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Early history and excavation of the Leconte-Woodmanston plantation

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Title:
Early history and excavation of the Leconte-Woodmanston plantation
Creator:
Hamilton, Jennifer Margaret, 1956-
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Bottles ( jstor )
Bricks ( jstor )
Chimneys ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Excavations ( jstor )
Gardens ( jstor )
Plantations ( jstor )
Rice ( jstor )
Savannas ( jstor )
Slavery ( jstor )
Liberty County ( local )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Jennifer Margaret Hamilton. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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23376381 ( ALEPH )
6747154 ( OCLC )

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EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION
OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION

















BY

JENNIFER M. HAMILTON















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

.L 9 3 0














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author would like to acknowledge the years of

guidance from Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks, both in class and

out, which led to the completion of this master's thesis.

Special thanks are accorded to Dr. Rochelle Marrinan,

director of the Georgia Southern College 1979 field school,

who has been a constant support and companion throuqhout

all phases of the project: research, excavation and writing.

The author would also like to express her continuing

appreciation to Colonel and Mrs. Claude A. Black; and

Hiss Clermont Lee of Savannah for their persistent faith

in the LeConte-Woodmanston project. Without their interest

and inspiration there would be no project and the public

would lose a large part of its cultural heritage.

Many thanks are also qiven to Mrs. Caroline McMillan of

St. Simon's Island, Georgia,for patiently answering the many

questions and generously providinq access to the family

documents which made the LeContes coTtealive for all concerned.

The author would also like to express her appreciation

to the members of the spring 1979 Georgia Southern College

archeolgical field school: Julie Barnes, David Flesch, Barry

Hart, Betty Leigh Hutcheson, Charles McPherson, Nancy Turner,

Claudia Tyre, and Cecil Walters, for their untirinq labor

despite cramped living conditions and numerous mosquitoes.

ii









The members of the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees and

the Garden Clubs of Georgia have been supportive throughout

the entire project. The author would especially like to

acknowledge the help of Colonel George Rogers of Hinesville,

Georgia, and Mrs. George W. Ray of Savannah.

Because of the disturbed condition of the Woodmanston

site, documentary research concerning the LeConte family

comprised a large part of this study. The author would

like to acknowledge the staffs of the Georgia Historical

Society Library; the American Philosophical Society Library;

the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; the Pennsylvania.

Historical Society Library; and the P.K. Yonge Library of

Florida History. The aid of Mrs. Nancy Aspinwall, Liberty

County Probate Judge; the staffs of the Office of the

Inferior Court of Liberty and Chatham Counties; and

Mr. George Ference and Mr. Bagario of Brunswick Pulp and

Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia,are also acknowledged.

Special thanks to Dr. George Roaers,Georgia Southern College,

for the use of his personal files on the LeConte family.

The Community of Riceboro was very kind to the entire

crew during our stay in 1979. Much gratitude is awarded to

Mrs. Cordella Jones Browning for her interest and concern and

to Mrs. Hern for renting our house in Riceboro, without which

the project would have never been the same.

Analysis of the LeConte-Woodmanston collection was

performed at the University of Florida. The author would like

iii









to thank Dr. Elizabeth Wing for providing access to the

Florida State Museum Faunal Collections and to Dr. Rochelle

Marrinan for oerformina the analysis. The author would also

like to mention the daily support and companionship of

Sue Mullins with whom she shared the archeoloay lab and the

person who finally identified the Clews brothers' "States"

plate.

The author's family deserves very special thanks for

their patience and support during her entire graduate

career. Separate acknowledaments go to David Hamilton

for help in the editing process and to Eleanor Hamilton

for typing the numerous drafts.

Finally the author would like to thank the members

of her committee for their support: Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks,

Chairman; Dr. Jerald Milanich: Dr. Prudence Rice and

Dr. Elizabeth Wing for being present at the defense in

Dr. Rice's absence.



















iv















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . .vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . ix

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1

II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . . . . . . 8

Significant World Events . . . . . 8
Family History . . . . . . . . 10
Scientific Achievements . . . . . 15
Woodmanston Plantation . . . . . . 21
LeConte Gardens . . . . . . . 26
Rice Culture. . . . . . . . 33
Slaves . . . . . . . . . . 46

III. ARCHEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . 51

Research Methodology . . . . . . 51
Transects and Auger Testing . . . . 55
Formal Excavation . . . . . . . 58
Trenching . . ... . . . . . . 60

IV. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS . . . . . . 62

The Chimney Base . . . . . . . 62
The Robbed Brick Wall . . . . . . 66

V. MATERIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . 68

Building Hardware . . . . . . . 68
Household Furnishings . . . . . . 70
Glass . . . . . . . . . . 73
Window Glass . . . . . . . 73
Beveraqe Bottles . . . . . . 74
Medicine Bottles . . . . . . 76
Domestic Glassware . . . . . . 82



v









Ceramics . . . . . . . . . 83
Cutlery . . . . . . . . . 92
Personal Items . . . . . . . . 92
Buttons . . . . . . . . . 95
Jewelry . . . . . . . . . 96
Firearms . . . . . . . . 98
Tobacco and Smokinq Equipment . . . 100
Toys and Games . . . ... . . . 103
Miscellaneous Personal Items . . . . 104
Horses and Carriages . . . . . . 105
Tools . . . . . . . . . . 105
Grindstones . . . . . . . . 106
Faunal Material . . . . . . . 107
Aboriginal Material . . . . . . 110

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION . . . . . . 111

APPENDICES

A. ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED . . . . 155

B. LIST OF BULBS . . . . . . . . 157

C. HORTICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS . . . . 161

D. SPECIES LIST ... . . . . . . . 163

E. COMPOSITE TABLE FOR ALL FAUNA . . . . 164

REFERENCES CITED . . . . . . . . . 167

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . 175
























vi















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Location of LeConte-Woodmanston site . . . 116

2. Woodmanston vicinity . . . . . . . 118

3. Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area . . 120

4. 1973 survey of Woodmanston Plantation . . 122

5. LeConte kinship diagram . . . . . . 124

6. 1897 photoqraph of LeConte-Woodmanston site . 126

7. 1897 photograph of Joseph LeConte at Woodmanston 128

8. Interpretive concept plan for LeC6nte-Woodmanston 130

9. Diagram of spring 1979 testing program . . 132

10. Transect lines delineated on areal photograph 134

11. Distribution of positive auger tests . . . 136

12. Excavation plan for 1979 spring field session 138

13. Double hearth chimney base . . . . . 140

14. Robbed brick wall . . . . . . . 142

15a. Household artifacts . . . . . . 144

15b. Gunparts and horse equipment . . . . . 144

16a. Glass artifacts . . . . . . . . 146

16b. Cutlery . . . . . . . . . . 146

17a. Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . 148

17b. Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . 148





vii









List of Fiqures (continued)


Figures Page

18a. Personal artifacts . . . . . . . .150

18b. Personal artifacts . . . .. . . . .150

19a. Quartz crystal . . . . . . . . .152

19b. Grindstone fragment . . . . . . . .152

20. Aboriginal artifacts . . . . . . . .154









































viii










Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts



EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION
OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION

By

Jennifer M. Hamilton

June, 1980

Chairman: Charles H. Fairbanks
Major Department: Anthropology

The following paper presents the analysis of the

LeConte-Woodmanston site. The Garden Clubs of Georgia,

Inc., plans to develop an exhibit around this late

eiahteenth-early nineteenth century rice plantation and

botanical garden, emphasizing interpretation of the

plantation era components, the natural setting, and use as

a habitat for endancered plant species. Louis LeConte's

botanical garden (1812-1838) was internationally known

among the scientific community for its early cultivation

of Camellia !aDonica outside the hothouse.

Historical documentation provided insight regarding

the LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation

era and a picture of plantation life in early Georgia.

Unfortunately the location and layout of the LeConte house

and gardens are not available in the documents utilized to

date.





ix










The site has been badly disturbed by lumbering activities

over the past 25 years, but there is still potential for

retrieving valuable archeological data. The basic research

strategy included the use of linear transects to control

a program of mechancial auger tests. This procedure provided

a satisfactory means of delineating the extent of extreme

subsurface disturbance and artifact distribution with a

minimum amount of clearing. Results of the auger tests

were checked with formal excavation and trenching.

The spring 1979 archeological excavations and

historical documentation both indicate the site was occupied

from the early nineteenth century until the first part of

the twentieth century. Two structures which were once

part of the plantation house complex were investigated,

but further archeological study is necessary to determine

the dimensions and specifications.






Chairman

















x















CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


The following documentary research and archeological

investigation have been done in an effort to aid the Garden

Clubs of Georgia in the reconstruction and historical

presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation.

Specific questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations

of the Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized

the location of the LeConte botanical garden, the main

plantation house, subsidiary structures, and the slave

settlement. Although historical documents were a great

source of information about the site, Liberty County and

the character of the LeConte family, they did not provide

specific locations for the structures. Archeological

investigation of three major areas was carried out to try

and locate these structures.

Woodmanston Plantation was located "in and around

Bulltown Swamp" on the border between McIntosh and Liberty

Counties, Georgia, about 40 miles southwest of Savannah

(Figures 1,2,3). Built in the late 1760s, it was one of

the first gravity flow rice plantations to be established on

the Georgia coast, and was owned by John Eatton LeConte,




1






2


whose family played an important part in the early history

of the United States.

Two outstanding members of the family, Louis LeConte

and Major John Eatton LeConte, have been celebrated for

their contributions to the natural sciences. Louis

LeConte, son of John Eatton LeConte, became internationally

famous for the botanical garden which he started at

Woodmanston Plantation in 1812 and which flourished until

his death in 1838. His brother, Major John Eatton LeConte,

was a winter resident at Woodmanston and frequently brought

Louis interesting botanical specimens from the nurseries of

Philadelphia and New York. Some of the plants for which

Louis became best known were bulbous varieties and camellias.

In Europe, such plants were grown only in protective

greenhouses, but at Woodmanston they were grown out of doors,

and some of the camellias eventually attained tree-like

proportions.

Over the years Louis LeConte served as a gracious host

and guide to many foreign naturalists and horticulturists.

These visits resulted in the exportation of many exclusively

American plants, indigenous to the nearby Altamaha River

basin, to various parts of Europe. It should be noted,

however, that although Louis LeConte's botanically rich

garden was a much loved avocation, his primary responsibility

was the successful management of Woodmanston Plantation.

The period from 1810 to 1838, encompassing both the time in

which the LeConte garden flourished and the successful






3


operation of the gravity flow rice plantation, is the

focus of this study.

Woodmanston was also the boyhood home of two of Louis'

sons, John and Joseph LeConte, who were to achieve

individual historical fame as educators, first in the

southeast and later in California. John served as the first

acting president of the then fledgling University of

California at Berkeley, while Joseph held the chair in the

Department of Geology, Zoology and Botany (LeConte 1903:244).

It is because of this association with the LeConte

family that the site of Woodmanston Plantation was placed

on the National Register of Historic Places. As a

consequence, a development plan for the site was formulated

through the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The

plan emphasizes the interpretation and eventual presentation

of the plantation components during its functional era,

the preservation of the natural setting, and its utilization

as a practical habitat for endangered plant species.

Colonel Claude A. Black of Savannah, an avid botanical

enthusiast, relocated the original LeConte property and

the approximate site of Louis' famous garden. Through his

efforts, and those of the Garden Clubs of Georgia, together

with the additional help of the LeConte family heirs,

the Nature Conservancy (a non-profit conservation organization),

and the present leasors of the property, the Brunswick

Paper Company, a portion of the original site was acquired.





4

Of the original 3,354 acres comprising Woodmanston Plantation,

63.8 acres were deeded to the Garden Clubs of Georgia in 1977

(Ray 1977:12) (Figures 3,4).

It is the intent of the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees,

appointed by the president of the Garden Clubs of Georgia,

to reconstruct as accurately as possible Louis LeConte's

original botanical garden using existing archeological and

documentary evidence. The site is further intended to

become a scenic garden spot for public enjoyment. Exhibits

are also planned to present the world view, lifestyle, and

funcitoning of an inland swamp rice plantation of the

antebellum era. Although other rice plantation projects

of a historical nature exist in South Carolina and Georgia,

the emphasis on an internationally famous American botanical

garden, and the contributions of the LeConte family, make

the Woodmanston Plantation project unique.

A formal archeological investigation of the site of

the Woodmanston Plantation began in March, 1979 under the

direction of Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern

College, and Jennifer Hamilton of the University of Florida.

The field labor was provided by a field school of eight

students from Georgia Southern College. Matching funds

were provided through the Department of Natural Resources

and the National Register of Historic Places.

Preliminary investigation indicated a high degree of

surface disturbance. Bulldozers had been used in recent






5


years to remove soil for local road construction. Extensive

dissection of the property caused by clear cutting of

timber over an extended period presented additional problems.

Providing information from archeological findings to assist

in formulating development plans for the' site was complicated

by the highly disturbed condition of the terrain. In order

to provide necessary guidance for this development,

archeological assessment focused on the impace of proposed

structures; the parking lot, visitor interpretation center,

and nature walks on the existing cultural resources and

the location and identification of the remaining plantation

resources. The basic research strategy can be characterized

as a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal

excavation.

Because of the inability to positively establish the

exact location of the garden by conventional archeological

means, the search for historical documents became of primary

importance. Unfortunately no document has been found,

after extensive research, which describes the layout of the

garden or specifically locates it in relation to the main

house, driveway or irrigation dikes. Various documents

have, however, provided a wealth of information about the

LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation era,

and a picture of plantation life. Some general information

concerning the probable content of the garden has also been

uncovered.






6


Certain family letters and diaries, some of which are

still in private hands, provide information about the plantation

and the beauty of the garden. Other letters, some of a

later date, focus on members of the family, their attitudes

toward issue of the day such as economics and slavery, and

the Civil War. All the LeConte letters are generously

informative and indicate strong family ties.

Documents located among the Liberty County records

provide information concerning the administration of

the estate of Louis LeConte and his oldest son, William.

These records provided insights concerning matters of slave

economics. Other records provided land plats with the

approximate location of the main LeConte house, the nearby

slave 'settlement' and the location of the rice and cotton

fields. Various land deeds show how some potentially

important archeological landmarks could have been changed,

relocated, or removed as the land changed hands.

Chatham County Courthouse records provide some

unexpected early data concerning Louis LeConte's uncle

William. William LeConte (1738-1787) established nearby

San Souci Plantation in the 1760s, about the same time that

his brother, John Eatton LeConte established Woodmanston.

In the administration of William's estate the slaves which

he owned are listed by name and family. Some of his creditors

are also listed. Another discovery was the sale of lands near

New York City by Louis LeConte to his brother, Major John

Eatton LeConte in 1825.





7

The Georgia Historical Library, Savannah, Georgia, was

an important source of information. The LeConte family files

were the starting place for much of the family history.

The index of Savannah newspapers was an exciting discovery.

The LeContes are mentioned in nearly every volume from 1767

tp 1840, and details concerning debts, runaway slaves,

trips abroad and stockholders lists, as well as Jane LeConte

Harden, Louis' oldest daughter's, wedding at Woodmanston

in January, 1834 are duly noted.(Daily Georgian 1832).

The Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical

Society, and the Pennsylvania Historical Society, all in

Philidelphia, provided additional information regarding

the LeConte family, the "old house at Woodmanston ", and

the family slaves.

Sites, such as Woodmanston, disturbed as they are,

still offer the opportunity to illuminate the past. While

acknowledgeing that extensive documentary research is

a requisite to excavation, many aspects of plantation life,

especially the daily lives of the slaves, simply were not

considered worthy of recording. It must also be acknowledged

that excavations such as that at Woodmanston often expose new

problems and thereby define new avenues for documentation.
















CHAPTER II


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


Significant World Events

The years between 1770 and 1840, the period when

Woodmanston was a productive rice plantation, were marked

by advances in science and technology which had considerable

effects on world events.

In Europe, the age of enlightenment was taking place,

and such notables as Voltaire and Rousseau were publishing

their ideas. James Watt and S. Bolton produced their steam

engine in 1769 and Sir Richard Arkwright developed the water

powered spinning frame. Both these developments helped

set the scene for the industrial revolution with its chance

of labor from cottage to factory levels. The last part of

the eighteenth century was filled with the great age of

orchestral music, and the magnificent works of Mozart, Haydn,

and Beethoven graced the halls of Europe.

In the New World, Quebec and Montreal, then called

New France, were ccnquered by the Britsh in 1760, and

in 1768 Captain James Cook beaan his exploration of the

Pacific Ocean. Only a year later, in 1769, William and

John Eatton LeConte received their Georgia land grants


8





9


which led the way for the establishment of the Woodmanston

and Sans Souci plantations on the Georgia coast. In 1776

the American Declaration of Independence was signed. During

that same year Adam Smith published his famous book on

economics, The Wealth of Nations, and Tom Paine published

his pamphlet, Common Sense. In 1789 George Washington

became the first president of the United States. America

doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and

independence movements in Spanish and Portuguese America

created 13 new states between 1808 and 1828. The United

States presidents in office during the period in which the

Woodmanston Plantation and the LeConte gardens were under

Louis LeConte's managment (1810-1838) were Madison, Monroe,

Adams, and Jackson.

There were many transportation achievements in America

during this time. Robert Fulton's development of the

steamboat was the forerunner of 60 such boast operating on

the Missisiippi in 1820 and over 1200 in 1846. The first

hardsurfaced highways were built in 1789 and by 1810 the

National Road, a highway which greatly facilitated westward

expansion had been started. Other transportation aids were

the Erie Canal in 1825 and the first railway, the Baltimore

and Ohio, in 1830. America was a growing nation and

improved transportation, industrial development and reform

movements did much to help the country become a world power.

The economic balance of the south depended heavily on

slave labor. Although the slave trade was ended in 1808,






10


slavery was not abolished in the United States until after

the Civil War in 1865. This struggle drastically changed

almost every aspect of life in the southern states.

The LeConte family and its landholdings are interesting

because they span an area of time which encompasses two

major wars, the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution,

and the building of a nation.


Family History

The recorded history of the LeConte family began-

in Europe in the mid-seventeenth century when Guillaume

LeConte (1659-1710) was born in Rouen, France of a noble

Protestant family with illustrious connections to Louis XIV.

However, in 1685 he was forced to leave France and emigrate

to Holland because of Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict

of Nantes, which would have deprived him of his religous

liberty and his wealth. According to family tradition,

the king warned him of his intentions before hand in order

that Guillaume might have the time to make the necessary

personal arrangements.

Upon leaving France, Guillaume adopted the name, LeConte,

which was derived from his mother's maiden name, LeConte

de Nonant (Figure 5). Unfortunately there is no record of

Guillaume's original family name. He traveled to Holland and

joined the forces of King William of Orange, to whom he was

also related through Count de Berg s'Hecrenberg, and

participated in William's invasion of England.





11


Guillaume served in the English military until 1698, at

which time he emigrated to the New World. He bought property

in New York City and in New Rochelle. A short time later

he went to the French owned island of Martinique, in the

Caribbean. While in Martinique he met and married Marguerite

de Valleau, whose father was a wealthy land owner.

Guillaume and Marguerite had three children, all of

whom were born in New York. William was born in 1702; Pierre

was born in 1704; and their daughter, Esther, was born in 1706.

Pierre (1704-1768) was Louis LeConte's grandfather (Figure 5).

In 1710 Gullaume and Marguerite LeConte both died of

yellow fever, leaving the three children orphaned at early

ages. Little is known of the children's childhood, but

eventually Pierre became a physician and settled in Monmouth

County, New Jersey. He married Valeria Eatton, daughter of

the Hon. John Eatton of Shrewsbury, New Jersey. They had

three sons, John Eatton, William and Peter. John Eatton

(1749-1822) was Louis' father (Figure 5).

In 1760, at the invitation of their uncle, Thomas

Eatton, a wealthy New York merchant, John Eatton LeConte

and his brother, William, accompanied him to Georgia, at

that time, a virtually unexplored territory. Both John

Eatton and William were in their early twenties. In 1769,

after the death of their father, Pierre LeConte, John Eatton

and William each applied for and received land grants jointly

tctaling 7,500 acres in St. Andrews and St. Johns Parishes,

(now in Liberty and Chatham Counties, Georgia) from the






12

British Governor of Georgia. The property was purchased

with money derived from the sale of the family's

ancestral estate on the Island of Martinique (LeConte 1933:3).

The American Revolutionary War, begun in 1775, had

considerable effect on Liberty County and the LeConte family.

William LeConte was elected to the Provincial Congress of

July 4, 1774 by the Parish of St. Phillip. He was also a

representative on the first Safety Council and a signer

of a letter of demonstration to Governor Wright (White 1854:177).

John Eatton LeConte became a physician. Since there were

no medical colleges in the American colonies at that time,

he studied medicine with his father, Pierre LeConte. During

the revolution his sympathies were with the colonists, and

sometime in 1775 he personally took a contribution of 63

barrels of rice and 22 pounds sterling in specie to Boston

to relieve those suffering from the British blockade of

the city (Jones 1883:176). Later, John Eatton made his

permanent home in Boston, and visited Woodmanston, the rice

plantation which he established in Georgia, only during the

winter months.

In 1776 he married Jane Sloane in New York City and

they had three sons; William (1777-1807), Louis (1782-1838)

and John Eatton, Jr. (1784-1860). The family lived in

Shrewsbury until the children were of college age, at which

time they moved to New York City. Louis LeConte and the

period associated with his residence at the Woodmanston

plantation are the major foci of this study.






13


Louis' uncle, William LeConte, took up permanent

residence in Georgia and divided his time between his

townhouse in Savannah and his plantation, which he named

San Souci, located near the Ogeechee River. When William

died in 1787, the joint estate was divided and Louis'

father, John Eatton LeConte, received the Bulltown plantation

and half of the personal property of the estate.

Louis LeConte came to Georgia shortly after 1807. He

lived in a small house built near the site of the original

home which had been burned during the Revolutionary War,

and thereafter took over complete management of the rice

plantation called Woodmanston (LeConte 1933:1-9).

In 1822 Louis LeConte married a local girl, Anne

Quarterman, daughter of an old and prominant Liberty

County family, and took up residence at Woodmanston. Louis

and Ann had six children; William (1812-1841), Jane (1814-1876),

John (1818-1891), Louis (1821-1852), Joseph (1823-1901),

and Ann (1825-1866) (LeConte 1933:10)(Figure 5).

Louis LeConte's marriage to Ann Quarterman in 1812

created a peculiar situation which was to have lasting

impact on Woodmanston Plantation. Ann was a member of the

nearby Congregational Church of Midway which had always

married among themselves. Ann's mother did not object to

Louis, personally, but she did object to her daughter

marrying outside the colony. Since Louis had never joined

the local Midway Church, Ann's mother insisted that he be

thoroughly catechised by the iMinister and elders of the






14


church, and furthermore, that he sign a promise never to

take Ann out of the county (LeConte 1933:10). As a

consequence of this pact, Louis sold his New York land

holdings to his brother, John Eatton, in .1825 for $30,000.

Woodmanston thenceforth was Louis' permanent home (Chatham

County 1825).

Major John Eatton LeConte, Jr. married Mary Ann Hampton

Lawrence and had three sons, only one of whom reached

maturity. John Lawrence LeConte (1825-1883), eventually

moved to Philadelphia and became one of America's most

distinguished entomologists.

Louis' wife, Ann, died in 1826 of pneumonia, leaving

behind six young children, the eldest fourteen and the

youngest seventeen months old (Figure 5). Jane, the

oldest daughter, who was only twelve at the time, assumed

complete control of the household affairs. Louis tried to

make himself both mother and father to the children and

was devotedly loved by them all (LeConte 1903).

Louis was a man of reticent nature, and although

deeply religious, he was too independent in thought to

accept the strict creeds of the Midway Congregational Church

which he attended with his wife, Ann.

Physically, he was of slender build about five feet
ten inches tall. He had very black eyes and hair
and his manner was reserved and undemonstrative.
His tastes were simple and unostentatious. He cared
little for money and even less for fame. He eschewed
politics utterly and had no desire to wield influence,
but nevertheless he unconsiously influences all who
came in contact with him. He was never known to
borrow, but was always liberal to lend or to aid in
any charity. (LeConte 1933:10-11)





15


Scientific Achievements

The years between 1810 and 1838 were the years when

Louis LeConte was the master at Woodmanston Plantation and

his botanical garden flourished, but his lifelong list

of achievements is lengthy and impressive.

He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from New York's

Columbia University in 1799, and continued there with the

study of medicine under Dr. David Hosack, who was the school's

celebrated professor of medicine and botany. It is not

known whether Louis actually received an advanced degree but

it is thought that he studied medicine only in order to

care for the health and well being of his slaves. At that

time the course of medical study contained a good deal of

botanical research and Louis made a botanical survey of

Long Island during his school years. Alexander Gordon

mentions Dr. Hosack's "Hyde Park on the Hudson", in an

article on the "Principle Nurseries and Private Gardens

in the United States" written in 1832.

The park is extensive; the rides numerous; and
the variety of delightful distant views embracing
every kind of scenery, surpasses anything I have
ever seen in (America) or in any other country.
There is an excellent range of hot houses, with
a collection of rare plants, remarkable for their
variety, their cleanliness and their handsome
growth. (1832:282)

Louis was a gifted naturalist and botanist. He was

fluent in Latin and Greek and intersted in all branches

of science including chemistry and mathematics. Louis

was 44 years old when his wife, Ann, died in 1826.






16


According to his son, Joseph's autobiography;

in order to divert his thoughts from his grief,
he fitted up several rooms in the attic; especially
one large one, as a chemical laboratory. Day after
day, sometimes all day, when not too much busied
in the administration of his large plantation, he
occupied himself with experimenting there. I
remember vividly how, when permitted to be present,
we boys followed him about silently and on tiptoe;
how we would watch the mysterious experiments; with
what awe his furnaces and chauffers, his and baths,
matrasses, and alembics, and his precipitations
filled us. Although these experiments were
undertaken in the first instance to divert his mind
from sorrow, yet his profound knowledge of chemistry
his deep interest and persitence certainly
eventuated in important discoveries. (1903:7,8)

Apparently Louis had the facilities for producing

chemical compounds. In a letter written in 1830, his

brother, Major John Eatton LeConte, requested that "10

grams of oxyl or hydrate of nickel and cobalt" be sent to

him in New York and he offered to procure a "platinum

crucible" for Louis' experiments from France. Two-thirds

of Louis' library and chemicl apparatus were valued at $400

in the 1838 appraisal of his estate (Liberty County 1838).

Louis obtained some of his supplies from Athens, where his

son, William, attended Franklin College. In a letter from

Louis to William dated at Woodmanston August 1, 1831, he

requests that William "collect as many mineral as he can

bring down" (LeConte 1831).

In the same 1830 correspondence Major John Eatton

also inquires about the success of Louis' experiments

"in mixing different species" (LeConte 1830).

He did not publish his experiments but freely shared his





17

findings with his scientific colleagues. Frequently,

naturalists and horticulturalists from the north, and from

Europe, would visit Woodmanston and Louis would introduce

them to the native Georgia flora and fauna and help them

pack and ship samples to their respective institutions.

Dr. William Baldwin mentions the LeConte brothers

in his series of letters to a friend in Pennsylvania.

In his word, "from the truly scientific acquirements of

these gentlemen,. and their zealous attention to every

department of natural history, much may be with confidence

expected. I am indebted to them for much valuable

information; and hope it will not be long before they will

be better known in the literary world" (Darlington 1843:332).

Alexander Gordon of the Gardener's Magazine says,

There are not two more scientific gentlement in the
U.S.A. than Lewis LeConte, Esq. and his brother,
Major John LeConte...

The late Mr. Elliot of Charleston, the editor of the
Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, frequently
mentions the kind assistance of Mr. Oemler of Savannah
and also two other gentlemen, Lewis LeConte, Esq. and
his brother, Major John LeConte. The assistance I
received from these gentlemen, in making my collection
of plants, I cannot give you the most distant idea of.
They are most excellent botanists and naturalists in
every branch of science.

Mr. LeConte has discovered many new plants; and
through his kindness I have been enabled to enrich
our collections with some splendid treasures. This
gentlemen has, for above 30 years, given his attention
to the successions of different species of timber.

I must, however, inform you that this gentleman
thoroughly convinced me of the existence of the
Magnolia pyramidata; for on Thursday, the 27th of
January, we took a journey of 50 miles, and crossed
the Altamaha River, to look for a tree of that
species which Mr. LeConte had seen there 18 months
previous. We found it. (1832:287-288).






18


Louis LeConte's name is also mentioned in the

preface, as one of the contributors, to Torrey and Gray's

Flora of North America (Gray 1883:199).

John Eatton LeConte, Louis' brother,, was also a man

of science. He also attended Columbia College in New York,

and in 1817 entered the army of the United States as Captain

of Topographical Engineers, later attaining the rank of

Major.

Major John Eatton LeConte had the same active interest

in botany as his brother, and was responsible for a number

of the exotic and unusual plants in the LeConte garden

(Gray 1883:198). He frequented the major nurseries in the

northeast and sent or carried many new plant specimens to

his brother in Georgia. He is said to be personally

responsible for the first cutting of the LeConte pear or

Chinese Sand pear (Stokes 1949:183). This cutting was

obtained from Thomas Hogg, a New York nurseryman. Mr. Hogg's

nursery at Bloomingdale, New York, is mentioned in Gordon's

"Principal Nurseries and Private Gardens of the United States".

He is said to have had an "admirable collection" of rare

and valuable exotics (1832:279). Major LeConte sent a

specimen of the pear to Mrs. Jane LeConte Harden, Louis'

oldest daughter, at Halifax Plantation near Woodmanston.

The tree was the progentior of all the LeConte pear trees

in Georgia.




19


The pear was very popular in South Georgia, as it
stood shipment well and for many years the trees
were entirely blight proof. As late as 1900 they
were shipped by car load from Quitmen, Georgia, to
the northern markets. But the variety finally lost
its bliqht resisting qualities and has almost entirely
disappeared. (LeConte 1933:13)

Major John Eatton LeConte was constantly involved

with the collection and indentification of new species

of plants, animals and insects during his travels, and

supplied duplicate specimens to many of his friends.

Every member of the LeConte family was charged with

collecting new specimens of insects, flora and fauna

whereever they went. Even Matilda Jane Harden, John

Eatton's grandniece, was reminded of her collecting duties

while at boarding school in Orangeburq, South Carolina.

She was entreated by the Major to collect seeds, bats and

rats and to charge her brother in Athens to do likewise

(LeConte 1856).

Major John Eatton LeConte's contributions to botanical

and zoological science were published in the Annals of the

Lyceum of Natural History of New York, and in the Proceedings

of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, from

1852 to 1860.

His extensive and valuable herbarium, which had been
carefully reviewed by the older botanists of the
country, was presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Philadelphia in 1852, and was followed shortly after
his death in 1860 by a large collection of fresh water
mollusca of the United States, containing many original
specimens of species first observed by him. He was
a most untirinl student and left much manuscript, the
usefulness of which has been superseded by subsequent
research, and likewise many thousand water color drawings
of insects and various orders, which his son has had
mounted in albums suitable for inspection.






20


No separate botanical work bears his name as author,
nor any in zoology that we know of, except one on
American Lepidoptera, published in connection with
M. Boisduval. But the Royal Society's Catalogue
of Scientific Papers records the title and place and
date of publication of 35 of them, 11 of which are
botanical. Several of these are monographs. The
earliest, on the U.S. species of Paspalum, was
published in the year 1820; three others, namely
those on Utricularia, Gratiola, and Ruellia, all
in 1824; those on Tillandsia and Viola in 1826;
that on Paneratium in 1828. He was a keen but
leisurely observer and investigator, and still more
leisurely writer. He was a man of very refined
and winning manners, of scholarly habits and wide
reading, of an inquiring and original turn of mind,
the fruitfulness of which was subdued by chronic
invalidism. When he went to Paris he took with
him his herbarium, which for that time was unusually
rich in plants of Lower Georgia and Florida; and we
remember his remark that his botanical acquaintances
there made very free use of his permission to help
themselves to the duplicates. There is reason to think,
accordingly, that the remains of it which went to the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences will not
throw all the light which might be expected upon the
species of plants which were described in his
published papers.

His old friend, Torrey and William Cooper, named in
his honor the genus which, as it proved, Rafinesque
had some years earlier named Peltandra. And the
opportunity was soon lost of commemorating his name
in a plant of his own country; for Achile Richard in
Parish, in 1829, bestowed the name of Lecontia upon a
genus of Madasgascar Rubiacea, now of five species.
(Gray 1883:198-199)

Major John Eatton LeConte's son, John Lawrence LeConte,

later became one of the leading entomologists in the United

States and published a number of papers including the

Classification of the Coleoptera of North America in 1883.

The most well known in the scientific world perhaps

are two of Louis LeConce's sons, John and Joseph LeConte,

referred to as 'the gemini of the scientific world'. Early





21


educators in Georgia, they taught at Oglethorpe College,

the University of Georgia and South Carolina College, later

to become the University of South Carolina. As a result

of the LeConte brothers' active involvement in the Confederate

cause during the Civil War, it became almost impossible

for them to obtain suitable academic appointments in the South.

After contemplating a move to Brazil, they moved their

families to California to aid in the organization of the

University of California at Berkeley. John LeConte became

the first acting president and Joseph was appointed to

the chair of Geology, Zoology and Botany and taught there

until the turn of the century (LeConte 1903:243-244).

Joseph wrote several books on geology and evolution, one

of which was used as a standard textbook for college courses

for many years.

Several species of flora and fauna are attributed to

the LeContes. Most notable are the LeConte sparrow,

Passerherbulus caudacutus; the LeConte violet, Viola affinos;

and the LeConte pear or Chinese Sand pear.


Woodmanston Plantation

The origin of the name 'Woodmanston' is unknown.

As a matter of interest, or coincidence, the only reference

found to that name was a ship called Woodmanston or

Woodmanstone which advertised in the Georgia Gazette.

Captain Benjamin Mason was the master of the vessel.





22


On October 28, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran this

advertisement: "To be sold on Tuesday the 28th October,

1766, a cargo of about 100 young and healthy new negroes,

just arrived, in the ship, Woodmanston, Capt. Benj. Mason,

in a short passage of seven weeks from the River Gambia"

On November 5, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran another ad:

"for London, Portugal, or Cowes, and a market, the ship

Woodmanstone, Benjamin Mason, burthen about 200 tons, a prime

sailor, and (unreadable). For freight and passage apply to

said master or to Habersham & Clay of Savannah".

It is also significant in regard to the name,

'Woodmanston', that Louis' uncle, William LeConte, had

business dealings with Habersham & Clay in the administration

of his estate, and Louis LeConte used R. Habersham and Son

as factors during his years as master of the plantation.

The first house, built by John Eatton LeConte, Sr.,

on the LeConte plantation was burned during the Revolutionary

War in a skirmish near Bulltown Swamp between colonists and

British troops under Colonel George Prevost during his

southern campaign. This house was located somewhere on the

east side of the old Fort Barrington Highway. There are

several family accounts of Indian attacks on the plantation

during the early years, which attest to the remoteness of

the area and the need to guard the negro slaves against

injury (Liberty 1793, LeConte 1903:19-21).





23


The second residence was termed a 'lodge' in the

journal of Emma LeConte Furman, Louis' grandaughter. It

was built as a bachelor's residence sometime before 1810 when

Louis took over the management of the plantation. The 'lodge'

is the house in which Louis and Ann rais'ed their family.

According to Emma LeConte Furman, the house was expanded

after Louis' marriage. Emma states in her journal that she

pictures the old house clearly in her mind, "the mantel over

the fireplace and the wall paper," but unfortunately that

is all the description she provides (Shaw 1975).

From an 1838 appraisal and Josephy LeConte's autobiography

it is suggested that the house was a two story structure

with four bedgrooms and an attic. A separate kitchen may also

be inferred from a passage in the autobiography which indicates

that one of the duties of the negro children was "to cut

up wood for the house, and for the kitchen, and to wait on

the cook" (LeConte 1903:32).

Joseph also makes an archeologically important statement

in his autobiography that the "house itself was on a kind of

a knoll that became an island at high water" (LeConte 1903:15).

A symbol of a house is depicted on the 1844 plat map and

is located on the western portion of lot #2, Syphax Plantation,

which was drawn by Joseph LeConte during the settlement of

the estate (Liberty County 1844:189). After Louis' death

in 1838, the plantation was divided among his six children.

William LeConte had already received 'Olive Hill' and Jane





24


(now Mrs. John M.B. Harden) had been given her portion of

the property as a wedding gift. John drew lot #3 and

J.P. Stevens drew lot #1 for his wife, Ann LeConte. Joseph

drew lot #2, which was made up of Syphax Plantation and

the land surrounding the main house complex and settlement at

Woodmanston. Lewis LeConte, the youngest son, drew lot #4

The delineation of these parcels is illustrated on an 1844

plat map located in the Liberty County Courthouse (Liberty

County 1844:189).

What happened to the main house and its outbuildings

was a primary concern. Several possibilities were considered:

1) it may have been burned by Union General Sherman's troops;

2) the house may have been dismantled for building materials

by the newly freed slaves in the area after the Civil War;

3) or it may have simply decayed and fallen down with time.

Jane LeConte Harden resided in the Woodmanston home until 1843

when a new house at Halifax, a mile to the west, was completed.

The old house was used in 1846 by Joseph LeConte and his

bride as a honeymoon cottage (Black 1976:23). After that

the house and gardens seem to have been completely abandoned

for a time. Emma LeConte Furman states that in 1858 the

old house was still standing but going to ruin (Shaw 1975).

By 1866 a letter from Miss Mary Sharp Jones, in Children

of Pride, indicates the garden had already become overgrown

and in sad need of care (Myers 1972:196). The last reference

to the Woodmanston 'lodge' is from a letter written by






25
Joseph LeConte to his niece, Matilda Jane Harden Stevens,

Jane LeConte Harden's daughter, in Baker County, Georgia

in November of 1866;

Annie (Matilda Jane Harden Steven's sister) and Dr.
Adams will probably take possession of the old house
at Woodmanston. How I wish I could drop in upon
them all through winter. If I had time and money I
certainly would particularly as I hear the negroes
express great desire to see me again. But I fear
it is impossible this winter (American Philosophical
Society Library 1866).

This deletes the possiblity that the Woodmanston house

was burned or destroyed during Sherman's march through

Georgia.

The 1896 photographs indicate two structures on the

portion of the Woodmanston Plantation near the two Sabal

palms. The first seems to be a negro shanty fronted by

a pig fence and an okra patch. The second structure is

partially hidden behind a tree, but is in a advanced state

of decay (Figures 6,7). It is probable that the inhabitants

of these structures were former LeConte slaves. Construction

materials for these buildings were probably obtained from

the original plantation complex, possibly even the main

house. But there is also a chance that these shelters

may have actually been a part of that complex, which had

remained in use after the LeConte family abandoned the site.





26


LeConte Gardens

Although Louis LeConte kept himself busy with many

scientific interests throughout his life, his pride and

joy was always his garden. According to his son, Joseph,

About an acre of ground was set apart' for this
purpose and much of his time, mornings and
afternoons was spent there, 'Daddy Dick', a
faithful and intelligent old negro being
employed under his constant supervision in keeping
it in order. Every day after his breakfast
he (Louis) took his last cup of coffee, his
second or third, in his hand, and walked about
the garden, enjoying its beauty and neatness and
giving minut directions for its care and
improvement. His especial pride was four or
five camellia trees I say trees, for even then
they were a foot in diameter and fifteen feet high.

I have seen the largest of these, a double white,
with a thousand blossoms open at once, each
blossom four or five inches in diameter, snow
white and double to the center. In the vicinity of
a large city such a tree would be worth a fortune,
but my father never thought no one did then -
of making any profit from his flowers; it was
sufficient to enjoy their beauty. (LeConte 1903:9-10).

These camellias were so productive that one tree

produced over 2,000 blossoms for a wedding in Walthourville

in 1861 (Stokes 1949:179).

His garden was famous in the United States and Europe

for its many bulbous plants and the cultivation of camellias

outside the hothouse. Many horticulturalists of the day

wrote in glowing terms about the garden. An article entitled

"Notes on Georgia Camelliana" in the 1949 Camellia Yearbook

presents an excellent summary of these sources, among them

Mr. Alexander Gordon's article in Loudon's Gardener's Magazine

written in 1832.





27

The garden of Lewis LeConte, Esq., near Riceborough,
in Liberty County, Georgia, forty miles south of
Savannah, is decidedly the richest in bulbs I have
ever seen; and their luxurience would astonish those
who have only seen them in the confined state in
which we are obliged to grow them in this country.
(Gordon 1832:287)

In 1854, correspondence between the, publication

The Soil of the South and an anonymous writer whose

pseudonym was 'Native Flora', includes a description

of what was probably the content of the LeConte gardens.

Through deduction, James Stokes, editor of "Notes on

Georgia Camelliana" has traced the authorship of this

letter to Ann LeConte Stevens, Louis' youngest daughter,

then residing in Walthourville. After several questions

regarding fruit trees and their cultivation, as well as

other garden inquiries, 'Native Flora' describes the

camellia trees on her family homestead not ten miles away.

You seemed delighted with Mrs. Marshall's find
camellia trees in Savannah. I am afraid you would
not credit me were I to describe several standing
in the garden of our old family homestead about 10
miles from this place. My father planted them
upwards of 40 years ago; they were originally
obtained from the elder Prince, of Long Island.

Were these trees possessed by any of the New York
florists they would consider them an independent
fortune. Imagine what a magnificent appearance
they present in winter, completely covered from
their summit to the ground, with thousands and
thosands of flowers, expanded at one time,
contrasting with their glossy dark green foliage.
You might cut bushels of flowers from them
without missing them. These, with the beautiful
chinese azaleas, decorate our parlors so
gorgeously in the months of December, January,
and February that we have no reason to complain
of winter being a gloomy season. (Soil of the
South 1854:725)






28

The Prince family to which 'Native Flora' refers, and

from whom her father, Louis, obtained his camellias, owned

the Linneaen Botanic Garden at Flushing, Long Island, New

York. According to Alexander Gordon,

The Messrs. Prince are most indefatigable in
their exertions to procure all foreign and native
plants; and in my intercourse with different
gentlemen, in various parts of the United States,
afforded by ample proof of this fact. Its
extent, the great variety it contains, the
multiplicity of agents employed for collection
and disseminating plants for and from it. (1832:280)

Unfortunately, none of Ann LeConte Steven's

correspondence contained a drawing or layout of the garden.

In a letter from Dr. Frances Harper to James Stokes,

Dr. Harper recounts a previous correspondence with Professor

Joseph Nisbet LeConte in 1933;

Miss Julia King, of Colonel's Island, once had
a book on Gardens and Gardening, in which was a
drawing of my grandfather's botanical garden,
this picture having been made by Bartram. I
have never been able to trace this supposed
publication, and I am quite skeptical as to
a drawing by Bartram. Unfortunately, a copy
of this publication has not been found. (Stokes
1949:180)

Various private, public and university libraries

and rare booksellers, both here and abroad, have been

contacted concerning the existence of such a book, but the

search has been unsuccessful. See Appendix A for a listing

of this extensive correspondence.

A list of 40 bulbous plants has been located by

Dr. George Rogers, of Georgia Southern College, in the

John Lawrence LeConte Collection in the American Philosophical

Library at Philadelphia. The list is dated 1813-1815 and





29

is believed to have been the original property of John

Lawrence LeConte's father, Major John Eatton LeConte.

It contained the germination and flowering times of similar

varieties in the Georgia coastal area today (Black 1976:6).

Several varieties of Narcissus, Leucojum, Crocus, Iris,

Gladiolus, Hyacinthus, Lillium, Scilla, Ornithogalum,

Amaryllis and Pancratium are represented (American Philosophical

Society 1813). For a complete bulb list see Appendix B.

Although we have not located a map or formal listing

of plants and trees included in the Louis LeConte garden,

we may infer the inclusion of many native varieties.

'Native Flora' wrote to Soil of the South entreating people

to include such native plants in their lawns and gardens

(1854:90,92). See Appendix Cfor a complete list.

Louis LeConte's love of nature influenced the lives

of all of his children. His two daughters, Jane LeConte

Harden and Ann LeConte Stevens, followed in his footsteps.

Jane LeConte Harden had a lovely garden built at Halifax,

just a mile from Woodmanston, which contained a tiered

garden and a swan pond. There is a picture taken in 1949 of

the moat surrounding the island, which was a portion of the

garden landscape of Halifax. This island contained several

camellias until a forest fire in the 1930s obliterated them.

The only remaining camellia plants of this former garden are

two Camellia sinensis (Stokes 1949:180,181). Emma LeConte

describes this garden in some detail in her journal.





30


There were the flowers of Aunt Jane's wonderful garden.
She inherited her father's love of flowers and Botany---
a large square garden with a circular mound in the midst
in three diminishing tiers, the topmost and smallest
filled with a huge cycas palm whose long leaves drooped
over the brick terrace wall. In this garden was every
known variety of camellia, single and double---purest
white to deepest red-rose and blush and variegated---
great bushes like trees. Huge azalea bushes, not yet in
bloom, and but the magnolia fuscata and tea olive were
(in bloom), and many other shrubs and daffodils, jonquils
and narcissi and many other bulbs-violets. More flowers
than I can remember and this was December! (Shaw 1975)

It is probable that Jane LeConte Harden was influenced

greatly by her father in the organization and planning of

her garden. It also seems likely that many of the plants

at the Halifax garden were propagated from original specimens

or transplanted from the old garden. Based on these

assumptions we may gain a somewhat clearer notion of the

character of the LeConte garden at Woodmanston.

In 1853 Ann LeConte Stevens planned a botanic and

floral garden for her home in Walthourville, and sought

aid from the editors of The Soil of the South. Her garden

was to include fruit trees of several varieties and

exotic as well as native trees and flowers.

The plan for a flower garden which I (Ann) have
drawn on paper is in the Arabesque Style, with
figures imbedded in the lawn. How would you
prepare the ground what manures would you
employ, in which quantites, and how apply? What
grasses should be sown fo form a permanent green
surface like velvet where can it be procured,
and at what price? The beds are to be bricked in -
should this be done before or after the grass is
sown? This garden will be about 40 yards square.
(1853:725)





31


In 1851 in an address before the Southern Agricultural

Society, the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, Jr., mentioned the

camellia, the oleander, the gardenia and the tea rose

as becoming rapidly indigenous in the milder portion of the

state. He particularly mentioned the grounds of the

"late Mr. LeConte of Liberty County. There are seasons

of the year when one literally walks upon camellias and their

seed is freely matured in the open air (Stokes 1949:175).

According to James Stokes, this address was a potent

factor in the almost complete obleiteration of camellias

from the old Woodmanston Plantation in Liberty County.

By 1896 the remaining camellias had reached tree like

proportions, one measuring 56 inches in circumference

(LeConte 1903:10). Photographs taken during Joseph's

last visit to Georgia show their relative size (Figures 6,7).

Col. John R.L. Smith of Macon, son-in-law of Mrs.

Emma LeConte Furman, visited the old plantation site of

Woodmanston in 1910 and reported that at that time the

old Double White camellia tree was still standing. In 1930

G.3. Eunice, County Agent of Liberty County, visited

Woodmanston and reported that the large Double White camellia

was not present but several other large trees remained. One

of the large ones was a particularly beautiful variegated

form. Three days later he returned to get some cuttings

from this particular camellia and found that it had been








A





32


removed by professionals. There was a large hole, several

feet square, to mark the plant's former location.

It is evident that between 1930 and 1933 the LeConte

botanic garden was stripped of most of its remaining

camellias. In 1933 Dr. Francis Harper, a well-known

naturalist of Philadelphia, visited Woodmanston and

found that only a few Cherokee roses remained on what was

a bank of the old garden (Stokes 1949:180).

In 1949 a visit to the old plantation site was made

by Dr. Clyde E. Keeler and Mr. and Mrs. James Stokes.

They reported that at that time no buildings were left

to mark the site of the Woodmanston homestead. The area

was a wilderness and a photograph taken then shows the same

two Sabal palms that may be observed in the 1897 photograph

(Stokes 1949:181) (Figure 6). There was, however, only one

camellia left as a remnant of the once glorious garden,

It was a single flowered red seedling of large size, but

was in a sad state of neglect. A portion of this original

camellia was remarkably still in existance at the Woodmanston

Plantation site in 1979, and was seen at various times during

the year by Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern College,

and Dr. Charles Fairbanks and Jennifer Hamilton of the

University of Florida and many interested Garden Clubs of

Georgia members.





33

By the early part of the twentieth century, ownership

of the Woodmanston Plantation was no longer in LeConte family

hands. In 1911 Syphax Plantation was sold by Emma LeConte

Furman and Sarah LeConte Davis, Joseph LeConte's daughters,

to C.B. Jones and A.F. Winn for lumber purposes. Ann

LeConte Stevens also sold her portion to C.B. Jones and

A.F. Winn in 1911 (Liberty County 1911:340,345). If any

structures were left at this time surely decay and looting

would have taken their toll.


Rice Culture

When Louis' father, John Eatton LeConte, established

Woodmanston Plantation about 1770, the Indian territory was

just over the Altamaha River, only 15 to 20 miles away, and

what is now McIntosh County was a 'no man's land', a neutral

ground, between the Indians and colonists. Woodmanston's

location was therefore vulnerable, and it was frequently

raided by the local Indians. Consequently, John Eatton was

forced to fortify Woodmanston with a stockade and arms as

defensive measures.

The Woodmanston Plantation was a self sufficient enterprise.

In Joseph LeConte's autobiography he recounts,

there were tanneries in which the hides of slaughtered
cattle were made into leather. There was a shoemaker's
shop, where from the leather made on the place the
shoes for all the negroes were made by negro shoemakers.
There were blacksmith and carpenter shops, where all
the work needed on the plantation was done by negro
blacksmiths and carpenters. All the rice raised on the
plantation was threshed, winnowed, and beaten by machinery
made on the site, driven by horsepower, and the horses
by negro boys. All the cotton was ginned and cleaned





34


and packed on the place. As the cotton was Sea Island,
or long-staple, Whitney's invention was of no use, and
only roller gins could be used, at first, foot-gins,
and later horse-gins. For the same reason viz. the
fineness of the staple the cotton was all packed by
hand and foot, the packer standing in the suspended
bag. All these operations of tanning, shoemaking,
blacksmithing, carpentering, the threshing, winnowing,
and beating of rice, and the ginning,' cleaning and
packing of cotton, were watched with interest by us
boys, and often we gave a helping hand ourselves.
There was special interest in the ginning of cotton
by foot and the threshing of the rice by flail, because
these were carried on by great numbers working together,
the one by women, and the other by men, and always with
singing and shouting and keeping time with the work.
The negroes themselves enjoyed it hugely. (LeConte 1903:8,9).

Cows, pigs and sheep were also raised. Ninety cattle, 16

hogs and 13 sheep were listed in the 1838 appraisal of the

estate of Louis LeConte (Liberty County 1838).

My father always attended personally to this place,
on foot in winter, when living on the plantation,
on horseback when the family was in the summer
retreat in Jonesville about three miles away.
But during the period of his ill health he was not
able to attend to the duties of the plantation and
about 200 slaves, so for a year employed an overseer,
the only one he ever had. (LeConte 1903:8,9).

According to the appraisals of the estate made at Louis'

death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230 slaves

valued at $87,980, almost 97 percent of the total estimated

value of the entire estate, excluding land values (Liberty

County 1838).

The success of Woodmanston Plantation, as well as others

in Georgia, was not due to good engineering and management

alone, but was primarily due to the immigration of many

wealthy Carolina planters who come to Georgia to settle

in the area with their families and negro slaves.






35


The reason for this immigration was the changes made

by the British Government and Trustees of the Georgia Colony.

which for the first time allowed slavery and the issuance of

land grants. The early 1760s saw an actual decline in

the population of Georgia because people could not make a

living off the land. Therefore, without the slaves, the success

of the rice culture would not have been possible on the

major scale which it eventually attained.

The immigrants from the Carolinas who came into this

wilderness area had to clear the tidal swampland which

consisted of a matted tangle of cypress, gum, ash, huge

grapevines and cane. The soil under the dense undergrowth

was too soft to walk on and a great variety of wildlife

including alligators, turtles, water moccasins, and

copperheads abounded. To abserve the scene at that

time and envision an orderly rice plantation with many

miles of embankments enclosing the crops was a "testimony

to the ingenuity and ambition which the joint problems of

agriculture and economics were approached in the seventeenth

century (Gunn 1975:2).

There was a limited amount of available land which

offered the natural hydraulics required for the successful

operation of a gravity flow rice plantation. In order to

solve problems of 'on' and 'off' aquaculture flow, and to

maintain the water at the required levels for good plant

growth, the planters utilized the so called 'inland swamp








system'. This was the type of irrigation used at Woodmanston

and it was one of the earliest systems for rice cultivation

employed along the southeast coast.

The almost level river flood plains were cleared, and

then irrigated, by building embankments to divert the water

from nearby streams and rivers which flowed through the

cypress swamp, and by creating an artificial upland reservoir

at a slightly higher elvation than the rice fields for the

collection, and later use of, rainwater and runoff during

the dry season. Natural gravitation was therefore utilized,

via a system of trunk gates, sluiceways and canals, to

control the flow of water on and off the rice fields which were

located at a slightly lower elevation.

The 'off' flow or drainage, when dry culture was needed,

was achieved by constructing a system of drainage ditches and

gates which led the water off the rice fields via a drainage

channel located at a lower elevation downstream fro the main

upland water reservoir. These earthworks were not as

elaborate as those needed to operate the tidal-flow irrigation

system, which were developed at a later date. Nevertheless,

they required a reservoir of such good construction and large

capacity as to not only contain the flood waters of spring

freshets which swept down from the piedmont, but also to provide

adequate water for irrigation of the growing rice crop

throughout the dry summer months.





37


The system of water level regulation relied on the

fact that the direction of flow was always in the same

direction, i.e., downstream from the reservoir. The trunk

gates were the regulatory key to the entire hydraulic

system and had to work with a fine degree of precision.

The most effective irrigation schedule called for four

separate flooding on, and draining off, cycles. The last

cycle known as the 'lay-by', or 'harvest' flow, kept the

rice fields flooded 40 or 50 days, and required close

precision in regulating the depth of the water on the fields

to within a fraction of an inch. The purpose of the 'harvest'

flow was to support the forming heads of the rice plants which

had to be held at a level "up to the head or the point where

the ear was forming" (Black 1976:11-14).

A description of early rice cultivation is found in a

Description of South Carolina. Here it is revealed that

good crops are produced even the first year,
when the surface of the earth appears in some
degree covered with the trunks and branches of trees;
the proper months for sowing rice are March, April
and May; the method is to plant it is trenches, or
rows made with a hoe, about 3 inches deep; the land
must be pretty clear from woods; and the latter end
of August or beginning of September, it will be fit
to be reaped. (Carroll 1836:201)

Water culture was used, not only as a raeans of

irrigation, but also as a method for the systematic

destruction of weeds and insects, and allowed the soils to

be replenished and nourished annually by the silt from

upstream (Phillips 1929:117).





38


The practice of sowing in rows 18 inches apart appears

to have been general practice as late as 1775. "Rice is

sowed in furrows about 18 inches distant: a peck usually

sows an acre, which yields seldom less than 30 bushels or

more than 50 bushels, but generally between these two,

accordingly as the land is better or worse" (Carroll 1836:251).

Modification of the practice came after the Revolutionary

War when the quantity planted per acre was said to be three

bushels. This was accomplished by placing furrows closer

together.

In the Carolina-Georgia lowlands, the fields, after
a preliminary braking, were laid off in broad shallow
drills, 12 to 15 inches apart, in which the seed were
strewn. If the rice seed had previously been "clayed"
by soaking in mud, the water was at once let on to
cover the furrows and sprout the crop. But if unclayed
seed were used they were covered lightly by hoeing and
the 'sprout flow' was omitted. Some planters followed
one system, and some the other. Practice also varied
as to the schedule of the later flows, though most
commonly where the tide was available they included the
'point flow', begun when the seedlings were visible
above the ground, the'long flow' when the stalks were
approaching full height and need help in upholding
their heavy heads against the winds. Between the flows
the fields were drained and the weeds and grass pulled
or chopped out (Phillips 1929:115).

The choice of good sites for gravity flow rice plantations

had always been narrowly limited by the need for a plentiful

water supply. The brook swamps which were used by some of

the first planters, were abandoned within a half century

after tidal flow plantations were pioneered, even though

the engineering effort required to transform the tidal swamp

into a place capable of producing a rice crop was an enormous






39


undertaking. Flooding and draught were the major problems

of the inland swamp system, as stated by Nathaniel Pendleton,

as early as 1796, "the uncertainty of being able to collect

sufficient water on an inland swamp in dry seasons, the

difficulty of draining them at the proper time in wet ones,

and the inferiority of the soil" (Thayer 1957:77).

Therefore, after the Revolutionary War (1783) there

was a gradual shift from 'inland swamp' or 'brook swamp'

culture of rice, such as that used at Woodmanston, to the

'tidal flow' system. Although more elaborate preparation

of the land was necessary for the control of water, this

system proved to be more efficient since it utilized

natural tidal action to flood the fields. The control

of water flow, thus established, was automatic and complete

as long as the banks, trunks, and gates were kept in good order.

The tidal flow system, though more efficient, was

hazardous, nevertheless. Animals sometimes undermined the

banks or bored holes through them to make a channel into

which the water could break through. More damaging, a flood

from the uplands could wreck the levee, or a hurricane

might drive ocean water inshore and raise it to an overtopping

height. Such adverse situations could break down the banks,

thereby allowing salt water to contaminate the fields to the

extent that several years of leaching would be required

to render the soil sweet again. Tide-flow fields, furthermore

were so narrow that the per acre upkeep of banks, trunks, and

drains eventually proved excessively expensive, and other





40


tracts, which were continuously cultivated over many years

introudced an oxidation of humus in the soil and a consequent

lowering of the surface to a point where it was no longer

above the level of low tide, and therefore unworkable

(Phillips 1929:117-118).

Louis' son, Joseph LeConte, discussed rice processing on

Woodmanston plantation as it was done during his childhood.

He noted that the entire processes of harvesting, threshing,

winnowing, grinding, a second winnowing and finally milling

were performed on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22,23).

The rice could be harvested with sickles while still a

little green, it was then left on the stubble to dry, for

about two or three days, and then it was housed or put in large

stacks. Afterwards, it was threshed with a flail, and then

winnowed (Carroll 1836:201). The flail had to hit just right

to remove the rice from the stalk. A drawing of a flail can

be seen in Eric Sloan's A Museum of Early American Tools

(1964:98). It is made up of a 'hand staff' and a 'souple'

connected by leather thongs and a swivel 'hood'.

Winnowing was formerly a very tedious operation. A

large wooden winnowing scoop such as the one sketched in Sloane's

A Museum of Early American Tools, was used to throw the flailed

grain into the air to separate the grain from the chaff

(1964:105). After the introduction of innovations such as

the winnowing house and the 'wind fan', about 1750, this

process became much easier. It is not known whether the





41


wind fan was used on the LeConte plantation, but since the

LeContes were men of science we can reasonably assume that

they would be aware of the latest agricultual inovation.

The next part of the process was grihding, which was

done in small mills made of wood, of about two feet in

diameter to remove the outer hull from the kernal. It was

winnowed again, after which it was put into a wooden mortar

sufficient to contain about half a bushel. It was then

beaten with a large pestle to free the rice from the inner

skin (Carroll 1836:200).

Emma LeConte Furman remembers her childhood days

at Halifax, John M.B. Harden's plantation; "and yonder

hands beating out the rice. The primitive implements being

hollowed out cypress knee and a smooth cypress pestle"

(Shaw 1975). Before the end of the eighteenth century,

mills were introduced for the same purpose. The mechanical

process of milling was accomplished

by setting a row of slotted timbers to slide vertically
as pestles. The revolving of a horizontal beam nearby,
pierces with spokes long enough to reach into the slots,
would successively lift the pestles and let them fall
into the grain filled mortars below. After the pounding
there came the second winnowing, sifting and polishing
of the rice (Phillips 1929:115).

The rice on the Woodmanston Plantation was 'threshed,

winnowed and beaten' by horsedriven machinery which was

made on the plantation. As was the practice of the day, it

is probable that the "whole grains were barreled for market,

the broken grains were mainly kept for home consumption,





42


and the by-product rice flour was fed to livestock unless

it could be sold to brewers" (Phillips 1929:115).

As important agricultural developments such as planting

the furrows closer together, and the use of larger quantities

of seed per acre, were introduced, the yield per man

increased dramatically. As had been noted, in the middle

of the eighteenth century, "a good hand made four and one

half barrels of rice, each weighing about 500 pounds neat,"

or a total of 2,250 pounds. A few years later, just before

the Revolutionary War, De Brahm stated that "each slave

cultivated four acres of rice," and another account of about

the same period placed the product of each slave at about
"75 bushels weighing 65 pounds each," or a total of 4,865 pounds.

If, as it was claimed, each acre yielded about 25 bushels,

one slave could cultivate three acres of rice. However, just

after the Revolutionary War, it was reported that each negro

on William Washington's inland swamp plantation cultivated

four to four and one half acres of rice, or a total of 7,312

pounds (Gray 1958:284).

In The Agricultural History of the Southern United States,

the yield of the rice fields was discussed: the yield of rice

per acre and per man was not as large in the colonial period

as it later came to be because of improvements in cultivation

and milling.

These yields per acre were far above that which oriental

rice producers had been able to achieve in their recorded history.





43


"In 1850 there were only 551 rice plantations in the

United States, as compared to 74,031 cotton plantations;

15,745 tobacco plantations and 2,681 sugar plantations"

(Black 1976:15). Considering this relatively small number

of rice plantations, their dominant influence on colonial

history proves their historical significance.

The total amount of investment necessary to start

and profitably run a rice plantation has been documented

in the following reports:

To undertake a rice plantation in this province does
by several years experience prove to attend the
following aricles, expenses, and profits.

Supposing the land to be purchased as
10/ per acre vide, 200 acres 100 0 0
To build a barn and pounding machine
purchased board and timber 220 0 0
To purchase 40 working hands 1,800 0 0
To purchase working oxen and horses 60 0 0
To two carts and collars 10 0 0
To hoes, axes, spades and other
plantation tools 30 0 0
To annual expenses for tax and quit
rent Lb. 5 & first year's provision
Lb. 50 50 0 0
To overseers wages 50 0 0
To negroes shoes Lb. 6-10 Ditto cloth
Lb. 20-0 & 13 blankets per annum:
Lb. 5-6 31 -16 0
To a box of medicines & doctor's fees
Lb. 20 for deaths of negroes per
annum Lb. 100 120 0 0
Lb. 2,476 -16 0

The aforementioned number of negroes will plant 130 acres
of rice, making 350 barrels at 40/ per Lb. 700 0 0;
also 70 acres of provision, will nearly clear Lb. 23 5
5 percent interest.

The next year's provision article falling away, the
expended capital will only be Lb. 2,426 16 0, and
the interest on it will nearly be Lb. 29 percent.
Those who plant indigo will raise their interest much






44

higher. N.B. the above calculation is on land, which
is already cleared and fenced, for if this is to be
done so full a crop cannot be expected at the first,
and at times not the second year, especially if the
undertaker is not a professed planter, and has not a
very faithfull and industrious well experienced
overseer. (De Brahm 1760: 162, 163)

In a "Short Account of the Sea Coast of Georgia,"

written by Nathaniel Pendleton in 1800, the expense of

settling a rice estate was estimated as follows:

Lands sufficient for 40 working negroes
are 200 acres of rice land, and 400
acres of timber land
3 dlls (dollars) per acre 1800.
50 negroes great and small at 125 dls. 6250.
Building, machines, etc. 750.
Casualties & other incidental expenses 620.
$10,670.

It is estimated one year is supposed to be devoted
to clearing the land, and ditching and banking it
for planting, and, therefore, one year's expense
is considered as so much capital advanced. The
negroes are supposed to be bought on the coast of
Africa, or they would cost more, perhaps 200 each
on an average. They might be imported for 100
dols. at present. The crops produced on rice
estates vary very much according to the state of
improvement the land is in. No crop can be more
certain when the land is in high state of perfection,
that is, when the trunks, floodgates, banks, and
canals are in such a state, that the tide may
be let off and on at pleasure. 200 acres of ground
may be cultivated by 40 negroes, each acre of tide
swamp produces on the lowest computation 1200 lb.
net rice and on the highest 1800 lb. The lowest
price of rice since the peace of 1783 has been 2
dollars per hundred, at present it sells at 6 dollars
and a half per hundred. Take the lowest
computation and the lowest price...(Thayer 1957:80)

Pendleton was the administrator of William LeConte's

estate in 1787. It is possible that some of the preceding

figures came from the Woodmanston or the San Souci Plantations.

The probate for the estate of William LeConte lists 100





45


barrels of rice ready for market which was appraised at $300

and 34 adult slaves plus their families. This seems to

be an average size rice plantation for this period.

Plantations such as these supported the towns of

Charleston and Savannah, as well as Beaufort and Sunbury,

and enable them to develop into enviable centers of commerce

and social life. This relatively stable situation provided

the environment for financial success and the refinement

of a culture peculiar to the old south.

Woodmanston remained a productive rice plantation

until after Louis' death in 1838, within six years it had

been divided into six tracts. During this period wet

rice culture was beginning to be abandoned and dry culture

was adopted for health reasons. Remnants of the dams and

canals used in the plantation can still be seen on the

Woodmanston site, but the entire area is now covered by

cypress and tupelo trees.

In 1861 Joseph Jones wrote an excellent description of

similar environs that accurately describe the Woodmanston

we see today.

We may, in these swamps, see everywhere the marks
of former cultivation in old embankments covered
with large trees and the enclosed lands which were
once clothed with golden rice, now support dense
forests of cypress, tupelo, and gum; and the once
deep and broad canals, which were used by the ancients
to drain rhese swamps, are now covered with trees and
and choked up with trunks and limbs of dead trees
and accumulated sediment (Wilms 1972:51).





46


Slaves

Unfortunately we do not have a tremendous amount

of information concerning the LeConte slaves, the

people who actually worked the land, but through personal

oral interviews of descendants of slaves,, census reports,

estate administrations and family documents we may be

able to piece together a better, more complete picture of

slave life on the Liberty County plantation.

The 1787 administration of the estate of William

LeConte contains as appraisal of the Woodmanston Plantation.

Fifty-one slaves are listed by family names; 14 families

and six single males are included. The United States

Census of 1820, 1830, and 1840 give the number of slaves:

1820 158; 1830 217; 1840 141 (after division of the

estate) (U.S. Census 1820, 1830, 1840). The slaves which

were owned by the LeConte family over the years were simply

passed from father to son as part of the ownership of the

plantation, as was the practice at that time. It is most

probable that some of the original 34 slaves still survived

until 1820, the additional number being their offspring,

although new slaves may have been purchased locally.

At certain times of the year, this labor force was supplemented

by workers from San Souci Plantation.

At least a portion of the LeConte negroes were purchased

from the partnership of Robert John and James Smythe of

Charleston. This is evidence in a letter to Major John Berrien,






47


administrator of the estate of William LeConte in July

of 1787 found in the probate records of Chatham County Courthouse.

Charleston 18 July, 1787

Major John Berrien

Sir

Being informed that you have administered on the
Estate of William LeConte deceased I take the
liberty of acquainting you of a demand of the
estate by the late partnership of Robert John and
James Smythe of this place. The Debt was contracted
on bond for negroes sold him here in the year 1773.
Since which payments have been made, but the balance
remaining still exceeds Lb. 110 sterling you will
do me a favor in informing me by the very first
conveyance, what is become of the Estate and when
a dependence can be placed on the payment, and
in what manner you sill be able to accomplish
it- On receipt of your answer I shall transmit
you a particular state of the bond.

Sir
Your Very Obediant Servant
John Smythe
No. 11 Ellery Street

In the autobiography of Joseph LeConte he mentions that;

During my boyhood there were on the plantation
three very old negroes who were native Africans
and remembered their African home. They were Sissy,
a little old man bent almost double; Nancy, an old
woman with filed teeth; and Charlotte, who left
Africa according to her own account, when she was
twelve. All of them, of course, were superannuated
and taken care of without renumeration (1903:28,29).

A 'Charlotte' and 'Nancy' are listed on the 1787 administration

appraisal of Woodmanston as married women, Charlotte had

four children. If she left Africa at 12 and was purchased

not long after her arrival in America, and was part of the 1773

agreement with Smythe of Charleston, she would have been 26






48

years of age at the 1787 administration and could have

had four living children by that time.

Joseph LeConte was born in 1823. By the time he

reached the 'age of remembering' (1830) these three slaves

would have been almost 75 years old, an -amazing age for

anyone in those times.

In the Georgia Gazette (September 9, 1774) an advertisement

was placed by Robert Bolton for a runaway slave:

Run away from John Eatton LeConte, a negro fellow
named Johnny, who formerly belonged to Mr. William
Wyley, he is well set fellow and is well known in
this town, where he keeps. Any person delivering him
to the Warden of the Workhouse shall receive two
shillings reward.

This notice is evidence that at least a portion of the

LeConte slaves were purchased from local sources.

The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate again

enumerated the slaves by name and estimated monetary value.

Several people are referred to as "old" sos an so. This

term may simply have been used to refer to the relative

ages of several slaves bearing the same name. An example

might be: Old Rachel $300; Young Rachel $600; Child

Rachel $50 (Liberty County 1838). However, some of the

"old" people may indeed be the children of the negroes

who made up the original LeConte investment.

Not all of the negroes on the Woodmanston Plantation

were slaves. The July 12, 1823 edition of the Georgian

published a list of:






49


persons of color who claim to be free, were born in the
County of Liberty, and State of Georgia, have resided
in said State during their whole lives, and have had
their names registered in my office as is required by
law (The Georgian 1823).

Bess, a seamstress, aged 30 years, and residing at Mr.

Louis LeConte's was included on that list.

William L. LeConte, Louis/ grandson, described his

father's "negro quarters" on the Olive Hill Plantation.

These quarters were some quarter of a mile from the
"big house", and consisted of cabins strung along
two parrallel rows the doors facing each other, so
as to make two sides of a parallelogram. The side
next to the home-stead was left open, while the
opposite side of the parallelogram was occupied by
a neat chapel, capable of seating all of our own
negroes, and on special occasions, such of the negroes
on neighboring farms as might wish to attend Sabbath
services. (1900:3)

A slave settlement is indicated on the 1844 plat map

just north of the main dike. Unfortunately we were unable

to find any remaining evidence of slave cabins or other

structures in this area.

An interview with a local inhabitant of Liberty

County in 1979, whose qrandparaents had been former

LeConte slaves, gave us some information concerning

plantation life. He said that his grandparents told him

they had lived in 'pole' houses with two rooms, one for

sleeping and he 'supposed' one for cooking (Flesch 1979).

An 1360 unpublished census report on the slave

population lists Joseph as owning 63 slaves and 13 houses,

and John as owning 45 slaves and 10 houses; approximately

five persons per house. These men inherited their work






50


force from their father and probably provided the same

type of accomodations.

According to the appraisals of the estate made at

Louis' death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230

slaves valued at $87,980, which was almost 97 percent of

the total estimated value of the entire estate, excluding

land value (Liberty 1838). Family documents reflect kind

treatment and close ties between master and slave.

Several instances, both before and after the Civil War,

of mutual concern have been recorded. A photograph of

Emma LeConte Furman's domestic servants taken in 1897

depicts a well dressed family on the steps of her home in

Berkeley, California. A caption is included in an

accompanying letter from Caroline LeConte to Helen Grier

LeConte, John L. LeConte's wife:

I take the liberty also of sending you a group of
darkies, the descendent of neqroes which have been
born and bred there for nearly 100 years Walter-
his wife and children is the carriage driver and
grand Tycoon of the inner temple, the boss about
the premises his wife is Emma's cook, the other
scions of various ages tote the water and cut the
wood and otherwise do jobs around. They pride
themselves on their aristocratic lineage and quite
sneer at the poor white trash in the neighborhood -
the new times of freedom have wrought no change in
these old family negroes they are perfectly devoted
to Emma's interests and are entirely satisfied with
their present arrangement. (LeConte 1897)













CHAPTER III


ARCHEOLOGY


Research Methodology

Archeological investigation of the LeConte-Woodmanston

Plantation began in March, 1979 under the direction of

Dr. Rochelle Marrinan, Georgia Southern College, and

Jennifer Hamilton, University of Florida. Preliminary

inspection suggested a high degree of surface disturbance

which ranged from outright bulldozer removal of soils for

road construction to extensive dissection caused by clear

cutting. The problem of providing information from

archeological evidence to assist the LeConte-Woodmanston

Trustees with interpretive plans was a major goal of the

research.

The basic research strategy can be characterized as

a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal excavation.

It was felt this course of action was necessary in order

to best answer the goals of the Garden Club. According to

Section 1 of the contract between the Garden Clubs of Georgia,

Inc. and Georgia Southern College (1978);

The Georgia Southern College shall do or cause to be done
the following:
a. Test proposed parking area (60 x 100 feet) to clear
for use.
b. Test proposed orientation area (size presently
unspecified).


51





52


c. Testing to discover former location of LeConte garden.
d. Testing and excavation to determine house area.
e. Survey and testing to locate outbuildings and slave
settlements.

A major difficulty to archeological investigation at

the Woodmanston site is the degree of subsurface disturbance

caused by lumbering activities, agriculture and removal

of soil for road construction.

In archeological sites disturbed by cultural activities

subsequent to the period of major interest, either historic

or aboriginal, there is still the possiblity of retrieving

significant cultural information. Evaluations of the

potential of a disturbed site must consider habitat uniqueness

vis a vis resources, physical characteristics, temporal

distinctiveness, kind and variety of activities, quality

of preservation, significance to the local public, and

significance to the regional research design. One must

take into account the amount and type of disturbance

which has occured in each specific instance. "As long as the

cause and pattern of disturbance can be outlined, the

archeologist can add the disturbance variable into the

interpretation of the remaining distribution of artifacts"

(Talmadge et al. 1977:7,11).

Agricultural activities, pot hunting and other destructive

forces may move and or remove some materials but they do not

completely destroy the integrity of the site. Within badly

disturbed sites, several goals may still be approached.

The interpretation of the spatial distribution of artifacts

and features, techniques in tool manufacture, change through






53


time, chronological placement of artifacts, and the

amount of correspondence between surface and subsurface

remains may be explored. The approximate location of

structures, site utilization and technological information

may also be available (Talmadge et al. 1977:8).

LeConte-Woodmanston may be taken as a case in point.

Twentieth century land use has been predominantly lumber

production, cattle raising, and hunting. The area has been

timbered and clear cut and replaced by a pine cash crop.

During initial reconnaissance of the area considerable

damage from logging and lumbering activities was noted.

A portion of the site, just east of the plantation era

landmarks, had been completely removed for use as fill

dirt in the construction of access roads.

The only record of prior archeolgoical investigation

in the area had been done by Gordon Midgette in 1972 and

reads as follows:

In the work that I did at Woodmanston my primary
objective was to identify (from historical
documents and existing botanical remnants) the
general layout of the house, gardens, rice paddies,
etc. I was convinced by Colonel Black's notes and
the personal observations of several other people
that at least a portion of the house site was
still intact as well as part of the garden, the
central axis of the main dam and possibly some
outbuildings within 200 yards of the main house.

I shovel scooped and recorded about 200 square
feet of an area about 100 yards from the main house
that yielded substantial evidence of a wooden wall
and wall trench. This would have been a stockade.

I also recorded most of the existing plants and
trees that seem to be remnants of the gardens and
other plantings in the area of the house site.





54


Surface evidence was extensive for bricked pilings,
walks, and possibly foundations or floors of the
late eighteenth early nineteenth century...(where
the floor is paved brick and sunk slightly below the
original surface of the ground. In the earlier structures
this would be as much as three or four feet.) A
good example is the structure described in my Evelyn
site National Register form. The china that I
recovered from the surface was all within the time
frame expected and correlated with the historical
period ascribed to the house. (Midgette 1972)

This brief note did not provide substantial information for

the present study. The site has become considerably more

overgrown in the last seven years and the only areas easily

accessible are the entrance road and a small area around the

seedling camellia. We were unable to locate the "extensive

surface evidence of pilings, walks, and possibly foundations

or floors of the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century",

since there is no record of the exact location of Midgette's

shovel testing nor his proposed location of the big house

in relation to any standing features on the site such as the

palms, camellia or dike. Dense vegetation and heavy leaf

cover made adequate surface investigation almost impossible,

In addition it was difficult to place any degree of confidence

on the negative result of such a survey.

Archeological goals during the spring excavations were

dictated by the Department of Natural Resources proposed

development plan. This plan emphasized interpretation of

the plantation era site components, the natural setting and

use as a habitat for endangered plant species (LeConte

Woodmanston Trustees: 1978) (Figure 8). In order to provide

necessary guidance for the Garden Club development of the site,





55


our assessment focused on the impact of proposed structures;

the parking lot, visitor interpretation center, and nature

walks on the existing cultural resources and the location

and identification of the remaing plantation era resources.


Transects and Auger Testing

In order to ascertain the extent of the site still

remaining intact a series of linear transects covering the

major areas in question were cleared. This included the

proposed parking area on the northeast corner of the site

which had previously been cleared and used as a source

of fill for the entrance road; the orientation area just

west of the parking facilities; the region encompassing

the palms, the crepe myrtle, the seedling camellia and

the stand of old pecans which is a possible location for

the main house and garden; and the area northwest of the

dike and across the entrance road.

Approximately five percent of the upland was covered

by the series of linear transects which were used to

control a program of mechanical auger and posthole testing

(Figures 9,10). A gas driven 4-inch mechnical auger

was used along with standard posthole diggers. Both worked

well, each had its advantages and disadvantages. The

posthole diggers were more time consuming than the auger,

but they resulted in a wider hole and artifacts were broken

less frequently. Also it provided a clearer picture of

the stratigraphy. The auger, however, is much more






56

efficient in terms of time per test. A great distance can

be covered in a day. It, too, has its disadvantages, such

as the noise and gas fumes and the possibility of getting

caught in roots and clay.

Two teams executed approximately 40' tests per day,

each test extended approximately three feet or until the

drill reached hard packed clay. The test interval was three

meters. Test material was caught in a metal tray and

screened through quarter inch hardware cloth. Findings were

plotted and areas of culturally positive tests were noted

(Figure 11). Surface clearing for positioning auger tests

required substantial crew hours but was the most efficient

method of sampling a maximum area with the least expenditure

of time. This form of testing made it possible to compare

the sparse surface indications with the distribution of

archeological refuse over a large part of the site. For

the most part there does not seem to be a one to one

correlation. Although this may sometimes be so in plowed

field sites, heavy ground cover presents different problems.

Auger testing has been used successfully as a means of

delineating site extent, determination of artifact

distribution and site composition; and testing correlation

between surface and subsurface material in both historic

and prehistoric sites by Deagan and Bostwick in St. Augustine,

Percy at the Torreya site in Liberty County, Florida and by

Coblentz and Powell in the Lubbub Creek Project (Deagan

et al. 1976: Bostwick and Wise, in press; Percy 1976;





57


Coblentz and Powell 1979). Price, Hunter and McMichael used

a 200 pound solid core drill for approximately the same purposes

but the lightweight two man auger offers a much more practical

alternative.

A total of 504 auger and posthole tests were made on

the Woodmanston site, with 17 percent containing material

artifacts. The proposed parking area, land designated on

the 1844 plat map as various agricultural fields, was cross

cut using three transects which covered the section that

had been cleared and stripped of top soil for road construction

and the land to the west which still retained much of the

natural vegetation (Figure 11). A total of 195 auger tests

were performed in this region and only one contained any

cultural material. This test was located within a few

yards of the entrance road and was undoubtadly already

badly disturbed. The potential for archeological information

in this portion of the site is very small.

The orientation area which would eventually function

as a mean of introduction for visitors to the site has also

been tested by means of linear transects and posthole tests.

Twenty tests were performed in this area and six contained

cultural material, including nails, brick fragments, glass

and ceramics. Concentrations of a positive nature in this area

indicate the need for further formal testing.

The central area included the botanical features and

comprised approximately two acres. A total of 73 tests were

made in this area. Seventy percent were positive for cultural

material including ceramics, bone, glass and metal.






58


In an effort to locate the outbuildings and slave

settlement of the Woodmanston plantation we again cleared a

number of linear transects through the pine stand west of

the palms, the area south of the entrance road and the area

west of the dike. Comprising about eight acres, this area

included property indicated by the 1844 plat map to have

at least one 'settlement' and various fields (Liberty County

1844). A total of 217 tests were made with 16 percent

cutlurally positive. In addition to the information abtained

by the auger tests these transects aided in examining the

surface for any depressions or mounds which might look

promising. As on the east of the borrow pit, there has

been a great deal of disturbance from lumbering activities

but concentrations of positive tests in several areas

indicate a need for further testing. One such area is

just west of the camellia near a large oak tree.


Formal Excavation

Auger test results were checked by limited formal

excavation and trenching. Areas of high positive concentration

and areas with low frequencies were checked. The 1896

photographs indicate two structures on this portion of the

Woodmanston plantation. The first seems to be a form of

negro shanty fronted by a pig fence and an okra patch. The

second structure is partially hidden behind a tree but is

in an advanced state of decay. In the central area, two

locations were determined to be possible locations for






59

structures. Slight surface elevation, concentrations of

brick fragments and positive test findings motivated

excavation. Excavated fill was screened through quarter

inch hardware cloth over 3/4 by 3/8 inch diamond mesh by

mechanical shaker screens.

The first group of excavation units were placed

approximately 30 meters east of the seedling camellia,

southeast of the palms (Figure 12). These units exposed

a brick structure which was determined to be the base of

,a double hearth chimney (Figure 13). Evidence of a drip

line perpendicular to the long axis of this chimney was

recorded. This structure may have been part of an outbuilding

from the plantation era. The artifact content of the

structure was relatively high and included ceramics, glass,

nails, pipestems, household articles, grindstones, toys,

gun parts, jewelry, and food bone. Transfer-printed

pearlware,annular wares, Gaudy Dutch and stoneware were

represented in the ceramic assemblage. One piece of

transfer printed pearlware was recovered with a maker's

mark. It has been identified as Ridgeway, Morley, Wear

and Company of Staffordshire, circa 1836 1842 (Godden

1964:565). Fragments of the Clews brothers "States"

plate were also recovered (Figure 15a).

The second group of formal excavation units was located

north of the crepe myrtle stand and east of the north palm

(Figure 12). A linear configuration was observed and from






60


the scattered, fragmentary condition of the bricks indicates

a robbed brick wall (Figure 14). The artifact content of

this unit was less numerous than the first, but of the same

basic nature.

The third and final excavation unit was located just

northeast of the southern palm in an area which showed no

cultural evidence on the surface but had positive subsurface

tests (Figure 11). This was opened in an effort to increase

understanding of the distribution of artifacts over the site.


Trenching

Two diagnostic trench lines were laid east-west and

north-south across the central area, one and one half :meters

wide. The fill from these trenches was not screened but

carefully removed in an effort to assess the presence of

remaining features within the time frame. Although the

first 30 centimeters (12 inches) of soil had been disturbed

by twentieth century agricultural and lumbering activities,

these trenches clearly showed that below this point the

area southeast of the palms still contains cultural information

which is relatively intact.

A feature is an archeological designation for an

anomaly in the soil. It may be a brick chimney base or

simply a change in soil coloration which indicates a

posthole, trash pit or rodent burrow. The features at

Woodmanston are distinct and have not been subject to the

degree of leaching or subsurface disturbance which could






61


have occured. Forty-five features were designated during

the spring excavations at Woodmanston, including a chimney

base and a robbed brick wall. After investigation,

many potentially interesting anomalies turned out to be

burned out tree trunks or small charcoal deposits, but

a number of historic postholes were also recorded and

definitely indicate some sort of activity area.

As might be expected, the main concentration of

features is in the eastern trench in an area associated with

the double hearth chimney base (Figure 12). Several

postholes and two shallow parallel linear discoloration

running roughly north-south were recorded. A few scattered

postholes were recorded in the north-south trench but the

western side of the site was devoid of any anomalies.

It is not possible to outline what type of activity

took place in this area with further intensive excavation.

A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically

stripped in order to assess the functions represented.

Large scale stripping has been used by Honerkamp at the

Riverfront Site in Savannah (1974). Also, an entire

symposium at the 1979 Southeastern Archeological Conference

in Atlanta was dedicated to the use of such heavy equipment.














CHAPTER IV


ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS


The previous archeolgoical survey of the Woodmanston

Plantation performed by Gordon Midgette in 1972 suggested

that major architectural components were still present on

the Woodmanston site. "Surface evidence for bricked pilings,

walks and possibly foundations of floors of the late

eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries" were noted and

therefore, based on this account, it was hoped that these

remains might be located and indentified during the

Spring 1979 excavations (Midgette 1972). Unfortunately,

during the interim span of seven years since the Midgette survey,

even these remnants have disappeared.

Architectural elements recovered during the 1979

excavations include a double fireplace chimney base and a

robbed brick wall. Associated with these structures are

window glass, nails, screws, pintels and other miscellaneous

building hardware.


The Chimney Base

The double fireplace chimney base uncovered at the

Woodmanston site is located approximately 35 meters east

of the seedling camellia, beneath a large pecan tree



62





63


(Figure 12,13). The chimney base is oriented just east

of north, with two fireplaces facing roughly east and west.

The southern end has been parially destroyed by root

activity from the pecan tree, but three courses of brick at

the northern end remain intact. The remaining portion

is 5.5 feet wide and at least 7 feet long. The interior

measurement of the western fireplace is 25.6 inches and the

eastern hearth is 30 inches. Both hearths have an interior

length of at least 6 feet.

The Woodmanston chimney was constructed in a very

similar manner to the chimney base discussed in McFarlane's

description of the slave chimney at the CoOper Plantation on

St. Simon's Island (McFarland 1975:68). A large rectangular

hole was prepared for the chimney base and the H-snaped

foundation, which included a fireplace back, two bricks wide,

and two exterior side arms three bricks wide, which were

laid in place using English bond. The front facing was

added at the same level in a rough form of common bond.

The chimney was built on this H-shaped foundation to the

desired height. Remains of the -mortar indicate that a row

of headers followed the last row of stretchers on the

front facings and may represent a finishing course at

ground level. The Woodmanston chimney had probably been

robbed for construction materials by local residents

sometime in the late 1S00s.





64

Although the basic size and construction of the

Woodmanston chimney base can be determined, the type and

dimensions of the assoiated building cannot be inferred.

Archeological evidence of both planter and slave occupations

on the Georgia coast provide similar architectural information.

A similar chimney base was discovered at the Wormslow

Plantation near Savannah, Georgia by William Kelso of

Emory University in 1963 and 1969. The associated structure

was a rectangular tabby plantation house measuring 32' 6"

by 24' with five rooms and a H-shped hearth, and was built

sometime in the 1740s by Noble Jones. Wormslow was occupied

by various family members and tenants until 1825. The

chimney at Wormslow and the example unearthed at Woodmanston

are both relatively large. Usually such H-shaped chimneys

were located at the center of the house so that the

opposite fireplaces would be in separate rooms, but the

conjectural reconstruction of Wormslow developed by Kelso

from the archeological record pictures the original house

as having a one and one half story Georgian plan with exterior

and interior fireplaces in a double chimney which was located

on the gable end (Kelso 1971).

Another such double hearth chimney of similar dimensions

was excavated by Sue Mullins of the University of Florida on

St. Simon's Island in 1979. This chimney is associated with

a two family slave cabin duplex on the Couper plantation

(Mullins: in press).





65


Although the area 5 meters east and 3 meters west of

the chimney base at Woodmanston was excavated, no additional

architectural information such as walls, piers, or footing

ditches were unearthed. However, two parallel drip lines,

made by water dripping from the eaves of' a building which

created a linear series of concentric circles of water sorted

sand, were recorded just west of the chimney base. Although

the proximity to the western hearth facing precluded the

possibility of a wall or partition in this location, a

possible explanation may be water leaking through a collapsed

roof and then through the wooden floor. Additional evidence

for the presence of wooden floors is discussed in the section

on building hardware.

The absence of footing ditches, piers and other structural

information makes it impossible to define the dimensions of

the associated structure. Most houses in this area were

built raised above the ground to protect the inhabitants from

the unhealthy 'marsh miasma'. It is possible that the

structure uncovered durinq the spring excavations was of frame

or pole construction with sills raised on wooden posts which

rested directly on the ground surface. Supports of this

type would not have left a record in the 3oil. An interview

with a descendant of one of the LeConte slaves sugqested

that the slave cabins were two room, pole constructed houses.

One room was used as a kitchen and the other for sleeping

(Flesch 1979). Whether these structures would have contained double






66

hearth chimneys is doubtful but cannot be positively

determined.

Identification of the source of the bricks retrieved

from Woodmanston is not possible. Very few whole bricks

were recovered with the exception of those still in situ

in the chimney base. This further substantiates the suggestion

that the chimney was robbed for secondary construction

purposes.

The 1890 photograph shows a dilapitated structure in the

middle right portion of the picture (Figure 7). It is

probable that this chimney base was a part of this structure

and had become the focus for refuse accumulation. The

presence of a broken grindstone near this structure suggests

this fact. Prior to this new function as a garbage pile,

this structure was probably a part of the LeConte main house

complex. It may have been a shelter for the domestic servants.

The artifact content of the structure was relatively high

and included ceramics, glass, nails, pipestems, household

articles, grindstones, toys, gun parts, jewelry, and animal

bone.


The Robbed Brick Wall

Evidence of a robbed brick wall was unearthed just east

of the northern palm and in the area of the old crepe myrtle

thicket. A north-south linear grouping of brick fragments 20

centimeters below the surface and approximately 4 meters long

are all that remain of the wall (Figure 14). No perpendicular

configurations were recorded.





67


Artifacts recovered in the associated excavation

were less numerous but of the same basic nature as the

chimney base on the south side of the site. The bricks

which make up this wall are smaller and finer, measuring

approximately 7" x 1 3/4" x 3 1/2". The' bricks recovered

from chimney base were 8 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 4" and of a lighter

color red. This may indicate different time periods or

simply different functions. As was the case in the area

around the chimney base, very few whole bricks were found.

Excavation units were opened three meters to the north,

south and east in order to investigate further architectural

remains. A 'classic' posthole was observed 2 meters north

of this wall. Postholes leave distinct remains in the

archeological record. When a post or pole eventually rots

in the earth or is removed, the hole is filled with soil

and debris which is distinct from the surrounding matrix.

This posthole was the only example in the immediate area

and it is difficult to determine its original function.

It is probable that this wall was also part of a structure

once associated with the Woodmanston Plantation, but without

further investigation its original size or function cannot

be defined.













CHAPTER V


MATERIAL CULTURE


The highly disturbed nature of the Woodmanston site

increased the importance of the analysis of the material

culture. Because the goals of the spring excavations

included the location and specification of the plantation

"big house" and subsidiary structures identification of the

artifacts for use in dating and status delineation became

a primary factor.

The following chapter includes a discussion of the

various artifact types retrieved during the 1979 spring

field session. Building hardware, household furnishings

and window glass have been placed at the beginning of

this chapter because of their direct relation to the
'architectural elements' on the site.


Building Hardware

It was difficult to determine the size or type of most

of the nails recovered at Woodmanston because of the poor

preservation and high degree of corrosion. It was also almost

impossible in most cases to determin whether the nail was

whole or broken. Identifiable nails represented both

individaully hammered and machine head cut nails and a

small percentage of wire nails.


68





69


Cut nails were first produced in the late 1790s in

the United States, and were cut from a sheet of iron, as

opposed to the previous hand wrought nails which were cut

from an iron rod and hammered to a point. Until 1815, cut

nails were finished by hand with different head treatments

produced specifically for different purposes. Several types

are represented at Woodmanston, including the common

'rose sharp', 'clasp nails', 'plancher nails', 'brads' or

L-heads, and 'scuppers'. Plancher nails were eQuipped with

T-shaped heads to hold down flooring. This indicates a

wooden floor was probably present in the structure associated

with the chimney base. Scupper nails were used to nail leather

for bellows or upholstery (Sloane 1964:92).

Correspondence between William LeConte, owner of San Souci

Plantation, and Joseph Chaz, Esq. of Savannah in 1784

includes an order for a cask of 10d and 20d nails and shinqles

(LeConte 1784). This same sort of nail would have been used

on the Woodmanston Plantation as well.

In 1815 the machine-made head was perfected. The

characteristic waisting beneath the head which continued

in machine-head cut nails until 1830 is present in a number of

the Woodmanston examples. The majority of the machine-cut

nails, however, were produced sometime after this date and

are similar to the 'finishing nails' pictured in S.D. Kimbark's

Illustrated Catalogue (Fontana 1970:92). Wire nails began

to replace cut nails for general purposes in the late 1390s.





70


The few wire nails recovered near the chimney base may

represent later additions or simply refuse wood from other

activities on the site.

A dozen wood screws were also recovered during the

spring excavations. Until the 1840s screws were manufactured

with straight shanks and blunted ends but after 1346 they

became tapered with pointed ends, identical to modern screws

(Sloane 1965:25). Examples of both types were recovered

at Woodmanston, but the majority were probably made prior

to 1840. The remainder of the building hardware was made

up of pintels, staples, nuts and bolts, several large

spikes and pieces of wire. A photograph of one of the

pintels is located in Figure 15a.


Household Furnishings

The following furniture was listed in the 1838

inventory of the Louis LeConte estate:

Sideboard 50.00
Large table 20.00
Tea caddy .75
Red bay table .50
Drawers and glass 25.00
6 Windsor chairs 1.50
One dining table 5.00
Sofa 30.00
Set of fine chairs 25.00
Fender, andirons, tongs
bellows and broom 14.00
Green carpet and rug 12.00
Old carpet and staircase
carpet 3.00
One carpet 12.00
1 small table 8.00
Shades 6.00
4 Trunks 3.50





71


Old Sideboard 8.00
1 Set old chairs 4.00
Old small table .75
Old tea table 2.00
Old jet andirons .50
Mahogany bedstead, curtain
and window curtains 30.00
Pine toilet table 1.00
New mahogany bedstead 30.00
2 Painted bedsteads 8.00
2 Old mahogany bedsteads 6.00
3 Washstands 10.00
Pitchers, basins and soup
dishes 4.00
Candlestick, snuffer and
tray 5.00
2 Pr. lamps and 2 flowerpots 2.00

The above list represents furnishings for several

different areas: dining room, parlor, bedrooms and kitchen.

It is possible that the 'old' furniture was used in the

kitchen rather than the main house.

The furniture may have been made by negro craftsmen

on the plantation or purchased in town. The mahogany

bedsteads must have been manufactured elsewhere. Furniture

was apparently available at local stores because Jonn Otto

cites an advertisement for Carnochan's Store in Darien,

Georgia which offered the following New York-make furnisnings:

Grecian Sofas, Bureaus, French Presses, Large and
Small Dining Tables, Ladies' Work tabkes, Candle
Stands, Large high post carv'd Mahogany Bedsteads,
Portable Desks, Tea Tables, Secretaries and Book
Cases, Ladies' Dressing Tables with Glasses, Wash
hand Stands, Foot Benches... (Otto 1975:151)

The presence of a carpenter's shop on the plantation has

been documented and it is possible that some of the furniture

was assemble on the site.





72


The "2 Pr. lamps" may have referred to whale oil lamps.

These were considered somewhat of a luxury because by 1840

sperm whale oil had reached $2.50 a gallon. Most people

had to rely on candles or fireplaces for lighting (Otto 1975:150).

A candlestick, snuffer and tray are also listed in the 1838

inventory.

Whether the slaves provided their own furniture,

or received cast offs from the LeConte family cannot be

determined at this time. The archeological record

provided very little information regarding the domestic

furnishings on the site. Several small iron pintels of

the type used on cabinet doors and a brass key escrutcheon

were unearthed during the spring excavations (Figure 15a).

The key escrutcheons, keys and an iron padlock suggest

that the occupants were in the habit of locking up valuable

items. The padlock front in iron with a brass keyhole cover

(Figure 15a). Locks of this type were not made until the 1840s.

The impressed words 'patent' and 'VR' (Victoria Regina)

also suggest a time from between 1830 and 1906, the reign of

Queen Victoria. A small bronze chest hasp bearing an 1861

date was recovered and further substantiates a late nineteenth

century occupation of the site. A small bronze cupid,

approximately 4 inches high, may once have adorned a chair

or chest made during the Victorian era (Figure 15a).






73

Glass

Window Glass

Glazed double hung sash windows were typical of the

English Georgian style of architecture (Kelso 1971:93).

Window glass makes up 67 percent by numerical count and

27 percent by weight of the total glass sample retrieved

at the Woodmanston Plantation. The presence of this amount

of window glass suggests an elite occupation on the site.

Slave cabins were rarely equipped with glazed windows and

it is doubtful that the post-war squatter occupation would

have been able to afford this luxury either.

Fifty-seven percent by weight and 54 percent by

numerical count of the window glass was recovered in the

area around the robbed brick wall, an area which includes

the north trench. Thirty percent by numerical count and 37

percent by weight was recovered in the proximity of the

chimney base and the east trench (Figure 12). It is probable

that both these structures were associated with the LeConte

plantation house in some way. One may have been the

"big house" itself or both may be subsidiary buildings

which supported the plantation.





74


Beverage Bottles

Fragments of glass bottles recovered at the Woodmanston

site provide additional information concerning the periods

of occupation and the occupants.

Between 1790 and 1810, one of the bottle manufacturing

processes required that the body, or lower portion of the

bottle, be formed in a one piece, iron dip mold, and that

the neck and shoulders be finished by hand. A fragment

of a hand blown neck of an olive green or 'black' beverage

bottle was recovered near the chimney base. Some black

glass bottles were completely hand blown in the United

States until 1820, but widespread use of a three part

contact mold began around 1810. This method consisted

of using a one piece body mold and a two piece hinged mold

for the neck and shoulder. The lip continued to be hand

finished until the late 1800s. Unfortunately, not a single

whole bottle was recovered at Woodmanston, but the

presence of mold marks on the neck portions of the bottle

fragments and the absence of such marks on the basal fragments

suggests that the majority of the commercial bottles retrieved

were blown in the fullsize three piece contact mold.

The two piece mold began to replace the three piece mold

betwen 1840 and 1850. Bottles produced in this fashion

contain mold lines extending from the base of the container

to just below the lip. There are no examples of this type of

manufacture in the Woodmanston collection. Another indication






75

of the method of production which was used is surface

texure. Bottles blown in the contact molds, described

above, have a somewhat pitted surface which resembles

hammered metal. This surface appearance can be seen in

a majority of the dark green and 'blackr glass fragments

at the Woodmanston site.

The snap case, introduced some time around 1857, was

an implement which supported the bottle while the glass

blowing pipe was struck off and the lip was finished.

Before this time, a pontil rod was attached to the base with

a glob of glass to hold the bottle while it was being finished.

When the pontil was removed a tell-tale fragment of rough

glass remained on the base. Since the Woodmanston olive

green and 'black' glass beverage bottle bases lack pontil

scars, it can be assumed that they were produced after 1357.

Fragments of several beverage bottles were recovered

in the area around the chimney and the robbed brick wall.

These fragments make up seven percent of the total glass

sample by numerical count and 23 percent by weight.

'Black' bottles were light repelling and therefore may have

been used for brewed beverages such as beer or ale rather

than wine (Otto 1975:229). Fragments of brown and medium

green wine bottles were also recovered. Tnese few fragments

provide evidence of alcoholic consumption on the site but

reflect moderate consumption by the LeConte family. Joseph

LeConte recounts in his autobiography the strict moral






76

influence under which he had been brought up, and the effects

they had on his early life. "During my whole college

course I never touched an intoxicating drink of any kind"

(LeConte 1903:37). In spite of this conservative attitude,

the LeConte family did own three decanters, and "lots of

wine glasses" (Liberty County 1838).

Prohibition laws against the retail sale of liquor

in Liberty County were strictly enforced, but the use of

alcohol by the slaves is documented in Joseph LeConte's

autobiography. In order to prevent roaming and drunkeness

the planters in the county formed a "mounted police" that

patrolled the area during the night and arrested those

without passes (LeConte 1903:13). The presence of mold

blown liquor bottles near the chimney base probably

constitues evidence of the post-war activity on the site.



Medicine Bottles

Medicine bottle retrieved from the Woodmanston site also

present further sociological information about its occupants.

Portions of a number of medicine bottles which were recovered

during the spring excavations included various sizes (3/4"

to 2" in diameter) and shapes (rectangular, square and round)

(Figure 16a). Commercial and medicine bottle fragments make

up 20 percent of the total glass sample oy numerical count

and 26 percent by weight. The presence of pontil scars

on the bases of three mold blown medicine bottles in the

proximity of the chimney base suggest a time frame ranging






77


from 1810 with the introduction of the three piece iron

mold to 1857 when the invention of the snap case replaced

the pontil (Figure 16a).

Mold blown containers embossed with the proprietor's

name were produced in an effort to reduce the amount the

imitation of the more popular 'medicines' by competitors.

Unfortunately this did not stop the problem, and pirating

continued to be a problem in America. Turlington's

'Balsam of Life', an English made remedy with an angular

pear shaped bottle, was copied in vast number in the

United States from the late eighteenth century and well

into the nineteenth century (Noel Hume 1976:74). The

American bottles were fairly thin and made of a pale blue

glass. A fragment of one such counterfeit bottle was

recovered from the Woodmanston site. A picture of the

Turlington bottle can be located on page 44 of Noel Hume's

Glass: in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological Collections,

and is dated no earlier than 1820 (1969).

The medicine bottles recovered at the Woodmanston site

also present evidence of a post-Civil War occupation. The

first medicine bottles with lettered panels began to appear

sometime around 1867 and were most commonly used for patent

medicines (Lorrain 1968:40). They were usually square or

rectangular with recessed panels on one or more sides on

which were raised letters giving the name of the contents

and the city and state of the manufacturer. Sometime around






78

1870, the 'chilled iron' mold was perfected and enabled

manufacturers to produce bottles with very smooth exterior

surfaces. This eliminated the hammered metal effect of

the earlier molds. Examples of this type of manufacture

were found at Woodmanston and several paneled bottles

were recovered near the robbed brick wall on the north side

of the site. Unfortunately they are not complete enough

to provide information as to the contents or date of

manufacture, but it is probable they were made in Savannah,

Georgia some time after 1870. In the Historical Record

of the City of Savannah, a bottling and soda water establishment

under the proprietorship of John Ryan is advertised as

being "one of the oldest and most reliable bottling

establishments in the country, having been conducted by

its sole proprietor since 1852, in such a way as to give

general satisfaction to all its patrons" (Lee and Agnew 1869:21).

This particular bottling works manufactured and bottled

soda water, foreign mineral water, porter, ale, cider,

cordials, lager beer, syrups, bitters, essences, etc. and

had branch establishments in Augusta, Columbus, and Atlanta,

Georgia.

John Otto attributes the presence of a large quantity

of medicinal containers to the poor diet and ill health of

the slaves and rural populations. Doctors were consulted only

as a last resort and 'patent medicines' were considered the

panacea of all ills. Considering the percentage of medicine





79

bottles recovered at Woodmanston, the assumption may be made

that the site represents a slave or post-Civil War occupation.

However, the large proportion of medicinal glassware at

Woodmanston may be explained by the fact that both Louis

LeConte and his son-in-law, John M.B. Harden, were physicians.

Louis was educated at Columbia College in New York, but

practiced medicine only on his own plantation and among the

poor 'pine knockers or crackers' in the vicinity (LeConte 1903:14).

John A.B. Harden practiced medicine in Liberty County from

1830 until his death in 1848. This practice of medicine

is documented by the presence of his name on a list of

practicing physicians in the county in 1831 (Liberty County 1831).

As would be expected, the general health of the county

greatly improved when wet rice culture began to be abandoned

in favor of the dry culture system for the cultivation of

cotton and corn as export items in the 1330s. As early as

1817, wet culture rice cultivation was recognized as a

health hazard in Savannah, Georgia.

According to John M.B. Harden, by 1845 "less drastic

and poisonous medicines (were) employed and the heroic

treatment of the early schools of medicine once allowed in

this country (had) been exchanged for the milder and more

rational method of assisting nature" (Harden 1845:555).

Drugs commonly stocked at the plantations during that time

included: castor oil, spirits of turpentine, blue mass,





80


quinine, laudanum, paregoric, liniment, verimfuge, and

epsom salts (Otto 1975:232). William L. LeConte, grandson

of Louis LeConte, remember accompanying his mother on her

daily "sick rounds" at the negro quarters on the Olive Hill

Plantation. She would make "a house to house visit of the

quarters and whenever she found any sick, from her medicine

chest she would administer the simple specific which their

several cases called for" (LeConte 1900:3). It is probable

that this same procedure was followed at Woodmanston.

In an article in the Southern Medical and Surgical

Journal concerning tne "Observations on the Soil, Climates

and Diseases of Liberty County, Georgia", John M.B. Harden

discusses the health problems present in the county in 1845.

The more common illnesses included: influenza, whooping

cough, measles, venereal disease, malaria ("marsh-miasmic

fever and sand hills fever"), puerpural fever, croup,

pneumonia, bronchitic, pleurisy, cholera morbus, diarrhea,

dysentery, chronic rheumatism, the scrofulous enlargment

of the lymphatic glands among blacks, cachexia africanus

(dirt eating), dropsy and chlorosis (Harden 1845:555).

Family documents provide examples of these and other

maladies as well as the treatments commonly employed at

the time. A bill from Dr. John Irvine of Savannah, for the

care of William LeConte (1787) included a list of the following

treatments: antimonial powders, fiberfuge medicines, a

saline sedative julap and a vial of laudanum (Chatham County

1787). Mr. William LeConte did not survive. Bloodletting





81

was in Liberty County, as elsewhere, a common panacea.

Louis LeConte's wife, Anne Quarterman LeConte, was bled by

attending physicians, against the judgment of her husband,

as a treatment for pneumonia in 1826 and never recovered.

John M.B. Harden mentions that by 1845 "bloodletting is not

pushed to so great an extent" but even so he prescribed

bloodletting, as well as an occasional mercurial cathartic,

to stimulate the digestive organs, the use of sesquichloride

of iron, and a 'generous diet' for the treatment of 'chlorosis',

a benign form of iron-deficiency anemia in adolescent girls

(Harden 1345:559). Dr. Wells of Walthourville, Georgia

treated Jane LeConte Harden in 1867 for a "violent cold,

attended with fever, much irritation of the bronchial

tubes, and troublesome cough", with a preparation of the

narcotic root, Mandrake; the vapors of Tinc Iodine and

and laudanum; and the continued use of quinine (Harden 1367).

It was generally recognized that the lowland swamps

were not conducive to good health during the summer and

autumn seasons. Therefore, many planters removed to summer

"retreats" on the coast or in the pinelands during these

"sickly seasons". Louis LeConte maintained a summer home

in Jonesville, a few miles south of Woodmanston. During

the summer he commuted daily on horseback to attend to

plantation affairs (LeConte 1903:9).

It should be stated that there is a possibility that

some of the so called "medicine bottle fragments" are





82

actually portions of the chemical apparatus of Louis

LeConte's attic laboratory. Joseph LeConte remembers

how he and the other children would "watch the mysterious

experiments; with what awe his (Louis') furnaces, and

chauffers, his sand-baths, matrasses, and alembics, and

his precipitations filled them" (LeConte 1903:8). Certainly

these vessels must have been broken in the course of these

experiments.


Domestic Glassware

The fragmented, and generally poor condition of the

glass artifacts recovered at Woodmanston has made it

difficult to determine their original function. For this

reason only a small portion of the glass recovered during

the spring excavations can be positively identified as

domestic glass. This classification was based on the color,

curvature and thickness of the glass fragments. It is

possible that some of the glass fragments designated as

"medicine bottles" are, in fact, domestic glass.

The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate lists

the following domestic glassware: 2 glass butter dishes

and 5 preserve dishes; 3 decanters, lots of wine glasses;

pitches and tumblers; drawers and glass; and a looking glass

(Liberty 1838). Unfortunately we were unable to recover any

direct evidence of these items in the archeological record.





83


Ceramics

The ceramic assemblage discovered at the Woodmanston

site includes creamware, pearlware, whiteware, ironstone,

porcelain and stoneware. Cross mending of these ceramic

sherds substantiated the highly disturbe'd nature of the

Woodmanston site. Matching fragments were recovered from

various depths from one side of the site to the other.

Creamware was first developed by Josiah Wedgewood

in 1759 (Noel Hume 1976:124). It is a thin, hardfired,

pale yellow or cream colored earthenware which was dipped

in a clear glaze after firing (Noel Hume 1976:123). This

type of ceramic is commonly found in most American archeological

sites of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

(Noel Hume 1976:125). Earlier peices are a deeper yellow

which became increasingly light after 1785. Creamware

comprises only seven percent of the total ceramic sample

at Woodmanston. Several fragments of a plain hemisphaerical

bowl approximately seven inches in diameter at the rim,

and four inches at the base were recovered (Figure 17b).

Pearlware, also developed by Wedgewood, was perfected

in 1779. It is somewhat whiter than the creamware because

of an increased flint content in the paste, and a small

amount of cobalt in the glaze, which helped to negate the

yellow tint. The formula was copied by many other potters

of the period, and pearlware became increasingly more

available to the general public. It remained popular until

the 1820s.





84


Blue transfer printed pearlware is the most common

ceramic item found in early nineteenth century American

archeological sites. Twenty-five percent of the ceramics

retrieved from the Woodmanston site are of this type (Figure

17a,17b). Transfer printing, on white salt glaze plates, had

been popular since the 1750s and by 1787 this type of

decoration was used on pearlware (Noel Hume 1976:129). Transfer

printing on ceramics required that the desired pattern

be printed in a special metallic ink on this tissue paper;

the paper was then glued to a previously bisque fired piece

of earthenware and the pattern was fixed in the consequent

firing. The vessels were then clear glazed and fired once

again. This technique saved the time and effort required

by direct painting, and allowed the work to be done cheaply

by relatively untrained women and young girls. Mass production,

therefore, made large quantites of pearlware available

during the nineteenth century. Many subjects such as American,

English, and continental buildings, boats, and landscapes

were used in decorative patterns. Early examples were

decorated in pastel colors. However, after the 1340s,

browns, purples, greens, and pinks were also employed

(Kingsbury 1974:169). The majority of the transfer printed

wares found at Woodmanston were colored blue on white but

brown, gray, and pink on white were also represented.





85



Transfer printed pearlware was primarily used

for tableware, tea and coffee sets, and chamberware.

The Woodmanston collection includes fragments of tableware:

plates, bowls, cups and footed vessels.

Portions of a historical dark blue commemorative

plate were found distributed over the Woodmanston site

(Figure 17a). It has been identified as the "States" plate

which was made by the Staffordshire potters, Ralph and

James Clews, of Cobridge, England, sometime between 1317

and 1834 (Godden 1964:151-152). The Clews brothers

produced good quality blue printed earthenware, and were

known as "Potters to her Imperial Majesty, the Empress of

all the Russians" (Godden 1964:151). This particular

pattern was probably manufactured sometime after 1825.

The "States" design is said "to embody the whole

national history" because it contains so many important

national features. The central scene varies with different

vessel forms but is generally thought to portray English

buildings (Larsen 1975:54). This interior view is framed

in scrolls and is supported at the right by a woman crowned

with a plumed head-dress and bearing aloft a "Liberty" cap

on a staff. On the left side, a blindfolded Justice holds

a medallion portrait of George Washington in her right

hand and a sign of the Cincinnatti adorns her skirt. Elaborate

garlands of flowers and fruit complete the design. A ribbon





86


bearing the names of the first fifteen states encircles

the perimeter of the plate, and the words, "America and

Independence" underline the figures (Camehl. 1971:126-127).

An excellent color plate of the "States" design is located

in the "Silhouettes to Swords" volume of the Time-Life

Encyclopedia of Collectibles, under "Staffordshire"

(Time-Life 1980:84). Additional examples can be found

in Elloise Baker Larsen's American Historical Views on

Staffordshire China (1975:54,55,312,313).

A fragment of the "States" plate bearing the name,

"Connecticut", was found in the upper portion of the

builders trench of the chimney base. This suggest that

the structure was not built until sometime after 1825. Other

pieces bearing portions of the words "New York" and "Georgia"

were also retrieved in other areas of the Woodmanston

excavation area.

Pearlware, and later whiteware and ironstone, were also

decorated with a molded shell-edge pattern with a blue or

green painted rim (Figure 17a). From 1780 to 1795 the rims

were carefully painted to create a feathery edge, but after

1800 this type of decoration was replaced by a quickly

painted stripe which remained popular until 1830 (Noel Hume

1976:131). Portions of the earlier type of shell edged plates

or platters comprise six percent of the ceramic assemblage

found at Woodmanston, and a large proportion of the plain

white sherds found scattered throughout the site may also

belong to the undecorated interior portions of these plates.





87


Banded, or annular designs on pearlware, whiteware,

and creamware was another decorative scheme which was popular

from the late 1790s to the late 1800s. This time period

encompasses the main period during which Woodmanston was

occupied, but banded or annular sherds account for only

three percent of the total ceramic assemblage. This small

figure could, of course, represent no more than a personal

preference. All the banded ware represented in the

Woodmanston sample are portions of holloware, such as bowls

and cups. One elaborately decorated banded ware bowl was

uncovered near the chimney base (Figure 17a). Fragments

of a banded bowl and a "mocha ware" vessel identical to

those recovered by Watkins in Darien, Georgia were also

unearthed suggesting a local retail source (Watkins 1970:24).

'Gaudy Dutch' is a polychrome underglaze decoration

used on pearlware from 1795 to 1835. Before 1815 floral

and geometric patterns were produced in soft pastel hues,

but between 1815 and 1835 bright blue, orange, green and

pinkish red became popular (Noel Hume 1976:129). Gaudy

Dutch vessels of the latter variety are represented in

the Woodmanston collection and comprise less than two

percent of the total. This type of decoration was usually

found on tableware, pitchers, mugs, bowls and teasets.

The Woodmanston sample is represented by portions of two

small bowls or cups (Figure 17b).





88

By the 1820s pearlware was being replaced by the harder

'whiteware' and semi-porcelains. Spode produced a 'stone

china' in 1802 and Mason developed an 'ironstone china' in

1833. This ware had a durable earthenware body and was able

to compete in price, as well as quality,, with the imported,

highly fashionable Chinese wares. This type of ceramic was

used as tableware, tea sets, and chamber shapes. The

Woodmanston sample is made up primarily of plates and holloware.

'Stone china' and 'ironstone' was also decorated

with transfer-printed patterns which were previously described.

The only identifiable maker's mark recovered from a Woodmanston

sherd is an ironstone of this type: a portion of a large

soup plate of the "Japan Flowers" design manufactured by

Ridgeway, Morley, Wear and Company, between 1835 and 1846.

It is an attractive pattern depicting a fanciful oriental

scene in a light blue transfer print (Figure 17a). The

partnership of Ridgeway, Morley and Wear produced very good

quality stone china, which was richly decorated in the Mason

style, using the description 'improved granite china'

(Godden 1971:89). A portion of a soup plate bearing this

pattern was retrieved by John Otto from the slave cabins on

Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Georgia. An example of

blue-green transfer printed ironstone was also unearthed

at Woodmanston.

Generally the ceramic assemblage at Woodmanston indicates

a high status occupation. Otto found at Cannon's Point that

a high percentage of transfer printed ceramic and a low





89


percentage of banded wares were characteristic of

planter ceramic assemblages (1975:184). Excavations of

three early nineteenth century upper middle class houses

at Darien, Georgia by Watkins substantiates this idea (1970).

The Woodmanston sample was made up of 25 percent transfer

printed pearlware and less than three percent banded ware.

Stoneware, also associated with more elite ceramic

assemblages, made up 15 percent of the Woodmanston collection.

Stoneware was basically used as utilitarian pottery: jugs,

crocks, jars, and bottles. It fulfilled the storage,

salting and pickling requrements of families in the eighteenth

century and early nineteenth century. Jugs and bottles were

used to keep water fresh, preserve food and store perishable

items (Barnes 1979: 2). Slaves would not have had access to

the variety, or quantity, of foodstuffs which would need to

be preserved. By the 1860s vacuum canning in glass jars

had begun to replace many of the functions of stoneware but

none were recovered at Woodmanston.

Another possible status indicator discovered at

Woodmanston is the number of different transfer printed

patterns which were found. Thirty-two different patterns

are represented on 183 sherds. Unfortunately none of these

patterns can be positively identified because of the

fragmented condition of the sample. John Otto has inferred

from the archeological investigation of planter, overseer,

and slave sites, that the planters purchased large sets from





90

their factors and the slaves and overseers purchased

individual items, or small sets, from local shop keepers.

They also occasionally used old and discarded items from

the planter's family (Otto 1975:174). This would be reflected,

in the archeological record, by a large variety of patterns

in slave and rural white occupation, and a greater homogeneity

of transfer print patterns in respect to the planter.

Pursuing this idea, the Woodmanston site, according to John

Otto, must be assigned a low status occupation. However,

the variety of patterns at Woodmanston may be explained by

the length of the occupation (1760-late 1800s), the

increasing availability of transfer printed wares in the

mid 1800s, and the presence of a post-Civil War squatter

occupation which would not accurately reflect the LeConte

family purchasing practices during Woodmanston's early days.

Porcelain comprises less than two percent of the Woodmanston

sample. Although the majority is plain,several pieces are

decorated with the 'famille rose' design (Figure 17b).

This type of decoration is usually found in mid to late

eighteenth century contexts (Noel Hume 1976:259). 'Famille

rose' is an overglaze decoration which consists of pink

flowers, highlighted in white with drab green leaves. The

Darien, Georgia excavations exposed a similar small

percentage of oriental porcelain. John Otto suggests that

although porcelain is traditionally thought of as a luxury




Full Text
174
Thayer, Theodore, ed.
1957 Nathaniel Pendleton's Short Account of the Sea Coast
of Georqia in Respect to Aqriculture, Shipbuilding,
Navigation and the Timber Trade. Georgia Historical
Quarterly 41:76.
Time-Life Books
1980a Insulators. The Encyclopedia of Collectibles.
Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virqinia.
1980b Smokinq Paraphrenalia. The Encyclopedia of
Collectibles. Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virqinia.
1980c Staffordshire. The Encyclopedia of Collectibles.
Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virgina.
Tucker, D.G.
1977 Millstones, Quarries, and Millstone-Makers.
Post-Medieval Archaeology 11:1-21.
Tyre, Claudia
1979 Personal Items from Woodmanston. A Paper presented
as a requirement for the 1979 Georgia Southern College
field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer
Hamilton, Department of Anthropology, University of
Florida.
Watkins, C. Malcolm
1970 Artifacts from the sites of three Nineteenth Century
Houses and Ditches at Darien Bluff, Georqia.
University of Georgia Laboratory of Archeology Series.
Report #9.
White, George
1854 Historical Collections of Georgia. Pudney and Russell,
New York.
White, James T.
1909 The National Cyclopaedia of America (Vol 11).
James T. White, New York.
Wilms, Douglas C.
1972 The Development of Rice Culture in Eighteenth
Century, Southeastern Geographic 1:45-57.


LeCONTE-WOODMANSTON SITE 1979
Proposed
Parking
Area
\
Ma in Dike
1 2 0 0 0
Transect
Excavation Unit a
Trench Line 1
J. Hamilton
132


20
No separate botanical work bears his name as author,
nor any in zoology that we know of, except one on
American Lepidoptera, published in connection with
M. Boisduval. But the Royal Society's Catalogue
of Scientific Papers records the title and place and
date of publication of 35 of them, 11 of which are
botanical. Several of these are monographs. The
earliest, on the U.S. species of Paspalum, was
published in the year 1820; three others, namely
those on Utricularia, Gratiola, and Ruellia, all
in 1824; those on Tillandsia and Viola in 1826;
that on Paneratium in 1828. He was a keen but
leisurely observer and investigator, and still more
leisurely writer. He was a man of very refined
and winning manners, of scholarly habits and wide
reading, of an inquiring and original turn of mind,
the fruitfulness of which was subdued by chronic
invalidism. When he went to Paris he took with
him his herbarium, which for that time was unusually
rich in plants of Lower Georgia and Florida; and we
remember his remark that his botanical acquaintances
there made very free use of his permission to help
themselves to the duplicates. There is reason to think,
accordingly, that the remains of it which went to the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences will not
throw all the light which might be expected upon the
species of plants which were described in his
published papers.
His old friend, Torrey and William Cooper, named in
his honor the genus which, as it proved, Rafinesque
had some years earlier named Peltandra. And the
opportunity was soon lost of commemorating his name
in a plant of his own country; for Achile Richard in
Parish, in 1829, bestowed the name of Lecontia upon a
genus of Madasgascar Rubiacea, now of five species.
(Gray 1883:198-199)
Major John Eatton LeConte's son, John Lawrence LeConte,
later became one of the leading entomologists in the United
States and published a number of papers including the
Classification of the Coleptera of North America in 1883.
The most well known in the scientific world perhaps
are two of Louis LeConte's sons, John and Joseph LeConte,
referred to as 'the gemini of the scientific world'. Early


Ceramics 83
Cutlery 92
Personal Items 92
Buttons 9 5
Jewelry 96
Firearms 9 8
Tobacco and Smokinq Equipment 100
Toys and Games 103
Miscellaneous Personal Items- 104
Horses and Carriages 105
Tools 105
Grindstones 106
Faunal Material 107
Aboriginal Material 110
VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Ill
APPENDICES
A. ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED 155
B. LIST OF BULBS 157
C. HORTICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS 161
D. SPECIES LIST 163
E. COMPOSITE TABLE FOR ALL FAUNA 164
REFERENCES CITED 167
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 175
vi


98
Firearms
Joseph LeConte states that at least twenty guns of all
kinds were kept in the plantation house: "rifles and shot
guns, single barreled guns and double barreled guns, muskets
and sporting guns, big guns, little guns- and medium sized
guns, long guns and short guns. There was a complete armory
of them upstairs in one of the closets" (LeConte 1903:19).
He also mentioned that his grandfather, John Eatton LeConte,
used "revolutionary muskets" to fight off the Indians.
Guns were an important part of rural nineteenth century
life. The LeConte boys made their own guns which ranged
from crude match pistols to efficient rifles for their own
entertainment as well as hunting (LeConte 1903:24).
Among the cultural materials recovered from the Woodmanston
site were sparse remains of firearm devices used on the
plantation. Several dark gray gunflints were recovered,
which indicate that the flintlock musket was used there
(Figure 15b). The flintlock mechanism produced the
necessary spark for igniting the gun powder by striking
a chuck of flint against a piece of steel. In addition to
the gunflints, a few copper caps were found, indicating that
percussion ignition was used (Figure 15b). The percussion
cap designed by Joshua Shaw in 1816 was manufactured from
sheet copper and shaped like a stove pipe hat. The priming
compound, which contained a fulminate charge, was deposited
in the cap and covered with a thin layer of metal foil, and
finally, the contents of the cap was sealed with shellac.


APPENDIX E
COMPOSITE TARLE FOR ALL FAUNA
Broken Down by Three
Major
Excavation
Groupings
Table -
1
i1
c
c
0
0
0
p
E-*
H
p
+j
-P
,c
4-1
q
q
4-)
C
n >
-C >
o q
r-H
P
4-> q q
4-i q q
q
q
0
POO)
POP
r1 (l)
4-1
p
0 X P
0 X P
r-H ^-1
0
p
z w <
W H C
< <
E-t
Didelphis virqiniana
13
13
1.43
Svlvilaqus sp.
2
6
8
0.88
Rodentia
4
4
0.44
Rattus sp.
6
6
0.66
Procvon lotor
10
10
1.10
Artiodactyla
1
1
0.11
cf. Sus
2
2
0.22
cf. Bos
1
1
0.11
Sus scrofa
1
27
28
3.09
Bos taurus
8
6
0.66
Mammal, Large
3
106
3
112
12.37
Mammal
2
104
2
108
11.93
Aves
46
46
5.08
cf. Anhinqa
1
1
0.11
cf. Gallus
1
1
0.11
Anhinga anhinga
2
2
0.22
Phlegadis falcinella
3
3
0.33
Anser anser
1
1
0.11
Phasianidae cf. Colinus
1
1
0.11
Gallus gallus
3
3
0.33
Alligator mississipiensis
1
1
0.11
Testudines
2
2
0.22
Kinosternidae
5
5
0.55
Kinosternon sp.
17
17
1.87
Emydidae cf. Chrysemys
2
2
0.22
Unidentified snake
8
8
0.88
Anura
10
10
1.10
Amia calva
12
12
1.32
Ictaluridae
9
9
0.99
Ictalurus sp.
9
9
0.99
Centrarchidae
3
3
0.33
cf. Pomoxis
2
2
0.22
Micropterus sp.
'
3
3
0.33
Unidentified fish
74
74
8.17
Unidentified
6
363
16
385
42.57
Unidentified shell
2
3
3
6
0.66
TOTALS
16
867
22
905
99.90
164


Figure 17a: Ceramics. Clockwise: /shell-edged
pearlware; transfer printed ironstone;
blue-on-white transfer printed pearlware;
fragments of the Clews brothers'
"States" pattern; Ridgeway, Morley,
Wear and Company, 'Japan Flowers' pattern;
annular ware.
Figure 17b:
Ceramics.
pearlware,
creamware,
Clockwise: transfer printed
directed painted pearlware,
'Gaudy Dutch', annular ware,
'famille rose' porcelain.


Figure 6: Photograph of LeConte-Woodmanston site in 1897.
Note the two Sabal Palms and the Camellia japnica
trees in the background.


36
system'. This was the type of irrigation used at Woodmanston
and it was one of the earliest systems for rice cultivation
employed along the southeast coast.
The almost level river flood plains were cleared, and
then irrigated, by building embankments to divert the water
from nearby streams and rivers which flowed through the
cypress swamp, and by creating an artificial upland reservoir
at a slightly higher elvation than the rice fields for the
collection, and later use of, rainwater and runoff during
the dry season. Natural gravitation was therefore utilized,
via a system of trunk gates, sluiceways and canals, to
control the flow of water on and off the rice fields which were
located at a slightly lower elevation.
The 'off' flow or drainage, when dry culture was needed,
was achieved by constructing a system of drainage ditches and
gates which led the water off the rice fields via a drainage
channel located at a lower elevation downstream fro the main
upland water reservoir. These earthworks were not as
elaborate as those needed to operate the tidal-flow irrigation
system, which were developed at a later date. Nevertheless,
they required a reservoir of such good construction and large
capacity as to not only contain the flood waters of spring
freshets which swept down from the piedmont, but also to provide
adequate water for irrigation of the growing rice crop
throughout the dry summer months.


84
Blue transfer printed pearlware is the most common
ceramic item found in early nineteenth century American
archeological sites. Twenty-five percent of the ceramics
retrieved from the Woodmanston site are of this type (Figure
17a,17b). Transfer printing, on white salt glaze plates, had
been popular since the 1750s and by 1787 this type of
decoration was used on pearlware (Noel Hume 1976:129). Transfer
printing on ceramics required that the desired pattern
be printed in a special metallic ink on this tissue paper;
the paper was then glued to a previously bisque fired piece
of earthenware and the pattern was fixed in the consequent
firing. The vessels were then clear glazed and fired once
again. This technique saved the time and effort required
by direct painting, and allowed the work to be done cheaply
by relatively untrained women and young girls. Mass production,
therefore, made large quantites of pearlware available
during the nineteenth century. Many subjects such as American,
English, and continental buildings, boats, and landscapes
were used in decorative patterns. Early examples were
decorated in pastel colors. However, after the 1340s,
browns, purples, greens, and pinks were also employed
(Kingsbury 1974:169). The majority of the transfer printed
wares found at Woodmanston were colored blue on white but
brown, gray, and pink on white were also represented.


7
The Georgia Historical Library, Savannah, Georgia, was
an important source of information. The LeConte family files
were the starting place for much of the family history.
The index of Savannah newspapers was an exciting discovery.
The LeContes are mentioned in nearly every volume from 1767
tp 1840, and details concerning debts, runaway slaves,
trips abroad and stockholders lists, as well as Jane LeConte
Harden, Louis' oldest daughter's, wedding at Woodmanston
in January, 1834 are duly noted,(Daily Georgian 1832).
The Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical
Society, and the Pennsylvania Historical Society, all in
Philidelphia, provided additional information regarding
the LeConte family, the "old house at Woodmanston ", and
the family slaves.
Sites, such as Woodmanston, disturbed as they are,
still offer the opportunity to illuminate the past. While
acknowledgeing that extensive documentary research is
a requisite to excavation, many aspects of plantation life,
especially the daily lives of the slaves, simply were not
considered worthy of recording. It must also be acknowledged
that excavations such as that at Woodmanston often expose new
problems and thereby define new avenues for documentation.


77
from 1810 with the introduction of the three piece iron
mold to 1857 when the invention of the snap case replaced
the pontil (Figure 16a).
Mold blown containers embossed with the proprietor's
name were produced in an effort to reduce the amount the
imitation of the more popular 'medicines' by competitors.
Unfortunately this did not stop the problem, and pirating
continued to be a problem in America. Turlington's
'Balsam of Life', an English made remedy with an angular
pear shaped bottle, was copied in vast number in the
United States from the late eighteenth century and well
into the nineteenth century (Noel Hume 1976:74). The
American bottles were fairly thin and made of a pale blue
glass. A fragment of one such counterfeit bottle was
recovered from the Woodmanston site. A picture of the
Turlington bottle can be located on page 44 of Noel Hume's
Glass: in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological Collections,
and is dated no earlier than 1320 (1969).
The medicine bottles recovered at the Woodmanston site
also present evidence of a post-Civil War occupation. The
first medicine bottles with lettered panels began to appear
sometime around 1867 and were most commonly used for patent
medicines (Lorrain 1968:40). They were usually square or
rectangular with recessed panels on one or more sides on
which were raised letters giving the name of the contents
and the city and state of the manufacturer. Sometime around


47
administrator of the estate of William LeConte in July
of 1787 found in the probate records of Chatham County Courthouse.
Charleston 18 July, 1787
Major John Berrien
Sir
Being informed that you have administered on the
Estate of William LeConte deceased I take the
liberty of acquainting you of a demand of the
estate by the late partnership of Robert John and
James Smythe of this place. The Debt was contracted
on bond for negroes sold him here in the year 1773.
Since which payments have been made, but the balance
remaining still exceeds Lb. 110 sterling you will
do me a favor in informing me by the very first
conveyance, what is become of the Estate and when
a dependence can be placed on the payment, and
in what manner you sill be able to accomplish
it- On receipt of your answer I shall transmit
you a particular state of the bond.
Sir
Your Very Obediant Servant
John Smythe
No. 11 Ellery Street
In the autobiography of Joseph LeConte he mentions that;
During my boyhood there were on the plantation
three very old negroes who were native Africans
and remembered their African home. They were Sissy,
a little old man bent almost double; Nancy, an old
woman with filed teeth; and Charlotte, who left
Africa according to her own account, when she was
twelve. All of them, of course, were superannuated
and taken care of without renumeration (1903:28,29).
A 'Charlotte' and 'Nancy' are listed on the 1787 administration
appraisal of Woodmanston as married women, Charlotte had
four children. If she left Africa at 12 and was purchased
not long after her arrival in America, and was part of the 1773
agreement with Smythe of Charleston, she would have been 26


Figure 18a:
Personal artifacts. Clockwise: wood
and porcelain buttons, white kaolin clay
pipe stems and bowl, porcelain doll,
beads, hat or hair pin.
Personal artifact. Clockwise: bronze
'cupid', bracelet, thimbles, clay pipe
bowl, overall fastener, safety pin,
slate pencil, metal buttons, earrings,
iron scissors, clay marble.
Figure 18b:


59
structures. Slight surface elevation, concentrations of
brick fragments and positive test findings motivated
excavation. Excavated fill was screened through quarter
inch hardware cloth over 3/4 by 3/8 inch diamond mesh by
mechanical shaker screens.
The first group of excavation units were placed
approximately 30 meters east of the seedling camellia,
southeast of the palms (Figure 12). These units exposed
a brick structure which was determined to be the base of
a double hearth chimney (Figure 13). Evidence of a drip
line perpendicular to the long axis of this chimney was
recorded. This structure may have been part of an outbuilding
from the plantation era. The artifact content of the
structure was relatively hign and included ceramics, glass,
nails, pipestems, household articles, grindstones, toys,
gun parts, jewelry, and food bone. Transfer-printed
pearlware,annular wares, Gaudy Dutch and stoneware were
represented in the ceramic assemblage. One piece of
transfer printed pearlware was recovered with a maker's
mark. It has been identified as Ridgeway, Morley, Wear
and Company of Staffordshire, circa 1336 1842 (Godden
1964:565). Fragments of the Clews brothers "States"
plate were also recovered (Figure 15a).
The second group of formal excavation units was located
north of the crepe myrtle stand and east of the north palm
(Figure 12). A linear configuration was observed and from


66
hearth chimneys is doubtful but cannot be positively
determined.
Identification of the source of the bricks retrieved
from Woodmanston is not possible. Very few whole bricks
were recovered with the exception of those still in situ
in the cnimney base. This further substantiates the suggestion
that the chimney was robbed for secondary construction
purposes.
The 1890 photograph shows a dilapitated structure in the
middle right portion of the picture (Figure 7). It is
probable that this chimney base was a part of this structure
and had become the focus for refuse accumulation. The
presence of a broken grindstone near this structure suggests
this fact. Prior to this new function as a garbage pile,
this structure was probably a part of the LeConte main house
complex. It may have been a shelter for the domestic servants.
The artifact content of the structure was relatively high
and included ceramics, glass, nails, pipestems, household
articles, grindstones, toys, gun parts, jewelry, and animal
bone.
The Robbed Brick Wall
Evidence of a robbed brick wall was unearthed just east
of the northern palm and in the area of the old crepe myrtle
thicket. A north-south linear grouping of brick fragments 20
centimeters below the surface and approximately 4 meters long
are all that remain of the wall (Figure 14) I^o perpendicular
configurations were recorded.


Figure 4: 1973 survey of the Woodraanston Plantation area.


to thank Dr. Elizabeth Wing for providing access to the
Florida State Museum Faunal Collections and to Dr. Rochelle
Marrinan for Derformino the analysis. The author would also
like to mention the daily suoport and companionship of
Sue Mullins with whom she shared the archeoloay lab and the
person who finally identified the Clews brothers' "States"
plate.
The author's family deserves very special thanks for
their patience and support during her entire graduate
career. Separate acknowledaments go to David Hamilton
for help in the editing process and to Eleanor Hamilton
for typing the numerous drafts.
Finally the author would like to thank the members
of her committee for their support: Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks,
Chairman; Dr. Jerald Milanich; Dr. Prudence Rice and
Dr. Elizabeth Wing for being present at the defense in
Dr. Rice's absence.
IV


114
In the case of Woodmanston, archeology was done at
the site, not seven years too late, but probably as much
as 40 or 50 years too late. But even under such circumstances
we must be careful not to give up too easily. There is
still potential for yielding interesting' cultural information.
It is hoped that additional archeological investigation,
specifically oriented at looking at possible structural
information which we know remains through the presence of
numerous postholes, will be possible. This would require
a different strategy than the diagnostic survey conducted
in 1979.
A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically
stripped in order to assess the activities represented.
It is possible that heavy machinery could be used to facilitate
that portion of the investigation. LeConte-Woodmanston
has the advantage that its access roads have been maintained
for use with logging trucks so that the problem of site
inaccessibilty would be negligible. The central area is also
relatively free of large trees and woody shrubs which might
prove to be an impediment to earth moving equipment.


61
have occured. Forty-five features were designated during
the spring excavations at Wocdmanston, including a chimney
base and a robbed brick wall. After investigation,
many potentially interesting anomalies turned out to be
burned out tree trunks or small charcoal deposits, but
a number of historic postholes were also recorded and
definitely indicate some sort of activity area.
As might be expected, the main concentration of
features is in the eastern trench in an area associated with
the double hearth chimney base (Figure 12). Several
postholes and two shallow parallel linear discoloration
running roughly north-south were recorded. A few scattered
postholes were recorded in the north-south trench but the
western side of the site was devoid of any anomalies.
It is not possible to outline what type of activity
took place in this area with further intensive excavation.
A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically
stripped in order to assess the functions represented.
Large scale stripping has been used by Honerkamp at the
Riverfront Site in Savannah (1974). Also, an entire
symposium at the 1979 Southeastern Archeological Conference
in Atlanta was dedicated to the use of such heavy equipment.


Figure 19a: Quartz crystal recovered near the
chimney base.
Figure 19b:
Grindstone fragment. Note central
hole and finished edge.


64
Although the basic size and construction of the
Woodmanston chimney base can be determined, the type and
dimensions of the assoiated building cannot be inferred.
Archeological evidence of both planter and slave occupations
on the Georgia coast provide similar architectural information.
A similar chimney base was discovered at the Wormslow
Plantation near Savannah, Georgia by William Kelso of
Emory University in 1963 and 1969. The associated structure
was a rectangular tabby plantation house measuring 32' 6"
by 24' with five rooms and a H-shped hearth, and was built
sometime in the 1740s by Noble Jones. Wormslow was occupied
by various family members and tenants until 1825. The
chimney at Wormslow and the example unearthed at Woodmanston
are both relatively large. Usually such H-shaped chimneys
were located at the center of the house so that the
opposite fireplaces would be in separate rooms, but the
conjectural reconstruction of Wormslow developed by Kelso
from the archeological record pictures the original house
as having a one and one half story Georgian plan with exterior
and interior fireplaces in a double chimney which was located
on the gable end (Kelso 1971).
Another such double hearth chimney of similar dimensions
was excavated by Sue Mullins of the University of Florida on
St. Simon's Island in 1979. This chimney is associated with
a two family slave cabin duplex on the Couper plantation
(Mullins: in press).


74
Beverage Bottles
Fragments of glass bottles recovered at the Woodmanston
site provide additional information concerning the periods
of occupation and the occupants.
Between 1790 and 1810, one of the bottle manufacturing
processes required that the body, or lower portion of the
bottle, be formed in a one piece, iron dip mold, and that
the neck and shoulders be finished by hand. A fragment
of a hand blown neck of an olive green or 'black' beverage
bottle was recovered near the chimney base. Some black
glass bottles were completely hand blown in the United
States until 1820, but widespread use of a three part
contact mold began around 1810. This method consisted
of using a one piece body mold and a two piece hinged mold
for the neck and shoulder. The lip continued to be hand
finished until the late 1800s. Unfortunately, not a single
whole bottle was recovered at Woodmanston, but the
presence of mold marks on the neck portions of the bottle
fragments and the absence of such marks on the basal fragments
suggests that the majority of the commercial bottles retrieved
were blown in the fullsize three piece contact mold.
The two piece mold began to replace the three piece mold
betwen 1340 and 1850. Bottles produced in this fashion
contain mold lines extending from the base of the container
to just below the lip. There are no examples of this type of
manufacture in the Woodmanston collection. Another indication


12
British Governor of Georgia. The property was purchased
with money derived from the sale of the family's
ancestral estate on the Island of Martinique (LeConte 1933:3).
The American Revolutionary War, begun in 1775, had
considerable effect on Liberty County and the LeConte family.
William LeConte was elected to the Provincial Congress of
July 4, 1774 by the Parish of St. Phillip. He was also a
representative on the first Safety Council and a signer
of a letter of demonstration to Governor Wright (White 1854:177)
John Eatton LeConte became a physician. Since there were
no medical colleges in the American colonies at that time,
he studied medicine with his father, Pierre LeConte. During
the revolution his sympathies were with the colonists, and
sometime in 1775 he personally took a contribution of 63
barrels of rice and 22 pounds sterling in specie to 3oston
to relieve those suffering from the British blockade of
the city (Jones 1883:176). Later, John Eatton made his
permanent home in Boston, and visited Woodmanston, the rice
plantation which he established in Georgia, only during the
winter months.
In 1776 he married Jane Sloane in New York City and
they had three sons; William (1777-1807), Louis (1782-1838)
and John Eatton, Jr. (1784-1860). The family lived in
Shrewsbury until the children were of college age, at which
time they moved to New York City. Louis LeConte and the
period associated with his residence at the Woodmanston
plantation are the major foci of this study.


Figure 12:
Excavation plan for the 1979 spring field session.
Note existing ornamental plantings. A double hearth
chimney base was recovered from the units near the
pecan and a robbed brick wall was unearthed near
the crepe myrtle.


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INGEST IEID ERJKBSA89_DXQX5Q INGEST_TIME 2014-12-05T22:57:09Z PACKAGE AA00026475_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


41
wind fan was used on the LeConte plantation, but since the
LeContes were men of science we can reasonably assume that
they would be aware of the latest agricultual inovation.
The next part of the process was grinding, which was
done in small mills made of wood, of about two feet in
diameter to remove the outer hull from the kernal. It was
winnowed again, after which it was put into a wooden mortar
sufficient to contain about half a bushel. It was then
beaten with a large pestle to free the rice from the inner
skin (Carroll 1836:200).
Emma LeConte Furman remembers her childhood days
at Halifax, John M.B. Harden's plantation; "and yonder
hands beating out the rice. The primitive implements being
hollowed out cypress knee and a smooth cypress pestle"
(Shaw 1975). Before the end of the eighteenth century,
mills were introduced for the same purpose. The mechanical
process of milling was accomplished
by setting a row of slotted timbers to slide vertically
as pestles. The revolving of a horizontal beam nearby,
pierces with spokes long enough to reach into the slots,
would successively lift the pestles and let them fall
into the grain filled mortars below. After the pounding
there came the second winnowing, sifting and polishing
of the rice (Phillips 1929:115).
The rice on the Woodmanston Plantation was 'threshed,
winnowed and beaten' by horsedriven machinery which was
made on the plantation. As was the practice of the day, it
is probable that the "whole grains were barreled for market,
the broken grains were mainly kept for home consumption,


126


91
item, it may not be possible to use it as a status indicator
because it has also been found in known slave contexts
(Otto 1975:183).
Vessel shape has also proven to be an important status
indicator. Again, according to Otto,the' planter would have
a greater number of vessel shapes. Dinner platters, soup
plates, and bowls and cups of various sizes are represented
at Woodmanston in pearlware,whiteware, creamware, ironstone
and porcelain. This variety of shapes is a function of the
varied diet of the planter. Beef, mutton, and pork, as well
as steamed vegetables, were available from the larders of
the plantation.
An analysis of the ceramic assemblage from Woodmanston
suggests an early to mid nineteenth century elite planter
occupation with a later post-Civil War squatter occupation.
The high percentage of transfer printed wares and deficit
of banded wares, the presence of elaborately decorated
commemorative items, the high percentage of stoneware
storage vessels, and the variety of vessel shapes may be
used as indicators of high status. The post-Civil War
squatter occupation is represented by an additional variety
of transfer printed patterns and the later ironstone ceramics.


152


46
Slaves
Unfortunately we do not have a tremendous amount
of information concerning the LeConte slaves, the
people who actually worked the land, but through personal
oral interviews of descendants of slaves-, census reports,
estate administrations and family documents we may be
able to piece together a better, more complete picture of
slave life on the Liberty County plantation.
The 1787 administration of the estate of William
LeConte contains as appraisal of the Woodmanston Plantation.
Fifty-one slaves are listed by family names; 14 families
and six single males are included. The United States
Census of 1820, 1830, and 1840 give the number of slaves:
1820 158; 1830 217; 1840 141 (after division of the
estate) (U.S. Census 1820, 1830, 1840). The slaves which
were owned by the LeConte family over the years were simply
passed from father to son as part of the ownership of the
plantation, as was the practice at that time. It is most
probable that some of the original 34 slaves still survived
until 1820, the additional number being their offspring,
although new slaves may have been purchased locally.
At certain times of the year, this labor force was supplemented
by workers from San Souci Plantation.
At least a portion of the LeConte negroes were purchased
from the partnership of Robert John and James Smythe of
Charleston. This is evidence in a letter to Major John Berrien,


The site has been badly disturbed by lumbering activities
over the past 25 years, but there is still potential for
retrieving valuable archeological data. The basic research
strategy included the use of linear transects to control
a program of mechancial auger tests. This procedure provided
a satisfactory means of delineating the extent of extreme
subsurface disturbance and artifact distribution with a
minimum amount of clearing. Results of the auger tests
were checked with formal excavation and trenching.
The spring 1979 archeological excavations and
historical documentation both indicate the site was occupied
from the early nineteenth century until the first part of
the twentieth century. Two structures which were once
part of the plantation house complex were investigated,
but further archeological study is necessary to determine
the dimensions and specifications.
Chairman
x


50
force from their father and probably provided the same
type of accomodations.
According to the appraisals of the estate made at
Louis' death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230
slaves valued at $37,980, which was almost 97 percent of
the total estimated value of the entire estate, excluding
land value (Liberty 1838). Family documents reflect kind
treatment and close ties between master and slave.
Several instances, both before and after the Civil War,
of mutual concern have been recorded. A photograph of
Emma LeConte Furman's domestic servants taken in 1897
depicts a well dressed family on the steps of her home in
Berkeley, California. A caption is included in an
accompanying letter from Caroline LeConte to Helen Grier
LeConte, John L. LeConte's wife:
I take the liberty also of sending you a group of
darkies, the descendent of negroes which have been
born and bred there for nearly 100 years Walter-
his wife and children is the carriage driver and
grand Tycoon of the inner temple, the boss about
the premises his wife is Emma's cook, the other
scions of various ages tote the water and cut the
wood and otherwise do jobs around. They pride
themselves on their aristocratic lineage and guite
sneer at the poor white trash in the neighborhood -
the new times of freedom have wrought no change in
these old family negroes they are perfectly devoted
to Emma's interests and are entirely satisfied with
their present arrangement. (LeConte 1897)


Picture of Joseph LeConte, standing under the
white camellia tree in the old garden of
Louis LeConte, Liberty County, Georgia.
Photograph taken by Dr. Joseph Nisbet LeConte
in 1897.
Figure 7:


159
Iris Xiphium
Iris xiphium, Spanish Iris, Iris Family (Note Iris xiphium HV,
the Dutch Iris bloom March 21, April 30)
Iris Xiphioides
Iris xiphioides,
Iris Prsica
Iris prsica (I.
Gladiolus Segetum
Gladiolus segetum, Conflag Gladiolus, Iris Family
Gladiolus Communis
Gladiolus communis, Common Gladiolus (Different from
Common horticultural Gladiolus which is treated as an annual)
Gladiolus Imbricatus
Gladiolus imbricatus, no common name
Hyacinthus Orientalis (fl. Pi.)
Hyacinthus orientalis, Common Hyacinth?, Double
(note, usually treated as an annual, blooms early)
Hyacinthus Orientalis (fl. sem. coer.)
Hyacinthus orientalis var. praecox, Voss,? Blue French Roman
Hyacinth Dec. Mar. 21 (Note var. albidus, Baker is white)
Hyacinthus Muscari
?Hyacinthus azureus, Baker (Muscari azureum, Fenzl.)
fls. blue, fraqrant, like Grape Hyacinth or maybe ?Muscari
mochatum, Willd., Liliacieae
Hyacinthus Racemosus
Muscari racemosum, Mill., Starch Grapehyacinth, fls.
pale blue, odorless March 7 April 15.
Hyacinthus Comosus (mon.)
Muscari comosum, Mill. var. monstrosum (Hort.),
Tassel or Teathered Grapehyacinth
Hyacinthus Comosus (mon. var.)
Muscari comosum, Mill. var. monstrosum varieqated
Lillium Candidum
Lillium candidum, L. Maddon Lily, white, April May 30,
Lilly Family
Lillium Bulbiferum
Lillium bulbiferum, L. Bulbil Lily, white or pale yellow
often tinged red or purple
English Iris
praecox), Persona Iris


49
persons of color who claim to be free, were born in the
County of Liberty, and State of Georqia, have resided
in said State during their whole lives, and have had
their names registered in my office as is required by
law (The Georgian 1823).
Bess, a seamstress, aged 30 years, and residing at Mr.
Louis LeConte's was included on that list.
William L. LeConte, Louis/ grandson, described his
father's "negro quarters" on the Olive Hill Plantation.
These quarters were some quarter of a mile from the
"big house", and consisted of cabins strung alonq
two parrallel rows the doors facinq each other, so
as to make two sides of a parallelogram. The side
next to the home-stead was left open, while the
opposite side of the parallelogram was occupied by
a neat chapel, capable of seatinq all of our own
negroes, and on special occasions, such of the negroes
on neighboring farms as might wish to attend Sabbath
services. (1900:3)
A slave settlement is indicated on the 1844 plat map
just north of the main dike. Unfortunately we were unable
to find any remaining evidence of slave cabins or other
structures in this area.
An interview with a local inhabitant of Liberty
County in 1979, whose qrandparaents had been former
LeConte slaves, gave us some information concerning
plantation life. He said that his grandparents told him
they had lived in 'pole' houses with two rooms, one for
sleeping and he 'supposed' one for cooking (Flesch 1979).
An 1360 unpublished census report on the slave
population lists Joseph as owning 63 slaves and 13 houses,
and John as owninq 45 slaves and 10 houses; approximately
five persons per house. These men inherited their work


CHAPTER III
ARCHEOLOGY
Research Methodology
Archeological investigation of the LeConte-Woodmanston
Plantation began in March, 1979 under the direction of
Dr. Rochelle Marrinan, Georgia Southern College, and
Jennifer Hamilton, University of Florida. Preliminary
inspection suggested a high degree of surface disturbance
which ranged from outright bulldozer removal of soils for
road construction to extensive dissection caused by clear
cutting. The problem of providing information from
archeological evidence to assist the LeConte-Woodmanston
Trustees with interpretive plans was a major goal of the
research.
The basic research strategy can be characterized as
a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal excavation.
It was felt this course of action was necessary in order
to best answer the goals of the Garden Club. According to
Section 1 of the contract between the Garden Clubs of Georgia,
Inc. and Georgia Southern College (1978);
The Georgia Southern College shall do or cause to be done
the following:
a. Test proposed parking area (60 x 100 feet) to clear
for use.
b. Test proposed orientation area (size presently
unspecified).
51


170
Honerkamp, Nicholas
1974 Archeological Survey of the Savannah Riverfront
Area. Ms. on file, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Humphrey, Richard V.
1969 Clay Pipes from Old Sacramento. Historical Archaeology
3:12-33.
Jones, Charles C.
1883 The History of Georgia (Vol. II). Revolutionary
Epoch. Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston.
Kelso, William M.
1971 Historical Archeology in Georgia, 1968: Two
Nineteenth Century Sites. Conference on Historic
Sites Archaeology Papers 1969 4:16-25.
Kingsbury, Pamela
1974 Staffordshire Transfer-Printed Ware from the
Thayer Collection. Antiques 105:169-173.
Larsen, Elloise Baker
1975 American Historical Views on Staffordshire China
(third ed.). Dover Publications, New York.
LeConte, Caroline
1897 Caroline LeConte (Berkeley, California) to Helen
Grier LeConte. April 1, 1897. American Philosophical
Society Library B L493f, Philadelphia.
LeConte, James A.
1933 Sketch of the LeConte Family. Georgia Historical
Society Library, Savannah, Georgia.
LeConte, John Eatton, Jr.
1830 John Eatton LeConte to Louis LeConte (Riceborougn,
Georgia). February 25, 1830. B L493f American
Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia.
1856 John Eatton LeConte (Philadelphia) to Matilda Jane
Harden. September 10, 1856. B L493f American
Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia.
LeConte, John Lawrence
1813 John Lawrence LeConte Papers, Collection 398.
American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia.


138
LeCONTE-WOODMANSTON SITE
cm
Pecan
0 N. 0 E
Camel lia
G S 0 FIELD
SCHOOL
1 : 600
T ransect

Excavation Unit

Trench Line

J Horn i lion


81
was in Liberty County, as elsewhere, a common panacea.
Louis LeConte's wife, Anne Quarterman LeConte, was bled by
attending physicians, against the judgment of her nusband,
as a treatment for pneumonia in 1326 and never recovered.
John M.B. Harden mentions that by 1845 "bloodletting is not
pushed to so great an extent" but even so he prescribed
bloodletting, as well as an occasional mercurial cathartic,
to stimulate the digestive organs, the use of sesquichloride
of iron, and a 'generous diet' for the treatment of 'chlorosis',
a benign form of iron-deficiency anemia in adolescent girls
(Harden 1345:559). Dr. Wells of Walthourville, Georgia
treated Jane LeConte Harden in 1867 for a "violent cold,
attended with fever, much irritation of the bronchial
tubes, and troublesome cough", with a preparation of the
narcotic root, Mandrake; tne vapors of Tine Iodine and
and laudanum; and the continued use of quinine (Harden 1367) .
It was generally recognized that the lowland swamps
were not conducive to good health during the summer and
autumn seasons. Therefore, many planters removed to summer
"retreats" on the coast or in the pineiands during these
"sickly seasons". Louis LeConte maintained a summer home
in Janesville, a few miles south of Woodmanston. During
the summer he commuted daily on horseback to attend to
plantation affairs (LeConte 1903:9).
It should be stated that there is a possibility that
soma of the so called "medicine bottle fragments" are


EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION
OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION
3Y
JENNIFER M. HAMILTON
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
x930


27
The garden of Lewis LeConte, Esq., near Riceborough,
in Liberty County, Georgia, forty miles south of
Savannah, is decidedly the richest in bulbs I have
ever seen; and their luxurience would astonish those
who have only seen them in the confined state in
which we are obliged to grow them in this country.
(Gordon 1832:287)
In 1854, correspondence between the- publication
The Soil of the South and an anonymous writer whose
pseudonym was 'Native Flora', includes a description
of what was probably the content of the LeConte gardens.
Through deduction, James Stokes, editor of "Notes on
Georgia Camelliana".has traced the authorship of this
letter to Ann LeConte Stevens, Louis' youngest daughter,
then residing in Walthourville. After several questions
regarding fruit trees and their cultivation, as well as
other garden inquiries, 'Native Flora' describes the
camellia trees on her family homestead not ten miles away.
You seemed delighted with Mrs. Marshall's find
camellia trees in Savannah. I am afraid you would
not credit me were I to describe several standing
in the garden of cur old family homestead about 10
miles from this place. My father planted them
upwards of 40 years ago; they were originally
obtained from the elder Prince, of Long Island.
Were these trees possessed by any of the New York
florists they would consider them an independent
fortune. Imagine what a magnificent appearance
they present in winter, completely covered from
their summit to the ground, with thousands and
thosands of flowers, expanded at one time,
contrasting with their glossy dark green foliage.
You might cut bushels of flowers from them
without missing them. These, with the beautiful
Chinese azaleas, decorate our parlors so
gorgeously in the months of December, January,
and February that we have no reason to complain
of winter being a gloomy season. (Soil of the
South 1854:725)


38
The practice of sowing in rows 18 inches apart appears
to have been general practice as late as 1775. "Rice is
sowed in furrows about 18 inches distant: a peck usually
sows an acre, which yields seldom less than 30 bushels or
more than 50 bushels, but generally between these two,
accordingly as the land is better or worse" (Carroll 1836:251).
Modification of the practice came after the Revolutionary
War when the quantity planted per acre was said to be three
bushels. This was accomplished by placing furrows closer
together.
In the Carolina-Georgia lowlands, the fields, after
a preliminary braking, were laid off in broad shallow
drills, 12 to 15 inches apart, in which the seed were
strewn. If the rice seed had previously been "clayed"
by soaking in mud, the water was at once let on to
cover the furrows and sprout the crop. But if unciayed
seed were used they were covered lightly by hoeing and
the 'sprout flow' was omitted. Some planters followed
one system, and some the other. Practice also varied
as to the schedule of the later flows, though most
commonly where the tide was available they included the
'point flow', begun when the seedlings were visible
above the ground, thelong flow' when the stalks were
approaching full height and need help in upholding
their heavy heads against the winds. Between the flows
the fields were drained and the weeds and grass pulled
or chopped out (Phillips 1929:115).
The choice of good sites for gravity flow rice plantations
had always been narrowly limited by the need for a plentiful
water supply. The brook swamps which were used by some of
the first planters, were abandoned within a half century
after tidal flow plantations were pioneered, even though
the engineering effort required to transform the tidal swamp
into a place capable of producing a rice crop was an enormous


Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts
EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION
OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION
Bv
Jennifer M. Hamilton
June, 1980
Chairman: Charles H. Fairbanks
Major Department: Anthropology
The following paper presents the analysis of the
LeConte-Woodmanston site. The Garden Clubs of Georgia,
Inc., plans to develop an exhibit around this late
eiahteenth-early nineteenth century rice plantation and
botanical garden, emphasizing interpretation of the
plantation era components, the natural setting, and use as
a habitat for endanaered plant species. Louis LeConte's
botanical garden (1812-1838) was internationally known
among the scientific communitv for its early cultivation
of Camellia japnica outside the hothouse.
Historical documentation provided insight regarding
the LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation
era and a picture of plantation life in early Georgia.
Unfortunately the location and layout of the LeConte house
and gardens are not available in the documents utilized to
date.
IX


18
Louis LeConte's name is also mentioned in the
preface, as one of the contributors, to Torrey and Gray's
Flora of North America (Gray 1883:199).
John Eatton LeConte, Louis' brother,, was also a man
of science. He also attended Columbia College in New York,
and in 1817 entered the army of the United States as Captain
of Topographical Engineers, later attaining the rank of
Major.
Major John Eatton LeConte had the same active interest
in botany as his brother, and was responsible for a number
of the exotic and unusual plants in the LeConte garden
(Gray 1883:198). He frequented the major nurseries in the
northeast and sent or carried many new plant specimens to
his brother in Georgia. He is said to be personally
responsible for the first cutting of the LeConte pear or
Chinese Sand pear (Stokes 1949:183). This cutting was
obtained from Thomas Hogg, a New York nurseryman. Mr. Hogg's
nursery at Bloomingdale, New York, is mentioned in Gordon's
"Principal Nurseries and Private Gardens of the United States".
He is said to have had an "admirable collection" of rare
and valuable exotics (1832:279). Major LeConte sent a
specimen of the pear to Mrs. Jane LeConte Harden, Louis'
oldest daughter, at Halifax Plantation near Woodmanston.
The tree was the progentior of all the LeConte pear trees
in Georgia.


112
designated as the proposed parking facility on the eastern
portion of the site was extensively tested by this means,
with negative results. A major portion of this part of the
site had been removed prior to the 1979 investigation, for
use in road construction. It is for these reasons that a
decision of no adverse impact can be made and Garden Club
plans for this area my be initiated.
The pine grove on the western part of the Woodmanston
site near the main dike, which was designated on the 1344
plat map as the 'settlement', was also extensively surveyed
with augers and post hole diggers, but it has also undergone
a high degree of disturbance through twentieth century
lumbering activity. Concentrations of positive auger
tests suggest the need for some additional investigation
of this area (Figure 11).
Despite the disturbed condition of most of the site, the
auger tests proved that a great deal of cultural information
is still present in the central portion of the site,
which includes the area around the seedling camellia, sabal
palms, crepe myrtle, and pecan trees (Figure 10).
Additional investigation by means of formal excavation
and trenching was conducted to provide information about the
time frame and activities on the site (Figure 12). Based
on artrfactual content, the area encompassing the camellia
tree and palms supported an occupation from the first third
of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.


43
"In 1850 there were only 551 rice plantations in the
United States, as compared to 74,031 cotton plantations;
15,745 tobacco plantations and 2,681 sugar plantations"
(Black 1976:15). Considering this relatively small number
of rice plantations, their dominant influence on colonial
history proves their historical significance.
The total amount of investment necessary to start
and profitably run a rice plantation has been documented
in the following reports:
To undertake a rice plantation in this province does
by several years experience prove to attend the
following aricles, expenses, and profits.
Supposing the land to be purchased as
10/ per acre vide, 200 acres
To build a barn and pounding machine
purchased board and timber
To purchase 40 working hands
To purchase working oxen and horses
To two carts and collars
To hoes, axes, spades and other
plantation tools
To annual expenses for tax and quit
rent Lb. 5 & first year's provision
Lb. 50
To overseers wages
To negroes shoes Lb. 6-10 Ditto cloth
Lb. 20-0 & 13 blankets per annum:
Lb. 5-6
To a box of medicines & doctor's fees
Lb. 20 for deaths of negroes per
annum Lb. 100
Lb.
100-0-0
220-0-0
1,800 -0-0
60-0-0
10-0-0
30-0-0
50-0-0
50-0-0
31 -16 0
120 -0-0
2,476 -16 0
The aforementioned number of negroes will plant 130 acres
of rice, making 350 barrels at 40/ per Lb. 700 0 0;
also 70 acres of provision, will nearly clear Lb. 23-5
5 percent interest.
The next year's prevision article falling away, the
expended capital will only be Lb. 2,426 16 0, and
the interest on it will nearly be Lb. 29 percent.
Those who plant indigo will raise their interest much


113
Artifacts ranged from blue on white transfer printed
refined earthenware, popular in the arly 1800s, to wire
nails which first became easily available in the 1890s.
A double nearthed chimney base situated 35 meters
east of the camellia was probably a subsidiary structure
on the LeConte Plantation. The small amount of cooking
vessels recovered does not suggest a kitchen, and personal
artifacts suggest a family occupation. Based on the
presence of an elite ceramic assemblage and window glass
fragments, in conjunction with low status artifacts,
indicates that this might possibly have been the shelter
for the domestic slaves. A standard slave household would
not have contained glazed windows. It is probable that
these people would have continued to reside there even after
the LeConte heirs became absentee owners, and would explain
the presence of post 1850 artifacts. This chimney base
represents the delapitated structure pictured in the middle
right of the 1896 photograph (Figure 7). Numerous postholes
were recorded within 20 meters of the chimney base and indicate
a substantial amount of activity in this area. Unfortunately
without further testing the specific function of this
activity cannot be determined.
The second structure was located just east of the northern
paim, approximately 50 meters from the chimney base. A robbed
brick wall is all that was recovered. Again, the presence of
elite ceramics and a large amount of window glass suggests that
this structure was associated with the main house complex.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF FIGURES vii
ABSTRACT ix
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 8
Significant World Events 8
Family History 10
Scientific Achievements 15
Woodmanston Plantation ... 21
LeConte Gardens 26
Rice Culture 33
Slaves 4 6
III- ARCHEOLOGY 51
Research Methodology 51
Transects and Auger Testing 55
Formal Excavation 58
Trenching 60
IV- ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS 62
The Chimney Base 6 2
The Robbed Brick Wall 66
V. MATERIAL CULTURE 68
Building Hardware 68
Household Furnishings 70
Glass 73
Window Glass 73
Beverage Bottles 74
Medicine Bottles 76
Domestic Glassware 82
v


72
The "2 Pr. lamps" may have referred to whale oil lamps.
These were considered somewhat of a luxury because by 1840
sperm whale oil had reached $2.50 a gallon. Most people
had to rely on candles or fireplaces for lighting (Ctto 1975:150).
A candlestick, snuffer and tray are also listed in the 1833
inventory.
Vihether the slaves provided their own furniture,
or received cast offs from the LeConte family cannot be
determined at this time. The archeological record
provided very little information regarding the domestic
furnishings on the site. Several small iron pintis of
the type used on cabinet doors and a brass key escrutcheon
were unearthed during the spring excavations (Figure 15a).
The key escrutcheons, keys and an iron padlock suggest
that the occupants were in the habit of locking up valuable
items. The padlock front in iron with a brass keyhole cover
(Figure 15a). Locks of this type were not made until the 1840s.
The impressed words 'patent' and 'VR' (Victoria Regina)
also suggest a time from between 1830 and 1906, the reign of
Queen Victoria. A small bronze chest hasp bearing an 1861
date was recovered and further substantiates a late nineteenth
century occupation of the site. A small bronze cupid,
approximately 4 inches high, may once have adorned a chair
or chest made during the Victorian era (Figure 15a).


154


160
Lillium Superbum
Lilium superbum,L. Turkscap Lily (or this could have
been L. carolinianum, Michx. L. superbum var.
carolinianum, Chapman, now known as L. michaexi, Poir.)
Scilla Hyacinthoides
Scilla hyacinthoides, L., Hyacinth Squill, Lily Family,
fls. blueish lilac,late spring
Ornithogalum Umbellatum
Ornithogalum umbellatum, L. Common Star-of-bethlehem,
fls. white, Lily Family
Ornithogalum Stachyoides
? O. pyrenaicum, L., Close spiked Star-of-Bethlehem,
S. Europe, raceme very long, petals linear, blunt
(Not listed in modern botany books)
Amaryllis Ltea
Sternbergia ltea, Ker-Gawler, Fall daffodil, bright
yellow, Amaryllis Family, September
Amaryllis Belladonna
Amaryllis belladonna, L., Belladonnalily, fls. from
white to red, Portugal plants flower in September.
Amaryllis Atamasco
Zephyranthes atamasco, Herb. Atamascolily, Amaryllis
Family, white, native in Georgia. Mar. 7 June 15
Amaryllis Equestris
Hippeastrum equestre, Herb. Barbados-lily, Amaryllis
Family, fls. red & green, an old garden species.
(Aitn), "Barbados Lily"
Pancratium Maritimum
Pancratium maritimum, L., Seadaffodil Pancratium,
fls. white, very fragrant, from Spain, Amaryllis Family
(Sea Pancratium)
Pancratium Mexicanum
?Pancratium mexicanum, L., spathe two-flowered, petals
white not fragrant, from Mexico. (Not listed in modern
botany books).


69
Cut nails were first produced in the late 1790s in
the United States, and were cut from a sheet of iron, as
opposed to the previous hand wrought nails which were cut
from an iron rod and hammered to a point. Until 1815, cut
nails were finished by hand with different head treatments
produced specifically for different purposes. Several types
are represented at Woodmanston, including the common
'rose sharp', 'clasp nails', 'plancher nails', 'brads' or
L-heads, and 'scuppers'. Plancher nails were equipped with
T-shaped heads to hold down flooring. This indicates a
wooden floor was probably present in the structure associated
with the chimney base. Scupper nails were used to nail leather
for bellows or upholstery (Sloane 1964:92).
Correspondence between William LeConte, owner of San Souci
Plantation, and Joseph Chaz, Esq. of Savannah in 1784
includes an order for a cask of 10^ and 20^ nails and shingles
(LeConte 1784). This same sort of nail would have been used
on the Woodmanston Plantation as well.
In 1815 the machine-made head was perfected. The
characteristic waisting beneath the head which continued
in machine-head cut nails until 1830 is present in a number of
the Woodmanston examples. The majority of the machine-cut
nails, however, were produced sometime after this date and
are similar to the 'finishing nails' pictured in S.D. Kimbark's
Illustrated Catalogue (Fontana 1970:92). Wire nails began
to replace cut nails for general purposes in the late 1390s.


Coblentz, B.I. and M.L. Powell
1979 Use of Power Auger and Backhoe/Front-end Loader
for Testing and Large Scale Excavation: Lubbub
Creek Project. Paper presented at the 36th
Annaul Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Atlanta.
Cooper, Agatha Young
1966 Recurring Cycles of Fashion 1760-1937. Square
Publishing, New.York.
Daily Georgian
1834 Wedding Announcement. January 14, 1834.
Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers,
Georgian Historical Society Library.
Darlington, William
1843 Reliquiae Baldwinianae. Reel 347 #11 Microfilm,
University of Florida Library.
Deagan, Kathleen, John Bostwick, and Dale Benton
1976 A Sub-surface Survey of the St. Augustine City
Environs. Submitted to St. Augustine Restoration
Foundation, Inc., Florida State University,
Tallahassee.
DeVorsey, Louis, Jr. Ed.
1971 DeBrahm's Report of the General Survey in the
Southern District of North America. University
of South Carolina Press, Columbia.
Flesch, David
1979 A History of Slave Life on the LeConte-Woodmanston
Plantation until 1864. Paper presented as a
requirement for the 1979 Georgia Southern College
field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer
Hamilton, University of Florida.
Fontana, Bernard L.
1970 The Tail of the Nail: On the Ethnological
Interpretation of Historic Artifacts. The Florida
Anthropologist 18(3): 85-102.
Georgia Gazette
1774 Advertisement for Runaway Slave. September 9, 1774.
Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers, Georgia
Historical Society Library.
1776a Advertisement. October 22, 1776. Microfilm of
Early Georgia Newspapers, Georgia Historical
Society Library.
1776b Advertisement. November 5, 1776. Microfilm of
Early Georgia Newspapers, Georqia Historical
Society Library.


57
Coblentz and Powell 1979). Price, Hunter and McMichael used
a 200 pound solid core drill for approximately the same purposes
but the lightweight two man auger offers a much more practical
alternative.
A total of 504 auger and posthole tests were made on
the Woodmanston site, with 17 percent containing material
artifacts. The proposed parking area, land designated on
the 1844 plat map as various agricultural fields, was cross
cut using three transects which covered the section that
had been cleared and stripped of top soil for road construction
and the land to the west which still retained much of the
natural vegetation (Figure 11). A total of 195 auger tests
were performed in this region and only one contained any
cultural material. This test was located within a few
yards of the entrance road and was undoubtadly already
badly disturbed. The potential for archeological information
in this portion of the site is very small.
The orientation area which would eventually function
as a mean of introduction for visitors to the site has also
been tested by means of linear transects and posthole tests.
Twenty tests were performed in this area and six contained
cultural material, including nails, brick fragments, glass
and ceramics. Concentrations of a positive nature in this area
indicate the need for further formal testing.
The central area included the botanical features and
comprised approximately two acres. A total of 73 tests were
made in this area. Seventy percent were positive for cultural
material including ceramics, bone, glass and metal.


105
telephone pole, a type which was invented in 1865 by the
Frenchman, Louis Couvet (Time-Life 1930:19). The insulator
was probably a 'prize find' of an amateur collector (Figure 16a).
Horses and Carriages
The 1838 inventory of the estate of Louis LeConte
lists: 1 mule valued @ $100; 1 mare colt @ $50.00;
and 3 bay horses @ $225.00. Also present on the estate were:
a carriage @ $200.00; a gig @ $75.00 and a little horse
cart @ $10.00 (Liberty County 1838).
Horses were used on the Woodmanston plantation to
provide the motive force to drive the rice and cotton processing
machinery. Two horse gins are mentioned in the inventory
valued @ $75.00 and Joseph LeConte mentions that rice was
beaten by machinery which was drawn by horse power (LeConte
1903:22).
Very little horse equipment was recovered during spring
excavations. An iron ring, which may have been the rein
ring of a bridoon, or bit was found, as well as some iron
buckles (Figure 15b).
Tools
Although numerous agricultural and construction tools
were recovered during the spring excavations, no concentrations
of specialized tools were found which might suggest plantation
crafts such as shoemaking, blacksmithing or tanning. Joseph
LeConte's biography documents the presence of such workshops


Figure 20: Aboriginal artifacts. Note Pinellas point above scale


17
findings with his scientific colleagues. Frequently,
naturalists and horticulturalists from the north, and from
Europe, would visit Woodmanston and Louis would introduce
them to the native Georgia flora and fauna and help them
pack and ship samples to their respective institutions.
Dr. William Baldwin mentions the LeConte brothers
in his series of letters to a friend in Pennsylvania.
In his word, "from the truly scientific acquirements of
these gentlemen,: and their zealous attention to every
department of natural history, much may be with confidence
expected. I am indebted to them for much valuable
information; and hope it will not be long before they will
be better known in the literary world" (Darlington 1843:332).
Alexander Gordon of the Gardener's Magazine says,
There are not two more scientific gentlement in the
U.S.A. than Lewis LeConte, Esq. and his brother,
Major John LeConte...
The late Mr. Elliot of Charleston, the editor of the
Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, frequently
mentions the kind assistance of Mr. Oemler of Savannah
and also two other gentlemen, Lewis LeConte, Esq. and
his brother, Major John LeConte. The assistance I
received from these gentlemen, in making my collection
of plants, I cannot give you the most distant idea of.
They are most excellent botanists and naturalists in
every branch of science.
Mr. LeConte has discovered many new plants; and
through his kindness I have been enabled to enrich
our collections with some splendid treasures. This
gentlemen has, for above 30 years, given his attention
to the successions of different species of timber.
I must, however, inform you that this gentleman
thoroughly convinced me of the existence of the
Magnolia pyramidata; for on Thursday, the 27th of
January, we took a journey of 50 miles, and crossed
the Altamaha River, to look for a tree of that
species which Mr. LeConte had seen there 18 months
previous. We found it. (1832:287-288).


Figure 8: An interpretativ concept plan for the LeConte-Woodmanston
site, Liberty County, Georgia.



PAGE 1

EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION OF THE LEC0NTE-W00Dr4ANST0N PLANTATION BY JENNIFER M. f-IAiMILTON A THESIS PRESENTEE TO THE GR.\DUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLI4ENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF y.ASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1930

PAGE 2

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to acknowledge the years of guidance from Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks, both in class and out, which led to the completion of this master's thesis. Special thanks are accorded to Dr. Rochelle Marrinan, director of the Georgia Southern College 1979 field school, who has been a constant support and companion throughout all phases of the project: research, excavation and writing. The author would also like to express her continuing appreciation to Colonel and Mrs. Claude A. Black; and Miss Clermont Lee of Savannah for their persistent faith in the LeConte-Woodmanston project. Without their interest and inspiration there would be no project and the public would lose a large part of its cultural heritage. Many thanks are also given to Mrs. Caroline McMillan of St. Simon's Island, Georgia, for patiently answering the max^^y questions and generously providing access to the family documents which made the LeContes cot. alive for all concerned. The author would also like to express her appreciation to the members of the spring 1979 Georgia Southern College archeolgical field school: Julie Barnes, David Flesch, Barry Hart, Betty Leigh Hutcheson, Charles McPherson, Nancy Turner, Claudia Tyre, and Cecil Walters, for their untiring labor despite cramped living conditions and numerous mosquitoes. ii

PAGE 3

The members of the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees and the Garden Clubs of Georgia have been supportive throuqhout the entire project. The author would especially like to acknowledge the help of Colonel George Rogers of Hinesville, Georgia, and Mrs. George W. Ray of Savannah. Because of the disturbed condition of the Woodmanston site, documentary research concerning the LeConte family comprised a large part of this study. The author would like to acknowledae the staffs of the Georgia Historical Society Library; the American Philosophical Society Library; the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; the Pennsylvania Historical Society Library; and the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History. The aid of Mrs. Nancy Aspinwall, Liberty County Probate Judge; the staffs of the Office of the Inferior Court of Liberty and Chatham Counties; and Mr. George Ference and Mr. Bagario of Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia, are also acknowledaed. Special thanks to Dr. George Roaers Georgia Southern College, for the use of his personal files on the LeConte family. The Community of Riceboro was very kind to the entire crew during our stay in 19 79. Much aratitude is awarded to Mrs. Cordelia Jones Browning for her interest and concern and to Mrs. Hern for rentina our house in Riceboro, without which the project would have never been the same. Analysis of the LeConte-Woodmanston collection was performed at the University of Florida. The author would like

PAGE 4

to thank Dr. Elizabeth Wing for providing access to the Florida State Museum Faunal Collections and to Dr. Rochelle Marrinan for oerformina the analysis. The author would also like to mention the daily support and companionship of Sue Mullins with whom she shared the archeoloay lab and the person who finally identified the Clews brothers' "States" plate The author's familv deserves very special thanks for their patience and support during her entire graduate career. Separate acknowledaments go to David Hamilton for help in the editing process and to Eleanor Hamilton for typing the numerous drafts. Finally the author would like to thank the members of her committee for their support: Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks, Chairman: Dr. Jerald Milanich: Dr. Prudence Rice and Dr. Elizabeth Wing for being present at the defense in Dr. Rice's absence. iv

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii LIST OF FIGURES vii ABSTRACT ix CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 8 Significant World Events 8 Family History 10 Scientific Achievements 15 Woodmanston Plantation 21 LeConte Gardens 2 6 Rice Culture 33 Slaves 4 6 III. ARCHEOLOGY 51 Research Methodoloay 51 Transects and Auger Testing 5 5 Formal Excavation 5 8 Trenching 60 IV. ARCHITECTURAL ELEI>1ENTS 6 2 The Chimney Base 6 2 The Robbed Brick Wall 66 V. YiATERIAL CULTURE 6 8 Building Hardware 6 8 Household Furnishings 70 Glass 73 Window Glass 7 3 Beverage Bottles 74 Medicine Settles 76 Domestic Glassware 5 2 V

PAGE 6

Ceramics 8 3 Cutlery 92 Personal Items 92 Buttons 9 5 Jewelry 96 Firearms 98 Tobacco and Smokinq Equipment 100 Toys and Games 103 Miscellaneous Personal Items' 104 Horses and Carriages 105 Tools 105 Grindstones 106 Faunal Material 107 Aboriginal Material 110 VI. SURMARY AND CONCLUSION Ill APPENDICES A. ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED 155 B. LIST OF BULBS 157 C. HORTICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS 161 D. SPECIES LIST 163 E. COMPOSITE TABLE FOR ALL FAUNA 164 REFERENCES CITED 167 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 17 5 vi

PAGE 7

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Location of LeConte-Woodmanston site 116 2. Woodmanston vicinity 118 3. Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area .... 120 4. 197 3 survey of Woodmanston Plantation 122 5. LeConte kinship diagram 124 6. 1897 photograph of LeConte-Woodmanston site 12 6 7. 1897 photograph of Joseph LeConte at Woodmanston 128 8. Interpretive concept plan for LeConte-Woodmanston 130 9. Diagram of spring 1979 testing program 132 10. Transect lines delineated on areal photograph 134 11. Distribution of positive auger tests 136 12. Excavation plan for 1979 spring field session 138 13. Double hearth chimney base 140 14. Robbed brick wall 142 15a. Household artifacts 144 15b. Gunparts and horse equipment 144 16a. Glass artifacts 146 16b. Cutlery 14 6 17a. Ceramics 148 17b. Ceramics 148 vii

PAGE 8

List of Figures (continued) Fiaures Page 18a. Personal artifacts 150 18b. Personal artifacts 150 19a. Quartz crystal 152 19b. Grindstone fragment 152 20. Aboriginal artifacts 154 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillraent of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION Bv Jennifer M. Hamilton June, 1980 Chairman: Charles H. Fairbanks Major Department: Anthropology The following paper presents the analysis of the LeConte-Woodmanston site. The Garden Clubs of Georgia, Inc., plans to develop an exhibit around this late eiahteenth-early nineteenth centurv rice plantation and botanical garden, emphasizing interpretation of the plantation era components, the natural setting, and use as a habitat for endanaered plant species. Louis LeConte's botanical garden (1812-18 38) was internationally known among the scientific communitv for its early cultivation of Camellia iaponica outside the hothouse. Historical documentation provided insight regarding the LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation era and a picture of plantation life in early Georgia. Unfortunately the location and layout of the LeConte house and gardens are not available in the documents utilized to date ix

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The site has been badly disturbed by lumbering activities over the past 25 years, but there is still potential for retrieving valuable archeological data. The basic research strategy included the use of linear transects to control a program of mechancial auger tests. This procedure provided a satisfactory means of delineating the extent of extreme subsurface disturbance and artifact distribution with a minimum amount of clearing. Results of the auger tests were checked with formal excavation and trenching. The spring 1979 archeological excavations and historical documentation both indicate the site was occupied from the early nineteenth century until the first part of the twentieth century. Two structures which were once part of the plantation house complex were investigated, but further archeological study is necessary to determine the dimensions and specifications. / Chairman X

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The following documentary research and archeological investigation have been done in an effort to aid the Garden Clubs of Georgia in the reconstruction and historical presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation. Specific questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations of the Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized the location of the LeConte botanical garden, the main plantation house, subsidiary structures, and the slave settlement. Although historical documents were a great source of information about the site, Liberty County and the character of the LeConte family, they did not provide specific locations for the structures. Archeological investigation of three major areas was carried out to try and locate these structures. Woodmanston Plantation v/as located "in and around Bulltown Swamp" on the border between Mcintosh and Liberty Counties, Georgia, about 40 miles southwest of Savannah (Figures 1,2,3). Built in the late 1760s, it was one of the first gravity flow rice plantations to be established on the Georgia coast, and was owned by John Eatton LeConte, 1

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2 whose family played an important part in the early history of the United States. Two outstanding members of the family, Louis LeConte and Major John Eatton LeConte, have been celebrated for their contributions to the natural sciences. Louis LeConte, son of John Eatton LeConte, became internationally famous for the botanical garden which he started at Woodmanston Plantation in 1812 and which flourished until his death in 1838, His brother, Major John Eatton LeConte, was a winter resident at Woodmanston and frequently brought Louis interesting botanical specimens from the nurseries of Philadelphia and New York. Some of the plants for which Louis became best known were bulbous varieties and camellias. In Europe, such plants were grown only in protective greenhouses, but at Woodmanston they were grown out of doors, and some of the camellias eventually attained tree-like proportions Over the years Louis LeConte served as a gracious host and guide to many foreign naturalists and horticulturists. These visits resulted in the exportation of many exclusively American plants, indigenous to the nearby Altamaha River basin, to various parts of Europe. It should be noted, however, that although Louis LeConte s botanically rich garden was a much loved avocation, his primary responsibility was the successful management of Woodmanston Plantation. The period from 1810 to 1838, encompassing both the time in which the LeConte garden flourished and the successful

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3 operation of the gravity flow rice plantation, is the focus of this study. Woodmanston was also the boyhood home of two of Louis' sons, John and Joseph LeConte, who were to achieve individual historical fame as educators, first in the southeast and later in California. John served as the first acting president of the then fledgling University of California at Berkeley, while Joseph held the chair in the Department of Geology, Zoology and Botany (LeConte 1903:244). It is because of this association with the LeConte family that the site of Woodmanston Plantation was placed on the National Register of Historic Places As a consequence, a development plan for the site was formulated through the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The plan emphasizes the interpretation and eventual presentation of the plantation components during its functional era, the preservation of the natural setting, and its utilization as a practical habitat for endangered plant species. Colonel Claude A. Black of Savannah, an avid botanical enthusiast, relocated the original LeConte property and the approximate site of Louis' famous garden. Through his efforts, and those of the Garden Clubs of Georgia, together with the additional help of the LeConte family heirs, the Nature Conservancy (a non-profit conservation organization) and the present leasers of the property, the Brunswick Paper Company, a portion of the original site was acquired.

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4 Of the original 3,354 acres comprising Woodmanston Plantation, 63.8 acres were deeded to the Garden Clubs of Georgia in 1977 (Ray 1977:12) (Figures 3,4). It is the intent of the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees, appointed by the president of the Garden Clubs of Georgia, to reconstruct as accurately as possible Louis LeConte s original botanical garden using existing archeological and documentary evidence. The site is further intended to become a scenic garden spot for public enjoyment. Exhibits are also planned to present the world view, lifestyle, and funcitoning of an inland swamp rice plantation of the antebellum era. Although other rice plantation projects of a historical nature exist in South Carolina and Georgia, the emphasis on an internationally famous American botanical garden, and the contributions of the LeConte family, make the Woodmanston Plantation project unique. A formal archeological investigation of the site of the Woodmanston Plantation began in March, 1979 under the direction of Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern College, and Jennifer Hamilton of the University of Florida, The field labor was provided by a field school of eight students from Georgia Southern College. Matching funds were provided through the Department of Natural Resources and the National Register of Historic Places Preliminary investigation indicated a high degree of surface disturbance. Bulldozers had been used in recent

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years to remove soil for local road construction. Extensive dissection of the property caused by clear cutting of timber over an extended period presented additional problems. Providing information from archeological findings to assist in formulating development plans for the' site was complicated by the highly disturbed condition of the terrain. In order to provide necessary guidance for this development, archeological assessment focused on the impace of proposed structures; the parking lot, visitor interpretation center, and nature walks on the existing cultural resources and the location and identification of the remaining plantation resources. The basic research strategy can be characterized as a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal excavation Because of the inability to positively establish the exact location of the garden by conventional archeological means, the search for historical documents became of primary importance. Unfortunately no document has been found, after extensive research, which describes the layout of the garden or specifically locates it in relation to the main house, driveway or irrigation dikes. Various documents have, however, provided a wealth of information about the LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation era, and a picture of plantation life. Some general information concerning the probable content of the garden has also been uncovered

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6 Certain family letters and diaries, some of which are still in private hands, provide information about the plantation and the beauty of the garden. Other letters, some of a later date, focus on members of the family, their attitudes toward issue of the day such as economics and slavery, and the Civil War. All the LeConte letters are generously informative and indicate strong family ties. Documents located among the Liberty County records provide information concerning the administration of the estate of Louis LeConte and his oldest son, William. These records provided insights concerning matters of slave economics. Other records provided land plats with the approximate location of the main LeConte house, the nearby slave 'settlement' and the location of the rice and cotton fields. Various land deeds show how some potentially important archeological landmarks could have been changed, relocated, or removed as the land changed hands. Chatham County Courthouse records provide some unexpected early data concerning Louis LeConte s uncle William. William LeConte (1738-1787) established nearby San Souci Plantation in the 1760s, about the same time that his brother, John Eatton LeConte established Woodmanston. In the administration of William's estate the slaves which he owned are listed by name and family. Some of his creditors are also listed. Another discovery was the sale of lands near New York City by Louis LeConte to his brother. Major John Eatton LeConte in 1825.

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7 The Georgia Historical Library, Savannah, Georgia, was an important source of information. The LeConte family files were the starting place for much of the family history. The index of Savannah newspapers was an exciting discovery. The LeContes are mentioned in nearly every volume from 1767 tp 1840, and details concerning debts, runaway slaves, trips abroad and stockholders lists, as well as Jane LeConte Harden, Louis' oldest daughter's, wedding at Woodmanston in January, 1834 are duly noted, (Daily Georgian 1832). The Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the Pennsylvania Historical Society, all in Philidelphia, provided additional information regarding the LeConte family, the "old house at Woodmanston ", and the family slaves. Sites, such as Woodmanston, disturbed as they are, still offer rhe opportunity to illuminate the past. While acknowledgeing that extensive documentary research is a requisite to excavation, many aspects of plantation life, especially the daily lives of the slaves, simply were not considered worthy of recording. It must also be acknowledged that excavations such as that at Woodmanston often expose new problem.s and thereby define new avenues for documentation.

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CHAPTER II HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Significant World Events The years between 177 0 and 1840, the period when Woodmanston was a productive rice plantation, were marked by advances in science and technology which had considerable effects on world events. In Europe, the age of enlightenment was taking place, and such notables as Voltaire and Rousseau were publishing their ideas. Jamas Watt and S. Bolton produced their steam engine in 17 69 and Sir Richard Arkwright developed the water powered spinning frame. Both these developments helped set the scene for the industrial revolution with its chanae of labor from cottage to factory levels. The last part of the eighteenth century v/as filled with the great age of orchestral music, and the magnificent works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven graced the halls of Europe. In the New World, Quebec and Montreal, then called New France, were conquered by the Britsh in 1760, and in 17 68 Captain James Cook beaan his exploration of the Pacific Ocean. Only a year later, in 1769, William and John Eatton LeConte received their Georgia land grants 8

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which led the way for the establishment of the Woodmanston and Sans Souci plantations on the Georgia coast. In 1776 the American Declaration of Independence was signed. During that same year Adam Smith piablished his famous book on economics. The Wealth of Nations and Tom Paine published his pamphlet. Common Sense In 1789 George Washington became the first president of the United States. America doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and independence movements in Spanish and Portuguese America created 13 new states between 1808 and 1828. The United States presidents in office during the period in which rhe Woodmanston Plantation and the LeConte gardens were under Louis LeConte s managment (1810-1838) were iViadison, Monroe, Adams, and Jackson. There were many transportation achievements in America during this time. Robert Fulton's development of the steamboat was the forerunner of 60 such boast operating on the Missisiippi in 1820 and over 1200 in 1846. The first hardsurfaced highways were built in 1789 and by 1810 the National Road, a highway which greatly facilitated westward expansion had been started. Other transportation aids were the Erie Canal in 1825 and the first railway, the Baltimore and Ohio, in 1830. America was a growing nation and improved transportation, industrial development and reform movements did much to help the country become a world power. The economic balance of the south depended heavily on slave labor. Although the slave trade was ended in 1808,

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10 slavery was not abolished in the United States until after the Civil War in 1865. This struggle drastically changed almost every aspect of life in the southern states. The LeConte family and its landholdings are interesting because they span an area of time which encompasses two major wars, the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution, and the building of a nation. Family History The recorded histoary of the LeConte family began' in Europe in the mid-seventeenth century when Guillaume LeConte (1659-1710) was born in Rouen, France of a noble Protestant family with illustrious connections to Louis XIV. However, in 1685 he was forced to leave France and emigrate to Holland because of Louis XIV s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which would have deprived him of his religous liberty and his wealth. According to family tradition, the king warned him of his intentions before hand in order that Guillaume might have the time to make the necessary personal arrangements. Upon leaving France, Guillaume adopted the name, LeConte, which was derived from his mother's maiden name, LeConte ds Nonant (Figure 5) Unfortunately there is no record of Guillaume' 3 original family name. He traveled to Holland and joined the forces of King William of Orange, to whom he was also related through Count de Berg s Hecrenberg, and participated in William's invasion of England.

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11 Guillaume served in the English military until 1698, at which time he emigrated to the New World. He bought property in New York City and in New Rochelle. A short time later he went to the French owned island of Martinique, in the Caribbean. While in Martinique he met and married Marguerite de Valleau, whose father was a wealthy land owner. Guillaume and Marguerite had three children, all of whom were born in New York. William was born in 1702; Pierre was born in 1704; and their daughter, Esther, was born in 1706. Pierre (1704-1768) was Louis LeConte's grandfather (Figure 5). In 1710 Gullaume and Marguerite LeConte both died of yellow fever, leaving the three children orphaned at early ages. Little is known of the children's childhood, but eventually Pierre became a physician and settled in Monmouth County, New Jersey. He married Valeria Eatton, daughter of the Hon. John Eatton of Shrewsbury, New Jersey. They had three sons, John Eatton, William and Peter. John Eatton (1749-1822) was Louis' father (Figure 5). In 1760, at the invitation of their uncle, Thomas Eatton, a wealthy New York merchant, John Eatton LeConte and his brother, William, accompanied him to Georgia, at that time, a virtually unexplored territory. Both John Eatton and William were in their early twenties. In 1769, after the death of their father, Pierre LeConte, John Eatton and William each applied for and received land grants jointly totaling 7,500 acres in St. Andrews and St. Johns Parishes, (now in Liberty and Chatham Counties, Georgia) from the

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12 British Governor of Georgia. The property was purchased with money derived from the sale of the family's ancestral estate on the Island of Martinique (LeConte 1933:3). The American Revolutionary War, begun in 1775, had considerable effect on Liberty County and the LeConte family. William LeConte was elected to the Provincial Congress of July 4, 1774 by the Parish of St. Phillip. He was also a representative on the first Safety Council and a signer of a letter of demonstration to Governor Wright (White 1854:177). John Eatton LeConte became a physician. Since there were no medical colleges in the American colonies at that time, he studied medicine with his father, Pierre LeConte. During the revolution his sympathies were with the colonists, and sometime in 1775 he personally took a contribution of 6 3 barrels of rice and 22 pounds sterling in specie to Boston to relieve those suffering from the British blockade of the city (Jones 1883:176). Later, John Eatton made his permanent home in Boston, and visited Woodmanston, the rice plantation which he established in Georgia, only during the winter months In 1776 he married Jane Sloane in New York City and they had three sons; William (1777-1807), Louis (1782-1838) and John Eatton, Jr. (1784-1860) The family lived in Shrewsbury until the children were of college age, at which time they moved to New York City. Louis LeConte and the period associated with his residence at the Woodmanston plantation are the major foci of this study.

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13 Louis' uncle, William LeConte, took up permanent residence in Georgia and divided his time between his townhouse in Savannah and his plantation, which he named San Souci, located near the Ogeechee River. When William died in 1787, the joint estate was divided and Louis' father, John Eatton LeConte, received the Bull town plantation and half of the personal property of the estate. Louis LeConte came to Georgia shortly after 180 7, He lived in a small house built near the site of the original home which had been burned during the Revolutionary War, and thereafter took over complete management of the rice plantation called Woodmanston (LeConte 1933:1-9). In 1822 Louis LeConte married a local girl, Anne Quarterman, daughter of an old and prominant Liberty County family, and took up residence at Woodmanston. Louis and Ann had six children; William (1812-1841), Jane (1814-1876), John (1818-1891), Louis (1821-1852), Joseph (1823-1901), and Ann (1825-1866) (LeConte 19 33 : 10 ) (Figure 5). Louis LeConte 's marriage to Ann Quarterman in 1812 created a peculiar situation which was to have lasting impact on Woodmanston Plantation. Ann was a member of the nearby Congregational Church of Midway which had always married among themselves. Ann's mother did not object to Louis, personally, but she did object to her daughter marrying outside the colony. Since Louis had never joined the local Midway Church, Ann's mother insisted that he be thoroughly catechised by the minister and elders of the

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14 church, and furthermore, that he sign a promise never to take Ann out of the county (LeConte 1933:10). As a consequence of this pact, Louis sold his New York land holdings to his brother, John Eatton, in .1825 for $30, 000. Woodmanston thenceforth was Louis' permanent home (Chatham County 1825) Major John Eatton LeConte, Jr. married Mary Ann Ham.pton Lawrence and had three sons, only one of whom reached maturity. John Lawrence LeConte (1825-1883) eventually moved to Philadelphia and became one of America's most distinguished entomologists. Louis' wife, Ann, died in 1326 of pneumonia, leaving behind six young children, the eldest fourteen and the youngest seventeen months old (Figure 5) Jane, the oldest daughter, who was only twelve at the tim.e, assumed complete control of the household affairs. Louis tried to make himself both mother and father to the children and was devotedly loved by them all (LeConte 1903) Louis was a man of reticent nature, and although deeply religious, he was too independent in thought to accept the strict creeds of the Midway Congregational Church which he attended with his wife, Ann. Physically, he was of slender build about five feet ten inches tall. He had very black eyes and hair and his manner was reserved and undemonstrative. His tastes were simple and unostentatious. He cared little for money and even less for fame. He eschewed politics utterly and had no desire to wield influence, but nevertheless he unconsiously influences all who came m contact with him. He was never known to borrow, but was always liberal to lend or to aid in any charity. (LeConte 1933:10-11)

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15 Scientific Achievements The years between 1810 and 1838 were the years when Louis LeConte was the master at Woodmanston Plantation and his botanical garden flourished, but his lifelong list of achievements is lengthy and impressive. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from New York's Columbia University in 179 9, and continued there with the study of medicine under Dr. David Hosack, who was the school's celebrated professor of medicine and botany. It is not known whether Louis actually received an advanced degree but it is thought that he studied medicine only in order to care for the health and well being of his slaves. At that time the course of medical study contained a good deal of botanical research and Louis made a botanical survey of Long Island during his school years. Alexander Gordon mentions Dr. Hosack 's "Hyde Park on the Hudson", in an article on the "Principle Nurseries and Private Gardens in the United States" written in 1832. The park is extensive; the rides numerous; and the variety of delightful distant views embracing every kind of scenery, surpasses anything I have ever seen in (America) or in any other country. There is an excellent range of hot houses, with a collection of rare plants, remarkable for their variety, their cleanliness and their handsome growth. (1832:282) Louis was a gifted naturalist and botanist. He was fluent in Latin and Greek and intersted in all branches of science including chem.istry and mathematics. Louis was 44 years old when his wife, Ann, died in 1826.

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16 According to his son, Joseph's autobiography; in order to divert his thoughts from his grief, he fitted up several rooms in the attic; especially one large one, as a chemical laboratory. Day after day, sometimes all day, when not too much busied in the administration of his large plantation, he occupied himself with experimenting there. I remember vividly how, when permitted to be present, we boys followed him about silently and on tiptoe; how we would watch the mysterious experiments; with what awe his furnaces and chauffers, his and baths, matrasses, and alembics, and his precipitations filled us. Although these experiments were undertaken in the first instance to divert his mind from sorrow, yet his profound knowledge of chemistry his deep interest and persitence certainly eventuated in important discoveries. (1903:7,8) Apparently Louis had the facilities for producing chemical compounds. In a letter written in 1830, his brother. Major John Eatton LeConte, requested that "10 grams of oxyl or hydrate of nickel and cobalt" be sent to him in New York and he offered to procure a "platinum crucible" for Louis' experiments from France. Two-thirds of Louis' library and chemicl apparatus were valued at $400 in the 1838 appraisal of his estate (Liberty County 1838) Louis obtained some of his supplies from Athens, where his son, William, attended Franklin College. In a letter from Louis to William dated at Woodmanston August 1, 1831, he requests that William "collect as many mineral as he can bring down" (LeConte 18 31) In the same 18 30 correspondence Major John Eatton also inquires about the success of Louis experiments "in mixing different species" (LeConte 1830). He did not publish his experiments but freely shared his

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17 findings with his scientific colleagues. Frequently, naturalists and horticulturalists from the north, and from Europe, would visit Woodmanston and Louis would introduce them to the native Georgia flora and fauna and help them pack and ship samples to their respective institutions. Dr. William Baldwin mentions the LeConte brothers in his series of letters to a friend in Pennsylvania. In his word, "from the truly scientific acquirements of these gentlemen^ and their zealous attention to every department of natural history, much may be with confidence expected. I am indebted to them for much valuable information; and hope it will not be long before they will be better known in the literary world" (Darlington 1843:332). Alexander Gordon of the Gardener's Magazine says. There are not two more scientific gentlement in the U.S.A. than Lewis LeConte, Esq. and his brother, Major John LeConte... The late Mr. Elliot of Charleston, the editor of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia frequently mentions the kind assistance of Mr. Oemler of Savannah and also two other gentlemen, Lewis LeConte, Esq. and his brother. Major John LeConte. The assistance I received from these gentlemen, in making my collection of plants, I cannot give you the most distant idea of. They are most excellent botanists and naturalists in every branch of science. Mr. LeConte has discovered many new plants; and through his kindness I have been enabled to enrich our collections with some splendid treasures. This gentlemen has, for above 30 years, given his attention to the successions of different species of timber. I must, however, inform you that this gentleman thoroughly convinced me of the existence of the Magnolia py rami data ; for on Thursday, the 27th of January, we took a journey of 50 miles, and crossed the Altamaha River, to look for a tree of that species which Mr. LeConte had seen there 18 months previous. We found it. (1832:287-288).

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18 Louis LeConte's name is also mentioned in the preface, as one of the contributors, to Torrey and Gray's Flora of North America (Gray 1883:199). John Eatton LeConte, Louis' brother,, was also a man of science. He also attended Columbia College in New York, and in 1817 entered the army of the United States as Captain of Topographical Engineers, later attaining the rank of Major. Major John Eatton LeConte had the same active interest in botany as his brother, and was responsible for a number of the exotic and unusual plants in the LeConte garden (Gray 1833:198). He frequented the major nurseries in the northeast and sent or carried many new plant specimens to his brother in Georgia. He is said to be personally responsible for the first cutting of the LeConte pear or Chinese Sand pear (Stokes 1949:183) This cutting was obtained from Thomas Hogg, a New York nurseryman. Mr. Hogg's nursery at Bloomingdale, New York, is mentioned in Gordon's "Principal Nxirseries and Private Gardens of the United States". He is said to have had an "admirable collection" of rare and valuable exotics (1832:279). Major LeConte sent a specimen of the pear to Mrs. Jane LeConte Harden, Louis' eldest daughter, at Halifax Plantation near Woodmanston. The tree was the progentior of all the LeConte pear trees in Georgia.

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19 The pear was very popular in South Georgia, as it stood shipment well and for many years the trees were entirely blight proof. As late as 1900 they were shipped by car load from Quitmen, Georgia, to the northern markets. But the variety finally lost its blight resisting qualities and has almost entirely disappeared. (LeConte 1933:13) Major John Eatton LeConte was constantly involved with the collection and indentif ication of new species of plants, animals and insects during his travels, and supplied duplicate specimens to many of his friends. Every member of the LeConte family was charged with collecting new specimens of insects, flora and fauna whereever they went. Even Matilda Jane Harden, John Eatton 's grandniece, was reminded of her collecting duties while at boarding school in Orangeburq, South Carolina. She was entreated by the Major to collect seeds, bats and rats and to charge her brother in Athens to do likewise (LeConte 1856) Major John Eatton LeConte s contributions to botanical and zoological science were published in the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, and in the P roceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, from 1852 to 1860. His extensive and valuable herbarium, which had been carefully reviewed by the older botanists of the country, v;as presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in 1852, and was followed shortly after his death in 1860 by a larqe collection of fresh water mollusca of the United States, containing many original specimens of species first observed by him. He was a most untiring student and left much manuscript, the usefulness of which has been superseded by subsequent research, and likewise many thousand water color drawings of insects and various orders, which his son has had mounted in albums suitable for inspection.

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20 No separate botanical work bears his name as author, nor any in zoology that we know of, except one on American Lepidoptera, published in connection with M. Boisduval. But the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers records the title and place and date of publication of 35 of them, 11 of which are botanical. Several of these are monographs. The earliest, on the U.S. species of Paspalum was published in the year 18 20; three others, namely those on Utricularia Gratiola and Ruellia all in 1824; those on Tillandsia and Viola in 1826; that on Paneratium in 1828. He was a keen but leisurely observer and investigator, and still more leisurely writer. He was a man of very refined and winning manners, of scholarly habits and wide reading, of an inquiring and original turn of mind, the fruitfulness of which was subdued by chronic invalidism. When he went to Paris he took with him his herbarium, which for that time was unusually rich in plants of Lower Georgia and Florida; and we remember his remark that his botanical acquaintances there made very free use of his permission to help themselves to the duplicates. There is reason to think, accordingly, that the remains of it which went to the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences will not throw all the light which might be expected upon the species of plants which were described in his published papers. His old friend, Torrey and William Cooper, named in his honor the genus which, as it proved, Rafinesque had some years earlier named Peltandra And the opportxmity was soon lost of commemorating his name in a plant of his own country; for Achile Richard in Parish, in 1829, bestowed the name of Lecontia upon a genus of Madasgascar Rubiacea now of five species. (Gray 1883:198-199) Major John Eatton LeConte s son, John Lawrence LeConte, later became one of the leading entomologists in the United States and published a number of papers including the Classification of the Coleoptera of North America in 188 3. The most well known in the scientific world perhaps are two of Louis LeConcs's sons, John and Joseph LeConte, referred to as 'the gemini of the scientific world'. Early

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21 educators in Georgia, they taught at Oglethorpe College, the University of Georgia and South Carolina College, later to become the University of South Carolina. As a result of the LeConte brothers' active involvement in the Confederate cause during the Civil War, it became almost impossible for them to obtain suitable academic appointments in the South. After contemplating a move to Brazil, they moved their families to California to aid in the organization of the University of California at Berkeley. John LeConte became the first acting president and Joseph was appointed to the chair of Geology, Zoology and Botany and taught there until the turn of the century (LeConte 1903:24 3-244). Joseph wrote several books on geology and evolution, one of which was used as a standard textbook for college courses for many years. Several species of flora and fauna are attributed to the LeContes. Most notable are the LeConte sparrow, Passerherbulus caudacutus ; the LeConte violet, Viola affinos; and the LeConte pear or Chinese Sand pear. Woodmanston Plantation The origin of the name 'Woodmanston' is unknown. As a matter of interest, or coincidence, the only reference found to that name was a ship called Woodmanston or Woodmanstone which advertised in the Georgia Gazette. Captain Benjamin Ma:5on was the master of the vessel.

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On October 28, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran this advertisement: "To be sold on Tuesday the 28th October, 1765, a cargo of about 100 young and healthy new negroes, just arrived, in the ship, Woodmanston Capt. Ben j Mason, in a short passage of seven weeks from the River Gambia" On November 5, 176 6, the Georgia Gazette ran another ad: "for London, Portugal, or Cowes, and a market, the ship Woodmanstone Benjamin Mason, burthen about 2 00 tons, a prime sailor, and (unreadable). For freight and passage apply to said master or to Habersham & Clay of Savannah". It is also significant in regard to the name, •Woodmanston', that Louis' uncle, William LeConte had business dealings v/ith Habersham & Clay in the administration of his estate, and Louis LeConte used R. Habersham and Son as factors during his years as master of the plantation. The first house, built by John Eatton LeConte, Sr., on the LeConte plantation was burned during the Revolutionary War in a skirmish near Bulltown Swamp between colonists and British troops under Colonel George Prevost during his southern campaign. This house was located somewhere on the east side of the old Fort Barringtcn Highway. There are several family accounts of Indian attacks on the plantation during the early years, which attest to the remoteness of the area and the need to guard the negro slaves against injury (Liberty 1793, LeConte 1903:19-21).

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The second residence was termed a 'lodge' in the journal of Einina LeConte Furman, Louis' grandaughter It was built as a bachelor's residence sometime before 1810 when Louis took over the management of the plantation. The 'lodge' is the house in which Louis and Ann rais'ed their family. According to Emma LeConte Furman, the house was expanded after Louis' marriage. Emma states in her journal that she pictures the old house clearly in her mind, "the mantel over the fireplace and the wall paper," but unfortunately that is all the description she provides (Shaw 1975) From an 18 38 appraisal and Josephy LeConte s autobiography it is suggested that the house was a two story structure with four bedgrooms and an attic. A separate kitchen may also be inferred from a passage in the autobiography which indicates that one of the duties of the negro children was "to cut up wood for the house, and for the kitchen, and to wait on the cook" (LeConte 1903:32). Joseph also makes an archeologically important statement in his autobiography that the "house itself was on a kind of a knoll that became an island at high water" (LeConte 1903:15). A symbol of a house is depicted on the 1844 plat map and is located on the western portion of lot #2, Syphax Plantation, which was drawn by Joseph LeConte during the settlement of the estate (Liberty County 1844:189). After Louis' death in 1838, the plantation was divided among his six children. William LeConte had already received 'Olive Hill' and Jane

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(now Mrs. John M.B. Harden) had been given her portion of the property as a wedding gift. John drew lot #3 and J. P. Stevens drew lot #1 for his wife, Ann LeConte. Joseph drew lot #2, which was made up of Syphax Plantation and the land surrounding the main house complex and settlement at Woodmanston. Lewis LeConte, the youngest son, drew lot #4 The delineation of these parcels is illustrated on an 1844 plat map located in the Liberty County Courthouse (Liberty County 1844:189) What happened to the main house and its outbuildings was a primary concern. Several possibilities were considered: 1) it may have been burned by Union General Sherman's troops; 2) the house may have been dismantled for building materials by the newly freed slaves in the area after the Civil War; 3) or it may have simply decayed and fallen down with time. Jane LeConte Harden resided in the Woodmanston home until 184 3 when a new house at Halifax, a mile to the west, was completed. The old house was used in 184 6 by Joseph LeConte and his bride as a honeymoon cottage (Black 1976:23). After that the house and gardens seem to have been completely abandoned for a time. Emma LeConte Furman states that in 1858 the old house was still standing but going to ruin (Shaw 1975) By 1866 a letter from Miss Mary Sharp Jones, in Children of Pride indicates the garden had already become overgrown and in sad need of care (Myers 1972:196). The last reference to the Woodmanston 'lodge' is from a letter written by

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25 Joseph LeConte to his niece, Matilda Jane Harden Stevens, Jane LeConte Harden 's daughter, in Baker County, Georgia in Noveniber of 1866; Annie (Matilda Jane Harden Steven's sister) and Dr. Adams will probably take possession of the old house at Woodmanston. How I wish I could drop in upon them all through winter. If I had time and money I certainly would particularly as I hear the negroes express great desire to see me again. But I fear it is impossible this winter (American Philosophical Society Library 1866) This deletes the possiblity that the Woodmanston house was burned or destroyed during Sherman's march through Georgia The 1896 photographs indicate two structures on the portion of the Woodmanston Plantation near the two Sabal palms. The first seems to be a negro shanty fronted by a pig fence and an okra patch. The second structure is partially hidden behind a tree, but is in a advanced state of decay (Figures 6,7). It is probable that the inhabitants of these structures were former LeConte slaves. Construction materials for these buildings were probably obtained from the original plantation complex, possibly even the main house. But there is also a chance that these shelters may have actually been a part of that complex, which had remained in use after the LeConte family abandoned the site.

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26 LeConte Gardens Although Louis LeConte kept himself busy with many scientific interests throughout his life, his pride and joy was always his garden. According to his son, Joseph, About an acre of ground was set apart' for this purpose and much of his time, mornings and afternoons was spent there, 'Daddy Dick', a faithful and intelligent old negro being employed under his constant supervision in keeping it in order. Every day after his breakfast he (Louis) took his last cup of coffee, his second or third, in his hand, and walked about the garden, enjoying its beauty and neatness and giving minut directions for its care and improvement. His especial pride was four or five camellia trees I say trees, for even then they were a foot in diameter and fifteen feet high. I have seen the largest of these, a double white, with a thousand blossoms open at once, each blossom four or five inches in diameter, snow white and double to the center. In the vicinity of a large city such a tree would be worth a fortune, but my father never thought no one did then of making any profit from his flowers; it was sufficient to enjoy their beauty. (LeConte 1903:3-10). These camellias were so productive that one tree produced over 2,000 blossoms for a wedding in Walthourville in 1861 (Stokes 1949:179). His garden was famous in the United States and Europe for its many bulbous plants and the cultivation of camellias outside the hothouse. Many horticulturalists of the day wrote in glowing term^ about the garden. An article entitled "Notes on Georgia Camelliana" in the 1949 Camellia Yearbook presents an excellent summary of these sources, among them Mr. Alexander Gordon's article in Loudon's Gardener's Magazin( written in 1832.

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27 The garden of Lewis LeConte, Esq., near Riceborough, in Liberty County, Georgia, forty miles south of Savannah, is decidedly the richest in bulbs I have ever seen; and their luxurience would astonish those who have only seen them in the confined state in which we are obliged to grow them in this country. (Gordon 1832:287) In 1854, correspondence between thepublication The Soil of the South and an anonymous writer whose pseudonym was 'Native Flora', includes a description of what was probably the content of the LeConte gardens. Through deduction, James Stokes, editor of "".^lotes on Georgia Camelliana" ,has traced the authorship of this letter to Ann LeConte Stevens, Louis' youngest daughter, then residing in Walthourville After several questions regarding fruit trees and their cultivation, as well as other garden inquiries, 'Native Flora' describes the camellia trees on her family homestead not ten miles away. You seemed delighted with Mrs. Marshall's find camellia trees in Savannah. I am afraid you would not credit me were I to describe several standing in the garden of cur old family homestead about 10 miles from this place. My father planted them upwards of 4 0 years ago; they were originally obtained from the elder Prince, of Long Island. Were these trees possessed by any of the New York florists they would consider them an independent fortune. Imagine what a magnificent appearance they present in winter, completely covered from their summit to the ground, with thousands and thosands of flowers, expanded at one time, contrasting with their glossy dark green foliage. You might cut bushels of flowers from them without missing them. These, with the beautiful Chinese azaleas, decorate our parlors so gorgeously in the months of December, January, and February that we have no reason to complain of winter being a gloomy season. (Soil of the South 1854:725)

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28 The Prince family to which 'Native Flora' refers, and from whom her father, Louis, obtained his camellias, owned the Linneaen Botanic Garden at Flushing, Long Island, New York. According to Alexander Gordon, The Messrs. Prince are most indefatigable in their exertions to procure all foreign and native plants; and in my intercourse with different gentlemen, in various parts of the United States, afforded by ample proof of this fact. Its extent, the great variety it contains, the multiplicity of agents employed for collection and disseminating plants for and from it. (1832:280) Unfortunately, none of Ann LeConte Steven's correspondence contained a drawing or layout of the garden. In a letter from Dr. Frances Harper to James Stokes, Dr. Harper recounts a previous correspondence with Professor Joseph Nisbet LeConte in 1933; Miss Julia King, of Colonel's Island, once had a book on Gardens and Gardening, in which was a drawing of my grandfather's botanical garden, this picture having been made by Bartram. I have never been able to trace this supposed publication, and I am quite skeptical as to a drawing by Bartram. Unfortunately, a copy of this publication has not been found. (Stokes 1949:180) Various private, public and university libraries and rare booksellers, both here and abroad, have been contacted concerning the existence of such a book, but the search has been unsuccessful. See Appendix A for a listing of this extensive correspondence. A list of 40 bulbous plants has been located by Dr. George Rogers, of Georgia Southern College, in the John Lawrence LeConte Collection in the American Philosophical Library at Philadelphia. The list is dated 1813-1815 and

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is believed to have been the original property of John Lawrence LeConte's father, Major John Eatton LeConte. It contained the germination and flowering times of similar varieties in the Georgia coastal area today (Black 1976:6). Several varieties of Narcissus Leuco jum Crocus Iris Gladiolus Hyacinthus Lillium Scilla Ornithogalum Amaryllis and Pancratium are represented (American Philosophical Society 1813). For a complete bulb list see Appendix B. Although we have not located a map or formal listing of plants and trees included in the Louis LeConte garden, we may infer the inclusion of many native varieties. 'Native Flora' wrote to Soil of the South entreating people to include such native plants in their lawns and gardens (1854:90,92). See Appendix Cfor a complete list. Louis LeConte's love of nature influenced the lives of all of his children. His two daughters, Jane LeConte Harden and Ann LeConte Stevens, followed in his footsteps. Jane LeConte Harden had a lovely garden built at Halifax, just a mile from Woodmanston, which contained a tiered garden and a swan pond. There is a picture taken in 1949 of the moat surrounding the island, which was a portion of the garden landscape of Halifax. This island contained several camellias until a forest fire in the 19 30s obliterated them. The only remaining camellia plants of this former garden are two Camellia sinensis (Stokes 1949:180,181). Emma LeConte describes this garden in some detail in her journal.

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30 There were the flowers of Aunt Jane's wonderful garden. She inherited her father's love of flowers and Botany a large square garden with a circular mound in the midst in three diminishing tiers, the topmost and smallest filled with a huge cycas palm whose long leaves drooped over the brick terrace wall. In this garden was every known variety of camellia, single and double purest white to deepest red-rose and blush and variegated great bushes like trees. Huge azaleabushes, not yet in bloom, and but the magnolia fuscata and tea olive were (in bloom), and many other shrubs and daffodils, jonquils and narcissi and many other bulbs-violets. More flowers than I can remember and this was December! (Shaw 1975) It is probable that Jane LeConte Harden was influenced greatly by her father in the organization and planning of her garden. It also seems likely that many of the plants at the Halifax garden were propagated from original specimens or transplanted from the old garden. Based on these assumptions we may gain a somewhat clearer notion of the character of the LeConte garden at Woodmanston. In 185 3 Ann LeConte Stevens planned a botanic and floral garden for her home in Walthourville, and sought aid from the editors of The Soil of the South Her garden was to include fruit trees of several varieties and exotic as well as native trees and flowers. The plan for a flower garden which I (Ann) have drawn on paper is in the Arabesque Style, with figures imbedded in the lawn. How would you prepare the ground what manures would you employ, in which quantites, and how apply? What grasses should be sown fo form a permanent green surface like velvet where can it be procured, and at what price? The beds are to be bricked in should this be done before or after the grass is sown? This garden will be about 4 0 vards square. (1853:725) ^ ^

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31 In 1851 in an address before the Southern Agricultural Society, the Rt, Rev. Stephen Elliott, Jr., mentioned the camellia, the oleander, the gardenia and the tea rose as becoming rapidly indigenous in the milder portion of the state. He particularly mentioned the grounds of the "late Mr. LeConte of Liberty County. There are seasons of the year when one literally walks upon camellias and their seed is freely matured in the open air (Stokes 1949:175). According to James Stokes, this address was a potent factor in the almost complete obleiteration of camellias from the old Woodmanston Plantation in Liberty County, By 1896 the remaining camellias had reached tree like proportions, one measuring 56 inches in circumference (LeConte 1903:10). Photographs taken during Joseph's last visit to Georgia show their relative size (Figures 6,7). Col. John R.L. Smith of Macon, son-in-law of Mrs. Emma LeConte Furman, visited the old plantation site of Woodmanston in 1910 and reported that at that time the old Double White camellia tree was still standing. In 1930 G.3. Eunice, County Agent of Liberty County, visited Woodmanston and reported that the large Double White camellia was not present but several other large trees remained. One of the large ones was a particularly beautiful variegated form. Three days later he returned to get some cuttings from this particular camellia and found that it had been

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32 removed by professionals. There was a large hole, several feet square, to mark the plant's former location. It is evident that between 19 30 and 1933 the LeConte botanic garden was stripped of most of its remaining camellias. In 19 33 Dr. Francis Harper, a well-known naturalist of Philadelphia, visited Woodmanston and found that only a few Cherokee roses remained on what was a bank of the old garden (Stokes 1949:180) In 1949 a visit to the old plantation site was made by Dr. Clyde E. Keeler and Mr. and Mrs. James Stokes. They reported that at that time no buildings were left to mark the site of the Woodmanston homestead. The area was a wilderness and a photograph taken then shows the same two Sabal palms that may be observed in the 1897 photograph (Stokes 1949:181) (Figure 6). There was, however, only one camellia left as a remnant of the once glorious garden. It was a single flowered red seedling of large size, but was in a sad state of neglect. A portion of this original camellia was remarkably still in existance at the Woodmanston Plantation site in 19 79, and was seen at various times during the year by Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern College, and Dr. Charles Fairbanks and Jennifer Hamilton of the University of Florida and many interested Garden Clubs of Georgia members.

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33 By the early part of the twentieth century, ownership of the Woodmanston Plantation was no longer in LeConte family hands. In 1911 Syphax Plantation was sold by Emma LeConte Furman and Sarah LeConte Davis, Joseph LeConte s daughters, to C.B. Jones and A.F. Winn for lumber purposes. Ann LeConte Stevens also sold her portion to C.B. Jones and A.F. Winn in 1911 (Liberty County 1911:340,345). If any structures were left at this time surely decay and looting would have taken their toll. Rice Culture When Louis' father, John Eatton LeConte, established Woodmanston Plantation about 1770, the Indian territory was just over the Altamaha River, only 15 to 20 miles away, and what is now Mcintosh County was a 'no man's land', a neutral ground, between the Indians and colonists. Woodmanston s location was therefore vulnerable, and it was frequently raided by the local Indians. Consequently, John Eatton was forced to fortify Woodmanston with a stockade and arms as defensive measures. The Woodmanston Plantation was a self sufficient enterprise. In Joseph LeConte 's autobiography he recounts, there were tanneries in which the hides of slaughtered cattle were made into leather. There was a shoemaker's shop, where from the leather made on the place the shoes for all the negroes were made by negro shoemakers. There were blacksmith and carpenter shops, where all the work needed on the plantation was done by negro blacksmiths and carpenters. All the rice raised on the plantation was threshed, winnowed, and beaten by machinery made on the site, driven by horsepower, and the^ horses by negro boys. All the cotton was ginned and cleaned

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34 and packed on the place. As the cotton was Sea Island, or long-staple, Whitney's invention was of no use, and only roller gins could be used, at first, foot-gins, and later horse-gins. For the same reason viz. the fineness of the staple the cotton was all packed by hand and foot, the packer standing in the suspended bag. All these operations of tanning, shoemaking, blacksmithing, carpentering, rhe threshing, winnowing, and beating of rice, and the ginning,cleaning and packing of cotton, were watched with interest by us boys, and often we gave a helping hand ourselves. There was special interest in the ginning of cotton by foot and the threshing of the rice by flail, because these were carried on by great numbers working together, the one by women, and the other by men, and always with singing and shouting and keeping time with the work. The negroes themselves enjoyed it hugely. (LeConte 1903:8,9). Cows, pigs and sheep were also raised. Ninety cattle, 16 hogs and 13 sheep were listed in the 1838 appraisal of the estate of Louis LeConte (Liberty County 1838). My father always attended personally to this clace, on foot in winter, when living on the plantation, on horseback when the family was in the summer retreat in Jonesville about three miles away. But during the period of his ill health he was not able to attend to the duties of the plantation and about 200 slaves, so for a year employed an overseer, the only one he ever had. (LeConte 1903:8,9). According to the appraisals of the estate made at Louis' death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230 slaves valued at $87,980, almost 97 percent of the total estimated value of the entire estate, excluding land values (Liberty County 1833) The success of Woodmanston Plantation, as well as others in Georgia, was not due to good engineering and management alone, but was primarily due to the immigration of many wealthy Carolina planters who come to Georgia to settle in the area with their families and negro slaves.

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35 The reason for this immigration was the changes made by the British Government and Trustees of the Georgia Colony, which for the first time allowed slavery and the issuance of land grants. The early 1760s saw an actual decline in the population of Georgia because people could not make a living off the land. Therefore, without the slaves, the success of the rice culture would not have been possible on the major scale which it eventually attained. The immigrants from the Carolinas who came into this wilderness area had to clear the tidal swampland which consisted of a matted tangle of cypress, gum, ash, huge grapevines and cane. The soil under the dense undergrowth was too soft to walk on and a great variety of wildlife including alligators, turtles, water moccasins, and copperheads abounded. To abserve the scene at that time and envision an orderly rice plantation with many miles of embankments enclosing the crops was a "testimony to the ingenuity and ambition which the joint problems of agriculture and economics were approached in the seventeenth century (Gunn 1975:2). There was a limited amount of available land which offered the natural hydraulics required for the successful operation of a gravity flow rice plantation. In order to solve problems of 'on' and 'off aquaculture flow, and to m.amtain the water at the required levels for good plant growth, the planters utilized the so called 'inland swamp

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36 system' This was the type of irrigation used at Woodmanston and it was one of the earliest systems for rice cultivation employed along the southeast coast. The almost level river flood plains were cleared, and then irrigated, by building embankments to divert the water from nearby streams and rivers which flowed through the cypress swamp, and by creating an artificial upland reservoir at a slightly higher elvation than the rice fields for the collection, and later use of, rainwater and rimoff during the dry season. Natural gravitation was therefore utilized, via a system of trunk gates, sluiceways and canals, to control the flow of water on and off the rice fields which were located at a slightly lower elevation. The 'off flow or drainage, when dry culture was needed, was achieved by constructing a system of drainage ditches and gates which led the water off the rice fields via a drainage channel located at a lower elevation downstream fro the main upland v/ater reservoir. These earthworks were not as elaborate as those needed to operate the tidal-flow irrigation system, which were developed at a later date. Nevertheless, they required a reservoir of such good construction and large capacity as to not only contain the flood waters of spring freshets which swept down from the piedmont, but also to provide adequate water for irrigation of the growing rice crop throughout the dry summer months.

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37 The system of water level regulation relied on the fact that the direction of flow was always in the same direction, i.e., downstream from the reservoir. The trunk gates were the regulatory key to the entire hydraulic system and had to work with a fine degree of precision. The most effective irrigation schedule called for four separate flooding on, and draining off, cycles. The last cycle known as the 'lay-by', or 'harvest' flow, kept the rice fields flooded 40 or 50 days, and required close precision in regulating the depth of the water on the fields to within a fraction of an inch. The purpose of the 'harvest' flow was to support the forming heads of the rice plants which had to be held at a level "up to the head or the point where the ear was forming" (Black 1976:11-14). A description of early rice cultivation is found in a Description of South Carolina Here it is revealed that good crops are produced even the first year, when the surface of the earth appears in some degree covered with the trunks and branches of trees; the proper months for sowing rice are March, April and May; the method is to plant it is trenches, or rows made with a hoe, about 3 inches deep; the land must be pretty clear from woods: and the latter, end of August or beginning of September, it will be fit to be reaped. (Carroll 1836:201) Water culture was used, not only as a means of irrigation, but also as a method for the systematic destruction of weeds and insects, and allowed the soils to be replenished and nourished annually by the silt from upstream (Phillips 1929:117).

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38 The practice of sowing in rows 18 inches apart appears to have been general practice as late as 1775. "Rice is sowed in furrows about 18 inches distant: a peck usually sows an acre, which yields seldom less than 30 bushels or more than 50 bushels, but generally between these two, accordingly as the land is better or worse" (Carroll 1836:251). Modification of the practice came after the Revolutionary War when the quantity planted per acre was said to be three bushels. This was accomplished by placing furrows closer together In the Carolina-Georgia lowlands, the fields, after a preliminary braking, were laid off in broad shallow drills, 12 to 15 inches apart, in which the seed were strewn. If the rice seed had previously been "clayed" by soaking in mud, the water was at once let on to cover the furrows and sprout the crop. But if unclayed seed were used they were covered lightly by hoeing and the 'sprout flow' was omitted. Some planters followed one system, and some the other. Practice also varied as to the schedule of the later flows, though most commonly where the tide was available they included the 'point flov/', begun when the seedlings were visible above the ground, the long flow' when the stalks were approaching full height and need help in upholding their heavy heads against the winds. Between the flows the fields were drained and the weeds and grass pulled or chopped out (Phillips 1929:115). The choice of good sites for gravity flow rice plantations had always been narrowly limited by the need for a plentiful water supply. The brook swamps which were used by some of the first planters, were abandoned within a half century after tidal flow plantations were pioneered, even though the engineering effort required to transform the tidal swamp into a place capable of producing a rice crop was an enormous

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undertaking. Flooding and draught were the raajor problems of the inland swamp system, as stated by Nathaniel Pendleton, as early as 1796, "the uncertainty of being able to collect sufficient water on an inland swamp in dry seasons, the difficulty of draining them at the proper time in wet ones, and the inferiority of the soil" (Thayer 1957:77). Therefore, after the Revolutionary War (178 3) there was a gradual shift from 'inland swamp' or 'brook swamp' culture of rice, such as that used at Woodmanston, to the 'tidal flow' system. Although more elaborate preparation of the land was necessary for the control of water, this system proved to be more efficient since it utilized natural tidal action to flood the fields. The control of water flow, thus established, was automatic and complete as long as the banks, trunks, and gates were kept in good order The tidal flow system, though more efficient, was hazardous, nevertheless. Animals sometimes undermined the banks or bored holes through them to make a channel into which the water could break through. More damaging, a flood from the uplands could wreck the levee, or a hurricane might drive ocean water inshore and raise it to an overtopping height. Such adverse situations could break down the banks, thereby allowing salt water to contaminate the fields to the extent that several years of leaching would be required to render the soil sweet again. Tide-flow fields, furthermore were so narrow that the per acre upkeep of banks, trunks, and drains eventually proved excessively expensive, and other

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40 tracts, which were continuously cultivated over many years introudced an oxidation of humus in the soil and a consequent lowering of the surface to a point where it was no longer above the level of low tide, and therefore unworkable (Phillips 1929:117-118). Louis' son, Joseph LeConte, discussed rice processing on Woodmanston plantation as it was done during his childhood. He noted that the entire processes of harvesting, threshing, winnowing, grinding, a second winnowing and finally milling were performed on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22,23). The rice could be harvested with sickles while still a little green, it was then left on the stubble to dry, for about two or three days, and then it was housed or put in large stacks. Afterwards, it was threshed with a flail, and then winnowed (Carroll 1836:201). The flail had to hit just right to remove the rice from the stalk. A drawing of a flail can be seen in Eric Sloan's A Museum of Early American Tools (1964:98). It is made up of a 'hand staff and a 'souple' connected by leather thongs and a swivel 'hood'. Winnowing was formerly a very tedious operation. A large wooden winnowing scoop such as the one sketched in Sloane's A Museum of Early American Tools was used to throw the flailed grain into the air to separate the grain from the chaff (1964:105). After the introduction of innovations such as the winnowing house and the 'wind fan', about 1750, this process became much easier. It is not known whether the

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41 wind fan was used on the LeConte plantation, but since the LeContes were men of science we can reasonably assume that they would be aware of the latest agricultual inovation. The next part of the process was grinding, which was done in small mills made of wood, of about two feet in diameter to remove the outer hull from the kernal. It was winnowed again, after which it was put into a wooden mortar sufficient to contain about half a bushel. It was then beaten with a large pestle to free the rice from the inner skin (Carroll 1836:200). Emma LeConte Furman remembers her childhood days at Halifax, John M.B. Harden 's plantation; "and yonder hands beating out the rice. The primitive implements being hollowed out cypress knee and a smooth cypress pestle" (Shaw 1975) Before the end of the eighteenth century, mills were introduced for the same purpose. The mechanical process of milling was accomplished by setting a row of slotted timbers to slide vertically as pestles. The revolving of a horizontal beam nearby, pierces with spokes long enough to reach into the slots, would successively lift the pestles and let them, fall into the grain filled mortars below. After the pounding there came the second winnowing, sifting and polishing of the rice (Phillips 1929:115) The rice on the Woodmanston Plantation was 'threshed, winnowed and beaten' by horsedriven machinery which was made on the plantation. As was the practice of the day, it is probable that the "whole grains were barreled for market, the broken grains were mainly kept for home consumption.

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and the by-product rice flour was fed to livestock unless it could be sold to brewers" (Phillips 1929:115). As important agricultural developments such as planting the furrows closer together, and the use of larger quantities of seed per acre, were introduced, the yield per man increased dramatically. As had been noted, in the middle of the eighteenth century, "a good hand made four and one half barrels of rice, each weighing about 500 pounds neat," or a total of 2,250 pounds. A few years later, just before the Revolutionary War, De Brahm stated that "each slave cultivated four acres of rice," and another account of about the same period placed the product of each slave at about "75 bushels weighing 65 pounds each," or a total of 4,865 pounds. If, as it was claimed, each acre yielded about 25 bushels, one slave could cultivate three acres of rice. However, just after the Revolutionary War, it was reported that each negro on William Washington s inland swamp plantation cultivated four to four and one half acres of rice, or a total of 7,312 pounds (Gray 1958:284) In The Agricultural History of the Southern Uniced States the yield of the rice fields was discussed: the yield of rice per acre and per man was not as large in the colonial period as it later came to be because of improvements in cultivation and milling. These yields per acre were far above that which oriental rice producers had been able to achieve in their recorded history.

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43 "In 1850 there were only 551 rice plantations in the United States, as compared to 74,0 31 cotton plantations; 15,745 tobacco plantations and 2,681 sugar plantations" (Black 1976:15). Considering this relatively small number of rice plantations, their dominant infltience on colonial history proves their historical significance. The total amount of investment necessary to start and profitably run a rice plantation has been documented in the following reports: To undertake a rice plantation in this province does by several years experience prove to attend the following aricles, expenses, and profits. Supposing the land to be purchased as 10/ per acre vide, 200 acres 100 0 0 To build a barn and pounding machine purchased board and timber 220 0 0 To purchase 40 working hands 1,800 0 0 To purchase working oxen and horses 60-0-0 To two carts and collars 10-0-0 To hoes, axes, spades and other plantation tools 30-0-0 To annual expenses for tax and quit rent Lb. 5 & first year's provision Lb. 50 50-0-0 To overseers wages 50-0-0 To negroes shoes Lb. 6-10 Ditto cloth Lb. 20-0 & 13 blankets per annum: Lb. 5-6 31 -16 0 To a box of medicines & doctor's fees Lb. 20 for deaths of negroes per annum Lb. 100 120-0-0 Lb. 2,476 -16 0 The aforementioned numJDer of negroes will plant 130 acres of rice, making 350 barrels at 40/ per Lb, 700 -0-0; also 70 acres of provision, will nearly clear Lb. 23-5 5 percent interest. The next year's provision article falling away, the expended capital will only be Lb. 2,426 16 0, and the interest on it will nearly be Lb. 29 percent. Those who plant indigo will raise their interest much

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44 higher. N.B. the above calculation is on land, which is already cleared and fenced, for if this is to be done so full a crop cannot be expected at the first, and at times not the second year, especially if the undertaker is not a professed planter, and has not a very faithfull and industrious well experienced overseer. (De Brahm 1760: 162, 163) In a "Short Account of the Sea Coast of Georgia," written by Nathaniel Pendleton in 1800, the expense of settling a rice estate was estimated as follows: Lands sufficient for 40 working negroes are 200 acres of rice land, and 400 acres of timber land 3 dlls (dollars) per acre 1800. 50 negroes great and small at 125 dls. 6250. Building, machines, etc. 750. Casualties & other incidental expenses 620 $10, 670. It is estimated one year is supposed to be devoted to clearing the land, and ditching and banking it for planting, and, therefore, one year's expense is considered as so much capital advanced. The negroes are supposed to be bought on the coast of Africa, or they would cost more, perhaps 200 each on an average. They might be imported for 100 dols. at present. The crops produced on rice estates vary very much according to the state of improvement the land is in. No crop can be more certain when the land is in high state of perfection, that is, when the trunks, floodgates, banks, and canals are in such a state, that the tide may be let off and on at pleasure. 200 acres of ground may be cultivated by 40 negroes, each acre of tide swamp produces on the lowest computation 1200 lb. net rice and on the highest 1800 lb. The lowest price of rice since the peace of 1783 has been 2 dollars per hundred, at present it sells at 6 dollars and a half per hundred. Take the lowest computation and the lowest price ... (Thayer 1957:80) Pendleton was the administrator of William LeConte s estate in 1787. It is possible that some of the preceding figures came from the Woodmanston or the San Souci Plantations, The probate for the estate of William LeConte lists 100

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45 barrels of rice ready for market which was appraised at $300 and 34 adult slaves plus their families. This seems to be an average size rice plantation for this period. Plantations such as these supported the towns of Charleston and Savannah, as well as Beaufort and Sunbury, and enable them to develop into enviable centers of commerce and social life. This relatively stable situation provided the environment for financial success and the refinement of a culture peculiar to the old south. Woodmanston remained a productive rice plantation until after Louis' death in 1838, within six years it had been divided into six tracts. During this period wet X rice culture was beginning to be abandoned and dry culture was adopted for health reasons. Remnants of the dams and canals used in the plantation can still be seen on the Woodmanston site, but the entire area is now covered by cypress and tupelo trees. In 1861 Joseph Jones wrote an excellent description of similar environs that accurately describe the Woodmanston we see today. We may, in these swamps, see everywhere the marks of former cultivation in old embankments covered with large trees and the enclosed lands which were once clothed with golden rice, now support dense forests of cypress, tupelo, and gum; and the once deep and broad canals, which were used by the ancients to drain rhese swamps, are now covered with trees and and choked up with trunks and limbs of dead trees and accumulated sediment (Wilms 1972:51).

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Slaves Unfortunately we do not have a tremendous amount of information concerning the LeConte slaves, the people who actually worked the land, but through personal oral interviews of descendants of slaves-, census reports, estate administrations and family documents we may be able to piece together a better, more complete picture of slave life on the Liberty County plantation. The 1787 administration of the estate of William LeConte contains as appraisal of the Woodmanston Plantation. Fifty-one slaves are listed by family names; 14 families and six single males are included. The United States Census of 1820, 1830, and 1840 give the number of slaves: 1820 158; 1830 217; 1840 141 (after division of the estate) (U.S. Census 1820, 1830, 1840). The slaves which were owned by the LeConte family over the years were simply passed from father to son as part of the ownership of the plantation, as was the practice at that time. It is most probable that some of the original 34 slaves still survived until 1820, the additional number being their offspring, although new slaves may have been purchased locally. At certain times of the year, this labor force was supplemented by workers from San Souci Plantation. At least a portion of the LeConte negroes were purchased from the partnership of Robert John and James Smythe of Charleston. This is evidence in a letter to Major John Berrien,

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47 administrator of the estate of William LeConte in July of 1787 found in the probate records of Chatham County Courthouse. Charleston 18 July, 1787 Major John Berrien Sir Being informed that you have administered on the Estate of William LeConte deceased I take the liberty of acquainting you of a demand of the estate by the late partnership of Robert John and James Smythe of this place. The Debt was contracted on bond for negroes sold him here in the year 1773, Since which payments have been made, but the balance remaining still exceeds Lb. 110 sterling you will do me a favor in informing me by the very first conveyance, what is become of the Estate and when a dependence can be placed on the payment, and in what manner you sill be able to accomplish itOn receipt of your answer I shall transmit you a particular state of the bond. Sir Your Very Obediant Servant John Smythe No. 11 Ellery Street In the autobiography of Joseph LeConte he mentions that; During my boyhood there were on the plantation three very old negroes who were native Africans and remembered their African home. They were Sissy, a little old man bent almost double; Nancy, an old woman with filed teeth; and Charlotte, who left Africa according to her own account, when she was twelve. All of them, of course, were superannuated and taken care of without renumeration (1903:23,29). A 'Charlotte' and 'Nancy' are listed on the 1787 administration appraisal of Woodmanston as married women, Charlotte had four children. If she left Africa at 12 and was purchased not long after her arrival in America, and was part of the 1773 agreement with Smythe of Charleston, she would have been 26

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43 years of age at the 178 7 administration and could have had four living children by that time. Joseph LeConte was born in 1823. By the time he reached the 'age of remembering' (1830) these three slaves would have been almost 75 years old, an amazing age for anyone in those times. In the Georgia Gazette (September 9, 1774) an advertisement was placed by Robert Bolton for a runaway slave: Run away from John Eatton LeConte, a negro fellow named Johnny, who formerly belonged to Mr. William Wyley, he is well set fellow and is well known in this town, where he keeps. Any person delivering him to the Warden of the Workhouse shall receive two shillings reward. This notice is evidence that at least a portion of the LeConte slaves were purchased from local sources. The 18 38 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate again enumerated the slaves by name and estimated monetary value. Several people are referred to as "old" sos an so. This term may simply have been used to refer to the relative ages of several slaves bearing the same name. An example might be: Old Rachel $300; Young Rachel $600; Child Rachel $50 (Liberty County 1838) However, some of the "old" people may indeed be the children of the negroes who made up the original LeConte investment. Not all of the negroes on the Woodmanston Plantation were slaves. The July 12, 1823 edition of the Georgian published a list of:

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49 persons of color who claim to be free, were born in the County of Liberty, and State of Georgia, have resided in said State during their whole lives, and have had their names registered in my office as is required by law (The Georgian 1823) Bess, a seamstress, aged 3 3 years, and residing at Mr. Louis LeConte's was included on that list. William L. LeConte Louis/ grandson, described his father's "negro quarters" on the Olive Hill Plantation. These quarters were some quarter of a mile from the "big house", and consisted of cabins strung along two parrallel rows the doors facing each other, so as to make two sides of a parallelogram. The side next to the home-stead was left open, while the opposite side of the parallelogram was occupied by a neat chapel, capable of seating all of our own negroes, and on special occasions, such of the negroes on neighboring farms as might wish to attend Sabbath services. (1900:3) A slave settlement is indicated on the 1844 plat map just north of the main dike. Unfortunately we were unable to find any remaining evidence of slave cabins or other structures in this area. An interview with a local inhabitant of Liberty County in 197 9, whose grandparaents had been former LeConte slaves, gave us some information concerning plantation life. Ke said that his grandparents told him they had lived in 'pole' houses with two rooms, one for sleeping and he 'supposed' one for cooking (Flesch 1979). ?ja 1360 unpublished census report on the slave population lists Joseph as owning 63 slaves and 13 houses, and John as owning 4 5 slaves and 10 houses; approximately five persons per house. These men inherited their work

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50 force from their father and probably provided the same type of accomodations. According to the appraisals of the estate made at Louis' death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230 slaves valued at $37,980, which was almost 97 percent of the total estimated value of the entire estate, excluding land value (Liberty 1838). Family documents reflect kind treatment and close ties between master and slave. Several instances, both before and after the Civil War, of mutual concern have been recorded. A photoqraph of Emma LeConte Furman s domestic servants taken in 1897 depicts a well dressed family on the steps of her home in Berkeley, California. A caption is included in an accompanying letter from Caroline LeConte to Helen Grier LeConte, John L. LeConte s wife: I take the liberty also of sending you a group of darkies, the descendent of negroes which have been born and bred there for nearly 100 years Waltsrhis wife and children is the carriage driver and grand Tycoon of the inner temple, the boss about the premises his wife is Emma's cook, the other scions of various ages tote the water and cut the wood and otherwise do iobs around. They pride themselves on their aristocratic lineage and quite sneer at the poor white trash in the neighborhood the new times of freedom have wrought no change in these old family negroes they are perfectly devoted to Emma's interests and are entirely satisfied with their present arrangement. (LeConte 1897)

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CHAPTER III ARCHEOLOGY Research Methodology Archeological investigation of the LeConte-Woodmanston Plantation began in March, 1979 under the direction of Dr. Rochelle Marrinan, Georgia Southern College, and Jennifer Hamilton, University of Florida. Preliminary inspection suggested a high degree of surface disturbance which ranged from outright bulldozer removal of soils for road construction to extensive dissection caused by clear cutting. The problem of providing information from archeological evidence to assist the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees with interpretive plans was a major goal of the research. The basic research strategy can be characterized as a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal excavation. It was felt this course of action was necessary in order to best answer the goals of the Garden Club. According to Section 1 of the contract between the Garden Clubs of Georgia, Inc. and Georgia Southern College (1978); 'i'he Georgia Southern College shall do or cause to be done the following: ~~" a. Test proposed parking area (60 x 100 feet) to clear for use. b. Test proposed orientation area (size presently unspecified) 51

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52 c. Testing to discover former location of LeConte garden. d. Testing and excavation to determine house area. e. Survey and testing to locate outbuildings and slave settlements. A major difficulty to archeological investigation at the Woodmanston site is the degree of subsurface disturbance caused by lumbering activities, agriculture and removal of soil for road construction. In archeological sites disturbed by cultural activities subsequent to the period of major interest, either historic or aboriginal, there is still the possiblity of retrieving significant cultural information. Evaluations of the potential of a disturbed site must consider habitat uniqueness vis a vis resources, physical characteristics, temporal distinctiveness, kind and variety of activities, quality of preservation, significance to the local public, and significance to the regional research design. One must take into account the amount and type of disturbance which has occured in each specific instance. "As long as the cause and pattern of disturbance can be outlined, the archeologist can add the disturbance variable into the interpretation of the remaining distribution of artifacts" (Talmadge et al 1977:7,11). Agricultural activities, pot hunting and other destructive forces may move and or remove some materials but they do not completely destroy the integrity of the site. Within badly disturbed sites, several goals may still be approached. The interpretation of the spatial distribution of artifacts and features, techniques in tool manufacture, change through

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53 time, chronological placement of artifacts, and the amount of correspondence between surface and subsurface remains may be explored. The approximate location of structures, site utilization and technological information may also be available (Talmadge et al 1977:8). LeConte-Woodmanston may be taken as a case in point. Twentieth century land use has been predominantly lumber production, cattle raising, and hunting. The area has been timbered and clear cut and replaced by a pine cash crop. During initial reconnaissance of the area considerable damage from logging and lumbering activities was noted. A portion of the site, just east of the plantation era landmarks, had been completely removed for use as fill dirt in the construction of access roads. The only record of prior archeolgoical investigation in the area had been done by Gordon Midgette in 19 72 and reads as follows: In the work that I did at Woodmanston my primary objective was to identify (from historical documents and existing botanical remnants) the general layout of the house, gardens, rice paddies, etc. I was convinced by Colonel Black's notes and the personal observations of several other people that at least a portion of the house site was still intact as well as part of the garden, the central axis of the main dam and possibly some outbuildings within 200 yards of the main house. I shovel scooped and recorded about 200 square feet of an area about 100 yards from the main house that yielded substantial evidence of a wooden wall and wall trench. This would have been a stockade. I also recorded most of the existing plants and trees that seem to be rerraiants of the gardens and other plantings in the area of the house site.

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54 Surface evidence was extensive for bricked pilings, walks, and possibly foundations or floors of the late eighteenth early nineteenth century ... (where the floor is paved brick and sunk slightly below the original surface of the ground. In the earlier structures this would be as much as three or four feet.) A good example is the structure described in my Evelyn site National Register form. The china that I recovered from the surface was all within the time frame expected and correlated with the historical period ascribed to the house. (Midgette 19 72) This brief note did not provide substantial information for the present study. The site has become considerably more overgrown in the last seven years and the only areas easily accessible are the entrance road and a small area around the seedling camellia. We were unable to locate the "extensive surface evidence of pilings, walks, and possibly foundations or floors of the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century", since there is no record of the exact location of Midgette 's shovel testing nor his proposed location of the big house in relation to any standing features on the site such as the palms, camellia or dike. Dense vegetation and heavy leaf cover made adequate surface investigation almost impossible. In addition it was difficult to place any degree of confidence on the negative result of such a survey. Archeological goals during the spring excavations were dictated by the Department of Natural Resources proposed development plan. This plan emphasized interpretation of the plantation era site components, the natural setting and use as a habitat for endangered plant species (LeConte Woodmanston Trustees: 1978) (Figure 8). In order to provide necessary guidance for the Garden Club development of the site,

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55 our assessment focused on the impact of proposed structures; the parking lot, visitor interpretation center, and nature walks on the existing cultural resources and the location and identification of the remaing plantation era resources. Transects and Auger Testing In order to ascertain the extent of the site still remaining intact a series of linear transects covering the major areas in question were cleared. This included the proposed parking area on the northeast corner of the site which had previously been cleared and used as a source of fill for the entrance road; the orientation area just west of the parking facilities; the region encompassing the palms, the crepe myrtle, the seedling camellia and the stand of old pecans which is a possible location for the main house and garden; and the area northwest of the dike and across the entrance road. Approximately five percent of the upland was covered by the series of linear transects which were used to control a program of mechanical auger and pesthole testing (Figures 9,10). A gas driven 4-inch mechnical auger was used along with standard pesthole diggers. Both worked well, each had its advantages and disadvantages. The pesthole diggers were more tine consuming than the auger, but they resulted in a wider hole and artifacts were broken less frequently. Also it provided a clearer picture of the stratigraphy. The auger, however, is much more

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56 efficient in terms of time per test. A great distance can be covered in a day. It, too, has its disadvantages, such as the noise and gas fumes and the possibility of getting caught in roots and clay. Two teams executed approximately 40' tests per day, each test extended approximately three feet or until the drill reached hard packed clay. The test interval was three meters. Test material was caught in a metal tray and screened through quarter inch hardware cloth. Findings were plotted and areas of culturally positive tests were noted (Figure 11) Surface clearing for positioning auger tests required substantial crew hours but was the most efficient method of sampling a maximum area with the least expenditure of time. This form, of testing made it possible to compare the sparse surface indications with the distribution of archeological refuse over a large part of the site. For the most part there does not seem to be a one to one correlation. Although this may sometimes be so in plowed field sites, heavy ground cover presents different problems. Auger testing has been used successfully as a means of delineating site extent, determination of artifact distribution and site composition; and testing correlation between surface and subsurface material in both historic and prehistoric sites by Deagan and Bostwick in St. Augustine, Percy at the Torreya site in Liberty County, Florida and by Coblentz and Powell in the Lubbub Creek Project (Deagan et al. 1976: Bostwick and Wise, in press; Percy 1976;

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57 Coblentz and Powell 1979) Price, Hunter and McMichael used a 2 00 pound solid core drill for approximately the same purposes but the lightweight two man auger offers a much more practical alternative. A total of 504 auger and pesthole tests were made on the Woodmanston site, with 17 percent containing material artifacts. The proposed parking area, land designated on the 1844 plat map as various agricultural fields, was cross cut using three transects which covered the section that had been cleared and stripped of top soil for road construction and the land to the west which still retained much of the natural vegetation (Figure 11) A total of 195 auger tests were performed in this region and only one contained any cultural material. This test was located within a few yards of the entrance road and was undoubtadly already badly disturbed. The potential for archeological information in this portion of the site is very small. The orientation area which would eventually function as a mean of introduction for visitors to the site has also been tested by means of linear transects and pesthole tests. Twenty tests were performed in this area and six contained cultural material, including nails, brick fragments, glass and ceramics. Concentrations of a positive nature in this area indicate the need for further formal testing. The central area included the botanical features and comprised approximately two acres. A total of 73 tests were m.ade in this area. Seventy percent were positive for cultural material including ceramics, bone, glass and metal.

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58 In an effort to locate the outbuildings and slave settlement of the Woodmanston plantation we again cleared a number of linear transects through the pine stand west of the palms, the area south of the entrance road and the area west of the dike. Comprising about eight acres, this area included property indicated by the 1844 plat map to have at least one 'settlement' and various fields (Liberty County 1844) A total of 217 tests were made with 16 percent cutlurally positive. In addition to the information abtained by the auger tests these transects aided in examining the surface for any depressions or mounds which might look promising. As on the east of the borrow pit, there has been a great deal of disturbance from lumbering activities but concentrations of positive tests in several areas indicate a need for further testing. One such area is just west of the camellia near a large oak tree. Formal Excavation Auger test results were checked by limited formal excavation and trenching. Areas of high positive concentration and areas with low frequencies were checked. The 13 96 photographs indicate two structures on this portion of the Woodmanston plantation. The first seems to be a form of negro shanty fronted by a pig fence and an okra patch. The second structure is partially hidden behind a tree but is in an advanced state of decay. In the central area, two locations were determined to be possible locations for

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structures. Slight surface elevation, concentrations of brick fragments and positive test findings motivated excavation. Excavated fill was screened through quarter inch hardware cloth over 3/4 by 3/8 inch diamond mesh by mechanical shaker screens. The first group of excavation units were placed approximately 30 meters east of the seedling camellia, southeast of the palms (Figure 12) These units exposed a brick structure which was determined to be the base of a double hearth chimney (Figure 13). Evidence of a drip line perpendicular to the long axis of this chimney was recorded. This structure may have been part of an outbuilding from the plantation era. The artifact content of the structure was relatively hign and included ceramics, glass, nails, pipestems, household articles, grindstones, toys, gun parts, jewelry, and food bone. Transfer-printed pear Iware, annular wares, Gaudy Dutch and stoneware were represented in the ceramic assemblage. One piece of transfer printed pearlware was recovered with a maker's mark. It has been identified as Ridgeway, Morley, Wear and Company of Staffordshire, circa 1336 1842 (Godden 1964:565). Fragments of the Clews brothers "States" plate were also recovered (Figure 15a) The second group of formal excavation units was located north of the crepe myrtle stand and east of the north palm (Figure 12) A linear configuration was observed and from

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60 the scattered, fragmentary condition of the bricks indicates a robbed brick wall (Figure 14) The artifact content of this unit was less numerous than the first, but of the same basic nature. The third and final excavation unit' was located just northeast of the southern palm in an area which showed no cultural evidence on the surface but had positive subsurface tests (Figure 11) This was opened in an effort to increase understanding of the distribution of artifacts over the site. Trenching Two diagnostic trench lines were laid east-west and north-south across the central area, one and one xhalf aieters wide. The fill from these trenches was not screened but carefully removed in an effort to assess the presence of remaining features within the time frame. Although the first 30 centimeters (12 inches) of soil had been disturbed by twentieth century agricultural and lumbering activities, these trenches clearly showed that below this point the area southeast of the palms still contains cultural information which is relatively intact. A feature is an archeological designation for an anomaly in the soil. it may be a brick chimney base or simply a change in soil coloration which indicates a pesthole, trash pit or rodent burrow. The features at Woodmanston are distinct and have not been subject to the degree of leaching or subsurface disturbance which could

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61 have occured. Forty-five features were designated during the spring excavations at Woodmanston, including a chimney base and a robbed brick wall. After investigation, many potentially interesting anomalies turned out to be burned out tree trunks or small charcoal deposits, but a number of historic pestholes were also recorded and definitely indicate some sort of activity area. As might be expected, the main concentration of features is in the eastern trench in an area associated with the double nearth chimney base (Figure 12) Several pestholes and two shallow parallel linear discoloration running roughly north-south were recorded. A few scattered pestholes were recorded in the north-south trench but the western side of the site was devoid of any anomalies. It is not possible to outline what type of activity took place in this area with further intensive excavation. A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically stripped in order to assess the functions represented. Large scale stripping has been used by Honerkamp at the Riverfront Site in Savannah (1974). Also, an entire symposium at the 197 9 Southeastern Archeological Conference in Atlanta was dedicated to the use of such heavy equipment.

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CHAPTER IV ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS The previous archeolgoical survey of the Woodmanston Plantation performed by Gordon Midgette in 19 72 suggested that major architectural components were still present on the Woodmanston site. "Surface evidence for bricked pilings, walks and possibly foundations of floors of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries" were noted and therefore, based on this account, it was hoped that these remains might be located and indentified during the Spring 1979 excavations (Midgette 1972). Unfortunately, during the interim span of seven years since the Midgette survey, even these remnants have disappeared. Architectural elements recovered during the 197 9 excavations include a double fireplace chimney base and a robbed brick wall. Associated with these structures are window glass, nails, screws, pintels and other miscellaneous building hardware. The Chimney Base The double fireplace chimney base uncovered at the Woodmanston site is located approximately 35 meters east of the seedling camellia, beneath a large pecan tree 62

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63 (Figure 12,13). The chimney base is oriented just east of north, with two fireplaces facing roughly east and west. The southern end has been parially destroyed by root activity from the pecan tree, but three courses of brick at the northern end remain intact. The remaining portion is 5.5 feet wide and at least 7 feet long. The interior measurement of the western fireplace is 25.6 inches and the eastern hearth is 3 0 inches. Both hearths have an interior length of at least 6 feet. The Woodinanston chimney was constructed in a very similar manner to the chimney base discussed in McFarlane's description of the slave chimney at the CoOper Plantation on St. Simon's Island (McFarland 1975:68). A large rectangular hole was prepared for the chimney base and the H-snaped foundation, which included a fireplace back, two bricks wide, and two exterior side arms three bricks wide, which were laid in place using English bond. The front facing was added at rhe same level in a rough form of common bond. The chimney was built on this H-shaped foundation to the desired height. Remains of the raortar indicate that a row of headers followed the last row of stretchers on the front facings and may represent a finishing course at ground level. The Woodmanston chimney had probably been robbed for construction materials by local residents sometirae in the late 13 00s.

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Although the basic size and construction of the Woodmanston chimney base can be determined, the type and dimensions of the assoiated building cannot be inferred. Archeological evidence of both planter and slave occupations on the Georgia coast provide similar architectural information. A similar chimney base was discovered at the Wormslow Plantation near Savannah, Georgia by William Kelso of Emory University in 1968 and 1969. The associated structure was a rectangular tabby plantation house measuring 32' 6" by 24' with five rooms and a H-shped hearth, and was built sometime in the 174 0s by Noble Jones. Wormslow was occupied by various family members and tenants until 1825. The chimney at Wormslow and the example unearthed at Woodmanston are both relatively large. Usually such H-shaped chimneys were located at the center of the house so that the opposite fireplaces would be in separate rooms, but the conjectural reconstruction of Wormslow developed by Kelso from the archeological record pictures the original house as navmg a one and one half story Georgian plan with exterior and interior fireplaces in a double chimney which was located on the gable end (Kelso 1971) Another such double hearth chimney of similar dimensions was excavated by Sue :4ullins of the University of Florida on St. Simon's Island in 1979. This chimney is associated with a two family slave cabin duplex on the Couper plantation (Mullins: in press).

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65 Although the area 5 meters east and 3 meters west of the chimney base at Woodmanston was excavated, no additional architectural information such as walls, piers, or footing ditches were unearthed. However, two parallel drip lines, made by water dripping from the eaves of a building which created a linear series of concentric circles of water sorted sand, were recorded just west of the chimney base. Although the proximity to the western hearth facing precluded the possibility of a wall or partition in this location, a possible explanation may be water leaking through a collapsed roof and then through the wooden floor. Additional evidence for the presence of wooden floors is discussed in the section on building hardware. The absence of footing ditches, piers and other structural information makes it impossible to define the dimensions of the associated structure. Most houses in this area were built raised above the ground to protect the inhabitants from the unhealthy 'marsh miasma' It is possible that the structure uncovered during the spring excavations was of frame or pole construction with sills raised on wooden posts which rested directly on the ground surface. Supports of this type would not have left a record in the 3oil. An interview with a descendant of one of the LeConte slaves suggested that the slave cabins were two room, pole constructed houses. One room v;as used as a kitchen and the other for sleeping (Flesch 1979). V7hether these structures v/ould have contained double

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66 hearth chimneys is doubtful but cannot be positively determined Identification of the source of the bricks retrieved from Woodmanston is not possible. Very few whole bricks were recovered with the exception of those still in situ in the cnimney base. This further substantiates the suggestion that the chimney was robbed for secondary construction purposes The 18 90 photograph shows a dilapitated structure in the middle right portion of the picture (Figure 7) It is probable that this chimney base was a part of this structure and had become the focus for refuse accumulation. The presence of a broken grindstone near this structure suggests this fact. Prior to this new function as a garbage pile, this structure was probably a part of the LeConte main nouse complex. It may have been a shelter for the domestic servants. The artifact content of the structure was relatively high and included ceramics, glass, nails, pipestems, household articles, grindstones, toys, gun parts, jewelry, and animal bone Txhe Robbed Brick Wall Evidence of a robbed brick wall was unearthed just east of the northern palm and in the area of the old crepe myrtle thicket. A north-scuth linear grouping of brick fragments 20 centimeters below the surface and approximately 4 meters long are all that remain of the wall (Figure 14) Uo perpendicular configurations were recorded.

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67 Artifacts recovered in the associated excavation were less numerous but of the same basic nature as the chimney base on the south side of the site. The bricks which make up this wall are smaller and finer, measuring approximately 7" x 1 3/4" x 3 1/2". The' bricks recovered from chimney base were 8 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 4" and of a lighter color red. This may indicate different time periods or simply different functions. As was the case in the area around the chimney base, very few whole bricks were found. Excavation units were opened three meters to the north, south and east in order to investigate further architectural remains. A 'classic' pesthole was observed 2 meters north of this wall. Pestholes leave distinct remains in the archeological record. When a post or pole eventually rots in the earth or is removed, the hole is filled with soil and debris which is distinct from the surrounding matrix. This pesthole was the only example in the immediate area and it is difficult to determine its original function. It is probable that this wall was also part of a structure once associated with the Woodmanston Plantation, but without further investigation its original size or function cannot be defined.

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CHAPTER V MATERIAL CULTURE The highly disturbed nature of the Woodmanston site increased the importance of the analysis of the material culture. Because the goals of the spring excavations included the location and specification of the plantation "big house" and subsidiary structures identification of the artifacts for use in dating and status delineation became a primary factor. The following chapter includes a discussion of the various artifact types retrieved during the 197 9 spring field session. Building hardware, household furnishings and window glass have been placed at the beginning of this chapter because of their direct relation to the 'architectural elements' on the site. Building Hardware It was difficult to determine the size or type of most of the nails recovered at Woodmanston because of the poor preservation and high degree of corrosion. It was also almo impossible in most cases to determin whether the nail was whole or broken. Identifiable nails represented both individaully hammered and machine head cut nails and a small percentage of wire nails. 68

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69 Cut nails were first produced in the late 1790s in the United States, and were cut from a sheet of iron, as opposed to the previous hand wrought nails which were cut from an iron rod and hammered to a point. Until 1815, cut nails were finished by hand with different head treatments produced specifically for different purposes. Several types are represented at Woodmanston, including the common 'rose sharp', 'clasp nails', 'plancher nails', 'brads' or L-heads, and 'scuppers'. Plancher nails were equipped with T-shaped heads to hold down flooring. This indicates a wooden floor was probably present in the structure associated with the chimney base. Scupper nails were used to nail leather for bellows or upholstery (Sloane 1964:92). Correspondence between William LeConte owner of San Souci Plantation, and Joseph Chaz Esq. of Savannah in 1784 includes an order for a cask of 10^ and 20^ nails and shingles (LeConte 1784). This same sort of nail would have been used on the Woodmanston Plantation as well. In 1815 the machine-made head was perfected. The characteristic waisting beneath the head which continued in machine-head cut nails until 1830 is present in a number of the Woodmanston examples. The majority of the machine-cut nails, however, were produced sometime after this date and are similar to the 'finishing nails' pictured in S.D. Kimbark's Illustrated Catalogue (Fontana 1970:92). Wire nails began to replace cut nails for general purposes in the late 1390s.

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70 The few wire nails recovered near the chimney base may represent later additions or simply refuse wood from other activities on the site. A dozen v/ood screws were also recovered during the spring excavations. Until the 184 0s screws were manufactured with straight shanks and blunted ends but after 134 6 they became tapered with pointed ends, identical to modern screws (Sloane 1965:25). Examples of both types were recovered at Woodmanston, but the majority were probably made prior to 134 0. The remainder of the building hardware was made up of pintels, staples, nuts and bolts, several large spikes and pieces of wire. A photograph of one of the pintels is located in Figure 15a. Household Furnishings The following furniture was listed in the 18 38 inventory of the Louis LeConte estate: Sideboard 50 00 Large table 20 .00 Tea caddy .75 Red bay table .50 Drawers and glass 25, 00 6 Windsor chairs 1 50 One dining table 5, 00 Sofa 30, 00 Set of fine chairs 25, .00 Fender, andirons, tongs bellows and broom 14 00 Green carpet and rug 12, 00 Old carpet and staircase carpet 3 00 One carpet 12! 0 0 1 small table 8. 00 Shades 6. 00 4 Trunks 3 50

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71 Old Sideboard 1 Set old chairs Old small table Old tea table Old jet andirons Mahogany bedstead, curtain 8.00 4.00 .75 2 .00 .50 and window curtains Pine toilet table New mahogany bedstead 2 Painted bedsteads 2 Old mahogany bedsteads 3 Washstands Pitchers, basins and soup 30. 00 1.00 30.00 8.00 6.00 10. 00 dishes Candlestick, snuffer and 4 00 tray 2 Pr lamps and 2 flowerpots 5.00 2.00 The above list represents furnishings for several different areas: dining room, parlor, bedrooms and kitchen. It is possible that the 'old' furniture was used in the kitchen rather than the main house. The furniture may have been made by negro craftsmen on the plantation or purchased in town. The mahogany bedsteads must have been manufactured elsewhere. Furniture was apparently available at local stores because John Otto cites an advertisement for Carnochan s Store in Darien, Georgia which offered the following New York-make furnishings Grecian Sofas, Bureaus, French Presses, Large and Small Dining Tables, Ladies' Work tabkes. Candle Stands, Large high post carv d Mahogany Bedsteads, Portable Desks, Tea Tables, Secretaries and Book Cases, Ladies' Dressing Tables with Glasses, Wash hand Stands, Foot Benches... (Otto 1975:151) The presence of a carpenter's shop on the plantation has been documented and it is possible that some of the furniture was assemble on the site.

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72 The "2 Pr. laraps" may have referred to whale oil lamps. These were considered somewhat of a luxury because by 134 0 sperm whale oil had reached $2.50 a gallon. Most people had to rely on candles or fireplaces for lighting (Otto 1975:150). A candlestick, snuffer and tray are also listed in the 18 33 inventory. Whether the slaves provided their own furniture, or received cast offs from the LeConte family cannot be determined at this time. The archeological record provided very little information regarding the domestic furnishings on the site. Several small iron pintels of the type used on cabinet doors and a brass key escrutcheon were unearthed during the spring excavations (Figure 15a) The key escrutcheons keys and an iron padlock suggest that the occupants were in the habit of locking up valuable items. The padlock front in iron with a brass keyhole cover (Figure 15a) Locks of this type were not made until the 184 0s. The impressed words 'patent' and 'VR' (Victoria Regina) also suggest a time from between 1830 and 1906, the reign of Queen Victoria. A small bronze chest hasp bearing an 1861 date was recovered and further substantiates a late nineteenth century occupation of the site. A small bronze cupid, approximately 4 inches high, may once have adorned a chair or chest made during the Victorian era (Figure 15a)

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73 Glass Window Glass Glazed double hung sash windows were typical of the English Georgian style of architecture (Kelso 1971:93). Window glass makes up 6 7 percent by numerical count and 27 percent by weight of the total glass sample retrieved at the Woodmanston Plantation. The presence of this amount of window glass suggests an elite occupation on the site. Slave cabins were rarely equipped with glazed windows and it is doubtful that the post-war squatter occupation would have been able to afford this luxury either. Fifty-seven percent by weight and 54 percent by numerical count of the window glass was recovered in the area around the robbed brick wall, an area which includes the north trench. Thirty percent by numerical count and 3 7 percent by weight was recovered in the proximity of the chimney base and the east trench (Figure 12). It is probabl that both these structures were associated with the LeConte plantation house in some way. One may have been the "big house" itself or both may be subsidiary buildings which supported the plantation.

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74 Beverage Bottles Fragments of glass bottles recovered at the Woodmanston site provide additional information concerning the periods of occupation and the occupants. Between 17 90 and 1810, one of the bottle manufacturing processes required that the body, or lower portion of the bottle, be formed in a one piece, iron dip mold, and that the neck and shoulders be finished by hand. A fragment of a hand blown neck of an olive green or 'black' beverage bottle was recovered near the chimney base. Some black glass bottles were completely hand blown in the United States until 1820, but widespread use of a three part contact mold began around 1810. This method consisted of using a one piece body mold and a two piece hinged mold for the neck and shoulder. The lip continued to be hand finished until the late 1800s. Unfortunately, not a single whole bottle was recovered at Woodmanston, but the presence of mold marks on the neck portions of the bottle fragments and the absence of such marks on the basal fragments suggests that the majority of the commercial bottles retrieved were blown in the fullsize three piece contact mold. The two piece mold began to replace the tiiree piece raold betwen 134 0 and 18 50. Bottles produced in this fashion contain mold lines extending from the base of the container to just below the lip. There are no examples of this type of manufacture in the Woodmanston collection. Anotner indication

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75 of the method of production which was used is surface texure. Bottles blown in the contact molds, described above, have a somewhat pitted surface which resembles hammered metal. This surface appearance can be seen in a majority of the dark green and 'black'' glass fragments at the Woodmanston site. The snap case, introduced some time around 18 57, was an implement which supported the bottle while the glass blowing pipe was struck off and the lip was finished. Before this time, a pontil rod was attached to the base with a glob of glass to hold the bottle while it was being finished. When the pontil was removed a tell-tale fragment of rough glass remained on the base. Since the Woodmanston olive green and 'black' glass beverage bottle bases lack pontil scars, it can be assxomed that they were produced after 1357. Fragments of several beverage bottles were recovered in the area around the chimney and the robbed brick wall. These fragments make up seven percent of the total glass sample by numerical count and 2 3 percent by weight. 'Black' bottles were light repelling and therefore may have been used for brewed beverages such as beer or ale rather than wine (Otto 1975:229). Fragments of brown and medium green wine bottles were also recovered. Taese few fragments provide evidence of alcoholic consumption on the site but reflect moderate consumption by the LeConte family. Joseph LeConte recounts in his autobiography the strict moral

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influence under which he had been brought up, and the effects they had on his early life. "During my whole college course I never touched an intoxicating drink of any kind" (LeConte 1903:37). In spite of this conservative attitude, the LeConte family did own three decante'rs, and "lots of wine glasses" (Liberty County 1838) Prohibition laws against the retail sale of liquor in Liberty County were strictly enforced, but the use of alcohol by the slaves is documented in Joseph LeConte s autobiography. In order to prevent roaming and drunkeness the planters in the county formed a "mounted police" that patrolled the area during the night and arrested those without passes (LeConte 1903:13). The presence of mold blown liquor bottles near the chimney base probably constitues evidence of the post-war activity on the site. Medicine Bottles Medicine bottle retrieved from the Woodmanston site also present further sociological information about its occupants. Portions of a number of medicine bottles which were recovered during the spring excavations included various sizes (3/4" to 2" in diameter) and shapes (rectangular, square and round) (Figure 16a) Commercial and medicine bottle fragments make up 2 0 percent of the total glass sample by num.erical count and 26 percent by weight. The presence of pontil scars on the bases of three mold blown medicine bottles in the proximity of the chimney base suggest a time frame ranging

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77 from 1810 with the introduction of the three piece iron mold to 1857 when the invention of the snap case replaced the pontil (Figure 16a) Mold blown containers embossed v;ith the proprietor's name were produced in an effort to reduce the amount the imitation of the more popular 'medicines' by competitors. Unfortunately this did not stop the problem, and pirating continued to be a problem in America. Turlington's 'Balsam of Life', an English made remedy with an angular pear shaped bottle, was copied in vast number in the United States from the late eighteenth century and well into the nineteenth century (Noel Hume 1976:74). The American bottles were fairly thin and made of a pale blue glass. A fragment of one such counterfeit bottle was recovered from the Woodmanston site. A picture of the Turlington bottle can be located on page 44 of Noel Huine s Glass; in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological Collections and is dated no earlier than 1820 (1969) The medicine bottles recovered at the Woodm.anston site also present evidence of a post-Civil War occupation. The first medicine bottles with lettered panels began to appear sometime around 18 67 and were most commonly used for patent medicines (Lorrain 1968:40). They were usually square or rectangular with recessed panels on one or more sides on which were raised letters giving the name of the contents and the city and state of the manufacturer. Sometime around

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78 18 70, the 'chilled iron' mold was perfected and enabled manufacturers to produce bottles with very smooth exterior surfaces. This eliminated the hammered metal effect of the earlier molds. Examples of this type of manufacture vrere found at Woodmanston and several paneled bottles were recovered near the robbed brick wall on the north side of the site. Unfortunately they are not complete enough to provide information as to the contents or date of manufacture, but it is probable they were made in Savannah, Georgia some time after 187 0. In the Historical Record of the City of Savannah a bottling and soda water establishment under the proprietorship of John Ryan is advertised as being "one of the oldest and most reliable bottling establishments in the country, having been conducted by its sole proprietor since 1852, in such a way as to give general satisfaction to all its patrons" (Lee and Agnew 1869:21). This particular oottling works manufactured and bottled soda water, foreign mineral water, porter, ale, cider, cordials, lager beer, syrups, bitters, essences, etc. and had branch establishments in Augusta, Columbus, and Atlanta, Georgia John Otto attributes the presence of a large quantity of medicinal containers to the poor diet and ill health of the slaves and rural populations. Doctors were consulted only as a last resort and 'patent medicines' were considered the panacea of all ills. Considering the percentage of medicine

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bottles recovered at Woodmanston, the assumption niay be made that the site represents a slave or post-Civil War occupation. However, the large proportion of medicinal glassware at Woodmanston may be explained by the fact that both Louis LeConte and his son-in-law, John M.B. Harden, were physicians. Louis was educated at Columbia College in New York, but practiced medicine only on his own plantation and among the poor 'pine knockers or crackers' in the vicinity (LeConte 1903:14) John /l.B. Harden practiced medicine in Liberty County from 1830 until his death in 1848. This practice of medicine is documented by the presence of his name on a list of practicing physicians in the county in 18 31 (Liberty County 1831) As would be expected, the general health of the county greatly improved when wet rice culture began to be abandoned in favor of the dry culture system for the cultivation of cotton and corn as export items in the 1330s. As early as 1817, wet culture rice cultivation was recognized as a health hazard in Savannah, Georgia. According to John M.B. Harden, by 1345 "less drastic and poisonous medicines (were) employed and the heroic treatment of the early schools of medicine once allowed in this country (had) been exchanged for the milder and more rational method of assisting nature" (Harden 1345:555). Drugs commonly stocked at the plantations during that time included: castor oil, spirits of turpentine, blue mass.

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80 quinine, laudanum, paregoric, liniment, verimfuge, and epsom salts (Otto 1975:232). William L. LeConte, grandson of Louis LeConte, remember accompanying his mother on her daily "sick rounds" at the negro quarters on the Olive Hill Plantation. She would make "a house to jiouse visit of the quarters and whenever she found any sick, from her medicine chest she would administer the simple specific which their several cases called for" (LeConte 1900:3). It is probable that this same procedure was followed at VJoodmanston In an article in the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal concerning the "Observations on the Soil, Climates and Diseases of Liberty County, Georgia", John M.3. Harden discusses the health problems present in the county in 184 5. The more common illnesses included: influenza, whooping cough, measles, venereal disease, malaria ( "marsh-miasmic fever and sand hills fever"), puerpural fever, croup, pneumonia, bronchitic, pleurisy, cholera morbus, diarrhea, dysentery, chronic rheumatism, the scrofulous enlargment of the lymphatic glands among blacks, cachexia africanus (dirt eating), dropsy and chlorosis (Harden 1845:555). Family documents provide examples of these and other maladies as well as the treatments commonly employed at the time. A bill from Dr. John Irvine of Savannah, for the care of William LeConte (1787) included a list of the following treatments: antimonial powders, fiber fuge medicines, a saline sedative julap and a vial of laudanum (Chatham County 1787) Mr. William. LeConte did not survive. Bloodletting

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81 was in Liberty County, as elsewhere, a common panacea. Louis LeConte's wife, Anne Quarterman LeConte, was bled by attending physicians, against the judgment of her nusband, as a treatment for pneumonia in 18 2 6 and never recovered. John M.B. Harden mentions that by 1845 "bloodletting is not pushed to so great an extent" but even so he prescribed bloodletting, as well as an occasional mercurial cathartic, to stimulate the digestive organs, the use of sesquichloride of iron, and a 'generous diet' for the treatment of 'chlorosis', a benign form of iron-deficiency anemia in adolescent girls (Harden 1345:559). Dr. Wells of Wal thourville Georgia treated Jane LeConte Harden in 1867 for a "violent cold, attended with fever, much irritation of the bronchial tubes, and troublesome cough", v/ith a preparation of the narcotic root, Mandrake; tne vapors of Tine Iodine and and laudanum; and the continued use of quinine (Harden 1367) It was generally recognized that the lowland swamps were not conducive to good health during the summer and autumn seasons. Therefore, many planters removed to summer "retreats" on the coast or in the pinelands during these "sickly seasons". Louis LeConte maintained a summer home in Jonesville, a few miles south of Woodmanston. During the summer he commuted daily on horseback to attend to plantation affairs (LeConte 1903:9). It should be stated that there is a possibility that soma of the so called "medicine bottle fragments" are

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82 actually portions of the chemical apparatus of Louis LeConte's attic laboratory. Joseph LeConte remembers how he and the other children v/ould "watch the mysterious experiments; with what awe his (Louis') furnaces, and chauffers, his sand-baths, matrasses, and alembics, and his precipitations filled them" (LeConte 1903:8). Certainly these vessels must have been broken in the course of these experiments. Domestic Glassware The fragmented, and generally poor condition of the glass artifacts recovered at Woodmanston has made it difficult to determine their original function. For this reason only a small portion of the glass recovered during the spring excavations can be positively identified as domestic glass. This classification was based on the color, curvature and thickness of the glass fragments. It is possible that some of the glass fragments designated as "medicine bottles" are, in fact, domestic glass. The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate lists the following domestic glassware: 2 glass butter dishes and 5 preserve dishes; 3 decanters, lots of wine glasses; pitches and tumblers; drawers and glass; and a looking glass (Liberty 1838). Unfortunately we v;ere unable to recover any direct evidence of these items in the archeological record.

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83 Ceramics The ceramic assemblage discovered at the Woodmanston site includes creamware, pearlv/are, whitev/are, ironstone, porcelain and stoneware. Cross mending of these ceramic sherds substantiated the highly disturbe'd nature of the Woodmanston site. Matching fragments were recovered from various depths from one side of the site to the other. Creamware was first developed by Josiah Wedgewood in 1759 (Noel Hume 1976:124). It is a thin, hardfired, pale yellow or cream colored earthenware which was dipped in a clear glaze after firing (Noel tlume 1976:123). This type of ceramic is commonly found in most American archeological sites of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (Noel Hume 1976:125). Earlier peices are a deeper yellow which became increasingly light after 1785. Creamware comprises only seven percent of the total ceramic sample at Woodmanston. Several fragments of a plain hemisphaerical bowl approximately seven inches in diameter at the rim, and four inches at the base were recovered (Figure 17b) Pearlware, also developed by Wedgewood, was perfected m 1779. It is somewhat whiter than the creamware because of an increased flint content in the paste, and a small amount of cobalt in the glaze, which helped to negate the yellow tint. The formula was copied by many other potters of the period, and pearlware became increasingly m.ore available to the general public. It remained popular until the 18 2 0s,

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84 Blue transfer printed pearlware is the most common ceramic item found in early nineteenth century American archeological sites. Twenty-five percent of the ceramics retrieved from the Woodmanston site are of this type (Figure 17a, 17b) Transfer printing, on white salt glaze plates, had been popular since the 1750s and by 1787 this type of decoration was used on pearlware (Noel Hume 1976:129). Transfer printing on ceramics required that the desired pattern be printed in a special metallic ink on this tissue paper; the paper was then glued to a previously bisque fired piece of earthenware and the pattern was fixed in the consequent firing. The vessels were then clear glazed and fired once again. This technique saved the time and effort required by direct painting, and allowed the work to be dene cheaply by relatively untrained women and young girls. Mass production, therefore, made large quantites of pearlware available during the nineteenth century. Many subjects such as American, English, and continental buildings, boats, and landscapes were used in decorative patterns. Early examples were decorated in pastel colors. liowever, after the 1340s, browns, purples, greens, and pinks were also employed (Kingsbury 1974:169). The majority of the transfer printed wares found at V/oodmanston were colored blue on white but brown, gray, and pink on white were also represented.

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85 Transfer printed pearlware was primarily used for tableware, tea and coffee sets, and chamberware The Woodmanston collection includes fragments of tableware: plates, bowls, cups and footed vessels. Portions of a historical dark blue commemorative plate were found distributed over the Woodmanston site (Figure 17a) It has been identified as the "States" plate which was made by the Staffordshire potters, Ralph and James Clews, of Cobridge, England, sometime between 1317 and 1834 (Godden 1964:151-152). The Clews brothers produced good quality blue printed earthenware, and were known as "Potters to her Imperial Idajesty, the Empress of all the Russians" (Godden 1964:151). This particular pattern v;as probably manufactured sometime after 1825. The "States" design is said "to embody the whole national history" because it contains so many important national features. The central scene varies with different vessel forms but is generally thought to portray English buildings (Larsen 1975:54). This interior view is framed in scrolls and is supported at the right by a woman crowned with a plumed head-dress and bearing aloft a "Liberty" cap on a staff. On the left side, a blindfolded Justice holds a medallion portrait of George Washington in her right hand and a sign of the Cincinnatti adorns her skirt. Elabora garlands of flov/ers and fruit complete the design. A ribbon

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86 bearing the names of the first fifteen states encircles the perimeter of the plate, and the words, "America and Independence" underline the figures (Camehl. 1971:126-127). An excellent color plate of the "States" design is located in the "Silhouettes to Swords" volume of the Time-Life Encyclopedia of Collectibles, under "Staffordshire" (Time-Life 1980:84). Additional examples can be found in Elloise Baker Larsen's American Historical Views on Staffordshire China (1975:54,55,312,313). A fragment of the "States" plate bearing the name, "Connecticut" was found in the upper portion of the builders trench of the chimney base. This suggest that the structure was not built until sometime after 1825. Other pieces bearing portions of the words "Mew York" and "Georgia" were also retrieved in other areas of the Woodmanston excavation area. Pearlware, and later whiteware and ironstone, were also decorated with a molded shell-edge pattern with a blue or green painted rim (Figure 17a) From 1780 to 1795 the rims v;ere carefully painted to create a feathery edge, but after 18 00 this type of decoration was replaced by a quickly painted stripe which remained popular until 13 30 (Noel Hume 1976:131). Portions of the earlier type of shell edged plates or platters comprise six percent of the ceramic assemblage found at Woodmanston, and a large proportion of the plain white sherds found scattered throughout the site may also belong to the undecorated interior portions of these plates.

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87 Banded, or annular designs on pearlware, whiteware, and creamware was another decorative scheme which was popular from the late 1790s to the late 1800s. This time period encompasses the main period during which Woodmanston was occupied, but banded or annular sherds account for onlythree percent of the total ceramic assen>lage. This small figure could, of course, represent no more than a personal preference. All the banded ware represented in the Woodmanston sample are portions of holloware, such as bowls and cups. One elaborately decorated banded ware bowl was uncovered near the chimney base (Figure 17a) Fragments of a banded bowl and a "mocha ware" vessel identical to those recovered by Watkins in Darien, Georgia were also unearthed suggesting a local retail source (VJatkins 1970 : 24). 'Gaudy Dutch' is a polychrome underglaze decoration used on pearlware from 1795 to 1335, Before 1815 floral and geometric patterns were produced in soft pastel hues, but between 1815 and 1835 bright blue, orange, green and pinkish red became popular (Noel Hume 1976:129). Gaudy Dutch vessels of the latter variety are represented in the Woodmanston collection and comprise less than two percent of the total. This type of decoration was usually found on tablev/are, pitchers, mugs, bowls and teasets. The Woodmanston sam.ple is represented by portions of two small bowls or cups (Figure 17b)

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88 By the 1820s pearlware was being replaced by the harder 'whiteware' and semi-porcelains. Spode produced a 'stone china' in 1802 and Mason developed an 'ironstone china' in 1833. This ware had a durable earthenware body and was able to compete in price, as well as quality,with the imported, highly fashionable Chinese wares. This type of ceramic v;as used as tableware, tea sets, and chamber shapes. The Woodmanston sample is made up primarily of plates and holloware. 'Stone china' and 'ironstone' was also decorated with transfer-printed patterns which were previously described. The only identifiable maker's mark recovered from a Woodmanston sherd is an ironstone of this type: a portion of a large soup plate of the "Japan Flowers" design manufactured by Ridgeway, Morley, Wear and Company, between 1835 and 1846. It is an attractive pattern depicting a fanciful oriental scene in a light blue transfer print (Figure 17a) The partnership of Ridgeway, Morley and Wear produced very good quality stone china, which was richly decorated in the Mason style, using the description 'improved granite china' (Godden 1971:89). A portion of a soup plate bearing this pattern was retrieved by Joim Otto from the slave cabins on Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Georgia. An example of blue-green transfer printed ironstone was also unearthed at Woodmanston. Generally the ceramic assemblage at Woodmanston indicates a high status occupation. Otto found at Cannon's Point that a high percentage of transfer printed ceramic and a low

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89 percentage of banded wares were characteristic of planter ceramic assemblages (1975:184). Excavations of three early nineteenth century upper middle class houses at Darien, Georgia by Watkins substantiates this idea (1970) The Woodmanston sample was made up of 2 5 percent transfer printed pearlware and less than three percent banded ware. Stoneware, also associated with more elite ceramic assemblages, made up 15 percent of the VJoodmanston collection. Stoneware was basically used as 'utilitarian pottery: jugs, crocks, jars, and bottles. It fulfilled the storage, salting and pickling requrements of families in the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century. Jugs and bottles were used to keep water fresh, preserve food and store perishable items (Barnes 1979: 2) Slaves v/ould not have had access to the variety, or quantity, of foodstuffs which would need to be preserved. By the 1860s vacuura canning in glass jars had begun to replace many of the f-;.:nctions of stoneware but none were recovered at Woodmanston. Another possible statvis indicator discovered at Woodmanston is the number of different transfer printed patterns which were found. Thirty-two different patterns are represented on 183 sherds. Unfortunately none of these patterns can be positively identified because of the fragmented condition of the sample, John Otto has inferred from the archeological investigation of planter, overseer, and slave sites, that the planters purchased large sets from

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90 their factors and the slaves and overseers purchased individual items, or small sets, from local shop keepers. They also occasionally used old and discarded items from the planter's family (Otto 1975:174). This would be reflected, in the archeological record, by a large variety of patterns in slave and rural white occupation, and a greater homogeneity of transfer print patterns in respect to the planter. Pursuing this idea, the Woodmanston site, according to John Otto, must be assigned a low status occupation. However, the variety of patterns at Woodmanston may be explained by the length of the occupation (1760-late 1800s) the increasing availability of transfer printed wares in the mid 1800s, and the presence of a post-Civil War squatter occupation which would not accurately reflect the LeConte family purchasing practices during Woodmanston s early days. Porcelain comprises less than two percent of the Woodmanston sample. Although the majority is plain several pieces are decorated with the 'famille rose' design (Figure 17b). This type of decoration is usually found in mid to lata eighteenth century contexts (Noel Hume 1975:259). 'Famille rose' is an overglaze decoration which consists of pink flowers, highlighted in white with drab green leaves. The Darien, Georgia excavations exposed a similar small percentage of oriental porcelain. John Otto suggests that although porcelain is traditionally thought of as a luxury

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91 item, it may not be possible to use it as a status indicator because it has also been found in known slave contexts (Otto 1975:183) Vessel shape has also proven to be an important status indicator. Again, according to Otto, the' planter would have a greater number of vessel shapesDinner platters, soup plates, and bowls and cups of various sizes are represented at Woodmanston in pearlware whiteware creamware, ironstone and porcelain. This variety of shapes is a function of the varied diet of the planter. Beef, mutton, and pork, as well as steamed vegetables, were available from the larders of the plantation. An analysis of the ceramic assemblage from Woodmanston suggests an early to mid nineteenth century elite planter occupation with a later post-Civil War squatter occupation. The high percentage of transfer printed wares and deficit of banded wares, the presence of elaborately decorated commemorative items, the high percentage of stoneware storage vessels, and the variety of vessel shapes may be used as indicators of high status. The post-Civil War squatter occupation is represented by an additional variety of transfer printed patterns and the later ironstone ceramics.

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Cutlery Several spoons, representing at least three different patterns, a large knife blade, and four untensil handles, also representing three different patterns, make up the collection of cutlery from the V7oodmanston site (Figure 16b) The large knife is similar to one pictured on page 182, Figure 63, #7 in Noel Hume's A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America and may represent a late eighteenth or early nineteenth centry date. Two of the utensil handles found have riveted bone plates. This type of handle treatment has been dated to the mid eighteenth century. All of the cutlery was recovered in the proximity of the chimney case. Personal Items Artifacts which were once personal items belonging to various individuals often provide valuable informaticn. The term, personal items, encompasses those things which were used or owiied by only one person for a lengtn of time, as opposed to objects used by a group of people, such as tools or ceramics. Examples of such personal items uneartlied at Woodmanston include sewing equipment, buttons, jewelry, firearms, pipes and toys. Sewing Equipment Archeological items concerning the manufacture or repair of clothing consist of a pair of iron scissors, and three thimbles, wnich were recovered in the proximity of the

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chimney base (Figure 12). Thimbles are a common artifact unearthed in colonial, and later historic sites, but are difficult to date. The presence of spiraled indentations on the crown indicate that the particular, thimbles found at Woodmanston were manufactured sometime in the nineteenth century (Noel Hume 1976:256). Stamped decorations on the thimble collars include the word 'Charity' and a symbolic floral motif (Figure 18b) No pins or needles were recovered, but one protected-point safety pin was uncovered in the second level in the east trench (24. 5N 37E) in the area of the chimney. This type of pin was not manufactured until about 1857 (Noel Kume 1976:255). At this point it might be helpful to review the fashions of the nineteenth century for men, women, children and slaves. In the 1830s women's fashions v/ere tightly belted at the natural waistline and the bodice was closely fitted to the figure. The bell-shaped skirt was also popular, and grew even wider over the next 40 years (Cooper 1966). Feminine apparel was fastened with glass or porcelain buttons on the front, back and cuffs. Smaller porcelain buttons secured undergarments such as the cam.isole (Tyre 19 79) Men's attire at this time was usually totally of one color with a tight fitting waist. Joseph LeConte described the toga virilis as consisting of a swallow tailed coat, stiff stock and beaver hat" (LeConte 1903:35). In the 1860s the kind of standing collars and cravats, described by

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94 Joseph LeConte, were replaced by starched collars and ties (Hansen 1956). The buttons on men's clothing were larger than those on women's dresses and were made of bone, brass or other metals. Children's fashions mimicked those -of adults, the major difference being shorter lengths on dresses and trousers. Joseph LeConte describes his boyhood attire as a "round jacket, limp open collar, soft cap, and often bare feet" (LeConte 1903:35) On many southern plantations slaves were dressed in inexpensive materials of no particular style. Lengths of cloth were allotted to each family by the planter for their personal use. The women of the family usually fashioned the clothing for their individaul families, but sometimes one or two negro women became seamstresses for the entire slave community. William L. LeConte remembers that at Olive Hill, at the beginning of each season suitable material of all kinds for men, women and children was bought in quantities in Savannah, 4 0 miles away, and carted home, (no railroads through the country then) Suitable women were detailed to report to my mother, and signally those, (other things being equal) who were nursing mothers; whose duty it was under her direction to cut out and make up the clothing for all the negroes, and a comfortable out-house with tables and chairs for this puroose was provided. (1900:4) Favorite servants may have received cast off clothing from the planter family, which would account for the fancy buttons and beads found in slave occupied areas. Shoes made by

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95 negro shoemakers for the LeConte slaves from leather made on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22). A photograph of Emma LeConte s domestic servants at Berkeley in 1837 depicts a well dressed family with shoes ,. stockings jackets and hats. The members of this family are descendents. of the slaves from the Woodmanston Plantation (LeConte 1897) It is probable that similar treatment also occurred there. Buttons During the nineteenth century bone buttons with four or five holes, and buttons made of iron, shell, soft white metal, stamped brass or porcelain with four holes were in common use (Figures 18a, b). The typologv developed in Stanley South s "Analvsis of the Buttons from the Ruins at Brunswick Town and Fort Fisher", has been used to provide a standardized description of the numerous buttons found at Woodmanston (Noel Hume 1976:91). Fifty two percent of the buttons retrieved are m.ade of white porcelain with a convex face and back (type #23). Sometimes referred to as an 'underwear' button, this type was invented in the 1840s and used extensively for underclothes and shirting. Two of the porcelain buttons v.'hich were found have blue painted decorations, indicating their use on fem.inine apparel (Figure 18a)

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96 Eleven percent of the buttons are made of bone and have either four or five holes for attachment to the material (type #19 and #20). This type of button commonly appears in post 18 00 site and was used for men's shirts and trousers (Figure 18a) Several other types of metal buttons, all of which were probably used on outer garments, are also represented. A white brass disc with a portion of the brass eye missing (type #7) is similar to examples recovered in pre-revolutionary contexts. Three decorative metal buttons were found, one of which has a two piece brass face with an oriental motif and an iron domed back (type #25) (Figure 18b). This type of button has been found in contexts dating from 1837 to 1855. A machine stamped brass button (type #23) and a silver plated disc button (type #9) were also recovered. Two soft white metal buttons, resembling types 29 and 30 in South' s typology, probably date from the same time period (Noel Hume 1976 : 91 ) Jewelry Fashionable jewelry during the nineteenth century included earrings, broaches, necklaces and bracelets. Several examples of such ornaments were recovered during the spring excavations at Woodmanston. A bronze finger ring, resembling a modern wedding band, was recovered near the chimney base, but unfortunately it had no engraved inscription. Plain gold bands were common during this time

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97 among the more prosperous and this bronze ring may have been a poor man's imitation. A bronze bracelet and a nair or hat pin were also recovered near the chimney (Figure 18b) Two very different types of earringswere found at the site. The first example was recovered from the center of the site and is a delicately rendered white gold wire for a pierced ear. So fine is the workmanship that is is almost indistinguishable from modern versions. The second earring, located near the chimney, is bronze and was mold formed. The post of the latter is bulky and would require its wearer to have a good sized hole in her ear. Two tiny screws which might have been parts of earrings were located near the robbed brick wall. The presence of bronze jewelry indicates a lower status occupation at the site. Long chains of beads were popular in the middle of the nineteenth century, and were used for necklaces, earrings and embroidery work. The m.ost comm>on type was the faceted, hexagonal bead, made from a piece of glass tubing. Facets were formed by molding, and the corners were carefully ground smooth (Otto 1975:275). Two such beads, a pale turquoise and a royal blue, ware found during the excavations at Woodmanston. Also uncovered near the chimney were an amber wire-wound bead, a spiral jet bead, and a wooden bead (Figure 18a) Wire-wound beads were made individually by wrapping strands of molten glass on coated wire (Otto 1975:275)

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98 Firearms Joseph LeConte states that at least twenty guns of all kinds were kept in the plantation house: "rifles and shot guns, single barreled guns and double barreled guns, muskets and sporting guns, big guns, little gunsand medium, sized guns, long guns and short guns. There was a complete armory of them upstairs in one of the closets" (LeConte 1903:19). He also mentioned that his grandfather, John Eatton LeConte, used "revolutionary muskets" to fight off the Indians. Guns were an important part of rural nineteenth century life. The LeConte boys made their own guns which ranged from crude match pistols to efficient rifles for their own entertainment as well as hunting (LeConte 1903:24). Among the cultural materials recovered from the Woodraanston site were sparse remains of firearm devices used on the plantation. Several dark gray gunf lints were recovered, which indicate that the flintlock musket was used there (Figure 15b) The flintlock mechanism produced the necessary spark for igniting the gun powder by striking a chuck of flint against a piece of steel. In addition to the gunf lints, a few copper caps were found, indicating that percussion ignition was used (Figure 15b) The percussion cap designed by Joshua Shaw in 1816 was manufactured from sheet copper and shaped like a stove pipe hat. The priming compound, which contained a fulminate charge, was deposited in the cap and covered with a thin layer of metal foil, and finally, the contents of the cap was sealed with shellac.

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99 This mechanism eased priming and increased the rate of fire. The shellac or varnish waterproofed the percussion caps, making them more reliable in wet weather (McPherson 1979). Also recovered from Woodmanston were lead pellets that were obviously musket balls. It is, probable that bullets were made locally on the plantation because of the variability of the individual guns at that time. No 'minie' ball bullets, representing rifled' muskets, were recovered but that does not negate the probability of their use. In fact several "rifles" are listed in William LeConte's estate (Liberty County 1841). The minie ball, ca. 1857, was developed in order to provide a bullet which fit the bore tightly when fired. In the 1850s, various types of cartridges began to be developed. Several modern shell casings were also retrieved during the excavation. Two metalic shell casings recovered from the Woodmanston site were .32 caliber; one cartidge was a center fire type and was marked 'Smith and Wesson', and the other was a rimfire type cartridge that had no maker's mark. These two cartridges contained the priming material needed for ignition within the cartridge itself. The center fire cartridge is of fairly recent origin and is a twentieth century artifact; however, the rimfire cartridge is a potential nineteenth century artifact. The land around Woodmanston is now used by a Hunt Club and some of these cartridges may be the remains of their weekend hunting excursions (McPherson 1979).

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100 A bronze butt plate for a musket or rifle was also recovered near the robbed brick wall. The back of it contains an impressed '4 I' but it has not been identified (Figure 15b) Tobacco and Smoking Equipment Cigars, pipes and chewing tabacco were as popular during the nineteenth century as they are today. Evidence from other archeolgoical sites along the Georgia coast indicates that the local planters may have preferred cigars or snuff. Occasionally planters provided tobacco for the slaves, but more often they considered it a luxury, and it was purchased by the slaves from local merchants (Otto 1975:261). Kaolin clay pipes, sometimes called 'negro pipes', may have been more popular among the black population. The kaolin tobacco pipe is an important dating device for the historical archeologist These inexpensive clay pipes were manufactured, purchased, smoked, and thrown away within a comaratively short period of time. Thus the presence of identifiable pipe styles and maker's marks provide archeologists with a tight date which can be applied to the area in which they were recovered (Noel Hume 1976:296). Only 39 kaolin clay pipe fragments were retrieved during the spring excavations. This is a very small sample compared to most nineteenth century historic sites and perhaps again reflects the conservative Congregational attitudes of the LeConte family. These pipes may have also ioelonged to the subsequent post-Civil War occupants of the

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101 site. Ninety percent of the pipe bowls and stem fragments were recovered within a 20 meter radius of the chimney base. The remaining tan percent was uncovered near the robbed brick wall on the north side of the site. Several pipe stems and bowls found 'at the Woodmanston site could be dated by identification of the maker's marks. A stem fragment recovered near the chimney displayed the name DOI^NI in relief on its side (Figure 18a). Peter Dorni was a pipemaker in northern France about 1850 (Humphrey 1969:15 Another stem from the same area of the site, bore the name •McDougall' impressed on one side, and the city of 'Glasgow', on the opposite side (Figure 18a). This type of pipe also had the letters 'TD' crudely impressed on the rear of the bowl facing the smoker. Two pipe bowl fragments were found which are similar to this description. The iMcDougall Company of Glasgow, Scotland, may have been established in 1810, or possibly in 1346. There is some question about the actual date (Humphrey 1969:17). The presence of additional midnineteenth century pipe stems and bowls at the Woodmanston site suggests the latter date (Hart 1979). An almost complete example of a gray, reed stemmed, pipe was trieved from the upper portion of the builder's trench of tne chimney (Figure 18b). This pipe has been traced to an American manufacturer in Point Pleasant, OhioThis shop produced ceramic items such as crockery, stove flues and drain tiles, as well as smoking pipes, from the 184 0s until the 1890s, but it i^ ..robable that the manufacture

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102 of the pipes did not begin until 1850. (Sudbury 1979:182). One other unusually decorated pipe bowl fragment was found at the Woodmanston site. This fragment has a laurel design on the mold line facing the smoker. The mold line is very distinct. In early, hand-made pipe's this ridge was usually carefully obliterated by scraping or burnishing. The diminishing care in the treatment of mold lines is an example of the timesaving, cost reducing practices, that were a result of the Industrial Revolution (Humphrey 196 9:14) An interesting pipe mouthpiece fragment uncovered during the excavation is coated with brov/nish-green lead glaze. Apparently this practice was an eighteenth century innovation but it was not common (Noel Hume 1976:302). Using the dates obtained from the pipe stems, and bowl fragments, we can provide a middle nineteenth century date for the occupation of the area around the chimney base. It is probable that the concentration of pipe fragments in this area may be a function of the smoking practices of the later post-Civil War occupants. Archeological evidence of the use of chewing tobacco was also recovered at Woodmanston. Pocket sized cakes or plugs of tobacco from which a chunk could be bitten off for a chew, or slices shaved off for a pipe, were also popular during the nineteenth century. The brand of tobacco was identified by a small decorated tin tag attached to the plug. Millions of these tags were made for as many as 12,000 brands

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103 of tobacco (Time-Life 1980:64). Unfortunately the painted advertisements on those unearthed at Woodmanston have long since disappeared. However, several different shapes; round, oval, square, and rectangular, were recovered and indicate the use of several different brands. Toys and Games A tiny doll made of porcelain was located near the chimney at Woodmanston (Figure 18a) It was similar to a 'Frozen Charlotte' doll, neither the head nor appendages are movable. The figure measures 3.6 cm from head to knees. The portion below the knees is missing. Until the nineteenth century all dolls were made to represent grown women, but the figure recovered at Woodmanston is unmistakably a young girl, and the tiny form exhibits a surprising amount of detail. It was slip cast and the features and hair were painted (Tyre 1979). Dolls such as these were made after 1900 and sold for only pennies (Noel Hume 1976:319). A spherical clay marble of the type boys would play with was also unearthed near the chimney (Figure 18b) Joseph LeConte notes that "as far away from the city as we were, whatever we wanted we were compelled to make. If we wanted marbles, we made them, and excellent marbles they were". The LeConte boys also made kites, bows and arrows and guns for their own entertainment (LeConte 1903:23). The marble recovered during the spring excavation may indeed be one of the LeConte children's playthings, found and reused by other children during the later occupation of the site.

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104 Miscelaneous Personal Items A fragment of a writing implement used on a slate board was also unearthed in the vicinity of the chimney, which provides evidence suggesting that the occupants of the structure located at Woodmanston were literate (Figure 18b) A natural formation of semi-opaque quartz crystals measuring approximately 6 inches high with a flat base was also uncovered on the east side of the chimney base. Crystals such as these are not natural to the Georgia coastal plain but most probably originated in the piedmost area. Emma LeConte states that as a girl in Columbia, South Carolina, during the Civil War, she had a display case filled with "minerals, agates, crystals, shells, etc. and curiositys" (Shaw 1975). The specimen unearthed at Woodmanston may very well have been part of the LeConte family mineral collection, or a mantel showpiece (Figure 19a) A portion of what appears to have been a bone handled, single blade, pocket knofe was also recoved nearby. By the second half of the nineteenth century knives such as this cost only a few dimes (Otto 1975:276). A fraament of a small molded glass perfume bottle decored with a floral trellis desiqn was also retrieved, representing the feminine residents on the site (Figure 16a) Almost an entire aqua glass electrical insulator was also found during the spring excavations. This specimen was threaded for permanent installation on the cross arm of a

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105 telephone pole, a type which was invented in 1865 by the Frenclunan, Louis Couvet (Time-Life 1980:19). The insulator was probably a 'prize find' of an amateur collector (Figure 16a). Horses and Carriages '" The 183 8 inventory of the estate of Louis LeConte lists: 1 mule valued @ $100; 1 mare colt (a $50.00; and 3 bay horses !§ $225. 00. Also present on the estate were: a carriage § $200.00; a gig § $75.00 and a little horse cart (9 $10.00 (Liberty County 1838). Horses were used on the VJoodmanston plantation to provide the motive force to drive the rice and cotton processing machinery. Two horse gins are mentioned in the inventory valued 9 $75.00 and Joseph LeConte mentions that rice was beaten by machinery which was drawn by horse power (LeConte 1903:22) Very little horse equipment was recovered during spring excavations. An iron ring, which may have been the rein ring of a bridoon, or bit was found, as well as some iron buckles (Figure 15b) Tools Although numerous agricultural and construction tools were recovered during the spring excavations, no concentrations of specialized tools were found which might suggest plantation crafts such as shoemaking, blacksmithing or tanning. Joseph LeConte 's biography documents the presence of such workshops

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106 and they would certainly have a distinct picture in the archeological record. Portions of two broad hoes, implements which were common in Georgia coastal agricultre were located, one near the robbed brick wall and one from the surface. A descendant of two LeConte slaves remembers his grandparents telling him they worked in the fields with hoes which were probably identical to those recovered at the site. According to William L. LeConte: the labor (on Olive Hill Plantation) was performed almost altogether with the weeding hoe, there being but one hand on this large plantation skilled in the use of the plough, and when old age commended to incapacitate him he was allowed to take a half grown boy under his charge to train him as his successor. Such perfect adepts did the negroes become in the use of the hoe, and with this tool the women readily kept pace with the men, that it was marvellous, the accuracy with which they could guide their strokes for the accomplishment of certain ends. (1900:4) Part of a plowshare was uncovered and the number '10' which is molded into the side may indicate either the size or style number. Two small files and a chisel with a socketed handle were also recovered. These basic tools have changed little in the last 200 years and similar implements are still in use today. Grindstones Fragments of at least two small millstones were scattered over the Woodmanston site. The diameter of one stone, determined by the measurement from the centerhole to

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107 the edge, is approximately 2 feet and is just over 2 inches thick (Figure 19b) Another fragment is 4 inches thick. The stones were cut from an igneous rock, possibly pumis and scoria, which had origins in the Appalachian mountains. They are scored on one side in the same -basic pattern as the standard 'French Burr' which was used to grind wheat in England and Europe (Tucker 1977:4). Four handmills valued at $4 0.00 are listed as part of the 1S38 inventory. Two grindstones valued at $2.00 are also included. It is probable that much of the grinding, especially of food staples for the family and slaves, was done directly on the plantation. The grindstone fragments are scattered over a large area of the site. Over half of those recovered cam.e from tne area of the chimney base, but they may be a function of depositing debris from the fields in a central dump by secondary occupations in preparation for planting. Faunal Material The area around the plantatioii abounded in game of all sorts. William L. LeConte remembers that when he was a .Doy growing up on Olive Hill Plantation: game of all descriptions was in lavish abundance. During the winter season the water courses and lagoons abounded in ducks of all kinds, almost crcwdingeach other upon the water. Wild turkeys were so abundant that any half grown, familiarizing nimself with their haunts, could readily keep the table supplied. Deer abounded, and during the game season neighbors would frequently meet and auportioning out of "stands", send body servants with the^ pack of

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108 hounds to get them up from their lairs. Now, after the lapse of 50 years on returning to a nearby county of the same latitude, I find game almost as scarce as in the mountain regions of North Georgia. (1900:4) Apparently this "lavish abundance" was utilized as a primary source of meat. Emma LeConte Furman describes a return from the hunt; such loads of game. Sometimes a wild turkey. Always English and Mallard ducks, partridges, rice birds fish. Such a table as Aunt Jane kept! (Shaw 19 75) Several of the most trusted negro men were issued guns in order to shoot "game and wild animals of prey and crop destroying birds" (LeConte 1903:18). This was an unusual practice for most coastal plantations. Unfortunately bone preservation was very poor on the Woodmanston site. The major portion of the faunal sample was recovered from the area in the immediate area of the chimney base. The fill from this feature was water screened through eighth inch screen thus increasing the proportion of small fish and mammal remains. The trenches were not screened at all and this methodology greatly decreased the possiblity of retrieving a comparable sample of bone. Despite the large proportion of game animals mentioned in the documents, domestic mammals (cow and pig) made up 38 percent of the total biomass represented by the faunal sampl and game mammals (raccoon, opossum, rabbit) comprised only 7 percent. No deer reamins were present. An additional 32 percent of the biomass was made up of unidentifiable large

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109 maimnal bone. The presence of such low status game animal bones suggests a likewise low status occupation in the structure associated with the chimney base. Chickens and geese made up 1.5 percent of the biomass. Anhinqa, eastern glossy ibis and quail represented the wild birds utilized on the Woodmanston site (.89 percent biomass). Bowfin, catfish, bass and crappies were procured from the Bulltown swamp as a source of food and represented 3 percent of the biomass. Several types of turtles and alligator remains were also present but only made up 4 percent of the biomass A complete species list of the fauna recovered at the Woodmanston site is located in Appendix D.

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110 Aboriginal Material There is a small aboriginal component present on the Woodmanston site. It seems to be concentrated near the intersection of the two trench lines. The ceramics are badly eroded but seem to represent mostly sand tempered plain wares. One sherd of Savannah check stamped and one samll cord marked sherd are the only examples of decoration recovered on the site. Because of the fragmented condition of the collection no vessel forms could be determined. The lithic assemblage was made up of one broken Pinellas point (A.D. 500 to contact), a reworked unifacial scraper, two reworked bifacial scrapers and numerous flint chips (Figure 20) Debitage is also scattered on the surface over most of the site.

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CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A great deal of documentary research and archeological investigation has been done in an effort to aid the Garden Clubs of Georgia in the reconstruction and historical presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation. Specific questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations of the Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized the location of the LeConte botanical garden, the main plantation house, subsidiary structures, and the slave settlement. Historical documents were a great source of information about the site. Liberty County and the character of the LeConte family, but did not provide specific locations for structures. Three major areas of the site were tested archeologically in an effort to answer these questions. The LeConte-Woodmanston site has sustained considerable surface and subsurface damage from twentieth century land use practices. A program of systematic auger and posthole tests provided information regarding the distribution of remaining archeological information. Areas of extensive subsurface damage have been designated for use as support facilities but the location of specific plantation era structures has not been possible during the time available. The area 111

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112 designated as the proposed parking facility on the eastern portion of the site was extensively tested by this means, with negative results. A major portion of this part of the site had been removed prior to the 1979 investigation, for use in road construction. It is for these reasons that a decision of no adverse impact can be made and Garden Club plans for this area my be initiated. The pine grove on the western part of the Woodmanston site near the main dike, which was designated on the 1344 plat map as the 'settlement', was also extensively surveyed with augers and post hole diggers, but it has also undergone a high degree of disturbance through twentieth century lumbering activity. Concentrations of positive auger tests suggest the need for some additional investigation of this area (Figure 11) Despite the disturbed condition of most of the site, the auger tests proved that a great deal of cultural information is still present in the central portion of the site, which includes the area around the seedling camellia, sabal palms, crepe myrtle, and pecan trees (Figure 10). Additional investigation by means of formal excavation and tranching was conducted to provide information about the time frame and activities on the site (Figure 12). Based on artif actual content, the area encompassing the camellia tree and pal^ns supported an occupation from the first third of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.

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113 Artifacts ranged from blue on white transfer printed refined earthenware, popular in the arly 1800s, to wire nails which first became easily available in the 1890s. A double hearthed chimney base situated 35 meters east of the camellia was probably a subsidiary structure on the LeConte Plantation. The small amount of cooking vessels recovered does not suggest a kitchen, and personal artifacts suggest a family occupation. Based on the presence of an elite ceramic assemblage and window glass fragments, in conjunction with low status artifacts, indicates that this might possibly have been the shelter for the domestic slaves. A standard slave household would not have contained glazed windows. It is probable that these people would have continued to reside there even after the LeConte heirs became absentee owners, and would explain the presence of post 18 50 artifacts. This chimney base represents the delapitated structure pictured in the middle right of the 1896 photograph (Figure 7) Numerous pestholes were recorded within 2 0 meters of the chimney base and indicat a substantial amount of activity in this area. Unfortunately without further testing the specific function of this activity cannot be determined. The second structure was located just east of the norther palm, approximately 50 meters from the chimney base. A robbed brick wall is all that was recovered. Again, the presence of elite ceramics and a large amount of window glass suggests tha this structure was associated with che main house complex.

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114 In the case of Woodmanston archeology was done at the site, not seven years too late, but probably as much as 40 or 50 years too late. But even under such circumstances we must be careful not to give up too easily. There is still potential for yielding interesting' cultural information. It is hoped that additional archeological investigation, specifically oriented at looking at possible structural information which we know remains through the presence of numerous postholes, will be possible. This would require a different strategy than the diagnostic survey conducted in 1979. A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically stripped in order to assess the activities represented. It is possible that heavy machinery could be used to facilitate that portion of the investigation. LeConte-Woodraanston has the advantage that its access roads have been maintained for use with logging trucks so that the problem of site inaccessibilty would be negligible. The central area is also relatively free of large trees and woody shrubs which might prove to be an impediment to earth moving equipment.

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Figure 1: The LeConte-Woodmanston site is located approximately 4 miles south of the present community of Riceboro, Georgia.

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116

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Woodmanston vicinity, with some othe historic features of Liberty County, Georgia-

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Figure 3: Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area. Note small cleared spot in the upper left third of the photograph.

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142

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Figura 15a: Household artifacts. 'Clockwise: shutter pintel, weighted latch, padlock cover, key escrutcheon, iron keys, 1861 chest hasp. Figure 15b. Gunparts and horse equipment. Clockwise: bronze gun butt, harness buckle, gun shells and caps, gun flints, lead ball, bridle ring.

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144

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Figure 16a: Glass artifacts. Clockwise: medicine bottle neck, aqua electrical insulator, medicine bottle base with pontil scars, perfume bottle, square medicine bottle base. Figure 16b: Cutlery recovered on the Woodmanston site. Note bone handles and different patterns

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146

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Figure 17a: Ceramics. Clockwise: .shell-edged pearlware; transfer printed ironstone; blue-on-white transfer printed pearlware; fragments of the Clews brothers' "States" pattern; Ridgeway, Morley, Wear and Company, 'Japan Flowers' pattern; annular ware. Figure 17b: Ceramics. Clockwise: transfer printed pearlware, directed painted pearlware, creamware, 'Gaudy Dutch', annular ware, 'famille rose' porcelain.

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148

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Figure 18a: Personal artifacts. Clockwise: wood and porcelain buttons, white kaolin clay pipe stems and bowl, porcelain doll, beads, hat or hair pin. Figure 18b: Personal artifact. Clockwise: bronze 'cupid', bracelet, thimbles, clay pipe bowl, overall fastener, safety pin, slate pencil, metal buttons, earrings, iron scissors, clay marble.

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150

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Figure 19a: Quartz crystal recovered near the chimney base. Figure 19b: Grindstone fragment. Note central hole and finished edge.

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152

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rH (t3 O (0 0 .0 -p c •H o w (T3 C o 2 cn -p o •H p 1-1 (ti C •H V4 0 < a; S-l •H

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154

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APPENDIX A ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED Terry Alford, Ph.D. P.O. Box 1151 Springfield, VA 22151. Dubarton Oaks. Trustees for Harvard University. Center for Studies in Landscape Architecture. Mrs. Laura Byers, Librarian, 1703 32nd Street, Washington, D.C. 20007. Gardner Smith, Books in the Earth Schience. P.O. Box 711, Glen Echo, MD 20768. General Services Administration. Washington, D.C. 20408. Harvard Graduate School of Design. The Frances Loeb Library. Christofer Hail, Asst. Librarian for Ms. Giral Librarian, Gund Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20408. National Archives and Records Service. General Service Administration. Brenda A. Beasley, Central Reference Division, Washington D.C. 20408. The British Library. Department of Printed Books, Bibliographical Information Service. Great Russell Street, London wclb 3dg. Mary Harworth for the Head of the Readinq Room, Information and Admissions Section. The Library Company of Philadelphia. Aiine P. Hennessey, 1314 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107. The Library of the Boston Athenaeum. 10 1/2 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108. Cynthia English, Reference Department. The Royal Horticultural Society. P.O. Box 313, Vincent Square, London, SWIP 2PE, "The Secretary". United States Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary. Robert Uskavitch, Reference Librarian, Office of Library and Information Services, Washinqton, D.C. 20240. United States Department of Aqriculture. Economics, Statics, and Cooperative Service. Vivian Wiser, Historian, Agricultural History Branch, National Economic Division, Washington, D.C. 20250. 155

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156 University of California, Berkeley. George M. Foster, Department of Anthropology, Berkeley, CA 94 72 0. University of Georgia Libraries. Catherine V. Tysinger, Genealogical Resources Librarian, Athens, GA 30602. University of Reading. The Institute of Agricultural History and Museum of English Rural' Life. iMiss G. Beazley, Secretary to Dr. Collins, Whiteknights Reading, RB6 2AG. Elizabeth Woodburn, Booknoll Farm, Hopewell, NJ 98525.

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APPENDIX B LIST OF BULBS Bulbs mentioned in a list found in a folder marked 1813-1815, and containing papers of John Lawrence LeCcnte. Because of owner and date, it is thought that the list is by the father of John Lawrence LeConte : John Eatton LeConte whoe was a brother of Louis LeConte. (It was John Eatton LeConte who brought the "LeConte Pear" from a nursery in New York to his brother Louis at Woodmanston Plantation) Original list is in the American Philosophical Society Library and permission is necessary for reproduction. This list gives first the plant names as shown on the 1813-1815 list, and on the line below is given the current scientific name if kno\\m and blooming date in the Georgia coastal area. The latter information is contributed by Clermont H. Lee, October 1972. Since some of the plants listed are not hardy in the north, and some are natives of Georgia, it is believed the list was compiled from records of plants in the Botanical garden at Woodmanston Plantation, Liberty County, Georgia 1313-1315. 1. Narcissus Papyraceus Narcissus tazetta subsp. papyraceus (Ker-Gawler Baker) Paper white is a hybrid. Dec. 21Feb. 21. white flowering (1806) 2. N, Papyraceus 157

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158 3. Narcissus Tazetta Narcissus tazetta, L. Polyanthus N. white & lemon yellow. HV Grand Emperor. Feb. 7 Mar. 30. (1753) 4. Narcissus Jonquilla Narcissus jonquilla, L. Jonquil, bright yellow. Feb. 15 Mar. 21 (1753) 5. Narcissus Odorus Narcissus odorus NX odorus, L. Campernelle Jonquil (N. pseudonarcisus x N. jonquilla) Feb. 21 Mar. 15 (1595) 6. Narcisus incomparabilis Narcissus x incomparabilis. Nonesuch Daffodill, now a group name for natural or artificial hybrids (N. poeticus X N. pseudonarcissus ) March 1-7 (1768) 7. Narcissus incomparabilis (fl. pi. pal.) There are innumerable cultivars of N x incomparabilis. 8. Narcissus incomparabilis (fl. pi. lat. ) 9. Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus Narcissus pseudonarcissus, L. Common Daffodil, yellow. Jan. 21 March 21 (1753) 10. Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus (fl. pi.) Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus (L) Baker (17 52) var. plenus ?, a garden derivative, creamy white or N. pseudonarcissus plenus, a different one. 11. Narcissus Minor (fl. pi.) Narcissus minor, L. (1762) var. N. minor pumilus plenus (Hort) 1601?, yellow. 12. Narcissus Poeticus (fl. pi.) Narcissus poeticus var. Flore Pleno (albus plenus odoratus) The Double Pheasants Eye (N. Poeticus, L. the Poets Narcissus was listed 1753 but there is not date for the above) Leucojum Aestivum Leucojum aestivum. Summer Snowflake, Amaryllis Family {ilota L. vernum. Spring Snowflake, locally erroneously called "Snowdrop" blooms Feb. 1 Mar. 30) Crocus Sativus Crocus sativus. Saffron Crocus

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Iris Xiphium Iris xiphium, Spanish Iris, Iris Family (Note Iris xiphium HV, the Dutch Iris bloom March 21, April 30) Iris Xiphioides Iris xiphioides, English Iris Iris Persica Iris persica (I. praecox) Persona Iris Gladiolus Segetum Gladiolus segetum, Conflag Gladiolus, Iris Family Gladiolus Communis Gladiolus communis. Common Gladiolus (Different from Common horticultural Gladiolus which is treated as an annual) Gladiolus Imbricatus Gladiolus imbricatus, no common name Hyacinthus Orientalis (fl. Pi.) Hyacinthus orientalis. Common Hyacinth?, Double (note, usually treated as an annual, blooms early) Hyacinthus Orientalis (fl. sem. coer. ) Hyacinthus orientalis var. praecox, Voss,? Blue French Roman Hyacinth Dec. Mar. 21 (Note var. albidus Baker is white) Hyacinthus Muscari PHyacinthus azureus. Baker (Muscari azureum, Fenzl.) fls. blue, fragrant, like Grape Hyacinth or maybe ?Muscari mochatum, Willd. Liliacieae Hyacinthus Racemosus Muscari racemosum. Mill., Starch Grapehyacinth fls. pale blue, odorless March 7 April 15. Hyacinthus Comosus (mon.) Muscari comosum. Mill. var. monstrosum (Hort.), Tassel or Teathered Grapehyacinth Hyacinthus Comosus (mon. var.) Muscari comosum. Mill. var. monstrosum varieqated Lillium Candidum Lillium candidum, L. Maddon Lily, white, April May 30, Lilly Family Lillium Bulbiferum Lillium bulbiferum, L. Bulbil Lily, white or pale yellow often tinged red or purple

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160 Lillium Superbiim Lilium superbuin,L. Turkscap Lily (or this could have been L. carolinianum, Michx. L. superbum var. carol inianum, Chapman, now known as L. michaexi Poir.) Scilla Hyacinthoides Scilla hyacinthoides, L. Hyacinth Sqiaill, Lily Family, fls. blueish lilac, late spring Ornithogalum Umbellatum Ornithogalum umbellatum, L. fls. white, Lily Family Common Star-of-bethlehem, Ornithogalum Stachyoides ? 0. pyrenaicum, L. Close spiked Star-of-Bethlehem, S. Europe, raceme very long, petals linear, blunt (Not listed in modern botany books) Amaryllis Lutea Sternbergia lutea, Xer-Gawler, Fall daffodil, bright yellow, Amaryllis Family, September Amaryllis Belladonna Amaryllis belladonna, L. Belladonnalily fls. from white to red, Portugal plants flower in September. Amaryllis Atamasco Zephyranthes atamasco. Herb. Atamascolily Amaryllis Family, white, native in Georgia. Mar. 7 June 15 Amaryllis Equestris Hippeastrum equestre. Herb. Barbados-lily, Amaryllis Family, fls. red & green, an old garden species. (Alton), "Barbados Lily" Pancratium Maritiraiam Pancratium maritimum, L. Seadaf fodil Pancratium, fls. white, very fragrant, from Spain, Amaryllis Family (Sea Pancratium) Pancratium Mexicanum ?Pancratium mexicanum, L. spathe two-flowered, petals white not fragrant, from Mexico. (Not listed in modern botany books)

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APPENDIX C HORTICULTURAL C0IK1UNICATI0NS The Soil of the South Volume IV 1854 Mr. Editor: As this is the season for transplanting Evergreens, and we see so many bald, desolate looking homes around us, which might be made really cheerful and attractive by judiciously introducing a few of these constant friends, permit us to call the attention of the readers of the Soil of the South to some of our native species; bright, blooming, smiling Evergreens, which can be obtained from our own beautiful forests without paying enormous prices to Northern and European nurserymen, and running the risk of having them frozen and decayed. Ladies of the South! There is an innate love of the beautiful and graceful in your natures, which only requires a little cultivation, a little exercise upon surrounding objects, to make each of your homes a little paradise. A kind Providence has scattered around us many beautiful ob:'ect3, which He certainly designs us to study and admire, thus purifying our hearts, elevating our thoughts and preparing us for the enjoyment of that beautiful world, whre all those who love Him will find a home. Do you not sometimes divest yourselves of Domestic cares and the excitement of human society, and stroll into the green woods to refresh yourselves by a conversation with nature? 161

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162 In these walks, accompanied by your husbands, brothers, or children, will you not take a few implements for digcrinq and cutting; a few pieces of bass-matting, coarse cloth or long moss, for enveloping roots, and when you observe glossy Evergreens, v/hiqh contrast so strikingly at this season with the naked looking, deciduous trees stop a few moments take it up carefully retaining as much earth and as many rootlets as possible; plant it near your window; in your flower garden, or upon your lawn, and in a few years you aill be amply repaid for a little trouble. For the convenience of those who are willing to avail themselves of these opportunities, we will mention some of the most attractive.... (A discussion of various evergreens has been condensed and the species mentioned are listed below) Magnolia Grandiflora; the king of Evergreens Magnolia Glauca, or sweet bay Live Oak, Quercus vivens Water Oak, Quercus Aquatica native pines Red Cedar Wild orange Wild olive similar to English and Portugal laurels Olea Americana or Devilwood Holly, Ilex Opaca Ilex Cassine or Cassina Gordonia Lasyanthus white bay or loblolly bay Gordonia Pubescens Idicium Floridum, or Anise seed tree Torraya Taxifolia, or Florida Yew Melocarium Ligustrum Rododendron Maximum rose bay or mountain laurel Kalmia Latifolia, ivy or calico bush, mountain laurel Kalmia Hirsuta Andromeda Arborea, or Sorrel Tree Gelsemium Sempervivens or yellow iasmine Zyzyphus Volubilis, or supple iack Mistletoe, Viscum Flavescens Palm tree or Cabbage Palmetto Sago tree

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APPENDIX D SPECIES LIST Taxonomic Name Didelphis virginiana Sylvilagus sp. Rodentia Rattus sp. Procyon lotor Artiodactyla Sus scrofa Bos taurus Aves Anhinga anhinga Plegadus falcinellus Anser anser Phasianidae cf. Colinus Gallus gallus Alligator mississipiensis Testudines Kinosternidae Kinosternon sp. Emydidae cf. Chrysemys Anura Amia calva Ictaluridae Ictalurus sp. Centrarchidae cf. Pomoxis Micropterus sp. Common Name opossum rabbit rodents rats (European introduction) raccoon deer, pigs, cows domestic/feral pig cow birds anhinga, water turkey Eastern glossy ibis domesic goose quail domestic chicken alligator turtles musk and mud turtles mud turtle pond turtle amphibians frog bowf in catfish family catfish bass, bream, shell crackers, crappies, etc. conferred to crappies bass 163

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APPENDIX E COMPOSITE TAHLE FOR ALL FAUNA Broken Down bv Three Major Excavation Groupings Table 1 (0 Didelphis virqiniana Svlvilaqus sp. Rodentia Rattus sp. Procvon lotor Artiodactyla cf. Sus cf. Bos Sus scrofa Bos taurus Mammal Large Mammal Aves cf. Anhinqa cf. Gallus Anhinga anhinga Phlegadis falcinella Anser anser Phasianidae cf. Colinus Gallus gallus Alligator mississipiensis Testudines Kinosternidae Kinosternon sp. Emydidae cf. Chrysemys Unidentified snake Anura Amia calva Ictaluridae Ictalurus sp. Centrarchidae cf. Pomoxis Micropterus sp. Unidentified fish Unidentified Unidentified shell c c 0 0 0 £-• •H •H (1) +J -p A P rrl C > > O tn iH 0) -P (0 (0 10 u !-l U (U 3 O (U iH 0) 0 X M 0 X u rH S-l P CD ^ ^ ro ttT itff* UJ W 1 "3 X J 13 1.43 0 8 0 88 A H 4 0.44 C O 6 0 66 1 n 10 1.10 1 1 0 11 o 2 0 22 1 1 0 11 ^ / 28 3.09 Q o 6 0.66 J X U D 1 J 112 12 37 1 n4 10 8 11.93 1 D 46 5.08 X 1 0.11 1 X 1 0 .11 £. 2 0 .22 3 3 0 .33 1 X 1 0 11 X 1 0 11 •3 J 0.33 1 X 1 0 11 T £. 2 0 22 c 5 0.55 X / 17 1.87 / 2 0 22 O O o o 0.88 10 10 1.10 12 12 1.32 9 9 0.99 9 9 0.99 3 3 0.33 2 2 0.22 3 3 0.33 74 74 8.17 6 363 16 385 42.57 2 3 3 6 0.66 TOTALS 16 867 22 905 99.90 164

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165 Table 1 (continued) CO S as U O a •<-i + cn •H cn H +> a
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166 Table 1 (continued) T3 (U H O U H Didelphis virqiniana Sylvilagus sp. Rodentia Rattus sp. Procyon lotor Artiodactyla cf. Sus cf. Bos Sus scrofa Bos taurus Mammal, Larqe 16 Mammal 12 5 Aves cf. Anhinga cf. Gallus Anhinqa anhinga Phlegadis falcinella Anser anser Phasinaidae cf. Colinus Gallus gallus Alliqator mississippiensis Testudines Kinosternidae" Kinosternon sp. Emvdidaa cf. Chrysemys Undentified: snake Anura Amia calva 1 Ictaluridae Ictalurus sp. Centrarchidae cf. Pomoxis Micropterus sp. Unidentified fish 1 Unidentified 10 23 Unidentified shell \J (U (U rH a) u c S -rl 4-1 u C 0) 0) (U H -rl o •H IW 12 S 0 1 4 00 .1 1 4 00 1 4 00 2 P on o J u 1 4.00 1 2 8.00 1 1 4.00 17 13 1 4.00 1 4.00 1 1 4.00 1 4.00 1 2 8.00 1 1 4.00 1 4.00 2 1 4.00 1 4 00 1 4.00 3 12.00 1 4.00 1 4.00 TOTALS 40 45 Jf 25 100.00

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REFERENCES CITED Barnes, Julie 1979 Stoneware. Paper presented as a requirement for -the 19 79 Georgia Southern College field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer Hamilton, University of Florida Black, Claude A. 1976 The LeConte-Woodmanston Project A presentation at the Oleander District of the Garden Clubs of Georgia. Millen, Georgia. October 6, 1976. Bostwick, John and Darryl Wise 1980 A Subsurface Survey of the City of St. Augustine, Historic Precincts North of the Plaza. Florida Journal of Anthropology in press. Bureau of the Census 1320 Population Schedules of the Fourth Census of the United States. Volume 3. National Archives Microfilm Publications. 1830 Georgia: Fifth Census. Laurens Muscogee. Volume 4. National Archieves Microfilm Publications. 1840 Georgia: Sixth Census. Irwin to Lumpkin. Volume 5. National Archieves Microfilm Publications. Camehl Ada Walker 1971 The Blue China Book Dover Press, New York. Carroll, B.R. 1836 Historical Collections of South Carolina Harper and Bros, New York. Chatham County 1787 Administration of Estate of William LeConte. Probate Court Records, #6. Chatham County Courthouse, Savannah, Georgia. 1825 Louis LeConte. Book 2-N. Office of the Inferior Court. Chatham County Courthouse, Savannah, Georgia. 167

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16 8 Coblentz, B.I. and M.L. Powell 197 9 Use of Power Auger and Backhoe/Front-end Loader for Testing and Large Scale Excavation: Lubbub Creek Project Paper presented at the 36th Annaul Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference Atlanta Cooper, Agatha Young 1966 Recurring Cycles of Fashion 1760-1937 Square Publishing, New. York. Daily Georgian 1834 Wedding Announcement. January 14, 1834. Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers, Georgian Historical Society Library. Darlington, William 1843 Reliquiae Baldv/inianae Reel 347 #11 Microfilm, University of Florida Library. Deagan, Kathleen, John Bostwick, and Dale Benton 1976 A Sub-surface Survey of the St. Augustine City Environs. Submitted to St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, Inc., Florida State University, Tallahassee DeVorsey, Louis, Jr. Ed. 1971 DeBrahm's Report of the General Survey in the Southern District of North America. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia. Flesch, David 1979 A History of Slave Life on the LeConte-Woodraanston Plantation until 1864. Paper presented as a requirement for the 1979 Georgia Southern College field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer Hamilton, University of Florida. Fontana, Bernard L. 1970 The Tail of the Nail: On the Ethnological Interpretation of Historic Artifacts. The Florida Anthropologist 18(3): 85-102. Georgia Gazette 1774 Advertisement for Runaway Slave. September 9, 1774. Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers, Georgia Historical Society Library. 1776a Advertisement. October 22, 1776. Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers, Georgia Historical Society Library. 1776b Advertisement. November 5, 1776. Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers, Georgia Historical Society Library.

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169 Georgian 1823 List of Free Negroes of Color in Liberty County. July 12, 1823. Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers. Georgia Historical Society Library. Godden, Geoffry 1964 Encyclopedia of British Pottery and Porcelain Marks Bonanza Books, New York. 1971 The Illustrated Guide to Mason's Patent Ironstone China. Praeger, New York. Gorden, Alexander 1832 Principle Nurseries and Private Gardens in the United States. Gardener's Magazine 3:277-289. Gray, Asa 138 3 Some North American Botanists: John Eatton LeConte. Botanical Gazette 8 (4 ): 197-199 Gray, Louis C. 1958 History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860 Peter Smith, Gloucester, Massechusetts (1933) Gunn, Victoria 1975 Hofwyl Plantation. State of Georgia. Department of Natural Resources. Office of Planning and Research, Historic Preservation Section. Hansen, Henry Harrald 1956 Costumes and Styles E.E. Dutton and Co^, New York. Harden, Jane LeConte 1867 Letter to Josie LeConte. October 30, 1867. Copy of Ms. in personal files, Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida. Harden, John M.B. 1845 Observations on the Soil, Climate and Diseases of Liberty County, Georgia. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 1 (10) : 35 546-649 Hart, Barry 1979 Kaolin Tobacco Pipes at LeConte-Woodmanston Plantation. Paper presented as a requirement for the 1979 Georgia Southern College field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthrpology, University of Florida.

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170 Honerkainp, Nicholas 1974 Archeological Survey of the Savannah Riverfront Area. Ms. on file, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Humphrey, Richard V. 1969 Clay Pipes from Old Sacramento. Historical Archaeology 3:12-33. Jones, Charles C. 188 3 The History of Georgia (Vol. II). Revolutionary Epoch. Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston. Kelso, William M. 1971 Historical Archeology in Georgia, 196 8: Two Nineteenth Century Sites. Conference on Historic Sites Archaeology Papers 1969 4:16-25. Kingsbury, Pamela 1974 Staffordshire Transfer-Printed Ware from the Thayer Collection. Antiques 105:169-173. Larsen, Elloise Baker 1975 American Historical Views on Staffordshire China (third ed. ) Dover Publications, New York. LeConte, Caroline 18 97 Caroline LeConte (Berkeley, California) to Helen Grier LeConte. April 1, 1897. American Philosophical Society Library B L493f, Philadelphia. LeConte, James A. 1933 Sketch of the LeConte Family Georgia Historical Society Library, Savannah, Georgia. LeConte, John Eatton, Jr. 1830 John Eatton LeConte to Louis LeConte (Riceborough, Georgia). February 25, 1830. B L493f American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia. 1856 John Eatton LeConte (Philadelphia) to Matilda Jane Harden. September 10, 1856. B L4 93f American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia. LeConte John Lawrence 1813 John Lawrence LeConte Papers, Collection 398. American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia.

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171 LeConte, Joseph 1866 Joseph LeConte (Columbia, South Carolina) to Matilda Jane Harden Stevens (Newton, Baker County, Georgia). November 8, 1866. B L493f American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 1903 Autobiography of Joseph LeConte .. D. Appleton, New York. LeConte, Louis 18 31 Louis LeConte to his eldest son, William LeConte at Franklin College, Athens, Georgia. August 1, 1831. Ms. owned by Mrs. John James McKay. In temporary possession of John McKay Sheftall, Macon, Georgia. LeConte, William 1784 William LeConte, Member of Council of Safety to Joseph Chaz, Esq. (Savannah). January 21, 1784. Gratz Collection, Pennsylvania Historical Society Philadelphia. LeConte, William L. 1900 Some of the Events of My Life, Jotted down as they were reviewed by Memory, and all the Badness left out Ms. in personal files, Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida. LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees 197 8 LeConte-Woodmanston Concept Plan. Proceedings of LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees Committee, Garden Clubs of Georgia, Inc. April 7, 1978. Lee, R.B. and J.L. Agnew 1869 Historical Record of the City of Savannah J.H. Estill, Morning News Steam-Power Press. Savannah, Georgia. Liberty County 1793 Civil War and Slavery. Box #7. Office of the Probate Judge. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville, Georgia. 18 31 Doctors and Education. Box #10. Office of the Probate Judge. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville, Georgia. 1833 Appraisal of Estate of Louis LeConte. B, 234. Office of the Probate Judge. County, Hinesville, Goergia. 1841 Apraisal of Estate of William LeConte, B, 302. Office of the Probate Judge. County, Hinesville, Georgia. Will Book Liberty Will Book Liberty

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172 Liberty County 1844 Division of Estate of Louis LeConte, plat map included. Deed Book M, Part I, 189. Office of the Inferior Court. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville, Georgia. 1911 Documents in Deed Book AL, 340-345. Office of the Inferior Court. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville, Georgia. Lorrain, Dessamae 1968 An Archaeologist's Guide to Nineteenth Century American Glass. Historical Archaeology 2:35-44. McFarlane, Suzanne 1975 The Ethnoarcheology of a Slave Community: The Cooper Plantation Site. M.A. Thesis. University of Florida at Gainesville Library. McPherson, Charles 1979 Musket Types Used on the Woodmanston Plantation. Paper presented as a requirement for the 1979 Georgia Southern Collage field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropoloay University of Florida. Midgette, Gordon 1972 Correspondence with the Office of the State Archeoloaist regarding the Woodmanston Plantation, June 28, 19 72. Mullins, Sue 1979 Busson Hill: A Southern Coastal Slave Settlement Presented to the Twentieth Annual Conference on Historic Sites Archaeology, St, Augustine, Florida. Myers, Robert M. 1972 Children of Pride Yale University, New Haven. Noel Hume, Ivor 1969 Glass: in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological Collections. Colonial Williamsburg Archaeological Series #1. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia. 1976 A Guide to Artifact of Colonial America A. Knopf, New York. Otto, John 1975 Status Differences and the Archeological Record: A Comparison of Planter, Overseer and Slave Sites from Cannon's Point Plantation (1794-1861), St. Simons Island, Georgia. Ph.D. University of Florida Library, Gainesville.

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173 Percy, George 1976 Use of Mechanical Auger as a Substitute for Exploratory Excavation at the Torreya Site, Liberty County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 29(l):24-32. Phillips, Ulrich B. 1929 Life and Labor in the Old South Little, Brown, and Co. Boston. Price, John C, Richard C. Hunter, and Edward V. McMichael 1964 Core Drilling in an Archeological Site. American Antiquity 30 (2 ): 210-222 Ray, Mary Helen 1977 Help Save Our Historic Garden. Garden Gateways September-October 12-13. Shaw, Emma Talley 1975 Letter to Claude A. Black, selections from Emma LeConte Furman s Journal. Copy of ms in personal files, Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida. Sloane, Eric 1964 A Museum of Early American Tools Ballantine Books, New York. 1965 A Reverence for Wood Ballantine Books, New York. Soil of the South 1853 Horticultural Communications. 3:724-725. 1854 Horticultural Communications: Evergreens. 4:90-92. Stokes, James 1949 Notes on Georgia Camelliana. American Camellia Yearbook 1949. American Camellia Society, Gainesville, Florida. Sudbury, Byron 1979 Historic Clay Tobacco Pipemakers in the U.S.A Reprinted from BAR International Series 60: 151-341. Edited by Peter Davey. Talmadege, Valerie, Olga Chesler and the Staff of Interagency Archeological Services 19 77 The Importance of Samll, Surface and Disturbed Sites as Sources of Significant Archeological Data. Cultural Resource Management Studies National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

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174 Thayer, Theodore, ed. 1957 Nathaniel Pendleton's Short Account of the Sea Coast of Georqia in Respect to Agriculture, Shipbuilding, Navigation and the Timber Trade. Georgia Historical Quarterly 41:76. Time-Life Books 1980a Insulators. The Encyclopedia of Collectibles Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virainia. 1980b Smoking Paraphrenalia The Encyclopedia of Collectibles Time-Life Books. Alexandria, Virginia. 1980c Staffordshire. The Encyclopedia of Collectibles Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virgina. Tucker, D.G. 1977 Millstones, Quarries, and Millstone-Makers. Post-Medieval Archaeology 11:1-21. Tyre, Claudia 1979 Personal Items from Woodmanston. A Paper presented as a requirement for the 1979 Georgia Southern College field school. Ms. in personal files of Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida. Watkins, C. Malcolm 1970 Artifacts from the sites of three Nineteenth Century Houses and Ditches at Darien Bluff, Georqia. University of Georgia Laboratory of Archeology Series Report #9. White, George 1854 Historical Collections of Georqia Pudney and Russell, New York. White, James T. 1909 The National Cyclopaedia of America (Vol 11). James T. White, New York. Wilms, Douglas C. 1972 The Development of Rice Culture in Eighteenth Century, Southeastern Geographic 1:45-57.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jennifer Margaret Hamilton was born on April 10, 1956, in Venice, Florida. She attended oublic school and graduated from Venice High School in 1974. Jennifer entered Florida State University in the fall of 1974, then transferred to the University of Florida in the fall of 1975. She attended her first archeological field school in 1977 under the direction of Dr. Prudence Rice and graduate assistant. Sue Mullins at the Chimney Fields site just south of Gainesville, Florida, and received her Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from the University of Florida in the same year. She is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Phi Kappa Phi honorary fraternities. Jennifer entered graduate school fall term 1977 at the University of Florida with Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks as major professor. Field work, which has become the topic of this thesis, was done at the LeConte-Woodmanston Plantation as a part of the Garden Clubs of Georgia's plans to develop the site. Jennifer Hamilton will receive the degree of Master of Arts in anthropology from the University of Florida in June 1980. 175

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts. /Charles H. Fairbanks, Chairman Professor of Anthropology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adeauate in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts.. Jerald T. 'Milanich /Associate Professor of Anthroooloay I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts. Elizabeth Wing Curator of Zooarcheology Associate Professor of Anthropology This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts June 1980 Dean, Graduate School


25
Joseph LeConte to his niece, Matilda Jane Harden Stevens,
Jane LeConte Harden's daughter, in Baker County, Georgia
in November of 1866;
Annie (Matilda Jane Harden Steven's sister) and Dr.
Adams will probably take possession of the old house
at Woodmanston. How I wish I could drop in upon
them all through winter. If I had time and money I
certainly would particularly as I hear the negroes
express great desire to see me again. But I fear
it is impossible this winter (American Philosophical
Society Library 1866).
This deletes the possiblity that the Woodmanston house
was burned or destroyed during Sherman's march through
Georgia.
The 1896 photographs indicate two structures on the
portion of the Woodmanston Plantation near the two Sabal
palms. The first seems to be a negro shanty fronted by
a pig fence and an okra patch. The second structure is
partially hidden behind a tree, but is in a advanced state
of decay (Figures 6,7). It is probable that the inhabitants
of these structures were former LeConte slaves. Construction
materials for these buildings were probably obtained from
the original plantation complex, possibly even the main
house. But there is also a chance that these shelters
may have actually been a part of that complex, which had
remained in use after the LeConte family abandoned the site.


128


APPENDIX B
LIST OF BULBS
Bulbs mentioned in a list found in a folder marked
1813-1815, and containing papers of John Lawrence LeCcnte.
Because of owner and date, it is thought that the list is
by the father of John Lawrence LeConte: John Eatton LeConte
whoe was a brother of Louis LeConte. (It was John Eatton
LeConte who brought the "LeConte Pear" from a nursery in
New York to his brother Louis at Woodmanston Plantation).
Original list is in the American Philosophical Society
Library and permission is necessary for reproduction. This
list gives first the plant names as shown on the 1813-1815
list, and on the line below is given the current scientific
name if known and blooming date in the Georgia coastal area.
The latter information is contributed by Clermont H. Lee,
October 1972. Since some of the plants listed are not hardy
in the north, and some are natives of Georgia, it is believed
the list was compiled from records of plants in the Botanical
garden at Woodmanston Plantation, Liberty County, Georgia
1313-1815.
1. Narcissus Papyraceus
Narcissus tazetta subsp. papyraceus (Ker-Gawler Baker)
Paper white is a hybrid. Dec. 21- Feb. 21. white
flowering (1806)
2. N. Papyraceus
157


16
According to his son, Joseph's autobiography;
in order to divert his thoughts from his grief,
he fitted up several rooms in the attic; especially
one large one, as a chemical laboratory. Day after
day, sometimes all day, when not too much busied
in the administration of his large plantation, he
occupied himself with experimenting there. I
remember vividly how, when permitted to be present,
we boys followed him about silently and on tiptoe;
how we would watch the mysterious experiments; with
what awe his furnaces and chauffers, his and baths,
matrasses, and alembics, and his precipitations
filled us. Although these experiments were
undertaken in the first instance to divert his mind
from sorrow, yet his profound knowledge of chemistry
his deep interest and persitence certainly
eventuated in important discoveries. (1903:7,8)
Apparently Louis had the facilities for producing
chemical compounds. In a letter written in 1830, his
brother, Major John Eatton LeConte, requested that "10
grams of oxyl or hydrate of nickel and cobalt" be sent to
him in New York and he offered to procure a "platinum
crucible" for Louis' experiments from France. Two-thirds
of Louis' library and chemicl apparatus were valued at $400
in the 1838 appraisal of his estate (Liberty County 1838).
Louis obtained some of his supplies from Athens, where his
son, William, attended Franklin College. In a letter from
Louis to William dated at Woodmanston August 1, 1831, he
requests that William "collect as many mineral as he can
bring down" (LeConte 1831).
In the same 1830 correspondence Major John Eatton
also inquires about the success of Louis' experiments
"in mixing different species" (LeConte 1830).
He did not publish his experiments but freely shared his


Figure 1: The LeConte-Woodmanston site is
located approximately 4 miles south
of the present community of Riceboro,
Georgia.


15
Scientific Achievements
The years between 1810 and 1838 were the years when
Louis LeConte was the master at Woodmanston Plantation and
his botanical garden flourished, but his lifelong list
of achievements is lengthy and impressive.
Ke received his Bachelor of Arts degree from New York's
Columbia University in 1799, and continued there with the
study of medicine under Dr. David Hosack, who was the school's
celebrated professor of medicine and botany. It is not
known whether Louis actually received an advanced degree but
it is thought that he studied medicine only in order to
care for the health and well being of his slaves. At that
time the course of medical study contained a good deal of
botanical research and Louis made a botanical survey of
Long Island during his school years. Alexander Gordon
mentions Dr. Hosack's "Hyde Park on the Hudson", in an
article on the "Principle Nurseries and Private Gardens
in the United States" written in 1832.
The park is extensive; the rides numerous; and
the variety of delightful distant views embracing
every kind of scenery, surpasses anything I have
ever seen in (America) or in any other country.
There is an excellent range of hot houses, with
a collection of rare plants, remarkable for their
variety, their cleanliness and their handsome
growth. (1832:282)
Louis was a gifted naturalist and botanist. He was
fluent in Latin and Greek and intersted in all branches
of science including chemistry and mathematics. Louis
was 44 years old when his wife, Ann, died in 1826.


44
higher. N.B. the above calculation is on land, which
is already cleared and fenced, for if this is to be
done so full a crop cannot be expected at the first,
and at times not the second year, especially if the
undertaker is not a professed planter, and has not a
very faithfull and industrious well experienced
overseer. (De Brahm 1760: 162, 163)
In a "Short Account of the Sea Coast of Georgia,"
written by Nathaniel Pendleton in 1800, the expense of
settling a rice estate was estimated as follows:
Lands sufficient for 40 working negroes
are 200 acres of rice land, and 400
acres of timber land
3 dlls (dollars) per acre 1800.
50 negroes great and small at 125 dls. 6250.
Building, machines, etc. 750.
Casualties & other incidental expenses 6 20.
$10,670.
It is estimated one year is supposed to be devoted
to clearing the land, and ditching and banking it
for planting, and, therefore, one year's expense
is considered as so much capital advanced. The
negroes are supposed to be bought on the coast of
Africa, or they would cost more, perhaps 200 each
on an average. They might be imported for 100
dols. at present. The crops produced on rice
estates vary very much according to the state of
improvement the land is in. No crop can be more
certain when the land is in high state of perfection,
that is, when the trunks, floodgates, banks, and
canals are in such a state, that the tide may
be let off and on at pleasure. 200 acres of ground
may be cultivated by 40 negroes, each acre of tide
swamp produces on the lowest computation 1200 lb.
net rice and on the highest 1800 lb. The lowest
price of rice since the peace of 1783 has been 2
dollars per hundred, at present it sells at 6 dollars
and a half per hundred. Take the lowest
computation and the lowest price... (Thayer 1957:80)
Pendleton was the administrator of William LeConte's
estate in 1787. It is possible that some of the preceding
figures came from the Woodmanston or the San Souci Plantations.
The probate for the estate of William LeConte lists 100


70
The few wire nails recovered near the chimney base may
represent later additions or simply refuse wood from other
activities on the site.
A dozen wood screws were also recovered during the
spring excavations. Until the 1840s screws were manufactured
with straight shanks and blunted ends but after 1346 they
became tapered with pointed ends, identical to modern screws
(Sloane 1965:25). Examples of both types were recovered
at Woodmanston, but the majority were probably made prior
to 1840. The remainder of the building hardware was made
up of pintis, staples, nuts and bolts, several large
spikes and pieces of wire. A photograph of one of the
pintis is located in Figure 15a.
Household Furnishings
The following furniture was listed in the 1338
inventory of the Louis LeConte estate:
Sideboard
50.00
Large table
20.00
Tea caddy
.75
Red bay table
.50
Drawers and glass
25.00
6 Windsor chairs
1.50
One dining table
5.00
Sofa
30.00
Set of fine chairs
Fender, andirons, tongs
25.00
bellows and broom
14.00
Green carpet and rug
Old carpet and staircase
12.00
carpet
3.00
One carpet
12.0 0
1 small table
3.00
Shades
6.00
4 Trunks
3.50


89
percentage of banded wares were characteristic of
planter ceramic assemblages (1975:184). Excavations of
three early nineteenth century upper middle class houses
at Darien, Georgia by Watkins substantiates this idea (1970).
The Woodmanston sample was made up of 25 percent transfer
printed pearlware and less than three percent banded ware.
Stoneware, also associated with more elite ceramic
assemblages, made up 15 percent of the Woodmanston collection.
Stoneware was basically used as utilitarian pottery: jugs,
crocks, jars, and bottles. It fulfilled the storage,
salting and pickling requrements of families in the eighteenth
century and early nineteenth century. Jugs and bottles were
used to keep water fresh, preserve food and store perishable
items (Barnes 1979: 2). Slaves would not have had access to
the variety, or quantity, of foodstuffs which would need to
be preserved. By the 1860s vacuum canning in glass jars
had begun to replace many of the functions of stoneware but
none were recovered at Woodmanston.
Another possible status indicator discovered at
Woodmanston is the number of different transfer printed
patterns which were found. Thirty-two different patterns
are represented on 183 sherds. Unfortunately none of these
patterns can be positively identified because of the
fragmented condition of the sample. John Otto has inferred
from the archeological investigation of planter, overseer,
and slave sites, that the planters purchased large sets from


Figure 11:
Distribution of culturally positive auger tests
performed during the spring 1979 investigation
of the Woodmanston site.


Figure 5:
LeConte kinship diagram as reconstructed from existing
documents. The focus of this chart is on Louis LeConte
(1782 1838) and his heirs.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to acknowledge the years of
guidance from Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks, both in class and
out, which led to the completion of this master's thesis.
Special thanks are accorded to Dr. Rochelle Marrinan,
director of the Georgia Southern College 1979 field school,
who has been a constant support and companion throughout
all phases of the project: research, excavation and writing.
The author would also like to express her continuing
appreciation to Colonel and Mrs. Claude A. Black; and
Miss Clermont Lee of Savannah for their persistent faith
in the LeConte-Woodmanston project. Without their interest
and inspiration there would be no project and the public
would lose a large part of its cultural heritage.
Many thanks are also given to Mrs. Caroline McMillan of
St. Simon's Island, Georgia,for patiently answering the many
questions and generously providing access to the family
documents which made the LeContes cor.iealive for all concerned.
The author would also like to express her appreciation
to the members of the spring 1979 Georgia Southern College
archeolgical field school: Julie Barnes, David Flesch, Barry
Hart, Betty Leigh Hutcheson, Charles McPherson, Nancy Turner,
Claudia Tyre, and Cecil Walters, for their untiring labor
despite cramped living conditions and numerous mosquitoes.
ii


162
In these walks, accompanied by your husbands,
brothers, or children, will you not take a few implements
for digqinq and cutting; a few pieces of bass-matting,
coarse cloth or long moss, for enveloping roots, and
when you observe glossy Evergreens, whiqh contrast so strikingly
at this season with the naked looking, deciduous trees stop
a few moments take it up carefully retaining as much earth
and as many rootlets as possible; plant it near your window;
in your flower garden, or upon your lawn, and in a few years
you aill be amply repaid for a little trouble.
For the convenience of those who are willing to avail
themselves of these opportunities, we will mention some of
the most attractive.... (A discussion of various evergreens
has been condensed and the species mentioned are listed below)
Magnolia Grandiflora; the king of Evergreens
Magnolia Glauca, or sweet bay
Live Oak, Quercus vivens
Water Oak, Quercus Aquatica
native pines
Red Cedar
Wild orange
Wild olive similar to English and Portugal laurels
Olea Americana or Devilwood
Holly, Ilex Opaca
Ilex Cassine or Cassina
Gordonia Lasyanthus white bay or loblolly bay
Gordonia Pubescens
Idicium Floridum, or Anise seed tree
Torraya Taxifolia, or Florida Yew
Melocarium Ligustrum
Rododendron Maximum rose bay or mountain laurel
Kalmia Latifolia, ivy or calico bush, mountain laurel
Kalmia Hirsuta
Andromeda Arbrea, or Sorrel Tree
Gelsemium Sempervivens, or yellow iasmine
Zyzyphus Volubilis, or supple iack
Mistletoe, Viscum Flavescens
Palm tree or Cabbaqe Palmetto
Saqo tree


78
1870, the 'chilled iron' mold was perfected and enabled
manufacturers to produce bottles with very smooth exterior
surfaces. This eliminated the hammered metal effect of
the earlier molds. Examples of this type of manufacture
were found at Woodmanston and several paneled bottles
were recovered near the robbed brick wall on the north side
of the site. Unfortunately they are not complete enough
to provide information as to the contents or date of
manufacture, but it is probable they were made in Savannah,
Georgia some time after 1870. In the Historical Record
of the City of Savannah, a bottling and soda water establishment
under the proprietorship of John Ryan is advertised as
being "one of the oldest and most reliable bottling
establishments in the country, having been conducted by
its sole proprietor since 1852, in such a way as to give
general satisfaction to all its patrons" (Lee and Agnew 1869:21) .
This particular bottling works manufactured and bottled
soda water, foreign mineral water, porter, ale, cider,
cordials, lager beer, syrups, bitters, essences, etc. and
had branch establishments in Augusta, Columbus, and Atlanta,
Georgia.
John Otto attributes the presence of a large quantity
of medicinal containers to the poor diet and ill health of
the slaves and rural populations. Doctors were consulted only
as a last resort and 'patent medicines' were considered the
panacea of all ills. Considering the percentage of medicine


45
barrels of rice ready for market which was appraised at $300
and 34 adult slaves plus their families. This seems to
be an average size rice plantation for this period.
Plantations such as these supported the towns of
Charleston and Savannah, as well as Beaufort and Sunbury,
and enable them to develop into enviable centers of commerce
and social life. This relatively stable situation provided
the environment for financial success and the refinement
of a culture peculiar to the old south.
Woodmanston remained a productive rice plantation
until after Louis' death in 1838, within six years it had
been divided into six tracts. During this period wet
rice culture was beginning to be abandoned and dry culture
was adopted for health reasons. Remnants of the dams and
canals used in the plantation can still be seen on the
Woodmanston site, but the entire area is now covered by
cypress and tpelo trees.
In 1861 Joseph Jones wrote an excellent description of
similar environs that accurately describe the Woodmanston
we see today.
We may, in these swamps, see everywhere the marks
of former cultivation in old embankments covered
with large trees and the enclosed lands which were
once clothed with golden rice, now support dense
forests of cypress, tpelo, and gum; and the once
deep and broad canals, which were used by the ancients
to drain these swamps, are now covered with trees and
and choked up with trunks and limbs of dead trees
and accumulated sediment (Wilms 1972:51).
/


11
Guillaume served in the English military until 1698, at
which time he emigrated to the New World. He bought property
in New York City and in New Rochelle. A short time later
he went to the French owned island of Martinique, in the
Caribbean. While in Martinique he met and married Marguerite
de Valleau, whose father was a wealthy land owner.
Guillaume and Marguerite had three children, all of
whom were born in New York. William was born in 1702; Pierre
was born in 1704; and their daughter, Esther, was born in 1706.
Pierre (1704-1768) was Louis LeConte's grandfather (Figure 5).
In 1710 Gullaume and Marguerite LeConte both died of
yellow fever, leaving the three children orphaned at early
ages. Little is known of the children's childhood, but
eventually Pierre became a physician and settled in Monmouth
County, New Jersey. He married Valeria Eatton, daughter of
the Hon. John Eatton of Shrewsbury, New Jersey. They had
three sons, John Eatton, William and Peter. John Eatton
(1749-1822) was Louis' father (Figure 5).
In 1760, at the invitation of their uncle, Thomas
Eatton, a wealthy New York merchant, John Eatton LeConte
and his brother, William, accompanied him to Georgia, at
that time, a virtually unexplored territory. Both John
Eatton and William were in their early twenties. In 1769,
after the death of their father, Pierre LeConte, John Eatton
and William each applied for and received land grants jointly
totaling 7,500 acres in St. Andrews and St. Johns Parishes,
(now in Liberty and Chatham Counties, Georgia) from the


22
On October 28, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran this
advertisement: "To be sold on Tuesday the 28th October,
1766, a cargo of about 100 young and healthy new negroes,
just arrived, in the ship, Woodmanston, Capt. Benj. Mason,
in a short passage of seven weeks from the River Gambia"
On November 5, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran another ad:
"for London, Portugal, or Cowes, and a market, the ship
Woodmanstone, Benjamin Mason, burthen about 200 tons, a prime
sailor, and (unreadable). For freight and passage apply to
said master or to Habersham & Clay of Savannah".
It is also significant in regard to the name,
'Woodmanston', that Louis' uncle, William LeConte, had
business dealings with Habersham & Clay in the administration
of his estate, and Louis LeConte used R. Habersham and Son
as factors during his years as master of the plantation.
The first house, built by John Eatton LeConte, Sr.,
on the LeConte plantation was burned during the Revolutionary
War in a skirmish near Bulltown Swamp between colonists and
3ritish troops under Colonel George Prevost during his
southern campaign. This house was located somewhere on the
east side of the old Fort Barrington Highway. There are
several family accounts of Indian attacks on the plantation
during the early years, which attest to the remoteness of
the area and the need to guard the negro slaves against
injury (Liberty 1793, LeConte 1903:19-21).


31
In 1851 in an address before the Southern Agricultural
Society, the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, Jr., mentioned the
camellia, the oleander, the gardenia and the tea rose
as becoming rapidly indigenous in the milder portion of the
state. He particularly mentioned the grounds of the
"late Mr. LeConte of Liberty County. There are seasons
of the year when one literally walks upon camellias and their
seed is freely matured in the open air (Stokes 1949:175).
According to James Stokes, this address was a potent
factor in the almost complete obleiteration of camellias
from the old Woodmanston Plantation in Liberty County.
By 1896 the remaining camellias had reached tree like
proportions, one measuring 56 inches in circumference
(LeConte 1903:10). Photographs taken during Joseph's
last visit to Georgia show their relative size (Figures 6,7).
Col. John R.L. Smith of Macon, son-in-law of Mrs.
Emma LeConte Furman, visited the old plantation site of
Woodmanston in 1910 and reported that at that time the
old Double White camellia tree was still standing. In 1930
G.3. Eunice, County Agent of Liberty County, visited
Woodmanston and reported that the large Double White camellia
was not present but several other large trees remained. One
of the large ones was a particularly beautiful variegated
form. Three days later he returned to get some cuttings
from this particular camellia and found that it had been


Figure 3: Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area.
Note small cleared spot in the upper
left third of the photograph.


19
The pear was very popular in South Georgia, as it
stood shipment well and for many years the trees
were entirely blight proof. As late as 1900 they
were shipped by car load from Quitmen, Georgia, to
the northern markets. But the variety finally lost
its bliqht resisting qualities and has almost entirely
disappeared. (LeConte 1933:13)
Major John Eatton LeConte was constantly involved
with the collection and indentification of new species
of plants, animals and insects during his travels, and
supplied duplicate specimens to many of his friends.
Every member of the LeConte family was charged with
collecting new specimens of insects, flora and fauna
whereever they went. Even Matilda Jane Harden, John
Eatton's grandniece, was reminded of her collecting duties
while at boardinq school in Orangeburq, South Carolina.
She was entreated by the Major to collect seeds, bats and
rats and to charge her brother in Athens to do likewise
(LeConte 1856) .
Major John Eatton LeConte's contributions to botanical
and zooloqical science were published in the Annals of the
Lyceum of Natural History of New York, and in the Proceedings
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, from
1852 to 1860.
His extensive and valuable herbarium, which had been
carefully reviewed by the older botanists of the
country, was presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Philadelphia in 1852, and was followed shortly after
his death in 1860 by a large collection of fresh water
mollusca of the United States, containing many original
specimens of species first observed by him. He was
a most untirinq student and left much manuscript, the
usefulness of which has been superseded by subsequent
research, and likewise many thousand water color drawings
cf insects and various orders, which his son has had
mounted in albums suitable for inspection.


73
Glass
Window Glass
Glazed double hung sash windows were typical of the
English Georgian style of architecture (Kelso 1971:93).
Window glass makes up 67 percent bv numerical count and
27 percent by weight of the total glass sample retrieved
at the Woodmanston Plantation. The presence of this amount
of window glass suggests an elite occupation on the site.
Slave cabins were rarely equipped with glazed windows and
it is doubtful that the post-war squatter occupation would
have been able to afford this luxury either.
Fifty-seven percent by weight and 54 percent by
numerical count of the window glass was recovered in the
area around the robbed brick wall, an area which includes
the north trench. Thirty percent by numerical count and 37
percent by weight was recovered in the proximity of the
chimney base and the east trench (Figure 12). It is probable
that both these structures were associated with the LeConte
plantation house in some way. One may have been the
"big house" itself or both may be subsidiary buildings
which supported the plantation.


CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Significant World Events
The years between 1770 and 1840, the period when
Woodmanston was a productive rice plantation, were marked
by advances in science and technology which had considerable
effects on world events.
In Europe, the age of enlightenment was taking place,
and such notables as Voltaire and Rousseau were publishing
their ideas. James Watt and S. Bolton produced their steam
engine in 1769 and Sir Richard Arkwright developed the water
powered spinning frame. Both these developments helped
set the scene for the industrial revolution with its chance
of labor from cottage to factory levels. The last part of
the eighteenth century was filled with the great age of
orchestral music, and the magnificent works of Mozart, Haydn,
and Beethoven graced the halls of Europe.
In the New World, Quebec and Montreal, then called
New France, were conquered by the Britsh in 1760, and
in 1768 Captain James Cook began his exploration of the
Pacific Ocean. Only a year later, in 1769, William and
John Eatton LeConte received their Georgia land grants
8


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a thesis for the deqree of Master of Arts.
Charles H. Fairbanks, Chairman
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that
opinion it conforms
presentation and is
as a thesis for the
I have read this study and that in my
to acceptable standards of scholarly
fully adecate, in scope and quality,
degree of Master of Arts..
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts.
V>r t v n
Elizabeth Wing
Curator of Zooarcheology
Associate Professor of Anthropology
This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Anthropoloqy in the Colleqe of Liberal Arts
and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted
as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Master of Arts
June 1980
Dean, Graduate School


173
Percy, George
1976 Use of Mechanical Auger as a Substitute for
Exploratory Excavation at the Torreya Site,
Liberty County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist
29 (1) :24-32.
Phillips, Ulrich B.
1929 Life and Labor in the Old South. Little, Brown,
and Co., Boston.
Price, John C., Richard C. Hunter, and Edward V. McMichael
1964 Core Drilling in an Archeological Site. American
Antiquity 30 (2): 210-222.
Ray, Mary Helen
1977 Help Save Our Historic Garden. Garden Gateways
September-October 12-13.
Shaw, Emma Talley
1975 Letter to Claude A. Black, selections from Emma
LeConte Furman's Journal. Copy of ms. in personal
files, Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida.
Sloane,
1964
Eric
A Museum of Early American Tools.
New York.
Ballantine Books,
1965 A Reverence for Wood. Ballantine Books, New York.
Soil of the South
1853 Horticultural Communications.
3:724-725.
1854 Horticultural Communications: Evergreens. 4:90-92.
Stokes, James
1949 Notes on Georgia Camelliana. American Camellia
Yearbook 1949. American Camellia Society, Gainesville,
Florida.
Sudbury, Byron
1979 Historic Clay Tobacco Pipemakers in the U.S.A.
Reprinted from BAR International Series 60: 151-341.
Edited by Peter Davey.
Talmadege, Valerie, Olga Chesler and the Staff of Interagency
Archeological Services
1977 The Importance of Samll, Surface and Disturbed
Sites as Sources of Significant Archeological
Data. Cultural Resource Management Studies. National
Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior,
Washington, D.C.


Figure 2: Woodmanston vicinity, with some other
historic features of Liberty County,
Georgia.


65
Although the area 5 meters east and 3 meters west of
the chimney base at Woodmanston was excavated, no additional
architectural information such as walls, piers, or footing
ditches were unearthed. However, two parallel drip lines,
made by water dripping from the eaves of' a building which
created a linear series of concentric circles of water sorted
sand, were recorded just west of the chimney base. Although
the proximity to the western hearth facing precluded the
possibility of a wall or partition in this location, a
possible explanation may be water leaking through a collapsed
roof and then through the wooden floor. Additional evidence
for the presence of wooden floors is discussed in the section
on building hardware.
The absence of footing ditches, piers and other structural
information makes it impossible to define the dimensions of
the associated structure. Most houses in this area were
built raised above the ground to protect the inhabitants from
the unhealthy 'marsh miasma'. It is possible that the
structure uncovered during the spring excavations was of frame
or pole construction with sills raised on wooden posts which
rested directly on the ground surface. Supports of this
type would not have left a record in the soil. An interview
with a descendant of one of the LeConte slaves suggested
that the slave cabins were two room, pole constructed houses.
One room was used as a kitchen and the other for sleeping
{Fiasen 1979). Whether these structures would have contained double


Figure 16a: Glass artifacts. Clockwise:
medicine bottle neck, aqua electrical
insulator, medicine bottle base with
pontil scars, perfume bottle, square
medicine bottle base.
Figure 16b: Cutlery recovered on the Woodmanston
site. Note bone handles and different
patterns.


101
site. Ninety percent of the pipe bowls and stem fragments
were recovered within a 20 meter radius of the chimney base.
The remaining ten percent was uncovered near the robbed brick
wall on the north side of the site.
Several pipe stems and bowls found 'at the Woodmanston
site could be dated by identification of the maker's marks.
A stem fragment recovered near the chimney displayed the
name DORNI in relief on its side (Figure 18a). Peter Dorni
was a pipemaker in northern France about 1850 (Humphrey 1969:15).
Another stem from the same area of the site, bore the name
'McDougall' impressed on one side, and the city of 'Glasgow',
on the opposite side (Figure 18a). This type of pipe also
had the letters 'TD' crudely impressed on the rear of the
bowl facing the smoker. Two pipe bowl fragments were found
which are similar to this description. The McDougall Company
of Glasgow, Scotland, may have been established in 1810, or
possibly in 1346. There is some question about the actual
date (Humphrey 1969:17). The presence of additional mid
nineteenth century pipe stems and bowls at the Woodmanston
site suggests the latter date (Hart 1979) .
An almost complete example of a gray, reed stemmed,
pipe was trieved from the upper portion of the builder's
trench of the chimney (Figure 18b). This pipe has been
traced to an American manufacturer in Point Pleasant, Ohio.
This shop produced ceramic items such as crockery, stove
flues and drain tiles, as well as smoking pipes, from the 1840s
until the 1390s, but it i.s probable that the manufacture


/ [parking
office
r plant
collecti
informat
f nee
.operation
ADMINISTRATION / /
ZONE / /
^ /
SPECIAL
MANAGEMENT
ZONE
INTERPRETATION ZONE
AN INTERPRETIVE CONCEPT PlfcN
F *
L6 CONTE W0ODMANSTON LIBERTY COUNTY, GEORGIA


63
(Figure 12,13). The chimney base is oriented just east
of north, with two fireplaces facing roughly east and west.
The southern end has been parially destroyed by root
activity from the pecan tree, but three courses of brick at
the northern end remain intact. The remaining portion
is 5.5 feet wide and at least 7 feet long. The interior
measurement of the western fireplace is 25.6 inches and the
eastern hearth is 30 inches. Both hearths have an interior
length of at least 6 feet.
The Woodmanston chimney was constructed in a very
similar manner to the chimney base discussed in McFarlane's
description of the slave chimney at the CoOper Plantation on
St. Simon's Island (McFarland 1975:68). A large rectangular
hole was prepared for the chimney base and the H-snaped
foundation, which included a fireplace back, two bricks wide,
and two exterior side arms three bricks wide, which were
laid in place using English bond. The front facing was
added at rhe same level in a rough form of common bond.
The chimney was built on this H-shaped foundation to the
desired height. Remains of the mortar indicate that a row
of headers followed the last row of stretchers on the
front facings and may represent a finishing course at
ground level. The Woodmanston chimney had probably been
robbed for construction materials by local residents
sometime in the late IS00s.


13
Louis' uncle, William LeConte, took up permanent
residence in Georgia and divided his time between his
townhouse in Savannah and his plantation, which he named
San Souci, located near the Ogeechee River. When William
died in 1787, the joint estate was divided and Louis'
father, John Eatton LeConte, received the Bulltown plantation
and half of the personal property of the estate.
Louis LeConte came to Georgia shortly after 1807. He
lived in a small house built near the site of the original
home which had been burned during the Revolutionary War,
and thereafter took over complete management of the rice
plantation called Woodmanston (LeConte 1933:1-9).
In 1822 Louis LeConte married a local girl, Anne
Quarterman, daughter of an old and prominant Liberty
County family, and took up residence at Woodmanston. Louis
and Ann had six children; William (1812-1841), Jane (1814-1876),
John (1818-1891), Louis (1821-1852), Joseph (1823-1901),
and Ann (1825-1866) (LeConte 1933:10)(Figure 5).
Louis LeConte's marriage to Ann Quarterman in 1812
created a peculiar situation which was to have lasting
impact on Woodmanston Plantation. Ann was a member of the
nearby Congregational Church of Midway which had always
married among themselves. Ann's mother did not object to
Louis, personally, but she did object to her daughter
marrying outside the colony. Since Louis had never joined
the local Midway Church, Ann's mother insisted that he be
thoroughly catechised by the minister and elders of the


39
undertaking. Flooding and draught were the major problems
of the inland swamp system, as stated by Nathaniel Pendleton,
as early as 1796, "the uncertainty of being able to collect
sufficient water on an inland swamp in dry seasons, the
difficulty of draining them at the proper time in wet ones,
and the inferiority of the soil" (Thayer 1957:77).
Therefore, after the Revolutionary War (1783) there
was a gradual shift from 'inland swamp' or 'brook swamp'
culture of rice, such as that used at Woodmanston, to the
'tidal flow' system. Although more elaborate preparation
of the land was necessary for the control of water, this
system proved to be more efficient since it utilized
natural tidal action to flood the fields. The control
of water flow, thus established, was automatic and complete
as long as the banks, trunks, and gates were kept in good order.
The tidal flow system, though more efficient, was
hazardous, nevertheless. Animals sometimes undermined the
banks or bored holes through them to make a channel into
which the water could break through. More damaging, a flood
from the uplands could wreck the levee, or a hurricane
might drive ocean water inshore and raise it to an overtopping
height. Such adverse situations could break down the banks,
thereby allowing salt water to contaminate the fields to the
extent that several years of leaching would be required
to render the soil sweet again. Tide-flow fields, furthermore
were so narrow that the per acre upkeep of banks, trunks, and
drains eventually proved excessively expensive, and other


90
their factors and the slaves and overseers purchased
individual items, or small sets, from local shop keepers.
They also occasionally used old and discarded items from
the planter's family (Otto 1975:174). This would be reflected,
in the archeological record, by a large variety of patterns
in slave and rural white occupation, and a greater homogeneity
of transfer print patterns in respect to the planter.
Pursuing this idea, the Woodmanston site, according to John
Otto, must be assigned a low status occupation. However,
the variety of patterns at Woodmanston may be explained by
the length of the occupation (1760-late 1800s), the
increasing availability of transfer printed wares in the
mid 1800s, and the presence of a post-Civil War squatter
occupation which would not accurately reflect the LeConte
family purchasing practices during Woodmanston1s early days.
Porcelain comprises less than two percent of the Woodmanston
sample. Although the majority is plain,several pieces are
decorated with the 'famiile rose' design (Figure 17b).
This type of decoration is usually found in mid to late
eighteenth century contexts (Noel Hume 1976:259). 'Famiile
rose' is an overglaze decoration which consists of pink
flowers, highlighted in white with drab green leaves. The
Darien, Georgia excavations exposed a similar small
percentage of oriental porcelain. John Otto suggests that
although porcelain is traditionally thought of as a luxury


86
bearing the names of the first fifteen states encircles
the perimeter of the plate, and the words, "America and
Independence" underline the figures (Camehl 1971:126-127).
An excellent color plate of the "States" design is located
in the "Silhouettes to Swords" volume of the Time-Life
Encyclopedia of Collectibles, under "Staffordshire"
(Time-Life 1980:84). Additional examples can be found
in Elloise Baker Larsen's American Historical Views on
Staffordshire China (1975:54,55,312,313).
A fragment of the "States" plate bearing the name,
"Connecticut", was found in the upper portion of the
builders trench of the chimney base. This suggest that
the structure was not built until sometime after 1825. Other
pieces bearing portions of the words "New York" and "Georgia"
were also retrieved in other areas of the Woodmanston
excavation area.
Pearlware, and later whiteware and ironstone, were also
decorated with a molded shell-edge pattern with a blue or
green painted rim (Figure 17a). From 1780 to 1795 the rims
were carefully painted to create a feathery edge, but after
1800 this type of decoration was replaced by a quickly
painted stripe which remained popular until 1330 (Noel Hume
1976:131). Portions of the earlier type of shell edged plates
or platters comprise six percent of the ceramic assemblage
found at Woodmanston, and a large proportion of the plain
white sherds found scattered throughout the site may also
belong to the undecorated interior portions of these plates.


30
There were the flowers of Aunt Jane's wonderful garden.
She inherited her father's love of flowers and Botany
a large square garden with a circular mound in the midst
in three diminishing tiers, the topmost and smallest
filled with a huge cycas palm whose long leaves drooped
over the brick terrace wall. In this garden was every
known variety of camellia, single and double purest
white to deepest red-rose and blush and variegated
great bushes like trees. Huge azalea- bushes, not yet in
bloom, and but the magnolia fuscata and tea olive were
(in bloom), and many other shrubs and daffodils, jonquils
and narcissi and many other bulbs-violets. More flowers
than I can remember and this was December! (Shaw 1975)
It is probable that Jane LeConte Harden was influenced
greatly by her father in the organization and planning of
her garden. It also seems likely that many of the plants
at the Halifax garden were propagated from original specimens
or transplanted from the old garden. Based on these
assumptions we may gain a somewhat clearer notion of the
character of the LeConte garden at Woodmanston.
In 1853 Ann LeConte Stevens planned a botanic and
floral garden for her home in Walthourville, and sought
aid from the editors of The Soil of the South. Her garden
was to include fruit trees of several varieties and
exotic as well as native trees and flowers.
The plan for a flower garden which I (Ann) have
drawn on paper is in the Arabesque Style, with
figures imbedded in the lawn. How would you
prepare the ground what manures would you
employ, in which quantites, and how apply? What
grasses should be sown fo form a permanent green
surface like velvet where can it be procured,
and at what price? The beds are to be bricked in -
should this be done before or after the grass is
sown? This garden will be about 40 vards square.
(1853:725)


109
mammal bone. The presence of such low status game animal
bones suggests a likewise low status occupation in the
structure associated with the chimney base.
Chickens and geese made up 1.5 percent of the biomass.
Anhinga, eastern glossy ibis and quail represented the wild
birds utilized on the Woodmanston site (.89 percent biomass).
Bowfin, catfish, bass and crappies were procured from the
Bulltown swamp as a source of food and represented 3 percent
of the biomass. Several types of turtles and alligator
remains were also present but only made up 4 percent of the
biomass.
A complete species list of the fauna recovered at the
Woodmanston site is located in Appendix D.


List of Figures (continued)
Fiqures Page
18a. Personal artifacts 150
18b. Personal artifacts 150
19a. Quartz crystal 152
19b. Grindstone fraqment 152
20. Aboriginal artifacts 154
viii


146


60
the scattered, fragmentary condition of the bricks indicates
a robbed brick wall (Figure 14). The artifact content of
this unit was less numerous than the first, but of the same
basic nature.
The third and final excavation unit' was located just
northeast of the southern palm in an area which showed no
cultural evidence on the surface but had positive subsurface
tests (Figure 11) This was opened, in an effort to increase
understanding of the distribution of artifacts over the site.
Trenching
Two diagnostic trench lines were laid east-west and
north-south across the central area, one and one half meters
wide. The fill from these trenches was not screened but
carefully removed in an effort to assess the presence of
remaining features within the time frame. Although the
first 30 centimeters (12 inches) of soil had been disturbed
by twentieth century agricultural and lumbering activities,
these trenches clearly showed that below this point the
area southeast of the palms still contains cultural information
which is relatively intact.
A feature is an archeological designation for an
anomaly in the soil. It may be a brick chimney base or
simply a change in soil coloration which indicates a
posthole, trash pit or rodent burrow. The features at
Woodmanston are distinct and have not been subject to the
degree of leaching or subsurface disturbance which could


54
Surface evidence was extensive for bricked pilings,
walks, and possibly foundations or floors of the
late eighteenth early nineteenth century...(where
the floor is paved brick and sunk slightly below the
original surface of the ground. In the earlier structures
this would be as much as three or four feet.) A
good example is the structure described in my Evelyn
site National Register form. The china that I
recovered from the surface was all within the time
frame expected and correlated with the historical
period ascribed to the house. (Midgette 1972)
This brief note did not provide substantial information for
the present study. The site has become considerably more
overgrown in the last seven years and the only areas easily
accessible are the entrance road and a small area around the
seedling camellia. We were unable to locate the "extensive
surface evidence of pilings, walks, and possibly foundations
or floors of the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century",
since there is no record of the exact location of Midgette's
shovel testing nor his proposed location of the big house
in relation to any standing features on the site such as the
palms, camellia or dike. Dense vegetation and heavy leaf
cover made adequate surface investigation almost impossible,
In addition it was difficult to place any degree of confidence
on the negative result of such a survey.
Archeological goals during the spring excavations were
dictated by the Department of Natural Resources proposed
development plan. This plan emphasized interpretation of
the plantation era site components, the natural setting and
use as a habitat for endangered plant species (LeConte
Woodmanston Trustees: 1978) (Figure 8). In order to provide
necessary guidance for the Garden Club development of the site,


37
The system of water level regulation relied on the
fact that the direction of flow was always in the same
direction, i.e., downstream from the reservoir. The trunk
gates were the regulatory key to the entire hydraulic
system and had to work with a fine degree of precision.
The most effective irrigation schedule called for four
separate flooding on, and draining off, cycles. The last
cycle known as the 'lay-by', or 'harvest' flow, kept the
rice fields flooded 40 or 50 days, and required close
precision in regulating the depth of the water on the fields
to within a fraction of an inch. The purpose of the 'harvest:1
flow was to support the forming heads of the rice plants which
had to be held at a level "up to the head or the point where
the ear was forming" (Black 1976:11-14).
A description of early rice cultivation is found in a
Description of South Carolina. Here it is revealed that
good crops are produced even the first year,
when the surface of the earth appears in some
degree covered with the trunks and branches of trees;
the proper months for sowing rice are March, April
and May; the method is to plant it is trenches, or
rows made with a hoe, about 3 inches deep; the land
must be pretty clear from woods; and the latter end
of August or beginning of September, it will be fit
to be reaped. (Carroll 1836:201)
Water culture was used, not only as a means of
irrigation, but also as a method for the systematic
destruction of weeds and insects, and allowed the soils to
be replenished and nourished annually by the silt from
upstream (Phillips 1929:117).


28
The Prince family to which 'Native Flora' refers, and
from whom her father, Louis, obtained his camellias, owned
the Linneaen Botanic Garden at Flushing, Long Island, New
York. According to Alexander Gordon,
The Messrs. Prince are most indefatigable in
their exertions to procure all foreign and native
plants; and in my intercourse with different
gentlemen, in various parts of the United States,
afforded by ample proof of this fact. Its
extent, the great variety it contains, the
multiplicity of agents employed for collection
and disseminating plants for and from it. (1832:280)
Unfortunately, none of Ann LeConte Steven's
correspondence contained a drawing or layout of the garden.
In a letter from Dr. Frances Harper to James Stokes,
Dr. Harper recounts a previous correspondence with Professor
Joseph Nisbet LeConte in 1933;
Miss Julia King, of Colonel's Island, once had
a book on Gardens and Gardening, in which was a
drawing of my grandfather's botanical garden,
this picture having been made by Bartram. I
have never been able to trace this supposed
publication, and I am quite skeptical as to
a drawing by Bartram. Unfortunately, a copy
of this publication has not been found. (Stokes
1949:180)
Various private, public and university libraries
and rare booksellers, both here and abroad, have been
contacted concerning the existence of such a book, but the
search has been unsuccessful. See Appendix A for a listing
of this extensive correspondence.
A list of 40 bulbous plants has been located by
Dr. George Rogers, of Georgia Southern College, in the
John Lawrence LeConte Collection in the American Philosophical
Library at Philadelphia. The list is dated 1813-1815 and


110
Aboriginal Material
There is a small aboriginal component present on
the Woodmanston site. It seems to be concentrated near
the intersection of the two trench lines. The ceramics are
badly eroded but seem to represent mostly sand tempered
plain wares. One sherd of Savannah check stamped and one
samll cord marked sherd are the only examples of decoration
recovered on the site. Because of the fragmented condition
of the collection no vessel forms could be determined.
The lithic assemblage was made up of one broken
Pinellas point (A.D. 500 to contact), a reworked unifacial
scraper, two reworked bifacial scrapers and numerous flint
chips (Figure 20). Debitage is also scattered on the surface
over most of the site.


48
years of age at the 1787 administration and could have
had four living children by that time.
Joseph LeConte was born in 1823. By the time he
reached the 'age of remembering' (1830) these three slaves
would have been almost 75 years old, an -amazing age for
anyone in those times.
In the Georgia Gazette (September 9, 1774) an advertisement
was placed by Robert Bolton for a runaway slave:
Run away from John Eatton LeConte, a negro fellow
named Johnny, who formerly belonged to Mr. William
Wyley, he is well set fellow and is well known in
this town, where he keeps. Any person delivering him
to the Warden of the Workhouse shall receive two
shillings reward.
This notice is evidence that at least a portion of the
LeConte slaves were purchased from local sources.
The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate again
enumerated the slaves by name and estimated monetary value.
Several people are referred to as "old" sos an so. This
term may simply have been used to refer to the relative
ages of several slaves bearing the same name. An example
might be: Old Rachel $300; Young Rachel $600; Child
Rachel $50 (Liberty County 1838) However, some of the
"old" people may indeed be the children of the negroes
who made up the original LeConte investment.
Not all of the negroes on the Woodmanston Plantation
were slaves. The July 12, 1823 edition of the Georgian
published a list of:


58
In an effort to locate the outbuildings and slave
settlement of the Woodmanston plantation we again cleared a
number of linear transects through the pine stand west of
the palms, the area south of the entrance road and the area
west of the dike. Comprising about eight acres, this area
included property indicated by the 1844 plat map to have
at least one 'settlement' and various fields (Liberty County
1844). A total of 217 tests were made with 16 percent
cutlurally positive. In addition to the information attained
by the auger tests these transects aided in examining the
surface for any depressions or mounds which might look
promising. As on the east of the borrow pit, there has
been a great deal of disturbance from lumbering activities
but concentrations of positive tests in several areas
indicate a need for further testing. One such area is
just west of the camellia near a large oak tree.
Formal Excavation
Auger test results were checked by limited formal
excavation and trenching. Areas of high positive concentration
and areas with low frequencies were checked. The 1396
photographs indicate two structures on this portion of the
Woodmanston plantation. The first seems to be a form of
negro shanty fronted by a pig fence and an okra patch. The
second structure is partially hidden behind a tree but is
in an advanced state of decay. In the central area, two
locations were determined to be possible locations for


71
Old Sideboard
8.
.00
1 Set old chairs
4 .
,00
Old small table
,75
Old tea table
2 .
.00
Old jet andirons
. 50
Mahogany bedstead, curtain
and window curtains
30.
, 00
Pine toilet table
1.
,00
New mahogany bedstead
30.
. 00
2 Painted bedsteads
8 .
.00
2 Old mahogany bedsteads
6.
. 00
3 Washstands
10.
. 00
Pitchers, basins and soup
dishes
4 .
. 00
Candlestick, snuffer and
tray
5.
, 00
2 Pr. lamps and 2 flowerpots
2.
,00
The above list represents furnishings for several
different areas: dining room, parlor, bedrooms and kitchen.
It is possible that the 'old' furniture was used in the
kitchen rather than the main house.
The furniture may have been made by negro craftsmen
on the plantation or purchased in town. The mahogany
bedsteads must have been manufactured elsewhere. Furniture
was apparently available at local stores because John Otto
cites an advertisement for Camochan' s Store in Darien,
Georgia which offered the following New York-make furnishings
Grecian Sofas, Bureaus, French Presses, Large and
Small Dining Tables, Ladies' Work tabkes, Candle
Stands, Large high post carv'd Mahogany Bedsteads,
Portable Desks, Tea Tables, Secretaries and Book
Cases, Ladies' Dressing Tables with Glasses, Wash
hand Stands, Foot Benches... (Otto 1975:151)
The presence of a carpenter's shop on the plantation has
been documented and it is possible that some of the furniture
was assemble on the site.


166
Table 1 (continued)
H
Q)
t
P 0)
q
P
a)
Q) rH
H
(1)
u
p m
u
C
QJ
e q
rH
u
P
q t
q
q
rH
q -H
u
PQ
<
>
p
P
u
e -H
q
0)
0)
tn
e c
q
2
2
2
rl -H
q
H 4H
2 0
H
2
2
P
C
O
u
PH
Didelphis virqiniana
Sylvilagus sp.
Rodentia
Rattus sp.
Procyon lotor
Artiodactyla
cf. Sus
c f. Bos
Sus scrofa
Bos taurus
Mammal, Larqe 16
Mammal 12
Aves
cf. Anhinga
cf. Gallus
Anhinqa anhinga
Phlegadis falcinella
Anser anser
Phasinaidae cf. Colinus
Gallus gallus
Alliqator mississippiensis
Te studines
Kinosternidae
Kinosternon sp.
Emvdidae cf. Chrysemys
Undentified snake
Anura
Amia calva 1
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp.
Centrarchidae
cf. Pomoxis
Micropterus sp.
Unidentified fish 1
Unidentified 10
Unidentified shell
1 4.00
1 1 4.00
1 4.00
2 8.00
1 4.00
1
2 8.00
1 1 4.00
17 13
5
1 4.00
1 4.00
1 1 4.00
1 4.00
1 2 8.00
1 1 4.00
1 4.00
2 1 4.00
1 4.00
1 4.00
3 12.00
1 4.00
1 4.00
TOTALS
40
45
21
25 100.00


87
Banded, or annular designs on pearlware, whiteware,
and creamware was another decorative scheme which was popular
from the late 1790s to the late 1800s. This time period
encompasses the main period during which Woodmanston was
occupied, but banded or annular sherds account for only-
three percent of the total ceramic assemblage. This small
figure could, of course, represent no more than a personal
preference. All the banded ware represented in the
Woodmanston sample are portions of holloware, such as bowls
and cups. One elaborately decorated banded ware bowl was
uncovered near the chimney base (Figure 17a). Fragments
of a banded bowl and a "mocha ware" vessel identical to
those recovered by Watkins in Darien, Georgia were also
unearthed suggesting a local retail source (Watkins 1970:24).
'Gaudy Dutch' is a polychrome underglaze decoration
used on pearlware from 1795 to 1335. Before 1815 floral
and geometric patterns were produced in soft pastel hues,
but between 1315 and 1835 bright blue, orange, green and
pinkish red became popular (Noel Hume 1976:129). Gaudy
Dutch vessels of the latter variety are represented in
the Woodmanston collection and comprise less than two
percent of the total. This type of decoration was usually
found on tableware, pitchers, mugs, bowls and teasets.
The Woodmanston sample is represented by portions of two
small bowls or cups (Figure 17b).


5
years to remove soil for local road construction. Extensive
dissection of the property caused by clear cutting of
timber over an extended period presented additional problems.
Providing information from archeological findings to assist
in formulating development plans for the' site was complicated
by the highly disturbed condition of the terrain. In order
to provide necessary guidance for this development,
archeological assessment focused on the impace of proposed
structures; the parking lot, visitor interpretation center,
and nature walks on the existing cultural resources and
the location and identification of the remaining plantation
resources. The basic research strategy can be characterized
as a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal
excavation.
Because of the inability to positively establish the
exact location of the garden by conventional archeological
means, the search for historical documents became of primary
importance. Unfortunately no document has been found,
after extensive research, which describes the layout of the
garden or specifically locates it in relation to the main
house, driveway or irrigation dikes. Various documents
have, however, provided a wealth of information about the
LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation era,
and a picture of plantation life. Some general information
concerning the probable content of the garden has also been
uncovered.


2
whose family played an important part in the early history
of the United States.
Two outstanding members of the family, Louis LeConte
and Major John Eatton LeConte, have been celebrated for
their contributions to the natural sciences. Louis
LeConte, son of John Eatton LeConte, became internationally
famous for the botanical garden which he started at
Woodmanston Plantation in 1812 and which flourished until
his death in 1838. His brother, Major John Eatton LeConte,
was a winter resident at Woodmanston and frequently brought
Louis interesting botanical specimens from the nurseries of
Philadelphia and New York. Some of the plants for which
Louis became best known were bulbous varieties and camellias.
In Europe, such plants were grown only in protective
greenhouses, but at Woodmanston they were grown out of doors,
and some of the camellias eventually attained tree-like
proportions.
Over the years Louis LeConte served as a gracious host
and guide to many foreign naturalists and horticulturists.
These visits resulted in the exportation of many exclusively
American plants, indigenous to the nearby Altamaha River
basin, to various parts of Europe. It should be noted,
however, that although Louis LeConte's botanically rich
garden was a much loved avocation, his primary responsibility
was the successful management of Woodmanston Plantation.
The period from 1810 to 1838, encompassing both the time in
which the LeConte garden flourished and the successful


104
Miscelaneous Personal Items
A fragment of a writinq implement used on a slate board
was also unearthed in the vicinity of the chimney, which
provides evidence suggesting that the occupants of the
structure located at Woodmanston were literate (Fiqure 18b).
A natural formation of semi-opaque quartz crystals
measuring approximately 6 inches high with a flat base was
also uncovered on the east side of the chimney base.
Crystals such as these are not natural to the Georgia coastal
plain but most probably originated in the piedmost area.
Emma LeConte states that as a girl in Columbia, South Carolina,
during the Civil War, she had a display case filled with
"minerals, agates, crystals, shells, etc. and curiositys"
(Shaw 1975). The specimen unearthed at Woodmanston may very
well have been part of the LeConte family mineral collection,
or a mantel showpiece (Figure 19a).
A portion of what appears to have been a bone handled,
single blade, pocket knofe was also recoved nearby. 3y
the second half of the nineteenth century knives such as this
cost only a few dimes (Otto 1975:276).
A fragment of a small molded glass perfume bottle
decored with a floral trellis design was also retrieved,
represenring the feminine residents on the site (Figure 16a).
Almost an entire aqua glass electrical insulator was
also found during the spring excavations. This specimen was
threaded for permanent installation on the cross arm of a


171
LeConte, Joseph
1866
Joseph LeConte (Columbia, South Carolina) to
Matilda Jane Harden Stevens (Newton, Baker County,
Georgia). November 8, 1866. B L493f American
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
1903
Autobiography of Joseph LeConte.. D. Appleton, New York
LeConte, Louis
1831 Louis LeConte to his eldest son, William LeConte
at Franklin College, Athens, Georgia. August 1, 1831.
Ms. owned by Mrs. John James McKay. In temporary
possession of John McKay Sheftall, Macon, Georqia.
LeConte, William
1784 William LeConte, Member of Council of Safety
to Joseph Chaz, Esg. (Savannah). January 21, 1784.
Gratz Collection, Pennsylvania Historical Society
Philadelphia.
LeConte, William L.
1900 Some of the Events of My Life, Jotted down as they
LeConte-
1978
were reviewed by Memory, and all the Badness left out.
Ms. in personal files, Jennifer Hamilton, Department
of Anthropology, University of Florida.
-Woodmanston Trustees
LeConte-Woodmanston Concept Plan. Proceedings of
LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees Committee, Garden
Clubs of Georgia, Inc. April 7, 1978.
Lee, R.B. and J.L. Agnew
1869
Historical Record of the City of Savannah.
J.H. Estill, Morning News Steam-Power Press.
Savannah, Georgia.
Liberty
1793
County
Civil War and Slavery. Box #7. Office of the
Probate Judge. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville,
Georgia.
18 31
Doctors and Education. Box #10. Office of the Probate
Judge. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville, Georgia.
1838
Appraisal of Estate of Louis LeConte. Will Book
3, 234. Office of the Probate Judge. Liberty
County, Hinesville, Goergia.
1841
Apraisal of Estate of William LeConte. Will Book
B, 302. Office of the Probate Judqe. Liberty
County, Hinesville, Georgia.


169
Georgian
1823 List of Free Negroes of Color in Liberty County.
July 12, 1823. Microfilm of Early Georgia Newspapers.
Georgia Historical Society Library.
Godden,
1964
Geoffry
Encyclopedia of British Pottery and Porcelain Marks.
Bonanza Books, New York.
1971 The Illustrated Guide to Mason's Patent Ironstone
China. Praeger, New York.
Gorden, Alexander
1832 Principle Nurseries and Private Gardens in the
United States. Gardener's Magazine 3:277-289.
Gray, Asa
1883 Some North American Botanists: John Eatton LeConte.
Botanical Gazette 8(4):197-199.
Gray, Louis C.
1958 History of Agriculture in the Southern United
States to 1860. Peter Smith, Gloucester, Massechusetts.
(1933)
Gunn, Victoria
1975 Hofwyl Plantation. State of Georgia. Department of
Natural Resources. Office of Planning and Research,
Historic Preservation Section.
Hansen, Henry Harrald
1956 Costumes and Styles. E.E. Dutton and Co.., New York.
Harden, Jane LeConte
1867 Letter to Josie LeConte. October 30, 1867. Copy of
Ms. in personal files, Jennifer Hamilton,
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida.
Harden, John M.B.
1845 Observations on the Soil, Climate and Diseases of
Liberty County, Georgia. Southern Medical and Surgical
Journal 1 (10):35,546-649.
Hart, 3arry
1979 Kaolin Tobacco Pipes at LeConte-Woodmanston Plantation.
Paper presented as a reguirement for the 1979 Georgia
Southern College field school. Ms. in personal files
of Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthrpology,
University of Florida.


94
Joseph LeConte, were replaced by starched collars and ties
(Hansen 1956). The buttons on men's clothing were larger
than those on women's dresses and were made of bone,
brass or other metals.
Children's fashions mimicked those of adults, the major
difference being shorter lengths on dresses and trousers.
Joseph LeConte describes his boyhood attire as a "round
jacket, limp open collar, soft cap, and often bare feet"
(LeConte 1903:35).
On many southern plantations slaves were dressed in
inexpensive materials of no particular style. Lengths of
cloth were allotted to each family by the planter
for their personal use. The women of the family usually
fashioned the clothing for their individaul families, but
sometimes one or two negro women became seamstresses for the
entire slave community. William L. LeConte remembers
that at Olive Hill,
at the beginning of each season suitable material of
all kinds for men, women and children was bought in
quantities in Savannah, 40 miles away, and carted
home, (no railroads through the country then).
Suitable women were detailed to report to my mother,
and signally those, (other things being equal) who
were nursing mothers; whose duty it was under her
direction to cut out and make up the clothing for
all the negroes, and a comfortable out-house with
tables and chairs for this purpose was provided.
(1900:4)
Favorite servants may have received cast off clothing from
the planter family, which would account for the fancy buttons
and beads found in slave occupied areas.
Shoes made by


75
of the method of production which was used is surface
texure. Bottles blown in the contact molds, described
above, have a somewhat pitted surface which resembles
hammered metal. This surface appearance can be seen in
a majority of the dark green and 'black'' glass fragments
at the Woodmanston site.
The snap case, introduced some time around 1857, was
an implement which supported the bottle while the glass
blowing pipe was struck off and the lip was finished.
Before this time, a pontil rod was attached to the base with
a glob of glass to hold the bottle while it was being finished.
When the pontil was removed a tell-tale fragment of rough
glass remained on the base. Since the Woodmanston olive
green and 'black1 glass beverage bottle bases lack pontil
scars, it can be assumed that they were produced after 1857.
Fragments of several beverage bottles were recovered
in the area around the chimney and the robbed brick wall.
These fragments make up seven percent of the total glass
sample by numerical count and 23 percent by weight.
'Black' bottles were light repelling and therefore may have
been used for brewed beverages such as beer or ale rather
than wine (Otto 1975:229). Fragments of brown and medium
green wTine boctles were also recovered. Tnese few fragments
provide evidence of alcoholic consumption on the site but
reflect moderate consumption by the LeConte family. Joseph
LeConte recounts in his autobiography the strict moral


83
Ceramics
The ceramic assemblage discovered at the Woodmanston
site includes creamware, pearlware, whiteware, ironstone,
porcelain and stoneware. Cross mending of these ceramic
sherds substantiated the highly disturbed nature of the
Woodmanston site. Matching fragments were recovered from
various depths from one side of the site to the other.
Creamware was first developed by Josiah Wedgewood
in 1759 (Noel Hume 1976:124). It is a thin, hardfired,
pale yellow or cream colored earthenware which was dipped
in a clear glaze after firing (Noel Hume 1976:123). This
type of ceramic is commonly found in most American archeological
sites of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
(Noel Hume 1976:125). Earlier peices are a deeper yellow
which became increasingly light after 1785. Creamware
comprises only seven percent of the total ceramic sample
at Woodmanston. Several fragments of a plain hemisphaerical
bowl approximately seven inches in diameter at the rim,
and four inches at the base were recovered (Figure 17b).
Pearlware, also developed by Wedgewood, was perfected
in 1779. It is somewhat whiter than the creamware because
of an increased flint content in the paste, and a small
amount of cobalt in the glaze, which helped to negate the
yellow tint. The formula was copied by many other potters
of the period, and pearlware became increasingly more
available to the general public. It remained popular until
the 1820s.


95
negro shoemakers for the LeConte slaves from leather
made on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22). A photograph
of Emma LeConte's domestic servants at Berkeley in 1897
depicts a well dressed family with shoes,.stockings,
jackets and hats. The members of this family are descendants,
of the slaves from the Woodmanston Plantation (LeConte 1897) .
It is probable that similar treatment also occurred there.
Buttons
During the nineteenth century bone buttons with four
or five holes, and buttons made of iron, shell, soft white
metal, stamped brass or porcelain with four holes were in
common use (Figures 18a,b). The typology developed in
Stanley South's "Analvsis of the Buttons from the Ruins
at Brunswick Town and Fort Fisher", has been used to provide
a standardized description of the numerous buttons found
at Woodmanston (Noel Hume 1976:91).
Fifty two percent of the buttons retrieved are made of
white porcelain with a convex face and back (type #23).
Sometimes referred to as an 'underwear' button, this type
was invented in the 1840s and used extensively for
underclothes and shirting. Two of the porcelain buttons
which were found have blue painted decorations, indicating
their use on feminine apparel (Figure 18a).


99
This mechanism eased priming and increased the rate of
fire. The shellac or varnish waterproofed the percussion
caps, making them more reliable in wet weather (McPherson 1979).
Also recovered from Woodmanston were lead pellets
that were obviously musket balls. It is probable that
bullets were made locally on the plantation because of the
variability of the individual guns at that time. No 'minie'
ball bullets, representing rifled muskets, were recovered
but that does not negate the probability of their use.
In fact several "rifles" are listed in William LeConte's
estate (Liberty County 1841). The minie ball, ca. 1857,
was developed in order to provide a bullet which fit the
bore tightly when fired.
In the 1850s, various types of cartridges began to
be developed. Several modern shell casings were also retrieved
during the excavation. Two metalic shell casings recovered
from the Woodmanston site were .32 caliber; one cartidge
was a center fire type and was marked 'Smith and Wesson',
and the other was a rimfire type cartridge that had no maker's
mark. These two cartridges contained the priming material
needed for ignition within the cartridge itself. The
center fire cartridge is of fairly recent origin and is a
twentieth century artifact; however, the rimfire cartridge
is a potential nineteenth century artifact. The land around
Woodmanston is now used by a Hunt Club and some of these
cartridges may be the remains of their weekend hunting
excursions (McPherson 1979).


103
of tobacco (Time-Life 1980:64). Unfortunately the painted
advertisements on those unearthed at Woodmanston have long
since disappeared. However, several different shapes; round,
oval, square, and rectangular, were recovered and indicate
the use of several different brands.
Toys and Games
A tiny doll made of porcelain was located near the
chimney at Woodmanston (Figure 18a). It was similar to
a 'Frozen Charlotte' doll, neither the head nor appendages
are movable. The figure measures 3.6 cm from head to knees.
The portion below the knees is missing. Until the nineteenth
century all dolls were made to represent grown women, but
the figure recovered at Woodmanston is unmistakably a young
girl, and the tiny form exhibits a surprising amount of
detail. It was slip cast and the features and hair were
painted (Tyre 1979). Dolls such as these were made after
1900 and sold for only pennies (Noel Hume 1976:319).
A spherical clay marble of the type boys would play
with was also unearthed near the chimney (Figure 18b).
Joseph LeConte notes that "as far away from the city as we
were, whatever we wanted we were compelled to make. If we
wanted marbles, we made them, and excellent marbles they
were". The LeConte boys also made kites, bows and arrows
and guns for their own entertainment (LeConte 1903:23).
The marble recovered during the spring excavation may
indeed be one of the LeConte children's playthings, found
and reused by other children during the later occupation of
the site.


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Location of LeConte-Woodmanston site 116
2. Woodmanston vicinity 118
3. Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area .... 120
4. 1973 survey of Woodmanston Plantation 122
5. LeConte kinship diagram 124
6. 1897 photograph of LeConte-Woodmanston site . 126
7. 1897 photograph of Joseph LeConte at Woodmanston 128
8. Interpretive concept olan for LeCnte-Woodmanston 130
9. Diagram of spring 1979 testing program 132
10. Transect lines delineated on areal photograph 134
11. Distribution of positive auger tests 136
12. Excavation plan for 1979 spring field session 138
13. Double hearth chimney base 140
14. Robbed brick wall 142
15a. Household artifacts 144
15b. Gunparts and horse equipment 144
16a. Glass artifacts 146
16b. Cutlery 14 6
17a. Ceramics 148
17b. Ceramics 148
vii


88
By the 1820s pearlware was being replaced by the harder
'whiteware' and serai-porcelains. Spode produced a 'stone
china' in 1802 and Mason developed an 'ironstone china' in
1833. This ware had a durable earthenware body and was able
to compete in price, as well as quality,- with the imported,
highly fashionable Chinese wares. This type of ceramic was
used as tableware, tea sets, and chamber shapes. The
Woodmanston sample is made up primarily of plates and holloware.
'Stone china' and 'ironstone' was also decorated
with transfer-printed patterns which were previously described.
The only identifiable maker's mark recovered from a Woodmanstcn
sherd is an ironstone of this type: a portion of a large
soup plate of the "Japan Flowers" design manufactured by
Ridgeway, Morley, Wear and Company, between 1835 and 1846.
It is an attractive pattern depicting a fanciful oriental
scene in a light blue transfer print (Figure 17a). The
partnership of Ridgeway, Morley and Wear produced very good
quality stone china, which was richly decorated in the Mason
style, using the description 'improved granite china'
(Godden 1971:89). A portion of a soup plate bearing this
pattern was retrieved by John Otto from the slave cabins on
Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Georgia. An example of
blue-green transfer printed ironstone was also unearthed
at Woodmanston.
Generally the ceramic assemblage at Woodmanston indicates
a high status occupation. Otto found at Cannon's Point that
a high percentage of transfer printed ceramic and a low


9
which led the way for the establishment of the Woodmanston
and Sans Souci plantations on the Georgia coast. In 1776
the American Declaration of Independence was signed. During
that same year Adam Smith published his famous bock on
economics, The Wealth of Nations, and Tom Paine published
his pamphlet, Common Sense. In 1789 George Washington
became the first president of the United States. America
doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and
independence movements in Spanish and Portuguese America
created 13 new states between 1808 and 1828. The United
States presidents in office during the period in which che
Woodmanston Plantation and the LeConte gardens were under
Louis LeConte's managment (1810-1838) were Madison, Monroe,
Adams, and Jackson.
There were many transportation achievements in America
during this time. Robert Fulton's development of the
steamboat was the forerunner of 60 such boast operating on
the Missisiippi in 1820 and over 1200 in 1846. The first
hardsurfaced highways were built in 1789 and by 1810 the
National Road, a highway which greatly facilitated westward
expansion had been started. Other transportation aids were
the Erie Canal in 1825 and the first railway, the Baltimore
and Ohio, in 1830. America was a growing nation and
improved transportation, industrial development and reform
movements did much to help the country become a world power.
The economic balance of the south depended heaviiv on
slave labor. Although the slave trade was ended in 1808,


33
By the early part of the twentieth century, ownership
of the Woodmanston Plantation was no longer in LeConte family
hands. In 1911 Syphax Plantation was sold by Emma LeConte
Furman and Sarah LeConte Davis, Joseph LeConte's daughters,
to C.B. Jones and A.F. Winn for lumber purposes. Ann
LeConte Stevens also sold her portion to C.B. Jones and
A.F. Winn in 1911 (Liberty County 1911:340,345). If any
structures were left at this time surely decay and looting
would have taken their toll.
Rice Culture
When Louis' father, John Eatton LeConte, established
Woodmanston Plantation about 1770, the Indian territory was
just over the Altamaha River, only 15 to 20 miles away, and
what is now McIntosh County was a 'no man's land', a neutral
ground, between the Indians and colonists. Woodmanston's
location was therefore vulnerable, and it was frequently
raided by the local Indians. Consequently, John Eatton was
forced to fortify Woodmanston with a stockade and arms as
defensive measures.
The Woodmanston Plantation was a self sufficient enterprise.
In Joseph LeConte's autobiography he recounts,
there were tanneries in which the hides of slaughtered
cattle were made into leather. There was a shoemaker's
shop, where from the leather made on the place the
shoes for all the negroes were made by negro shoemakers.
There were blacksmith and carpenter shops, where all
the work needed on the plantation was done by negro
blacksmiths and carpenters. All the rice raised on the
plantation was threshed, winnowed, and beaten by machinery
made on the site, driven by horsepower, and the horses
by negro boys. All the cotton was ginned and cleaned


52
c. Testing to discover former location of LeConte garden.
d. Testing and excavation to determine house area.
e. Survey and testing to locate outbuildings and slave
settlements.
A major difficulty to archeological investigation at
the Woodmanston site is the degree of subsurface disturbance
caused by lumbering activities, agriculture and removal
of soil for road construction.
In archeological sites disturbed by cultural activities
subsequent to the period of major interest, either historic
or aboriginal, there is still the possiblity of retrieving
significant cultural information. Evaluations of the
potential of a disturbed site must consider habitat uniqueness
vis a vis resources, physical characteristics, temporal
distinctiveness, kind and variety of activities, quality
of preservation, significance to the local public, and
significance to the regional research design. One must
take into account the amount and type of disturbance
which has occured in each specific instance. "As long as the
cause and pattern of disturbance can be outlined, the
archeologist can add the disturbance variable into the
interpretation of the remaining distribution of artifacts"
(Talmadge et al. 1977:7,11).
Agricultural activities, pot hunting and other destructive
forces may move and or remove some materials but they do not
completely destroy the integrity of the site. Within badly
disturbed sites, several goals may still be approached.
The interpretation of the spatial distribution of artifacts
and features, techniques in tool manufacture, change through


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Jennifer Margaret Hamilton was born on April 10, 1956,
in Venice, Florida. She attended public school and
graduated from Venice High School in 1974. Jennifer
entered Florida State University in the fall of 1974,
then transferred to the University of Florida in the fall
of 1975. She attended her first archeological field school
in 1977 under the direction of Dr. Prudence Rice and
graduate assistant, Sue Mullins at the Chimney Fields site
just south of Gainesville, Florida, and received her
Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from the University
of Florida in the same year. She is a member of Phi Beta
Kappa and Phi Kappa Phi honorary fraternities. Jennifer
entered graduate school fall term 1977 at the University
of Florida with Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks as major professor.
Field work, which has become the topic of this thesis, was
done at the LeConte-Woodmanston Plantation as a part of the
Garden Clubs of Georgia's plans to develop the site. Jennifer
Hamilton will receive the degree of Master of Arts in
anthropology from the University of Florida in June 1980.
175


Figure 13: Double hearth chimney base unearthed 35 meters
east of the seedling camellia. See Figure 12.


21
educators in Georgia, they taught at Oglethorpe College,
the University of Georgia and South Carolina College, later
to become the University of South Carolina. As a result
of the LeConte brothers active involvement in the Confederate
cause during the Civil War, it became almost impossible
for them to obtain suitable academic appointments in the South.
After contemplating a move to Brazil, they moved their
families to California to aid in the organization of the
University of California at Berkeley. John LeConte became
the first acting president and Joseph was appointed to
the chair of Geology, Zoology and Botany and taught there
until the turn of the century (LeConte 1903:243-244).
Joseph wrote several books on geology and evolution, one
of which was used as a standard textbook for college courses
for many years.
Several species of flora and fauna are attributed to
the LeContes. Most notable are the LeConte sparrow,
Passerherbulus caudacutus; the LeConte violet, Viola affinos;
and the LeConte pear or Chinese Sand pear.
Woodmanston Plantation
The origin of the name 'Woodmanston' is unknown.
As a matter of interest, or coincidence, the only reference
found to that name was a ship called Woodmanston or
Woodmanstone which advertised in the Georgia Gazette.
Captain Benjamin Mason was the master of the vessel.


35
The reason for this immigration was the changes made
by the British Government and Trustees of the Georgia Colony,
which for the first time allowed slavery and the issuance of
land grants. The early 1760s saw an actual decline in
the population of Georgia because people could not make a
living off the land. Therefore, without the slaves, the success
of the rice culture would not have been possible on the
major scale which it eventually attained.
The immigrants from the Carolinas who came into this
wilderness area had to clear the tidal swampland which
consisted of a matted tangle of cypress, gum, ash, huge
grapevines and cane. The soil under the dense undergrowth
was too soft to walk on and a great variety of wildlife
including alligators, turtles, water moccasins, and
copperheads abounded. To abserve the scene at that
time and envision an orderly rice plantation with many
miles of embankments enclosing the crops was a testimony
to the ingenuity and ambition which the joint problems of
agriculture and economics were approached in the seventeenth
century (Gunn 1975:2).
There was a limited amount of available land which
offered the natural hydraulics required for the successful
operation of a gravity flow rice plantation. In order to
solve problems of 'on' and 'off' aquaculture flow, and to
maintain the water at the required levels for good plant
growth, the planters utilized the so called 'inland swamp


34
and packed on the place. As the cotton was Sea Island,
or long-staple, Whitney's invention was of no use, and
only roller gins could be used, at first, foot-gins,
and later horse-gins. For the same reason viz. the
fineness of the staple the cotton was all packed by
hand and foot, the packer standing in the suspended
bag. All these operations of tanning, shoemaking,
blacksmithing, carpentering, rhe threshing, winnowing,
and beating of rice, and the ginning,- cleaning and
packing of cotton, were watched with interest by us
boys, and often we gave a helping hand ourselves.
There was special interest in the ginning of cotton
by foot and the threshing of the rice by flail, because
these were carried on by great numbers working together,
the one by women, and the other by men, and always with
singing and shouting and keeping time with the work.
The negroes themselves enjoyed it hugely. (LeConte 1903:8,9).
Cows, pigs and sheep were also raised. Ninety cattle, 16
hogs and 13 sheep were listed in the 1838 appraisal of the
estate of Louis LeConte (Liberty County 1838).
My father always attended personally to this place,
on foot in winter, when living on the plantation,
on horseback when the family was in the summer
retreat in Jonesville about three miles away.
But during the period of his ill health he was not
able to attend to the duties of the plantation and
about 200 slaves, so for a year employed an overseer,
the only one he ever had. (LeConte 1903:8,9).
According to the appraisals of the estate made at Louis'
death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230 slaves
valued at $87,980, almost 97 percent of the total estimated
value of the entire estate, excluding land values (Liberty
County 1833).
The success of Woodmanston Plantation, as well as others
in Georgia, was not due to good engineering and management
alone, but was primarily due to the immigration of many
wealthy Carolina planters who come to Georgia to settle
in the area with their families and negro slaves.


93
chimney base (Figure 12). Thimbles are a common artifact
unearthed in colonial, and later historic sites, but are
difficult to date. The presence of spiraled indentations
on the crown indicate that the particular, thimbles found
at Woodmanston were manufactured sometime in the nineteenth
century (Noel Hume 1976:256). Stamped decorations on
the thimble collars include the word 'Charity' and a symbolic
floral motif (Figure 18b).
No pins or needles were recovered, but one protected-point
safety pin was uncovered in the second level in the east
trench (24.5N 37E) in the area of the chimney. This type of
pin was not manufactured until about 1857 (Noel Hume 1976:255).
At this point it might be helpful to review the fashions
of the nineteenth century for men, women, children and slaves.
In the 1330s women's fashions were tightly belted at
the natural waistline and the bodice was closely fitted to
the figure. The bell-shaped skirt was also popular, and
grew even wider over the next 40 years (Cooper 1966).
Feminine apparel was fastened with glass or porcelain buttons
on the front, back and cuffs. Smaller porcelain buttons
secured undergarments such as the camisole (Tyre 19 79) .
Men's attire at this time was usually totally of one
color with a tight fitting waist. Joseph LeConte described
the "noga virilis" as consisting of a swallow tailed coat,
stiff stock and beaver hat" (LeConte 1903:35). In the 1860s
the kind of standing collars and cravats, described by


144


85
Transfer printed pearlware was primarily used
for tableware, tea and coffee sets, and chamberware.
The Woodmanston collection includes fragments of tableware:
plates, bowls, cups and footed vessels.
Portions of a historical dark blue commemorative
plate were found distributed over the Woodmanston site
(Figure 17a). It has been identified as the "States" plate
which was made by the Staffordshire potters, Ralph and
James Clews, of Cobridge, England, sometime between 1817
and 1834 (Godden 1964:151-152). The Clews brothers
produced good quality blue printed earthenware, and were
known as "Potters to her Imperial Majesty, the Empress of
all the Russians" (Godden 1964:151). This particular
pattern was probably manufactured sometime after 1825.
The "States" design is said "to embody the whole
national history" because it contains so many important
national features. The central scene varies with different
vessel forms but is generally thought to portray English
buildings (Larsen 1975:54). This interior view is framed
in scrolls and is supported at the right by a woman crowned
with a plumed head-dress and bearing aloft a "Liberty" cap
on a staff. On the left side, a blindfolded Justice holds
a medallion portrait of George Washington in her right
hand and a sign of the Cincinnatti adorns her skirt. Elaborate
garlands of flowers and fruit complete the design. A ribbon


4
Of the original 3,354 acres comprising Woodmanston Plantation,
63.8 acres were deeded to the Garden Clubs of Georgia in 1977
(Ray 1977:12) (Figures 3,4).
It is the intent of the LeConte-Wcodmanston Trustees,
appointed by the president of the Garden Clubs of Georgia,
to reconstruct as accurately as possible Louis LeConte's
original botanical garden using existing archeological and
documentary evidence. The site is further intended to
become a scenic garden spot for public enjoyment. Exhibits
are also planned to present the world view, lifestyle, and
funcitoning of an inland swamp rice plantation of the
antebellum era. Although other rice plantation projects
of a historical nature exist in South Carolina and Georgia,
the emphasis on an internationally famous American botanical
garden, and the contributions of the LeConte family, make
the Woodmanston Plantation project unique.
A formal archeological investigation of the site of
the Woodmanston Plantation began in March, 1979 under the
direction of Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern
College, and Jennifer Hamilton of the University of Florida.
The field labor was provided by a field school of eight
students from Georgia Southern College. Matching funds
were provided through the Department of Natural Resources
and the National Register of Historic Places.
Preliminary investigation indicated a high degree of
surtace disturbance. Bulldozers had been used in recent


42
and the by-product rice flour was fed to livestock unless
it could be sold to brewers" (Phillips 1929:115).
As important agricultural developments such as planting
the furrows closer together, and the use of larger quantities
of seed per acre, were introduced, the yield per man
increased dramatically. As had been noted, in the middle
of the eighteenth century, "a good hand made four and one
half barrels of rice, each weighing about 500 pounds neat,"
or a total of 2,250 pounds. A few years later, just before
the Revolutionary War, De Brahm stated that "each slave
cultivated four acres of rice," and another account of about
the same period placed the product of each slave at about
"75 bushels weighing 65 pounds each," or a total of 4,865 pounds.
If, as it was claimed, each acre yielded about 25 bushels,
one slave could cultivate three acres of rice. However, just
after the Revolutionary War, it was reported that each negro
on William Washington1s inland swamp plantation cultivated
four to four and one half acres of rice, or a total of 7,312
pounds (Gray 1958:284).
In The Agricultural History of the Southern United States,
the yield of the rice fields was discussed: the yield of rice
per acre and per man was not as large in the colonial period
as it later came to be because of improvements in cultivation
and milling.
These yields per acre were far above that which oriental
rice producers had been able to achieve in their recorded history.


CHAPTER V
MATERIAL CULTURE -
The highly disturbed nature of the Woodmanston site
increased the importance of the analysis of the material
culture. Because the goals of the spring excavations
included the location and specification of the plantation
"big house" and subsidiary structures identification of the
artifacts for use in dating and status delineation became
a primary factor.
The following chapter includes a discussion of the
various artifact types retrieved during the 1979 spring
field session. Building hardware, household furnishings
and window glass have been placed at the beginning of
this chapter because of their direct relation to the
'architectural elements' on the site.
Building Hardware
It was difficult to determine the size or type of most
of the nails recovered at Woodmanston because of the poor
preservation and high degree of corrosion. It was also almost
impossible in most cases to determin whether the nail was
whole or broken. Identifiable nails represented both
individaully hammered and machine head cut nails and a
small percentage of wire nails.
68


26
LeConte Gardens
Although Louis LeConte kept himself busy with many
scientific interests throughout his life, his pride and
joy was always his garden. According to his son, Joseph,
About an acre of ground was set apart for this
purpose and much of his time, mornings and
afternoons was spent there, 'Daddy Dick', a
faithful and intelligent old negro being
employed under his constant supervision in keeping
it in order. Every day after his breakfast
he (Louis) took his last cup of coffee, his
second or third, in his hand, and walked about
the garden, enjoying its beauty and neatness and
giving minut directions for its care and
improvement. His especial pride was four or
five camellia trees I say trees, for even then
they were a foot in diameter and fifteen feet high.
I have seen the largest of these, a double white,
with a thousand blossoms open at once, each
blossom four or five inches in diameter, snow
white and double to the center. In the vicinity of
a large city such a tree would be worth a fortune,
but my father never thought no one did then -
of making any profit from his flowers; it was
sufficient to enjoy their beauty. (LeConte 1903:3-10).
These camellias were so productive that one tree
produced over 2,000 blossoms for a wedding in Walthourville
in 1861 (Stokes 1949:179).
His garden was famous in the United States and Europe
for its many bulbous plants and the cultivation of camellias
outside the hothouse. Many horticulturalists of the day
wrote in glowing terms about the garden. An article entitled
"Notes on Georgia Camelliana" in the 1949 Camellia Yearbook
presents an excellent summary of these sources, among them
Mr. Alexander Gordon's article in Loudon's Gardener's Magazine
written in 1832.


Figure 10: Areal photograph of the LeConte-Woodmanston site.
Black lines indicate approximate location of
transects. Note linear remains of rice dike
systems in lower middle of photgraph.


96
Eleven percent of the buttons are made of bone and
have either four or five holes for attachment to the
material (type #19 and #20) This type of button commonly
appears in post 1800 site and was used for men's shirts and
trousers (Figure 18a).
Several other types of metal buttons, all of which
were probably used on outer garments, are also represented.
A white brass disc with a portion of the brass eye missing
(type #7) is similar to examples recovered in pre-revolutionary
contexts. Three decorative metal buttons were found, one
of which has a two piece brass face with an oriental motif
and an iron domed back (type #25) (Figure 18b). This type
of button has been found in contexts dating from 1837 to
1865. A machine stamped brass button (type #23) and a
silver plated disc button (type #9) were also recovered.
Two soft white metal buttons, resembling types 29 and 30
in South's typology, probably date from the same time period
(Noel Hume 1976:91).
Jewelry
Fashionable jewelry during the nineteenth century
included earrings, broaches, necklaces and bracelets.
Several examples of such ornaments were recovered during
the spring excavations at Woodmanston. A bronze finger-
ring, resembling a modern wedding band, was recovered
near the chimney base, but unfortunately it had no engraved
inscription. Plain gold bands were common during this time


148


Figure 14:
Linear configuration of bricks
robbed brick wall located near
stand. See Figure 12.
indicating a
the crepe myrtl


102
of the pipes did not begin until 1850. (Sudbury 1979:182).
One other unusually decorated pipe bowl fragment was found
at the Woodmanston site. This fragment has a laurel design
on the mold line facing the smoker. The mold line is
very distinct. In early, hand-made pipe's this ridge was
usually carefully obliterated by scraping or burnishing.
The diminishing care in the treatment of mold lines is an
example of the timesaving, cost reducing practices, that
were a result of the Industrial Revolution (Humphrey 1969:14).
An interesting pipe mouthpiece fragment uncovered during
the excavation is coated with brownish-green lead glaze.
Apparently this practice was an eighteenth century innovation,
but it was not common (Noel Hume 1976:302).
Using the dates obtained from the pipe stems, and bowl
fragments, we can provide a middle nineteenth century date
for the occupation of the area around the chimney base.
It is probable that the concentration of pipe fragments in
this area may be a function of th e smoking practices of the
later post-Civil War occupants.
Archeological evidence of the use of chewing tobacco
was also recovered at Woodmanston. Pocket sized cakes or
plugs of tobacco from which a chunk could be bitten off for
a chew, or slices shaved off for a pipe, were also popular
during the nineteenth century. The brand of tobacco was
identified by a small decorated tin tag attached to the plug.
Millions of these tags were made for as many as 12,000 brands


134


23
The second residence was termed a 'lodge' in the
journal of Emma LeConte Furman, Louis' grandaughter. It
was built as a bachelor's residence sometime before 1810 when
Louis took over the management of the plantation. The 'lodge'
is the house in which Louis and Ann rais'ed their family.
According to Emma LeConte Furman, the house was expanded
after Louis' marriage. Emma states in her journal that she
pictures the old house clearly in her mind, "the mantel over
the fireplace and the wall paper," but unfortunately that
is all the description she provides (Shaw 1975).
From an 1838 appraisal and Josephy LeConte's autobiography
it is suggested that the house was a two story structure
with four bedgrooms and an attic. A separate kitchen may also
be inferred from a passage in the autobiography which indicates
that one of the duties of the negro children was "to cut
up wood for the house, and for the kitchen, and to wait on
the cook" (LeConte 1903:32).
Joseph also makes an archeologically important statement
in his autobiography that the "house itself was on a kind of
a knoll that became an island at high water" (LeConte 1903:15).
A symbol of a house is depicted on the 1844 plat map and
is located on the western portion of lot #2, Syphax Plantation,
which was drawn by Joseph LeConte during the settlement of
the estate (Liberty County 1844:189). After Louis' death
in 1838, the plantation was divided among his six children.
William LeConte had already received 'Olive Hill' and Jane


APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED
Terry Alford, Ph.D. P.O. Box 1151 Springfield, VA 22151.
Dubarton Oaks. Trustees for Harvard University. Center
for Studies in Landscape Architecture. Mrs. Laura Byers,
Librarian, 1703 32nd Street, Washington, D.C. 20007.
Gardner Smith, Books in the Earth Schience. P.O. Box 711,
Glen Echo, MD 20758.
General Services Administration. Washington, D.C. 20408.
Harvard Graduate School of Design. The Frances Loeb Library.
Christofer Hail, Asst. Librarian for Ms. Giral, Librarian,
Gund Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20408.
National Archives and Records Service. General Service
Administration. Brenda A. Beasley, Central Reference
Division, Washington D.C. 20408.
The British Library. Department of Printed Books, Bibliographical
Information Service. Great Russell Street, London
wclb 3dg. Mary Harworth for the Head of the Reading Room,
Information and Admissions Section.
The Library Company of Philadelphia. Anne P. Hennessey, 1314
Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107.
The Library of the Boston Athenaeum. 10 1/2 Beacon Street,
Boston, MA 02108. Cynthia English, Reference Department.
The Royal Horticultural Society. P.O. Box 313, Vincent Square,
London, SWIP 2PE, "The Secretary".
United States Department of the Interior, Office of the
Secretary. Robert Uskavitch, Reference Librarian,
Office of Library and Information Services, Washington,
D.C. 20240.
United States Department of Agriculture. Economics, Statics,
and Cooperative Service. Vivian Wiser, Historian,
Agricultural History Branch, National Economic Division,
Washington, D.C. 20250.
155


M o < g u r 11 deVolleou S Guillaume LeConte
I
Volara EaMon Piarrt LaConia A
r
i r
John
LaCon
I
So'oh
(Jana)
S I oon a
Peter
l aC on I a, Jr.
Mary Ann
Hampton
1
t O u i l ~ Ann
L eCon t a Quortar
LeConte. Jr
JoKn Josephine John Caroline Joseph
lowranca Groh
LaCon
Btima John Caroline Jos
am I Elizabeth I LeConte
f L wir i
(Nisbet William Horriet Lewis O
i i r
J u 1 ion John Emmo !
¡7 Fa rith
1 1 1
Sallie Elosa Corolino
i
Joseph
1 Furma
n (d. intone y)
r
Nicholas Elizabeth
Talley
1
d
1 1
Ko1 he rine Jo hn *
R L
Sm i t h
INI 1
1
n
J
Jane ^ Joh
i r
Op he lio Sumner
y Mo t i Idi
George J An
Re m s e y
For ish
Jose ph
Emma 3
Ralph
F u r m o n
LeC on t e
LeConte 1
Ben |om n
Talley
Tolley
Tolley
Show
1
A
"1
O
Wolter
LeConte
Steven t
124


53
time, chronological placement of artifacts, and the
amount of correspondence between surface and subsurface
remains may be explored. The approximate location of
structures, site utilization and technological information
may also be available (Talmadge et al. 1977:8).
LeConte-Woodmanston may be taken as a case in point.
Twentieth century land use has been predominantly lumber
production, cattle raising, and hunting. The area has been
timbered and clear cut and replaced by a pine cash crop.
During initial reconnaissance of the area considerable
damage from logging and lumbering activities was noted.
A portion of the site, just east of the plantation era
landmarks, had been completely removed for use as fill
dirt in the construction of access roads.
The only record of prior archeolgoical investigation
in the area had been done by Gordon Midgette in 1972 and
reads as follows:
In the work that I did at Woodmanston my primary
objective was to identify (from historical
documents and existing botanical remnants) the
general layout of the house, gardens, rice paddies,
etc. I was convinced by Colonel Black's notes and
the personal observations of several other people
that at least a portion of the house site was
still intact as well as part of the garden, the
central axis of the main dam and possibly some
outbuildings within 200 yards of the main house.
I shovel scooped and recorded about 200 square
feet of an area about 100 yards from the main house
that yielded substantial evidence of a wooden wall
and wall trench. This would have been a stockade.
I also recorded most of the existing plants and
trees that seem to be remnants of the gardens and
other plantings in the area of the house site.


24
(now Mrs. John M.B. Harden) had been given her portion of
the property as a wedding gift. John drew lot #3 and
J.P. Stevens drew lot #1 for his wife, Ann LeConte. Joseph
drew lot #2, which was made up of Syphax Plantation and
the land surrounding the main house complex and settlement at
Woodmanston. Lewis LeConte, the youngest son, drew lot #4
The delineation of these parcels is illustrated on an 1844
plat map located in the Liberty County Courthouse (Liberty
County 1844:189).
What happened to the main house and its outbuildings
was a primary concern. Several possibilities were considered:
1) it may have been burned by Union General Sherman's troops;
2) the house may have been dismantled for building materials
by the newly freed slaves in the area after the Civil War;
3) or it may have simply decayed and fallen down with time.
Jane LeConte Harden resided in the Woodmanston home until 1843
when a new house at Halifax, a mile to the west, was completed.
The old house was used in 1846 by Joseph LeConte and his
bride as a honeymoon cottage (Black 1976:23). After that
the house and gardens seem to have been completely abandoned
for a time. Emma LeConte Furman states that in 1858 the
old house was still standing but going to ruin (Shaw 1975).
By 1866 a letter from Miss Mary Sharp Jones, in Children
of Pride, indicates the garden had already become overgrown
and in sad need of care (Myers 1972:196). The last reference
to the Woodmanston 'lodge' is from a letter written by


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The following documentary research and archeological
investigation have been done in an effort to aid the Garden
Clubs of Georgia in the reconstruction and historical
presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation.
Specific questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations
of the Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized
the location of the LeConte botanical garden, the main
plantation house, subsidiary structures, and the slave
settlement. Although historical documents were a great
source of information about the site, Liberty County and
the character of the LeConte family, they did not provide
specific locations for the structures. Archeological
investigation of three major areas was carried out to try
and locate these structures.
Woodmanston Plantation was located "in and around
Builtown Swamp" on the border between McIntosh and Liberty
Counties, Georgia, about 40 miles southwest of Savannah
(Figures 1,2,3). Built in the late 1760s, it was one of
the first gravity flow rice plantations to be established on
the Georgia coast, and was owned by John Eatton LeConte,
1


56
efficient in terms of time per test. A great distance can
be covered in a day. It, too, has its disadvantages, such
as the noise and gas fumes and the possibility of getting
caught in roots and clay.
Two teams executed approximately 40' tests per day,
each test extended approximately three feet or until the
drill reached hard packed clay. The test interval was three
meters. Test material was caught in a metal tray and
screened through quarter inch hardware cloth. Findings were
plotted and areas of culturally positive tests were noted
(Figure 11). Surface clearing for positioning auger tests
required substantial crew hours but was the most efficient
method of sampling a maximum area with the least expenditure
of time. This form of testing made it possible to compare
the sparse surface indications with the distribution of
archeological refuse over a large part of the site. For
the most part there does not seem to be a one to one
correlation. Although this may sometimes be so in plowed
field sites, heavy ground cover presents different problems.
Auger testing has been used successfully as a means of
delineating site extent, determination of artifact
distribution and site composition; and testing correlation
between surface and subsurface material in both historic
and prehistoric sites by Deagan and Bostwick in St. Augustine,
Percy at the Torreya site in Liberty County, Florida and by
Coblentz and Powell in the Lubbub Creek Project (Deagan
et al. 1376: 3ostwick and Wise, in press; Percy 1976;


82
actually portions of the chemical apparatus of Louis
LeConte's attic laboratory. Joseph LeConte remembers
how he and the other children would "watch the mysterious
experiments; with what awe his (Louis') furnaces, and
chauffers, his sand-baths, matrasses, and alembics, and
his precipitations filled them" (LeConte 1903:8). Certainly
these vessels must have been broken in the course of these
experiments.
Domestic Glassware
The fragmented, and generally poor condition of the
glass artifacts recovered at Woodmanston has made it
difficult to determine their original function. For this
reason only a small portion of the glass recovered during
the spring excavations can be positively identified as
domestic glass. This classification was based on the color,
curvature and thickness of the glass fragments. It is
possible that some of the glass fragments designated as
"medicine bottles" are, in fact, domestic glass.
The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate lists
the following domestic glassware: 2 glass butter dishes
and 5 preserve dishes; 3 decanters, lots of wine glasses;
pitches and tumblers; drawers and glass; and a looking glass
(Liberty 1838). Unfortunately we were unable to recover any
direct evidence of these items in the archeological record.


80
quinine, laudanum, paregoric, liniment, verimfuge, and
epsom salts (Otto 1975:232). William L. LeConte, grandson
of Louis LeConte, remember accompanying his mother on her
daily "sick rounds" at the negro quarters on the Olive Hill
Plantation. She would make "a house to house visit of the
quarters and whenever she found any sick, from her medicine
chest she would administer the simple specific wnich their
several cases called for" (LeConte 1900:3). It is probable
that this same procedure was followed at Woodmanston.
In an article in the Southern Medical and Surgical
Journal concerning tne "Observations on the Soil, Climates
and Diseases of Liberty County, Georgia", John M.3. Harden
discusses the health problems present in the county in 1845.
The more common illnesses included: influenza, whooping
cough, measles, venereal disease, malaria ("marsh-miasmic
fever and sand hills fever"), puerpural fever, croup,
pneumonia, bronchitic, pleurisy, cholera morbus, diarrhea,
dysentery, chronic rheumatism, the scrofulous enlargment
of the lymphatic glands among blacks, cachexia africanus
(dirt eating), dropsy and chlorosis (Harden 1845:555).
Family documents provide examples of these and other
maladies as well as the treatments commonly employed at
the time. A bill from Dr. John Irvine of Savannah, for the
care of William LeConte (1737) included a list of the following
treatments: antimonial powders, fiberfuge medicines, a
saline sedative julap and a vial of laudanum (Chatham County
1737). Mr. William LeConte did not survive. Bloodletting


EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION
OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION
3Y
JENNIFER M. HAMILTON
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
x930

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to acknowledge the years of
guidance from Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks, both in class and
out, which led to the completion of this master's thesis.
Special thanks are accorded to Dr. Rochelle Marrinan,
director of the Georgia Southern College 1979 field school,
who has been a constant support and companion throughout
all phases of the project: research, excavation and writing.
The author would also like to express her continuing
appreciation to Colonel and Mrs. Claude A. Black; and
Miss Clermont Lee of Savannah for their persistent faith
in the LeConte-Woodmanston project. Without their interest
and inspiration there would be no project and the public
would lose a large part of its cultural heritage.
Many thanks are also given to Mrs. Caroline McMillan of
St. Simon's Island, Georgia,for patiently answering the many
questions and generously providing access to the family
documents which made the LeContes cor.iealive for all concerned.
The author would also like to express her appreciation
to the members of the spring 1979 Georgia Southern College
archeolgical field school: Julie Barnes, David Flesch, Barry
Hart, Betty Leigh Hutcheson, Charles McPherson, Nancy Turner,
Claudia Tyre, and Cecil Walters, for their untiring labor
despite cramped living conditions and numerous mosquitoes.
ii

The members of the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees and
the Garden Clubs of Georgia have been supportive throughout
the entire project. The author would especially like to
acknowledge the help of Colonel George Rogers of Hinesville,
Georgia, and Mrs. George W. Ray of Savannah.
Because of the disturbed condition of the Woodmanston
site, documentary research concerning the LeConte family
comprised a large part of this study. The author would
like to acknowledge the staffs of the Georgia Historical
Society Library; the American Philosophical Society Library;
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; the Pennsylvania
Historical Society Library; and the P.K. Yonge Library of
Florida History. The aid of Mrs. Nancy Aspinwall, Liberty
County Probate Judge; the staffs of the Office of the
Inferior Court of Liberty and Chatham Counties; and
Mr. George Ference and Mr. Bagario of Brunswick Pulp and
Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia,are also acknowledged.
Special thanks to Dr. George Rogers,Georgia Southern College,
for the use of his personal files on the LeConte family.
The Community of Riceboro was very kind to the entire
crew during our stay in 1979. Much gratitude is awarded to
Mrs. Cordelia Jones Browning for her interest and concern and
to Mrs. Hern for renting our house in Riceboro, without which
the project would have never been the same.
Analysis of the LeConte-Woodmanston collection was
performed at the University of Florida. The author would like
iii

to thank Dr. Elizabeth Wing for providing access to the
Florida State Museum Faunal Collections and to Dr. Rochelle
Marrinan for Derformino the analysis. The author would also
like to mention the daily suoport and companionship of
Sue Mullins with whom she shared the archeoloay lab and the
person who finally identified the Clews brothers' "States"
plate.
The author's family deserves very special thanks for
their patience and support during her entire graduate
career. Separate acknowledaments go to David Hamilton
for help in the editing process and to Eleanor Hamilton
for typing the numerous drafts.
Finally the author would like to thank the members
of her committee for their support: Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks,
Chairman; Dr. Jerald Milanich; Dr. Prudence Rice and
Dr. Elizabeth Wing for being present at the defense in
Dr. Rice's absence.
IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF FIGURES vii
ABSTRACT ix
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 8
Significant World Events 8
Family History 10
Scientific Achievements 15
Woodmanston Plantation ... 21
LeConte Gardens 26
Rice Culture 33
Slaves 4 6
III- ARCHEOLOGY 51
Research Methodology 51
Transects and Auger Testing 55
Formal Excavation 58
Trenching 60
IV- ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS 62
The Chimney Base 6 2
The Robbed Brick Wall 66
V. MATERIAL CULTURE 68
Building Hardware 68
Household Furnishings 70
Glass 73
Window Glass 73
Beverage Bottles 74
Medicine Bottles 76
Domestic Glassware 82
v

Ceramics 83
Cutlery 92
Personal Items 92
Buttons 9 5
Jewelry 96
Firearms 9 8
Tobacco and Smokinq Equipment 100
Toys and Games 103
Miscellaneous Personal Items- 104
Horses and Carriages 105
Tools 105
Grindstones 106
Faunal Material 107
Aboriginal Material 110
VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Ill
APPENDICES
A. ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED 155
B. LIST OF BULBS 157
C. HORTICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS 161
D. SPECIES LIST 163
E. COMPOSITE TABLE FOR ALL FAUNA 164
REFERENCES CITED 167
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 175
vi

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Location of LeConte-Woodmanston site 116
2. Woodmanston vicinity 118
3. Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area .... 120
4. 1973 survey of Woodmanston Plantation 122
5. LeConte kinship diagram 124
6. 1897 photograph of LeConte-Woodmanston site . 126
7. 1897 photograph of Joseph LeConte at Woodmanston 128
8. Interpretive concept olan for LeCnte-Woodmanston 130
9. Diagram of spring 1979 testing program 132
10. Transect lines delineated on areal photograph 134
11. Distribution of positive auger tests 136
12. Excavation plan for 1979 spring field session 138
13. Double hearth chimney base 140
14. Robbed brick wall 142
15a. Household artifacts 144
15b. Gunparts and horse equipment 144
16a. Glass artifacts 146
16b. Cutlery 14 6
17a. Ceramics 148
17b. Ceramics 148
vii

List of Figures (continued)
Fiqures Page
18a. Personal artifacts 150
18b. Personal artifacts 150
19a. Quartz crystal 152
19b. Grindstone fraqment 152
20. Aboriginal artifacts 154
viii

Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts
EARLY HISTORY AND EXCAVATION
OF THE LECONTE-WOODMANSTON PLANTATION
Bv
Jennifer M. Hamilton
June, 1980
Chairman: Charles H. Fairbanks
Major Department: Anthropology
The following paper presents the analysis of the
LeConte-Woodmanston site. The Garden Clubs of Georgia,
Inc., plans to develop an exhibit around this late
eiahteenth-early nineteenth century rice plantation and
botanical garden, emphasizing interpretation of the
plantation era components, the natural setting, and use as
a habitat for endanaered plant species. Louis LeConte's
botanical garden (1812-1838) was internationally known
among the scientific communitv for its early cultivation
of Camellia japnica outside the hothouse.
Historical documentation provided insight regarding
the LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation
era and a picture of plantation life in early Georgia.
Unfortunately the location and layout of the LeConte house
and gardens are not available in the documents utilized to
date.
IX

The site has been badly disturbed by lumbering activities
over the past 25 years, but there is still potential for
retrieving valuable archeological data. The basic research
strategy included the use of linear transects to control
a program of mechancial auger tests. This procedure provided
a satisfactory means of delineating the extent of extreme
subsurface disturbance and artifact distribution with a
minimum amount of clearing. Results of the auger tests
were checked with formal excavation and trenching.
The spring 1979 archeological excavations and
historical documentation both indicate the site was occupied
from the early nineteenth century until the first part of
the twentieth century. Two structures which were once
part of the plantation house complex were investigated,
but further archeological study is necessary to determine
the dimensions and specifications.
Chairman
x

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The following documentary research and archeological
investigation have been done in an effort to aid the Garden
Clubs of Georgia in the reconstruction and historical
presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation.
Specific questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations
of the Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized
the location of the LeConte botanical garden, the main
plantation house, subsidiary structures, and the slave
settlement. Although historical documents were a great
source of information about the site, Liberty County and
the character of the LeConte family, they did not provide
specific locations for the structures. Archeological
investigation of three major areas was carried out to try
and locate these structures.
Woodmanston Plantation was located "in and around
Builtown Swamp" on the border between McIntosh and Liberty
Counties, Georgia, about 40 miles southwest of Savannah
(Figures 1,2,3). Built in the late 1760s, it was one of
the first gravity flow rice plantations to be established on
the Georgia coast, and was owned by John Eatton LeConte,
1

2
whose family played an important part in the early history
of the United States.
Two outstanding members of the family, Louis LeConte
and Major John Eatton LeConte, have been celebrated for
their contributions to the natural sciences. Louis
LeConte, son of John Eatton LeConte, became internationally
famous for the botanical garden which he started at
Woodmanston Plantation in 1812 and which flourished until
his death in 1838. His brother, Major John Eatton LeConte,
was a winter resident at Woodmanston and frequently brought
Louis interesting botanical specimens from the nurseries of
Philadelphia and New York. Some of the plants for which
Louis became best known were bulbous varieties and camellias.
In Europe, such plants were grown only in protective
greenhouses, but at Woodmanston they were grown out of doors,
and some of the camellias eventually attained tree-like
proportions.
Over the years Louis LeConte served as a gracious host
and guide to many foreign naturalists and horticulturists.
These visits resulted in the exportation of many exclusively
American plants, indigenous to the nearby Altamaha River
basin, to various parts of Europe. It should be noted,
however, that although Louis LeConte's botanically rich
garden was a much loved avocation, his primary responsibility
was the successful management of Woodmanston Plantation.
The period from 1810 to 1838, encompassing both the time in
which the LeConte garden flourished and the successful

operation of the gravity flow rice plantation, is the
focus of this study.
3
Woodmanston was also the boyhood home of two of Louis'
sons, John and Joseph LeConte, who were to achieve
individual historical fame as educators, first in the
southeast and later in California. John served as the first
acting president of the then fledgling University of
California at Berkeley, while Joseph held the chair in the
Department of Geology, Zoology and Botany (LeConte 1903:244).
It is because of this association with the LeConte
family that the site of Woodmanston Plantation was placed
on the National Register of Historic Places. As a
consequence, a development plan for the site was formulated
through the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The
plan emphasizes the interpretation and eventual presentation
of the plantation components during its functional era,
the preservation of the natural setting, and its utilization
as a practical habitat for endangered plant species.
Colonel Claude A. Black of Savannah, an avid botanical
enthusiast, relocated the original LeConte property and
the approximate site of Louis' famous garden. Through his
efforts, and those of the Garden Clubs of Georgia, together
with the additional help of the LeConte family heirs,
the Nature Conservancy (a non-profit conservation organization),
and the present lessors of the property, the Brunswick
Paper Company, a portion of the original site was acquired.

4
Of the original 3,354 acres comprising Woodmanston Plantation,
63.8 acres were deeded to the Garden Clubs of Georgia in 1977
(Ray 1977:12) (Figures 3,4).
It is the intent of the LeConte-Wcodmanston Trustees,
appointed by the president of the Garden Clubs of Georgia,
to reconstruct as accurately as possible Louis LeConte's
original botanical garden using existing archeological and
documentary evidence. The site is further intended to
become a scenic garden spot for public enjoyment. Exhibits
are also planned to present the world view, lifestyle, and
funcitoning of an inland swamp rice plantation of the
antebellum era. Although other rice plantation projects
of a historical nature exist in South Carolina and Georgia,
the emphasis on an internationally famous American botanical
garden, and the contributions of the LeConte family, make
the Woodmanston Plantation project unique.
A formal archeological investigation of the site of
the Woodmanston Plantation began in March, 1979 under the
direction of Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern
College, and Jennifer Hamilton of the University of Florida.
The field labor was provided by a field school of eight
students from Georgia Southern College. Matching funds
were provided through the Department of Natural Resources
and the National Register of Historic Places.
Preliminary investigation indicated a high degree of
surtace disturbance. Bulldozers had been used in recent

5
years to remove soil for local road construction. Extensive
dissection of the property caused by clear cutting of
timber over an extended period presented additional problems.
Providing information from archeological findings to assist
in formulating development plans for the' site was complicated
by the highly disturbed condition of the terrain. In order
to provide necessary guidance for this development,
archeological assessment focused on the impace of proposed
structures; the parking lot, visitor interpretation center,
and nature walks on the existing cultural resources and
the location and identification of the remaining plantation
resources. The basic research strategy can be characterized
as a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal
excavation.
Because of the inability to positively establish the
exact location of the garden by conventional archeological
means, the search for historical documents became of primary
importance. Unfortunately no document has been found,
after extensive research, which describes the layout of the
garden or specifically locates it in relation to the main
house, driveway or irrigation dikes. Various documents
have, however, provided a wealth of information about the
LeConte family in Liberty County during the plantation era,
and a picture of plantation life. Some general information
concerning the probable content of the garden has also been
uncovered.

6
Certain family letters and diaries, some of which are
still in private hands, provide information about the plantation
and the beauty of the garden. Other letters, some of a
later date, focus on members of the family, their attitudes
toward issue of the day such as economics and slavery, and
the Civil War. All the LeConte letters are generously
informative and indicate strong family ties.
Documents located among the Liberty County records
provide information concerning the administration of
the estate of Louis LeConte and his oldest son, William.
These records provided insights concerning matters of slave
economics. Other records provided land plats with the
approximate location of the main LeConte house, the nearby
slave 'settlement' and the location of the rice and cotton
fields. Various land deeds show how some potentially
important archeological landmarks could have been changed,
relocated, or removed as the land changed hands.
Chatham County Courthouse records provide some
unexpected early data concerning Louis LeConte's uncle
William. William LeConte (1738-1787) established nearby
San Souci Plantation in the 1760s, about the same time that
his brother, John Barton LeConte established Woodmanston.
In the administration of William's estate the slaves which
he owned are listed by name and family. Some of his creditors
are also listed. Another discovery was the sale of lands near
New York City by Louis LeConte to his brother, Major John
Eatton LeConte in 1825.

7
The Georgia Historical Library, Savannah, Georgia, was
an important source of information. The LeConte family files
were the starting place for much of the family history.
The index of Savannah newspapers was an exciting discovery.
The LeContes are mentioned in nearly every volume from 1767
tp 1840, and details concerning debts, runaway slaves,
trips abroad and stockholders lists, as well as Jane LeConte
Harden, Louis' oldest daughter's, wedding at Woodmanston
in January, 1834 are duly noted,(Daily Georgian 1832).
The Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical
Society, and the Pennsylvania Historical Society, all in
Philidelphia, provided additional information regarding
the LeConte family, the "old house at Woodmanston ", and
the family slaves.
Sites, such as Woodmanston, disturbed as they are,
still offer the opportunity to illuminate the past. While
acknowledgeing that extensive documentary research is
a requisite to excavation, many aspects of plantation life,
especially the daily lives of the slaves, simply were not
considered worthy of recording. It must also be acknowledged
that excavations such as that at Woodmanston often expose new
problems and thereby define new avenues for documentation.

CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Significant World Events
The years between 1770 and 1840, the period when
Woodmanston was a productive rice plantation, were marked
by advances in science and technology which had considerable
effects on world events.
In Europe, the age of enlightenment was taking place,
and such notables as Voltaire and Rousseau were publishing
their ideas. James Watt and S. Bolton produced their steam
engine in 1769 and Sir Richard Arkwright developed the water
powered spinning frame. Both these developments helped
set the scene for the industrial revolution with its chance
of labor from cottage to factory levels. The last part of
the eighteenth century was filled with the great age of
orchestral music, and the magnificent works of Mozart, Haydn,
and Beethoven graced the halls of Europe.
In the New World, Quebec and Montreal, then called
New France, were conquered by the Britsh in 1760, and
in 1768 Captain James Cook began his exploration of the
Pacific Ocean. Only a year later, in 1769, William and
John Eatton LeConte received their Georgia land grants
8

9
which led the way for the establishment of the Woodmanston
and Sans Souci plantations on the Georgia coast. In 1776
the American Declaration of Independence was signed. During
that same year Adam Smith published his famous bock on
economics, The Wealth of Nations, and Tom Paine published
his pamphlet, Common Sense. In 1789 George Washington
became the first president of the United States. America
doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and
independence movements in Spanish and Portuguese America
created 13 new states between 1808 and 1828. The United
States presidents in office during the period in which che
Woodmanston Plantation and the LeConte gardens were under
Louis LeConte's managment (1810-1838) were Madison, Monroe,
Adams, and Jackson.
There were many transportation achievements in America
during this time. Robert Fulton's development of the
steamboat was the forerunner of 60 such boast operating on
the Missisiippi in 1820 and over 1200 in 1846. The first
hardsurfaced highways were built in 1789 and by 1810 the
National Road, a highway which greatly facilitated westward
expansion had been started. Other transportation aids were
the Erie Canal in 1825 and the first railway, the Baltimore
and Ohio, in 1830. America was a growing nation and
improved transportation, industrial development and reform
movements did much to help the country become a world power.
The economic balance of the south depended heaviiv on
slave labor. Although the slave trade was ended in 1808,

10
slavery was not abolished in the United States until after
the Civil War in 1865. This struggle drastically changed
almost every aspect of life in the southern states.
The LeConte family and its landholdings are interesting
because they span an area of time which encompasses two
major wars, the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution,
and the building of a nation.
Family History
The recorded history of the LeConte family began-
in Europe in the mid-seventeenth century when Guillaume
LeConte (1659-1710) was born in Rouen, France of a noble
Protestant family with illustrious connections to Louis XIV.
However, in 1685 he was forced to leave France and emigrate
to Holland because of Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict
of Nantes, which would have deprived him of his religous
liberty and his wealth. According to family tradition,
the king warned him of his intentions before hand in order
that Guillaume might have the time to make the necessary
personal arrangements.
Upon leaving France, Guillaume adopted the name, LeConte,
which was derived from his mother's maiden name, LeConte
de Nonant (Figure 5). Unfortunately there is no record of
Guillaume's original family name. He traveled to Holland and
joined the forces of King William of Orange, to whom he was
also related through Count de Berg s'Hecrenberg, and
participated in William's invasion of England.

11
Guillaume served in the English military until 1698, at
which time he emigrated to the New World. He bought property
in New York City and in New Rochelle. A short time later
he went to the French owned island of Martinique, in the
Caribbean. While in Martinique he met and married Marguerite
de Valleau, whose father was a wealthy land owner.
Guillaume and Marguerite had three children, all of
whom were born in New York. William was born in 1702; Pierre
was born in 1704; and their daughter, Esther, was born in 1706.
Pierre (1704-1768) was Louis LeConte's grandfather (Figure 5).
In 1710 Gullaume and Marguerite LeConte both died of
yellow fever, leaving the three children orphaned at early
ages. Little is known of the children's childhood, but
eventually Pierre became a physician and settled in Monmouth
County, New Jersey. He married Valeria Eatton, daughter of
the Hon. John Eatton of Shrewsbury, New Jersey. They had
three sons, John Eatton, William and Peter. John Eatton
(1749-1822) was Louis' father (Figure 5).
In 1760, at the invitation of their uncle, Thomas
Eatton, a wealthy New York merchant, John Eatton LeConte
and his brother, William, accompanied him to Georgia, at
that time, a virtually unexplored territory. Both John
Eatton and William were in their early twenties. In 1769,
after the death of their father, Pierre LeConte, John Eatton
and William each applied for and received land grants jointly
totaling 7,500 acres in St. Andrews and St. Johns Parishes,
(now in Liberty and Chatham Counties, Georgia) from the

12
British Governor of Georgia. The property was purchased
with money derived from the sale of the family's
ancestral estate on the Island of Martinique (LeConte 1933:3).
The American Revolutionary War, begun in 1775, had
considerable effect on Liberty County and the LeConte family.
William LeConte was elected to the Provincial Congress of
July 4, 1774 by the Parish of St. Phillip. He was also a
representative on the first Safety Council and a signer
of a letter of demonstration to Governor Wright (White 1854:177)
John Eatton LeConte became a physician. Since there were
no medical colleges in the American colonies at that time,
he studied medicine with his father, Pierre LeConte. During
the revolution his sympathies were with the colonists, and
sometime in 1775 he personally took a contribution of 63
barrels of rice and 22 pounds sterling in specie to 3oston
to relieve those suffering from the British blockade of
the city (Jones 1883:176). Later, John Eatton made his
permanent home in Boston, and visited Woodmanston, the rice
plantation which he established in Georgia, only during the
winter months.
In 1776 he married Jane Sloane in New York City and
they had three sons; William (1777-1807), Louis (1782-1838)
and John Eatton, Jr. (1784-1860). The family lived in
Shrewsbury until the children were of college age, at which
time they moved to New York City. Louis LeConte and the
period associated with his residence at the Woodmanston
plantation are the major foci of this study.

13
Louis' uncle, William LeConte, took up permanent
residence in Georgia and divided his time between his
townhouse in Savannah and his plantation, which he named
San Souci, located near the Ogeechee River. When William
died in 1787, the joint estate was divided and Louis'
father, John Eatton LeConte, received the Bulltown plantation
and half of the personal property of the estate.
Louis LeConte came to Georgia shortly after 1807. He
lived in a small house built near the site of the original
home which had been burned during the Revolutionary War,
and thereafter took over complete management of the rice
plantation called Woodmanston (LeConte 1933:1-9).
In 1822 Louis LeConte married a local girl, Anne
Quarterman, daughter of an old and prominant Liberty
County family, and took up residence at Woodmanston. Louis
and Ann had six children; William (1812-1841), Jane (1814-1876),
John (1818-1891), Louis (1821-1852), Joseph (1823-1901),
and Ann (1825-1866) (LeConte 1933:10)(Figure 5).
Louis LeConte's marriage to Ann Quarterman in 1812
created a peculiar situation which was to have lasting
impact on Woodmanston Plantation. Ann was a member of the
nearby Congregational Church of Midway which had always
married among themselves. Ann's mother did not object to
Louis, personally, but she did object to her daughter
marrying outside the colony. Since Louis had never joined
the local Midway Church, Ann's mother insisted that he be
thoroughly catechised by the minister and elders of the

14
church, and furthermore, that he sign a promise never to
take Ann out of the county (LeConte 1933:10). As a
consequence of this pact, Louis sold his New York land
holdings to his brother, John Eatton, in 1825 for $30,000.
Woodmanston thenceforth was Louis' permnent home (Chatham
County 1825).
Major John Eatton LeConte, Jr. married Mary Ann Hampton
Lawrence and had three sons, only one of whom reached
maturity. John Lawrence LeConte (1825-1883), eventually
moved to Philadelphia and became one of America's most
distinguished entomologists.
Louis' wife, Ann, died in 1326 of pneumonia, leaving
behind six young children, the eldest fourteen and the
youngest seventeen months old (Figure 5). Jane, the
oldest daughter, who was only twelve at the time, assumed
complete control of the household affairs. Louis tried to
make himself both mother and father to the children and
was devotedly loved by them all (LeConte 1903).
Louis was a man of reticent nature, and although
deeply religious, he was too independent in thought to
accept the strict creeds of the Midway Congregational Church
which he attended with his wife, Ann.
Physically, he was of slender build about five feet
ten inches tall. He had very black eyes and hair
and his manner was reserved and undemonstrative.
His tastes were simple and unostentatious. He cared
little for money and even less for fame. He eschewed
politics utterly and had no desire to wield influence,
but nevertheless he unconsiously influences all who
came in contact with him. He was never known to
borrow, but was always liberal to lend or to aid in
any charity. (LeConte 1933:10-11)

15
Scientific Achievements
The years between 1810 and 1838 were the years when
Louis LeConte was the master at Woodmanston Plantation and
his botanical garden flourished, but his lifelong list
of achievements is lengthy and impressive.
Ke received his Bachelor of Arts degree from New York's
Columbia University in 1799, and continued there with the
study of medicine under Dr. David Hosack, who was the school's
celebrated professor of medicine and botany. It is not
known whether Louis actually received an advanced degree but
it is thought that he studied medicine only in order to
care for the health and well being of his slaves. At that
time the course of medical study contained a good deal of
botanical research and Louis made a botanical survey of
Long Island during his school years. Alexander Gordon
mentions Dr. Hosack's "Hyde Park on the Hudson", in an
article on the "Principle Nurseries and Private Gardens
in the United States" written in 1832.
The park is extensive; the rides numerous; and
the variety of delightful distant views embracing
every kind of scenery, surpasses anything I have
ever seen in (America) or in any other country.
There is an excellent range of hot houses, with
a collection of rare plants, remarkable for their
variety, their cleanliness and their handsome
growth. (1832:282)
Louis was a gifted naturalist and botanist. He was
fluent in Latin and Greek and intersted in all branches
of science including chemistry and mathematics. Louis
was 44 years old when his wife, Ann, died in 1826.

16
According to his son, Joseph's autobiography;
in order to divert his thoughts from his grief,
he fitted up several rooms in the attic; especially
one large one, as a chemical laboratory. Day after
day, sometimes all day, when not too much busied
in the administration of his large plantation, he
occupied himself with experimenting there. I
remember vividly how, when permitted to be present,
we boys followed him about silently and on tiptoe;
how we would watch the mysterious experiments; with
what awe his furnaces and chauffers, his and baths,
matrasses, and alembics, and his precipitations
filled us. Although these experiments were
undertaken in the first instance to divert his mind
from sorrow, yet his profound knowledge of chemistry
his deep interest and persitence certainly
eventuated in important discoveries. (1903:7,8)
Apparently Louis had the facilities for producing
chemical compounds. In a letter written in 1830, his
brother, Major John Eatton LeConte, requested that "10
grams of oxyl or hydrate of nickel and cobalt" be sent to
him in New York and he offered to procure a "platinum
crucible" for Louis' experiments from France. Two-thirds
of Louis' library and chemicl apparatus were valued at $400
in the 1838 appraisal of his estate (Liberty County 1838).
Louis obtained some of his supplies from Athens, where his
son, William, attended Franklin College. In a letter from
Louis to William dated at Woodmanston August 1, 1831, he
requests that William "collect as many mineral as he can
bring down" (LeConte 1831).
In the same 1830 correspondence Major John Eatton
also inquires about the success of Louis' experiments
"in mixing different species" (LeConte 1830).
He did not publish his experiments but freely shared his

17
findings with his scientific colleagues. Frequently,
naturalists and horticulturalists from the north, and from
Europe, would visit Woodmanston and Louis would introduce
them to the native Georgia flora and fauna and help them
pack and ship samples to their respective institutions.
Dr. William Baldwin mentions the LeConte brothers
in his series of letters to a friend in Pennsylvania.
In his word, "from the truly scientific acquirements of
these gentlemen,: and their zealous attention to every
department of natural history, much may be with confidence
expected. I am indebted to them for much valuable
information; and hope it will not be long before they will
be better known in the literary world" (Darlington 1843:332).
Alexander Gordon of the Gardener's Magazine says,
There are not two more scientific gentlement in the
U.S.A. than Lewis LeConte, Esq. and his brother,
Major John LeConte...
The late Mr. Elliot of Charleston, the editor of the
Botany of South Carolina and Georgia, frequently
mentions the kind assistance of Mr. Oemler of Savannah
and also two other gentlemen, Lewis LeConte, Esq. and
his brother, Major John LeConte. The assistance I
received from these gentlemen, in making my collection
of plants, I cannot give you the most distant idea of.
They are most excellent botanists and naturalists in
every branch of science.
Mr. LeConte has discovered many new plants; and
through his kindness I have been enabled to enrich
our collections with some splendid treasures. This
gentlemen has, for above 30 years, given his attention
to the successions of different species of timber.
I must, however, inform you that this gentleman
thoroughly convinced me of the existence of the
Magnolia pyramidata; for on Thursday, the 27th of
January, we took a journey of 50 miles, and crossed
the Altamaha River, to look for a tree of that
species which Mr. LeConte had seen there 18 months
previous. We found it. (1832:287-288).

18
Louis LeConte's name is also mentioned in the
preface, as one of the contributors, to Torrey and Gray's
Flora of North America (Gray 1883:199).
John Eatton LeConte, Louis' brother,, was also a man
of science. He also attended Columbia College in New York,
and in 1817 entered the army of the United States as Captain
of Topographical Engineers, later attaining the rank of
Major.
Major John Eatton LeConte had the same active interest
in botany as his brother, and was responsible for a number
of the exotic and unusual plants in the LeConte garden
(Gray 1883:198). He frequented the major nurseries in the
northeast and sent or carried many new plant specimens to
his brother in Georgia. He is said to be personally
responsible for the first cutting of the LeConte pear or
Chinese Sand pear (Stokes 1949:183). This cutting was
obtained from Thomas Hogg, a New York nurseryman. Mr. Hogg's
nursery at Bloomingdale, New York, is mentioned in Gordon's
"Principal Nurseries and Private Gardens of the United States".
He is said to have had an "admirable collection" of rare
and valuable exotics (1832:279). Major LeConte sent a
specimen of the pear to Mrs. Jane LeConte Harden, Louis'
oldest daughter, at Halifax Plantation near Woodmanston.
The tree was the progentior of all the LeConte pear trees
in Georgia.

19
The pear was very popular in South Georgia, as it
stood shipment well and for many years the trees
were entirely blight proof. As late as 1900 they
were shipped by car load from Quitmen, Georgia, to
the northern markets. But the variety finally lost
its bliqht resisting qualities and has almost entirely
disappeared. (LeConte 1933:13)
Major John Eatton LeConte was constantly involved
with the collection and indentification of new species
of plants, animals and insects during his travels, and
supplied duplicate specimens to many of his friends.
Every member of the LeConte family was charged with
collecting new specimens of insects, flora and fauna
whereever they went. Even Matilda Jane Harden, John
Eatton's grandniece, was reminded of her collecting duties
while at boardinq school in Orangeburq, South Carolina.
She was entreated by the Major to collect seeds, bats and
rats and to charge her brother in Athens to do likewise
(LeConte 1856) .
Major John Eatton LeConte's contributions to botanical
and zooloqical science were published in the Annals of the
Lyceum of Natural History of New York, and in the Proceedings
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, from
1852 to 1860.
His extensive and valuable herbarium, which had been
carefully reviewed by the older botanists of the
country, was presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Philadelphia in 1852, and was followed shortly after
his death in 1860 by a large collection of fresh water
mollusca of the United States, containing many original
specimens of species first observed by him. He was
a most untirinq student and left much manuscript, the
usefulness of which has been superseded by subsequent
research, and likewise many thousand water color drawings
cf insects and various orders, which his son has had
mounted in albums suitable for inspection.

20
No separate botanical work bears his name as author,
nor any in zoology that we know of, except one on
American Lepidoptera, published in connection with
M. Boisduval. But the Royal Society's Catalogue
of Scientific Papers records the title and place and
date of publication of 35 of them, 11 of which are
botanical. Several of these are monographs. The
earliest, on the U.S. species of Paspalum, was
published in the year 1820; three others, namely
those on Utricularia, Gratiola, and Ruellia, all
in 1824; those on Tillandsia and Viola in 1826;
that on Paneratium in 1828. He was a keen but
leisurely observer and investigator, and still more
leisurely writer. He was a man of very refined
and winning manners, of scholarly habits and wide
reading, of an inquiring and original turn of mind,
the fruitfulness of which was subdued by chronic
invalidism. When he went to Paris he took with
him his herbarium, which for that time was unusually
rich in plants of Lower Georgia and Florida; and we
remember his remark that his botanical acquaintances
there made very free use of his permission to help
themselves to the duplicates. There is reason to think,
accordingly, that the remains of it which went to the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences will not
throw all the light which might be expected upon the
species of plants which were described in his
published papers.
His old friend, Torrey and William Cooper, named in
his honor the genus which, as it proved, Rafinesque
had some years earlier named Peltandra. And the
opportunity was soon lost of commemorating his name
in a plant of his own country; for Achile Richard in
Parish, in 1829, bestowed the name of Lecontia upon a
genus of Madasgascar Rubiacea, now of five species.
(Gray 1883:198-199)
Major John Eatton LeConte's son, John Lawrence LeConte,
later became one of the leading entomologists in the United
States and published a number of papers including the
Classification of the Coleptera of North America in 1883.
The most well known in the scientific world perhaps
are two of Louis LeConte's sons, John and Joseph LeConte,
referred to as 'the gemini of the scientific world'. Early

21
educators in Georgia, they taught at Oglethorpe College,
the University of Georgia and South Carolina College, later
to become the University of South Carolina. As a result
of the LeConte brothers active involvement in the Confederate
cause during the Civil War, it became almost impossible
for them to obtain suitable academic appointments in the South.
After contemplating a move to Brazil, they moved their
families to California to aid in the organization of the
University of California at Berkeley. John LeConte became
the first acting president and Joseph was appointed to
the chair of Geology, Zoology and Botany and taught there
until the turn of the century (LeConte 1903:243-244).
Joseph wrote several books on geology and evolution, one
of which was used as a standard textbook for college courses
for many years.
Several species of flora and fauna are attributed to
the LeContes. Most notable are the LeConte sparrow,
Passerherbulus caudacutus; the LeConte violet, Viola affinos;
and the LeConte pear or Chinese Sand pear.
Woodmanston Plantation
The origin of the name 'Woodmanston' is unknown.
As a matter of interest, or coincidence, the only reference
found to that name was a ship called Woodmanston or
Woodmanstone which advertised in the Georgia Gazette.
Captain Benjamin Mason was the master of the vessel.

22
On October 28, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran this
advertisement: "To be sold on Tuesday the 28th October,
1766, a cargo of about 100 young and healthy new negroes,
just arrived, in the ship, Woodmanston, Capt. Benj. Mason,
in a short passage of seven weeks from the River Gambia"
On November 5, 1766, the Georgia Gazette ran another ad:
"for London, Portugal, or Cowes, and a market, the ship
Woodmanstone, Benjamin Mason, burthen about 200 tons, a prime
sailor, and (unreadable). For freight and passage apply to
said master or to Habersham & Clay of Savannah".
It is also significant in regard to the name,
'Woodmanston', that Louis' uncle, William LeConte, had
business dealings with Habersham & Clay in the administration
of his estate, and Louis LeConte used R. Habersham and Son
as factors during his years as master of the plantation.
The first house, built by John Eatton LeConte, Sr.,
on the LeConte plantation was burned during the Revolutionary
War in a skirmish near Bulltown Swamp between colonists and
3ritish troops under Colonel George Prevost during his
southern campaign. This house was located somewhere on the
east side of the old Fort Barrington Highway. There are
several family accounts of Indian attacks on the plantation
during the early years, which attest to the remoteness of
the area and the need to guard the negro slaves against
injury (Liberty 1793, LeConte 1903:19-21).

23
The second residence was termed a 'lodge' in the
journal of Emma LeConte Furman, Louis' grandaughter. It
was built as a bachelor's residence sometime before 1810 when
Louis took over the management of the plantation. The 'lodge'
is the house in which Louis and Ann rais'ed their family.
According to Emma LeConte Furman, the house was expanded
after Louis' marriage. Emma states in her journal that she
pictures the old house clearly in her mind, "the mantel over
the fireplace and the wall paper," but unfortunately that
is all the description she provides (Shaw 1975).
From an 1838 appraisal and Josephy LeConte's autobiography
it is suggested that the house was a two story structure
with four bedgrooms and an attic. A separate kitchen may also
be inferred from a passage in the autobiography which indicates
that one of the duties of the negro children was "to cut
up wood for the house, and for the kitchen, and to wait on
the cook" (LeConte 1903:32).
Joseph also makes an archeologically important statement
in his autobiography that the "house itself was on a kind of
a knoll that became an island at high water" (LeConte 1903:15).
A symbol of a house is depicted on the 1844 plat map and
is located on the western portion of lot #2, Syphax Plantation,
which was drawn by Joseph LeConte during the settlement of
the estate (Liberty County 1844:189). After Louis' death
in 1838, the plantation was divided among his six children.
William LeConte had already received 'Olive Hill' and Jane

24
(now Mrs. John M.B. Harden) had been given her portion of
the property as a wedding gift. John drew lot #3 and
J.P. Stevens drew lot #1 for his wife, Ann LeConte. Joseph
drew lot #2, which was made up of Syphax Plantation and
the land surrounding the main house complex and settlement at
Woodmanston. Lewis LeConte, the youngest son, drew lot #4
The delineation of these parcels is illustrated on an 1844
plat map located in the Liberty County Courthouse (Liberty
County 1844:189).
What happened to the main house and its outbuildings
was a primary concern. Several possibilities were considered:
1) it may have been burned by Union General Sherman's troops;
2) the house may have been dismantled for building materials
by the newly freed slaves in the area after the Civil War;
3) or it may have simply decayed and fallen down with time.
Jane LeConte Harden resided in the Woodmanston home until 1843
when a new house at Halifax, a mile to the west, was completed.
The old house was used in 1846 by Joseph LeConte and his
bride as a honeymoon cottage (Black 1976:23). After that
the house and gardens seem to have been completely abandoned
for a time. Emma LeConte Furman states that in 1858 the
old house was still standing but going to ruin (Shaw 1975).
By 1866 a letter from Miss Mary Sharp Jones, in Children
of Pride, indicates the garden had already become overgrown
and in sad need of care (Myers 1972:196). The last reference
to the Woodmanston 'lodge' is from a letter written by

25
Joseph LeConte to his niece, Matilda Jane Harden Stevens,
Jane LeConte Harden's daughter, in Baker County, Georgia
in November of 1866;
Annie (Matilda Jane Harden Steven's sister) and Dr.
Adams will probably take possession of the old house
at Woodmanston. How I wish I could drop in upon
them all through winter. If I had time and money I
certainly would particularly as I hear the negroes
express great desire to see me again. But I fear
it is impossible this winter (American Philosophical
Society Library 1866).
This deletes the possiblity that the Woodmanston house
was burned or destroyed during Sherman's march through
Georgia.
The 1896 photographs indicate two structures on the
portion of the Woodmanston Plantation near the two Sabal
palms. The first seems to be a negro shanty fronted by
a pig fence and an okra patch. The second structure is
partially hidden behind a tree, but is in a advanced state
of decay (Figures 6,7). It is probable that the inhabitants
of these structures were former LeConte slaves. Construction
materials for these buildings were probably obtained from
the original plantation complex, possibly even the main
house. But there is also a chance that these shelters
may have actually been a part of that complex, which had
remained in use after the LeConte family abandoned the site.

26
LeConte Gardens
Although Louis LeConte kept himself busy with many
scientific interests throughout his life, his pride and
joy was always his garden. According to his son, Joseph,
About an acre of ground was set apart for this
purpose and much of his time, mornings and
afternoons was spent there, 'Daddy Dick', a
faithful and intelligent old negro being
employed under his constant supervision in keeping
it in order. Every day after his breakfast
he (Louis) took his last cup of coffee, his
second or third, in his hand, and walked about
the garden, enjoying its beauty and neatness and
giving minut directions for its care and
improvement. His especial pride was four or
five camellia trees I say trees, for even then
they were a foot in diameter and fifteen feet high.
I have seen the largest of these, a double white,
with a thousand blossoms open at once, each
blossom four or five inches in diameter, snow
white and double to the center. In the vicinity of
a large city such a tree would be worth a fortune,
but my father never thought no one did then -
of making any profit from his flowers; it was
sufficient to enjoy their beauty. (LeConte 1903:3-10).
These camellias were so productive that one tree
produced over 2,000 blossoms for a wedding in Walthourville
in 1861 (Stokes 1949:179).
His garden was famous in the United States and Europe
for its many bulbous plants and the cultivation of camellias
outside the hothouse. Many horticulturalists of the day
wrote in glowing terms about the garden. An article entitled
"Notes on Georgia Camelliana" in the 1949 Camellia Yearbook
presents an excellent summary of these sources, among them
Mr. Alexander Gordon's article in Loudon's Gardener's Magazine
written in 1832.

27
The garden of Lewis LeConte, Esq., near Riceborough,
in Liberty County, Georgia, forty miles south of
Savannah, is decidedly the richest in bulbs I have
ever seen; and their luxurience would astonish those
who have only seen them in the confined state in
which we are obliged to grow them in this country.
(Gordon 1832:287)
In 1854, correspondence between the- publication
The Soil of the South and an anonymous writer whose
pseudonym was 'Native Flora', includes a description
of what was probably the content of the LeConte gardens.
Through deduction, James Stokes, editor of "Notes on
Georgia Camelliana".has traced the authorship of this
letter to Ann LeConte Stevens, Louis' youngest daughter,
then residing in Walthourville. After several questions
regarding fruit trees and their cultivation, as well as
other garden inquiries, 'Native Flora' describes the
camellia trees on her family homestead not ten miles away.
You seemed delighted with Mrs. Marshall's find
camellia trees in Savannah. I am afraid you would
not credit me were I to describe several standing
in the garden of cur old family homestead about 10
miles from this place. My father planted them
upwards of 40 years ago; they were originally
obtained from the elder Prince, of Long Island.
Were these trees possessed by any of the New York
florists they would consider them an independent
fortune. Imagine what a magnificent appearance
they present in winter, completely covered from
their summit to the ground, with thousands and
thosands of flowers, expanded at one time,
contrasting with their glossy dark green foliage.
You might cut bushels of flowers from them
without missing them. These, with the beautiful
Chinese azaleas, decorate our parlors so
gorgeously in the months of December, January,
and February that we have no reason to complain
of winter being a gloomy season. (Soil of the
South 1854:725)

28
The Prince family to which 'Native Flora' refers, and
from whom her father, Louis, obtained his camellias, owned
the Linneaen Botanic Garden at Flushing, Long Island, New
York. According to Alexander Gordon,
The Messrs. Prince are most indefatigable in
their exertions to procure all foreign and native
plants; and in my intercourse with different
gentlemen, in various parts of the United States,
afforded by ample proof of this fact. Its
extent, the great variety it contains, the
multiplicity of agents employed for collection
and disseminating plants for and from it. (1832:280)
Unfortunately, none of Ann LeConte Steven's
correspondence contained a drawing or layout of the garden.
In a letter from Dr. Frances Harper to James Stokes,
Dr. Harper recounts a previous correspondence with Professor
Joseph Nisbet LeConte in 1933;
Miss Julia King, of Colonel's Island, once had
a book on Gardens and Gardening, in which was a
drawing of my grandfather's botanical garden,
this picture having been made by Bartram. I
have never been able to trace this supposed
publication, and I am quite skeptical as to
a drawing by Bartram. Unfortunately, a copy
of this publication has not been found. (Stokes
1949:180)
Various private, public and university libraries
and rare booksellers, both here and abroad, have been
contacted concerning the existence of such a book, but the
search has been unsuccessful. See Appendix A for a listing
of this extensive correspondence.
A list of 40 bulbous plants has been located by
Dr. George Rogers, of Georgia Southern College, in the
John Lawrence LeConte Collection in the American Philosophical
Library at Philadelphia. The list is dated 1813-1815 and

29
is believed to have been the original property of John
Lawrence LeConte's father, Major John Eatton LeConte.
It contained the germination and flowering times of similar
varieties in the Georgia coastal area today (Black 1976:6).
Several varieties of Narcissus, Leucojum, Crocus, Iris,
Gladiolus, Hyacinthus, Lillium, Scilla, Ornithogalum,
Amaryllis and Pancratium are represented (American Philosophical
Society 1813). For a complete bulb list see Appendix B.
Although we have not located a map or formal listing
of plants and trees included in the Louis LeConte garden,
we may infer the inclusion of many native varieties.
'Native Flora' wrote to Soil of the South entreating people
to include such native plants in their lawns and gardens
(1854:90,92). See Appendix Cfor a complete list.
Louis LeConte's love of nature influenced the lives
of all of his children. His two daughters, Jane LeConte
Harden and Ann LeConte Stevens, followed in his footsteps.
Jane LeConte Harden had a lovely garden built at Halifax,
just a mile from Woodmanston, which contained a tiered
garden and a swan pond. There is a picture taken in 1949 of
the moat surrounding the island, which was a portion of the
garden landscape of Halifax. This island contained several
camellias until a forest fire in the 1930s obliterated them.
The only remaining camellia plants of this former garden are
two Camellia sinensis (Stokes 1949:180,181). Emma LeConte
describes this garden in some detail in her journal.

30
There were the flowers of Aunt Jane's wonderful garden.
She inherited her father's love of flowers and Botany
a large square garden with a circular mound in the midst
in three diminishing tiers, the topmost and smallest
filled with a huge cycas palm whose long leaves drooped
over the brick terrace wall. In this garden was every
known variety of camellia, single and double purest
white to deepest red-rose and blush and variegated
great bushes like trees. Huge azalea- bushes, not yet in
bloom, and but the magnolia fuscata and tea olive were
(in bloom), and many other shrubs and daffodils, jonquils
and narcissi and many other bulbs-violets. More flowers
than I can remember and this was December! (Shaw 1975)
It is probable that Jane LeConte Harden was influenced
greatly by her father in the organization and planning of
her garden. It also seems likely that many of the plants
at the Halifax garden were propagated from original specimens
or transplanted from the old garden. Based on these
assumptions we may gain a somewhat clearer notion of the
character of the LeConte garden at Woodmanston.
In 1853 Ann LeConte Stevens planned a botanic and
floral garden for her home in Walthourville, and sought
aid from the editors of The Soil of the South. Her garden
was to include fruit trees of several varieties and
exotic as well as native trees and flowers.
The plan for a flower garden which I (Ann) have
drawn on paper is in the Arabesque Style, with
figures imbedded in the lawn. How would you
prepare the ground what manures would you
employ, in which quantites, and how apply? What
grasses should be sown fo form a permanent green
surface like velvet where can it be procured,
and at what price? The beds are to be bricked in -
should this be done before or after the grass is
sown? This garden will be about 40 vards square.
(1853:725)

31
In 1851 in an address before the Southern Agricultural
Society, the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, Jr., mentioned the
camellia, the oleander, the gardenia and the tea rose
as becoming rapidly indigenous in the milder portion of the
state. He particularly mentioned the grounds of the
"late Mr. LeConte of Liberty County. There are seasons
of the year when one literally walks upon camellias and their
seed is freely matured in the open air (Stokes 1949:175).
According to James Stokes, this address was a potent
factor in the almost complete obleiteration of camellias
from the old Woodmanston Plantation in Liberty County.
By 1896 the remaining camellias had reached tree like
proportions, one measuring 56 inches in circumference
(LeConte 1903:10). Photographs taken during Joseph's
last visit to Georgia show their relative size (Figures 6,7).
Col. John R.L. Smith of Macon, son-in-law of Mrs.
Emma LeConte Furman, visited the old plantation site of
Woodmanston in 1910 and reported that at that time the
old Double White camellia tree was still standing. In 1930
G.3. Eunice, County Agent of Liberty County, visited
Woodmanston and reported that the large Double White camellia
was not present but several other large trees remained. One
of the large ones was a particularly beautiful variegated
form. Three days later he returned to get some cuttings
from this particular camellia and found that it had been

32
removed by professionals. There was a large hole, several
feet square, to mark the plant's former location.
It is evident that between 1930 and 1933 the LeConte
botanic garden was stripped of most of its remaining
camellias. In 1933 Dr. Francis Harper, a well-known
naturalist of Philadelphia, visited Woodmanston and
found that only a few Cherokee roses remained on what was
a bank of the old garden (Stokes 1949:180).
In 1949 a visit to the old plantation site was made
by Dr. Clyde E. Keeler and Mr. and Mrs. James Stokes.
They reported that at that time no buildings were left
to mark the site of the Woodmanston homestead. The area
was a wilderness and a photograph taken then shows the same
two Sabal palms that may be observed in the 1897 photograph
(Stokes 1949:181) (Figure 6). There was, however, only one
camellia left as a remnant of the once glorious garden,
It was a single flowered red seedling of large size, but
was in a sad state of neglect. A portion of this original
camellia was remarkably still in existance at the Woodmanston
Plantation site in 1979, and was seen at various times during
the year by Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern College,
and Dr. Charles Fairbanks and Jennifer Hamilton of the
University of Florida and many interested Garden Clubs of
Georgia members.

33
By the early part of the twentieth century, ownership
of the Woodmanston Plantation was no longer in LeConte family
hands. In 1911 Syphax Plantation was sold by Emma LeConte
Furman and Sarah LeConte Davis, Joseph LeConte's daughters,
to C.B. Jones and A.F. Winn for lumber purposes. Ann
LeConte Stevens also sold her portion to C.B. Jones and
A.F. Winn in 1911 (Liberty County 1911:340,345). If any
structures were left at this time surely decay and looting
would have taken their toll.
Rice Culture
When Louis' father, John Eatton LeConte, established
Woodmanston Plantation about 1770, the Indian territory was
just over the Altamaha River, only 15 to 20 miles away, and
what is now McIntosh County was a 'no man's land', a neutral
ground, between the Indians and colonists. Woodmanston's
location was therefore vulnerable, and it was frequently
raided by the local Indians. Consequently, John Eatton was
forced to fortify Woodmanston with a stockade and arms as
defensive measures.
The Woodmanston Plantation was a self sufficient enterprise.
In Joseph LeConte's autobiography he recounts,
there were tanneries in which the hides of slaughtered
cattle were made into leather. There was a shoemaker's
shop, where from the leather made on the place the
shoes for all the negroes were made by negro shoemakers.
There were blacksmith and carpenter shops, where all
the work needed on the plantation was done by negro
blacksmiths and carpenters. All the rice raised on the
plantation was threshed, winnowed, and beaten by machinery
made on the site, driven by horsepower, and the horses
by negro boys. All the cotton was ginned and cleaned

34
and packed on the place. As the cotton was Sea Island,
or long-staple, Whitney's invention was of no use, and
only roller gins could be used, at first, foot-gins,
and later horse-gins. For the same reason viz. the
fineness of the staple the cotton was all packed by
hand and foot, the packer standing in the suspended
bag. All these operations of tanning, shoemaking,
blacksmithing, carpentering, rhe threshing, winnowing,
and beating of rice, and the ginning,- cleaning and
packing of cotton, were watched with interest by us
boys, and often we gave a helping hand ourselves.
There was special interest in the ginning of cotton
by foot and the threshing of the rice by flail, because
these were carried on by great numbers working together,
the one by women, and the other by men, and always with
singing and shouting and keeping time with the work.
The negroes themselves enjoyed it hugely. (LeConte 1903:8,9).
Cows, pigs and sheep were also raised. Ninety cattle, 16
hogs and 13 sheep were listed in the 1838 appraisal of the
estate of Louis LeConte (Liberty County 1838).
My father always attended personally to this place,
on foot in winter, when living on the plantation,
on horseback when the family was in the summer
retreat in Jonesville about three miles away.
But during the period of his ill health he was not
able to attend to the duties of the plantation and
about 200 slaves, so for a year employed an overseer,
the only one he ever had. (LeConte 1903:8,9).
According to the appraisals of the estate made at Louis'
death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230 slaves
valued at $87,980, almost 97 percent of the total estimated
value of the entire estate, excluding land values (Liberty
County 1833).
The success of Woodmanston Plantation, as well as others
in Georgia, was not due to good engineering and management
alone, but was primarily due to the immigration of many
wealthy Carolina planters who come to Georgia to settle
in the area with their families and negro slaves.

35
The reason for this immigration was the changes made
by the British Government and Trustees of the Georgia Colony,
which for the first time allowed slavery and the issuance of
land grants. The early 1760s saw an actual decline in
the population of Georgia because people could not make a
living off the land. Therefore, without the slaves, the success
of the rice culture would not have been possible on the
major scale which it eventually attained.
The immigrants from the Carolinas who came into this
wilderness area had to clear the tidal swampland which
consisted of a matted tangle of cypress, gum, ash, huge
grapevines and cane. The soil under the dense undergrowth
was too soft to walk on and a great variety of wildlife
including alligators, turtles, water moccasins, and
copperheads abounded. To abserve the scene at that
time and envision an orderly rice plantation with many
miles of embankments enclosing the crops was a testimony
to the ingenuity and ambition which the joint problems of
agriculture and economics were approached in the seventeenth
century (Gunn 1975:2).
There was a limited amount of available land which
offered the natural hydraulics required for the successful
operation of a gravity flow rice plantation. In order to
solve problems of 'on' and 'off' aquaculture flow, and to
maintain the water at the required levels for good plant
growth, the planters utilized the so called 'inland swamp

36
system'. This was the type of irrigation used at Woodmanston
and it was one of the earliest systems for rice cultivation
employed along the southeast coast.
The almost level river flood plains were cleared, and
then irrigated, by building embankments to divert the water
from nearby streams and rivers which flowed through the
cypress swamp, and by creating an artificial upland reservoir
at a slightly higher elvation than the rice fields for the
collection, and later use of, rainwater and runoff during
the dry season. Natural gravitation was therefore utilized,
via a system of trunk gates, sluiceways and canals, to
control the flow of water on and off the rice fields which were
located at a slightly lower elevation.
The 'off' flow or drainage, when dry culture was needed,
was achieved by constructing a system of drainage ditches and
gates which led the water off the rice fields via a drainage
channel located at a lower elevation downstream fro the main
upland water reservoir. These earthworks were not as
elaborate as those needed to operate the tidal-flow irrigation
system, which were developed at a later date. Nevertheless,
they required a reservoir of such good construction and large
capacity as to not only contain the flood waters of spring
freshets which swept down from the piedmont, but also to provide
adequate water for irrigation of the growing rice crop
throughout the dry summer months.

37
The system of water level regulation relied on the
fact that the direction of flow was always in the same
direction, i.e., downstream from the reservoir. The trunk
gates were the regulatory key to the entire hydraulic
system and had to work with a fine degree of precision.
The most effective irrigation schedule called for four
separate flooding on, and draining off, cycles. The last
cycle known as the 'lay-by', or 'harvest' flow, kept the
rice fields flooded 40 or 50 days, and required close
precision in regulating the depth of the water on the fields
to within a fraction of an inch. The purpose of the 'harvest:1
flow was to support the forming heads of the rice plants which
had to be held at a level "up to the head or the point where
the ear was forming" (Black 1976:11-14).
A description of early rice cultivation is found in a
Description of South Carolina. Here it is revealed that
good crops are produced even the first year,
when the surface of the earth appears in some
degree covered with the trunks and branches of trees;
the proper months for sowing rice are March, April
and May; the method is to plant it is trenches, or
rows made with a hoe, about 3 inches deep; the land
must be pretty clear from woods; and the latter end
of August or beginning of September, it will be fit
to be reaped. (Carroll 1836:201)
Water culture was used, not only as a means of
irrigation, but also as a method for the systematic
destruction of weeds and insects, and allowed the soils to
be replenished and nourished annually by the silt from
upstream (Phillips 1929:117).

38
The practice of sowing in rows 18 inches apart appears
to have been general practice as late as 1775. "Rice is
sowed in furrows about 18 inches distant: a peck usually
sows an acre, which yields seldom less than 30 bushels or
more than 50 bushels, but generally between these two,
accordingly as the land is better or worse" (Carroll 1836:251).
Modification of the practice came after the Revolutionary
War when the quantity planted per acre was said to be three
bushels. This was accomplished by placing furrows closer
together.
In the Carolina-Georgia lowlands, the fields, after
a preliminary braking, were laid off in broad shallow
drills, 12 to 15 inches apart, in which the seed were
strewn. If the rice seed had previously been "clayed"
by soaking in mud, the water was at once let on to
cover the furrows and sprout the crop. But if unciayed
seed were used they were covered lightly by hoeing and
the 'sprout flow' was omitted. Some planters followed
one system, and some the other. Practice also varied
as to the schedule of the later flows, though most
commonly where the tide was available they included the
'point flow', begun when the seedlings were visible
above the ground, thelong flow' when the stalks were
approaching full height and need help in upholding
their heavy heads against the winds. Between the flows
the fields were drained and the weeds and grass pulled
or chopped out (Phillips 1929:115).
The choice of good sites for gravity flow rice plantations
had always been narrowly limited by the need for a plentiful
water supply. The brook swamps which were used by some of
the first planters, were abandoned within a half century
after tidal flow plantations were pioneered, even though
the engineering effort required to transform the tidal swamp
into a place capable of producing a rice crop was an enormous

39
undertaking. Flooding and draught were the major problems
of the inland swamp system, as stated by Nathaniel Pendleton,
as early as 1796, "the uncertainty of being able to collect
sufficient water on an inland swamp in dry seasons, the
difficulty of draining them at the proper time in wet ones,
and the inferiority of the soil" (Thayer 1957:77).
Therefore, after the Revolutionary War (1783) there
was a gradual shift from 'inland swamp' or 'brook swamp'
culture of rice, such as that used at Woodmanston, to the
'tidal flow' system. Although more elaborate preparation
of the land was necessary for the control of water, this
system proved to be more efficient since it utilized
natural tidal action to flood the fields. The control
of water flow, thus established, was automatic and complete
as long as the banks, trunks, and gates were kept in good order.
The tidal flow system, though more efficient, was
hazardous, nevertheless. Animals sometimes undermined the
banks or bored holes through them to make a channel into
which the water could break through. More damaging, a flood
from the uplands could wreck the levee, or a hurricane
might drive ocean water inshore and raise it to an overtopping
height. Such adverse situations could break down the banks,
thereby allowing salt water to contaminate the fields to the
extent that several years of leaching would be required
to render the soil sweet again. Tide-flow fields, furthermore
were so narrow that the per acre upkeep of banks, trunks, and
drains eventually proved excessively expensive, and other

40
tracts, which were continuously cultivated over many years
introudced an oxidation of humus in the soil and a consequent
lowering of the surface to a point where it was no longer
above the level of low tide, and therefore unworkable
(Phillips 1929:117-118).
Louis' son, Joseph LeConte, discussed rice processing on
Woodmanston plantation as it was done during his childhood.
He noted that the entire processes of harvesting, threshing,
winnowing, grinding, a second winnowing and finally milling
were performed on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22,23).
The rice could be harvested with sickles while still a
little green, it was then left on the stubble to dry, for
about two or three days, and then it was housed or put in large
stacks. Afterwards, it was threshed with a flail, and then
winnowed (Carroll 1836:201). The flail had to hit just right
to remove the rice from the stalk. A drawing of a flail can
be seen in Eric Sloan's A Museum of Early American Tools
(1964:98). It is made up of a 'hand staff' and a 1souple
connected by leather thongs and a swivel 'hood'.
Winnowing was formerly a very tedious operation. A
large wooden winnowing scoop such as the one sketched in Sioane's
A Museum of Early American Tools, was used to throw the flailed
grain into the air to separate the grain from the chaff
(1964:105). After the introduction of innovations such as
the winnowing house and the 'wind fan', about 1750, this
process became much easier. It is not known whether the

41
wind fan was used on the LeConte plantation, but since the
LeContes were men of science we can reasonably assume that
they would be aware of the latest agricultual inovation.
The next part of the process was grinding, which was
done in small mills made of wood, of about two feet in
diameter to remove the outer hull from the kernal. It was
winnowed again, after which it was put into a wooden mortar
sufficient to contain about half a bushel. It was then
beaten with a large pestle to free the rice from the inner
skin (Carroll 1836:200).
Emma LeConte Furman remembers her childhood days
at Halifax, John M.B. Harden's plantation; "and yonder
hands beating out the rice. The primitive implements being
hollowed out cypress knee and a smooth cypress pestle"
(Shaw 1975). Before the end of the eighteenth century,
mills were introduced for the same purpose. The mechanical
process of milling was accomplished
by setting a row of slotted timbers to slide vertically
as pestles. The revolving of a horizontal beam nearby,
pierces with spokes long enough to reach into the slots,
would successively lift the pestles and let them fall
into the grain filled mortars below. After the pounding
there came the second winnowing, sifting and polishing
of the rice (Phillips 1929:115).
The rice on the Woodmanston Plantation was 'threshed,
winnowed and beaten' by horsedriven machinery which was
made on the plantation. As was the practice of the day, it
is probable that the "whole grains were barreled for market,
the broken grains were mainly kept for home consumption,

42
and the by-product rice flour was fed to livestock unless
it could be sold to brewers" (Phillips 1929:115).
As important agricultural developments such as planting
the furrows closer together, and the use of larger quantities
of seed per acre, were introduced, the yield per man
increased dramatically. As had been noted, in the middle
of the eighteenth century, "a good hand made four and one
half barrels of rice, each weighing about 500 pounds neat,"
or a total of 2,250 pounds. A few years later, just before
the Revolutionary War, De Brahm stated that "each slave
cultivated four acres of rice," and another account of about
the same period placed the product of each slave at about
"75 bushels weighing 65 pounds each," or a total of 4,865 pounds.
If, as it was claimed, each acre yielded about 25 bushels,
one slave could cultivate three acres of rice. However, just
after the Revolutionary War, it was reported that each negro
on William Washington1s inland swamp plantation cultivated
four to four and one half acres of rice, or a total of 7,312
pounds (Gray 1958:284).
In The Agricultural History of the Southern United States,
the yield of the rice fields was discussed: the yield of rice
per acre and per man was not as large in the colonial period
as it later came to be because of improvements in cultivation
and milling.
These yields per acre were far above that which oriental
rice producers had been able to achieve in their recorded history.

43
"In 1850 there were only 551 rice plantations in the
United States, as compared to 74,031 cotton plantations;
15,745 tobacco plantations and 2,681 sugar plantations"
(Black 1976:15). Considering this relatively small number
of rice plantations, their dominant influence on colonial
history proves their historical significance.
The total amount of investment necessary to start
and profitably run a rice plantation has been documented
in the following reports:
To undertake a rice plantation in this province does
by several years experience prove to attend the
following aricles, expenses, and profits.
Supposing the land to be purchased as
10/ per acre vide, 200 acres
To build a barn and pounding machine
purchased board and timber
To purchase 40 working hands
To purchase working oxen and horses
To two carts and collars
To hoes, axes, spades and other
plantation tools
To annual expenses for tax and quit
rent Lb. 5 & first year's provision
Lb. 50
To overseers wages
To negroes shoes Lb. 6-10 Ditto cloth
Lb. 20-0 & 13 blankets per annum:
Lb. 5-6
To a box of medicines & doctor's fees
Lb. 20 for deaths of negroes per
annum Lb. 100
Lb.
100-0-0
220-0-0
1,800 -0-0
60-0-0
10-0-0
30-0-0
50-0-0
50-0-0
31 -16 0
120 -0-0
2,476 -16 0
The aforementioned number of negroes will plant 130 acres
of rice, making 350 barrels at 40/ per Lb. 700 0 0;
also 70 acres of provision, will nearly clear Lb. 23-5
5 percent interest.
The next year's prevision article falling away, the
expended capital will only be Lb. 2,426 16 0, and
the interest on it will nearly be Lb. 29 percent.
Those who plant indigo will raise their interest much

44
higher. N.B. the above calculation is on land, which
is already cleared and fenced, for if this is to be
done so full a crop cannot be expected at the first,
and at times not the second year, especially if the
undertaker is not a professed planter, and has not a
very faithfull and industrious well experienced
overseer. (De Brahm 1760: 162, 163)
In a "Short Account of the Sea Coast of Georgia,"
written by Nathaniel Pendleton in 1800, the expense of
settling a rice estate was estimated as follows:
Lands sufficient for 40 working negroes
are 200 acres of rice land, and 400
acres of timber land
3 dlls (dollars) per acre 1800.
50 negroes great and small at 125 dls. 6250.
Building, machines, etc. 750.
Casualties & other incidental expenses 6 20.
$10,670.
It is estimated one year is supposed to be devoted
to clearing the land, and ditching and banking it
for planting, and, therefore, one year's expense
is considered as so much capital advanced. The
negroes are supposed to be bought on the coast of
Africa, or they would cost more, perhaps 200 each
on an average. They might be imported for 100
dols. at present. The crops produced on rice
estates vary very much according to the state of
improvement the land is in. No crop can be more
certain when the land is in high state of perfection,
that is, when the trunks, floodgates, banks, and
canals are in such a state, that the tide may
be let off and on at pleasure. 200 acres of ground
may be cultivated by 40 negroes, each acre of tide
swamp produces on the lowest computation 1200 lb.
net rice and on the highest 1800 lb. The lowest
price of rice since the peace of 1783 has been 2
dollars per hundred, at present it sells at 6 dollars
and a half per hundred. Take the lowest
computation and the lowest price... (Thayer 1957:80)
Pendleton was the administrator of William LeConte's
estate in 1787. It is possible that some of the preceding
figures came from the Woodmanston or the San Souci Plantations.
The probate for the estate of William LeConte lists 100

45
barrels of rice ready for market which was appraised at $300
and 34 adult slaves plus their families. This seems to
be an average size rice plantation for this period.
Plantations such as these supported the towns of
Charleston and Savannah, as well as Beaufort and Sunbury,
and enable them to develop into enviable centers of commerce
and social life. This relatively stable situation provided
the environment for financial success and the refinement
of a culture peculiar to the old south.
Woodmanston remained a productive rice plantation
until after Louis' death in 1838, within six years it had
been divided into six tracts. During this period wet
rice culture was beginning to be abandoned and dry culture
was adopted for health reasons. Remnants of the dams and
canals used in the plantation can still be seen on the
Woodmanston site, but the entire area is now covered by
cypress and tpelo trees.
In 1861 Joseph Jones wrote an excellent description of
similar environs that accurately describe the Woodmanston
we see today.
We may, in these swamps, see everywhere the marks
of former cultivation in old embankments covered
with large trees and the enclosed lands which were
once clothed with golden rice, now support dense
forests of cypress, tpelo, and gum; and the once
deep and broad canals, which were used by the ancients
to drain these swamps, are now covered with trees and
and choked up with trunks and limbs of dead trees
and accumulated sediment (Wilms 1972:51).
/

46
Slaves
Unfortunately we do not have a tremendous amount
of information concerning the LeConte slaves, the
people who actually worked the land, but through personal
oral interviews of descendants of slaves-, census reports,
estate administrations and family documents we may be
able to piece together a better, more complete picture of
slave life on the Liberty County plantation.
The 1787 administration of the estate of William
LeConte contains as appraisal of the Woodmanston Plantation.
Fifty-one slaves are listed by family names; 14 families
and six single males are included. The United States
Census of 1820, 1830, and 1840 give the number of slaves:
1820 158; 1830 217; 1840 141 (after division of the
estate) (U.S. Census 1820, 1830, 1840). The slaves which
were owned by the LeConte family over the years were simply
passed from father to son as part of the ownership of the
plantation, as was the practice at that time. It is most
probable that some of the original 34 slaves still survived
until 1820, the additional number being their offspring,
although new slaves may have been purchased locally.
At certain times of the year, this labor force was supplemented
by workers from San Souci Plantation.
At least a portion of the LeConte negroes were purchased
from the partnership of Robert John and James Smythe of
Charleston. This is evidence in a letter to Major John Berrien,

47
administrator of the estate of William LeConte in July
of 1787 found in the probate records of Chatham County Courthouse.
Charleston 18 July, 1787
Major John Berrien
Sir
Being informed that you have administered on the
Estate of William LeConte deceased I take the
liberty of acquainting you of a demand of the
estate by the late partnership of Robert John and
James Smythe of this place. The Debt was contracted
on bond for negroes sold him here in the year 1773.
Since which payments have been made, but the balance
remaining still exceeds Lb. 110 sterling you will
do me a favor in informing me by the very first
conveyance, what is become of the Estate and when
a dependence can be placed on the payment, and
in what manner you sill be able to accomplish
it- On receipt of your answer I shall transmit
you a particular state of the bond.
Sir
Your Very Obediant Servant
John Smythe
No. 11 Ellery Street
In the autobiography of Joseph LeConte he mentions that;
During my boyhood there were on the plantation
three very old negroes who were native Africans
and remembered their African home. They were Sissy,
a little old man bent almost double; Nancy, an old
woman with filed teeth; and Charlotte, who left
Africa according to her own account, when she was
twelve. All of them, of course, were superannuated
and taken care of without renumeration (1903:28,29).
A 'Charlotte' and 'Nancy' are listed on the 1787 administration
appraisal of Woodmanston as married women, Charlotte had
four children. If she left Africa at 12 and was purchased
not long after her arrival in America, and was part of the 1773
agreement with Smythe of Charleston, she would have been 26

48
years of age at the 1787 administration and could have
had four living children by that time.
Joseph LeConte was born in 1823. By the time he
reached the 'age of remembering' (1830) these three slaves
would have been almost 75 years old, an -amazing age for
anyone in those times.
In the Georgia Gazette (September 9, 1774) an advertisement
was placed by Robert Bolton for a runaway slave:
Run away from John Eatton LeConte, a negro fellow
named Johnny, who formerly belonged to Mr. William
Wyley, he is well set fellow and is well known in
this town, where he keeps. Any person delivering him
to the Warden of the Workhouse shall receive two
shillings reward.
This notice is evidence that at least a portion of the
LeConte slaves were purchased from local sources.
The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate again
enumerated the slaves by name and estimated monetary value.
Several people are referred to as "old" sos an so. This
term may simply have been used to refer to the relative
ages of several slaves bearing the same name. An example
might be: Old Rachel $300; Young Rachel $600; Child
Rachel $50 (Liberty County 1838) However, some of the
"old" people may indeed be the children of the negroes
who made up the original LeConte investment.
Not all of the negroes on the Woodmanston Plantation
were slaves. The July 12, 1823 edition of the Georgian
published a list of:

49
persons of color who claim to be free, were born in the
County of Liberty, and State of Georqia, have resided
in said State during their whole lives, and have had
their names registered in my office as is required by
law (The Georgian 1823).
Bess, a seamstress, aged 30 years, and residing at Mr.
Louis LeConte's was included on that list.
William L. LeConte, Louis/ grandson, described his
father's "negro quarters" on the Olive Hill Plantation.
These quarters were some quarter of a mile from the
"big house", and consisted of cabins strung alonq
two parrallel rows the doors facinq each other, so
as to make two sides of a parallelogram. The side
next to the home-stead was left open, while the
opposite side of the parallelogram was occupied by
a neat chapel, capable of seatinq all of our own
negroes, and on special occasions, such of the negroes
on neighboring farms as might wish to attend Sabbath
services. (1900:3)
A slave settlement is indicated on the 1844 plat map
just north of the main dike. Unfortunately we were unable
to find any remaining evidence of slave cabins or other
structures in this area.
An interview with a local inhabitant of Liberty
County in 1979, whose qrandparaents had been former
LeConte slaves, gave us some information concerning
plantation life. He said that his grandparents told him
they had lived in 'pole' houses with two rooms, one for
sleeping and he 'supposed' one for cooking (Flesch 1979).
An 1360 unpublished census report on the slave
population lists Joseph as owning 63 slaves and 13 houses,
and John as owninq 45 slaves and 10 houses; approximately
five persons per house. These men inherited their work

50
force from their father and probably provided the same
type of accomodations.
According to the appraisals of the estate made at
Louis' death in 1838, the plantation was supported by 230
slaves valued at $37,980, which was almost 97 percent of
the total estimated value of the entire estate, excluding
land value (Liberty 1838). Family documents reflect kind
treatment and close ties between master and slave.
Several instances, both before and after the Civil War,
of mutual concern have been recorded. A photograph of
Emma LeConte Furman's domestic servants taken in 1897
depicts a well dressed family on the steps of her home in
Berkeley, California. A caption is included in an
accompanying letter from Caroline LeConte to Helen Grier
LeConte, John L. LeConte's wife:
I take the liberty also of sending you a group of
darkies, the descendent of negroes which have been
born and bred there for nearly 100 years Walter-
his wife and children is the carriage driver and
grand Tycoon of the inner temple, the boss about
the premises his wife is Emma's cook, the other
scions of various ages tote the water and cut the
wood and otherwise do jobs around. They pride
themselves on their aristocratic lineage and guite
sneer at the poor white trash in the neighborhood -
the new times of freedom have wrought no change in
these old family negroes they are perfectly devoted
to Emma's interests and are entirely satisfied with
their present arrangement. (LeConte 1897)

CHAPTER III
ARCHEOLOGY
Research Methodology
Archeological investigation of the LeConte-Woodmanston
Plantation began in March, 1979 under the direction of
Dr. Rochelle Marrinan, Georgia Southern College, and
Jennifer Hamilton, University of Florida. Preliminary
inspection suggested a high degree of surface disturbance
which ranged from outright bulldozer removal of soils for
road construction to extensive dissection caused by clear
cutting. The problem of providing information from
archeological evidence to assist the LeConte-Woodmanston
Trustees with interpretive plans was a major goal of the
research.
The basic research strategy can be characterized as
a diagnostic survey with a small amount of formal excavation.
It was felt this course of action was necessary in order
to best answer the goals of the Garden Club. According to
Section 1 of the contract between the Garden Clubs of Georgia,
Inc. and Georgia Southern College (1978);
The Georgia Southern College shall do or cause to be done
the following:
a. Test proposed parking area (60 x 100 feet) to clear
for use.
b. Test proposed orientation area (size presently
unspecified).
51

52
c. Testing to discover former location of LeConte garden.
d. Testing and excavation to determine house area.
e. Survey and testing to locate outbuildings and slave
settlements.
A major difficulty to archeological investigation at
the Woodmanston site is the degree of subsurface disturbance
caused by lumbering activities, agriculture and removal
of soil for road construction.
In archeological sites disturbed by cultural activities
subsequent to the period of major interest, either historic
or aboriginal, there is still the possiblity of retrieving
significant cultural information. Evaluations of the
potential of a disturbed site must consider habitat uniqueness
vis a vis resources, physical characteristics, temporal
distinctiveness, kind and variety of activities, quality
of preservation, significance to the local public, and
significance to the regional research design. One must
take into account the amount and type of disturbance
which has occured in each specific instance. "As long as the
cause and pattern of disturbance can be outlined, the
archeologist can add the disturbance variable into the
interpretation of the remaining distribution of artifacts"
(Talmadge et al. 1977:7,11).
Agricultural activities, pot hunting and other destructive
forces may move and or remove some materials but they do not
completely destroy the integrity of the site. Within badly
disturbed sites, several goals may still be approached.
The interpretation of the spatial distribution of artifacts
and features, techniques in tool manufacture, change through

53
time, chronological placement of artifacts, and the
amount of correspondence between surface and subsurface
remains may be explored. The approximate location of
structures, site utilization and technological information
may also be available (Talmadge et al. 1977:8).
LeConte-Woodmanston may be taken as a case in point.
Twentieth century land use has been predominantly lumber
production, cattle raising, and hunting. The area has been
timbered and clear cut and replaced by a pine cash crop.
During initial reconnaissance of the area considerable
damage from logging and lumbering activities was noted.
A portion of the site, just east of the plantation era
landmarks, had been completely removed for use as fill
dirt in the construction of access roads.
The only record of prior archeolgoical investigation
in the area had been done by Gordon Midgette in 1972 and
reads as follows:
In the work that I did at Woodmanston my primary
objective was to identify (from historical
documents and existing botanical remnants) the
general layout of the house, gardens, rice paddies,
etc. I was convinced by Colonel Black's notes and
the personal observations of several other people
that at least a portion of the house site was
still intact as well as part of the garden, the
central axis of the main dam and possibly some
outbuildings within 200 yards of the main house.
I shovel scooped and recorded about 200 square
feet of an area about 100 yards from the main house
that yielded substantial evidence of a wooden wall
and wall trench. This would have been a stockade.
I also recorded most of the existing plants and
trees that seem to be remnants of the gardens and
other plantings in the area of the house site.

54
Surface evidence was extensive for bricked pilings,
walks, and possibly foundations or floors of the
late eighteenth early nineteenth century...(where
the floor is paved brick and sunk slightly below the
original surface of the ground. In the earlier structures
this would be as much as three or four feet.) A
good example is the structure described in my Evelyn
site National Register form. The china that I
recovered from the surface was all within the time
frame expected and correlated with the historical
period ascribed to the house. (Midgette 1972)
This brief note did not provide substantial information for
the present study. The site has become considerably more
overgrown in the last seven years and the only areas easily
accessible are the entrance road and a small area around the
seedling camellia. We were unable to locate the "extensive
surface evidence of pilings, walks, and possibly foundations
or floors of the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century",
since there is no record of the exact location of Midgette's
shovel testing nor his proposed location of the big house
in relation to any standing features on the site such as the
palms, camellia or dike. Dense vegetation and heavy leaf
cover made adequate surface investigation almost impossible,
In addition it was difficult to place any degree of confidence
on the negative result of such a survey.
Archeological goals during the spring excavations were
dictated by the Department of Natural Resources proposed
development plan. This plan emphasized interpretation of
the plantation era site components, the natural setting and
use as a habitat for endangered plant species (LeConte
Woodmanston Trustees: 1978) (Figure 8). In order to provide
necessary guidance for the Garden Club development of the site,

55
our assessment focused on the impact of proposed structures;
the parking lot, visitor interpretation center, and nature
walks on the existing cultural resources and the location
and identification of the remaing plantation era resources.
Transects and Auger Testing
In order to ascertain the extent of the site still
remaining intact a series of linear transects covering the
major areas in question were cleared. This included the
proposed parking area on the northeast corner of the site
which had previously been cleared and used as a source
of fill for the entrance road; the orientation area just
west of the parking facilities; the region encompassing
the palms, the crepe myrtle, the seedling camellia and
the stand of old pecans which is a possible location for
the main house and garden; and the area northwest of the
dike and across the entrance road.
Approximately five percent of the upland was covered
by the series of linear transects which were used to
control a program of mechanical auger and posthole testing
(Figures 9,10). A gas driven 4-inch mechnical auger
was used along with standard posthole diggers. Both worked
well, each had its advantages and disadvantages. The
posthole diggers were more time consuming than the auger,
but they resulted in a wider hole and artifacts were broken
less frequently. Also it provided a clearer picture of
the stratigraphy. The auger, however, is much more

56
efficient in terms of time per test. A great distance can
be covered in a day. It, too, has its disadvantages, such
as the noise and gas fumes and the possibility of getting
caught in roots and clay.
Two teams executed approximately 40' tests per day,
each test extended approximately three feet or until the
drill reached hard packed clay. The test interval was three
meters. Test material was caught in a metal tray and
screened through quarter inch hardware cloth. Findings were
plotted and areas of culturally positive tests were noted
(Figure 11). Surface clearing for positioning auger tests
required substantial crew hours but was the most efficient
method of sampling a maximum area with the least expenditure
of time. This form of testing made it possible to compare
the sparse surface indications with the distribution of
archeological refuse over a large part of the site. For
the most part there does not seem to be a one to one
correlation. Although this may sometimes be so in plowed
field sites, heavy ground cover presents different problems.
Auger testing has been used successfully as a means of
delineating site extent, determination of artifact
distribution and site composition; and testing correlation
between surface and subsurface material in both historic
and prehistoric sites by Deagan and Bostwick in St. Augustine,
Percy at the Torreya site in Liberty County, Florida and by
Coblentz and Powell in the Lubbub Creek Project (Deagan
et al. 1376: 3ostwick and Wise, in press; Percy 1976;

57
Coblentz and Powell 1979). Price, Hunter and McMichael used
a 200 pound solid core drill for approximately the same purposes
but the lightweight two man auger offers a much more practical
alternative.
A total of 504 auger and posthole tests were made on
the Woodmanston site, with 17 percent containing material
artifacts. The proposed parking area, land designated on
the 1844 plat map as various agricultural fields, was cross
cut using three transects which covered the section that
had been cleared and stripped of top soil for road construction
and the land to the west which still retained much of the
natural vegetation (Figure 11). A total of 195 auger tests
were performed in this region and only one contained any
cultural material. This test was located within a few
yards of the entrance road and was undoubtadly already
badly disturbed. The potential for archeological information
in this portion of the site is very small.
The orientation area which would eventually function
as a mean of introduction for visitors to the site has also
been tested by means of linear transects and posthole tests.
Twenty tests were performed in this area and six contained
cultural material, including nails, brick fragments, glass
and ceramics. Concentrations of a positive nature in this area
indicate the need for further formal testing.
The central area included the botanical features and
comprised approximately two acres. A total of 73 tests were
made in this area. Seventy percent were positive for cultural
material including ceramics, bone, glass and metal.

58
In an effort to locate the outbuildings and slave
settlement of the Woodmanston plantation we again cleared a
number of linear transects through the pine stand west of
the palms, the area south of the entrance road and the area
west of the dike. Comprising about eight acres, this area
included property indicated by the 1844 plat map to have
at least one 'settlement' and various fields (Liberty County
1844). A total of 217 tests were made with 16 percent
cutlurally positive. In addition to the information attained
by the auger tests these transects aided in examining the
surface for any depressions or mounds which might look
promising. As on the east of the borrow pit, there has
been a great deal of disturbance from lumbering activities
but concentrations of positive tests in several areas
indicate a need for further testing. One such area is
just west of the camellia near a large oak tree.
Formal Excavation
Auger test results were checked by limited formal
excavation and trenching. Areas of high positive concentration
and areas with low frequencies were checked. The 1396
photographs indicate two structures on this portion of the
Woodmanston plantation. The first seems to be a form of
negro shanty fronted by a pig fence and an okra patch. The
second structure is partially hidden behind a tree but is
in an advanced state of decay. In the central area, two
locations were determined to be possible locations for

59
structures. Slight surface elevation, concentrations of
brick fragments and positive test findings motivated
excavation. Excavated fill was screened through quarter
inch hardware cloth over 3/4 by 3/8 inch diamond mesh by
mechanical shaker screens.
The first group of excavation units were placed
approximately 30 meters east of the seedling camellia,
southeast of the palms (Figure 12). These units exposed
a brick structure which was determined to be the base of
a double hearth chimney (Figure 13). Evidence of a drip
line perpendicular to the long axis of this chimney was
recorded. This structure may have been part of an outbuilding
from the plantation era. The artifact content of the
structure was relatively hign and included ceramics, glass,
nails, pipestems, household articles, grindstones, toys,
gun parts, jewelry, and food bone. Transfer-printed
pearlware,annular wares, Gaudy Dutch and stoneware were
represented in the ceramic assemblage. One piece of
transfer printed pearlware was recovered with a maker's
mark. It has been identified as Ridgeway, Morley, Wear
and Company of Staffordshire, circa 1336 1842 (Godden
1964:565). Fragments of the Clews brothers "States"
plate were also recovered (Figure 15a).
The second group of formal excavation units was located
north of the crepe myrtle stand and east of the north palm
(Figure 12). A linear configuration was observed and from

60
the scattered, fragmentary condition of the bricks indicates
a robbed brick wall (Figure 14). The artifact content of
this unit was less numerous than the first, but of the same
basic nature.
The third and final excavation unit' was located just
northeast of the southern palm in an area which showed no
cultural evidence on the surface but had positive subsurface
tests (Figure 11) This was opened, in an effort to increase
understanding of the distribution of artifacts over the site.
Trenching
Two diagnostic trench lines were laid east-west and
north-south across the central area, one and one half meters
wide. The fill from these trenches was not screened but
carefully removed in an effort to assess the presence of
remaining features within the time frame. Although the
first 30 centimeters (12 inches) of soil had been disturbed
by twentieth century agricultural and lumbering activities,
these trenches clearly showed that below this point the
area southeast of the palms still contains cultural information
which is relatively intact.
A feature is an archeological designation for an
anomaly in the soil. It may be a brick chimney base or
simply a change in soil coloration which indicates a
posthole, trash pit or rodent burrow. The features at
Woodmanston are distinct and have not been subject to the
degree of leaching or subsurface disturbance which could

61
have occured. Forty-five features were designated during
the spring excavations at Wocdmanston, including a chimney
base and a robbed brick wall. After investigation,
many potentially interesting anomalies turned out to be
burned out tree trunks or small charcoal deposits, but
a number of historic postholes were also recorded and
definitely indicate some sort of activity area.
As might be expected, the main concentration of
features is in the eastern trench in an area associated with
the double hearth chimney base (Figure 12). Several
postholes and two shallow parallel linear discoloration
running roughly north-south were recorded. A few scattered
postholes were recorded in the north-south trench but the
western side of the site was devoid of any anomalies.
It is not possible to outline what type of activity
took place in this area with further intensive excavation.
A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically
stripped in order to assess the functions represented.
Large scale stripping has been used by Honerkamp at the
Riverfront Site in Savannah (1974). Also, an entire
symposium at the 1979 Southeastern Archeological Conference
in Atlanta was dedicated to the use of such heavy equipment.

CHAPTER IV
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS
The previous archeolgoical survey of the Woodmanston
Plantation performed by Gordon Midgette in 1972 suggested
that major architectural components were still present on
the Woodmanston site. "Surface evidence for bricked pilings,
walks and possibly foundations of floors of the late
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries" were noted and
therefore, based on this account, it was hoped that these
remains might be located and indentified during the
Spring 1979 excavations (Midgette 1972). Unfortunately,
during the interim span of seven years since the Midgette survey,
even these remnants have disappeared.
Architectural elements recovered during the 1979
excavations include a double fireplace chimney base and a
robbed brick wall. Associated with these structures are
window glass, nails, screws, pintis and other miscellaneous
building hardware.
The Chimney Base
The double fireplace chimney base uncovered at the
Woodmanston site is located approximately 35 meters east
of the seedling camellia, beneath a large pecan tree
62

63
(Figure 12,13). The chimney base is oriented just east
of north, with two fireplaces facing roughly east and west.
The southern end has been parially destroyed by root
activity from the pecan tree, but three courses of brick at
the northern end remain intact. The remaining portion
is 5.5 feet wide and at least 7 feet long. The interior
measurement of the western fireplace is 25.6 inches and the
eastern hearth is 30 inches. Both hearths have an interior
length of at least 6 feet.
The Woodmanston chimney was constructed in a very
similar manner to the chimney base discussed in McFarlane's
description of the slave chimney at the CoOper Plantation on
St. Simon's Island (McFarland 1975:68). A large rectangular
hole was prepared for the chimney base and the H-snaped
foundation, which included a fireplace back, two bricks wide,
and two exterior side arms three bricks wide, which were
laid in place using English bond. The front facing was
added at rhe same level in a rough form of common bond.
The chimney was built on this H-shaped foundation to the
desired height. Remains of the mortar indicate that a row
of headers followed the last row of stretchers on the
front facings and may represent a finishing course at
ground level. The Woodmanston chimney had probably been
robbed for construction materials by local residents
sometime in the late IS00s.

64
Although the basic size and construction of the
Woodmanston chimney base can be determined, the type and
dimensions of the assoiated building cannot be inferred.
Archeological evidence of both planter and slave occupations
on the Georgia coast provide similar architectural information.
A similar chimney base was discovered at the Wormslow
Plantation near Savannah, Georgia by William Kelso of
Emory University in 1963 and 1969. The associated structure
was a rectangular tabby plantation house measuring 32' 6"
by 24' with five rooms and a H-shped hearth, and was built
sometime in the 1740s by Noble Jones. Wormslow was occupied
by various family members and tenants until 1825. The
chimney at Wormslow and the example unearthed at Woodmanston
are both relatively large. Usually such H-shaped chimneys
were located at the center of the house so that the
opposite fireplaces would be in separate rooms, but the
conjectural reconstruction of Wormslow developed by Kelso
from the archeological record pictures the original house
as having a one and one half story Georgian plan with exterior
and interior fireplaces in a double chimney which was located
on the gable end (Kelso 1971).
Another such double hearth chimney of similar dimensions
was excavated by Sue Mullins of the University of Florida on
St. Simon's Island in 1979. This chimney is associated with
a two family slave cabin duplex on the Couper plantation
(Mullins: in press).

65
Although the area 5 meters east and 3 meters west of
the chimney base at Woodmanston was excavated, no additional
architectural information such as walls, piers, or footing
ditches were unearthed. However, two parallel drip lines,
made by water dripping from the eaves of' a building which
created a linear series of concentric circles of water sorted
sand, were recorded just west of the chimney base. Although
the proximity to the western hearth facing precluded the
possibility of a wall or partition in this location, a
possible explanation may be water leaking through a collapsed
roof and then through the wooden floor. Additional evidence
for the presence of wooden floors is discussed in the section
on building hardware.
The absence of footing ditches, piers and other structural
information makes it impossible to define the dimensions of
the associated structure. Most houses in this area were
built raised above the ground to protect the inhabitants from
the unhealthy 'marsh miasma'. It is possible that the
structure uncovered during the spring excavations was of frame
or pole construction with sills raised on wooden posts which
rested directly on the ground surface. Supports of this
type would not have left a record in the soil. An interview
with a descendant of one of the LeConte slaves suggested
that the slave cabins were two room, pole constructed houses.
One room was used as a kitchen and the other for sleeping
{Fiasen 1979). Whether these structures would have contained double

66
hearth chimneys is doubtful but cannot be positively
determined.
Identification of the source of the bricks retrieved
from Woodmanston is not possible. Very few whole bricks
were recovered with the exception of those still in situ
in the cnimney base. This further substantiates the suggestion
that the chimney was robbed for secondary construction
purposes.
The 1890 photograph shows a dilapitated structure in the
middle right portion of the picture (Figure 7). It is
probable that this chimney base was a part of this structure
and had become the focus for refuse accumulation. The
presence of a broken grindstone near this structure suggests
this fact. Prior to this new function as a garbage pile,
this structure was probably a part of the LeConte main house
complex. It may have been a shelter for the domestic servants.
The artifact content of the structure was relatively high
and included ceramics, glass, nails, pipestems, household
articles, grindstones, toys, gun parts, jewelry, and animal
bone.
The Robbed Brick Wall
Evidence of a robbed brick wall was unearthed just east
of the northern palm and in the area of the old crepe myrtle
thicket. A north-south linear grouping of brick fragments 20
centimeters below the surface and approximately 4 meters long
are all that remain of the wall (Figure 14) I^o perpendicular
configurations were recorded.

67
Artifacts recovered in the associated excavation
were less numerous but of the same basic nature as the
chimney base on the south side of the site. The bricks
which make up this wall are smaller and finer, measuring
approximately 7" x 1 3/4" x 3 1/2". The' bricks recovered
from chimney base were 8 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 4" and of a lighter
color red. This may indicate different time periods or
simply different functions. As was the case in the area
around the chimney base, very few whole bricks were found.
Excavation units were opened three meters to the north,
south and east in order to investigate further architectural
remains. A 'classic1 posthole was observed 2 meters north
of this wall. Postholes leave distinct remains in the
archeological record. When a post or pole eventually rots
in the earth or is removed, the hole is filled with soil
and debris which is distinct from the surrounding matrix.
This posthole was the only example in the immediate area
and it is difficult to determine its original function.
It is probable that this wall was also part of a structure
once associated with the Woodmanston Plantation, but without
further investigation its original size or function cannot
be defined.

CHAPTER V
MATERIAL CULTURE -
The highly disturbed nature of the Woodmanston site
increased the importance of the analysis of the material
culture. Because the goals of the spring excavations
included the location and specification of the plantation
"big house" and subsidiary structures identification of the
artifacts for use in dating and status delineation became
a primary factor.
The following chapter includes a discussion of the
various artifact types retrieved during the 1979 spring
field session. Building hardware, household furnishings
and window glass have been placed at the beginning of
this chapter because of their direct relation to the
'architectural elements' on the site.
Building Hardware
It was difficult to determine the size or type of most
of the nails recovered at Woodmanston because of the poor
preservation and high degree of corrosion. It was also almost
impossible in most cases to determin whether the nail was
whole or broken. Identifiable nails represented both
individaully hammered and machine head cut nails and a
small percentage of wire nails.
68

69
Cut nails were first produced in the late 1790s in
the United States, and were cut from a sheet of iron, as
opposed to the previous hand wrought nails which were cut
from an iron rod and hammered to a point. Until 1815, cut
nails were finished by hand with different head treatments
produced specifically for different purposes. Several types
are represented at Woodmanston, including the common
'rose sharp', 'clasp nails', 'plancher nails', 'brads' or
L-heads, and 'scuppers'. Plancher nails were equipped with
T-shaped heads to hold down flooring. This indicates a
wooden floor was probably present in the structure associated
with the chimney base. Scupper nails were used to nail leather
for bellows or upholstery (Sloane 1964:92).
Correspondence between William LeConte, owner of San Souci
Plantation, and Joseph Chaz, Esq. of Savannah in 1784
includes an order for a cask of 10^ and 20^ nails and shingles
(LeConte 1784). This same sort of nail would have been used
on the Woodmanston Plantation as well.
In 1815 the machine-made head was perfected. The
characteristic waisting beneath the head which continued
in machine-head cut nails until 1830 is present in a number of
the Woodmanston examples. The majority of the machine-cut
nails, however, were produced sometime after this date and
are similar to the 'finishing nails' pictured in S.D. Kimbark's
Illustrated Catalogue (Fontana 1970:92). Wire nails began
to replace cut nails for general purposes in the late 1390s.

70
The few wire nails recovered near the chimney base may
represent later additions or simply refuse wood from other
activities on the site.
A dozen wood screws were also recovered during the
spring excavations. Until the 1840s screws were manufactured
with straight shanks and blunted ends but after 1346 they
became tapered with pointed ends, identical to modern screws
(Sloane 1965:25). Examples of both types were recovered
at Woodmanston, but the majority were probably made prior
to 1840. The remainder of the building hardware was made
up of pintis, staples, nuts and bolts, several large
spikes and pieces of wire. A photograph of one of the
pintis is located in Figure 15a.
Household Furnishings
The following furniture was listed in the 1338
inventory of the Louis LeConte estate:
Sideboard
50.00
Large table
20.00
Tea caddy
.75
Red bay table
.50
Drawers and glass
25.00
6 Windsor chairs
1.50
One dining table
5.00
Sofa
30.00
Set of fine chairs
Fender, andirons, tongs
25.00
bellows and broom
14.00
Green carpet and rug
Old carpet and staircase
12.00
carpet
3.00
One carpet
12.0 0
1 small table
3.00
Shades
6.00
4 Trunks
3.50

71
Old Sideboard
8.
.00
1 Set old chairs
4 .
,00
Old small table
,75
Old tea table
2 .
.00
Old jet andirons
. 50
Mahogany bedstead, curtain
and window curtains
30.
, 00
Pine toilet table
1.
,00
New mahogany bedstead
30.
. 00
2 Painted bedsteads
8 .
.00
2 Old mahogany bedsteads
6.
. 00
3 Washstands
10.
. 00
Pitchers, basins and soup
dishes
4 .
. 00
Candlestick, snuffer and
tray
5.
, 00
2 Pr. lamps and 2 flowerpots
2.
,00
The above list represents furnishings for several
different areas: dining room, parlor, bedrooms and kitchen.
It is possible that the 'old' furniture was used in the
kitchen rather than the main house.
The furniture may have been made by negro craftsmen
on the plantation or purchased in town. The mahogany
bedsteads must have been manufactured elsewhere. Furniture
was apparently available at local stores because John Otto
cites an advertisement for Camochan' s Store in Darien,
Georgia which offered the following New York-make furnishings
Grecian Sofas, Bureaus, French Presses, Large and
Small Dining Tables, Ladies' Work tabkes, Candle
Stands, Large high post carv'd Mahogany Bedsteads,
Portable Desks, Tea Tables, Secretaries and Book
Cases, Ladies' Dressing Tables with Glasses, Wash
hand Stands, Foot Benches... (Otto 1975:151)
The presence of a carpenter's shop on the plantation has
been documented and it is possible that some of the furniture
was assemble on the site.

72
The "2 Pr. lamps" may have referred to whale oil lamps.
These were considered somewhat of a luxury because by 1840
sperm whale oil had reached $2.50 a gallon. Most people
had to rely on candles or fireplaces for lighting (Ctto 1975:150).
A candlestick, snuffer and tray are also listed in the 1833
inventory.
Vihether the slaves provided their own furniture,
or received cast offs from the LeConte family cannot be
determined at this time. The archeological record
provided very little information regarding the domestic
furnishings on the site. Several small iron pintis of
the type used on cabinet doors and a brass key escrutcheon
were unearthed during the spring excavations (Figure 15a).
The key escrutcheons, keys and an iron padlock suggest
that the occupants were in the habit of locking up valuable
items. The padlock front in iron with a brass keyhole cover
(Figure 15a). Locks of this type were not made until the 1840s.
The impressed words 'patent' and 'VR' (Victoria Regina)
also suggest a time from between 1830 and 1906, the reign of
Queen Victoria. A small bronze chest hasp bearing an 1861
date was recovered and further substantiates a late nineteenth
century occupation of the site. A small bronze cupid,
approximately 4 inches high, may once have adorned a chair
or chest made during the Victorian era (Figure 15a).

73
Glass
Window Glass
Glazed double hung sash windows were typical of the
English Georgian style of architecture (Kelso 1971:93).
Window glass makes up 67 percent bv numerical count and
27 percent by weight of the total glass sample retrieved
at the Woodmanston Plantation. The presence of this amount
of window glass suggests an elite occupation on the site.
Slave cabins were rarely equipped with glazed windows and
it is doubtful that the post-war squatter occupation would
have been able to afford this luxury either.
Fifty-seven percent by weight and 54 percent by
numerical count of the window glass was recovered in the
area around the robbed brick wall, an area which includes
the north trench. Thirty percent by numerical count and 37
percent by weight was recovered in the proximity of the
chimney base and the east trench (Figure 12). It is probable
that both these structures were associated with the LeConte
plantation house in some way. One may have been the
"big house" itself or both may be subsidiary buildings
which supported the plantation.

74
Beverage Bottles
Fragments of glass bottles recovered at the Woodmanston
site provide additional information concerning the periods
of occupation and the occupants.
Between 1790 and 1810, one of the bottle manufacturing
processes required that the body, or lower portion of the
bottle, be formed in a one piece, iron dip mold, and that
the neck and shoulders be finished by hand. A fragment
of a hand blown neck of an olive green or 'black' beverage
bottle was recovered near the chimney base. Some black
glass bottles were completely hand blown in the United
States until 1820, but widespread use of a three part
contact mold began around 1810. This method consisted
of using a one piece body mold and a two piece hinged mold
for the neck and shoulder. The lip continued to be hand
finished until the late 1800s. Unfortunately, not a single
whole bottle was recovered at Woodmanston, but the
presence of mold marks on the neck portions of the bottle
fragments and the absence of such marks on the basal fragments
suggests that the majority of the commercial bottles retrieved
were blown in the fullsize three piece contact mold.
The two piece mold began to replace the three piece mold
betwen 1340 and 1850. Bottles produced in this fashion
contain mold lines extending from the base of the container
to just below the lip. There are no examples of this type of
manufacture in the Woodmanston collection. Another indication

75
of the method of production which was used is surface
texure. Bottles blown in the contact molds, described
above, have a somewhat pitted surface which resembles
hammered metal. This surface appearance can be seen in
a majority of the dark green and 'black'' glass fragments
at the Woodmanston site.
The snap case, introduced some time around 1857, was
an implement which supported the bottle while the glass
blowing pipe was struck off and the lip was finished.
Before this time, a pontil rod was attached to the base with
a glob of glass to hold the bottle while it was being finished.
When the pontil was removed a tell-tale fragment of rough
glass remained on the base. Since the Woodmanston olive
green and 'black1 glass beverage bottle bases lack pontil
scars, it can be assumed that they were produced after 1857.
Fragments of several beverage bottles were recovered
in the area around the chimney and the robbed brick wall.
These fragments make up seven percent of the total glass
sample by numerical count and 23 percent by weight.
'Black' bottles were light repelling and therefore may have
been used for brewed beverages such as beer or ale rather
than wine (Otto 1975:229). Fragments of brown and medium
green wTine boctles were also recovered. Tnese few fragments
provide evidence of alcoholic consumption on the site but
reflect moderate consumption by the LeConte family. Joseph
LeConte recounts in his autobiography the strict moral

76
influence under which he had been brought up, and the effects
they had on his early life. "During my whole college
course I never touched an intoxicating drink of any kind"
(LeConte 1903:37). In spite of this conservative attitude,
the LeConte family did own three decante'rs, and "lots of
wine glasses" (Liberty County 1838).
Prohibition laws against the retail sale of liquor
in Liberty County were strictly enforced, but the use of
alcohol by the slaves is documented in Joseph LeConte's
autobiography. In order to prevent roaming and drunkeness
the planters in the county formed a "mounted police" that
patrolled the area during the night and arrested those
without passes (LeConte 1903:13). The presence of mold
blown liquor bottles near the chimney base probably
constitues evidence of the post-war activity on the site.
Medicine Bottles
Medicine bottle retrieved from the Woodmanston site also
present further sociological information about its occupants.
Portions of a number of medicine bottles which were recovered
during the spring excavations included various sizes (3/4"
to 2" in diameter) and shapes (rectangular, square and round)
(Figure 16a). Commercial and medicine bottle fragments make
up 20 percent of the total glass sample by numerical count
and 26 percent by weight. The presence of pontil scars
on the bases of three mold blown medicine bottles in the
proximity of the chimney base suggest a time frame ranging

77
from 1810 with the introduction of the three piece iron
mold to 1857 when the invention of the snap case replaced
the pontil (Figure 16a).
Mold blown containers embossed with the proprietor's
name were produced in an effort to reduce the amount the
imitation of the more popular 'medicines' by competitors.
Unfortunately this did not stop the problem, and pirating
continued to be a problem in America. Turlington's
'Balsam of Life', an English made remedy with an angular
pear shaped bottle, was copied in vast number in the
United States from the late eighteenth century and well
into the nineteenth century (Noel Hume 1976:74). The
American bottles were fairly thin and made of a pale blue
glass. A fragment of one such counterfeit bottle was
recovered from the Woodmanston site. A picture of the
Turlington bottle can be located on page 44 of Noel Hume's
Glass: in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological Collections,
and is dated no earlier than 1320 (1969).
The medicine bottles recovered at the Woodmanston site
also present evidence of a post-Civil War occupation. The
first medicine bottles with lettered panels began to appear
sometime around 1867 and were most commonly used for patent
medicines (Lorrain 1968:40). They were usually square or
rectangular with recessed panels on one or more sides on
which were raised letters giving the name of the contents
and the city and state of the manufacturer. Sometime around

78
1870, the 'chilled iron' mold was perfected and enabled
manufacturers to produce bottles with very smooth exterior
surfaces. This eliminated the hammered metal effect of
the earlier molds. Examples of this type of manufacture
were found at Woodmanston and several paneled bottles
were recovered near the robbed brick wall on the north side
of the site. Unfortunately they are not complete enough
to provide information as to the contents or date of
manufacture, but it is probable they were made in Savannah,
Georgia some time after 1870. In the Historical Record
of the City of Savannah, a bottling and soda water establishment
under the proprietorship of John Ryan is advertised as
being "one of the oldest and most reliable bottling
establishments in the country, having been conducted by
its sole proprietor since 1852, in such a way as to give
general satisfaction to all its patrons" (Lee and Agnew 1869:21) .
This particular bottling works manufactured and bottled
soda water, foreign mineral water, porter, ale, cider,
cordials, lager beer, syrups, bitters, essences, etc. and
had branch establishments in Augusta, Columbus, and Atlanta,
Georgia.
John Otto attributes the presence of a large quantity
of medicinal containers to the poor diet and ill health of
the slaves and rural populations. Doctors were consulted only
as a last resort and 'patent medicines' were considered the
panacea of all ills. Considering the percentage of medicine

79
bottles recovered at Woodmanston, the assumption may be made
that the site represents a slave or post-Civil War occupation.
However, the large proportion of medicinal glassware at
Woodmanston may be explained by the fact that both Louis
LeConte and his son-in-law, John M.B. Harden, were physicians.
Louis was educated at Columbia College in New York, but
practiced medicine only on his own plantation and among the
poor 'pine knockers or crackers' in the vicinity (LeConte 1903:14).
John >1.B. Harden practiced medicine in Liberty County from
1830 until his death in 1848. This practice of medicine
is documented by the presence of his name on a list of
practicing physicians in the county in 1831 (Liberty County 1831) .
As would be expected, the general health of the county
greatly improved when wet rice culture began to be abandoned
in favor of the dry culture system for the cultivation of
cotton and corn as export items in the 1830s. As early as
1817, wet culture rice cultivation was recognized as a
health hazard in Savannah, Georgia.
According to John M.B. Harden, by 1345 "less drastic
and poisonous medicines (were) employed and the heroic
treatment of the early schools of medicine once allowed in
this country (had) been exchanged for the milder and more
rational method of assisting nature" (Harden 1345:555).
Drugs commonly stocked at the plantations during that time
included: castor oil, spirits of turpentine, blue mass,

80
quinine, laudanum, paregoric, liniment, verimfuge, and
epsom salts (Otto 1975:232). William L. LeConte, grandson
of Louis LeConte, remember accompanying his mother on her
daily "sick rounds" at the negro quarters on the Olive Hill
Plantation. She would make "a house to house visit of the
quarters and whenever she found any sick, from her medicine
chest she would administer the simple specific wnich their
several cases called for" (LeConte 1900:3). It is probable
that this same procedure was followed at Woodmanston.
In an article in the Southern Medical and Surgical
Journal concerning tne "Observations on the Soil, Climates
and Diseases of Liberty County, Georgia", John M.3. Harden
discusses the health problems present in the county in 1845.
The more common illnesses included: influenza, whooping
cough, measles, venereal disease, malaria ("marsh-miasmic
fever and sand hills fever"), puerpural fever, croup,
pneumonia, bronchitic, pleurisy, cholera morbus, diarrhea,
dysentery, chronic rheumatism, the scrofulous enlargment
of the lymphatic glands among blacks, cachexia africanus
(dirt eating), dropsy and chlorosis (Harden 1845:555).
Family documents provide examples of these and other
maladies as well as the treatments commonly employed at
the time. A bill from Dr. John Irvine of Savannah, for the
care of William LeConte (1737) included a list of the following
treatments: antimonial powders, fiberfuge medicines, a
saline sedative julap and a vial of laudanum (Chatham County
1737). Mr. William LeConte did not survive. Bloodletting

81
was in Liberty County, as elsewhere, a common panacea.
Louis LeConte's wife, Anne Quarterman LeConte, was bled by
attending physicians, against the judgment of her nusband,
as a treatment for pneumonia in 1326 and never recovered.
John M.B. Harden mentions that by 1845 "bloodletting is not
pushed to so great an extent" but even so he prescribed
bloodletting, as well as an occasional mercurial cathartic,
to stimulate the digestive organs, the use of sesquichloride
of iron, and a 'generous diet' for the treatment of 'chlorosis',
a benign form of iron-deficiency anemia in adolescent girls
(Harden 1345:559). Dr. Wells of Walthourville, Georgia
treated Jane LeConte Harden in 1867 for a "violent cold,
attended with fever, much irritation of the bronchial
tubes, and troublesome cough", with a preparation of the
narcotic root, Mandrake; tne vapors of Tine Iodine and
and laudanum; and the continued use of quinine (Harden 1367) .
It was generally recognized that the lowland swamps
were not conducive to good health during the summer and
autumn seasons. Therefore, many planters removed to summer
"retreats" on the coast or in the pineiands during these
"sickly seasons". Louis LeConte maintained a summer home
in Janesville, a few miles south of Woodmanston. During
the summer he commuted daily on horseback to attend to
plantation affairs (LeConte 1903:9).
It should be stated that there is a possibility that
soma of the so called "medicine bottle fragments" are

82
actually portions of the chemical apparatus of Louis
LeConte's attic laboratory. Joseph LeConte remembers
how he and the other children would "watch the mysterious
experiments; with what awe his (Louis') furnaces, and
chauffers, his sand-baths, matrasses, and alembics, and
his precipitations filled them" (LeConte 1903:8). Certainly
these vessels must have been broken in the course of these
experiments.
Domestic Glassware
The fragmented, and generally poor condition of the
glass artifacts recovered at Woodmanston has made it
difficult to determine their original function. For this
reason only a small portion of the glass recovered during
the spring excavations can be positively identified as
domestic glass. This classification was based on the color,
curvature and thickness of the glass fragments. It is
possible that some of the glass fragments designated as
"medicine bottles" are, in fact, domestic glass.
The 1838 appraisal of the Louis LeConte estate lists
the following domestic glassware: 2 glass butter dishes
and 5 preserve dishes; 3 decanters, lots of wine glasses;
pitches and tumblers; drawers and glass; and a looking glass
(Liberty 1838). Unfortunately we were unable to recover any
direct evidence of these items in the archeological record.

83
Ceramics
The ceramic assemblage discovered at the Woodmanston
site includes creamware, pearlware, whiteware, ironstone,
porcelain and stoneware. Cross mending of these ceramic
sherds substantiated the highly disturbed nature of the
Woodmanston site. Matching fragments were recovered from
various depths from one side of the site to the other.
Creamware was first developed by Josiah Wedgewood
in 1759 (Noel Hume 1976:124). It is a thin, hardfired,
pale yellow or cream colored earthenware which was dipped
in a clear glaze after firing (Noel Hume 1976:123). This
type of ceramic is commonly found in most American archeological
sites of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
(Noel Hume 1976:125). Earlier peices are a deeper yellow
which became increasingly light after 1785. Creamware
comprises only seven percent of the total ceramic sample
at Woodmanston. Several fragments of a plain hemisphaerical
bowl approximately seven inches in diameter at the rim,
and four inches at the base were recovered (Figure 17b).
Pearlware, also developed by Wedgewood, was perfected
in 1779. It is somewhat whiter than the creamware because
of an increased flint content in the paste, and a small
amount of cobalt in the glaze, which helped to negate the
yellow tint. The formula was copied by many other potters
of the period, and pearlware became increasingly more
available to the general public. It remained popular until
the 1820s.

84
Blue transfer printed pearlware is the most common
ceramic item found in early nineteenth century American
archeological sites. Twenty-five percent of the ceramics
retrieved from the Woodmanston site are of this type (Figure
17a,17b). Transfer printing, on white salt glaze plates, had
been popular since the 1750s and by 1787 this type of
decoration was used on pearlware (Noel Hume 1976:129). Transfer
printing on ceramics required that the desired pattern
be printed in a special metallic ink on this tissue paper;
the paper was then glued to a previously bisque fired piece
of earthenware and the pattern was fixed in the consequent
firing. The vessels were then clear glazed and fired once
again. This technique saved the time and effort required
by direct painting, and allowed the work to be done cheaply
by relatively untrained women and young girls. Mass production,
therefore, made large quantites of pearlware available
during the nineteenth century. Many subjects such as American,
English, and continental buildings, boats, and landscapes
were used in decorative patterns. Early examples were
decorated in pastel colors. However, after the 1340s,
browns, purples, greens, and pinks were also employed
(Kingsbury 1974:169). The majority of the transfer printed
wares found at Woodmanston were colored blue on white but
brown, gray, and pink on white were also represented.

85
Transfer printed pearlware was primarily used
for tableware, tea and coffee sets, and chamberware.
The Woodmanston collection includes fragments of tableware:
plates, bowls, cups and footed vessels.
Portions of a historical dark blue commemorative
plate were found distributed over the Woodmanston site
(Figure 17a). It has been identified as the "States" plate
which was made by the Staffordshire potters, Ralph and
James Clews, of Cobridge, England, sometime between 1817
and 1834 (Godden 1964:151-152). The Clews brothers
produced good quality blue printed earthenware, and were
known as "Potters to her Imperial Majesty, the Empress of
all the Russians" (Godden 1964:151). This particular
pattern was probably manufactured sometime after 1825.
The "States" design is said "to embody the whole
national history" because it contains so many important
national features. The central scene varies with different
vessel forms but is generally thought to portray English
buildings (Larsen 1975:54). This interior view is framed
in scrolls and is supported at the right by a woman crowned
with a plumed head-dress and bearing aloft a "Liberty" cap
on a staff. On the left side, a blindfolded Justice holds
a medallion portrait of George Washington in her right
hand and a sign of the Cincinnatti adorns her skirt. Elaborate
garlands of flowers and fruit complete the design. A ribbon

86
bearing the names of the first fifteen states encircles
the perimeter of the plate, and the words, "America and
Independence" underline the figures (Camehl 1971:126-127).
An excellent color plate of the "States" design is located
in the "Silhouettes to Swords" volume of the Time-Life
Encyclopedia of Collectibles, under "Staffordshire"
(Time-Life 1980:84). Additional examples can be found
in Elloise Baker Larsen's American Historical Views on
Staffordshire China (1975:54,55,312,313).
A fragment of the "States" plate bearing the name,
"Connecticut", was found in the upper portion of the
builders trench of the chimney base. This suggest that
the structure was not built until sometime after 1825. Other
pieces bearing portions of the words "New York" and "Georgia"
were also retrieved in other areas of the Woodmanston
excavation area.
Pearlware, and later whiteware and ironstone, were also
decorated with a molded shell-edge pattern with a blue or
green painted rim (Figure 17a). From 1780 to 1795 the rims
were carefully painted to create a feathery edge, but after
1800 this type of decoration was replaced by a quickly
painted stripe which remained popular until 1330 (Noel Hume
1976:131). Portions of the earlier type of shell edged plates
or platters comprise six percent of the ceramic assemblage
found at Woodmanston, and a large proportion of the plain
white sherds found scattered throughout the site may also
belong to the undecorated interior portions of these plates.

87
Banded, or annular designs on pearlware, whiteware,
and creamware was another decorative scheme which was popular
from the late 1790s to the late 1800s. This time period
encompasses the main period during which Woodmanston was
occupied, but banded or annular sherds account for only-
three percent of the total ceramic assemblage. This small
figure could, of course, represent no more than a personal
preference. All the banded ware represented in the
Woodmanston sample are portions of holloware, such as bowls
and cups. One elaborately decorated banded ware bowl was
uncovered near the chimney base (Figure 17a). Fragments
of a banded bowl and a "mocha ware" vessel identical to
those recovered by Watkins in Darien, Georgia were also
unearthed suggesting a local retail source (Watkins 1970:24).
'Gaudy Dutch' is a polychrome underglaze decoration
used on pearlware from 1795 to 1335. Before 1815 floral
and geometric patterns were produced in soft pastel hues,
but between 1315 and 1835 bright blue, orange, green and
pinkish red became popular (Noel Hume 1976:129). Gaudy
Dutch vessels of the latter variety are represented in
the Woodmanston collection and comprise less than two
percent of the total. This type of decoration was usually
found on tableware, pitchers, mugs, bowls and teasets.
The Woodmanston sample is represented by portions of two
small bowls or cups (Figure 17b).

88
By the 1820s pearlware was being replaced by the harder
'whiteware' and serai-porcelains. Spode produced a 'stone
china' in 1802 and Mason developed an 'ironstone china' in
1833. This ware had a durable earthenware body and was able
to compete in price, as well as quality,- with the imported,
highly fashionable Chinese wares. This type of ceramic was
used as tableware, tea sets, and chamber shapes. The
Woodmanston sample is made up primarily of plates and holloware.
'Stone china' and 'ironstone' was also decorated
with transfer-printed patterns which were previously described.
The only identifiable maker's mark recovered from a Woodmanstcn
sherd is an ironstone of this type: a portion of a large
soup plate of the "Japan Flowers" design manufactured by
Ridgeway, Morley, Wear and Company, between 1835 and 1846.
It is an attractive pattern depicting a fanciful oriental
scene in a light blue transfer print (Figure 17a). The
partnership of Ridgeway, Morley and Wear produced very good
quality stone china, which was richly decorated in the Mason
style, using the description 'improved granite china'
(Godden 1971:89). A portion of a soup plate bearing this
pattern was retrieved by John Otto from the slave cabins on
Cannon's Point, St. Simon's Island, Georgia. An example of
blue-green transfer printed ironstone was also unearthed
at Woodmanston.
Generally the ceramic assemblage at Woodmanston indicates
a high status occupation. Otto found at Cannon's Point that
a high percentage of transfer printed ceramic and a low

89
percentage of banded wares were characteristic of
planter ceramic assemblages (1975:184). Excavations of
three early nineteenth century upper middle class houses
at Darien, Georgia by Watkins substantiates this idea (1970).
The Woodmanston sample was made up of 25 percent transfer
printed pearlware and less than three percent banded ware.
Stoneware, also associated with more elite ceramic
assemblages, made up 15 percent of the Woodmanston collection.
Stoneware was basically used as utilitarian pottery: jugs,
crocks, jars, and bottles. It fulfilled the storage,
salting and pickling requrements of families in the eighteenth
century and early nineteenth century. Jugs and bottles were
used to keep water fresh, preserve food and store perishable
items (Barnes 1979: 2). Slaves would not have had access to
the variety, or quantity, of foodstuffs which would need to
be preserved. By the 1860s vacuum canning in glass jars
had begun to replace many of the functions of stoneware but
none were recovered at Woodmanston.
Another possible status indicator discovered at
Woodmanston is the number of different transfer printed
patterns which were found. Thirty-two different patterns
are represented on 183 sherds. Unfortunately none of these
patterns can be positively identified because of the
fragmented condition of the sample. John Otto has inferred
from the archeological investigation of planter, overseer,
and slave sites, that the planters purchased large sets from

90
their factors and the slaves and overseers purchased
individual items, or small sets, from local shop keepers.
They also occasionally used old and discarded items from
the planter's family (Otto 1975:174). This would be reflected,
in the archeological record, by a large variety of patterns
in slave and rural white occupation, and a greater homogeneity
of transfer print patterns in respect to the planter.
Pursuing this idea, the Woodmanston site, according to John
Otto, must be assigned a low status occupation. However,
the variety of patterns at Woodmanston may be explained by
the length of the occupation (1760-late 1800s), the
increasing availability of transfer printed wares in the
mid 1800s, and the presence of a post-Civil War squatter
occupation which would not accurately reflect the LeConte
family purchasing practices during Woodmanston1s early days.
Porcelain comprises less than two percent of the Woodmanston
sample. Although the majority is plain,several pieces are
decorated with the 'famiile rose' design (Figure 17b).
This type of decoration is usually found in mid to late
eighteenth century contexts (Noel Hume 1976:259). 'Famiile
rose' is an overglaze decoration which consists of pink
flowers, highlighted in white with drab green leaves. The
Darien, Georgia excavations exposed a similar small
percentage of oriental porcelain. John Otto suggests that
although porcelain is traditionally thought of as a luxury

91
item, it may not be possible to use it as a status indicator
because it has also been found in known slave contexts
(Otto 1975:183).
Vessel shape has also proven to be an important status
indicator. Again, according to Otto,the' planter would have
a greater number of vessel shapes. Dinner platters, soup
plates, and bowls and cups of various sizes are represented
at Woodmanston in pearlware,whiteware, creamware, ironstone
and porcelain. This variety of shapes is a function of the
varied diet of the planter. Beef, mutton, and pork, as well
as steamed vegetables, were available from the larders of
the plantation.
An analysis of the ceramic assemblage from Woodmanston
suggests an early to mid nineteenth century elite planter
occupation with a later post-Civil War squatter occupation.
The high percentage of transfer printed wares and deficit
of banded wares, the presence of elaborately decorated
commemorative items, the high percentage of stoneware
storage vessels, and the variety of vessel shapes may be
used as indicators of high status. The post-Civil War
squatter occupation is represented by an additional variety
of transfer printed patterns and the later ironstone ceramics.

92
Cutlery
Several spoons, representing at least three
different patterns, a large knife blade, and four untensil
handles, also representing three different patterns, make
up the collection of cutlery from the Woodmanston site
(Figure 16b). The large knife is similar to one
pictured on page 182, Figure 63, #7 in Noel Hume's A Guide
to Artifacts of Colonial America, and may represent a late
eighteenth or early nineteenth centry date. Two of the utensil
handles found have riveted bone plates. This type of
handle treatment has been dated to the mid eighteenth
century. All of the cutlery was recovered in the proximity
of the chimney base.
Personal Items
Artifacts which were once personal items belonging
to various individuals often provide valuable information.
The term, personal items, encompasses those things which
were used or owned by only one person for a lengtn of time,
as opposed to objects used by a group of people, such as
tools or ceramics. Examples of such personal items unearthed
at Woodmanston include sewing equipment, buttons, jewelry,
firearms, pipes and toys.
Sewing Equipment
Archeological items concerning the manufacture or
repair of clothing consist of a pair of iron scissors, and
three thimbles, wnich were recovered in the proximity of the

93
chimney base (Figure 12). Thimbles are a common artifact
unearthed in colonial, and later historic sites, but are
difficult to date. The presence of spiraled indentations
on the crown indicate that the particular, thimbles found
at Woodmanston were manufactured sometime in the nineteenth
century (Noel Hume 1976:256). Stamped decorations on
the thimble collars include the word 'Charity' and a symbolic
floral motif (Figure 18b).
No pins or needles were recovered, but one protected-point
safety pin was uncovered in the second level in the east
trench (24.5N 37E) in the area of the chimney. This type of
pin was not manufactured until about 1857 (Noel Hume 1976:255).
At this point it might be helpful to review the fashions
of the nineteenth century for men, women, children and slaves.
In the 1330s women's fashions were tightly belted at
the natural waistline and the bodice was closely fitted to
the figure. The bell-shaped skirt was also popular, and
grew even wider over the next 40 years (Cooper 1966).
Feminine apparel was fastened with glass or porcelain buttons
on the front, back and cuffs. Smaller porcelain buttons
secured undergarments such as the camisole (Tyre 19 79) .
Men's attire at this time was usually totally of one
color with a tight fitting waist. Joseph LeConte described
the "noga virilis" as consisting of a swallow tailed coat,
stiff stock and beaver hat" (LeConte 1903:35). In the 1860s
the kind of standing collars and cravats, described by

94
Joseph LeConte, were replaced by starched collars and ties
(Hansen 1956). The buttons on men's clothing were larger
than those on women's dresses and were made of bone,
brass or other metals.
Children's fashions mimicked those of adults, the major
difference being shorter lengths on dresses and trousers.
Joseph LeConte describes his boyhood attire as a "round
jacket, limp open collar, soft cap, and often bare feet"
(LeConte 1903:35).
On many southern plantations slaves were dressed in
inexpensive materials of no particular style. Lengths of
cloth were allotted to each family by the planter
for their personal use. The women of the family usually
fashioned the clothing for their individaul families, but
sometimes one or two negro women became seamstresses for the
entire slave community. William L. LeConte remembers
that at Olive Hill,
at the beginning of each season suitable material of
all kinds for men, women and children was bought in
quantities in Savannah, 40 miles away, and carted
home, (no railroads through the country then).
Suitable women were detailed to report to my mother,
and signally those, (other things being equal) who
were nursing mothers; whose duty it was under her
direction to cut out and make up the clothing for
all the negroes, and a comfortable out-house with
tables and chairs for this purpose was provided.
(1900:4)
Favorite servants may have received cast off clothing from
the planter family, which would account for the fancy buttons
and beads found in slave occupied areas.
Shoes made by

95
negro shoemakers for the LeConte slaves from leather
made on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22). A photograph
of Emma LeConte's domestic servants at Berkeley in 1897
depicts a well dressed family with shoes,.stockings,
jackets and hats. The members of this family are descendants,
of the slaves from the Woodmanston Plantation (LeConte 1897) .
It is probable that similar treatment also occurred there.
Buttons
During the nineteenth century bone buttons with four
or five holes, and buttons made of iron, shell, soft white
metal, stamped brass or porcelain with four holes were in
common use (Figures 18a,b). The typology developed in
Stanley South's "Analvsis of the Buttons from the Ruins
at Brunswick Town and Fort Fisher", has been used to provide
a standardized description of the numerous buttons found
at Woodmanston (Noel Hume 1976:91).
Fifty two percent of the buttons retrieved are made of
white porcelain with a convex face and back (type #23).
Sometimes referred to as an 'underwear' button, this type
was invented in the 1840s and used extensively for
underclothes and shirting. Two of the porcelain buttons
which were found have blue painted decorations, indicating
their use on feminine apparel (Figure 18a).

96
Eleven percent of the buttons are made of bone and
have either four or five holes for attachment to the
material (type #19 and #20) This type of button commonly
appears in post 1800 site and was used for men's shirts and
trousers (Figure 18a).
Several other types of metal buttons, all of which
were probably used on outer garments, are also represented.
A white brass disc with a portion of the brass eye missing
(type #7) is similar to examples recovered in pre-revolutionary
contexts. Three decorative metal buttons were found, one
of which has a two piece brass face with an oriental motif
and an iron domed back (type #25) (Figure 18b). This type
of button has been found in contexts dating from 1837 to
1865. A machine stamped brass button (type #23) and a
silver plated disc button (type #9) were also recovered.
Two soft white metal buttons, resembling types 29 and 30
in South's typology, probably date from the same time period
(Noel Hume 1976:91).
Jewelry
Fashionable jewelry during the nineteenth century
included earrings, broaches, necklaces and bracelets.
Several examples of such ornaments were recovered during
the spring excavations at Woodmanston. A bronze finger-
ring, resembling a modern wedding band, was recovered
near the chimney base, but unfortunately it had no engraved
inscription. Plain gold bands were common during this time

97
among the more prosperous and this bronze ring may have
been a poor man's imitation. A bronze bracelet and a nair
or hat pin were also recovered near the chimney (Figure 18b).
Two very different types of earrings-- were found at the
site. The first example was recovered from the center of
tne site and is a delicately rendered white gold wire for a
pierced ear. So fine is the workmanship that is is almost
indistinguishable from modern versions. The second earring,
located near the chimney, is bronze and was mold formed.
The post of the latter is bulky and would require its wearer
to have a good sized hole in her ear. Two tiny screws which
might have been parts of earrings were located near the
robbed brick wall. The presence of bronze jewelry indicates
a lower status occupation at the site.
Long chains of beads were popular in the middle of the
nineteenth century, and were used for necklaces, earrings
and embroidery work. The most common type was the faceted,
hexagonal bead, made from a piece of glass tubing. Facets
were formed by molding, and the corners were carefully
ground smooth (Otto 1975:275). Two such beads, a pale
turquoise and a royal blue, were found during the excavations
at Woodmanston. Also uncovered near the chimney were an
amber wire-wound bead, a spiral jet bead, and a wooden bead
(Figure 18a). Wire-wound beads were made individually
by wrapping strands of molten glass on coated wire
(Otto 1975:275).

98
Firearms
Joseph LeConte states that at least twenty guns of all
kinds were kept in the plantation house: "rifles and shot
guns, single barreled guns and double barreled guns, muskets
and sporting guns, big guns, little guns- and medium sized
guns, long guns and short guns. There was a complete armory
of them upstairs in one of the closets" (LeConte 1903:19).
He also mentioned that his grandfather, John Eatton LeConte,
used "revolutionary muskets" to fight off the Indians.
Guns were an important part of rural nineteenth century
life. The LeConte boys made their own guns which ranged
from crude match pistols to efficient rifles for their own
entertainment as well as hunting (LeConte 1903:24).
Among the cultural materials recovered from the Woodmanston
site were sparse remains of firearm devices used on the
plantation. Several dark gray gunflints were recovered,
which indicate that the flintlock musket was used there
(Figure 15b). The flintlock mechanism produced the
necessary spark for igniting the gun powder by striking
a chuck of flint against a piece of steel. In addition to
the gunflints, a few copper caps were found, indicating that
percussion ignition was used (Figure 15b). The percussion
cap designed by Joshua Shaw in 1816 was manufactured from
sheet copper and shaped like a stove pipe hat. The priming
compound, which contained a fulminate charge, was deposited
in the cap and covered with a thin layer of metal foil, and
finally, the contents of the cap was sealed with shellac.

99
This mechanism eased priming and increased the rate of
fire. The shellac or varnish waterproofed the percussion
caps, making them more reliable in wet weather (McPherson 1979).
Also recovered from Woodmanston were lead pellets
that were obviously musket balls. It is probable that
bullets were made locally on the plantation because of the
variability of the individual guns at that time. No 'minie'
ball bullets, representing rifled muskets, were recovered
but that does not negate the probability of their use.
In fact several "rifles" are listed in William LeConte's
estate (Liberty County 1841). The minie ball, ca. 1857,
was developed in order to provide a bullet which fit the
bore tightly when fired.
In the 1850s, various types of cartridges began to
be developed. Several modern shell casings were also retrieved
during the excavation. Two metalic shell casings recovered
from the Woodmanston site were .32 caliber; one cartidge
was a center fire type and was marked 'Smith and Wesson',
and the other was a rimfire type cartridge that had no maker's
mark. These two cartridges contained the priming material
needed for ignition within the cartridge itself. The
center fire cartridge is of fairly recent origin and is a
twentieth century artifact; however, the rimfire cartridge
is a potential nineteenth century artifact. The land around
Woodmanston is now used by a Hunt Club and some of these
cartridges may be the remains of their weekend hunting
excursions (McPherson 1979).

100
A bronze butt plate for a musket or rifle was also
recovered near the robbed brick wall. The back of it
contains an impressed '4 I' but it has not been identified
(Figure 15b).
Tobacco and Smoking Equipment
Cigars, pipes and chewing tabacco were as popular during
the nineteenth century as they are today. Evidence from
other archeolgoical sites along the Georgia coast indicates
that the local planters may have preferred cigars or snuff.
Occasionally planters provided tobacco for the slaves, but
more often they considered it a luxury, and it was purchased
by the slaves from local merchants (Otto 1975:261). Kaolin
clay pipes, sometimes called 'negro pipes', may have been
more popular among the black population.
The kaolin tobacco pipe is an important dating device
for the historical archeologist. These inexpensive clay pipes
were manufactured, purchased, smoked, and thrown away within
a comaratively short period of time. Thus the presence of
identifiable pipe styles and maker's marks provide archeologists
with a tight date which can be applied to the area in which
they were recovered (Noel Hume 1976:296).
Only 39 kaolin clay pipe fragments were retrieved during
the spring excavations. This is a very small sample
compared to most nineteenth century historic sites and
perhaps again reflects the conservative Congregational
attitudes of the LeConte family. These pipes may have also
belonged to the subsequent post-Civil War occupants of the

101
site. Ninety percent of the pipe bowls and stem fragments
were recovered within a 20 meter radius of the chimney base.
The remaining ten percent was uncovered near the robbed brick
wall on the north side of the site.
Several pipe stems and bowls found 'at the Woodmanston
site could be dated by identification of the maker's marks.
A stem fragment recovered near the chimney displayed the
name DORNI in relief on its side (Figure 18a). Peter Dorni
was a pipemaker in northern France about 1850 (Humphrey 1969:15).
Another stem from the same area of the site, bore the name
'McDougall' impressed on one side, and the city of 'Glasgow',
on the opposite side (Figure 18a). This type of pipe also
had the letters 'TD' crudely impressed on the rear of the
bowl facing the smoker. Two pipe bowl fragments were found
which are similar to this description. The McDougall Company
of Glasgow, Scotland, may have been established in 1810, or
possibly in 1346. There is some question about the actual
date (Humphrey 1969:17). The presence of additional mid
nineteenth century pipe stems and bowls at the Woodmanston
site suggests the latter date (Hart 1979) .
An almost complete example of a gray, reed stemmed,
pipe was trieved from the upper portion of the builder's
trench of the chimney (Figure 18b). This pipe has been
traced to an American manufacturer in Point Pleasant, Ohio.
This shop produced ceramic items such as crockery, stove
flues and drain tiles, as well as smoking pipes, from the 1840s
until the 1390s, but it i.s probable that the manufacture

102
of the pipes did not begin until 1850. (Sudbury 1979:182).
One other unusually decorated pipe bowl fragment was found
at the Woodmanston site. This fragment has a laurel design
on the mold line facing the smoker. The mold line is
very distinct. In early, hand-made pipe's this ridge was
usually carefully obliterated by scraping or burnishing.
The diminishing care in the treatment of mold lines is an
example of the timesaving, cost reducing practices, that
were a result of the Industrial Revolution (Humphrey 1969:14).
An interesting pipe mouthpiece fragment uncovered during
the excavation is coated with brownish-green lead glaze.
Apparently this practice was an eighteenth century innovation,
but it was not common (Noel Hume 1976:302).
Using the dates obtained from the pipe stems, and bowl
fragments, we can provide a middle nineteenth century date
for the occupation of the area around the chimney base.
It is probable that the concentration of pipe fragments in
this area may be a function of th e smoking practices of the
later post-Civil War occupants.
Archeological evidence of the use of chewing tobacco
was also recovered at Woodmanston. Pocket sized cakes or
plugs of tobacco from which a chunk could be bitten off for
a chew, or slices shaved off for a pipe, were also popular
during the nineteenth century. The brand of tobacco was
identified by a small decorated tin tag attached to the plug.
Millions of these tags were made for as many as 12,000 brands

103
of tobacco (Time-Life 1980:64). Unfortunately the painted
advertisements on those unearthed at Woodmanston have long
since disappeared. However, several different shapes; round,
oval, square, and rectangular, were recovered and indicate
the use of several different brands.
Toys and Games
A tiny doll made of porcelain was located near the
chimney at Woodmanston (Figure 18a). It was similar to
a 'Frozen Charlotte' doll, neither the head nor appendages
are movable. The figure measures 3.6 cm from head to knees.
The portion below the knees is missing. Until the nineteenth
century all dolls were made to represent grown women, but
the figure recovered at Woodmanston is unmistakably a young
girl, and the tiny form exhibits a surprising amount of
detail. It was slip cast and the features and hair were
painted (Tyre 1979). Dolls such as these were made after
1900 and sold for only pennies (Noel Hume 1976:319).
A spherical clay marble of the type boys would play
with was also unearthed near the chimney (Figure 18b).
Joseph LeConte notes that "as far away from the city as we
were, whatever we wanted we were compelled to make. If we
wanted marbles, we made them, and excellent marbles they
were". The LeConte boys also made kites, bows and arrows
and guns for their own entertainment (LeConte 1903:23).
The marble recovered during the spring excavation may
indeed be one of the LeConte children's playthings, found
and reused by other children during the later occupation of
the site.

104
Miscelaneous Personal Items
A fragment of a writinq implement used on a slate board
was also unearthed in the vicinity of the chimney, which
provides evidence suggesting that the occupants of the
structure located at Woodmanston were literate (Fiqure 18b).
A natural formation of semi-opaque quartz crystals
measuring approximately 6 inches high with a flat base was
also uncovered on the east side of the chimney base.
Crystals such as these are not natural to the Georgia coastal
plain but most probably originated in the piedmost area.
Emma LeConte states that as a girl in Columbia, South Carolina,
during the Civil War, she had a display case filled with
"minerals, agates, crystals, shells, etc. and curiositys"
(Shaw 1975). The specimen unearthed at Woodmanston may very
well have been part of the LeConte family mineral collection,
or a mantel showpiece (Figure 19a).
A portion of what appears to have been a bone handled,
single blade, pocket knofe was also recoved nearby. 3y
the second half of the nineteenth century knives such as this
cost only a few dimes (Otto 1975:276).
A fragment of a small molded glass perfume bottle
decored with a floral trellis design was also retrieved,
represenring the feminine residents on the site (Figure 16a).
Almost an entire aqua glass electrical insulator was
also found during the spring excavations. This specimen was
threaded for permanent installation on the cross arm of a

105
telephone pole, a type which was invented in 1865 by the
Frenchman, Louis Couvet (Time-Life 1930:19). The insulator
was probably a 'prize find' of an amateur collector (Figure 16a).
Horses and Carriages
The 1838 inventory of the estate of Louis LeConte
lists: 1 mule valued @ $100; 1 mare colt @ $50.00;
and 3 bay horses @ $225.00. Also present on the estate were:
a carriage @ $200.00; a gig @ $75.00 and a little horse
cart @ $10.00 (Liberty County 1838).
Horses were used on the Woodmanston plantation to
provide the motive force to drive the rice and cotton processing
machinery. Two horse gins are mentioned in the inventory
valued @ $75.00 and Joseph LeConte mentions that rice was
beaten by machinery which was drawn by horse power (LeConte
1903:22).
Very little horse equipment was recovered during spring
excavations. An iron ring, which may have been the rein
ring of a bridoon, or bit was found, as well as some iron
buckles (Figure 15b).
Tools
Although numerous agricultural and construction tools
were recovered during the spring excavations, no concentrations
of specialized tools were found which might suggest plantation
crafts such as shoemaking, blacksmithing or tanning. Joseph
LeConte's biography documents the presence of such workshops

106
and they would certainly have a distinct picture in the
archeological record.
Portions of two broad hoes, implements which were
common in Georgia coastal agricultre were located, one
near the robbed brick wall and one from the surface. A
descendant of two LeConte slaves remembers his grandparents
telling him they worked in the fields with hoes which
were probably identical to those recovered at the site.
According to William L. LeConte:
the labor (on Olive Hill Plantation) was performed
almost altogether with the weeding hoe, there being
but one hand on this large plantation skilled in the
use of the plough, and when old age commended to
incapacitate him he was allowed to take a half grown
boy under his charge to train him as his successor.
Such perfect adepts did the negroes become in the
use of the hoe, and with this tool the women readily
kept pace with the men, that it was marvellous,
the accuracy with which they could guide their strokes
for the accomplishment of certain ends. (1900:4)
Part of a plowshare was uncovered and the number '10'
which is molded into the side may indicate either the size
or style number. Two small files and a chisel with a
socketed handle were also recovered. These basic tools
have changed little in the last 200 years and similar
implements are still in use today.
Grindstones
Fragments of at least two small
scattered over the Woodmanston site,
stone, determined by the measurement
millstones were
The diameter of one
from the centerhole to

107
the edge, is approximately 2 feet and is just over 2 inches
thick (Figure 19b). Another fragment is 4 inches thick.
The stones were cut from an igneous rock, possibly pumis
and scoria, which had origins in the Appalachian mountains.
They are scored on one side in the same -basic pattern
as the standard 'French Burr' which was used to grind wheat
in England and Europe (Tucker 1977:4).
Four handmills valued at $40.00 are listed as part
of the 1838 inventory. Two grindstones valued at $2.00
are also included. It is probable that much of the grinding,
especially of food staples for the family and slaves, was
done directly on the plantation.
The grindstone fragments are scattered over a large area
of the site. Over half of those recovered came from tne area
of the chimney base, but they may be a function of depositing
debris from the fields in a central dump by secondary
occupations in preparation for planting.
Faunal Material
The area around the plantation abounded in game of
all sorts. William L. LeConte remembers that when he was a
.Doy growing up on Olive Hill Plantation:
game of all descriptions was in lavish abundance.
During the winter season the water courses and
lagoons abounded in ducks of all kinds, almost
crowdingeach other upon the water. Wild turkeys
were so abundant that any half grown, familiarizing
himself with their haunts, could readily keep the
table supplied. Deer abounded, and during the game
season neighbors would frequently meet and apportioning
out of "stands", send body servants with the pack of

108
hounds to get them up from their lairs. Now, after
the lapse of 50 years on returning to a nearby
county of the same latitude, I find game almost as
scarce as in the mountain regions of North Georgia.
(1900:4)
Apparently this "lavish abundance" was utilized as
a primary source of meat. Emma LeConte Furman describes
a return from the hunt;
such loads of game. Sometimes a wild turkey.
Always English and Mallard ducks, partridqes,
rice birds fish. Such a table as Aunt
Jane kept! (Shaw 1975)
Several of the most trusted negro men were issued
guns in order to shoot "game and wild animals of prey
and crop destroying birds" (LeConte 1903:18). This was
an unusual practice for most coastal plantations.
Unfortunately bone preservation was very poor on the
Woodmanston site. The major portion of the faunal sample
was recovered from the area in the immediate area of the
chimney base. The fill from this feature was water
screened through eighth inch screen thus increasing the
proportion of small fish and mammal remains. The trenches
were not screened at all and this methodology greatly
decreased the possiblity of retrieving a comparable sample
of bone.
Despite the large proportion of game animals mentioned
in the documents, domestic mammals (cow and pig) made up 38
percent of the total biomass represented by the faunal sample
and game mammals (raccoon, opossum, rabbit) comprised only 7
percent. No deer reamins were present. An additional 32
percent of the biomass was made up of unidentifiable large

109
mammal bone. The presence of such low status game animal
bones suggests a likewise low status occupation in the
structure associated with the chimney base.
Chickens and geese made up 1.5 percent of the biomass.
Anhinga, eastern glossy ibis and quail represented the wild
birds utilized on the Woodmanston site (.89 percent biomass).
Bowfin, catfish, bass and crappies were procured from the
Bulltown swamp as a source of food and represented 3 percent
of the biomass. Several types of turtles and alligator
remains were also present but only made up 4 percent of the
biomass.
A complete species list of the fauna recovered at the
Woodmanston site is located in Appendix D.

110
Aboriginal Material
There is a small aboriginal component present on
the Woodmanston site. It seems to be concentrated near
the intersection of the two trench lines. The ceramics are
badly eroded but seem to represent mostly sand tempered
plain wares. One sherd of Savannah check stamped and one
samll cord marked sherd are the only examples of decoration
recovered on the site. Because of the fragmented condition
of the collection no vessel forms could be determined.
The lithic assemblage was made up of one broken
Pinellas point (A.D. 500 to contact), a reworked unifacial
scraper, two reworked bifacial scrapers and numerous flint
chips (Figure 20). Debitage is also scattered on the surface
over most of the site.

CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
A great deal of documentary research and archeological
investigation has been done in an effort to aid the
Garden Clubs of Georqia in the reconstruction and historical
presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation. Specific
questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations of the
Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized the location
of the LeConte botanical qarden, the main plantation house,
subsidiary structures, and the slave settlement. Historical
documents were a great source of information about the site,
Liberty County and the character of the LeConte family, but
did not provide specific locations for structures. Three
major areas of the site were tested archeologically in an
effort to answer these questions.
The LeConte-Woodmanston site has sustained considerable
surface and subsurface damage from twentieth century land use
practices. A program of systematic auger and posthole tests
provided information regarding the distribution of remaining
archeological information. Areas of extensive subsurface
damage have been designated for use as support facilities
but the location of specific plantation era structures has
not been possible during the time available. The area
111

112
designated as the proposed parking facility on the eastern
portion of the site was extensively tested by this means,
with negative results. A major portion of this part of the
site had been removed prior to the 1979 investigation, for
use in road construction. It is for these reasons that a
decision of no adverse impact can be made and Garden Club
plans for this area my be initiated.
The pine grove on the western part of the Woodmanston
site near the main dike, which was designated on the 1344
plat map as the 'settlement', was also extensively surveyed
with augers and post hole diggers, but it has also undergone
a high degree of disturbance through twentieth century
lumbering activity. Concentrations of positive auger
tests suggest the need for some additional investigation
of this area (Figure 11).
Despite the disturbed condition of most of the site, the
auger tests proved that a great deal of cultural information
is still present in the central portion of the site,
which includes the area around the seedling camellia, sabal
palms, crepe myrtle, and pecan trees (Figure 10).
Additional investigation by means of formal excavation
and trenching was conducted to provide information about the
time frame and activities on the site (Figure 12). Based
on artrfactual content, the area encompassing the camellia
tree and palms supported an occupation from the first third
of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.

113
Artifacts ranged from blue on white transfer printed
refined earthenware, popular in the arly 1800s, to wire
nails which first became easily available in the 1890s.
A double nearthed chimney base situated 35 meters
east of the camellia was probably a subsidiary structure
on the LeConte Plantation. The small amount of cooking
vessels recovered does not suggest a kitchen, and personal
artifacts suggest a family occupation. Based on the
presence of an elite ceramic assemblage and window glass
fragments, in conjunction with low status artifacts,
indicates that this might possibly have been the shelter
for the domestic slaves. A standard slave household would
not have contained glazed windows. It is probable that
these people would have continued to reside there even after
the LeConte heirs became absentee owners, and would explain
the presence of post 1850 artifacts. This chimney base
represents the delapitated structure pictured in the middle
right of the 1896 photograph (Figure 7). Numerous postholes
were recorded within 20 meters of the chimney base and indicate
a substantial amount of activity in this area. Unfortunately
without further testing the specific function of this
activity cannot be determined.
The second structure was located just east of the northern
paim, approximately 50 meters from the chimney base. A robbed
brick wall is all that was recovered. Again, the presence of
elite ceramics and a large amount of window glass suggests that
this structure was associated with the main house complex.

114
In the case of Woodmanston, archeology was done at
the site, not seven years too late, but probably as much
as 40 or 50 years too late. But even under such circumstances
we must be careful not to give up too easily. There is
still potential for yielding interesting' cultural information.
It is hoped that additional archeological investigation,
specifically oriented at looking at possible structural
information which we know remains through the presence of
numerous postholes, will be possible. This would require
a different strategy than the diagnostic survey conducted
in 1979.
A large portion of the central area needs to be systematically
stripped in order to assess the activities represented.
It is possible that heavy machinery could be used to facilitate
that portion of the investigation. LeConte-Woodmanston
has the advantage that its access roads have been maintained
for use with logging trucks so that the problem of site
inaccessibilty would be negligible. The central area is also
relatively free of large trees and woody shrubs which might
prove to be an impediment to earth moving equipment.

Figure 1: The LeConte-Woodmanston site is
located approximately 4 miles south
of the present community of Riceboro,
Georgia.

116

Figure 2: Woodmanston vicinity, with some other
historic features of Liberty County,
Georgia.

118

Figure 3: Areal photograph of the Woodmanston area.
Note small cleared spot in the upper
left third of the photograph.

120

Figure 4: 1973 survey of the Woodraanston Plantation area.

122

Figure 5:
LeConte kinship diagram as reconstructed from existing
documents. The focus of this chart is on Louis LeConte
(1782 1838) and his heirs.

M o < g u r 11 deVolleou S Guillaume LeConte
I
Volara EaMon Piarrt LaConia A
r
i r
John
LaCon
I
So'oh
(Jana)
S I oon a
Peter
l aC on I a, Jr.
Mary Ann
Hampton
1
t O u i l ~ Ann
L eCon t a Quortar
LeConte. Jr
JoKn Josephine John Caroline Joseph
lowranca Groh
LaCon
Btima John Caroline Jos
am I Elizabeth I LeConte
f L wir i
(Nisbet William Horriet Lewis O
i i r
J u 1 ion John Emmo !
¡7 Fa rith
1 1 1
Sallie Elosa Corolino
i
Joseph
1 Furma
n (d. intone y)
r
Nicholas Elizabeth
Talley
1
d
1 1
Ko1 he rine Jo hn *
R L
Sm i t h
INI 1
1
n
J
Jane ^ Joh
i r
Op he lio Sumner
y Mo t i Idi
George J An
Re m s e y
For ish
Jose ph
Emma 3
Ralph
F u r m o n
LeC on t e
LeConte 1
Ben |om n
Talley
Tolley
Tolley
Show
1
A
"1
O
Wolter
LeConte
Steven t
124

Figure 6: Photograph of LeConte-Woodmanston site in 1897.
Note the two Sabal Palms and the Camellia japnica
trees in the background.

126

Picture of Joseph LeConte, standing under the
white camellia tree in the old garden of
Louis LeConte, Liberty County, Georgia.
Photograph taken by Dr. Joseph Nisbet LeConte
in 1897.
Figure 7:

128

Figure 8: An interpretativ concept plan for the LeConte-Woodmanston
site, Liberty County, Georgia.

/ [parking
office
r plant
collecti
informat
f nee
.operation
ADMINISTRATION / /
ZONE / /
^ /
SPECIAL
MANAGEMENT
ZONE
INTERPRETATION ZONE
AN INTERPRETIVE CONCEPT PlfcN
F *
L6 CONTE W0ODMANSTON LIBERTY COUNTY, GEORGIA

Figure 9:
Diagram of the spring 1979 testing program
Note the existing plantation era landmarks
palms, camellia, pecans, and main rice dam

LeCONTE-WOODMANSTON SITE 1979
Proposed
Parking
Area
\
Ma in Dike
1 2 0 0 0
Transect
Excavation Unit a
Trench Line 1
J. Hamilton
132

Figure 10: Areal photograph of the LeConte-Woodmanston site.
Black lines indicate approximate location of
transects. Note linear remains of rice dike
systems in lower middle of photgraph.

134

Figure 11:
Distribution of culturally positive auger tests
performed during the spring 1979 investigation
of the Woodmanston site.

136

Figure 12:
Excavation plan for the 1979 spring field session.
Note existing ornamental plantings. A double hearth
chimney base was recovered from the units near the
pecan and a robbed brick wall was unearthed near
the crepe myrtle.

138
LeCONTE-WOODMANSTON SITE
cm
Pecan
0 N. 0 E
Camel lia
G S 0 FIELD
SCHOOL
1 : 600
T ransect

Excavation Unit

Trench Line

J Horn i lion

Figure 13: Double hearth chimney base unearthed 35 meters
east of the seedling camellia. See Figure 12.

140

Figure 14:
Linear configuration of bricks
robbed brick wall located near
stand. See Figure 12.
indicating a
the crepe myrtl

142
i

Figure 15a:
Household artifacts. 'Clockwise:
shutter pintel, weighted latch,
padlock cover, key escrutcheon,
iron keys, 1861 chest hasp.
Gunparts and horse equipment.
Clockwise: bronze gun butt, harness
buckle, gun shells and caps, gun
flints, lead ball, bridle ring.
Figure 15b.

144

Figure 16a: Glass artifacts. Clockwise:
medicine bottle neck, aqua electrical
insulator, medicine bottle base with
pontil scars, perfume bottle, square
medicine bottle base.
Figure 16b: Cutlery recovered on the Woodmanston
site. Note bone handles and different
patterns.

146

Figure 17a: Ceramics. Clockwise: /shell-edged
pearlware; transfer printed ironstone;
blue-on-white transfer printed pearlware;
fragments of the Clews brothers'
"States" pattern; Ridgeway, Morley,
Wear and Company, 'Japan Flowers' pattern;
annular ware.
Figure 17b:
Ceramics.
pearlware,
creamware,
Clockwise: transfer printed
directed painted pearlware,
'Gaudy Dutch', annular ware,
'famille rose' porcelain.

148

Figure 18a:
Personal artifacts. Clockwise: wood
and porcelain buttons, white kaolin clay
pipe stems and bowl, porcelain doll,
beads, hat or hair pin.
Personal artifact. Clockwise: bronze
'cupid', bracelet, thimbles, clay pipe
bowl, overall fastener, safety pin,
slate pencil, metal buttons, earrings,
iron scissors, clay marble.
Figure 18b:


Figure 19a: Quartz crystal recovered near the
chimney base.
Figure 19b:
Grindstone fragment. Note central
hole and finished edge.

152

Figure 20: Aboriginal artifacts. Note Pinellas point above scale

154

APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL SOURCES CONSULTED
Terry Alford, Ph.D. P.O. Box 1151 Springfield, VA 22151.
Dubarton Oaks. Trustees for Harvard University. Center
for Studies in Landscape Architecture. Mrs. Laura Byers,
Librarian, 1703 32nd Street, Washington, D.C. 20007.
Gardner Smith, Books in the Earth Schience. P.O. Box 711,
Glen Echo, MD 20758.
General Services Administration. Washington, D.C. 20408.
Harvard Graduate School of Design. The Frances Loeb Library.
Christofer Hail, Asst. Librarian for Ms. Giral, Librarian,
Gund Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20408.
National Archives and Records Service. General Service
Administration. Brenda A. Beasley, Central Reference
Division, Washington D.C. 20408.
The British Library. Department of Printed Books, Bibliographical
Information Service. Great Russell Street, London
wclb 3dg. Mary Harworth for the Head of the Reading Room,
Information and Admissions Section.
The Library Company of Philadelphia. Anne P. Hennessey, 1314
Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107.
The Library of the Boston Athenaeum. 10 1/2 Beacon Street,
Boston, MA 02108. Cynthia English, Reference Department.
The Royal Horticultural Society. P.O. Box 313, Vincent Square,
London, SWIP 2PE, "The Secretary".
United States Department of the Interior, Office of the
Secretary. Robert Uskavitch, Reference Librarian,
Office of Library and Information Services, Washington,
D.C. 20240.
United States Department of Agriculture. Economics, Statics,
and Cooperative Service. Vivian Wiser, Historian,
Agricultural History Branch, National Economic Division,
Washington, D.C. 20250.
155

156
University of California, Berkeley. Georqe M. Foster,
Department of Anthropology, Berkeley, CA 94720.
University of Georgia Libraries. Catherine V.
Genealogical Resources Librarian, Athens,
Tysinger,
GA 30602.
University of Readinq. The Institute of Agricultural
History and Museum of English Rural' Life. Miss G.
Beazley, Secretary to Dr. Collins, Whiteknights
Reading, RB6 2AG.
Elizabeth Woodburn, Booknoll Farm, Hopewell, NJ 98525.

APPENDIX B
LIST OF BULBS
Bulbs mentioned in a list found in a folder marked
1813-1815, and containing papers of John Lawrence LeCcnte.
Because of owner and date, it is thought that the list is
by the father of John Lawrence LeConte: John Eatton LeConte
whoe was a brother of Louis LeConte. (It was John Eatton
LeConte who brought the "LeConte Pear" from a nursery in
New York to his brother Louis at Woodmanston Plantation).
Original list is in the American Philosophical Society
Library and permission is necessary for reproduction. This
list gives first the plant names as shown on the 1813-1815
list, and on the line below is given the current scientific
name if known and blooming date in the Georgia coastal area.
The latter information is contributed by Clermont H. Lee,
October 1972. Since some of the plants listed are not hardy
in the north, and some are natives of Georgia, it is believed
the list was compiled from records of plants in the Botanical
garden at Woodmanston Plantation, Liberty County, Georgia
1313-1815.
1. Narcissus Papyraceus
Narcissus tazetta subsp. papyraceus (Ker-Gawler Baker)
Paper white is a hybrid. Dec. 21- Feb. 21. white
flowering (1806)
2. N. Papyraceus
157

158
3. Narcissus Tazetta
Narcissus tazetta, L. Polyanthus N., white & lemon yellow.
HV Grand Emperor. Feb.7 Mar. 30. (1753)
4. Narcissus Jonquilla
Narcissus jonquilla, L. Jonquil, bright yellow.
Feb. 15 Mar. 21 (1753)
5. Narcissus Odorus
Narcissus odorus NX odorus, L., Campernelle Jonquil
(N. pseudonarcisus x N. jonquilla) Feb. 21 Mar. 15
(1595)
6.Narcisus incomparabilis
Narcissus x incomparabilis, Nonesuch Daffodill, now a
group name for natural or artificial hybrids -
(N. poeticus x N. pseudonarcissus) March 1-7 (1768)
7.
Narcissus incomparabilis (fl. pi. pal.)
There are innumerable cultivars of N x incomparabilis.
8.Narcissus incomparabilis (fl. pi. lat.)
9.Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus
Narcissus pseudonarcissus, L., Common Daffodil, yellow.
Jan. 21 March 21 (1753)
10.Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus (fl. pi.)
Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus (L) Baker
(1762) var. plenus ?, a garden derivative, creamy
white or N. pseudonarcissus plenus, a different one.
11.Narcissus Minor (fl. pi.)
Narcissus minor, L. (1762) var. N. minor pumilus plenus
(Hort) 1601?, yellow.
12.Narcissus Poeticus (fl. pi.)
Narcissus poeticus var. Flore Pleno (albus plenus odoratus),
The Double Pheasants Eye (N. Poeticus, L. the Poets
Narcissus was listed 1753 but there is not date for the
above)
Leucojum Aestivum
Leucojum aestivum, Summer Snowflake, Amaryllis Family
(Note L. vernum, Spring Snowflake, locally erroneously
called "Snowdrop" blooms Feb. 1 Mar. 30)
Crocus Sativus
Crocus sativus, Saffron Crocus

159
Iris Xiphium
Iris xiphium, Spanish Iris, Iris Family (Note Iris xiphium HV,
the Dutch Iris bloom March 21, April 30)
Iris Xiphioides
Iris xiphioides,
Iris Prsica
Iris prsica (I.
Gladiolus Segetum
Gladiolus segetum, Conflag Gladiolus, Iris Family
Gladiolus Communis
Gladiolus communis, Common Gladiolus (Different from
Common horticultural Gladiolus which is treated as an annual)
Gladiolus Imbricatus
Gladiolus imbricatus, no common name
Hyacinthus Orientalis (fl. Pi.)
Hyacinthus orientalis, Common Hyacinth?, Double
(note, usually treated as an annual, blooms early)
Hyacinthus Orientalis (fl. sem. coer.)
Hyacinthus orientalis var. praecox, Voss,? Blue French Roman
Hyacinth Dec. Mar. 21 (Note var. albidus, Baker is white)
Hyacinthus Muscari
?Hyacinthus azureus, Baker (Muscari azureum, Fenzl.)
fls. blue, fraqrant, like Grape Hyacinth or maybe ?Muscari
mochatum, Willd., Liliacieae
Hyacinthus Racemosus
Muscari racemosum, Mill., Starch Grapehyacinth, fls.
pale blue, odorless March 7 April 15.
Hyacinthus Comosus (mon.)
Muscari comosum, Mill. var. monstrosum (Hort.),
Tassel or Teathered Grapehyacinth
Hyacinthus Comosus (mon. var.)
Muscari comosum, Mill. var. monstrosum varieqated
Lillium Candidum
Lillium candidum, L. Maddon Lily, white, April May 30,
Lilly Family
Lillium Bulbiferum
Lillium bulbiferum, L. Bulbil Lily, white or pale yellow
often tinged red or purple
English Iris
praecox), Persona Iris

160
Lillium Superbum
Lilium superbum,L. Turkscap Lily (or this could have
been L. carolinianum, Michx. L. superbum var.
carolinianum, Chapman, now known as L. michaexi, Poir.)
Scilla Hyacinthoides
Scilla hyacinthoides, L., Hyacinth Squill, Lily Family,
fls. blueish lilac,late spring
Ornithogalum Umbellatum
Ornithogalum umbellatum, L. Common Star-of-bethlehem,
fls. white, Lily Family
Ornithogalum Stachyoides
? O. pyrenaicum, L., Close spiked Star-of-Bethlehem,
S. Europe, raceme very long, petals linear, blunt
(Not listed in modern botany books)
Amaryllis Ltea
Sternbergia ltea, Ker-Gawler, Fall daffodil, bright
yellow, Amaryllis Family, September
Amaryllis Belladonna
Amaryllis belladonna, L., Belladonnalily, fls. from
white to red, Portugal plants flower in September.
Amaryllis Atamasco
Zephyranthes atamasco, Herb. Atamascolily, Amaryllis
Family, white, native in Georgia. Mar. 7 June 15
Amaryllis Equestris
Hippeastrum equestre, Herb. Barbados-lily, Amaryllis
Family, fls. red & green, an old garden species.
(Aitn), "Barbados Lily"
Pancratium Maritimum
Pancratium maritimum, L., Seadaffodil Pancratium,
fls. white, very fragrant, from Spain, Amaryllis Family
(Sea Pancratium)
Pancratium Mexicanum
?Pancratium mexicanum, L., spathe two-flowered, petals
white not fragrant, from Mexico. (Not listed in modern
botany books).

APPENDIX C
HORTICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS
The Soil of the South Volume IV 1854
Mr. Editor: As this is the season for transplanting
Evergreens, and we see so many bald, desolate looking
homes around us, which might be made really cheerful and
attractive by judiciously introducing a few of these
constant friends, permit us to call the attention of the
readers of the Soil of the South, to some of our native
species; bright, blooming, smiling Evergreens, which can
be obtained from our own beautiful forests without paying
enormous prices to Northern and European nurserymen, and
running the risk of having them frozen and decayed.
Ladies of the South! There is an innate love of the
beautiful and graceful in your natures, which only requires
a little cultivation, a little exercise upon surrounding
objects, to make each of your homes a little paradise.
A kind Providence has scattered around us many beautiful
objects, which He certainly designs us to study and
admire, thus purifying our hearts, elevating our thoughts
and preparing us for the enjoyment of that beautiful world,
whre all those who love Him will find a home.
Do you not sometimes divest yourselves of Domestic
cares and the excitement of human society, and stroll into
the green woods to refresh yourselves by a conversation with
nature?
161

162
In these walks, accompanied by your husbands,
brothers, or children, will you not take a few implements
for digqinq and cutting; a few pieces of bass-matting,
coarse cloth or long moss, for enveloping roots, and
when you observe glossy Evergreens, whiqh contrast so strikingly
at this season with the naked looking, deciduous trees stop
a few moments take it up carefully retaining as much earth
and as many rootlets as possible; plant it near your window;
in your flower garden, or upon your lawn, and in a few years
you aill be amply repaid for a little trouble.
For the convenience of those who are willing to avail
themselves of these opportunities, we will mention some of
the most attractive.... (A discussion of various evergreens
has been condensed and the species mentioned are listed below)
Magnolia Grandiflora; the king of Evergreens
Magnolia Glauca, or sweet bay
Live Oak, Quercus vivens
Water Oak, Quercus Aquatica
native pines
Red Cedar
Wild orange
Wild olive similar to English and Portugal laurels
Olea Americana or Devilwood
Holly, Ilex Opaca
Ilex Cassine or Cassina
Gordonia Lasyanthus white bay or loblolly bay
Gordonia Pubescens
Idicium Floridum, or Anise seed tree
Torraya Taxifolia, or Florida Yew
Melocarium Ligustrum
Rododendron Maximum rose bay or mountain laurel
Kalmia Latifolia, ivy or calico bush, mountain laurel
Kalmia Hirsuta
Andromeda Arbrea, or Sorrel Tree
Gelsemium Sempervivens, or yellow iasmine
Zyzyphus Volubilis, or supple iack
Mistletoe, Viscum Flavescens
Palm tree or Cabbaqe Palmetto
Saqo tree

APPENDIX D
SPECIES LIST
Taxonomic Name
Didelphis virginiana
Sylvilagus sp.
Rodentia
Rattus sp.
Procyon lotor
Artiodactyla
Sus scrofa
Bos taurus
Aves
Anhinga anhinga
Plegadus falcinellus
Anser anser
Phasianidae cf. Colinus
Gallus gallus
Alligator mississipiensis
Testudines
Kinosternidae
Kinosternon sp.
Emydidae cf. Chrysemys
Anura
Amia calva
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp.
Centrarchidae
cf. Pomoxis
Micropterus sp.
Common Name
opossum
rabbit
rodents
rats (European introduction)
raccoon
deer, pigs, cows
domestic/feral pig
cow
birds
anhinga, water turkey
Eastern glossy ibis
domesic goose
quail
domestic chicken
alligator
turtles
musk and mud turtles
mud turtle
pond turtle
amphibians frog
bowfin
catfish family
catfish
bass, bream, shell crackers,
crappies, etc.
conferred to crappies
bass
163

APPENDIX E
COMPOSITE TARLE FOR ALL FAUNA
Broken Down by Three
Major
Excavation
Groupings
Table -
1
i1
c
c
0
0
0
p
E-*
H
p
+j
-P
,c
4-1
q
q
4-)
C
n >
-C >
o q
r-H
P
4-> q q
4-i q q
q
q
0
POO)
POP
r1 (l)
4-1
p
0 X P
0 X P
r-H ^-1
0
p
z w <
W H C
< <
E-t
Didelphis virqiniana
13
13
1.43
Svlvilaqus sp.
2
6
8
0.88
Rodentia
4
4
0.44
Rattus sp.
6
6
0.66
Procvon lotor
10
10
1.10
Artiodactyla
1
1
0.11
cf. Sus
2
2
0.22
cf. Bos
1
1
0.11
Sus scrofa
1
27
28
3.09
Bos taurus
8
6
0.66
Mammal, Large
3
106
3
112
12.37
Mammal
2
104
2
108
11.93
Aves
46
46
5.08
cf. Anhinqa
1
1
0.11
cf. Gallus
1
1
0.11
Anhinga anhinga
2
2
0.22
Phlegadis falcinella
3
3
0.33
Anser anser
1
1
0.11
Phasianidae cf. Colinus
1
1
0.11
Gallus gallus
3
3
0.33
Alligator mississipiensis
1
1
0.11
Testudines
2
2
0.22
Kinosternidae
5
5
0.55
Kinosternon sp.
17
17
1.87
Emydidae cf. Chrysemys
2
2
0.22
Unidentified snake
8
8
0.88
Anura
10
10
1.10
Amia calva
12
12
1.32
Ictaluridae
9
9
0.99
Ictalurus sp.
9
9
0.99
Centrarchidae
3
3
0.33
cf. Pomoxis
2
2
0.22
Micropterus sp.
'
3
3
0.33
Unidentified fish
74
74
8.17
Unidentified
6
363
16
385
42.57
Unidentified shell
2
3
3
6
0.66
TOTALS
16
867
22
905
99.90
164

165
Table 1 (continued)
Didelphis virqiniana
Sylvilagus sp.
Rodentia
Rattus sp.
Procyon lotor
Artiodactyla
cf. Sus
cf. Bos
Sus scrofa
Bos taurus
Mammal, Large
Mammal
Aves
cf. Anhinqa
cf. Gallus
Anhinqa anhinga
Phlegadis falcinella
Anser anser
Phasianidae cf. Colinus
Gallus gallus
Alligator mississippiensis
Testudines
Kinosternidae
Kinosternon sp.
Emydidae cf. Chrysemys
Unidentified snake
Anura
Amia calva
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp.
Centrarchidae
cf. Pomoxis
Micropterus sp.
Unidentified fish
Unidentified
Unidentified shell
cn
cs
-P
cn
tn
¡3
a
q
g
cn
£
o
H
O
0
G
P
c
H CO
a
H
-P
£
Cfl (0
p
4J
g
cn P
G
jG
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g
1)
en
O
£ 0

H
U
O U
d)
P
a
a
a
6.5
1.05
0.1699
1.91
7.1
1.14
0.1823
2.04
0.2
0.03
0.0104
0.11
3.4
0.54
0.1012
1.13
12.9
2.08
0.2940
3.30
0.6
0.09
0.0252
0.28
2.1
0.33
0.0688
0.77
19.7
3.18
0.4126
4.63
59.7
9.64
1.0017
11.26
129.9
20.99
1.8658
20.97
228.8
36.98
2.9347
32.99
45.6
7.37
0.8075
9.07
9.3
1.50
0.1553
1.74
0.7
0.11
0.0147
0.16
0.6
0.09
0.0128
0.14
1.6
0.25
0.0313
0.35
1.5
0.24
0.0295
0.33
1.7
0.27
0.0330
0.37
0.2
0.03
0.0047
0.05
5.5
0.88
0.0963
1.08
0.8
0.12
0.0272
0.30
1.4
0.22
0.0396
0.44
0.8
0.12
0.0272
0.30
8.4
1.35
0.1316
1.47
7.8
1.26
0.1252
1.40
0.1
0.01
0.0013
0.01
0.2
0.03
0.0027
0.03
4.3
0.69
0.0955
1.07
0.6
0.09
0.0122
0.13
2.7
0.43
0.0512
0.57
0.6
0.04
0.0063
0.07
0.2
0.03
0.0044
0.04
0.4
0.06
0.0088
0.09
5.0
0.80
0.1086
1.22
44.3
7.16
-
3.8
0.61

TOTALS
618.7
99.81
8.8935
99.82

166
Table 1 (continued)
H
Q)
t
P 0)
q
P
a)
Q) rH
H
(1)
u
p m
u
C
QJ
e q
rH
u
P
q t
q
q
rH
q -H
u
PQ
<
>
p
P
u
e -H
q
0)
0)
tn
e c
q
2
2
2
rl -H
q
H 4H
2 0
H
2
2
P
C
O
u
PH
Didelphis virqiniana
Sylvilagus sp.
Rodentia
Rattus sp.
Procyon lotor
Artiodactyla
cf. Sus
c f. Bos
Sus scrofa
Bos taurus
Mammal, Larqe 16
Mammal 12
Aves
cf. Anhinga
cf. Gallus
Anhinqa anhinga
Phlegadis falcinella
Anser anser
Phasinaidae cf. Colinus
Gallus gallus
Alliqator mississippiensis
Te studines
Kinosternidae
Kinosternon sp.
Emvdidae cf. Chrysemys
Undentified snake
Anura
Amia calva 1
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp.
Centrarchidae
cf. Pomoxis
Micropterus sp.
Unidentified fish 1
Unidentified 10
Unidentified shell
1 4.00
1 1 4.00
1 4.00
2 8.00
1 4.00
1
2 8.00
1 1 4.00
17 13
5
1 4.00
1 4.00
1 1 4.00
1 4.00
1 2 8.00
1 1 4.00
1 4.00
2 1 4.00
1 4.00
1 4.00
3 12.00
1 4.00
1 4.00
TOTALS
40
45
21
25 100.00

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171
LeConte, Joseph
1866
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1903
Autobiography of Joseph LeConte.. D. Appleton, New York
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1900 Some of the Events of My Life, Jotted down as they
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1978
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1793
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Century, Southeastern Geographic 1:45-57.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Jennifer Margaret Hamilton was born on April 10, 1956,
in Venice, Florida. She attended public school and
graduated from Venice High School in 1974. Jennifer
entered Florida State University in the fall of 1974,
then transferred to the University of Florida in the fall
of 1975. She attended her first archeological field school
in 1977 under the direction of Dr. Prudence Rice and
graduate assistant, Sue Mullins at the Chimney Fields site
just south of Gainesville, Florida, and received her
Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from the University
of Florida in the same year. She is a member of Phi Beta
Kappa and Phi Kappa Phi honorary fraternities. Jennifer
entered graduate school fall term 1977 at the University
of Florida with Dr. Charles H. Fairbanks as major professor.
Field work, which has become the topic of this thesis, was
done at the LeConte-Woodmanston Plantation as a part of the
Garden Clubs of Georgia's plans to develop the site. Jennifer
Hamilton will receive the degree of Master of Arts in
anthropology from the University of Florida in June 1980.
175

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a thesis for the deqree of Master of Arts.
Charles H. Fairbanks, Chairman
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that
opinion it conforms
presentation and is
as a thesis for the
I have read this study and that in my
to acceptable standards of scholarly
fully adecate, in scope and quality,
degree of Master of Arts..
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts.
V>r t v n
Elizabeth Wing
Curator of Zooarcheology
Associate Professor of Anthropology
This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Anthropoloqy in the Colleqe of Liberal Arts
and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted
as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Master of Arts
June 1980
Dean, Graduate School



165
Table 1 (continued)
Didelphis virqiniana
Sylvilagus sp.
Rodentia
Rattus sp.
Procyon lotor
Artiodactyla
cf. Sus
cf. Bos
Sus scrofa
Bos taurus
Mammal, Large
Mammal
Aves
cf. Anhinqa
cf. Gallus
Anhinqa anhinga
Phlegadis falcinella
Anser anser
Phasianidae cf. Colinus
Gallus gallus
Alligator mississippiensis
Testudines
Kinosternidae
Kinosternon sp.
Emydidae cf. Chrysemys
Unidentified snake
Anura
Amia calva
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp.
Centrarchidae
cf. Pomoxis
Micropterus sp.
Unidentified fish
Unidentified
Unidentified shell
cn
cs
-P
cn
tn
¡3
a
q
g
cn
£
o
H
O
0
G
P
c
H CO
a
H
-P
£
Cfl (0
p
4J
g
cn P
G
jG
P
g
1)
en
O
£ 0

H
U
O U
d)
P
a
a
a
6.5
1.05
0.1699
1.91
7.1
1.14
0.1823
2.04
0.2
0.03
0.0104
0.11
3.4
0.54
0.1012
1.13
12.9
2.08
0.2940
3.30
0.6
0.09
0.0252
0.28
2.1
0.33
0.0688
0.77
19.7
3.18
0.4126
4.63
59.7
9.64
1.0017
11.26
129.9
20.99
1.8658
20.97
228.8
36.98
2.9347
32.99
45.6
7.37
0.8075
9.07
9.3
1.50
0.1553
1.74
0.7
0.11
0.0147
0.16
0.6
0.09
0.0128
0.14
1.6
0.25
0.0313
0.35
1.5
0.24
0.0295
0.33
1.7
0.27
0.0330
0.37
0.2
0.03
0.0047
0.05
5.5
0.88
0.0963
1.08
0.8
0.12
0.0272
0.30
1.4
0.22
0.0396
0.44
0.8
0.12
0.0272
0.30
8.4
1.35
0.1316
1.47
7.8
1.26
0.1252
1.40
0.1
0.01
0.0013
0.01
0.2
0.03
0.0027
0.03
4.3
0.69
0.0955
1.07
0.6
0.09
0.0122
0.13
2.7
0.43
0.0512
0.57
0.6
0.04
0.0063
0.07
0.2
0.03
0.0044
0.04
0.4
0.06
0.0088
0.09
5.0
0.80
0.1086
1.22
44.3
7.16
-
3.8
0.61

TOTALS
618.7
99.81
8.8935
99.82


14
church, and furthermore, that he sign a promise never to
take Ann out of the county (LeConte 1933:10). As a
consequence of this pact, Louis sold his New York land
holdings to his brother, John Eatton, in 1825 for $30,000.
Woodmanston thenceforth was Louis' permnent home (Chatham
County 1825).
Major John Eatton LeConte, Jr. married Mary Ann Hampton
Lawrence and had three sons, only one of whom reached
maturity. John Lawrence LeConte (1825-1883), eventually
moved to Philadelphia and became one of America's most
distinguished entomologists.
Louis' wife, Ann, died in 1326 of pneumonia, leaving
behind six young children, the eldest fourteen and the
youngest seventeen months old (Figure 5). Jane, the
oldest daughter, who was only twelve at the time, assumed
complete control of the household affairs. Louis tried to
make himself both mother and father to the children and
was devotedly loved by them all (LeConte 1903).
Louis was a man of reticent nature, and although
deeply religious, he was too independent in thought to
accept the strict creeds of the Midway Congregational Church
which he attended with his wife, Ann.
Physically, he was of slender build about five feet
ten inches tall. He had very black eyes and hair
and his manner was reserved and undemonstrative.
His tastes were simple and unostentatious. He cared
little for money and even less for fame. He eschewed
politics utterly and had no desire to wield influence,
but nevertheless he unconsiously influences all who
came in contact with him. He was never known to
borrow, but was always liberal to lend or to aid in
any charity. (LeConte 1933:10-11)


100
A bronze butt plate for a musket or rifle was also
recovered near the robbed brick wall. The back of it
contains an impressed '4 I' but it has not been identified
(Figure 15b).
Tobacco and Smoking Equipment
Cigars, pipes and chewing tabacco were as popular during
the nineteenth century as they are today. Evidence from
other archeolgoical sites along the Georgia coast indicates
that the local planters may have preferred cigars or snuff.
Occasionally planters provided tobacco for the slaves, but
more often they considered it a luxury, and it was purchased
by the slaves from local merchants (Otto 1975:261). Kaolin
clay pipes, sometimes called 'negro pipes', may have been
more popular among the black population.
The kaolin tobacco pipe is an important dating device
for the historical archeologist. These inexpensive clay pipes
were manufactured, purchased, smoked, and thrown away within
a comaratively short period of time. Thus the presence of
identifiable pipe styles and maker's marks provide archeologists
with a tight date which can be applied to the area in which
they were recovered (Noel Hume 1976:296).
Only 39 kaolin clay pipe fragments were retrieved during
the spring excavations. This is a very small sample
compared to most nineteenth century historic sites and
perhaps again reflects the conservative Congregational
attitudes of the LeConte family. These pipes may have also
belonged to the subsequent post-Civil War occupants of the


67
Artifacts recovered in the associated excavation
were less numerous but of the same basic nature as the
chimney base on the south side of the site. The bricks
which make up this wall are smaller and finer, measuring
approximately 7" x 1 3/4" x 3 1/2". The' bricks recovered
from chimney base were 8 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 4" and of a lighter
color red. This may indicate different time periods or
simply different functions. As was the case in the area
around the chimney base, very few whole bricks were found.
Excavation units were opened three meters to the north,
south and east in order to investigate further architectural
remains. A 'classic1 posthole was observed 2 meters north
of this wall. Postholes leave distinct remains in the
archeological record. When a post or pole eventually rots
in the earth or is removed, the hole is filled with soil
and debris which is distinct from the surrounding matrix.
This posthole was the only example in the immediate area
and it is difficult to determine its original function.
It is probable that this wall was also part of a structure
once associated with the Woodmanston Plantation, but without
further investigation its original size or function cannot
be defined.


operation of the gravity flow rice plantation, is the
focus of this study.
3
Woodmanston was also the boyhood home of two of Louis'
sons, John and Joseph LeConte, who were to achieve
individual historical fame as educators, first in the
southeast and later in California. John served as the first
acting president of the then fledgling University of
California at Berkeley, while Joseph held the chair in the
Department of Geology, Zoology and Botany (LeConte 1903:244).
It is because of this association with the LeConte
family that the site of Woodmanston Plantation was placed
on the National Register of Historic Places. As a
consequence, a development plan for the site was formulated
through the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The
plan emphasizes the interpretation and eventual presentation
of the plantation components during its functional era,
the preservation of the natural setting, and its utilization
as a practical habitat for endangered plant species.
Colonel Claude A. Black of Savannah, an avid botanical
enthusiast, relocated the original LeConte property and
the approximate site of Louis' famous garden. Through his
efforts, and those of the Garden Clubs of Georgia, together
with the additional help of the LeConte family heirs,
the Nature Conservancy (a non-profit conservation organization),
and the present lessors of the property, the Brunswick
Paper Company, a portion of the original site was acquired.


97
among the more prosperous and this bronze ring may have
been a poor man's imitation. A bronze bracelet and a nair
or hat pin were also recovered near the chimney (Figure 18b).
Two very different types of earrings-- were found at the
site. The first example was recovered from the center of
tne site and is a delicately rendered white gold wire for a
pierced ear. So fine is the workmanship that is is almost
indistinguishable from modern versions. The second earring,
located near the chimney, is bronze and was mold formed.
The post of the latter is bulky and would require its wearer
to have a good sized hole in her ear. Two tiny screws which
might have been parts of earrings were located near the
robbed brick wall. The presence of bronze jewelry indicates
a lower status occupation at the site.
Long chains of beads were popular in the middle of the
nineteenth century, and were used for necklaces, earrings
and embroidery work. The most common type was the faceted,
hexagonal bead, made from a piece of glass tubing. Facets
were formed by molding, and the corners were carefully
ground smooth (Otto 1975:275). Two such beads, a pale
turquoise and a royal blue, were found during the excavations
at Woodmanston. Also uncovered near the chimney were an
amber wire-wound bead, a spiral jet bead, and a wooden bead
(Figure 18a). Wire-wound beads were made individually
by wrapping strands of molten glass on coated wire
(Otto 1975:275).


108
hounds to get them up from their lairs. Now, after
the lapse of 50 years on returning to a nearby
county of the same latitude, I find game almost as
scarce as in the mountain regions of North Georgia.
(1900:4)
Apparently this "lavish abundance" was utilized as
a primary source of meat. Emma LeConte Furman describes
a return from the hunt;
such loads of game. Sometimes a wild turkey.
Always English and Mallard ducks, partridqes,
rice birds fish. Such a table as Aunt
Jane kept! (Shaw 1975)
Several of the most trusted negro men were issued
guns in order to shoot "game and wild animals of prey
and crop destroying birds" (LeConte 1903:18). This was
an unusual practice for most coastal plantations.
Unfortunately bone preservation was very poor on the
Woodmanston site. The major portion of the faunal sample
was recovered from the area in the immediate area of the
chimney base. The fill from this feature was water
screened through eighth inch screen thus increasing the
proportion of small fish and mammal remains. The trenches
were not screened at all and this methodology greatly
decreased the possiblity of retrieving a comparable sample
of bone.
Despite the large proportion of game animals mentioned
in the documents, domestic mammals (cow and pig) made up 38
percent of the total biomass represented by the faunal sample
and game mammals (raccoon, opossum, rabbit) comprised only 7
percent. No deer reamins were present. An additional 32
percent of the biomass was made up of unidentifiable large


116


32
removed by professionals. There was a large hole, several
feet square, to mark the plant's former location.
It is evident that between 1930 and 1933 the LeConte
botanic garden was stripped of most of its remaining
camellias. In 1933 Dr. Francis Harper, a well-known
naturalist of Philadelphia, visited Woodmanston and
found that only a few Cherokee roses remained on what was
a bank of the old garden (Stokes 1949:180).
In 1949 a visit to the old plantation site was made
by Dr. Clyde E. Keeler and Mr. and Mrs. James Stokes.
They reported that at that time no buildings were left
to mark the site of the Woodmanston homestead. The area
was a wilderness and a photograph taken then shows the same
two Sabal palms that may be observed in the 1897 photograph
(Stokes 1949:181) (Figure 6). There was, however, only one
camellia left as a remnant of the once glorious garden,
It was a single flowered red seedling of large size, but
was in a sad state of neglect. A portion of this original
camellia was remarkably still in existance at the Woodmanston
Plantation site in 1979, and was seen at various times during
the year by Dr. Rochelle Marrinan of Georgia Southern College,
and Dr. Charles Fairbanks and Jennifer Hamilton of the
University of Florida and many interested Garden Clubs of
Georgia members.


6
Certain family letters and diaries, some of which are
still in private hands, provide information about the plantation
and the beauty of the garden. Other letters, some of a
later date, focus on members of the family, their attitudes
toward issue of the day such as economics and slavery, and
the Civil War. All the LeConte letters are generously
informative and indicate strong family ties.
Documents located among the Liberty County records
provide information concerning the administration of
the estate of Louis LeConte and his oldest son, William.
These records provided insights concerning matters of slave
economics. Other records provided land plats with the
approximate location of the main LeConte house, the nearby
slave 'settlement' and the location of the rice and cotton
fields. Various land deeds show how some potentially
important archeological landmarks could have been changed,
relocated, or removed as the land changed hands.
Chatham County Courthouse records provide some
unexpected early data concerning Louis LeConte's uncle
William. William LeConte (1738-1787) established nearby
San Souci Plantation in the 1760s, about the same time that
his brother, John Barton LeConte established Woodmanston.
In the administration of William's estate the slaves which
he owned are listed by name and family. Some of his creditors
are also listed. Another discovery was the sale of lands near
New York City by Louis LeConte to his brother, Major John
Eatton LeConte in 1825.


10
slavery was not abolished in the United States until after
the Civil War in 1865. This struggle drastically changed
almost every aspect of life in the southern states.
The LeConte family and its landholdings are interesting
because they span an area of time which encompasses two
major wars, the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution,
and the building of a nation.
Family History
The recorded history of the LeConte family began-
in Europe in the mid-seventeenth century when Guillaume
LeConte (1659-1710) was born in Rouen, France of a noble
Protestant family with illustrious connections to Louis XIV.
However, in 1685 he was forced to leave France and emigrate
to Holland because of Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict
of Nantes, which would have deprived him of his religous
liberty and his wealth. According to family tradition,
the king warned him of his intentions before hand in order
that Guillaume might have the time to make the necessary
personal arrangements.
Upon leaving France, Guillaume adopted the name, LeConte,
which was derived from his mother's maiden name, LeConte
de Nonant (Figure 5). Unfortunately there is no record of
Guillaume's original family name. He traveled to Holland and
joined the forces of King William of Orange, to whom he was
also related through Count de Berg s'Hecrenberg, and
participated in William's invasion of England.


142
i


136


107
the edge, is approximately 2 feet and is just over 2 inches
thick (Figure 19b). Another fragment is 4 inches thick.
The stones were cut from an igneous rock, possibly pumis
and scoria, which had origins in the Appalachian mountains.
They are scored on one side in the same -basic pattern
as the standard 'French Burr' which was used to grind wheat
in England and Europe (Tucker 1977:4).
Four handmills valued at $40.00 are listed as part
of the 1838 inventory. Two grindstones valued at $2.00
are also included. It is probable that much of the grinding,
especially of food staples for the family and slaves, was
done directly on the plantation.
The grindstone fragments are scattered over a large area
of the site. Over half of those recovered came from tne area
of the chimney base, but they may be a function of depositing
debris from the fields in a central dump by secondary
occupations in preparation for planting.
Faunal Material
The area around the plantation abounded in game of
all sorts. William L. LeConte remembers that when he was a
.Doy growing up on Olive Hill Plantation:
game of all descriptions was in lavish abundance.
During the winter season the water courses and
lagoons abounded in ducks of all kinds, almost
crowdingeach other upon the water. Wild turkeys
were so abundant that any half grown, familiarizing
himself with their haunts, could readily keep the
table supplied. Deer abounded, and during the game
season neighbors would frequently meet and apportioning
out of "stands", send body servants with the pack of


79
bottles recovered at Woodmanston, the assumption may be made
that the site represents a slave or post-Civil War occupation.
However, the large proportion of medicinal glassware at
Woodmanston may be explained by the fact that both Louis
LeConte and his son-in-law, John M.B. Harden, were physicians.
Louis was educated at Columbia College in New York, but
practiced medicine only on his own plantation and among the
poor 'pine knockers or crackers' in the vicinity (LeConte 1903:14).
John >1.B. Harden practiced medicine in Liberty County from
1830 until his death in 1848. This practice of medicine
is documented by the presence of his name on a list of
practicing physicians in the county in 1831 (Liberty County 1831) .
As would be expected, the general health of the county
greatly improved when wet rice culture began to be abandoned
in favor of the dry culture system for the cultivation of
cotton and corn as export items in the 1830s. As early as
1817, wet culture rice cultivation was recognized as a
health hazard in Savannah, Georgia.
According to John M.B. Harden, by 1345 "less drastic
and poisonous medicines (were) employed and the heroic
treatment of the early schools of medicine once allowed in
this country (had) been exchanged for the milder and more
rational method of assisting nature" (Harden 1345:555).
Drugs commonly stocked at the plantations during that time
included: castor oil, spirits of turpentine, blue mass,


40
tracts, which were continuously cultivated over many years
introudced an oxidation of humus in the soil and a consequent
lowering of the surface to a point where it was no longer
above the level of low tide, and therefore unworkable
(Phillips 1929:117-118).
Louis' son, Joseph LeConte, discussed rice processing on
Woodmanston plantation as it was done during his childhood.
He noted that the entire processes of harvesting, threshing,
winnowing, grinding, a second winnowing and finally milling
were performed on the plantation (LeConte 1903:22,23).
The rice could be harvested with sickles while still a
little green, it was then left on the stubble to dry, for
about two or three days, and then it was housed or put in large
stacks. Afterwards, it was threshed with a flail, and then
winnowed (Carroll 1836:201). The flail had to hit just right
to remove the rice from the stalk. A drawing of a flail can
be seen in Eric Sloan's A Museum of Early American Tools
(1964:98). It is made up of a 'hand staff' and a 1souple
connected by leather thongs and a swivel 'hood'.
Winnowing was formerly a very tedious operation. A
large wooden winnowing scoop such as the one sketched in Sioane's
A Museum of Early American Tools, was used to throw the flailed
grain into the air to separate the grain from the chaff
(1964:105). After the introduction of innovations such as
the winnowing house and the 'wind fan', about 1750, this
process became much easier. It is not known whether the


92
Cutlery
Several spoons, representing at least three
different patterns, a large knife blade, and four untensil
handles, also representing three different patterns, make
up the collection of cutlery from the Woodmanston site
(Figure 16b). The large knife is similar to one
pictured on page 182, Figure 63, #7 in Noel Hume's A Guide
to Artifacts of Colonial America, and may represent a late
eighteenth or early nineteenth centry date. Two of the utensil
handles found have riveted bone plates. This type of
handle treatment has been dated to the mid eighteenth
century. All of the cutlery was recovered in the proximity
of the chimney base.
Personal Items
Artifacts which were once personal items belonging
to various individuals often provide valuable information.
The term, personal items, encompasses those things which
were used or owned by only one person for a lengtn of time,
as opposed to objects used by a group of people, such as
tools or ceramics. Examples of such personal items unearthed
at Woodmanston include sewing equipment, buttons, jewelry,
firearms, pipes and toys.
Sewing Equipment
Archeological items concerning the manufacture or
repair of clothing consist of a pair of iron scissors, and
three thimbles, wnich were recovered in the proximity of the




76
influence under which he had been brought up, and the effects
they had on his early life. "During my whole college
course I never touched an intoxicating drink of any kind"
(LeConte 1903:37). In spite of this conservative attitude,
the LeConte family did own three decante'rs, and "lots of
wine glasses" (Liberty County 1838).
Prohibition laws against the retail sale of liquor
in Liberty County were strictly enforced, but the use of
alcohol by the slaves is documented in Joseph LeConte's
autobiography. In order to prevent roaming and drunkeness
the planters in the county formed a "mounted police" that
patrolled the area during the night and arrested those
without passes (LeConte 1903:13). The presence of mold
blown liquor bottles near the chimney base probably
constitues evidence of the post-war activity on the site.
Medicine Bottles
Medicine bottle retrieved from the Woodmanston site also
present further sociological information about its occupants.
Portions of a number of medicine bottles which were recovered
during the spring excavations included various sizes (3/4"
to 2" in diameter) and shapes (rectangular, square and round)
(Figure 16a). Commercial and medicine bottle fragments make
up 20 percent of the total glass sample by numerical count
and 26 percent by weight. The presence of pontil scars
on the bases of three mold blown medicine bottles in the
proximity of the chimney base suggest a time frame ranging


156
University of California, Berkeley. Georqe M. Foster,
Department of Anthropology, Berkeley, CA 94720.
University of Georgia Libraries. Catherine V.
Genealogical Resources Librarian, Athens,
Tysinger,
GA 30602.
University of Readinq. The Institute of Agricultural
History and Museum of English Rural' Life. Miss G.
Beazley, Secretary to Dr. Collins, Whiteknights
Reading, RB6 2AG.
Elizabeth Woodburn, Booknoll Farm, Hopewell, NJ 98525.


CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
A great deal of documentary research and archeological
investigation has been done in an effort to aid the
Garden Clubs of Georqia in the reconstruction and historical
presentation of the LeConte Gardens and Plantation. Specific
questions guided the 1979-1980 investigations of the
Woodmanston site. Garden Club interests emphasized the location
of the LeConte botanical qarden, the main plantation house,
subsidiary structures, and the slave settlement. Historical
documents were a great source of information about the site,
Liberty County and the character of the LeConte family, but
did not provide specific locations for structures. Three
major areas of the site were tested archeologically in an
effort to answer these questions.
The LeConte-Woodmanston site has sustained considerable
surface and subsurface damage from twentieth century land use
practices. A program of systematic auger and posthole tests
provided information regarding the distribution of remaining
archeological information. Areas of extensive subsurface
damage have been designated for use as support facilities
but the location of specific plantation era structures has
not been possible during the time available. The area
111


Figure 9:
Diagram of the spring 1979 testing program
Note the existing plantation era landmarks
palms, camellia, pecans, and main rice dam


CHAPTER IV
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS
The previous archeolgoical survey of the Woodmanston
Plantation performed by Gordon Midgette in 1972 suggested
that major architectural components were still present on
the Woodmanston site. "Surface evidence for bricked pilings,
walks and possibly foundations of floors of the late
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries" were noted and
therefore, based on this account, it was hoped that these
remains might be located and indentified during the
Spring 1979 excavations (Midgette 1972). Unfortunately,
during the interim span of seven years since the Midgette survey,
even these remnants have disappeared.
Architectural elements recovered during the 1979
excavations include a double fireplace chimney base and a
robbed brick wall. Associated with these structures are
window glass, nails, screws, pintis and other miscellaneous
building hardware.
The Chimney Base
The double fireplace chimney base uncovered at the
Woodmanston site is located approximately 35 meters east
of the seedling camellia, beneath a large pecan tree
62


55
our assessment focused on the impact of proposed structures;
the parking lot, visitor interpretation center, and nature
walks on the existing cultural resources and the location
and identification of the remaing plantation era resources.
Transects and Auger Testing
In order to ascertain the extent of the site still
remaining intact a series of linear transects covering the
major areas in question were cleared. This included the
proposed parking area on the northeast corner of the site
which had previously been cleared and used as a source
of fill for the entrance road; the orientation area just
west of the parking facilities; the region encompassing
the palms, the crepe myrtle, the seedling camellia and
the stand of old pecans which is a possible location for
the main house and garden; and the area northwest of the
dike and across the entrance road.
Approximately five percent of the upland was covered
by the series of linear transects which were used to
control a program of mechanical auger and posthole testing
(Figures 9,10). A gas driven 4-inch mechnical auger
was used along with standard posthole diggers. Both worked
well, each had its advantages and disadvantages. The
posthole diggers were more time consuming than the auger,
but they resulted in a wider hole and artifacts were broken
less frequently. Also it provided a clearer picture of
the stratigraphy. The auger, however, is much more


REFERENCES1 CITED
Barnes, Julie
1979 Stoneware. Paper presented as a requirement
for-the 1979 Georgia Southern College field school.
Ms. in personal files of Jennifer Hamilton,
University of Florida
Black, Claude A.
1976 The LeConte-Woodmanston Project. A presentation
at the Oleander District of the Garden Clubs of
Georgia. Millen, Georgia. October 6, 1976.
Bostwick, John and Darryl Wise
1980 A Subsurface Survey of the City of St. Augustine,
Historic Precincts North of the Plaza. Florida
Journal of Anthropology, in press.
Bureau of the Census
1820 Population Schedules of the Fourth Census of the
United States. Volume 3. National Archives
Microfilm Publications.
1830 Georgia: Fifth Census. Laurens Muscogee.
Volume 4. National Archieves Microfilm Publications
1340 Georgia: Sixth Census. Irwin to Lumpkin.
Volume 5. National Archieves Microfilm Publications
Camehl, Ada Walker
1971 The Blue China Book. Dover Press, New York.
Carroll, B.R.
1836 Historical Collections of South Carolina.
Harper and Bros, New York.
Chatham County
1787 Administration of Estate of William LeConte.
Probate Court Records, #6. Chatham County
Courthouse, Savannah, Georgia.
1825 Louis LeConte. Book 2-N. Office of the Inferior
Court. Chatham County Courthouse, Savannah, Georgia.
167


APPENDIX C
HORTICULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS
The Soil of the South Volume IV 1854
Mr. Editor: As this is the season for transplanting
Evergreens, and we see so many bald, desolate looking
homes around us, which might be made really cheerful and
attractive by judiciously introducing a few of these
constant friends, permit us to call the attention of the
readers of the Soil of the South, to some of our native
species; bright, blooming, smiling Evergreens, which can
be obtained from our own beautiful forests without paying
enormous prices to Northern and European nurserymen, and
running the risk of having them frozen and decayed.
Ladies of the South! There is an innate love of the
beautiful and graceful in your natures, which only requires
a little cultivation, a little exercise upon surrounding
objects, to make each of your homes a little paradise.
A kind Providence has scattered around us many beautiful
objects, which He certainly designs us to study and
admire, thus purifying our hearts, elevating our thoughts
and preparing us for the enjoyment of that beautiful world,
whre all those who love Him will find a home.
Do you not sometimes divest yourselves of Domestic
cares and the excitement of human society, and stroll into
the green woods to refresh yourselves by a conversation with
nature?
161


122


APPENDIX D
SPECIES LIST
Taxonomic Name
Didelphis virginiana
Sylvilagus sp.
Rodentia
Rattus sp.
Procyon lotor
Artiodactyla
Sus scrofa
Bos taurus
Aves
Anhinga anhinga
Plegadus falcinellus
Anser anser
Phasianidae cf. Colinus
Gallus gallus
Alligator mississipiensis
Testudines
Kinosternidae
Kinosternon sp.
Emydidae cf. Chrysemys
Anura
Amia calva
Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp.
Centrarchidae
cf. Pomoxis
Micropterus sp.
Common Name
opossum
rabbit
rodents
rats (European introduction)
raccoon
deer, pigs, cows
domestic/feral pig
cow
birds
anhinga, water turkey
Eastern glossy ibis
domesic goose
quail
domestic chicken
alligator
turtles
musk and mud turtles
mud turtle
pond turtle
amphibians frog
bowfin
catfish family
catfish
bass, bream, shell crackers,
crappies, etc.
conferred to crappies
bass
163


120


118


29
is believed to have been the original property of John
Lawrence LeConte's father, Major John Eatton LeConte.
It contained the germination and flowering times of similar
varieties in the Georgia coastal area today (Black 1976:6).
Several varieties of Narcissus, Leucojum, Crocus, Iris,
Gladiolus, Hyacinthus, Lillium, Scilla, Ornithogalum,
Amaryllis and Pancratium are represented (American Philosophical
Society 1813). For a complete bulb list see Appendix B.
Although we have not located a map or formal listing
of plants and trees included in the Louis LeConte garden,
we may infer the inclusion of many native varieties.
'Native Flora' wrote to Soil of the South entreating people
to include such native plants in their lawns and gardens
(1854:90,92). See Appendix Cfor a complete list.
Louis LeConte's love of nature influenced the lives
of all of his children. His two daughters, Jane LeConte
Harden and Ann LeConte Stevens, followed in his footsteps.
Jane LeConte Harden had a lovely garden built at Halifax,
just a mile from Woodmanston, which contained a tiered
garden and a swan pond. There is a picture taken in 1949 of
the moat surrounding the island, which was a portion of the
garden landscape of Halifax. This island contained several
camellias until a forest fire in the 1930s obliterated them.
The only remaining camellia plants of this former garden are
two Camellia sinensis (Stokes 1949:180,181). Emma LeConte
describes this garden in some detail in her journal.


106
and they would certainly have a distinct picture in the
archeological record.
Portions of two broad hoes, implements which were
common in Georgia coastal agricultre were located, one
near the robbed brick wall and one from the surface. A
descendant of two LeConte slaves remembers his grandparents
telling him they worked in the fields with hoes which
were probably identical to those recovered at the site.
According to William L. LeConte:
the labor (on Olive Hill Plantation) was performed
almost altogether with the weeding hoe, there being
but one hand on this large plantation skilled in the
use of the plough, and when old age commended to
incapacitate him he was allowed to take a half grown
boy under his charge to train him as his successor.
Such perfect adepts did the negroes become in the
use of the hoe, and with this tool the women readily
kept pace with the men, that it was marvellous,
the accuracy with which they could guide their strokes
for the accomplishment of certain ends. (1900:4)
Part of a plowshare was uncovered and the number '10'
which is molded into the side may indicate either the size
or style number. Two small files and a chisel with a
socketed handle were also recovered. These basic tools
have changed little in the last 200 years and similar
implements are still in use today.
Grindstones
Fragments of at least two small
scattered over the Woodmanston site,
stone, determined by the measurement
millstones were
The diameter of one
from the centerhole to


Figure 15a:
Household artifacts. 'Clockwise:
shutter pintel, weighted latch,
padlock cover, key escrutcheon,
iron keys, 1861 chest hasp.
Gunparts and horse equipment.
Clockwise: bronze gun butt, harness
buckle, gun shells and caps, gun
flints, lead ball, bridle ring.
Figure 15b.


172
Liberty County
1844 Division of Estate of Louis LeContef plat map included.
Deed Book M, Part I, 189. Office of the Inferior
Court. Liberty County Courthouse, Hinesville, Georgia.
1911 Documents in Deed Book AL, 340-345. Office of the
Inferior Court. Liberty County Courthouse,
Hinesville, Georgia.
Lorrain,
1958
Dessamae
An Archaeologist's Guide to Nineteenth Century
American Glass. Historical Archaeology 2:35-44.
McFarlane, Suzanne
1975 The Ethnoarcheology of a Slave Community: The Cooper
Plantation Site. M.A. Thesis. University of
Florida at Gainesville Library.
McPherson, Charles
1979 Musket Types Used on the Woodmanston Plantation.
Paper presented as a requirement for the 1979 Georgia
Southern College field school. Ms. in personal files
of Jennifer Hamilton, Department of Anthropology,
University of Florida.
Midgette, Gordon
1972 Correspondence with the Office of the State Archeologist
regarding the Woodmanston Plantation, June 28, 1972.
Mullins, Sue
1979 Busson Hill: A Southern Coastal Slave Settlement.
Presented to the Twentieth Annual Conference on
Historic Sites Archaeology, St. Augustine, Florida.
Myers, Robert M.
1972 Children of Pride. Yale University, New Haven.
Noel Hume, Ivor
1969 Glass: in Colonial Williamsburg's Archaeological
Collections. Colonial Williamsburg Archaeological
Series #1. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation,
Williamsburg, Virginia.
1976 A Guide to Artifact of Colonial America. A. Knopf,
New York.
Otto, John
1975 Status Differences and the Archeological Record:
A Comparison of Planter, Overseer and Slave Sites
from Cannon's Point Plantation (1794-1861), St.
Simons Island, Georgia. Ph.D. University of Florida
Library, Gainesville.


The members of the LeConte-Woodmanston Trustees and
the Garden Clubs of Georgia have been supportive throughout
the entire project. The author would especially like to
acknowledge the help of Colonel George Rogers of Hinesville,
Georgia, and Mrs. George W. Ray of Savannah.
Because of the disturbed condition of the Woodmanston
site, documentary research concerning the LeConte family
comprised a large part of this study. The author would
like to acknowledge the staffs of the Georgia Historical
Society Library; the American Philosophical Society Library;
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; the Pennsylvania
Historical Society Library; and the P.K. Yonge Library of
Florida History. The aid of Mrs. Nancy Aspinwall, Liberty
County Probate Judge; the staffs of the Office of the
Inferior Court of Liberty and Chatham Counties; and
Mr. George Ference and Mr. Bagario of Brunswick Pulp and
Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia,are also acknowledged.
Special thanks to Dr. George Rogers,Georgia Southern College,
for the use of his personal files on the LeConte family.
The Community of Riceboro was very kind to the entire
crew during our stay in 1979. Much gratitude is awarded to
Mrs. Cordelia Jones Browning for her interest and concern and
to Mrs. Hern for renting our house in Riceboro, without which
the project would have never been the same.
Analysis of the LeConte-Woodmanston collection was
performed at the University of Florida. The author would like
iii


158
3. Narcissus Tazetta
Narcissus tazetta, L. Polyanthus N., white & lemon yellow.
HV Grand Emperor. Feb.7 Mar. 30. (1753)
4. Narcissus Jonquilla
Narcissus jonquilla, L. Jonquil, bright yellow.
Feb. 15 Mar. 21 (1753)
5. Narcissus Odorus
Narcissus odorus NX odorus, L., Campernelle Jonquil
(N. pseudonarcisus x N. jonquilla) Feb. 21 Mar. 15
(1595)
6.Narcisus incomparabilis
Narcissus x incomparabilis, Nonesuch Daffodill, now a
group name for natural or artificial hybrids -
(N. poeticus x N. pseudonarcissus) March 1-7 (1768)
7.
Narcissus incomparabilis (fl. pi. pal.)
There are innumerable cultivars of N x incomparabilis.
8.Narcissus incomparabilis (fl. pi. lat.)
9.Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus
Narcissus pseudonarcissus, L., Common Daffodil, yellow.
Jan. 21 March 21 (1753)
10.Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus (fl. pi.)
Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus (L) Baker
(1762) var. plenus ?, a garden derivative, creamy
white or N. pseudonarcissus plenus, a different one.
11.Narcissus Minor (fl. pi.)
Narcissus minor, L. (1762) var. N. minor pumilus plenus
(Hort) 1601?, yellow.
12.Narcissus Poeticus (fl. pi.)
Narcissus poeticus var. Flore Pleno (albus plenus odoratus),
The Double Pheasants Eye (N. Poeticus, L. the Poets
Narcissus was listed 1753 but there is not date for the
above)
Leucojum Aestivum
Leucojum aestivum, Summer Snowflake, Amaryllis Family
(Note L. vernum, Spring Snowflake, locally erroneously
called "Snowdrop" blooms Feb. 1 Mar. 30)
Crocus Sativus
Crocus sativus, Saffron Crocus


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