A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CERTAIN PERSONALITY MEASURES AND HALLUCINOIDAL VISUAL IMAGERY
HORACE FLOYD STEWART, JR.
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA December, 1962
I would like to acknowledge all those who have helped me achieve this study. However, the list is long, and it would not be possible for me to make a complete recall. Of those who are foremost in my debt, Dr. E. Porter Home, my committee chairman, deserves special mention for his part in guiding me through difficult times. I wish to express gratitude to the other members of my committee who gave valued direction; Dr. B. Barger, Dr. J. C. Dixon, and Dr. W. B. Webb. The strong support of Dr. S. Grigsby as minor area professor was most appreciated.
TABLE OF CONENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS* .. ..... .. ii
LIST OF TABLES . ...... .. iv
I. Introduction. .* . . 1
II. Method.. .. ......* * * 10
IV. Discussion. . . 26 V. Summary . ... ...... 29
I. Tables 2 through 5. . 31
II. Index of Hallucinatory Activity
Questionnaire. .......... 36
III. Post-Experimental Interview . 37 IV. Rating Scales .. . 38
V. A Transcription of the Verbal Report Taken
from Tape Recordings of the Experimental
Proceedings .... . 39
REFERENCES * * . 60
LIST OF TABLES
1. A t Test Analysis of the Means of the
Hallucinoidal Visual Imagery Group
(Mean H) and the Group Without Hallucinoidal Visual Imagery (Group NH). 20
2. A Listing of the Ss by Response to
the Sensory Deprivation . . 31
3. An Analysis of the Content of Hallucinoidal Visual Imagery by Number of
Images and Content. ........... 32
4. Coded FMMPI Profile Classification for
Sensitizers and Repressers. . . 34
5. Raw Scores for Sensitizers and Repressers on the A Seale and R Scale. . . 35
Studies of sensory deprivation have been a fruitful method of studying a S's response to the relative absence of the usual environmental stimuli. One of the significant findings is the relatively high percentage of normal Ss who experience various hallucinations when placed in isolation. This hallucinatory activity has been studied largely in terms of the experimental conditions most likely to elicit this aberrant behavior. The personality factors of the Ss responding with hallucinatory activity has been less thoroughly studied.
Although many studies have utilized personality measures, there does not emerge any consistent, significant relationship which would predict the tendency to respond with hallucinations. The Zuckerman, Albright, Marks, and Miller study (1961) concluded, "Personality correlations with response to isolation were few and no strong support was obtained for the hypothesis concerning these relations" (p. 16). They suggested further research using normal Ss who were at the extremes of some personality measure.
An important personality measure which has not been systematically studied in sensory deprivation is anxiety.
Anxiety plays a central role in human behavior. Hallucinatory activity could well be an expression of anxiety. Fenichel (1945) points out that the anxiety hysteric frequently experiences hallucinations, in addition to other anxiety reducing symptoms.
Sensory Deprivation and Perception
Hochberg, Triebel, and Seaman (1951) reported unusual behavior in 11 Ss while attempting to explore the parameters of color adaptation. A similar observation was made by Cohen (1960) who reported his Ss suffered from perceptual disturbances, dizziness, and depersonalization.
Heron, Doane, and Scott (1956) had three Ss in sensory deprivation for six days, and then tested them for perceptual disturbances. They found evidence of gross disturbances. Freedman and Greenblatt (1960a) subjected 30 Ss to an eight-hour period of sensory deprivation, and then
administered these Ss some standard perceptual tests. They, however were unable to find any significant distortions. Doane, Mahatoo, Heron, and Scott (1959) using up to four days in isolation found that visual perceptions were more grossly disturbed in 13 Ss restricted to a cubicle, than were found in four Ss who were ambulatory. This was further supported by Courtney, Davis, and Solomon (1961) who varied the amount of movement that their 18 Ss could experience while undergoing four hours of sensory deprivation.
The problem of perceptual disturbance resulting from
sensory deprivation has not been completely settled. The amount of time spent in isolation and the amount of physical restriction appear to be relevant variables. However, both of these variables could be associated with intensifying the S's anxiety. Profound anxiety could well interfere with performance. The function of anxiety was further suggested by the fact that the perceptual disturbances quickly abate, leaving no known permanent effects.
Sensory Deprivation and Personality
Specific research on the relation of personality to response elicited in sensory deprivation have not yet yielded conclusive results. Azima and Cramer (1956) and Azima and Cramer-Azima (1957) have done several sensory deprivation studies with a total of 19 mentally disturbed Ss. They found that the obsessive-compulsive neurotics became psychotic under such conditions. Azima and Cramer reported the following pattern that their Ss seemed to follow during sensory deprivation: frustration leading to aggressions followed by an introversion of the aggression causing a split in the ego, and finally depersonalization.
Goldberger and Holt (1958, 1961) and Holt and Goldberger (1959) have studied the response to sensory deprivation with selected personality correlates in 30 Ss. They found that the Barron Ego Strength Scale (Es) from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) correlated .71 with the adaptive reactions to sensory deprivation. There were also findings in relation to
passivity and adaptation. Male Ss who scored high on feminine identification were able to adapt; whereas, male actors (some with a homosexual orientation) with low ego strength were nonadaptive.
Wexler, Mendelson, Leiderman, and Solomon (1958) using a tank type respirator for a 36-hour period with 17 Ss, found one significant personality variable related sensory deprivation. This was the Need Exhibition scale from the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. This was negatively correlated with the length of time the Ss remained in sensory deprivation.
Bresslers, Silverman, Cohen, and Shmavonian (1959)
created an artificial traumatic neurosis in their study of sensory deprivation. They simply abducted three student .s, placing each S in sensory deprivation for two hours with no instructions. They found that this was extremely upsetting to these Ss, even to the point of precipitating
some rather serious emotional upsets.
Smith and Lewty (1959) found that nine female Ss
could endure sensory deprivation for significantly longer periods than could-the 11 males in their study. They further reported that the calm, placid person of average or slightly below average intelligence was the best S. They reported a behavioral sequence: (1) sleep, with those Ss who did sleep being better able to tolerate the conditions;
(2) a period of restlessness and agitation; (3) the development of disorders in thinking; and (4) the last stage, panic. Isolation was then terminated.
Freedman and Greenblatt (1960b) studied 30 Ss using an eight-hour period of sensory deprivation under three conditions: nonpatterned vision and auditory input, blacked out vision and auditory input, and social isolation. They found that the Ss who normally experience hypnagogic imagery and tended to have a rich visual experience were more apt to report hallucinations.
Cambareri (1959) investigated the effects of sensory deprivation through water immersion with the suggestible and nonsuggestible. Using 20 graduate students in psychology as Ss, he found that the suggestible Ss were able to tolerate isolation longer. The suggestible Ss were also able to produce more regressive phenomona, were less threatened by it, and were less defensive about the experimental situation.
Grunebaum, Freedman, and Greenblatt (1960) investigated some gross clinical types. They reported that the three schizoid Ss found the experience undisturbing, experienced little imagery, and in general showed a lack of involvement in the whole proceedings. Two borderline state Ss reacted differently. The first S, who admitted to enjoying both homosexual and heterosexual practices, became panic stricken when faced with his own imagery, while the other S, who was heterosexual, passive, and withdrawn, was able to tolerate very threatening fantasies and imagery. Two psychopathic Ss forced the experimenter to terminate the experiment by taking off the equipment, telling the
experimenter that they did not think it made any difference. The conclusion of this study was that the Ss react in their characteristic manner in an ambiguous situation.
Davis, McCourt, and Solomon (1960), studying the effects of visual stimulation on hallucinations during sensory deprivation, kept ten Ss in a tank type respirator for ten and one-half hours. The found a significant relationship between the Ss who tended to respond with visual hallucinations and their performance of a "hidden figures test." They found that the better the performance, the more likely the S would experience visual hallucinations.
Although a summary of personality and sensory deprivation was complicated in view of the diverse techniques and the various Ss used, anxiety appeared to play a strong role in many studies. The Ss found to experience difficulty in sensory deprivation were: the obsessive-compulsive neurotics, Ss needing to be the center of attention, those with low ego strength, the nonsuggestible, and certain borderline states. On the other hand, there did appear to be less anxiety in those Ss who were able to adapt or endure isolation for longer periods: the Ss with high ego strength, those who were passive and calm, and the
The percentage of Ss reporting visual hallucinations in sensory deprivation had not received a systematic analysis. It was difficult to ascertain the proportion of So who made such a response because of the diversity of approaches
to sensory deprivation, the temporal differences, and inadequate information on this point. The percentage of Ss responding with visual hallucinations varied between
5 per cent (Smith and Lewty, 1959) and 100 per cent (Lilly, 1956; Shurley, 1960). Taking an average of five studies in which the Ss were submitted to unaptterned vision for periods of four to eight hours, approximately 37 per cent of these Ss experienced visual hallucinations.
Although visual hallucinations were reported by a high percentage of Ss, only three studies reported significant variables that would identify these Ss. These studies indicated that good performance on the Embedded Figures est (EFT), the more suggestible Ss, and those who have visual hallucinations in sensory deprivation. This group also appeared to have a high level of anxiety. It seemed that visual hallucinations and anxiety were related. If this was so, then one could expect a group of Ss chosen for having a high level of anxiety to respond to sensory deprivation with visual hallucinations.
On the basis of the foregoing review of the studies on sensory deprivation and personality, it was felt that the role of anxiety was sufficiently important to warrant the following hypothesis:
Hypothesis 1.--That hallucinoidal visual imagery
will be elicited from the more anxious Ss, and not from the less anxious Ss.
In order to explore further the area of personality relationships, and specify them more completely as they have been studied under sensory deprivation, major measures of the IPAT 16 P.F. Test and the clinical scales of the MMPI will be obtained on the Ss. The following hypothesis is presented:
Hypothesis 2.--That Ss who have hallucinoidal visual imagery will not show differences on these personality measures.
The Goldberger and Holt studies (1958, 1959, and
1961) have indicated that there was a positive relationship for ego strength and the S's ability to adapt to sensory deprivation. They obtained a rho correlation of 0.44 between the MMPI Ea scores and visual imagery. An attempt will be made to expand these findings. The IPAT ego strength factor will be used in addition to the PMMPI Es. The following hypothesis is offered:
Hypothesis 3.--That Ss with higher ego strength scores will have more hallucinoidal visual imagery than will the Ss with lower measures of ego strength.
The Freedman and Greenblatt study (1960b) reported that Ss who had experienced hypnogogic imagery and had rich visual experiences had a higher incidence of visual hallucinations in sensory deprivation. In the light of these findings a 20-item questionnaire was constructed. The purpose of this Index of Hallucinatory Activity (IHA) questionnaire (Appendix II) was to obtain a hallucinatory
behavior differential on the Ss. The following hypothesis is to be tested:
~Eiothi 4.--That those Ss with higher scores on the Index of Hallucinatory Activity questionnaire will respond with more hallueinoidal visual imagery than will the Ss with lower scores.
Visual hallucinations were positively correlated with the performance on a "hidden figures test in the Davis, MeCourt, and Solomon study (1960). These findings will be further investigated. The following hypothesis is offered:
Hypothesis 5.--That an analytical visual perception, as measured by an embedded figures test, will show a positive relationship with the production of hallucinoidal visual imagery.
The present study utilized a brief sensory deprivation procedure, similar to the experimental procedure of Hochberg, Triebel, and Seaman (1951), to seek differences in those Ss who responded to chromatic, homogeneous visual stimulation (Ganzfeld) with the response of hallucinoidal visual imagery. Anxiety was the main personality difference in the two groups of Ss. A ten-minute exposure to the chromatic Ganzfeld constituted the sensory deprivation condition.
The main personality measure under study was the sensitizer-represser dimension. Welsh (1956) developed M~PI scales for identifying these two groups, the A scale for sensitizers and the R scale for repressers. The sensitizers had a high loading on the MMPI scales of Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia, and low scores on the K scale. They tended to be dysthymic (tending towards depression) and dysphoric (generalized anxiety, restlessness, and depression of spirits). Welsh described this factor as anxiety or being generally emotionally upset. On the other hand, the repressers were described as those Ss who characteristically rely on the defense mechanism of repression and denial. They showed a 10
moderate loading on the M PI scales of Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria; while they showed a moderately negative loading on the Hypomania scale. Welsh reported that the main factor here was a reliance on the defense mechanism of repression.
The research of Holzman and Klein (1956) with what they called sharpening and leveling and the research of Witkin, Lewis, Machover, Meissner, and Wapner (1954) on the field analytical and the field dependent characteristics suggested a similarity to the sensitizer-represser work of Welsh. The sensitizers had much in common with the sharpeners and the field analytical: alert to changes in the environment, resistant to "ground" influences, and more active. The repressers had some of the traits of the levelers and the field-dependent: passive, dependent, exaggerated need for nurture and succor.
The use of the term visual imagery in the several
studies indicated some confusion. Most researchers preferred to use the term hallucination. Some, like Holt, preferred the term imagery or visual imagery, possibly feeling that the term hallucination should be reserved for the more disordered mental conditions. In the present study, the term hallucinoidal visual imagery was used to label the visual sensations perceived by the Ss in response to the chromatic Ganzfeld.
The Ss utilized in this study of sensory deprivation
were 56 female student nurses in psychiatric training at the Milledgeville State Hospital, Milledgeville, Georgia. Their ages ranged from 19 to 20 years. They were at the end of their second year, or the beginning of the third year of their training, in a three-year nursing school program. Their home hospitals were located in the state of Georgia. The Ss were selected each quarter during a one-year period from a total of 299 students. They were selected on the basis on their scores on the A scale and the R scale of the MMPI. Welsh (1956) developed the scales for making this selection, and his female sample was used in determining the cutoff scores for the Ss utilized in this study. Ss were selected whose scores were in the fourth quartile of one measure, while also being in the first quartile on the other measure. There were 28 sensitizers and 28 repressers.
The Ss were encouraged to participate in the study
by the promise of a brief personality evaluation based on the test battery administered to them. It was noted that the Ss were highly motivated, as no one failed to appear after being selected, no one missed an appointment, and no one was even late for an appointment. Apparently, the Ss were able to keep the nature of the study secret until a group had completed the sensory deprivation procedure, as only two Ss admitted to any real foreknowledge of the experimental procedure.
Thehe S were asked to lie on a cot qwith eye cups placed over each eye. The eye cups were made from halved ping pong balls and -ere held in place by means of a strip of clear, plastic wrapping material. A red light before a 10-inch aluminum parabolic reflector provided illumination measured at approximately 54-foot candles by a Macbeth illuminometer. The source was placed approximately 12 inches immediately above the face of the supine S. The source was placed in position only after the S had the eye cups in place, Figure 1 is a posed photograph of the experimental room and apparatus.
The room used for the study was located in a dormitory building. It was windowless, quiet, and completely darkened during the experimental procedure. A tape recorder, placed within three feet of the head of the S, recorded verbalizations of the S while she was participating in the experiment.
The Ss where chosen for the study within two weeks after their arrival at the Milledgeville State Hospital. They were administered the MMPI. In order to maintain a degree of anonymity, each MMPI answer sheet was assigned a number to which the student nurse was asked to add her mother's -maiden name. Within the next week, the Ss were selected for the study and were administered the remainder of the test battery. This included the following: the
IPAT 16 P.F. Questionnaire, 1956 edition, form A; the Index of Hallucinatory Activity (IIHA) questionnaire (Appendix II); and Maslow's Security-Insecurity Inventory (S-I). The Witkin (1950) Embedded Figures Test (EFT), short form (Jackson, 1956), was administered after the sensory deprivation.
Specific variables from the MiPI and the IPAT were investigated. The scales from the IMPI were: K, hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D), hysteria (m), psychopathic deviate (Pd), masculinity-feminity interest (Mf), paranoia (Pa), psychasthenia (Pt), schizophrenia (Sc), hypomania (Ma), Barron's (1953) Ego Strength (Es), and Taylor's (1953) Manifest Anxiety (iAS). The factors utilized from the IPAT were the standard 16 factors plus the second order anxiety factor and the second order introversion-extrovers ion factor.
The scoring of the tests was standard with the
following exceptions. The raw scores on the IPAT were converted to the norms of the general population, nonstudent, women, 1959 for the calculation of the second order factors. The IA was scored by totaling the number of times the S answered a statement "Often" or "Sometimes."
When the S was lying on the cot with the eye cups in
place, the instructions were read, the red light turned on, and the overhead illumination was turned off. Except for the red light, the room was then completely dark. Instructions read to the Ss were as follows:
This is a study in color adaptation. I want you to
report any change in color, any unusual feelings, or anything you might see,. I would like a constant report from you which will be tape recorded. I will ask
you questions from time to time. Please lie as still as you can. Don't move about any more than you must.
Now, what do you see?
It was found necessary to ask the Ss for a report at oneminute intervals, as there was a strong tendency for the Ss to remain silent. The questions asked were: "What color is it," "What do you see nowj" or "How do you feel now." Only one question was asked at each interval.; and# in general, the expert enter limited his verbalizations
The instructions used were a deliberate attempt to disguise the real purpose of the study. Kandel, Myers, and Murphy (1958) have indicated that prior instructions tend to structure the Ss response.
The frequency with which the questions were asked
during the sensory deprivation procedure might limit the interpretation of the results. There were two factors involved, one positive and one negative. On the positive side was the necessity of ganing an ongoing verbal report. Visual or other sensory experiences might well be minimized or distorted in a post-experimental interview. On the negative side was the fact that the experimenter's voice tended to act as a reality guide. This was anticipated, and later substantiated in the case of S 270 R 24.
Immediately after the ten-minute interval of sensory deprivation, the S was interviewed as to how she felt and what she had experienced. The standardized interview
(Appendix III) was a modification of the Goldberger and Holt (1961) post-experimental interview. A rating scale (Appendix IV) was utilized to evaluate the S's behavior.
The verbalizations elicited from the Ss while undergoing sensory deprivation were rated by six judges for evidence of hallucinoidal visual imagery. The judges referred to the Type of Hallucination rating scale (Appendix IV) in making their judgments. This rating scale was a modification of the scale reported by Vernon, McGill and Schiffman (1958). Four of the six Judges had to agree in their independent rating on the presence of verbalizations which indicated the probability of S experiencing hallucinoidal visual imagery. The resulting unreliability of the five categories of the types of hallucination indicated that the most feasible method of evaluation would be a two-fold classification: those Ss who experienced hallueinoidal visual imagery and those Ss who did not have this experience.
An appropriate method for analysing the data obtained was to compare the mean scores on the various personality measures for the group who experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery and the group that did not have this experience. The t test for the difference between independent means was used to test the null hypothesis.
A chi square was used to determine the relationship in the frequency distribution of the hallucinoidal behavior by the sensitizers and the repressers. A two-by-
two chi square wss utilized to test the distribution of the sensitizers and the repressers who had and had not experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery.
Seven rating scales and the post-experimental interview were searched for significant relationships.
Hallucinoidal visual imagery was elicited from 22 (395) of the Ss during a ten-minute period of color adaptation in a field of homogeneous visual stimulation (Ganzfeld). The presence of hallucinoidal visual imagery was established through the rating of the verbalizations of the Ss during the experimental procedure. Six judges were used for the evaluation, and agreement among four of tudges washe six judges was the criterion for the presence of hallucinoidal visual imagery. The Ss judged by this criterion are presented in Appendix I (Table 2). The transcription of the verbalizations of the Ss are presented in Appendix V.
It was noted in placing the Ss in the hallucinoidal
visual imagery group that the Type of Hallucination rating scale (Appendix IV) was not sensitive enough to establish a quantification of the type of imagery. Therefore, the analysis of the dependent variable was limited to a dichotomy: those Ss who experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery and those Ss who did not have this experience.
The first hypothesis asserted that there would be a difference in the measured level of anxiety for the Ss 19
a (YOH r C n ON CM Lm E-- r-0 4- H
0 0 0 0 0 0 O A0 0 0 0 & 0 0 O 00 0 r- 0 m m n m 4 n
HOR HMOO 0 O O O O OOM
HH 1-400 H 0 00 C;
g m H mx Co\Bm c H C 0 N OoqC z 00 L, N cMLrt- nkc E-- c) n CMj =r OtHMO H C * * * H 4 Lc nw 0c0- C>0 H m H cYMOOD 0 0 H H HMH H V H H H
Cnf~3 ~'J ~rJc n 0 iEf' 0E .r- CSt Cu e
H 0 L n & 0N
0 0u-Cm CU em H 0 k rO C o\ w
HA 0 HH H H H H
O O 0- 0
4- an > n&
>O C CI V
0O v 04 Q) 0 0
CO- ).C m m q 1 m
4 -b Me bD > o o a w
-P 4.e 4 0 > ; H z 0 0 0 41 9
m b 57- AM Se>O C e
j3~ Pt P > r-4 0G "r 1
E-C 0 .0 t.. 2 0 0 0 -C
O)S 4H O 4 M 0 ') Z 0
0 0 C 49% 6 &1 VV
E-1 O to~o p m 4-5 agg b 4z ZDC IH IH 0 s:'H(M
H m 00000 @0> ra -C) O
I 0 ; 00 MEM NC 0
00Q 45402% OIoga: v r-I (D 0) 0Z C ( H
(12 04. i ) 1-1 1-4) Z "194 r r
0 0 )
a) 0 0 ho ca W ko W 0A .. z sO 0o.Z ;
)q- O q(D m H 0a %-14-1
4 jfli -1 z 0 0 r_- Z
wo 0 4 44 !:
-H 0 9 6 :5 0) 4-k0 "4 t 4 0 00- i 0 0
p r4H r -i0 0 0 4r-e a Z W CL 0 L3: rg ;E: :4 0 v33Q j4 H R~Uaras:U5dfR- ~h p
OA Hj co E-- co Qb rnCn co 6 a)LC Hc7 u,% mm u o nL- m 0 0 moome ao nmvm o
4 M N c 3 -* C4 L m o s oS
LQ- N O n o N H 0 C- H, H
O H 0 0 O OBOOHOCOQO
~I t nsaiIL P 11L ~ ur '~n I L\ L C!~~
L m C~i m P O -4 C 4- ('4IN 0 m cm N % tm C ')
0 9 4 9 4 0 # 0 4 49 o 4 o 0 0
C3\ C3\ e -r~f6r~~ ccccu C~ 4Cn0 O 0C C
S N 04 M9 9 4 99 4-4 9 1 H
H (D 0
M 0D 0
r- 0) 1P Q4 vQ H
> 0 ~ 0 ) 0-H ftr
0 O H r. cu (d w 44
e 0 N tq 0
O 44 O (
(D OH H 00 4C M
ra a 6 w O
z & a)0A4
00 C) ) V- 0 4 )
ma 4 c>) p0
mw A4 P4 A to
3m 0~ Am N
>m~ a A
to 0 wh a M a 0
WE 0 00 > r c
com J new a oan orl
oc~o a~r Ontchoromoa
HOGW0 3O j OON c~~sg ogo O
0i 4: WO; he O~ a emo bdd F
&&OXC &~~O O EMQAEmam
experiencing hallucinoidal visual imagery. Four measures of anxiety were used: the sensitizer-represser dimension, the IPAT second order anxiety factor, the Taylor NAS, and the Maslow S-I Inventory. The relationship of sensitizers and repressers to hallucinoidal visual imagery was assessed by a chi square. Sensitizers and repressers were classified into those who had experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery and those Ss who had not. This gave a two-bytwo classification. The chi square obtained was not significant (p = .26, 1 df). Therefore, on the basis of this statistic, hallucinoidal visual imagery was not found to be related to the sensitizer-reprepresser personality measure.
The IPAT second order anxiety factor was the second anxiety measure. The Ss who experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery obtained a mean score of 50.09 on this measure, while the Ss who did not experience hallucinoidal visual imagery had a mean score of 48.97. A t test of the independent means was not significant (t = 0.29, df = 54, p = .77). The Taylor MAS scores for the Ss who experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery and the Ss who did not were 17.45 and 19.44, respectively. A t test of the difference between these two independent means was not significant (t .68, = =68, df 54, p = .50). The Maslow S-I Inventory also did not reveal a significant difference. The Ss who produced hallucinoidal visual imagery obtained a mean score of 22.92, while the Ss who did not experience hallucinoidal visual imagery had a mean score of 18.21. The
t test indicated that the difference between these two means was not significant (t = 1.03, df = 40, p = .31).
Therefore, the weight of the foregoing evidence does not support the first hypothesis. Hallucinoidal visual imagery was not found to be related to these four measures of anxiety.
The second hypothesis questioned the relation between certain personality measures and the hallucinoidal visual imagery response. Eighteen measures from the IPAT and ten measures from the MMPI were used. The t test did not support a significant difference between the means of the Ss who gave hallucinoidal visual imagery and those Ss who did not for any of these measures. Table 1 presents the means, obtained t values, the degrees of freedom, and the level of significance for these personality measures. The MMPI Hysteria scale was one personality measure which approached an acceptable level of confidence (t = 1.96, df =5, = .06). Also, the mean scores on the IPAT factor A (schizothymia vs cyclothymia) suggested a differentiating trend (t a 1.89, df = 54, P = .07). Aside from these two questionable findings, the data support the second hypothesis in finding no significant differences between the hallucinoidal visual imagery group and the group reporting no such experiences.
The third hypothesis was concerned with the relation between two measures of ego strength and hallucinoidal visual imagery. The IPAT factor C yielded a mean score
of 17.45 for the Ss who experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery and 17.76 for the Ss who did not report hallucinoidal visual imagery. The t test of the difference between these means indicated tha that the difference was not significant (t 0.33, df = 54, p .74). The second measure of ego strength was the Barron Ego Strength scale. A mean score of 42.59 was obtained by the Ss who experienced hallucinoidal visual imagery, while the Ss not experiencing hallucinoidal visual imagery obtained 42.26. The t test of the difference between these means did not reach significance (t = 0.20, df = 54, p = .84). Therefore, the evidence presented did not support the third hypothesis.
The fourth hypothesis predicted that scores on the
IHA questionnaire would have a positive relationship with hallucinoidal visual imagery. The group of Ss reporting hallucinoidal visual imagery obtained a mean score of
5.27, while the Ss who did not report hallucinoidal visual imagery had a mean score of 5.72. The t test of the difference between these two means was not significant (t = 1.03, df 54, p .59).
The IHA questionnaire had one question referring to the hypnagogic phenomenon. Twenty-seven per cent of the Ss answered this question affirmatively. It was noted that 41 per cent of the group reporting hallucinoidal visual imagery answered this question in a positive direction; whereas, only 18 per cent of the group not reporting
hallucinoidal visual imagery answered in the same way. This finding is in agreement with the Freedman and Greenblatt (1960b) study in which they reported a significant relationship between a history of hypnagogie imagery and reported imagery in sensory deprivation.
The fifth hypothesis sought a relationship between performance scores on the EFT and hallucinoidal visual imagery. The group reporting hallucinoidal visual imagery obtained a mean score of 12.91 minutes, while the other group had a mean score of 15.84 minutes. The t test for the significance of the difference between these two means was not significant (t = 1.57, df 54, p = .13).
The rating scales (Appendix IV) used to evaluate behavior during sensory deprivation proved to be of little value. The sensory deprivation experiment did not produce remarkable differences among the Ss. The post-experimental interview (Appendix III) yielded some information about the desire of the Ss to terminate the sensory deprivation. Of the 42 S8 specifically queried, 12 Ss admitted that they had at least considered terminating; five of these Ss were in the group that reported hallueinoidal visual imagery. Also, 11 of the Ss who had considered terminating were sensitizers and only one was a represser.
The relationship between reported hallucinoidal visual imagery and certain personality measures was studied. An experimental method similar to the Hochberg, Triebel, and Seaman study (1951) involved the exposure of 56 Ss to chromatic, homogeneous visual stimulation for a period of ten minutes. This brief sensory deprivation procedure was sufficient to elicit hallucinoidal visual imagery from 22 of the 56 student nurses used as So.
No significant relationships between hallucinoidal
visual imagery and these personality measures were observed. The absence of a significant relationship is in keeping with some other reports in the literature. It may be interesting, however, to use these and several other personality measures with a more extreme scoring group. The range of scores obtained from this group of student nurses was not extreme.
There were several limitations inherent in the present study. In the verbal reporting sensitizers might have tended to exaggerate their emotional difficulties, while the repressers might have tended to minimize theirs. Therefore, it is possible that some Ss did not give accurate 26
reports of the hallucinoidal visual imagery. The purpose of the instructions was to obviate, or minimize, such tendencies and the Ss were given several opportunities to complete their report, but the effectiveness of these measures are uncertain.
The problem of defining just what constitutes hallucinoidal visual imagery is a thorny one. Goldberger (1961) reported that a majority of his Ss reported ideoretinal phenomena, about one-half of the Ss reported that the field turned gray (adaptation), and five Ss responded with imagery. Probably some ideoretinal phenomena were mistakenly labeled as hallucinoidal visual imagery in the present study. The problem of whether or not a perception was hallucinatory or not in the classical sense has not been adequately settled in sensory deprivation studies. "Out-thereness" and "belief" have been used as indicators of hallucinatory behavior, although many researchers apparently rely on the S's verbal report. The hallucinatory qualities were assumed in the present study, as being evidenced by the fact that a report of hallucinoidal visual imagery was given without suggestion by the experimenter.
In reviewing the literature on sensory deprivation, it is evident that most of the Ss were male. Less than 30 per cent of the So were female. There was a need, therefore, for more studies with female So. Failure to find agreement with previous studies on several of the
personality measures, for example the Embedded Figures Test and the ego strength scales, may be due to sex differences. However, the results of the majority of the findings were in agreement with the literature.
A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between hallucinoidal visual imagery and certain personality measures. Sensory deprivation was achieved by exposing each S to chromatic, homogeneous visual stimulation for a period of ten minutes. Of the 56 student nurse Ss, 22 reported hallucinoidal visual imagery.
No relationships were found between hallucinoidal visual imagery and the various measures used which included the VMPI, IPAT 16 P.F. Test, two measures of ego strength the Embedded Figures Test, four measures of anxiety, and the Index of Hallucinatory experience.
A LISTING OF THE SS BY RESPONSE
TO THE SENSORY DEPRIVATION
GROUP HI GROUP I
158 A 1 146 R 2 105 R 3 114 R 9 108 A 4 159 A 11 107 A 5 166 R 12 106 R 6 142 A 14 125 R 7 216 R 18 120 A 8 232 R 19 115 R 10 209 A 21 122 R 13 241 R 22 243 A 15 273 R 23 260 A 16 270 R 24 207 R 17 313 A 27 236 R 20 322 A 28 338 A 25 314 A 29 350 A 26 354 A 30 381 R 32 355 R 31 458 A 43 333 R 33 434 R 45 340 A 34 477 R 46 376 R 35 444 A 47 366 A 36 451 R 48 369 R 37 4.62 R 54 372 A 38 310 A 39
373 A 40
359 A 41
380 A 42
67 R 44
4.48 A 49
443 A 50
461 A 51
411 A 52
414 R 53
425 R 55
424 R 56
Note. This listing contains the Ss who were rated as having experienced hallucinoidal visual-imagery, group H, and those Ss who did not experience hallucinoidal visual imagery, group NH. For S identification, the first three numbers were randomly assigned, the letter refers to sensitizer (A) or represser (R), and the last number refers to the order the Ss underwent the experimental procedure.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENT OF HALLUCINOIDAL VISUAL
D~4AGERY BY NTlMER OF IMAGES AND CONTENT
SUBJECT NUMBER CONTENT OF IMAGERY
108 A 4 12 spots, airplane, spider, fly bird, A. Hitchcock, pineapple, hook, bugs, goat's horn, halfcircle, sailboat
115 R 10 6 crowd of people, man walking, person with a long coat on, narrow passage, something with long ears, something with long teeth
260 A 16 4 flashes of light, blood-shot eyeball, spider web, pool of water
105 R 3 3 pinwheels and circles, eye, stars
458 A 43 3 black spots, green car, figures of people
338 A 25 3 lines, stars, hats 350 A 26 3 circles, spots, four-leafed clover
236 R 20 2 paint cracking, star bursting 207 R 17 2 spots, hook moved into a circle 120 A 8 2 spots, part of a circle 434 R 4r 2 light rotating, moving cloud 462 R 54 2 rippling water, shadow that closes in a circular motion 125 R 7 2 heart-shaped red, dividing line
106 R 6 1 line makes a "U" shape
SUBJECT NUMBER CONTENT OF IMAGERY
122 R 13 1 circles 158 A 1 1 waves of darker moving across 243 A 15 1 "things" moving 444 A 47 1 white light flashing 107 A 5 1 "light" swinging 451 R 48 1 lines like seaweed 477 R 46 1 half-circle 381 R 32 1 circles
CODED MMPI PROFILE CLASSIFICATION FOR
SENSITIZERS AND REPRESSERS
158 A 1 9' 57 4 146 R 2 468 108 A 4 9' 87T46 105 R 3 4 36 107 A 5 T 106 R 6 8457 120 A 8 8' 77 125 R 7 19 2 159 A 11 4' 786 14 R 9 4 31 782 142 A 14 951 4 72 115 R 10 --58-7 5 243 A 15 9' 7F 166 R 12 2' 74 68 95 260 A 16 2' 978 112 R 13 "-" 4895 209 A 21 9' 54 1 207 R 17 46 38.338 A 25 8' 54q 71 216 R 18 "7 350 A 26 8 79+-532 X 232 R 19 82 313 A 27 87-T59' 45 236 R 20 8 473612 9 322 A 28 9 84' 75 241 R 22 128 94 314 A 29 7 25 3 49 273 R 23 4' 35~78 354 A 30 284"19 i~- 270 R 24 8 ?7~ 340 A 34 9' 85~475 355 R 31 -"3 9 366 A 36 45' 7-9 57- 3 X 381 R 32 8' 573 9 372 A 38 9' 87 54 1 333 R 33 549 2 X 31Q A 39 9' 13 8647 52 376 R 35 4538 9 373 A 40 --89 37 5 369 R 37 43 69 52 359 A 41 742'-T 467 R 44 95' 4813 6 380 A 42 78 95' 5 X 434 R 45 634-7t5 9 458 A 43 4687 23' 5 X 477 R 46 18735867 444 A 47 597 15 451 R 48 9' 4 83 448 A 49 98' 745 3 414 R 53 4 18 443 A 50 8 5 174 462 R 54 4' 7 36 8 5 461 A 51 79 4' 81 25 425 R 55 2 411 A 52 7 49- 5 424 R 56 3' 19 48 2 5
Note. The coding classification was taken from Hathaway (1956).
RAW SCORES FOR SENSITIZERS AND REPRESSERS
ON THE A SCALE AND R SCALE
subject A score R score subject A score R score
158 A 1 28 8 146 R 2 4 21 108 A 4 31 14 105 R 3 0 24 107 A 5 23 13 106 R 6 4 22 120 A8 23 14 125 R 7 2 22 159 A 11 24 12 114 R 9 3 25 142 A 14 28 15 115 R 10 6 21 243 A 15 21 12 111 R 12 5 30 26o0A 16 31 15 122 R 13 9 23 209 A 21 31 8 207 R 17 2 22 338 A 25 22 11 216 R 18 1 24 350 A 26 28 11 232 R 19 7 22 313 A 27 31 15 236 R 20 7 23 322 A 28 24 10 241 R 22 9 27 314 A 29 28 15 273 R 23 6 21 354 A 30 31 10 270 R 24 7 23 340 A 34 30 11 355 R 31 4 21 366 A 36 26 12 381 R 32 5 21 372 A 38 21 15 333 R 33 4 21 310 A 39 22 12 376 R 35 1 22 373 A 40 25 13 369 R 37 4 21 359 A 41 25 15 367 R 44 3 23 380 A 42 31 15 434 R 45 6 21 458 A 45 35 14 477 R 46 5 24 444 A 47 25 8 451 R 48 7 26 448 A 49 24 15 414 R 53 9 22 443 A 50 22 14, 462 R 54 6 26 461 A 51 25 15 425 R 55 3 22 411 A 52 21 9 424 R 56 9 21
Note. A sensitizer must have had an A scale score of 21 or higher, while having an R scale score of 15 or less. A represser must have had an R scale score of 21 or more, while having an A scale score of 9 or less.
INDEX OF HALLUCINATORY ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE
The following are experienced by normal people to some extent. Answer the following statements with never (N) if you have never had the experience; sometimes (S) if you have had the experience once or a few times; and often
(0) if you have had the experience with some regularity.
1. I have experienced the feeling of having been some place when I actually have not.
2. I have heard or seen things just before going to sleep or Just after waking up that were not real.
3. When I am with people I am bothered by hearing very queer things.
4. Peculiar odors come to me at times.
5. Parts of my body often have feelings like burning, tingling, crawling, or like "going to sleep."
6. I am often bothered by a strange taste in my mouth.
7. There have been times when I have been sure I saw something that others did not.
8. I have heard someone talking when there was no one around
9. I have smelled food or coffee cooking when there was none around.
10. At times, I have thought something pulled at me when
nothing really did.
11. Peculiar tastes come to me. 12. I see things or animals or people around me that
others do not see.
13. I commonly hear voices without knowing where they
14. My keen sense of smell often bothers me. 15. I have often felt bugs on me when they weren't. 16. I am acutely aware of changes in the flavor of my
17. I have seen a vision. 18. I have had a religious experience in which I have
seen or heard the Lord.
19. 1 have seen or heard my mother or father when they
were not present.
20. In a time of trouble, I have had a "voice" guide my
thoughts and actions.
1. Have you enjoyed this experiment?
2. Have you been bored?
3. Have you had any bodily pains?
4. Have you felt tense? Restless? Uneasy or ill at ease?
5. Have you felt suspicious?
6. Did the eyecups bother you?
7. Have you had any "crazy" or bizarre thoughts? What were they?
8, If so, how do you feel about these? 9, How do you feel about your images? 10. Have you found any difficulty in thinking, or concentrating on your own thoughts?
11. What was the most disturbing aspect of the whole experience?
12. Any daydreaming? 13. Have you thought about any interesting things? Any
14. How, in general, did you pass the time? 15. Did you play any games? 16. What was the most pleasant aspect of the whole experience?
17. Did you ever think about terminating the experiment?
Note. This interview was adapted from Goldberger and Holt (1961).
TYPE OF HALLUCINATION
1 2 3 4 5
flashes indefinite geometric definite highly of light shadowlike shla pes, object not structured
figures squares integrated scenes
circles, into a
CLARITY OF HALLUCINATION
1 2 3 4 5 unspeci- barely muffled partially very fled specifi- or hazy vague clear events able
SUBJECT'S ACCEPTANCE OF THE REALITY OF THE EVENT
1 2 1 4 5
regarded quite undecided slight firmly as hallu- doubtful doubt convinced ina tory
PHYSICAL BEHAVIOR DURING THE EXPER IMENT
1 2 3 5
relaxed slight restless- hyperactive leaves
movement ness situation
1 2 3 4 5
clear uneasy feelings dissocia- disoriented
feelings of unre- tion confusion ality
1 2 3 4 5
unthreat- concerned mildly anxious panic ened upset
Note. The first three rating scales (type of hallucination, clarity of hallucination, and subject's acceptance of the reality of the event) were taken from Cohen, Rosenbaum, Dobie, Shirley, and Gottlieb (1959).
A TRANSCRIPTIC OF TiE VE BAL REPORT TAKEII FiRO TAIE FECORDINbGS 0Fi THE EXPERI~TENTAL PROCEEDINGS
158 A 7
It's sort of blinking. Lighter and darker. (1 minute) It's getting darker. (2 minutes) It's red. Sort of orange at times. (3 minutes) It's red. (4 minutes)
All but the center is shadowed. (5 minutes) It's shadowed around the edges. (6 minutes) Spots. There's waves of darker coming across. (8 minutes) It has a little yellow in it. Mostly red. (9 minutes) It's just red with shadows around the edges. (10 minutes)
146 A 2
All the same color. Going blurred. The bottom's brown.
Brown and orange. Brown is more predominate. (2 minutes) Brown and orange. (3 minutes Orange and brown. (4 minutes) It's all brown. I must concentrate to keep it red.
I have a feeling of not knowing where I am. Like floating
in space. (7 minutes)
It's a little blurred. Mostly brown now. (8 minutes) There's still a floating feeling. Real blurred. (9 minutes) I feel removed from reality. Orange, some brown. (10 minutes)
105 R 3
Spot of orange. (1 minute) In the center a spot of brown that comes and fades .
dark is closing in. (2 minutes)
Turning more a brown much darker. Changes fromY
orange to brown. (3 minutes)
I see little patterns. Pinwheels and circles. Shadowlike. Alternating between orange and brown. Now bright
red. (4 minutes)
I keep seeing an eye. It is closing and opening. (6
Bright and dark colors now red. (7 minutes) Streaks of lavender. When I close my eyes, I see blue.
I see stars, like in the sky. (10 minutes)
108 A 4
Itis getting brighter. Spots. When I look they go away.
I think I see something that I don't see. A different
density. Not as red. (2 minutes)
I see something on the right side. A darker horizon.
It reminds me of an airplane. (3 minutes)
I see something that looks like a spider. I see a bird
like a sea-guJl Not so red now. (4 minutes) Still see a bird. I see a bug there .. like a fly.
I see something, like Alfred Hitchcoek. No color .
like a shadow. I see a pineapple. It is a bird.
I see an airplane. There's a hook like a bird
claw. I see bugs. I feel like they are on me.
It's not red. It's flesh color. I see a goat's horn.
I still see the bird. He has moved. (7 minutes) I don't like this. I feel like I'm under a spider.
I see round half-cireles. (9 minutes) I think I see a sail boat. (10 minutes)
107 A 5
It's still red. Way down the sides it gets black, then
blurred. (1 minute)
The red is getting dull. The bottom isn't as black.
There is still a reddish tint. At the bottom it's
grayish. (4 minutes)
I see a gray streak. (6 minutes) The light is moving. Like it's swinging. (7 minutes) I feel a little nervous. Apprehensive, I guess. (8
The color is pale. (9 minutes) There is red and gray streaks at the top. (10 minutes)
106 R 6
Darker pink. (1 minute) If I shut one eye, the line goes away. (2 minutes) The dark edge is moving up. I see color under it. (3
The line is higher up. (4 minutes) The line has moved up higher. (5 minutes) The lines are getting blurred. (6 minutes) The line has made a distinct movement. (9 minutes) The line is beginning to take a "U" shape. There is more
pink up at the top now. (10 minutes)
125 R 7
It's getting dark around the edges. (1 minute) There's a closing-in feeling. (2 minutes) Still the same. Darker at the bottom. There's a heartshaped red. (3 minutes)
Seems like there's a dividing line in beteen. It's up
and down, (5 minutes)
Its dark around the edges. Red. But it has a mottled
appearance. (6 minutes)
A dark part is closing in. The red is getting smaller.
It's fading out getting darker. I feel like I'm
going to sleep getting further away. (8 minutes) I feel like I'm drifting (10 minutes)
120 A 8
At first it was all red. Now, the edges are darker. I
feel penned in. (1 minute)
It reminds me of cloud effects. A sun set. It hurts my
eyes. (2 minutes)
Occasionally there seers to be little spots. Reminds me
of when I was a little girl when I couldn't get the
light. Seems like a larger dark portion. (3 minutes) Still red bright red. It seems like seems
like a vast darkness to the side. (4 minutes)
It could remind one of the flames of hell. (5 minutes) It's red, but although I know my eyes are open, it seems
dark. (6 minutes)
I feel a little tense. (7 minutes) I now see a shape I hadn't seen before a part of a
circle. (8 minutes)
I have the blacked-out feeling again. (9 minutes) The blacked-out feeling is going away. (10 minutes)
114 R 9
Still red. It seems to be pressing down. (1 minute) I'm getting sleeply. (2 minutes) The black is coming out farther. (4 minutes) The red is almost all gone. (5 minutes) There is more black now or a deep red. (6 minutes) I had to blink my eyes. Couldn't tell if they were still
open,. (7 minutes)
I see about the same. (8 minutes) It's not pressing in as much now. (9 minutes) It's black and red. (10 minutes)
115 R 10
I see red. It's getting black around the edges. It looks sort of ragged. My face feels numb. (1 minute)
115 R 10--Continued
I jee something that is sort of like a crowd of people.
A crowd of people's heads. (2 minutes)
Looks like a man walking with one arm. (3 minutes) It looks like a person inthe middle with a long coat on
a cape. (4 minutes)
It seems to be getting darker. (5 minutes) It seems like there are people standing over me .
watching me. It's a feeling, but I sort of see them.
It looks like a narrow passage. (7 minutes) I just see red in the middle. (8 minutes) I see something with ears, long ears. (9 minutes) Now I see something with teeth, long teeth. (10 minutes)
159 A 11
It's still red. Seems a little lighter. (1 minute) It seems to be getting fainter. (2 minutes) It seems to be increasing and decreasing in size. (3
It seems to be real bright like looking into the
sun. (4 minutes)
It's more orange now. (5 minutes) I'm a little nervous not knowing what to expect.
It's yellowish. Not as bright. Getting brighter. (8
Still about the same. Yellowish-orange. (10 minutes)
166 R 12
It's still the same. Red. My eyes are burning. (1
It's still just red. (2 minutes) It's just a bright red. (3 minutes) It's still a bright red color. (5 minutes) Still red. (6 minutes) It's still red. I'm sorry I just don't see anything
Mr. Stewart. (7 minutes)
It's still red. Maybe brighter. A reddish-orange.
I feel O.K. It's still red. (10 minutes)
122 R 13
It's red all over, like a shadow. (1 minute) It's still red. (2 minutes) Sometimes there seems to be more shadows than at other
times. (3 minutes)
The colors are getting darker, at times. (4 minutes) Relaxed, O.K. (5 minutes)
122 R 13--Continued
Right now I see little circles that come together. Just
like when you look at any light. (7 minutes)
Blotches darker color. It's brown, sometimes they are
red. 9 minutes)
It's darker. (10 minutes)
142 A 14
Still red. Gets white till I blink my eyes. (I minute) It's like you are looking into the sun. (2 minutes) The same, Just looking into space and you can't see anything. I can imagine how a blind person feels. (4
The color's not as bright. (5 minutes) Feel like I'm 20 feet tall. Like looking into space and
feeling as big as space. (6 minutes)
It's the same as before. I don't see anything except red.
Dimmer than before. (10 minutes)
243 A 15
It's Just red. (1 minute) A dark streak filled with red. (2 minutes) Sort of a funny feeling. Hasn't changed. Still a dark
streak. (3 minutes)
Still red. It's really hard to tell what color it is.
Things seem to be moving in that (left) direction. (6
It seems to be darkened or black areas that come and go.
I don't see anything. Still a little red. It seems to
come and go. (8 minutes)
I still see red. (9 minutes) It seems like it is gradually going away. (10 minutes)
260 A 16
It looks like color of watermelon. If I look intently, I
see flashes of light. Blood-shot eyeball. (1 minute) I think it is getting black around the edges. I'm
tense. It seems to frighten me. (2 minutes) I keep blinking my eyes. (3 minutes) I feel like I'm going cross-eyed. Looks like spider webs.
More gray now. Seems one eye wants the gray. I get the
feeling that someone has their hand over my face. Just
a feeling. (4 minutes)
Rosey-pink. It's black around the edges. Feels like I'm
going blind. (5 minutes)
I don't see anything, but I get the feeling that something
is passing over. Blocking the light. (7 minutes)
260 A 16--Continued
Now it looks like I'm looking into a pool of water .
rippling. Or a fog or something. (8 minutes)
It's mostly gray now. Swirls of white* (9 minutes) I don't see anything. Pink .. then dissolves into
almost white. (10 minutes)
207 R 17
Still see Red. Feel warm and sleepy. (I minute) It's red. It's a little orangey. The dark seems to be
closing in. (2 minutes)
It still looks red. It looks redder now. And darker,
I'm real sleepy and relaxed. (4 minutes)
I see red. Got some dark in it. Dark spots. (5 minutes) I can see some white on red. With black figures. Like
a hook. (7 minutes)
It's Just a line. It keeps getting bigger and sometimes
makes itself into a circle. (9 minutes) It's a circle now. (10 minutes)
216 R 18
I still see red, but a black edge. It may be my eyelashes.
Still red. (2 minutes) It's still red. I'm sleepy. (3 minutes) I see red, but my field of vision is smaller. (4 minutes) No more black, Just the red is smaller. (5 minutes) It's red. Around the eye things it's a black fringe.
Same, just red. (7 minutes) Just the same. (8 minutes) I still feel sleepy. My eyes feel like they are closing.
Still red. (10 minutes)
232 R 19
I see the same. Feel fine. (1 minute) Red. Looks like it might be getting a little smaller.
Edges darker, but the same. (3 minutes)
The darker edge is in closer around the red. (4 minutes) It's still red. (5 minutes) The dark edges closing in more. Dark line across the
bottom. It was there before. Still red. (7 minutes) I feel kind of relaxed. (3 minutes) Still see red. (9 minutes) The outline is around the red. Still red in the center.
236 R 20
The light is about the same. Seems to be two gray spots
on the edge. (1 minute)
236 R 20--Continued
It seems like there are little yellow cracks in it. Like
paint that is cracking. (2 minutes)
More of a reddish-red than the orangeish. (3 minutes) The cracks are gone. (4 minutes) It seems to be getting gray. Especially around the edges.
There seems to be all colors of lines coming and going.
Like a star bursting out. (6 minutes)
I get a dizzy sensation. Those lines weaving all over.
I feel drunk-like. (8 minutes)
It seems to be about the same as when I first lay down.
Just the light and smooth color. (9 minutes) It seems to be pink now. (10 minutes)
209 A 21
Red. Completely red. (1 minute) Still all red. My eyes are getting tired. (2 minutes) Same color. (4 minutes) Still red. Some black around the bottom. (5 minutes) It's red and black along the bottom. (7 minutes) Some red with the black. (9 minutes) Still red. (10 minutes)
241 R 22
It's still red. The edges are a little darker. I'm relaxed. (1 minute)
The light's still red, but dark space is becoming larger.
I see red at the very top. The rest is black. (3 minutes)
I still see red. More intense. (4 minutes) It's red only at the top of the line of vision, rest is
black. (6 minutes)
Same as before, except the red spot is a little shifted
to the left. (8 minutes)
I'm relaxed. Still looks the same. (10 minutes)
273 R 23
All red. (1 minute) I see red. I think I see more of a border. (2 minutes) It's Just the same. (3 minutes) I feel like my eyes are closed but they're not. I don't know if I see red or not. (4 minutes) I have to blink my eyes to tell if they are open or not.
It's black with a reddish tinge. (6 minutes) I think there is a light, but it is not an intruding light.
273 R 2"--Continued
I can tell there is a light on, as I can feel it on my
forehead. I'm beginning to see red more. (8 minutes) I feel fine. (9 minutes)
Just the same. Not much of anything. Seems to be a little
red in the middle. (10 minutes)
270 R 2 4
It still looks red darker in places. (1 minute) It still looks red, but I can't see what I'm seeing.
Like pressed against my eyes. (3 minutes)
No distinctive redness now. Darker or brownish-gray.
I feel like my eyes are closed, but I know they are open.
Like before you go to sleep. (5 minutes)
Almost like seeing nothing. When I talk to you and concentrate it becomes red again. (7 minutes)
It's like your eyes were closed on a sunshiny day. (8
Some gray and white. (9 minutes) Seems to come and go. I feel sleepy. Hands are numb.
338 A 25
It's the same color (red with pink in the middle). I'm
a little anxious. (I minute)
It starts to get gr:a, but if I blink my eyes it gets red
again. (2 minutes)
It changes with my respiration now. When I breathe in it
gets rosey, and when I exhale it gets almost entirely
gray. (3 minutes)
It's waving back and forth like a side show in the circus.
Distorted. Lines of red and gray. (4 minutes)
It's like a round center of a rose with a brownish-gray
all around it. (6 minutes)
Very bright red with a circle of yellowish around it.
It's calm. It's more or less a grayish rose all over.
But there is no definite color. It's got little speckles
of red in it now. (8 minutes)
Looks like abstract shapes or forms with a light color.
Can't make them out. Stars or hats. Keep changing.
Now Just one nondescript color. Rose-gray. (10 minutes)
350 A 26
It's still the same. All red. Feel fine. (I minute) It's still red, but not as dark a red as before. When I
blink it turns green. (2 minutes)
350 A 26--Continued
Just sort of resembles red. More sort of a background
of no other color at all. (3 minutes)
Sort of strange. I know it's red, but I seem to want
black. (4 minutes)
It seems what little red light is left is waving back and
forth. I could go to sleep. (5 minutes)
They are kind of like circles, waving circles going across.
They are white on top of black that is on red. It seems
like every time the tape recorder squeals they move in
rhythm. (6 minutes)
Just black spots. I see them sometimes when I am getting
ready to go to sleep. Sort of a sign I 'm getting ready
to drop off. (7 minutes)
Nothing. The white lines have gone, black splotches are
gone. Just dull red with black on the fringes. (8
The center of the red. Just sort of flashes through.
Looked like a four-leafed clover. It was outlined
like that. (9 minutes)
Nothing. I feel tense. No pattern now. I don't know.
Knotty pine. The red has no shape, yet at times it's
outlined. More like a blurry sunset. (10 minutes)
313 A 27
Feel nervous. Just a bright red. inms appear darker.
Sane thing. The red doesn't seem as bright as it did.
Appears more orangey. (4 minutes) Color is the same. I feel alright. (5 minutes) It seems to be getting darker on the sides. It's like a
sun-burned flesh color. (6 minutes) It appears the same. (7 minutes) It looks orangey red. (8 minutes) It's the same. Orange red. Feel alright. (9 minutes) The color appears the same. Not as red as it was. Seems
brighter. (10 minutes )
322 A 28
Appears to be orange now. (1 minute) Still orange, but seems to be darker. It's lighter and
up some. Feel alright. (2 minutes)
Gets light then dark. I can see one little dark spot
over my right eye.
Gets bright and then fades away. (3 minutes) It's sort of dark now. Can't tell what color it is.
It's orange again. (4 minutes)
It seems to be pink now. Dark pink it's back to
orange. (5 minutes)
Sort of pinkish-red. (6 minutes) It's orange. Don't see anything. I guess it is orange.
Black spot?) No, I still have it. It moves about.
7 minutes )
322 A 28--Continued
Orange. Sort of light orange. It sort of goes from dark
orange to light orange all the time. I guess it is my
eyes. (8 minutes)
Still about the same. Light orange d, ark orange.
Sort of pink. I still have a little black spot. It seems
to have moved over my left eye back to right again.
-14 A 29
Still like a dark rim at the bottom. A darker red. (i minute)
Seems like the rim has moved up a little, not much. (2 minutes)
Seems like it is getting a little darker. Rim's the same,
No great change o red. (3 minutes)
Seems to be real blurry. Not as clear as it was, fuzzy .
S. still red. (4 minutes)
I'm like my eyes are sort of crossing, (5 minutes) Bright red area is getting so small. Rim part is larger.
Not so round. Sort of c" shaped with open part up,
No change. I don't feel any different. (7 minutes) Same thing. My eyes are beginning to hurt a little bit.
St ill no change. Just fuzzy, not clear. (9 minutes) Still red. (10 minutes)
354 A 30
It seems to be centered or it seems to be darker
in the middle. Kind of splotches on the outside. Feel
alright. (1 minute)
It seems more uniform now. Red. (2 minutes) Seems as it was a while ago, uniform. Red. Feel alright.
It's the same. Just red. No splotches like it did at
first. (4 minutes)
It's still uniform. The color seems to be redder or a
little brighter. (5 minutes)
It's about the same. (6 minutes) Seems a little darker than a while ago, but no change.
About the same. Just as red. (8 minutes) It has a red side, but the outside seems black or a dark
or black red. (9 minutes)
Feel the same. Color is the same. (10 minutes)
355 R 31
I don't see anything but that red. I feel fine. (1 minute)
355 R 31--Continued
Looks the same, red. (2 minutes) Red, Just red. (3 minutes) It's still red, but sort of dark around the edges. (4
Red. Just looks like a red and right around the
edges it's darker. Bright in the middle. (5 minutes) Still red and dark around the edges. (6 minutes) It's the same, still red. (7 minutes) Still red. Feel O.K. (8 minutes) Still red. It's brighter in the middle than at the edges.
Still red. (10 minutes)
381 R 32
It's the same except I can see two little circles of darker
color. Feel fine. (I minute)
It's still the same. It's still red with the two little
darker circles. (2 minutes)
It's still a red color, but more an orange color than the
vivid red it was. (3 minutes)
Same. Just an orange color. (4 minutes) It's sort of a blurred well, it's the same color
but my vision is blurred. (5 minutes)
It's almost black. Just a little red right in the center.
Just the same. Just the black edge with the red center.
It's back to the orange color. My eyes feel like they
are crossed. That's all. (8 minutes)
I can see orangey-red color. And one of those little
circles of color. (9 minutes)
Just a bright orange. I feel O.K. My eyes are Just
tired. (10 minutes)
333 R 33
It's still very much the same. It's still very red.
Feel a little anxious right now. (1 minute)
Still red. After I blink it is slightly brighter. If
my eyes are open it staysthe same. (2 minutes)
Still appears the same like I say, when I blink it
appears a little darker. (3 minutes)
It seems like it is getting slightly darker around the
edges, the lower edges. (4 minutes)
The upper part still red, lower part as dark as before.
The darker area hasn't appeared to increase at all.
Now it's getting darker. And the darkness is Just going
up into the cups. The darkness started at the bottom and keeps moving up all the time. (6 minutes) The redness is mostly fading away and is mostly black
now. The red is Just a small crescent-like shape at
the top. (7 minutes)
333 R 33--Continued
It's fading more on the left side into black. (8 minutes) Now the red is completely gone, except for a tiny edge.
All black now except when I blink. Feel fine. I see
black until after I blink then I get a slight flash
of red. (10 minutes)
340 A 34
Still the same color red. Pretty vivid red, dark around
the edges. Feel fine. (1 minute) It looks the same. (2 minutes). It looks the same, but I feel it is closing in on me.
Not that itscares me, it is just looking at the same thing for a long time. I guess it's monotonous. (3
It's the same. I feel fine. (4 minutes) It's the same. Red with dark around the edges. Still
monotonous. (5 minutes)
It's still the same red. (6 minutes) Still the same. (7 minutes) I feel fine. (8 minutes) I feel fine. Just see the red as before. No change,
that I can comprehend. (9 minutes)
It seems to be brighter. Feel about the same. I'm used
to it now, so it doesn't bother me at all. (10 minutes)
376 R 35
It is a deep red and rather bright. (1 minute) It appears about the same. I haven't noticed any too great
a change at any time. It does appear to be dimmer than before. (2 minutes)
My eyes feel as though they are very watery. The color
is dull, like before. (3 minutes)
It isn't as red as it was. Just dull. (4 minutes) It remains the same. (6 minutes) No noticeable difference. Just the same as when it started.
It's a little bit brighter than it was. (8 minutes) It's the same as the last time. A rather bright red color.
It's the same way. (10 minutes)
366 A 36
It's still the same color. Beginning to get a little bit
hazy. (1 minute)
Looks like it's getting narrower. It's still red in the middle. Dark around the edges.
Kind of a deep green or black. (2 minutes)
It's still the same. Red in the middle and dark around
the sides. Maybe it's the edge of the cups that make
366 A 36--Continued
it look darker. (3 minutes)
It seems like something is loving. Instead of red, it's
orange in the middle and moving around. (4 minutes)
The colors seem to be darker. Not morvtg now (5 minutes) Still see the same. Seems like the sides might be getting
darker. Sides closing in. (6 minutes)
It's the same. Tired, like taking a sun-bath. You can
see the light through your closed eyes. Makes you real
sleepy. (8 minutes)
Dark part still a little more close in than at first.
Not moved much. (9 minutes)
Colors started moving in. (10 minutes)
369 R 37
Still bright red. So bright it makes my eyes water.
It's a little lighter. (2 minutes) I don't know if it is or not, but it's bright. Or real
red. (3 minutes)
It's still red. Feel fine. (4 minutes) Still red. (5 minutes) Bright red. (7 minutes) Still red. I don't know if I could compare it with what
I first saw. It may be lighter. (8 minutes)
Red. Not so red that it makes my eyes water though.
They aren't watery any more. (9 minutes) Red. Feel fine. (10 minutes)
372 A 38
Still about the same. Directly in front it is red. On
the sides it is black. Makes your eyes water. (1 minute)
Well, it's the same. Your eyes become accustomed to the
color after a while. Still red, lighter now. (2 minutes) This color makes you feel like you can't see anything.
Still red. (3 minutes)
It's darker on the sides of my eyes, but in front it is
still red. (4 minutes)
This red seems to have a glare to it. It's real bright.
No change. It's still dark around the edges. (6 minutes) Red directly in front of me with darker edges. Gets
lighter at times. (7 minutes)
It makes your head feel like you are straining. Like
when you are tired. (8 minutes)
The red in front of me is lighter now. (9 minutes) It's a light red in front with light dark edges. Medium
red. (10 minutes)
310 A 39
Looks lighter than before. Sort of a light red. (1
It's become lighter, it seems. Sort of a hazy red.
The same. Still real hazy. (3 minutes) Sort of fading out it seems. Feel funny sensations in
my chest. Like butterflies in my stomach. (4 minutes) Sort of seems to have little dark places in it.
Not as dark as it was, even hazier. (5 minutes)
Still have that same butterfly feeling. Seems to be
focusing on one spot now. A hazy red. (6 minutes) Same as before. Seems to be not as large as before.
Still a hazy red. (8 minutes)
Real hazy red. Feel alright now, the butterflies have
gone. (9 minutes)
Just seems to be sort of a circle of red. Not very large.
Real hazy. Like you were looking through a film of
something red. (10 minutes)
373 A 40
I feel a little dizzy. Like I'm falling off. Like everything is going around and around. (30 seconds)
Before it seemed like it was a small circle before my
eyes, but now it's much bigger and I don't feel dizzy
any more. (1 minute)
It's a little lighter now, but seems like the circle is
getting bigger. (2 minutes)
Not red now, Just blank. Orange with a black rim. Getting
dizzy again. Seems like my body is going one way and the
bed the other. (3 minutes)
Now black with reddish-orange. Can' t distinguish it.
Still dizzy. Black now. (5 minutes) Now it seems real close to me. Like I want to push it
away. I'm not dizzy now, but feel like I'm going around and around. (6 minutes)
Now it looks like smoke, real hazy. Not dizzy, not going
around and around. (7 minutes)
Still real hazy, but I can tell an orange color. Still a
black rim. Feels real close to me again. The color.
Real hazy. Whiter at top. (8 minutes) Still looks real hazy and I'm not dizzy at all. Feels like it's pushing down on me again, coming real close.
Orange and black are fading together. (9 minutes)
The orange has changed to more of a white color now. Not dizzy at all. (10 minutes)
359 A 41
Looks a little orangey. I can see some lines through the
359 A 41--Continued
the micile. Gives you a funny sensation, not seeing
anything but red. (1 minute)
It's black there for a minute, red now. (2 minutes) Same. Black line still there. Still red. It makes my
feet kind of tingle. (3 minutes)
The color is getting lighter. (4 minutes) Now it's almost white. Feel funny. Feet tingle a little,
not as much as they did. (5 minutes)
The red doesn't look very red any more. It's black around
the bottom. Feel like I can see the sides of the eyecups when I look cross-eyed. (6 minutes) Feel rather relaxed. (7 minutes) Bottom half looks black, upper half looks red. Not real
red though, rather pink. Once in a while it's like my eyes were just shut, I don't see anything. (8 minutes) It seems like more is black. Just a very little red. If
I just lay here, it'll all go black, like I got my eyes
shut. (9 minutes)
Rather black looking, still rather pinkish. (10 minutes)
380 A 42
Around the edges, it looks dark like it's closing
in. I feel O.K. (1 minute)
Still see the red color. Dark edges around it. More
dark around the lower part though. (2 minutes)
It's still red with dark edges. I'm sort of getting
sleepy. (3 minutes)
This red color seems to have come closer. Feel fine.
Still the red color but it seems to have moved away
some. (5 minutes5
The red color there, but from hearing this machine, there
is a pounding sensation in my head. In the background..
Red color and dark edges. (7 minutes) Red color is still there. Dark edges. Feel fine. (8
Red is still there. (9 minutes) Still the same red color. Nothing unusual. Just sort
of tiring. Feel sort of tense, you'd say. (10 minutes)
458 A 43
I don't know. It's the same color. It's got some black
spots. Little streaks. (1 minute) Kind of sleepy. (2 minutes) Just a red color with a lot of black on it. It's just
not bright like it was before. (3 minutes)
I don't see anything much except not as dark not as dark as it was. (4 minutes)
458 A 43--Continued
Nothing almost. It doesn't seem to be any color any more.
Am I supposed to have my eyes open? It's hard. I'm
sleepy. I could go to sleep now. (7 minutes) It's Just dark. (8 minutes) Dark. There's a black background. Got all kinds of
streaks. A little red, not much. (9 minutes)
Now the black marks are gone, it looks red again. (10
467 R 44
Am I supposed to see something? I don't see anything
but red. Are you supposed to see just light in the
center? (1 minute)
I see just light. It feels different. It's sort of white.
Still got some red on it. (2 minutes)
It seems all black to me, like you can't see all around.
Well, I don't know. It's lighter. Just sort of whitered. Just relaxed. (4 minutes)
Seems to be darker in the middle and lighter on the sides.
Maybe a little blue at times. (6 minutes)
I don't know. It's lighter, more of a yellowish. Looks
sort of dark at the bottom. Don't make sense. (7 minutes)
It seems to be light. Strictly in the middle, going from
side to side. I'm O.K. (8 minutes)
About the same as before. Light Just concentrated in the
middle, darker on the right side. (9 minutes)
I don't feel anything particularly. Relaxed. It's sort
of a yellowish-white. (10 minutes)
434 R 45
It looks like it gets light and then dark. It's still
red. I feel like I'm just looking at red. (1 minute) There doesn't seem to be as much area of red space now.
It looks like there are some dark splotches running through
it now and then, whatever it is it's moving. (3 minutes) Now it is red, true red. At first it was more an orangered. (4 minutes)
The light seems to be going around now, like a clock hand.
Like it was on something that made it rotate. (5 minutes) It's not doing that any more. It seems to be darker
and still. (6 minutes)
It's blinking off and on there doesn't seem to be
as much red. (7 minutes)
It seems to be moving or something. I can't describe it.
Kind of like a cloud. Kind of fluffy. It's still red.
434 R 45--Continued
Just moving in some way. (8 minutes) It's stopped now. (9 minutes) It's still red, but I think it's darker. I feel the
same. I know I'm laying here on a bed. (10 minutes)
477 R 46
It still looks red with a little darker around the bottom.
I feel like I'm staring at something red. Getting tired
of it. (1 minute)
Up at the top, it's just light red. Dark at the bottom.
Feel fine. (2 minutes)
Now it's a little bit lighter. Light red. (3 minutes) It's light at the bottom. It's lighter all over, except
for a half-irele in the middle. It's Just a little
bit darker than the rest of it. (4 minutes)
Looks about the same. Just like staring at the sky. (6
I feel just like I feel. Relaxed. (7 minutes) I don't see as much of the half-circle as I did. Just a
light red clear color. (8 minutes) Feel O.K. (9 minutes)
Looks just the same. Just a clear light red color. The
circle isn't as dark as it was. (10 minutes)
444 A 47
I can't tell. It's not exactly red. It's turned maybe
a peach color. Feel O.K. (1 minute)
Still bright. It's white. No red. (2 minutes) Now it's getting red again. I can't tell now. I can't see anything. (3 minutes) It's still Just white. (4 minutes) It still looks white. Gets sort of black, sort of halfway. Not all over. Seems like it goes through shades
of white from degree to another. (5 minutes)
Now I can't tell anything. Seems like a white light
flashing in the dark. (6 minutes)
Feels like the darkness is closing in. Still feels like
the light is flashing. Now it's getting red again.
Now it's a white light again. Now kind of grayish. Feel
O.K. (8 minutes)
Now it's like lights being on. A white light. It's
lighter. (9 minutes)
It's red again real red not as red as at first
now it's white again. (10 minutes)
451 R 48
The color is still red except the longer I look the darker
it gets. I seem to feel sleepy. Seems like when I
451 R 48--Continued
breathe the color goes back and forth like an
ocean. (1 minute)
Looks like it's getting darker around the edges. (2
I don't notice anything different about it now. Sure
does seem to be putting me to sleep. The darkness appears to be closing in I think I've got my
eyes open. I'm pretty sure I have. (3 minutes)
M~y eyes feel like they are running together. I feel
like I'm getting cross-eyed. (4 minutes)
It looks like it's still red, but not as bright as
it was at first. Looks like little lines go across the
red like sea-weed. As it goes back and forth it tends
to go in a circular motion (eyelashes). It's about the same but my head feels like it is getting
real heavy. Especially my eyes. (7 minutes)
The redness is sort of fading out. It's sort of
a lavender color coming in. Around the edges it is
dark with tinges of pink. I see the wavy lines once
in a while. (8 minutes)
Sort of still red with a mixture of pink and a little
like sunlight. Has twinkles or something reflects.
Head feels sort of heavy. (10 minutes)
448 A 49
It's still red, but not as red as it was. I feel rested
and relaxed. (1 minute)
It's still red. Nothing else but red. (2 minutes) It's still red. It hasn't changed a bit. Feel just the
same. (3 minutes)
Still see red, but I feel light, almost weightless. (5
Seems like the more I look at it, I can't seem to get my eyes focused on it. Like I dontt have my eyes open. (6 minute)
Feel the same, real light. (7 minutes) Still feel like my eyes aren't open. Can't see. Feel
just the same. Not as light as before. (8 minutes) It's still red. It doesn't look as dark as it was. (9 minutes)
I can't tell what color it is. It doesn't look like it's
a color at all. I'm heavier now than I was. (10 minutes)
443 A 50
It's just red. Feel alright. (1 minute) It's still red. It looks like it's saving a little. (2
It's still red. Still waving. The red looks like it's
getting darker then brighter. Feel a little bit tired.
443 A 50--Continued
Still red. (4 minutes)
Red. Feel like my eyes are closed. (5 minutes) Still red. Feel alright. (6 minutes) Still red. A little darker around the edges. (7 minutes) Still red. Feel fine. (8 minutes) ItJs bright red. (9 minutes) Still red. A black spot in the middle once in a while.
461 A 51
A little darker. Not red any more. Sort of hazy
not dizzy, sleepy I guess. (I minute)
Without the center, it's not red. It doesn't look like
anything at all. No spots or anything. Feel very relaxed. (2 minutes)
I guess awful hard to describe. (3 minutes) When I blink, I see red again, but then it goes away real
fast. I don't feel any different, Just resting. (4
Well, it's gray.. See red when I blink, then it goes
away real fast. About the color, it's about the color
of ashes. (6 minutes)
Uh .. this side is dark, the other eye is dark, but it
seems as if a light in the background. (7 minutes)
Completely black now. I still feel Just the same, real
relaxed. (8 minutes)
This eye is dark, the other has a light shining. Not red.
Just like a light shining. (9 minutes)
It's brighter. Now it feels like this eye is blind and
this one is light. (10 minutes)
411 A 52
Still red. I feel like I've got my eyes shut. (1 minute) It's lighter red now. A pink. About the same. Sort of a reddish-orange or light orange.
Can't tell. I'm getting used to it. Feel fine. (2 minutea)
Still looks about the same to me. Still a reddish-orange.
It's getting to be darker red, I think. (4 minutes) Same color. It's almost white, it feels like. (5 minutes) It's sort of pink looks like it's going into a white
S. I could go to sleep. (6 minutes)
It's still sort of like a light pink. (7 minutes) It's sort of white again. It's oing from red to white.
It's hard to tell. (8 minutes)
I'm sleepy. It looks like it's getting yellow now, I don't know. (9 minutes)
It's still seems yellow. Can't really describe .. it's not much of anything. (10 minutes)
414 R 53
No change. It looks a little bit lighter. Feel fine.
It looks the same, except for the black rings at the
bottom. Feels like the sun's in my eyes. (2 minutes) Looks the same. Sort of red-orange. Feel warm. (3
Not as bright now. It's duller, a little bit pink.
Quite pink. (4 minutes)
It looks the same. It's reddish-pink and that black thing
is still around the bottom. Not as bright as it was.
I see the same thing. Not as hot looking as it was. Sort
of cooled off. Feel right pleasant. (6 minutes) I feel sort of closed in. (7 minutes) The color hasn't changed any. Seems to be a smaller
circle. Red is smaller. Pretty color. Coral. (8
It's a little bit dull. Can't see any change. It's
widened up some too. (9 minutes)
Reddish-orange. Feel warm. Feels like you are laying
out in the sun with your eyes open. (10 minutes)
462 R 54
It's still dark red. Feel comfortable. (1 minute) It's still dark red. (2 minutes) It's still red. My eyes are watering a lot. (3 minutes) It's dark red. Not still seems to move a little
bit. A wavy motion. (4 minutes)
Still red. Seems to be getting darker from the bottom
up, or something. (5 minutes)
It's not as bright. Darker in the lower part. It's red.
Feel alright, comfortable. (7 minutes) It seems to have a wavy motion, but it's still red. More
like a rippling, like water. (8 minutes)
It looks like when it becomes sort of darker and
lighter like when a shadow is there and it's
brighter. It closes in a circular motion. Not doing
it now. (9 minutes)
There is no motion, just red. Bright red. (10 minutes)
425 R 55
It seems to be darker. Feel like I'm going to sleep.
It's still dark red, but dark red. (2 minutes) Sort of black. I don't know exactly how I feel. (3
It's red and black mixed. (4 minutes) Redder than it was before. Getting red again. Feel sort
of numb. (5 minutes)
425 R 55--Continued
It's red, but it shifts from red to black and back a in.
I knol I'm not numb, but I feel like I might be. (6
It's sort of real light red, and then white. (7 minutes) Went black for a second, then turned red again. Still a
little numb. (8 minutes)
Just a little redder than before, not real red. It's
getting black again. (9 minutes)
It's light and red mixed together. I don't feel numb any
longer. I hurt., M head feels like it's going to pop.
424 R 56
I feel as though my eyes were closed and a I was seeing
through my lids. Red. It feels funny to have your
eyes covered up watching the light. (1 minutes)
Still the same red glare. See a darker red that looks
like it might be the bridge of my nose. (2 minutes) Still the same color. Makes me feel like I'm blind.
Where blind people see only black, I see only red.
I can't tell if it's changed colors at all. Still a
bright red glare. (4 minutes)
Still looks the same, red glare. Feels like my eyes are
closed and it's hard to get them open. (5 minutes)
Now it seems like te the light .. like a cloud over the
light darker. Fuzzier. Still feel like my eyes
are closed and it's an effort to keep them open. (6
This makes me feel that there is a big red sheet just
covering me and almost touching me, but not quite.
Still the same color. Still a little dark and fuzzy
looking. Still red. (8 minutes)
It's not the bright red it was. Like a black cellophane
over a red light. Still feel like it's something closing in on me. About to cover me and I can't get out
from under it. It's there and I can't help it. (9
Still about the same. I feel as if I've looked at this
so long that I can't see anything else. The way you
feel in a real dark room and can't see anything. I
feel as though I'm blind. All I can see is a red color.
No objects or anything. (10 minutes)
Azima, '. & Cramer, Fern J. Effects of partial isolation in mentally disturbed individuals. Dis. nerve. Sys., 1956, 17, 117-122.
Azima, H.& Cramer-Azima, Fern J. Studies on perceptual isolation. Dis. nerve. Sys., 1957, 18 (monogr. suppl), 80-85.
Barzon, F. An ego-strength scale which predicts response to psychotherapy. J. consult. PEychol., 1953, 17, 327333.
Bressler, B., Silverman, A. J., Cohen, S. I., & Shmavonian, B. Research in human subjects and the artificial traumattc neurosis: Where does our responsibility lie? Amer. J. P ychiat. 1959, 116, 522-526.
Cambarert, J. D. The effects of sensory isolation on suggestible and nonsuggestible psychology students. Dissertation Abstr., 1959, 19, 1813.
Cohen, B. D., Rosenbaum, G., Dobie, Shirley I., & Gottlieb, J. S. Sensory isolation: hallucinogenic effects of a brief exposure. J. nerve. ment. Dis., 1959, 129, 486-491.
Cohen, W. Form recognition, spatial orientation, perception of movement in the uniform visual field. In Ailene Morris & E. Porter Horne (eds.), Visual Search Techniques, National Academy of Sciences, National Iesearch Council, 712, 1960.
Courtney, J., Davis, J. M., & Solomon, P. Sensory deprivation: the role of movement. Percept. mot. Skills, 1961, 13, 191-199.
Davis, J. M.,MCou,McCor, F.,, Solomon, P. The effects of visual stimulation on hallucinations and other mental experiences during sensory deprivation. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1960, 116, 889-892.
Deane, B. K., Mahatoo, W., Heron, W., & Scott, T. H. Changes in perceptual function after isolation. Canad. J. Psychol., 1959, 13, 210-219.
Fenichel, 0. The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: Norton, 194!5.
Freedman, S. J. & Greenblatt, M. Studies in human isolation. I. Perceptual findings. U. S. Armed Forces Med. J., 1960a, 11, 330-1348.
Freedman, S. J. & Greenblatt, M. Studies in human isolation. II. Hallucinations and other cognitive findings. U. S. Armed Forces Med. J., 1960b, 11, 179-1497.
Goldberger L. Homogeneous visual stimulation (Ganzfeld) and imagery. Percept. mot. Skills, 1961, 12, 91.
Goldberger, L. & HoltO R. R. Experimental interference with reality contact (perceptual isolation): method and group results. J. nerve. ment. Disa., 1958, 127, 99-112.
Goldberger, L. & Holt, R. R. A comparison of isolation effects and their personality correlates in two divergent samples. WADD Tech. Rep., 1961, 42 p.
'Grunebaum, H. V., Freedman, S. J., & Greenblatt, M. Sensory deprivation and personality. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1960, 116, 878-882.
Hathaway, S. R. A coding system for MMPI profile classification. InG. S. Welsh & W. G. Dahlstrom (eds.), Basic Reading on the MMPI in Psychology and Medicine. MinWe olis: University of Minnesota Press, T95b.
Heron, W., Doane, B. K., & Scott, T. H. Visual disturbances after prolonged perceptual isolation. Canad. J. PSchol., 1956, 10, 13-18.
Hochberg, J. E., Triebel, W., & Seaman, G. Color adaptation under conditions of homogeneous visual stimulation (Ganzfeld). J. exper. Pschol., 1951, 41, 153-159.
Holt, R. R. & Goldberger, L. Personological correlates of reactions to perceptual isolation. WADC Tech. Reports, 59-735, 1959.
Holzman, P. S. & Klein, G. S. Motive and style in reality contact. Bull. Menninger Clin., 1956, 20, 1~1-191.
Jackson, D. N. A short form of Witkin's embedded-figures test. J. abnor. soe. Psychol., 1956, 5 254-255.
Kandel, E. J., Myers, T. I., & Murphy, D. B. Influence of prior verbalizations and instructions on visual sensations reported under conditions of reduced sensory input. Amer. Psychologist, 1958, 13, 334. (Abstract)
Lilly, J. C. Mental effects of reduction of ordinary levels of physical stimuli on intact, b6althy persons. Psychiat. Res. Rep., 1956, 5, 1-9.
Shurley, J. T. Profound experimental sensory isolation. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1960, 117, 539-545.
Smith, S., & Lewty, W. Perceptual isolation using a silent room. Lancet, 1959, 7098, 342-345.
Taylor, Janet A. A personality scale of Manifest Anxiety. J. abnor. soc. Psychol., 1953, 48 285-290.
Vernon, J., McGill, T. E., & Schiffman, J. Visual hallucinations during perceptual isolation. Canad. J. Psycho., 1958, 12, 31-34.
Welsh, G. S. Factor dimensions A and R. In G. S. Welsh & W. Grant Dahlstrom (eds.), Basic Readings on the MMPI in Psychology and Medicine. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota ress, 795.
Wexler, .Mendelson, J., Liederman, P. H., & Solomon, P. Sensory deprivation; a technique for studying psychiatric aspects of stress. AMA Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 1958, 79, 225-233.
Witkin, H. A. Individual differences in ease of perception of embedded figures. J. Pers., 1950, 19, 1-15.
Within, Herman A., Lewis, Helen B., Machover, Karen, Meissner, P. S., & Wapner, Seymour. Personality Through Perception. New York: Harper, 1954. L
Zuckeman, M., Albright, R. J., Marks, C. S., & Miller, G. L. Stress and hallucinatory effects of perceptual isolation and confinement. Paper presented at the Amer. Psychol. Ass., 1961.
Horace F. Stewart, Jr., was born on April 20, 1928, at Daytona Beach, Florida. He was graduated from the Key West High School, Key West, Florida, in 1946. Following his graduation, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and served in Europe for three years.
He received the degree of Bachelor of Science at the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, in 1953, and the degree of Master of Science at the Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, in 1954.
He served a psychological internship at the Spring Grove State Hospital, Catonsville, Maryland. Following this, h held a staff position at the State Hospital at Raleigh, North Carolina, the Florida State Hospital, Chattahoochee, Florida, and the Milledgeville State Hospital, Milledgeville, Georgia.
He is a member of the American Psycholgical Association, the Florida Psychological Association, and the Georgia Psychological Association.
In 1954, he married Elizabeth Joyce Dunn of Bartow, Florida. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Woman's College of Georgia. They have two daughters.
This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved by all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December 22, 1962
College of Arts and Sciences
Graduate School Supervise ttee