surrounding the Kolomoki site. Habitation outside of these two areas was almost entirely limited to pre-ceramic occupations. A possible explanation for this pattern is that Kolomoki is situated on the southern extremity of an intrusive ecosystem, the Red Hills, which is environmentally similar to the piedmont. Areas away from Kolomoki are in the Dougherty Uplift area, which is ecologically different from the Red Hills. The river bottom and Red Hills areas would have been ideal for horticulture, as they are today. The Doughtery Uplift, however, in the area surrounding Kolomoki, is low and swampy with "few dry areas which would be favorable for extensive horticulture. it was suggested that these two areas, the bottomland of the Chattahoochee and the Red Hills, were chosen because they offered the best possible gardening sites in the area. It was felt that Kolomoki was the center of population away from the river bottom because the large population at and immediately around the site exploited the Red Hills habitats (Steinen 1976a: 8-10).

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156 A survey program needs to be developed to thoroughly investigate Weeden Island settlement patterning. The suggestions of Sears (1968) and Larson (1969) that the areas away from the major streams were not inhabited need to be tested to ascertain if this was true for the Weeden Island populations. This writer's survey of Early County supports Sears' and Larson's suggestions for that area. The Liberty County, Florida data (Percy and Jones 1975) suggest that there was habitation along the feeder streams of the major rivers in some areas. A program involving stratified sampling of the definable ecosystems, soil types and vegetation zones would be used to test the typothesis of settlement along the feeder streams. Correlation of site placement with soil type would be one method for testing hypotheses concerning horticulture and the subsistence base. These surveys would need to be conducted in the areas between the major rivers, i.e., the Ocmulgee, Chattahoochee, Flint, Choctowhatchee, Conecuh, and Alabama, in order to cover the known extent of the Weeden Island series. The goal of the surveys would be to establish the range and nature of the Weeden Island environmental exploitation and would greatly increase the ceramic collections. These, when analyzed, would further refine the regional and temporal paramaters of the ceramic typology.

PAGE 165

157 Problem V: Excavation Test excavations of selected sites in the survey areas need to be carried out to determine the regional ceramic developmental sequences, both intra-site and inter-site differences. This would establish the chronological control for specific areas and establish the controls needed to address detailed problems of cultural change through time. Extensive excavations in the villages would serve to define and explain aspects of everyday life. Questions concerning subsistence base, community pattern, shape of the midden, planned arrangement of the dwellings, house size, shape and construction, areas of specialization within the village, and systems of fortification can be studied. The ceremonial centers would be excavated in the same manner as the villages. The sacred structures at the sites would be excavated to ascertain as exactly as possible the nature of the ceremonies involved with constructin the mounds. Midden excavations would be designed to ask the same questions as the village excavations. Of special interest would be the establishment of analytical techniques to link the sacred and secular components of the Kolomoki, Mitchell and McKeithen sites. Problem VI: Cultural Relationships Excavations and ceramic analysis should provide the data needed to define the relationships between villages and their respective ceremonial centers. This would provide information of the political and religious systems, and the

PAGE 166

158 level of cultural and community integration. Establishing the relationships of the villages to ceremonial centers and to each other, and establishing the relationships of ceremonial centers to each other would test the model of sociopolitical organization presented in Chapter III. Statistical tests such as those applied by Peebles (1971) for the later Moundville data may serve to demonstrate the relationships. Once the relationships of the villages and ceremonial centers had been determined then an integrated model of social organization could be developed for testing against new data and models developed for Mississippian cultures. This in turn would test the validity of Sears' (1954) contentions that Kolomoki represented a more complex form of socio-political organization than the Natchez system that was encountered by early Europeans. Problem VI I: Sacred Ceramics and Mounds Any analysis of the Weeden Island ceramics must confront the problem of the biased nature of the sample. Moore's apparently unsystematic discarding of the plain and check stamped vessels makes any thorough ceramic analysis extremely difficult. In view of this, the only practical analytical method available is to conduct a thorough anlysis of the existing vessels by series, form, shape and decoration. After the analysis is completed, computerized models could be generated, taking into account the unreliable

PAGE 167

159 nature of the presence or absence of plain and check stamped vessels. The manipulation of the data: would be such as to produce a series of models embodying various classes of data to demonstrate the distribution of different forms and shapes of vessels, decorative motifs, and effigy representations. These models would include hypothetical Presence and absence of the plain anc check stamped vessels in the collections. These models could then be employed in a series of partial explanations of Weeden Island ceremonialism and sacred/secular relationships. Patterns of distribution, presence or absence of traits, mound construction, etc., could be plotted and used to test hypotheses of temporal change or developemnt within the sacred tradition, i^, what mounds were made when? what was the pattern of changing political control? The number of problems for Weeden Island, both simple and complex, that can be generated for study is obviously large. The ones suggested here have one basic orientationthe development of a series of explanatory models for Weeden Island which will serve to define, describe, and explain the Weeden Island ceramic series, complexes, and the cultures that made and used them. There is a whole realm of archaeological analysis that exists outside of ceramic analysis. This ranges from zcoarchaeology and paleo-nutrition to ethnobotany to settlement patterning, to cultural ecology. Before a complete

PAGE 168

160 reconstruction of Weeden Island cultures can be accomplished many lines of evidence must be brought to bear to solve the many problems of cultural process. These lines of evidence must come form organized, problem-oriented research and analysis designed to answer specific questions of the Weeden Island related data.

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY The purpose of this dissertation was to re-examine and analyze patterns of the distribution of the Weeden Island ceramic series. From this analysis, a definition of Weeden Island was formulated and a series of hypotheses concerning origins, development and social structure were tested. Finally, a series of research problems were formulated and a set of suggested methods for solving them were formulated. The secular analysis focused on the Weeden Island, check stamped, and complicated stamped series in defined geographic areas. This analysis showed that with the exception of peninsular Florida, there is not a significant amount of discernable difference in the distributions of the three series within the Weeden Island region. All three of the series are present in varying frequencies in the majority of sites. There are few examples of "pure" sites for any of the three series, but some areas, such as the upper Apalachicola River, contain high percentages of one type. The analysis of sacred ceramics examined vessels from selected mounds. Due to the un-systematic discarding of 161

PAGE 170

162 plain and check stamped vessels by C.B. Moore, no meaningful cluster analysis or presence/absence analysis could be conducted on the material. Several patterns were apparent from the analysis of the ceramic data. The first pattern was that east side pottery mounds are found from the Choctowhatchee Bay in the west to the Warrior River in the east, and as far north as Early County, Georgia and Pulaski County, Georgia. The heaviest concentration of mounds is along the Apalachicola River and areas adjacent to its mouth on the Gulf Coast. Continuous use type mounds are known from the Warrior River south to Tampa Bay. The distribution of the patterned, pottery depositmounds, was found to correspond to the distribution of middens that contained 30-60% Weeden Island ceramics. The continuous use mounds correlated with the distribution of middens that were composed of 0-10% of the Weeden Island series. Furthermore, in the later area, complicated stamped sherds were almost absent, while the St. Johns series was present in both sacred and secular contexts in the area characterized by patterned mounds with east side ceramic deposits Based on these patterns, and the differential presence of the Weeden Island (punctated-incised) check stamped and complicated stamped series in the middens, a taxonomy of the Weeden Island ceramic complex was presented. Because

PAGE 171

163 of the strong presence of the Weeden Island ceramic series and the east side deposit mounds on the northwest Florida coast and the adjacent areas of Georgia and Alabama, the use of the term Weeden Island was restricted to those areas Sacred Weeden Island ceramics were seen as resulting from the addition of a new set of ceramic modes and cultural ideas to the developing Green Point complex. Those modes, similar to the secular modes, originated in the Lower Missisisppi Valley. It was suggested that these new modes, added to both the sacred and secular contexts in the Weeden Island area, represented the movement of a new set of ideas of social organization. The modes and types are thought to reflect new social elements incorporated onto the existing kin group (probably clans) In turn, this new social organization and series of kin groups functioned with a new, more efficient subsistence base which allowed for the growth of the population and the increased complexity of socio-political organization. Analysis of sacred structures, the content, distribution and relationship to village sites anc ceremonial centers and analogy to the historically known Natchez suggest that Weeden Island socio-political structure was that of a developed cheifdom. Kolomoki in Early County, Georgia, functioned as the central ceremonial center for

PAGE 172

164 a large interacting chiefdom. Regional, subsidary, ceremonial centers were defined at the McKeithen site in Columbia County, Florida and the Mitchell site in Covington County, Alabama. Kolomoki was seen as the residence of the supreme chief of the society. Secondary chiefs, who owed their allegiance to the great chief, resided at the secondary ceremonial centers, and village level political leaders resided in the scattered hamlets. A developed form of reciprocal economy based on marine and riverine and horticultural goods was deduced from the pattern of placement of sites in the riverine and coastal ecosystems. As Service (1962) points out, ranked societies often develop where multiple habitat use occurs. The chronological placement of the burial mounds was interpreted as signaling the end of the Weeden Island occupation at specific sites or areas. This was based on the limited number of mounds and the evidence for a long period of accumulation of vessels and bodies before the construction of the mounds. The accumulation of materials indicates that the ceremony which accounted for the mound construction took place after a relatively long period of occupation of this site, usually more than several generations The question of the Kolomoki Complicated Stamped and Weeden Island ceramic chronology was interpreted as being one of spatial, rather than temporal, distribution. Due

PAGE 173

165 to the lack of evidence for suggesting temporal differences in the distribution of the ceramic series and Kolomoki Complicated Stamped, it was suggested that the Weeden Island wares were co-eval with Kolomoki Complicated Stamped pottery. The variances in ceramic components at different sites was interpreted as resulting from differential presence of those kin groups which produced the different modes or types. Different frequency distributions which would reflect temporal change was considered site or area specific, and not a pattern for the entire Weeden Island region. Until sophisticated ceramic analysis is conducted on these materials and stratigraphic controls established, the question of the Weeden Island chronology must remain open. A series of secular Weeden Island cultures were defined on the basis of the dominance of a particular ceramic series, in the midden collections. Such cultures are: Weeden Island; Wakulla-Weeden Island; Swift Creek :iI-Weeden Island; Kolomoki-Weeden Island; and Combined-Weeden Island. The sacred tradition of Weeden Island was defined on the basis of east side ceramic deposit mounds and a series of ceramic classes ranging from human effigies to derived effigies to utilitarian vessels to abstract forms. The range in decoration was outlined as well as vessel form. The peninsular coast and northcentral Florida were separated from the basic definition of Weeden Island because neither area contains those traits found in the Weeden

PAGE 174

166 Island region in the north. Although the Weeden Island ceramic series is present in both sacred and secular contexts, the frequency distribution and the nature of these series is vastly different from those to the north. A suggested classification for these areas was given. A series of hypotheses was presented and tested against the data. The result was a partial reconstruction of Weeden Island social/political structure. The origins of secular Weeden Island lie in the diffusion of a combination of traits and ideas from the Lower Mississippi Valley "Red River Mouth tradition" to the Weeden Island region, where indigenous cultures were characterized by the presence of the check stamped and complicated stamped ceramic traditions. A series of ceramic modes known to have developed in the Lower Valley diffused to the Weeden Island area, and, after being incorporated in the existing cultures, became what are defined as the Weeden Island cultures, with their distinctive ceramic complexes. A series of problems for future Weeden Island research was presented. These testable problems were designed to increase the applicability of the current data base to problems of temporal and spatial controls as well as increase our knowledge of the social dynamics and complexities of the concept known as Weeden Island. The intent of this dissertation was to re-examine, the existing data on Weeden Island in an attempt to further

PAGE 175

167 our understanding of this well-known southeastern archaeological phenomena. The nature of the data makes a complete and thorough anthropological reconstruction impossible. However, we do know enough about ceramic distributions and site types to make some deductions concerning cultural patterns. Hopefully, the definitions and reconstructions presented here will stimulate problem-oriented research and more re-thinking of Weeden Island.

PAGE 176

APPENDIX A TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA: WESTERN PANHANDLE AREA

PAGE 177

TABLE 2 169 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Top Bench Mark Es-2 n=9 a 2/ 22.2 Site 5 Miles West of Navarre Es-3 n=27 a "5/ 18.5 f 1st Site Opposite Woodlawn Es-4 n=30 a 1/ 3.3 2nd Site Opposite Woodlawn Es-5 n=10 a 3/ 30.0 Avalon Beach Sa-25 n=16 b > Santa Rosa Sound Sa-1 n=37 a 10/ 27.0 6/ 16.2

PAGE 178

170 TABLE 2 CONTINUED c C K T M a a e u d r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 8/ 29.6 4/ 14.8 ; t 1/ 3.3 7/ 43.8 4/ 10.8 3/ 8.1 1/ 2.7 1/ 2.7

PAGE 179

TABLE 2 CONTINUED 171 w W S K M a C o l F k C 1 n 1 u S o a 1 C 1 r 1 S i C a t o y r
PAGE 180

TABLE 2 CONTINUED 172 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i '• t y 22.2 77.7 62.9 11.1 3.7 6.6 93.3. .; 1/ 10.0 40.0 • 60.0 50.0 37.5 6.2 67.5 21.6 5.4

PAGE 181

TABLE 3 173 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Graveyard Point Sa-3 n=ll a 1/ 9.0 Hickory Shores Sa-5 n=6 a • • 2nd Gulf Breeze Site Sa-7 n=20 a 1/ 5.0 1/ 5.0 j Wynhaven Ok-1 n=2 a 1/ 50.0 1/ 50.0 Wheeler Springs n=270 c 2/ 0.7 Rocky Bayou East n=4 a 2/ 50.0

PAGE 182

TABLE 3 CONTINUED 174 w W S K M a C o i F k C 1 n 1 u S o a 1 C r 1 s i C a t o y r A 4/ 36.4 1/ 9.0. 2/ 33.3 .<• 17/ 85.0 ( 1/ 0.4 1/ 0.4 262/ 97.0 1/ 25.0

PAGE 183

TABLE 3 CONTINUED 175 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 2/ 18.2 2/ 18.2 1/ 9.0 • 1/ 5 1/ 0.4 2/ 0.7 1/ 0.4 1/ 25.0

PAGE 184

TABLE 3 CONTINUED 176 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 63.4 36.4 9.0 4/ 66.6 66.6 33.3 15.0 85.0 100.0 2.6 0.4 97.0 75.0 25.0

PAGE 185

TABLE 4 177 W W W I I I P I P 1 n c u n c Black Point Ok4 n-244 5/ 2.0 15/ 6.1 a Fort Walton Ok6 Pit 1 51/ 20.0 36/ 14.2 n=254 f a N Fort Walton Ok6 Pit 2 2/ 7.1 4/14.3 n=28 a Fort Walton Ok6 Pit 3 22/ 20.2 23/ 21.1 n=109 a Fort Walton Ok6 Pit 4 4/ 15.4 n=26 a Fort Walton Ok6 Pit 5 1/ 11.1 n=9 a

PAGE 186

TABLE 4 CONTINUED 178 w F 1 a C o r W a k u 1 1 a S c c s K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 146/ 59.8 3/ 1.2 2/ 0.8 8/ 3.1 8/ 3.1 13/ 36.4 4/ 13.3 53/ 48.6 4/ 15.4 10/ 38.4 3/ 33.3

PAGE 187

TABLE 1'4 CONTINUED 179 c C K T M a a e u d r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 49/ 20.0 15/ 6.1 4/ 1.6 5/ 2.0 27/ 10.6 110/ 43.3 5/ 1.9 5/ 1.9 t 5/ 17.8 11/ 10.1 1/ 3.8 7/ 26.9 3/ 33.3 2/ 22.2 —

PAGE 188

TABLE .4 CONTINUED 180 I W C C M p I K s i n I o n r c i t y 38.6 59.8 1.2 0.8 4/ 1.9 90.0 3.1 3.1 39.2 46.4 14.2 51.4 48.6 46.1 15.4 38.4 > 66.6 33.3 — •

PAGE 189

TABLE S 181 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c Fort Walton Ok6 23/ 20.2 19/ 16.7 Pit 6 n-114 a Fort Walton Ok6 36/ 21.2 24/ 14.1 Pit 7 n= 170 a Red Bay Wl-56 5/ 22.7 n=22 b Villa Tasso Wl-2 1/ 12.5 n=8 a Big Hammock Wl-3 n=12 a Hicks Site Wl-6 8/ 34.7 1/ 4.3 n=2 3 a

PAGE 190

TABLE 5 CONTINUED 182 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 4/ 3.5 23/ 20.2 1/ 0.9 4/ 3.5 10/ 5.9 52/ 30.6 2/ 1.2 4/ 2.3 1/ 12.5 4/ 50.0 2/ 16.7 1/ 8.3

PAGE 191

TABLE 5 CONTINUED 183 W F 1 a C o r W a k u 1 i a S C c s K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 53/ 46.5 10/ 8.7 8/ 4.7 13/ 7.6 14/ 8.2 14/ 63.5 2/ 9.0 2/ 25.0 8/ 66.6 1/ 8.3 12/ 52.2 2/ 8.6

PAGE 192

TABLE 5 CONTINUED 184 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 65.1 46.5 8.7 7/ 4.1 79.4 7.6 8.2 r 22.7 76.3 75.0 25.0 24.0 66.6 8.3 39.0 52.2 8.6

PAGE 193

TABLE 6 185 t W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c Macks Bayou Wl-8 n=2 3 3/ 13.0 a Site West of Point Washington Wl-11 21/ 42.0 6/ 12.0 n=50 a Fort Walton Beach • n=32 d 2/ 6.2 3/ 9.3 2/ 6.2 Dauphin Island n=8 b 8/100.0 Ba-16 n=3 b 3/100.0 Terry Landing n=117 b 5/ 4.2

PAGE 194

TABLE 6CONTINUED 186 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 1/ 4.3 3/ 13.0 7/ 14.0 11/ 22.0 4/ 12.5 6/ 18.7 1/ 3.1 1/ 0-8

PAGE 195

TABLE 6 CONTINUED 187 w W S K M a C o i F k C 1 n 1 u S o a 1 c r 1 s i C a t o y r d 14/ 60.9 1/ 4.3 5/ 10.0 4/ 12.5 1/ 3.1 8/ 25.0 1/ 3.1 111/ 94.9

PAGE 196

TABLE 6 CONTINUED 188 I W C C M p I K S i n I o n r c i t y 1/ 4.3 38.9 60.9 4.3 90.0 10.0 59.1 3.1 25.0 3.1 100.0 100.0 5.0 94.9

PAGE 197

TABLE (7 189 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c McVay Village n=17 X James Village n=4762 762/ 15.9 50/ 1.0 25/ 0.5 X Deas Village n=69 38/ 55.1 2/ 2.9 X Porter Village n=36 10/ 27.8 X Beckum Village n=97 42/ 43.3 1/ 1.0 3/ 3.0 X Andrews Place n=309 72/ 23.5 37/ 12.1 21/ 6.9 X

PAGE 198

TABLE i7 CONTINUED 190 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 8/ 47.0 4/ 23.5 1/ 5.9 1/ 5.9 1/ 5.9 97/ 2.0 2/ 0.1 13/ 0.3 26/ 0.5 257/ 5.4 4/ 5.0 3/ 4.3 20/ 2 8.4 1/ 1.4 22/ 61.1 6/ 6.2 1/ 1.0 15/ 15.5 36/ 1.7 3/ 0.9 2/ 0.6 1/ 0.3 1/ 0.3

PAGE 199

TABLE 7 CONTINUED 191 W F 1 a C o r j3_ w S a c k c u s 1 1 a K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 1/ 5.9 3461/ 72.6 61/ 1.3 10/ 0.2 1/. 1.4 2/ 5.6 2/ 5.6 29/ 29.9 124/ 46.5 8/ 2.6

PAGE 200

TABLE 7 CONTINUED 192 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 94.1 5.9 r 4/ 0.1 24.7 72.6 1.3 0.2 9 8/6 1.4 ; \ 88.9 5.6 5.6 70.0 29.9 46.3 46.5 2.6

PAGE 201

TABLE 8 193 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Copeland Bayou Shell Midden B n=ll X 4/ 36.4 West Fowl River n=24 X 3/ 12.5 Coden Bayou n=15 X Powell Mound n=233 X 21/ 9.0 6/ 2.6 25/ 10.7 Salt Marsh Mound n=81 X 4/ 4.0 8/ 9.9 17/ 26.9 Tates Hammock n=191 X 36/ 18.8 9/ 4.7 10/ 5.2

PAGE 202

194 TABLE CONTINUED c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 1/ 9.1 2/ 18.2 n> r 8/ 53.3 4/ 26.7 6/ 2.6 1/ 0.4 8/ 9.9 2/ 2.5 5/ 6.2 8/ 4.2 1/ 0.5 3/ 1.6

PAGE 203

195 TABLE CONTINUED w w S K M a C o i F k C 1 n 1 u S o a 1 C r 1 S i C a t o y r r\ 1/ 9.1 3/ 27.2 21/ 87.5 1/ 6.7 174/ 74.7 45/ 55.5 c^ 124/ 64.9

PAGE 204

TABLE 8 CONTINUED 196 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 63.2 9.1 27.2 12.5 87.5 f 2/ 13.3 93.3 • f 6.7 25.3 74.7 44.5 55.5 35.0 64.9

PAGE 205

197 MOUND : TABLE j9 FORM SHAPE U t i 1 i t Y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u p J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t p e d Reference # : (Moore 1904:465-474) d e r P e d Vessel #: 62 X X Vessel #: 63 X X Vessel #: 64 X X Vessel #: 65 X X Vessel #: 66 x X Vessel #: 67 X Vessel #: 68 X X Vessel #: 69 X X Vessel #: 70 X X Vessel #: 72 X X Vessel #: 73 X X Vessel #: 74 X X Vessel #: 75 X X Vessel # : Vessel #: Vessel #:

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198 TABLE 9 Extended DECORATION I n e P u n C u t o u t s R e d P a i n t P i n c h i n g P 1 a i n C h e c k C o m z o n e d f r e e c P s t z o n e d f r e e M d F 1 d K o 1 o X X -.X X X X X X X X X X X X

PAGE 207

APPENDIX B TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA; CENTRAL PANHANDLE AREA

PAGE 208

TABLE 10 200 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Pearl Bayou By2 4 n=141 a 49/ 34.7 13/ 9.2 Midden in Davis Point Area By9 n=192 a 63/ 32.8 2/ 1.6 Davis Point West By7 n=42 a 12/ 28.6 1/ 2.3 West Bay Bridge By6 n=22 a 1/ 4.5 1/ 4.5 Bear Point By5 n=13 a 3/ 23.0 West St. Andrews By-2 n=70 a 32/ 45.7 3/ 4.3

PAGE 209

TABLE 10 CONTINUED 201 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M a F 1 d N e t 5/ 3.5 9/ 6.3 7/ 4.9 1/ 0.7 7/ 3.6 37/ 19.3 3/ 1.6 19/ 9.9 1/ 0.5 1/ 2.3 2/ 15.4 2/ 15.4 1/ 1.4 4/ 5.7 2/ 2.8

PAGE 210

TABLE 10 CONTINUED 202 w F 1 a C o r w a k u 1 1 a S c c s K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 27/ 19.1 27/ 19.1 27/ 14.0 27/ 14.0 2/ 1.6 28/ 66.7 < 18/ 81.8 2/ 9.1 4/ 30.8 2/ 15.4 2/ 2.8 26/ 37.4 •

PAGE 211

TABLE 10 CONTINUED 203 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 3/ 2.1 60.0 19.1 19.8 3/ 1.6 71.9 14.0 1.9 1.6 33.2 67.7 19.0 81.8 9.1 53.8 30.8 15.4 59.9 2.8 37.4

PAGE 212

TABLE 11 204 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Holly Site By-1 n=95 a 31/ 32.6 3/ 3.1 Otter Creek By-35 n=29 b Mays Slough By-34 n=5 b 2/ 40.0 Sowell By3 Pit 1 n=29 a 4/ 13.8 Sowell By3 Pit 2 n=44 a 9/ 20.4 5/ 11.4 Sowell By3 Pit 3 n=155 a 21/ 13.5 16/ 10.3

PAGE 213

TABLE 11 CONTINUED 205 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 4/ 13.8 r 1/ 20.0 1/ 3.4 • 2/ 1.3 • 3/ 1.9

PAGE 214

TABLE 11 CONTINUED 206 w F 1 a c o r W a u 1 1 a S c c s K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 21/ 22.1 39/ 41.0 24/ 82.7 1/3.4 2/ 40.0 • 24/ 82.7 28/ 63.6 2/ 4.5 2/ 1.3 107/ 69.0 4/ 2.6

PAGE 215

TABLE 11 CONTINUED 207 I W C C M p I K S i n I o n r c i t y 35.8 22.1 41.0 17.2 82.7 3.4 60.0 40.0 17.2 82.7 31.8 63.6 4.5 27.0 69.0 2.6

PAGE 216

TABLE 12 -208 w I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Drum Point n=23 e Tucker Fr-4 n=30 a 61/ 16.5 16/ 4.3 Pierce Midden Fr-14 n=44 a 9/ 20.4 3/ 6.8 2/ 2.5 Eleven Mile Point Fr-10 n=31 a Nine Mile Point Fr-9 n=24 a 7/ 29.2 3/ 12.5 Topsail Bluff Fr-7 n=58 a 2/ 3.4 •

PAGE 217

TABLE 12 CONTINUED 209c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t • 2/ 8.7 12/ 3.3 5/ 1.4 4/ 1.1 • 6/ 13.6 2/ 4.5 • 1/ 3.2 1/ 4.2 > 1/ 1.7

PAGE 218

TABLE 12 CONTINUED 210 w F 1 a C o r r\ W a k u 1 1 a S C C S K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 21/ 91.3 225/ 60.9 45/ 12.2 1/ 0.3 1/ 2.3 12/ 29.5 8/ 18.2 27/ 87.1 3/ 9.7 13/ 54.2 45/ 75.9 10/ 17.2

PAGE 219

TABLE 12 CONTINUED 211 I p I n c W I C K C S M • X n o r i t y 8.7 91.3 26.9 66.9 12.2 0.3 49.8 29.5 18.2 2.3 3.2 87.1 9.7 45.9 54.2 1/ 1.7 6.8 75.9 17.2

PAGE 220

TABLE 13 212 W W W I I I P I P 1 n U c n c Ocklockonee Bay Fr-6 n=12 1/ 8.3 a Midden West of Carrabelle Fr-3 1/ 5.9 1/ 5.9 n=17 a Porters Bar • Fr-1 n=17 10/ 14.4 a & b Carrabelle Fr-2 Pit I 1/ 0.6 n=166 a Carrabelle Fr-2 Pit II 6/ 1.5 n=395 a Carrabelle Fr-2 Pit III 172/ 22.8 61/ 8.1 n=753 a

PAGE 221

TABLE 13 CONTINUED 213 c C K T M a a e U d r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 1/ 1.4 • — — — 2/ 0.5 22/ 2.9 45/ 5.9 3/ 0.4 1/ 0.1

PAGE 222

TABLE 13 CONTINUED 214 w F 1 a c o r d w a k u 1 1 a S C C S K o 1 C S M • 1 n o r • t y 9/ 75.0 2/ 16.6 2/ 11.8 11/ 64.7 2/ 11.8 :> .4/ 5.8 52/ 75.4 2/ 2.8 165/ 99.4 387/ 97.9 439/ 58.3

PAGE 223

TABLE 13 CONTINUED 21 5 I p I n c W I C K C s M i n o r i t y 8.3 75.0 16.6 11.8 64.9 11.8 18.6 5.8 75.4 2.8 0.6 99.4 2.0 97.9 10/ 1.3 41.5 58.3

PAGE 224

TABLE 14 216 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Carrabelle Fr-2 Pit IV n=317 a 35/ 11.0 14/ 4.4 One Mile W. Of Carrabelle Fr-3 n=29 b 1/ 3.4 Alligator Point Beach n=52 b Huckleberry Landing n=2 b Mound Field Wa-8 Pit I n-9 2 8 a 218/ 23.5 59/ 6.3 Mound Field Wa-8 Pit II n=693 a 393/ 56.7 67/ 9.7

PAGE 225

TABLE 13 CONTINUED 217 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 8/ 2.5 18/ 5.6 1/ 0.3 11/ 3.4 • 19/ 2.0 39/ 4.2 6/ 0.6 1/ 0.1 27/ 3.9 57/ 8.2 4/ 0.6 1/ 0.1

PAGE 226

TABLE 14 CONTINUED 218 W F 1 a c o r ^_ w S a C k C u S 1 1 a 229/ 72.2 21/ 72.4 7/ 24.1 K o 1 C S M i n o r i t Y 39/ 73.0 13/ 27.0 10/ 50.0 1/ 5.0 5/ 25.0 584/ 62.9 9/ 1.3 128/ 18.5

PAGE 227

TABLE 14 CONTINUED 219 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 27.2 72.2 3.4 72.4 24.1 73.0 27.0 50.0 50.0 2/ 0.2 36.9 62.9 7/ 1.0 80.2 1.3 18.5

PAGE 228

TABLE 15 22.0 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Dickerson Bay Wa-27 n=34 b 1/ 2.9 Marsh Island Wa-1 n=45 b 18/ 40.0 1/ 2.2 Surf Wa-2 n-38 a 3/ 7.9 Nichols Wa-3 n=15 a 5/ 33.3 2/ 13.3 2/ 13.3 Wa-43 n=61 b 1/ 1.6 2/ 3.3 Refuge Headquarters Wa-1 3 n=103 a 11/ 10.7 10/ 9.7

PAGE 229

TABLE 15 CONTINUED 221 c c K T M a a e u d r r l c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 3/ 8.8 3/ 8.8 2/ 4.4 ; — 1/ 0.4

PAGE 230

TABLE 15 CONTINUED 222 I W C C M p I K S • l n I o n r c i t y 20.5 70.6 8.8 46.6 5 3.3 7.9 92.9 59.9 33.3 6.6 49.0 85.2 9.8 21.3 77.7 0.9

PAGE 231

TABLE 15 CONTINUED 22 3 W F 1 a C o r W a k u 1 1 a 24/ 70.6 24/ 53.3 35/ 92.1 5/ 33.3 52/ 85.2 80/ 77.7 S C C S 3/ 8.8 K O 1 c s 1/ 6.6 6/ 9.8 1/ 0.9 M I n o r i t Y

PAGE 232

TABLE 16 22 4 W W W I I I P I P 1 n c u n c West Bristol Midden Li-1 n=4 6 5/ 10.9 1/ 2.2 a 8-Li-5 n=24 1 8-Li~18 n=3 l 8-Li-34 n=5 i 5/100.0 8-Li-36 n=5 l 8-Li-38 n=2 l — I — —

PAGE 233

TABLE 16 CONTINUED 22 5 C a r r I n c C a r r P u n c 1/ 2.2 6/ 25.0 2/ 8.3 K T e u X c t k h e r R P M d F I d N e t

PAGE 234

TABLE 16 CONTINUED 22 6 W F 1 a C o r .W a k u 1 1 a 39/ 84.9 14/ 58.3 2/ 6.6 S c c s 1/ 4.2 1/ 3.3 K o 1 C S M i n o r i t y 4/ 80.0 1/ 20.0 1/ 50.0 1/ 50.0

PAGE 235

TABLE 16 CONTINUED 227 I W C C M p I K S i n I o n r c i t y 15.3 84.9 37.5 58.3 4.2 66.6 33.3 • 100.0 80.0 20.0 • 50.0 50,0 .... i — — — —

PAGE 236

22S MOUND : Sowell Site TABL FORM E 17 SHAPE U t i 1 i t Y E f f i g y A b s t r a .c t C u P J a r B O w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i in n o r m a 1 • n e c k e d m u 1 t • P e d Reference #: {Moore 1902:167) d e r P e d Vessel #: 68 X X Vessel #: 69 X X Vessel #: 70 X X Vessel #: 72 X X Vessel #: 73 X X Vessel # : 75 X X Vessel #: 76 X X Vessel #: 77 X X Vessel #: 78 X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #:

PAGE 237

229 TABLE 17 Extended DECORATION I P c p p c c n u U e i i h o e n c t o u d P n c h a i n e c k m P z o f r z £ n e o r t a i S e d e n e e e s 1 n n g t M K d t d F 1 o 1 o d X X X X X X X X X —

PAGE 238

APPENDIX C TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA: PENINSULAR COAST AREA

PAGE 239

MOUND: Tucker Site FORM TABLE 1£ SHAPE U t i 1 i t y E Jf i g _. y A b s t r a c t c u p J a r B o w 1 B C e o a m k P e r n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m Reference #: (Moore 1902: 257-265) n o r m a 1 n e c k e d in u 1 t p e d d e r P e d Vessel # : 214 X X Vessel #: 215 X vessel # : 216 X X •217 X X Vessel #: 218 X X vessel f: 220 X X vessel § : 221 X X vessel f : 223 X X | Vessel 4% 224 X X 225 Uoccal 4. — X X vessel # : vessel f : 1 Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: vessel # :

PAGE 240

2 32 TABLE 18 Extended DECORATION I p C R P P C c n u u e i 1 h o e n t o d P n c h a i n e c k m P z f c o r z £ u n e o r t a i S e d e n e e e s i n n g t M K d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X '-' X X X X X X X X X

PAGE 241

23 3 MOUND: Mound Field TABL FORM E 19 SHAPE U t i 1 i t y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o ra P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i ra n o r ra a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t P e d Reference #: (Moore 1902:306320) d e r P e d Vessel #: 286 X X Vessel #: 287 X X Vessel #: 288 X X Vessel #: 289 X X Vessel |: 290 X X Vessel #: 291 X X Vessel #: 292 X X Vessel #: 294 X X Vessel #: 295 X X Vessel # : 296 X X Vessel #: 297 X Vessel #: 298 • X Vessel #: 300 X Vessel #: 301 X X Vessel #j Vessel # :

PAGE 242

234 TABLE 19 Extended DECORATION I n c P u n C u t o u t s •R e d P a i n t p i n c h j_ n g p 1, a i n C h e c k C o m z o n e d f r e e c P S t z o n e d £ r e e M d F 1 d K o 1 o X X X ~ X X X X X X X X X X X

PAGE 243

235 MOUND: Davis Field TABLE 20 FORM .SHAPE U t i 1 i t Y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t P e d Reference #: (Moore 1903:468473) d e r P e d Vessel #: 131 X X X Vessel #: 133 X Vessel #: 134 X Vessel # : 136 X X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel |: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel # : Vessel #: Vessel #:

PAGE 244

236 TABLE 2 Extended DECORATION I p •C R P p C C n u u e 1 1 h o e n c t o u d P n c h a i e c k m P z o f r z £ n e o r t a i S e d e n e e e s X n n q t M K d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X X X X .. X X X — "" "' ""'

PAGE 245

237 MOUND : Mound at Bristol TABL FORM' E 21 SHAPE U t i 1 i t y E f f i g y A b s t r a .c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 n e c k e d HI u 1 t p e d Reference #: (Moore 1903:474489) d e r P e d Vessel # : 137 X X Vessel #: 138 X X Vessel #s 139 X X Vessel -# : 140 X X Vessel #: 141 X X Vessel # : 142 X X Vessel #: 143 X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #:

PAGE 246

238 TABLE 21;. Extended" ::l DECORATION I P •C & p p C C n u u e i i h o e n c t o u d P n c h a i n e c k m P z o f r z £ n e o r t a i S e d e n e e e s X n n g t M K d t ,d F 1 d o 1 o X X 'X X X X X X X

PAGE 247

TABLE 25 23 3 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c Manatee Springs Area A 3/ 6.2 1/ 2.0 n=48 f Manatee Springs Area B 7/ 22.5 n=31 f Piney POint Lv-9 1/ 3.1 n=32 a Hodgeson's Hill Lv-8 n=37 a • Biirtine D n=1231 26/ 2.1 g Wash Island 1/ 1.8 n=55 h j n

PAGE 248

TABLE 25 CONTINUED 240 c a r r I n c c a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 33/ 68.7 10/ 32.3 t 2/ 6.5 3/ 0.2

PAGE 249

TABLE 2 5 CONTINUED 24; w F 1 a C o r W a k u 1 1 a S C C s K o 1 C s M i n o r i t y 10/ 20.8 1/ 2.0 6/ 19.9 4/ 12.9 2/ 6.5 i 4/ 12.5 3/ 19.4 9/ 28.1 • 15/ 49.9 7/ 20.6 30/ 88.2 5/ 0.4 1197/ 97.2 30/ 54.5 23/ 48.0

PAGE 250

TABLE 25 CONTINUED 24,2 I p I n c W I C K C s H ) i n o r i t y 78.9 20.8 2.0 12.9 19.4 67.8 6.5 12.4 9.4 28.1 49.9 20.6 88.2 2.3 0.4 .97.2 34.4 54.5 10.9

PAGE 251

243 TABLE 26 Boca Ciega Pi-6 n=28 a Seven Oaks Pi-8 n=90 a Osprey Sc-2 n=38 a Pool Hammock So-2 n=6 a Englewood So-3 n=173 a W I P I 4/ 10.5 1/ 16.7 2/ 1.1 W I I n c 1/ 1.1 4/ 10.5 W I P u n c 4/ 10.5 1/ 16.7 1/ 0.6

PAGE 252

TABLE 2 6 CONTINUED 2 44 c C K T M a a e u d r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 5/ 2.9 1/ 0.6 :

PAGE 253

TABLE 26 CONTINUED 2 4-5 w F 1 a C o r w a k u 1 1 a S C C S K o 1 C s M i n o r i t y 8/ 28.6 19/ 67.9 8/ 8.8 82/ 89.9 '' 25/ 65.9 1/ 16.7 3/ 50.0 164/ 94.8

PAGE 254

TABLE 2 6 CONTINUED 24 G I w C c M p I K s i n I o n r c t y 3.6 28,6 67,9 7.7 8; 8 89.9 44.9 65.9 33.4 16.7 50.0 5.2 94.8

PAGE 255

247 MOUND : TABLE FORM 27 SHAPE Fowler's Landing U t i 1 i t y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i in n o r m a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t p e d Reference # : (Moore 1903:364371) d e r • P e d Vessel # : 1 X X Vessel #: 3 X X Vessel #: 5 X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: i Vessel #: | Vessel # : 1 Vessel #: I Vessel #: i ; Vessel #: I Vessel £: Vessel # : Vessel § : Vessel # : Vessel # : — i —

PAGE 256

ZIO TABLE 27 Extended DECORATION I n e i P u n c C u t o u t s R e d P a i. n t P i n c h i n g P 1 a i n C h e c k C o ra z o n e d f r e e P s t z o n e d £ r e e M d F 1 d K O 1 o X X X

PAGE 257

2 49 MOUND : TABLE 28. FORM SHAPE Mound Near Bayport U t i 1 i 4Y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u p J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 n e c k e d m 1u 1 t P e d Reference #: (Moore 1903:415424) d e r• P e d Vessel #: 72 X X Vessel #: 74 X X Vessel #: 76 X X Vessel #: 77 X X Vessel #: 78 X X Vessel #: 79 X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel # :

PAGE 258

2BD TABLE 28 Extended DECORATION I P C R P p C C XX u u e 1 l h o e n t d n a e m z o f r c o u P c h i n c k P z f n e o r t a i S e d e n e e e s 1 n n q t M K • d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X X X —

PAGE 259

APPENDIX D TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA' EASTERN PANHANDLE AREA

PAGE 260

TABLE 2 2 252 W w W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c McKeithen Site n=171 2/ 1.2 4/ 2.3 y h

PAGE 261

TABLE 22 CONTINUED 253". c C K T M a a e u d r r l c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 26/ 15.2 34/ 19.9 8/ 4.7 2/1.2 1/ 0.6

PAGE 262

TABLE 22 CONTINUED w W S K M a C o i F k c 1 n 1 u s o a 1 C r 1 S i C a t o y r r? — i | 9/ 5,3 25/ 14.6 60/ 35.1 1 -r

PAGE 263

TABLE 22 CONTINUED 255-: I W C C M p I K S X n I o n r c i t y 45.6 5.3 35.1

PAGE 264

.25 6 MOUND : TABLE FORM 23 SHAPE 1 McKeithen Site U t i 1 i t E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u P J a r B O w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n • o r m a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t P e d Reference # : (J.T. Milanich: Personal Communication) y d e r P e d Vessel # : 1 X X Vessel #: 2 .... X Vessel # : 3 X 1 Vessel #: 4 X Vessel |; 5 X Vessel #: 6 X Vessel #: 7 — X Vessel #: 8 X X Vessel #: 9 X X Vessel £ : in X X Vessel # : X X Vessel : -,2 X X Vessel f:,. X 1 Vessel f:, 4 X X Vessel #: Vessel #:

PAGE 265

257 TABLE 23 Extended DECORATION I p c [r p p C C n u u e i i h o e n c t o u d P n c h a i n e c k m P z o f r 2 £ n e O r t a i S e d e n e e e s X n n q t M K d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X X X X X X X X X X X < X X

PAGE 266

258 MOUND : Aucilla River Mound Reference §': (Moore 1902; 1918) Vessel # 313 Vessel # 315 Vessel # : 316 Vessel # 317 Vessel # 31! Vessel #: 37 Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel I Vessel # Vessel # 38 TABLE 2 4 FORM U t i 1 i t y E f f i g V X X p e d A b s t ra .c t x X C u p SHAPE J a r n o r rn a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 B o w 1 n e c k e d m p u 1 t e d B e a x e C o ra P Vessel #: Vessel # Vessel t Vessel #

PAGE 267

209 TABLE 24 Extended DECORATION I p C A P p C C n u u e l l h o e n t o d P n c h a i n e c k m P z f o r c z f £ u n e o r t a i S e e d n e e e s l n n q t M K d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X X X X X —f 1 — 1 1

PAGE 268

APPENDIX E TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA; NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

PAGE 269

TABLE 29 261 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Cross Creek Village A-3-V n=78 z 43/ 55.1 2/ 2.6 2/ 2.6 8-A1-346 n=27 2 14/ 51.9 2/ 7.4 5/ 18.5

PAGE 270

TABLE 2 9 CONTINUED 26 2 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 1/ 1.3 23/ 29.5 1/ 1.3 2/ 7.4 1/ 3.7 p

PAGE 271

TABLE 2 9 CONTINUED 263 w w S K M a c o • X F k c 1 n 1 u s o a 1 C r 1 s i C a t o y r a 6/ 7.7 1/ 3.7 2/ 7.4 • i — —

PAGE 272

TABLE 29 CONTINUED 26 4 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 93.3 7.7 92.1 3.7 7.4 • •

PAGE 273

APPENDIX F TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA: 3 RIVERS AREA

PAGE 274

8-Gd-ll n-35 J TABLE 30 266 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c Aspalaga Gd-1 n=73 b 18/ 24.6 Andersons Gd-6 n=18 b 4/ 22.2 Sycamore 8-Gd-19 n=5235 J 2/ 0.4 3/ 0.06 Ja-12 n=6 k 2/ 33.3 Ja-17 n=192 k 39/ 20.3 1/ 0.5 4/ 2.1

PAGE 275

TABLE 3 CONTINUED 267 c a r r I n c C a r r P u n c K e i t h T u c k e r R P M d F 1 d N e t 3/ 4.1 "" 10/ 55.5 1/ 2.8 • 88/ 1.7 68/ 1.3 13/ 0.3 26/ 0.5 4/ 0.08 2/ 33.3 2/ 33.3 12/ 6.2 9/ 4.7

PAGE 276

•' 268 TABLE 3 CONTINUED w W S K M a C o i F k c 1 n 1 u s o a 1 1 c s r i C o r a t y rf 3/4.1 44/ 60.2 2/ 2.7 3/ 16.6 1/ 5.5 33/ 94.3 1 25/ 0.5 4125/ 82.6 165/ 3.1 816/ 8.6 | 92/ 47.9 24/ 12.3 5/ 2.6

PAGE 277

2 69 TABLE 30 CONTINUED I W C C M p I K s l n I o n r c i t Y 32.8 4.1 62.9 4.1 77.7 16.6 5.4 5.6 94.3 4.9 82.6 0.06 8.6 100.0 39.5 47.9 12.5 2.6

PAGE 278

TABLE 31 Tan Vat Ja-18 n=42 1 Ja-20 n-6 k Ja-31 n=2 k Ja-3 8 n=16 k Ja-39 n-25 k Ja-44 n=5 k W I ? 1 20/ 47.6 1/ 6.2 2/ 40.0 W I I n c 1/ 2.3 1/ 50.0 W I P u n c

PAGE 279

2 71 TABLE 31 CONTINUED c C K T M a a e u d r r X c r r t h k e F 1 I P "r d n u c n c R P N e t 9/ 21.4 4/ 66.6 1/ 50.0 • 1/ 6.2 1/ 20.0 s 1/ 20.0 1/ 20.0

PAGE 280

TABLE 31 CONTINUED z. iz w F 1 a C o r d w a k u 1 1 a S c c s K o 1 C s M i n o r • i t y 4/ 9.5 7/ 16.6 1/ 2.3 1/ 33.3 • 13/ 81.2 1/ 6.2 24/ 96.0 1/ 20.0

PAGE 281

TABLE 31 CONTINUED in I W C C H p I K S i n I o n r c i t y 73.6 9.5 16.6 2.3 66.6 33.3 100.0 12.4 81.2 6.2 4.0 96.0 • 80.0 20.0

PAGE 282

TABLE 32 274

PAGE 283

TABLE 33 CONTINUED 275 c C K T M" a a e U a r r X c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 4/ 1.9 3/ 1.5 1/ 0.5 1/ 1.4 • 1/ 16.6 •

PAGE 284

TABLE 33 CONTINUED w w S K H a C O i F 1 k c s 1 n o a 1 C r C 1 a S i t o r y ci 93/ 45.4 8/ 3.9 5/ 2.4 2/ 0.2 862/ 95.0 9/ 1.0 -.*•• 8/ 10.9 4/ 66.6 9/ 30.0 9/ 34.6 — __ u~ .„

PAGE 285

TABLE 33 CONTINUED 277 I W C C M p I K S i n I o n r c i t y 1/ 0.5 28.7 45.4 25.8 2.4 3.8 95.9 1.0 89.9 10.9 • 33.6 66.6 70.0 30.0 65.4 34.6

PAGE 286

TABLE 34 278 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c l-Ho-6 n=141 124/ 87.9 m l-Ho-8 n=2 m l-Ho-9 n=13 9/ 69.2 m 1-Ho-ll n=12 8/ 66.6 m l-Ho-12 n=74 22/ 29.7 1/ 1.4 m l-Ho-13 n=4 2/ 50.0 m

PAGE 287

TABLE 34 CONTINUED 279 c C K T M a a e u d r r l c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 3/ 2.1 4/ 2.8 3/ 2.1 1/ 0.7 1/ 50.0 ._ 1/ 8.3 2/ 2.7

PAGE 288

TABLE 34 CONTINUED 280 w W S K M a C o i F k C 1 n 1 u s o a 1 C r 1 s i C a t o y r A 3/ 2.1 3/ 2.1 1/ 50.0 1/ 1.7 3/ 23.0 3/ 25.0 1/ 1.4 48/ 64.9 2/ 50.0

PAGE 289

TABLE 34 CONTINUED 281 I W C C M p I K S X n I o n r c i t y 95.5 2.1 2.1 50.0 50.0 77.0 23.0 • 74.9 25.0 33.8 64.9 50.0 50.0

PAGE 290

TABLE 35 282 W I P 1 w I I n c W I P u n G 9-Dr-7 n=18 r King Site n=31 b l-Ho-20 n=5 m 1/ 20.0 l-Ho-21 n=4 6 m 33/ 71.7

PAGE 291

TABLE 3 5 CONTINUED 283 c C K T M a a e u d r r l c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 4/ 22.2 7/ 38.9 3/ 16.7 2/ 11.1 2/ 40.0 • — —

PAGE 292

TABLE 35 CONTINUED 284 w W S K M a C o i F k C 1 n 1 u S o a 1 C r 1 S • c a t o y r r\ 1/ 5.6 1/ 5.5 1/ 3.2 17/ 54.8 13/ 41.9 -,,, 2/ 40.0 13/ 28.3 ._ —

PAGE 293

TABLE 35 CONTINUED I W C C M p I K S i n I o n r c i t y 89.4 5.6 5.5 54.8 41.9 3.2 60.0 40.0 • 71.7 28.3 -. :

PAGE 294

28 £ MOUND : Aspalaga Landing TABL FORM E 36 SHAPE U t i 1 i t y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 n e c k e d • m u 1 t P e d Reference # : (Moore 1903:481487) d e r •P e d Vessel #: 146 X X Vessel #: 147 X X Vessel #: 148 X X Vessel #: 150 X Vessel #: 151 X X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel # : Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #:

PAGE 295

DECORATION 2 87 I P C R P p c C n u u e i 1 h o G n c t o u d P n c h a i n e c k m P Z o f r z £ n e o r t a i S e d e n e e e s 1 n g t M K d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X -'" X X X M

PAGE 296

28S MOUND : Mound Near Hare s TABLE 37 FORM SHAPE • • Landing U t i 1 i t y E f f i g y A b s t r a c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r C o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r m a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t P e d Reference #: (Mooter 1907: 429437) d e r • p e d Vessel #: 2 X X Vessel #: 3 X X Vessel # : 5 X X Vessel #: 7 X Vessel #: 8 X X Vessel #: 9 X X Vessel #; 10 X X Vessel #: 11 X X Vessel #j Vessel #' Vessel # Vessel # Vessel # Vessel # Vessel # Vessel #

PAGE 297

2;39 TABLE 3 7 Extended DECORATION I P C R p p C C n u u e X i h o e n c t o u d P n c h a i n e c k m P z o f r z £ n e o r t a a. s e d e n e e e s 1 n n g L t M K d t d F 1 d o 1 o X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

PAGE 298

29.Q MOUND : Fullmer' s Upper Landing tabl: FORM E 38 SHAPE U t i 1 i t y E f f i g y A b s t r a ,c t C u P J a r B o w 1 B e a k e r c o m P n o r m a 1 f 1 r r i m n o r ra a 1 n e c k e d m u 1 t P e d Reference # : (Moore 1907:438445) d e r •P e d Vessel #: 17 X X Vessel #: 18 X X Vessel #! 20 X X Vessel # : 22 X X Vessel #: 24 X X Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #: Vessel #:

PAGE 299

2 91 TABLE 38 Extended DECORATION I n e 1 P u n c C u t o • a e d P a i n t P i n c h i n g P 1 a i n C h e c k C o m z o n e d f r e e P S t z o n e d £ r e e u t s M d F 1 d K o 1 o X X X X X X X 1

PAGE 300

APPENDIX G ^^ss^sra?"

PAGE 301

TABLE 39 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c l-Ru-13 n=72 63/ 87.5 m l-Ru-15 n=25 m l-Ru-17 n=10 .6/ 60.0 m l-Ru-19 n=24 23/ 95.8 m 1-Ru~26 n14 13/ 92.9 m E-26 n=31 5/ 16.1 n

PAGE 302

TABLE 39 CONTINUED 294 c C K T M a a e u d r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N ; c P e t 1/ 4.0 4/ 16.0 3/ 30.0 1/ 3.2

PAGE 303

TABLE 39 CONTINUED 295 W F 1 a C o r w S a C k c u s 1 1 a 9/ 12.5 K o 1 C s H i n o r 1 t Y 9/ 36.0 2/ 8.0 9/ 36.0 1/ 1.0 1/ 7.1 1/ 4.2 24/ 77.4 1/ 3.2

PAGE 304

TABLE 39 CONTINUED 296 I W C C M p I K S i n I o n r c X t y 87.5 12.5 20.0 36.0 8.0 36.0 100.0 95.8 4.2 92.9 7.1 12.9 77.4 > 3.2

PAGE 305

£3% TABLE 40 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c l-Br-25 n=44 m l-Br-26 n=117 106/ 90.6 m l-Br-27 n=4 1/ 25.0 • m l-Br-28 n=16 12/ 75.0 m l-Br-29 n=3 2/ 66.6 m l-Ru-3 n=5 m

PAGE 306

TABLE 4 CONTINUED 298 c C K T M a a e u a r r X c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 2/ 4.5 1/ 6.3 >' 1/ 3 3.3 4/ 80.0

PAGE 307

TABLE 40 CONTINUED 299 w W S K M a C o i F k c 1 n 1 u s o a 1 C r 1 s i C a t o r y 40/ 90.0 2/ 4.5 7/ 5.9 4/ 3.4 1/ 25.0 2/ 50.0 • 1/ 6.3 2/ 12.5 1/ 20.0 1 — — — •

PAGE 308

TABLE 40 CONTINUED 300 I w C C M p I K s i n I o n r c i t y 4.5 90.0 4.5 86.6 5.9 3.4 50.0 50.0 81.1 6.3 12.5 100.0 80.0 20.0 — — — —

PAGE 309

TABLE 41 301 W W w I I I P I p 1 n u c n c l-He-46 n=6 2/ 33.3 m l-He-47 n=96 93/ 96.9 m. l-Br-10 n=12 9/ 75.0 m l-Br-13 n=7 8 35/ 44.9 2/ 2.6 m l-Br-15 n--=67 41/ 61.2 m l-Br-19 n=16 m •

PAGE 310

TABLE 41 CONTINUED 302 c C K T M a a e u d r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c — P e t 1 1/ 8.3 5/ 6.4 3/ 3.8 8/ 11.4 1/ 1.5

PAGE 311

TABLE 41 CONTINUED 303 W F 1 a C o r j3l. W a k u 1 1 a S C c s K o 1 C s M i n o r i t y 4/ 66.6 3/ 3.1 2/ 16.6 1/ 1.3 20. 25.6 10/ 12.8 2/ 2.7 2/ 2.9 8/ 11.9 7/ 10.4 4/ 25.0 12/ 75.0

PAGE 312

TABLE 41 CONTINUED 30:4 I p I n c W I C K C S M i n r i t y 33.3 66.6 96.9 3.1 83.3 16.6 57.7 25.6 12.8 2.7 74.6 11.9 10.4 25.0 75.0

PAGE 313

TABLE 42 30 5 W I 1 w I W I P 1 I n P u c n c l-He-32 n=114 m 90/ 78.9 l-He-36 ^ n=3 m 2/ 66.6 l-He-39 n=3 ": m l-He-41 n=17 m 10/ 58.8 l-He-42 "'" n=7 m 1/ 14.3 l-He-43 n=46 m 34/ 84.7

PAGE 314

TABLE 4 2 CONTINUED 306 c C K T M a a G U d r r i c r r t k F I P h e r 1 d n u c n c R P N t 2/ 1.8 1/ 2.9 t 1/ 33.3 ~ 1

PAGE 315

TABLE 42 CONTINUED 307 w F 1 a C o r d w a k u 1 1 a S C C S K o 1 C 3 M i n o r i t y 1/ 0.9 21/ 18.4 1/ 2.9 C 1/ 33.3 1/ 33.3 7/ 41.2 5/ 71.4 1/ 14.3 — 7/ 15.3

PAGE 316

TABLE 42 CONTINUED JUtf I p I n c W I C K C S M i n o r i t y 80.7 18.4 97.0 2.9 33.3 33.3 33.3 58.8 41.2 14.3 71.4 14.3 84.7 15.3

PAGE 317

TABLE 43 309 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c l-He-20 n-20 m 9/ 45.0 l-He-21 n=116 m 65/ 56.0 l-He-26 n=3 m l-He-27 n=17 m 16/ 94.1 l-He-29 n=4 m l-He-30 n=2 m 1

PAGE 318

TABLE 43 CONTINUED 310 c a C K T M r r r r e i t u c k d P I P u h e r 1 d c n c R P N e t 7/ 35.0 2/ 1.7 2/ 1.7 1/ 33.3 __, — 1/ 25.0 V 25.0 V 25.0 — 1/ 50.0 — — 1_

PAGE 319

TABLE 4 3 CONTINUED J1JL w F 1 a C o r ^3W a k u 1 1 a 2/ 10.0 2/ 10.0 4/ 3.4 2/ 66.6 1/ 5.8 S C c s 15/ 12.9 13/ 11.2 K o 1 C s M i n o r i t y 15/ 12.4 1/ 25.0 1/ 50.0

PAGE 320

TABLE 4 3 CONTINUED 312 I w C C M p I K s i n I o n r c l t y 90.0 10.0 59.9 12.9 11.2 12.9 100.0 100.0 75.0 25.0 50.0 50.0

PAGE 321

TABLE 44 313 w W W I I I p I P 1 n u c n c l-He-7 n=4 4/100.0 m l-He-8 n=ll 6/ 54.5 m l-He-12 n=17 15/ 88.2 m l-He-14 n=8 5/ 62.5 m l-He-17 n=114 69/ 60.5 m l-He-18 n=5 4/ 80.0 m

PAGE 322

TABLE 4 4 CONTINUED 314 c c a a r r r r I P n u c n c K e 1 t h T M U d c k F e 1 r d R N P e t 1/ 12.5 2/ 1.8

PAGE 323

TABLE 4 4 CONTINUED 315 W F 1 a c o r -eL. w S a C k C u S 1 1 a 3/ 27.3 2/ 11.8 K H O l 1 n o c r s i t y 2/ 18.2 1/ 12.5 1/ 12.5 3/ 2.6 40/ 35.1 1/ 20.0

PAGE 324

TABLE 44 CONTINUED 316 I W C C M p I K s i n I o n r c i t y 100.0 •54.5 27.3 18.2 88.2 11.8 87.5 12.5 62.3 2.6 35.1 80.0 20.0 — ~

PAGE 325

TABLE 45 317 W W W I I I P I P 1 Jl u C n c 1-He-l n=43 35/ 81.3 m l-He-2 n=80 45/ 56.2 m l-Hs-3 n=116 104/ 89.7 • m l-He-4 n=13 1/ 33.3 m l-He-5 n=5 4/ 80.0 m l-He-6 n=2 1/ 50.0 ra

PAGE 326

TABLE 45 CONTINUED 318 c C K T M a a e U d r r X c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 1/ 2.3 1/ 2.3 1/ 0.9 -— 1/ 20.0

PAGE 327

TABLE 4 5 CONTINUED 319 w W S K M a C o i F k c 1 n 1 u s o a 1 C r 1 s i C a t o y r a 1 1/ 2.3 4/ 9.3 1/ 2.3 6/ 7.5 29/ 36.2 • 9/ 7.8 • 2/ 1.7 2/ 56.6 1/ 50.0 1 — — — — ^_

PAGE 328

TABLE 45 CONTINUED J2U I p I n c W I C K c S M i n o r i t Y 85.9 9.3 9.3 56.2 7.5 36.2 90.6 7.8 1.7 33.3 66.6 • 100.0 50.0 50.0

PAGE 329

APPENDIX H TABULAR PRESENTATION OF NUMERICAL DATA: ALABAMA RIVER AREA

PAGE 330

322 TABLE 4 6 W W W I I I P I P 1 n u c n c Refuge Tower Wa-14 n=4 a Cv-3Q n=2406 2042/ 85.2 90/ 3.7 54/ 2.2 w Mitchell Site n=137 59/ 36.9 1/ 0.6 b 8-Li-40 n=2 1 8-L1-50 n-6 l 8-Li-66 n=14 l

PAGE 331

TABLE 46 CONTINUED 3d 3 c C K T M a a e U a r r i c r r t k F h e 1 I P r d n u c n R N c P e t 24/ 0.9 14/ 0.6 5/' 0.2 4/ 2.5 10/ 6.4 3/ 1.9 • 2/ 1.3 2/100.0 1/ 16.6 2/ 14.3

PAGE 332

TABLE 4 6 CONTINUED w w S K M a C o l F k C 1 n 1 u S o a 1 C r 1 s i C a t O y r A 3/ 75.0 1/ 25.0 3/ 0.1 96/ 3.9 8/ 0.3 8/ 0.3 19/ 12.1 14/ 8.9 29/ 18.5 5/ 83.3 11/ 78.8 1/ 7.1 •

PAGE 333

TABLE 4 6 CONTINUED 325 I P I n c W I c K C s M I n o r i t y 100.0 75.0 25.0 2/ 0.1 92.9 3.9 0.3 0.4 7/ 4.4 76.5 12.7 10.2 18.5 16.6 83.3 14.3 78.8 7.1

PAGE 334

TABLE 47 326 W I P 1 W I I n c W I P u n c McDuff ie n=217 b 11/ 5.1 1/ 0.5 Kimbrough Gravel Pit n=28 b 5/ 17.9 Camden 1-Wx-l n=55 u 1/ 1.8 • l-Wx-10 n=1633 V 21/ 2.3 1/ 0.1 l-Wx-15 n=23 V 1/ 4.3 l-Wx-25 n=70 V 10/ 14.3 1/ 2.9

PAGE 335

TABLE 4 7 CONTINUED 327 T M u d c k F e 1 r a R N P e t

PAGE 336

TABLE 4 7 CONTINUED W F 1 a C o r w a k u 1 1 a S C c s 179/ 82.5 8/ 28.6 5/ 17.0 24/ 43.6 1/ 1.8 8/ 14.5 10/ 0.9 843/ 81.6 18/ 1.7 K. o 1 C s M I n o r i t y 1/ 0.5 3/ 10.8 16/ 29.2 7/ 0.7 22/ 95.6 1/ 1.4 49/ 70.0 2/ 2.9

PAGE 337

TABLE 4 7 CONTINUED 329 I P I n c W I c K C s M i n o r i t y 8.9 87.7 8.5 25.1 28.6 17.0 10.8 54.4 1.8 14.5 29.2 15.3 81.6 1.7 0.7 4.3 95.6 25.8 70.0 2.9

PAGE 338

330 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams Richard E 1957 Investigations of a Northwest Florida Gulf Coast Site. Florida Anthropologist IX (3-4) :51-56 Bell, James 1883 Mounds in Alachua County, Florida. Smithsonian Annual Report for 1881 Washington, D.C. Bennett, Grahm J. s A Preliminary Report of Salvage Archaeology in the Clairborne Lock and Dam Reservoir. Report on file, National Park Service Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee Florida Binford, Lewis R. 1962 Archaeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity 28 (2) : 217-225 1964 A Consideration of Archaeological Research Design. American Antiquity 29 (4) : 425-441 1965 Archaeological Systematics and the Study of Culture Process. American Antiquity 31(2) :203-210 1971 Mortuary Practices: Their Study and Potential. In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices eidted by James A. Brown, Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 25 U Bozeman, Tandy Key 1963 The Camden Site, 1WX1, A Preliminary Report. Journal of Alabama Archaeolog y IX(1) :1-12 Brose, David S. and George W. Percy 1974 An Outline of Weeden Island Ceremonial Activities in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39th. annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology

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331 Brown, James A. 1971 The Dimensiotions of Status in the Burials at Spiro. In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices edited by James A. Brown, Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 25 Bullen, Ripley P, K 1950 An Archaeological Survey of the Chattahoochee River Valley in Florida. Journal of the Washington Acadeny of Sciences 40:101-125 1951 The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County Florida. Florida Anthropological Society Publications No. 3, Gainesville 1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County, Florida Report of Investigations No. 8, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee 1953a The Famous Crystal River Site. Florida Anthropologist 3 (l):9-37 F 1953b Excavations at Manatee Springs, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 3(2 ) : 53-67 1955 Archaeology of the Tampa Bay Area. Florida Historical Quarterly 34{l):51-63 L 1958 Six Sites Near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 169 (River Basin Survey Papers No. 14) Washington, D.C. G 1966 Burtine Island, Citrus County, Florida Contributions of the Florida State Museumz-Social Sciences, No. 14, Gainesville Bullen, Ripley P,„ and Adelaide K. Bullen 1976 The Palmer Site Florida Anthropological Society Publications, No. 8, Gainesville H Bullen, Adelaide K, and Ripley K. Bullen 1963 The Wash Island Site, Crystal River, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 16 (3) .-81-92 Caldwell, Joseph R. 1958 Trend and Tradition in the Prehistory of the Eastern United States Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, No. 8 8

PAGE 340

332 1965 Primary Forest Ef f iciencey. Proceedings of the 21st. Annual Southeastern ArchConference, Bulletin No. 3 ras. Excavations at Fairchildes Landing: Jim Woodruff Reservoir, Southwest Georgia. Manuscript on file, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta. Caldwell, Joseph R. Charles E. Thompson and Shiela K. Caldwell 19 52 The Booger Bottom Mound: A Forsyth Period Site in Hall County, Georgia. American Antiquity 17 (4) : 319-328 Chase, David W. 1967 Weeden Island Period Sites in Central Alabama. Journal of Alabama Archaeology xlll (D^r^el Cotter, John W. and Craig T. Sheldon 1968 Archaeological Salvage Investigations in the Millers Ferry Lock and Dam Reservoir, Report on file National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida Cumbaa,, Stephen L. 1972 An Intensive Harvest Economy in North Central Florida. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Florida Deetz, JAmes A. 1965 M The Dynamics of Stylastic Change in Arikara Ceramics Illinois Studies in Anthropology, No. 4 Urbana 1968 Cultural Patterning of Behavior as Reflected by Archaeological Materials. In Settlement Archaeology edited by K.C. Chang, National Press Books, Palo Alto DeJarnette, David L. 197 5 Archaeological Salvage in the Walter F. George Basin of the Chattahoochee River in Alabama. University of Alabama Press Dickins, Roy 1971 University Archaeology of the Jones Bluff Reservoir of Central Alabama. Journal of Alabama Archaeology XV111 (1):1-113

PAGE 341

333 Dixson, Wilfred J., and Frank J. Massey 19 69 Introduction to Statistical Analysis McGraw Hill, New York Fairbanks, Charles H. 19 46 The Kolomoki Mound Group, Early County, Georgia. American Anti quity XI (4):258-260 19 50 Preliminary Segregation of Etowah, Savannah and Lamar. American Antiquity 16 (2):142-151 1953 Excavations at Site 9-HL-64, Buford Reservoir, Georgia. Florida State University Studies, No. 16, Anthropology Tallahassee 19 65 Gulf Complex Subsistance Economy. Bulletin No. 3, Southeastern Archaeological Conference Fenton, William N. and John Gulick, eds 1960 Symposium on Cherokee and Iroquois Culture Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, 180, Washington, D.C. Fewkes Jesse W. 1924 Preliminary Archaeological Explorations at Weeden Island Smithsonian Miscellaneous Contributions, No. 13, Washington D.C. Floyd, M.H. 19 60 A Walton County Mound. Journal of Alabama Archaeology VI (1) : 34-36 Ford, James A. 1951 Greenhouse: A Troyville-Coles Creek Period Site in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana American Museum of Natural History ~~~ Anthropological Papers, Vol. 44, Pt 1, New York 1952 Measurements of Some Prehistoric Design Developments in the Southeastern States American Museum of Natural History Anthropological Papers, Vol. 44, Pt. 3, New York 19 54 The Type Concept Revisited. American Anthropologist 56 ( 3 ) :42-53 19 62 A Quantitative Method for Deriving Culture Chronology Technical Manual No. 1, Pan American Union, Washington D.C.

PAGE 342

334 Ford, James A. 1940 19 6 9 A Comparison of Formative Cultures in the Americas i Diffusion or the Psychic Unity of Man Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. II, Washington D.C. and Gorden R. Willey Crooks Site, a Marksville Period Burial Mound i n LaS alle Parish, Louisian a^ Anthropological Study, Department of Conservation, Louisiana Geological Survey No 3 Fornoro, Robert 1974 A Conecuh River Site (CV-30) Alabama. Florida Anthropologist 27 (l):9-20 Fried, Morton H. 1967 The Evolution of Political Society Random House, New York Geering, Fred 1962 Priests and Warriors: Social Structures for Cherokee Politics in the 18th. Century Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, No. 93 Goggin, John M. 1949 Culture Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In The Florida Indian and His Neighbors edited by John W. Griffen, Winter Park Goggin, John M. and William Sturtevant 1964 The Calusa: A Stratified, Non-Agricultural Society (With Notes on Sibling Marriage) In Explorations i n Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdock edited by Ward Goodenough, McGraw Hill, New York Greengo, Robert 1964 Hemmings, E. 1974 Issaquena: An Archaeological Phase in the the Yazoo Basin of the Lower Mississippi Valley Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 18 Thomas Cades Pond Subsistence, Settlement, and Ceremonalism. Paper presented at the 39th. Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology

PAGE 343

335 Hobel, E.A. 1949 Man in the Primitive World McGraw Hill, New York Hubbell, T.H., 1956 A.M. Laessle and J.C. Dickinson Jr. The Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola Region and its Envi ronments. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, Gainesville Huscher, Harold A. 1959a Appraisal of the Archaeological Resources of the Columbia Dam and Lock Area Chattahoochee River, Alabama and Florida. River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (Memio) 1959b Keller, J.H, 1962 Appraisail of the Archaeological Resources of the Walter F. George Reservoir Area Chattahoochee River, Alabama and Georgia River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. (Memio) A.R. Kelley and E.V. McMichael The Mandeville Site in Southwest Georgia. American Antiquity 27 (3):155-180 R Kelly, A.R. nd. A Weeden Island Burial Mound in DeCatur County Georgia and Related Sites on the Lower Flint River University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series, No. 5, Athens Q Kelly, A.R., Richard Nonas, Bettye Broyles, Clemens DeBaillou David W. Chase and Frank T. Schnell Jr. 196 2 Survey of Archaeological Sites in Clay and Quitman Counties, Georgia University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series No 5 Athens Kohler, Timothy 1975 Larson, Lewis H. 1969 The Garden Patch Site: A Minor Weeden Is land Ceremonial Center on the North Peninsular Florida Gulf C oast Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Florida Jr. Aboriginal Subsistence Technology on the Southeastern Coastal Plain During the Late Prehistoric Period. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan

PAGE 344

336 1971 Archaeological Implications of Social Stratification at the Etowah Site, Georgia. In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices edite by James A. Brown, Memours of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 25 Lazarus, Yulee W. 1970 Salvage Archaeology at Ft. Walton Beach, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 23(1): 29-42 ~~~ Lewis, T.M.N. nad M. Kneberg 1946 Hiwassee Island University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville Longacre, W.A. 1968 Some Aspects of Prehistoric Society in East Central Arizona. In New Perspectives in Archaeology edited by S.R. and L.R. Binford, Aldine, Chicage Marrinan, Rochelle 1975 Ceramics, Molluscs and Sedentism: The Late Archaic on the Georgia Coast Unpublsihed Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida Milanich, Jerald T. 1971a The Deptford Phase: An Archaeological Reconstruction Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida 1971b The Alachua Tradition of North Centra l Florida Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Anthropology and History, No. 17 Gainesville 1973 The Southeastern Deptford Culture: A Preliminary Definition. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Bulletin No. 3 Tallahassee 1974a Life in a 9th Century Indian Household: A Weeden Island Fall-Winter Site on the Upper Apalachicola River, Florida. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin No. 4, Tallahassee 1974b General and Specific Evolution of Weeden Island Cultures: An Overview. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology 1975 The Concept of Weeden Island and a Chronology for Peninsulat F lorida. in press

PAGE 345

337 n. The Weeden Island Cultures and their Predecessors. Manuscript on file, Department of Social Sciences, Florida State Museum Milanich, Jerald T. and Andrew MacHover 19 76 The Radiocarbon Dated Aboriginal Culture Sequence form St. Simon's Island, Georgia Paper presented at the 41st. annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology Certain A boriginal Remains of the Northwest Fl orida CoaitTPlrtT : Journal of ~Ehi ~ Vol de iO f Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Moore C B 1901 Certain Ab original Remains of the Northwest Flo rida Coast, Part 2 Journal nf +h a Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1903 Certain A boriginal Mounds of the Florida Central West Coast Journal of t£I ASadimy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol 12, part 3 1907 Mounds of the Lower Chattahoochee and Lower Flint Rivefi T Journal of the — Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol 13 1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revis ited Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 16 MacNeish, Richard S. 1952 Iroq uois Pottery Types. A Techniqu e for the Study of Iroquois Prehistory ; National Museum of Canada, Bulletin No. 12 5 Ottawa McMichael, Edward V. 1960 The Anatomy of a Tradition: A Stud y of §Ht^as]t]^r^ Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University T Nielsen, Jerry J. 1969 Archaeological Investigations of Three Additional Sites in the Clairborne Lock and Dam Reservoir. Report on file National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee

PAGE 346

338 Peeble, Christopher S. 1971 Moundville and Surrounding Sites: Some Structural Considerations of Mortuary Practices II. In Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices edited by James A. Brown, Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 25 Percy, George W. and David S. Brose 1974 Weeden Island Ecology, Subsistance and Village Life in Northwest Florida. Paper presented at the 39th. annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology I Percy, George W. and Kathrine M. Jones 197 5 An Archaeological Survey of the Upland Locals in Gads.end and Liberty Counties, Florida. Paper presented at the 27th. annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Assocation Phillips, Phillip 1958 Application of the Wheat-Gif ford-Wasley Taxonomy to Eastern Ceramics. American Antiquity XXIV (2):117-125 1970 Archaeological Survey in the Lower Yazoo Basin, Mississippi 1949-1955 Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 60, Cambridge Phillips, Phillip, James A. Ford and James B. Griff en 1951 Archaeological Survey in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley 1940-1947 Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. 25, Cambridge Ritchie, William A. 19 65 The Archaeology of New York State Natural History Press, Garden City Ritchie, William A., and Richard S. MacNeish 1949 The Pre-Iroquoian Pottery of New York State. American Antiquity 15(2):97-124 Rouse, Irving 1939 Prehistory of Haiti: A Study in Method Yale University Publications in Anthropology No. 21, New Haven

PAGE 347

339 1960 The Classification of Artifacts in Archaeology. American Antiquit y25 (3) : 313-323 E Schley, Robert 1959 An Aboriginal Shell Mound at Drum Point, Alligator Harbor, Franklin County, Florida. Florida Anthropolog ist XII (2) • 41-46 Sears, William H. 1951a Excavations at Kolomoki: Season 1-1949 University of Georgia Series in Anthropoloqy No. 2, Athens yT 1951b Excavations at Kolomoki: Season 11-1950 University of Georgia Series in Anthropoloqy, No. 3, Athens yy 1952a Ceramic Development in the South Apalachian Province. American AntiquityXVIII (2) • 101-110 1952b An Archaeological Manifestation of a Natchez-Type Mortuary Ceremony. Flor ida Anthropologist V(l&2):l-7 1953 Excavations at Kolomoki: Seasons III& IV. Mound D University of Georgia Series In' A nthropology, No. 4, Athens 1954 The Sociopolitical Organization of the PreColumbian Cultures on the Gulf Coastal Plain. American Anthropoloqist 56 (3) : 339-346 ~ 2 3 1956 Excavations at Kolomoki: Final Re port. University of Georgia Series in Anthropoloqy No. 5, Athens 1957 Melton Mound No. 3. Florid a Anthropoloqist IX (3):87-100 ~~ ~ 1958a Burial Mounds on the Gulf Coastal Plain. American Antiquity 23 (3) : 274-284 1958b The Wilbanks Site (9-CK-5) Georgia. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 169 (River Basin Survey Papers No. 12) Washington D.C. 1959 Two Weeden Isla nd Period Burial Mounds in Florida Contributions of the Florida State Museum-Social Sciences, No. 6, Gainesville 1960a The Bayshore Homes Site, St. Petersburg Florida Contributions of the Florida State Museum-Social Sciences, No. 6, Gainesville

PAGE 348

340 1960b Ceramic Systems in Eastern Archaeology. American Antiquity 25 (3): 223-246 1961 The Study of Social and Religious Systems in North American Archaeology. Current Anthropology 2(3): 223-246 1962 The Hopewellian Affiliations of Certain Sites on the Gulf Coast of Florida. American Antiquity 28 (1):5-18 1963 The Tucker Site on Alligator Harbor Franklin County, Florida Contributions of the Florida State Museum-Social Sciences No. 9, Gainesville 1964 The Southeastern United States. In Pre historic Man in the New World edited by J.D. Jennings and E. Norbeck, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1967 The Tierra Verde Burial Mound. Florida Anthropologist XX (1-2) :25-73 1968 The State and Settlement Patterns in the New World. In Settlement Archaeology edited by K.C. Chang, National Press Books, Palo Alto 1971a The Weeden Island Site, St. Petersburg, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 24(2): 51-60 1971b Food Production and Village Life in Prehistoric United States. Archaeology 24(4) .-322-329 1973 The Sacred and the Secular in Prehistoric Ceramics. In Variation in Anthropology: Essays in Honor of John McGregor edited by D. Lathrop and J. Douglas, Illinois Archaeological Survey B ms a. An Investigation of Prehistoric Processes on the Gulf Coastal Plain. Final Report to the National Sciences Foundation NSFG 5019 ms b. Southeastern United States. in press ms c. Prehistoric Culture Areas and Culture Change on the Gulf Coastal Plain. in press

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341 Service, Elman R. 1962 Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective New York ~ Random House Sharon, Samuel D., and Jennings W. Burns Jr. 1973 A Swift Creek Midden at the Wheeler Springs Site, Wynnhaven Beach, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 26(41:153-155 Z Smith, Samuel D. 1971 A Reinterpretation of the Cades Pond Archaeological Period Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Florida Steinen, Karl T. 1975 Salvage Excavations at the Olster Site, 8-AL-346, Alachua County, Florida. Paper presented at the 27th. annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society 1976a An Archaeological Survey of Early County Georgia Miscellaneous Projects Report Series, No. 2, Florida State Museum", Gainesville N 1976b Ecological Relationships and Settlement Patterning on the Central Gulf Coast of Florida: The Pasco Area. Paper presented at the 41st. annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology Stoltman, James B. 1974 Groton Plantation: An Archaeological Study of a South Carolina Locality. Monographs of the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, No. 1, Cambridge Swanton, John R. 1911 Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Valley and the Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 43, Washington D.C. Taylor, Walter W. 1948 A Study of Archaeology Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, No. 6 9 Trickey, E. 1958 B A Chronological Framework for the Mobile Bay Region. American Antiquit y 23(4): 388-396

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34 2 Trigger, Bruce 1958 The Determinants of Settlement Patterns. In Settlemtnt Archaeology edited by K.C, Chang, National Press Books, Palo Alto Walker, John W. 19 74 Distribution and Significance of Weeden Island Sites in Georgia and Alabama. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology Waring, Antonio J. 1968 The Waring Papers Edited by Stephen Williams, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. LVIII, Cambridge Wauchope, Robert 1966 Archaeological Survey of Northern Georgia With a Test of Cultural Hypothesis Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 21 Willey, Gordon R. 1945 The Weeden Island Culture: A Preliminary Definition. American Anthropo logist X (3):225-254 = A 1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 113, Washington D.C. Willey, Gordon R. and Phillip Phillips 1958 Method and Theory in American Archaeology University of Chicago Press, Chicago Willey, Gordon R. and Richard B. Woodbury 1942 A Chronological Outline of the Northwest Florida Coast. American Ant iquity 7(3): 232-254 X Wimberly, Steve B. I9 6 Indian Pottery from Clarke and Mobile Counties, Alabama Alabama Museum of Natural History, Museum Paper 36, University

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Karl T. Steinen was born in Oswego, New York. He received a B.A. in anthropology from S.U.N.Y. Oswego in 1969. After a short enlistment in the U.S. Army, he enrolled in the graduate program at Florida Atlantic University where he received a M.A. in anthropology in 1971. After a short period of study at Southern Methodist University Mr. Steinen was employed by the Southland Corporation in retail sales. Following this, he was employed by the Florida Department of Transportation as an Engineer Technician (Limerock) He began study at the University of Florida in 1973. Mr. -.Steinen is married to Nancy Sears Steinen and is the father of two children, William and Kathryn. He is currently a Research Associate in Anthropology at West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. 34 3

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. // / u~Jerald T. Milanich, Chairman Assistant Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly, presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Charles H.' Fairbanks Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. John K. Mahon Professor of History

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. P tL SoWilliam H. Sear-s Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Elizabeth Wing Associate Professor of Anthropology This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1976 Dean, Graduate School


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