Citation
Part I. of a book of the world : for the use of children ; being an attempt to render the first principles of knowledge easy, by means of such a simplicity of language and minutes of detail as have not previously been brought forward for their advantage

Material Information

Title:
Part I. of a book of the world : for the use of children ; being an attempt to render the first principles of knowledge easy, by means of such a simplicity of language and minutes of detail as have not previously been brought forward for their advantage
Alternate title:
Book of the world
Creator:
Fenwick, E ( Eliza )
Richard and Arthur Taylor (Firm)
M.J. Godwin & Co
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
M.J. Godwin and Co.
Manufacturer:
R. and A. Taylor
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
83, [4] p. : ill. ; 17 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Pottery -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Geometry -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animal welfare -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Tillage -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animal welfare ( fast )
Animals ( fast )
Geometry ( fast )
Natural history ( fast )
Pottery ( fast )
Tillage ( fast )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1819 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
Children's literature ( fast )
novel ( marcgt )
Juvenile works ( fast )
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William Taylor ; the text of this little work is illustrated by many appropriate cuts; and, together with the subsequent parts, is intended to promote the advancement of knowledge at a small price.

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University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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ocn693595020

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A BOOK OF THE WORLD.

Nee 2

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PART I

x

or

A BOOK OF THE WORLD,

3 FOR THE USE OF CHILDRENS-

BEING AN ATTEMPT TO RENDER THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF
KNOWLEDGE EASY, BY MEANS OF SUCH A SIMPLICITY
ha LANGUAGE AND MINUTENESS OF DETAIL AS % % =
HAVE NOT PREVIOUSEY BEEN BROUGHT
FORWARD POR “THEIR ADVANTAGE, :

By WILLIAM TAYLOR, Eso. M.A. __

FORMERLY OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMERIDGE,”



a -

The Text of this little ‘Work i is illustrated by many appropriate
Cuts; and, togethér with the subsequent Parts, is intended to
promote the advancement of knowledge at a small price.



/

London: eee
"PUBLISHED BY M. J. GODWIN AND CO. .
AT THE CITY JUVENILE LIBRARY, 4], SKINNER STREET;
AND MAY BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS, ~

_ Price 1s. 6d. ‘stitched, e %

A full allowance to the Tanteeetors of the National and all
other Schools.

ae . “4 _——— - i =

* 1819.









PREFACE.



Tue expedition and accuracy with which the
elements of knowledge are conveyed to young
minds, by means of the Bell and Lancaster plans

and schools, afford a well-grounded hope of im- _

_ provement inthe mental condition of a ndmerous
class of our fellow creatures.

If, as experience and deduction lead us to be-
lieve, the increase of comfort and happiness is
inseparably connected with the diffusion of know-
ledge,—no benevolent mind but must rejoice in
the opportunities that present themselves of giv-
ing aid to so desirable an object. —

Man is, as his mind is; his grand characteristic
_asan animal, is his power of thought; and the
criterion of the higher value of the individual, is
the superiority of his mental endowments. His
corporeal qualifications are valuable chiefly as
they contribute to the improvability of his mind.
Well therefore has Watts said, |

“¢ Were J as tall to reach the pole,
Or grasp the Ocean in my span,
I must be measur’d by my soul :—
The mind’s the standard of the man.’

Those who are aware of the extensive ae
a2

, By i



vi PREFACE.

ries of science, and the proofs resulting from cau-
tious experiments, and accurate demonstrations
of the real and relative condition of things, and
of their mutual effects on each other, have great
cause to wonder at the prevalence of opinions,
which the enlightened part of mankind have long
since ceased to entertain.

The immense number of almanacs annually
published, with prophecies of future events, both
as to the weather and the fates of nations, proves
that a great number of individuals are still the
dupes of the fooleries of astrology.

Nothing appears more likely to destroy such
absurd opinions, than that a manual, descriptive
of the real state of the earth, its materials and pro-
ductions, and the connection that exists between
it and the heavenly bodies, should be introduced
into the national schools, as the means of giving
it the greatest possible diffusion. :

A little treatise, which will form a subsequent
Part of the present, was with these views pre-
pared, but mature reflection suggested to the au-
thor, that something preparatory was necessary,
It appeared advisable that some minor objects
should be treated of first, for the purpose of train-
ing the mind to grasp at things of higher reach.
This, besides, would give the opportunity of ex-
plaining many terms used in the subsequent work;
and thus, by gradually familiarizing the mind to
comparing the descriptions of at objects with
their prototypes in nature, it might be led up to



PREFACE. - vii

the same consideration of the world. The habit
of comparing the account of a cart, and a wheel
and its motion, might lead the mind to the same.
consideration of the earth, the cause of eclipses
and other phenomena.

The necessity for using scientific terms in de-
scribing accurately the most common objects, to-
gether with the conviction of the great utility of
giving children correct ideas of some of the com-
mon geometrical figures, prevailed against the ob-
jections of the novelty of beginning with descrip-
tions usually postponed to a more advanced stage
of education. .

But the forms only of some Bepmerticnl figures
are spoken of, without reference to the scientific
properties ; and as representations are given of
each, together with examples of common objects,
it is hoped that this necessary part will be intelli-
gible to very young persons, and that it may even
be found to interest them.

Many of the descriptions are very minute,—but
‘the author thinks that the desire this is likely to
excite in young minds to put in practice what they
read, when they find that things succeed as they
proceed, is so valuable that no opportunity should
be lost of creating it. .

In the present attempt. much pains have been
taken to draw up the lessons inas plain and per-
spicuous language as possible: var iety of expres-
sion has been avoided, as apt to cause confusion
in the mind,—an inexperienced pupil often sup-



Vili PREFACE.

posing that, by a difference in the terms, some
difference in the sense is intended. His object has
‘been to instruct not only children but adults,
whether in a savage or a civilized state, who la
bour under the misfortune of ignorance. With
these pupils in view, he has kept as much as pos-
sible to words of poe al import, that did not re-
late to the customs or manners of any particular
nation or people. Forinstance: he has not spoken
of yards, feet, and inches; but referred to the usual
dimensions of a man, “a foot’s length”, &c.

The topics treated of in the following little
book, relating.chiefly to the production of the ne-
cessaries of life, may it is hoped be useful and
interesting to all; and if such were introduced
into the national ecole, they would greatly tend
to imbue the minds of the young learners with just
notions of the value of industry and perseverance,
and contribute towards rendering them virtuous,
good, and useful, 3

Jan. 1819,

The author begs to remark in this place, rather
than at the end of the Examination Questions,
(where it might naturally be expected to stand,
but which for obvious reasons, he has ayoided,)
that in most instances the succeeding question will
suggest to the examiner the answer to that imme-
diately preceding.



INTRODUCTION.



Manxinp, being able to think better and to
speak, are better than other living things or
animals. Many animals can make some
sounds with their mouths, which those of
their own kind know and answer to. And
some make sounds which animals of other
kinds know and are frightened at. But the
different sounds which each kind of animals
_ can make, are very few; so that one animal

-. ean make another know, or teach it, very

few things: and although mankind can
teach some animals more than any of their
own kind can teach them, yet the taught
ones cannot teach others what they have been
taught. So animals that are alive now, can-
not make those which have to come after
them any better; and the nests and the dens
that are made now, are no. better than the
densand nests that were made some thousands *
of years ago. But mankind by speech can
tell all they know to one another ; and when
B



ie ltt Pees ee



DeGeneres INTRODUCTION.

one finds out or knowsa good thing, and tells
it to others, those others may be able to bet-
ter themselves and others; and so mankind
become better and better, and do better and
better; and, instead of living, like wild
beasts, in dens or caves, or feeding on wild
fruits, and roots, and animals, which are not
always to be found or caught when wanted ;
they make houses for themselves to dwell in,

and till the earth, and tame animals, to have
good kinds of food always ready.

By speaking, those only who are near can
be told, and they may not hear rightly, and
may forget what has been told; so there
have been found out some marks called le(-
1ers, which have been made to stand for dif
ferent sounds; and which, being joined in

different ways together, stand for different . -

words.

The making of letters and joining thenr
into words with the hand, is called writing.
And learning to know the letters and words
readily is called reading. ‘

By writing, mankind can let one another
know what they think, though at a great dis-

' tance from one another; and whatis written,
if forgotten, can be read again ; and one by

‘



INTRODUCTION. , “go

reading aloud what is written may let all who
are near know. But it takes.a deal of time
to write much; and to make what is written
known at more distant places than one, the ~
writing must be sent to all places where need-
ful, to one after another ; or the same thing
must be written over again on something else,
which is called copying ; and the new writ-
ing’ a copy; and many copies may be made
‘and sent to many distant pleces. ‘The best
way of writing is by using a black watery
matter, called ink, to mark white paper. Pa-
per is made by pieces of stringy matters being
chopped, and torn, and bruised very small ;
then mixed with water, and thinly and eels
Spread on things through which the water
passes away ; then what is left, when greatly
pressed and dried, becomes paper.

Copying by writing takes up a great deal
ef time; and it has been found out that let-
ters being made the contrary way on pieces of
wood or metal, the wood or metal being taken
away alittle from the letters, andleaving them
standing up a little from the rest of the pieces,
which are made to fit to each other, and are
called types, that: letters and words may be

B2







A INTRODUCTION.

so joined and fastened together as to lie all
so plain and even, that being daubed with
some fit ink, and then paper pressed hard-on
them, many hundreds of words may be marked
at atime, which is called printing; and co-
pies of long writings may be printed, as fast
as the printers can daub the types and press
the paper onthem ; and many hundreds may
be printed in a little time.

And large pieces, called sheets, of paper
being printed in a fit way, may be folded and
bound together so as to make a handy bun-
dle called a book.

Eyer since printing was found out, in
places where it has been much used, things
have become better and better far faster than
before, and than in other places. Whatwas
known, or, as it is called, knowledge, became
known to very many; so better things and
better ways of doing were faster found out ;
and the more that learn to read, and so get
knowledge, the more liklihood there will be
that things will become beiter and better still.

And there are so many books printed now
in the English speech or language, that teach
almost all kinds of knowledge, that those who



INTRODUCTION. 5

can read -well may, bythe help of books, be-
come their own teachers in the kind of know-
ledve most fit for them.

It is good for. those who are learning to
read, at the same time to get some useful
’ knowledge. So it is meant by this little book
to shew to learners, first, the exact meaning
of some wordswhich are very usefulin speak- —
ing of otherthings; then, howcommon dwell-
ings and the most useful vessels and utensils
are made; then, how the earth may be tilled ;
and some animals tamed for food, and some
other animals taught to help mankind by
labour: then, to shew what them ain matters
in the world are, and how they move and
_ act one upon another.







A BOOK OF THE WORLD.



LESSON I.
First Ideas of some useful Things. *

Owner way of knowing one body from an-
other, is by knowing its figure. Figures are
bounded by lines; and solids by surfaces.
There are some figures, lines, and surfaces,
which are so often met with and talked
_about, that they have names. It is very use-
_ ful to know these; for it saves many words,
and makes what is meant more plain.

Descriptions and Examples of Lines often met
with, and which are Bounds of different Fi
gures,

A straight line is the shortest line
that can be drawn from one point to another.
The ends of a line are points.



8 . |. FIRST IDBAS OF

~~~ A curve is a bended line.
The ends of a curve are also points.

A circle is a figure formed by an un-
Sy broken line bent continually round
a till its two ends meet.

There is a point in the middle called the
centre, from which point all straight lines
drawn to the outside are equal in length, and
called radii: one by itself is a radius..

The outside is called the circumference,

A straight line drawn quite across

Os a circle through the centre’is called

the diameter, and the part on each

side of the diameter is called a semi-circle.

The wheel of acart isa circle. Half the
diameter is a radius.

The outside of the wheel is the circumfe-
rence. In the middle of the wheel is a small
opening or pipe; along pole or bar of wood
goes into this pipe, and is called the aale: .
the axle joins the two wheels; and the two
wheels turn on it. The place where the
wheel turns is called the centre. Sac

A piece of string stretched across the wheel
over the centre to the circumference or out-



SOME USEFUL THINGS. 2439

side of the wheel, is the diameter, and is a
straight line. A piece of string stretched
from the centre or middle of the wheel to
the outside of it is a radius.

Any. part of the outside of a wheel, or of
a bow to shoot with, is a curve.

Examples and Descriptions of different useful -
and common Figures. |

When one straight line falls upon
another, the parts or corners be-
_ tween the lines where they meet are

angles.
Iftheangles which one linemakes in falling
upon another are equal, they are right angles.
The upright line that makes the right
angle, is a perpendicular.

If the angles are not equal, the
NT larger is called an obtuse angle;
the lesser an acute angle.

Straight lines every where at the

same distance from each other are parallels.

A space within four straight lines

of the same length and with four
- right angles is a square. ©

Bo. >



SE ee ie RETEST ge Sas e r peaa, UNPe eee ey om) MSE >

10-2 FIRST IDEAS OF |

If two.of the opposite lines are
longer than the other two, it is
called an oblong... :

’ /

A straight line drawn across a
square from the opposite corners is a_
~ diagonal.
A space inclosed within three
ce straight lines, is a triangle.

A diagonal line drawn across a square,-
divides it into two triangles.

Most rooms, or the tops and bottoms of
boxes, are oblongs, but some are squaresa
Most of the corners of rooms of boxes are
right angles; but some are obtuse angles, and
some are acute angles. A piece of string
_ fastened in one corner of a’room and drawn
across to the opposite corner of the room, is

a diagonal, and then the room is divided into
two triangles,

Part of the circumference of a cir-

Ge cleisanarch, The straight line going
across it isa chord, and makes the part

of the circle cut offa segment,



SOME USEFUL THINGS. 11

The arches of some bridges and some
churches are segments ofa circle.

An ellipsis is a circle stretched in
two opposite directions. If you fix
two pins in aboard, and strain a.
string with a pencil round these
pins, you will draw an ellipsis, ;

- A hen’s egg is very like an ellipsis, and
would be one, if it were as big at one end as
at the other.

A solid like a dice with six square
sides equal to each other ‘is a cube.
Each of the sides is a surface.



A solid like a ball or a marble is a globve.
Every part of the outside of a globe is surface.

A solid like a round ruler or a te-
lescope or a caleidoscope or a tan-
kard is a cylinder, and each end isa



circle.

The figure made by a right-angled
triangle, turned round upon one of
the sides that make the right-angle, is
a cone. The bottom part, whichis a
circle, isthe base. ‘The top part is os use
A sugar loaf is a cone.





12 FIRST IDEAS OF SOME USEFUL THINGS.

A solid of three or more sides or
surfaces and each of the surfaces tri-
angles, standing on a broad bottom,
Z and evenly lessening to a pointat the
top, isa pyramid. The bottom of a pyramid |
is the base; the top isthe apex.
Some of the marble ornaments that stand
on chimney-pieces are pyramids.
There are many other figures and solids
not so common, made out of these. But_
those above described are the most useful.



LESSON Il.

4
On Dwellings.



Ir is not good for man to be alone.
i. Mankind should live near to each other,
that they may help"each other.



ON DWELLINGS. 13

The place to fix dwellings in should be dry
ground, near good. water for drinking, and
where the mists do not slay long; it should.
be sheltered from very bad weather, and from
great cold, and from great heat; and it should
not be far from where food and fuel can be
had. -

Dwellings may be in caves or holes of the
earth; or their sides may be made of clay,
‘or of wood, or of clay and wood; and they
may be covered with leaves, or with stalks,
or with plants, or with wood. But they are
better made of stone; of which there are
many kinds: that which is the most useful,
isa kind of sandy stone, (like kneaded and
hardened sand, ) called‘freestone, as it is easily
wrought or made usefiff, and fitted to what
is needful.

Chalk is a stone which, being softer, is more ~
easily wrought; but it is likély to be crushed,
and does not last long enough when open to
the weather. eae

Limestone, and marble (a finer kind of lime-
stone), will last longer; but they are hard to
be wrought and made useful in’ the state of
stone. : ei

But by burning chalk, or marble, or lime-





14 ON DWELLINGS.

stone, and throwing a little water on what
has been burnt, it will fall into powder;
which being mixed with sand and more water
to make it soft, and kneaded so that it may”
_ be easily spread, it becomes mortar; and
being evenly spread between stones fastens
them together, by hardening again and stick-
ing to each stone. By which means walls
and houses may be made.

Where fit stones cannot be readily enough
had, and fuel and clay can be had,—by mak-
ing bricks a good hard and lasting matter
for building may be made. Clay is a kind
_ of earth, which when wetted becomes sticky,
and this, mixed with some sand, and wetted
and well kneaded, may be made into diffe-
rent figures. ‘To make common bricks for
building with, a mould should be made. by
fastening four pieces of flat wood together,
two longer and two shorter at right angles; so
that when laid on a flat place, and kneaded
clay pressed into it andsmoothed on the upper
side, a brick may be made of such a weight,
when dried and burned, that it may be easily
handled by grasping it between the fingers’
und thumb of one hand across the breadth ;



TS Be ese SS Sg eae BR yt

ON DWELLINGS. lo

the length being a little more than double, and

the thickness alittle less than half the breadth,

that bricks may fitin different ways when some

mortar is put between.. When the clay is

thus pressed into the mould, or moulded, it

is to be laid on its side to dry, then turned’
over to dry more, then many built loosely in-

to walls to dry and harden still more, and

then built into large heaps (called sxiins),

with fuel between the bricks, which is to beâ„¢
fired and to burn them till they become as

hard as stone. ,





























.To make houses or other buildings with
bricks, they are to be laid in layers; with mor-
tar between each brick and each layer, so that
the joinings or joints of one layer be not in
a line with joints of the layer next to it: the
width of each layer to be as is fit for the
strength of ‘the building meant to be made,





If for a house, when the walls are high
enough, long pieces of wood called rafters
are set up on the top of the wall, on each
side, leaning against each other at their other
ends: and to hinder them from sliding out
at the bottom or thrusting out the walls, they
are fastened together by a long piece of wood
called a tie-beam. The pairs of rafters are
joined by smaller pieces of wood, on which
is fastened the covering, which, with what
upholds it,’ is called the roof; the top of
which is the ridge, and the bottom edges the
eaves. When the covering is of plants or
stalks of plants, it is called thatch: sometimes
it is made of thin flat wood called boards—
sometimes of thin pieces of burnt brick-earth
called tiles—and sometimes of thin pieces of -
stone called slates. When the covering is of
a kind that the rain dees not run readily off
it, the rafters must meet at the ridge at a more |
acute angle, which makes what is called the
pitch of the roof so much the higher—thatch
must have a higher pitch than tiles or slates,



ON DWELLINGS. 17



Openings are left in the walls of buildings
for windows and doors. What is above these —
As upheld by pieces of wood or stone, called
tintels: but the same may be done by mak-
ing the opening at the top of the door or
window an arch. ‘This is done by making
something, for the time, with an arched top,
called a centre, to uphold the stones or bricks,
which must be carefully laid on it, rising from
each side one row after another, till they meet -
at the top and are closed by the top row called
keystones. 'Then the centre may be taken
away, and the arch will remain to uphold
what is to be built above. Arched roofs of
stone or brick may be made in a like way.
But the main use of arches is, to make bridges
or ways over rivers, as they can be made very
wide and very strong, where fit centres can
be made to build them on.

The art of the mason (or builder with



2

HS: . ON DWELLINGS.

stones) is to make his matter for his work, to
use it in a like way with the bricklayer (or
builder with bricks). But the stones made
cubical or rectangular, like bricks, are the
best for building with: yet good and strong
walls may be made of unwrought stones, by
laying them in layers as level as may be, with
plenty of mortar between the layets and be-
tween each stone in the layers. It is useful
thatthe chimneys (or pipesthrough which the
smoke rises out of the house from the’ fire-
places) should be made of bricks ; and also
often the inside walls, or walls between one

room and another, though the honse be”

made.of stone.

LESSON IL
On Pottery.



Dwe t.ines serve to shelter mankind from
bad weather : but vessels are w anting to keep
matters for food in, and to make it ready ;
and also for cleaning and for washing in.



ON POTTERY. 19

\ s
‘Pottery vessels are fit for these doings ; and
the materials and means for using them may
be had almost every where.



Vessels made of brick-earth or clay harden-
ed by fire, after much fining and kneading,
are called Pottery. By kneading the brick-
earth or clay with very much-water, and then
putting to it still more water, and stirring

itand mixing it much, till the whole becomes
like muddy water; then letting it rest for a
little time, that the coarsest parts may sink —
to the bottom; then removing the muddy
watery part to a place where the water may
be dried, or steamed away by being heated ;
the fine clay left after much kneading again,
will be fit for making pottery.
It may then be figured by the hands into
~ such potsor vesselsas are wanted. ‘These, after



20 ON POTTERY.

being dried in the air, may be baked or burn-
ed in ovens or kilns, a great many together,
being kept from touching the fuel, or one
another, by guards called sagars, which are
mainly made of coarser matters which. have
before been burned.

After the pottery has so been burned, it is
called biscuit: being in the state of bricks or
tiles, it is not well fitted for holding water
or watery matters:—but this is helped by gla-
zing. which is done by burning them again,
when common salt is mixed with the fuel,
which hardens and glazes over the surfaces
of the vessels, so that they are fitto hold any
kind of watery matter. There are other
ways of glazing pottery, by mixing together,
some rusts of metals, and some salts with water
and powder of flints which have been burnt
and bruised. Flints are very hard stones,
through thin pieces of which, light may be
seen. The biscuit being dipped into a watery
mixture of these, so that the surface be co-
vered with it in a very thin layer, by being
burnt again it will be glazed. The glazing
by common salt is the most useful, though —
by some of the other matters the pottery may
be made to look better,



ON POTTERY. 21

Pottery vessels so made, may be used not
only to hold and keep watery matters as well
as other matters, ea to melt, boil, and bake
them in.

Pottery may be figured by the hands alone,
or by moulds. But the most ready way of
making the most useful vessels is by having
an upright axle, with a broad flat top, run-
ning ina groove or hole at the bottom, not
far above which is fastened a rim, by which
the workman (or potter )turns the axle round
with his foot. Having put on the middle of
the top a piece of clay ready for figuring, he
presses the middle of it with one hand and
the outside of it with the other, while he
turns the axle or wheel round; and so makes
round vessels of any useful height and width:
pieces of wood may be used in either or
both hands to help. When finished in the
figure wanted, the vessel is cut from the top
by athin tool; and handles and spouts of the
same clay may be readily fastened on before
drying, or spouts made by bending in fit
places the edges of the vessels.

That vessels may be easily cleaned, they
should be made smooth both on the outside
and on the inside; and though at the bot-



ek oie ee eee ae et, eee



Se Ea Se ee TED ge TAS PP aE Ota e RG tee a EP Beate See gr mee Bin ee

OO BASKETS. «

*

toms they be made flat for them to stand,

yet the inside should be made evenly smooth,
without an angle. Such as are to be used

for boiling, or baking, or melting, should
be as evenly thick as may be, that they may:

notreadily break with the heat. Such as are

deeper than the length of the fingers, should
be made wide enough at the mouth to let

’ the hand in to clean them ; excepting such

as are to be used for matters which are to be
closely stopped up; and the narrow-topped
ones used for such things had better be made
like hollow cones, that they may be easily
cleaned.



The vessels of pottery are well suited for
holding watery matters; but for holding
and carrying things which are dry, useful
vessels called baskets maybe made. Fix, at
small distances’ from each other, in the fi-
gure and size wanted, long pieces of light
and tough wood, of such a strength as not to





BASKETS. 23

be broken by the loads meant to be carried ;
then take long, small, tough branches or
twigs, and putting one end of the branch
between two of the fixed pieces, and keep-
‘ing the end there, pass the twig half round
one of the fixed picces, putting it in between _
. that and the next fixed piece; then, bending
it back again, between that and the next to
it; and going on, in the same way, first
round one side of one, then round the other
side of the next fixed piece, till the end of
the twig be come to: then take another twig,
and laying the end of it upon that which
has been last handled of the other in between
the fixed pieces, bend it backward and for-
ward, and ‘in between the fixed pieces, as
’ before, which is called watfling : then wattle
in- more twigs, round and round, the second.
layer and every other layer crossing the first
in between the fixed pieces, and pressing the
twigs of one round close upon those of the
other, tll the ends of the fixed pieces be come
to;—and they will be found to be all well
fastened togcther, and making a basket,
Handles may be fastened on at suitable
places ; or holes left in the wattling, at some



of BOXES.
layers from the top, to let the hands in to
lift the basket by.



Such, Hicaen fit for r Hold and carrying
many things, are not fit for holding and car-
rying things that are in powder or bruised
‘into small pieces, which would pass through
the wattling. To hold and carry such, make
boxes, by fastening together at their edges,
pieces of wood sawed flat and thin, called
boards, and so inclosea three-cornered space,
with three boards at the sides and one at the
bottom; or asquareor reciangled space, with
four at the sides and one at the bottom, leay-
ing the top open, which may be covered
by like boards, for a lid.—Handles may be
fastened on, or holes made in fitting places,
to lift by.

-



HAND“BARROW. 25



To carry loads or things that would. be
too heavy for one workman, whand- barrow r

may beused. It is made of two pieces of wood,
about six times a man’s foot-length long, of
a thickness at the ends readily to be grasped
by the hands of the workmen, and the rest of
a thickness and strength suited to bear the
loads. These are to be joined by flat pieces:
of wood, or-boards, of about four of a man’s
foot-length long, being fastened at their ends,



26 ON TILLAGE.

- LESSON: IV.~—
On Tillag=



earth brings forth and maintains,

Many animals are fit for food, and many
seeds, and rocts, and leaves, and fruits of
herbs and of trees.

The earth may be made to bring forth
more and better food by tillage and care;
choosing what is most fit for food as being
eaithfil and well tasted; and not only site
as is to be used now, but some that will bear
to be kept for after use.

The best is corn; of which there are many

i
é
Â¥
%

Manxiyp get their food from what the

Sy

kinds, the best being wheat. Corn, when



ON TILLAGE. ile

bruised into a powder called meal, and mix-
ed with water into.a paste, and kneaded and
baked, becomes bread ;—food fit for all man-
kind.

But corn will not grow to be good with-

out tillage, making the earth fit for it, and.

taking care that it be not hurt while growing
by animals, or useless herbs growing among
it. Therefore the place where corn or other

useful herbs are reared, should be either

watched or fenced.

The main work in tillage is loosening the
earth on the surface as deep as is fit for the
roots of the herbs-to be reared ; and break-
ing the lumps or clods, and killing the use-
less herbs, or weeds, where doing harm. The
plough is the best tool for doing this, where
there is a great deal to be done for rearing
corn Swbut a plough must have labouring
~ animals to work it. And there are other herbs
fit for food,.of which enough may be reared

by the handwork of mankind only; such

are potatoes, the root of which may be kept

along time, and when put for a little while

to a heat not less than that of boiling water,

will do instead of meal of corn and bread,
cg

a



28

“IMPLEMENTS FOR TILLAGE.



ON TILLAGE.





w

ON TILLAGE. 29

- There are hand tools useful in this tillage.
To break up the earth when hard, a mat-
tock is useful. It hasa long strong head about
the length of a man’s leg, and in the mid-
dle about the thickness of his wrist, with a
hole there, in which is fastened the handle,
about half as long again as the head, which
tapers from the middle to a sharp point at
one end, and to a flat edge perpendicular to
the handle, at the other; both ends being
bent a little toward the handle, which is of
a thickness to be easily grasped, and is made
of strong and tough wood.

Where the earth is not so hard, the work
may be quicker done by a spade, with a
rectangular mouth of flattened iron, about
the breadth of a man’sfoot’s length, and about
half as long again, having the edge of one
end sharpened: at the middle of the other
end is a strong sheath, or socket, wherein a
strong handle of tough wood is fastened,
. about three times the length of the breadth
of the mouth; having across the top a short
* piece about the length of a breadth and a
half of a man’s hand; and both it and the
handle of a thickness that may be easily
grasped ; or better with the hole at the top



30 ON TILLAGE.

like a segment, its chord being the part to
take hold of. At the top of the mouth, on
each side of the handle, there is room to put
the foot on to help to. dig by pressing the
spade into the earth. The mouth is a little
curved; and the hollow of the curve is call-
ed the front, and the other side the back.
When the spade is pressed into the earth, by
pushing back and downward the handle,
what is before the spade may be lifted on it,
and turned upside down, and chopped by it
into small pieces; and the weeds on it being
covered will rot and become manure, which
helps the earth to bring forth more and bet-
ter things, and to maintain them better.

To make the earth still smaller, and fit it
for smaller seeds, a rake is useful, which has
a long handle, about twice the length of
that of a spade, of light wood, fastened into
the iron socket of an iron head, at right an-
gles to it, about three times the length of a
man’s foot: into this head are fastened, at
equal distances, about ten small iron spikes,
called its teeth, about a hand-breadth long,
at right angles to it, and at right angles to
the handle: this serves, beside breaking the
clods, to gather off from the surface dug,



ON TILLAGE. on

any useless or hurtful thing, leaving the use-
ful earth behind.

Small seeds are evenly scattered, or sown;
larger seeds, and roots, and young herbs, are |
set into the earth one by one, or, as it is
called, planted. 4

A hoe has a handle of light wood, about
the length of that of a spade, fastened into
an iron socket, on the middle of a segment
of flattened iron, whereof the sharpened edge
is as its chord; this segment or head of the
hoe is a little rounded off at the corners, and
is bent a little toward the handle; and is
used in chopping up weeds or useless young
herbs, or when too many come forth ; and in
heaping the earth up toward the growing
plants.



A tool very useful for cutting and split-
ting wood is an ave; the head is of iron,
and the handle of strong tough wood: the
head is about a hand-breadth and a half
broad, and about two hand-breadths long,
and about a finger-breadth in thickness, slo-
ped off to a sharp edge at one end: it tapers
in breadth from the edge to a little less than
a hand-breadth at the other end, wherein is



32 ON TILLAGE.

a socket, throughout the breadth, in which
the handle is fixed, which is about two and
a half.of a foot-length long, and of a thick-
ness easy. to be grasped. ‘The head is square
on the end opposite the edge, that it may be
used to, knock with; the edge is used to
chop with.

To cut wood evenly into thin pieces, or.
large pieces quickly and evenly across, a
handsaw is useful. It is made of iron with
a wooden handle; the iron is about two and
a half feet long, and about one and a half
hand-breadth broad at the handle, tapering -

to a little less than a hand-breadth at the other
end. All along one edge and close to one

another, are teeth, the points sloping, with
one edge sharp, from the handle, made by
cutting out notches in the iron; and one
after another they are all bent a little to the.
different sides. The handle is made of strong
hard wood, which does not readily split, of
nearly two hands breadth square, with a hole
in it large enough for the fingers to go into
it readily, and rounded at. the side opposite
the end, that it may be easily grasped. ‘The
_ handsaw is used by rubbing the teeth on the
part where the wood is to be cut, the work-



ON TILLAGE. 33°

man pressing it down a little, and pushing
it strongly from him.



A man may rear much food by the help
of these tools ; and mainly potatoes, which are
the knob roots of an herb, and grow best
from these knob roots being put into earth
made fit for rearing them: they are unevenly
ball-like, with many small hollows on the
surface, out of which the branch and root
of the young herb grow.

In parting a potatoe to be set into the
earth, or planted, care is to be taken that lwo
or three of these hollows be in each part.
They grow best in dry earth, which has more
of sand and rotten herbs in it than of clay.
Manure too will help them to grow well.
Almost every thing when rotten becomes
useful for manure; and all kinds of filth,
that which comes from animals being the
best: therefore all matters of the kind should
be often gathered and laid into a heap, which
helps to make them into better manure. Do-
ing this will make other places clean, andso
the more healthful; and if the manure heap
be covered with earth, it will hinder bad-
smells, and its goodness from being wasted

c5



8A ON TILLAGE.

in the air, By mixing different kinds of filth
well together the whole will be made better
manure. The ashes of most kinds of fuel
are good manure: if the fuel be of wood or
herbs, or of earth mixed with roots of herbs,
the ashes, till they be used for manuring,
should be put ina dry place and sheltered
from wet.

Some plants need manure that is more
rotten than othersdo. That which is light,
and not very rotten, and not very wet, does
best for potatoes.

When the earth is made ready (by digging )
for planting them, a straight trench, or long
hole, is made with a spade, and, if the earth
be of a very dry and light kind, the sets, or
parts cut for seed, whence the new plants are -
to come, are laid along the bottom of it, at
about a man’s foot-length from each other ;
then upon them some manure is laid, which
is then to be covered with earth. Then, at
the distance of two foot-lengths from each
other, more straight trenches are made, and
gone on with in alike way. If the earth be
not of a light or very dry kind, the manure
should be laid at the bottom, and the sets



ON TILLAGE, 35

upon it, and covered withearth, Ifthe earth
be heavy and wettish, the manure should be
laid both below and above the sets, covering
“with earth; and the manure may be used
when less rotten and more dry. The young
plants will come up in rows :—hoe up the
weeds, which will help to loosen the earth ;
and, when the weeds are dead, hoe up the
earth toward the plants from the sides of the
rows. Potatoes may be eaten before they be
fully ripe, but it is wasteful to do so. There
are early kinds, that should be first used ; and
later kinds, to be reared for keeping for winter
and after-eating,

Potatoes are very good for food; and be-
_ Ing, like bread, of little taste themselves, will
readily take and give the taste of any thing
mixed with them.



Onions are the roots of another kind of
herbs, and have much taste, and will readily -
give it to any other food they are mixed
with.

Onions are reared from seeds which grow
on the top of the plant. To rear them the
earth should be well dug, and the clods much
broken, and much yery rotten manure, co-



36 ON TILLAGE.

vered nearly a man’s foot-length deep in it;
and, after it is so made ready with the spade,
_ the surface should be marked out by paths
of about a spade and a half breadth wide,
into parts; or beds, about five foot-lengths
broad, taking with the spade, in marking
' the paths, about a hand breadth deep of earth,
and spreading it upon the beds, the sur- :
faces of which are to be made even with the
rake ; and then the seed to be evenly scat-
tered, or sown, upon them, and evenly pressed
down with the feet of the workman; and
then well raked. The seed should be sown
when the earth will readily break with the
rake, and so dry that it will not stick to the
fect or rake.

When the plants come up, the weeds, and
smallest plants, where too many are too hear
together, are to be picked away with the
hand.

There are a great many more kinds of ©
herbs fit for food, which are to be made better
by tillage and care; some to which hot coun-
tries, and some to which cold ones are suited.

~But there are not many countries so,hot or
so cold as not to be suited for bringing forth
potatoes and onions,



ON TILLAGE. 37

Both potatoes and onions may be kept a
long time after being taken from the -earth,
in a dry cool place, and from frost.

All that is fenced need not be used for
potatoes and onions only: other herbs may
be reared there beside, which are fit for
food.





LESSON V.
On Tame Animals for Food.

Ir more than the earth fenced in is to be had,
it will likely without tillage bring forth food
for some tame animals, from which-may be
had food of their eggs, or milk, or flesh, fit
for mankind.
Like comes from like; and the young of
every pair of animals will not only be of the
‘same kind, but, almost always, will be more
like the pair they come from than any others
ofthe same kind. So pairs to have young
ones from, or to breed from, ought to be the
best of the kind to be had; and when both
cannot be had good, and one may, that one
should be had, :



38 _ ON TAME ANIMALS



Se = a

Cock is the name of the male, and hen of
the female of a useful kind of tame birds.
They feed chiefly on corn and the seeds of:
herbs; and on some roots, and some insects.
"They will seek food for themselves, and so
pick up much that would otherwise be lost;
they will eat also of many kinds of the refuse -
of the food of mankind. Good water should
be near for them. There need be ‘only one /
cock to six or seven hens, Hens brood, or
sit upon their eggs to bring forth young,
about twenty-one days, Old hens are the
better brooders, and young hens the better
layers of eggs. Hens to lay many eggs should
not at the laying time be made fat,



FOR FOOD. 39






Ducks are birds which live much in water;
they feed on the same things as hens do ;
and also much on insects, matters they get
from water, and from mud, and on dead
animal matters, which readily fattens them.
The male of the female duckis called a drake.
One drake is needful to four or five ducks.
The duck broods about thirty days.



Geese are birds which also live much in -
water. The male is called a gander, the fe-
male a goose. There should not be above four
or five geese to a gander. They feed on grass
_ or the seeds of grass, and on corn, and onmat-



AO ON TAME ANIMALS

ters which they get in the water and in mud.
A goose broods about twenty-eight days.
All the three kinds should have places of
shelter made for them to come to at night
and in bad weather, where nests, or sitting
places, should be made for them to lay their
- eggs and brood in. The nest should be made
of the dry stalks of corn, or straw, or of the
dry stalks and leaves of other herbs; and a
little hollow, so that the eggs may not roll
out when turned or moved by the birds. The
nests of ducks and geese and brooding hens
should be near to the earth; but those for
hens to Jay their eggs in may be higher ;
and cocks and hens should have long small
poles laid across their houses to roost or
sleep on, at some height from the earth. The
houses of all should be kept clean; and, by
often taking away the dirtied,.and putting in
clean straw or dried herbage, much good
manure may be gathered. That from cocks
and hens is very good and strong, and should
be mixed with weaker. Those of each kind,
chosen for breeding from, should be plump
on the breast, and on the sides behind the
wings; and the females should be good lay-



FOR FOOD. Al

ers of eggs, Hens and ducks will lay many
more eggs than they can brood upon ; but
geese hardly ever more, Eleven or thirteen
eggs are the number that these females best
broodupon; and, when brooding, they should
have food and water and some sand placed
near, that they may not be long off their nests
to seek food. When the young come forth, —
they and the old one should not be let go far
from shelter till the young have got strength
to follow to a distance. .

Eggs may be eaten alone or mixed with
many other kinds of food: and the flesh of
all the three kinds of birds is best when full
grown, but before the young ones be a year
old. Many other kinds of birds may be
tamed, but none so usefully.



Pig eons ae a kind of birds that may be
tamed, and will find food for themselves >
and the young are food for mankind. But



\

42 ON TAME ANIMALS

they should not be kept where they can
get at corn, or they will do much harm.
Their dwelling should be made high with
many nests on the side of it, and should
be kept very clean, Their dung is a very
strong manure, and may be well mixed
with weaker kinds before it be put into the
earth, There are many kinds of pigeons;
that which is most like the stockdove kind is
the best for food. They brood many times
in a year, on two eggs at a time. They like
podded corn, or pulse, better than any other
food.

After earth has keen once dug over, a
man may afterwards, year after year, dig so —
much of it in about forty days as will bring
forth potatoes to serve five persons for food,
instead of bread, for a year, if there be the
means of gelting the quantity of manure
needful, and the kind of earth be commonly
good,

Where some more grass growing earth
may be had, though not fenced, in the neigh-
bourhood of a dwelling, other animals very
useful for food may be kept.



FOR FOOD. A3



Of these the kind easiest to be reared are
hogs. The males are called boars, and the
females sows. They will feed and fatten
upon almost any kind of food, and seek it
for themselves ; they will eat roots, and
leaves, and stalks, and seeds, and fruits of
_ herbs and of trees, and almost any kind of

animal matter, dead or alive. If there be
plenty for them to get, larger-sized ones or
greater numbers may be kept: if there be
little for them, a smaller kind; if very little,
only one small one. But, living on the same
kind of food as cocks and hens, and ducks
and geese, a hog may leave too little for
them. Hogs like ructs of many herbs: they
have a hard and strong nose, by which they
_ pierce the earth to get at them; so the hog
often does harm where the surface of the
earth should not be broken; to hinder this,
a piece of iron should be put through the



AA ON TAME ANIMALS

hard part of the nose and fastened there;
but then this takes away sO much of their
means of getting food. Care should be ta-
ken of the young of hens, ducks, and geese,
_ or hogs will eat them. A hog often does

harm too in breaking fences; a pole fastened
across his neck will hinder him.

There are different kinds of hogs of diffe-
rent sizes; but of whatever kind or size, the
best are those which haye, for their size,
small and short legs, a small tail, small ears,
and small nose, little hair, thin skin, short
neck, and short round-made body from be-
fore the shoulders to behind the buttocks
or hams. Hogs with these marks are more
healthy, and feed and fatten on less focd
than those of other makes, An hog-stye, or
house for hogs, should have one part of the
floor higher than the other, and on the high-
er the bedding should be laid, and this part
of the stye should be kept very clean to make
it healthful; and the other part should be
often cleaned for the manure in it. Hogs
should be kept from great cold, and care-
fully so when young. There need be but
one boar to many sows. young about four months, and will have



FOR FOOD. Ad

from eight to twélve young ones at a time,
and that twice or thrice a-year; so, few
breeding hogs need be kept; and the rest, to
make them more quiet, and to fatten faster,
and their flesh better, should, when young,
he maimed so that they cannot breed.



ee

If they do not of themselves get food to
make them fat before they are to be killed,
they must be put up in a stye, and fed there
till they be fat; for this stye-feeding, coarse
or refuse corn, if to be had, will do best; if.
not, potatoes, or other roots boiled; if not
these, boiled herbs and the refuse of man-
kind’s food.

Hogs are killed by sticking in the throat; —
the blood is kept to be cooked, or fitted for
food: then the hair is slightly burnt or
singed off, or scraped off after scalding, or
having boiling water poured upon it; or
the skin may be taken off with aknife: then
the entrails are taken out, and the flesh left
to cool and stiffen before it be cut into use-
ful pieces. Hogs-flesh is called pork if it be
not dried; when dried it is bacon. If eaten
soon after killing it need not be salted; but,
if to be kept for some time before it be eaten,



A6 | ON TAME ANIMALS

it must be well salted, by rubbing salt upow
each piece and sprinkling salt upon it after-
ward: if itbe to be kept a long time, it
must be well salted and hung up in a dry
place for bacon.

The best way of making use of a fat hog
will be to make as much of it as may be into
bacon, as a small piece of bacon will make
potatoes, or any thing else more tasteful than
a larger piece of pork. 'The lard, or loose
fat in the inside, should be carefully gather-
ed together, and put into a vessel set into
water in another vessel, and the water be
made to boil till.all the lard be melted; when
it is to be put into skinny hollow vessels of
the entrails, after their being well cleaned ;
then closely tied up from the air and kept
for use. It will thus keep good a long time,
a small part being énough to make much
potatoes or other such food tasteful. Mixing —
some of the lard and bloed with meal, and
filling other skinny vessels of the entrails with
the mixture, and tying up from the air, and
boiling, makes good food, which may be long
so kept; which may be also done by mixing
some lard and other parts of the entrails,
chopped small and well salted, and tied from



FOR FOOD. AN’

the air in the skinny vessels. So, very little
of the hog will be useless after death, though
during life care be needful that it do no
harm.



Another animal which maintains itself
well is the goat. The goat’s flesh is not good,
yet when salted and dried it is eatable; but
the flesh of a kid, or young goat, is very
good food; and the females bring forth
twice a year, having two and sometimes three
kids at a time. The milk of the goat is good
food; as is the cheese made of it. Milk is
curdled by putting something sour into it
when alittle warmed; then pressing the curd

into a hard matter, and salting it while dry-

ing, it becomes cheese ; which is very taste-
ful food, and will keep good a long time.
There need be only one male to above a
hundred females; so, very few male kids need
be kept to be full grown. Goats, male and





A8 ON TAME ANIMALS

female, should haye small legs and small
heads, their bodies should be straight and
broad on the back, with large and fully
rounded thighs and thick shoulders, and
their bellies straight; the females should have

large dugs. Besidemilk and kid’s flesh, which |

are got from goats, their skins with the hair |

on may be made into clothing; or the hair
may be taken off and twisted and made into
clothing ; and the skins without the hair, by
laying them for some time in water with
oaken_bark, or other matters suitable for tan-
ning, may be turned into tough soft leather,
and will be fit for some kinds of clothing.

Goats need not much care, and yet it is
well for them to havea place of shelter to
_ come to, for the manure they make: they must
not haveany bedding, but the Place must be
often cleaned.

Goats can get food in places very hilly
and very rocky, where it cannot be come at
by other animals that might feed upon it;
and they eat some kinds of food which other
‘animals do not eat. ‘They feed mainly on
the young branches of trees, and on coarse
herbs which other animals do not eat; so
great care should be taken that they do no



FOR Foob. AX

harm to fruit-trees and plants that are useful.

In countries where there is very bad weather

in the winter, (before which all the kids not
to be kept for breeders should be killed)

“some herbs should be gathered and dried fer”

them, and kept for after food.

Tf more and better herbage can be got than
is enough for some goats, then they may be
given up, and a cow got instead. A cow may
be fed in the summer time without any part
of the herbage being fenced off; but it were
better that some be fenced off, and made into
two parts with a fence between them; one
- of these should be a meadow, wherein the
herbage is allowed to grow till it be mostly
in flower; when it should be cut down, and
dried, when it becomes hay; and must be
heaped together as tight as may be, and co-
vered from the wet, and kept for winter
food for ithe cow; which in the summer
feeds on the herbage of the other part, then
called pasture. The next year the pasture
should be meadow and the meadow pasture,
and so change every year. The grass which
grows in the meadow after the hay is taken
offiscalled aftermath; which, in places where

herbage grows fast, may be again cut and .

D

Ps



50 . ON TAME ANIMALS

made into hay; and the second aftermath
may grow some food for the cow.

The herbage of a meadow is best cut with
a scythe, made of a thin piece of iron, about
‘‘a man’s handbreadth broad, and about four ~
times the length of a man’s foot long ; and in
thickness about a finger’s breadthat the back,
tapering to a sharp edge on the other side,
and curved a little toward the point. ‘The
haft, being a pole of light wood about twice ~
the length of the iron part, is fastened ta one
_ end, so that when the scythe iron is lying flat
_on the earth, the pole slopes toward the other
end of the iron, and also toward the edge.
The back tapers off at the other end to a
point at the edge. Perpendicular to the
pole are two handles, which are fastened to
rings which go round the pole, and may be~
fixed at such places and distances as suit the
workman ; who, holding by these handies,
puts the point of the scythe about a foot-
length into the meadow, and keeping the
iron of the scythe flat to the earth, swings it
from right to left, and so cuts, or mows, the
herbage, and gathers it heaped in rows to-
ward his left hand ; mowing about a foot’s
Jength at a time, ina curve about six foot-



FOR FOOD. : 5]

lengths long, (the distance between the
rows, ) he mows down the whole meadow.
_ The heaped rows are afterward spread abroad
to dry and wither; and so made into hay; .
and raked clean off the earth.



A cow is the female, and a bull, the male



of a kind of animals the most useful of all

others to mankind. The cow gives very
much milk of the very best kind, and is of
the most healthful kinds of food. If cows’
milk be put into vessels and left to rest a
little while, ‘a yellowish white matter comes
to the top, called cream; it is thicker than
the milk below, which has become of a blue
D2





52 ON TAME ANIMALS

ish white. Cream, by being much stirred,

parts into two kinds of matter ; utter, a yel-

lowish, oily, lumpy matter; and butter milk,

a smooth curdlike milky matter. The but-

‘ter must be well washed and kneaded in wa-

ter till all the milk be pressed out of it. There

are very few of mankind who do not like

butter very much; and it gives a taste that

is liked to a very great many other kinds of

food. By mixing butter well with salt it~
may be kept good many months.
ter milk is fit for food ; as also the blue milk,

that is left after the cream is taken off. By

mixing some watery sour matter with milk,

a little warmed, it parts into curd, a white

lumpy matter; and into whey, a watery, yel-

lowish ereen matter ; both of which are fit

for food, Curds when very much broken,

and very hard pressed into moulds, or cheese- -
vats, and salted and dried, become cheese,
which may be kept good for food for a year
or two. Cheese made of milk while the
cream is yet in it, is better liked.



There are many kinds and many. sizes
of bulls and cows. -Of whatever kind, the
best have small heads; and if they have horns,



FOR FOOD. : 53

small horns, thin necks, small Jegs, thin and
soft skins, broad breasts, straight and broad
backs, full fleshed behind the shoulders on
the top, and the ribs rounding much out.
The cow should have a large udder. ‘There
need be but one bull to’: many cows; a cow
goes with young about forty weeks ; and, af-
ter the birth of her young, called’a calf, will
give milk till within a little time of her hav-
ing a calf again. There should be a cow- —
house for shelter, and bedding of straw or
other dried plants; and by keeping the house
clean, whic!: will be healthful to the cow,
much good manure will be had.

As few bulls are needful, most of the male
calves, when young, are so maimed as to
hinder them from breeding. Thus a calf
will become tamer, and may more readily be
taught to become a beast of labour. When
full grown he is called an Ox. He more
readily fattens, and his flesh becomes better
food.

The flesh of bulls and cows and oxenis call-
ed beef. Cow and ox beef are very good, but
bull beef is very hard and tough. When any
of the kind ere killed, the flesh, fat, blood,
and entrails are used much in the same way



5A ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

as those of hogs; but the loose fat among
the entrails, instead of lard is called tallow :
and, beside being put to the like uses as the
lard of hogs, it may be made into candles, by
putting picces. of long spongy plants, or long
pieces of small stringy plants twisted toge-
ther and called wicks, into melted tallow,
and leiting it stiffen and cool on the wicks;
then when cool putting them in again; and
letting what sticks stiffen, and cool; and
so on again till the tallow becomes on the
wicks, of such a thickness that they will burn
evenly together when the wick is set on fire;
which will give light in dark places, and
may be easily carried where wanted. The
skin, being much stronger and thicker than
that of goats, takes a much longer time in
tanning, and is chiefly useful where very
strong clothing is needful for the fect.

palatell Gta StS ea a



LESSON VI.

On Beasts of Labour.
Manxinp may get great help in drawing and
carrying matters, by teaching some animals
to become beasts of labour.—An ox may be



ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 5d

taught to carry and to draw heavy loads—
what is carried or drawn-is called a load.
But the ox ought not to be made to labour
till he be three years old; and if he be of a
fit thriving kind, it will be better to kill him
for food then, than to keep him for work or
Jabour: for though he be strong, he is slow
and he eats a great deal of good food, which
would be better turned into milk by being
given to cows. He must not be wrought
long at a time, for he has not only to eat and
to sleep, but must rest to chew the cud.
Horns are worse than useless on beasts of
- labour.



There are oxen without; horns: but it is
better to have asses to do the work of an ox:
_and though the ass be not nearly so strong,

yet the number fit to do the same work will -

be more easily maintained than the ox; for
an ass will live chiefly upon matters refused



56 - ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

by other animals; and, according to its size
and the quantity of food it does eat, it is much
stronger than the ox. An ass ismore healthy
and not so likely to be lamed as an ox. It
may be wrought longer at a time, and a
great deal longer on the whole throughout
the day. It may take four asses to carry as
much, or to draw as much, as an ox: but
four asses will not eat so much food as one
ox, and not nearly so much of the good food
which makés milk when eaten by cows. The
cloyen foot of the ox is often hurt by stones
or other hard matters getting into the cleft,
which does not happen to the uncloven foot
of the ass.. Each foot of an ox has to bear
about four times the weight of each foot of
four asses, and therefore the ox is more like-
ly to be harmed by often treading and draw-
ing, than the ass. If cne foot of an ox be
lamed, all his work is stopped; but if one
ass be lamed there are still three others fit
for work. It does not need the whole strength
of an ox to do every kind of work. One or
two asses may do much that is to be done,
’ while the others rest. “ But if the strength of
one leg only of an ox be wanted, the other
legs are wearied at the same time.



ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 57

The best made asses are those which have
the smallest heads and necks, widest breasts,
highest shoulders, straightest backs, broadest
Joins, roundest sides, and straightest and
strongest legs. The ass goes with young
eleven months, and should not be hard work-
ed when near the time of her bringing forth.
The milk of asses.is not often used for food ;
but is sometimes taken as a cure for some dis-
eases. a

Asses should have good clean water to
drink, and be well sheltered from bad weather
and great cold. When wrought they should
have plenty of food and be kept clean, and
much rubbed with straw or other. such matter.

Lest the load should hurt the back of. a
beast of labour, some soft matter should be
laid between the load and the back of the
beast: this should be made to fit and lie
evenly upon both sides of the back and ribs.
Some straw or other such matter twisted to-
, gether into a long thick string or rope, and
layers of the rope plaited or twisted and dou-
bled so as to fit the back and sides; or the
skin of some animal, or other such matter,
doubled and stuffed with straw or the like,

Dod



58 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

and made so as to fit, is called a pad. And
sometimes when the load is hard and likely
to hurt the beast by long pressing on one or
two parts only, some wood should be joined
together or cut out in such a way as to fit
upon the pad; so that when the hard load is
put upon the wood, the pad will press evenly
on the back and sides of the beast—the wood
so made with the pad fastened to the under
side of it is called a saddle. A pad or saddle
is fastened on the back of abeast by a flat
tie passing under the belly, called a girth:
and to prevent them moving too forward, a
tie is fastened to the hinder part and passed
under the upper end of the tail, whichis called
a crupper.

To guide a beast of labour, arope or thick
string, or a long flat piece of strong skin,
called a strap, about two finger breadths
broad, is fastened round the top of the head
behind the ears, and again round the lower
part of the head just above the mouth, a long
end being left loose to hold by ;—this is called.
a halter. When a piece of tough hard wood’
or iron is put into the mouth, and a rope or
strap fastened at each end of it, and passed
round the top of the head behind the ears, so



ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 59

as to hinder the piece of wood or iron ( which
is-called the Dit) from coming out of the
mouth, and another long strap or rope( called
the rein) fastened too at each end of the bit,
for the guider to use, it is called a bridle, and
is better suited to guide with than a halter.
But a halter not being put into the mouth,
the beast can eat more easily ; and can with
it be fastened near his food to be ready when
wanted.



Beasts of labour ought not to be made to
work before they are three years old 3; but
the sooner they are taught, or trained to the
use of the halter and bridle, the better. They

may be trained to draw loads after them, by
haying a kind of pad made to fit round the
bottom of the neck fitted with wood or iron
in the front (called a collar); so that when
about the middle of the iron or wood on each
side, just where the jutting point of the ©
shoulderis, ropes or straps or such like (called
traces) are fastened, and are long enough to
be fastened to a load behind, and so fastened,
by leading or driving the beast forward, it
will thrust its breast and shoulders against the
collar, and draw the load, if not too heavy,



‘

60 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

after it. To hinder the traces from falling
down among the fect of the beast, they ought
to be upheld by a flat tie or strap passing
over the middle of the back: this is a back-
band, and is fastened at each of its ends to
the traces; and to hinder both traces from
sliding over to one side, a like tie or strap,
fastened in a like way, and passing u nder the
belly, is called a belly-band.



That different kinds of loads may be drawn
more easily, it is well to have a sledge made,
by joining together two long pieces of wood,
rounded on the under side of the front end
of each, and fastening them together by pieces
about three of a man’s foot-length long, ma-
king a flat on which all kinds of loads may
be laid: the traces being fastened to the
sledge at the rounded ends, the whole will be
more easily drawn forward, being made to
slide along -as the beasts are made to thrust
against their collars. -

But the rubbing of a sledge, whiere the
road is rough, is a great hindrance. So if
two longer pieces of wood, as long as the
sledge and the beast together, be joined as
in a sledge, by cross pieces from one end, as



_ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 61

far as about the length of the sledge, making
a flat for the lead to lie on, and have fastened
across, on the under side, about the middle
of the flat, astrong piece of wood, longer on
each side, so that a wheel may be fastened on
to any of its ends, which will thus become the
axles of the wheels on Which they turn,—a

Aa enti
a. 5
Ne










Cart will be made. And by fastening the
long pieces of wood, called the shafts, one
on each side of the beast, it will be able to
draw a much greater load than on the sledge,
ihe rolling of the wheels needing much less
strength to get forward ‘with, than the rub-
bing of the sledge. _



The height of the axle from the earth
should be about the height of the shoulder
point of the beast. But this height is too
great for wheels made from pieces sawn off
from round trees, as isdone for wheel-barrows:



62 - ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

therefore a piece of hard and tough wood is
made into what is called a nave, round or
cylindrical, abouta man’s foot-length in thick-
ness, and a man’s foot-length and a haif long,
a hole being made through the middle or
centre of the cylinder, which should be lined
with sockets of iron and the ends of it hooped
or encircled with hoops or flat rings of iron ;
and the axle ends, which are to fit into these,
should be made of iron or coyered with iron:
and, at equal distances round the middle of
the outside of the nave, should be made about
twelve holes, in which should be fastened
pieces. of strong and tough wood about
the thickness of a man’s wrist and about the
length of nearly half the height of the shoul-
der point of the beast which has oftenest to
draw the cart; all should be equally long—
they are called the spokes, and must be, at
their other ends, fixed into strong pieces of
wood, called the felloes, which, being seg-
ments of a circle, when all joined close toge-
ther at their ends make the circumference or
rim of the wheel, and should have iron fixed
onround the outedge of it. The better to carry
many kinds of loads, it is well to have the
flat of a sledge or cart wattled round, about



ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 63

the height of a man’s leg, on the front and
two sides, with strong basket work, or boxed
so with flat pieces of wood or boards, the hind
part being a kind of moveable deor of board,



But where Te of Food f food can be had,
the beast of labour most useful to mankind is
the horse. There are horses of very different
sizes, measuring from the top of the shoulder
to the earth, from ten hand-breadths high to
sixteen. Those that are used mainly for
their going fast and nimbleness, are of a slim
make; and those used mainly for carrying
and drawing loads arestronger. Theseshould
have short legs; but the make of the bones
and sinews or stringy parts, as well as of the
fleshy or muscular parts of the limbs should
be seen through the skin (which is called
cleanness of make): the fore parts should be
upright, and the shoulder high ; with a short
thick body and broad Icins,



GA ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

They ought to be trained when young,
like asses, to the use of the halter and bridle
the pad and the saddle, and to draw and to
carry ; but not be made to labour till after
they are three years old.

They are not so hardy as asses, and must
have better kinds of focd; they will eat straw,
but should have good grass, and hay, and
corn: they must be well sheltered; and must
be kept’ very clean, and much rubbed when
wrought: theirharness,—as the traces, collars
and’ other things by which they carry and
draw, are called—islike thatof asses and other
beasts of labour, and should be made to fit
them well. And to these should be added
when in a cart a breech-band fastened to the
middle of the shafts on each side, passing
behind the buttocks, and upheld by a tie
over the back, to hinder a cart going too fast
down hill.

The mare, as the female of the horse is
called; goes with young a little more than
eleven months. Of asses and horses there
need be only one male to many females ; and
most male asses and horses, when young are
so maimed as to hinder them from breed-



ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 65

‘ing, and it makes them more easily trained,
- and more quiet when working. :

JMules are a kind of animal, bred between
the horse and ass, and may: be trained to la-
bour, and managed in the same way.



To save the feet of beasts of labour, they |
should have flat pieces of iron for shoes fast-
ened to the under side of their hoofs, as the
thick hard matter (like the matter of nail, )
which covers their feet is called. The beasts
haye no feeling in it, more than mankind
have in the matter of their nails; and the
out edges of the hoofs are so thick, that, with
care, iron pins pointed, or nails coming
through holes in the iron, may be knocked
through them and fastened, by the points)
being taken offa little from the outside of the
hoof, and what remain above, bent down or
riveted on the outside; while the other ends
or heads-of the nails, being too large to come
through the iron, it is also made fast on the
under side. The shoes of oxen are thin flat
pieces of iron nailed on to the point, or toe,
on each side of the cleft of each hoof. The
shoes of horses, mules, and asses, are to be fit-
ed to each foot of each, and are to be put



66 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

round the under side of the foot where the
hoof is hard, but left without iron. behind.
According to the size of the hoof, the shoes
are from a finger’s breadth long, to two, and
froma quarter to half a finger’s breadth thick.



50 mankind may be greatly helped by
beasts of labour; and by many dwelling near
each other they may greatly help each
other: and all by carefully thinking may
greatly help themselves. When labouring
or resting, while awake, one may think: and
it is good to think of things, as to what they
are, and how they are, and how they do or
act, both as to the things themselyes and as
to other things: and when we so think we
think rightly; but, if we think of things as
they are not, or not as how they are, or not
as they do or act, we think wrongly.

Now we think most about things which
are near us, and which we often see ; and, if
we think carefully aboutthem, we are likely
to think rightly : but we think often of things
which we have not often seen, and of things
at a great distance, and of things which we
have only heard of; and it is not likely,
without great care, that we should think



~

CONCLUSION. 67

rightly about such. For there is but one
way to think rightly about a thing,—to think
of it as it is; but we may think wrongly
about it in every other way but that one. It
is only by thinking rightly about things that
we can think usefully ; for if we think right-
ly about many things we may be able to
make one thing act upon another so as to
do much good: and often the thinking
wrongly about some things does much harm ;
therefore we should be careful not to think
wrongly about them.



68

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS:

TO
A BOOK OF THE WORLD.

=a

By what are mankind better than other
animals ?

Can other animals do aught to serve in-
stead of speech ?

What is the main use of speech ?

To whom can thoughts be told ?

How are those out of hearing ta be told?

What is writing ?

How is writing known ?

‘What is reading ?

To whom-can what is written be made
known?

As there no other way of letting a still
«greater number of folks know in less time?
W hat is printing ?

What has come to pass since printing was
found out in places where it has been used?

What has come to pass in places where
the English language is known?

What usemay readers make of books w hich
teach knowledge ?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 69

How is a straight line drawn?

What are the ends of a line?

How does a curve differ from a straight
line ? :

How musta line be bent to form a circle ?

Fiow is the centre of a circle known ?

What is a radius of a circle ?

What is the circumference of a circle ?

How may a semicircle be drawn?

Now if a wheel be shown to you, can you
point out which parts of it answer to the lines :
and figures you have just named ?

Low will one straight line make an angle
with another ?

How are right angles known ?

What is the difference between an acute
and aright angle—and between an obtuse
and a right angle ?

How must one straight line fall upon an-
other so that one may be perpendicular to the
other ?

What makes one phiaieny line parallel to
another ?

How many straight lines, and what sort
of straight lines, and what sert of angles,
make a square ?



70 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

What is the difference between a square
and an oblong ?

What is a triangle ?

How may a square be divided into two
triangles ?

Tell me some rooms, or show me some
boxes, which are squares, or oblongs; which
have right angles, or obtuse angles, or acute
angles ;—and_ now with this piece of string

_ show me the diagonal of this room, and tell

me what the figure is on each side of it?

What is an arch ?

What is the chord of an arch ?

What part of a circle is made by these
two?
- How may an ellipsis be drawn ?

What common object is it like ?

What is the name of a dice-shaped figure?
How many sides has it?

What figure is each of the sides?

What other likeness have the sides of a

cube?

Which part of a cube is the surface ?
Which part of a globe is surface 2.

What common objects are like a globe ? -
What figure is a telescope ?

What figure is each end of a cylinder ?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

:

ee



Gi







792 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

In what manner is a cone formed, and
what common ebject is it like?

Which part is the base, and which the
apex ?

What object is like a pyramid ?

What figure is cach of the surfaces of a
pyramid ? ~

On what does a pyramid stand?

What is the top of a pyramid called?

Where ought dwellings to be fixed for
mankind P

What kind of dwellings may there be?

What had they better be made of ?

What is freestone ?

Chalk 2 -
' Limestone ?

Marble ?

How is mortar made?

How is it used ?

In places where fit stones cannot easily be
had, what is to be used instead of them ?

How are bricks made ?

How are buildings to be made with bricks?

How are houses to be covered or roofed ?

With what may houses be covered? —

How are windows and doors to be made?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. WSs

How is an arch to be made?

What i is the main use of an arch?

What is the best make of stones and eke
for building ?



What is the kind of vessels easiest made for
keeping food in and making it ready for eat~
ing?

Of what are pottery vessels made ?

How is the clay made ready ?

How are the vessels figured ?

How are they baked ?

How are they glazed?

Are there more ways than one of figuring
them ?

_ How is the potter’s wheel made?

How is it used ?

How ought vessels to be made to be easily
cleaned ?

How ought those to be made which have
to be greatly heated ?

Though pottery vessels are well suited for
holding watery matters, are there not others
better suited for holding and carrying mat-
ters that are dry ?
~ How are baskets made ?



4A EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

But baskets will let matters in powder or
in small parts go through them, what vessels
are fitted for such ?

‘ How are boxes made?

But how are things to be carried too heavy
for one? — .

How isa hand-barrow made ?

How is it to be used ?



From what do mankind get their food?

What things are fit for food ?

How may the earth be made to bring forth
good food?

What are the main matters aimed at by
tillage and care?

What is there now known as best worthy
choice ?

How is corn best made fit for food ?

How is good corn best come at ?

When a part is fenced and made sure from
harm by animals, and made ready for tillage,
—What is the main work in tillage?

- How is it best done?
How are ploughs worked ?

Is there no other way of tilling the earth

than by ploughing ?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. "5

What is the best kind of food to be tilled
for, when only handy work can be used ?

How do potatoes do instead of corn?

What are the most useful tools for hand
tillage ?

What is a mattock, and its use?

A spade and its use?

A rake and its use ?

A hoe and its use ?

An axe and its use ?

A handsaw and its use ?

What are potatoes ?

How are they to be made ready for plant
ing?

What is the best kind of earth to plant
them in?

Can any thing be put to the earth to make
it better ?

What is manure ?

Does the same kind of manure suit all
kinds of plants ?

What kind best suits potatoes ?

How are potatoes to be planted ?

What is to be done to them while grow-
ing? :

How are potatoes good for food ?

E2



cw

76: EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

Are there any herbs which having much
taste can give it to other food ? '
How are onions reared ?
_ Are there no other herbs to be made bet.
ter by tillage? .
What Bona are potatoes and onions
suited to, as to heat and cold? —
- How are potatoes and onions to be kept
after being taken from the earth ?
What other use can be made of what is
fenced for tillage ?



Can no use be made of what is not fenced ?

What is the use of tame animals ?

What parts of tame animals are fit for
food for mankind ?

How are tame animals to be bred? ©

Speak of some of the most useful kinds ?.

Say what kind of. animals the cock and —
hen are? . :

Say of ducks ?

And of geese ?

How are all the kinds to be taken care of?

How are those to be chosen which are
best to breed from?

Howare they to bedone to w hen brooding : ?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. Me

How are the young-ones to be done to? |

How are eggss useful for food? —

At what age is the flesh best for food ?

Are there other kinds of birds which may
be tamed ?

Speak as to pigeons ?

After so much earth as will bring forth
potatoes enough to serve five persons for
food instead of bread in a year, has been
fenced and once dug over—about how many
days will it take a man to dig it again ?

Where some more grass-growing earth can
be had, though unfenced ; what other useful
tame animals may be reared ?

Speak of hogs, their food, and way of liy-
ing?

What is the best make of a hog ?

Speak as to a hog-stye ?

How are hogs to be done to when young?

How are they to be fatted ?

How are they to be killed ?

What is to be done with the blood ?

What with the entrails ?

What with the flesh ?

What is pork?

What is bacon?



78. EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

What is the best way of making use of a
fat hog ?

Speak as to lard, and keeping it?

How is the blood to be made ready and
kept for food ?

And as to making ready and keeping the
entrails for food ?



_ What other animal will readily maintain
itself, and serve to make food for mankind in
unfenced places ?

_ Speak of the goat and its ee 2
_ What food is got from goats?

How is cheese made?

When is the flesh of goats best ?
» What is the best make of goats? _

What are their skins good for?

Speak of their food and way of living ?

How are they to be sheltered ?

What is to be done as to them in countries
where there is very bad weather in winter ?



If more and better herbage can be got
than is enough for goats, what better kind of
animal should be kept in their stead?

How is a cow to be maintained ?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 79

’ What is a meadow ?
What is hay?
How is itmade?
What is pasture ?
What is aftermath ?
How is the herbage of a meadow best ati: ?
What is‘a scythe?
How is it used ?
What is the male of a cow called?
What food is got from a cow ? °
Speak of the milk?
Cream ?
Butter ?
Butter-milk ?
Blue milk ?
Curd?
Whey?
Cheese ?
What is the best make of the cow kind?
What is the young called?
Whatis a male calf when maimed so as to
prevent his breeding, and grown up, called?
How is an ox more useful?
What is the flesh of bulls, cows, and oxen
called ?
Which is the best kind of beef?

.



80 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

When killed—how are the flesh, fat, blood
and entrails used >
What is the lard-like fat called? —
What is the main use of tallow 2
_ How are candles made ?
What is the use of candles ?
To what uses are the skins put?



What animals can be taught to labour
and to help mankind to work?

How old should an ox be before he be
made to labour :

Can there be no better use made of an ox
at three years old ?

Why i is an ox not so fit to be Rept for la-
bour ?

Are there other animals that may be taught
to do much work which do not need sueh
good food and so much rest?

But is the ass as strong as an ox?

How many asses may it take to do the
work of an ox?

Why may four asses be reckoned better
beasts of labour than one ox?

What is the best make of an ass ?

- How ought asses for labour to be done to?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 81

What is to be done to hinder a load from
hurting a beast of labour ?
. How is a pad made?

But some loads may be such as to hurt in
parts through a pad,—what must be used
then?

How is a saddle made ? ‘

How is a pad or saddle fastened on?

What is a girth?

How is a pad or. saddle hindered from
moving too forward ?

What is a crupper?

How is a beast of labour guided ?

What is a halter ?

Is there not a better way of guiding a
beast of labour than by a halter?

What is a bridle?

When is a halter to be used rather than.a
bridle ?

Can beasts of labour be taught to carry
loads only ?

By what can they draw loads after them?

What is a collar?

What are traces?

What a back-band ?

What a belly-band >



82 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

What is to be done when it is found that
some kinds of loadscannot bedrawn by traces
only ?

What is a sledge ?

But it will be very hard to draw a sledge
over yery rough places,— what is to be done
then ?

What is a cart?

‘How is a high wheel made ?

What are the different parts ofa wheel ?

What is the nave?

Spokes ?

Felloes?



Where better food than is needful for asses
can bé had, is there no kind of animal as
strong as an ox which can be taught to la-
bour ? ;

What is the best make of a horse for la-
‘bour ?

When and how is the horse to be taught
and made to labour ?

What is the female of the horse called?

Beside the ox and the ass and the horse,
are there any other animals often taught to
labour ?



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. - 83°

What is a mule ?

How are the feet of beasts of labour saved
from harm on hard roads ?
' How are the shoes of asses, horses, and
mules, made and fastened on ?

Those of oxen ?



Beside the helps mankind get from beasts
of labour, whence can they be helped? ~
How can folks best help themselves ?
What is thinking rightly ?
_ What is thinking wrongly ?
How many ways are there to think right-
ly about a thing ?
How many to think wrongly abouta thing?

Tue Enp of Parr I.



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Full Text


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A BOOK OF THE WORLD.

Nee 2

'





PART I

x

or

A BOOK OF THE WORLD,

3 FOR THE USE OF CHILDRENS-

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HAVE NOT PREVIOUSEY BEEN BROUGHT
FORWARD POR “THEIR ADVANTAGE, :

By WILLIAM TAYLOR, Eso. M.A. __

FORMERLY OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMERIDGE,”



a -

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* 1819.



PREFACE.



Tue expedition and accuracy with which the
elements of knowledge are conveyed to young
minds, by means of the Bell and Lancaster plans

and schools, afford a well-grounded hope of im- _

_ provement inthe mental condition of a ndmerous
class of our fellow creatures.

If, as experience and deduction lead us to be-
lieve, the increase of comfort and happiness is
inseparably connected with the diffusion of know-
ledge,—no benevolent mind but must rejoice in
the opportunities that present themselves of giv-
ing aid to so desirable an object. —

Man is, as his mind is; his grand characteristic
_asan animal, is his power of thought; and the
criterion of the higher value of the individual, is
the superiority of his mental endowments. His
corporeal qualifications are valuable chiefly as
they contribute to the improvability of his mind.
Well therefore has Watts said, |

“¢ Were J as tall to reach the pole,
Or grasp the Ocean in my span,
I must be measur’d by my soul :—
The mind’s the standard of the man.’

Those who are aware of the extensive ae
a2

, By i
vi PREFACE.

ries of science, and the proofs resulting from cau-
tious experiments, and accurate demonstrations
of the real and relative condition of things, and
of their mutual effects on each other, have great
cause to wonder at the prevalence of opinions,
which the enlightened part of mankind have long
since ceased to entertain.

The immense number of almanacs annually
published, with prophecies of future events, both
as to the weather and the fates of nations, proves
that a great number of individuals are still the
dupes of the fooleries of astrology.

Nothing appears more likely to destroy such
absurd opinions, than that a manual, descriptive
of the real state of the earth, its materials and pro-
ductions, and the connection that exists between
it and the heavenly bodies, should be introduced
into the national schools, as the means of giving
it the greatest possible diffusion. :

A little treatise, which will form a subsequent
Part of the present, was with these views pre-
pared, but mature reflection suggested to the au-
thor, that something preparatory was necessary,
It appeared advisable that some minor objects
should be treated of first, for the purpose of train-
ing the mind to grasp at things of higher reach.
This, besides, would give the opportunity of ex-
plaining many terms used in the subsequent work;
and thus, by gradually familiarizing the mind to
comparing the descriptions of at objects with
their prototypes in nature, it might be led up to
PREFACE. - vii

the same consideration of the world. The habit
of comparing the account of a cart, and a wheel
and its motion, might lead the mind to the same.
consideration of the earth, the cause of eclipses
and other phenomena.

The necessity for using scientific terms in de-
scribing accurately the most common objects, to-
gether with the conviction of the great utility of
giving children correct ideas of some of the com-
mon geometrical figures, prevailed against the ob-
jections of the novelty of beginning with descrip-
tions usually postponed to a more advanced stage
of education. .

But the forms only of some Bepmerticnl figures
are spoken of, without reference to the scientific
properties ; and as representations are given of
each, together with examples of common objects,
it is hoped that this necessary part will be intelli-
gible to very young persons, and that it may even
be found to interest them.

Many of the descriptions are very minute,—but
‘the author thinks that the desire this is likely to
excite in young minds to put in practice what they
read, when they find that things succeed as they
proceed, is so valuable that no opportunity should
be lost of creating it. .

In the present attempt. much pains have been
taken to draw up the lessons inas plain and per-
spicuous language as possible: var iety of expres-
sion has been avoided, as apt to cause confusion
in the mind,—an inexperienced pupil often sup-
Vili PREFACE.

posing that, by a difference in the terms, some
difference in the sense is intended. His object has
‘been to instruct not only children but adults,
whether in a savage or a civilized state, who la
bour under the misfortune of ignorance. With
these pupils in view, he has kept as much as pos-
sible to words of poe al import, that did not re-
late to the customs or manners of any particular
nation or people. Forinstance: he has not spoken
of yards, feet, and inches; but referred to the usual
dimensions of a man, “a foot’s length”, &c.

The topics treated of in the following little
book, relating.chiefly to the production of the ne-
cessaries of life, may it is hoped be useful and
interesting to all; and if such were introduced
into the national ecole, they would greatly tend
to imbue the minds of the young learners with just
notions of the value of industry and perseverance,
and contribute towards rendering them virtuous,
good, and useful, 3

Jan. 1819,

The author begs to remark in this place, rather
than at the end of the Examination Questions,
(where it might naturally be expected to stand,
but which for obvious reasons, he has ayoided,)
that in most instances the succeeding question will
suggest to the examiner the answer to that imme-
diately preceding.
INTRODUCTION.



Manxinp, being able to think better and to
speak, are better than other living things or
animals. Many animals can make some
sounds with their mouths, which those of
their own kind know and answer to. And
some make sounds which animals of other
kinds know and are frightened at. But the
different sounds which each kind of animals
_ can make, are very few; so that one animal

-. ean make another know, or teach it, very

few things: and although mankind can
teach some animals more than any of their
own kind can teach them, yet the taught
ones cannot teach others what they have been
taught. So animals that are alive now, can-
not make those which have to come after
them any better; and the nests and the dens
that are made now, are no. better than the
densand nests that were made some thousands *
of years ago. But mankind by speech can
tell all they know to one another ; and when
B
ie ltt Pees ee



DeGeneres INTRODUCTION.

one finds out or knowsa good thing, and tells
it to others, those others may be able to bet-
ter themselves and others; and so mankind
become better and better, and do better and
better; and, instead of living, like wild
beasts, in dens or caves, or feeding on wild
fruits, and roots, and animals, which are not
always to be found or caught when wanted ;
they make houses for themselves to dwell in,

and till the earth, and tame animals, to have
good kinds of food always ready.

By speaking, those only who are near can
be told, and they may not hear rightly, and
may forget what has been told; so there
have been found out some marks called le(-
1ers, which have been made to stand for dif
ferent sounds; and which, being joined in

different ways together, stand for different . -

words.

The making of letters and joining thenr
into words with the hand, is called writing.
And learning to know the letters and words
readily is called reading. ‘

By writing, mankind can let one another
know what they think, though at a great dis-

' tance from one another; and whatis written,
if forgotten, can be read again ; and one by

‘
INTRODUCTION. , “go

reading aloud what is written may let all who
are near know. But it takes.a deal of time
to write much; and to make what is written
known at more distant places than one, the ~
writing must be sent to all places where need-
ful, to one after another ; or the same thing
must be written over again on something else,
which is called copying ; and the new writ-
ing’ a copy; and many copies may be made
‘and sent to many distant pleces. ‘The best
way of writing is by using a black watery
matter, called ink, to mark white paper. Pa-
per is made by pieces of stringy matters being
chopped, and torn, and bruised very small ;
then mixed with water, and thinly and eels
Spread on things through which the water
passes away ; then what is left, when greatly
pressed and dried, becomes paper.

Copying by writing takes up a great deal
ef time; and it has been found out that let-
ters being made the contrary way on pieces of
wood or metal, the wood or metal being taken
away alittle from the letters, andleaving them
standing up a little from the rest of the pieces,
which are made to fit to each other, and are
called types, that: letters and words may be

B2




A INTRODUCTION.

so joined and fastened together as to lie all
so plain and even, that being daubed with
some fit ink, and then paper pressed hard-on
them, many hundreds of words may be marked
at atime, which is called printing; and co-
pies of long writings may be printed, as fast
as the printers can daub the types and press
the paper onthem ; and many hundreds may
be printed in a little time.

And large pieces, called sheets, of paper
being printed in a fit way, may be folded and
bound together so as to make a handy bun-
dle called a book.

Eyer since printing was found out, in
places where it has been much used, things
have become better and better far faster than
before, and than in other places. Whatwas
known, or, as it is called, knowledge, became
known to very many; so better things and
better ways of doing were faster found out ;
and the more that learn to read, and so get
knowledge, the more liklihood there will be
that things will become beiter and better still.

And there are so many books printed now
in the English speech or language, that teach
almost all kinds of knowledge, that those who
INTRODUCTION. 5

can read -well may, bythe help of books, be-
come their own teachers in the kind of know-
ledve most fit for them.

It is good for. those who are learning to
read, at the same time to get some useful
’ knowledge. So it is meant by this little book
to shew to learners, first, the exact meaning
of some wordswhich are very usefulin speak- —
ing of otherthings; then, howcommon dwell-
ings and the most useful vessels and utensils
are made; then, how the earth may be tilled ;
and some animals tamed for food, and some
other animals taught to help mankind by
labour: then, to shew what them ain matters
in the world are, and how they move and
_ act one upon another.

A BOOK OF THE WORLD.



LESSON I.
First Ideas of some useful Things. *

Owner way of knowing one body from an-
other, is by knowing its figure. Figures are
bounded by lines; and solids by surfaces.
There are some figures, lines, and surfaces,
which are so often met with and talked
_about, that they have names. It is very use-
_ ful to know these; for it saves many words,
and makes what is meant more plain.

Descriptions and Examples of Lines often met
with, and which are Bounds of different Fi
gures,

A straight line is the shortest line
that can be drawn from one point to another.
The ends of a line are points.
8 . |. FIRST IDBAS OF

~~~ A curve is a bended line.
The ends of a curve are also points.

A circle is a figure formed by an un-
Sy broken line bent continually round
a till its two ends meet.

There is a point in the middle called the
centre, from which point all straight lines
drawn to the outside are equal in length, and
called radii: one by itself is a radius..

The outside is called the circumference,

A straight line drawn quite across

Os a circle through the centre’is called

the diameter, and the part on each

side of the diameter is called a semi-circle.

The wheel of acart isa circle. Half the
diameter is a radius.

The outside of the wheel is the circumfe-
rence. In the middle of the wheel is a small
opening or pipe; along pole or bar of wood
goes into this pipe, and is called the aale: .
the axle joins the two wheels; and the two
wheels turn on it. The place where the
wheel turns is called the centre. Sac

A piece of string stretched across the wheel
over the centre to the circumference or out-
SOME USEFUL THINGS. 2439

side of the wheel, is the diameter, and is a
straight line. A piece of string stretched
from the centre or middle of the wheel to
the outside of it is a radius.

Any. part of the outside of a wheel, or of
a bow to shoot with, is a curve.

Examples and Descriptions of different useful -
and common Figures. |

When one straight line falls upon
another, the parts or corners be-
_ tween the lines where they meet are

angles.
Iftheangles which one linemakes in falling
upon another are equal, they are right angles.
The upright line that makes the right
angle, is a perpendicular.

If the angles are not equal, the
NT larger is called an obtuse angle;
the lesser an acute angle.

Straight lines every where at the

same distance from each other are parallels.

A space within four straight lines

of the same length and with four
- right angles is a square. ©

Bo. >
SE ee ie RETEST ge Sas e r peaa, UNPe eee ey om) MSE >

10-2 FIRST IDEAS OF |

If two.of the opposite lines are
longer than the other two, it is
called an oblong... :

’ /

A straight line drawn across a
square from the opposite corners is a_
~ diagonal.
A space inclosed within three
ce straight lines, is a triangle.

A diagonal line drawn across a square,-
divides it into two triangles.

Most rooms, or the tops and bottoms of
boxes, are oblongs, but some are squaresa
Most of the corners of rooms of boxes are
right angles; but some are obtuse angles, and
some are acute angles. A piece of string
_ fastened in one corner of a’room and drawn
across to the opposite corner of the room, is

a diagonal, and then the room is divided into
two triangles,

Part of the circumference of a cir-

Ge cleisanarch, The straight line going
across it isa chord, and makes the part

of the circle cut offa segment,
SOME USEFUL THINGS. 11

The arches of some bridges and some
churches are segments ofa circle.

An ellipsis is a circle stretched in
two opposite directions. If you fix
two pins in aboard, and strain a.
string with a pencil round these
pins, you will draw an ellipsis, ;

- A hen’s egg is very like an ellipsis, and
would be one, if it were as big at one end as
at the other.

A solid like a dice with six square
sides equal to each other ‘is a cube.
Each of the sides is a surface.



A solid like a ball or a marble is a globve.
Every part of the outside of a globe is surface.

A solid like a round ruler or a te-
lescope or a caleidoscope or a tan-
kard is a cylinder, and each end isa



circle.

The figure made by a right-angled
triangle, turned round upon one of
the sides that make the right-angle, is
a cone. The bottom part, whichis a
circle, isthe base. ‘The top part is os use
A sugar loaf is a cone.


12 FIRST IDEAS OF SOME USEFUL THINGS.

A solid of three or more sides or
surfaces and each of the surfaces tri-
angles, standing on a broad bottom,
Z and evenly lessening to a pointat the
top, isa pyramid. The bottom of a pyramid |
is the base; the top isthe apex.
Some of the marble ornaments that stand
on chimney-pieces are pyramids.
There are many other figures and solids
not so common, made out of these. But_
those above described are the most useful.



LESSON Il.

4
On Dwellings.



Ir is not good for man to be alone.
i. Mankind should live near to each other,
that they may help"each other.
ON DWELLINGS. 13

The place to fix dwellings in should be dry
ground, near good. water for drinking, and
where the mists do not slay long; it should.
be sheltered from very bad weather, and from
great cold, and from great heat; and it should
not be far from where food and fuel can be
had. -

Dwellings may be in caves or holes of the
earth; or their sides may be made of clay,
‘or of wood, or of clay and wood; and they
may be covered with leaves, or with stalks,
or with plants, or with wood. But they are
better made of stone; of which there are
many kinds: that which is the most useful,
isa kind of sandy stone, (like kneaded and
hardened sand, ) called‘freestone, as it is easily
wrought or made usefiff, and fitted to what
is needful.

Chalk is a stone which, being softer, is more ~
easily wrought; but it is likély to be crushed,
and does not last long enough when open to
the weather. eae

Limestone, and marble (a finer kind of lime-
stone), will last longer; but they are hard to
be wrought and made useful in’ the state of
stone. : ei

But by burning chalk, or marble, or lime-


14 ON DWELLINGS.

stone, and throwing a little water on what
has been burnt, it will fall into powder;
which being mixed with sand and more water
to make it soft, and kneaded so that it may”
_ be easily spread, it becomes mortar; and
being evenly spread between stones fastens
them together, by hardening again and stick-
ing to each stone. By which means walls
and houses may be made.

Where fit stones cannot be readily enough
had, and fuel and clay can be had,—by mak-
ing bricks a good hard and lasting matter
for building may be made. Clay is a kind
_ of earth, which when wetted becomes sticky,
and this, mixed with some sand, and wetted
and well kneaded, may be made into diffe-
rent figures. ‘To make common bricks for
building with, a mould should be made. by
fastening four pieces of flat wood together,
two longer and two shorter at right angles; so
that when laid on a flat place, and kneaded
clay pressed into it andsmoothed on the upper
side, a brick may be made of such a weight,
when dried and burned, that it may be easily
handled by grasping it between the fingers’
und thumb of one hand across the breadth ;
TS Be ese SS Sg eae BR yt

ON DWELLINGS. lo

the length being a little more than double, and

the thickness alittle less than half the breadth,

that bricks may fitin different ways when some

mortar is put between.. When the clay is

thus pressed into the mould, or moulded, it

is to be laid on its side to dry, then turned’
over to dry more, then many built loosely in-

to walls to dry and harden still more, and

then built into large heaps (called sxiins),

with fuel between the bricks, which is to beâ„¢
fired and to burn them till they become as

hard as stone. ,





























.To make houses or other buildings with
bricks, they are to be laid in layers; with mor-
tar between each brick and each layer, so that
the joinings or joints of one layer be not in
a line with joints of the layer next to it: the
width of each layer to be as is fit for the
strength of ‘the building meant to be made,


If for a house, when the walls are high
enough, long pieces of wood called rafters
are set up on the top of the wall, on each
side, leaning against each other at their other
ends: and to hinder them from sliding out
at the bottom or thrusting out the walls, they
are fastened together by a long piece of wood
called a tie-beam. The pairs of rafters are
joined by smaller pieces of wood, on which
is fastened the covering, which, with what
upholds it,’ is called the roof; the top of
which is the ridge, and the bottom edges the
eaves. When the covering is of plants or
stalks of plants, it is called thatch: sometimes
it is made of thin flat wood called boards—
sometimes of thin pieces of burnt brick-earth
called tiles—and sometimes of thin pieces of -
stone called slates. When the covering is of
a kind that the rain dees not run readily off
it, the rafters must meet at the ridge at a more |
acute angle, which makes what is called the
pitch of the roof so much the higher—thatch
must have a higher pitch than tiles or slates,
ON DWELLINGS. 17



Openings are left in the walls of buildings
for windows and doors. What is above these —
As upheld by pieces of wood or stone, called
tintels: but the same may be done by mak-
ing the opening at the top of the door or
window an arch. ‘This is done by making
something, for the time, with an arched top,
called a centre, to uphold the stones or bricks,
which must be carefully laid on it, rising from
each side one row after another, till they meet -
at the top and are closed by the top row called
keystones. 'Then the centre may be taken
away, and the arch will remain to uphold
what is to be built above. Arched roofs of
stone or brick may be made in a like way.
But the main use of arches is, to make bridges
or ways over rivers, as they can be made very
wide and very strong, where fit centres can
be made to build them on.

The art of the mason (or builder with
2

HS: . ON DWELLINGS.

stones) is to make his matter for his work, to
use it in a like way with the bricklayer (or
builder with bricks). But the stones made
cubical or rectangular, like bricks, are the
best for building with: yet good and strong
walls may be made of unwrought stones, by
laying them in layers as level as may be, with
plenty of mortar between the layets and be-
tween each stone in the layers. It is useful
thatthe chimneys (or pipesthrough which the
smoke rises out of the house from the’ fire-
places) should be made of bricks ; and also
often the inside walls, or walls between one

room and another, though the honse be”

made.of stone.

LESSON IL
On Pottery.



Dwe t.ines serve to shelter mankind from
bad weather : but vessels are w anting to keep
matters for food in, and to make it ready ;
and also for cleaning and for washing in.
ON POTTERY. 19

\ s
‘Pottery vessels are fit for these doings ; and
the materials and means for using them may
be had almost every where.



Vessels made of brick-earth or clay harden-
ed by fire, after much fining and kneading,
are called Pottery. By kneading the brick-
earth or clay with very much-water, and then
putting to it still more water, and stirring

itand mixing it much, till the whole becomes
like muddy water; then letting it rest for a
little time, that the coarsest parts may sink —
to the bottom; then removing the muddy
watery part to a place where the water may
be dried, or steamed away by being heated ;
the fine clay left after much kneading again,
will be fit for making pottery.
It may then be figured by the hands into
~ such potsor vesselsas are wanted. ‘These, after
20 ON POTTERY.

being dried in the air, may be baked or burn-
ed in ovens or kilns, a great many together,
being kept from touching the fuel, or one
another, by guards called sagars, which are
mainly made of coarser matters which. have
before been burned.

After the pottery has so been burned, it is
called biscuit: being in the state of bricks or
tiles, it is not well fitted for holding water
or watery matters:—but this is helped by gla-
zing. which is done by burning them again,
when common salt is mixed with the fuel,
which hardens and glazes over the surfaces
of the vessels, so that they are fitto hold any
kind of watery matter. There are other
ways of glazing pottery, by mixing together,
some rusts of metals, and some salts with water
and powder of flints which have been burnt
and bruised. Flints are very hard stones,
through thin pieces of which, light may be
seen. The biscuit being dipped into a watery
mixture of these, so that the surface be co-
vered with it in a very thin layer, by being
burnt again it will be glazed. The glazing
by common salt is the most useful, though —
by some of the other matters the pottery may
be made to look better,
ON POTTERY. 21

Pottery vessels so made, may be used not
only to hold and keep watery matters as well
as other matters, ea to melt, boil, and bake
them in.

Pottery may be figured by the hands alone,
or by moulds. But the most ready way of
making the most useful vessels is by having
an upright axle, with a broad flat top, run-
ning ina groove or hole at the bottom, not
far above which is fastened a rim, by which
the workman (or potter )turns the axle round
with his foot. Having put on the middle of
the top a piece of clay ready for figuring, he
presses the middle of it with one hand and
the outside of it with the other, while he
turns the axle or wheel round; and so makes
round vessels of any useful height and width:
pieces of wood may be used in either or
both hands to help. When finished in the
figure wanted, the vessel is cut from the top
by athin tool; and handles and spouts of the
same clay may be readily fastened on before
drying, or spouts made by bending in fit
places the edges of the vessels.

That vessels may be easily cleaned, they
should be made smooth both on the outside
and on the inside; and though at the bot-
ek oie ee eee ae et, eee



Se Ea Se ee TED ge TAS PP aE Ota e RG tee a EP Beate See gr mee Bin ee

OO BASKETS. «

*

toms they be made flat for them to stand,

yet the inside should be made evenly smooth,
without an angle. Such as are to be used

for boiling, or baking, or melting, should
be as evenly thick as may be, that they may:

notreadily break with the heat. Such as are

deeper than the length of the fingers, should
be made wide enough at the mouth to let

’ the hand in to clean them ; excepting such

as are to be used for matters which are to be
closely stopped up; and the narrow-topped
ones used for such things had better be made
like hollow cones, that they may be easily
cleaned.



The vessels of pottery are well suited for
holding watery matters; but for holding
and carrying things which are dry, useful
vessels called baskets maybe made. Fix, at
small distances’ from each other, in the fi-
gure and size wanted, long pieces of light
and tough wood, of such a strength as not to


BASKETS. 23

be broken by the loads meant to be carried ;
then take long, small, tough branches or
twigs, and putting one end of the branch
between two of the fixed pieces, and keep-
‘ing the end there, pass the twig half round
one of the fixed picces, putting it in between _
. that and the next fixed piece; then, bending
it back again, between that and the next to
it; and going on, in the same way, first
round one side of one, then round the other
side of the next fixed piece, till the end of
the twig be come to: then take another twig,
and laying the end of it upon that which
has been last handled of the other in between
the fixed pieces, bend it backward and for-
ward, and ‘in between the fixed pieces, as
’ before, which is called watfling : then wattle
in- more twigs, round and round, the second.
layer and every other layer crossing the first
in between the fixed pieces, and pressing the
twigs of one round close upon those of the
other, tll the ends of the fixed pieces be come
to;—and they will be found to be all well
fastened togcther, and making a basket,
Handles may be fastened on at suitable
places ; or holes left in the wattling, at some
of BOXES.
layers from the top, to let the hands in to
lift the basket by.



Such, Hicaen fit for r Hold and carrying
many things, are not fit for holding and car-
rying things that are in powder or bruised
‘into small pieces, which would pass through
the wattling. To hold and carry such, make
boxes, by fastening together at their edges,
pieces of wood sawed flat and thin, called
boards, and so inclosea three-cornered space,
with three boards at the sides and one at the
bottom; or asquareor reciangled space, with
four at the sides and one at the bottom, leay-
ing the top open, which may be covered
by like boards, for a lid.—Handles may be
fastened on, or holes made in fitting places,
to lift by.

-
HAND“BARROW. 25



To carry loads or things that would. be
too heavy for one workman, whand- barrow r

may beused. It is made of two pieces of wood,
about six times a man’s foot-length long, of
a thickness at the ends readily to be grasped
by the hands of the workmen, and the rest of
a thickness and strength suited to bear the
loads. These are to be joined by flat pieces:
of wood, or-boards, of about four of a man’s
foot-length long, being fastened at their ends,
26 ON TILLAGE.

- LESSON: IV.~—
On Tillag=



earth brings forth and maintains,

Many animals are fit for food, and many
seeds, and rocts, and leaves, and fruits of
herbs and of trees.

The earth may be made to bring forth
more and better food by tillage and care;
choosing what is most fit for food as being
eaithfil and well tasted; and not only site
as is to be used now, but some that will bear
to be kept for after use.

The best is corn; of which there are many

i
é
Â¥
%

Manxiyp get their food from what the

Sy

kinds, the best being wheat. Corn, when
ON TILLAGE. ile

bruised into a powder called meal, and mix-
ed with water into.a paste, and kneaded and
baked, becomes bread ;—food fit for all man-
kind.

But corn will not grow to be good with-

out tillage, making the earth fit for it, and.

taking care that it be not hurt while growing
by animals, or useless herbs growing among
it. Therefore the place where corn or other

useful herbs are reared, should be either

watched or fenced.

The main work in tillage is loosening the
earth on the surface as deep as is fit for the
roots of the herbs-to be reared ; and break-
ing the lumps or clods, and killing the use-
less herbs, or weeds, where doing harm. The
plough is the best tool for doing this, where
there is a great deal to be done for rearing
corn Swbut a plough must have labouring
~ animals to work it. And there are other herbs
fit for food,.of which enough may be reared

by the handwork of mankind only; such

are potatoes, the root of which may be kept

along time, and when put for a little while

to a heat not less than that of boiling water,

will do instead of meal of corn and bread,
cg

a
28

“IMPLEMENTS FOR TILLAGE.



ON TILLAGE.


w

ON TILLAGE. 29

- There are hand tools useful in this tillage.
To break up the earth when hard, a mat-
tock is useful. It hasa long strong head about
the length of a man’s leg, and in the mid-
dle about the thickness of his wrist, with a
hole there, in which is fastened the handle,
about half as long again as the head, which
tapers from the middle to a sharp point at
one end, and to a flat edge perpendicular to
the handle, at the other; both ends being
bent a little toward the handle, which is of
a thickness to be easily grasped, and is made
of strong and tough wood.

Where the earth is not so hard, the work
may be quicker done by a spade, with a
rectangular mouth of flattened iron, about
the breadth of a man’sfoot’s length, and about
half as long again, having the edge of one
end sharpened: at the middle of the other
end is a strong sheath, or socket, wherein a
strong handle of tough wood is fastened,
. about three times the length of the breadth
of the mouth; having across the top a short
* piece about the length of a breadth and a
half of a man’s hand; and both it and the
handle of a thickness that may be easily
grasped ; or better with the hole at the top
30 ON TILLAGE.

like a segment, its chord being the part to
take hold of. At the top of the mouth, on
each side of the handle, there is room to put
the foot on to help to. dig by pressing the
spade into the earth. The mouth is a little
curved; and the hollow of the curve is call-
ed the front, and the other side the back.
When the spade is pressed into the earth, by
pushing back and downward the handle,
what is before the spade may be lifted on it,
and turned upside down, and chopped by it
into small pieces; and the weeds on it being
covered will rot and become manure, which
helps the earth to bring forth more and bet-
ter things, and to maintain them better.

To make the earth still smaller, and fit it
for smaller seeds, a rake is useful, which has
a long handle, about twice the length of
that of a spade, of light wood, fastened into
the iron socket of an iron head, at right an-
gles to it, about three times the length of a
man’s foot: into this head are fastened, at
equal distances, about ten small iron spikes,
called its teeth, about a hand-breadth long,
at right angles to it, and at right angles to
the handle: this serves, beside breaking the
clods, to gather off from the surface dug,
ON TILLAGE. on

any useless or hurtful thing, leaving the use-
ful earth behind.

Small seeds are evenly scattered, or sown;
larger seeds, and roots, and young herbs, are |
set into the earth one by one, or, as it is
called, planted. 4

A hoe has a handle of light wood, about
the length of that of a spade, fastened into
an iron socket, on the middle of a segment
of flattened iron, whereof the sharpened edge
is as its chord; this segment or head of the
hoe is a little rounded off at the corners, and
is bent a little toward the handle; and is
used in chopping up weeds or useless young
herbs, or when too many come forth ; and in
heaping the earth up toward the growing
plants.



A tool very useful for cutting and split-
ting wood is an ave; the head is of iron,
and the handle of strong tough wood: the
head is about a hand-breadth and a half
broad, and about two hand-breadths long,
and about a finger-breadth in thickness, slo-
ped off to a sharp edge at one end: it tapers
in breadth from the edge to a little less than
a hand-breadth at the other end, wherein is
32 ON TILLAGE.

a socket, throughout the breadth, in which
the handle is fixed, which is about two and
a half.of a foot-length long, and of a thick-
ness easy. to be grasped. ‘The head is square
on the end opposite the edge, that it may be
used to, knock with; the edge is used to
chop with.

To cut wood evenly into thin pieces, or.
large pieces quickly and evenly across, a
handsaw is useful. It is made of iron with
a wooden handle; the iron is about two and
a half feet long, and about one and a half
hand-breadth broad at the handle, tapering -

to a little less than a hand-breadth at the other
end. All along one edge and close to one

another, are teeth, the points sloping, with
one edge sharp, from the handle, made by
cutting out notches in the iron; and one
after another they are all bent a little to the.
different sides. The handle is made of strong
hard wood, which does not readily split, of
nearly two hands breadth square, with a hole
in it large enough for the fingers to go into
it readily, and rounded at. the side opposite
the end, that it may be easily grasped. ‘The
_ handsaw is used by rubbing the teeth on the
part where the wood is to be cut, the work-
ON TILLAGE. 33°

man pressing it down a little, and pushing
it strongly from him.



A man may rear much food by the help
of these tools ; and mainly potatoes, which are
the knob roots of an herb, and grow best
from these knob roots being put into earth
made fit for rearing them: they are unevenly
ball-like, with many small hollows on the
surface, out of which the branch and root
of the young herb grow.

In parting a potatoe to be set into the
earth, or planted, care is to be taken that lwo
or three of these hollows be in each part.
They grow best in dry earth, which has more
of sand and rotten herbs in it than of clay.
Manure too will help them to grow well.
Almost every thing when rotten becomes
useful for manure; and all kinds of filth,
that which comes from animals being the
best: therefore all matters of the kind should
be often gathered and laid into a heap, which
helps to make them into better manure. Do-
ing this will make other places clean, andso
the more healthful; and if the manure heap
be covered with earth, it will hinder bad-
smells, and its goodness from being wasted

c5
8A ON TILLAGE.

in the air, By mixing different kinds of filth
well together the whole will be made better
manure. The ashes of most kinds of fuel
are good manure: if the fuel be of wood or
herbs, or of earth mixed with roots of herbs,
the ashes, till they be used for manuring,
should be put ina dry place and sheltered
from wet.

Some plants need manure that is more
rotten than othersdo. That which is light,
and not very rotten, and not very wet, does
best for potatoes.

When the earth is made ready (by digging )
for planting them, a straight trench, or long
hole, is made with a spade, and, if the earth
be of a very dry and light kind, the sets, or
parts cut for seed, whence the new plants are -
to come, are laid along the bottom of it, at
about a man’s foot-length from each other ;
then upon them some manure is laid, which
is then to be covered with earth. Then, at
the distance of two foot-lengths from each
other, more straight trenches are made, and
gone on with in alike way. If the earth be
not of a light or very dry kind, the manure
should be laid at the bottom, and the sets
ON TILLAGE, 35

upon it, and covered withearth, Ifthe earth
be heavy and wettish, the manure should be
laid both below and above the sets, covering
“with earth; and the manure may be used
when less rotten and more dry. The young
plants will come up in rows :—hoe up the
weeds, which will help to loosen the earth ;
and, when the weeds are dead, hoe up the
earth toward the plants from the sides of the
rows. Potatoes may be eaten before they be
fully ripe, but it is wasteful to do so. There
are early kinds, that should be first used ; and
later kinds, to be reared for keeping for winter
and after-eating,

Potatoes are very good for food; and be-
_ Ing, like bread, of little taste themselves, will
readily take and give the taste of any thing
mixed with them.



Onions are the roots of another kind of
herbs, and have much taste, and will readily -
give it to any other food they are mixed
with.

Onions are reared from seeds which grow
on the top of the plant. To rear them the
earth should be well dug, and the clods much
broken, and much yery rotten manure, co-
36 ON TILLAGE.

vered nearly a man’s foot-length deep in it;
and, after it is so made ready with the spade,
_ the surface should be marked out by paths
of about a spade and a half breadth wide,
into parts; or beds, about five foot-lengths
broad, taking with the spade, in marking
' the paths, about a hand breadth deep of earth,
and spreading it upon the beds, the sur- :
faces of which are to be made even with the
rake ; and then the seed to be evenly scat-
tered, or sown, upon them, and evenly pressed
down with the feet of the workman; and
then well raked. The seed should be sown
when the earth will readily break with the
rake, and so dry that it will not stick to the
fect or rake.

When the plants come up, the weeds, and
smallest plants, where too many are too hear
together, are to be picked away with the
hand.

There are a great many more kinds of ©
herbs fit for food, which are to be made better
by tillage and care; some to which hot coun-
tries, and some to which cold ones are suited.

~But there are not many countries so,hot or
so cold as not to be suited for bringing forth
potatoes and onions,
ON TILLAGE. 37

Both potatoes and onions may be kept a
long time after being taken from the -earth,
in a dry cool place, and from frost.

All that is fenced need not be used for
potatoes and onions only: other herbs may
be reared there beside, which are fit for
food.





LESSON V.
On Tame Animals for Food.

Ir more than the earth fenced in is to be had,
it will likely without tillage bring forth food
for some tame animals, from which-may be
had food of their eggs, or milk, or flesh, fit
for mankind.
Like comes from like; and the young of
every pair of animals will not only be of the
‘same kind, but, almost always, will be more
like the pair they come from than any others
ofthe same kind. So pairs to have young
ones from, or to breed from, ought to be the
best of the kind to be had; and when both
cannot be had good, and one may, that one
should be had, :
38 _ ON TAME ANIMALS



Se = a

Cock is the name of the male, and hen of
the female of a useful kind of tame birds.
They feed chiefly on corn and the seeds of:
herbs; and on some roots, and some insects.
"They will seek food for themselves, and so
pick up much that would otherwise be lost;
they will eat also of many kinds of the refuse -
of the food of mankind. Good water should
be near for them. There need be ‘only one /
cock to six or seven hens, Hens brood, or
sit upon their eggs to bring forth young,
about twenty-one days, Old hens are the
better brooders, and young hens the better
layers of eggs. Hens to lay many eggs should
not at the laying time be made fat,
FOR FOOD. 39






Ducks are birds which live much in water;
they feed on the same things as hens do ;
and also much on insects, matters they get
from water, and from mud, and on dead
animal matters, which readily fattens them.
The male of the female duckis called a drake.
One drake is needful to four or five ducks.
The duck broods about thirty days.



Geese are birds which also live much in -
water. The male is called a gander, the fe-
male a goose. There should not be above four
or five geese to a gander. They feed on grass
_ or the seeds of grass, and on corn, and onmat-
AO ON TAME ANIMALS

ters which they get in the water and in mud.
A goose broods about twenty-eight days.
All the three kinds should have places of
shelter made for them to come to at night
and in bad weather, where nests, or sitting
places, should be made for them to lay their
- eggs and brood in. The nest should be made
of the dry stalks of corn, or straw, or of the
dry stalks and leaves of other herbs; and a
little hollow, so that the eggs may not roll
out when turned or moved by the birds. The
nests of ducks and geese and brooding hens
should be near to the earth; but those for
hens to Jay their eggs in may be higher ;
and cocks and hens should have long small
poles laid across their houses to roost or
sleep on, at some height from the earth. The
houses of all should be kept clean; and, by
often taking away the dirtied,.and putting in
clean straw or dried herbage, much good
manure may be gathered. That from cocks
and hens is very good and strong, and should
be mixed with weaker. Those of each kind,
chosen for breeding from, should be plump
on the breast, and on the sides behind the
wings; and the females should be good lay-
FOR FOOD. Al

ers of eggs, Hens and ducks will lay many
more eggs than they can brood upon ; but
geese hardly ever more, Eleven or thirteen
eggs are the number that these females best
broodupon; and, when brooding, they should
have food and water and some sand placed
near, that they may not be long off their nests
to seek food. When the young come forth, —
they and the old one should not be let go far
from shelter till the young have got strength
to follow to a distance. .

Eggs may be eaten alone or mixed with
many other kinds of food: and the flesh of
all the three kinds of birds is best when full
grown, but before the young ones be a year
old. Many other kinds of birds may be
tamed, but none so usefully.



Pig eons ae a kind of birds that may be
tamed, and will find food for themselves >
and the young are food for mankind. But
\

42 ON TAME ANIMALS

they should not be kept where they can
get at corn, or they will do much harm.
Their dwelling should be made high with
many nests on the side of it, and should
be kept very clean, Their dung is a very
strong manure, and may be well mixed
with weaker kinds before it be put into the
earth, There are many kinds of pigeons;
that which is most like the stockdove kind is
the best for food. They brood many times
in a year, on two eggs at a time. They like
podded corn, or pulse, better than any other
food.

After earth has keen once dug over, a
man may afterwards, year after year, dig so —
much of it in about forty days as will bring
forth potatoes to serve five persons for food,
instead of bread, for a year, if there be the
means of gelting the quantity of manure
needful, and the kind of earth be commonly
good,

Where some more grass growing earth
may be had, though not fenced, in the neigh-
bourhood of a dwelling, other animals very
useful for food may be kept.
FOR FOOD. A3



Of these the kind easiest to be reared are
hogs. The males are called boars, and the
females sows. They will feed and fatten
upon almost any kind of food, and seek it
for themselves ; they will eat roots, and
leaves, and stalks, and seeds, and fruits of
_ herbs and of trees, and almost any kind of

animal matter, dead or alive. If there be
plenty for them to get, larger-sized ones or
greater numbers may be kept: if there be
little for them, a smaller kind; if very little,
only one small one. But, living on the same
kind of food as cocks and hens, and ducks
and geese, a hog may leave too little for
them. Hogs like ructs of many herbs: they
have a hard and strong nose, by which they
_ pierce the earth to get at them; so the hog
often does harm where the surface of the
earth should not be broken; to hinder this,
a piece of iron should be put through the
AA ON TAME ANIMALS

hard part of the nose and fastened there;
but then this takes away sO much of their
means of getting food. Care should be ta-
ken of the young of hens, ducks, and geese,
_ or hogs will eat them. A hog often does

harm too in breaking fences; a pole fastened
across his neck will hinder him.

There are different kinds of hogs of diffe-
rent sizes; but of whatever kind or size, the
best are those which haye, for their size,
small and short legs, a small tail, small ears,
and small nose, little hair, thin skin, short
neck, and short round-made body from be-
fore the shoulders to behind the buttocks
or hams. Hogs with these marks are more
healthy, and feed and fatten on less focd
than those of other makes, An hog-stye, or
house for hogs, should have one part of the
floor higher than the other, and on the high-
er the bedding should be laid, and this part
of the stye should be kept very clean to make
it healthful; and the other part should be
often cleaned for the manure in it. Hogs
should be kept from great cold, and care-
fully so when young. There need be but
one boar to many sows. young about four months, and will have
FOR FOOD. Ad

from eight to twélve young ones at a time,
and that twice or thrice a-year; so, few
breeding hogs need be kept; and the rest, to
make them more quiet, and to fatten faster,
and their flesh better, should, when young,
he maimed so that they cannot breed.



ee

If they do not of themselves get food to
make them fat before they are to be killed,
they must be put up in a stye, and fed there
till they be fat; for this stye-feeding, coarse
or refuse corn, if to be had, will do best; if.
not, potatoes, or other roots boiled; if not
these, boiled herbs and the refuse of man-
kind’s food.

Hogs are killed by sticking in the throat; —
the blood is kept to be cooked, or fitted for
food: then the hair is slightly burnt or
singed off, or scraped off after scalding, or
having boiling water poured upon it; or
the skin may be taken off with aknife: then
the entrails are taken out, and the flesh left
to cool and stiffen before it be cut into use-
ful pieces. Hogs-flesh is called pork if it be
not dried; when dried it is bacon. If eaten
soon after killing it need not be salted; but,
if to be kept for some time before it be eaten,
A6 | ON TAME ANIMALS

it must be well salted, by rubbing salt upow
each piece and sprinkling salt upon it after-
ward: if itbe to be kept a long time, it
must be well salted and hung up in a dry
place for bacon.

The best way of making use of a fat hog
will be to make as much of it as may be into
bacon, as a small piece of bacon will make
potatoes, or any thing else more tasteful than
a larger piece of pork. 'The lard, or loose
fat in the inside, should be carefully gather-
ed together, and put into a vessel set into
water in another vessel, and the water be
made to boil till.all the lard be melted; when
it is to be put into skinny hollow vessels of
the entrails, after their being well cleaned ;
then closely tied up from the air and kept
for use. It will thus keep good a long time,
a small part being énough to make much
potatoes or other such food tasteful. Mixing —
some of the lard and bloed with meal, and
filling other skinny vessels of the entrails with
the mixture, and tying up from the air, and
boiling, makes good food, which may be long
so kept; which may be also done by mixing
some lard and other parts of the entrails,
chopped small and well salted, and tied from
FOR FOOD. AN’

the air in the skinny vessels. So, very little
of the hog will be useless after death, though
during life care be needful that it do no
harm.



Another animal which maintains itself
well is the goat. The goat’s flesh is not good,
yet when salted and dried it is eatable; but
the flesh of a kid, or young goat, is very
good food; and the females bring forth
twice a year, having two and sometimes three
kids at a time. The milk of the goat is good
food; as is the cheese made of it. Milk is
curdled by putting something sour into it
when alittle warmed; then pressing the curd

into a hard matter, and salting it while dry-

ing, it becomes cheese ; which is very taste-
ful food, and will keep good a long time.
There need be only one male to above a
hundred females; so, very few male kids need
be kept to be full grown. Goats, male and


A8 ON TAME ANIMALS

female, should haye small legs and small
heads, their bodies should be straight and
broad on the back, with large and fully
rounded thighs and thick shoulders, and
their bellies straight; the females should have

large dugs. Besidemilk and kid’s flesh, which |

are got from goats, their skins with the hair |

on may be made into clothing; or the hair
may be taken off and twisted and made into
clothing ; and the skins without the hair, by
laying them for some time in water with
oaken_bark, or other matters suitable for tan-
ning, may be turned into tough soft leather,
and will be fit for some kinds of clothing.

Goats need not much care, and yet it is
well for them to havea place of shelter to
_ come to, for the manure they make: they must
not haveany bedding, but the Place must be
often cleaned.

Goats can get food in places very hilly
and very rocky, where it cannot be come at
by other animals that might feed upon it;
and they eat some kinds of food which other
‘animals do not eat. ‘They feed mainly on
the young branches of trees, and on coarse
herbs which other animals do not eat; so
great care should be taken that they do no
FOR Foob. AX

harm to fruit-trees and plants that are useful.

In countries where there is very bad weather

in the winter, (before which all the kids not
to be kept for breeders should be killed)

“some herbs should be gathered and dried fer”

them, and kept for after food.

Tf more and better herbage can be got than
is enough for some goats, then they may be
given up, and a cow got instead. A cow may
be fed in the summer time without any part
of the herbage being fenced off; but it were
better that some be fenced off, and made into
two parts with a fence between them; one
- of these should be a meadow, wherein the
herbage is allowed to grow till it be mostly
in flower; when it should be cut down, and
dried, when it becomes hay; and must be
heaped together as tight as may be, and co-
vered from the wet, and kept for winter
food for ithe cow; which in the summer
feeds on the herbage of the other part, then
called pasture. The next year the pasture
should be meadow and the meadow pasture,
and so change every year. The grass which
grows in the meadow after the hay is taken
offiscalled aftermath; which, in places where

herbage grows fast, may be again cut and .

D

Ps
50 . ON TAME ANIMALS

made into hay; and the second aftermath
may grow some food for the cow.

The herbage of a meadow is best cut with
a scythe, made of a thin piece of iron, about
‘‘a man’s handbreadth broad, and about four ~
times the length of a man’s foot long ; and in
thickness about a finger’s breadthat the back,
tapering to a sharp edge on the other side,
and curved a little toward the point. ‘The
haft, being a pole of light wood about twice ~
the length of the iron part, is fastened ta one
_ end, so that when the scythe iron is lying flat
_on the earth, the pole slopes toward the other
end of the iron, and also toward the edge.
The back tapers off at the other end to a
point at the edge. Perpendicular to the
pole are two handles, which are fastened to
rings which go round the pole, and may be~
fixed at such places and distances as suit the
workman ; who, holding by these handies,
puts the point of the scythe about a foot-
length into the meadow, and keeping the
iron of the scythe flat to the earth, swings it
from right to left, and so cuts, or mows, the
herbage, and gathers it heaped in rows to-
ward his left hand ; mowing about a foot’s
Jength at a time, ina curve about six foot-
FOR FOOD. : 5]

lengths long, (the distance between the
rows, ) he mows down the whole meadow.
_ The heaped rows are afterward spread abroad
to dry and wither; and so made into hay; .
and raked clean off the earth.



A cow is the female, and a bull, the male



of a kind of animals the most useful of all

others to mankind. The cow gives very
much milk of the very best kind, and is of
the most healthful kinds of food. If cows’
milk be put into vessels and left to rest a
little while, ‘a yellowish white matter comes
to the top, called cream; it is thicker than
the milk below, which has become of a blue
D2


52 ON TAME ANIMALS

ish white. Cream, by being much stirred,

parts into two kinds of matter ; utter, a yel-

lowish, oily, lumpy matter; and butter milk,

a smooth curdlike milky matter. The but-

‘ter must be well washed and kneaded in wa-

ter till all the milk be pressed out of it. There

are very few of mankind who do not like

butter very much; and it gives a taste that

is liked to a very great many other kinds of

food. By mixing butter well with salt it~
may be kept good many months.
ter milk is fit for food ; as also the blue milk,

that is left after the cream is taken off. By

mixing some watery sour matter with milk,

a little warmed, it parts into curd, a white

lumpy matter; and into whey, a watery, yel-

lowish ereen matter ; both of which are fit

for food, Curds when very much broken,

and very hard pressed into moulds, or cheese- -
vats, and salted and dried, become cheese,
which may be kept good for food for a year
or two. Cheese made of milk while the
cream is yet in it, is better liked.



There are many kinds and many. sizes
of bulls and cows. -Of whatever kind, the
best have small heads; and if they have horns,
FOR FOOD. : 53

small horns, thin necks, small Jegs, thin and
soft skins, broad breasts, straight and broad
backs, full fleshed behind the shoulders on
the top, and the ribs rounding much out.
The cow should have a large udder. ‘There
need be but one bull to’: many cows; a cow
goes with young about forty weeks ; and, af-
ter the birth of her young, called’a calf, will
give milk till within a little time of her hav-
ing a calf again. There should be a cow- —
house for shelter, and bedding of straw or
other dried plants; and by keeping the house
clean, whic!: will be healthful to the cow,
much good manure will be had.

As few bulls are needful, most of the male
calves, when young, are so maimed as to
hinder them from breeding. Thus a calf
will become tamer, and may more readily be
taught to become a beast of labour. When
full grown he is called an Ox. He more
readily fattens, and his flesh becomes better
food.

The flesh of bulls and cows and oxenis call-
ed beef. Cow and ox beef are very good, but
bull beef is very hard and tough. When any
of the kind ere killed, the flesh, fat, blood,
and entrails are used much in the same way
5A ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

as those of hogs; but the loose fat among
the entrails, instead of lard is called tallow :
and, beside being put to the like uses as the
lard of hogs, it may be made into candles, by
putting picces. of long spongy plants, or long
pieces of small stringy plants twisted toge-
ther and called wicks, into melted tallow,
and leiting it stiffen and cool on the wicks;
then when cool putting them in again; and
letting what sticks stiffen, and cool; and
so on again till the tallow becomes on the
wicks, of such a thickness that they will burn
evenly together when the wick is set on fire;
which will give light in dark places, and
may be easily carried where wanted. The
skin, being much stronger and thicker than
that of goats, takes a much longer time in
tanning, and is chiefly useful where very
strong clothing is needful for the fect.

palatell Gta StS ea a



LESSON VI.

On Beasts of Labour.
Manxinp may get great help in drawing and
carrying matters, by teaching some animals
to become beasts of labour.—An ox may be
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 5d

taught to carry and to draw heavy loads—
what is carried or drawn-is called a load.
But the ox ought not to be made to labour
till he be three years old; and if he be of a
fit thriving kind, it will be better to kill him
for food then, than to keep him for work or
Jabour: for though he be strong, he is slow
and he eats a great deal of good food, which
would be better turned into milk by being
given to cows. He must not be wrought
long at a time, for he has not only to eat and
to sleep, but must rest to chew the cud.
Horns are worse than useless on beasts of
- labour.



There are oxen without; horns: but it is
better to have asses to do the work of an ox:
_and though the ass be not nearly so strong,

yet the number fit to do the same work will -

be more easily maintained than the ox; for
an ass will live chiefly upon matters refused
56 - ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

by other animals; and, according to its size
and the quantity of food it does eat, it is much
stronger than the ox. An ass ismore healthy
and not so likely to be lamed as an ox. It
may be wrought longer at a time, and a
great deal longer on the whole throughout
the day. It may take four asses to carry as
much, or to draw as much, as an ox: but
four asses will not eat so much food as one
ox, and not nearly so much of the good food
which makés milk when eaten by cows. The
cloyen foot of the ox is often hurt by stones
or other hard matters getting into the cleft,
which does not happen to the uncloven foot
of the ass.. Each foot of an ox has to bear
about four times the weight of each foot of
four asses, and therefore the ox is more like-
ly to be harmed by often treading and draw-
ing, than the ass. If cne foot of an ox be
lamed, all his work is stopped; but if one
ass be lamed there are still three others fit
for work. It does not need the whole strength
of an ox to do every kind of work. One or
two asses may do much that is to be done,
’ while the others rest. “ But if the strength of
one leg only of an ox be wanted, the other
legs are wearied at the same time.
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 57

The best made asses are those which have
the smallest heads and necks, widest breasts,
highest shoulders, straightest backs, broadest
Joins, roundest sides, and straightest and
strongest legs. The ass goes with young
eleven months, and should not be hard work-
ed when near the time of her bringing forth.
The milk of asses.is not often used for food ;
but is sometimes taken as a cure for some dis-
eases. a

Asses should have good clean water to
drink, and be well sheltered from bad weather
and great cold. When wrought they should
have plenty of food and be kept clean, and
much rubbed with straw or other. such matter.

Lest the load should hurt the back of. a
beast of labour, some soft matter should be
laid between the load and the back of the
beast: this should be made to fit and lie
evenly upon both sides of the back and ribs.
Some straw or other such matter twisted to-
, gether into a long thick string or rope, and
layers of the rope plaited or twisted and dou-
bled so as to fit the back and sides; or the
skin of some animal, or other such matter,
doubled and stuffed with straw or the like,

Dod
58 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

and made so as to fit, is called a pad. And
sometimes when the load is hard and likely
to hurt the beast by long pressing on one or
two parts only, some wood should be joined
together or cut out in such a way as to fit
upon the pad; so that when the hard load is
put upon the wood, the pad will press evenly
on the back and sides of the beast—the wood
so made with the pad fastened to the under
side of it is called a saddle. A pad or saddle
is fastened on the back of abeast by a flat
tie passing under the belly, called a girth:
and to prevent them moving too forward, a
tie is fastened to the hinder part and passed
under the upper end of the tail, whichis called
a crupper.

To guide a beast of labour, arope or thick
string, or a long flat piece of strong skin,
called a strap, about two finger breadths
broad, is fastened round the top of the head
behind the ears, and again round the lower
part of the head just above the mouth, a long
end being left loose to hold by ;—this is called.
a halter. When a piece of tough hard wood’
or iron is put into the mouth, and a rope or
strap fastened at each end of it, and passed
round the top of the head behind the ears, so
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 59

as to hinder the piece of wood or iron ( which
is-called the Dit) from coming out of the
mouth, and another long strap or rope( called
the rein) fastened too at each end of the bit,
for the guider to use, it is called a bridle, and
is better suited to guide with than a halter.
But a halter not being put into the mouth,
the beast can eat more easily ; and can with
it be fastened near his food to be ready when
wanted.



Beasts of labour ought not to be made to
work before they are three years old 3; but
the sooner they are taught, or trained to the
use of the halter and bridle, the better. They

may be trained to draw loads after them, by
haying a kind of pad made to fit round the
bottom of the neck fitted with wood or iron
in the front (called a collar); so that when
about the middle of the iron or wood on each
side, just where the jutting point of the ©
shoulderis, ropes or straps or such like (called
traces) are fastened, and are long enough to
be fastened to a load behind, and so fastened,
by leading or driving the beast forward, it
will thrust its breast and shoulders against the
collar, and draw the load, if not too heavy,
‘

60 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

after it. To hinder the traces from falling
down among the fect of the beast, they ought
to be upheld by a flat tie or strap passing
over the middle of the back: this is a back-
band, and is fastened at each of its ends to
the traces; and to hinder both traces from
sliding over to one side, a like tie or strap,
fastened in a like way, and passing u nder the
belly, is called a belly-band.



That different kinds of loads may be drawn
more easily, it is well to have a sledge made,
by joining together two long pieces of wood,
rounded on the under side of the front end
of each, and fastening them together by pieces
about three of a man’s foot-length long, ma-
king a flat on which all kinds of loads may
be laid: the traces being fastened to the
sledge at the rounded ends, the whole will be
more easily drawn forward, being made to
slide along -as the beasts are made to thrust
against their collars. -

But the rubbing of a sledge, whiere the
road is rough, is a great hindrance. So if
two longer pieces of wood, as long as the
sledge and the beast together, be joined as
in a sledge, by cross pieces from one end, as
_ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 61

far as about the length of the sledge, making
a flat for the lead to lie on, and have fastened
across, on the under side, about the middle
of the flat, astrong piece of wood, longer on
each side, so that a wheel may be fastened on
to any of its ends, which will thus become the
axles of the wheels on Which they turn,—a

Aa enti
a. 5
Ne










Cart will be made. And by fastening the
long pieces of wood, called the shafts, one
on each side of the beast, it will be able to
draw a much greater load than on the sledge,
ihe rolling of the wheels needing much less
strength to get forward ‘with, than the rub-
bing of the sledge. _



The height of the axle from the earth
should be about the height of the shoulder
point of the beast. But this height is too
great for wheels made from pieces sawn off
from round trees, as isdone for wheel-barrows:
62 - ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

therefore a piece of hard and tough wood is
made into what is called a nave, round or
cylindrical, abouta man’s foot-length in thick-
ness, and a man’s foot-length and a haif long,
a hole being made through the middle or
centre of the cylinder, which should be lined
with sockets of iron and the ends of it hooped
or encircled with hoops or flat rings of iron ;
and the axle ends, which are to fit into these,
should be made of iron or coyered with iron:
and, at equal distances round the middle of
the outside of the nave, should be made about
twelve holes, in which should be fastened
pieces. of strong and tough wood about
the thickness of a man’s wrist and about the
length of nearly half the height of the shoul-
der point of the beast which has oftenest to
draw the cart; all should be equally long—
they are called the spokes, and must be, at
their other ends, fixed into strong pieces of
wood, called the felloes, which, being seg-
ments of a circle, when all joined close toge-
ther at their ends make the circumference or
rim of the wheel, and should have iron fixed
onround the outedge of it. The better to carry
many kinds of loads, it is well to have the
flat of a sledge or cart wattled round, about
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 63

the height of a man’s leg, on the front and
two sides, with strong basket work, or boxed
so with flat pieces of wood or boards, the hind
part being a kind of moveable deor of board,



But where Te of Food f food can be had,
the beast of labour most useful to mankind is
the horse. There are horses of very different
sizes, measuring from the top of the shoulder
to the earth, from ten hand-breadths high to
sixteen. Those that are used mainly for
their going fast and nimbleness, are of a slim
make; and those used mainly for carrying
and drawing loads arestronger. Theseshould
have short legs; but the make of the bones
and sinews or stringy parts, as well as of the
fleshy or muscular parts of the limbs should
be seen through the skin (which is called
cleanness of make): the fore parts should be
upright, and the shoulder high ; with a short
thick body and broad Icins,
GA ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

They ought to be trained when young,
like asses, to the use of the halter and bridle
the pad and the saddle, and to draw and to
carry ; but not be made to labour till after
they are three years old.

They are not so hardy as asses, and must
have better kinds of focd; they will eat straw,
but should have good grass, and hay, and
corn: they must be well sheltered; and must
be kept’ very clean, and much rubbed when
wrought: theirharness,—as the traces, collars
and’ other things by which they carry and
draw, are called—islike thatof asses and other
beasts of labour, and should be made to fit
them well. And to these should be added
when in a cart a breech-band fastened to the
middle of the shafts on each side, passing
behind the buttocks, and upheld by a tie
over the back, to hinder a cart going too fast
down hill.

The mare, as the female of the horse is
called; goes with young a little more than
eleven months. Of asses and horses there
need be only one male to many females ; and
most male asses and horses, when young are
so maimed as to hinder them from breed-
ON BEASTS OF LABOUR. 65

‘ing, and it makes them more easily trained,
- and more quiet when working. :

JMules are a kind of animal, bred between
the horse and ass, and may: be trained to la-
bour, and managed in the same way.



To save the feet of beasts of labour, they |
should have flat pieces of iron for shoes fast-
ened to the under side of their hoofs, as the
thick hard matter (like the matter of nail, )
which covers their feet is called. The beasts
haye no feeling in it, more than mankind
have in the matter of their nails; and the
out edges of the hoofs are so thick, that, with
care, iron pins pointed, or nails coming
through holes in the iron, may be knocked
through them and fastened, by the points)
being taken offa little from the outside of the
hoof, and what remain above, bent down or
riveted on the outside; while the other ends
or heads-of the nails, being too large to come
through the iron, it is also made fast on the
under side. The shoes of oxen are thin flat
pieces of iron nailed on to the point, or toe,
on each side of the cleft of each hoof. The
shoes of horses, mules, and asses, are to be fit-
ed to each foot of each, and are to be put
66 ON BEASTS OF LABOUR.

round the under side of the foot where the
hoof is hard, but left without iron. behind.
According to the size of the hoof, the shoes
are from a finger’s breadth long, to two, and
froma quarter to half a finger’s breadth thick.



50 mankind may be greatly helped by
beasts of labour; and by many dwelling near
each other they may greatly help each
other: and all by carefully thinking may
greatly help themselves. When labouring
or resting, while awake, one may think: and
it is good to think of things, as to what they
are, and how they are, and how they do or
act, both as to the things themselyes and as
to other things: and when we so think we
think rightly; but, if we think of things as
they are not, or not as how they are, or not
as they do or act, we think wrongly.

Now we think most about things which
are near us, and which we often see ; and, if
we think carefully aboutthem, we are likely
to think rightly : but we think often of things
which we have not often seen, and of things
at a great distance, and of things which we
have only heard of; and it is not likely,
without great care, that we should think
~

CONCLUSION. 67

rightly about such. For there is but one
way to think rightly about a thing,—to think
of it as it is; but we may think wrongly
about it in every other way but that one. It
is only by thinking rightly about things that
we can think usefully ; for if we think right-
ly about many things we may be able to
make one thing act upon another so as to
do much good: and often the thinking
wrongly about some things does much harm ;
therefore we should be careful not to think
wrongly about them.
68

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS:

TO
A BOOK OF THE WORLD.

=a

By what are mankind better than other
animals ?

Can other animals do aught to serve in-
stead of speech ?

What is the main use of speech ?

To whom can thoughts be told ?

How are those out of hearing ta be told?

What is writing ?

How is writing known ?

‘What is reading ?

To whom-can what is written be made
known?

As there no other way of letting a still
«greater number of folks know in less time?
W hat is printing ?

What has come to pass since printing was
found out in places where it has been used?

What has come to pass in places where
the English language is known?

What usemay readers make of books w hich
teach knowledge ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 69

How is a straight line drawn?

What are the ends of a line?

How does a curve differ from a straight
line ? :

How musta line be bent to form a circle ?

Fiow is the centre of a circle known ?

What is a radius of a circle ?

What is the circumference of a circle ?

How may a semicircle be drawn?

Now if a wheel be shown to you, can you
point out which parts of it answer to the lines :
and figures you have just named ?

Low will one straight line make an angle
with another ?

How are right angles known ?

What is the difference between an acute
and aright angle—and between an obtuse
and a right angle ?

How must one straight line fall upon an-
other so that one may be perpendicular to the
other ?

What makes one phiaieny line parallel to
another ?

How many straight lines, and what sort
of straight lines, and what sert of angles,
make a square ?
70 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

What is the difference between a square
and an oblong ?

What is a triangle ?

How may a square be divided into two
triangles ?

Tell me some rooms, or show me some
boxes, which are squares, or oblongs; which
have right angles, or obtuse angles, or acute
angles ;—and_ now with this piece of string

_ show me the diagonal of this room, and tell

me what the figure is on each side of it?

What is an arch ?

What is the chord of an arch ?

What part of a circle is made by these
two?
- How may an ellipsis be drawn ?

What common object is it like ?

What is the name of a dice-shaped figure?
How many sides has it?

What figure is each of the sides?

What other likeness have the sides of a

cube?

Which part of a cube is the surface ?
Which part of a globe is surface 2.

What common objects are like a globe ? -
What figure is a telescope ?

What figure is each end of a cylinder ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

:

ee



Gi




792 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

In what manner is a cone formed, and
what common ebject is it like?

Which part is the base, and which the
apex ?

What object is like a pyramid ?

What figure is cach of the surfaces of a
pyramid ? ~

On what does a pyramid stand?

What is the top of a pyramid called?

Where ought dwellings to be fixed for
mankind P

What kind of dwellings may there be?

What had they better be made of ?

What is freestone ?

Chalk 2 -
' Limestone ?

Marble ?

How is mortar made?

How is it used ?

In places where fit stones cannot easily be
had, what is to be used instead of them ?

How are bricks made ?

How are buildings to be made with bricks?

How are houses to be covered or roofed ?

With what may houses be covered? —

How are windows and doors to be made?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. WSs

How is an arch to be made?

What i is the main use of an arch?

What is the best make of stones and eke
for building ?



What is the kind of vessels easiest made for
keeping food in and making it ready for eat~
ing?

Of what are pottery vessels made ?

How is the clay made ready ?

How are the vessels figured ?

How are they baked ?

How are they glazed?

Are there more ways than one of figuring
them ?

_ How is the potter’s wheel made?

How is it used ?

How ought vessels to be made to be easily
cleaned ?

How ought those to be made which have
to be greatly heated ?

Though pottery vessels are well suited for
holding watery matters, are there not others
better suited for holding and carrying mat-
ters that are dry ?
~ How are baskets made ?
4A EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

But baskets will let matters in powder or
in small parts go through them, what vessels
are fitted for such ?

‘ How are boxes made?

But how are things to be carried too heavy
for one? — .

How isa hand-barrow made ?

How is it to be used ?



From what do mankind get their food?

What things are fit for food ?

How may the earth be made to bring forth
good food?

What are the main matters aimed at by
tillage and care?

What is there now known as best worthy
choice ?

How is corn best made fit for food ?

How is good corn best come at ?

When a part is fenced and made sure from
harm by animals, and made ready for tillage,
—What is the main work in tillage?

- How is it best done?
How are ploughs worked ?

Is there no other way of tilling the earth

than by ploughing ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. "5

What is the best kind of food to be tilled
for, when only handy work can be used ?

How do potatoes do instead of corn?

What are the most useful tools for hand
tillage ?

What is a mattock, and its use?

A spade and its use?

A rake and its use ?

A hoe and its use ?

An axe and its use ?

A handsaw and its use ?

What are potatoes ?

How are they to be made ready for plant
ing?

What is the best kind of earth to plant
them in?

Can any thing be put to the earth to make
it better ?

What is manure ?

Does the same kind of manure suit all
kinds of plants ?

What kind best suits potatoes ?

How are potatoes to be planted ?

What is to be done to them while grow-
ing? :

How are potatoes good for food ?

E2
cw

76: EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

Are there any herbs which having much
taste can give it to other food ? '
How are onions reared ?
_ Are there no other herbs to be made bet.
ter by tillage? .
What Bona are potatoes and onions
suited to, as to heat and cold? —
- How are potatoes and onions to be kept
after being taken from the earth ?
What other use can be made of what is
fenced for tillage ?



Can no use be made of what is not fenced ?

What is the use of tame animals ?

What parts of tame animals are fit for
food for mankind ?

How are tame animals to be bred? ©

Speak of some of the most useful kinds ?.

Say what kind of. animals the cock and —
hen are? . :

Say of ducks ?

And of geese ?

How are all the kinds to be taken care of?

How are those to be chosen which are
best to breed from?

Howare they to bedone to w hen brooding : ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. Me

How are the young-ones to be done to? |

How are eggss useful for food? —

At what age is the flesh best for food ?

Are there other kinds of birds which may
be tamed ?

Speak as to pigeons ?

After so much earth as will bring forth
potatoes enough to serve five persons for
food instead of bread in a year, has been
fenced and once dug over—about how many
days will it take a man to dig it again ?

Where some more grass-growing earth can
be had, though unfenced ; what other useful
tame animals may be reared ?

Speak of hogs, their food, and way of liy-
ing?

What is the best make of a hog ?

Speak as to a hog-stye ?

How are hogs to be done to when young?

How are they to be fatted ?

How are they to be killed ?

What is to be done with the blood ?

What with the entrails ?

What with the flesh ?

What is pork?

What is bacon?
78. EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

What is the best way of making use of a
fat hog ?

Speak as to lard, and keeping it?

How is the blood to be made ready and
kept for food ?

And as to making ready and keeping the
entrails for food ?



_ What other animal will readily maintain
itself, and serve to make food for mankind in
unfenced places ?

_ Speak of the goat and its ee 2
_ What food is got from goats?

How is cheese made?

When is the flesh of goats best ?
» What is the best make of goats? _

What are their skins good for?

Speak of their food and way of living ?

How are they to be sheltered ?

What is to be done as to them in countries
where there is very bad weather in winter ?



If more and better herbage can be got
than is enough for goats, what better kind of
animal should be kept in their stead?

How is a cow to be maintained ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 79

’ What is a meadow ?
What is hay?
How is itmade?
What is pasture ?
What is aftermath ?
How is the herbage of a meadow best ati: ?
What is‘a scythe?
How is it used ?
What is the male of a cow called?
What food is got from a cow ? °
Speak of the milk?
Cream ?
Butter ?
Butter-milk ?
Blue milk ?
Curd?
Whey?
Cheese ?
What is the best make of the cow kind?
What is the young called?
Whatis a male calf when maimed so as to
prevent his breeding, and grown up, called?
How is an ox more useful?
What is the flesh of bulls, cows, and oxen
called ?
Which is the best kind of beef?

.
80 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

When killed—how are the flesh, fat, blood
and entrails used >
What is the lard-like fat called? —
What is the main use of tallow 2
_ How are candles made ?
What is the use of candles ?
To what uses are the skins put?



What animals can be taught to labour
and to help mankind to work?

How old should an ox be before he be
made to labour :

Can there be no better use made of an ox
at three years old ?

Why i is an ox not so fit to be Rept for la-
bour ?

Are there other animals that may be taught
to do much work which do not need sueh
good food and so much rest?

But is the ass as strong as an ox?

How many asses may it take to do the
work of an ox?

Why may four asses be reckoned better
beasts of labour than one ox?

What is the best make of an ass ?

- How ought asses for labour to be done to?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. 81

What is to be done to hinder a load from
hurting a beast of labour ?
. How is a pad made?

But some loads may be such as to hurt in
parts through a pad,—what must be used
then?

How is a saddle made ? ‘

How is a pad or saddle fastened on?

What is a girth?

How is a pad or. saddle hindered from
moving too forward ?

What is a crupper?

How is a beast of labour guided ?

What is a halter ?

Is there not a better way of guiding a
beast of labour than by a halter?

What is a bridle?

When is a halter to be used rather than.a
bridle ?

Can beasts of labour be taught to carry
loads only ?

By what can they draw loads after them?

What is a collar?

What are traces?

What a back-band ?

What a belly-band >
82 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

What is to be done when it is found that
some kinds of loadscannot bedrawn by traces
only ?

What is a sledge ?

But it will be very hard to draw a sledge
over yery rough places,— what is to be done
then ?

What is a cart?

‘How is a high wheel made ?

What are the different parts ofa wheel ?

What is the nave?

Spokes ?

Felloes?



Where better food than is needful for asses
can bé had, is there no kind of animal as
strong as an ox which can be taught to la-
bour ? ;

What is the best make of a horse for la-
‘bour ?

When and how is the horse to be taught
and made to labour ?

What is the female of the horse called?

Beside the ox and the ass and the horse,
are there any other animals often taught to
labour ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS. - 83°

What is a mule ?

How are the feet of beasts of labour saved
from harm on hard roads ?
' How are the shoes of asses, horses, and
mules, made and fastened on ?

Those of oxen ?



Beside the helps mankind get from beasts
of labour, whence can they be helped? ~
How can folks best help themselves ?
What is thinking rightly ?
_ What is thinking wrongly ?
How many ways are there to think right-
ly about a thing ?
How many to think wrongly abouta thing?

Tue Enp of Parr I.
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