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The Tulane University Graduate School of Business Administration

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University of Florida
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T:i TULAN!I UNIVERSE TY G;RAUATE SCtOOI., OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION: AN ORAL- [INSTITUTIONAL HIlSTORY











By ,
JAMES FRANCIS FOUCIHE















A DI SSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADjUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULI.,LLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVE RSITY OF : LORIDA

1978










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to acknowledge the guidance and

assistance of his supervisory committee, Dr. E. Ashby Hammond and Dr. Arthur O. White. The chairman of this committee, Dr. Robert R. Sherman, has been especially helpful. Dr. Sherman has helped the author understand that clarity of expression and thought are intimately related. At Tulane University, Mr. Thomas F. Hendricks and Mr. Pierre St. Raymond were helpful. My wife, Kathy, has provided substantial assistance as a typist, proofreader, and counselor. My son, Jonathan, was often patient and always an inspiration.




























ii









FO REWO RD


J, D B. DeBow, appropriately known as the ''Magazinist

of the Old South," came to New Orleans in 1845 for the purpose of starting a new commer cia journal. After a slow and ince tain b eginni ting, DcBow's Review became one of the most comprehensive accounts of ante-bellum Southern life ever published. Reflecting DeBow s interest in fostering the welfare of the South and West, the Review was aimed at upholding their policies, defending their rights, developing their resources, and preserving their important statistics. In 1.847, as a part of his efforts to promote Southern life, DeBow attempted to establish a chair of "Commerce, Pub'lic Economy, and Statistics" at the newly organized Univers ity of Louisiana. Located in New Orleans which DeBow once described as the "emporium of boundless wealth," the university, he thought, was uniquely suited to become the first to establish a chair of commerce.

Deciow not only pioneered the establishment of universitylevel commercial education, he also suggested what was to become a traditional relationship between schools of commerce and the surrounding community. He b as confident that the energies and resources of the local community could be combined to form a strong foundation upon whic h university-level commercial education could be built. In return the local community could expect to enjoy an improvedd character"' of


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commercial activity, a well trained pool of ambitious and industrial youth, and the informed counsel of the professor.,3 Unfortunately, these pioneering efforts in commercial education were unsuccessful. Despite his tireless efforts at organizing and promoting the professorship and the financial support of a prominent local businessman, DeBow could not generate sufficient interest among students or support among local businessmen, Charles Gayarre, the noted Louisiana historian, described the commercial professorship as a. barren honor It was a professorship without students, and no ability could have commanded an audience. The time had not yet come when any interest could have been taken in such subjects. '4

Over fifty years passed before New Orleans had another

oppor tunity to cooperate in establishing a university program in commercial studies. By 1914, the University of Louisiana had been endowed by Paul Tulane, a wealthy cotton broker. It was' then renamed Tulane Universi ty. Although New Orleans had been uninterested in DeBow's efforts to start a commercial professorship, by 1914 it was ready to do whatever was necessary to establish collegiate-level business training. This study is a history of the effort to establish and develop thec College of Commerce and Business Administration at Tulane University, from its beginning in 1914, through the most recent completed term of its dean in 1974.



iv










This study is an institutional history. Institutional history is important, for much of modern life is spent in institutional settings. Education in America, to the extent tha t it has been conducted in schools, is an especially i.nstitutionalized activity. Yet, institutional history has been accorded a low status among professional historians because it generally has been poorly conceived, conducted, and written. Too often, institutional history has become "house" history written by those untrained in historical research and analysis and uninterested in presenting anything beyond an anecdotal account of 'great moments" in an institution's past. The history of educational institutions does not account for all such histo ries, but it has suffered from a substantial number of them.

Institutional history offers distinct advantages and

disadvantages for research and data management. First, the history focuses upon an institution, thereby providing the researcher with a manageable topic for study. Secondly, modern institutions often collect massive amounts of written records which are readily available for study. Both of these advantages, however, present potential problems for the historian. The built-in focus of institutional history can become so narrow that the institution is studied without reference to external events. And, although the written records of institutions are important, they also tend to be too narrowly









focused. Moreover, written records reflect only part of an institution's past.

Since institutions are managed by people, they have an oral as well as a written past. Deficiencies in the written record can be overcome, at least in part, by using oral information. Thus, this study also is an oral history. Oral history, the gathering of historical information through interviews, is especially appropriate for institutional history. interviews can be used to supplement or corroborate the written record of an institution. Interviews also enable the historian to engage his topic more actively by asking questions of those who affected institutions or were affected by them. The information gathered in interviews often is more personal and provides insights unavailable through written records. Oral accounts enrich the occasionally perfunctory and often self-congratulatory official records of an institution. To be sure, oral information must be subjected to the same scrutiny as written information. The oral historian also must guard against focusing too narrowly upon events within the institution.

This history of Tulane's College of Commerce and Business Administration is based upon a variety of written and oral information. The written records of the college, including bulletins, reports, minutes of faculty meetings, correspondence files, and constitutions, were studied. These records were


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supplemented with external sources: newspapers, local business association records, university documents, and national studies of collegiate level business education. Oral information was gathered by interviewing former and present faculty, administrators, staff, students, and alumni of the college. Important figures in other parts of the university and in the local business community also were interviewed.

The sixty-year history of the Tulane University College

of Commerce and Business Administration reflects general developments in higher education and business education. Thus, the history of this college can be a contribution to, and a specimen of, the general history of education. The most pronounced development in American higher education in the twentieth cecntury--the dramatic increase in enrollments--was accompanied by a dramatic movement toward professional training. When America became more sophisticated and influenced by the processes of technological production, the need for experts and professionals grew at an unprecedented rate. As elementary and secondary schooling had been pressed into service, institutions of higher learning were called upon to provide the skills and values needed to meet the demands of society. The liberal arts college, once secure in its isolation from the more mundane aspects of American life, could no longer survive in a society which viewed higher education as vital to social and material success.



V1-










Calvin Coolidge, in declaring that "'the business of

America is business" unwittingly issued a challenge to which institutions of higher learning had to respond. Like so many other fields of activity, the growth of business activity in America called for increased academic and professional training,. As one of the so-called "new professions" (such as engineering, architecture, education, and agriculture), business slowly became accepted as a legitimate part of Amer:ican higher education. The training of these "new professionals" was largely conducted in public institutions of higher learning, especially after the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. Private colleges and universities also responded by developing professional schools with increase ing vigor. Tulane's development of these schools was encouraged by its benefactors who were themselves men of practical affairs.

Tulane's College of Commerce also reflects developments in higher education for business. its early emphasis on vocational training and its eventual development of a general business curriculum were characteristic of collegiate business training throughout the nation. Similarly, the decision to replace the undergraduate program with an exclusively graduate, professional curriculum mirrored developments in other private universities. The issues it faced in terms of its position in the university, its relationship to the local business community, and the nature of its faculty, students, and



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courses are, in microcosm, the same as those faced by business educators across the country.

Yet, the experiences of the college must also be recognized. as unique. The people important to the history of the college, as well as .ts institutional and community settings, must be understood to portray the college's past accurately, and to qualify the application of its experiences to others. This is where the history of the Tulane University Cocll ege of Commerce and Business Administration can make its most signi ficant contribution to the history of education--it can highlight both the common and unique aspect ts of attempts to educate by showing what people tried to teach and how they went about it.









NOTES


,. I D B. DeBow, "The Commercial Review of the South and West" in DeBow's Review, ed. by J. D. B. DeBow (New O~laans, Lou.isTaa: .T. D. B. DeBow, Publisher), Volume I, Number 1, June, 1846, pp. 2-6.

"Ibid., Volume III, Number 6, June, 1847, p. 509.

P pp. S11-512.

Charles Gayarre, "James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow ity Iio s Rdvie w (New Orleans, Louisiana: J. D. B. DeBow, iuTi. isher), Vco 0Oe III, Number 6 (After War Series), June, 1867, p. 501,


i: x









TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. i FOREWORD . . . . ... . . . ..

ABSTRACT .... ...... ... .. ..... .. xii

CHAPTER

I. A COLLEGE OF COMMERCE FOR NEW ORLEANS:
THE IDEA AND ITS REALIZATION 1 NOTES . . . . 23

I. THE NEXT BEST THING TO CARNIVAL:
THE COLLEGE, 1914-1918 . . . . .. . 26

NOTES . . .. .. . . . .. 45

IIi. FREEDOM AND FORMALIZATION: THE COLLEGE, 1919-1939 ........ .. ..... 48

NO TE S . . .* *.*.. ... 71

IV. A DECADE OF CHANGE :
THE BUCHAN YEARS, 1939-1949 . . . . 77 NOTES . . . . .. .. . . . 105

V. PROJECTING A NEW IMAGE:
R.OBERT W. FRENCH AS DEAN, 1949-1955 . . . 110 NOTE7 S . . . . . ....................... 127

VI. REALIZING THE IMAGE:
PAUL V. GRAIBSCH AS DEAN, 1955-1960 . 130 NOTES . .. . . . .. . . . 148

VII. THE MOVE TO GRADUATE EDUCATION: THE DEANSHIPS OF HOWARD SCHALLER
AND C. JACKSON GRAYSON, 1960-1968 . . . . 151 NOTES . . . . . . . . . . 170

VII, THE MOVE TO AUTONOMY AND FISCAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY: PETER A. FIRMIN AS DEAN,
1968-1974 .. .... .............. 174

NOTES . . . . . . . 194
x











AFTERWORD . . . . . . . . . . . 198

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ... ... ......... 206

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........ ....... ... 212



















































xi










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Flordia
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE TULANE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION: AN ORAL-INSTITUTIONAL HISTORY By

James Francis Fouche'

August 1978

Chairman: Robert R. Sherman Major Department: Foundations of Education

This study is an oral-institutional history of the

Tulane University Graduate School of Business Administration from the time it was founded in 1914 through the most recent completed term of its dean in 1974. Extensive oral testimony is used because the history of institutions can be only partially derived from the written record. Oral history, the collection, analysis, and present ation of historical data through interviews is especially appropriate for institutional history. Interviews can supplement and corroborate the written records of an institution. They also afford the historian an opportunity to engage his topic more actively by questioning those pertinent to the development of an institution- Among those interviewed as part of this study were all living deans and selected faculty, staff, and alumni of the school. Written records were used extensively



~111










as well. Internal sources such as bulletins, reports, meeting minutes, self-studies, and questionnaires were used. External sources such as newspapers, local business association records, university documents, and national studies of collegiate business education provided for the examination of the social context in which the school functioned. These sources suggested that the development of the business school at Tulane reflected many developments in higher education for business in America.

Tulane University, a traditional liberal arts institution,, was persuaded to start a college of commerce by business and civic leaders in New Orleans. The college was dominated by its dean, Morton A. Aldrich, from 1914 until 1939. Aldrich, a prototype utilitarian reformer in higher education, developed the college into one of the most popular colleges at Tulane. Because many members of the university community looked with disfavor upon what they perceived as mere vocational training, the college became isolated within the university. The two decades following Aldrich's years as dean were marked by significant changes in the college's curriculum and relationship with the university and local business communities. During this time, the college moved into the mainstream of American higher education for business.

The rate of change in the college accelerated during the sixties and seventies. It replaced the traditional



xiii










sequence of business courses with a curriculum focused on the quantification of making decisions and the use of electronic computers in the management of business. The school's teaching and research methods were among the most advanced in the nation, its commitment to offer a sophisticated professional program led to the decision to abandon its undergraduate program in the middle of the nineteen sixties. These changes have had a profound impact on the school's relationship to the business community. The school is presently closer to the business community than at any period since the time it was started. This has resulted from the school's need to support itself financially, and the recognition that its educational program needs the community it serves.

The history of the Graduate School of Business Administration at Tulane University is a specimen of the general history of education. The dramatic growth of higher education in America in the twentithe twentieth century has resulted, to a large extent, from the professionalization of American culture. The power of universities to legitimize virtually any human endeavor has been well documented. Where businessmen were once trained in the business world, they are today trained in universities. The "schooling" of American businessmen is but ne ple of the "schooling" of the 'schooling" -f American society. Examination of this phenomenon reveals that schools were changed profoundly when society turned to them. This study suggests




xiv










that the changes produced by the increasing intimacy of schools and society are among the most important developments in the history of education











































XV












CHAPTER I
A COLLEGE OF COMMERCE FOR NEW ORLEANS:
THE IDEA AND ITS REALIZATION


The New Orleans Association of Commerce was a. busy place in the fall of 1914. The Association, dedicated to the promotion of the "Civic, Industrial, Commercial, and General Welfare" of the city, was keenly aware of commercial implications of the "European" war. The war had isolated European industrial centers from raw material suppliers in Central and South America. This circumstance was seen. as providing the opportunity by which New Orleans could realize her full potential as a commercial center. Thus could the Associa-tion's Journal state that New Orleans has a "feeling today that she is being wafted on the wings of destiny. She has quite suddenly discovered that a rich prize has been deserted at her doorsteps; that a trade worth hundreds of millions is hers if she will but reach out and seize i.t."' That America had been unable to develop a lucrative South American trade was a problem which the war could remedy. Now, the newly completed Isthmian Canal could be used by Americans to "get at" the western side of South America. The position of New Orleans in the new order was thought to be clear--she was ideally situated between the big exporting and manufacturing cities of the Midwest and the raw material suppliers of South and Central America.2 New Orleans, it was believed, could ill afford to let this opportunity pass her by,


1









Throughout September and October of 1914, actions were taken by the Association to assure the city of its share of the benefits. A delegation of civic and commercial leaders, headed by Mayor Martin Berhman, was sent to Chicago to effect an alliance with the large industrial cities of the Midwest for the new trade conquest of Latin America. At the same time, a "floating expo" was planned in which American merchants and manufacturers would embark on a seventy-five day cruise to dozens of Latin American ports in order to "display to the best advantage the wide variety of sample commodities.n3 Finally, numerous committees were established by the Association to study and solve such problems as international shipping, banking, and finance. The Association was determined that New Orleans would not be left out of what it perceived to be a new era of commercial prosperity.

The business community oF New Orlean s was not going to face its competitors without adequate preparation. On October 19, 1914, the Association's activities were extended into the evening hours. At eight o'clock on that evening, Ralph J. Schwarz conducted the first class at the newly organized College of Commerce and Business Administration of Tulane University. The new college, founded at the behest of the Association, was financially underwritten by a group of two hundred local business and civic leaders. Since its reorganization in 1913, the Association of Commerce had tried to forge a workable union of the theoretical and the practical-helping to found the College of Commerce was the most obvious









result of this effort. Thus, in 1914, many of the business leaders of New Orleans turned to collegiate business training in order to prepare for the challenges before them.

To begin, we must note that although there are ways in which the college was unique in its founding and early development, there are numerous important ways in which the Tulane experience in commercial training was part of a national or international movement in higher education for business. This movement, which began in 1881 with the founding of the Wharton School at the University of Pennyslvania, was characterized by an ear ly period of slow growth in which only seven collegiate schools of business had been organized
4
by the dawn of the twentieth century. By 1910, tweve additional institutions had been organized and by 1915, twentyone additional institutions had been established. After 1915., the movement of universities into professional commercial training "'took off" to the extent that by i925, at least one hundred and eighty-three collegiate departments, schools, or divisions of business or commercial training had been established. Indeed, collegiate business education grew so rapidly in terms of programs and students, that leading educators feared it m ight suffer from a haphazard growth in which faculty and curriculum development might suffer. Business educators soon found themselves protesting that collegiate
6
business training was not a. mere fad in academic circles.







4

Collegiate programs in business training grew because of the demands of businessmen who believed, for a number of reasons, that business training could no longer be conducted the way it had been for years. In the past, single owner proprietorships and partnerships were not scientifically managed, and business training was best received on the job. American business practices, however, changed dramatically in the last decades of the nineteenth century. These changes, for the most part, were evidence of a revolution in business organization and activity. American business was increasingly conducted on a mass scale and was increasingly organized along what has come to be known as corporate-bureaucratic lines complete with specialists and experts in many phases of its operation.' Collegiate level business training was unnecessary until these changes were experienced by American business leaders .Also, when the managerial executive could no longer pass his position on to his son, he had to get his son an education. Collegiate level business training proved to be increasingly useful in securing a successful future in American business .

The business community of New Orleans, for the most part, believed that these changes in the scale and organization of business affected their affairs just as powerfully as they affected the business affairs of New York or Chicago. Their response to these perceived changes, like the response of businessmen throughout urban America, was to call for and support higher education for business.9 For about a year








preceding the October, 1914, founding of the college, periodic editorials and feature articles in the three major newspapers of the city detailed the benefits which New Orleans and the South could expect to accrue from such an institution. These articles generally focused upon the inadequacies of apprenticeshtip training, the belief that the traditional European hegemony in Latin American trade was the result of widespread training in the "science of commerce," and upon the fact that most major progressive cities already had collegiate level
10
business training.

This training was believed to have become available at a most opportune time, just when New Orleans faced the chl.1lenge of taking over the lucrative commercial activities of Latin Amer ica. Yet another argument, similarly geared to the situation of New Orleans, was that most of the youth of the city, regardless of their training, generally ended up in some 11
type of commercial activity. Thus, a college which would train them in the theory and practice of financial and commercial life seemed eminently reasonable and inestimably valuable to New Orleans and the South.

An important aspect of all this concern for collegiatelevel business education can be described best as '"boosterism." Simply put, the local business community believed that a city of greatness must have institutions of higher learning which compared favorably with other cities. New Orleans was constantly compared in the popular press with New York, Chicago, St. Louis, and any other city with which it might









compete for commercial, financial, or civic prestige. Numerous references were made to cities ?"half our size" which had flourishing commercial education programs housed in universities.12

In sum, from the perspective of the local business community, the founding of collegiate level commercial education in New Orleans was similar to the experiences of other cities in America, Perceived changes in the scale and organization of business activities, increased specialization of business life with concommitant increases in bureaucratization and. professionalization, and the increased faith in science to meet the complex challenges presented by modern urban society were taken as established irreversible facts. Another consideration was the burgeoning Latin American trade, just waiting to be picked up. These circumstances, combined with calls from all fronts for "efficiency" and social progress, pointed in one direction- -university-level training for business.13

Amidst the hue and cry for collegiate-level business

education within the business community of New Orleans, there were those who had doubts about its worth and necessity. These men believed that much of the business conducted in New Orleans was not yet of sufficient size or sophistication to warrant university level training, They believed that practical experience remained adequate to prepare businessmen. These men were joined by the operators of private business colleges who were concerned that a business training program at Tulane might severely interfere with their programs. Conservative








businessmen were generally ridiculed in the press as archaic relics of a by-gone era (a cartoon in the New Orleans Item 14
depicted them as perishing in the face of the college).

In order to appease the operators of privat e business

colleges, newspaper articles stated that "the new college" is not intended to compete with but to supplement the work offered 15
by existing business colleges." The new college would offer "subjects embracing problems arising from the wider, complicated 16
transactions in the commercial world." Perhaps most importantly, training for business pursuits was compared with that of those entering the fields of medicine, law, or engineering. Business was too important to be left to either practical experience or private business colleges; it must be studied at a university. The future commercial success of New Orleans had been tied to the establishment of the Tulane Co. llege of Commerce and Business Administration,

By 1914, the American university had emerged in its

modern form and had unquestioned authority to legitimize any 17
prof essional activity. Although universities defy simple categorization, three general reform movements of the period have been suggested: research, liberal culture, and utility. The research movement emphasized scientific investigation and specialized study conducted at the post-baccalaureate level, Although this movement received its strongest support among faculties in the physical and biological sciences, social sciences such as history (especially as studied in doctoral programs) were strongly influenced by the research movement.







8

The movement to liberal culture, on the other hand, focused on educating students in the so-called "humanities" with an emphasis on the methods and content of classical thought. The movement to utility sought to focus university study on the society in which it operated. Faculties in the developing professional schools supported academic utility. Proponents of academic utility were often caught between supporters of liberal culture who accused them of being preoccupied with job preparation (vocationalism) and practitioners who believed that they were too academically oriented. S

Considerable effort was expended on behalf of these

movements to assure that each would prevail. Early in the debate, the various conceptions of the university's true purpose became associated with certain disciplines or professions. The so-called "hard sciences" as well as most graduate training was quickly associated with research. The liberal arts colleges, more often than not, were the bastions of the liberal culture movement, Finally, professional schools including Engineering, Architecture, and Business Administration were most often associated with the utility movement.

Within each field of study, there were those who argued for either research, liberal culture, utility, or some combination thereof. German-born scientism, for example, with its emphasis upon specialization and








9


narrowly defined research, swept through all American higher education gathering followers in every academic discipline. These movements, moreover, do not make up mutually exclusive categories. Pioneering economi sts,for example, expressed a desire to "make a difference," that is, to be useful, As economics formed into a discipline, it tended to become more "scientific," that is, more quantitative, theoretical, and. research oriented. Economists felt that the best way for them to be useful was to become scientific '"experts" who consulted with the nation's leaders in an effort to direct economic policy .19 Thus, among economists, utility and research were effectively combined.

With few exceptions, university level business training developed in America as a part of the utility movement for reform in higher education. Proponents of this view wanted to integrate university life with "everyday" or "real" life. They also tended to view higher education as a primary agent in the democratization of America, This movement to utility grew strongest in the last few decades of the twentieth century. Among the greatest leaders of the movement were Andrew D, White of Cornell University and Charles W. Eliot of Harvard. Eliot, who championed the creation of the Harvard Business School, said that "there is no danger in any part of the university that too much attention will be paid to the sciences ordinarily








10


supposed to have useful applications, The problem is to get enough attention paid to to t.em.20 Eliot was not suggesting that universities get involved in vocational training, but that they raise practical pursuits to a higher plane. The delicate balance between vocationalism and higher level utility proved to be one of the most vexatious problems for followers of the utility movement in American universities. Another problem was striking an acceptable compromise between training the so-called "generalist" and "specialist." These issues still haunt professional schools in American universities,

Like most major American universities, Tulane could be found to have, among its faculty, believers in one or more of the three reform movements discussed above. As elsewhere, fierce personal loyalties developed and something just short of pitched battles were fought on occasion. The movement which we are most concerned with here is that of utility. Tulane had a strong and longstanding tradition of academic utility, First, it is important to point out that Tulane grew out of the old University of Louisiana which had, as a state institution, a strong tradition of useful service--it was, indeed, primarily devoted to legal and medical training.21 Also, as early as 1848, J. D. B, DeBow had sought to establish











a commercial professorship because, "Our university will be sui geneiri s- dedicated to the affairs of men, not philosophers,

and dedicated to educating our people in the vital affairs OF CommerCe.

When Paul Tulane decided to create a university and was convinced to combine his fortune and efforts with the University of Louisiana, he was most concerned that the new institutions be of practical utility. Paul Tulane seemed to embody the essential spirit of the movement to utility when in 1882 he expressed his views as to the nature of education:


By the term education, I mean to
foster such a course of intellectual
development as shall be useful and of
solid worth, and not be merely ornamental or superficial. I mean you should adopt
the course which, as wise and good men,
would commend itself to you as being conducive to immediate practical benefit, 23
rather than theoretical possible advantage.


Perhaps more than words, the establishment of schools or colleges generally associated with utility, is evidence of Tulane's commitment to the movement. To its schools of Medicine and Law, Tulane added Engineering, Architecture, 24
Dentistry, and Commerce during the period 1893 to 1916

Tulane's commitment to utility in higher education,

although long standing and evidenced in both word and action, was by no means total. The College of Arts and Sciences,











a bastion of liberal cuture was among the strongest in the university. In addition, graduate training generally expanded during this period. Among the faculty members in the Arts and Sciences: College and the Graduate School were numerous detractors of the movement to utility in higher education. Their views regarding the formation of a business college 25
within the university were often expressed vituperatively.

Universities, however, rarely run on ideologies alone. If Tulane's commitment to utility in education was less than complete, its need to survive in the real world was rarely, if ever, questioned by anyone of any ideological persuasion. We can thus suggest another reason why Tulane eventually decided to create a business college. Tulane had never been a rich school. Despite, and possibly because of its reputation for wealth in the local community, endowments were 26
pitifully saill in size and few in number. Aggravating an already bad situation was an extensive proliferation of programs at the turn of the century. Possibly in an effort to placate the demands of the three rival reform movements mentioned above, Tulane had over-extended itself. This was, at least, the conclusion of Abraham Flexner and Wallace Buttrick in a report made to the Tulane Board in 1914. Flexner and Buttrick recommended that the university curtail its growth, consolidate and eradicate several departments, and 27
seek a substaniai general endowment.






1.


The I: exner-Buttrick Rnport provided valid and convincing evidence against the establishment of yet another college, the College of Commerce and Business Administration. But, interestingly, the College of Commerce was being proposed by the very people to whom the university was going to have to turn for its endowment. Since Tulane had lost its battle in 1906 to receive state monies, there were few other possible sources of income. It would have been virtually impossible for the university to ask for substantial support and at the same time refuse to establish a program which those supporters felt to be intimately tied with the future growth and prosperity of the city.

Tularne could not refuse, but neither could it afford to establish the college on its own. The business community wanted a new college. And Tulane, with its tradition of utility and its need to secure an adequate endowment, wanted to start one. What was necessary was a catalyst, an agent which could reconcile the needs of both the business community of New Orleans as well as those of Tulane University. That catalyst was Morton Arnold Aldrich.

"Doc" Aldrich, like most pioneers in American higher

education, defies simple categorization. He graduated summa cum laude from Harvard, traveled extensively in Asia and Europe, and graduated cum laude with a Ph.D. from the University of Halle--in Germany--he was, perhaps, the epitome of a worldly and sophisticated scholar. Yet, one of "Doc's" greatest pleasures was to swap stories with the trappers and










tishermar near his camp on the shores of lakes Pontchartrain
28
and Maurepas. Aldrich prided himself on his ability to get along with just about anyone--a man who was at home in the loftiest of political or economic discourse and could likewise trade stories in language which has been described as "colorful." Discussions with those who knew him best reveal him to be a warm man with "rough edges," a man who eschewed the snobbishness of many of his professional colleagues and, above all, an educator who had an ability to win the respect and admiration of his students, colleagues, and the local community.

Although Aldrich had qualities which compel us to view him as unique, he was also, upon careful study, very much a part of the national movement to establish collegiate level business education. In many ways, Aldrich was a prototype of the utilitarian reformer in higher education. The son of a New England shoe jobber, Aldrich received his A.B. degree from Harvard in 1895 at the age of twenty-one, His training at Harvard, taken during the period of Charles W, Eliot's 29
presidency, had a profound impact upon him. After completing his degree, he traveled to Asia and Europe studying at lunich Berlin, and Halle, taking his Ph.D. in economics from the latter institution in 1897. From Halle, Aldrich returned to Ha.rvard as a Fellow in Economics in 1898 and became an Instructor in Economics in 1899. Harvard and







15


Eliot thus got another chance to reinforce Aldrich's utilitarian training.

Aldrich left Harvard in 1899 to become Assistant Professor of Economics under Edward A. Ross at Stanford University After only one year at Stanford, Aldrich resigned because of Ross's dismissal. Ross, an eminent sociologist, had spoken out on several issues of contemporary concern. These activities offended Mrs. Leland Stanford, and
30
after a series of attempts at reconciliation, Ross was fired. Aldrich was convinced that this was a case in which Ross's academic Freedom had been infringed, and he was the first of several faculty members to resign in protest. Concern for academic freedom, although not expressed solely by advocates of utility, was certainly one of the hallmarks of the movement. This concern was obviously related to the movement's ideas about the role of higher education in the democratiza31
tion of America.

Aldrich's departure from Stanford came barely one month after Edwin Anderson Alderman became president of Tulane. Alderman has been described as a prototype of the modern university president--a propagandist for education who strove to build enrollments, impress the business world, and attract
32
money. Alderman preached a gospel of industrial growth and development to the business interests of the city. New Orleans and Tulane were to be partners in helping the city become

what it is dCestined to become, one of the world's










33
greatest manufacturing cities Alderman needed a man to carry this message to every corner of the business community.

Aldrich assumed duties as Assistant Professor of

Economics and Sociology in the College of Arts and Sciences
34
in 1901. Almost immediately, he began working, both in the university and the community, for the establishment of business training at Tulane. In his classes and in public lectures, Aldrich pleaded the case of utilitarian education and the establishment of a college of commerce. In 1902, for example, the New Orleans Times-Picayune published a public lecture by Aldrich in which he stated, "Education is anything that fits a man for a place in his community. . In New Orleans, it is unfortunate that so many businessmen come from the North and from abroad. We are glad to have them, to be sure, but would it not be more satisfactory if we could educate Louisianians to become leaders to a greater
35
extent?"

On campus, Aldrich preached his message to anyone who would listen. His students were fairly easily converted. Likewise, President Alderman and subsequently, in 1904, President Craighead accepted the notion that a college of commerce would benefit both the university and the community. There were, however, stumbling blocks. For one, money was exceedingly scarce and the university had barely enough to








17
36
maintain present programs, much less start new ones. A second obstacle, as formidable as the first, was the general opinion held in the College of Arts and Sciences that commercial training did not belong in a university of Tulane's stature. Commercial training was thought to be both intellectual1y bankrupt and morally reprehensible. Tulane, they felt, could ill-afford to offer "vocational" training or a program devoted to pecuniary pursuits.,

Failing to gain adequate support within the university, Aldrich focused his attention upon the business community of New Orleans. In 1909, at Aldrich's initiative, the Tulane Society of Economics was organized. The society, whose expressed aim was to encourage the investigation and discussion of economic and social subjects, and especially of industrial and social conditions in the South" counted scores 37
of the most prominent local businessman in its membership. At meetings held during the early years of its existence, members of the society heard such topics as "The Decadence of the Plantation System" (presented by Ulrich 3. Phillips), "Tax Reform in Louisiana,' "The Commission Form of Government,"
38
"Sugar and the Tariff," and "Manufacturing in New Orleans." Aldrich used these meetings as a forum to illustrate how economic theory and practice could "make a difference" and to suggest that a college of commerce would be most beneficial to the community. Later, when the college was organized, it incorporated the society's offerings into its own program. The









18
founding of the college also meant that the society was no longer needed as a forum to promote a college of commerce. Thus, by 1917, the Tulane Society of Economics ceased to funct ion.

In 1912, Aldrich further demonstrated his value to the community. In association with 0, 0. Provosty, M. H. Carver, and E. H. Farrar (a local attorney and President

of the American Bar Association), Aldrich drafted a tax reform proposal for the state of Louisiana. In recognizing

these efforts, the Louisiana Legislature, in a joint resolution, complimented these "distinguished citizens" for their eloquent appeal that Louisiana ". . put aside an obsolete system of taxation for one that would lead in progressiveness and would quicken the coming of prosperity to the people of Louisiana,"39 One month later., Aldrich's draft of the proposed tax reform measure was published, with annotations, as a series of articles in the New Orleans Times-Democrat .40

Aldrich's successes in the community apparently gave him renewed hope that Tulane might be persuaded to start a college of commerce. In July of 1912, barely one month before Aldrich received statewide attention for his work on the tax reform measure, Tulane named Robert Sharp to replace Edwin Craighead as its president. Sharp was confronted with what had become the bane of recent Tulane








19

presidents- -inadequate revenues and no foreseeable future source of them. Perhaps the new president could be convinced of the wisdom of establishing a college of commerce. Aldrich tried, an his persistent efforts to sell President Sharp on his idea were praised by some as tenacious and 41
cursed by others as stubborn.

What Aldrich needed was something that he had been

cultivating since his arrival in New Orleans-- the support of local business leaders. Beginning in the summer of 1913, the support which Aldrich needed began to coalesce around the New Orleans Association of Commerce. Association President Leon C. Simon in speaking to the Education Committee of the Association, stated that he


.had a talk with Professor Aldrich
sometime ago, the gist of which was that, while Tulane was an excellent institution
in so far as it went, it did not take in the commercial side of the city, and the
consensus of opinion among a number of
people was that it should have in its
curriculum a commercial course for the
benefit of students who desired to enter
commercial li fe.2

Simon also told of unsuccessful efforts to get the matter before the Board of Administrators of Tulane University. The Education Committee adjourned after recommending that the Board of Directors of the Association of Commerce address a communication to the Tulane Board suggesting that a school 43
of commerce be established.










In December, 1913, a letter was sent to President Sharp and the Tulane Board which expressed the Association's views about the establishment of the college. In essence, Tulane was asked to establish a college of commerce. Copies of this 44
letter were published in several local newspapers. Sharp promptly responded to the Association's proposal by revealing his own support of it. He noted, however, that despite the pressing need for such a program, Tulane was without the means to initiate it. Sharp further stated that, "Unfortunately, the opinion prevails that Tulane is a rich university, and many things are demanded of it that are utterly beyond its
45
means." The ball was back in the Association's court.

A minor victory had been won. The university now,

willingly or unwillingly, accepted the idea of establishing a college of commerce. In addressing the Education Committee of the Association of Commerce, Aldrich stated that


heretofore certain members of the
Board of Administrators of Tulane University were prone to look upon a College of Commerce with disfavor, but due to the
agitation of this matter by the Association
of Commerce which clearly demonstrates
that it is not only a necessary course at
Tulane but was demanded by the businessmen,
that opinion was likely to be changed.46


Aldrich's prediction was correct; Tulane was ready.

The next move was made by the Association. In the summer of 1.914, it called a conference of businessmen to meet and develop a plan, both educational and financial, to be submitted








21

to the Tulane Board. In addition to Aldrich, Association President Simon, and others, two members of this conference are of particular importance--Paul Havener and Levering Moore. Havener and Moore were both graduates of the College of Commerce of Northwestern University, which had been established in 1908.47 With few modifications, the plan used to establish Northwestern's college was adopted by the conference to establish the Tulane College of Commerce. The plan called for the formation of a Board of Guarantors made up of members of the Association of Commerce, the local Society of Certified Public Accountants, and other local businessmen. The Board of Guarantors would select officers who would, in turn, enter into a contractual agreement with the university. The Guarantors would promise to underwrite the expenses of the college for a specified number of years. This plan was approved by the conference, submitted to both the Association of Commerce and the Loui siana Society of Certified Public Accountants, and subsequently approved by those bodies. The plan was then submitted to the Tulane Board, which referred it to a special committee. On August 13, 1914, a joint meeting of the Board of Guarantors of the Tulane College of Commerce and Business Administration and the Tulane University Board of Administrators was held. The plan was unanimously approved; the college would open in the fall if the Guarantors contributed five thousand dollars per year for a period of







22

three years ". to make good any deficit, if any, caused by the operation of the college."48

During a quiet three--week campaign in the late summer of 1914, one hundred and four Cuarantors signed the appropriate contracts, and as a result, the Tulane University College of Commerce and Business Administration was established. To no one's surprise, one of the Guarantors, Morton A. Aldrich, was named Dean,

The founding of the College of Commerce and Business Administration of Tulane University resulted from the confluence of three factors: the belief, among leading members of the New Orleans business community that the future growth and prosperity of the city depended upon the establishment of a university college of commerce; the budding utilitarianism of Tulane University at the turn of the century and the financial crunch which was ever a part of Tulane; and the tireless efforts of Morton A. Aldrich working both in the community and in the university. Although each of these factors was necessary for the founding of the college, none was sufficient alone. This does not detract from the efforts of Aldrich, who understood, perhaps as no one else did, that the time had come to start a college of commerce.










NOTES


"For New Orleans (Journal of the New Orleans Association oF Commerce, Volume I, Number 13, September, 1914, b 2I

Ibid., pp. 4-5.

!bid.

L. C. Marshall, ed. The Collegiate School of
Business, Its Status at the Close of the First Quarter of the Twentieft Century Chlcago! -University o t cago Press, 1928), p. 4.

Ibid.

Ibid., p. 45.

Frank C. Pierson, et al., The Education of American Businessmen (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959), pp. 45- 50.

Richard Hofstadter and C. DeWitt Hardy, The
Development and Scope of Higher Education in the United States (New, York: Columbia University Press, 190'), p 91.

New Orleans Times-Picayune, New Orleans States, and New Orleans Item, June, 1917 November, 1914. passim. (especially editorials).
10 .
Ibid.

11New Orleans States, September 14, 1914.

12New Orleans Times-Democrat, December 28, 1913.

13Raymond E. Callahan analyzes the "Efficiency Era"
in American education in Education and the Cult of Efficiency (Chicago: University of (.icago Press, 1962). Chapters 2, 3, and 9 are especially appropriate,

14New Orleans Item, September 22, 1914.

15New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 11, 1914.
16New Orleans Item, October 12, 1914.




23







24

1 7
Robert H. Wicbe, Bus:inessmen and Reform: A Study of the Progressive Movement (Chicago Quadrangle Books, 1962),

18
Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago: University o- C-.hicago Press, 1960), pp. 1-259.
19
Robert L. Church, "Economists As Experts: The Rise of An Academic Profession in the United States, 1870-1929,"' in The University inJ Society, Vol. II, ed. by Lawrence Stone (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, i974), pp. 571-609.
20
Veysey, Emergene 2f the American University, p. 90.
21..
John P. Dyer, Tulane: The Biography of A University (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), pp. 18-37.
22
J. D. B. DeBow, DeBow's Review (New Orleans, Louisiana: J. D. B. DeBow, Publisher), Volume VII, Number 2, August, 1849, pp. 228-229.
23
Dyer, Tula e, p.. 302.
24
Ibid., pp . 22-324.
25
Ibid., pp. 179.
26
Ibid., pp. 172-174.
27
Reorts of The President of Tulane University, Volume I, September 14, 191.4 pp. 303-308.
28
Donald Halley (faculty member of the college), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April. 25, 1973.

Ibid. Halley recalled that Aldrich often referred to his experiences at Harvard. On occasion Aldrich would refer to essays he had written as a student there.
30
Edward A. Ross, Seventy Years of It; An Autobiogirahi(New York: Appleton-Century Co.., 1936), p. 78.
31.
Veysey, Emergence of the American University, pp. 72-76.
32
Dyer, Tulane, p. 107.
33
l: b i, d







25


34cranbook of Morton A. Aldrich (in possession of his daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Bridgeman, New Orleans, Louisiana). The book contained clippings of newspaper articles which welcomed Aldrich to the community. These articles noted that the city and university were fortunate to have attracted a man with Aildrich's training and experience.
35New Orleans Times-Picayune, March, 1902.

36Dyer, Tulane, pp. 129-130.

37S2crapbook of Morton A. Aldrich, ibid. it contained a print JrFcKthuire on the Tulane Society o Economics.
I38Ibid.

39New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 12, 1912.

40Ibid., September 14, 1912,,

41E. Davis McCutcheon (first graduate of the College of
Commerce), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 20, 1973.
42Minutes, New Orleans Association of Commerce, June 17, 1913, p. 4.

43Ibid.

44New Orleans States, December 31, 1913.

451bid.

46Minutes, New Orleans Association of Commerce, January 6,-7 114, p. 2.

47Estele F. Ward, The Story of Northwestern Univers ity (New York: Dodd, Mead, aTn- Company, 7 p. 3
48Minutes, Board of Admini strators of the Tulane Educati .ln unFnd, August 13, 1913.












CHAPTER II
THE NEXT BEST THING TO CARNIVAL: THE COLLEGE, 1914-1918


Classes in the new college opened on Monday, October 19, 1914, barely one month after it had been established. That month was one of almost frantic activity, as much remained to be done. For one thing, classrooms had to be found. This problem was easily solved when the Association of Commerce
1
offered rooms free of cost to the college. Also, a curriculum and faculty had to be developed. The decision was made to start with only a night program in order to accomodate the students, most of whom worked full-time. Each class would meet one night per week beginning at eight o'clock and ending at nine forty-five. On Monday nights, Commercial Law was offered, taught by Ralph J. Schwarz, a member of the Tulane Law School faculty and a practicing attorney, On Tuesday evenings, Foreign Trade was offered by Edwin E. Judd, the Commercial Agent in charge of the New Orleans Office of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the United States Department of Commerce. A. Norman Young, a Chartered Accountant and manager of the New Orleans branch of a national accounting firm, taught Accounting on Wednesday evenings. Dean Aldrich taught Economics and Business Administration each Thursday. Also on Thursday evenings, John S. Kendall, 26






27

head of the Department of Spanish at Tulane, taught Commercial Spanish. Fridays were reserved for special informal talks open
2
to both students and the general public.

Once the facility, curriculum, schedule, and faculty had been decided upon, the final task was to recruit students. This was accomplished in two ways. First, numerous articles appeared in all of the local daily newspapers. Those articles generally chronicled the progress of the developing program of the college, Course descriptions and instructor's qualifications were published. Also discussed were the great benefits one could gain by attending the evening sessions. The second recruiting tactic was a continuation of the methods used to establish the college. Local business leaders encouraged participation by enrolling in the courses themselves, thereby offering students an opportunity to work with successful businessmen. It was suggested in the newspapers that these business leaders might hire promising students in the various courses. Local businessmen went even further by encouraging their own employees to take advantage of the opportunities which the new college afforded.

Admissions requirements were minimal with men twentyone years of age or over having only to give evidence
4
of their ability to profit by the course ... Men under twenty-one were required to satisfy the usual university entrance requirements. Juniors and seniors in other colleges of the university were encouraged to enroll. These students






28


and others were told of plans which included the development of a full-time day program as complete as [that] in Engineering, Medicine, and Law." It was suggested that if thgeCollege of Commerce's experience was similar to that o[ other colleges (notably, Northwestern), there would soon be a degree program available. By the end of the first week of classes, one hundred and thirty students had enrolled and paid their twenty-d.ollar fee for each course taken.

In its first Bulletin, the college stated that its

purpose was . to offer substantial professional training preparing for a business career." Other, similarly general statements suggested that instruction would be offered for students sufficiently able and mature to do work of niversity grade....6 These stated aims were less ambitious than the claims made in the popular press which had called for the founding of the college. Yet, they were not overly ambitious when one considers the size and nature of the college in the first few years of its operation. The entire annual budget of the college, in its first three years, never exceeded five-thousand dollars. Aldrich, in addition to serving as dean, was the only full- time faculty member; the rest were either professors with appointments in other colleges at Tulane or local businessmen donating their services. But it was a start, and it was a characteristically American educational endeavor. The ties between the business community and the college were perhaps only more explicit ex-amples of what was happening throughout American higher education.







29

Once established, the new college was confronted with challenges on every front. Like so many other pioneering collegiate business programs, Tulane's had to make itself acceptable to both business and academic communities. Aldrich thus promised to build a program which was both immediately practical and academically rigorous. Despite his optimism about the founding of the college, Aldrich realized its tenuous position. If the European war had brought visions of great commercial opportunity, it had also brought uncertainty. The claims that Noew Orleans had started a collegiate business program "amidst all this war talk" clearly spoke to the concern as to what the war might bring.' To this must be added Tulane's financial uncertainty and reservati ons about establishing a business prog ram. Those who sought the supposed seronity and security of university faculty life would have found neither in the new College of Commerce.

Aldrich's greatest successes to date had been realized in the business community. In an effort to convince local business leaders of his determination to serve their needs, Aldrich had started the school solely on a nighit-time basis; this also assured him the greatest access to students. From the beginning, however, he was determined to have a degree program. A!.drich thus echoed the sentiments of a vast majority of utilitarian reformers in higher education who promoted utility, but not vocationalism. Almost immediately, plans were made which called for a two-on- two program--two






30


years of traditional liberal arts training, followed by two years of professional study. By June of 1915, the program had been approved by the University Council. The college now offered a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.). At the same meeting, the University Council approved a program which enabled students to complete the requirements for both business and law degrees within a six-year period. The Tulane College of Commerce and Business Administration was no longer just a night school.

Both the full-time B.B.A. Program and the combined

Business and Law Program started slowly. Despite extensive press coverage of these developments, after five years of operation, there were only eighty-six full-time students enrolled. The first graduate of the program i. Davis McCutcheon, received his degree in 1918; he was the only graduate that year. Because of the newness of the college and a lack of interest in the College of Law, the combined Business and Law Program failed to attract students. It was dropped in the early twenties.

One of the more visible changes brought about by the day program was that admissions requirements for students under tweity-one years of age became more precisely delineated. In the years from 1915 to 1918, this section of the Bulle tin became increasingly detailed. Elaborate prescriptions of acceptable high school courses and units







31
9
stipulated both qualitative and quantitative requirements. It must be remembered that these requirements applied to only a few students, since most of the students of the college were over twenty-one years of age.

If there is one trend indicative of the earlier programs in collegiate business education, it was the tenendency to attract, by whatever means possible, large numbers of students, Because these programs were without university support, they depended heavily upon tuition income and assistance from the local business community. By far the most effective strategy for attracting students was to offer them courses which had immediate practical and vocational benefit. In this way, Tulane's College of Commerce reflected national
10
trends. During its first five years, the college attracted students in such numbers that each year's enrollment figures made headlines in all of the local newspapers and campus journals. It is not difficult to understand why this was done. Ideologically, utilitarian reformers in education had a strong tradition of democratizing both schooling and society. Predictably, the Tulane College of Commerce was constantly referred t.o as an institution created by the business community for all of the people of New Orleans. Pleas were issued in the press for employees of a "lower position" to enroll and better themselves through the 11
opportunities offered by the college. The social elevator arguments of many American educators were alive and flour-






32

ishing in the appeals printed in editorials and feature articles of the local daily newspapers.

If the campaign to attract students had an ideological

basis, it also had practical implications for the future of the college. Every student was a potential supporter for the school's efforts. Similarly, and at least as important, the vast majority of students worked in local businesses, and a successful experience in the college not only won over the student, but his employer as well. Another important consideration in the founding of the college was that many of the local business leaders were asked to share their training and experience with students either as part-time instructors or as speakers in the Friday "Business Talks by Business Men." The circumstances which had operated to get the school started were consciously developed and maintained, Eventually, no serious suggestion to curtail the college's activity would be entertained by the Tulane Board.,

The boom in collegiate business education at Tulane was typical of what was happening throughout American higher education for business. The increase in the size and number of collegiate business programs was so rapid that business educators themselves became concerned. In an effort to assure that colleges develop adequate programs, Tulane and sixteen other institutions sent representatives to a conference at the University of Chicago in June of 1916. The conference resulted in the formation of the American Association of





S3

Collegiate Schools of Business (AAC:SB) which had as its object "the promotion and improvement of higher business ed1.2
ucation in North America." Very quickly, the AACSB established professional standards regarding: admissions; minimum number of semester hous; staffing (rank, training, salary, and teaching load); the number of fields to be offered; and 13
library facilities. The AACSB envisioned itself as an. agency which would bring some order to the chaotic proliferation of collegiate business education programs. As a charter member of the AACSB, Tulane's College of Commerce demonstrated its commitment to develop and maintain a program of substantial professional quality. High enrollments were not enough.

The issure of admitting women to the college arose during this time. Although women were barred from the college when it first opened, Aldrich believed that as a matter of simple justice they should be admitted on the same basis as men. The Tulane Board, however, had guidelines which prohibited ad.
14
mitting women to the college. Yet, as America became more directly involved in the war, women became an. important source of s-tudents for the college. As a result of pressure from Aldrich and local business leaders, women were permitted, by a vote of the Tulane Board, to enroll in the college at the 15
beginning of its second year of operation.

Like most of the activities of the college, the admission of women was given extensive coverage in the local. press. The first woman to be admitted to the college,






34


Miss Ruby Perry, was a teacher of business subjects at Sophie Wright High School. Local newspapers carried this and numerous other articles describing the opportunities available for women at the new college. In a published interview on the topic of women in business, Aldrich stated that four years of training at the Tulane Commerce College prepares a woman to take an executive post in business. She would be conversant with the inner workings of the world's commercial machinery that is as a rule a mystery to the feminine mind." Aldrich went on to say that a woman thus trained would be "thoroughly equipped and efficient:' and that her services would be in demand at high wages. One of the more forceful appeals for women to participate in the college's program appeared in the Sunday, October 24, 1915 edition of the New Orleans Times-Picayune. The article outlined the past deprivation which women had experienced in education and noted that without any campaigns for equal rights, these men opened the college to the women of the city. Women were challenged to take advantage of .. this chance to become more efficient [and] increase your earning ability." They were then told "it is up to you" and that the road to success was never a "jitney -oute." 17 Despite the promises and challenges to women, most of the women enrolled in the college were either high school teachers of business subjects or clerical workers.

The press campaign to recruit women was typical of the






35


heavy press coverage which the college received throughout this period. Although this coverage was generally most ex-tensive during the annual registration in October, news articles, announcements, advertisements, feature articles, and editorials appeared in all of the local nespapers throughout the year. Many, if not most of these articles were written by Aldrich or one of the faculty members of the college. It is certainly no accident that beginning in 1916, a new course was offered in advertising. This course, jointly sponsored by the college and the New Orleans Advertising Club, was taught by Arthur G. Newmayer, business manager of the New Orleans Item.

The course in advertising quickly became a focus of

attention in the college. The field of advertising was cited as new, exciting, and especially lucrative. Several editorials stated that across the nation $700,000,000 was already 18
spent annually on advertising. It was noted further that successful advertising was not accidental and, like most aspects of business, the days of self-education were over and one must now be educated formally in the requisite skills. The course at Tulane was offered as up-to-date, comprehensive, and vital to anyone wishing to enter this new and burgeoning field.

The college proved its own case for advertising. Very early, the New Orleans Advertising Club was asked to conduct the advertising campaign for the college. A college which had






36


been successful in beginning a professional course in advertising also had to meet the challenges set forth by that course. The campaign devised for the college consisted of handbills describing the college's courses and faculty, storefront window placards strategically placed by local businessmen (many of whom were Guarantors), street car notices and, most importantly, newspaper advertisements and a seemingly endless stream of editorial and feature articles touting the opportunities which the college afforded.

The newspaper coverage of the college was extensive. Every appeal was made to the potential student--course descriptions, sketches of the qualifications of faculty, announcements of free public lectures, promises of increased prestige and salaries as well as a series of cartoons and articles emblazoned with. such headlines as "Are You Training For Life's Big League?" and "Pass By the Idlers, Attend the 19
College of ,ommerce." Finally, at least one editorial, directed to the . clerks, bookkeepers, stenographers and other members of the employed classes" asked the question, "Are YOU one of the derelicts?" and suggested that the Guarantors of the school '" at least deserve the appreciation which a large annual attendance would afford
20
them."

The campaign worked. By the end of the First World War, after five years of operation, the college could boast an enrollment of 725, a six-fold increase from the original enrollment. Indeed, by the third year of its operation (1916-17),






37
21
the college became the largest in the university. Aldrich had successfully achieved one of his first goals for the college, and he had done so with the continuing support of the business community and the local press,

The college was now training hundreds of local citizens in such fields as accounting, commercial law, business correspondence, commercial spanishi, merchandising, advertising, and economics. During its first five years of operation, there was a three-fold increase in the number of courses offered for evening students. Yet, as mentioned above, the day-time program of the college was experiencing growth which was considerably less rapid. By 1918-19, for example, although night students could select from fifteen courses, there were only seven courses available during the day, Indeed, more day courses were listed as "'Probably Not Offered" than those 22
that were offered.

The slow growth of the day program, as compared to the night program, has several plausible explanations. First, World War I caused full-time student enrollments to decline in colleges and universities throughout the country. Second, although the rest of the Tulane academic community (especially the College of Arts and Sciences) was willing to allow the college its part-time night activities, it strongly opposed the development of a full-time degree program in commerce. This program not only presented an ideological threat (i.e., against liberal culture), but at this time each college in the








university, was run independently of the others. Indeed, Tulane, during this early period, has been likened to a British university, that is, a collection of independent
23
colleges. The colleges at Tulane were directly competing with one another for students and their tuition payments. Students in the Arts and Sciences College were disuaded from moving into the B.B.A. Program. A third explanation for the slow growth of the full-time program of the college was that it was new and relatively undeveloped compared to others in the university. Finally, the establishment of a viable fulltime program was a very expensive undertaking. Without a substantial endowment, it would necessarily take some time to become established.

One of the more obvious consequences of the meager

fiscal resources of the college was that of inadequate faculty deveopment. The abundance o willing and surpriwinT. g ly able part-time and volunteer instructors of the night courses was unfortunately not complemented by highly qualified fulltime faculty. Aside from Aldrich, there was never more than one additional full-time faculty member in the college for the first five years of its operation. The first full-time professor was added with the development of the B.B.A. Program in 1915-16. The arrival of William H. S. Stevens, with a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and teaching 24
experience at Columbia, was widely publicized. Stevens, who taught Business Organization and Management, stayed one






39

year and left to serve on the Federal Trade Commission in Washington. He was temporarily replaced by William Bethke from the Univers:ity of Minnesota. In 1917-18, the only full-time Faculty member aside from Aldrich was John B. Swinney, from Syracuse University, with teaching and business experience in New York. Swinney was a professor of marketing, but taught courses in Office Management and Business Corresnondence as well.

Aldrich's inability to attract a number of qualified

full-time faculty is only partially explained by fiscal constraints. Throughout the United States during the first quarter of the twentieth century, business colleges had great difficulty attracting qualified faculty. For one thing, there were not enough people with the amount and kind of education which was necessary. Secondly, colleges and universities could not successfully compete with private business for highly qualified and capable graduates. This latter problem has been, until most recent times, a fairly persistent one in collegiate business education.25 It might be added that competition with private business for faculty has given rise to higher salaries than those commanded by faculty in the liberal arts. Relatively high business faculty salaries are a source of contention with faculty in the liberal arts colleges.

The slow growth of a full--time degree program and the scarcity of highly trained faculty members was of little






40


immediate concern to the local business community. Their experiences with the college during these early years of its development were excellent. That the local business community was pleased with the growth and development of the college is best exemplified in their continuing financial support of it. The original agreements to underwrite the deficit expenses of the school were to cover only the first three years of operation. Thus, in March of 1917, discussions were renewed as to the fate of the program. The Board of Guarantors met on March 7 to discuss plans not only to continue the program but to make it rank with 26
those in great industrial centers." The meeting opened with statements by various members about the necessity for wellsupported colleges of commerce for modern commerical cities. Testimonials were offered as to the great work which the college had already performed on a "shoe-string" budget--a budget which was compared with other similar colleges. The business leaders of the city were told that there were colleges throughout the country, many in what were called "jerkwater" towns, who were spending at least twice as much as Tulane and that . if we want a proper college we have
77
to pay for it.." Finally, it was announced that there was a special reason why support for the college was vital at this time. Dean Aldrich was rumored to have been offered the deanship of a very large and prominent college of commerce. There was no time to waste lest Dr. Aldrich be "weaned away"
28
from the community,






41


Three forms of support were suggested as a result of

this meeting. The first was an expanded guarantee to underwrite the expenses of the college--that is, more Guarantors promising more money to support its operation. Second, those who could a afford it, could offer a minimum, one thousand dollar donation as the beginning of a permanent endowment for the college. Finally, special endowments for a professorship or course of study would be actively sought.

The first of these three suggestions realized the

greatest success--in all, 222 Guarantors agreed to underwrite 29
the expenses of the college for three additional years. This tripled the financial base of the college. In addition, four one-thousand dollar gifts were received, but no professorship was supported. Courses had been partially subsidized for the first three years. This type of support was continued. Thus, thanks to the business community that had created it, the colleges future was secured at a higher rate of support for three additional years. These Guarantors, added to the excellent tuition receipts from the night students, managed to keep the college fiscally viable, It was generally known that during this period the night program, in effect, subsidized the day course.

Perhaps the final consideration of the college's early development is that of the impact of World War I. It has already been shown that the war precipitated the demand for the college. It has also been suggested that the war was






42


one of the causes for the slow development of the full-time program. Aldrich, reflecting the views of businessmen and educators alike, felt that the war had increased the demands upon Americans to become more efficient. He was convinced that the consolidation of the Ame rican effort and increased efficiency of operation were best achieved through collegiate level business education.30 Similarly, the war had wrought irreversible changes in principles and practices of manufac.turing, merchandising, and management. These changes were believed to be best handled through university level training, Finally, Aldrich stated that "Business morals are a part of

business efficiency, and the story of the ways in which the standards of business honor are improving is well worth telling."31 Aldrich spread his word throughout the community and was eventually named by the United States Commissioner of Education to a national committee of fifteen businessmen and economists . to investigate and report on the means for establishing schools and college courses of study best adapted to fit young men for careers in the foreign service of the country." 32 His reports to the commissioner echoed his statements to the local business community.

Aside from the appeals to foster and support collegiate business training, very few of the college's activities were directly affected by the war. in the 1918-19 Bulletin, for example, "Military and Physical Training" was required of

.. all physically able male students in the day course."




43


Also, Aldrich taught a night course entitled Business Economics and the War Conditions which was aimed at helping the

business man in his study of these (war) conditions as they affect business in general and his business in par33
ticular .'

Less direct, but nonetheless important consequences of the war were felt by the college. For one, the role of women charged in America during the war. This was perhaps most marked in terms of the types of jobs which women were expected to do and the types of careers which women might be expected to enter. The women of New Orleans were constantly

reminded of the new opportunities occasioned by the war and 34
of help which awaited them in the College of Commerce. By the end of the war, women accounted for approximately ten percent of the college's enrollment. Another indirect effect, was that the war had created a favorable market for labor. The vast majority of night students enrolled in the college were attempting to upgrade their skills in order to improve their position and salary.

The war also provided the occasion for appeals by the college to attract students. One article noted that German prisoners in English detention camps were studying Spanish in preparation for the capture of the lucrative Latin American trade after the war. Readers were warned that "we must not 55
rest ." until we have learned commercial Spanish. Finanly, one of the more tangible effects of the war was that






44


Mardi Gras was cancelled in 1917. In an article describing the cancellation of Carnival, it was noted that "Dr. Morton Aldrich is right--if a young man in New Orleans nowadays hasn't a chance to become a King or Emperor, he can join the College of Commerce and learn to become a Rockefeller or a Carnegie." The article went on to state that Aldrich was the

most jubilant man. in New Orleans" because without

Carnival, the young men would have the time and money to go to the College of Commerce which was the . next best thing in New Orleans, after the Carnival." ''








NOTE S


New Orleans States, September 13, 1914.
2
Bulletin of the Tulane University of Lo..uisiana
(College of Commerce and Business Administration), Series 15, Number 14, November 1, 1.914, p. 6.

New Orleans States September 11, 1914.; New Orleans Times-Picayune, epteb e r 1 4, 1914.
4
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 15, Number 14, November 1, 1914, p. 7.

Ibid.
6
Ib i d.

New Orleans Times-Pi cayune, Sept ember 14, 1914.

Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), D. 72.
9
Bulletin o 'Tulane University, Series 16, Nun.ber 12, Scptem ber 91, pp. 12-13; Bulletin, Series 17, Number 12, September 1, 1916, pp. 12-13; Bulletin, Series 18, Number 12, September 1917, pp. 14-15.
10
ank C. Pierson, et al., The Edu ca-tion of American Businessmen (New York: McGraw- ii, i .95 ) p. 39
11
New Orleans States, September 22, 191 5.
1 2
Charles J. Dirkens, et al., The American Association of Colloegi ate :schools of business (omewood, Illinois: Richard -. irwin, Inc., 1966), p. 183.
13
James H. S. Bossard and Frederick J. Dewhurst,
Uni ty Educ at io n For Bus lines s (phil adephi a: University of Pennsylvania P ress, 19317, pp. 263-264.
14
Minutes of the Tulane Board of Administrators (Special meeting of the Executive Committee held on October 4, 1915), p. 1.50. Newcomb College was associated with Tulane. The board assumed, at least until Aldrich presented hIis case, the educational needs of women could be met in Newcomb College.
15
New Orleans Item, October 12, 1915.
16
New Orleans States, October 24, 1915.

45







46

17
New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 24, 1915.

New Orleans States, September 4, 1916; New Orleans item, September 7, 1916.
19
New Orleans States,, September 27, 1917.
20
New Orleans item, September 25, 1915 and October 2,
1916.
21
The Tulane Weekly, October 17, 1917.

Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 19, Number 12, September I, 1918, p. 22.
2 3
Rufus C. Harris (former president of Tulane University), private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973.
24
New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 29, 1915; New
Orleans States, August 29, 1915; New Orleans Item, August 29, 1915.
25
Frank C. Pierson, et al,, The Education of American Businessmen, pp. 4-5; Robert A.- rdon and James Edwin Howell, HigherEducation For Business (New York: Columbia University Press, 959), p. 350.
26
New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 7, 1917.
27
Minutes, Board of Guarantors Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 6, 1917, pp. 6-9. (There were no specific cities or colleges mentioned.)
28
Ibid. Once again, these minutes did not specify a college. it is not known whether or not Aldrich was, in fact, offered a deanship. The Guarantors were told that he was, and there is no evidence that anyone questioned the veracity of this statement,.
29
New Orleans States, September 30, 1917; New Orleans Times-Picalune, September 27, 1917.
30
New Orleans States, January 31, 1916.
31
Ibid.

New Orleans Times-Picayuie, February 6. 1916.

Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 19, Number 12. September 1, 1918, p. 24,






47


N34ew O-rean s Times-Picayune, September 16, 1917. 35
3New Orleans Item, September 23, 1917. 36Ibidtembe 25
.bcr.l., September 25, 1.917.









CHAPTER III
FREEDOM AND FORMALIZATION: THE COLLEGE, 1919-1939


The college became permanently established as America embarked upon the period commonly referred to as the years between the wars. These years, encompassing the decades of the twenties and thirties, were marked by both continuity and change within the college, Continuity was provided by Aldrich who remained dean until 1939. The changes evident during the period reflect the gradual realization of Aldrich's plans. Changes in terms of the students, faculty, and curriculum of the college resulted, more often than not, from Aldrich's attempts to implement his program in the existing university and business settings.

Pioneering programs in collegiate business education, in the early stages of their development, experienced great dif-ficuity in establishing clear and consistent aims or purposes.1 The stated aim of the college, .. to offer substantial professional training preparing for a business career," was developed at the time of its founding and remained virtually unchanged throughout Aldrich's twenty-five year term as dean.' That there was no substantial change in the "Aim and Policy" of the college for a quarter century can be understood as indicating that this section of the bulletin was either a vague and innocuous statement which no one seriously considered (this is common in such publications), or that the statement 48







49

accurately reflected the intent of its author and the person responsible for its implementation, namely, Aldrich. it is most likely that, regarding the College of Commerce at Tulane, the second alternative most closely approximates the truth. Aldrich had a reputation as one who was attentive to detail and the precise use of language.3 Thus, for the first twenty-five years of its existence, the college enjoyed a singleness of purpose carefully developed and assiduously maintained by Ald. rich.

Unfortunately, the development and maintenance of a purpose, no matter how clear and consistent through time, is not sufficient to assure the successful operation of any institution. The College of Commer.e had established itself on a permanent basis, but its relationship to the local business community and to the rest of Tulane University was not fixed. In. the twenties and thirties, as before, the College of Commerce was developing in a social, political, and economic environment which could not be ignored.

Throughout these years, the college continued to attract large numbers of students. Like so many other collegiate business programs of the day, student tuition revenue played a crucial role in the fiscal affairs of the college. As the second term of the Guaranto s' Agreement ended, the budget of the college came under the control of the"Tulane Board. Two factors led to this decision: first, the College of Commerce









had proven that it could support itself; and, second, the college's popularity in the community had helped the university increase its endowment revenues.4 The College of Commerce was now firmly established within the university and would no longer have to appeal to businessmen for direct financial support.

Enrollment figures for the twenties and thirties show a gradual and consistent increase in both the day and evening programs. The evening program grew from 364 in 1920-21 to 609 in 1938-39. In a "Joint Faculty Statement of Needs and Objectives" presented to Aldrich in 1938, data showed that the students enrolled in the night division during the 1930's were almost all employed (95%), in their twenties (65%), and mostly male (85%). 5 Over half of these students were enrolled in one of the accounting courses offered and about half of them were clerical workers while enrolled. These figures also show that ninety per cent of the night students enrolled for only one course at a time and about sixty per cent of them passed the courses they took.6

Students in the night division were attracted by high quality instruction offered in subjects which proved to be valuable either in acquiring a new job or in improving their position in their present one. By 1934, the college published a separate bulletin especially for evening students. This bulletin, and subsequent issues of it, started with a section entitled, "Business Needs Trained Men and Women!" This section







si

suggested that present and prospective employers were vitally concerned with the education of workers, and that the program of the college had proven itself as an investment well worth
-7
the time and money required. About the same time (1934), a placement bureau was established which offered to help businesses select employees and to help students find employment. The success of the placement bureau was well known in the local community. This service assisted students caught in the ermployment conditions of the Depression.

From the beginning of the full-time degree program in 1916, Aldrich had been dissatisfied with the two-on-.two program. He believed that two years of training in the College of Arts and Sciences was inadequate and inappropriate preparation for the program he had developed, and that the arts college was not going to funnel an adequate number of students into the B.B.A, program. The former reason is consistent with Aldrich's utilitarian views of higher education, and the latter is supported by enrollment figures which indicate that very few students entered the program after two years in the arts college.9

Differences between the two colleges intensified when the arts college decided that all freshmen and sophomores would take the same programs of study regardless of their upper division major. The arts college refused to teach the liberal arts courses prescribed by the College of Commerce. Aldrich









responded by submitting a resolution to the University Council (predecessor to the senate) which argued that, each college of Tulane University shall have the power to determine its
educational policy and the requirements
for admission to its classes and courses,
subject only to the action of the University Council and the Board of Administ rators.10


The measure passed, and what came to be known as Aldrich's "Declaration of Independence" assured that the arts college would no longer interfere with the college's program.

Beginning in 1919, the college, after receiving approval from the Tulane Board, offered two courses of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration--the first was the same two-on-two program previously offered, and the second was a four-year program. Almost immediately the second option became the more popular. The old option was retained only to enable students in other colleges to switch to the B.B.A. program. 11 Although the first two years of the four-year program were taken in the College of Commerce, coursework was equally divided between business and non-business subjects.12 Later in this period, business subjects began to heavily out-, weigh non-business subjects. With the development of this four-year option and the increasing professionalization of coursework, the college became more isolated within the university.







53


The establishment of the four-year option had the immediate effect of increasing the day enrollment by over fifty per cent and the freshmen and sophomore classes by one hundred per cent.13 The college now had students for four full years. Very quickly a closeness developed among students. Aiding this closeness was the small size of the classes, the isolation of the college from the rest of the university, and the efforts of the faculty and the dean who consciously strove to develop an esprit de corps among students. Evidence of the closeness and geniality of the students abounds both in the written record and in oral accounts of alumnae of the period. In the early twenties, for example, the students presented Dean Aldrich with a proposal for an honol system managed entirely by the students. The plan was implemented immediately and has been cited by faculty and alumnae as a model of its type. Violators of the student honor code were usually expelled from the college. A.s another example of student interest in the college, an honor group was established in 1924. This group, the Commerce Key, soon petitioned Beta Gamma Sigma, the national honorary business fratcrnity, for affiliation. In June, 1926, during the college's eighth commencement exercises, two faculty members and six students were inducted as charter members of the Alpha of Louisiana Chapter of Beta Gamma Sigma. The overriding student view of the college during the twenties and thirties was that it was like a large family group cooperating in the education







54

16
of young men and women for a business career.

An important part of the college's development during this period was the recruitment of faculty. Although the years between the wars did not witness a substantial increase in the number of faculty, there was a slow process of replacing temporary and part-time faculty with permanent, full-time instructors. More than any other aspect of the college, the development of the faculty was the product of Aldrich's efforts. Because of the autonomy enjoyed by the college and the fact that faculty search committees were not yet used within the college, faculty recruitment was completely at the discretion of Aldrich. There were at least three general directions into which Aldrich could proceed in faculty development: first, he could recruit a highly specialized and trained (doctoral) faculty whose major focus would be upon research and specialized teaching; second, he could recruit generalists who had university training (especially at the graduate level), some business experience, and a willingness and ability to teach undergraduates; and, third, he could retain essentially what he already had, a number of local businessmen, part-time instructors from another college in the university, and an occasional full-time instructor. Although the choices were perhaps not as clear-cut as described, these were the options generally available to most developers of collegiate business programs in America during this period.17

Basically, the decisions to be made involved a process of






55S


matching available faculty resources with the economic situation of the college and the perceived function of the college in the uiversity rand business communities. The option of hiring highly trained specialists was impractical because there were few faculty of this type available and they were costly to employ. Furthermore, the role of the college as an undergraduate institution, training local citizens for careers in local business, was inconsistent with preparation and interests of a highly trained, research-oriented faculty. The third option was also undesirable because, although the services of local business leaders as instructors had been invaluable to the founding and early growth of the college, the day program required a full-time faculty with training and expertise not found within the community. It must be noted that local businessmen were not excluded from the college's programs during this period-they continued to serve as lecturers in the day and especially the evening programs. Also, the weekly '"Business Talks By Business Men" were required of all full-time students and have been constantly referred to as one of the most enjoyable and useful aspects of the program. These talks reflected the utilitarian orientation of the program and were helpful in maintaining ties with the business community.

As soon as he was in a position to do so, Aldrich began to recruit a faculty of generalists with expertise in a major area of business training (accounting or marketing, for ex-







56

ample). Another requirement set by Aldrich was that the faculty have at least some business experience. Finally, prospect ive faculty ha. to be inte Xrested in teaching undergraduates. These qualities not only suited the faculty to the needs of the college as it defined itself in the business and academic communities, they were also consistent with Aldrich's ideas about the importance of utility in university training.

Aldrich prided himself on his ability to select faculty members.19 Beginning in 1922 with Jay C. Van Kirk (M.B.A., Northwestern), he began hiring faculty who met his requirements. By 1930, Aldrich had hired :. Santry Reed (M.B.A., Harvard), Hugh Carnes (A.B., Michigan), Robert Elsasser (M.C.S., Tuck School, Dartmouth), Harvey Marcoux (A.M., Harvard), Leslie "Bill" Buchan (M.S., Illinois), Harry Mitchell (M.B.A., Michigan) and Donald M. Valley (A.M., Northwestern). 20 These eight men, along with Aldrich, quickly became known as the "Nine Old Men" of the College of Commerce. 21 This personal and professional identification with Aldrich promoted a spirit which many alumni recall as a hallmark of the college.22

An important aspect of the closeness experienced among students and faculty and between students and faculty is the general decentralized nature of Tulane University during this period. With the establishment of the four-year program, freshmen were directly admitted into the college from high school. College affiliation was established early and strongly







57

asserted throughout the student's stay at the university. One of the many extracurricular activities of the faculty, at this time, was to go into nearby communities for the purpose of recruiting students. These recruiting efforts were often used to inform high school students, faculty, and administrators of the increasing need for collegiate business training. Upon arrival as freshmen, students were quickly oriented to the activities of the college. Relations with the faculty were close, witi) 23
the student's progress monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Parent conferences, more often than not, strengthened facultystudent relations.

Conditions were excellent for maintaining the closeness which characterized the college. Convinced of the legitimacy and worth of their efforts to educate students, the faculty ignored accusations that their program was inconsequential and aoo vocationally oriented. The primitive state of the college's instructional facilities was another unifying factor. The offices, classes, and workroom of the college were located in the basement of Gibson Hall, the administration building of the university., Furnished with kitchen tables and other makeshift furnishings, the facilities reflected the Depression which the country was experiencing. Library resources, which started with a few texts and periodicals, were likewise makeshift, and only after considerable "scrounging" on the part of faculty and staff was any semblance of respectability devel-







58


oped. Everyone--faculty, students, and staff--made sacrifices
24
and adjustments to meet the austere conditions.

An examination of the evening program reveals that no

formal or systematically arranged curriculum was offered. Students enrolled in the evening division selected from a "Schedule of Night Courses," those offerings which were of interest or use to them. Satisfactory completion of any course was noted in a written statement given to the student. Successful comple.tion of eig ht courses entitled the student to a certificate
25
issued by the college. Although certain evening courses could be counted toward a degree, the evening division did not offer a B.B.A.

In 1919-20, there were twenty-two night courses offered by the college. This number was twice that of the courses offered to day students. The night schedule included a number of more general and traditional courses such as Accounting, Advertising, Business Correspondence, Business English, and Comnmercial Law. Also included were courses more narrowly focused upon local needs and interests such as The Marketing of Cotton and Life Insurance Salesmanship. Finally, reflecting post-war economic concerns, was a course offered by Aldrich entitled Business 26
Economics and Readjustment After the War. All of these courses were taught in the Association of Commerce in downtown New Orleans, and they were, with few exceptions, taught by local 27
businessmen and other part-time lecturers.









By 1938-39, the last year of Aldrich's deanship, the night program moved from the Association's office to Gibson Hall. Another change was that these courses were staffed almost completely with the full-time faculty of the college The number of night courses offered in 1938-39 was eighteen, a slight decrease from the number offered in 1919-20. More important, however, is that there was a definite trend away from the more specialized courses offered earlier. It is likely that this trend resulted from the increased utilization of the full-time faculty and the conscious decision to offer courses which were of the same type and quality as those offered in the day. 29 These courses included Accounting, Advertising, Business English, Business Economics, and Commercial Law. In addition, Aldrich was now teaching a course entitled Management of Employees which dealt with practical, labor-management relations by studying examples and cases.30 The format of the course enabled Aldrich to cover the material in a series of colorful stories which became notorious among the students of the college.31 The final change in the night division during this period was that the Friday night "Business Talks" were no longer offered. Night students were invited to the day-time "Business Talks," but most of them worked full-time.

Unlike the night division, the day program involved a

formally prescribed curriculum of required and elective courses leading .o a degree. With the development of the four-year







60

option, this curriculum was extended to the freshman and soph-omore years, in 191, the curriculum of the first two years called for students to take a total of thirty-four hours of coursework divided about equally between business subjects and general subjects. Among the general courses were English, Modern Language, Mathematics, History, and Chemistry, while among the business courses were Accounting, Business Economics, Resources and Industries, and Commercial Law,32 The junior and senior years of the curriculum were less formally prescribed-a total of thirty hours .devoted wholly or almost wholly to business subjects . ." was the sole requirement,33 A list of required courses or course options did not exist; students planned their programs with the dean. This flexibility re-suited from the small scale of the day-time program. At the time, only eleven courses were offered during the day, fewer and considerably less specialized than those offered at night.

Changes in the day program from 1919 to 1939 were profound. First, the number of day courses offered quadrupled--students in 1939 could select from over forty courses including Accounting, Business and Corporate Finance, Production Management, Business Management, Management of Employees, Marketing, and Business Statistics. 34 In addition, a series of seven courses in. business resea rch were added. These courses, one of which was required for seniors, involved students gathering and compiling data and writing a report of their findings. This was







61

evidence of the general field-orientation of the curriculum, and was an outgrowth of the utilitarian tradition of the college. As seniors were required to take a research course, freshmen were required to take a course entitled "The Executive and His Responsibilities," a general introduction to business principles and practices offered by Robert Elsasser.35

The program was not geared to either specialization or

basic research. With over forty courses offered in the day and eighteen offered at night, the faculty had to teach a wide range of courses. In fact, it was often necessary for them to teach out of their major area of training.36 This is where Aldrich's plan to hire generalists was used. Also, the research courses were more applied in that students usually investigated local business conditions or problems. This generalist and utilitarian approach of the college was typical of collegiate business training of the period.37

The great proliferation of courses during the twenties and thirties was one of two important changes in the day program of the college. The second change occurred in the curriculum, The curriculum of the day program in 1919 included numerous liberal arts courses and was flexible in the options which a student could take in building a program. By 1939, however, the curriculum required more business courses and allowed fewer liberal arts electives. The freshman year, for example, was taken entirely within the college. The sophomore year was







62

likewise strictly prescribed with only one elective option--a semester course in Chemistry or Physics as an alternative to "'The Changing Business Set Up. "38 iUpon this two-year foundation, juniors and seniors, with the guidance of the faculty and permission of the dean, developed a course of study which was suited to their needs. Generally, this involved taking courses i.n several areas of business and specializing with a number of courses in one field. Juniors and seniors could select from approximately twenty-five courses, all of which were business oriented. Non-business subjects were accepted only in special cases.39 Uppercl.assmen admitted into the program from other colleges had to satisfy requirements which basically consisted of a number of courses offered in the freshman and sophomore years.

Aldrich believed that business courses could provide a background which was as liberal as that offered in the arts college. He insisted that Business English, for example, was "business" only in the sense that it was offered in the busi-. ness college.40 Students and faculty of the college also believed that their freshman and sophomore courses were sufficiently broad and general to provide the requisite foundation for advanced study in the junior and senior years.4i Others in the university, especially in the English and Mathematics Departments of the College of Arts and Sciences, were skeptical. and critical of these courses which they felt could only be








63

offered in their college. This debate continued throughout Aldrich's years as dean and was experienced by most colleges of business that offered a four-year program, Because most collegiate business programs in the thirties were four-year programs, the college's struggle and. eventual isolation within Tulane was not unique.4 This struggle and isolation were important aspects of the college's early growth and development.

Instructional methods in the college reflected national trends. The case method, developed at the Harvard University Graduate School of Business, was the most ambitious and widely acclaimed teaching method to develop in collegiate business training.43 This method placed the student in the position of a businessman who had to act after weighing a variety of considerations. For a :number of reasons, however, the case method did not dominate the teaching practices of the college.44 First, the method was most appropriate in graduate training. Successful case analysis called for an understanding of the principles and practices of business which undergraduates generally lacked. Second, although the case method realized considerable success in various management and managementrelated courses, some students found it to be of limited use in such courses as accounting, statistics, and economics.45 Finally, collecting an adequate number of appropriate cases was both a costly and time consumin g process. At the College of Commerce, the faculty had to rely upon their own resources







64

to develop cases. Despite these limitations, the case method was consistent with utilitarian views of education and it brought vitality and immediacy to courses taught by Aldrich, Halley, and others.

The budget and organizational structure of the college were also important aspects of its operation. The College of Commerce was one of the smallest in the country.47 The budget of the college, reflecting its size and meager beginnings, was likewise small, In the first five years of operation, for ex-ample, the total expenses of the entire college never exceeded $13,000 per year.48 During the decade of the twenties, annual expenses of the college increased to about $50,000 with the single greatest expense being "Instruction." The total expenses of the college gradually increased until they reached about $73,500 in 1938-39. The singl.e greatest expense remained "Instruction" which amounted to approximately $60,000 in that year, The only apparent direct impact of the Depression upon the college was that most expense items were held down or reduced, and faculty and staff salaries were cut ten per cent. 49 No one was laid off, and graduates of the program usually found employment,

From the beginning of its operation, the college's major source of revenue was tuition and fees. Night students in the college paid twenty dollars per course until 1920-21. At that time, the Guarantors' support of the program ended and the







65

tuition increased to thirty dollars per course. This tuition rate was constant throughout the remaining twenty years of Aldrich's term as dean. Day students paid one hundred dollars per year in 1915-16, This rate was raised to one hundred and. fifty (i dollar at the ame time the night tuition increased. The day-time tuition rate of the college increased gradually during the next two decades,. In 1938-39, the full-time tuition for one year was two hundred dollars.50

The only other reliable source of income for the college

during the twenties and thirties was its share of the endowment of the university. This income varied greatly from year to year, but generally accounted for about twenty-five per cent of the total revenues of the college51 Like the other colleges at Tulane, the College of Commerce was unable to attract a sizeable endowment, forcing it continually to rely upon student tuition receipts.

The organizational structure of the college reflected its early development and the administrative style of Aldrich. The college had begun as a one-man operation. Aldrich had worked diligently to assure its continued existence in its early years of operation (1914-18), and he had managed to obtain a free and independent position for it within the university during the twenties and thirties. Within the college, Aldrich. ruled with a fair and firm hand. No one at the time doubted that Aldrich ran the ins-titution--and no one seemed to mind, because he was






66

52
almost universally respected and admired. The closeness which had become characteristic of the college was part of Aldrich's style as an administrator. It is difficult for someone outside the institution to understand that Aldrich was not an egotist working to gain power for his own sake. He was a man of firm conviction whoo had a clear vision of what he wanted to accomplish in the school. The faculty and students agreed with him and developed strong personal loyalties to him and the college. Also, the college was small in terms of faculty, students, and facilities. Departmental organization was unnecessary, .and it would have been inconsistent with the generalist nature of the faculty.

By 1939, the college had become a complete and selfsustaining educational institution housed within Tulane Uni-versity. The college maintained its own registrar, bursar, admissions personnel, and records. In addition, it had autonomy in terms of its student and faculty recruitment and the design and implementation of its curriculum. The college controlled every important aspect of its program, and Aldrich controlled the college.

An important part of Aldrich's work in the college during this period was his excellent working relationship with A. B. Dinwiddie, president of Tulane. Although Aldrich focused his efforts on the college, he and Dinwiddie worked closely together on Tulane's first successful fund-raising drive in 191953
20. Since that time, Dinwiddie entrusted Aldrich with the







67

development of the College of Commerce. He had, in fact, allowed a considerable amount of autonomy among the colleges of the university. Tulane was unique, because most universities in America had become centralized under the authority of the president.54 During Dinwiddie's presidency, as before, Tulane was more a collection of colleges than a modern university.

President Dinwiddie died in 1935 leaving the Tulane Board of Administrators with the task of finding a new president. There was considerable discussion among the faculty about Tulane's internal development and its role in Southern educational affairs. One group of faculty, mostly from the College of Arts and Sciences, sunt a document to the board outlining their ideas about the future of Tulane's program and the qualifications which they felt the new president should have. One of their many suggestions was to reorganize the College of Commerce by liberalizing its curriculum. Although it is not known how much influence this document had upon the board, they were aware of its contents as they decided who would be Tulane's next president.5

After two years and two acting presidents, the board

selected Rufus C. Harris, dean of the Law School, to be president of Tulane. Harris was young, energetic, and determined that Tulane become a university in fa.ct, as well as in name.56 Centralizing a campus with a tradition of decentralization and with as many powerful deans as Tulane had was not going to be







68

an easy task. Harris was aided by a faculty retirement rule which made retirement mandatory at sixty-five years of age. This rule had been ignored up to and throughout Dinwiddie's term as president.57 Harris now enforced it and, within a twoyear period, replaced every dean in the university except the dean of the Coliege of Architecture.

Aldrich became sixty-five in January of 1939. He did not want to retire. Still vigorous, Aldrich was considered by everyone in the college to be fully capable of performing his duties as dean. He had dedicated his professional career to the college and had realized great success. Perhaps most im. portant, Aldrich had earned the love and respect of his colleagues and students. He had also earned a position of eminence at the local, state, and national levels.59 His accomplishments and the recognition thereof, made a forced retirement all the more difficult to accept. When the day came for him to leave, he walked out of his office leaving everything behind. He never returned to the college

The most important deve lopments in the college during the

twenties and thirties were the freedom of its position vis a vis the business and university communities and the formalization of its curriculum especially in the day division. After acquiring its own financial base, the college could, on its own terms, begin to serve the local business community. The college could now offer the type and quality of business courses which







69

it deemed appropriate. This autonomy did not, of course, mean that the college was isolated from local business affairs. Indeed, the number and strength of the ties to the local community had increased with the field-oriented day curriculum and the utilitarian n orientation of the full-time faculty.

Autonomy within the university community enabled the college to develop a faculty and curriculum which was focused upon the more immediate and practical concerns of the community It enabled the college to serve a new kind of university student, one who came from a lower soc io-economic class and was looking to the university to provide him with the necessary skills to succeed in business. The autonomy of the college within the university also enabled it to legitimize business as a professional activity and, in the process, to expand the role of the university in the community.

The formalization of the curriculum reflected the ideas of the faculty and the dean as to what university trained businessmen needed to know. Their decision to have a highly structured curriculum focused heavily upon professional courses was made by numerous other collegiate level business programs in the country. Their confidence in the correctness of this decision was bolstered by the ability of their program to attract large numbers of students and to produce graduates who quickly rose to prominence in the business community of New Orleans.





70



Ironically, the freedom and formalization which were considered assets throughout the twenties and most of the thirties, eventually became liabilities. The plan for Tulane to become more than a "street-.car" institution called for centralization and an end to the autonomy of the colleges. The movement to centralization had academic as well as administrative ramifications--the curriculum of the college, especially the first two years, was going to have to be liberalized and integrated into the program of the arts college. The College of Commerce had to respond to these developments by redefining its position in the university community and providing new answers to the question of how collegiate business education might best be cond.. te ..









NOTES


1
Frank C. Pierson, et al., The Education of American Businessmen (New York: McGraw-Ti1, 195-7, p. 39; Roert 7-Gordon anr James Edwin Howell, Hiaher Education For Business (New York: Columbia University Press, l[ -, p. 4.


Bulletin of the Tulane University of Louisiana
(Col lege o f Commerce ai Busi enss AdmlT traton}T, Series ,-Number 11, August 15, 1938, p. 9.

3
Robert Elsasser (former faculty member of the college), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 28, 1973.
4
John P. Dyer, Tulane: The Bio.rap y of A University (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), pp. 188-189.


Minutes, College of Commerce Faculty Meeting, Tulane University, New--O rleans, Louisiana, 1938, pp. 21-33.

6
Ibid.


Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 35, Number 11, August 15 14,14 pp. 3-4.

8
Robert Elsasser, private interview, o2P cit.


Minutes, College of Commerce Faculty Meeting, op. c to 1938, p. 19.

10
Minutes, The University Council, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 20, 1918.


Donald M. Halley (professor emeritus of the college), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1973.

12
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 20, Number 14, November 1, 17T19, p.). 1

71





72


13
Minutes, College of Commerce Faculty Meeting, op. cit., i938, p. 19.

14
Richard 0. Baumbach (alumnus of the college), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 12, 1973; F. Santry Reed (former faculty member of the college), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 9, 1973.

1S
Richard 0. Baumbach, "Beta Gamma Sigma at Tulane"
unpublished typescript, April, 1924, Tulane University Archives.

16
Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project,
Tulane University Gradiualte School of Business Administration, New Orleans, Louisiana, August, 1973.

17
Pierson, The Education of American Businessmen, pp. 268-279.

18
Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project,
August, 1973; R. O. Simpson (alumnus of the college), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April, 1973.

19
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 10, 1973; Robert Elsasser and Donald Holley, private interviews, o. cit.

20
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 31, Number 8, July 1, 1930, pp. 6-7.

21
Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project, August, 1973. Many alumni noted that the faculty not only worked closely together, but that they also palyed cards, hunted, and fished together as well.

22
Ibid..

23
F. Santry Reed, private interview, En. cit.

24
Robert Elsasser, private interview, op. cit.










Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 20, Number 14, November 1, 1919, p. 20.

26
Ibid., p. 26.

27
Ibid., pp. 7-9.

28
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11, August 15, 1938, pp. 6-7.

29
Halley Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private interviews, op. cit.

30
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11, August -~, 1938, p." 2 .

31
Richard 0. Baumbach, private interview, op. cit.,
R. O. Simpson, private interview, op. cit. Aldrich apparently used his class as a forum for any subject. For example, on one occasion, Aldrich assessed the legal profession by stating that, "Lawyers are like baboons, the higher they climb up the pole, the more they show their asses." These remarks were recalled by his students many years later.

32
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 20, Number 14, November 1, 1919, pp. 1 29-24.

33
Ibid.

34
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11, August 15, 1938, pp. 21-31.

35
Ibid., p. 27.

36
Valley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private interviews,
p cit.

37
Leverett S. Lyon, Education For Business (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1922), pp. 348-351.





74



38
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11, August 15, 1938, p. 18.
39
Ibid., p. 19.

40O
Robert Elsasser, private interview, op. cit.

41
Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews ict ; Alumni Cuestio r School History Project, Augustt,~73.

42
Pierson, The Education of American Businessmen,
pp. 42-46; Walter J. latherlhe ReNltionTipathe School of Business to the College of Liberal Arts," AACSB Proceedings, March, 1937, pp. 5-8.

43
Pierson, The Education of American Businessmen, pp. 287-290

44
Ibid., Donald Halley, private interview, op. cit.

45
Alumni 2uestionnaire, School History Project, August,
1973.

46
Donald Halley, private interview, o2. cit.

47
James H. S. Bossard and J. Frederic Dewhurst,
University Education For Business (Philadelphia: Universit ofPennysivania Press, 1931), p. 288.

48
"Budget: College of Commerce and Business Administration, 1913-1939," Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, p. 1.

49
Leslie J, Buchan, private interview, op. cit.





75



50
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11., August 15, 1938, p. 15.

51
"Budget: College of Commerce and Business Administration, 1913-1939," op. it., p. 1.

52
Valley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews, CO. cit.; Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project, August, 1973.

53
Elsasser, private interview, oL. cit.

54
Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American Uni versit (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), pp. 303-304.

55
Dyer, Tulane, pp. 239--240.

56
Rufus C. Harris (former president of Tulane University), private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973.

57
Ibid. Harris said that the Tulane Board of Administrators ordered him to enforce the retirement rule.

58
Dyer, Tulane, pp. 241--242.

59
Aldrich is recognized as a pioneer in collegiate business education. He helped to organize and was a national officer in the American Association for Collegiate Schools of
Business.

60
Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews, oE. cit. These men and others on the faculty and staff of the college, at the time, said that Aldrich was embittered at having to retire. Rufus Harris said in an interview that he knew Aldrich was a proud man and that he did not want to retire. iarris, however, maintained that his "hands





76



were tied" because the Tulane Board ordered him to enforce the retirement rule. Harris has no recollection of any formal attempts by Aldrich to remain dean, and he recalled that he and Aldrich remained friends after Aldrich's retirement. in retirement, Aldrich lead a reclusive life. Although he was honored by alumni on several occasions, he refused to return to the campus. He died on May 9, .956, ini New Orleans.









CHAPTER IV
A DECADE OF CHANCE: THE BUCHAN YEARS, 1939-1949


The College of Commerce was viewed as the most vocationally oriented college at Tulane. Its faculty and students continued to be discredited by the rest of the university as overly concerned with job preparation. And the business curriculum was judged to be unworthy of university status. When combined with a decentralized fiscal organization which placed colleges in direct competition with one another, the low status of the college resulted in its isolation within the universe ity. Very few people at Tulane knew or cared about what was happening in the college. For its part, the college withdrew from participat ion in university affairs.

The isolation and low status of the College of Commerce

changed during the forties. This was caused by three important and interrelated factors: the efforts of President Harris to unify Tulane and create a modern university; the efforts of Leslie J. Buchan, the newly appointed dean of the college, to modernize its curriculum and bring it into a closer working relationship with the rest of Tulane; and, the impact of World War II upon -the organization of the university.

President Harris knew very little about the internal

affairs of the College of Commerce. He knew it was popular, both among vocationally oriented students and among local businessmen. He also knew that it was isolated from and thought to be inferior to the rest of the university.1 What



77







78

Harris knew concerned him because he felt that Tulane would not realize greatness until its colleges were organized into an integrated whole and offered substantial, university level work. To this end, Harris wanted the College of Commerce to offer a two-on-two program combining general and professional courses or a three-on-two program similar to that offered by the College of Law. Harris reasoned that this would bring the College of Commerce closer to the university and enable it to focus its efforts on developing more substantial professional offerings.2

Harris' views were shared by the new dean of the college, Leslie J. Buchan. Buchan, a native of Iowa trained in accounting at the University of Illinois, had been hired by Aldrich in 1930 as a professor of accounting. As one of the "Nine Old Men" of the college, Buchan was representative of the type of faculty which Aldrich recruited--he had a master's degree, successful business experience (he had been a partner in an accounting firm in Miami, Florida), and was interested in teaching undergraduate courses. Buchan quickly realized that the program and people of the college suited him as well as he was suited to them. In recruiting Buchan, Aldrich em.phasized that although the college did not have high admission standards, it did have high standards of performance. The small size of the college (compared with most state.institutions) and the closeness among the faculty and students also attracted Buchan.







79


It was up to Harris to appoint a new dean when Aldrich retired; faculty search committees were not used at Tulane in 1939. Harris knew what he wanted in a dean--someone young and willing to help him enhance the status of the college and bring it closer to the university It soon became apparent that Buchan shared Harris' view that the time had come to put aside the intercollege rivalries which were traditional at Tulane. Buchan also felt that the freshman and sophomore years of the business program were best spent in the College of Arts and Sciences. Beyond this, and of great interest to Harris, was Buchan's desire to raise admission standards, implement a Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) program, and develop a division of research within the college. This convergence of ideas about the future of the college combined with Aldrich's recommendation that Buchan was "'more than just an accountant" led Harris to decide that Buchan should be the next dean.5

The third source of change during this period was World War II. When Buchan took over in the summer of 1939, Europe was once again threatened with the outbreak of war. By the time the college opened its doors in September, that threat had become a reality. The war in Europe and the fear that America would soon be drawn into it caused a particular uneasiness in the university community. The question as to whahat would happen to Tulane in the event of American involvement was frequently discussed. The war could cripple the






80


university -the conscription of students and faculty and the realignment of national priorities in terms of higher education could have forced Tulane to suspend operations temporarily.6

Weiln America declared war in 1941, President Harris offered all of the resources of the university to assist in the war effort. Harris later traveled to Washington to investigate the possibilities of assuring Tulane's continued operation. He returned with an agreement which had been negotiated with the United States Navy.7 The new program (V-12) called for Tulane to coordinate the training of commissioned officers (Tulane had just received a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps program). The money received from the Department of the Navy and the priority status afforded the university enabled Tulane to continue operation throughout the war years.

The war brought numerous changes to Tulane. Navy personnel not only took courses, but were housed, fed, and given basic military training on campus. More importantly, in order to do business with the Navy, Tulane had to restructure its fiscal organization. The Navy insisted upon centralized budgeting and finance. This requirement forced the very changes that Harris and Buchan wanted. Thus, the war precipitated the centralization of Tulane and was, for some, a blessing in disguise.9

As the war helped Tulane organize itself along the lines






81


of a modern university, it also helped the College of Commerce in its movement toward modernization and meeting the goals established by Buchan. Because of the more immediately practical and vocational nature of business education, the College of Commerce received a substantial portion of the Navy V-12 students. (The College of Engineering also received a substantial number of these students.) Also, beginning in March, 1944, the college was selected as a Naval Pre-Supply School, one of nine in the nation.10 The combination of the V-12 and Pre-Supply programs assured the college of a constant supply of well qualified students.

The war also brought the college closer to the rest of Tulane. The aforementioned fiscal reorganization meant that colleges of the university were no longer competing for stu-dent revenues and students could freely enroll in courses outside of their college. And, in addition to centralized budgeting, centralized purchasing and receiving brought the College of Commerce (along with most of the other colleges) closer to the operation of the university. With respect to students, centralized registration and commencement encouraged a sense that they were all Tulane students who happened to be studying in one of its colleges. Also, a high percentage of students enrolled in the College of Commerce were navy trainees who focused much of their attention upon military activities. This reduced their identification with the college. Finally, Buchan's skills as an organizer and







82

administrator were quickly recognized by Harris who appointed him as his assistant, Buchan administered the Navy V-12 program throughout the university and was one of a handful of presidential advisors who fiscally restructured Tulane.11

The changing position of the college within the

university was but one of many important changes experienced. during the decade of the forties. Internal changes in the curricula, students, and faculty of the college came at an accelerated rate during and after World War 11. The college even changed location during this period, obtaining a long overdue facility of its own, Although John Dyer, in his history of Tulane, suggests that the Buchan years (1939-49) were largely a continuation of the policies and practices established by Aldrich, closer examination of the college reveals that although Buchan held Aldrich in great esteem, he brought about significant changes as dean.

Although the stated aim of the college remained

unchanged throughout the forties, the program established to realize that aim was revised extensively. The most important changes in the college were its increasingly formalized organization into divisions; the development of a new research division (May, 1940); the establishment of a graduate division (May, 1940); the revision of the undergraduate program; the development of special programs (most of which were connected with the war effort); the






83


transfer of t.he evening program to the newly organized University College; and, the organization of the Department of Economics at Tulane in the College of Commerce. Taken together these changes reflect an effort to raise the level]. of work offered by the college as well as an effort to integrate the college's program into that of the rest of Tulane. These changes also reflect the college's response to the wartime emergency.

During his first year as dean, Buchan organized the

college into four divisions by retaining the undergraduate and night divisions and creating the graduate and research divisions. Although these separate divisions were deemed necessary for administrative reasons, all phases of the college's activities were directed by one faculty,12 The limited number of faculty still made departmental organization unnecessary. Initially, the organization of the college into various divisions had little real effect other than to provide a semblance of sophistication to the college's program., Indeed., at t-he time that these divisions were organized (1940), only the undergraduate and night divisions had any substantial offerings. One of Buchan's challenges as dean was to give substance to the new divisions he had established.

The division of business research was deeply rooted in the utilitarian orientation of the Aldrich years. The d:ivision was created to perform applied research for the local







84


business community. The college recognized that researching business problems which were neglected by individual businesses was a necessary part of its professional responsibility. 13 Research was to be conducted by members of the faculty, assisted by Fellows of the graduate division, and counseled by an advisory committee of business leaders. Although very few college-wide projects developed out of the research division, numerous studies conducted by individual classes were presented to local businessmen. These research activities provided opportunities for students to study local businesses and to display their skills to prospective employers. Of equal importance were the ties developed and maintained between the college and the local business community. Unfortunately, the program, at least during the Forties, never developed beyond the activities of a few professors. Part of the problem was that the war diverted the college's attention to teaching.14 The research division did not begin to realize its full potential until the Fifties.

Closely connected with the development of the research division was the initiation of the Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) program in May of 1940. This was one of Buchan's early goals for the college. He believed that the establishment of an M.B.A. program would improve the undergraduate program and enhance the college's status in the university community. More specifically, Buchan believed that the M.B.A. program would encourage faculty development






85


and provide a core of researchers who could serve the local business community. i

The general regulations applied to the M.B.A. program remained basically unchanged for the decade that Buchan was dean. Students were admitted to the program with either a bachelor's degree in business or commercial studies or any bachelor s degree from a recognized institution. Graduates of recognized colleges of commerce were expected to complete the program in one year (thirty semester hours), while graduates with no prior commercial training were expected to take two years of work (sixty semester hours). All students were required to take six semester hours of economics (three hours of economic history and three hours of economic theory) and six semester hours of thesis research and writing. Courses 'available for graduate credit were offered in such fields as accounting, economics, labor, management, marketing, and finance.17 The major change in graduate course offerings from 1940 to 1950 was a significant expansion of the number of economics courses. This resulted from moving the economics department into the College of Commerce (see below, P. 92).
Although the graduate program held the promise of improving and modernizing the college, it suffered the same slow beginning that afflicted the research division. For one thing, the faculty was unprepared for and uninterested im graduate training. Also, the job market for graduates in an M.B.A. program was almost non-existent in New Orleans.




Full Text
the two-on-two or three-on-two curricula proposed earlier by
Buchan. The proportion of general education courses, profes
sional business core courses, and professional electives
7
remained unchanged.' And, although French would have pre
ferred a two-on-two program, he felt that the existing cur
riculum was liberal enough in terms of general education
courses in the freshman and sophomore years.^
Within the four-year curriculum, only minor changes were
made during this period (1949-55). The core of required
business courses remained unchanged--sixty semester hours in
accounting, economics, marketing, management, business lav;,
statistics, finance, and business communications were required.
Likewise, the number of professional electives remained un
changed- eighteen semester hours (six courses) selected from
9
a list of thirteen subject areas were required in 1955. The
general education requirements were changed in two ways:
first, students could choose a sequence of courses in the
College of Arts and Sciences in lieu of a foreign language;
and, second, a number of ROTC courses were required. These
courses were added to the regular curriculum and were not
taken in lieu of other general education courses. Thus, the
requirements for graduation, at least for ROTC students,
increased from 120 hours in 1949 to 128-134 hours in 1955.^
The number and type of undergraduate courses offered, by
the college changed only slightly during this period. Courses


"Report of the Dean," op. cit. 19 54- 55 p. 5.
x'?Ibi_d. 1951-52 p. 19. A grant of 1.2 million
dollars was awarded to the university for the development
of several doctoral programs including the one in economics.
18
Bulletin of Tulane University of Louisiana, Series
56, Number 1, January 1, 1955, pp. 45-48.
19
' Robert IV. French, private interview, op.
7 r\
"Report of the Dean," op. cit., 1952- 53,
21Ibid., 1949-50 through 1954-55, passim.
cit.
p. 10 .
4"Report of the Standing Committee on Graduate Study,'
Tulane University School of Business Administration, May 25,
1955, p. 1.
? 3
Bulletin of Tulane University of Louisiana,
Series 55, Number 9, August, 19 54 p. 23,
2 4
Robert W. French, private interview, op. cit.;
Paul V. Grambsch (faculty member and dean), private interview
Atlanta, Georgia, August 4, 1973.
2 5
Bulletin of Tulane University of Louisiana, Series
49, Number 12, October, 1948, pp 5-8; Series 55, Number 9,
August, 1.95 4 pp. 6-8.
^"Report of the Dean," op. cit., 1951-52, p. 19.
2 7
'Bulletin of Tulane University of Louisiana, Series
50, Number .12, October, 1949 pp. 5-8.
^"Report of the Dean," op. ci_t. 1952-53, p. 17.
79
Frank C. Pierson, et al., The Education of American
Businessmen (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959) pp. 311-312.
7 A
uThese men are Paul V. Gramsch, Howard Schaller,
C. Jackson Grayson, and Peter A. Firmin.
^Robert W. French, private interview, op. cit. Many
of French's faculty colleagues confirmed that Ms. Watters
carried out many of French's duties.
3 2
Bernard J. Capella (faculty member), private inter
view, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 24, 1973; Paul V. Grambsch,


51
suggested that present and prospective employers were vitally
concerned with the education of workers, and that the program
of the college had proven itself as an investment well worth
7
the time and money required. About the same time (1934), a
placement bureau was established which offered to help busi
nesses select employees and to help students find employment.
The success of the placement bureau was well known in the local
community. This service assisted students caught in the em-
8
ployment conditions of the Depression.1
From the beginning of the full-time degree program in 1916,
Aldrich had been dissatisfied with the two-on-two program. He
believed that two years of training in the College of Arts and
Sciences was inadequate and inappropriate preparation for the
program he had developed, and that the arts college was not
going to funnel an adequate number of students into the B.B.A.
program. The former reason is consistent with Aldrich's
utilitarian views of higher education, and the latter is sup
ported by enrollment figures which indicate that very few
students entered the program after two years in the arts col-
Differences between the two colleges intensified when the
arts college decided that all freshmen and sophomores would
take the same programs of study regardless of their upper di
vision major. The arts college refused to teach the liberal
arts courses prescribed by the College of Commerce. Aldrich


34
Miss Ruby Perry, was a teacher of business subjects at
Sophie Wright High School, Local newspapers carried this and
numerous other articles describing the opportunities avail
able for women at the new college. In a published interview
on the topic of women in business, Aldrich stated that .
four years of training at the Tulane Commerce College prepare
a woman to take an executive post in business. She would be
conversant with the inner workings of the world's commercial
machinery that is as a rule a mystery to the feminine mind."
Aldrich went on to say that a woman thus trained would be
"thoroughly equipped and efficient" and that her services
would be in demand at high wages.^ One of the more forceful
appeals for women to participate in the colleges program
appeared in the Sunday, October 24, 1915 edition of the New
Orleans Times Picayune. The article outlined the past depri
vation which women had experienced in education and noted
that without any campaigns for equal rights, these men opened
the college to the women of the city. Women were challenged
to take advantage of "... this chance to become more
efficient [and] increase your earning ability." They were
then told "it is up to you" and that the road to success was
1 7
never a "jitney route." Despite the promises and challenge
to women, most of the women enrolled in the college were
either high school teachers of business subjects or clerical
workers,
The press campaign to recruit women was typical of the


107
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit,
'51
"Report of the Dean: College of Commerce and
Business Administration, Session 1943-1944," in Report
of the President, Series 46, Number 2, February, 1945, p. 26.
"4Ibid., Series 47, Number 8, July, 1946, p. 24.
3 3
" Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 41,
Number 9, July 15 19 4 0 pp. 31-32.
3 4
ueslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit.
35
Rurus C. Harris, private interview, op. cit.
37
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op, cit.;
Robert W. French (former dean of the college) private
interview, Birmingham, Alabama, June 30, 1973. French
inherited, these issues and had to deal with them during his
term as dean.
38
John P. Dyer, private interview, op. cit.
39
"'Bulletin of Tulane University (University College),
Series 43, Number 9, July 15, 1942, p. 8; Leslie J. Buchan,
private interview, op. cit. Buchan said that most aspects
of the University College program were copied from Washington
University in St. Louis. He said that even the cover of the
University College bulletin was copied from that of
Washington University.
40
'Bulletin of Tulane University (University College),
Series 44, Number 9, July 15, 1943, p. 15.
4 [
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview1, op. cit.
4 2
'"Bulletin of Tulane University (University College) ,
Series 43, Number 9, July 15, 1942, p. 6.
4 3
"'Bulletin of Tulane University (College of Commerce) ,
Series 40, Number 3, July 1,~ 1939, pp. 5-7; Series 49,
Number 12, October, 1948, pp. 5-7.


supplemented with external sources: newspapers, local
business association records, university documents, and
national studies of collegiate level business education. Oral
information was gathered by interviewing former and present
faculty, administrators, staff, students, and alumni of the
college. Important figures in other parts of the university
and in the local business community also were interviewed.
The sixty-year history of the Tulane University College
of Commerce and Business Administration reflects general devel
opments in higher education and business education. Thus, the
history of this college can be a contribution to, and a
specimen of, the general history of education. The most pro
nounced development in American higher education in the
twentieth century--the dramatic increase in enrolIments--was
accompanied by a dramatic movement toward professional train
ing. When America became more sophisticated and influenced by
the processes of technological production, the need for
experts and professionals grew at an unprecedented rate. As
elementary and secondary schooling had been pressed into
service, institutions of higher learning were called upon to
provide the skills and values needed to meet the demands of
society. The liberal arts college, once secure in its isola
tion from the more mundane aspects of American life, could no
.longer survive in a society which viewed higher education as
v i t a 1 to s o c i a 1 a nd in a t e r i a 1 success.
v i i.


9
narrowly defined research, swept through all American higher
education gathering followers in every academic discipline.
These movements, moreover, do not make up mutually exclusive
categories. Pioneering economists,for example, expressed a
desire to "make a difference," that is, to be useful. As
economics formed into a discipline, it tended to become more
"scientific," that is, more quantitative, theoretical, and
research oriented. Economists felt that the best way for
them to be useful was to become scientific "experts" who
consulted with the nations leaders in an effort to direct
economic policy,-*-^ Thus, among economists, utility and
research were effectively combined.
With few exceptions, university level business train
ing developed in America as a part of the utility movement
for reform in higher education. Proponents of this view
wanted to integrate university life with "everyday" or
"real" life. They also tended to view higher education
as a primary agent in the democratization of America, This
movement to utility grew strongest in the last few decades
of the twentieth century. Among the greatest leaders of
the movement were Andrew D, White of Cornell University
and Charles W. Eliot of Harvard. Eliot, who championed
the creation of the Harvard Business School, said that
"there is no danger in any part of the university that
too much attention will be paid to the sciences ordinarily


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge the guidance and
assistance of his supervisory committee, Dr. E. Ashby Hammond
and Dr. Arthur 0. White. The chairman of this committee,
Dr. Robert R. Sherman, has been especially helpful. Dr. Sherman
has helped the author understand that clarity of expression
and thought are intimately related. At Tulane University,
Mr, Thomas B. Hendricks and. Mr. Pierre St. Raymond were
helpfu1. My wife, Kathy, has provided substantial assistance
as a typist, proofreader, and counselor. My son, Jonathan,
was often patient and always an inspiration.


FOREWORD
J. D. B. DeBow, appropriate 1 y known as the 'Magazinist:
of the Old South, came to New Orleans in 1845 for the purpose
of starting a new commercial journal. After a slow and un
certain beginning, DeBow's Review became one of the most com
prehensive accounts of ante-bellum Southern life ever published.
Reflecting DeBows interest in fostering the welfare of the
South and West, the Review was aimed at upholding their
policies, defending their rights, developing their resources,
and preserving their important statistics. In 1847, as a part
of his efforts to promote Southern life, DeBow attempted to
establish a chair of "Commerce, Public Economy, and Statistics"
at the newly organized University of Louisiana. Located in
New Orleans, which DeBow once described as the "emporium of
boundless wealth," the university, he thought, was uniquely
?
suited to become the first to establish a chair of commerce.
DeBow not only pioneered the establishment of university-
level commercial education, he also suggested what was to
become a traditional relationship between schools of commerce
and the surrounding community. He was confident that the
energies and resources of the local community could be combined
to form a strong foundation upon which university-level com
mercial education could be built. In return, the local com
munity could expect to enjoy an "improved character" of
i i i


The FIexner-But trick Report provided valid and con
vincing evidence against the establishment of yet another
college, the College of Commerce and Business Administration.
But, interestingly, the College of Commerce was being pro
posed by the very people to whom the university was going to
have to turn for its endowment. Since Tulane had lost its
battle in 1906 to receive state monies, there were few other
possible sources of income. It would have been virtually
impossible for the university to ask for substantial support
and at the same time refuse to establish a program which those
supporters felt to be intimately tied with the future growth
and prosperity of the city.
Tulane could not refuse, but neither could it afford to
establish the college on its own. The business community
wanted a new college. And Tulane, with its tradition of
utility and its need to secure an adequate endowment, wanted
to start one. What was necessary was a catalyst, an agent
'which could reconcile the needs of both the business com
munity of New Orleans as we11 as those of Tulane University.
That catalyst was Morton Arnold Aldrich.
"Doc" Aldrich, like most pioneers in American higher
education, defies simple categorization. He graduated suma
curn laude from Harvard, traveled extensively in Asia and
Europe, and graduated cum laude with a Ph.D. from the Univer
sity of Halle--in Germany--he was, perhaps, the epitome of a
worldly and sophisticated scholar. Yet, one of "Doc's"
greatest pleasures was to swap stories with the trappers and


matching available faculty resources with the economic situation
of the college and the perceived function of the college in the
university and business communities. The option of hiring
highly trained specialists was impractical because there were
few faculty of this type available and they were costly to em
ploy, Furthermore, the role of the college as an undergraduate
institution, training local citizens for careers in local,
business, was inconsistent with preparation and interests of a
highly trained, research-oriented faculty. The third option was
also undesirable because, although the services of local busi
ness leaders as instructors had been invaluable to the founding
and. early growth of the college, the day program required a
full-time faculty with training and expertise not found within
the community. It must be noted that local businessmen were
not excluded from the college's programs during this period--
they continued to serve as lecturers in the day and. especially
the evening programs. Also, the weekly "Business Talks By
Business Men" were required of all full-time students and have
been constantly referred to as one of the most enjoyable and
18
useful aspects of the program. These talks reflected the
utilitarian orientation of the program and were helpful in
maintaining ties with the business community.
As soon as he was in a position to do so, Aldrich began
to recruit a faculty of generalists with expertise in a major
area of business training (a c c o unting or marketing,
tor ex-


70
Ironically, the freedom and formalization which were con
sidered assets throughout the twenties and most of the thirties,
eventually became liabilities., The plan for Tulane to become
more than a "street-car" institution called for centralization
and an end to the autonomy of the colleges. The movement to
centralization had academic as well as administrative ramifica
tions --the curriculum of the college, especially the first two
years, was going to have to be liberalized and integrated into
the program of the arts college. The College of Commerce had
to respond to these developments by redefining its position in
the university community and providing new answers to the ques
tion of how collegiate business education might best be con
ducted.


156
. j 4
and scientifically oriented. '
The school was also confronted with changing enrollment
patterns during this period. Industry increasingly demanded.
men and women with MBA degrees and undergraduate preparation
in liberal arts or engineering. As a result, the pool of MBA
1 5
applicants was increasing across the nation. Full-time
graduate enrollments at Tulane increased from 29 students in
the fall of 1960, to 45 students in the fall of 1963--an
increase of over 33 percent. The part-time graduate program
which had been discontinued in 1960, was resumed in 1963, Its
enrollment of 110 students indicated a substantial interest
in the part-time MBA program.1' The business faculty also
anticipated an increase in the demand for in-service educa
tion, commonly referred to as "executive development programs."
They believed that the need for these programs would increase
as new management techniques were developed and as business life
became more complex. The school now sought to expand, its exist
ing programs which included the Institute on Foreign Transporta
tion and Port Operations and the Tulane Tax Institute and to
develop new ones. A greater commitment of resources was needed
1 7
to increase the quantity and quality of these programs.
While the demand for MBA programs increased, the demand
for undergraduate business training decreased. Higher admis
sion standards which had been designed to improve the quality
of students, had resulted in decreasing undergraduate enroll-


studies. The growth of the new Master of Business Administra
tion program was, therefore, significant because now all stu
dents were full-time. This resulted in a dramatic increase in
both the number of credit hours taken and the number of degrees
awarded. For example, the school awarded three Master of Busi
ness Administration degrees in 1956 and thirty-seven in I960.""
Grambsch hoped that the school would eventually award from
seventy-five to one hundred Master of Business Administration
degrees each year. To this end, he worked to expand the
schools recruitment and financial aid efforts for graduate
t 38
students.
The school's faculty consisted mainly of the remainder of
the "Nine Old Men", all of whom were rapidly approaching re
tirement, and a group of younger faculty recruited by French
and Grambsch. The older faculty, although active in under
graduate teaching and university service, were generally disin
terested in research and graduate teaching. They were, however,
convinced by one of their peers, Donald M. Halley, that the
changes which Grambsch wanted were reasonable and reflected
changes in higher education for business. They respected
Grambsch and supported his programs willingly. The younger
faculty both supported and carried out many of the new programs
and activities of the school. These faculty also assumed major
responsibilities in developing the research program of the
school. Jack Grayson, one of these younger faculty, chaired


NOTES
Rufus C, Harris, private interview, Macon, Georgia,
August 7, 1973.
Robert W. French, private interview, Birmingham,
Alabama, June 30, 1973.
"E. Davis McCutcheon (first graduate of the college
N o o
and New Orleans businessman), private interview, New Orleans,
Louisiana, June 20, 1973.
^Rufus C. Harris, private interview, op. cit.
'J Alumni Questionnai re, School H i s tory Project, Augu s t,
1973. A number of alumni who were active in local business
affairs remarked that French was a very effective promoter of
the college.
if
"Report of the Dean: College of Commerce of Tulane
University, 1954-55," p. 10. (hereinafter referred to as
"Report of the Dean")
7
Bulletin of the Tulane University of Louisiana
(The School of Business Administration), Series 55, Number 9,
August, 1954, pp. 38-59,
8
Robert W. French, private interview, op, cit..
"Bulletin of the Tulane University of Louisiana,
Series 56, Number 1, January 1, 1955, p. 42.
10T, ,
Ibxci., p 4 o .
Ibid., Series 49, Number 12, October, 1948, pp. 33-48
and, Series 56, Number 1, January 1, 1955, pp, 50-66.
12
"Report of the Standing Committee on Undergraduate
Studies," Tulane University School of Business Administration,
October 22, 1955, p, 1.
^"Report of the Dean," i_b_id. 1954-55 p. 3.
* ''Robert W. French, private interview, op. cit.
1 5
John P. Dyer, Tulane: The Biography of a
University (New York: Harper and Row, 1966) pp. 2*5 3-25 7 .
12 7


129
private interview, o£, cit.
33
34
Robert W. French, private interview, qp_. c_i_t.
Ibid.
"Report of the Dean," op. cit., 1954-55, pp. 7-8
36
Ibid
^Robert h
3 8,, u ,
Report
3Q
Robert h
^"Report
^"Report
42
"Report of the Honor Board Committee," Tulane Univer
sity School of Business Administration, March 11, 1953, p. 1.
^"Report of the Dean
French, private
interview,
Ol
cit.
the Dean," op.
cit., 1954
_ r r
j ¡¡
Table
II
French, private
interview,
R*
cit.
the Dean," op.
cit., 1954
-55,
p. 2.
the Dean," op.
cit. 1951
-52,
pp. 8-
10
1954-55, passim
44
op. cit., 1950-51 through
Alumni Questionnaire, op. cit.
45,
46
'Report of the Dean," op. cit., 1954-55, pp. 12-13.
I b i d .
47
A folder entitled "Fortieth Anniversary Celebration"
contained correspondence from scores of business and civic
leaders regarding the school and its anniversary celebration.
Ledger sheets recording donations to the alumni fund were
also in the folder.
4 8
Robert W. French, private interview, o£. cit.
49,
50,
Report of the Dean," op. cit., 1951-52, pp. 1-2
Robert W. French, private interview, op. cit.;
Paul V. Grambsch, private interview, op. cit.
Robert W. French, private interview, oj. cit
52,
Ibid. ; Paul V. Gambsch, private interview, o_p. cit
Robert W. French, private interview, op. cit.


4
Collegiate programs in business training grew because of
the demands of businessmen who believed, for a number of
reasons, that business training could no longer be conducted
the way it had been for years. In the past, single owner pro
prietorships and partnerships were not scientifically managed,
and business training was best received on the job. American
business practices, however, changed dramatically in the last
decades of the nineteenth century. These changes, for the
most part, were evidence of a revolution in business organiza
tion and activity. American business was increasingly con
ducted on a mass scale and was increasingly organized along
what has come to be known as corporate-bureaucratic lines
complete with, specialists and experts in many phases of its
H
operation.1 Collegiate level business training was unneces
sary until these changes were experienced by American business
leaders. Also, when the managerial executive could no longer
pass his position on to his son, he had to get his son an
education. Collegiate level business training proved to be
increasingly useful in securing a successful future in
q
American business..
The business community of New Orleans, for the most part,
believed that these changes in the scale and organization of
business affected their affairs just as powerfully as they
affected the business affairs of New York or Chicago. Their
response to these perceived changes, like the response of
bus ines smen throughout urban America was t.o c.a 11 for and
support higher education for business. For about a year


Throughout September and October of 1914, actions were
taken by the Association to assure the city of its share of
the benefits. A delegation of civic and commercial leaders,
headed by Mayor Martin Berhman, was sent to Chicago to effect
an alliance with the large industrial cities of the Midwest
for the new trade conquest of Latin America. At the same
time, a "floating expo" was planned in which American mer
chants and manufacturers would embark on a seventy-five day
cruise to dozens of Latin American ports in order to "display
to the best advantage the wide variety of sample commodities."
Finally, numerous committees were established by the Associa
tion to study and solve such problems as international
shipping, banking, and finance. The Association was deter
mined that New Orleans would not be left out of what it per
ceived to be a new era of commercial prosperity.
The business community of New Orleans was not going to
face its competitors without adequate preparation. On
October 19, 1914, the Association's activities were extended
into the evening hours. At eight o'clock on that evening,
Ralph J. Schwarz conducted the first class at the newly
organized College of Commerce and Business Administration of
Tulane University. The new college, founded at the behest
of the Association, was financially underwritten by a group
of two hundred local business and civic leaders. Since its
reorganization in 1913, the Association of Commerce had tried
to forge a workable union of the theoretical and the practical
helping to found the College of Commerce was the most obvious


NOTES
iHoward G. Schaller, private interview, Chapel Hill,
North Carolina, August 6, 1973.
2 Ibid.
3
Frank C. Pierson, et al. The Education of American
Businessmen (New York: McGraw Hill, 19591, pp. 208-211.
4r,
Howard G. Schaller, private interview, op. cit
JI bid
0Tu1ane University Bulletin, School of Business
Administration, 1961-1962, Series 62, Number 2, January 15,
1961, p. IS.
7
Howard G. Schaller, private interview, op. cit.
Ibid.
9
Tulane University Bulletin, Graduate School of
Business Administration, 1973- 1974 Series 74, Number 2,
Ap ri1 197 3, p p. 36-37.
10
"Annual Report of the Dean, School of Business
Administration, 1960-1961," p. 7.
Tulane University Bui let in, School of Business
Administration, 1960-1961, Series 60, Number .16, December 15,
1959, p. 28.
12,
13
14
Annual Report of the Dean, 1960-1961," op. cit. p.
Howard G. Schaller, private interview, op. cit.
I b i d.
Clinton A. Phillips, Experience With Undergraduate
Bus iness Program (New Orleans: Tulane "University*', 1964) "p. 3
16.
Annual Report of the Dean, 1963-1964," op. cit.,
p .
17
Clinton A. Phillips, Experience With Undergraduate
Business Program, op. cult:,, p. "35."
170


18
founding of the college also meant that the society was no
longer needed as a forum to promote a college of commerce.
Thus, by 1917, the Tulane Society of Economics ceased to
fuetion.
In 1912. Aldrich further demonstrated his value to
the community. In association with 0. 0. Provosty, M. H.
Carver, and E. H. Farrar (a local attorney and President
of the American Bar Association), Aldrich drafted a tax
reform proposal for the state of Louisiana. In recognizing
these efforts, the Louisiana Legislature, in a joint
resolution, complimented these "distinguished citizens"
for their eloquent appeal that Louisiana "... put aside
an obsolete system of taxation for one that would lead in
progressiveness and would quicken the coming of prosperity
to the people of Louisiana.One month later, Aldrichs
draft of the proposed tax reform measure was published,
with annotations, as a series of articles in the New Orleans
Times -Democrat.^
Aldrich's successes in the community apparently gave
him renewed hope that Tulane might be persuaded to start a.
college of commerce. In July of 1912, barely one month
before Aldrich received statewide attention for his work
on the tax reform measure, Tulane named Robert Sharp to
replace Edwin Craighead as its president. Sharp was con
fronted with what had become the bane of recent Tulane


139
semester hours of Business Research; and six semester hours of
2 2
electives focused on an area of specialization.
Although the first year of the new program reflected only
minor changes, the second year was less specialized, more pre
scriptive, and more quantitatively oriented. In the second
year of the old program, twenty-four of the thirty hours were
2 3
devoted to specialized study.*' Of these twenty-four hours,
six were allocated for a thesis which treated a narrowly de
fined topic. In contrast, the new program allowed for only
six hours of specialization. It also called for six hours of
Business Research which required the student to integrate and
apply his knowledge to simulated management situations. The
new program was also more prescriptive; for example, every
student was required to take the same sequence of four courses
24
in administration. Finally, the quantitative focus which
became characteristic of the undergraduate program dominated
the graduate program. American economic life was portrayed as
increasingly complex and manageable only in quantitative terms.
Thus, in describing the Master of Business Administration pro
gram, the school's Bulletin stated:
The tremendous growth in the scale
and complexity of American economic life
has challenged business men to draw upon
all fields of knowledge for relevant con
cepts, methods, and techniques which will
aid in the solution of business problems.
Quantitative solutions are daily being
sought for problems which once were thought


31
9
stipulated, both qualitative and quantitative requirements.
It must be remembered, that these requirements applied to only
a few students, since most, of the students of the college
were over twenty-one years of age.
If there is one trend indicative of the earlier programs
in collegiate business education, it was the tendency to
attract, by whatever means possible, large numbers of stu
dents. Because these programs xvere without university support,
they depended, heavily upon tuition income and assistance from
the local business community. By far the most effective
strategy for attracting students was to offer them courses
which had immediate practical and vocational benefit. In
this way, Tulane's College of Commerce reflected national
10
trends. During its first five years, the college attracted
students in such numbers that each year's enrollment figures
made headlines in all of the local newspapers and campus
journals. It is not difficult to understand why this was
done. Ideologically, utilitarian reformers in education had
a strong tradition of democratizing both schooling and
society. Predictably, the Tulane College of Commerce was
constantly referred to as an institution created by the
business community for all of the people of New Orleans.
Pleas were issued in the press for employees of a "lower
position" to enroll and. better themselves through the
11
opportunities offered by the college. The social elevator
arguments of many American educators were alive and flour-


accurately reflected the intent of its author and the person
responsible for its implementation, namely, Aldrich, It is
most likely that, regarding the College of Commerce at Tulane,
the second alternative most closely approximates the truth.
Aldrich had a reputation as one who was attentive to detail and
3
the precise use ot language. Thus, tor the first twenty-five
years of its existence, the college enjoyed a singleness of
purpose carefully developed and assiduously maintained by
Aldrich.
Unfortunately, the development and maintenance of a pur
pose no matter how clear and consistent through time, is not
sufficient to assure the successful operation of any institu
tion, The College of Commerce had established itself on a
permanent basis, but its relationship to the local business
community and to the rest of Tulane University was not fixed.
In the twenties and thirties, as before, the College of Commerce
was developing in a social, political, and economic environment
which could not be ignored.
Throughout these years, the college continued to attract:
large numbers of students. Like so many other collegiate-
business programs of the day, student tuition revenue played a
crucial role in the fiscal affairs of the college. As the
second term of the Guarantors' Agreement ended, the budget of
the college came under the control of the'Tulane Board. Two
factors led to this decision: first, the College of Commerce



PAGE 1

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106
0Bulletin of
uly 15, 19 40 ," p ."40 .
.u1ane Universitv
Serie
Number 9
pp. 41-59.
J 8
"Report of the Dean: College of
Business Administration, Session 1946-1947
the President of Tulane University, Series
No vembe r, 19 4 7 p. 30.
Commerce and
" in Report of
48, Number 13,
19
F r ank C. Pier s on e t
The Education of
American Businessmen (New York: McGraw-Hi11, 1959) pp. 2 2 5- 226
20
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit.
21
'"'Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 40, Number 8,
Ju1y 1, 1939 pp. 18-20 .
o o
L
I b i d
October
B u 11 e t i n o f Tul a n e U n i v e r s i t v,
.1948 pp." 27- 28 .
Series 49, Nurnber .12,
¡uly
October
Bulle
ijn. of Tulane University,
1939, pp. 19-20.
? 6
Bulletin of Tulane University,
1948, pp. 33-48.
S e ries 40, Numbe r 8,
Series 49, Number 12,
? 7
E. T. Grether, "The Development of the AACSB Core
C u r r i c u 1 urn, i n The Am e ric an Ass ocia t i o n of Co 1 leg i a t e
Schools of Business, by Charles J. Di riesen, et al. (Homewood,
Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1966), p. 147.
2 8
""Report of the Dean: College of Commerce and
Business Administration, Session 1942-1943," in Report of
the President, Series 45, Number 8, July 1, 1944, p. 29.
2Q
ikii-
30
Donald M. Halley (Professor Emeritus of the college),
private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1973:


59
By 1938-39, the last year of Aldrich's deanship, the night
program moved from the Association's office to Gibson Hall.
Another change was that these courses were staffed almost com-
9 r\
pletely with the full-time faculty of the college," The num
ber of night courses offered in 1938-39 was eighteen, a slight
decrease from the number offered in 1919-20, More important,
however, is that there was a definite trend away from the more
specialized courses offered earlier. It is likely that this
trend resulted from the increased utilization of the full-time
faculty and the conscious decision to offer courses which were
29
of the same type and quality as those offered in the day.
These courses included Accounting, Advertising, Business Eng
lish, Business Economics, and Commercial Law. In addition,
Aldrich was now teaching a course entitled Management of Em
ployees which dealt with practical, labor-management relations
30
by studying examples and cases. The format of the course
enabled Aldrich to cover the material in a series of colorful
stories which became notorious among the students of the col-
'T -|
lege.' The final change in the night division during this
period was that the Friday night "Business Talks" were no
longer offered. Night students were invited to the day-time
"Business Talks," but most of them worked full-time.
Unlike the night division, the day program involved a
formally prescribed curriculum of required and elective courses
leading to a degree. With the development of the four-year


141
business, and was pleased that the school was one of the first
in the nation to acquire one. With Sweeney as director, the
computer center quickly became one of the focal points of the
university--students and faculty from arts and sciences, en
gineering, and medicine used the center with increasing fre-
2 8
quency. Also, immediate contacts were established with
Carnegie Tech which was involved in the development of some of
the first computer-assisted management games in the nation.*
The school acquired a reputation for its innovative and
quantitatively oriented program. This program was eventually
noticed by the directors of the Ford Foundation. While visiting
the dean of the business school at Columbia University, Grambsch
was referred to Neil Chamberlain, President of the Ford Foun-
30
cation. Grambsch met with. Chamberlain in New York ana pre
sented his ideas about the future of business education at
Tulane. Subsequently, Chamberlain and several other officials
from the foundation visited the campus in the Winter of 1957.
and met with several of the younger members of the faculty.
Chamberlain was impressed with the program, faculty, and.
facilities (especially, the computer center) of the school and
offered assistance, Grambsch wrote the grant proposal in
the Spring and Summer of 19 58. The proposal was approved, and
a grant of $200,000 was awarded for a five year period. The
grant was for "general support" of the school with monies
allocated for faculty development, curriculum development, re-


158
on the other hand, were difficult to find. One comprehensive
study of this problem revealed that business undergraduate
students ranked sixth from the bottom out of twenty undergrad
uate fields on intelligence test scores. Other studies indi
cated that the average business student was less qualified for
university work.4-"1 Tulane's more rigorous quantitative busines
curriculum made it less likely that poorer students would stay
in the program. Schaller had expected that the rigorous cur
riculum would attract, higher quality students and eliminate the
poorer ones. Although the overall quality of undergraduate stu
dents remained constant, the school decided that there were not
enough superior students to warrant retaining the program.^
Schaller presented the schools plan to drop its under
graduate program to the Tulane Board of Administrators at its
2 5
December meeting in 1962. Although a number of prominent
local businessmen were on the board and one of them, Gerald
Andrus, was an alumnus of the school, the board unanimously
approved the school's plan. The alumni's reaction to the plan
was less positive. Their view was that the school had been
too hasty in its decision and had eliminated a program, that
had served them and the local business community well.'f'
Furthermore, the decision appeared to discredit their degrees.
Older faculty, most of whom were about to retire, were likewise
displeased. These men felt that the school had established a
strong undergraduate program which was recognized throughout
the nation. They were not yet convinced that graduate business


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8
The movement to liberal culture, on the other hand, focused
on educating students in the so-called "humanities with
an emphasis on the methods and content of classical thought
The movement to utility sought to focus university study on
the society in which it operated. Faculties in the develop
ing professional schools supported academic utility.
Proponents of academic utility were often caught between
supporters of liberal culture who accused them of being
preoccupied with job preparation (vocationalism) and
practitioners who believed that they were too academically
~i o
oriented.10
Considerable effort was expended on behalf of these
movements to assure that each would prevail. Early in the
debate, the various conceptions of the university's true
purpose became associated with certain disciplines or
professions. The so-called "hard sciences" as well as
most graduate training was quickly associated with research
The liberal arts colleges, more often than not, were the
bastions of the liberal culture movement. Finally,
professional schools including Engineering, Architecture,
and Business Administration were most often associated
with the utility movement.
Within each field of study, there were those who
argued for either research, liberal culture, utility,
or some combination thereof, German-born scientism,
for example, with its emphasis upon specialization and


research than ever before. This, however, amounted to very
little. Each year a project or two involving several faculty
members and graduate students were conducted. These projects
usually involved the economics faculty and consisted largely
of surveys of local or regional business and industrial
activities. Such projects as an economic survey of Terrebonne
Parish, a study of port administration, and an analysis of
capital accumulation in the South, were conducted during the
first half of the fifties.' For his own part, French served
on the Presidents Council of Economic Advisers and reactivated
the Tulane Society of Economics (directed by Professor Gerald
i \ 36
Warren).
Organized research in the college, reflecting its meager
funding and inadequate faculty and administrative support,
advanced slowly and failed to become an important part of the
colleges activities. Although college funds were occasionally
spent on a project in the bureau, a separate budget was not
developed. This lack of funds precluded the assignment of a
full-time director of research and the hiring of graduate
assistants and a clerical staff. It also precluded the neces
sary released time to allow interested and able faculty to
conduct projects. Also, older faculty members generally
devoted their time to teaching rather than to research. Newer
facu11y members, although wi11ing to devote time to research,
were usually involved in finishing their doctoral programs and


117
iber o£ student. Faculty concern about the quality of incoming
graduate students was expressed throughout, the period. By
1955, admissions standards were formalized; and, more impor
tantly, criteria for admission to candidacy were made consistent
with those established by the graduate school of the university.
The faculty also decided that students of questionable admissi
bility pass the Admissions Test for Graduate Study in Business
2 2
(ATGSB). The problem of attracting well qualified graduate
students was exacerbated by the lack of scholarship funds. Each
year the college cited this as one of its greatest needs. Al
though this problem persisted throughout the period, the first-
graduate scholarship, endowed by the Lykes Brothers Steamship
7 3
Company, was an important beginning. The lack of scholarship
funds available for graduate students suggests that local busi
nessmen were disinterested in graduate training. They generally
believed that undergraduate training was adequate for their
personnel needs.^
The final problem which French faced was that of developing
an adequate faculty. Immediately upon accepting the deanship,
he had to recruit six new faculty members. During the five
years of French's deanship, the number of faculty increased by
thirty per cent and the percentage of faculty with doctorates
2 5
increased by fifty per cent. Changes in the faculty reflected
French's efforts to improve its quality by recruiting people
who were more interested and better trained in conducting


changing the school's program. He focused on about a dozen
schools situated throughout the country which served as models
for the changes he envisioned.' He also hoped that they would
provide him with the type and caliber of faculty he wanted. In
addition to studying the curricular and instructional develop
ments of these institutions, Grambsch visited them occasionally.
As a result of these contacts, both Grambsch and Tulane were
viewed as innovative. The impact of these contacts upon
Tu 1 ane s program was signif i.cant,
Grambsch was aware of the boom in higher education for
business. By the mid-fifties, one out of every seven under
graduate degrees granted in the country was in business.^ The
boom was in some ways reminiscent of the earlier period when
the field was first offered at the university level. Like the
earlier period, there were serious concerns about the quality
o f educat i on being of fered This concern f oc.used on di f feren-
tiating a "vocational" program from one that was "truly pro
fessional.1 Vocational programs were viewed as those which
merely prepared students for their first job. They were further
characterized as narrowly defined, overly specialized, and
concerned with students memorizing vast amounts of descriptive
information. Professional programs were viewed as differing
in both the scope and depth of preparation. These programs
were viewed as emphasizing a broad liberal arts foundation
upon which professional courses of a more scientific and. ana-


84
business community. The college recognized that researching
business problems which were neglected by individual busi
nesses was a necessary part of its professional responsi-
] 3
bility.
Research was to be conducted by members of the
faculty, assisted by Fellows of the graduate division, arid
counseled by an advisory committee of business leaders. Al
though very few college-wide projects developed out of the
research division, numerous studies conducted by individual-
classes were presented to local businessmen. These research
activities provided opportunities for students to study local
businesses and to display their skills to prospective em
ployers. Of equal importance were the ties developed and
maintained between the college and the local business com
munity. Unfortunately, the program, at least during the
Forties, never developed beyond the activities of a few
professors. Part of the problem was that the war diverted
14
the college's attention to teaching. The research division
did not begin to realize its full potential until the Fifties.
Closely connected with the development of the research
division was
the initiation of the Master of Business Ad
ministration (M.B.A.) program in May of 1940. This was one
of Buchans early goals for the college. He believed that
the establishment of an M.B.A. program would improve the
undergraduate program and enhance the college's status in
the university community. More specifically, Buchan believed
that the M.B.A. program would encourage faculty development


116
program in economics, accounted for most of the changes in the
graduate program during French's deanship. In fact, aside from
the doctoral program in economics, there were few changes in
the graduate curriculum of the college. Degree requirements,
in terms of hours, courses, and the thesis, were not changed
i 8
significantly.
French encountered three problems in dealing with the
graduate program. The first of these problems was the small
number of students available for graduate study. The old
problem of needing students to justify developing a better pro
gram and needing a better program to attract students continued.,
French attempted to solve this problem by using a strategy that
had worked for Aldrich in building the undergraduate program,
1 q
namely, building upon a base of part-time, evening students."
Thus, in 1949, during the first year of his deanship, French
started an evening Master of Business Administration program.
This was only partially successful because, although it increased
graduate enrollment and enabled graduate course offerings to be
increased, few students remained long enough to complete their
degree requirements. There were more students, but there was
no appreciable increase in the number of degrees awarded.i"'
The second major problem, the generally poor caliber of
student, was related to the first. If the college could have
had a larger pool of students from which to choose, higher
admissions standards could have provided a more acceptable cal-


sequence of business courses with a curriculum focused on the
quantification of making decisions and the use of electronic
computers in the management of business. The school's teaching
and research methods were among the most advanced in the nation.
Its commitment to offer a sophisticated professional program
led to the decision to abandon its undergraduate program in
the middle of the nineteen sixties. These changes have had a
profound impact on the school's relationship to the business
community. The school is presently closer to the business
community than at any period since the time it was started.
This has resulted from the school's need to support itself
financially, and the recognition that its educational program
needs the community it serves.
The history of the Graduate School of Business Adminis
tration at Tulane University is a specimen of the general
history of education. The dramatic growth of higher education
in America in the twentieth century has resulted, to a large
extent, from the professionalization of American culture.
The power of universities to legitimize virtually any human
endeavor has been well documented. Where businessmen were
once trained in the business world, they are today trained in
universities. The "schooling" of American businessmen is but
One example of the "schooling" of American society. Examina
tion of this phenomenon reveals that schools were changed
profoundly when society "turned to them. This study suggests
xiv


development of the College of Commerce. He had, in fact, al
lowed a considerable amount of autonomy among the colleges of
the university. Tulane was unique, because most universities
in America had become centralized under the authority of the
president.* During Dinwiddles presidency, as before, Tulane
was more a collection of colleges than a modern university.
President Dinwiddie died in 1935 leaving the Tulane Board
of Administrators with the task of finding a new president.
There was considerable discussion among the faculty about Tu~
lane's internal development and its role in Southern educational
affairs. One group of faculty, mostly from the College of Arts
and Sciences, sent a document to the board outlining their
ideas about the future of Tulane's program and the qualifica
tions which they felt the new president should have. One of
their many suggestions was to reorganize the College of Commerce
by liberalizing its curriculum. Although it is not known how
much influence this document had upon the board, they were
aware of its contents as they decided who would be Tulanes
5 5
nexf. president.
After two years and two acting presidents, the board
selected Rufus C. Harris, dean of the Law School, to be presi
dent of Tulane. Harris was young, energetic, and determined
that Tulane become a university in fact, as well as in name.
Centralizing a campus with a tradition of decentralization and
with as many powerful deans as Tulane had was not going to be


161
33
Schaller was pleased with Grayson's performance as asso
ciate dean, and admired his understanding of new developments
in higher education for business. Grayson had worked diligently
with Schaller in promoting the decision to offer only graduate
level business education at Tulane. Also, Grayson was well liked
by the faculty, and he could get their support for his ideas.
Thus, to Schaller, Grayson was the logical choice for the dean-
Ship .
Grayson, however, did not want to be dean. He felt un
comfortable as an administrator because he disliked dealing
with the daily operations of the school. He believed that
Schaller had relied too heavily on him for this as associate
dean. He wanted to resign that position and return to the
classroom. Finally, he had accepted a year-long teaching
position at a management institute in Switzerland and was
looking forward to going there.
34
A search committee chaired by Clinton Phillips was formed
to search for a new dean. After much persuasion by Schaller,
Grayson agreed to talk with President Longenecker about the
deanship. At Schaller!s request, Grayson drew up a list of
conditions under which he would accept the deanship. They were
extravagant and Grayson believed that they would not be
accepted. Among the conditions were a large salary increase,
leave of absence during the 1963-64 school year, each summer
off to return to his farm, and a strong associate dean to manage


THE NEXT BEST THING TO
CHAPTER II
CARNIVAL:
THE COLLEGE
1914-1918
Classes in the new college opened on Monday, October 19,
1914, barely one month after it had been established. That
month was one of almost frantic activity, as much remained to
be done. For one thing, classrooms had to be found. This
problem was easily solved when the Association of Commerce
1
offered rooms free of cost to the college. Also, a curriculum
and faculty had to be developed. The decision was made to
start with only a night program in order to accomodate the
students, most of whom worked full-time. Each class would
meet one night per week beginning at eight o'clock and ending
at nine forty-five. On Monday nights, Commercial Law was
offered, taught by Ralph J. Schwarz, a member of the Tulane
Law School faculty and a practicing attorney. On Tuesday
evenings, Foreign Trade was offered by Edwin E. Judd, the
Commercial Agent in charge of the New Orleans Office of the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the United States
Department of Commerce. A. Norman Young, a Chartered Ac
countant and manager of the New Orleans branch of a national
accounting firm, taught Accounting on Wednesday evenings.
Dean Aldrich taught Economics and Business Administration
each Thursday. Also on Thursday evenings, John S. Kendall,
26


19
presidents--inadequate revenues and no foreseeable future
source of them. Perhaps the new president could be con
vinced of the wisdom of establishing a college of commerce.
Aldrich tried, and his persistent efforts to sell President
Sharp on his idea were praised bv some as tenacious and
41
cursed by others as stubborn.
What Aldrich needed was something that he had been
cultivating since his arrival in New Orleansthe support
of local business leaders. Beginning in the summer of
19.13, the support which Aldrich needed began to coalesce
around the New Orleans Association of Commerce. Association
President Leon C. Simon in speaking to the Education Committee
of the Association, stated that he
. . had a talk with Professor Aldrich
sometime ago, the gist of which was that,
while Tulane was an excellent institution
in so far as it went, it did not take in
the commercial side of the city, and the
consensus of opinion among a number of
people was that it should have in its
curriculum a commercial course for the
benefit of students who desired to enter
/[ 6
commercial lire. -
Simon also told of unsuccessful efforts to get the matter
before the Board of Administrators of Tulane University.
The Education Committee adjourned after recommending that
the Board of Directors of the Association of Commerce address
a communication to the Tulane Board suggesting that a school
4 3
of commerce be established.


Also, Aldrich taught a night course entitled Business Eco
nomics and the War Conditions which was aimed at helping the
'*. business man in his study of these (war) conditions
as they affect business in general and his business in par
rs 3
ticular."
Less direct, but nonetheless important consequences of
the war were felt by the college. For one, the role of
women changed in America during the war. This was perhaps
most marked in terms of the types of jobs which women were
expected to do and the types of careers which women might be
expected to enter. The women of New Orleans were constantly
reminded of the new opportunities occasioned by the war and
34
of help which awaited them in the College of Commerce. By
the end of the war, women accounted for approximately ten per
cent of the colleges enrollment. Another indirect effect,
was that the war had created a favorable market for labor.
The vast majority of night students enrolled in the college
were attempting to upgrade their skills in order to improve
their position and salary.
The war also provided the occasion for appeals by the
college to attract students. One article noted that German
prisoners in English detention camps were studying Spanish
in preparation for the capture of the lucrative Latin American
trade after the war. Readers were warned that "we must not
35
rest . ." until we have learned commercial Spanish.
Finally, one of the more tangible effects of the war was that


74
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11,
August 15, 1938, p. 18.
39
Ibid., p. 19,
4 0
Robert Elsasser, private interview, op, cit.
41
Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews, op. cit.; Alumni Questjonnaire, School History
Project, August,"1573.
42
Pierson, The Education of American Businessmen,
pp. 42-46; Walter J. Matherly, TKe Relationship" o'f the School
of Business to the College of Liberal Arts," AACSB Proceedings,
March, 1937, pp. 5 8.
43
Pierson, The Education of American Businessmen,
p.p. 287-290.
44
Ibid. Donald. Halley, private interview, op. cit.
45
Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project, August,
19 73.
4 6
Donald Halley, private interview, op. cit.
47
James H. S. Bossard and J. Frederic Dewhurst,
University Education For Business (Philadelphia: University
of Perinysivan.fa Press, 19317, p 288.
48
"Budget: College of Commerce and Business Adminis
tration, 1913-1939," Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana,
P 1-
49
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit.


168
and return home to write their dissertations. The curriculum
Included nine hours of International Business and twelve hours
60
of Latin American courses from other university departments.
Zeff developed a Spanish newsletter to inform Latin American
students about the program. For the first time, it appeared
that a Latin American program might be developed.
Grayson obtained a grant from the Ford Foundation to fund
the "Conference on Education of International Business" and
named Zeff chairman of the conference.^ This was the first
national business conference ever held at Tulane and Business
Week gave it much publicity. ** More importantly, Tulane
gained visibility for its efforts in international business
education. The business school was no longer identified solely
with quantitative methods. Grayson also gained nationa1 visi-
bility. His work with George Shultz on the task force for the
conference led to Grayson's appointment as the first director
/; t
of President Nixon's Price Commission in October of 1971. u
Despite the efforts of Zeff and Grayson, the Latin American
program failed. Only one person applied, and no one ever com
pleted t h e p r o g r a m The in a j o r r e a s o n f o r i t s f a i 1 u r e was
financial. The business school did not have the money to send
faculty members to Latin America to recruit students and engage
f)
in an exchange program. The program was dropped in 1969, and
no attempt has been made to re-establish it.
By the fall of 1967, except for the Affiliates Program,


so
had proven that it could support itself; and, second, the
college's popularity in the community had helped the university
4
increase its endowment revenues. The College of Commerce was
now firmly established within the university and would no longer
have to appeal to businessmen for direct financial support.
Enrollment figures for the twenties and thirties show a
gradual and consistent increase in both the day and evening
programs. The evening program grew from 364 in 1920-21 to 609
in 1938-39. In a "Joint Faculty Statement of Needs and Ob
jectives" presented to Aldrich in 1938, data showed that the
students enrolled in the night division during the 1930's were
almost all employed (951), in their twenties (65%), and mostly
male (85%). Over half of these students were enrolled in one
of the accounting courses offered and about half of them were
clerical workers while enrolled. These figures also show that
ninety per cent of the night students enrolled for only one
course at a time and about sixty per cent of them passed the
courses they took.
Students in the night division were attracted by high
quality instruction offered in subjects which proved to be
valuable either in acquiring a new job or in improving their
position in their present one. By 1934, the college published
a separate bulletin especially for evening students. This
bulletin, and subsequent issues of it, started with a section
entitled, "Business Needs Trained Men and Women!" This section


108
Series
Bulletin o_£ Tu lane University (College
49, Number 12, October, 1948, pp. 5-7.
of Commerce),
"John T. Wheeler, "A Comparison of Changes in AACSB
Schools," in The American Association of Collegiate Schools
of Business, by Charles J. Dirksen, et al~. ("Homewood,
Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1966), pp. 14-25.
4
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit.
4 7
The dean listed faculty activities m his annual
report to the president. See, for example, "Report of the
Dean: College of Commerce and Business Administration,
Session 1944-1945," Report of the President, Series 47
Number 8, Ju1y, 19 4 6, p p. 2 5 26 .
4 8
John C. Rumble, "Suggestions for the Improvement
of the College of Commerce and Business Administration,
Tulane University," unpublished typescript, Tulane University
Archives, March 29, 1949.
49. ...
'Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit.
c 0
" Ibid. It is interesting that Buchan found the
faculty too passive because several faculty members,
including Donald Halley and Robert Elsasser, found Buchan
to be rather authoritarian and generally uninterested in
consulting with the faculty.
Business
51
'"Report of the Dean: College of Commerce and.
Administration, Session 1939-1940 ," op. cit. p.
"Mi nut'
College of Commerce Faculty Meeting,
Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1944-1948,
passim. The major portion of faculty meetings dealt with
student performance and conduct.
Business
'Report of the
Ad m i n i s tr a t i on ,
Dean: College of
Session 1946-1947
President, Series 48, Number 13, November
Commerce and
," in Report of the
1947, p. 30.
54
" Mbid.; Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project
Tulane University Graduate School of Business Administration,
New Orleans, Louisiana, August, 1973.


and
commercial activity, a well trained pool of ambitious
industrial youth, and the informed counsel of the professor,''
Unfortunately, these pioneering efforts in commercial education
were unsuccessful. Despite his tireless efforts at organizing
and promoting the professorship and the financial support of
a prominent local businessman, DeBow could not generate
sufficient interest among students or support among local
businessmen. Charles Gayarre, the noted Louisiana historian,
described the commercial professorship as a. ... barren
honor. . It was a professorship without students, and no
ability could have commanded an audience. The time had not
yet come when any interest could have been taken in such
4
subjects."
Over fifty years passed before New Orleans had another
opportunity to cooperate in establishing a university program
in commercial studies. By 19.14, the University of Louisiana
had been endowed by Paul. Tul an e, a. wealthy cotton broker. It
was then renamed Tulane University. Although New Orleans had
been uninterested in DeBow's efforts to start a commercial
professorship, by 1914 it was ready to do whatever was
necessary to establish collegiate-level business training.
This study is a history of the effort to establish and develop
the College of Commerce and Business Administration at Tulane
University, from its beginning in 1914, through the most
recent completed term of its dean in 1974.


22
three years . to make good any deficit, if any, caused
4 8
by the operation of the college."
During a quiet three-week campaign in the late summer
of 1914, one hundred and four Guarantors signed the appro
priate contracts, and as a result, the Tulane University
College of Commerce and Business Administration was established.
To no one's surprise, one of the Guarantors, Morton A. Aldrich,
was named. Dean.
The founding of the College of Commerce and Business
Administration of Tulane University resulted from the
confluence of three factors: the belief, among leading
members of the New Orleans business community that the
future growth and prosperity of the city depended upon the
establishment of a university college of commerce; the
budding utilitarianism of Tulane University at the turn of
the century and the financial crunch which was ever a part
of Tulane; and the tireless efforts of Morton A. Aldrich
working both in the community and in the university. Although
each of these factors was necessary for the founding of the
college, none was sufficient alone. This does not detract
from the efforts of Aldrich, who understood, perhaps as no
one else did, that the time had come to start a college of
comaerce.


135
These courses focused, on such topics as differential and in
tegral calculus, matrix algebra, linear programming, axiornatics
(construction of models), and introduction to statistical in-
12
ference. Completing the quantitative foundation was a course
in statistical applications required in the junior year; and a
senior level course entitled, "Quantitative Analysis" which was
described as dealing with the
Application of quantitative methods of
an a. 1 y sis to b u s i n ess p r obi ern s Ob j e c -
tive and quantitative analysis of
alternative business decisions. Prob
ability concepts and distributions,
decision-making under conditions of
uncertainty and certainty. App1ication
of quantitative techniques to inventory
and cost control and capital budgeting
problems. Linea.r programming, integraled
electronic daja processing, and informa
tion theory.
The new, analytical focus of the undergraduate program was
similarly applied to business courses taken in the junior year.
Required courses in economic and financial analysis sought to
provide arenas where quantitative skills could be applied. And,
although not. overtly quantitative, other areas covered in the
iunior year, including industrial relations, marketing, and
production management, were focused upon theoretical and
problem solving pursuits. The entire junior year was aimed at
preparing students to be thoughtful decision makers and problem
solvers.


administrator were quickly recognized by Harris who
appointed him as his assistant. Buchan administered the
Navy V-,12 program throughout the university and was one of
a handful of presidential advisors who fiscally restructured
Tulane. ^
The changing position of the college within the
university was but one of many important changes experienced
during the decade of the forties. Internal changes in the
curricula, students, and faculty of the college came at an
accelerated rate during and after World War II. The college
even changed location during this period, obtaining a long
overdue facility of its own. Although John Dyer, in his
history of Tulane, suggests that the Buchan years (1939-49)
were largely a continuation of the policies and practices
established by Aldrich, closer examination of the college
reveals that although Buchan held Aldrich in great esteem,
he brought about significant changes as dean.
Although the stated aim of the college remained
unchanged throughout the forties, the program established
to realize that aim was revised extensively. The most
important changes in the college were its increasingly
formalized organization into divisions; the development
of a new research division (May, 1940) ; the establishment
of a graduate division (May, 1940); the revision of the
undergraduate program; the development of special programs
(most of which were connected with the war effort); the


136
The senior year of the program focused on the fundamentals
of management and the application of analytical and communica
tion skills to simulated business situations. The theories and
processes of management were presented including the history of
management thought, managerial functions, decision processes,
human relations, management science, and organization theory.
Subsequently, management simulation was conducted utilizing the
case method and business games. In these classes, students
assumed the role of an executive of a corporation in competition
with other corporations for existence in a common market. Such
variables as market conditions and long-term business trends
were introduced through the use of a recently acquired elec-
. 14
tronic computer.
The four-year undergraduate curriculum was crowded with
one hundred and forty-four semester hours of course-work. It
reflected the schools ambitious objective of providing both a
liberal education and rigorous analytical and theoretical
training. The school's bulletin warned students that they
would find the program "a rigorous intellectual adventure
[which] challenges students to think independently, to study
] t;
extensively, and to gain professional competence."' This was
tantamount to a declaration that the day of easy business
courses and programs was over.
The school's efforts to meet the demands of a truly pro
fessional program of business education were increasingly


CHA
PTER IV
A DECADE
OF CHANGE:
THE BUCHAN
YEARS,
1939-1949
he College
of Commerce
was viewed
as the
most vocation
ally oriented college at Tul ane. Its faculty and students
continued to be discredited by the rest of the university as
overly concerned with job preparation. And the business
curriculum was judged to be unworthy of university status.
When combined with a decentralized fiscal organization which
placed colleges in direct competition with one another, the
low status of the college resulted in its isolation within
the university. Very few people at Tulane knew or cared about
what was happening in the college. For its part, the college
withdrew from participation in university affairs.
The isolation and low status of the College of Commerce
changed during the forties. This was caused by three important
and interrelated factors: the efforts of President Harris to
unify Tulane and create a modern university; the efforts of
Leslie J. Buchan, the newly appointed dean of the college, to
modernize its curriculum and bring it into a closer working
relationship with the rest of Tulane; and, the impact of
World War 11 upon the organization of the university.
President Harris knew very little about the internal
affairs of the College of Commerce. He knew it was popular,
both among vocationally oriented students and among local
businessmen. He also knew that it was isolated from and
thought to be inferior to the rest of the university. What.


NOTES
1Robert W. French, private interview, Birmingham,
Alabama, June 30, 1973; Rufus C, Harris, private interview,
Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973,
?
Rufus C. Harris, private interview, op. cit.
3
Paul V. Grambsch, private interview, Atlanta,
Georgia, August 4, 1973,
Robert A. Gordon and James Edwin Howell, Higher
Education For Business (New York: Columbia University
Press, 1959J7 P. 21.
5
Paul V, Grambsch, private interview, op. cit.
'pal V. Grambsch, James W. Sweeney, Louis H. Jordon,
and Donald M. Halley, "Report of the Special Committee on
School Development," April 15, 1957.
/
'Ibid,, pp
;-6.
o
Bulletin of Tulane University of Louisiana (School
of Business dministratiri), Series 60, Number 16,
December 15, 1959, p. 32.
9
P a u 1 V. G r amb s c h
Memorandum to President Rufus C
Harris," April 5, 1956. This memorandum, outlining Grambsch*s
plans for the school, accurately foretells many of the
curricular changes which the "Special Committee on Development"
proposed
and the
101 bid.,
11Ibid.
p. 4 5.
^ 2Bui let.
Although
descript
13t} ,
Ibid.,
the cou
ion did
p. 14.
14-n ,
I b i d ,
15 Ibid.,
a full course
148


of young men and women for a business career.
16
An important part of the college's development during this
period was the recruitment of faculty. Although the years be
tween the wars did not witness a substantial increase in the
number of faculty, there was a. slow process of replacing tempo
rary and part-time faculty with permanent, full-time instructors.
More than any other aspect of the college, the development of
the faculty was the product of Aldrich's efforts. Because of
the autonomy enjoyed by the college and the fact that faculty
search committees were not yet used within the college, faculty
recruitment was completely at the discretion of Aldrich. There
were at least three general directions into which Aldrich could
proceed in faculty development: first, he could recruit a
highly specialized and trained (doctoral) faculty whose major
focus would be upon research and specialized teaching; second,
he could recruit generalists who had university training (espe
cially at the graduate level), some business experience, and a
willingness and ability to teach undergraduates; and, third, he
could retain essentially what he already had, a number of local
businessmen, part-time instructors from another college in the
university, and an occasional full-time instructor. Although
the choices were perhaps not as clear-cut as described, these
were the options generally available to most developers of
collegiate business programs in America during this period.x'
Basically, the decisions to be made involved a process of


138
Tulane. These weaknesses were well understood by Grambsch who
had seen the program suffer from lack of direction and faculty
19
support, meager funding, and inadequate courses. This
resulted in a program which could not attract students in
sufficient numbers or quality. (See above, pp. 116-118.)
The new graduate program, like the undergraduate program,
emphasized managerial functions and decision making. Although
it was offered to students who had prior business training or
no business training at all, students with a liberal under
graduate background were seen as gaining the greatest advantage
20
for the program. For those with no prior business training,
the program consisted of two years of study. The first year
required thirty semester hours of 500 level courses (graduate
or undergraduate credit) distributed in the following manner:
Accounting (three semester hours); Economics (six semester
hours); Finance (three semester hours); Marketing (three
semester hours); Organization Theory (three semester hours);
Production Management (three semester hours); and Quantitative
21
Analysis (six semester hours). Students entering the program
with prior business training could waive all or part of this
work. The second year, taken by all students, was built upon
the foundation of professional courses and consisted of twenty-
four semester hours in administration, including Administra
tive Policy, Managerial Economics, Analysis of Business Condi
tions and Business and Society (three semester hours each);
s IX


101
60
collection. Construction on the Norman Mayer Memorial began
in 1940 and was completed by February of 1942. Library con
struction was delayed because of a shortage of materials
occassioned by the war. After the war, the money available
to build the library was insufficient, and it. was agreed that
an addition to the original structure would meet the terms of
61
Mrs. Mayer's bequest. This construction began in 1947 and
on May 1.1, 1949, the entire structure was dedicated. Speakers
at the dedication ceremonies focused their remarks upon the
close relationship of the college to the local business com
munity and upon the increasingly important role of university
level business training. Utilitarian ideas about the func-
62
tion of a university in society echoed in the halls.
The new building was a monument to the college's success.
The popularity which had enabled it to remain financially
viable and independent of Tulane during the Aldrich years,
was now so great that the college became a source of revenue
63
for the university. The decade of Buchan's tenure as dean
witnessed an almost five-fold increase in the college's
annual budget. More importantly, the net income of*the col
lege from 1939 until 1949 was in excess of three hundred and
64
fifty thousand dollars. These monies went into the uni
versity coffers. Given the perennial financial crises of
Tulane, and the fact that most colleges operated on a
deficit, the College of Commerce was indeed an asset to the
university.


Three forms of support were suggested as a result of
this meeting. The first was an expanded guarantee to under
write the expenses of the college-- that is, more Guarantors
promising more money to support its operation. Second, those
who could afford it, could offer a minimum, one thousand
dollar donation as the beginning of a permanent endowment for
the college. Finally, special endowments for a professorship
or course of study would be actively sought.
The first of these three suggestions realized the
greatest success--in all, 222 Guarantors agreed to underwrite
29
the expenses of the college for three additional years.
This tripled the financial base of the college. In addition,
four one'thousand dollar gifts were received, but no pro
fessorship was supported. Courses had been partially sub
sidized for the first three years. This type of support was
continued. Thus, thanks to the business community that had
created it, the college s future was secured at a higher rate
of support for three additional years. These Guarantors,
added to the excellent tuition receipts from the night stu
dents, managed to keep the college fiscally viable. It was
generally known that during this period the night program,
in effect, subsidized the day course.
Perhaps the final consideration of the college's early
development is that of the impact of World War I. It has
already been shown that the war precipitated the demand for
the college. It has also been suggested that the war was


2 4
17
Robert H. Wiebe, Businessmen and Re form: A Study of
the Progressive Movement (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1962),
p. 121
18
tin:
Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the
iversity (Chicago: University bF~Chicao Pres?
:ago
the American
iss, 1965),
pp. 1-259.
19
Robert L. Church, "Economists As Experts: The Rise
of An Academic Profession in the United States. 1870-1929,"
in The University in Society, Vo1. II, ed. by Lawrence
Stone (Princeton, .J.: Princeton University Press, 1974),
op. 571-609.
20
Veysey, Emergence of the American University, p. 90.
21
John P. Dyer, Tulane: The Biography of A University
(New York: Harper § Row, 1966), pp. 8-37.
J. D. B. DeBcw, DeBow's Review (New Orleans, Louisiana
J. D, B. DeBow, Publisher), Volume
pp. 228-229.
2 3
Dyer, Tulane, p
24
.. 30 2.
Ibid., pp. 322-
324.
2 5
Ibid., pp, 179.
26
Ibid., pp. 172-
174 .
to
Reports of The
P v e s i d e n t
Volume I, September 14,
1914, pp.
2 8
Donald Halley (faculty member of the college), private
interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1975.
29
Ibid. Halley recalled that Aldrich often referred to
his experiences at Harvard. On occasion Aldrich would refer
to essays he had written as a student there.
30
Edward A. Ross, Seventy Years of It; An Autobiography
(New York: Appleton-Century Co.., 1936), p. 78.
31
Veysey, Emergence of the American University,
pp, 72-76.
O.i
Dyer, Tulane, p. 107
)
Ibid.


134
mainly with the general pedagogical
Every course, he believed, "must be
coverage and of such rigor that it
general education, as well as to hi
attitude of the faculty,
sufficiently broad in its
contributes to the students
i ,,10
s business education.

In addition to broadening the scope of its undergraduate
business courses, the school attempted to alter their intellec
tual content. Grambsch viewed these courses as overly con
cerned with describing current business practices and with
presenting factual information to be memorized by the student.
Once again, the concern with vocationalism surfaced--such
courses might prepare a student for his first job, but they
were seen as inadequate preparation for a career in professional
management. Business professionals were basically viewed as
managers, that is, decision makers, problem solvers, and or
ganizers. Increasingly, business was viewed as a science which
called for rigorous quantitative analysis of complex variables.
Thus, Grambsch wanted to replace these narrowly focused, de
scriptive courses with ones which would provide students with
the analytical skills necessary to solve business problems.1'*'
Grambsch believed that the foundation for these analytical
skills was higher mathematics.
The traditional business math
ematics courses, were replaced with a required two-course
sequence in college mathematics (algebra, geometry, and trigo
nometry) offered by the mathematics department of the university.
In addition, two courses in advanced mathemetics were required.


College, acting director of maintenance for the university,
and secretary of the American Association of Collegiate
67
Schools of Business.
These positions, especially as dean and assistant to the
president, called for Buchan to formulate and implement new
policies which centralized authority at Tulane. These poli
cies were difficult for some to accept, and because Buchan
3
was rarely diplomatic, conflicts arose. L The work, the
pressure, and the persistent conflicts led Buchan to attempt
to disengage himself from the affairs of the university and
to focus his attention on the college. When his attempts met
with, only partial success, Buchan decided to leave Tulane
altogether. He accepted an offer to administer the fiscal
affairs of Washington University in St. Louis beginning in
July of 1949.69
The forties were indeed a decade of change for the
college. Its growth and improved status in the university,
the standardization and modernization of its curricula, and
the preliminary development of new and promising programs
marked significant advances. Yet, much remained to be done.
The graduate and research divisions, for example, needed
additional attention and financial support in order to de
velop more substantial offerings. Also, the programs of the
college and the activities of its faculty needed to be more
effectively promoted in the region. As the decade closed,
the college changed deans and was once again confronted with


58
oped. Everyone-- faculty, students, and staff--made sacrifices
24
and adjustments to meet the austere conditions.
An examination of the evening program reveals that no
formal or systematically arranged curriculum was offered. Stu
dents enrolled in the evening division selected from a "Schedule
of Night Courses," those offerings which were of interest or
use to them. Satisfactory completion of any course was noted
in a written statement given to the student. Successful comple
tion of eight courses entitled the student to a certificate
25
issued by the college. Although certain evening courses
could be counted toward a degree, the evening division did not
offer a B.B.A.
In 1919-20, there were twenty-two night courses offered by
the college. This number was twice that of the courses offered
to day students. The night schedule included a number of more
general and traditional courses such as Accounting, Advertising,
Business Correspondence, Business English, and Commercial Law.
Also included were courses more narrowly focused upon local
needs and interests such as The Marketing of Cotton and Life
Insurance Salesmanship. Finally, reflecting post-war economic
concerns, was a course offered by Aldrich entitled Business
26
Economics and Readjustment After the War. All of these courses
were taught in the Association of Commerce in downtown New
Orleans, and they were, with few exceptions, taught by local
27
businessmen and other part-time lecturers.


head of the Department of Spanish at Tulane, taught Commercial
Spanish. Fridays were reserved for special informal talks open
2
to both students and the general public.
Once the facility, curriculum, schedule, and faculty had
been decided upon, the final task was to recruit students.
This was accomplished in two ways. First, numerous articles
appeared in all of the local daily newspapers. These articles
generally chronicled the progress of the developing program
of the college, Course descriptions and instructors quali
fications were published. Also discussed were the great
benefits one could gain by attending the evening sessions.
The second recruiting tactic was a continuation of the methods
used to establish the college. Local business leaders encouraged
participation by enrolling in the courses themselves,
thereby offering students an opportunity to work with successful
businessmen. It was suggested in the newspapers that these
business leaders might hire promising students in the various
courses. Local businessmen went even further by encouraging
their own employees to take advantage of the opportunities which
3
the new college afforded.
Admissions requirements were minimal, with men twenty-
one years of age or over having only to give ... evidence
4
of their ability to profit by the course. ..." Men under
twenty-one were required to satisfy the usual university entrance
requirements. Juniors and seniors in other colleges of the
university were encouraged to enroll. These students


tunity to develop a program of national stature.
Also the
14
university was large, state-supported, and situated in a
rapidly developing industrial and financial urban complex.
Finally, as the father of eight children, the housing market
and public schools of Minneapolis were very attractive.46
In many ways, Grambsch helped to realize the image which
French had created for the school. The new undergraduate and
graduate curricula were representative of those recommended by
the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business and
national task forces which had studied collegiate business
47
education, His acquisition o: the computer center and the
Ford Foundation grant brought both recognition and substantial
changes to the school. Grambsch left the school feeling that
it was finally on its way to realizing a pre-eminent position
4 8
in higher education for business in the South.


126
or Buchan. In 1954, at the request of the Tulane Board of Ad
ministrators French became involved in the financial develop
ment program of the university. He began to promote the uni-
51
versity as he had promoted the college." The timing of his
resignation depended upon the readiness of the associate dean,
Paul V. Grambsch, to assume leadership.J In 1955 when
Grambsch completed his doctoral training and could devote his
full energies to the college, French resigned to assume his
university development duties full-time. French remained in
that position for only a brief period before assuming the
g 7
Directorship of the Port of New Orleans in 1956."'' The college
and the university lost French to the community which he had
been hired to bring them close to.


34Scrapbook of Morton A, Aldrich (in possession of his
daughterMrs. Elizabeth Bridgeman, New Orleans, Louisiana).
The book contained clippings of newspaper articles which
welcomed Aldrich to the community. These articles noted
that the city and university were fortunate to have attracted
a man with Aldrichs training and experience.
3$New Orleans Times Picayune, March, 1902.
3 61)ye r s xu 1 ane pp 12 9 -13 0 .
3f7Scrapbook of Morton A. Aldrich, ibid. It contained
a printed brocFure on the Tulane Society oT Economics.
38 lb id.
39;New Orleans Times - Picayune August 12, 1912 .
40Ibid., September 14, 1912.
4*E. Davis McCutcheon (first graduate of the College of
Commerce), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana,
June
20, 1973.
June
4LMinu t e s, New Orle ans
i77T9xr;"p. 4.
Associalion
of Commerce,
43 Ibid.
44New Orleans States,
December 31 ,
1913.
45Ibid.
4^Minutes, N ew 0r1e ans
Association
of Commerce,
January" 1914, p. 2.
47Estelle F. Ward, The Story of Northwestern University
(New York: Dodd, Mead, arid Company, 1.924J p. 3T8.
^Minutes, Board of Administrators of the Tulane
Educational Fund, August 13, 1913.


CHAPTER III
FREEDOM AND FORMALIZATION: THE COLLEGE, 1919-1939
The college became permanently established as America em
barked upon the period commonly referred to as the years between
the wars. These years, encompassing the decades of the twenties
and thirties, were marked by both continuity and change within
the college. Continuity was provided by Aldrich who remained
dean until 1939. The changes evident during the period reflect
the gradual realization of Aldrich's plans. Changes in terms
of the students, faculty, and curriculum of the college re
sulted, more often than not, from Aldrich's attempts to imple
ment his program in the existing university and business
settings,
Pioneering programs in collegiate business education, in
the early stages of their development, experienced great, dif-
ficulty in establishing clear and consistent aims or purposes.x
The stated aim of the college, . to offer substantial
professional training preparing for a business career," was
developed at the time of its founding and remained virtually
unchanged throughout Aldrichs twenty-five year term as dean."
That there was no substantial change in the "Aim and Policy"
of the college for a quarter century can be understood as in
dicating that this section of the bulletin was either a vague
and innocuous statement which no one seriously considered
(this is common in such publications), or that the statement


149
lo
Paul V. Grambsch, et al. "Report of the Special
Committee on School Development," April 15, 1957, p. 6.
17T, ,
Ibid.
18Tt ,
Ibid.
19
Paul V. Grambsch, private interview, op. cit.
2 0
Bulletin of Tulane University of Louisiana,
Series 59, Number 15, December 1. 1958, p. 12.
21,.
ibid,, p, 22
? ?
I b i d
2 o t i.
b i d
24.,
Ibid,
2 5
Ibid,, p
26,
.2.
Paul V. Grambsch, private interview, op. cit
James W. Sweeney, private interview, Atlanta, Georgia,
August 7, 1973,
2 7
Rufus C. Harris, private interview, op.
t.
2 8
29
James W. Sweeney, private interview, op. cit
Paul V. Grambsch, private interview, op. cit
30T, ,
Ibid.
31,
I bid.
""Report of the Dean of the School of Business
Administration, Tulane University, 1958-59, p. 1.
(hereinafter referred to as "Report of the Dean)
33t, ,
Ibid,
34,
35.
'Report of the Dean,
hid.
op. cit
1959-60, p. 1
36
Robert A, Gordon and James Edwin Howell, Higher
Education For Business (New York: Columbia University
Press,' 1959), pp. 327- 331.


College of Commerce of one of its most popular and financially
successful programs, reaction within the college was minimal.
For one thing, the University College program was unchanged
from the Night Division of the college--the same courses,
41
texts, and instructional staff were used. Also, the full
time day program was strong and the loss of evening revenues
was unimportant in light of the fiscal centralization of
Tulane. The college, for the most part, controlled the Uni
versity College commercial program. This was assured because
Buchan had been named Assistant Director of University Col-
lege.In the years after Buchan, the commercial program of
University College gradually developed courses and personnel
independent of the College of Commerce.
Changes in the colleges program were paralleled by
changes in the faculty during the forties. The number of
full-time faculty, for example, increased from fifteen in
4 3
1939 to twenty-three in 1949. Although a fifty per cent
increase is significant, the college remained small when com
pared to state collegiate business institutions. More impor
tant than the number of faculty members, was their level of
training. Only one member of the full-time faculty in 1.9 39
had received a doctorate. By 1949, however, eleven of the
4 4
twenty-three had completed doctoral training.
The dramatic increase in the level of training of the
full-time faculty resulted, in part, from the incorporation
of the economics department into the college's program. Mem-


73
25
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 20, Number
14, November 1, 191?, p. 2ft.
26
Ibid., p. 26.
2 7
Ibid., pp. 7 9.
28
Bulletin of Tulane University. Series 39, Number
11, August 15, 1938, pp. 6-7.
29
Halley Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews, op. cit.
30
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 39, Number
11, August 15 1938, p. IS.
31
Richard 0. Baumbach, private interview, op. cit.,
R. 0. Simpson, private interview, op. cit. Aldrich apparently
used his class as a forum for any subject. For example, on one
occasion, Aldrich assessed the legal profession by stating that,
"Lawyers are like baboons, the higher they climb up the pole,
the more they show their asses." These remarks were recalled
by his students many years 1ater.
32
Bulletin
November 1, 1319, pp.
of
Is
Tulane
i ~
University,
Series
20,
Number
14,
33
Ibid.
34
Bulletin
of
Tulane
University,
Series
39,
Number
11,
August 15, 1938, pp.
21-
31.
3 5
Ibid., p. 27.
36
Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private interviews,
op. cit.
37
Leverett S. Lyon, Education For Business (Chicago:
University of Chicago, 1922), pp. 348-351.


noticeable. Students and faculty alike expressed concern,
54
but were hopeful that wartime conditions would be temporary.
The wartime and postwar growth of student enrollments
was not, however, disastrous. If the war and G.I. Bill brought
students to the college in unprecedented and almost unman
ageable numbers, it also brought students of greater maturity
and geographic and intellectual diversity. This was espe
cially true of the veterans who poured into the college.
These men brought a maturity and competitive spirit which im
pressed both the faculty and non-veteran student alike. Vet
eran students were serious, diligent, sophisticated, and so
ambitious that the faculty was concerned that they dominated
5 5
the college's student population. Veterans did indeed, for
a while, dominate curricular and extra-curricular activities
as well as the social life of the student body. Seventeen and
b b
eighteen year-old freshmen were no match for the veterans. '
Students of the college became increasingly active in
the university. The liberalized curriculum, especially for
freshmen and sophomores, brought students into direct contact
with the rest of Tulane. Commerce students performed con
sistently well in courses outside of the college and were
increasingly active in every aspect of university life from
fraternities and sororities, to student government and inter-
collegiate athletics.'' This gradually dispelled the notion
that commerce students were academically backward and pre
occupied with vocational concerns. And, the waning intimacy


16
33
greatest manufacturing cities. . ." Alderman needed a
man to carry this message to every corner of the business
communitv.
Aldrich assumed duties as Assistant Professor of
Economics and Sociology in the College of Arts and Sciences
34
in 1901. Almost immediately, he began working, both in
the university and the community, for the establishment of
business training at Tulane. In his classes arid in public
lectures, Aldrich pleaded the case of utilitarian education
and the establishment of a college of commerce. In 1902,
for example, the New Orleans Times Picayune published a
public lecture by Aldrich in which he stated, "Education is
anything that fits a man for a place in his community. . .
In New Orleans, it is unfortunate that so many businessmen
come from the North and from abroad. We are glad to have
them, to be sure, but would it not be more satisfactory if we
could educate Louisianians to become leaders to a greater
35
extent?"
On campus, Aldrich preached his message to anyone who
would listen. His students were fairly easily converted.
Likewise, President Alderman and subsequently, in 1904,
President Craighead accepted the notion that a college of
commerce would benefit both the university and the community.
There were, however, stumbling blocks. For one, money was
exceedingly scarce and the university had barely enough to


91
Supply program after completing two semesters of college.
After four semesters of Pre-Supply training, successful stu
dents entered the Navy Supply School which had been established
in the Graduate School of Business at Harvard University.
Students at Tulane who would have entered the V-12 program,
entered the Pre-Supply school instead. At the end of the
1944-45 session, the first and only group of Pre-Supply
trainees graduated, As the war ended, the various emergency
programs which the college had administered for the Navy were
gradually merged into the Tulane Naval Reserve Officers
Training Corps (NROTC).
Aside from war related changes in the college's curric
ulum. three other changes occurred while Buchan was dean.
The first of these changes was really the revitalization of
an old idea--the combined Commerce-Law program. In 1940-41,
Buchan re-established this program in conjunction with the
College of Law. Although the program had failed to generate
interest in the 1920's, Buchan believed that commercial stud
ies provided a good foundation upon which legal training
could be based. The program allowed a student to enter the
College of Law after three years in the College of Commerce.
At the end of his first year in the law college, the student
received a B.B.A., and at the end of his third year, he re-
3 3
ceived a Bachelor of Laws.' To Buchan, the program also
brought the college closer to the rest of the university and
enabled other colleges to see the ... high caliber of


The war brought
which World War II brought to the college.
opportunities to initiate change in some areas and prevented
change in others.
Buchan's inability to drop the four-year curriculum did
not preclude substantial changes within that curriculum. An
analysis of the prescribed curricula of the college from 1939
to 1949 reveals significant changes in the proportion of
courses taken in and out of the college, courses required as
general, business courses, and professional electives. Courses
taken out of the college were taught by the faculty of an
other college while the student was enrolled in the College
of Commerce. General business courses were required courses
in business of a foundational nature which, in current
language, could be called a core curriculum (accounting or
economics, for example). All of these courses were taught
by the college faculty. Professional electives were business
courses which students could select in addition to the re
quired core of general business courses.
From 1939 to 1949, the proportions of these three types
of courses changed dramatically. In 1939, students could
take their entire program within the College of Commerce. 'L
By 1949, students were taking forty-two hours (or thirty-
five per cent of their degree requirements) outside of the
College of Commerce. Some of these courses were required
(mathematics, english, and foreign language) and others were
electives taken, in other colleges.
might be added that


were less able to perform research tasks. Finally, French,
except for his first year as dean, was heavily involved in
affairs outside of the college.''7
Despite the uncertainty caused by American participation
in the Korean War, student enrollment in the college remained
stable during the five years of Frenchs deanship. The average
enrollment for the period remained about 475 students, with
thirty per cent of the students classified as freshmen; sixty
per cent classified, as either sophomores, juniors or seniors;
7 Q
and. ten per cent classified as graduate students. An over
whelming majority of the students were male and about half of
these were involved in one of Tulanes ROTC units. Veterans
of World War II, although accounting for a dwindling percentage
of students, continued to influence both curricular and extra-
59
curricular student activities. '
The College of Commerce, like other colleges of business,
continued to attract students who generally performed poorly
on standardized admissions tests. This was true of freshmen
and beginning graduate students alike. The college continued
to attract students who were mainly interested in a college ed
ucation as preparation for a job. Both the faculty and admin
istration of the college were concerned about these student
4 0
characteristics and attempted to remedy them. Attempts to
improve student quality consisted of increased recruitment
efforts (with a further loss of faculty time) and higher ad-


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Flordia
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE TULANE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION: AN ORAL-INSTITUTIONAL HISTORY
By
J am e s F raneis Fouche'
August 1978
Chairman: Robert R. Sherman
Major Department: Foundations of Education
This study is an oral-institutional history of the
Tulane University Graduate School of Business Administration
from the time it was founded in 1914 through the most recent
completed term of its dean in 1974. Extensive oral testimony
is used because the history of institutions can be only
partially derived from the written record. Oral history, the
collection, analysis, and presentation of historical data
through interviews is especially appropriate for institu
tional history. Interviews can supplement and corroborate
the written records of an institution. They also afford the
historian an opportunity to engage his topic more actively
by questioning those pertinent to the development of an in
stitution.. Among those interviewed as part of this study
were all living deans and selected faculty, staff, and
alumni of the school. Written records were used extensively
xi i


94
for Teachers at Tulane. This program, directed to furthering
the education of in-service teachers and providing a mechanism
to enable students in the College of Arts and Sciences to
obtain, state teacher certification, enjoyed a popularity
among students similar to that of the College of Commerce's
3 S
Night Division. As part of an effort to centralize the
part-time programs at Tulane and to enable business students
to obtain college credit for their work, University College
was organized in the 1942-43 session.
University College, modeled upon a similar college at
Washington University in St. Louis, was so named because it
offered courses selected from various colleges of the
39
university. Its creation enabled Tulane to meet the needs
of those unable to attend a university full-time. Also, by
expanding its continuing or adult education program, Tulane
was able to tap a lucrative educational market and serve
local community needs. This was especially important because
the war had reduced the full-time student population. The
elevation of the evening program to college status gave it
the legitimacy required, to attract students and to pacify
faculty members who shunned part-time college work. Students
could now receive a degree from Tulane by attending part-time.
Instead of a certificate, business students who successfully
completed the prescribed program would be awarded the degree
4 0
of Bachelor of Commercial Science (B.C.S.). "
Although the creation of University College stripped the


137
focused upon graduate education. From the beginning of his
term as dean, Grambsch argued that the school's priorities
should be shifted in the direction of post baccalaureate edu
cation. Once again, the "Special Committee on School Develop
ment" was crucial. In addition to suggesting changes in the
undergraduate program, the committee recommended that the
graduate program be given top priority.^ The committee, in
its report to the faculty, cited numerous reasons for this.
First, it noted the absence of an outstanding graduate school
of business administration in the South, despite the "urgent
1 7
need for such a school." Second, it pointed to the inferior
status which graduate studies had traditionally held in the
school. Third, a graduate program would be housed completely
within the school, rebuilding the esprit de corps which had
characterized the school under Aldrich, and allowing the
school's faculty maximum control over the curriculum. Fourth,
faculty members would teach upper division undergraduate and
graduate courses thus enabling them to develop their particular
specializations further. Finally, graduate business education
was viewed as the new frontier in higher education for business,
and, as the school had pioneered in undergraduate training, it
i 8
should now assume a similar position in graduate training.
Although not an explicit part of its recommendations to
the faculty, the "Special Committee on Development" was very
much aware of the weaknesses of graduate business education at


89
Undergraduate course offerings during this period re
flected the growth of the college and the establishment of a
core of general business courses. From 1939 to 1949, the
total number of undergraduate day courses offered jumped from
forty-seven to seventy-one, while the subject areas dropped
from sixteen to thirteen. More significantly, over seventy-
five per cent of the courses offered in 1949 were offered in
five areas: economics (twenty-one courses); accounting
(fifteen courses); marketing (nine courses); management (five
2 ^
courses); and finance (five courses).
Without, formally announcing the establishment of a core
curriculum of general business courses, the college had de
veloped one both in terms of the required program of study
and the number of courses offered in these subjects. In this
way, the college reflected the national trend toward stan-
7 7
dardization of collegiate business curricula.'" It might, be
added that the development of a core of required general
business courses precluded the growth of narrowly focused
specialization at the undergraduate level. This was con
sistent with the generalist tradition established by Aldrich.
The undergraduate program of the college remained dedicated
to providing students with substantial training in a number
of general business courses, not to training students in a
field of specialization.
In addition to the regular undergraduate curriculum, a
number of special programs were implemented. These programs


30
years of traditional liberal arts training, followed by two
years of professional study, By June of 1915, the program
had been approved by the University Council. The college now
offered a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor
of Business Administration (B.B.A.). At the same meeting,
the University Council approved a program which enabled stu
dents to complete the requirements for both business and law
degrees within a six-year period. The Tul ane College of
Commerce and Business Administration was no longer just a
night school.
Both the full-time B.B.A. Program and the combined
Business and Law Program started slowly. Despite extensive
press coverage of these developments, after five years of
operation, there were only eighty-six full-time students
enrolled. The first graduate of the program, R. Davis
McCutcheon, received his degree in 1918; he was the only
graduate that year. Because of the newness of the college
and a lack of interest in the College of Law, the combined
Business and Law Program failed to attract students. It was
dropped in the early twenties.
One of the more visible changes brought about by the
day program was that admissions requirements for students
Under twenty-one years of age became more precisely delin
eated. In the years from 1915 to 1918, this section of the
Bulletin became increas ingly detalled. E1aborate pre-
scriptions of acceptable high school courses and units



PAGE 1

THH TIJLANH UNIVERSITY Gi^ADUATi; SCiiOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION: AN ORALINSTITUTIONAL HISTORY ny JAMES FRANCIS FOUCiiL A DiSSRRTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNTVLRSITY FLORIDA 19 7 8

PAGE 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge the guidance and assii'itance o£ his supervisory coniTnittee Dr. E. Ashby Hammond aiid Dr. Arthur 0. White. The chairman of this coiiiinittee, iJr. Robert R, SiuTman, has been especially ficlpfui. Dr. Sheriiian has helped the author understand that clarity of expression ard thouglrt are intimately related. At Tiilane University, Mr, Thoiiias h. Hendricks and Mr. Pierre St. Raymond were h e 1 p f u 1 H y w i £ e K a t h y h a s p r o v i d e d s u b s t a n t: i a 1 a s s i s t a n c e as a typist 5 proofreader, and counselor. My son, Jonathan, was often patient and always an inspiration. 11

PAGE 3

FOREWORD J. D. B. OeBow, aprsropriate ly known as the "Magazinist of the Old South,'' came to New Orleans in 1845 for the purpose of starting a neiv coraniercial journal. After a slow and uncertain beginning, QeBow's Review bccaine one of the most comprehensive accounts of ante-bellum Southern life ever published. Reflecting DeBow's interest in fostering the \-.'elfare of the South and West, the Review was aiirted at upholding their policies, defending their rights, developing their resources, and preserving their important statistics."' In lS47j as a part of his efforts to promote Southern life, DeBow attempted to establish a chair of "Commerce, 'Public Economy, and Statistics" at the newly organized University of Louisiana. Located in 'New Orleans, which DeBow once described as the ''efnporitim of boundless wealth," the university, he thought, was uniquely 7 suited to become the first to establi-sh a chair of coniiiierce DeBow not only pioneered the establishment of universitylevel comniercial education, he also suggested what was to become a traditional relationship between schools of comii-erce an 1--' the surrounding cojiinmnity. He was confident that the energies and resources of the local community could be combined to form a 5;trong foundation upon which universitylevel commercial education could be built. In return, the local community could expect to enjoy an "improved character" of 1 1 1

PAGE 4

commercial activity, a well trained pool of ambitious and industrial youth, and the informed counsel of the professor.," Unfortunately, these pioneering efforts; in commercial education were unsuccessful. Despite his tireless efforts at organizing and promoting the professorship and the financial support of a prominent local businessman, DeBow could not generate sufficient interest among students or support among local businessmen. Charles Gayarre, the noted Louisiana historian, described the cominercial professorship as a, ". barren lionor. ... It was a professorship without students, and no ability could have coinmandeu an audience. The time had not yet come when any interest could have been taken in such ,,4 subjects Over fifty years passed before New Orleans had another ojiportunity to cooperate in establishing a university program in, cGinmercial studies. By 1914. the University of Louisiana had been endowed by Paul Tulare, a wealthy cotton broker. It was then reaajiied Tulane University. Although New Orleans had been uninterested in DeBow' s efforts to start a coiTiinercial professorship, by 1914 it was ready to do whatever was necessary to establish collegiatelevel business training. This study is a history of the effort to establish and develop ti'ie College of Commerce and Business Aciminis trat ion at Tulane University, from its beginning in 191^, through the most recent completed term of its dean in 1974. 3. V

PAGE 5

This study is an institutional history. Institutional history is important, for niiich of laodern life is spent m institutional settings. Education in America, to the extent that it has bcea conducted in scliools, is an especially institutionalized activity. Yet, inst it\;t ional history has been accorded a low status among professional histoi'ians because it generally has been poorly conceived, conducted, and written. Too often,, institutional history has become "house" history written by t/iose untrained in historical research and analysis and uninterested in presenting anything beyond an anecdotal account of "great moments" in an institution's past. The history of educational institutions does not account for all such histories, but it has suffered from a substantial number of them. Institutional history offers distinct advantages and disadvantages for research and data management. First, the history focuses upon an institution, thereby providing the researcher with a manageable topic for study. Secondly, modern institutions often collect massive amounts of x^/ritten records which are readily available for study. Both of these advantages, howe\'"erj present potential problems for the historian. The built-in focus of institutional history can become so narrow that the institution is studied without reference to external events. And, although the written records of institutions are important, they also tend to be too narrowly

PAGE 6

focused. Moreover J v.;ritten records reflect oisly part of an institution's past. Since iriStitutions are managed by people,, they have an oral as well as a wri.tteii past, Defi.clencies in the written record can be overcome, at least in part, by using oral information. Thus, this study also is an oral history. Oral history, the gathering of historical information through interviews 4 is especially appropriate for institutional history, interviews can be used to supplement or corroborate the written record of an institution. Interviews also enable the historian to engage hi.s topic more actively by asking questions of those who affected institutions or were affected by tlieiii. The inforiiiation gathered in interviews often is more piersonai and provides insigiits unavailable through written records. Oral accounts enrich the occasionally perfunctory and often self-congratulatory official records of an iiisti tution. To be sure, oral informati.on must be subjected to the saine scrutiny as written information. The oral historian also must guard against focusing too narrowly upon events within the institution. This history of Tulane's College of Commerce and Business Administration is based upon a variety of written and oral information. The written records of the college, including bulletins, reports, minutes of f acuity meetings, correspondence files, and constitutions, were studied. These records were V 1

PAGE 7

supplernented with external sources; newspapers, local business association records, university dociunents, and national studies of collegiate level business education. Ora.l infoivmatiou was gathered by interviev/ing former and present faculty, administrators J staff, students, and alumni of the college. Important figures in other parts of the university and in the local business community also were interviewed. The sixtyyear history of the Tulane University College of Commerce and Business Administration reflects gejneral develojnnents in higher education and business education. Thus, the history of tliis college can be a contribution to, and a speciiTien of, the general history of education. The most pronounced developiiient in American higher education in the twentieth ccntury--the dramatic increase in enrol imerrts-was accompairled by a draruatic movement toward professional training. When America became more sophisticated and influenced by the processes of technological production,, the need for experts and professionals grew at an unprecedented rate. As elementary and secondary schooling had been pressed into services institutions of higher learning were called upon to provide the skills and values needed to meet the demands of society. The liberal arts college, once secure in its isolation from the more mundane aspects of American life, could no loiiger survive ini a society which viewed higher education as vital to social and material success. VI 1

PAGE 8

Calvin. Coolidge, in declaring that "the business of America is business" unwittingly issued a challenge to which institutions o£ liigher learning had to respond. Like so many other fields of activity, the growth of business activity in Anierica called for increased academic and professional training. As one cf the so-called "new professions" (such as engineering, architecture, education, and agriculture), business slowly became accepted as a legitimate part of American higher education. The training of these "new professionals" v,'as largely conducted in public institutions of higher learning, especially after the Morril] Acts of 186 2 and 1890. Private colleges and universities also responded by developing profession,al schools v.'ith increasing vigor, Tulane's development of these schools was encouraged by its benefactors who were themselves men of practi.cal affairs. Tulane's College of Commerce also reflects developments in higher education for business. Its early emphasis on vocational training and its eventual de'velopment of a general business curriculum ivere characteristic of collegiate business training throughout the nation. Similarly, the decision to replace the undergraduate program with an exclusively graduate, professional curriculum mirrored developments in otlier private universities. The issues it faced in terms of its position in the university, its relationship to the local business coiiiinuni ty and the nature of its faculty, students, and V 1 1 1

PAGE 9

courses are, in liiicrocosiri, the same as 'those faced educators across the couBtTy. Yet, the experiences of the college must also be recognized as unique. The people iTuportant to the history of the college, as well as its institutional and community settings, must be understood to portray the college's past accurately ^ and to qualify the application of its experiences to others. This is \vhere the liistoi'v of the Tulane University College of Comrrierce and Business Administration can iiuike its most significant contribution to the history of education it can highlight both the coiDTnon and unique aspects of attenipts to educate by showing what people tried to teach and l-jow they v;ent about it. NOTES ^J. D. B. DeBoWj "The Commercial Review of the South a-ji-d W#st/' in, DeSow's Revle_w, ed. by J. I). B. IJeBov^ (New Otte-ans Lcmisiana: "JTlir'S. DeBow, Publisher!, Volume I, t^\lisber I J June, 1846, pp. 2-6, ""I.bid. Volume III, Number 6, June. 1847, p. 509, "'IMl' ^ PP511-512. 4 ... ,, .^ Charles Gayarre, "James Dunwoody Bro/nson DeBow," f'^:MMV^^l R^i'lew (New Orleans, Louisiana:' J. D, B. DeBow, ^tiBhUf) /"Vol'ume III, Number 6 (After War Series), J UP j^' 1 R 6 7 n ^ n 1 :i. X

PAGE 10

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOREWORD ABSTRACT CHAPTER I A COLLEGE OF COMMERCE FOR NEW ORLEANS THE IDEA AND ITS REALIZATION NOTES ... 11. THE NEXT BEST THING TO CARNIVAL; THE COLLEGE, 1914-1918 NOTES ............ ill. FREEDOM AND FORMALIZATION: THE COLLEGE, 1919-19 39 NOTES •''''••• IV. A DECADE OF CHANGE : THE BUCHAN YEARS, 1939-1949 „ V VT VII VIII NOTES PROJECTING A NEW IMAGE: ROBERT W. FRENCH AS DEAN, 19 49-1955 • NOTES ,......-•REALIZING THE IMAGE: PAUL Y. GRAMBSCH AS DEAN, 1955-1960 NOTES ..... ,..,.. THE MOVE TO GRADUATE EDUCATION: THE DEANSHIPS OF HOWARD SCHALLER AND C. JACKSON GRAYSON, 1960-1968 • • N01"'ES ................ THE MOVE T'O AUTONOMY AND FISCAL SELFSUFFICIENCY; PETER A. FIRMIN AS DEAN, 1968-197<1 NOTES ................ 11 1 1 1 XI 1 1 23 26 4 8 71 7 7 10 5 no 12 7 130 1 4 8 151 170 1 7 4 19 4

PAGE 11

AFTERWORD ..... SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 198 2 06 21 2 X .1

PAGE 12

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council o£ the University of Flordia in. Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of I'loctor of Philosophy THE TULANE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL, OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION: AN ORAL1 NSTITUTIONAL HISTORY By J a ra e s F r a n. c i s F o u c h e August 197 8 Chairman: Robert R. Sherman Major Department: FouTidations of Education This study is an oralinstitutional history of the Tulane University Graduate School of Business Administration from the time it was founded in 1914 through the most recent completed term of its dean in 1974,. Extensive oral testimony is used because the history of institutions can be only partially derived from the written record. Oral history, the collection, analysis, and presentation of historical data through interviews is especially appropriate for institutional history. InterviexMS can supplement and corroborate the written records of an institution. They also afford the historian an opportunity to engage his topic more actively by questioning those pertinent to the development of an institution. AjTiong those intervie'yed as part of this study were all living deans and selected faculty, staff, and alumni of the school Written records were used extensively

PAGE 13

as well. Internal sources such as bulletins reports, meeting minutes ^ self studies and questionnaires -were used. External sources such as newspapers, local business association records, university documents, and national studies of collegiate business education provided for the exaiiiinaticn of the social context in vvhich the school functioned. These sources suggested that the developTTient of the business school at Tulane reflected many developments in higher education for business in Amei'ica. Tiilane University, a traditional liberal arts Institution, was persuaded to start a college of coiiimerce by business and civic leaders in New Orleans,, The college was dominated by its dean, Morton A. Aldrich, from 1914 until 1939. Aldrich, a prototype utilitarian refoniier in higher education, developed the college into one of the most popular colleges at Tulane. Because many inembers of the university community looked with d i 5 f a V r u p o n w h a. t t h e y p e r c e i './ e d as m e r e v o c a t i o n a 1 t r a i n i n g the college became isolated within the university. The two decades following Aldrich 's years as dean were marked by significant changes in the college's curriculum and relationship with the university and local business coinniuniti es During this time, the college moved into the riiainstream of American higher education for business. The rate of change in the college accelerated during the sixties and seventies. It replaced the traditional Xill

PAGE 14

sequence of business courses v/ith a ciirriculiini focused on the quantification of iRakiiig decisions and the use of electronic computers in the m.&r-.a.gement of business.. The school hs tea,chii:tg and research methods were among the nicst advanced in the natJ.oTi. Its connnitment to offer a sophisticated professional program led to the decisj.on to abandon its undergraduate prograir! in the Hiiddle of the nineteen sixties. These changes have had a. profound impact on the school's relationship to the business community. The school is presently closer to the business coniinunity than at any period since the time it was started. This has resulted from the school's need to support itself financially, and the recognition that its educational program needs the coTTiinunity it serves,, The history of the Graduate School of Business Adini.-nistratiOJi at Tulane University is a speci^rien of the general history of education. The dramatic growth of higher education in America in the t\ventieth century has resulted, to a large extent, from the prof essional i zation of American culture. The power of universities to legitinn.ze virtually any human endeavor has been well documented. Where businessmen were once trained in the business world, they are today trained in universities. The "schooling" of A-merican businessmen is but One example of the "schooling" of Airierican society. Examination of this phenomenon reveals that schools were changed profoundly when society turned to them,. This study suggests Xl.V"

PAGE 15

that the changes produced by the increasing intimacy of schools and society are among the most important devslopments in the Is i story of education. rv

PAGE 16

CHAPTER I A COLLEGE OF COMMERCE FOR NEW ORLEANS THE IDEA AND ITS REALIZATION The Nevj Orleans Association of Commerce was a busy place in the fall o£ 1914. The Association, dedicated, to the proEiotiori of the "Civic, Industrial, Commercial, and General Welfare" o£ the city, was keenly av/are of coinmercial isiplications of the "European" -war. The war had isolated European industrial centers frojn raw material suppliers in Central and South America. This circumstance was seen as providing the opportunity by which New Orleans could realize her full potential as a comTiierci.al center. Thus could the Association's Journal state that New Orleans has a "feeling today that she is being wafted on the wings of destiny. She has quite suddenly discovered that a rich prize has been deserted at lier doorsteps; that a trade worth hundreds of millions is hers it she will but reach out and seize it." That America had been unable to develop a lucrative South Atnerican trade was a problem which the war could remedy. Now the newly completed Isthmian Canal could be used by Americans to "get at" the western side of South America. The position of New Orleans in the new order was thought to be clear-— she w^as ideally situated between the big exporting and manufactur' ing cities of the Midwest and the raw jiiaterial suppliers of South and Central .Ajnerica," New Orleans, it was believed, could ill afford to let this opportunity pass her by.

PAGE 17

Throughout September and October of 1914, actions vere talcen. by the Association to assure the city of its share of the benefits. A delegation of civic and comffiercial leaders, headed by Mayor Martin Berhman, \vas seirt to Chicago to effect an alliance vjith the large industrial cities of the Midivest for the new trade conquest o£ Latin America. At the same time, a "floating expo" \\fas planned in which American merchants and manufacturers would embark on a seventy-five day cruise to dozens of Latin American ports in order to "display to the best advantage the wide variety of sample commodities." Finally, numerous committees were established by the Association to study and solve such problems as international shipping, banking, and finance. The Associatj.on was determined that Neiv Orleans ivould not be left out of v/hat it perceived to be a new era of commercial prosperity. The business community of Ne^v Orleans v?as not going to face its competitors without adequate preparation. On October 19, 1914, the Association's activities were extended into tlie evening hours. At eight o'clock on that evenj.ng, Ralph J. Schv/arz conducted t]i.e first class at the newly organized College of Commerce and Business Administration of li-ilane University. The new college, founded at the behest of the Association, was financially underwritten by a group of two hundred local business and civic leaders. Since its reorganization in 1913, the Association of Commerce had tried to forge a workable union of the theoretical and the practical-helping to found the College of Commerce was the most obvious

PAGE 18

result of this effort. Thus, in 1914 ^ niany of the business leaders of New Orleans turned to collegiate business training in order to prepare for the challenges before them. To b<= eginj we must note that although there are ways in which the college was unique in i.ts founding and early development, tliere are numerous important Vifays in v/hi ch the Tulane experience in coimnercial training was part of a national or international movement in higlier education for business. This movement, which began in 1881 with the founding of tii^e Wharton School at the University of Pennys ] vania was characterized by an early period of slow growth in which onlv seven collegiate schools of business had been organized A i by the dawn of the twentieth century. By 193 0, twelve additional institutions had been organized and by 1915, twentyone additional institutions had been established. After 1915, tlie movement of universities into professional commercial training "took off" to the extent that by 1925, at least one hundred and eighty-three collegiate departments, scliools, or divisions of business or commercial training had been 5 established. Indeed, collegiate business education grew so rapidly in terms of programs and students, that leading educators feared it niiglot suffer froni a haphazard growth in which faculty and curriculum development might suffer. Business educators soon found themselves protesting that collegiate 6 business training was not a mere fad in academic circles.

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Coll.egio.te Tjrograms in business training grew because of the demands of businessmen who beiieved for a Tiuinber o£ reasons, that business training could no longer be conducted the vi/ay it had been for years. In the past, single owner proprietorships and partnerships were not scientifically managed, and business training was best received on the job. American business practices, however, changed dramatically in the last decades of the nineteenth century. These changes, for the most part; were evidence of a revolution in business organization and activity. American business was increasingly conducted on a niass scale and was increasingly organized along v/hat has come to be hnown a,s corporate-bureaucratic lines complete with specialists and experts in Tuany phases of its operation. Collegiate level business training was unnecessary until these changes were experienced by American business leaders. Also, when the inanagerial executive could no longer pass his position on to his son, he had to get his son an education. Collegiate level business training proved to be increasingly useful in securing a successful future in q American business,. The business community of New Orleans, for the most part^ believed that these changes in the scale and organization of business affected tjiehr affairs just as powerfully as they affected the business affairs of Now York or Chicago. Their response to these perceived changes, like the response of businessmen througb.out urban America, was to call for and support higher education for business. For about a year

PAGE 20

preceding the October, 1914, founding of the college, periodic editorials and feature articles in the three major newspapers of the citv detailed the benefits which New Orleans and the South could expect to accrue from such an institution. I'hese articles generally focused upon the inadequacies of apprentice ship training, the belief that the traditional European hegemony in Latin American trade was the result of widespreaxi training in the "science of commerce," and upon the fact that most major nrogressive cities already had collegiate level 10 business training. This training vras believed to have become available at a most opportune time, just when New Orleans faced the challeni^e of taking over the lucrative commercial activities of Latin America. Yet another argument, similarly geared to the situation of New Orleans, was that most of the youth of the ity, regardless of their training, generally ended up in soms '* 1 T h u s J a c o lie g e wh i c h w o u 1 d. t y p e o i" c o mm e r c i a 1 a c 1 1 v 1 1 y train them in the theory and practice of financial and commercial life seemed eminently reasonable and inestimably valuable to New Orleans and the South. An important aspect of all this concern for collegiatelevel business education can be described best as "boostcrism." Simply put, the local business community believed that a city of greatness must have institutions of higher learning which compared favorably with other cities. New Orleans was constantly compared in the popular press with New York, Chicago, St. Louis, and any other city with which it might

PAGE 21

compete for commercial, financial, or civic prestige. Numerous references x^ere made to cities "half our size" which had flourishing commercial education programs housed i n u n i v e r sit i e 5 -^ "^ In sum, from the perspective of the local husiness comTiiunitVj the founding of collegiate level commercial education in New Orleans was similar to the experiences of other cities in America,,, Perceived changes in the scale and organization of business activities, increased specialization of business life with concoFiTnitant increases in hureaucratization and professionalization, and the increased faith in science to meet the co^iiplex challenges presented by modern urban societywere taken as established irreversible facts. Another consideration was the burgeoning Latin American trade, just waiting to be picked up. These circumstances, combined with calls from all fronts for "efficiency" and social progress pointed in one direction -universitylevel training for business -^-^ Anridst the hue and cry for collegiate-level business education within the business community of New Orleans ^ there were those who had doubts about its worth and necessity, These men believed that much of the business conducted in New Orleans was not yet of sufficient size or sophisticati.oii to warrant university level training, They believed that practical experience remained adequate to prepare businessmen. These men were joined by the operators of private business colleges ftdvo were concerned that a business training program at Tulane might severely interfere with, their programs. Conservative

PAGE 22

businessmen were generally ridiculed in the press as archaic relics of a by-o,orie era ("a cartoon in the New Orleans Item 14"^' depicted them as perishing in the face of the college) In order to appease the operatx)TS of pri'cate basiness colleges J newspaper articles stated that "the new college" is not intended to corfi])Cte with but to supnlement the work offered 15 by existing business colleges.'' The new college would offer s u b j e c t s e m h r a c i n g p r o b 1 e in s a r i s i n 2 f i' o ni t h e vv i d e r c o mp 1 i c a t e d 16 t r a n s a c t i o n s a. n t h e c o mm e r c i a 1 w o r Id," Per h a p s rn o s t importantly, training for business pursuits was compared with that of those entering the fields of medicine, law, or engineering. Business 'was too important to be left to either practical experience or private business colleges; it must be studied at a university. The future coirimerci.a 1 success of New Orleans find been tied to the establishment of the Tulane College of Coininerce and Business Adiviini s trat ion By 19] 4, the American universi.ty had emerged in its modern form and had unquestioned authority to legitimize any 17 pj-oi'essional activity. Although universities defy simple categorization, three general reforBi moveTnents of the period have been suggested: research, liberal culture, and utility. The researcJi moveiiient emphasized scientific investigation and specialized study conducted at the post-baccalaureate level. Although this moveTiient received its strongest support among faculties in the physical and biological sciences, social sciences such as history (especially as studied in doctoral nroeramsl were strongly influenced by the research movement.

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8 The moveiiient to liberal culture, on the other hand, focused on educating students in the so-called "huiruuiit ies" with an emphasis on the methods and content of cla.ssical thought. The movement to utility sought to focus university study on t h e s c i e t y i n w h i c h it op e r a t e d F a. c u 1 1 i e s i n t he d e v e 1 o p Ing professional schools supported academic utility. Proponents of academic utility were often caught hetiween supporters of liberal culture v;ho accused theia of being preoccupied with job preparation (yocationalisTiu and practitioners who believed that they were too academically oriented '-^ Considernble effort was expended on behalf of these movements to assure that each v
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9 narrowly defined research, swept through all Amerixan higher education gathering follcu/ers in every academic discipline. These niOYeraents moreover, do not make un mutually exclusive c a t e g r i e s P i cnee r i n g e c o n o rn i r-1 s f o r e x a nvp 1 e e x p r e s s e d a. desire to "liiake a difference;." that is, to be useful. As econoiTiics forrried into a discipline, it tended to become more "scientific,''' that is, ynore quantitative, theoretical, and researcli oriented. Econornists felt that the best way for them to be useful was to become scientific "experts" who consulted with the nation's leaders in an effort to direct economic policy, ^-^=^ Thus, arrsong economists, utility and research were effectively C()-rrd)ined, With few exceptions, university level business training developed in America as a part of the utility movement for reform in higher education. Proponents of this viev^ wanted to integrate university life with "everyday'' or "real" life. They also tended to view higher education as a primary agent in the democratization of America, This movement to utility grew strongest in the last few decades of the twentieth century. Among the greatest leaders of the m.ovement were .Andrew D. V/hite of Cornell University and Charles W, Eliot of Harvard, Eliot, who championed the creation of the Harvard Business School said that "there is no danger in any part of the university that too maich attention will be paid to the sciences ordinarily

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10 supposed to have useful applications.. The problem is to get enough attention paid to them.'"^*^ Eliot was not suggesting that uni'versities get iiivolved in vocational training, but that they raise practical pursuits to a higher plane. The delicate balance between vocationalisn; and hii^her level utility proA'X-d to be one of the most vexatious probleiris for followers of the utility movement in American universities. Another problem was striking an acceptable comproiiiise between training the so-called "generalist" and "specialist." These issxies still haunt professional schools in American universities, Like most major American universities, Tulane could be found to have^ among its faculty, believers in one or more of the three reform movements discussed, above. As elsewhere, fierce ijersonal loyalties de\''eloped and something just short of pitched battles were fought on occasion. The movement which we are most concerned with here is that of utility. Tulane had a strong and longstanding tradition of academic utility. First, it is important to point out that Tulane grew out of the old University of Louisiana vdiich had, as a state institution a strong tradition of useful service --it was, indeed, primarily devoted to legal and medical training."'Also, as early as 1848, J, D. B, DeBov/ had souglit to establish

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11 a commercial professorship because, ''Our un iversity will be sui generis dedicated to the affairs of men, not philosophers, and dedicated to educativig our people in the vital affairs of coiTimerce When Paul Tulane decided to create a university and was convinced to combine his fortune and efforts with the University of Louisiana, he was most concerned that the new institutions be of practical utility. Paul Tulane seemed to embody the essential spirit of the movement to utility when in 1882 he expressed his views as to the nature of education: fost deve s o 1 i r s the woul duci rath By the teriri education, I mean to er such a course of jntcllectual lopuient as shall be useful and of d worth, and not be merely ornamental uperficial. I mean you should adopt course which, as wise and good men, d commend itself to you as being con^ ve to immediate practical benefit, 23 er than theoretical possible advantage Perhaps more than words, the establishment of schools or colleges generally associated with utility, is evidence of Tulane' s commitment to the movement. To its schools of Medicine and Law, Tuiane added Engineering, Architecture, Denti stry and Commerce during tne pe eriod 1895 to 1916. Tulane 's commitment to utility m higher education, although long standing and evidenced in both word and action, was by no means total. The College of Arts and Sciences,

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12 a bastion of liberal cuitirre,, was among the strongest in the university. In addition j graduate training generally expanded during this period. Among the faculty rneinbers in the Arts and Sciences College and the Graduate School were numerous detractors of the iiiovement to utility in higher education. Their views -r-epardin? the foriiiation of a business college 2 5 within the university were often expressed vi tuperatively Universities, hov/ever, rarel)^ run on ideologies alone. If Tulane's commitment to utility in education v^as less than com.plete, its need to survive in the real world vvas rarely if ever, questioned by anyone of any ideological persuasion. We can thus suggest another reason why Tulane eventually decided to create a business college, Tulane had never been a rich school. Despite, and possibly because of its reputation for wealth in the local community, endowments were 26 pitifully small in size and few in number. Aggravating an already bad situation was an extensive proliferation of programs at the turn of the century. Possibly in an effort to placate the demands of the three rival reform movements mentioned above, Tulane had over-extended itself. This was, at least., the conclusion of Abraham Flexner and Wallace Buttrick in a report made to the Tulane Board in 1914. Flexner Mided that the university curtail its and Buttrick rccommen urowth, consolidate and eradicate sever 2 7 seek a subs tan ial general endowment. ral departments, and

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13 The ricxnerButtri ck Report provided vaJid and convincing evidence against the establishment of yet another col lege J the College of Coiiiinerce and Business Adrrjini strat i on But, interestingly, the College of Commerce was being proposed by the vei-y people to whoir. the university v.-as going to have to turn for its endowment. Since Tulane had lost its battle in 190 6 to receive state monies, there were few other possible sources of income. It would have been virtually impossible for the university to ask for substantial support and at the same tifiie refuse to establish a. prograni Vv'hich those supporters felt to be intiiTiately tied with the future growth and prosperity of the city. Tulane could not refuse, but neither could it afford to establish the college on its own. The business community \vanted a new college. And Tulane, with its tradition of utility and its need to secure an adequate endowment, wanted to start one. What was necessary was a catalyst, an agent which could reconcile the needs of both the business cornniunity of New Orleans as well as those of Tulane University. That catal)'st was Morton Arnold .Aldrich. "Doc'' Aldri.ch, like most pioneers in American higher education, defies simple categorization. He graduated summa c urn la_ud,e from Harvard traveled extensively in Asia and Europe, and graduated cum laude with a Ph.D. from the University of !Jalle--in Germany^he was, perhaps, the epitome of a worldly and sophisticated scholar. Yet, one of "Doc's" greatest pleasures was to swap stories with the trappers and

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14 tishermar; near his carnp on the shores of lakes Pontchartrain 2 8 and Maurepas Aldrich prided hiinself on his ability to get along udth just about anyone --a man who was at home in the loftiest of political or economic di.scourse and could likewise trade stories in language which has been described as "colorful." Discussions viith those K'ho knew hirn best reveal him to be a warm man with "rough edges," a man who eschewed the snobbishness of many of Iiis xjrofessional colleagues and, above all, an educator who had an ability to win the respect and adnii I'ation of his students, colleagues, and the local community > Although Aldrich had qualities which compel us to view him as unique, he was also, upon careful study, very much a part of the national kg vera en t to establish collegiate level business education. In many ways, A.ldrich was a prototype of the utilitarian reformer in higher education. The son of a N e itf E n g 1 a n d s ii o e j o b b e r A 1 d r i c h r e c e i v e d h i s A = B d e g r e e from Harvard in 1895 at the age of twenty-one. His training at Harvard J taken during the period of Charles W. Eliot's 2 9 presidency, had a profound impact upon him. After coiiipleting his degree, he traveled to Asia and Europe studying at ^huiich, Berlin, and Halle, taking his Ph.D. in economics from the latter institution in 189 7. From Halle, Aldrich returned to Harvard as a FeJlow in Ficonomics in 1898 and became an Instructor in Economics in 1899, Harvard and

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15 50 Eliot thus got another chance to reinforce Aldrich's uti 1 ita rian trai niag Aldrich left Harvard in 1899 to become Assistant Professor of Economics under Edward A. Ross at Stanford University. After only one year at Stanford, Aldrich resigned because of Ross's dismissal. Ross, an eirinent sociologist, had spoken out on several issues of contemporary concern. These activities offended Mrs. Leland Stanford, and after a series of attempts at reconciliation, Ross was fired. Aldricli v/as convinced that this vvas a case in which Ross's academic freedom had been infringed, and he was the first of several faculty iRcinbers to resign in protest. Concern for academic Lreedom, although not expressed solely by advocates of utility, was certainly one of the hallmarks of the movement. This concern was obviously related to the movement's ideas about tl^e role of higher education in the democratiza31 tion of America. Aldrich's departure from Stanford came barely one month after Edwin Anderson Alderman became president of Tulane. Alderman has been described as a prototype of the modern university presi denta propagandist for education who strove to build enroiliiients impress the business world, and attract 5 2 Tiioney. AlderTiian preached a pospel of industrial growth and develoDincnt to tlie business iiitercsts of the city. New Orleans and Tulane were to be partners in helping the city become i,vhat it is destined to become, one of the world's

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16 33 greatest ynanuf acturing cities. ..." Alderman needed a man to carry this message to every corner of the business coranran:i ty Aldrich assumed duties as Assistant Professor of Economics and Sociology in the College of Arts and Sciences ,5 4 in 1901. Almost ianmediately he began working, both in the university and the community, for the establishment of business training at Tulane. In his classes and in public lectures, Aldrich pleaded the case of utilitarian education and the establishment of a college of commerce. In 1902, for example, the New Orleans Tiiries-Picayune published a public lecture by Aldrich in v,rhich he stated, "Education is anything that fits a man for a place in his community. In New Orleans, it is unfortunate that so many businessmen come from the North and from abroad. We are glad to have them, to be sure, but would it not be more satisfactory if we could educate Louisianians to become leaders to a greater 35 extent?" On campus, Aldrich preached his message to anvGne who would listen. His students were fairly easily converted. Likewise, President Alderman and subsequently, in 1904, President Craighead accepted the notion that a college of commerce would benefit both the university and the community. There were, however, stumbling blocks. For one, money was exceedinplv scarce and the university liad barely enough to

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17 36 i5iai.ntain present programs, much less start new ones. A second obstacle, as formidable as the first, was the general opinion held in the College of Arts and Sciences that conrnercial training did not belong m a university of Tulane's stature. Cominercial training v;as thought to be both intellectually bankrupt and morally reprehensible, Tulane, they fcltj could ill-afford to offer "vocational" training or a program devoted to pecuniary pursuits. Failing to gain adequate support within the university, Aldrich focused his attention upon the business community of New Orleans. In 1909, a1: Aldrich' s initiative, the Tulane Society of Economics was organized. The society, whose expressed aim was to encourage the ., investigation and aiscussion o; economic an d s o c i a 1 s ub j e c t s and e s p e c i a 1 1 y o j industrial and social conditions in the South" counted scores 37 of the sncst proniinent local businessman in its inembership At meetings held during the early years of its existence, ineinbers of the society heard such topics as "The Decadence of the Plantation System" (presented by Ulrich B, Phillips), "Tax Reform in Louisiana," "The Commission Form of Governnient ," "^,n uear ana the Tariff," and "Manufacturing in Neu/ Orleans." Aldrich used these meetings as a forum to iliustrate how economic theory and practice could "make a difference" and to su'a;gest that a colle,f;e of coir.merce would be most beneficial to the community. Later, when the college was organized, it incorporated the soci.ety's offerings into its own program. Th?

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18 founding: of the college also meant that the society was no longer needed as a forum to proTiiote a college o£ commerce. Thus, by 1917, the Tulane Society of Economics ceased to function. In 1912. Aidrich further demonstrated his value to the coiiiniuiiity In association with 0, 0, Provosty, M. H. Carver, and E. H. Farrar (a local attorney and President of the American Bar AssociatioTi) Aldrich drafted a tax reform proposal for the state of Louisiana. In recognizing these efforts, the Louisiana Legislature, in a joint r e s o 1 u t i. o ii c o vvp 1 i m e n t e d t h e s e d i s t i n g u. i s h e d c i t i z e n 3 for their eloquent appeal that Louisiana 'L, put aside an obsolete system of taxation for one that would lead in progressiveness and would quiclven the coming of prosperity to the people of Louisiana J'-^^ One month later, Aldrich 's draft of tlie proposed, tax xeform measure was published, with annotations, as a series of articles in the New Orleans T ime s Demo c tat. ^' ^' Aldrich' s successes in the community apparently gave him renewed hope that Tulane might be persuaded to start a college of commerce. In July of 1912, barely one month before Aldrich received statewide attention for his work on the tax reform ineasu.re, Tulane named Robert Sharp to replace Edwin Craighead as its president. Sharp was confronted with what had become the bane of recent Tulane

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19 presidentsinadequate revenues and no foreseeable future source of theia. Perhaps the new president could be convinced of the wisdom of establishing a college of commerce. iXlurich tried, and his persistent efforts to sell President Sharp on his idea were praised by some as tenacious and 4 1 cursed by others as stubborn. What Aid rich needed was something that he had been cultivating since his arrival in New Orleansthe support of local business leaders. Beginning in the summer of 1913., the support which Aldrich needed began to coalesce around the New Orleans Association of Corniiierce Association President Leon C. SimoR in speaking to the Education Committee of the Association, stated that he had a talk with Professor Aldrich soiaetiirie ago, the gist of which was that, while Tulaiie was an excellent institution in so far as it went, it did not take in the conmercial side of the city, and the consensus of opinion among a number of peotile was that it should have in its curriculum a commercial course for the benefit of students who desired to enter commercial life -^ Simon also told of unsuccessful efforts to get the matter before the Board of Administrators of Tulane University. The Education Committee adjourned after recommending that the Board of Directors of the Association of Commerce address a cc^mmiUM cation to the Tulane Board suggesting that a school 4 3 of commerce be established.

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20 In December, 1913, a letter \vas sent to President Sharp and the Tulane Board which expressed the Association's views about the establishment of the college. In essence, Tulane was a^ted 10 establish a college o£ conimerce. Copies of this 44 letter were published in several local newspapers. Sharp promptly responded to the Association's proposal by revealing his own support of it. He noted, however, that despite the -pressing need for such a program, Tulane was without the means to initiate it. Sharp further stated that, "Unfortunately, the opinion prevails that Tulane is a rich university, and many things are deiiianded of it that are utterly beyond its means." The ball was back in the Association's court, A minor victory had been won. The university now, willingly or unwillingly, accepted the idea of establishing a college of commerce. In addressing the Education Committee of the Association of Commerce, Aldrich stated that heretofore certain members of the Board of Administrators of Tulane University v/ere prone to look upon a College of Commerce with disfavor, but due to the agitation of this matter by the Association of Commerce which clearly demonstrates that it is not only a necessary course at Tulane but was demanded by the businessmen, that opinion was likely to be changed. 46 Aldrich. 's prediction was correct; Tulane was ready. The next move was made by the Association. In the summer of 1914, It called a conference of businessmen to meet and develop a plan, both educational and financial, to be submitted

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21 to the Tulane Board. In addition to Aldrich, Association. President Siiuon, and others, two members of this conference are of particular importance-Paul Havener and Levering Moore. Havener and Moore were both graduates of the College of Corniuerce of Northwestern University, which had been established in 1908,''" With few modifications, the plan used to establish Northwestern's college was adopted by the conference to establish t h e T 111 a n e C o 1 lege of C o mm e r c e T h e p 1 a n c a lied for t h e f o r mat ion of a Board of Guarantors made up of members of the Association of Corainerce the local Society of Certified Public Accountants, and other local busi.nessinen The Board of Guarantors would select officers who would, in turn, enter in.to a contractual agreement wi.th the university. The Guarantors would promise to underu'rite the expenses of the college for a specified number of years. This plan was approved by the conference, submi.tted to both the Association of Commerce and the Louisiana Society of Certified Public Accountants, and subsequently approved hy those bodies. The plan was then submitted to the Tulane Board, which referred it to a special committee. On August 13, 1914, a joint meeting of the Board of Guarantors of the Tulane College of Commerce and Business Administration and the Tulane University Board of Administrators was held. The plan was unanimously approved; the college would open in the fall if the Guarantors contributed five thousand dollars per year for a period of

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three years "... to make good any deficit, if any, caused 4 8 by the operation of the college.'' During a quiet three-week campaign in the late sumiiier of 1914 J one hundred and four Guarantors signed the appropriate contracts, and as a result, the Tulane University College of Commerce and Business Administration v/as established To no one's surprise, one of the Guarantors, Morton A. /vldrich, was n allied Dean The foundii-ig of the College of CoiTimerce and Business Administration of Tulane University resulted from the confluence of three factors: the belief, a.mong leading mcinbers of the New Orleans business community that the future growth and prosperity of the city depended upon the establishment of a university college of commerce; tlie budding utilits.rianism of Tulane University at the turn of the century and the finaincial crunch which was ever a part of Tulane; and the tireless efforts of Morton A. Aldrich working both in the community and in the university. Although each of these factors was necessary for the founding of the college, none was sufficient alone. This does not detract from the efforts of Aldrich, who understood, perhaps as no one else did, that the time had come to start a college of commerce

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NOTES "For I;[ew_ Orleans (Journal of the New Orleans Asso-riation oFTommerce) r'Volime I, Nuraber 13, September, 1914, p. 2. *'^Ibid. '^L. C. Marshall, ed,. The C olleg iate School of '^^-^ess, Its Status at the Close oi the'"'First Q uarte r of the IVentie"t'h Centur)^ "'CChTcagoT "Dniversity oT ClTrcagG Press, r9'2"8)7"pT 4": "'i bi d. ^'Ibid. p. 45. 'Frank C„ Pier son., et al,. TJl? Edu£atio^n of American Bujdnessmen (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959} /pp. 45-50. "^Richard Hofstadter and C. DeWitt Hardy, The Development and Scope of Higher EduCfiti_on i_n the Und_._ted. States XNe~w"ToTkT~ CoTuiir^^^^ Press, 19 5 2), p. 91. ^New Orleans Times P icayune New Orleiuis States, and New Orleans 1 1 em Jane'~1913 November, 1914. passim, (especially editorials) 1 U .1. i!'. '^New Orleans States, Septeiiiber 14, 1914., New Orleans Times -Democrat December 28,, 19ii. ^^Raymond E ., Callahan analyzes the "Efficiency Era" in American' education in Educatj^oji ami the (iult of Efficiency (Chicago: University of ClTicago'Tres"s 1962). Chapters 2, 3, and 9 are especially appropriate, ^ New Orleans Item, September 22, 1914. ''New Orleans Times Picayune October 11, 1914. •'New Orleans Item, October 12, 1914 23

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?/!. 17 Robert H. Wiebe, ^^'-Ir'J il^^JH?" ^^ ^IpISl'UV ^. ^}lJ-}Al. 9.1 the Progressive MoyeTTi_ei.it (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1962), pT'^'lTlT"' '" """" 18 Lavjrence R,. Veysey, The Einer^gence of tjie Arner ican ^ll'llfL^'"rL^tZ fChicafio: University of Chicago Press, 1965), pp': 1^2 59^ 19 Robert L. Church, "Econoiiii s ts As lixperts : The Rise of An Academic Profession in the United States. 1870-1929," in The University in Society, Vol, IT, ed. by Lawrence Stone"''"(PrTncetorC N 7j7V Princeton University Press, 1974), Dp. 5 71-609. 20 Veysey, Eme^rf^ence of the Amej^ican Unj^ver.s i t j p. 90. 21 John P. Dyer, Tultme: Tjie Biograjjh.y of A U^'^iverjbity (New York: Harper' ?| Row," 1966) pp /"'l8-"3 7: ~ "" "" 2 2 J. D. B DeBcw, DeBov/' s Rev:!-ew (New Orleans, Louisiana: J. D. B. DeBow, Publisher)",' ^^'olume "VI I Number 2, August, 1849, pp. 228-229. 2 3 DveTs Tal_aiie p.. 30 2. 2 4 Ibid. pp. 32 2-324 2 5 Ibid. pp, 179. 26 "" Ibid. pp. 172-174 27 Reports of Thjs Presideiito.f Tu lane University, VoluiTie I. September 14, Tgl^/pp." 303'308. 28 Donald Halley (faculty member of the college) private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1973. 29 Ibid. Fialley recalled that Aldrich often referred to his experi"ences at Harvard. On occasion Aldrich would refer to essays he had written as a student there. 30 Edward A. Ross, Seventy Years_ of It; An ^}tohj_o_gTavhv (New York: AppletonCentury Co',., 19 36"), p 7P, dl Veysey, Emergence of t_he Ani e rica n Uruversity pp. 7 2-76. ^ Dye r Tulan e p 10' Ibid.

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25 ^'^Scranbqok of Morton A, Alcirich (in possession of his daughteF7~MrFr''t'li2abeth Bridgeman., New Orleans, Louisiana) The'book contained clippings of riev/spaper articles which Tl 1 J ie s e e articles notea welcomed Aldrich to the comrnunity that the city and university -ivere fortunate to have attracted a in a n w i t h A 1 d r :i. c h ;-•; t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i. e n c e 3'>New Oi leans Times -Picayune March, 1902. ^^Dycr, Tulane, pp. 129-130. 37scraj)book of Morton A. Aldrich, ibid. It contained a printe'ir'TirocHure on the Tulane Society oT Econoffiics 38ib.i.d_. 39New Orleans Times_-P_icayi!ne August 12, 1912. 40iM^a.^ September 14, 1912,, "^^E. Davis McCutcheon (first graduate of the College of Commerce), private interview. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2 0,, 1973. ^ '^Minu/tes New Orleans Association of Comiiierce, June 177"lDl37'p., 4. 4nbid. '^'^New Orleans States, December 51, 1913. .1 (~ ^ ^b i^l 4 6Minut_e_s_, New Orleans Association of Commerce, January'T'^'llU"'^, p. 2., '^^Estelle F. Ward, The Story of Northwestern University (New York: hodd Mead, aiTcl" rrompany, 1924), p. 3?8„ ^'^Mi_niites Board of Administrators of the Tulane E d u c a t i o niX ^ Fun d Au g ii s t 13, 1913,

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CHAPTER IT HE NEXT BEST THING TO CARNI^^AL: THE COLLEGE, 1914-1918 Classes in the new college opened on Monday, October 19, 1914, barely one month after it had been established. That month was one of aliiiost frantic activity, as much remained to be done. For one thing, classrooms had to be found. This probleBi ivras easily solved when the Association of Comjiierce offered rooms free of cost to the college. Also, a curriculuju and faculty had to be developed. The decision was made to start with only a night program in order to accomodate the students, most of whom worked full-time. Each class would meet one night per "week beginning at eight o'clock and ending at nine fortyfive. On Monday nights, CoTnifiercial Law was offered, taught by Ralph J. Schwarz, a rneinber of the Tulane Law School faculty and a practicing attorney. On Tuesday evenings, Foreign Ti-ade was offered by Edwin E, Judd, the Commercial Apent in cliarge of the New Orleans Office of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the united States Departiiient of Commerce. A,. Norman Young, a Chartered Accountant and manager of the New Orleans branch of a national accounting firm, taughf Accounting on Wednesday evenings. Dean Aldrich taught Economics and Business Administration each Thursday. Also on Thursday evenings, John S „ Kendal], 26

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27 head of the Department of Spanish at Tulane, taught Conunerciai Spanish. Fridays vere reserved for special informal talks open to both studeirts and the general, public. Once the facility, curriculum, schedule, and faculty iiad been decided upon, the final task was to recruit students. This was accoinplished in two ways. First, numerous articles appeared in all of the local daily newspapers. These articles generally chronicled the progress of the developing program of the college. Course descriptions and instructor's qualifications were published. Also discussed were the great benefits one could gain by attending the evening sessions. The second recruiting tactic was a continuation of the methods used to establish the college. Local business leaders encouraged participation by enrolling in the courses thefflselves thereby offering students an opportunity to work v^/ith successful businessmen. It was suggested in the newspapers that these business leaders inigiit hire promising students in the various courses. Local businessmen went even further by encouraging their own employees to take advantage of the opportunities which 3 the new college afforded. Admissions requirements were minimal, with men twenty, evidence Men under one years of age or over having only to give of their ability to profit by the course. d' twenty-one were required to satisfy the usual iniiversity entrance requirements. Juniors and seniors in other colleges of the university were encouraged to enroll. These students

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28 aid others were told o£ plans which included the development or full 'time day progra irn that] in Engineering,, Mediciiie, ax as complete as id Law." It was suggested that if the College o£ Coniniercc'S experience was similar to that of other colleges (notably, Northwestern), there would soon be a degree pxograiu available." By the end of the first week of classes, one hundred and thirty students had enrolled and paid their twenty-dollar fee for each course taken. In its first Bulletin, the college stated that its purpose was to offer substantial professional training preparing for a business career." Other, similarly general statements suggested that instruction would be offered for "... students sufficiently able and mature to do work of university grade. "^^ These stated aims were less ambitious than the claims made in the popular press which had called for the founding of the college. Yet, they were not overly ambitious when one considers the size and nature of the college in the first few years of its operation. The entire annual budget of the college, in its first three years, never exceeded five thousand dollars. Aldrich, in addition to serving as dean, was the only full-time faculty member; the rest were either professors with appointments in other colleges at Tulane or local businessmen donating their services. But it was a start, and it was a characteristically American educational endeavor. The ties between the business cormnunity and the college were perhaps only more explicit examples of what was happening throughout American higher education

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29 Once established, the new college was confronted with cliallenges on every front. Like so many other pioneering c o ], 1 e g i t-i t e b u s i r\ ess pi" o g r anrs ,, Tu 1 a n e s h a d t o m a k e its e 1 £ acceptable to both business and academic comniunit ies Aldrich thus promised to build a program which was both immediately practical and acadeTnically rigorous. Despite his optimism about the founding of the college, Aldrich realized its tenuous position. If the European war had brought visions of great commercial opportunity, it had also brought uncertainty. The claims that New Orleans had started a collegiate busiiiess program "amidst all this war talk" clearly spoke to the concern as to what the war might bring.' I'o this must be added Tulane's financial uncertainty and reservations about establishing a business program. Those wiio sought the supposed serenity and security of university faculty life would have found neither in the new College of Commerce. A 1 d 1' i cli s g r e a t e s t s u c cesses t o d a t e ha d b e e n r e a. 1 i z e d in the busiiiess community. In an effort to convince local business leadei's of his determination to serve their needs, Aldrich had started the school solely on a night-time basis; this also assured him the greatest access to students. From the beginning, liowevcr, he was determined to have a degree program. Aldricl) thus echoed tlie sentiments of a vast majority of utilitarian reformers in higher education who promoted utility, but not vocat ionali sm Almost immediately, j)lans were inade which called for a two -ontwo program-two

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30 years of traditional liberal arts training, follov/ed by tv/o years of professional study. By June of 1915, the program had been approved by the University Council, The college now offered a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.)At the same meetingj the Uiiiversity Council approved a program which enabled studejits to contplete the requirements for both husiness and law degrees within a si7c-year period. The Tiilane College of Couimerce and husxness Adiiiinistratioii was no longer just a niglit school. Both the full-time B.B.A, Program and the combined Business and Law Program started slowly. Dvespite extensive press coverage of these developments, after five years of operation, there were only eighty-six full-tinie students enrolled. The first graduate of the program, h. Davis McCutcheoUj received his degree in 1918; he was the only graduate that year. Because of the newness of the colleQ,e and a lack of interest in the College of Law, the combined Business and Law Program failed to attract students. It was dropped in, the early twenti.es. One of the more visible changes brought about by the day program was that admissions requirements for students under tweaty-one years of age became more precisely delineated. In the years from 1915 to 1918, this section of the 5.iii:ASJ:.i.E became increasingly detailed. Elaborate prascriptioiis of acceptable high school courses and units

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31 stipulated both qualitative and quantitative requirements. It must be reineRibered that these requirements applied to only a few students, since raost of the students o£ the college were over twentyone years of age., If there is one trend indicative of the earlier programs in collegiate business education, it was the tendency to attract, by whatever means possible, large numbers of students. Because these programs were without university support, they depended heavily upon tuition income and assistance froiii the local business community. By far the most effective strategy for attracting students was to offer them courses which had immediate practical and vocational benefit. In this v/ay, Tulane's College of Commerce reflected national j trends. During its first five years, the college attracted students in such numbers that each year's enrollment figures made headlines in all of the local nev/spapers and campus iournals. It is not difficult to understand why this was done. Ideologically, utilitarian reformers in education had a strong tradition of democratizing both schooling and society. Predictably, the Tulane College of Comirierce was co!istantly referred to as an institution created by the business community for all of the people of Nex^ Orleans. Pleas were issued in the press for employees of a "lower position to enroll and better themselves through tne 1 1 The social elevator ffered by the college arguments of many Am opportunities oiterea oy lerican educators were alive and flour

PAGE 47

ishing in the appeals printed in editorials and feature articles of the local daily newspapers. I£ the campaign to atti'act students had an ideological basis, It also nad practical implications for the future of the college. Every student was a potential supporter for the school's efforts. Sinrilarly, and at least as iinportant, the vast majority of students worked in local businesses, and a successful experience in the college not only v^on over the student J but his employer as v^/ell. Another important consideration in the founding of the college was that ;nany of the local business leaders were asked to share their training and experience vvith students either as part-tiij,e instructors or as speakers in the Friday "Business Talks by Business Men." The circumstances which had operated to get the school started were consciously developed and maintained. Eventually, no serious suggestion to curtail the college's activity would be entertained by the Tulane Board.. The boom in collegiate business education at Tulane was typical of what viss happening throughout ./'Vmerican higher education for business. llie increase in the size and nuirsber of collegiate business programs was so rapid that business educators themselves became concerned. In an effort to assure that colleges develop adequate programs, Tulane and sixteen other institutions sent representatives to a conference at the University of Chicago in June of 1916. The conference resulted in the formation of the American Association of

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53 Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) which had as its ohie'-t "the promotion and imiiroveinent of higher business education in North America," Very quick] y, the AACSB established professional standards regarding: admissions; miniipiim nuiuher of semester hous ; staffing (rank, training, salary, and teaching load); the number of fields to be offered; and library facilities. The AACSB envisioned itself as an agency ivhich would bring some order to the chaotic proliferation of collegiate business education programs. As a charter liiember of the AACSB, Tulane's Co] lege of Comraerce demonstrated its cornniitment to develop and maintain a prograiii of substantial professional quality. High enrollments were not enough. The issure of admitting women to the college arose during this time. Although women were barred from the college when it first opened, Aidrich believed that as a matter of simple iustice they should be admitted on the same basis as niOn. The Tulane Board, hov^ever, had guidelines whidi prohibited ad14 nutting wowen to the college. Yet, as Airierica became more directly involved in the war, women became an important source of students for the college. As a result of pressure from Aidrich and local business leaders, women were permitted, by a vote of the Tulane Board, to enroll in the college at the 15 beginning of its second year of operation. Like most of the activities of the college, the admission of women was given extensive coverage in the local press. The first woman to be admitted to the college,

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Miss Ruby Perry, wzs a teacher of busin.ess subjects at Sophie Wright High School. Local newspapers carried this and numerous other articles describing the opportunities available for women at the new college. In a published interview on the topic of woiDen ii^ business, Aldricb stated that "... four years of training at the Tulane Commerce College prepares a woman to take an executive post in business. She would be conversant with the inner workings o£ the world's commercial machinery that is as a rule a ivsystery to the feminine niind." Aldrich went on to say that a woman thus trained v/ould be 'thor'oughly equipped and efficient" and that her services v/ould be in demand at high wages. "' One of the laore forceful appeals for women to participate in the college's program appeared in the Sunday, October 24, 1915 edition of the New Oi'leans T i i?!. e s P i c ay un e The article outlined the past deprivation which women had experienced in education and noted that without any campaigns for equal rights, these men openecl the college to the women of the city. Women were challenged to take advantage of "... this chance to become raore efficient [and] increase your earning ability." They were then told "it is up to you" and that the road to success was 1 7 never a "jitney route,"" Despite the promises and challenges to women, most of the women enrolled in the college were either high school teachers of business subjects or clerical workers The press caiTipaign to recruit women was typical of the

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35 heavy press coverage which the college received throi.ighout: tills periocL Although this coverage vvas generally most extensive during the annual registration in October, news articles, announcements, acivertiserneT'its feature articles, and editorials appeared in ad 1 of the local nespapers throughout the year. Many., if not most of these articles v.iere written by Aldrich or one of the faculty ineinbers of the college. It is certainly no accident tliat beginning li n 1916 ^ a new course was offered, in advertising. This course, jointly sponsored by the college and the New Orleans Advertising Club, was taught by Arthur G, Newmayer, business nianager of the New Orleans Item. The course in advertising quickly became a focus of attention in tlie college. The field of advertising was cited as new, exciting, and especially lucrative. Several editoI'ials stated that across the nation $700,000,U00 was already 18 spent annually on advertising. It was noted further tnat successful advertising was not accidental and, like most aspects of business, the days of sel feducation ivere over and one must now be educated fornially in the requisite skills. The course at Tulane was offered as uptodate, coriprehensive and vital to anyone wishing to enter this new and burgeoning field. The college proved its own case for advertising. Very early, the New Orleans Advertising Club was asked to conduct the advertising campaign for the college. A college which had

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36 been successful in beginning a professional course in advertising also had to meet the challenges set forth by that course. The cainpalgn devised for the college consisted of handbills describing the college's courses and faculty, storefront window placards strategically placed by local businessmen (niany of whom were Guarantors), street car notices and, most importantly, newspaper advertisements and a seeFiingly endless stream of editorial and feature articles touting the opportunities which the college afforded. The nei'.'spaper coverage of the college was extensive. Every appeal was made to the potential student-course descriptions, sketches of the qualifications of fo^culty, announcements of free public lectures, promises of increased prestige and salaries as well as a series of cartoons and articles cinblazoned irith such headlines as "Are You i'raining For Life's Big Leaeue?" and "Pass By the Idlers, Attend the 1 9 College of coinmerce." Finally, at least one editorial, directed to the "... clerics, bookkeepers, stenographers and other members of the employed classes" asked the question, "Are YOU one of the derelicts?" and suggested that tne Guarantors of the school "... at least deserve the appreciation which a large annual attendance would afford them." The campaign v/orked. By the end of the First World War, after five years of operation, the college could boast an enrolliisent of 725, a six-fold -increase from the original enrollment. Indeed, by the third year of its operation (1916-17J,

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37 21 the college became the largest iti the university. Aldrich had successfully achieved one or his first ^roals for the college, and he had ioxie so with the continuing support of the busi.ness coimuuni ty and the locai. pi'ess. The college was now training hundreds of local citizens in such fields as accounting, coinmercial law, business correspondence, commercial Spanish, merchandising advertisings and econo]i!ics During its first five years of operation, there was a three "fold increase in the number of courses offered for evening students. Yetj as mentioned above, the daytime prograiTi of the college was experiencing growth which was considerably less rapid. By 1918--19, for exa^iple, although night students could select froia fifteen courses, there were only seven courses available during the day. Indeed, more day courses were listed as "Probably Not Offered" than those til at v/ere offered. The slow groi\''th of the day program as compared to the night program J has several plausible explanations. First, World War I caused full-time student enrolliuents to decline in colleges and universities throughout the country. Second, although tlie rest of the Tulane acadesTiic community (especially the College of Arts and Sciences) was willing to allow the c ] 1 e g e it s p a r t 1 i .tti e n i g !i t a c t i v i t i e s i t. s t r o n g 1 y o p p o s e d t h e d e V e 1 o pm e n t o f a f u 1 1 1 ;i m e d e g r e e p r o g r a iii :i n c o ram e r c e Til i s p T o g r BIT! n o t o n 1 y p r e s e n ted an i d e o 1 o g i c a 1 t h r eat ( i e against liberal ciilture) but at this time each collese in the

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38 imiversi ty was run independently of the others. Indeed, Tulane, during this early period, has been likened to a British university, that is, a collection o£ independent 2 3 colleges. The colleges at I'ulane were directly competing with one another for students and their tuition payments. Students ir; the Arts and Sciences College were disuaded frora n\ov'ing into the B.B.A. Program. A third explanation for the slow growth of the fiill-tiine prograjn of the college was that it was new and relatively undeveloped coKipared to others in the university. Finally, the establishinent of a viable fulltime program was a very expensive undertaking. Without a substantial endoivuient it would necessarily take some time to become established. One of the more obvious consequences of the meager fiscal resources of the college vvas that of inadequate faculty development. The abundance of willing and surprisingly able part-time and volunteer instructors of the night courses was unfortunately not complemented by highly qualified fulltime faculty. Aside from Aldrich, there was never more than one additional full-time faculty member in the college for the first five years of its operation. The first full-time professor was added with the development of the B.B.A. Program in 1915-16. The arrival of William H. S ,. Stevens, with a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and teaching 24 experience at Columbia ^ vvas widely publicized. Stevens, who taught Business Organization and Management, stayed one

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39 year and left to serve on the V'ede.r;-il Trade Corfrmissicn in Washington, He was teraporarily replaced by William Bethke FroiTi the University of Minnesota. In 1917-lS, the only full-time faculty member aside from Aldrich was John B. S V i n n e y from S y r a. c u s e 1 1 n i v e r s it)', v; i t n t e a. c h i n g and business experience i.n New York. Swinney was a professor or marketing, but taught courses in Office Management and Business Corr esT)ondence as well, Aldrich' s inability to attract a number of qualifi,ed full-time faculty is only partially explained by fiscal constraints. Throughout the United States during the first quarter of the twentieth century, business colleges had great difficulty attracting qualified faculty. For one thing, there were not enough people with the amount and kind of education which was necessary. Secondly, colleges and universities could not successfully compete with private business for higlily qualified and capable graduates. This latter problem has been,, until most recent times, a fairly persistent one in collegiate business education.'--' It might be added that competition with private business for faculty has given rise to higher salaries than those commanded by faculty in the liberal arts. Relatively high business faculty salaries are a source of contention with faculty in the liberal arts colleges. The slow growth of a full-time degree nroiirara and the scarcity of Irighly trained faculty miemberj s was of little

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4 immediate co^ncern to the local business communityTheir experiences with the college during these early years of its development were excellent. That the local business community -was pleased ^vith the growth and development of the 1 college is best exemplified in their continuing financial support of it. The original agreements to underwrite the deficit expenses of the school were to cover only the first three years of operation. Thus, in March of 1917, discussions were renewed as to the fate of the program. The Board of Guarantors met on March 7 to discuss plans not only to continue the program but to make it ranK with 26 those in great industrial centers.'' The meeting opened with statements by various members about the necessity tor wellsupported colleges of commerce for modern comm'erical cities. Testimonials were offered as to the great work which the college had already performed on a "shoe-string" budget-a budget v/hich was compared with other similar colleges. The business leaders of the city vfere told that there were colleges throughout the country, many in what were called "jerkwater" towns, who were spending at least twice as much as Tulane and that if we want a proper college we have 27 to pay for it." Finally, it was announced tiiat there was a special reason why support for the college was vital at this time. Dean Aldrich was rumored to have been offered the deanshio of a very large and prominent college of commerce, I There was no time to waste lest Dr. Aldrich be "weaned away ^ 28 from the commrunity.

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41 Three forms of support were suggested as a. result ot this Bieetiiig. The first was an expanded guarantee to underwrite the expenses of the college that is,, more Guarantors promising more money to support its operation. Secoiid, those who could afford it, could offer a minirrsum, one thousand dollar donation as the beginning of a permanent endowment for the college. Finally, special endowments tor a professorship or course of study v/ould be actively sought. The first of these three suggestions realized the greatest success —in allj 222 Guarantors agreed to underwrite 29 the expenses of the college for three additional years. This tripled the financial base of the college. In addition, four one -thousand dollar gifts were received, but no professorship was supported. Courses had been partially subsidized for the first three years. This type of support was continued. Thus, thanks to the business community that had created it, the college's future u&s secured at a higher rate of support for three additional years. These Guarantors, added to the excellent tuition receipts fron^ the night students, managed to keep the college fiscally viable. It was generally known that during this period the night program, in effect, subsidized the day course. Perhaps the final consideration of the college's early development is that of the i Rip act of World War I. It has already been shown that the war precipitated the demand for the college. It has also been suggested that the war was

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42 one of the causes for the slow developiiient of the fulltime program.. Aidrich, j-ef lectirig the views of businessTrien and educat:ors alike, feJ.t that the war had increased the demands upon Americans to beconiC more effici.eTit. He was convinced that the consolidation of the Ainericar! effort and increased efficiency of operaition were best achieved through collegicite level business education, Siiriilarlyj the war had wrought irreversible changes in principles and practices of iriaruifactui'ing, merchandising J and rnanagenient These changes were believed to be best handled through university level training. Finally, Aidrich stated that "Business morals are a part of business efficiency, and the story of the wa.ys in v/hich the standards of business honor are irrsp roving is well worth telling,.""'" Aidrich spread his word throughout the coinmunity and was eventually named by the United States Commissioner of Education to a national committee of fifteen businessmen and economists '' to investigate and report on the uieans for establishing schools and college courses of study best adapted to fit young men for careers in the foreign service of the country."'" His reports to the commissjoner ecfioec his statements to the local business comnuniity. Aside from the appeals to foster and support collegiate business training, very few of the college's activities were directly affected by the war. In tlic I918-19 Bull etin^ -for example, "Military and. Physical Train.ing" was required of "... all physically able male students in the day course."

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4.3 Also, Aldrich taught a night coarse e-ntitled Business EconoiDics and the War Conditions which was aimed at helping the ". business man in his study of these (war) conditions as they affect business in general and his business in pax3 3 ticular," Less direct, but nonetheless important consequences of the war were felt by the college. For one, the role of women changed in Ajiierica during the war. This was perhaps most marked in terms of the types of jobs which women were expected to do and the types of careers which women might be expected to enter. The worn en of New Orleans were constantly reminded of the new opportunities occasioned by the war and 34 of help which awaited them in the College of Commerce. By the end of the war, women accounted for approximately ten percent of the college's enrollment,. Another indirect effect, was that the war had created a favorable market for labor. The vast majority of night students enrolled in the college were attempting to upgrade their skills in order to improve their position and salary. The war also provided the occasion for appeals by the college to attract students. One article noted that German nrisoners in English aetenti.on camps were studying Spanish in preparation for the capture of the lucrative Latin American trade after the war. Readers were warned that "we must not 3 5 rest ..." until we have learned commercial Spanish. finally one of the more tangible effects of the war was that

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44 Mardi Gras ^^/as cancelied in 1917. in an ax'ticle describing the cancellation of Carnival j it was noted that ''Dr. Morton Aldrich is right-if a young man in New Orleans nowadays hasn't a chance to become a King or Emperor, he can join the College of CoDimercs and learn to become a Rockefeller or a Carnegie." The article went on to state that Aldrich was the most jubilant man. in New Orleans" because wj.thout Carnival, the young men would have the time and money to go to the College of Comiiierce which was the thing in New Orleans ^ after the Carnival." next best OD

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, p. 6. NOTES New Orleans Stajtes, September 13, 1914, 2 Bull etin of the Tulane University of Lo u i sia na (College of Conimerce and Business Administration), Sei"ies 15, NuBiber 14, November 1, 1914 Ne'iA' Orleans States Septeisber 11, 1914; New Orleans 1 ijn_e s P i c a y u n e S e p t e ni b e r 1 4 1 9 1 4. """' t ^l^lii^J^^'l 9JL Tyi^'^II' University, Series 15, Number 14, November 1, 1914, p. 7. b Ibjji. 6' "~ Ib_id. '7 N e w r 1 e a n s T i ra e s P i c ayune ., S e p t e in b e r 14, 1914, 8 Laiv'rence R. Veysey, Tjie Emer gen ce o^f the /American University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965'), p": 7 2 '"" '" 9 ?''-ili_!:tiil 'if Tyliil^'^^ University, Series 16, Number 12, Septernber l"^ 1915, pp." 'l'2" fS ; Bulletin Series 17, Number 12, S e p t e m b e r 1 1 9 1 6 p p 1 2 1 3 ; B u lie t i n S e r i e s 18, N u in b e r 1 Z S e p t e iii b e r 1 1 917, pp. J, 4 INS 10 Frank C. Pierson, et al_. 'fhe Education of American Bu s ijie s snie n (New York: McGrav/-Hill ,""' 1959) p^ 39'. -" .11 New Orleans States,, September 22, 1915. 12 Cliarles J. Ijirkens e_t a 1 ,, "Hie Ame rican A ssoci ation 2£ ^ 1.1 *1,8 ^31 ^1 ^'' chools of B ;u s_i n es s_ ( M o ni e w o o d ill i n o i s : RichartT D'T lYvjin, Inc., 1966), p. 183. 13 J a m e s H S B o s s a r d and F r e d e r i c k J D e w h u r s t University Education Foj^'^Jisiness (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania "Press',' 193177 PP • 263-264. 14 Minutes of the TuJane Board of Administrators (Special mee'ting of the Executive Conunittee held on October 4, 1915), p. 150. Newcomb College was associated with Tulane. The board assumed, at least until Aldrich presented his case, the educational needs of women could be ill e t i n N e "nj c o m b C o liege. 16 New Orleans i_tero, October 12, 1915. ) New Orleans Statej, October 24, 1915. 4 5

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46 7 N c vj rlea n s T i. m e s P i. c a v u n e ., c t o her 2 4. 1 9 1 5 ._.. tL „__. -' 1 New Orleans Staj^ September 4, 1916; New Orleans 'f_t e_in S e p t e ;ti b e r 7 1 9 1 6 • ^.^ New Orleans Sta.tes ,, Septeiriber 27, 1917. 1 9 1 6 New Orleans Ttein, September 25, 1915 and October 2, 7 i The 1^1.1 lane W e e kjj^ Q c t e b cr 17, 1917 ^^'^J-'li'-'} '^1. iy-'-'yi!; U iri v ers i ty Series 19, Number 12, September 1, 1918, 'd 22. 23' Rufus C. Harris (former president of Tulane University) p r i V a t e i n t e r v i. e w M a c o n G e o r g i a An g u s t 7 19 7 3 24 Nev; Orleans Times -P icay u ne August 29, 1915; Nev/ Orleans States, August 29, 1915; New Orleans intern. August 29, 1915. 2 5 Frank C. Piers on, e_t al The E ducation of American Bus inessmen, pp, 4-5; Robert A." Gordon and James Edwin Howell, Higher Eclucation F_C;2' ^'-'S.ijies^s (Nev-/ York: Columbia UniversTr7'""Pres"s"; 'lOVS) /' 6 .'Tso'l 2 6 New Orleans Times -Picayune March 7, 1917. z, / Mimit.es, Board of Guarantors Meeting, New Oi'leans Louisiana, March" 3', 1917., pp. 6-9. (There were no specific cities or colleges inent ioncd ) 2 8 H)id, Once again, these minutes did not specify a coll e g e i t i s n o t k n o w n w hi e t !\ e r o r n o t A 1 d r i c li w a s i n f a c t offered a dean ship. The Guarantors were told that he was, and there is no evidence that anyone questioned the veracity of this statement 2 9 New Orleans States, September 30, 1917; New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 2 7, 1917. 30 31 ;2 New Orleans Statc^^, January 31, 1916. Ibid,,' Ne'w Orleans T2_m e s P ix^ayain e February 6. 1916. I Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 19, Number 12, September 1, 1918 2 4

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47 34 Nexv Orleans Times Picayune ^ September 16 1917. '"New Orleans Itein, September 23^ 1917, ^"ibid., September 25, 1917.

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CHAPTER III FREEDOM AND FORMALIZATION: IMF COLLEGE, 1919-19 39 The college became permanentlv established as America embarked upon the period commonly referred to as the years between the wars. TJiese years, encompassing the decades of the twenties and thirties were inarked by both continuity and change within the college. Continuity was provided by Aldrich who remained dean until 1959. The changes evident during the period reflect the gradual realization of Aldrich' s plans. Changes in terms of the studeirts, faculty, and curriculum of the college resulted, more often than not, from Aldrich 's attempts to implement his prograsa in the existing university and business settings P i n e e r i n g p r o g r am. s :i, n c o 1 1 e g i. a t e b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n the early stages of their development, experiejnced great difficulty in establishing clear' and consistent aims or purposes,'^' Trie stated aim of the college, "... to offer substantial j)rofessional training preparing for a business career," was developed at the time of its founding and remained virtually uncnanged tnroughout Aldrich' s twentyfive year term as dean," That there was no substantial change in the "Aim and Policy" of the college for a quarter century can be understood as indicating that this section of the bulletin was either a vague and innocuous statement which no one seriously considered (this is common in sucli publications), or that the statement 4 8

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49 accurately reflected the intent of its author and the person responsible for its implementation, nasnely, Aldrich, it is most likel)' that, regarding the College of Comuierce at Tulanc, tJie second alternative most closely approximates the truth. Aldrich had a reputation as one who was attentive to detail and the precise use of language."' Thus, for the first twentyfive years of its existence, the college enjoyed a singleness of purpose carefully developed and assiduously maintained by Aldrich Unfortunately 5 the development and maintenance of a purpose,, no matter hov; clear and consistent through time., is not sufficient to assure the successful operation of any institution. The College of Commerce had established itself on a permanent basis, but its relationship to the local business community and to the rest of Tulane University v/as not fixed. In the tveT\ties and thirties, as before, the College of Comm.erct was developing in a social, political, and econoinic environment which could not be ignored. Throughout tJiese years, the college continued to attract large numbers of students. Like so many other collegiate business prograias of the day, student tuition revenue played a crucial role in the fiscal affairs of the college. As the second term of the Guarantors' Agreement ended, the budget of tlie college came under the control of the Tulane Board, Two factors led to this decision: first, the College of Commerce

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50 had proven that it could support itself; and, second, tlie college's popularity in the community had helped the university iiicrcasc its endowment revenues/^ The College of Commerce was now firmly established within the university and would no longer have to appeal to businessmen for direct financial support. Enrollment figures for the twenties and thirties show a gradual and consistent increase in both the day and evening programs. The evening program grew from 364 in 1920-21 to 609 in 19 38-39. In a "Joint Faculty Statement of Needs and Objectives" presented to Aldrich in 1938, data showed that the students enrolled in the night division during the 1930 's were almost all employed (951>j in their twenties (651), and mostly male f85l).^ Over half of these students were enrolled in one of the accounting courses offered and about half of them were clerical workers while enrolled. These figures also show that ninety per cent of the night students enrolled for only one course at a time and about sixty per cent of them passed the 6 c o u r s e s t h e y t o o h Students in the night division were attracted by luLgh quality instruction offered in subjects which proved to be valuable either in acquiring a new job or in improving their position in their present one. By 19 34, the college published a separate bulletin especially for evening students. This bulletin, and subsequent issues of it, started with a section entitled, "Business Needs Trained Men and Women!" This section

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51 suffoested that present and prospective eniployers were vitally concerned with the education of workers, and that the program of the college had proven itself as an investment well worth the time and moijey required.' About the same time (1934), a placement bureavi was established which offered to help businesses select employees and to help students find employment. The success of the placement bureau was well known in the local community. This service rissisted students caught in the em8 ployment conditions of the Depression. From the beginning of the full-time degree program in 1916 Aldrich had been dissatisfied with the twoontwo program. He believed that two years of training in the College of Arts and Sciences was inadequate and inappropriate preparation for the program he had developed, and that the arts college was not going to funnel an adequate number of students into the B.B.A. program. The former reason is consistent with Aldrich' s utilitarian views of higher education, and the latter is supported by enrollment figures which indicate that very few students entered the program after two years in the arts colP CTA 9 Differences between the two colleges intensified when tii^e arts college decided that all freshmen and sophomores would take the same programs of study regardless of their upper division major. The arts college refused to teach the liberal arts courses prescribed by the College of Commerce. Aldrich

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52 responded by submitting a resolutioii to the University Council (predecessor to the senate) whicii argued that, each college of Tulaiie University shall have the power to determine its educational policy and the requirements for adiiiission to its classes and courses subject only to the action of the University Council and the Board of Admini s t, r a t o r s -'-' The measure passed, and what came to be known as Aldrich's "Declaration of Independence" assured that the arts college would no longer interfere with the college's program. Beginning in 1919, the college, after receiving approval from the Tulane Board, offered two courses of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Business Administrationthe first was the same two-on-two program previously offered, and the second u/as a four-year program. Almost immediately the second option became the more popular. The old option was retained only to enable students in other colleges to switch to the B.B.A. program. Although the first two years of the four-year program were taken in the College of Commerce, coursework was 12 equally divided between business and non-business subjects. Later in this period business subjects began to heavily outweigh non-business subjects. With the development of this four-year optioii and tlie increasing prof ess ionali zat ion of coursework, the college became more isolated within the miivers i ty

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53 he establisninent or tne lOi >r--year oiotion had the immediate 13 effect of increasing the day enrollinent by over fifty per cent and the freshmen and sophomore classes by one hundred per cent. The colletie now had students for four full, years. Very quickly a closeness developed among students. Aiding this closeness was the small size of the classes, the isolation of the college front the rest of the university, and the efforts of the faculty and the dean \mo consciously strove to develop an espri^t de corns among students. Evidence of the closeness and geniality of the students abounds both in the written record and in oral accounts of alumnae of the period. In the early twenties, for example, the students presented Dean Aldrich with a proposal for an honor system managed entirely by the students. ilie plan was implemented immediately and has been cited by faculty and alumnae as a model of its type. Violators of the student honor code were usually expelled from the college. As another example of student interest in the college, an honor group was established in 1924. This group, the Commerce Key, soon petitioned Beta Gamma Sigma, the national honorary business fraternity, for affiliation. In June, 1926, during the college's eighth commencement exercises, two faculty members and six students were inducted as charter members of the Alpha of 1 c, bouisiana Chapter of Beta Gamma Sigma. The overriding student \'iew of the college during the twenties and thirties was that it was like a large family group cooperating in the education

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5 4 16 of young men and women tor a business career. An important part of the college's development during this period was the recruitment of faculty. Although the years between the wars did not witness a substantial increase in the number of faculty, there was a slow process of replacing teriiporary and part-time faculty with permanent, full-time instructors More than any other aspect of the college, the development of the faculty was the product of Aldrich's efforts. Because of the autonomy enjoyed by the college and the fact that faculty search committees were not yet used within the college, faculty recruitment was completely at the discretion of Aldrich. There were at least three general directions into which Aldrich could proceed in faculty development: first, he could recruit a 1:1 i g h 1 y s p e c i a, 1 i z e d a n d t r a i n e d ( d o c t o r a 1 ) f a c u 1 1 y w hose m a j o r focus would be upon research and specialized teaching; second, he could recruit generalists who Jiad university training (especially at tlse graduate level), some business experience, and a willingness and ability to teach undergraduates; and, third, he could retain essentially what he already had, a number of local b u s i n e s s m e n p a r t. t i m. e i n s t r u c t o r s f r o m an o t h e i' c o 1 1 e g e i n t h e university., and an occasional full-time instructor. Although the choices were perhaps not as clear-cut as described j these were the options generally available to most developers of 1 7 collegiate business programs in America during this period." Basically, the decisions to be made involved a process of

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Tviatching available faculty resources with the econoiiiic situation of the college and the perceived function of the college in the Liiiiversity ;uid business coirirnunit i es The option of hiring highly trained specialists was impractical, because there were few faculty of this type available and they were costly to employ. Furthermore, the role of the college as an undergraduate institution, training local citizens for careers in local business, was inconsistent with preparation and interests of a highly trained, research-oriented faculty. The third option was also undesirable because, although the services of local business leaders as instructors had been invaluable to the founding and early growth of the college, the day program required a fulltime faculty with training and expertise not found within the community. It must be noted that local businessmen were not: excluded from the collegers programs during this periodthey continued to serve as lecturers in the day and especially th.e evening programs. Also., the weekly "Business Talhs By Business Men" were required of all full-tirae students and have been constantly referred to as one of the most enjoyable and useful aspects of the prograiri. "^^ These talks reflected the utilitarian orientation of the prograiii and were helpful m maintaining ties with the business conffluiBity .. As soon as he was in a position to do so^ Aldricli began to recruit a faculty of generaiists with expertise in a major area of business training (accoimting or marketing, for ex-

PAGE 71

56 ample). Another requirement set by Aldrich was that the fa,culty have at least soi^^e business experience. Finally, prospective Taciilty liad to be interested in tcacliinc' undorgraduates These qualities not only suited the faculty to the needs of the colleoe as it defined itself in the business and academic communities, tliey -were also coiisistent with Aldrich' s ideas about the importance of utility in university training. Aldrich iivrided himself on his ability to select faculty meiP.bers "^^ Beginning in 1922 with Jay C. Van Kirk (ivl.B.A., Northwestern), he began hiring faculty who met his requirements, hy 1930, Aldrich had hired F. Santry Reed (M.B.A., Harvard), Hugh Carnes (A. 3., Michigan), Robert Elsasser (M,C.S., Tuck School, Dartmouth), Harvey Marcoux (A.M., Harvard), Leslie '^Bill" Buchan (M.S., Illinois), Harry Mitchell (M.B.A., Michigan) 7 n and Donald M. iialley (A.M., Northwestern).'''' These eight men, along with Aldrich, quickly became known as the "Nine Old Men" of the College of Commerce.""" This personal and professional identification with Aldrich promoted a spirit which iriany alumni recall as a hallmark of the college. An important aspect of the closeness experienced among students and faculty and between students and faculty is the nen.eral decentralized nature of Tulane University during this period. With the establishment of the four-year program, freshmen were directly admitted into the college from high school. College affiliation was established early and strongly

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23 5 7 asserted tJrroughout the student's stay at the university. One of the many extracurricular activities of the faculty, at this time, was to go into nearby CGi-nmuTtiti es for the purpose of recruiting students. These recruiting efforts vere ofters used to inform high school students, faculty, and administrators of the increasing ijeed for collegiate business training. Upon arrival as freshmen, sfudents were quickly oriented to the activities of the college. Relations with the faculty were close, with the student's progress monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Parent conferences, more often than not, strengthened facultys t u d e n t r e 1 a t i o n s Conditions were excellent for maintaining thic closeness which characterised the college. Convinced of the legitimacy and worth of their efforts to educate students,, the faculty ignored accusations that their program was inconsequential and too vocationally oriented. The primitive state of the college's instructional facilities was another unifying factor. The offices, classes, and workroom of the college were located in the hasement of Gibson Hall, the administration building of the university,. Furnished with kitchen tables and other makeshift furnishings, the facilities reflected the Depression which the country was experiencing. Library resources, which started with a few texts and periodicals, were likewise makeshift, and only after considerable "scrounging" on the part of faciiltv and staff was any serabiance of respectability devel-

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58 nped. Everyone-faculty, students, and staff-made sacrifices 2 4 and adjustTients to meet the austere conditions. An examination of the evening program reveals that no formal or systematically arranged curriculiun was offered. Students enrolled in the evening division selected from a "Schedule of Night Courses," those offerings which were of interest or use to them. Satisfactory completion of any course v/as noted in a written stateiiient given to the student. Successful completJou of eipht courses entitled the student to a certificate 2 5 issued by the college. Although certain evening courses could be counted toward a degree, the evening division did not offer a B.E.A. In 1919-20, there were twenty-tvv-o night courses offered by the college. This number was twice that of the courses offered to day students. The night schedule included a number of more aeneral and traditional courses such as Accounting, Advertising, Business Correspondence, Business English, and Commercial Law. Also included were courses more narrowly focused upon local needs and interests such as The Marketing of Cotton and Life Insurance Salesmanship. Finally, reflecting post-war economic concerns, was a course offered by Aldrich entitled Business "' 26 Economics and Readjustment After the War. All of these courses were taught in the Association of Coiimierce in downtown Mew Orleans, and they were,, with few exceptions, taught by local 27 Dusm essmen and other part-time lecturers

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hQ program mov W 1938-39, the last year of Aldrich's deanship, the night; ed from the Association's office to Gihson Hall. Another change was that these courses were staffed almost coin. 2 8 ^, pletely with the full-time faculty ot tne coxiege, J.ne number of night courses offered in 1938-39 was eighteen, a slight decrease from the number offered in 1919-20, More important, however, is that there wa;; a definite trend av/ay from the more specialized courses offered earlier. it is likely that this trend resulted froir; the increased utilization of the full-time faculty and the conscious decision to offer courses which were 29 of the same type and quality as those offered in the day. These courses included Accounting, Advertising, Business English, Business Economics, and Commercial Law. In addition, Aldrich was now teaching a course entitled Management of Employees which dealt with practical, labor-management relations by studying examples and cases. "^ The format of the course enabled Aldrich to cover the material in a series of colorful stories which became notorious among the students of the college. "^'^" The final change in the night division during this period was that the Friday night "Business Talks" were no longer offered. Night students were invited to the day-time "Business Talks," but most of them worked full-time. Unlike the night division, the day program involved a forTiially prescribed curriculum of required and elective courses leading to a degree. With the developinent of the four-)'ear

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60 option, this curriculum was exteiided to the freshman and sophomore years. In 1919, the curriculuin of the first two years called for students to take a total of thirtyfour hours of coursework divided about equally betvfeen bu^n.ness subjects and oeneral subiects. Among the general courses were Englisli, Modern Language, Mathematics, History, and Chemistry, v/hile among the business courses were Accounti.ng, Business Economics Resources and Industries, and Comm.ercial Law,""' The junior and senior years of the curriculum were less formally prescribeda total of thirty hours "... devoted wholly or almost wholly to business subiects ." was the sole requirement,. A list of required courses or course options did not e>:ist; students planned their programs with the dean. This flexibility resulted from the small scale of the day-time program. At the time, only eleven courses were offered during the day, fev^er and considerably less specialized than those offered at night. Changes in the day progra.m from 1919 to 19 39 were profound. First, the number of day courses offered quadrupled-students in 19 39 could select from over forty courses including Accounting, Business and Corporate Finance, Production Management, Business Management, Management of Employees, Marketing, and Business Statistics. ''' In addition, a series of seven courses in business research were added. These courses, one of which was required for seniors, involved students gathering and compiling data and writing a report of their findings. This xvas

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0. evidence of the general field-orientation of the curriculum, and was an outgrov^rth of the utilitarian tradition of the college. As seniors were required to take a research course, freshmen yere required to take a course entitled "The Executive and His Responsibilities," a general introduction to business prin315 ciples and practices ottered by Robert tlsasser „ '" The program was not geared to either specialization or h: asic researcn With over forty courses offered in the day and eighteen offered at night, the faculty had to teach a wide rani?,e of courses. In fact, it was often necessary for them to 3 6 teach out ox their inaior area of training,"" This is where Aldrich's plan to hire general Jsts was used. Also, the research courses were more applied in that students usually investigated local business conditions or problems. This general ist and utilitarian approach of the college was typical of collegiate b u s L n e s s t, r a i n i n g f t Ii e p e r i o d The great proliferation of courses during the twenties and thirties iv'as one of two important changes in the day program of the college. The second change occurred in the curriculum. The curriculum of the day program in 1919 included numerous liberal arts courses and was flexible m the options which a student could take in building a program. By 19 39, however, the curriculum required more business courses and allowed fev/er liberal arts electives. The freshman year, for example, was taken entirely within the college. The sophomore year was

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likewi.se strictly prescribed with only one elective option--a semester course in Cheinistry or Physics as an alternative to "The Changing Business Set Up."^^ Upon this two-year foundation, juniors and seniors, with the guidance of the faculty and permission of tlie dean, developed a, course of study which was suited to their needs. Generally, this involved taking courses in several areas of business and specializing with a number of courses in one field. Juniors and seniors could select from approximately twentyfive courses, all of which v;ere business oriented. Non-business subjects were accepted only in special cases. IJpperclassmen admitted into the prograiH from other colleges had to satisfy requirements which basically consisted of a number of courses offered in the freshinan and sophomore y e a r s Aldrich believed that business courses could provide a background which vvas as liberal as that offered in the arts college. He insisted that Business English for example, was "business" only in the sense that it was offered in the business college.""' Students and faculty of the college also believed that their freshman and sophomore coiarses were sufficiently broad and general to provide the requisite foundation for advanced study in the junior and senior years.'"' Others in the university, especially in the English and Mathefaatics Departments of the College of Arts and Sciences, were skeptical and critical of these courses which they felt could only be

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6 3 offered in their college. This debate continued throughout Aldrich's years as dean and was experienced by most colleges of business that offered a four-year program. Because most collegiate business programs in the thirties were four-year programs, the college's struggle and eventual isolation within Tulane was not unique.^"" This struggle and isolation xvere important aspects of the college's early growth and development. Instructional methods in the college reflected national trends. The case method, developed at the Harvard University Graduate School of Business, was the most ambitious and widely acclaimed teaching method to develop in collegiate business training/"^ This method placed the student in the position of a businessman who had to act after weighing a variety of considerations. For a number of reasons, however, the case method did )iot dominate the teaching practices of the college. First, the method was most appropriate in graduate training. Successful case analysis called for an understanding of the principles and practices of business which undergraduates generally lacked. Second, although the case method realized considerable success in various management and managementrelated courses, some students found it to be of limited use 45 in such courses as accounting, statistics, and economics. Finally, collecting an adequate number of appropriate cases was both a costly and time consuming process. At the College cf Commerce, the faculty had to rely upon their own resources 44

PAGE 79

64 to develop cases. Despite these liiiii tat ions the case method was consistent v,dth utilitarian views of education and it brought vitality and imniediacy to courses taught by Aldrich. Hal ley,, and 46 otners Tlie budget ar.d organi zati onal structure of the college were also important aspects of its operation. The College of Cominerce was one of the siiiallest in the country. *' The budget of the college J reflecting its size and meager beginnings, was likewise small. Irv the first five years of operation, for example, the total expenses of the entire college never exceeded 4 8 $13,000 per year. During the decade of the twenties, annual expenses of the college increased to about $50,000 with the sirigle greatest expense being "Instruction." The total expenses of the college gradually increased until they reached about $73,S00 i.n 1938-39. The single greatest expense remained "Instruction" which amounted to approximately $60,000 in that year. The only apparent direct impact of the Depression upon the college was that most expense items were held down or re49 duced, and faculty and staff salaries were cut ten per cent. No one v/as laid off, and graduates of the program usually found I etiiployment From the beginning of its operation, the college's major source of revenue was tuition and fees. Might students in the college paid twenty dollars per course until 1920-21. At that time, the Guarantors' support of the progi-ani ended and the 1

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6 5 tuitioji incieased to thirty dollars per course. This tuition rate was constant throughout the remaini;ig twenty years of Aldrich's term as dean. Day students paid one hundred dollars per year in 1915-16, This rate v/as raised to one hundred and fifty dnllars at the samo time the night tuition increased. The day-time tuition rate o£ the college increased gradually during the next two decades. In 19 38-39, the full-time tuition for one year was two hundred dollars.' The only other reliable source of income for the college during the tv^/enties and thirties was its share of the endowment of the university. This income varied greatly ftoiii year to year, but generally accounted for about twenty-five per cent of 51 the total revenues of the college. Like the other colleges at Tulane, the College of Coiimierce was unable to attract a sizeable endowment, forcing it continually to rely upon student tui tion receipts Th e r g a. n i z a t i o n a 1 s t r u c t u r e o f t. h e c o 1 lege re f 1 e c t e d i t s early development and the administrative style of Aldrich. The college had begun as a one-man operation. Aldrich had woiked diligently to assure its continued existence in its early years of operation (1914-18), and he had inanaged to obtain a free and independent position for it within the university during the twenties and thirties. Within the college. Aldrich ruled with a fair and firm hand. No one at the time doubted that Aldrich ran the institution and no one seemed to mind, beranse he was

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66 S2 almost universaJ.ly respected and admired. The closeness which had. become char act eristic of the college was part of Aldrich's style as an adfflinistrator It is difficult for someone outside the iiistitution to understand that Aldrich was not an egotist working to gain power for his own sake. He was a man of firm conviction who had a clear vision of what he wanted to accomplish in the school. Trie faculty and students agreed with him and developed strong personal loyalties to him and the college. Also, the college was siiiall in terms of faculty, students, and facilities. Departmental organization was unnecessary., and it would have been inconsistent with the general is t nature of the faculty. By 19 39, the college had become a complete and selfsustaining educational institution housed within Tuiane University. The college maintained its own registrar ^ bursar, admissions personnel, and records. In addition, it had autonomy in terms of its student and faculty recruitment and the design and implementation of its curriculum. The college controlled every important aspect of its program and Aldrich controlled the college An important part of Aldrich's work in the college dizring this period was his excellent working relationship with A. B. Dinwiddle, president of Tuiane. Although Aldrich focused his efforts on the college, he and Dinwiddie worked closely together on Tuiane 's first successful fund-raising drive in 19195 3 20. Since that time, Dinwiddie entrusted Aldrich with the

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67 development of the College of ComTnerce. He had, in fact, allowed a. considerable amount of autonoTTiy among the colleges of the university. Tulane was unique, because most universities i]-! America had become centralized under the authority of the president.'"^ During Dinwiddle's presidency, as before, Tulane was more a collection of colleges than a modern university,. President Dinwiddle died in 19 35 leaving the Tulane Board of Administrators with the task of finding a new president. There v^as considerable discussion among the faculty about Tulane 's internal development and its role in Southern educational affairs. One group of faculty, mostly from the College of Arts and Sciences, sent a document to the board outlining their ideas about the future of Tulane 's program and the qualifications which they felt the new president should have. One of their many suggestions was to reorganize the College of Commerce by liberalizing its curriculum. Although it is not known how much influence this document had upon the board, they were aware of its contents as they decided who would be Tulane 's S s n e X t p r e s i d e n t ~ "' After two years and two acting presidents, the board selected Rufus C. Harris, dean of the Law School, to be president of Tulane. Harris was young, energetic, and determined ^;fi that Tulane becoiiie a university in fact, as well as in name.''"' Centralizing a campus with a tradition of decentralization and with as many powerful deans as Tulane had was not going to be

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68 ail easy task. Harris was aided by a faculty retire?T!ent rule which made retirernent mandatory at sixty-five years of age,. This rule had been ignored up to and throughout Dinv/iddie's teriTi as president "^ ^ iiarris now enforced it and, within a twoyear period, replaced every dean in the university except the c. g dean of the College of Architecture. Aldrich became sixtyfive in January of 1939, He did not want to retire. Still vigorous, Aldrich was considered by everyone in the college to be fully capable of performing his duties as dean. Me had dedicated his professional career to tlie colleee and had realized great success. Perhaps most important, Aldrich had earned the love and respect of his colleagues and students. He had also earned a position of eminence 59 a t t h e 1 oca 1 state, an d n a t i o n a 1 1 e y e 1 s H i s a c c o r n p 1 i s h m e n t s and the recognition thereof, made a forced retiremjent all the more difficult to accept. When the day came for him to leave, he walked out of his office leaving everything behind. He never returned to tbe college. The iiios t im,portant developments in the college during the twenties and thirties were the freedom of its position vis_ a vis the business and university comimunities and the formalization of its curriculum especially in the day division. After acquiring its own financial base, the college could, on its own term.s, begin to serve the local business community. The college could now offer the type and quality of business courses which

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69 it deemed appropriate. This autonojriy did not, of course, niean. that the college i/cas isolated from local business affairs. Indeed, the number and strength of the ties to the local covmunity had increased with the field-oriented day curriculum and the ut:ilitarian orientation of the full-tiiiie faciilty. Autonomy within the university comnuiirity enabled the college to develop a faculty and curriculum v^hich was focused upon the more immediate and practical concerns of the community. It enabled the college to serve a new kind of university student, one who came from a lower socio-economic class and was looking to the university to provide him witli the necessary skills to succeed in business. The autcnorny of the college within the university also enabled it to legitimize business as a professional activity and, in the process, to expand the role of the university in the community. The formalization of the curriculum reflected the ideas of the faculty and the dean as to \vhat university trained businessmen needed to knoi^. Their decision to have a "highly structured curriculum focused heavily upon professional courses was made by numerous other collegiate level business programs in the country. Their confidence in the correctness of this decision was bolstered by the ability of their program to attract large numbers of students and to produce graduates who qurickly rose to prom.inence in the business community or New Orleans

PAGE 85

?0 Ironically, the freedorn arid formalization which were considered assets throughout the twenties and most of the thirties, eventually became liabilities. The plan for Tulane to become more than a "street-car" institution called for centralization and an end to the crutonomy of the colleges. The movement to centralization had academic as well as administrative ramifications--~the curriculum of the college^ especially the first tv/o years, was going to have to be liberalized and integrated into the program of the arts college. The College of Commerce had to respond to these developments by redefining its position in the university community and providing new answers to the question of how collegiate business education might best be conducted.

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NOTES 1 Frank C. Pier son, et al_. T_he Education of. Amer_i^can ^'-lli^1^1:1^^ -'''l^i^ ^^^''^ York: McGraw-HTlT, 19?59j,r"p. -5S ; RoFert 1." GordorT anc] "James Edv/iii Howell, Higher Education F o r Business (New York: Columbia Unive:rsity~Press TSSOj", p. 4. Ballet_in of the Tulane Ui^3j{£rs_i_tv of Louisiana ( C 1 1 e,g e f C cjrnrn e"T c e ~an3 Bii's in e s s "' Adm in 1 s t r a 1 1 onj S er le s 19 Number^'ll, August 15, 1938, p, 9. 3 R o b e r t El s a s s e r ( f o r m e r fa c u 1 1 y m e m h e r o f t h e c o i lege), private interviev/j Nei^ Orleans, Louisiana, June 28, 1973. 4 John P. Dyer, Tulane: The Biography o_f A Univers ity (New York: Harper § Row, 1966)', pp ~'"l 8 8 ^I'S 9" S Minutes College of Conraierce Faculty Meeting, Tulane University, Nei7'"ljFleans Louisiana, 1938, pp. 21-33. 6 Ibid, Bulletin of Tulan£ University Series 35, Number 11, August 15, 1 9 3"r7"ppT'3 4 ^" "^ 8 Robert Elsasser, private interviev;, op c it a Minu tes College of Commerce Faculty Meeting, o£,.:__cit1938, p. 19. ~ 10 Min\jte_s, The University Council, Tulane University, Nexv Orleans, roiJTs"icina November 20, 1918. 1 1 Ponald M. Hal ley (professor emeri_tus_ of the college) private interviev/, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1975. -j 9 .L i_i Bulletin of Tul_ane Ujiili^^'^ilZ' Series 20, Number 14, NoveiTsber 1, 1 9T?T7 p l^JT 7 1

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72 13 Minu tes ; College of Coininerce Faculty Meeting, o p. ci t., 1938, p. 19. 14 Richard 0. Baumbach (alumnus of the college), private interview, Nev/ Orleans, Louisiana, July 12, 1973; F. Santry Reed (forreer faculty member ox the ccllege) private i n t e r v i e iv N e vv r 1 e a 1 1 s Lou i s i a n a >J u 1 y 9 ^ 1973. IS Richard 0„ Baumbach, ''Beta Gauima Sigiria at Tulane" unpublished typescript April, 1924, Tulane University Archives 16 A 1 iimiii Q u e s tj. o iin aire S c hod H i s t o r y P reject, Tulane Univers'rty '"^GrFffuate" 'School of Business Administration, New Orleans, Louisiana, Augusts 1973. 1 7 Pier son, Tjie Education of American Business men, pp. 268-2 79. 18 Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project, August, 197 3; R. 0. Simpson (alursmus of the college), private int er vi ew New Or 1 eans Lou i s i ana Apr i 1 1 9 7 3 19 Leslie J. Buchan, prj irate interview, Nevv' Orleans, Louisiana, August 10, 1973; Robert Elsasser and Donald Holiey, ] ) r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w s £E_-_,.,£i.t 2 Bulletin of Tulaji^e Ui\ivers_ity Series 31, Number S, July 1, 193 0, pp. 6""7i """' 21 Alumni Qlie s_t_i om-ra i_r_e School History Project, August 5 19 737" Many "a luinnT noted' that the faculty not only w o r k e d c 1 o s e 1 y t o g ether, bu t; t h a t t h e y a 1 s o p a 1 y e d c a r d s hunted, and fished together as well. 2 2 IP iji2 3 F San t r y R e e d. p r i v ate i n t e r v i e w op. cit „ 24 Robert Elsasser, private i.nterview, op c it.

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73 2 5 ^^y-£l-^Il ^ '^'^i^JiB^^ L:P^"'(£U'-^"^y' Series 20,, Number 14, November'~T, 'ISUQ, p.""2D.' 26 Ibid., V 26 TK :>id. pp 7-9 Bulletin of lularu? Univ ££5 ij: y Series 39, Nuntber 11, August 15,~1'938', pp. "13^7" 29 Hal ley IReed, Elsasser, and Buchan, privi=ite i n t e r y i e w s ,, o ;p_. c 1 1 3 Bulletin of Till an e Un iversity Series 39, Number 11, August 157"r9T87 pT TS; 3 1 R i c h a r d B a irm b a c h p r i v a t e i n t e ir v i e w op cit R. 0. Simpson, private interi^iew, op. cit. Aldrich apparently used his class as a forum for any subject. For example, on one occasion, Aldrich assessed the legal profession by stating that, "Lawyers are like baboons, the higher they climb up the pole, the more they show their asses," These remarks were recalled by his students many years later, 32 Bulletin o£ Tulan£ University, Series 20, Nuniber 14, November 1, 1919", pp." 19=117" ;> .*) Ibid. 3 '4 '^iljJiSill} 9l Tulane University, Series 39, Number 11, Au gu s t 15, 1 9'3'8 7 PP •* '2 1 -Til £2^_£1 3 5 1 D r d p /. / Hal ley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private interviews 37 Leverett S ,, Lyon, Education For Bijs_ines£ (Chicago University of Chicago, 1922), pp 348--351.

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74 Bulietiii of Tulaxus University, Series 39, Number 11, Au gu St 15, 1'9 3 S7"p" 1 8 39 Ibid., p. 19. •1 R o b e r t E 1 s a s s e r p r i v a t. e i n t e r v i e w oji-i—Jzil. • 41 Hal ley, Reed, Elsasser^ and Bucha:n, private interviews, op c i t ; A:!jjraiii Q'uestJ onna ire School History P r j e c t A ii g ii s t 19 73. 42 Pier son J The Education of American Bu sinessmen; PI").. 42-46; Walter JMatherly, "The' RelatT^nsTiip bi'tlie School of Business to the College of Liberal Arts," AACSE Proceedings, March, 1937, pp. 5-8. 43 Pier son 5 The EdiK:a_^ion of American Businessmen, pp. 287-290. 44 Ibid., Donald Halley, private interview, 02^_cjl14 5 Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project, August 46 Donald Halley, private interview, o£_.__cit. 4 7 James H. S. Bossard and J. Frederic Devjhurst,_ University Education For Business (Philadelphia: University oFTelinyTi vfiTi 'a"' P r e s' s 1 9 3 IT p 2 8 8 48 "Budget: College of Commerce and Business Admd.nistration, 1913-1939," Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana p. 1. 49 Leslie J, Buchan, private interview, op. cit.

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75 50 Bulletin of Tulaive Uni/versi ty Series 59, Number 11, August 15, 1938, p. 15 5] B u d ? e t : C o 1 1 e g e o f C o mm e r c e a n d. Business A d iri 1 ii 1 s t rat: ion 5 1913-1939," oi3 c_it 1. Halley, Rccd, Elsasser, and Buchan, priArate intervievjs, op^^ cit ; Alumni Q u e s t. i o nn a i r e School History Project, A u gust, 1 9 7 3 5 5 Elsasser, private interview, op ^ 'Li J^ • 54 Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emerg en c e of 'the Airiericari ^4r'-iYJ^^^iJ-y^ (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, i96SJ ppj." ;ro3-3'04. 5 5 Dyer, Tulane, pp. 2 39-240 56 Rufus C Harris (former president of Tulane Univers 1 tv private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973 IbM,, Harris said that the Tulane Board of Admin^ istrators ordered him to enforce the retirement rule. 58 ^yQ^> Tulane, pp.. 241-242. 5 9 Aldrich is recognized as a pioneer in collegiate busir^ess education. He helped to organize and was a national officer in the American Association for Collegiate Schools of Business 60 Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private interviews, pp.__cj.t. These men and others on the faculty and staff of the'Tolleg'e, at the time, said that Aldrich was embittered at having to retire. Rufus Harris said in an inter view that he 1-uiew Aldrich was a proud man and that he did not want to retire. Harris, however, maintained that his "hands

PAGE 91

76 the Tulane Board ordered, him to enforce the has no recollection o£ any formal dean, and he recalled that he a f t e r A ]. d r i c h s re t i r e m e n t I n ivere tied" because r e t i r e m e n t r u 1 e K a r r i s attempts by Aldrich to remain and Aldrich reniained friends A 1 d r i c ]'\ 1 e a d a r c c 1 u s i v e I i f e several occasions, he Although he was retirement, honored by alumni on several occasions, he refuse He died on May 9, 1956, in New Orleans ^A to 'eturn to the canvDus

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CHAPTER IV A DECADE OF CHANGE: THE BiJCHAN YEARS, 1939-1949 The College of Commerce was viewed, -as the most vocationally oriented college at Tulane. Its faculty and students continued to be discredited by the rest of the university as o V e r 1 )' con c e r n e d w i t h j o b p r e p a r a t i o Ti A n d the b u s i n ess curriculum was judged to be unworthy of university status, l^hen combined v,'ith a decentralized fiscal organization which placed colleges in direct competition with one another, the low status of the college resulted in its isolation within the university, A^'ery few people at Tulane knew or cared about what was happening in the college. For its part, the college witlidrew frosii participation in university affairs. The isolation and low status of the College of Commerce changed during the forties. This was caused by three important and interrelated factors: the efforts of President Harris to uiiify Tulane and create a modern university; the efforts of Leslie J. Buchan, the newly appointed dean, of the college, to modernize its curriculum and bring it into a closer working relationship with the rest of Tulane; and, the impact of World War II upon the organization of the university. President Harris knew very little about the internal affairs of the College of Coninierce, He knevj it was popular, both among vocationally orieirted students and among local businessmen. He also knew that it was isolated from and thought to be inferior to the rest of the universitv -^ What 7 7

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78 Harris knew concerned h;im because he felt that l^ulane would not realize greatness until its colleges were organized into an integrated v/hole and offered substantial, aniversit)'' level work. To this end, Harris wanted the College of Conimerce to offer a, two-on-two program combining general and professional courses or a three-on-two program similar to that offered by the College of Law. Harris reasoned that this would bring the College of Commerce closer to the university and enable it to focus its efforts on developing more substantial professional offerings. Harris' views were shared by the new dean of the college, Leslie J. Buchan.. Buchan a native of Iowa trained in accounting at the University of Illinois, had been hired by Aid rich in 19 30 as a professor of accounting. As one of the "Nine Old Men" of the college, Buchan was representative of the type of faculty which Aldrich recruited-he had a master's degree, successful business experience (he had been a partner in an accounting firm in Mia'mi, Florida), and was interested in teaching undergraduate courses. Buchan quickly realized that the program and people of the college suited him as well as he was suited to them. In recruiting Buchan, Aldrich emphasized that although the college did not have high admission standards, it did have high standards of performance. The small size of the college (compared with most state, institutions) and the closeness among the faculty and students also attracted Buchan.'

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79 It was up to Harris to appoint a new dean when Aid rich retired; faculty search committees vvere not used at Tulane in 1939. Harris knew what he wanted in a dean-— someone young and willing to help him enhance the status of the college and bring it closer to the university "^^^ It soon became apparent that Buchan shared Harris' view that the time had come to put aside the intercollege rivalries which were traditional at Tulane. Buchan also felt that the freshman and sophomore years of the business program were best spent in the College of Arts and Sciences. Beyond this, and of great interest to Harris, was Buchan 's desire to raise adiirission standards, insplement a Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) prograiT!, and develop a division of research within the college. This convergence of ideas about the future of the college combined with Aldr'ich's recommendation that Buchan was "more than just an accountant" led Harris to decide that Buchan should be the next dean..-' The third source of change during this period was V/orld War II. When Buchan took over in the summer of 1939, Europe was once again threatened with the outbreak of war. By the tine the college opened its doors in September that threat had become a reality. The war in Europe and the fear that America would soon be drawn into it caused a particular uneasiness in tlie university community. The question as to what would liapoen to Tulane in the event of American involvement was frequently discussed. The war could cripple the Mrs.&r^mat •mna-' ut t^rtJCMri.^

PAGE 95

80 uiiiversity the conscription of students and faculty and the realignment of national, priorities in terms of higher education could have forced Tulane to suspend operations temporarily ^ When AiTierica declared war in 1941, President Harris offered all of the resources of the university to assist in the war effort, Harris later traveled to Wasiiington to investigate the possibilities of assuring Tulane' s continued operation. He returned with an agreement which had been negotiated with tlie United States Navy. The new program (V-12} called for Tulane to coordinate the training of commissioned officers (Tulane had just received a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps program). The money received from the Department of the Navy and the priority status afforded the university enabled Tulane to continue operation throughout the war years. The 'war brought numeroLss changes to Tulane. Navy personnel not only took courses, but v/ere housed, fed, and given basic mijj.tary training on caiiipus. More importantly, in order to do business x^/ith the Navy, Tulane had to restructure its fiscal organization. The Navy insisted upon centralized budgeting and finance. This requirement forced, the very changes that Harris and Buchan wanted. Thus, the war precipitated the centralization of Tulane and was,, for some, a blessing in disguise,-^ As the war helped Tulane organize itself along the lines I rjvfrj-oe^'iarJSj*-^

PAGE 96

of a modern university, it also helped the College of Conmerce in its inovemcnt toward niodernization and meeting the goals established by Buchan. Because of the moi'e iniiriediately practical and vocational nature of business education, the College of Coimnerce received a substaiitial portion of the Navy V-12 students. (Tlie College of Engineeriiig also received a subs t. a n t .1 a 1 n umb e r o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s ) ]\ 1 s o ,, b e g i n n i n g i, n M a i" c h 1944, the college was selected as a Naval Pre-Supply School, one of nine in the nation."-^ The combination of the V-12 and Pre --Supply programs assured the college of a constant supply of well qualified students. The war also brought the college closer to the rest of Tulane, The aforementioned fiscal reorgani.zation meant that colleges of the university were no longer competing for student revenues and students could freely enroll in courses outside of their college. And, in addition to centralized budgeting, centralized purchasing and receiving brought the College of Conimerce (along v/ith most of the other colleges) closer to the operation of the university. With respect to students, centralized registration and commencement encouraged a sense that they v/ere all Tulane stud.ents who happened to be stud>'ing in one of its colleges. Also, a high percentage of students eni'olled m the College of Commerce were navy trainees who focused much of their attention upon mili t a r y a c t i viti.es. Th i s r e d u c e d t h e i. r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the college. Finally, Buchan' s skills as an organizer and

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82 administrator were quickly recognized by Harris who appointed him as his assistant. Buchan administered the Navy V--i2 program throughout the university and vras one of a handful of presidential advisors who fiscally restructured ,,, 11 1 ulane The changing position of the college within the university was but one of many i^irportant changes experienced during the decade of the forties. Internal changes in the curricula, students, and faculty of the college came at an accelerated rate during and after World War II. The college even changed location during this period, obtaining a long overdue facility of its own. Although John Dyer, in his history of Tulane, suggests that the Buchan years (1939-49) were largely a continuation of the policies and practices established by Aldrich, closer examination of the college reveals that although Buchan held Aldrich in great esteem, he brought about significant changes as dean. Although the stated aim of the college remained unchanged throughout the forties, the program established to realize that aimi was revised extenslA/ely The m.ost important changes in the college were its increasingly foiTfialized organization into divisions; the development of a new research division (May, 1940); the establishment of a graduate division (May, 1940); the revision of the undergraduate program; the development of special programs (most of which were connected with the war effort) : the

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83 transfer of the ex,^ening program to the newly organized University College; and, the organization of the Departnient of nconoraics at Tulane in the College of Commerce. Ta.keTi together these changes reflect an effort to raise the level of work offered by the college 3s well as an effort to integrate the college's program into that of the rest of T u 1 a n e 'Ih e s e c h a li g e s a 1 s o reflect t h e coll e g e s re s p o n. s e to the wartime emergency. During his first year as dean, Buchan organized the college into four divisions by retaining the undergraduate and night divisions and creating the graduate and research divisions. Although these separate divisions were deemed necessary for adniinistrative reasons, all phases of the 17 college'^ s activities were directed by one faculty. The limited number of faculty still made departmental organisation unnecessary. Initially, the organization of the college into various divisions had little real effect other than to provide a semblance of sophistication to the college's progra-m. Indeed, at the time that these divisions were organized (1940) only the undergraduate and night divisions had any substantial offerings. One of Buchan' 5 challenges as dean was to give substance to the new divisions he had established. The division of business research was deeply rooted in the utilitarian orientation of the Aldrich years. The division was created to perform applied research for the local

PAGE 99

84 business community. The college recognised that researching business problems which were :n.eglt?cted by individual businesses was a necessary part of its professional responsibility.' Research was to be conducted by members of the faculty, assisted by Fellows of the graduate division, and counseled by an advisory committee of business leaders. Although very few college-wide projects developed out of the research division, numerous studies conducted by individual classes were presented to local businessmen. These research activities provided opportunities for students to study local businesses and to display their skills to prospective employers „ Of equal importance were the ties developed and maintained befween the college and the local business community. Unfortunately y the program, at least during the F r t i e s n. e v e r d e v e 1 o p e d b e y o )i d the a c t i v i t i e s of a f e w professors. Part of the problem was that the war diverted the college's attention to teaching, The research division did not begin to realize its full potential until the Fifties Closely connected iv-ith the development of the research division was the initiation of the Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.) program in May of 1940. This was one of Buchan's early goals for the college. He believed that tiie establishment of an M.B.A. program would improve the undergraduate program and enhance the college's status in the university community. More specifically, Buchan believed t h a t t h e M B A pro g r a m w o u 1 d e n c o u r a g e fa c I'J. t > develop in e n t

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85 and provide a core of researclisrs who could serve the local 1 r business comniunity '^"^ The general regulations applied to the M.B.A. program remained basically unchaiiged for the decade that Buclian was dean. :3l:iidents were admitted to the program with either a bachelor's degree in business or coniiiiercial studies or any b ^^ c h e 1 o r • s d e g r e e f r o in a recognized i n s t: i t u t i o n G r a d u a t e s of recognized colleges of commerce were expected to complete the program i.n one year (thirty semester hours) while graduates with no prior commercial training were expected to take 1 5 tisfo years of work (sixty semester hours)."" All students were required to take six semester hours of economics (three hours of economic history and three hours of economic theory) and six seraester hours of thesis research and writing. Courses 'available for graduate credit were offered d.n such fields as accounting., economics, labor, loanagement ,, mar17 Ice ting, and finance. The major change m graduate course offerings from 1940 to 1950 was a significant expansion of the number of economics courses. This resulted from moving the economics department into the College of Commerce (see below, P. 92) Although the graduate prograirs held the pronsise of improving and modernizing the college > it suffered the same slow beginning that afflicted the research division. For one thing, the faculty was unprepared for and uninterested iin graduate training. Also, the job market for graduates in an M.B.A. program was almost non-existent in New Orleans.

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86 Finally, and most importantly, the college's cojimitment to train large numbers of undergraduates left the faculty v^ith little time or energy to devote to a graduate program. '' As a consequence, graduate students rarely consisted of more than five percent of the full-time enrollment of the college throughout the forties. A cycle u'as in evidence with regard to graduate training in the college-the program received little attention because there were so fen students involved, and students were not attracted to a program that "was, for the most part, only an extension of the undergraduate division. Despite the slow growth of graduate training, a comiTiitirient had been made to begin a program which would figure prominently in the history of the college. Although substantial changes occurred in the undergraduate program, some of what had been established during Aldrich's quarter century as dean remained when Buchan left in 1949. T'he four -year curriculum, for example, was retained. This curriculum v;as more popular than the twoontwo curriculum among the nation's collegiate schools of business. This popularity resulted from the ease with which a college program could be unified, coordinated, and con19 trolled.' Despite these advantages, Buchan felt that the college's program could be strengthened by having the student study a year or two v^rithin the arts college before entering the program. But Buclian experienced student, faculty, and alumni resistance to change and the disruptions

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8 7 wn lich World War II brought to the college/'" The war brought evented opportunities to initiate change m some a.reas and pi change in o theirs Buchan's inability to drop the four-year curriculiim did not preclude substantial changes within that curriculuiu. An analysis of the prescribed curricula of the college from 1939 to 1949 T'cveals sign,if icant changes in the proportion of courses taken in and out of the college, courses required as general business courses, and professional electives. Courses taken out of the college were taught by the faculty of another college while the student was enrolled in the College of Comnierce. General business courses itfere required courses in business of a foundational nature which, in current language, could be called a core curricului!' (accounting or econojTiics, for example). .All of these courses were taught by the college faculty. Professional electives were business courses which students could select in addition to the required core of general business courses. Froni 1939 to 1949, the proportions of these three types of courses changed dramatically. In 1939, students could take th.eir entire program v^ithin the College of CoiiuTierce. By 194.9, students were taking fortytwo hours (or thirtyfive per cent of their degree requirements) outside of the College of Commerce. Some of these courses were required (mathematics, english, and foreign language) and others were electives taken in other colleges. It might be added that

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88 this suggests iiiiproved relations betv/een the college and the rest of the imiversit^,. On a, percentage basis, the general business courses (core) changed slightlyfrom fortyfive percent of degree requirements in 1339, to fifty percent in 1949. T'he general business courses required in 1939 consisted of sixty hours offered in the freshman and sophomore years and included courses in econo"mics, accounting, market ing business English, and business raatheraatics By l'JA9, however, the type of core courses required for a degree became more firmly established. Students were required to take sixty hours of general business courses spread throughout the four years of the program. These courses included, economics (eighteen hours) accounting (nine liours) ^ marketing (six hours) business law (six hours), management (six hours), economic statistics (six hours), finance (three hours), and hnglish (six hours ) Because much of the 1949 undergraduate curriculujn of the college was required^ the number of professional electives was significantly reduced. A total of eighteen hours could be taken, as professional electives (fifteen percent of 1 1 a. 1 d e g r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s ) in 19 49. Th e s e e 1 e c t i v e s w ere 2 4 available only to juniors and seniors. '' This was a significant reduction from the number of hours offered as professional electives in 19 39 --sixty hours, thirty each in the junior and senior years.'""

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89 Undergraduate course offerings during this period reflected the grovvth of the college and the establishmeiit of a core of general busi:nes5; courses. From 19 39 to 1949 the total number of undergraduate day courses offered jiiiriped from fortyseven to seventy-one, while the subject areas dropped from sixteen to thirteen. More significantly, over seventyfive per cent of the courses offered in 1949 were offered in five areas: economj.cs (twenty-one courses); accounting (fifteen courses) ; marketing (nine courses) ; management (five courses); and finance (five courses)." Without fornially fiimouncing the establishment of a core curriculum of general business courses the college had developed one both in terms of the required program of study 3nd the number of courses offered in these subjects. In this way, the college reflected the national trend toward stan77 dardization of collegiate business curricula/" It might be added that the development of a core of required general business courses precluded the growth of narrowly focused specialization at the undergraduate level. This was consistent with the generalist tradition established by Alcirich. The undergraduate program of the college remained dedicated to providing students with substantial training in a number of general business courses, not to training students in a f i eld of s p e c i a 1 i z a t i o xi In addition to the regular undergraduate curriculum, a number of special prograrns v/ere implemented. These programs

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90 were often related to the training of personnel for the American war effort. In 1941-42, students xn the college were either deferred as trainees for essential occupations or designated as Army Reserve Enlistees or Navy V-l/V-7 students. The V-1 and V-7 students were juniors and seniors v/ho v/ere allovi/ed to coraplete their studies before induction into the Navy. In June, 19 43, amidst the confusion of government attempts to mobilize its raanpower resources, the Army called up its Reserve Enlistees '^^ This left the college with only civilian and Navy students. In Ji;ly, 1943, the Navy V-1 and V-7 programs were merged into a V~12 nroeram which included underclassmen as well as j u n i r s ar^ d s e n i o r 7 r One of the most important aspects or the Navy procrani was the acceleration of the college's calendar from two to three semesters per year,. Although this acceleration caused difficulty m coordinating the college calendar with others at Tulane, the entire university was soon placed on an accelerated basis. Students responded favorably to the accelerated program. Faculty, on the other hand J were concerned about its impact upon the quality of instruction. They were also disappointed that their pay for teaching an additional semester would be raised by only onethird instead of the expected one-half." Th e f i r s t m a j o r ch an g e in t h e V 1 2 p r o g r a m c a m e i n M a r c ] v 1944 when th.e college was designated as one of nine Navy PreSupply schools in the country. Students entered the Pre-

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91 Supply program after completing two semesters o£ college. After four semesters of Pre-Supply training, successful students entered the Navy Supply School which had been established in the Graduate School of Busiaess at Harvard University. Students at Idilane who would have entered tlie V-12 program, entered the Pre-Supply school instead. At the end of the 1944-45 session, the first and only group of Pre-Supply trainees graduatedAs the war ended, the various emergency nroorams which the coilece had administered for the Navy were gradually merged into the Tuiane Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTCj "' Aside from war related changes in the college's curriculum, three otjier changes occurred while Buchan was dean. The first of these changes was really the revitalizat ion of an old idea-the combined Commerce -Law program. In 1940--41, Buchan re-established this program in conjunction with the College of Law. Although the prograsii had failed to generate interest in the 1920' s, Buchan believed that commercial studies provided a good foundation upon which legal training could be based. The program allowed a student to enter the College of Law after three years in the College of Commerce. At the end of his first year in the law college, the student received a B.B.A., and at the end of his third year, he received a Bachelor of Laws."^'^ To Buchan, the program also brought the college closer to the rest of the university and enabled other colleges to see the "... high caliber of

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yz '^4 training offered in our college,"' Despite a promising start in which several commercelaw students received special recognition, in the university, tAie program once again tloundered in the wake of the college's wartime activities. A more controversial and important change in the college was the formation o£ a universitywide Department of Economics controlled by the College of Commerce. Before the 1946-47 academic year, the study of economics at Tulane was spread throughout three colleges: Arts and Sciences 5 Newcomb (the women's college), and Commerce and Business Adniinistration. This fragmentation resulted in the duplication of certain courses and inadequate offerings because in, each of the three colleges, the economics department consisted of one or two faculty iTienibers. Buchan recognized the low state of economics at Tulane and proposed that the various departments be unified and expanded to develop a progra,iii worthy of university status. Buchan 's pleas were well received by President Harris 35 wiio organized the new departraent in the Colle,ge of Commerce."" Placing the University Department of Econorrdcs in the College of Commerce provided economics with an organizational and administrative structure necessary to raise its position in tl^e university. Also, the generally accepted status of economics as a legitimate academic discipline enhanced the status of the College of Commerce in the university community. Yet, if it was a good move for both economics and the college, it was not a juove without controversy.

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93 Academically J it sparked a controversy between theoretical and applied economists > This debate among professional econoffiist.s centered around the purposes of economics as an 1:1 c a d e ill i c d i s c i p 1 i n e a ri d w a s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t !i e d e b a t e between advocates of liberal culture and utilitarian education. Politically, the move seemed to provide evidence that while Buchan assi.sted in centralizing the fiscal operation of Tulane, he Vv'as also trying to extend his control over certain portions of it," Finally, within the college j economics now dominated what was heretofore a carefully balanced coiribinaion of faculty and courses. All of these issues arose immediately,, but were overshadowed by the war. Only later did they return as significant points of controversy both in the college and in the university." The third cirange implemented by Buchan. vvas to transfer the college's entire Night Division to the nev/lv created University College of Tulane. Since its organization in 1914, the College of Commerce had m.aintained an extensive progra.m of courses for part-time students at night. These courses were immensely popular in the local business community and were a source of pride to the college. Night courses were taught mainly by full-time faculty who used the same texts as in day courses and required the same level of performance. Although night students received a certificate for the completion of eight night courses, no college credit was eainied. A similar type of program had been developed in the Division

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94 for Teachers at Tulane. This program, directed to furthering the education of in-service teachers and providing a mechanism to enable students in the College of Arts and Sciences to obtain state teacher certification, enjoyed a popularity among students similar to that of the College of CounTierce s Night Division. As part of an etfort to centralize tne part-time programs at Tulane and to enable business students to obtain college credit for their work. University College was organized in the 1942-43 session. University College, modeled upon a similar college at Washington University in St. Louis, was so named because it offered courses selected from various colleges of the university. Its creation enabled Tulane to meet the needs of those unable to attend a university full-time. Also, by expanding its continuing or adult education program, Tulane v/as able to tap a lucrative educatiojial market and serve local community needs. This was especially importaTit because the war had reduced the full-time student population. The elevation of the evening program to college status gave it the legitimacy required to attract students and to pacify faculty members who shunned part-time college work. Students could now receive a degree from Tulane by attending part-time. Instead of a certificate, business students who successfully completed the iirescribed program would be awarded the degree of Piachelor of Commercial Science (B.C.. S.l. Altiujugh the creation of University College stripped the

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95 College of Commerce of one o£ its inost popular and financially s u c c e s s f !.i i p r o g r am s r e a c t i. o n 'rf i t h i n the c o 1 1 e g e w a s m i n i m a ]. ., For one thing, the University College program was unchanged f T ffi t h e N i g ri t D .i,. vision of t h c c o 1 1 e g e • 1 h e s a lii e c o u r s e s texts, and instructional staff were used.'" Also, the fulltime day program was strong and the loss of evening revenues was unimportant in light of the fiscal centralization of Tulane. The college, for the most part, controlled the University College commercial program. This was assured because Buchan had been named Assistant Director of University College. In t!ie years after Buchan, the commercial program of University College gradually developed courses and personnel independent of the College of Commerce, Changes in the college's program were paralleled by changes in the faculty during the forties. The number of full-time faculty, for example, increased from fifteen in 4 \ 19 39 to twenty -three in 1949. '^ Although a fifty per cent increase is significant, the college remained small when compared to state collegiate business institutions. More important than the number of faculty members was their level of training. Only one member of the full-time faculty in 1939 had received a doctorate. By 1949, hov/ever, eleven of the 44 twenty-three had completed doctoral training. The dramatic increase in the level of training of the full-time faculty resulted, in part, from the incorporation of the economics department into the college's program. Mem-

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96 bers of that department who came into the College of Commerce from other colleges at Tulane as well as those who were hired from outside, x-iere generally trained at the doctoral level. Also, as a ptirt of his plan to upgrade the program of the college and its status in the university community. Dean Buchan established a plan whereby full-time faculty could receive partial pay while working on their doctorate. Hugh Carnes, Harry Mitchell, and Buchan hiiiiself received doctorates under this plan. Finally, graduate schools of business were training more students at the doctoral level, and colleges of business throughout the country were eagerly hiring them. The college thus reflected the national trend toward more highly 45 trained faculties. Tlie recruitment of new faculty presented problems-Buchan found it difficult to attract well qualified personnel. Positions in government and business generally offered better pay. (This difficulty was experienced by colleges of business throughout the country.) At Tulane, this problen) was compounded by the feeling that southern universities v,-ere particularly disadvantaged. Candidates for faculty positions feared thiat southern universities \\'eTe backward and out of the rfiainstreai^^ of professional activity.. Prospective faculty also expressed concern about the quality of education available for their children. Whether or not these fears were well founded is not important; what is important is that they were generally held and they inade Buchan 's task all the rp. r e d i f f i c u 1 1

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9 7 The general ist, utilitarian orientation of the fa.culty which had. been developed and iTiaintained. by Aldrich remained essentially unchanged throughout Buchan's deanship. what had been almost exclusively an undergraduate teaching faculty, remained an undergraduate faculty. The main reason for this \vas that the war required the faculty to devote most of its time and effort to an accelerated undergraduate program., The only major non-teaching activity of the faculty v;as consulting with local and regional business and governmental agencies 47 and delivering occasional addresses to local civic groups. Other traditional faculty activities such as research, publishing, and graduate training were postponed.. Also delayed -, 4 8 was a faculty study ot the undergraduate curricuiuin. The relationship of the dean to the faculty of the college changed. Although seven of the original "Nine Old Men" reniainedj the increased size and professionalization of the faculty took ,its toll-the intimacy of the Aldrich days was gone. And, despite Buchan's admiration o£ the personal administrative style or Aldrich, he did not model his administration upon ith'"^ Most importantly, Buchan implemented numerous, far reaching changes v/hich occasioned considerable anxiety in the college and university. More often than not, these changes ivere made without faculty consultation. Yet, Buchan found the college faculty cooperative. The tradition of strong administrative leadership developed by Aldrich had resulted in a faculty which Buchan found to be too passive and accepting or Jii3.s decisions.

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9 8 The number and type of students served by the college chanced dramatically during the period of Buchan's deanship. When Buchan took over as dean in 1939, there were 262 day students and 682 night students enrolled,'' With the transier of the night division to University College, the college's enrollment vv^as reduced to onethird its former size.. Then, with the American invol'vement in Vforld V/ar II and the college's participation in various naval training programs, the lull-time day enrollment tripled to 757 in 1945. Full-time student enrollments remained high. The G.i. Bill of Rights enabled himdreds of returning veterans to enroll in fulltime programs in the college. By the end of the decade, the day enrollment had stabilized to 500 ^ twice the number of fulltime students in 19 39,. An important consequence of the great influx of students into the college was a loss of the intimacy v^hich had become a hallmark of the college. Most indicative of this were problems with the student-operated honor system. Despite the support of the dean, faculty, and a majority of students, the growth of the student population brought forth a series of violations of the honor code heretofore unknovsrn in the college. ^'^ Also, the increased size of the student body ^^/as not accompanied by an increase in the number of faculty until after the war.^"^ As a result, the faculty taught more students and taught in fields for which they had little prepa r a t i o n T h e c o s t i n t e r m s o f ins t r u c t i o n a 1 q u a 1 i t y w a s

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99 noticeable. Students and faxulty alike expressed concern. 54 but were hopeful that wartime conditions would be temporary, The wartisiie and postwar growth of student enrollments was not, however J disastrous. If the war and G.I. Bill brought stud.ents to the college in unprecedented and almost unmanageable numbers, it also brought students of greater maturity and geographic and intellectual diversity. This was especially true of the veterans who x^oured into the college. These men brought a maturity and competitive spirit which impressed both the faculty and non-veteran student alike. Veteran students lA^ere serious, diligent, sophisticated, and so ambitious that the faculty vv'as concerned that they dominated 5S the college's student population.*' Veterans did indeed, for a while, dominate curricular and extra-curricular activities as well as the social life of the student body. Seventeen and 56 eighteen yearold freshmen x^fere no match for the veterans. Students of the college became increasingly active in the university. The liberalized curriculum, especially for freshmen and sophomores, brought students into direct contact v^ith the rest of Tulane. Coinmerce students perforiiied. consistently well in courses outside of the college and were increasingly active in every aspect of university life from fraternities and sororities, to student government and intercol 1 e g i a t e a t h 1 e t i c s T h i s g r a d u a 1 1 y d i spelled t h e not i o n that coiiniiercc students v./ere academically backward and preoccupied with vocational concerns. And, the waning intimacy

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100 and esprj t de corus among students in the college was partially ol'fset by an eirierging Tulane ("Green Wave") spirit. The most concrete evidence of the changes which occurred during the Forties was the constructiori of a facility devoted exclusively to the college's activities. The new building, coRStructed of limestone in the prevailing roiiianesque style of surrounding buildings was symbolic of the integration of the college's program with the rest of Tulane and its improved status in the iiRiversity comTrnmity. As a part of the estate o£ the late Norman Mayer, a successful New Orleans cotton broker, the funding of the new building reflected the traditionally close ties of the college to the local business community. Although lacking formal business training himself, Norman Mayer had great faith in higher education for business. This v/as first expressed when b.e became one of the original Guarantors of the college. Mayer died in 19 37, and his widow wanted his raeraory to be perpetuated ." Mrs. Mayer's attorney, Monte Leraann, had been a student of Morton Aldrich and was a strong supporter of the college, Lemann suggested that a gift to the university for the purpose of constructing a building to house the College of Coifimerce would be appropriate. Mrs. Mayer agreed and bequeathed the suni of three 5 Q hundred thousand dollars to the College of Commerce. The terms of the gift called for the construction of two buildings, the Norman Mayer Memorial, to house the college, and the Norffian Mayer Library ^ specifically for the collegers

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101 6 collection. Construction on the Norman Mayer Meniorial began in 1940 and was completed by February of 1942,, Library construction was delayed because of a shortage of material 5 occassioned by tlie war. After the war, the money available to build the library vas insufficient, and it was agreed that an addition to the original structure would meet the terms of o 1 Mrs. Mayer's bequest. This construction began in 1947 and on May 11 > 1949, the entire structure I'la.s dedicated. Speakers at the dedication ceremonies focused their remarks upon the close relationship of the college to the local business community and upon the j.ncreasingly important role of university level business training. Utilitarian ideas about the func6 2 tion of a university in society echoed in the halls. The new building was a monument to the college's success. The popularity which had enabled it to remain financially viable and independent of Tulane during the Aldrich years, \\ras now so great that the college became a source of revenue 6 3 for the university. The decade of Buchan's tenure as dean witnessed an almost five-fold increase in the college's annual budget. More importantly, the net income of the college from 3 939 until 1949 was in excess of three hundred and 64 fifty thousand dollars. These monies went into the university coffers. Given the perennial financial crises of Tulane, and the fact that raost colleges operated on a deficit, the College of Commerce was indeed an asset to the university.

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1 2 The relationship of the college to the local business community was likewise successful. The close ties established by Aldrich were maintained and strengthened, An important part of this was Buchan s understanding of the history of the college and its debt to local businessmen. The most iiiiportant change during this period, hoivever, re (paired very little o£ Buchan or the college. As graduates of the college rose to prominence in the New Orleans business and civic community, relations improved because tlie college could now call upon its alumni ^•''^ These alumni credited the college with much of their success and were vigorous supporters of its activities. Although the college did not need their direct financial support, their assistance in such areas as hiring graduates and providing field experiences and relevant 66 business cases for students was vital." By the end of the decade, many of the changes envisioned by Buchan had been realized. The college was a more integral part of Tuiane, and its program had been modernized and expanded to include professional training at the graduate level. Buchan 's administrative and organizational skill earned him, considerable respect within the university commLinity. It also led to an increasingly heavy schedule. Each year seemed to add yet another responsibility. By 1946, Buchan, in addition to serving as dean of the college, was also functioning as assistant to the president (acting as the comptroller of the university) >. assistant director of University

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10 3 College, acting director of riiaiiitenance for the university, and. secretary of the American Association of Collegiate 6 7 Schools of Business, These positions, especially as dean and assistant to the president, called for Buchan to formulate and implenient new policies which centralized authority at Tulane. These policies were difficult for some to accept, and because Buchan was rarely diplomatic, conflicts arose. '' The worh, the pressure, and the persistent conflicts led Buchan to attempt to disengage himself from the affairs of the university and to focus his attention on the college. When his attenrpts met with only partial success, Buchan decided to leave Tulane altogether. He accepted an offer to administer the fiscal affairs of Washington University in St. Louis beginning in July of 19 49.*^^ The forties were indeed a decade of change for the college. Its growth and improved status in the university, the standardization and modernisation of its curricula, and the preliminary development of new and promising psrograrn.s niarked significant advances. Yet, much reiaained to be done. The graduate and research divisions, for example,, needed additi.onal attention and financial support in order to develop more substantial offerings. Also, the programs of the college and the activities of its faculty needed to be more effectively promoted in the region. As the decade closedj the college changed deans and was once again confronted with

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1G4 the question of how the professional businessman might best b e e dii c a t e d ., In it s d t:^ 1 i b e r a t i o n s an a 1 m o s t i rnp e r c e p t i b 1 e yet significant difference emergedThe college had to answer the question, not as an independent college, but as an integi'al part of Tulane University.

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NOTEi Rufus C. Harris (former president of Tulane) private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973. Ibid. L e s lie:; J „ B u c h. a n p r i v a t e in t e r v i e v/ N e w r 1 e a n s L u i s i a, ii a. A u g u s t 10, 1973 A. ""Rufus C. Harris, priv.y.te interview, 0£. c i t .. ^Ibi_d. Harrisdecision to appoint Buchan surprised a number ofThe faculty who believed that Aldrich 'was grooraing Robert Elsasser to become Jiis successor. Elsasser felt that i I arris refused to appoint him because he was independent like AJ.drich. Hovever, Harris insisted that Aldrich recommended Buchan ^'John P. Dyer (the historian of Tulanej private interview^ SJidell, Louisiana, April 14, 1973. 'Rufus C. Harris, private interview, on. cit "jGim P, Dyer, private interview, o_p c_i_t 9 'Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. crt. 10 E/ulletin of 'Ilie Julajie Unive_rs_it)_';; _o;f ho!;,ii-Ai<-ijia {(ioilcge oF I'omme'rce and Business Adininistfation) SerFes 45, Number' 14, December 1, 1944, p. 12. 11. .... Rurus C. Harris, private interview, o p ci_t ; Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, q_p cijt. 1 7 "''Bull£t.in of Tulane University, Series 41, Number 9, July 15 19 40', pF 14.' 13 Ibid. p. 17. "'Leslie J, Budian, private interview, 15,, ] b 1 a 5

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106 "'Bulletin of Tulane Univer5;ity, Series 41, Number 9 July 15, 1940, p. 40 ''jbid.. pp. 41-59. 18,,., 'Report of the Dean: College of Commerce and iiusiness Administration, Session 19461947 ," in Re£PJt ojf the i^resideiit of Tuljirie ^^InJ. ve r s l_t y Series 48 j Number 1?), 'Novembef, 194 7,7 p. 30. 1 'Frank C. Pier son, e_t al T_he ric.hicat-J..on of Aiiiericjin BusinessiP^en (New York: McGra/w-Hii T, ID'SQ)"," pp. 225-226 2 Leslie J. Buchan, private mteryiew, op_. cit_. 21 "''Bull etin of Tulane IJliver.liiv Series 40, Number 8, July 1, 19 59"'/" pp. "is"20. 77 2 "^ •''Bulletin ot Tulane U nive rsity Series 49, Number 12, October J 194'8 ," pp f 27-2"8, "' '" """ 2 4,. J b i_d ^^ Bull eti n of Tulane Uni vers ity Series 40, Number 8, July 1, 19 39rpp. '"l9-'2 0. 26 Bu ll etin of TiJj-J-''' Un ive rsity, Series 49, Number 12, October, 1948 /"ppT 33-48. ^^E. T. Grether, "The Development of the AACSB Core Curriculum," in The American Associ at ion of Collegiate Schools of Business oy' Charles J. Dirksen, 'et""al." (.Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc, 1966), p." 147. 2 3 '"Report ot the Dean: College ot Commerce and Business Adniinistrat i.on Session 1942-1943," in Kepcrrt of Ibil Pre sid ent Series 45, Number 8, July 1, 1944 ,"~p". ""297 2Q 30 J!on,ald M. (lalley (Pro lessor ]:meritus of the college), private interview, Nex\? Orleans, bouisiana, April 25, 1973:

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lo; Leslie J. Buchan, private interview^ od. cit. 31 ""''Report of tiie Dean: College of Commerce and Business Administration, Session 1943-1944/' in Report o_f the Pres ident, Series 46, Number 1, February ," 194^7 p 26. ^^ Ibid Series 47, Number 8, July, 1946, p. 24. 3 3 :!i ul-^-Otin Gi_ T u 1 an e Univer s_i tj S e r i e s 41, Numb e r 9 Ju ly 15,, 194 O", pp" ." 3 1 3 2 ^"^ 34 Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, o£. cit. 35 Rurus C. Harris, private interview, op. cit, 36,, .. i b_l d 37 LesLie J. Buclian, private interview, op, cit ; Robert W. French (former dean of the college), private" interview, Birmingham. Alabama, June 30, 1973! French inherited these issues and had to deal with them during his term as dean. Joiin P. Dyer, private interview, cp. cit. 39 Bulletin of Tulane University (University College) Series 43, NumT)er'~9~ Juiy"l5V""l9 42 p'.^"8 ; Leslie j'. Buchan,' private interview, op,, cit. Buchan said that most aspects of the University Co:riege"'program were copied from Washin,c^ton University m St. Louis. He said that even the cover of the University College bulletin v/as copied from that of Washington University, 40 Bui let rn of Tul_an,e University (University College), Series 44, Number 9, July IS /"iQ^S p. "15. 41. Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, on. cit. 42 1: Hi •* 9 lilL of Tu .la_n c^ Un_i ve rsity ( Un i v e r s i, t y C o 1 1 e g e ) Series 43, Number 9, July l"5 1942", p. 6 J 4 3 Bullet:ui of Tulane Uni vers ity (College of Commerce), Series 40, Nufoljer S7 July "l 7 1339 pp. S-7; Series 49, Number 12, October, 19 48, pp. 5-7.

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108 ^^Bulletin £f Tulane Unive rsity (College of Commerce) Series 49 /"Number 12, October, 194S, pp. 5/ 'John. 'T.. Wheeler, "A Comparison of Changes in AACSB Schoo]_s," in The AjTi eri can Association of Collegiate S cho ols of Busirie_ss_, b^f^ChaFle s~ J ., D'irFseh, et al. Oforiiewood, iTluioTsl Richard D. Irwin Inc.j 1966} j pp. 14 --25. 45 ... I e 5 1 i e J B u c h a n p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w o p „ c_i t 4 7 "The dean listed faculty acti\n,.ties in hi.s annual report to the president. See, for example, "Report of the Dean; College of Commerce and Business Administration Session 1944-1945,"' Report: o_f tlie President Series 4 7 Number 8, July, 19 467~p'p. '2 5-'26', ~ 4 H "John C. Rumble J "Siiggestions for the Improvement of the College of Commerce and Business Administration, Tulane University," unpublished typescript, Tulane University Archives, March 29, 1949, 4 9 "Leslie J, Euchan, private interview, 0£. cjLt. ibid. It is interesting that Biichan found tne faculty totr'passive because several faculty members, including Donald Hal ley and Robert Elsasser., found Buchan to be rather authoritarian and generally uninterested in c o n. s u 1 1 i. n g w i t h t h e f a c u 1 1 y ""Report of the Dean: College of Cofflfnerce and Business Administration, Session 1939-1940/' OE^H* P^••'^ "'Minutes ^ College of Comiiierce Faculty Meeting, Tulane University, Ne'w Orleans, Louisiana, 1944-1948, passirg T1ie major portion of faculty meetii'igs dealt with student performance and conduct. Report of the Dean: College of Corn-mere e and Business Administration, Session 1946-1947," in Rej^^JJl^t o_f the £re£ijdent, Series 48, Number 13, November, 194", p. 30, r A ^^^lA^' ^\l^'??j Quest ion naire School History Project. Tulane Uni'v'ersity Graduate School of Business Ad'ninistration New Or 1 eans Loui s i ana Augu s t 19 7 3.

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109 hi u m n_i Ques t i on n_y_i_ r e S c h o o ] F i i s t o r y P r o j c c t A u g u s t 1.9 73; F, Saiit'Fy" Reed (former faculty me in b ex of the college) ^ private in.tervievv, New Orleans, Loui.siana, July 9, 1973. 56 Ibid. 5 7 R u f us C Ha r r is. private i n t e r v i e w op. __ c_i t 5 8 Transcript of the speech delivered by Monte Lemann at the dedication of the final structure, May 11, 1949. 5 9 Letter from Dean Buchan to the faculty announcing Mrs. Mayer's bequest dated June 11, 1940, 60 1 b 1 d 6 ] Letter froiii J. Blanc Monroe [of Monroe and Lemann, Attorneys At Lmjw) to Dean Buchan stipulating that the revision of tl)e original bequest was consistent Vi/ith the terms of Mrs. Haver's will, August 2, 194 7. 62 Transcript of the speeches delivered at the dedication of the final coRipleted structure, May 11, 1949. On file in the Tulane University Archives, New Orleans, Louisiana. 6 3 "Report of the Dean: College of Commerce and Business Administration, Session 1946-1947," in Report of the Fresiden_t., Series 48, Ntirnber 13, November, 1947, p. 28, I b i_d 6 5 Robert W. Elsasser (former faculty member of the c 1 1 e 3, e ) ] ) r :i v a t e i n t e r v i e w N e w r 1 e a n s L o u i s i a n a J u n e 19 7 3." 66 Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, oj^.^cit, 6 7 Rufus C. Harris, private interview, 9!_:_S:JJ:.6 8 6 9 Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op c i t

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CHAPTER V PROJECTING A NEW IMAGE: ROBERT W. FRENCH AS DEAN,, 1949-1955 President Harrisideas about the college had not changed dramaticall)'' He wanted it brought closer to the rest of Tulane and h.e wanted its curricula modernized and a greater euiphasis placed upon faculty research and scholai-ly writing. He also felt that the college needed soineor^e who could enhance its image in local, state, and regional business communities. tiarris found the desired balance o£ scholar, administi-ator and promoter in Robert 'Warren French. French, with a doctorate in economics from the University of Michigan, had excellent academic creden.tials and successful experience in administering programs in econo:mic research. After meeting in the Spring of 1949, it was evident to Harris that French's training and experience were combined with a personality whicl"; would be attractive to tlie university and business communities "" French was hired and took over as dean in July^ 3 9 49. French approached the problem of integrating a professional college iivto a predominately liberal arts institution by not considering it a problem at all. He viewed his relations with the other deans as cordial, relaxed, and based upon mutual respect. Because his training was in economics and liberal arts, he felt at ease in the universit)' commiini ty and as qualified as the other deans." a\lso, because French was from outside 110

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the institution 5 he did not share the heritage of isolation whicli had characterized the college's relations with the rest o£ Tulaiie, Although divisions remained and iii'/idious coiiiparisons of faculty credentials and student performance persisted, the years of isolation had come to an end. Although French was new to Tulane,. he was well known in the New Orleans and Louisiana business conmiunities Immediately after World War II, French had conducted an economic survey of the port of New Orleans and had bean appointed assistant director of the Bureau of Business Research, at Louis. fan a State University in Baton Rouge, French had established a reputation as a capable econoiiiic analyst with a flair for developing new projects and pronioting them to private and public agencies. New Orleans businessmen were impressed and optifiiistic that the dynamic young econonsist could effect great changes in local business affairs." When Harris discussed the deanship with French he said that he wanted the College of Coniinerce and Business Administration to be as respected by local businessmen as the Colleges of 4 fsedicme and Law were respected by local doctors and lawyers. This kind of challenge appealed to French who immediately esta])lished nev/ lines of communication v>,'ith local businessmen. Here again, French's strategy was basically personal and social. Throughout his tenure as dean, French spoke to area civic and business groups, and encouraged his faculty to do likewise. As

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112 a consequence, the college realized an enhanced visibiiity in the comrauni ty .. "^ An important pai't of the proRiOtion of the college's activities to the coTiimunity was a considerable increase in the number of institutes and conferences sponsored by the college. Among the riiore noted of these were: the Tulajie Institute of Foreign Trade and Port Operations; the Tulanc Tax Institute; the Southern Public Relations Conference; and meetings of the 6 Public Affairs Research Council (PAR). These activities were supplemented by the expansion of the research division of the college which was now called the Division of Hconomic and Business Research. The college now presented itself as a regional center for the study of business and economic activity and was increasingly recognized as such in local business circles. Changes in the college's curriculum, courses ^ faculty, and students were less pronounced thasi i.ts changing ivaage in the community. Tlie college's program was still divided into undergraduate, graduate, and research divisions. Of these three divisions, the undergraduate curriculum and course offerings were the least changed during the five years of French's term as dean, ['or exaniple, despite repeated expressions of concern about the quality of iindergraduate stud.ent:s enrolled in the college, admissions requirements remained unchanged. The college also retained the four -year curriculum and no evidence can be found that an effort was made to implement

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1 3 the two-on-t'wo or three-on-two curricula proposed, earlier by Buchan, The proportion of general education courses, professional business core courses, and professional electives 7 remained unchanged,' And, although French would have preferred a two-on-two program, he felt that the existing curriculum was liberal enough in terms of general education courses in the freshman and sophomore years," Within the four-year curriculum, only minor changes were made during this period (1949-55). The core of required business courses remained unchanged-sixty semester htjurs in accounting, economics, marketing, management, business law, statistics,, finance, £ind business communications were required Likewise, the number of professional electives remained un.c h a n g e d e i g ii t e e n s e m e s t e r }! o u r s ( s i x c o u r s e s ) select e d f r o m 9 a list of thirteen subject areas were required in 1955. The general education requirements were changed in two ways: first, students could choose a sequence of courses iri the College of Arts and Sciences in lieu of a foreign language; and, second, a number of ROTC courses were required. These courses were added to the regular curriculum and were not taken in lieu of other general education courses. Thus, the requirements for graduation, at least for ROTC students, increased from 120 hours in 1949 to 128-134 hours in J 9 55."^"^ The number and type of undergraduate courses offered by the college changed only slightly during this period. Courses

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114 in the required business core listed above dominated the offerings. There was a twenty per cent increase m the number of courses offered over the five year period-from 80 in 1949, to 96 in, 195S. ^ This increase is explained by the expansion of course offerings in economics (eight additional courses) and new offerings in foreign trade (three courses) and transportation (three courses). In addition to these changes, certain courses were retitled in order to be brought into line with 1? c u r r e n t t e r ni i n o log)'. French's efforts to promote the college resulted in an improved Business Talks prograni. French believed that these talks provided students with interesting and knowledgeable speakers on a variety of topics, and enabled business leaders to observe th.e people and programs of the college firsthand. Because of the renewed interest generated by French, the number of Business Talks doubled and more speakers were brought in from outside the city and state. Speakers who were considered experts in a particular subiect area of business education were also included (accounting or production rnanageinent for example) "^'"^ Taken together, these changes increased student and faculty interest in the program, and increased the visibility of the college in the business community. [h'llike the undei-graguate program of the college the graduate program v/as viewed as needing revision. The focus upon graduate education resulted, at least in part, from French's

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115 belief that a truly professional program in business could 14 only be ofiered at the gra.du.a,te level. French, like Aldrich and Buchan, was sensitive to national de\''elopriients in business education; and, as graduate training grew more prominent among the nation's collegiate schools of business, its role in the college was likenvise vievjcd cis increasingly important. It ivas also felt that the South' s business and industrial development v/as proceeding at an accelerated rate, and that southern collegiate business institutions needed to respond accordingly. Also, within Tulane, there were attempts to improve graduate training in those areas already offered and to expand into fields where it was not. "' Finally, within the college, it was believed that im,p roved graduate training would benefit both the undergraduate and research divisions. The most significant development in the graduate program. of the college came with the implementation of a doctoral program in economics. This program, made possible by a grant from the General Education Board, was the culmination of earlier attempts to strengthen the position of economics within Tulane, French's training and interest in economics accelerated the developing program to the point that by 19 51, the General Education Board was willing to provide the funds necessary to hire senior faculty, support research projects, and expand library 1 '' holdings m the field.'' Tiie new faculty, courses, materials, and research projects which developed as a part of the new Pli.B.

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116 program in economics, accounted for -Tiost of the changes in the graduate program during French's deanship. In fact, aside from the doctoral program in economics, there v-/ere few changes in tiie graduate curriculum of tlic college. Degree requirements, in terms of hours, courses, and the thesis, were not changed "f 8 signiticantly "" French encountered three problems in dealing with the graduate program. The first of these problems was the small nuiiiber of students available for graduate study. The old problem of needing students to justify developing a better program and needing a better program to attract students continued.. French attempted to solve this problem by using a strategy that had worked for Aldrich in building the undergraduate program, namely, building upon a base of part-time, evening students. ^^ Thus, in 19 49, during the first year of his deanship, French started an evening Master of Business Administration program. This was only partially successful because, although it increased graduate enrollment and enabled graduate course offerings to be increased, few students remained long enough to complete their degree requirements. There were more students, but there was no appreciable increase in the number of degrees awarded."""' The second major problem, the generally poor caliber of student, was related to the first. If the college could have had a larger pool of students from which to choose, ii.igher admissions standards could have provided a more acceptable cal-

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1 1 7 iber of student. Faculty concern about the qnality of incoming graduate students was expressed throughout the period."" By 1955, admissions standards were formalized; and, more importantly, criteria for admission to candidacy were made consistent with those established by the graduate school of the universit/. The faculty also decided that students of questionable admissibility pass the Admissions Test for Graduate Study in Business 7 2 [ATG SB ).''' The pr obi era of attracting well qualified graduate students was exacerbated by the lack of scholarship funds. Each year tlie college cited this as one of its greatest needs. Mthougli this problem persisted throughout the period, the first graduate scholarship, endowed by the Lykes Brothers Steamship Company, was an important beginning."'^ The lack of scholarship funds available for graduate students suggests that local businessmen were disinterested in graduate training. They generally bel.ieved that und,ergraduate training was adequate for their 24 ip e r s onn e 1 n e e d s The final problem which French faced was that of developing an adequate faculty. Immediately upon accepting the deanship, he had to recruit six new faculty members. During the five years of French's deanship, the number of faculty increased by tliirty per ce:nt and the percentage of faculty with doctorates increased by fifty per cent.''""' Changes in the faculty reflected French's efforts to improve its quality by recruiting people ho were more interested and better trained in conducting w

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118 business research. Faculty recruitment was also focused upon the economics program which had received the aforenientioned grant to develop a doctoral program. Two full professors of economics, Clarence Danhoff and H. Gordon Hayes, were recrui.ted specifically for the purpose of building the new doctoral prograni The faculty, in terms of their interests and academic preparation, reflected the charaxteris tics of collegiate business faculties throughout the nation. In 1949 j over half of the twenty-seven full-time faculty members were full professors. These included tl'je five remaining members of the "Nine Old Men", seriCior members of the economics department, and several senior officers of the various ROTC units in the university. Aside from the ROTC officers, the majority of full professors were men with long careers of service in the college. There was also a group of young, newly hired men. The veteran faculty members generally taught in professional business fields, while the newer members worked in economics. Half of the full-time fac2 7 u 1 1 )' 1 n 1 9 4 9 1 1 a d c o mp 1 e t e d d o c t o ia 1 train i n g Despite tlie interest in focusing upon research, the faculty continued to direct most of their efforts to teaching. With an average class load of twelve sem.ester hours and a teacherstudent ratio of approximately twenty-eight to one, faculty time for nonteaching activities was restricted.'"'^ When community service, consulting, and university and college committee

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119 assignroentfj are added, it is surprising that any research was conducted. The press of time not only affected the ainount of research, it also influenced the type of research performed. Research projects during this period were usually descriptive, rather than analytic or conceptual. This type of research was typical of the business research conducted in most colleges or business elsewnere m the nation." French's efforts to recruit young, qualified faculty v\ e IP. b e r s v e r e s u c c e s s f u 1 Du r i n g h i s b r i e f tenure a s d e an French recruited four men who eventually became deans of the 3 college."" Others recruited by French went on to become prominent in such instituti.ons as the Ford Foundation, the federal governirient and major universities, French's ability to recruit a strong faculty despite such obstacles as low salaries, high housing costs, a poor public scb.ool system and a scarcity of qualified candidates, is further evidence of his skills in dealing with people. Among those hired by French was the first woman faxulty member of the college, Elsie Natters. French had met Watters at Louisiana State University and quickly discover<;d her scholarly and administrative skills. When French left to go to the University of Texas, Watters followed in order to assist Jiim and complete her doctoral program,. At Tulane's C.)llege of Commerce, Watters assisted French by carrying out a number of the administrative cliarges he initiatedfinishi-ig as it were,

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120 much of what French started."" Uer status as a faculty member, and one particularly close to the dean., presented problems to a faculty unaccustomed to dealing with a woman in her position., iiventuai ly because of her academic and adiniiiist rat ive competence, Elsie Watters was accepted as a colleague.'^" She remained at Tulane for several years after French's departure and eventually accepted an adjninistrati ve position with the Tax Foundation in New York, The research activities of the college had been formally organized into a division in 1940. Throughout the forties, the research department, v/i.thout a budget or staff, accomplished little aside from an occasional project directed by a professor and conducted by one of his classes. This situation was one which French, the former director of business research bureaus at Loui.siana State University and the University of Texas, hoped to remedy. French's plan consisted of lobbying, both in and out of the university, for funds in order to provide the department, now designated as a bureau, with a separate budget. Ke also wanted to appoint a faculty member to administer the bu.reau's program. Finally, French attempted to recruit new faculty with an interest and proven ability in business and economic research and to encourage the existing faculty to devote more of their time to research French's efforts were only partially successful. After his years as dean, the bureau was conducting more organized 34

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121 research tlian ever before. This, howeverj aniounted to very little. Each year a project or tvvo involving several faculty members and graduate students were conducted. These projects usually involved the economics faculty and consisted largely of surveys of local or regional business and irsclustrial activities. Such projects as an economic survey of Terrebonne Parish,, a study of port administration, and an analysis of capital accumulation in the Souths v/ere conducted during the 35 first half of the fifties."' Por his own part, French served on the President's Council of Economic Advisers and reactivated the Tulane Society of Economics (directed by Professor Gerald ,. 36 Warren) Organized reseaich in the college, reflecting its meager funding and inadequate faculty and admini.strative support, advanced slowly and failed to beco'nie an invportant part of the c 1 1 e g e s ;i c t i v i t i e s A 1 1 li o u g h c o 1 1 e g e f u n d s were o c c a s i o n a 1 1 )' si)ent on a project in the bureau, a separate budget was not developed. This lack of funds precluded the assignment of a full -time director of research and the hiring of graduate assistants and a clerical staff. It also precluded the necessary released time to ailoiv interested and able faculty to c o n d u c t |) r o j e c t s A 1 s o o 1 d e r f a c u 1 1 y m e mh exs g e r t e i' a 1 1 y devoted their tirne to teaching rather than to research. Newer faculty rneiiibers, although willing to devote time to research, were usually involved in finishing their doctoral programs and

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12 2 were less able to perform research tasks. Finally, French except for his first year as dean, was heavily involved in a f fa i r s o ii t side o f t h e c o 1 1 e g e ""' Despite the uncertainty caused by American participation in the Korean War, student enrollynent in the colleoe remained stable during the five years of French's deanship. The average enrollment for the period remained about 475 students, with thirty per cent of the students classified as freshmen; sixty per cent classified as either sophomores, juniors or seniors; and ten per cent classified as graduate students.'^ An overwhelndng majority of the students were male and about half of these were involved in one of Tulane's ROTC units. Veterans of World War 11, although accounting for a dwindling percentage of students, continued to influence botli curricular and extracur r 1 c u 1 a r s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s The College of Commerce, like other colleges of business > continued to attract students who generally performed poorly on standardized admissions tests. This was true of freshmen and beginning graduate students alike. The college continued to attract students who were mainly interested in a college education as preparation for a job. Both the faculty and administration of the college were concerned about these student characteristics and attempted to remedy them."*"' Attempts to Improve student quality consisted of increased recruitment efforts (with a further loss of faculty time} and highe: >, r\ ac

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12 3 missions standards. These efforts were supplemented by better counseling of students experiencing difficulty in maintaining acceptable grades. The major problem of these students, it was thought, was improper or inadequate study skills and the tendency for a large number of students to work in offcampus jobs. The dean's office, at French's direction, also took an increasingly active role m advising these students/ Student extra-curricular activities continued to expand both within the college and the university. .Student government was active, especially in the areas of freshman orientation and t ii e h o n r system. S t u d, e n t 1 e a d e r s w li o s e a c a d e m i c r e q u i r e m e n t s were raised during this period, worked closely with the dean's office and reported its activities directly to the dean. The honor system, which had experienced considerable difficulty in the war years, was revised in order to involve the faculty more actively in its operation. A handbook entitled, "Can You Accept the Challenge?" was circulated. It explained the operation of the honor system, especially the student's obligations d 7 LO It. btUQ.ents v/ere also increasingly active in universitywide student affairs. Participation and leadership in such activities as student government, the Hyll<^a_lcM3 (student newspaper), Jamb a lay a (yearbook), and service organizations (Omicron Delta Kappa and Blue Key) increased throughout the period. Students also represented the college in intramural athletics and on intercolleei a t c a tn 1 e 1 1 c t e ariis

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124 Student perceptions of the college during this period varieu considerably. Most praised the ciosoiess among students and between students and faculty, and raost felt that the quality of instruction was good, especially in the functional areas such as accounting, statistics, finance, and jTisrkotin^^ Their perceptions of student performance were similar to that of the faculty, namely, that many students were not as academically oriented as those of other colleges,, A number felt tliat this was natural in a professional school, and even regretted that the classes did not have a more vocational focus. Others viewed the vocational orientation of students as a drawback which lowered the quality of the school's program. French's efforts to improve the image of the college culminated in the celebration of its Fortieth Anniversary in April o. I'rJbS. -' ']he celebration, coordinated by French and leaders of the college's alumni organisation, started with an open house for alumni former faculty, and representatives of local business and civic groups. Highlighting the open house was a class in which Professor Donald M. Halley demonstrated instructional strategies including the case method. The open house was followed by a cocktail party at Tulane's Aluimi House and a banquet honoring ''Doc" Aldrich and the original guarantors of 4 6 the college. Once again, French's promotional skills brought success. The celebration was highly publicized in the press, and letters were sent to everyone affiliated with or notentiallv

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12 5 helpful to the college. The results were gratifying-the college's image was enhtmced and donations to the college's 47 alumni fund increased. The years of French's deanshi]) were relatively stable when compared to those of the preA,dous decade. Although a number of neiv faculty had been brought in, their impact was felt mainly in the doctoral prograni in economics. French had also changed certain adniinis trative practi.ces within the college-the com)riittee system was reorganized and more formally structured as 48 were the operations of the dean's office. But these changes were Tiiinor. No significant changes in the undergraduate or graduate programs v/ere made. And, despite the fear that the Korean IV a r would disrupt college activities as World War 1.1 had, very little happened in terrfis of students or t acuity. French was satisfied with the college's stability,. He had been recruited to enhance the image of the college, not to change it. His activities as founder and director of the Public Affairs Researcli Council (PAR) in Louisiana and later as Vice President for DevelopiDent of the university,, left him with little time to devote to the day-to-day operatiosis of the coign lege.'' These external activities improved the image of the college and enhanced French's reputation as a dynamic and personable spokesman. French's resignation as dean came as no surprise and marked a less radi.cal transition than the departures of Aldrich

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126 or Buchan. in 19 54, at the request of the Tulane Board of Adm i ri i s t r a t o r s _, F r e n c 1 } b e c a m e i n v o 1 v e d i n t h e f i v. a n c i a 1 d e v e 1 o p ineiit program of the university. He began to promote the university as lie nad promoted tiie college, The tirriing of his resigiKitioi! depended upon the readiness of the associate dean, Paul V. Grambsch, to assume leadership d"''^' In 1955, when Granibsch completed his doctoral training and could devote his full energies to the college, French resigned to assume his university development duties full-time. French remained in that position for only a brief period before assuming the D:i.rector5nip of tiie Port of Nev; Orleans in 1956,"" The college and the university lost French to the community v/hich he Iiad been hired, to brini2. theiu close to.

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NOTES "^Rufus C, August 7, 1973. Harris, private interview, Macon. Georgia, 'Robert W. French, private interview, Birmingham Aiabaiaa, June 30, 1973, .5„ E. Davis McCutcheon (first graduate of the college and New Orleans businessman), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 20, 1973. "Rufus C Harris, private interview, o£. c i t '""M-HIlirii. QHilli^H'-iiij > School History Project, August ^-9'{_3. A 11 limber o£ alumni' who were active in local business affairs remarked that French was a very effective promoter of the college. ""Report of the Dean: College of Commerce of Tulane University, 1954-55," p. 10. (hereinafter referred to as "Report of the Dean") 7 Bull etin o_f th.e Tulaji_e finiv^^"-'!!'/ o Louisiana (The School of Bu\siness"Adminis t'ration )', 'SerTeFTS'^l'hnnber Q August, 19 54, pp. 38-39. Robert W. French, private interview,, on : 1 1 -'i^J-iLL^tiil. 2l t'l£ '^ill'^-H? llnJA/'ersity of I^uisiana, Series 56, Number i~ January'""r," IQ^SS"" p "427 1 T b 1 d p „ 43. J 1 '" ^bid. Series 49, Number 12, October, 194S, pp. 33-48; and. Series 56, Number 1, January 1, 1955, pp 5(3-6&. 12,, "Report ot the Standing Committee on Undergraduate Studies," Tuiane University School of Business Admini^^trati <-^n October 22 1955, p. 1. "^ 1 3 '"Report of the Dean," ib_ijd., 1954-55, p. 3. 1 4 Robert W. I'rench, private interview, op, cit. 15 John P. Dyer, .'ful,Tie: 'fhe Biog'raphy of a Univer sit y (New York: [larp'er and^ Row", 1966}", ~p n r 7 12 7

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128 16.. „ 17"Report of the Dean," od. c_it 1954-55, p bid., 1951-52, p. 19. A grant of 1.2 million dollars was av/arded to the university for the develooment of several doctoral programs including the one in economics. 18 ^iyAll^-Ii of fulajie University o_£ Louisia na, Series 56, Number 1, January 1 „" 19 5 5", '"^P • 45-48y 19,, Robert IV. French, private interview, 02_. cit. 2 0,, ,, 21 Report of the Dean," op. ci.t., 1952-53, p. 10. Ibid. 1949-50 through 1954-55, passim. ""^"Report of the Standing Committee on Graduate Study," Tulane University School of Business y\dminist ration Mav 25 1955, p. 1. ../ ... ? 3 Bjjlltrtiii £f Tul_a_nt^ University 'Ol" Louisiana, Series 55, NuiriOer 9, August", 19 54, 'p. 2'3". 2 4 Robert Vv'. French, private interview, op. cit.; Paul v., Grambsch (faculty member and dean), private'Tntervi evv Atlanta, Georgia, August 4, 197 3. 2 5 B ulletin of XyLllPS-' Uni.versity o_f Lquisjjina, Series 49, Number 12, October, 1948, '"fip. 5-8;' Series^'STT^Nlimber 9, August, 1954, pp. 6-8. ''^"Report of the Dean," op. ci_t 1951-52, p. 19. 2 "7 .'ly -Li? t Jj} o_f fi-tla n e Uri.iversity o f L o \i i s i a n a S e r i e s 50, Nuiiiber 12, October, 1949 /pn. S-8". 2S "Rpnnr-fort of the Dean," on. cit., 1952-53,, p. 17. 29 ., r an k C. Pierson, et_ al., The Education of Airiericai ;us inessmen (New York: McGraw-Hill ,' 1959) 7 pp"r"31]~'3T2~ :an 30. 'These men are Paul V. Gramsch, Howard Schaller, C. Jackson Grayson, and Peter A. Firmin, -'' Uol^ert W. French, private interview, op. cit. Many of French's faculty colleagues confirmed that'MsT Walters carried out many of French's duties, 32 "Bernard J. Capella (faculty member), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jul/ 24, 1973;' Paul V. Grambsch,

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129 private interview, o£. cit. P. b e r t W F r e n c h p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w op c i t 34 b i d. 35,, Report of the Dean," o£. cit,, 1954-55, pp. 7-8. 50 Ibid. 3 7 Robert W French private interviei^;, op, cit. ;8,,, Report of the Dean," o£. cij: 1954-55, Table II. 39 Robert W. French, private iriteri^iew, op, cit. 4 "Rc[)ort of the Dean," ob 41 "Report of the iJean," op, cit 42.. (nj,. 1954-55, p. 2. 1 9 5 1 5 2 pp 8 1 ^ "Report of the Honor Board Committee," Tiilane Univer sit)' School of Business Administration, March 11, 1953, p. 1. 4 ''} '"Report of the Dean," op. cit., 1950-51 through 19 54-55, ££ss_im. 44 i2Ji!.y™l 2l^£l.^ic>nnj3.ire op. cj^t. ""Report of the Dean," o£. cit., 19 54-55, pp. 12-13. 46. 47 I b i, d A folder entitled "Fortieth Aimiversary Celebration" contained correspondence from scores of business and civic leaders regarding the school and its anniversary celebration. Ledger sheets recording donations to the alumni' fund were also in the folder. 4 8,, Robert W French, private interview, o]^. cit. Q J inRe])ort of the Dean," op. ci_t., 1951-52, p] 5Cl Robert IV. French, private interview, £p cit i'aul V, Grambs ch, private intervievj, op „ cit. 51 52 R o b e r t W F re n c h p r i. v a t e i n t e r v i e w op. cit. i]2.i5:.; Paul Vh Gambsch, private interview, op. c_i t Robert W, French, private interview, op. cit.

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CHAPTER VI REALIZING THE BIAGE: PAUL V. GRAMBSCH AS DEAN. 19 55-1960 When French resigned, Grambsch's title was changed froiTi associate to acting dean. President Ha.rris searched for a new dean, but no available person was as promising as (jxambsch. Both Frencli and Harris were iinpressed with Grambsch's adinj.nistrative skills as well as his knoxs/ledge of and dedication to t]\e field of higher education for business. Crainbsch was also highly regarded and well liked by faculty,, students, and alumni of the college. To Harris he seemed to be a natural choice, Harris' offer included the same challenge that he had issued to French-to make the school as respected in the comiiiunity as the schools of medicine and law." Although not yet thirty-fiyc years old, Grambsch had significant teaching and adniinistrative experience. With a master's d e g i" e e f r o v.\ t h e M a s s a c h u s e 1 1 s In s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o 1 o g y and a doctorate in Producti.on Management froin Indiana University, Grambsch also had substantial academic preparation. Most importantly, Grambsch 'rfas aware of national developinents and trends in Irigher education for business, and was committed to making Tulan,e's program pree-Tiinent in the South and equal to the best in the nation. Grambsch's perception of national developments in higher education for business strongly influenced liis priorities for 130

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changing the school's program. He focused on about a dozen, schools situated throiighout the country which served as models for the clKUiges Jio envisioned.'"' Me also hoped that they vvould irrovide him with the type and caliber of faculty he wanted. In addition to studying the curricular and instructional developitients of these ins titutions ^ Grambsch visited them occasionally. As a result of these contacts, both Grarnbsch and Tulane were viewed as innovative,. The impact ot these contacts upon Tulane 's program was significant Grambsch was aware of the boom in higher education for business. By th;e iiiidfifties ,, one out of every seven under4 graduate degrees granted in the country 'was in business. The boom vifas in so;ne ways reminiscent of the earlier period when the field was first offered at the university level. Like the earlier period, there were serious concerns about the quality of" education being offered. This concern, focused on differentiating a "vocational" progra-ni from one that v/as "truly professional." Vocational programs were viewed as those which merely prepared students for their first job. They were further characterized as narrowly defined j overly special ized^ and concerned with students memorizing vast amounts of descriptive information. Professional program.s Vvere viewed as differing in both the scope and depth of preparation.. These programs were viewed as empliasizing a broad liberal arts foundation upon whicii professional courses of a more scientific and ana-

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162 lytic character were built., Grariibsch believed that in order for Tulane to develop a truly professional school of business admin is trat ion changes would have to be made. The stability that the school had experienced under French gave way to a period of significant and rapid change. Gransbsch took President Harris' cliallenge seriously, and welcomed the freedom he had been given in developing the school. liis first step in changing the program was to appoint committees of like-minded faculty to study the 5 scliool's long-range development,"' liiese cominittees were eventually combined into the "Special Coinmittee on School Development" which presented a statement of aims for the school, and specific program revisions for the school to consider,, The report of this coirsmittee, filed in April of 19 57 echoed G iamb sell's views of the school. The committee report, whi.ch becajue a blueprint for reforming the school's program^ recommended liberalizing the undergraduate curriculum, focusing professional courses on scientific and quantitative analysis, and expanding tlie f>ost7 baccalaureate progranr. Taken together, these reforms suggested a hierarchy of training. First, a liberal arts foundation would be required which would provJ.de a broadened sense of the cultural context of business. This would be followed with an introduction to the tools of analysis fi-om the social, mathematical, and natural sciences, and communicati.ons skiJls from

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135 literature, languages, and speech-. Next, a core of professional business courses would be offered which would continue to broaden the student's perception of liusiiiess and refine his skills of analysis and c oiTiiii and. cation I'lnally, students would take clinical courses which would enable them to appl;' their shills and hnovjledge to siiiiulated business situations involving cases, role playing, and computerized inanagement games. Specialized training in any one area of business education, such as finance or marketing, was minimized. The undergraduate program was liberalized in two ways. First, a twoontwo curriculum was finally adopted in which all course work in the first two years I'.-as taken outside of the school in the College of Arts and Sciences,. In addition, onethird (twelve hours) of the junior year was taken outside of the school. Thus, less than half of the undergraduate program was devoted to professional business courses. The second means of liberalizing the undergraduate curriculum involved altering tJie focus of th.e professional business courses. Graiiibsch wanted the faculty to relate professional courses to the social ana cultural environfuent m which American business operated."' Ikls aiiii was to broaden the focus of undergraduate business education in much tlie same way that social foundatioiis of education sought to broaden teacher education. (drasiibsch believed that thi.s "cultural approach" would iRake the undergraduate business program more liberal and less vocational. His concern was

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134 main!/ with the general pedagogical attitude of the faculty. Every course, he believed,, "must be sufficieBtly broad in its coverage and of such rigor that it contributes to the students' general education, as well as to his business education." In addition to broadening the scope of its undergraduate business courses, the school attempted to alter their intellectual content. Granibsch viewed these courses as overly concerned with describing current business practices and with riresenting factual information to be memorized by the student. 0]ice again, the concern with vocationali.sni surf aced-such courses inight prepare a student for his first job, but they were seen as inadequate preparation for a career in professional management. Business professionals ivere basically viewed as managers, that is, decision makers, pi-obleiii solvers, and organizers. Increasingly J business was viewed as a science which called for rigorous quantitative analysis of complex variables. Thus, Grambsch wanted to replace these narrowly focused, descriptive courses with ones which would provide students with the analytical skills necessary to solve business problems *" Grambsch believed that the foundation for these analytical skills was higher inatheinatics The traditional business mathematics courses, were replaced with a required two-course sequence in college mathematics (algebra^ geometry, and trigonometry) offered by the mathematics department of the university. In addition, two courses in advanced mathemetics were required.

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135 These courses focused on such topics as differential and integral calculus, matrix algebra, linear prograniming ^ axioniatics (construction of models) and introduction to statistical in1? ference. Completing the quaiititati ve tounciation was a course in statistical applications required in tlie junior year; and a senior level course entitled, "Quantitative Analysis" which was described as dealing with t lie Application of quantitative methods of an a 1 y s i s t o b ii s i n e s s p r ob 1 ern s Ob j e c tive and quantitative analysis of alternative business decisions. Proba b i 1 i t y c o n c e p t s a n d d i s t r i b u t, i o n s decision-malcing under conditions of un c e r t a i n t y a.n d c e r t a i n t y Ap p 1 i c a. t i o n of quantitative techniques to inventory and cost control and capital budgeting p r b 1 e m s Li n e a r |) r o g i' amm i n g in t e g r a t e d electronic d.^Ja processing, and information theorv, -'-^ The new, analytical focus of the undergraduate program was similarly applied to business courses taken in the junior year, Reciuired courses in econondc and financial analysis sought to provide arenas where quantitative skills could be applied. And, although not overtly quantitative, other areas covered in the junior year, i.ncluding industrial relations, marketing, and production manageinent, were focused upon theoretical and problem solving pursuits. The entire junior year was aimed at preparing students to be thoughtful decision makers and problem solvers

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1 36 The senior year of the prograni focused on the fundamentals of management and the application of analytical and c om in uni cation skills to simulated business situations. The theories and processes of management were presented including the history of nsanagement thought, managerial functions, decision processes, human relations, management science, and organization theory. Subsequently, isianageinent simulation was conducted utilizing the case method and business games. In these classes,, students assumed the role of an executive of a corporation, in competition with other corporations for existence in a common market. Such variables as market conditions and long-term business trends were introduced through the use of a recently acquired electronic computer. The four-year undergraduate curriculum was crowded with one hundred and forty-four semester 1-iours of coursework. It reflected the school's ambitious objective of providing both a liberal education and rigorous analytical and theoretical training. The school's bulletifi warned students that they would find tlie program "a rigoi'ous intellectual adventure [which] challenges students to think independently, to study ., IS extensive!)', ana to gam professional competence,"'' Ihiswas tantamount to a declaration that the day of easy business courses and programs was over. The school's efforts to meet t]ie demands of a truly professional program of business education were i n.creasingly

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focused upon graduate education. From the beginning of his term as dean, Grambsch argued that the school's prioriti.es sliould be sill r tod in the di.i-ecti on of post baccalaureate education. Once again, the "Special CoTumittee on School Development" was crucial. In addition to suggesting changes in the undergraduate program, the coiinnittee recommended that the 16 graduate program be given top priority.' The conunittee, m its report to the faculty, cited numerous reasons for this. First, it noted the absence of an outstanding graduate school of business administration in the South, despite the "urgent 1 ''' need tor such a school.""' Second, it pointed to the inferior status which graduate studies had traditionally held in the school. Third, a graduate program would be housed completely within the school, rebuilding the e_sprit de corps which had characterized the school under Aldrich, and allowing the school's faculty maximum control over the curriculum. Fourth, faculty nienibers would teach upper division undergraduate and graduate courses thus enabling them to develop their particular specializations further. Finally, graduate business education was viewed as the new frontier in higher education for business, and, as the school had pioneered in undergraduate training, it should now assume a similar position in graduate training. Although not an explicit part of its recommendations to the faculty, the "Special Committee on Development" was very much aware of the weaknesses of graduate business education at

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138 Tulane. These weaknesses were well understood by Grambsch who had seen the program suffer from lack of direction and faculty 19 support, meager funding, and inadequate courses. This resulted in a prograii! which ecu Id not attract students in sufficient numberis or quality, (See above, pp. 116-118.) The new graduate progran), like the undergraduate program, emphasized managerial functions and decision making. Although it was offered to students who had prior business training or no business training at allj students with a liberal undergraduate background were seen as gaining the greatest advantage 20 for the program. For those witli no prior business training, the prograjri consisted, of two years of study. The first year required thirty semester hours of 500 level courses (graduate or undergraduate credit) distributed in the following irianner: Accounting (three semester hours) ; Economics (six semester hours) ; Finance (three semester hours) ; Marketing (three semester hours); Organization Theory (three semester hours); Production Manaoement (three seiTiester hours); and Quantitative 21 Analysis (six semester hours) Students entering the prograni with prior business training could waive all or part of this work,. The second year, taken by all students, was built upon the foundation of 5)rof essional courses and consisted of twentyfour semester hours in administrations including Administrative i'olicy, Managerial .Ek;onojnics Analysis of .Business Conditions, and Business and Society (three semester hours each); six

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139 semester hours of Business Research; and six seiiicster hours of eiectives focused on an area of specialization.^'^' Although the first year of the nev/ program reflected only nrinor changes, the second year v^as less specialized, more prescriptive, and more quantitatively oriented. In the second year of the old program, twentyfour of the thirty hours were devoted to specialized study h~'^ Of these twenty-four hours, six were allocated for a thesis which treated a narrowly defined topic. In contrast, the nei-v program allowed for only six hours of specialization. It also called for six hours of Business Research ivhich required the student to integrate and apply his knowledge to simulated management situations. The new program was also more prescriptive; for example, every student ivas required to take the same sequence of four courses 2 4 in administration,"'' Finally, the quantitative focus which became cliaracteristic of the undergraduate program dominated the graduate program. American economic life was portrayed as increasingly complex and manageable only in quantitative terms. Thus, in describing the Master of Business Administration ])rogram, the school's Bulletin stated: The tremendous growth in the scale and complexity of American economic life has challenged business men to draw upon all fields of knowledge for relevant concepts, methods,, and techniques which will a i a i. n t h e so 1 u. t i o n o f b u s i n e s s p r o b 1 em s Quantitative solutions are daily being sought for problems which once were thought

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140 to lie strictly in tlie realm of guesswork. Constant effort is being made to gain more exact understanding of organizations and organi.sational behavior. Also, it is nov'/ recognized that the business executive must have a broad perspective concerning the role of business in society.'^^ G r am b s cli s i n t e r e s t i ri d e v e 1 o j) i n g t h e q u a n, t i t a t i v e f o c u s of the program led to the acqui.si tion of an IBM electronic computer and the establishment of the university computer center in t]ie business school. In 1955, Grarp.bsch collaborated v^rith Dr. James Sweeney, a computer expert trained at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Grambsch eventually hi. red Sweeney and initiated di.scussions with the Univac Corporation, hoping to receive a grant of money or equipment to establish a computer ?5 facility at the school," /vl though these efforts were unsuccessful, the school attracted the attention of the International Business Maciiines Corporation (Il^M) After consulting with the other deans and the vice--q")resident of the university, Grambsch signed an agreement with IBM whereby the corporation v/ould lease a computer facility to tiie univ^;;rsity at a sixty per cent discount. Because of Grambsclids aggressive pursuit ot the computer facility, and because no other dean was as convinced of its imiportance, the computer xvas housed in the business school Grambsch considered the acquisition of the computer facil ity to be a significant accomplishment. He vras convinced that the computer would play an increasingly important role in 27

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141 business, and ivas pleased that the school was one of the first in the nation to acquire one. With Sweeney as director, the computer center quickly became one of the focal points of the university-students and faculty from arts and sciences, engineering, and medicine used the center with increasino fre2 8 quency, Also, immediate contacts were established with Cnrnegie Tech which was involved in the development of some of the first computer-assisted management games in the nation.'^'' Trie school acquired a reputation for its innovative and quantitatively oriented program. This program was eventually noticed by the directors of the Ford Foundation. while visitinf? the dean of the business school at Columbia University, Grambsch \^as referred to Neil Chamberlain,, President of the Ford Founoation.'" GramDscn met with ChaiTiberlain in New York and presented Ills ideas about the future of business education at Tulane. Subsequentl)' Chamberlain and several other officials froiii the foundation visited the campus in the Winter of 1957, and met with several of the younger members of the faculty. Cliamberlain was impressed with the program, faculty, and facilities (especially, the computer center) of the school and offered assistance.'^' Gramibsch wrote the grant proposal in the Spring and Summer of 1958. The proposal was approved and a grant of $200,000 was awarded for a five year periodThe grant was for "general support" of the school with monies allocated for faculty development, curriculum development, re-

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142 search, and consulting from experts in various fields of higher ... ,, education ior business.-'" The money enabled the school to significantly accelerate the deve lopjnent of its prograius and faculty. iiqually as important, however, u/as the recognition it brought to the school. ..) ^^ During Grainbsch's term as dean, student body changes reflected the new priori. ties of the school. Shortly after Grambsch became dean, Tulane instituted university-wide admissions requirements. These standards ufere higher than those of the school, and, because business students often performed poorly on standardized admissions tests, enrol lip.ents began to 34 decline. Tne number of undergraduate students enrolled in the school dropped thirty per cent during Grambsch* s term as dean (from 457 in 1955 to 302 in I960).'^' A subsequent decline also occurred in the number of undergraduate degrees av^^arded. However, because admissions requirements were now higher, tlie quality of the students, as measured by standardized achievement tests, improved. Similar trends were viewed at many other institutions across the nation. This was believed to have resulted froiTi efforts to become more selective and to offer raore 36 rigorous programs. At least part of the declining undergraduate enrolment was offset by an increasing number of graduate students. Also, Grambsch decided to drop the part-time Master of Business Administration program because students rarely coiiipleted tlieir

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.1 4 3 studies. The growth of the new Master of Business Administration program was, therefore, signifj.cant because nov/ all students were full-time. This resulted in a dramatic increase in bo til the number of credit hours taken and the nuinber of degrees awarded. For example, the school awarded three Master of Business Administration degrees in i9S6 and thirty-seven in I960."' Grambsch hoped that the school would eventually award from seventyfive to one hundred Master of Business Administration dog r e e s e a c li yea r T o this e n d h. e vior k e d to e x p a n d t ii e school's recruitment and financial aid efforts for graduate 38 students i'he school's faculty consisted mainly of the remainder of the "Nine Old Men", all of whom were rapidly approaching retirement, and a group of younger faculty recruited by French and Grambsch. The older faculty, although active in undergraduate teaching and university service, were generally disinterested in research and graduate teaching. They were, however, convinced by one of their peers, Donald M. HalleVj tliat the Ciianges which Grambsch wanted were reasonable and reflected 3 9 cnanges in higher education for business."'' They respected Grambsch and supported his programs v/iilingly. The younger faculty both supported and carried out many of the new programs and activities of the school. Tliese faculty also assujned major responsibilities i.n developing the research program of the school. Jack Grayson, one of these younger faculty, chaired

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144 the school's research committee. This conimittee s efforts were advanced significantly by the Ford Foundation grant. The grant also supported faculty development seminars lead by such noted figures as Kenneth Boulding, Professor of Econoiriics at the Imiversity of Miclrigan and Alfred Oxcnfeldt, Professor of Marketing at Colirmbia University, Other visiting professors and consultants were brought in from the Ford Foundation, Harvard 40 University, and Princeton University. The grant money and the deans' efforts to recruit a more research oriented faculty significantly improved the amount and type of research performed by the faculty,. By 19 59, for example, five books were in progress, with two ready for publication. Numerous scholarly papers were also presented to regional p r f e s s i o n a 1 c o n f e r e n c e s ( S o u t h e jn E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n a n d the Southwestern Social Science Association) These activities v/ere supplemented by the special programs which the school c n t i n u e d t o s p o n s o r s u c h a s t n e T ax I ri s t i t u t e and In s t i t u t e of Foreign Ti-ade and Port Operations. The faculty also developed new instructional materials and computeras sis ted manage 4 1 ment and tinance games. Grambsch felt that the faculty was finally realizing its potential in scholarly productivity. The school's relations witii tiie rest of the university continued to improve during Grambsch's term as dean. Grambscli was personally responsible for much of this improvement. His organizational and managerial skills were recognized v,'hile he

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1 A ri HJ Korked with an informal group of cleans.. This group > led by Fred Cole, the academic vice-president of the university, became wliat Grambsch called a "management tearu" -which administcred the internal operations of the university. Grambsch 's position was, in some ways, reminiscent of Buchan's in that he was intimately involved in the development and administration of university policy,, His skills and knowledge of managing complex institutions (in this case, the university) provided a strong arguntent: for the legitiiuacy of modern business school programs in higher education. The deans of the various colleges appreciated wiiatever assistance a professiona] manager might otfer. In addition to Grambsch' s position in the university, the undergraduate and graduate curricular revisions were viewed by other segments of the university as improving the school's program,. The acquisition of the electronic computer and the establishment of the university computer center in the school were seen as evidence of the school's modernization. Of simil;ir importance, was the receipt of the Ford Foundation grant. Finally, the younger faculty's commitment to and achievements in more legitimate scholarly pursuits, namely research and liubl ications were well received tiiroughout Tulane.'^ The school also became a favorite meeting place for faculty, administrators, and visitors to the campus. This happened because the school had the most modern and comfortable

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146 meeting room on campus-the Morton A. Aldrich Conference Room. When Aldrich died in 1956, the alumni organization of the schooJ (Tulanc Commerce Alumni Club) searched for sorae way to perpetuate his memory. They finally decided to set aside and refurbish a portion of Norman Mayer Hall and dedicate it to "Doc" 4 5 Aldrich. Once again, Aldrich united the faculty, students, and alumni of the college. The alumni group, which was generally unwilling to support the univ ersity s alumni giving program, was able to generate support in Aldrich 's name for something which would benefit the business school. It is, liowever, ironic that the conference room v/as extensively used for university functions--ef fecting a unity which was impossible in Aldrich' s day. Grambsch was credited with improving tlie school significantly. His visits to leading schools of business enhanced his visibility as well as that of Tulane. The Ford Foundation was especially impressed with him and, when the deanship of the University of Minnesota opened in 1960, the foundation recommended Grambsch as a candidate. Thus, although Grambsch wanted to continue his work at Tulane, he decided that the opportunities and challenges of the position at Minnesota were too great to resist. Grambscli resigned in August of 1960 with mixed feelings, regretting that his tasks v/ere not completed, but anxious to deal Vvith the challenges at Minnesota. To him, the deanship of the bu;iiii'ie5!?. choul at Minnesota offered an oppor-

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1 4 7 tunity to develop a pTograjn of national stature. Also the university was large, state-supported, and situated in a rapidly developing industrial and financia.l urban complex. Finally, as the father of eight children, tlie housing rfiarlcet and public scliools of Minneapolis ivero very attractive.' In many ways, Grambsch helped to realize the image which French had created for the school. The new undergraduate and graduate curricula were representative of those recommended by the Ainericaii Association of Collegiate Schools of Business and national task forces which had studied collegiate business 47 education. His acquisition of tne computer center and the Ford Foundation grant brought both recognition and siibstantial changes to the school. Grambsch left the school feeling that it was finally on its way to realizing a pre-eminent position in higher education for business in the South.

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NOTES RoDext W. French,, private iiiterview Birmingham, Alabama, June 50, 1973; Rufu;^ C, Harris, private interview, M a c n G e o r' g i a A u g u s t 7 1 9 7 3 2 i V I i f u s C f a r r i s p r i v a t c i n t e r v j c iv op. c i t 3 Paul V. Grambsch, private interview, Atlanta, G e r g i a Au g u s t 4 19 7 5 r-vi Robert A. Gordon and James Edwin Howell, liigher du e a t io n Eojc Bus! ness (New York: G!n] mnhi a Ihri'i-'crsT Preys', 1959) ; p7 2l7 5 V 8 u 1 V G r a ra b s c h p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w op c i t 'Paul V. Gra;nbsch, James 1V. Sweeney, Louis H. Jordon and Donald M. Halley, "Report of the Special Committee on School Development," April 15, 1957. I_bid pp 3-6 8 'B u lletin of Tulane ^yjliversit)/ of Lquijsiana (School of Business Admin istratioiiT, Series '6(1, N'nmber"r6, Deceiuber 15 1959, p. 32. '"Paul V. Grambschj "Memorandum to President Rufus C. Harris," April 5, 1956. This memorandum, outlining Grambsch's plans for the school, accurately foretells many of" the curricular changes which the "Special Committee on Devel p r o p s e d and t h e f a c u 1 1 y ap p r o v e d 10. ,jpi ^ b i d p 2 11 Ibid 1 2 ,, p 4 5 ^iililliiliiil 9l. '.^ll^Jl^ ^IlJ:ll^Eil ^^t l-oii isia na, op. cit. 1 7 '"^Ibid. Series 62, Number 2, January 15, 1961, Although the course was required in 1960, a full course description did not appear until 1961. '^ 1 4 14 15 IMll' Series 60, Number 16, December 15, 1959 Ibid. ?Q 4 3. 14 8

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149 16 Paul V. GraraDscn, et_ §1., "Report of the Special Committee on School D'svelopmenit April 15, 19 5 7;. d 6. 17 I b 3 cl 19 V au 1 V (J r ainb s c h „ p r i V a t e i n t e r v i e w o g ci t_ :o Bu lletin of Tularie University ojt? Lou isian a, Series 59,' Number "15/ Ifeceiber 1/1958, pT l2,r '^-^Ibicl., p. 22. 9? [bid '^^Ibid. 24 'bid,. 25 lb la. J p | 7 2 6,-, Paul V. Grambsch. private interview, o-*^. cit ; James W. Sweeney, private interview, Atlanta, CeorgiaV August 7, 19 73. 2 7 Rufus C. Harris, private intervi.ew, 28 OD James W. Sweeney, private interview, 0£. cit. 29 'Paul V. Granibscii, private interview, op. c_it 30,,, 31 •3;? b i d 1 bid. ""Report of the Dean of the School of Business Administration, Tulane University, 1958-59,'' p. 1,. (hereinafter referred to as "Report of the Dean") 33 Ibid. ^4 "Report of the Dean," q]3. £i t 19 59-60, p 35. bid. 3 b Robert A. Gordon and James Edv\fin Kowell, Higher Education I^r B usin ess (New York: Columbia University"" Press, 1959) pp 327-331.

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150 37, Report of the Dean^" op, cit„, 19 59-60, p. 6 38n., Paul V. Grambsch, prj.vate intervieiv, op. cit. 39 Donald M. Halley,, private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 2S, 1973; Paul V. Grambsch, private mtervie-w, ij2_id. Grambsch credited Halley with enlisting the support or"\he older faculty. 40,, 41 42 Report of the Dean," op. cijt 1958-59, p. 13. bid_. pp 914 „ -aui V. Grambscli, private interview, op. cit i D 1 d 44,. 45, J '. u f u s C „ H. a r r i s p r i. v ate i n t e r v i e vj o p c i t Report of the Dean," op, ci_t 1958--59, p. 10., 'aul V, Grarabsch, private intervi( :it 4 7, Frank C„ Pierson, et al T}i£ Education of American Businessmen (Now York: McGraw-Hill, 1959T7 "pP -^ ^26"'2 2 8 "and Pl^. 266-26 7, 4 8 Paul V. Grambsch, private interview p cit.

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CHAPTER VII THK MOVE TO GRADUATE EDUCATION: Tiii; nnANSiiiPS of HOWARD SCHALLHR AND C. JACKSON GRAYSON, 1S60-1968 Paul Grambsch left a legacy of curriciilun! innovations needing ininlementat ion and a vacancy for the deanship of the School of Business Adniinistrati en For the first tine in the school's history, a faculty coiniTiittee was appointed to find a new dean. In tfieir opinion, the best replacement for Granibsch was Howard Schaller, chairman of the school's e c n o m i c s tie p a r t iii e n t "' rioward Schaller had a rich educational and employment h ackground. He received a bachelor's degree in economics and business adirinistration from Duke University in 1947, and a master's degree in economics fr-oi'i Northwestern in 1948. After serving as an economics instructor at Auburn University in 1948 and at Duke University in 1950, he became a research assistant at riuke in 1951 and received his Ph.D. in economics there in 1953. He taught economics at the University of Tennessee for one year, and came to Tulane in 1953 as an assistant professor of economics. Schaller served as chairman of rhe economics department from 1955 until 1960 when the deanship of the business school became available." Schaller wanted to be dean of the business school for a number of reasons. The curriculum changes initiated by Grambsci! were not yet iniplemenced ,, and, because he had worked 151

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on them, Schaller felt responsible for their iffipiementa t ion Sciiaiicf had aisu worked with (iranibscfi on t!ie "i'Jerson Kc[iort," a Carnegi.e study of university level business education which called for the teaching of quantitative methods.^ This encouraged Schaller who had been involved in developinr; just such a curriculuTT: at Tulane, He felt that some regional if not national recognition might come to the school as a result of Its new cui'riculum. He also feit that he vas in a wood position to effect a smooth transition arid maintain positive relations between tiie school and the rest of the university. Schaller wanted the school to continue evaluating its programs. Lihe Graiiibsch, he perceived an increasing coniplexity in modern society and a consequent demand for people trained at the master's level. Thus,, Schaller believed that the future of business education lay not in undergraduate business programs, but in MBA programs. He believed that the curricular iinrov'ations of the Grambsch administration would lead to the eventual elimination of the undergraduate program and the expansion of professional training at the graduate level. Finally, although he had no intention of building an administrative career, lu3 was tempted by the challenges of the position. Schaller accepted the deanship with the condition that at the eiid of three years there would be a mutual reviow and he could res ign '"' lire selection of Schaller as dean was comsylicatcd by tlie

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153 transition o£ the presidency of Tulane from Rufus Harris to iicrbert Longcnecker. Maxwell f,apham served as acting president of t]\e university until Loxigenecker s arrival in .September of 1960. Lap ham appointed a search conniiittee but ivas reluctant to approve Schaller because Lapham was only acting president. When the search cominittee asked Schaller to become dean, LaphaiTs refused to authorize the appointment, saying that Longenecker would have to approve it. Lon gene eke r approved the appointment, and Schaller became dean of the business school in August of 1960."^ Schaller believed that the dean should deal primarily with internal matters of the school.^ Faculty relations and recruitment were very important considerations to him, and, for the most part, Schaller was on good terms with the faculty. Although some faculty v;ould later disagree with Schaller, there were no major confrontations. The traditional closeness and camaraderie among the faculty continued. This v/as beneficial to the operation of the school, but the closeness of the faculty led to complacency. Schaller dealt with faculty complacency by encouraging the faculty to increase their participation in scholarly activities. For his part, Schaller joined the Inter-University Committee of Economic Research on the South and ti^e Committee on Urban Economics. His writing generally took the form of book reviews This work reflected Iris own intellectual interests and was professionally

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1S4 beneficial, brought recognition to the school, snd served £ as a model for faculty activities 8 .As mentioned above, faculty i-ecrujtment was important to Schaller. Approxivnately half of the full-time faculty during this period were appointed by Schaller. Over half of Schaller' s appointees were in the field of econoiiiics, many of whoiTi are still at Tulane. James Murphy, Stephen Zeff, and hric Vetter v/ere appointed by Schaller and are currently 9 teacning at the school."" A nuinber of other personnel were appointed by Schaller to teach evening courses. There were no major curricular revisions during Schaller' s deanship. for the most part, the school was merely implementing the now curriculum initiated by Grambsch. In the undergraduate curriculum, the business problems course was replaced with a non-credit freshman assembly, and the freshman social s t u d i e s ]) t. i o n, w a s b r o a d e n e d to in c 1 u d e p s y c h o 1 o g y a n d p h i 1 o s ophy, A management seminar for seniors introduced complex business games into the program, and a course in quantitative analysis introduced computer laboratory experiences. In the graduate curriculums two new inanagement courses 'were introduced and the accounting program was made more flexible."*^ None of tl-ie changes reflected a change in the philosophy of the school. Although no significant curricular revisions were made at mis time., the school decided to eliminate the undergraduate program and invest its time and resources in graduate education, Ihis decision profoundly affected every aspect of the future

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development, of the school. The elimiRation of the undergraduate program was a logical extensior of the changes initiated by Grambsch, His plan called for replacing the vocationally oriented business curriculum with one which was more theoretical and quantitatively oriented. Business arithmetic, for example, was replaced with quantitative analysis. The school now sought to prepare business generalists, skillful in management decision making and the use of quantitative methods in solvi.ng business ] prob lemiS The basic issue confronting the school was to determine the most appropriate level of academic preparation for modern business executives. Like French and Gramhsch, Schailer had expressed the view that sucli training could best be offered at 1 '' the graduate level. '" This view, combined with the need to efficiently utilize the school's resources, led to the decision to drop the undergraduate program. Schailer also believed that undergraduate business education was inadequate preparation for modern business life.'^'^ hike Grambsch, he believed that an arts and sciences background would provide a better foundation for graduate training. He also felt that students should understand science and its impact on business and society. Science had revolutionized organization and production methods, and business decisions relied increas i^igly on computer analysis. Schailer thus considered engineering to be an excellent preparation for business education because it was mathematically

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56 and scientifically oriented."*"'^ The school was cilso confronted v,^ith ch aniline; enrollment patterns during this period. industry increasingly demanded men and v/onien with MBA degrees and undergraduate preparation in liberal arts or engineering. As a result, the pool of MBA applicants was increasing across the ration. Full-time graduate enrollments at Tulane increased from 29 students in the fall of 1960, to 45 students m the fall of 1963--an increase of over 33 percent. The part-time graduate program which had been discontinued in i960, was resumed in 1963. Its enrollment of 110 students indicated a substantial interest in the part-time MBA prograin. '^ The business faculty also anticipated an increase in the demand for in-service education, conmonly referred to as "executive development programs." They believed that the need for these programs would increase as new management techniques Kere developed and as business life became more complex. The school now sought to expand its existing prograins which included the Institute on Forei.gn Transportation and i>ort Operations and the I'ulane Tax Institute and to develop new ones. A greater comrni tment of resources was needed to increase the quantity and quality of these programs -^'^ While the demand for MBA programs increased, the demand for undergraduate business training decreased -^^ Higher admission standards which had been designed to improve the quality of students, had resulted in decreasing undergraduate enroll-

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1 5 7 merits. During Schaller's deansliip, undergraduate enrollments declined from ?4S students in the fall of 1960, to 298 students in the fall of 1963. Freshiimn enrollments declined dramatically during this period from 131 students to 94 students. ^^ Declining enrol Itnen ts in undergraduate business programs were part of a national trend, A survey conducted by the school revealed tJiat undergraduate business schools with high tuition and selective admissions were finding it difficult to attract students. In schools with low tuition and relatively open admissions policies, enrollments were declining as a percentage of total enroJUiients within these universities."'' These trends indicated a bleak future for the undergraduate business program at Tulane. Changing enrollment patterns were accompanied by similar changes in the relative quality of graduate and undergraduate applicants. Aptitude test scores and undergraduate records indicated an overall improvement m the quality of entering graduate students."' One reason for this was the increasing pool of applicants to the graduate program, enabling the school to become more selective. Also, a large number of the graduate students were military officers. These students were more highly motivated than their non-military counterparts. They were career men who believed that poor work might preclude a promotion. They dominated classes and student organizations such as the MBA club.'"'' Well qualified undergraduate students..

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158 on the other hand, were difficult to find. One comprehensive study of this problem revealed that business undergraduate students ranked sixth from tlie bottom out of twenty undergraduate fields on intelligence test scores. Other studies indi-catcd that the average business student was less qualified for university work."-^ Tulane^s more rigorous quantitative business curriculum made it less likely that poorer students would stay in the program. Schaller had expected that the rigorous curriculum would attract higher quality students and eliminate the poorer ones. Although the overall quality of undergraduate students remained constant, the school decided that there were not enough superior students to warrant retaining the program. '^'^ Schaller presented the school's plan to drou its undergraduate program to the Tulane Board of Administrators at its December meeting in 1962.^^ Although a number of prominent local businessmen were on the board and one of them, Gerald Andrus, was an alumnus of the school, the board unanimously approved the school's plan. The alumni's reaction to the plan was less positive. Their view was that the school had been too hasty in its decision and had eliminated a program that had served them and the local business community well."^^ Furthermore, the decision appeared to discredit their degrees. Older faculty, most of whom were about to retire, were likewise displeased. These men felt that the school had established a strong undergraduate program which was recognized throughout the nation. They were not yet convinced that graduate business

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1S9 training was as promising as Schallei' and the majority of f 3 cult y bell e v e ci The decision to drop the undergraduate business program necessitated the separation of the economics department from t h e b u sine s s s c h o o 1 .. Th e^ I) e p a r t t;i e n t o f E c o n o ii) i c s h a d b e e n housed in the school since Buchan's deanship.. h'oweverj with the decision to drop the undergraduate program, economics would play a much smaller role in the school. Only tv/o courses, Macro Economics and Micro Economics, v^ere taught for the MBA program. Schaller and many of the economics faculty felt that economics belonged in the College of Arts and Sciences from which service courses could be offered to the business school. Since the role of the econornics department in the MBA program would be minimal, their interest and understanding of issues pertaining to the business school would also be minimal. When the vote was taken on dropping the undergraduate program, the economics department voted for it, and, in effect, voted themselves out 01 t i"! e b u s I ]'i ess s c h o o 1 Schaller was aware of the far-reaching implications of the decision to offer an exclusively graduate program. The relationship of the school to the local business community, for example, would change significantly. The New Orleans business community was satisfied with the school's underoraduate program, and could not readily absorb the increasing numbers of MBA graduates. To Schaller ^ this meant that t]ie school would 2 8

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160 have to focus its attention on regi-onal and national businesses. The school's image as a pioneer in quajrtitative methods would serve it well in attracting students and faculty frcin beyond tiie New Orleans area. Once the decision v^^as made, Schallcr felt that his work as dean was finished. He resigned on Septeinber 1, 1963. Schaller had implemented Grambsch's curri.cular revisions and had set the fi.iture course of the school. He wanted to return to his work in economics. Although he was satisfied with his accomplishment; as dean, he was not interested in a career in administration. After resigning the deanship, he chaired the economics department for a yeiiT tie left Tiilane in 1964 in order to teach business economics and publi.c policy at Indiana IJnivers ity Schaller' s clioice for the dean's position was C, Jackson Grayson. Grayson liad received his Bachelor of Business Administration degree from Tulane's business school in 1944 and his Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1947, He had served as an accounting instructor at Tulane between 1947 and 1949, and was rehired as an associate professor by Robert French in 1953. Ue left in 19S5 to assist French, in the development office of the university. After acquiring his Doctor of Business Administration degree at Harvard, Grayson returned to Tulane in 1959 as an associate professor and became associate dean in 1961. He was still serving in that capacity when Schaller resigned ^'"^

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161 Schaller was pleased with Grayson's performance as associate dean, and admired hi.s understanding of n.ew developments in higher education for business. Grayson had worked diligently with Schaller in promoting the decision to offer only graduate level btisijiess education at Tular.e. Also, Grayson was well liked "'5 3 by the faculty, and he could get their support for his ideas,,''' Thus, to Schaller, Grayson was the logical choice for the deanship Grayson, however, did not want to be dean. Me felt uncomfortable as an administrator because he disliked dealing with the daily operations of the school. He believed that Shchaller had relied too heavily on him for this as associate dean. He wanted to resign that position and return to tiie classroom.. Filially, he had accepted a year -long teaching position at a management institute in Switzerland and was looking f onward to going there.' A search committee chaired by Clinton Phillips was formed to search for a nev/ dean. After much persuasion by Schaller, Grayson agreed to talk with President I.ongenecker about the deanship. At Schaller 's request, Grayson drew up a list of conditions under which he would accept the deanship. They were e7-vtravagant and Grayson believed that they would not be accepted. Among the conditions were a large salarv increase, leave of absence during the 1963-64 school year, each summer off to return to iiis farm,, and a strong associate dean to manage

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16 2 the daily operations of the school. ^•' Surprisingly, Longenecker accepted these conditions and Grayson became dean on September 1, 19 64. During Grayson's leave in Switzerland, Clinton Phillips served as acting dean. Me too, supported the business school's decision to offer only graduate education. Indeed, Phillips had written a. monograph explaining and justifying that deci36 si on. He saw tne role ot acting dean as one of maintaining the st atu s ajjo rather than moving in new directions for the scnool,"" Thus, his year as acting dean sawno major changes in the personnel, policies, or programs of the school. The transition of the business curriculum from undergraduate to graduate had begun before Grayson returned from Switzerland, Phillips had integrated the content of a computer programming course with a junior level mathematics course. He had also elevated and renumbered some senior marketing courses to tlie graduate level, eliminated the graduate examination requirement, and substituted an elective for the managerial economici cs .'•jti course.-Most significantly, he had formed a Format Committee to study the curriculum, and had appointed Peter Firmin as its chairm.an Grayson returned in 1964 with no formal plans for the business school. He was, however, interested in strengthening the roles of behavioral science, quantitative methods, and computerized business games in the graduate curriculum. He also wanted to expand the role of the case study method and promote

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16 3 development of a doctoral program. Finally, Grayson wanted to develop the image of the school beyond that wliicb it had acquired in quantitative methods. he hoped to do this by instituting an Internationa]. Studies program focused on Latin X q America „ ""' In the spring of 196 5. the For-nat Committee presented its recommendations on the curriculum to the faculty. The strong quantitative emphasi.s of the business program was retained. Beginning in 1966, students would be required to hav~ L n e equivalent of six hours of undergraduate mathematics before entering the business program. Included in the curriculum was a course in linear algebra, probability and statistics, and several courses in computerized business games. '^^ The Format: Committee's recommendations were unanimously adopted by the faculty and iuiplemented in the fall of 1966. • Grayson had gained a reputation in the school as an innovative teacher. He was interested in new teaching strategies and encouraged the faculty to try them.^^^' He traveled extensively during his term as dean in order to observe new teaching techniques and present them to the faculty. His travel, including a semester as visiting professor at Stanford, prompted students to complain that he v^as never available.'^'' Grayson promoted the case study method most vigorously. This technicjue which had become the hallmark of Harvard's business program, involved studying and evaluating real-life business nroblems

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164 and business decisions. Although a number of the older faculty had used business cases occasionally, the fnethod was never an 4 ^ extensive part of the program. With Grayson's encouragement, the use of business cases increased to the extent that it became id an establishea teaching method in the school. Grayson also felt responsible foirecruiting and maintaining a highly qualified faculty. Nine neiAfaculty members were hired during his deanship. The appointments reflected Grayson's desire to balajice the quantitative and behavioral orientations of the school. Of these. Associate Professor Li.nn and Assistant P I' o f e s s o r s B a r a c ]\ K i 1 1 e e n a n d L aV a 1 1 e rem a i n e d in 1974. E n couraging faculty research activity continued to be a challenge because of faculty complacency. The time required in designing and iiiiplementing the ne-w graduate curriculujii likewise impeded 4v; faculty research.''" The quality of students enrolled during this period improved because the school dealt exclusively v/itii graduate students. This had been one of the projected benefits to dropping tlie undergraduate prograii!. ^ The strongest indicator of this trend was student scores on the Aptitude Test for Graduate 4 '? Schools of Business (ATGSB) The 1964 enrollment figures revealed that 45 percent of the student body had a science or engineering background. These students were thought to be among the best prepared to enter the MBA prograiii. The business school was no longer a residual choice for poor students, but

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u a s a ttracting very capable students. A growing n um D e r o i: fflilitary students also contributed to improved student quality/ With the apparent success of the MBA program, Grayson and some of the faculty believed that a doctoral prcgrair: should be developed. They believed that if schools lihe Harvard and Stanford had doctoral programs, then Tulane should have one as v/ell. Many faculty inembers also believed that there was a need lor teachers and researchers in higher education for business. Tulane, they felt, could help meet this need v^ith a doctoral 4 Q program. 1 hus in the fall of 1964, Clinton Phillips was appointed to chair a committee charged with developing a doctoral prograiTi. Alter a year-long study, a program was presented to the faculty and approved,"''^ The program was designed to train students in general business administration, including such disciplines as mathematics and statistics, behavioral sciences, and economic theory. Students also studied in a field of specialization such as accounting or management science. because the doctoral program trained teachers and researcliers rather than business executives, students entered the rroqram Q.II ectly from undergraduate school. The degree awarded would be a Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) The doctoral program enrolled its first two students m 1966, In 1967, as part of a university-wide movement to cut expenses t was considered for termination along with othe er ^.'? recently developed doctoral programs.'""" Grayson worked t(

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156 mairitain tiie doctoral ])rogran! and negotiated a coTiipromise with the university. Tne graduate school of business would continue the program at no cost to the University, Thus, the doctoral program would either pay for itseJ^f or cease to exist, '^"^ Tulane's financial ];irGblerns were incre^asingly felt by the school. Tiie Ford Foundation, grant had aided the school in its development in the early sixties. (See above, pp. 141-142.') By 196 7, trie grant had expired leaving the school dependent upon the university once again. The tightening financial situation led President i-ongenecker to suggest that the school be brought closer to the local business community. Grayson respoiuted by establishing the Affiliates Program. ^'^ This program sought to bring the school and the business community closer together and solve the financial problems of the school at the same tLmc. Trud school would create a series of seminars or workshops designed to meet the needs of affiliating business firviis. In return, affiliates would either pay for these services directly J or make tax deductible donations to the scliool.'"' Thus, the school hoped to maintain and possibly expand its teaching and research programs, Although the university usually prohibited fujjd-raising efforts by a school, an exception w'as made because of the critical shortage of funds. ^^ (krayson was, however, disinterested in the local business community. Like Schaller., he wanted to focus on the internal development of the business school., Grayson believed t]utt the school and the business community had very little in

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16 7 common and that the move to an exclusively gTaciuate program liad widened the gap between them. To him, the local business commUiiity was backward and conservative."'' Because he disliked having to court the local business community for ^noriey, Grayson's relations with President hongeneckcr were strained. Grayson also allowed the school's relations with the rest o£ the university to deteriorate because he was more interestea m cultivating relations with other business schools. Grayson was concerned that the school was becoming too heavily identified with quantitative methods. lie tried to balance the scliool's quantitative reputation by hiring a faculty with training and experience in behavioral sciences. !ie also tried to gain recognition for tlie scliool's batin American prograrn. Latin American programs had been proposed since Aidrich's years as dean. The location of the school in New Orleans, a. natural port city witli access to Latin American countries, enhnnced these nroposais. The Latin American program, however, had never received financial support from either the school or the business conrnunity. In the spring of 1966, Grayson asked Stephen Zeff to contact business schooJs in Latin America in order to establish a f aculty-studerit exchange program. In the summer of 195 7, Zeff toured four Latin /uTierican countries to develop tne program," A special doctoral program was inaugurated in which l^atin American students or faculty could come to Tulane for courses

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16 8 and return home to write their dissertations. The curriculum Lucluded nine hours of I frternationa 1 Business aisd tv./cJvc hours of Latin Ainerican courses from other university deijar traents '"^'^ Zcff developed a Spanish newsletter to inforirs Latin Anierican students about the program. For the first time, it appeared that a Latin American program inight be deveiooed. Grayson obtained a grant from the Ford Foundation to fund the "Conference on Education of International Business" and named Zeff chairman of the conference. This was the first national husiness conference ever held at Tulane and Business Week gave it inuch publicity. ''" More importantly, Tulane gained visibility for its efforts in j.nternational business education. The iKiSiness school was no longer identifj.ed solely with quant.i/tative methods. Grayson also gained national visibility. H:;s work with George Shultz on the task force for the conference led to Grayson's appointment as the first director 01 President .Dixon's Price Corriinission in October of 1971 63 Despite the etiorts of Zeff and Grayson, the Latin A trier lean program failed. Only one person applied, and no one ever com])leted the program. The major reason for its failure was financial. The business school did not have the money to send faculty members to Latin America to recruit students and engage m an exchange program. The program was dropped in 1969, and no attesnpt has been made to re-establish it. By the fall of 1967, except for tJie Affiliates Program,

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169 every program in the school was i.n jeopardy. Eiirolliiien.ts in the MBA prograin were not increasi.ng, and the curriculum vvas quantitatively orieuted whers quantitative methods were no longer 1 a^ihioaable The Latin American prograni had faiJ.ed to develop and the doctoral program was threatened with termination. The financial situation of the school was critical and the faculty decreased from twenty to fifteen full-time teaching members.. Adding to the sciiool's difficulties, Grayson resigned in the fall of 1967 and planned to depart at the end. of the academic 6 5 year. Grayson left Tulane to beconie dean of the business school at Southern Methodist University in Dallas,, Texas. lie had declined a previous offer by the school, but was eventually convinced to accept the positi.on by William Clernent, a proiiiii nent Dallas businessman. Grayson was attracted by the Dallas business coi-nuunity and was impressed with its coinmitiiiont to make the business school one of the best in the country. A group of businessmen, made contributions to the school which doubled the school's budget. Grayson xvas offered an attractive salary and great autonomy in adiriinistering the school. When compared with the situation he faced at Tulane, the position at Southern Methodist Uni. versify was indeed attractive. Grayson was tiring of his position in the school, and felt that he vvas no longer effective with President Longenecker. Although the business school was in serious trouble, Grayson believed that there was nothing more he could do.

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NOTES i,, "Howard G. Schaller, private interyiew. Chapel Mill, North Carolina, August 6, 1973. bi ^ Frank C. Pierson, et al. 'Fhe Education of £5iner_ican i?l^lAil^l!'l£i}_ ^^^'^'^ York; McGrav^Hill, 19 591', pp "208211 4,ioward G. Schaller, private intervievv, oi I b i d C :i t 6:..,,, iiillii e Uni V er s i ty Bu l^ eti n S c h o o 1 of Business Administration, 19 61 -196'2;' Series Tz, Number 2, January 15, 1961. n. IS. 7 } i o w a r d G S c h a 1 1 e r p ii v a t e i 3i t e r v i e v.' o p c i t Ibid. 9 liil^I'L? yQiy^L?i'D' i^!-^^^l?iy;i} Graduate School of Business AdiT!TnfstV3tTon7" T97 3-"l974 ..' Series 7^, Nun^ber 2 April, 1973, pp. 36-37, '"Annual Report of the Dean, School of Business Administration, 1960-1961," p. 7. 11 IyJ-5iIl£ yili''{e_rs_itr)/ Bu] let in. School of Business Administration, I9 60-1961', 'Series 60 Number 16, December IS 19 59, p. ZS. 1'? "Annual Report of the Bean, 1960-1961, op. cit. Howard G. Schaller, private interview, op. cit 14 IblCi. 1 D, Clinton A. Phillips, Kx^rience With yrid_er^i;_aduate l!^ll}:^ll. IL91I3I1 f''>!-'w Orleans: Tulahellhiyersity'^ 1964 )VpV 3: """Annual Report of the Dean, 1963-1964," op,, cit., \). .:-., i / Clinton A. Phillips, Exp erien ce With Undergraduate .b us iness Program, typ • cdj; j p. "35." 170

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.71 18b i ci „ p 2 7 10 '"Annual Net Enrollment," Office of Student Records and Registration, Tulane University, June 10, 1964, ti p '0 Clinton A. Phillips, Expejrience Wi/th Undergraduate Business Pr o^gram o£ ,. c i t p 2 8 '"" """" "" 21, p. i. 'Annual Report of the Dean, 1963-1964 op ; 1 1 7 -) riowara Jcha ller p r i V a t e i n t e r v i e w on c i t "'Clinton A. Phillips, Ilxp e_r .i jj ric e With Undergraduate Business Pj^ograiTi, op. ci_t., p. 29. '~ ~ 7 A 1 b i d D 2 8 iii iP? 1 klli ""' ^J' sjJiX 111' U'^ ^' Jri S c h Administratioii;' I 963-1964, S e r res"T 4 ^ Num ool of Business ber 6, May, 19 63, ate p. 16. It took four years to phase out the undergraduat!: program. Tlie school was renamed the Graduate School of Business Adnii n i st ration in i)cccmber of 1966. Auoust, 1973,, hi 9 27 Alumni ijuest loitriai re e > b c ii o 1 (H 1 s 1 r' y P r o i e c t r Santry Reed, Professor Birieritus private interviev;j New Orleans, Louisiana, July 97 1973. ^8 _[uj.ane Un:Lversj.ty Biijletin, School of Business Administration, 19631964";' Serf es""'63. Number 16, December 16 1962, p. 22. 7 "lierman Preudenberger Economics Department, Tulane University, private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, Auqust 13 19 75 '>o. Howard G. Schaller, private inte ^rview, op. cit. 7 -Mbid. ''"C, Jackson Grayson, private i.nterYiew DaJla^: Tf^'xas August 15, 1973,, ::>:) liov^ard c; Schaller, private iirterview, op. cit 3 4 C, Jackson Grayson, private interview op. cit 3 5,, "^~ I b I d

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1 I -> Ciintoii A. Phillips, IiXEe^riem: e With Undergraduate Business Program (New Orleans: Tulane Universi ty j' 196"4T"." Clinton A, Phillips, private ixitervievv College Station, Texas, August 16, ]973, ^'^'Annual Report of the Dean, 1963-1964," qji £i t ,, p. "59 '"C. >Jackson Grayson, priv'ate interview, op. cit. ^*^"Ann\i3l Report of the Dean, 1964-1965," op. cit_ 41 C. Jackson Grayson, private interview, op. cit. 42 Alurnni Uii es t i onmi i re S c lie o 1 11 'i s t o r v P r o le r t August, 1973."^ 43 I', bantry Reed, private interview, op,, ci.t. 44 Tulan e Un i_v ej sity B y 1 1 et i_n 'C r a d is a. t e S cl r o o 1 o f Business Adnunistratlon', IDeT-'lSGa", Series 67, Nuniljer 11, October 15, 1966. p. 35. ^ M A \nnaal Report of the Dean, 1966-196'^," op. cit,,, P 46, Clinton A. Phillips, Ehcperience With Under gra,duate Bu_s_iness Pi'ogr_am, op_.. cit., p. 30, "^ 4 7 B 1 e n n i a 1 P io g ,r e s s R e p o r t A c a d e m i c Y e a r s I: n d i n c July, 1970," Exhibit II, MBA Class Comparison Profiles, 196419 7 0, p. 16, 48 C. Jackson Grayson, private interview, op. cit.; Howard G. Schallcr, private interview, op „ cit. ~ 4q '"nnual Report or the Dean, 1964-1965," op. cit., D 50 "lylllli UlliXSIiLitZ Bulletin Graduate School of Busi.acss Admini st rn t ion ~1 i}'6y1968yScri es 67. Nuinl-jcr 11. October 15, 1966, p. 37. I.!iiiiil£ y£Xeis_itX '3£l_t Study, Jt96_7-' 19^6 8 Volume III, "Graduate and Prof ess iona.r'Progfams'^ "ParF"'2,"" p." ",556.

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173 : b 1 d 54,, p 2 3-2 9 Annual Report o:i: the Dean,, 1966-1967," "^'Tulane Univ ersi ty Self Study, 1967-1968, Volume Til a-aduate and Professional Programs, Part'^S 7"" pp • 355-356. 5 6.-, (.,,„ Jackson Grayson, private interview, 0£. cit, '*''lbid. 58. 59 "'"Stephen Zef f private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3, 197 3 „ 6 'Tulaiij^ University Bulletiji, Graduate School of Business Ad!T!ini.stratidnr''l9 67; l958 : Series 67, Number 11, October 15, 19 66, p. 33. 6 J Stephen Ze£t, Busjness_ Schools and the Challenge of _InternatiqiT_al Bijsiness (New OrieansV"' tulane University, T96STV"pT vT 6? "How Husiness Schools tvelcoipe the World," Business Week, December 9, 1967, pp. 118-124. 6 3,. .-,,-, ,. ihe iaKe-cnarge Price C-ar," Time Magazine. December 20, 19 71, p. 19. ^ 64, Jackson Grayson, private interview, op. ci bS Ibid. 1 h I !.) 1 'vl 67 D 1 ei

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CHAPTER VIII THE MOVE TO AUTONOMY AND FISCAL SELT -SUFFICIENCY : PETER A. FIRMIN AS DEAN, 1968-1974 Peter A. Firm in came to the business school i^^ 1949 after completing a Master of Business Adniinistratior! program in accoLintiiig at the University of California, Berkley. Although he initially discussed a position with Dean Buchan, Firniin was hired by his former teaciiex at Louisiana State University, 1 Robert French, Firrnin taught for t'U'O years and,, with Frendi's assistance^ received a Rockefeller Foundation Feilov/ship to pursue doctoral studies at the University of Michigan, He rejoined the faculty in 19.53, acquired his Certified Public Accountant's credential, and settled into a teaching career, Firniin completed his degree in 1957, y/as promoted to Associate Professor in 19 58, and, ivith Grambsch's encourageTaent tooV. a 2 leave of absence in 1960 to do post -doctoral work at Harvard, I'lrmin's experience at Harvard broadened his view of accounting and managetnent Graaibsch, Schaller, and Grayson also noticed that Firmin's interest in higher education for business had been spurred.' ]n 1967, when Grayson decided to resign, he approached 4 Mrmin about succeeding him as dean. Firmj.n expressed his interest and applied to the faculty search coimnittee which liad been established to seek a replaceti^ent for Grayson, In December of 1967, the search coiiiHiittee recommended, to President 174

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17, Longenecker that Firjnin be hired as dean, FirmiR met with Longenecker on several occasions and presented his appraisal of and future plans for the school. Longenecker was impressed with Firmin's proposals and recommended to the Tulane Board of Administrators that Firinin be iristRlIed as dean of the school immediately. During the interviews with President Longenecker, Firmin learned first-hand about the critical situation facin^ the school,, The university, which had constantly faced financial problems had surveyed its various divisions and concluded that 6 each of its divisions had to support itself financially. To iiiany, it appeared that this plan was especially appropriate f r a school of business and nianageTnent The business school, however, was operating with an annual deficit of about three '7 / hundred thousand dollars. Recent developments m the school^ most notably the abandonment of the undergraduate urogram, exacerbated the problem. Tuition revenues dwindled dramatical ly while expenses continued to rise. The crisis was felt directly when, during Grayson's last year as dean, four vacant faculty positions were not funded. Tfiese vacancies, and those created by Grayson's departure, caused the faculty to question whether the school could con8 tinue to function. Additional faculty departures were expected among those remaining. Firmin perceived the desperati on

PAGE 191

176 I I of the situation and proposed that the school be established 9 as a t;LScaily independent entity.' The plan which he submitted to the president and tlie board was to make the school financially self-sufficient within five years. In approving Firmin, the board likewise approved his plan.'"" Not since the earliest days of Aldrich's deanship had the school been faced with such a challenge, Firinin^s proposal consisted of txvo strategies: increasing student enrollments 1 1 and soliciting external funds tor the school."" In 1967, there Vicre about one hundred full-ti.me studeiits enrolled.^" When four faculty members resignedj it appeared to the president and the board that replacements were unnecessary. The problem, as perceived by Firmin, was that in order to offer an MBA program of reasonable quality, a minimum of twenty faculty would be required, regardless of student enrollinent The only feasible solution was to reci'uit a student body of sufficieiit quantity to justify a full-time faculty of twenty. Firmin believed that an enrollment of three-hundred full-time MBA students would be optimum. Although a student body of this size would probably be too small to have a significant national impact, it would at least enable the program to survive and would not strain the faculty or physical resources of the school. Firmin 's second strategy was to take charge of the fiscal operation of the school by soliciting, receiving, and expending external funds. Except for the first few years of its

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177 existence, external funds, such as those solicited from individual or corporate donors, had never been a sigiiiiicant concern of the school. When uniycrsity operations were centralized under President Marris, funding responsibilities were likewise centra] ized. Schools and colleges within the university were forbidden to solicit external fnnd^ for their '-e14 spective divisions, AluBini. gifts, endowed prof essorshins ,, and scholarships were ail managed by the university finance office. Thus the deans, although accountable for expenditures within their respective colleges, v^fere never fully accountable in terms of fiscal operations. Firnrin hoped to increase both individual and corporate tunds by soliciting gifts to the schooj and developing contractual arrangements with tlie school through the Affiliates 15 Program. His first action was to expand the Affiliates Program by raising the cost to corporations froiTi fifteen hundred dollars to twenty-five hundred dollars. For the additional thousand dollars,, affiliates would receive several guaranteed positions in a series of management development seminars. These seminars were to be focused on iiiiproving the management skills of practicing (in-service) executives. The topics of these seminars would be determined by the Business Schoo] Council. Nationally known experts in relevant topics would also be brought in on a consulting basis. The first of these seminars was developed by Grayson during his last

PAGE 193

78 semester at the school.. Finnin also vigorously pursued aluniRi and corporate donations to the school. In the past, aluinvii had been reluctant to give to the university development prograifl. because their donations could not be specifically desi s^nated for -esp hv the 17 .-..-..business school. The new arrangeTnents changed this and alumni vjcre new told that their donations would support the school's prograin directly. As a result, alumni donations increased from 18 zero in 1967 to over $32,000 in 1971, Local commercial, industrial, and financial firms were likewise asked for assistance. Firmin's efforts were so successful that, on occasion, he was called in by the university deyelcpment office and told 19 that he was interfering vvith their solicitations. These instances decreased as Firmin solicited donors who had not preV i u s 1 y £ u p y > o r t e d T u 1 a n e As Firmin's plan called for fiscal self-sufficiency in the school, it likewise called for a degree of independence which the school had not enjoyed since tlie early years of Aldrich's deanship,. This independence had a profound imnact upon the administrative structure of the school. Once acjain, the school was solely responsible for recruiting ^ admitting, educating, and placing students. In most respects, therefore, the school had become an autonomous educational unit with its own admissions, registration, and placement offices, student aid office, public relations office, alumni, affairs office, and

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179 even a policy board, the Business School Council."" The school's i;nder)enderice was iriost evident when it began to conduct its own coiTimenceiiient exercises in 1973. Firrnin believed that an. essential component in his proposal to make the school financi al 1)' independent v^ras the recruitment and development of a first-rate faculty. By the time he assumed tlie deanship, the full-tijiie teaching faculty had dwindled to fourteen, a number which, as noted above, Firmin believed to be inadequate to offer an MBA program of reasonable quality. Firmin' s recruitment strategy xvas similar to that of Paul Grambsch. Firirrin went to the major graduate schools of business and recruited the best people he could. Firmin convinced these people that Tulane's school of business offered them an opporti.;nity to teach and research in an attractive university setting. They were also attracted to the youth and closeness cf the faculty and the exclusively graduate program. Firmin offered them salaries which were competitive with those in the Midk'estern region of the country."'' Firmin' s recruiting efforts v/ere successful. By the time he left the school in 1974, the full-time teaching faculty had grown to tventy-five. Most of the faculty were young, with a median age of about thirtyfive. They were experienced in business and government and had doctorates from major business schools such as Stanford, Harvard, Cornell, and Northwestern.''' As part of the conti.nuing effort to develop a diversity of 21

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18 training and experience, raost faculty were trained m more than one field, of management. And > although quantitative mctliods remained a key area of interest, the faculty also included experts in behavior and organizational, analysis as well as the functional areas of accounting, marketing, and finance. The faculty was also involved in programs outside the school. One faculty member, for example, was involved in a program for the financial development of the local Black community sponsored by a private foundation. Another worked with the food stamp distribution program in the New Orleans metropolitan area,, Still others worked with the Chandler of Cotmerce preparing comparative analyses of the New Orleans business c mm u n i t y with t h o s e i n A 1 1 a n t a D a 1 1 a s a n d } I o u s t o ]-; W i t h i n the university,, several faculty member? worked with the schools of law, engineering, and medicine in developing and implementing 2 4 interdi sciplinary programs The faculty, although relatively few in number, began to lose the complacency which had been characteristic of nrevious "3 rfaculties in the school. The loss of complacency resulted from the fact that jobs in business schools were not as readily available as they had been, and because the faculty had been recruited from highly competiti.ve institutions,, Procedures for faculty promotion and tenure, reflecting the new competitiveness, were formalized during this period. The faculty com^ inittee responsible for promotion and tenure now recomriiended

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181 faculty and documented a candidate's academic perf ornian.ce Finally, as part of an effort to acquaint students, alunnii, and the local business comiiuinity with the affairs of the school, a newsletter was published which discussed faculty accomplish]iients. This encouraged the faculty to -Diirsue consulting, re26 search, and community service activities. Firrnin was proud of the faculty he had recruited. He believed that their training, experience, and teacliing abilities enabled them to coiapete favorably with any graduate business 2 7 faculty in the country. Unfortunately, the faculty ivas also a source of f rustrati.on. Fir?iun rarely worked with the faculty because he spent so much time raising funds and recruiting students, and because he was an ad3nittediy authoritarian a.dministrator Consequently, the faculty did not develop a consensus a.bout the purpose or direction of the scj^oolds program. Fiririin Iiad recruited a strong and divei'se faculty who identified more with their respective disciolines than with 28 the school or witii the MBA program itself. Faculty opinion, for example, v/as divided on whether the school should prepare researchers 5 acadenuLci ans or professional managers, hilcewise, some faculry favored general preparation, while others pre2 9 f erred specialised training in an. area of business. The ijidependence of the faculty was another source of contention. Throughout most of the school's historVj the faculty had willingly followed t]\e dean. This faculty, however,

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30 wanted to play a more active role in school affairs As mentioned above, Firjninf especially in the early years of his deanshipj was preoccupied with external affairs and tended to decide internal matters without consulting the faculty. Two decisions which .Firmin iTsade brought consiclerable dissent from the faculty. First; after circulating some position papers favoring the implementation of an individualized approach to instruction, Firmin sought and received funding from the Frost Foundation [$50, 000) and the Esso Education. Foundation 31 ($30 J. 00). When his proposal was presented to the faculty for implementation, the faculty balked because they were not committed to the idea of individualized instruction and because they felt they had not been part of the decision. Firmin then appointed a faculty task force to study the issue and present its findings to the faculty. An individualization plan was finally approved and implemented in certain core courses in 32 the program. Firmin 's second decision, not to grant a leave of absence to a faculty iTiciTiber who wanted to pursue a doctoral program, was also resisted by the faculty. Firmin had failed to consult the appropriate faculty committee and his decision ivas tanta.mount to firing the faculty riember in question. The faculty presented its grievances to FlriTiin and a decision was made to 3 3 reorganize the administrative structure of the school. Heretofore, the school would have an "external" dean, Firmin, who retained the title of dean and continued to be the chief ad-

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183 fuinistrative officer of the school. The position of associate dean was created. The associate deai! would be responsibje for the internal, academic affairs of the school. This position was filled by trie Vetter, y tv^/elve year veteran of the school who was respected by and worked \^iell with the faculty."'*' This arrangement effectively resolved the differences between Firmin and the faculty. In contrast to the occasionally stormy faculty relations., students were generally pleetsed with the school. They were especially appreciative of its small size and the closeness which developed among students and between students and faculty,"^ Many students saw tliese years as transitional and felt that the school had effectively dealt with the change to an exclusively graduate program. They also believed that the school was gaining recognition as one of the better business schools in the country. Students gave both the faculty and Dean Firmin credit for offering an innovative curriculum which focused on both general liranagement and functional business ai-eas. Specifically, they viewed Firmin as an effective administrator who was friendly, receptive to student vievvs, and heavily involved in soliciting funds for the school. Reflecting the school's recruitment goals, students were more diverse in terms of their geographic, educational, and vocational backgrounds. About half of the students cajne from the South, with about twenty per cent each from the Northeastern

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1 8 4 and Midwestern regions of the country. The remainin^r ten per cent canie froni the far West or from foreign countries. Their iindergradiiate training was likeivise dii/erse v.-ith only cue quarter of them trained in busiiiess. The remaining students K'ere about evenly divided arnong social science, engineering, and 57 science undergraduate backgrounds. Contributing greatly to the diversity of the student body was a significant (twenty-five to thirty jjev cent) nunber of career army officers, Tulanehs business school and that of the Georgia. Institute of Technology had contracted with the Army to train a number of career officers in management, operations research, and computer science. Tulane received the maioritv of students in manapement and operations research, while the Georgia Institute of Tech38 nology trained those in computer science. The army students were admitted under the same criteria as civilian students, and were often more highly qualified and motivated than their civilian counterparts. Thus, although they were in a minority, the army students often dominated both curricular and extracurric3 9 uiar affairs of the school. Student irnrest, which characterized university life during the late sixties and early seventies, was not a factor in the school. And 5 although the university experienced some strikes and disruptions, business students did not participate. They were more interested in working in American corporate life, 4 rather than disrupting it. Many business students were also

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185 employed, married j and older than typical university students. These qualities were shared by both military and civilian business students. Interestingly, unrest a>ttong students elsewhere on campus indirectly affected the school because a number of DOtential donors or corporate affiliates ivere distrubed by 41 Tu 1 a n e s t o 1 e r a n c e of s tu d e n t r a d i c a 1 s Student enrollrnents grew during Firmiii's years as dean f-rom about one hundred full-tiiiie students in 1968, to about tv/o 4 2 hundred and sixty in 1974, Part-time enrollments declined from one hundred in 1968 ^ to seventy in 1972. By 1974. the part-time enrollruent had climbed back to one hundred, Parttime enrollments were easily affected by local business developments, most notably the establishment of a National Aeronautics and Space Adrainistraticn (NASA) construction facility in an eastern suburb of New Orleans. The full-time enrollTnent of two hiindred and sixty was somewhat less than that which Firmin believed to be o].!timal in terms of faculty and physical resources of the school. The slow growth of the national economy and the lack of national visibility of the school was believed to have 4 4 liampered student recruitir-ent It is important to note, however, that the school continued to be selective in its admissions practices. It was thus able to maintain a student hodv which ranked in the top twenty per cent of students en4 5 r o 1 1 e d i n b u s i n e s s r; r o g r a m s a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n The school's curriculum changed very little during Firmin's

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186 term as dean. And, although he felt that it required evaluation and revision, Firiiiin's concerns with funding and recruiting faculty and students took precedence. The MBA prograio continued to focus on providing prospective executives with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In 196B, the program consisted of sixty seraester hours, generally taken in two years. Only three courses could be taken as electives. The remaining courses were taken in "Basic Concept Areas" iaccounting quantitative methods, economic analysis, and behavioral analysis); "Applied Areas" (financial iTianageinen t marketing management j production management, and analysis of business conditions); and, ''General Administrative Areas" (legal environment, social environment, management policy, management simulation, and information systems)/^" By 1974, these areas had been rearranged and renamed with the major change being an expansion of the electives to seven courses. The curriculum still consisted of sixty semester hours now taken in a "Core Set," "Advanced Set/' aiid "Elective Set" format. There was no substantial alteration of the core (basic concept areas) except that quantitative methods were subsumed under the title of "Management Science."'^'' Throughout the period, students with prior graduate business education could petition to have certain core requirements waived. The majority of students, however, took the entire s i X t y h o u r j .) r o g r a m. Contrasting the relatively stable curriculum was an attempt

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18 7 by the school to raciical-ly revise instmactional methods. In 1968. three methods o£ instructioR predominated ; the case method in which a student was coufronted with a factual situation in which he had to identify the problem^ propose alternat i V e s 1 11 1 i n s e s t a b 1 i s h c r i t e r i a for e v a 1 u a t i o ri sol u t i o n s and make a decision; the computer assisted management game in which teams of students managed various firras in a computerized model of a hypothetical industry; and, lectures from the school's 48 faculty and other academic and business lecturers. By 1974, the school had implemented a program of individualization which sought to enable students to learn at their own pace, and to utilirie instructional resources whicli v/ere best suited to them. (See above p 182,) This p r o g r am wh i c h h a d b e e n i n i t i a t e d i n 197], called for a series of learning modules covering the 4 9 material presented in the "Core Set," Once the "Core Set" modules were developed and functioning, the school planned to individualize the remaining portions of the cuiriculum. Because the school underestimated the tim.e and effort required in this project, progress in individualizing the curriculum has been slow. Thus, in many courses, case studies, computerized management games, lectures, seminars, and other more traditional 50 i n s t r u c t i o r, a 1 m e t h o d s s t i 1 1 pre d o m i n a t e In addition to the fulltime MBA program, a part-time program and several interdisciplinary programs were offered, Students in the part-time MBA program were required to meet the

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18 8 same entrance and exit criteria as those in the full-time program, Firmin viewed this program as an important service to the local business communitY, and felt that although relatively few of these students completed their studies at Tulane they 51 were receiving beneficial instruction. As part of its efforts to attract students and enhance the diversity of its student body, the school aggressively pursued several interdisciplinary programs with other schools in the universi.ty ,, The most notable of these programs were those xvith the schools of engineering, architecture, law, and public health (hospital administration). These programs rarely generated significant enrollments because the other schools were disinterested in them. Firmin 's emphasis upon strengthening and expanding the MBA program left little time or resources for the doctoral program in business. Ever since the decision to offer an exclusively graduate program, certain faculty had argued for the development of a doctoral program. The program;, hov/evetj never received the resources necessary to make it viable. Firmin pisced the program among the lowest of his priorities for the 5 7) school. By 1974, the program had dv.-indled to two students working in a tutorial arrangement with their doctoral cojnmj trees. 54 Only one student ever completed the program. Strengthening ties witii the local business community and business alumni was a much higher priority for Firmin,, The

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1 8 9 decision to make the school a fiscally iridependent entity Kithin the uiiivexsity required Firmin, like Aldrich, to enlist the advice and support of local individuals and corporations. The local enyironirieiit in which the school functioned wb..s viewed as a mixed blessing. On the one hand, New Orleans was a unique and interesting city in which to live and wor"k. The cultural attractions of the city enticed numerous faculty members and students. Likewise, the location of Nev/ Orleans on the river and its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico were cited in the school's bulletin as offering great potential for commercial, financial, and industrial development. Yet, the school felt hampered by its location in the South and by its identification as a Southern school. Basically, the school viewed its problem as one of visibility. The problem of visibility is aggravated by the fact that the City of New Orleans is not considered to be among the more progressive, and it is not on the "beaten p a t h F e w c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s are h e r e > the city is not a cross -roads for business travelers in spite of its high tourist appeal, and no major national business publisher has a correspondent office in New Orleans. Thus, when m.agazines like Business Week, ^If^tfon' s__Biisinesj or r oVT)e"_s ancr'hew's paper's 1 i k e "" tTTcT W all Street ;ji^_u_riia_l and tiie N a t i o n a. 1 b s e r v e "r" v i s h, to' run a story invoTvihg comm,ents From a faculty J adm.inistrative or student m.ember of a graduate school of business administra;5„ tion, our views are not normally solicited, ^^ The lack of visibility was seen as a hindrance in such important

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190 areas as fund raising, student recruitTrient faculty recruitment, 55 ana alumrii placement. To the school, New Orleans was not large or progressive enough to support it adequately. Firrnin sought to improve this situation in a number of ways. Aside from the previously mentioned Affiliates Program, Firrnin expanded the size and advisory role of the Business School Counci.l. This group, wjiich had been established by Grayson, was appointed by Firrnin to represent a broad geographic area including New York, Chicago, Houston, and Cleveland in S 7 addition to New Orleans." In 19 74, the council included about thirtyfive corporate executives who were called upon to advise tlie school of current developnients in business and to suggest ways in vmich the school might iiiiprove its program. The council also took on a major responsibility for advising and assisting, the school in its fiscal development. Thus, the council brought the school closer to the business community from which it had to receive a significant portion of its financial supnort. The sell 00 Is USt easiness council was similar to that of business schools in private universities throughout the nation."^' Firrnin also sought the support of the schoo: aiumn.], more ng, the vigorously than any previous dean., Since its beginnin sciiool had graduated about 2800 students with baccalaureate degrees and about SOO with masters degrees. Although the majority of the alumni had settled in New Orleans and the deep South, there were alumni in every state in the country in 19 72

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191 5 9 except Alaska. Fixmin appointed a veteran, faculty inonber, Bernard J. Capella, to direct alimni relations,. Also, an Alumni Advisory ConMittee was forsiied which represci'ited a broad geographic area. This conmiittee was organized for the same purposes as the Business School Council, One of its first decisions was to establish aluBini chapters in cities where the school had significant numbers of alujimi and where the school v^^nted to enhance its visibility. Thus, alumni chapters were 6 established in New York, 'Washington, Atlanta, and Houston, Firmin's plan to inake tjie school financially independent was successful. The combination of increased tuition revenues, affilj.ate funds, and corporate and alurnni gifts enabled the 61 school to meet all of its direct expenses by the end of 1973. Indirect expenses such as utilities and building maintenance were partially covered by the university. Each year the school costs, both direct and incame closer to covering all of its direct „ oz By 1974, the school was no longer in danger of being dropped by the university. Its future, to that extent, was secure. It appeared to Firmin that this was an appropriate time for the school to once again take stock and set a course 6 3 '" for its future development. Firmin believed that in order for the school to have a significant impact upon business affairs, it would have to develop a iriore defined focus for its programs. Typically^ Firmin thought in terms of the school

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19.; 64 developing an identity and market for its "product." He had developed a proposal for the school to become a center of applied research and information about resource manageinent in t li e G a 1 1 S u I h r e g .i o n 1 1 o iv e v e r h e w a s u n c e r t a. i n v/ h e t h c r t h e school was read^^ to make a maior decision concerTi-5ns its 65 future. Firinin was also uncertain whether he t^'as the appropriate person to lead the school in a new direction. As Firinin was deliberating on how to most effectively present his ideas to the faculty, he was invited by the University of Denver to become dean of their business school. Their offer included the same challenge which firmin had accepted at Tulane--to make the school self-sufficient. The attraction was too great. Firmin accepted the offer which included the opportunity to work with university -wide financial development. He resigned his position as dean and left at the end of the 1974 academic year. The relationship of the business school to Tulane University and the New Orleans business comiuunity had come full circle. Although the similarities between Peter Firmin and Morton Aldrich should not be overdrawn, there are significant similarities in terms of the tasks both men faced. Both men were called upon to perform much like the businessmen they educated. Like Aldrich, Firmin had to sell higher education for business to Tulane. And Firmin, like Aldrich, adm,ini stered a school which was, for the most part, an autonomous unit within

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19 3 the university. The precarious financial, position of the school forced both deans to rely heavily upon external support. Firmin saw similarities between his position and that of Aldrich. And, althcugh he knew that he was personally different from the almost Icj^endary character that liad established the school, he nevertheless; identified with Aldrich. '"' Firmin. could speak to students and businessmen with the voice of experience because husines,s education at TifLanej after a period of security within the university, was a.g.ain a business enterprise. Th e s ch o o 1 s p r o du c t h 1 g hi e r e du c a t i. o n f o r bus i n ess, once again competed in both aca.de!nic and busi.ness iiuirketplaces

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NOTES Robert W. French, private interview, Birminghaiii Alabama, June 3 0, 1973. 2 Peter A. Firmin, private interview. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 22, 1973, '"Paul 'V. Grainbsch, private interview, Atlanta, Georgia, August 4.. 1973; f!ov;ard G, Schaller, private interview, Chapel Hiil, North Carolina, August 6, 1973; and, C. Jackson G r a y s o n p r i v a t e i n t e :r v i e w Dallas, T e x a s Au g u s t 1 5 1 9 7 3 C, Jackson Grayson^ private intervi.ew, op, cit, 'iierbert Longenecker, private interview. New Orleans. Louisiana, June 20, 1973; Peter A. Pirrnin, private interview, op. cit. Firm in took over as dean before Grayson's resignation was to' 'Become effective. This was done to prevent the faculty from becoTaing even more demoralized, For the remainder of his time at Tiilane, Grayson developed the executive training seminars which Firmin offered in the expanded Affiliates Program, 'Herbert Longenecker, private interview, on. cit. 7,' t Jul n D "Biennial Progress Report, Academic Years Ending y, 197 2/' Exhibit XII, Statement of Revenue and Expenses, 8 Stephen A. Zefl, private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3, 1973. Zeff was on the faculty and chairman of the promotion and tenure committee of the school. 9t. I'eter A. Fi.rmin, private interview, op_^ cit. 10 l_bid.. i'irmin also noted that the deans of tlie schools of medicine and law likewise developed plans for finan' cial self-sufficiency. Firmin 's statements were corroborated in an interview with President Lonsenecker II Ibid ^1 7 ^''"'Biennial Progress Report, Academic Years Ending July, 1972," Exhibit V, Enrollment Report, n.p. 13.., Peter A. Firmin, private interview, op. cit, 14 Ibid 194

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19 5 15 'ibid 1 6 Z. Jackson Grayson, private mtervievv, op. cit. "'Peter A. Firmin, private interview, op, cit. ] 8 "Biennial Progress Report,, Academic Years Ending July, 1972," Exhibit XIV, Alumni Gifts, n,.p„ Peter A. Firmm, private interview, op. cit. ""' Tuiane Uiiiversity Bulletin Graduate School of Business Administration ," 19'73-'1974 "Series 74, Number ? April, 1973, pp. 23-28, 2] iric Vetter, Associate Dean of the school p r J. V a t e interview, Nev/ Orleans, Louisiana, July 13, 1973; Stephen A Zeif, private interview, op. cit. ? ? """Biennial Progress Report, Academic 'Vears Pndine July, 19 7 2," p. 6. 2 3,, 1 Did. "'"Biennial Progress Report, Academic Years Ending July, 1970," p.. 8. 2 5,, Stepnen A. Zeii, private interview, o£, cit. 2 6 Ibid. V] 2 7 r Peter A. Firrnin, private interview, on. cit. 2 8,, Stephen A. Zeff, private interview, op. cit 29 Peter ; -u rirnrin, private i.nterviev/, op. cit. 30,, Eric Vetter, private interview, op. cit.; Peter irnnn, private interview, op. c 31 .1 u :{ V 19 7 2 'Biennial Progress Report, Acadei eiiiic Years Ending 32 Ibid .") ,:> 34. ibid rir^nin, private interview, op. cit

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196 AluiTinJ^ Questionnaire School Historv Proiert August, 1973. 36 „ ., J b .1 a "'"Biennial Progress Report, Academic Years Ending July, 1972," Exhibit VI, MBA Entering Class Cornparison Profj. ie, n.p. ") s J_bid |-) 4 39^. ,, b r 1 c vet r, e r d r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w o p r 1 1 40 Peter A. Firnnn, private interview /, op. cit. 4 ,[ l^.iAfirmin stated that durinti the time of the most serious disruptions on Tulane's campus, several potential donors withheld their support because of" campus unrest. 4 2 James 1, Murphy, Acting Dean of the school, private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 2, 1974. ^•h:bid. ^"R'r.nTi -; a 1 Knnial Progress Report, Academic Years Endinp July, 19 72," p. 9. 4 5. l-UZiii' Exliibit VlIIj Admission Report, n,n. The criteria for this judgment were the scores of students on a standardized test, the Aptitude Test for Graduate Schools of Business (ATGSBj 4 6 Tu_ij!.ne Universrty Bunetin, Graduate School of Business Administration, 19 6 87 Series 6S Number 8 August 1968, pp. 16-24 .. J t, ^ 4 7... uianc Lin IV :^r2HllI fl!iil£li:ii' Graduate School of ii u s 1 n e s s Adm i n j. s t r a t i on "l 9 7 5 • 1 9 7 4 ,""" S e r j e s 7 4 Numb e >? April, 1973, p. 6. ,.-.-.... 4 8 Tulane University Bull etin, Graduate Schoc ) 1 o Business Administration7T9687 Serifes 69, Number 8, Aupust 1968, pp. 38-59. 49 "Biennial Progress Report, Academic Years Hndinp July, 1972," pp. 2-3. ^'^ 5 Eric Vetter, private interview, op. cit. Vetter

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19 7 chaired a. faculty task force which studied the school's plan for individualizaticn "Peter A,, tirmin private interview, op. cit. 5? I b ;i d rp i d James T. Murpji)/, private interview, op. cit. '^Biennial [--rogress Report, Academic Ypar^ ihidins July 1972," p, 9. S3 56 Ibid Tuiane yDn^IsJ.ty BulleUn, Graduate School of Business Ac&iinistratioiT," 1973IDTA „ Series 74 Nuniber ? April, 1973, p. 58. S8 Am erica n Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business ^lililiiil > Volume IirNumbeT 3'" ApriT," 19737 pp'.~731~';55~' ~" 59 "Biennial Progress Report, Acadenfic Years Ending July, 1972,'' Exhibit XV, Distribution of Active Living Alumni', n,p. 60 "Biennial Progress Reoort, Academic Year^ "ndinp July, 19 72," p. 7. Peter a. Firmin, private interview, o E91. 62 James M nhi7 Murpny, private interview, od cit. 65 Peter A. Firmin, private interview, op. cit 'Ibid. I b i d i b 1 a

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AFTERWORD It is fittiiig that today; Txilarie's business school relies on the connrsuTi i ty irs iiiiicn the same 'way that it did at its begiiiTiirig. Over sixty years have passed since Morton Aldrich convinced the businessmen of New Orleans that a school of commerce was vital for their continued prosperity. Likewise, he was convinced that the school's future was tied to the community. Aldrich gained only grudging acceptance of the college b y t. ]\ e u. n i v e r s i t y Y e t h i s q ii arte r c e n t u. r y a s d e a n w i t n e s s e d the dovelopraent of a professional program which helped to transform Tulane from a nineteenth century liberal arts college, to a rriodern university,. By the time of Aldrich bs retirement in 1939,, Tulane, like most institutions of higher learning in America, had become an academic bazaar offering a variety of scholarly wares. „A,nd Tulane, ever mindful of its need to attract a clientele, welconjed the burgeoning ranks of students seeking business traini.ng. In the following decade ^ the college, led by Leslie Buchan, played a crucial role in converting the university into a liiodern, centralized institution. The bazaar became a departinent store ccnrplete with centralized management of its programs,, students, faculty J and finances. The school, like the university,, was changed dramatically by the processes of modernization and centralization. Most notable was its iriove away from 198

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199 the local business community by dei^aloping a more modern and' less vocational curriculum. The identification of the school ivith national collegiate busi:n.ess education was witnessed, by f a c u 1 1 y a ii d s t u den t s a 1 i k e Throughout the fifties and most of the sixties, the school grew increas.i.ngly secure in the university and isolated from the local business conrmunity The school, because of the status it acquired through its association with the university, defined professional business training, and legitiiHi zed business as a professional activity. During these years, trie school j with an image created by Robert French and made substantial by Paul Vi Grambschj sought and gained the attention of other business schools across the nation,, The inove to a quantitatively oriented curriculum, and the decision to eliminate the undergraduate program brought the school closer to national developments in higher education for business, and further isolated it frora the business community. By 1968, the school had a faculty of highly trained scholars, researchers, and teachers, as well as a curriculum which was in the forefront of business schools. It also offered the most innovative instructional methods available in higher education. What the school did not have were sufficient students and finances. Tulane's coimTiitment to business education, whic!) had been strong while the school attracted large numbers of students, suddenly disappeared. Tulane once again

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2 00 faced critical £ina"ncial problems arjd cfaestioned whether it could afford a program ii/hich was not paying for itself. The prograni facing the school v/as deceptively sirr.ple-pay its own way or close. The inaior rc-sponsibility for solving the school's problem v/as taken by Peter A. Finn in. FiriTiin, in effect, took the school bach to its beginnings. And, if a haziiar or department store were no longer appropriate metaphors, perhaps a iiiodern specialty shop, or boutique, was appropriate. The school rio longer sought to offer broad educational services, bat focused its resources exclusively on educating r.ianagement executives. More importantly, the school re-established its ties with the business community,, Although the new communiry was more expansive than that which Aldrich faced, its relationship to the school was the same, Firmin, like Aldrich, had to convince businessTnen that they needed the school. And he was convinced, like Aldrich, that the school Ti e e d e d t h e tiu s i n e s s c oiimru n i t y Since Firisiin's resignation in 197A, the school has maintained its ties with the business community and lias reinstated the undergraduate program.. When the school dropped its undergraduate program in 1962, Tulane retained a Bachelor of Commercial Science Program as part of its part-time, evening offerings. This program was neither administered nor staffed by tlie business school. In 1975, when the business school was visited by an accreditation teaiii from the American Assemblv of Collegiate Schools of Business

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201 (AACSB) J it was told that its accreditation was in jeopardy because the undergraduate evening program did not meet its standards. The i^JvCSB required tl^at all business programs offered by a university had to be accredited in order for arij business prograiii to be accredited. The evening program, in other words, had to be dropped or revised to meet the standards The decision about the evening business program was faced by Sheldon Hachney, who had replaced Herbert Longenecker, as President of Tulane. Hackney consulted with flarper Boyd, the new dean of the business school, and James Murphy, the school's associate dean who had served as acting dean during the period after Firinin's resignation. Hackney called for a study of the evening business prograra. This study revealed that although the program attracted some part-time, evening students to the university, the laajority of its students came from the arts and sciences college of the university. These data were contrary to the scliool's earlier findings that undergraduate business education at Tulane faced dramatically declining enrollTTients (See above, pp. 156-157.) Hackney decided that if the deniand existed, then the business school should develop a prograri! to irseet it. Consequently, the school devised a twoyear upper division program leading to a bachelor of science degree in inanageroent ,. The prograra, started in 1976, v.;as a "tivo-ontwo" program in v/hich students spent their first two years in the arts and sciences col lege, and their last two vears in the business school

PAGE 217

202 The new program has attracted approximately two hundred students and has helped the school develop a more coDifortable financial base. Tuition revenues from both the undergraduate and graduate prograins have increased substantially since 1976. These revenues and those from the Affiliates Program and the Alumni and Corporate Giving Progra:nis have placed the school in tlie most secure financial situation in its history. Because of this, there is considerable optimism that the school's programs vvill continue to improve a.nd expand. Karpcr Boyd, who replaced Peter hiriiiin as dean, is a nationally recognized leader in the field of marketing. Prior to his arrival at Tulane, Boyd had been a professor of marlceting and manageraont at Northwestern and Stanford Universities. As editor of the Jcuoiriial o_f Marketing Research and author of numerous books and articles in the fields of marketing and inanagenient Boyd's reputation has enchanced the image of the school.. To date, his efforts have been focused primarily on program dev'elopinent The school *s niove to reinstate its undergraduate program underscores the most proiinLnent theme of this study—the responsiveness of institutions to a changing environment. Changing times and settings have called for changes in the school's curriculuFij organization, and faculty, as well as changes in its relationship to the academic and business cominunities These changes are a vital part of the history of the school and the environment in which it functioned. (The Picrson study

PAGE 218

2 03 and the Gordon and Howell study are excellent sources v/hich describe this pheiioinenon arcoiig university business programs t h r o u g h oxi t t h e n a t i o ii. ) The school v-zas founded in response to the demands of businessmen who believed that they could be educated best in a university setting. Once established, the school was confronted with the conflicting deiaands of the business and academic comrauni ties Its early programs were condemned by the university community as narro-.vly vocational and by the business community as overly theoretical and impractical. Collegiate business education had not yet developed as a legitiiuate part of university education and no one knew what professional businessmen needed to learn most. This, of course, did not prevent the field from growing into one of the ^Tiost popular in American higher education. The response of many business schools to the growing demand for their services was merely to offer more of what they Inid been oFferin.g. This did not happen at Tulane. After the school was established as a permanent segment in the university it began revising its curricula in response to what it perceived as the changing nature of /Vinerican business. Generally, these curricular revisions attempted to meet yet another set of conflicting demandsthe need for businessmen ivith a broad and general understanding of the world, and, at the same time, with more specialized skills. The compromise which resulted was not new in higher education. Students were required to

PAGE 219

204 take two years o£ liberal csr general studies j follou=ed by two years of specialised professional study. This integration, or combination,, of general and professional studies made business schools a more integral part of universities. The devel opiTient of prof essi.onal business raanagemerrt into a science with its own tools of quantitative and behaviorad, analysis made additional demands upon business educators. These demands were most crucially felt in the curriculum which was already crowded with general business courses and collections of courses in such areas as accounting, niarketing, and finance. To these demands must be added those of lajsinessmen and educators who were convinced increasingly that the best education for professions was offered at the post baccaJ aureate level. Once again^ changing times and settings led the school to revise its curricula and redefine its position in the business a n d u n i v e r s i t y c o irrnu n i t i e s It is important that institutions, like people, behave intelligently. Intelligent responses to changing times and settings are vital for tlie sxirvival and growth of institutions. Such responses should be characterized by thoughtful consideration of the social conditions in which institutions function and reflection on possible consequences of their actions. An accurate and comprehensive understanding of their pasts not only ])rovi(ics institutions wi.th identities > it is an important precondition to intelligent institutional behavior. An under-

PAGE 220

standing of the historic conditions v,'hich have influenced their deveJ opins:nt ivill enable institutions to set better courses of action for tlie future.

PAGE 221

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES PRIVATE INTERVIEWS Ba.iimbach, Richard 0. New Orleans., Louisiana. July 12, 1973, B i,i c] I a n L e s 1 1 e J .. N e w r 1 e a n s J o n 1 s i a n a August 10, 19 7 3. Cape] la, Bern aid J. New Or leans, Louisiana, July 24, 19 73. Dyer, John P, Slide 11, Louisiana, April 14, 197 3, Elsasser, RobertNew Orleans, Louisiana, June 28, 1973. Firmiii, Peter A. New Orleans, Louisiana, French. Robert 'J^ Birmingham, Alabama, June 30, 197 3. Freucienberger Herman. New Orleans, Louisiana August 13, 197 3. G r airib s c h P ais 1 v' A 1 1 an t a G e o r g i a August 4, 19 73. Grayson, C. Jackson. Dallas, Texas, August 15, 19 73, Halley, Donald M. Neiv Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1973. Harris, Rufus C. Macon, Georgia, August 7, 197 3, Longenecker, Herbert. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2Q, 197 3. McCutcheon, E, Davis. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 20, 1973. 2 06

PAGE 222

:07 Murphy, James T. Nexv Orleans, Louisiana, July 2, 19 74 „ Phillips, Clinton A. College Station, Texas, August 16, 197 3. Reed, F, Santry. New Orleans, Louisiana, July 9, 197 3. Schaller. Hov^ard G. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, August 6, 197 3. Sweeney, James W. Atlanta, Georgia, August 4.5, 197 3. V e 1 1 e r E r i. c New r 1 e a n s L u i s i an a July 13, 197 3, Zeff. Stephen. ?^iew Orleans, Louisiana, August 3, 197 3. II. BULLETINS Ainericari Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business. Bulletin St., Louis, Missouri;' American AsseiiiFly of Collegiate Schools of Business, Association of ComiRerce. Fckt Nc5w Orleans. New Orleans: dissociation of Commerce ~SepteiT5l3er 1914. Tulane University of Louisiana. BiillejtJ.n of the College. of Comrrierce and Business AcI-ininis_tration, New Orleans: Tula'ne Onivers'ity" or Louisiana, 1914-1974. Tulane University of Louisiana. B ull et i.n of the University Col_le£e. New OrleanY'r ""Tulane University oT Louisiana, 1942-1943, Tuliine University of Louisiana. Report of the President or Tulane Universit^ Volume I. New Orleans: Tulane University of Louisiana, Sent ember 14 1914.

PAGE 223

08 1 1 REPORTS College of Commerce of Tulane University. "Report of the Dean," New Orleans: Tulane University of Louisiana f 1939-1957. Graduate School of Business Acirninj.stration of Tulane 'iniversity, "Biennial Progress Report." Nevv Orleans: Tulane University of Louisiana, 1970-1972. Tulane University of Louisiana, Office of Student Records and Registration. "Annual Net Enrollment." New Orleans: Tulane University of Louisiana J 196 4. Tulane University of Louisiana. Rep ort of the President of Tul_afi_e_ University. New (DTirearri': 'TuTarTe University "oT" Louisiana 19441947 Tilane University of Louisiana. Tulane Uni vers ity Se Study, 196 7-19_68. New OrTe'ansT ""Tu'lane University ~6F Louisiana, 1968. '^at r IV. MINUTES Association of Commerce. ^'liil^-Lf ss New Orleans: Association of CommerceV "1912)1914 Boa re ,1 .1 u u kiarantors. Minutes. New Orleans: Board of G u a r a n t o r s o f t h e C> o 1 1 e g e of Co m in e r c e Tula n e U n i V e r s :i t y o f L o u i. s i a n a 1 9 1 7 Tulane Board of Administrators. Mi.nutej3. New Orleans Tulane finiversity of LouisTana", 1913-1915. Tulane University College of (lommerce and Business Administration. Fi35UJ_tj/ Mnutes New Orleans Tulane University of Louisian^j 1938-1948. Tulane University Council., ^i-llitss. New Orleans: Tulane University of LouisTana, 1913. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS A 1 c] r' ids, M c r t on A S_c r ap book ( i n p o s s e s s i o n o f I'l i s d a u g h t e r M r s E B r i d g e rn a n New 1' 1 e a n s Louisiana)

PAGE 224

2 09 Bauinbach, Richard 0. "Beta Gamma Sigma at Tulane." Unpublished typescript, Tulane University of Loiii 51 ana 1924 College of CoTnmerce of Business Adrfsinistratioii "Budget." New Orleans; Tulane University of Louisiana, 1913-1974. Grambsch, Paul V., .1 ^i"Report of the Special Committee on Development-" New Orleans: Tulane University School of Business Administration, 1957. Graduate School of Business Administration of Tulane University. "Correspondence Files." New Orleans: Tulane Unj. versify of Louisiana, 1914-19 74. RuTiible, John C. "Suggestions for the ImproveTnent of the College of Commerce and Business Administration, tulane University." Unpublished typescriptj Tulane University of Louisiana, 194 9. S c h o o 1 H i s t o r y P r o j e c t Alum ni Questionnaire New Orleans: Tulane University Graduate School o f B u s i n e s s Adm i n i s t r a t a. o n 1973. SECONDARY SOURCES I BOOKS Bossard, James H. S., and Dewhurst, Frederick J. University Ediication For Bus ine ss 'Philadilpfiia': "'"University oT Pennsylvania Press, 1931, Callahan, Raymond E. E ducati on and the Cult o_f Efficiency_. CFicago:~ "University of Chicago Pre" sT7"~r9 6 2 Dirkens, Charles J., et al. The Amerixan. Association ^ C Q 1 1 e g i^ a t e "S c h o o 1 _s of' BusTnes's ." ""Honiewoo
PAGE 225

;io Gordon, Robert A.^ and Howell, James Edwin. iiigher l^ckica^ion For Bus in es s New York: Co'IurnDTa IJn i V e r s i t y Press, 1 9 .59" Hofstadter, Richard, and Hardy, C. DeWitt. The D eve lopment and Scope o_f Higher Education in tlie Un_ited StatesT New "Yo'Fk": ColljiiiFra'"" Un rver s Tty Press, 19 5 2. Lyon J hevcrett S. ^^liiS^li*^''! liP£ Business Cliicago: University o i C li f c a g o T9 '2 JT Marshall, L, C. ed. The Collegiate School o£ Business,, I.l Status at_ the_ Close o_£ the"'~FTrJt~Qua7teT"c^ the T wen tieth 'd^^ntury"Chiclal^o: iriTiversTEy" oT crh 1 c a g o Pie s s '"T9 2 8 '"" P 1 1 i 1 1 i p s C 1 i n t o n A hxperi en c e IV i t h Und ergr a d u a t e ITu s i n e s s P r o g r aiii N e w Or 1 e an s : 'fuTane" University oF Louisiana, 1964. Pierson, Prank C, e_t al. The Education of Atnerixan BusinessmenT '" Ne iv York: M c G r aw -if 'i 11 '" iMTTr"' Ross, Edward A. Seventy Years o_f rt ; /ar Autobiography. New York: App le tonCentury 'Co. ,' 19 36. "'" Veysey, Lawrence R. The Eme rgenc e of ITk) Americari Uuivers i t y C h i. c a g o : Un, iv e r's ft y oT'"CKT "Fa g o Press ,"'1965. Ward, Esteile F. The Story of Northwestern University. New York; """"DodcT, Mead ," a iTd" Company 7 TWIT'. Wiebe, Robert H. Business and Reform Study of the P r o g r e s s i v e" M m/e m en t Chicago: Quaar'angTe" Fiook. 19~5 2'. 2eff Stephen, Susine^s Schools an__d th_e Challenge of Internat ional lus_ines_s .,""""" New Orl'eans:' TuTaiTf? Universit)"' oT Loursiaiiaj 1968. n. ARTICLES Church, Robert L. "Economists As Experts: The Rise of An Acadeinic Profession in the United States, 1870-1929." The university in Society. Edited

PAGE 226

211 by Lawrence Stone. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 19 74. lie Bow, James DunK^oody Brown son. "The Commercial Review o£ the South and West New Orleans, Louisiana: J. D. B. DeBow, Volume I, Number I, 18 46. Gnyarre, ClinrJcs. "James Dunvvoody Brovi/nso]i DcBow." DeEow's Review. New Orleans, Louisiana: j7""rrr'"B".' "DeBow, Volume TIT, Number 6, 1867, Grether, E, T. "The Development of the AACSB Core C u r r i c u 1 um T_h 8 Am s r i c an Ass o c i^^ t_ion of Collegiate Schools' o f '~ B_u s i ii e s s "." Char 1 e s J. Cirksen, et 'a 1 '" HomewooHj Illinois: Richard D",' 'Irwin, Inc.^ 1966. "Flow Business Schools Welcome the World," ^si-il^^li Week. December 9, J 967. Matherly, Walter J, "The Relationship of the School of Business to the College of Liberal Arts." American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business P^'O'I^'^'^'J-^ISl^.' 19 37.. Wheeler, John T. "A Conrpari.son of Changes in AACSE S c h o 1 s T h e Am e ric an Ass o cSa tAoj\ of. Collegj.a_te 'S'cTio'oTi oi'""'""Busine'ss T CEarles J. DTFlc'sen"," et aT" Momev/oc'J7 Illinois: Ricliard Oi Irwin ^ Inc., 1966. in. NEWSPAPERS New Orleans htem, 1913-1917. New Orleans States, 1914-1917. New Orleans Times --Democrat December 28, 1915, New Orleans 'U:]!iQS-PicavuJie_, 1902-1917,, The Tulane Weekly, October 17 j 1917.

PAGE 227

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH James F. Fouche' was born in Manchester, England, on September 26, 1945. After spending his early childhood in rural Georgia and Flordia, JiBi Kioved with his family to New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1953. !le attended public schools in New Orleans and graduated from Alcee Fortier High School in 1 963. I n J a n u a. r y o ;f 1 9 6 4 J i in e n t e r e d L o u i s i a n a State U n i versity in New Orleans. Jim was awarded the Bachelor of Arts degree in History from this institution in 1968. At that time, he started teaching at Ursuline Academy, a Catholic school for girls. FroR 1968 until 1972, Jin) taught Social Studies in parochial schools in New Orleans, took the required courses for certification as a secondary school teacher, and completed requirements for the Master of Arts degree in Mi story from Louisiana State [iniversity in New Orleans. In 1973, he entered the doctoral program in the Foundations of Education Department at the University of Florida. Jim is currently an assistant professor in the Education Programs Unit at Northern Kentucky University in Highland Fieights, Kentucky. He is married to the former Kathy Flick and has a son, Jonathan Kane. 212

PAGE 228

certify that it conforins :ation and is have read this study and fha at m my to acceptable standards of scholarly f u 1 J y a d e q \ a t e i n .s c o p e a n d q u a 1 i. t y opinion p r e s e n t as a dissertation for t'le degree of Doctor of Philosophy, '9 -^— .—-.— __ — -™j-.._._..„,._i.-£-„_..„., — -,— Robert R Prof es sor "Sl'ierman i;nai of Education man I certify that I have read this study and that in iny opinion it c on f or nis to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. '). LZ-&C-/>id^^ Artnur u. Wiite" As s o c i 3 1 e P r o f e s s o i" of Education 1 certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforiris to acceptable standards of scholarly .on and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, r the dee,ree of Doctor of Philosophy. pre sen tat as a dissertation n. > ,.^ E As h b y H a irini o n d P r o f e s s o r' o f H i s t o r v Thi is d i s s e r t. a t i on w a s s ub w, i. 1 1 e d t o t h e e Iraduate Faculty if he Department of Foundations : Education in the College of [iducation and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillnient of the requirenients for the degree of D c 1 r f P h i 1 s o d h y ^upust 19 7 8 / SJLi:.d=. Cliairmah "FouiTdatlbnTs" oT'EHucatic )n


NOTES
1
New Orleans States, September 13, 1914.
2
Bulletin of the Tulane University of Louisiana
(College of Commerce and Business Administration), Series 15,
Number 14, November 1, .1914, p. 6.
3
New Orleans States, September 11, 1914; New Orleans
Times-Picayune, September 14, 1914.
~ c ~
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 15, Number 14,
November 1, 1914, p. 7
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.
7
New Orleans Times Picayune, September 14, 1914.
8
Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American
University (Chicago: Univers ity of Chicago Pres s 1965T ,
p. 72.
9
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 16, Number 12,
September 1, 1915, pp.' 12-13; Bulletin, Series 17, Number 12,
September 1, 1916, pp. 12-13; Bulletin, Series 18, Number 12,
Sept embe r 1. 1917, pp. 14 -15 .
10
Frank C. Pierson, et al., The Education of American
Businessmen (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959) p. 39.
11
New Orleans States, September 22, 1915
Charles J, Dirkens
t al., The American Association
of Collegiate Schools of Business (Homewood, Illinois:
Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1966), p. 183.
13
James H. S. Bossard and Frederick J. Dewhurst,
University Education For Business (Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania Press, 193X77 PP 263-264.
14
Minutes of the Tulane Board of Administrators
(Special meeting of the Executive Committee held on
October 4, 1915), p. 150. Newcomb College was associated
with Tulane. The board assumed, at least until Aldrich
presented his case, the educational needs of women could be
met in Newcomb College.
16
New Orleans Item, October 12, 1915.
)
New Orleans States, October 24, 1915.
4 5


on them, Schaller felt responsible for their implementation.
Schuller had also worked with Grambsch on the "Pierson Report,"
a Carnegie study of university level business education which
called for the teaching of quantitative methods. This
encouraged Schaller who had been involved in developing just
such a curriculum at Tularic. Me felt that some regional if not
national recognition might come to the school as a result of
its new curriculum. He also felt that he was in a good posi
tion to effect a smooth transition and maintain positive rela
tions between the school and the rest of the university.
Schaller wanted the school to continue evaluating its
programs. Like Grambsch, he perceived an increasing complexity
in modern society and a consequent demand for people trained
at the master's level. Thus, Schaller believed that the future
of business education lay not in undergraduate business pro
grams, but in MBA programs. He believed that the curricular
innovations of the Grambsch administration would lead to the
eventual elimination of the undergraduate program and the
expansion of professional training at the graduate level.
Finally, although he had no intention of building an administra
tive career, he was tempted by the challenges of the position.
Schaller accepted the deanship with the condition that at the
end of three years there would be a mutual review and he could
resign.0
The selection of Schaller as dean was complicated by the


11
7
L
a consequence, the college realized an enhanced visibility in
5
tne community.
An important part of the promotion of the college's
activities to the community was a considerable increase in the
number of institutes and conferences sponsored by the college.
Among the more noted of these were: the Tulane Institute of
Foreign Trade and Port Operations; the Tulane Tax Institute;
the Southern Public Relations Conference; and meetings of the

Public Affairs Research Council (PAR). These activities were
supplemented by the expansion of the research division of the
college which was now called the Division of Economic and
Business Research. The college now presented itself as a
regional center for the study of business and economic
activity and was increasingly recognized as such in local
business circles.
Changes in the college's curriculum, courses, faculty,
and students were less pronounced, than its changing image in
the community. The college's program was still divided into
undergraduate, graduate, and research divisions. Of these
three divisions, the undergraduate curriculum and course offer
ings were the least changed during the five years of Frenchs
term as dean. For example, despite repeated expressions of
concern about the quality of undergraduate students enrolled
in the college, admissions requirements remained unchanged.
The college also retained the four-year curriculum and no
evidence can be found that an effort was made to implement


fisherman near his camp on the shores of lakes Pontchartrain
2 8
and Maurepas. Aldrich prided himself on his ability to get
along with just about anyone--a man who was at home in the
loftiest of political or economic discourse and could likewise
trade stories in language which has been described as
"colorful." Discussions with those who knew him best reveal
him to be a warm man with "rough edges," a man who eschewed
the snobbishness of many of his professional colleagues and,
above all, an educator who had an ability to win the respect
and admiration of his students, colleagues, and the local
community.
Although Aldrich had qualities which compel us to view
him as unique, he was also, upon careful study, very much a
part of the national movement to establish collegiate level
business education. In many ways, Aldrich was a prototype of
the utilitarian reformer in higher education. The son of a
New England shoe jobber, Aldrich received his A.B. degree
from Harvard in 1895 at the age of twenty-one. His training
at Harvard, taken during the period of Charles W. Eliot's
29
presidency, had a profound impact upon him. After complet
ing his degree, he traveled to Asia and Europe studying at
Munich, Berlin, and Halle, taking his Ph.D. in economics
from the latter institution in 1897. From Halle, Aldrich
returned to Harvard as a Fellow in Economics in 1898 and
became an Instructor in Economics in 1899. Harvard and


154
beneficial, brought recognition to the school, and served as
g
a model for faculty activities.
As mentioned above, faculty recruitment was important to
Schaller. Approximately half of the full-time faculty during
this period were appointed by Schaller. Over half of
Schaller's appointees were in the field of economics, many of
whom are still at Tulane. James Murphy, Stephen Zeff, and
Eric Vetter were appointed by Schaller and are currently
9
teaching at the school. A number of other personnel were
appointed by Schaller to teach evening courses.
There were no major curricular revisions during Schaller s
deanship. For the most part, the school was merely implement
ing the new curriculum initiated by Crambsch. In the under
graduate curriculum, the business problems course was replaced
with a non-credit freshman assembly, and the freshman socia1
studies option was broadened to include psychology and philos
ophy. A management seminar for seniors introduced complex
business games into the program, and a course in quantitative
analysis introduced computer laboratory experiences. In the
graduate curriculum, two new management courses were introduced
i o
and the accounting program was made more flexible. None of
the changes reflected a change in the philosophy of the school.
Although no significant curricular revisions were made at
this time., the school decided to eliminate the undergraduate
program and invest its time and resources in graduate education
This decision profoundly affected every aspect of the future


1S 9
training was as promising as Schaller and the majority of
2 7
faculty believed*
The decision to drop the undergraduate business program
necessitated the separation of the economics department from
the business school. The Department of Economics had been
housed in the school since Buchan's deanship. However, with
the decision to drop the undergraduate program, economics would
play a much smaller role in the school. Only two courses, Macro
2 g
Economics and Micro Economics, were taught for the MBA program.
Schaller and. many of the economics faculty felt that economics
belonged in the College of Arts and Sciences from which service
courses could be offered to the business school. Since the
role of the economics department in the MBA program would be
minimal, their interest and understanding of issues pertaining
to the business school would also be minimal. When the vote
was taken on dropping the undergraduate program, the economics
department: voted for it, and, in effect, voted themselves out
? 9
of the business school.
Schaller was aware of the far-reaching implications of the
decision to offer an exclusively graduate program. The rela
tionship of the school to the local business community, for
example, would change significantly. The New Orleans business
community was satisfied with the school's undergraduate pro
gram, and could not readily absorb the increasing numbers of
MBA graduates. To Schaller, this meant that the school would


Harris knew concerned him because he felt that Tulane would
not realize greatness until its colleges were organized into
an integrated whole and offered substantial, university level
workTo this end, Harris wanted the Co 11 ege of Commerce to
offer a two-on-two program combining general and professional
courses or a three-on-two program similar to that offered by
the College of Law. Harris reasoned that this would bring
the College of Commerce closer to the university and enable
it to focus its efforts on developing more substantial pro
fessional offerings.L
Harris* views were shared by the new dean of the col
lege. Leslie J. Buchan. Buchan, a native of Iowa trained in
accounting at the University of Illinois, had been hired by
Aldrich in 1930 as a professor of accounting. As one of the
"Nine Old Men" of the college, Buchan was representative of
the type of faculty which Aldrich recruited--he had a master*
degree, successful business experience (he had been a partner
in an accounting firm in Miami, Florida), and was interested
in teaching undergraduate courses. Buchan quickly realized
that the program and people of the college suited him as well
as he was suited to them. In recruiting Buchan, Aldrich em
phasized that although the college did not have high ad
mission standards, it did have high standards of performance.
The small size of the college (compared with most state.in
stitutions) and the closeness among the faculty and students
also attracted Buchan.


102
The relationship of the college to the local business
community was likewise successful. The close ties estab
lished by Aldrich were maintained and strengthened, An
important part of this was Buchan's understanding of the
history of the college and its debt to local businessmen.
The most important change during this period, however,
required very little of Buchan or the college. As graduates
of the college rose to prominence in the New Orleans business
and civic community, relations improved because the college
could now call upon its alumni.00 These alumni credited the
college with much of their success and were vigorous supporters
of its activities. Although the college did not need their
direct financial support, their assistance in such areas as
hiring graduates and providing field experiences and relevant
business cases for students was vital.00
By the end of the decade, many of the changes envisioned
by Buchan had been realized. The college was a more integral
part of Tulane, and its program had been modernized and
expanded to include professional training at the graduate
level. Buchan's administrative and organizational skill
earned him considerable respect within the university com
munity. It also led to an increasingly heavy schedule. Each
year seemed to add yet another responsibility. By 1946, Buchan,
in addition to serving as dean of the college, was also func
tioning as assistant to the president (acting as the comp
troller of the university), assistant director of University


been successful In beginning a professional course in advertising
also had to meet the challenges set forth by that course. The
campaign devised for the college consisted of handbills
describing the college's courses and faculty, storefront
window placards strategically placed by local businessmen (many
of whom were Guarantors), street car notices and, most important
ly, newspaper advertisements and a seemingly endless stream of
editorial and feature articles touting the opportunities which
the college afforded.
The newspaper coverage of the college was extensive.
Every appeal was made to the potential student--course
descriptions, sketches of the qualifications of faculty,
announcements of free public lectures, promises of increased
prestige and salaries as well as a series of cartoons and
articles emblazoned with such headlines as "Are You Training
For Life's Big League?" and "Pass By the Idlers, Attend the
19
College of commerce." Finally, at least one editorial,
directed to the "... clerks, bookkeepers, stenographers
and other members of the employed classes" asked the ques
tion, "Are YOU one of the derelicts?" and suggested that the
Guarantors of the school "... at least deserve the appre
ciation which a large annual attendance . would afford
20
them."
The campaign worked. By the end of the First World War,
after five years of operation, the college could boast an
enrollment of 725, a six-fold increase from the original en-
Indeed, by the third year of its operation (1916-17),
rollment.


THE TULANK UNIVERSITY
ADMINISTRATION: AN
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
ORAL-INSTITUTIONAL
BUSINESS
HISTORY
JAM
By
;S FRANCIS
-CUCHE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


that the changes produced by the increasing intimacy of
schools and society are among the most important developments
in the history of education.
xv


Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) which had as its
object "the promotion and improvement of higher business ed-
12*
ucation in North America," Very quickly, the AACSB estab
lished professional standards regarding: admissions; minimum
number of semester hous; staffing (rank, training, salary,
and teaching load); the number of fields to be offered; and
1
library facilities. The AACSB envisioned itself as an
agency which would bring some order to the chaotic prolifer
ation. of collegiate business education programs. As a charter
member of the AACSB, Tulane's College of Commerce demonstrated,
its commitment to develop and maintain a program of substantial
professional quality. High enrollments were not enough.
The issure of admitting women to the college arose during
this time. Although women were barred from the college when
it first opened, Aldrich believed that as a matter of simple
justice they should be admitted on the same basis as men. The
Tula n e B o a i d, ho w e v e r, h a. d g u i deli n e s w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d a d -
14
mitting women to the college. Yet, as America became more
directly involved in the war, women became an important source
of students for the college. As a result of pressure from
Aldrich and local business leaders, women were permitted, by
a vote of the Tulane Board, to enroll in the college at the
15
beginning of its second year of operation.
Like most of the activities of the college, the ad
mission of women was given extensive coverage in the local
press. The first woman to be admitted to the college,


72
13
Minutes, College of Commerce Faculty Meeting, op. cit.,
1938, p. 19. ~ '
14
Richard 0. Baumbach (alumnus of the college) private
interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 12, 1973;
F. Santry Roed (former faculty member of the college), private
interview, Mew Orleans, Louisiana, July 9, 1973.
15
Richard 0. Baumbach, "Beta Gamma Sigma at Tulane"
unpublished typescript, April, 1924, Tulane University Archives.
16
Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project,
Tulane University Graduate School of Business Administration,
New Orleans, Louisiana, August, 1973.
Pierson, The Education o£ American Businessmen,
pp. 268- 279. '
18
A1umni Questionnaire, School History Proj ect,
August, 1973; R. 0. Simpson (alumnus of the college), private
interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April, 1973.
19
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, New Orleans,
Louisiana, August 10, 1973; Robert Elsasser and Donald Holley,
private interviews, op. cit.
2 0
Builet.in of Tulane University, Series 31, Number
8, July 1, 1930, pp. 6-7.
21
Alumni Questionnaire, School History Project,
August, 1973. Many "alumni noted that the faculty not only
worked, closely together, but that they also palyed cards,
hunted, and. fished together as well.
22
Ibid.
2 3
F. Santry Reed, private interview, op. cit.
24
R o b ert Els a s s e r, private in t e rview, op. cit.


Eliot thus got another chance to reinforce Aldrich's
uti1itarian training.
Aldrich left Harvard in 1899 to become Assistant Pro
fessor of Economics under Edward A. Ross at Stanford
University. After only one year at Stanford, Aldrich
resigned because of Ross's dismissal. Ross, an eminent
sociologist, had spoken out on several issues of contemporary
concern. These activities offended Mrs. Leland Stanford, and
30
after a series of attempts at reconciliation, Ross was fired.
Aldrich was convinced that this was a case in which Rosss
academic freedom had been infringed, and he was the first of
several faculty members to resign in protest. Concern for
academic freedom, although not expressed solely by advocates
of utility, was certainly one of the hallmarks of the move
ment. This concern was obviously related to the movement's
ideas about the role of higher education in the democrat!za-
31
tion of America,
Aldrich's departure from Stanford came barely one month
after Edwin Anderson Alderman became president of Tulane.
Alderman has been described as a prototype of the modern
university president--a propagandist for education who strove
to build enrollments, impress the business world, and attract
32
money. Alderman preached a gospel of industrial growth and
development to the business interests of the city. New Orleans
and Tulane were to be partners in helping the city become
. what it is destined to become, one of the worlds


144
the school's research committee. This committee's efforts were
advanced significantly by the Ford Foundation grant. The grant
also supported faculty development seminars lead by such noted
figures as Kenneth Boulding, Professor of Economics at the
University of Michigan and Alfred Oxenfeldt, Professor of Mar
keting at Columbia University. Other visiting professors and
consultants were brought in from the Ford Foundation, Harvard
. . 4 ()
University, and Princeton University.
The grant money and the deans1 efforts to recruit a more
research oriented faculty significantly improved the amount and
type of research performed by the faculty. By 1959, for ex
ample five books were in progress, with two ready for publica
tion. Numerous scholarly papers were also presented to regional
professional conferences (Southern Economics Association and
the Southwestern Social Science Association). These activities
were supplemented by the special programs which the school
continued to sponsor, such as the Tax Institute and Institute
of Foreign Trade and Port Operations. The faculty also devel-
oped new instructional materials and computer-assis ted manage-
41
merit and finance games. Grambsch felt that the faculty was
finally realizing its potential in scholarly productivity.
The schools relations with the rest of the university
continued to improve during Grambschs term as dean. Grambsch
was personally responsible for much of this improvement. His
organization a 1
and managerial skills were recognized while he


164
and business decisions. Although a number of the older faculty
had used business cases occasionally, the method was never an
4 3
extensive part of the program. With Graysons encouragement,
the use of business cases increased to the extent that it became
4¡
an established teaching method in the school.
Grayson also felt responsible for recruiting and maintaining
a highly qualified faculty. Nine new faculty members were hired
during his deanship. The appointments reflected Grayson's
desire to balance the quantitative and behavioral orientations
of the school. Of these, Associate Professor Linn and Assistant
Professors Barach, Killeen, and LaValie remained in 1974. En
couraging faculty research activity continued to be a challenge
because of faculty complacency. The time required in designing
and implementing the new graduate curriculum likewise impeded
faculty research.
The quality of students enrolled during this period im
proved because the school dealt exclusively with graduate stu
dents. This had been one of the projected benefits to dropping
the undergraduate program. ^ The strongest indicator of this
trend was student scores on the Aptitude Test for Graduate
4 7
Schools of Business (ATGSB). The 1964 enrollment figures re
vealed that 45 percent of the student body had a science or
engineering background. These students were thought to be
among the best prepared to enter the MBA program. The business
school was no longer a residual choice for poor students, but


5 3
The establishment of the four-year option had the immediate
effect of increasing the day enrollment by over fifty per cent
and the freshmen and sophomore classes by one hundred per cent,"
The college now had students for four full years. Very quickly
a closeness developed among students. Aiding this closeness
was the small size of the classes, the isolation of the college
from the rest of the university, and the efforts of the faculty
and the dean who consciously strove to develop an esprit de
corps among students. Evidence of the closeness and geniality
of the students abounds both in the written record and in oral
accounts of alumnae of the period. In the early twenties, for
example, the students presented Dean Aldrich with a proposal
] A
for an honor system managed entirely by the students. The
plan was implemented immediately and has been cited by faculty
and alumnae as a model of its type. Violators of the student
honor code were usually expelled front the college. As another
example of student interest in the college, an honor group was
established in 1924. This group, the Commerce Key, soon peti
tioned Beta Gamma Sigma, the national honorary business fra
ternity, for affiliation. In June, 1926, during the colleges
eighth commencement exercises, two faculty members and six
students were inducted as charter members of the Alpha of
1 c,
Louisiana Chapter of Beta Gamma Sigma."' The overriding student
view of the college during the twenties and thirties was that
it was like a large family group cooperating in the education


21
to the Tulane Board. In addition to Aldrich, Association
President Simon, and others, two members of this conference
are of particular importance--Paul Havener and Levering Moore.
Havener and Moore were both graduates of the College of Commerce
A
of Northwestern University, which had been established in 1908, '
With few modifications, the plan used to establish North-
western's college was adopted by the conference to establish
the Tulane College of Commerce. The plan called for the for
mation of a Board of Guarantors made up of members of the
Association of Commerce, the local Society of Certified Public
Accountants, and other local businessmen. The Board of
Guarantors would select officers who would, in turn, enter
into a contractual agreement with the university. The
Guarantors would promise to underwrite the expenses of the
college for a specified number of years. This plan was
approved by the conference, submitted to both the Association
of Commerce and the Louisiana Society of Certified Public
Accountants, and subsequently approved by those bodies. The
plan was then submitted to the Tulane Board, which referred
it to a special committee. On August 13, 1914, a joint
meeting of the Board of Guarantors of the Tulane College of
Commerce and Business Administration and the Tulane University
Board of Administrators was held. The plan was unanimously
approved; the college would open in the fall if the Guarantors
contributed five thousand dollars per year for a period of


81
of a modern university, it also helped the College of Commerce
in its movement toward modernization and meeting the goals
established by Buchan. Because of the more immediately prac
tical and vocational nature of business education, the College
of Commerce received a substantial portion of the Navy V-12
students. (The College of Engineering also received a sub
stantial number of these students.) Also, beginning in March,
1944, the college was selected as a Naval Pre-Supply School,
one of nine in the nation. ^ The combination of the V-12 and
Pre-Supply programs assured the college of a constant supply
of well qualified students.
The war also brought the college closer to the rest of
Tulane, The aforementioned fiscal reorganization meant that
colleges of the university were no longer competing for stu
dent revenues and students could freely enroll in courses
outside of their college. And, in addition to centralized
budgeting, centralized purchasing and receiving brought the
College of Commerce (along with most of the other colleges)
closer to the operation of the university. With respect to
students, centralized registration and commencement encour
aged a sense that they were all Tulane students who happened
to be studying in one of its colleges. Also, a high per
centage of students enrolled in the College of Commerce were
navy trainees who focused much of their attention upon mil
itary activities. This reduced their identification with
the college. Finally, Buchan's skills as an organizer and


155
development, of the school. The elimination of the undergraduate
program was a logical extension of the changes initiated by
Grambsch. His plan called for replacing the vocationally
oriented business curriculum with one which was more theoretical
and quantitatively oriented, Business arithmetic, for example,
was replaced with quantitative analysis. The school now sought
to prepare business generalists, skillful in management decision
making and the use of quantitative methods in solving business
problems.^
The basic issue confronting the school was to determine
the most appropriate level of academic preparation for modern
business executives. Like French and Grambsch, Schaller had
expressed the view that such training could best be offered at.
i 2
tiie graduate level. This view, combined with the need to
efficiently utilize the schools resources, led to the decision
to drop the undergraduate program. Schaller also believed that
undergraduate business education was inadequate preparation for
j x
modern business life.'1" Like Grambsch, he believed that an
arts and sciences background would provide a better foundation
for graduate training. He also felt that students should under
stand science and its impact on business and society. Science
had revolutionized organization and production methods, and
business decisions relied increasingly on computer analysis.
Schaller thus considered engineering to be an excellent prepa
ration for business education because it was mathematically


76
were tied'1 because the Tulane Board ordered him to enforce the
retirement rule. Harris has no recollection of any formal
attempts by Aldrich to remain dean, and he recalled that he
and Aldrich remained friends after Aldrichs retirement. In
retirement, Aldrich lead a reclusive life. Although he was
honored by alumni on several occasions, he refused to return
to the campus. He died on May 9, 1956, in New Orleans.


120
3]
much of what French started." Her status as a faculty member,
and one particularly close to the dean, presented problems to
a faculty unaccustomed to dealing with a woman in her position.
Eventually, because of her academic and administrative com-
39
petence, Elsie Watters was accepted as a colleague. She
remained at Tulane for several years after French's departure
and eventually accepted an administrative position with the
Tax Foundation in New York.
The research activities of the college had. been formally
organized into a division in 1940. Throughout the forties,
the research department, without a budget or staff, accom
plished little aside from an occasional project directed by
a professor and conducted by one of his classes. This situa
tion was one which French, the former director of business
research bureaus at Louisiana State University and the Univer-
sity of Texas, hoped to remedy. French's plan consisted of
lobbying, both in and out of the university, for funds in
order to provide the department, now designated as a bureau,
with a separate budget. He also wanted to appoint a faculty
member to administer the bureau's program. Finally, French
attempted to recruit new faculty with, an interest and proven
ability in business and economic research and to encourage
3
the existing faculty to devote more of their time to research.
Frenchs efforts were only partially successful. After
his years as dean, the bureau was conducting more organized


was attracting very capable students. A growing number of
military students also contributed to improved student quality.
With the apparent success of the MBA program, Grayson and
some of the faculty believed that a doctoral program should be
developed. They believed that if schools like Harvard and
Stanford had doctoral programs, then Tulane should have one as
well. Many faculty members also believed that there was a need
for teachers and researchers in higher education for business.
Tulane, they felt, could help meet this need with a doctoral
4 9
program. Thus, in the fall of 1964, Clinton Phillips was
appointed to chair a committee charged with developing a doc
toral program. After a year-long study, a program was pre
sented to the faculty and approved,''*1'' The program was designed
to train students in general business administration, including
such disciplines as mathematics and statistics, behavioral
sciences, and economic theory, Students also studied in a
field of specialization such as accounting or management
51
science."' Because the doctoral program trained teachers and
researchers rather than business executives, students entered
the program directly from undergraduate school. The degree
awarded would be a Doctor of Business Administration (DBA).
The doctoral program enrolled its first two students in
1966. In 1967, as part of a university-wide movement to cut
expenses, it was considered for termination along with other
C 0
recently developed doctoral programs.
Grayson worked to


46
17
New
Orleans
TI. m e s
-Picayune, October 24, 1915.
18
New
Orleans
State
s, September 4, 1916; New Orleans
Item, September
7, 19 It
5,
19
N e w
Orleans
S t a t e
s 5 September 27, 1917.
New Orleans Item, September 25, 1915 and October 2,
1916 .
The Tulane Weekly, October 17, 1917,
Bui let in o_£ Tulane University, Series 19, Number 12
S e p t e mb e r 1, 1918, p. 22,
23
Rufus C. Harris (former president of Tulane Univer
sity) private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973.
24
New Orleans Times Picayune, August 29, 1915; New
Orleans States August T5T 1915; New Orleans Item, August 29,
1915.
2 5
Frank C. Pierson, et al., The Education of American
Businessmen, pp. 4-5; Robert A, Gordon and James Edwin Howell,
Higher Education For Business (New York: Columbia Univer
sity Press, 959) p, 350.
2 6
N e w Orle ans Times- Picayune, Ma rch 7, 1917.
2 7
Minutes, Board of Guarantors Meeting, New Orleans,
Louisiana, March" 6, 1917, pp. 6-9. (There were no specific
cities or co11eges menttoned.)
2 8
Ibid. Once again, these minutes did not. specify a
college. It is not known whether or not Aldrich was, in fact,
offered a deanship. The Guarantors were told that he was, and
there is no evidence that anyone questioned the veracity of this
statement
2 9
New Orleans States, September 30, 1917; New Orleans
Tmes-Picayune, September 2 7, 1917.
30
New Orleans States, January 31, 1916.
31
Ibid.
32""
New Orleans Times Picayune, February 6. 1916.
3 3
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 19, Number 12,
September 1, 1918, p, 24,


50
August
Bulletin of Tulane
15, 1938, p. 15.
University,
Series 39,
Number
tration,
51
"Budget: College of Commerce and Business Adminis
1913-1939," op. cit., p. 1.
Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews, op. cit.; Alumni Questionnaire, School History
Project, August, 1973.
53
Elsasser, private interview, op. cit.
54
Lawrence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American
University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955J ,
pp. 303-304.
Dyer, Tulane, pp. 2 39-240.
56
Rufus C. Harris (former president of Tulane Univer
sity), private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973.
5 7
I bid .
istrators ordered
Harris said that the Tulane Board of Admin-
him to enforce the retirement rule.
58
Dyer, Tulane, pp. 241-24!
59
Aldrich is recognized as a pioneer in collegiate
business education. He helped to organize and was a national
officer in the American Association for Collegiate Schools of
Business.
60
Halley, Reed, Elsasser, and Buchan, private
interviews, op. cit. These men and others on the faculty and
staff of the college, at the time, said that Aldrich was
embittered at having to retire. Rufus Harris said in an inter
view that he knew Aldrich was a proud man and that he did not.
want to retire. Harris, however, maintained that his "hands


asserted throughout the student's stay at the university. One
of the many extracurricular activities of the faculty, at this
time, was to go into nearby communities for the purpose of re
cruiting students. These recruiting efforts were often used to
inform high school students, faculty, and administrators of the
increasing need for collegiate business training. Upon arrival
as freshmen, students were quickly oriented to the activities
of the college. Relations with the faculty were close, with
2
the student's progress monitored on a weekly or monthly basis.
Parent conferences, more often than not, strengthened faculty-
student relations.
Conditions were excellent for maintaining the closeness
which characterized, the college. Convinced of the legitimacy
and worth of their efforts to educate students, the faculty ig
nored accusations that their program was inconsequential, and
too vocationally oriented. The primitive state of the college'
instructional facilities was another unifying factor. The
offices, classes, and workroom of the college were located in
the basement of Gibson Hall, the administration building of the
university., Furnished with kitchen tables and other makeshift
furnishings, the facilities reflected the Depression which the
country was experiencing, Library resources, which started
with a few texts and periodicals, were likewise makeshift,
and only after considerable ''scrounging on the part of
faculty and staff was any semblance of respectability devel-


this suggests improved relations between the college and the
rest of the university,
On a percentage basis, the general business courses
(core) changed slightly--from forty-five percent of degree
requirements in 1939, to fifty percent in 1949. The general
business courses required in 1.939 consisted of sixty hours
offered in the freshman and sophomore years and included
courses in economics, accounting, marketing, business English
and business mathematicsBy 1949, however, the type of
core courses required for a degree became more firmly
established. Students were required to take sixty hours
of general business courses spread throughout the four years
of the program. These courses included, economics (eighteen
hours), accounting (nine hours), marketing (six hours),
business law (six hours), management (six hours), economic
statistics (six hours), finance (three hours) and English
. ? t
(six hours).''
Because much of the 1949 undergraduate curriculum of
the college was required, the number of professional elec
tives was significantly reduced. A total of eighteen hours
could be taken, as professional electives (fifteen percent of
total degree requirements) in 1949. These electives were
2 4
available only to juniors and seniors. This was a sig
nificant reduction from the number of hours offered as
professional electives in 1939--sixty hours, thirty each in
2 5
t h e j un i o r a n d s e n i o r y e a r s .


68
an easy task. Harris was aided by a faculty retirement rule
which made retirement mandatory at sixty-five years of age.
This rule had been ignored up to and throughout Dinwiddies
5 7
term as president. Harris now enforced it and, within a two-
year period, replaced every dean in the university except the
5 g
dean of the College of Architecture.
Aldrich became sixty-five in January of 1939. He did not
want to retire. Still vigorous, Aldrich was considered by
everyone in the college to be fully capable of performing his
duties as dean. He had dedicated his professional career to
the college and had realized great success. Perhaps most im
portant, Aldrich had earned the love and respect of his col
leagues and students. He had also earned a position of eminence
59
at the local, state, and national levels. His accomplishments
and the recognition thereof, made a forced retirement all the
more difficult to accept. When the day came for him to leave,
he walked out of his office leaving everything behind. He
, .. 60
never returned to the college.
The most important developments in the college during the
twenties and thirties were the freedom of its position vis a vis
the business and university communities and the formalization
of its curriculum especially in the day division. After ac
quiring its own financial base, the college could, on its own
terms, begin to serve the local business community. The college
could now offer the type and quality of business courses which


to develop cases. Despite these limitations, the case method
was consistent with utilitarian views of education and it brought
vitality and immediacy to courses taught by Aldrich, Halley, and
. 46
others.
The budget and organizational structure of the college were
also important aspects of its operation. The College of Com--
4 7
merce was one of the smallest in the country. The budget of
the college, reflecting its size and meager beginnings, was
likewise small. In the first five years of operation, for ex
ample, the total expenses of the entire college never exceeded
$13,000 per year. During the decade of the twenties, annual
expenses of the college increased to about $50,000 with the
single greatest expense being "Instruction." The total ex
penses of the college gradually increased until they reached
about $73,500 in 1938-39. The single greatest expense remained
"Instruction which amounted to approximately $60,000 in that
year. The only apparent direct impact of the Depression upon
the college was that most expense items were held down or re-
49
duced, and faculty and staff salaries were cut ten per cent,
No one was laid off, and graduates of the program usually found
employment.
From the beginning of its operation, the college's major
source of revenue was tuition and fees. Night students In the
college paid twenty dollars per course until 1920-21. At that
time, the Guarantors support of the program ended and the


133
literature, 1anguages, and speech. Next, a core of professiona1
business courses would be offered which would continue to
broaden the student's perception of business and refine his
skills of analysis and communication. Finally, students would
take clinical courses which would enable them to apply their
skills and knowledge to simulated business situations involving
cases, role playing, and computerized management games. Spe
cialized training in any one area of business education, such
as finance or marketing, was minimized.
The undergraduate program was liberalized in two ways.
First, a two- on- two curriculum was finally adopted in which all
coursework in the first two years was taken outside of the
school in the College of Arts and Sciences. In addition, one-
third (twelve hours) of the junior year was taken outside of
8
the school. Thus, less than half of the undergraduate program
was devoted to professional business courses. The second means
of liberalizing the undergraduate curriculum involved altering
the focus of the professional business courses. Grambsch
wanted the faculty to relate professional courses to the social
, 0
ana cultural environment in which American business operated.
His aim was to broaden the focus of undergraduate business edu
cation in much the same way that social foundations of education
sought to broaden teacher education. Grambsch believed that
this "cultural approach" would make the undergraduate business
program more liberal and less vocational. His concern was


153
transition of the presidency of Tulane from Rufus Harris to
Herbert Longcnecker. Maxwell Lapham served as acting
president of the university until Longenecker's arrival in
September of 1960. Lapham appointed a search committee but
was reluctant to approve Schaller because Lapham was only
acting president. When the search committee asked Schaller
to become dean, Lapham refused to authorize the appointment,
saying that Longenecker would have to approve it. Longenecker
approved the appointment, and Schaller became dean of the
business school in August of 1960. ^
Schaller believed that the dean should deal primarily
with internal matters of the school. Faculty relations and
recruitment were very important considerations to him, and, for
the most part, Schaller was on good terms with the faculty.
Although some faculty would later disagree with Schaller,
there were no major confrontations. The traditional closeness
and camaraderie among the faculty continued. This was bene
ficial to the operation of the school, but the closeness of
the faculty led to complacency. Schaller dealt with faculty
complacency by encouraging the faculty to increase their
participation in scholarly activities. For his part, Schaller
joined the Inter-University Committee of Economic Research on
the South and the Committee on Urban Economics. His writing
generally took the form of book reviews. This work reflected
his own intellectual interests and was professionally


166
maintain the doctoral program and negotiated a compromise with
the university. The graduate school of business would continue
the program at no cost to the University. Thus, the doctoral
5 1
program would either pay for itself or cease to exist.
Tulane's financial problems were increasingly felt by the
school. The Ford Foundation grant had aided the school in its
development in the early sixties. (See above, pp. 141-142.)
By 1967, the grant had expired leaving the school dependent
upon the university once again. The tightening financial situa
tion led President Longenecker to suggest that the school be
brought closer to the local business community. Grayson
r a
responded by establishing the Affiliates Program.'' This pro
gram sought to bring the school and the business community
closer together and solve the financial problems of the school
at the s ame time. The s chool wou1d create a ser ics of seminars
or workshops designed to meet the needs of affiliating business
firms. In return, affiliates would either pay for these ser
vices directly, or make tax deductible donations to the
school.^ Thus, the school hoped to maintain and possibly
expand its teaching and research programs. Although the uni
versity usually prohibited fund-raising efforts by a school, an
l
exception was made because of the critical shortage of funds."'
Grayson was, however, disinterested in the local business
community. Like Schaller, he wanted to focus on the
internal development of the business school. Grayson believed
that the school and the business community had very little in


a bastion of liberal culture, was among the strongest in the
university. In addition, graduate training generally expanded
during this period. Among the faculty members in the Arts
and Sciences College and the Graduate School were numerous
detractors of the movement to utility in higher education.
Their views regarding the formation of a business college
2 5
within the university were often expressed viimperatively.
Universities, however, rarely run on ideologies alone.
If Tulane's commitment to utility in education was less than
complete, its need to survive in the real world was rarely,
if ever questioned by anyone of any ideological persuasion.
We can thus suggest another reason why Tulane eventually
decided to create a business college. Tulane had never been
a rich school. Despite, and possibly because of its repu
tation for wealth in the local community, endowments were
26
pitifully small in size and few in number. Aggravating an
already bad situation was an extensive proliferation of pro
grams at the turn of the century. Possibly in an effort to
placate the demands of the three rival reform movements
mentioned above, Tulane had over-extended itself. This was,
at least, the conclusion of Abraham Flexner and Wallace
Buttrick in a report made to the Tulane Board in 1914. Flexner
and Buttrick recommended that the university curtail its
growth, consolidate and eradicate several departments, and
27
seek a substanial general endowment.


HOWARD
CHAPTER VII
THE MOVE TO GRADUATE EDUCATION:
THE DEANS!!I PS OF
SCHALLER AND C. JACKSON GRAYSON,
1960-1968
Paul Grambsch left a legacy of curriculum innovations
needing implementation and a vacancy for the deanship of the
School of Business Administration. For the first time in
the schools history, a faculty committee was appointed to
find a new dean. In their opinion, the best replacement for
Grambsch was Howard Schaller, chairman of the school's
economics department.^
Howard Schaller had a rich educational and employment
background. He received a bachelor* s degree in economics
and business administration from Duke University in 1947, and
a master's degree in economics from Northwestern in 1948.
After serving as an economics instructor at Auburn University
in 1948 and at Duke University in 1950 he became a research
assistant at Duke in 1951 and received his Ph.D. in economics
there in 1953. He taught economics at the University of
Tennessee for one year, and came to Tulane in 1953 as an
assistant professor of economics. Schalier served as chairman
of the economics department from 1955 until 1960 when the
d e a n s h i p o f t h e bus i ness s c h ool bee a m e a v a i 1 a b 1 e ."
Schaller wanted to be dean of the business school for a
number of reasons. The curriculum changes initiated by
Grambsch were not yet implemented, and, because he had worked
151


100
and esprit de corps among students in the college was par
tially offset by an emerging Tulane ("Green Wave") spirit.
The most concrete evidence of the changes which occurred
during the Forties was the construction of a facility devoted
exclusively to the college's activities. The new building,
constructed of limestone in the prevailing romanesque style
of surrounding buildings was symbolic of the integration of
the college's program with the rest of Tulane and its im
proved status in the university community. As a part of the
estate of the late Norman Mayer, a successful New Orleans
cotton broker, the funding of the new building reflected the
traditionally close ties of the college to the local business
community. Although lacking formal business training himself,
Norman Mayer had great faith in higher education for business.
This was first expressed when he became one of the original
Guarantors of the college. Mayer died in 1937, and his widow
qg
wanted his memory to be perpetuated. Mrs. Mayer's attorney,
Monte Lemann, had been a student of Morton Aldrich and was a
strong supporter of the college. Lemann suggested that a
gift to the university for the purpose of constructing a
building to house the College of Commerce would be appropri
ate. Mrs. Mayer agreed and bequeathed the sum of three
59
hundred thousand dollars to the College of Commerce.
The terms of the gift called for the construction of two
buildings, the Norman Mayer Memorial, to house the college,
and the Norman Mayer Library, specifically for the college's


missions standards. These efforts were supplemented by better
counseling of students experiencing difficulty in maintaining
acceptable grades. The major problem of these students, it
was thought, was improper or inadequate study skills and the
tendency for a large number of students to work in off-campus
jobs. The dean's office, at French's direction, also took an
4 ]
increasingly active role in advising these students.
Student extra-curricular activities continued to expand
both within the college and the university. Student government
was active, especially in the areas of freshman orientation and
the honor system. Student leaders, whose academic requirements
were raised during this period, worked closely with the dean's
office and reported its activities directly to the dean. The
honor system, which had experienced considerable difficulty in
the war years, was revised in order to involve the faculty more
actively in its operation. A handbook entitled, "Can You
Accept the Challenge?" was circulated. It explained the opera
tion of the honor system., especially the students obligations
4?
to it. Students were also increasingly active in university
wide student affairs. Participation and leadership in such
activities as student government, the Hullabaloo (student news
paper) Jambalaya (yearbook) and service organizations
(Omicron Delta Kappa and Blue Key) increased throughout the
4 3
period. Students also represented the college in intramural
athletics and on intercollegiate athletic teams


offered in their college. This debate continued throughout
Aldrich's years as dean and was experienced by most colleges of
business that offered a four-year program, Because most col
legiate business programs in the thirties were four-year pro
grams, the college's struggle and eventual isolation within
& ?
Tulane was not unique. ' This struggle and isolation were im
portant aspects of the college's early growth and development.
Instructional methods in the college reflected national
trends. The case method, developed at the Harvard University
Graduate School of Business, was the most ambitious and widely
acclaimed teaching method to develop in collegiate business
4 1
training. This method placed the student in the position of
a businessman who had to act after weighing a variety of con
siderations. For a number of reasons, however, the case
method did not dominate the teaching practices of the college.
44
First, the method was most appropriate in graduate training.
Successful case analysis called for an understanding of the
principles and practices of business which undergraduates
generally lacked. Second, although the case method realized
considerable success in various management and management-
related courses, some students found it to be of limited use
4 r>
in such courses as accounting, statistics, and economics.
Finally, collecting an adequate number of appropriate cases
was both a costly and time consuming process. At the College
of Commerce, the faculty had to rely upon their own resources


The generalist, utilitarian orientation of the faculty
which had been developed and maintained by Aldrich remained
essentially unchanged throughout Buchan's deanship. What had
been almost exclusively an undergraduate teaching faculty, re
mained an undergraduate faculty. The main reason for this
was that the war required the faculty to devote most of its
time and effort to an accelerated undergraduate program. The
only major non-teaching activity of the faculty was consulting
with local and regional business and governmental agencies
and delivering occasional addresses to local civic groups.
Other traditional faculty activities such as research, pub
lishing, and graduate training were postponed. Also delayed
4 8
was a faculty study of the undergraduate curriculum.
The relationship of the dean to the faculty of the col
lege changed. Although seven of the original "Nine Old Men"
remained, the increased size and professionalization of the
faculty took its toll--the intimacy of the Aldrich days was
gone. And, despite Buchan's admiration of the personal ad
ministrative style of Aldrich, he did not model his adminis-
49
tration upon it.' Most importantly, Buchan implemented
numerous, far reaching changes which occasioned considerable
anxiety in the college and university. More often than not,
these changes were made without faculty consultation. Yet,
Buchan found the college faculty cooperative. The tradition
of strong administrative leadership developed by Aldrich had
resulted in a faculty which Buchan found to be too passive
r>0
and accepting of his decisions."'


result of this effort. Thus, in 1914, many of the business
leaders of New Orleans turned to collegiate business train
ing in order to prepare for the challenges before them.
To begin, we must note that although there are ways in
which the college was unique in its founding and early
development, there are numerous important ways in which the
Tulane experience in commercial training was part of a
national or international movement in higher education for
business. This movement, which began in 1881 with the founding
of the Wharton School at the University of Pennyslvania, was
characterized by an early period of slow growth in which
only seven collegiate schools of business had been organized
4
by the dawn of the twentieth century. By 1910, twelve
additional institutions had been organized and by 1915, twenty-
one additional institutions had been established. After 1915,
the movement of universities into professional commercial
training "took off" to the extent that by 1925, at least one
hundred and eighty-three collegiate departments, schools, or
divisions of business or commercial, training had been
5
established. Indeed, collegiate business education grew so
rapidly in terms of programs and students, that leading
educators feared .it might suffer from a haphazard growth in
which faculty and curriculum development might suffer. Busines
educators soon found themselves protesting that collegiate
6
business training was not a mere fad in academic circles.


11
a commercial professorship because, "Our university will be
sui generis - dedicated to the affairs of men, not philosophers,
, . and dedicated to educating our people in the vital affairs
2 2
of commerce,"
When Paul Tulane decided to create a university and was
convinced to combine his fortune and efforts with the
University of Louisiana, he was most concerned that the new
institutions be of practical utility. Paul Tulane seemed to
embody the essential spirit of the movement to utility when
in 1882 he expressed his views as to the nature of education:
By the term education, I mean to
foster such a course of intellectual
development as shall be useful and of
solid worth, and not be merely ornamental
or superficial. I mean you should adopt
the course which, as wise and good men,
would commend itself to you as being con
ducive to immediate practical benefit, 23
r athe r than the ore tica. 1 pos s i b 1 e a dvantage .
Perhaps more than words, the establishment of schools or
colleges generally associated with utility, is evidence of
Tulane's commitment to the movement. To its schools of
Medicine and Law, Tulane added Engineering, Architecture,
24
Dentistry, and Commerce during the period 1893 to 1916.
Tulane's commitment to utility in higher education,
although long standing and evidenced in both word and action,
was by no means total. The College of Arts and Sciences,


125
helpful to the college. The results were gratifying--the
college's image was enhanced and donations to the colleges
47
alumni fund increased.
The years of French's deanship were relatively stable when
compared to those of the previous decade. Although a number of
new faculty had been brought in, their impact was felt mainly
in the doctoral program in economics. French had also changed
certain administrative practices within the college--the com
mittee system was reorganized and more formally structured as
were the operations of the dean's office. But these changes
were minor. No significant changes in the undergraduate or
graduate programs were made. And, despite the fear that the
Korean War would, disrupt college activities as World War II
44
had, very little happened in terms of students or faculty.
French was satisfied with the college's stability. He had
been recruited to enhance the image of the college, not to
change it. His activities as founder and director of the Public
Affairs Research Council (PAR) in Louisiana and later as Vice
President for Development of the university, left him with
little time to devote to the day-to-day operations of the col-
50
lege.' These external activities improved the image of the
college and enhanced French's reputation as a dynamic and per
sonable spokesman.
French's resignation as dean came as no surprise and
marked a less radical transition than the departures of Aldrich


NOTES
1
Frank C. Pierson, et al., The Education of American
Businessmen (New York: McGraw-Hill, 19597", "p~7 38; iCohert .
Gordon and-James Edwin Howell, Higher Education For Business
(New York: Columbia University Press, 19597, p. 4.
Bulletin of the Tulane University, of Louisiana
(College of Commerce and Business Administ'rtioT, Series 3>9,
Number 11, August 15, 1938 p, 9.
3
Robert Elsasser (former faculty member of the col
lege), private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 28, 1973.
4
John P. Dyer, Tulane: The Biography of A University
(NewT York: Harper 6 Row, 1.966), pp. 188-189.
5
Minutes, College of Commerce Faculty Meeting, Tulane
University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1938, pp. 21-33.
6
Ibid.
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 35, Number 11,
Au gu s t 15 1 9 3 4 pp. 3 4 .
8
Robert E1sasser, private interview, op. cit.
q
Miutes, Co11ege of Commerco Faculty Meeting, op. cit.
1938, p. 19.
10
Minutes, The University Council, Tulane University,
New Orleans, Louisiana, November 20, 1918.
11
Donald M. Halley (professor emeritus of the college),
private interview, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1973.
12
Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 20, Number 14,
November 1, 1919, p. Id.


and provide a core of researchers who could serve the local
1 r
business community.XJ
The general regulations applied to the M.B.A. program
remained basically unchanged for the decade that Buchan was
dean. Students were admitted to the program with either a
bachelor's degree in business or commercial studies or any
bachelor's degree from a recognized institution. Graduates
of recognized colleges of commerce were expected to complete
the program in one year (thirty semester hours), while grad
uates with no prior commercial training were expected to take
16
two years of work (sixty semester hours), All students
were required to take six semester hours of economics (three
hours of economic history and three hours of economic
theory) and six semester hours of thesis research and writing.
Courses 'available for graduate credit were offered in such
fields as accounting, economics, labor, management, mar-
17
keting, and finance. The major change m graduate course
offerings from 1940 to 1950 was a significant expansion of
the number of economics courses. This resulted from moving
the economics department into the College of Commerce (see below
P. 92
Although the graduate program held the promise of im
proving and modernizing the college, it suffered the same
slow beginning that afflicted the research division. For
one thing, the faculty was unprepared for and uninterested
im graduate training. Also, the job market for graduates in
an M.B.A. program was almost non-existent in New Orleans.


CHAPTER V
PROJECTING A NEW IMAGE:
ROBERT W. FRENCH AS DEAN, 1949-1955
Pres id.en t Harr is ide as ah out the co 11 e ge had not changed
dramatically. He wanted it brought closer to the rest of Tulane
and he wanted its curricula modernized and a greater emphasis
placed upon faculty research and scholarly writing. He also
felt that the college needed someone who could enhance its image
in local,, state, and regional business communities. Harris
found the desired balance of scholar, administrator, and pro
moter in Robert Warren French. French, with a doctorate in
economics from the University of Michigan, had excellent aca
demic credentials and successful experience in administering
programs in economic research. After meeting in the Spring of
1949, it was evident to Harris that French's training and ex
perience were combined with a personality which would be attrac
tive to the university and business communities."' French was
hired and took over as dean in July, 1949.
French approached the problem of integrating a profes
sional college into a predominately liberal arts institution by
not considering it a problem at all. He viewed his relations
with the other deans as cordial, relaxed, and based upon mutual
respect. Because his training was in economics and liberal
arts, he felt at ease in the university community and as quali
fied as the other deans. Also, because French was from outside
110


60
option, this curriculum was extended to the freshman and soph--
o in o r e y e a r s 1 n 1919 th e c ur r i c u 1 urn of t h e f i rst two ye a r s
called for students to take a total of thirty-four hours of
coursework divided about equally between business subjects and
general subjects. Among the general courses were English,
Modern Language, Mathematics, History, and Chemistry, while
among the business courses were Accounting, Business Economics,
37
Resources and Industries, and Commercial Law," The junior and
senior years of the curriculum were less formally prescribed--
a total of thirty hours "... devoted wholly or almost wholly
31
to business subjects ..." was the sole requirement, A list
of required courses or course options did not exist; students
planned their programs with the dean. This flexibility re
sulted from the small scale of the day-time program. At the
time, only eleven courses were offered during the day, fewer and
considerably less specialized than those offered at night.
Changes in the day program from 1919 to 1939 were profound.
First, the number of day courses offered quadrupled--students
in 1939 could select from over forty courses including Account
ing, Business and Corporate Finance, Production Management,
Business Management, Management of Employees, Marketing, and
34
Business Statistics. In addition, a series of seven courses
in business research were added. These courses, one of which
was required for seniors, involved students gathering and com
piling data and writing a report of their findings. This was


NOTES
i
'Rufus C. Harris (former president or Tulane),
private interview, Macon, Georgia, August 7, 1973.
Ibid.
x
-Les1ie J. Buchan, private interview, New 0r1eans,
Louisiana, August 10, 1973
4 .....
Rufus C. Harris, private interview, op. cit.
5Ibid, Harris' decision to appoint Buchan surprised
a number of ""the faculty who believed that Aldrich was groom
ing Robert Elsasser to become his successor. Elsasser felt
that Harris refused to appoint him because he was independent
like Aldrich. However, Harris insisted that Aldrich recom
mended Buchan.
A
John P. Dyer (the historian of Tulane), private
interview, Slidell, Louisiana, April 14, 1973.
7
Rufus C. Harris, private interview, op. cit.
8
John P. Dyer, private interview, op. cit.
9
Leslie J, Buchan, private interview, op. cit,
10
Bulletin of The Tulane University of Louisiana
(College oT Commerce and Business Administration), Series 45,
Number 14, December 1, 1944, p. 12.
11
Rufus C. Harris, private interview, op, cit;
Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op. cit.
1?
'Bulletin of Tulane University, Series 41, Number 9,
July 15 19 40", p. 14.
l3Ibid., p. 17.
"^Leslie J. Buchan, private interview, op, cit.
I 5
Ibid.
10 5


5 2
responded by submitting a resolution to the University Council
(predecessor to the senate) which argued that,
. . each college of Tulane University
shall have the power to determine its
educational policy and the requirements
for admission to its classes and courses,
subject only to the action of the Uni
versity Council and the Board of Admin-
i s tractors .J ij
The measure passed, and what came to be known as Aldrich's
"Declaration of Independence" assured that the arts college
would no longer interfere with the college's program.
Beginning in 1919, the college, after receiving approval
from the Tulane Board, offered two courses of study leading to
the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration-- the first
was the same two-on-two program previously offered, and the
second was a four-year program. Almost immediately the second
option became the more popular. The old option was retained
only to enable students in other colleges to switch to the
j 1
B.B.A. program. Although the first two years of the four-year
program were taken in the College of Commerce, coursework was
12
equally divided between business and non-business subjects.
Later in this period, business subjects began to heavily out
weigh non-business subjects. With the development of this
four-year option and the increasing professionalization of
coursework, the college became more isolated within the univer-
s ity.


29
Once established, the new college was confronted with
challenges on every front. Like so many other pioneering
collegiate business programs, Tulane's had to make itself
acceptable to both business and academic communities. Aldrich
thus promised to build a program which was both immediately
practical and academically rigorous. Despite his optimism
about the founding of the college, Aldrich realized its
tenuous position. If the European war had brought visions of
great commercial opportunity, it had also brought uncertainty.
The claims that. New Orleans had started a collegiate business
program "amidst all this war talk." clearly spoke to the
concern as to what the war might bring.' To this must be
added Tulane's financial uncertainty and reservations about
establishing a business program. Those who sought the
supposed serenity and security of university faculty life
would have found neither in the new College of Commerce.
Aldrich's greatest successes to date had been realized
in the business community. In an effort to convince local
business leaders of his determination to serve their needs,
Aldrich had started the school solely on a night-time basis;
this also assured him the greatest access to students. From
the beginning, however, he was determined to have a degree
program. Aldrich thus echoed the sentiments of a vast
majority of utilitarian reformers in higher education who
promoted utility, but not vocationalism. Almost immediately,
plans were made which called for a two on- two program-- two


119
assignments are added, it is surprising that any research was
conducted. The press of time not only affected the amount of
research, it also influenced the type of research performed.
Research projects during this period were usually descriptive,
rather than analytic or conceptual. This type of research was
typical of the business research conducted in most colleges
7 9
of business elsewhere in the nation.
Frenchs efforts to recruit young, qualified faculty
members were successful. During his brief tenure as dean,
French recruited four men who eventually became deans of the
5 0
college.' Others recruited by French went on to become
prominent in such institutions as the Ford Foundation, the
federal government, and major universities, Frenchs ability
to recruit a strong faculty despite such obstacles as low
salaries, high housing costs, a poor public school system,
and a scarcity of qualified candidates, is further evidence
of his skills in dealing with people.
Among those hired by French was the first woman faculty
member of the college, Elsie Watters. French had met Watters
at Louisiana State University and quickly discovered her schol
arly and administrative skills. When French left to go to the
University of Texas, Watters followed in order to assist him
and complete her doctoral program. At Tulanes College of
Commerce, Watters assisted French by carrying out a number of
the administrative charges he initiated--finishing, as it were


44
Mardi Gras was cancelled in 1917. In an article describing
the cancellation of Carnival, it was noted that "Dr. Morton
Aldrich is right--if a young man in New Orleans nowadays
hasn't a chance to become a King or Emperor, he can join the
College of Commerce and learn to become a Rockefeller or a
Carnegie." The article went on to state that Aldrich was the
" . most jubilant man, in New Orleans" because without
Carnival, the young men would have the time and money to go
to the College of Commerce which was the . next best
36
thing in New Orleans, after the Carnival."


bers of that department who came into the College of Commerce
from other colleges at Tulane as well as those who were hired
from outside, were generally trained at the doctoral level.
Also, as a part of his plan to upgrade the program of the
college and its status in the university community, Dean
Buchan established a plan whereby full-time faculty could re
ceive partial pay while working on their doctorate. Hugh
Carnes, Harry Mitchell, and Buchan himself received doctorates
under this plan. Finally, graduate schools of business were
training more students at the doctoral level, and colleges of
business throughout the country were eagerly hiring them. The
college thus reflected the national trend toward, more highly
4 5
trained faculties.
The recruitment of new* faculty presented problems--Buchan
found it difficult to attract well qualified personnel. Po
sitions in government and business generally offered better
pay. (This difficulty was experienced by colleges of business
throughout the country.) At Tulane, this problem was com
pounded by the feeling that southern universities were par
ticularly disadvantaged. Candidates for faculty positions
feared that southern universities were backward and out of
4
the mainstream of professional activity. Prospective fac
ulty also expressed concern about the quality of education
available for their children. Whether or not these fears
were well founded is not important; what is important is that
they were generally held and they made Buchan's task all the
more difficult.


61
evidence of the general field-orientation of the curriculum, and
was an outgrowth of the utilitarian tradition of the college.
As seniors were required to take a research course, freshmen
were required to take a course entitled "The Executive and His
Responsibilities," a general introduction to business prin-
Z C
ciples and practices offered by Robert Elsasser.
The program was not geared to either specialization or
basic research. With over forty courses offered in the day and
eighteen offered at night, the faculty had to teach a wide
range of courses. In fact, it was often necessary for them to
teach out of their major area of training."' This
Aldrich's plan to hire generalists was used. Also
courses were more applied, in that students usually
local business conditions or problems. This gener
utilitarian approach of the college was typical of
business training of the period. 37
is where
, the research
investigated
alist and
collegiate
The great proliferation of courses during the twenties and
thirties was one of two important changes in the day program
of the college. The second change occurred in the curriculum.
The curriculum of the day program in 1919 included numerous
liberal arts courses and was flexible in the options which a
student could take in building a program. By 1939, however,
the curriculum required more business courses and allowed fewer
liberal arts electives. The freshman year, for example, was
taken entirely within the college. The sophomore year was


157
merits. During Schaller' s dean ship, undergraduate enrollments
declined from 345 students in the fall of 1960, to 298 students
in the fall of 1963. Freshman enrollments declined dramatically
19
during tins period from 131 students to 94 students. Declin-
ing enro11ments in undergraduato bus iness programs were part
of a national trend. A survey conducted by the school revealed
that undergraduate business schools with high tuition and
selective admissions were finding it difficult to attract stu
dents. In schools with low tuition and relatively open admis
sions policies, enrollments were declining as a percentage of
g 0
total enrollments within these universities.These trends
indicated a bleak future for the undergraduate business program
at Tulane.
Changing enrollment patterns were accompanied by similar
changes in the relative quality of graduate and undergraduate
applicants. Aptitude test scores and undergraduate records
indicated an overall improvement in the quality of entering
21
graduate students. One reason for this was the increasing
pool of applicants to the graduate program, enabling the school
to become more selective. Also, a large number of the graduate
students were military officers. These students were more
highly motivated, than their non-military counterparts. They
were career men who believed that poor work might preclude a
promotion. They dominated classes and student organizations
2 7
such as the MBA club.
Well qualified undergraduate students,


124
Student perceptions of the college during this period
44
varied considerably, Most praised the closeness among stu
dents and between students and faculty, and most felt that the
quality of instruction was good, especially in the functional
areas such as accounting,, statistics, finance, and marketing.
Their perceptions of student performance were similar to that
of the faculty, namely, that many students were not as
academically oriented as those of other colleges. A number
felt that this was natural in a professional school, and even
regretted that the classes did not have a more vocational focus
Others viewed the vocational orientation of students as a
drawback which lowered the quality of the schools program.
French's efforts to improve the image of the college cul
minated in the celebration of its Fortieth Anniversary in April
of 1955.^ The celebration, coordinated by French and leaders
of the college's alumni organization, started with an open
house for alumni, former faculty, and representatives of local
business and civic groups. Highlighting the open house was a
class in which Professor Donald M. Halley demonstrated instruc
tional strategies including the case method. The open house
was followed by a cocktail party at Tulane's Alumni House and a
banquet honoring 'Doc" Aldrich and the original guarantors of
4-
the college. Once again, French's promotional skills brought
success. The celebration was highly publicized in the press,
and letters were sent to everyone affiliated with or potentially


163
development,
develop the
acquired in
instituting
of a doctoral program. Finally, Grayson wanted to
image of the school beyond that which it had
quantitative methods. He hoped to do this by
an International Studies program focused on Latin
America
39
In the spring of 1965, the Format Committee presented its
recommendations on the curriculum to the faculty. The strong
quantitative emphasis of the business program was retained.
Beginning in 1966, students would be required to have the
equivalent of six hours of undergraduate mathematics before
entering the business program. Included in the curriculum
was a course in linear algebra, probability and statistics,
4 0
and several courses in computerized business games. The
Format Comniittee's recommendations were unanimous1y adopted by
the faculty and implemented in the fall of 1966.
Grayson had gained a reputation in the school as an inno
vative teacher, He was interested in new teaching strategies
and encouraged the faculty to try them.4* He traveled exten
sively during his term as dean in order to observe new teaching
techniques and present them to the faculty. His travel, in
cluding a semester as visiting professor at Stanford, prompted
-y
students to complain that he was never available. Grayson
promoted the case study method most vigorously. This technique,
which had become the hallmark of Harvards business program,
involved studying and evaluating real-life business problems


This study is an institutional history. Institutional
history is important, for much of modern life is spent in
institutional settings. Education in America, to the extent
that it has been conducted in schools, is an especially insti
tutionalized activity. Yet, institutional history has been
accorded a low status among professional historians because
it generally has been poorly conceived, conducted, and written.
Too often, institutional history has become "house" history
written by those untrained in historical research and analysis
and uninterested in presenting anything beyond an anecdotal
account of "great moments" in an institutions past. The
history of educational institutions does not account for all
such histories, but it has suffered from a substantial number
of them.
Institutional history offers distinct advantages and
disadvantages for research and data management. First, the
history focuses upon an institution, thereby providing the
researcher with a manageable topic for study. Secondly, modern
institutions often collect massive amounts of written records
which are readily available for study. Both of these advan
tages, however, present potential problems for the historian.
The built-in focus of institutional history can become so
narrow that the institution is studied without reference to
external events. And, although the written records of in
stitutions are important, they also tend to be too narrowly
v


4 2
one of the causes for the slow development of the full-time
program, Aldrich, reflecting the views of businessmen and
educators alike, felt that the war had increased the demands
upon Americans to become more efficient. He was convinced
that the consolidation of the American effort and increased
efficiency of operation were best achieved through collegiate
level business education. Similarly, the war had wrought
irreversible changes in principles and practices of manufac
turing merchandising, and management. These changes were
believed to be best handled through university level training
Finally, Aldrich stated that "Business morals are a part of
business efficiency, and the story of the ways in which the
standards of business honor are improving is well worth
31
telling."' Aldrich spread his word throughout the community
and was eventually named by the United States Commissioner of
Education to a national committee of fifteen businessmen, and
economists to investigate and report on the means for
establishing schools and college courses of study best
adapted to fit young men for careers in the foreign service
32
of the country." His reports to the commissioner echoed
his statements to the local business community.
Aside from the appeals to foster and support collegiate
business training, very few of the college's activities were
directly affected by the war. In the 1918-19 Bulletin, for
example, "Military and Physical Training" was required of
" . all physically able male students in the day course."


the institution, he did not share the heritage of isolation
which had characterized the college's relations with the rest
of Tulane. Although divisions remained and invidious compari
sons of faculty credentials and student performance persisted,
the years of isolation had come to an end.
Although French was new to Tulane, he was well known in
the New Orleans and Louisiana business communities. Immediately
after World War II, French had conducted an economic survey of
the port of New Orleans and had been appointed assistant di
rector of the Bureau of Business Research at Louisiana State
University in Baton Rouge. French had established a reputation
as a capable economic analyst with a flair for developing new
projects and promoting them to private and public agencies.
New Orleans businessmen were impressed and optimistic that the
dynamic young economist could effect great, changes in local
business affairs.
When Harris discussed the deanship with French, he said
that he wanted the College of Commerce and Business Administra
tion to be as respected by local businessmen as the Colleges of
/}
Medicine and Law were respected by local doctors and lawyers.
This kind of challenge appealed to French who immediately es
tablished new lines of communication with local businessmen.
Here again, Frenchs strategy was basically personal and social.
Throughout his tenure as dean, French spoke to area civic and
business groups, and encouraged his faculty to do likewise.
As


courses are, in microcosm, the same as those faced by business
educators across the country.
Yet, the experiences of the college must also be recognized
as unique. The people important to the history of the college,
as well as its institutional and community settings, must be
understood to portray the colleges past accurately, and to
qualify the application of its experiences to others. This is
where the history of the Tulane University College of Commerce
and Business Administration can make its most significant
contribution to the history of education--it can highlight
both the common and unique aspects of attempts to educate by
showing what people tried to teach and how they went about it.
NOTES
J* D. B. DeBow, "The Commercial Review of the South
and West, in DeBow1s Review, ed. by J. D. B. DeBow (New
Orleans, Louisiana: J. DeBow, Publisher), Volume I,
dumber 1, June, 1846, pp. 2-6.
2
"Ibid., Volume III, Number 6, June, 1847, p. 509.
5Ibid,, pp. 511-512.
4
r Charles Gayarre, "James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow,"
in DdBoWJ Review (New Orleans, Louisiana:' J. D. B. DeBow,
PbUh¥), Volume III, Number 6 (After War Series),
June, 1867, p. $01,


tuition increased to thirty dollars per course. This tuition
rate was constant throughout the remaining twenty years of
Aldrich's term as clean. Day students paid one hundred dollars
per year in 1915-16. This rate was raised to one hundred and
fifty dollars at the same time the night tuition increased.
The day-time tuition rate of the college increased gradually
during the next two decades. In 1938-39, the full-time tuition
for one year was two hundred dollars.3^
The only other reliable source of income for the college
during the twenties and thirties was its share of the endowment
of the university. This income varied greatly from year to
year, but generally accounted for about twenty-five per cent of
51
the total revenues of the college. Like the other colleges
at Tulane, the College of Commerce was unable to attract a
sizeable endowment, forcing it continually to rely upon student
t u i t i o n r e c e i p t s .
The organizational structure of the college reflected its
early development and the administrative style of Aldrich. The
college had begun as a one-man operation. Aldrich had worked
diligently to assure its continued existence in its early years
of operation (1914-18), and he had managed to obtain a free and
independent position for it within the university during the
twenties and thirties. Within the college, Aldrich ruled with
a fair and firm hand. No one at the time doubted that Aldrich
ran the institu ion--and no one seemed to mind, because he
was


immediate concern to the local business community. Their
experiences with the college during these early years of its
development were excellent. That the local business com
munity was pleased with the growth and development of the
college is best exemplified in their continuing financial
support of it. The original agreements to underwrite the
deficit expenses of the school were to cover only the first
three years of operation. Thus, in March of 1917, dis
cussions were renewed as to the fate of the program. The
Board of Guarantors met on March 7 to discuss plans not only
to continue the program, but to "... make it rank with
26
those in great industrial centers. The meeting opened with
statements by various members about the necessity for well-
supported colleges of commerce for modern commerical cities.
Testimonials were offered as to the great work which the
college had already performed on a "shoe-string" budget--a
budget which was compared with other similar colleges. The
business leaders of the city were told that there were col
leges throughout the country, many in what were called "jerk
water" towns, who were spending at least twice as much as
Tulane and that "... if we want a proper college we have
2 7
to pay for it." Finally, it was announced, that there was
a special reason why support for the college was vital at
this time. Dean Aldrich was rumored to have been offered the
deanship of a very large and prominent college of commerce.
There was no time to waste lest Dr. Aldrich be "weaned away"
28
from the c o mm un i ty.


28
and others were told of plans which included the development
of a full-time day program ... as complete as .
[that] in Engineering, Medicine, and Law." It was suggested
that if the College of Commerce's experience was similar to
that of other colleges (notably, Northwestern), there would
5
soon be a degree program available. By the end of the first
week of classes, one hundred and thirty students had enrolled
and paid their twenty-dollar fee for each course taken.
In its first Bulletin, the college stated that its
purpose was "... to offer substantial professional train
ing preparing for a business career." Other, similarly
general statements suggested that instruction would be
offered for "... students sufficiently able and mature to
6
do work of university grade.1 These stated aims were less
ambitious than the claims made in the popular press which had
called for the founding of the college. Yet, they were not
overly ambitious when one considers the size and nature of
the college in the first few years of its operation. The
entire annual budget of the college, in its first three
years, never exceeded five thousand dollars. Aldrich, in
addition to serving as dean, was the only full-time faculty
member; the rest were either professors with, appointments in
other colleges at Tulane or local businessmen donating their
services. But it was a start, and it was a characteristically
American educational endeavor. The ties between the business
community and the college were perhaps only more explicit ex
amples of what was happening throughout American higher education.


160
have to focus its attention on regional and national businesses.
The school's image as a pioneer in. quantitative methods would
serve it well in attracting students and faculty from beyond
the New Orleans area.
Once the decision was made, Schaller felt that his work as
dean was finished. He resigned on September 1, 1963. Schaller
had implemented Grambsch's curricular revisions and had set the
future course of the school. He wanted to return to his work
in economics. Although he was satisfied with his accomplishments
as dean, he was not interested in a career in administration.
After resigning the deanship, he chaired the economics depart
ment for a year. He left Tulane in 1964 in order to teach
business economics and public policy at Indiana University.'^
Schaller!s choice for the dean's position was C. Jackson
Grayson. Grayson had received his Bachelor of Business Admin
istration degree from Tulane's business school in 1944 and his
Master of Business Administration degree from the University of
Pennsylvania in 1947. He had served as an accounting instructor
at Tulane between 1947 and 1949, and was rehired as an associate
professor by Robert French in 1953. He left in 1955 to assist
French in the development office of the university. After
acquiring his Doctor of Business Administration degree at
Harvard, Grayson returned to Tulane in 1959 as an associate
professor and became associate dean in. 1961. He was still
serving in that capacity when Schaller resigned.J


business research. Faculty recruitment was also focused upon
the economics program which had received the aforementioned
T Q
. J.
grant to develop a doctoral program. Two full professors of
economics, Clarence Danhoff and H. Gordon Hayes, were recruited
specifically for the purpose of building the new doctoral pro-
26
gram.
The faculty, in terms of their interests and academic
preparation, reflected the characteristics of collegiate busi
ness faculties throughout the nation. In 1949, over half of
the twenty-seven full-time faculty members were full professors.
These included the five remaining members of the "Nine Old Men",
senior members of the economics department, and several senior
officers of the various ROIC units in the university. Aside
from the ROIC officers, the majority of full professors were
men with long careers of service in the college. There was also
a group of young, newly hired men. The veteran faculty members
generally taught in professional business fields, while the
newer members worked in economics. Half of the full-time fac-
2 7
ulty in 1949 had completed doctoral training.
Despite the interest in focusing upon research, the faculty
continued to direct most of their efforts to teaching. With
an average class load of twelve semester hours and a teacher-
student ratio of approximately twenty-eight to one, faculty
2 8
time for non-teaching activities was restricted.' When com
munity service, consulting, and university and college committee


Academically, it sparked a controversy between theoretical
and applied economists. This debate among professional
economists centered around the purposes of economics as an
academic discipline, and was reminiscent of the debate
between advocates of liberal culture and utilitarian educa
tion. Politically, the move seemed to provide evidence that
while Buchan assisted in centralizing the fiscal operation of
Tulane, he was also trying to extend his control over certain
portions of it. 'J Finally, within the college, economics now
dominated what was heretofore a carefully balanced combina-
ion of faculty and courses. All of these issues arose
immediately, but were overshadowed by the war. Only later
did they return as significant points of controversy both in
the college and in the university.A'
The third change implemented by Buchan was to transfer
the college's entire Night Division to the newly created Uni
versity College of Tulane. Since its organization in 1914,
the College of Commerce had maintained an extensive program
of courses for part-time students at night. These courses
were immensely popular in the local business community and
were a source of pride to the college. Night courses were
taught mainly by full-time faculty who used the same texts
as in day courses and required the same level of performance.
Although night students received a certificate for the com
pletion of eight night courses, no college credit was earned.
A similar type of program had been developed in the Division


year and left to serve on the Federal Trade Commission in
Washington. He was temporarily replaced by William Bethke
from the University of Minnesota. In 191.7-18, the only
full-time faculty member aside from Aldrich was John B.
Swinney, from Syracuse University, with teaching and
business experience in New York. Swinney was a professor
of marketing, but taught courses in Office Management and
Business Correspondence as well.
Aldrich* s inability to attract a number of qualified
full-time faculty is only partially explained by fiscal con
straints, Throughout the United States during the first
quarter of the twentieth century, business colleges had great
difficulty attracting qualified faculty. For one thing, there
were not enough people with the amount and kind of education
which was necessary. Secondly, colleges and universities
could not successfully compete with private business for
highly qualified and capable graduates. This latter prob
lem has been, until most recent times, a fairly persistent
one in collegiate business education. It might be added
that competition with private business for faculty has
given rise to higher salaries than those commanded by
faculty in the liberal arts. Relatively high business
faculty salaries are a source of contention with faculty
in the liberal arts colleges.
The slow growth of a full-time degree program and the
scarcity of highly trained faculty members was of little


as well. Internal sources such as bulletins, reports,
meeting minutes, self-studies, and questionnaires were used.
External sources such as newspapers, local business asso
ciation records, university documents, and national studies
of collegiate business education provided for the examination
of the social context in which the school functioned. These
sources suggested that the development of the business school
at Tulane reflected many developments in higher education for
business in America.
Tulane University, a traditional liberal arts institution,
was persuaded to start a college of commerce by business and
civic leaders in New Orleans. The college was dominated by
its dean, Morton A. Aldrich, from 1914 until 1939. Aldrich,
a prototype utilitarian reformer in higher education, developed
the college into one of the most popular colleges at Tulane.
Because many members of the university community looked with
disfavor upon what they perceived as mere vocational training,
the college became isolated within the university. The two
decades following Aldrich s years as dean were marked by
significant changes in the college's curriculum and relation
ship with the university and local business communities.
During this time, the college moved into the mainstream of
American higher education for business.
The rate of change in the college accelerated during
the sixties and seventies. It replaced the traditional
xiii.


66
5 2
almost universally respected and admired. The closeness which
had become characteristic of the college was part of Aldrich's
style as an administrator. It is difficult for someone outside
the institution to understand that Aldrich was not an egotist
working to gain power for his own sake. He was a man of firm
conviction who had a clear vision of what he wanted to accomplish
in the school. The faculty and students agreed with him and de
veloped strong personal loyalties to him and the college. Also,
the college was small in terms of faculty, students, and facil
ities. Departmental organization was unnecessary, and it would
have been inconsistent with the generalist nature of the faculty.
By 1939, the college had become a complete and self-
sustaining educational institution housed within Tulane Uni
versity. The college maintained its own registrar, bursar, ad
missions personnel, and records. In addition, it had autonomy
in terms of its student and faculty recruitment and the design
and implementation of its curriculum. The college controlled
every important aspect of its program, and Aldrich controlled
the college.
An important part of Aldrich's work in the college during
this period was his excellent working relationship with A. B.
Dinwiddie, president of Tulane. Although Aldrich focused his
efforts on the college, he and Dinwiddie worked closely to
gether on Tulane's first successful fund-raising drive in 1919-
5 3
20. Since that time, Dinwiddie entrusted Aldrich with the


were often related to the training of personnel for the
American war effort. In 1941-42, students in the college were
either deferred as trainees for essential occupations or
designated as Army Reserve Enlistees or Navy V-l/V-7 students.
The V-1 and V-7 students were juniors and seniors who were
allowed to complete their studies before induction into the
Navy. In June, 1943, amidst the confusion of government
attempts to mobilize its manpower resources, the Army called u
2 8
its Reserve Enlistees. This left the college with only
civilian and Navy students.
In July, 1943, the Navy V-l and V-7 programs were merged
into a V-12 program which included underclassmen as well as
29
juniors and seniors, One of the most important aspects of
the Navy program was the acceleration of the colleges cal
endar from two to three semesters per year. Although this
acceleration caused difficulty in coordinating the college
calendar with others at Tulane, the entire university was
soon placed on an accelerated basis. Students responded
favorably to the accelerated program. Faculty, on the other
hand, were concerned about its impact upon the quality of
instruction. They were also disappointed that their pay for
teaching an additional semester would be raised by only one-
3 0
third instead of the expected one-half.
The first major change in the V-12 program came in March,
1944 when the college was designated as one of nine Navy Pre-
Supply schools in the country. Students entered the Pre-


6
9
L
likewise strictly prescribed with only one elective option--a
semester course in Chemistry or Physics as an alternative to
S 8
"The Changing Business Set Up. ~ Upon this two-year foundation,
juniors and seniors, with the guidance of the faculty and per
mission of the dean, developed a course of study which was
suited to their needs. Generally, this involved taking courses
in several areas of business and specializing with a number of
courses in one field. Juniors and seniors could select from
approximately twenty-five courses, all of which were business
oriented. Non-business subjects were accepted only in special
cases. Upperclassmen admitted into the program from other
colleges had to satisfy requirem