A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants

Material Information

A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
[Washington, D.C
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
12 p. : ; 29 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides ( lcsh )
Rotenone -- Industrial applications ( lcsh )
Anoplura -- Control ( lcsh )
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 9-11) and indexes.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"June 1943 ; E-598."
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
030284459 ( ALEPH )
779468190 ( OCLC )

Full Text

lI. i g 9d,.j.. E-598



*l't C.>' By II. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Ivafiafin-
HL^a~oucbo MAU- ---- TOTLG --1-- 'T-- ----

WLs A n7---------------------

0i" Haenatornyidae- -- - --- - -2

^^ Ipn~t- 2edioulidae --- -- --- -- - -- --- 5
\4n^at^ecrt indlex----- ---- --- -- ------- -- --- ------
g -tLit.eratvre citbed -- --- -------
| 4|K^nior-au~hor index- --------- -- 12

leaders' --h manuscript of tihis publicatfion wacs read "by thne following
gjp'''la~esof research divisions of the Buroau, r'*ho contfri'butedc helpful
wu.ggestaon5: D. L. Van :e ruit Isect invesci:atiss; '. H. VIhite,

.A..S TicSk Crop aOnd Garden Insect IDvesti Tat ions; P. !, Karned,. Cotton"

p ":|.,.nsect .Investigatlons; F. C. B3ishopp, assistant chief or Bureau,
**a:: t toztrly1. charge of Insects Affecting Nan an'; .^; C. F. W.
..... uesebock, Insect Identification; L. A. a ins, Contro Invtira

t~y fions; and C, Ii. Paakard, Cereal and Poragc Insect" Irvesti nations,
i. "he assistance of. specialists in theoark, Division of Insectcide Invetidentification

in classifying -the insects mentioned -s to order ad fr -l- js
; ['... ;--U

gratefully acknowledged.
:f' ";"." .,. ., .

iV'' e-ntomyzidae 2
i!.'5 ia .topiznidae -

aret index

,,.Tnio r- a ,hr index- 1
/ .,;...-:..

.....: :"" /The m..u s c ript o f" ";is publication w~as read. by the foll!
.184::" ieders, of research divisions of' the ,Bure-au, .orbiue ',ll" "'u
pi uestions: D. L. Van Dine, Fruit In-sect Investi -t -,1As; 'i.. H. '.'ffite,
." ',.Traack Cro-p and Garden Insect Investifmtions R. ,V..,Har.,-,d, Cotton-
IA,,:ff.. In..s.e.c.... Investigations, F. C. Bishopp, assis tant chief oi" Bureau,

112 : .f(rery charge of insects Alffecting I.lan ant ,re-ip.I C. F. IN.
Nu f :; eseback, Insect Identificatior.; L. ~vi(ins, Control. inv-sti.-a-
t ions; and C. E/. Packard, Cereal and rora-gc Insect I,-esti:7a-Hons.
Th:':.'; ~ assistan-ce of specialists iLn the 1iiino.Isc dntfcto
&A ic lassif~ying th~e insects ment iorned. :---s "te order &,-"Jd far:,.i! v is
P rateftlly ackanwledged.

ILL :!':


.... ..... ..:
K .:, .
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.. . .... .." "...... ":'

2.- . ..:.

This is the fifth in a-series of papers designed to reviedw.-ll 1
available information on the insecticidal uses of rotenone and the ....... .
rotenoids. Part I reviewed tests with Derris, L.onchocarpus, Tephros5a, '
and Mundulea, and the products isolated from them, on members of the ;^.,?.
orders Collembola, Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Odonata, Isoptera, Corroden
and Mallophaga. Apparently no tests with the rotenone plants on Thysaa.|i
Ephemeroptera, or Plecoptera have been recorded. Part II reviewed th&" <':it
tests made on Thysaanopteraz Part III, the tests on HImoptera; Part V3 r71.
the tests on Hemiptera; and Part V, the present paper, reviews the te!- |
on Anoplura. ...'..


Haematonyzidae *ti
..^ l,:,
Haematomyzus elephants Piaget, an elephant louse ': :;:

In 1937 E. Jacobsen wrote R. C. Roark as follows:". . at the '.
local 20zoo [Bandoeng, Java], we received last year a young :
Sumatra, which vwas infested *ta+h the elephant's louse- H. elephanti'i .. '-... .-
After vwe had tried different insecticides and cattle dips in vain,, we.'"''"iz-
used an extract of derris as it is manufactured by a local factory,:- 'Tb.Shi;
parasites disappeared after the first application and the elephant 'hnat. :....
remained free of them since. Although this case is of no practical nre:,":,
in general, it shows once more vhat anr efficacious insecticide d "rjij


Haematopinus adventicius Neum. (syn., H. suis (L.), the hog louse
H. asini (L.) (syn., H. macrocephalus Buir7,the sucking horse louse .41
T, Wursternus (Nitz.j, the short-nosed cattle louse .

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Induidl'
(27), in its annual report for 1935 reported that a single application o tr
a mixture of 1 part of derris powder (containing 5 percent of rotenone) ax.
99 parts of kaolin vwas found to be effective against the hog louse. Rien
used as 0.5 percent of derris in kaolin, the powder was also effective
against hog lice.

Wille et al. (32) in 1937 described the use of cube in dips against
H. eurYsternus on cattle and H. suis on pigs. The dips were obtained
either from an extract prepared by soaking the chopped roots in rater for
48 hours, or from a powder finely ground so that 85 percent passed through
a sieve of 0.074-mm. mesh. Their practical application was studied in
1936 by J. F. Mitchell, who stated that the powder yielded a dip that was
more saponaceous, and therefore penetrated better, than that from the .
extract, Dips made with the po-wder did not keep for more than 48 hours,
a disadvantage owning to the number of animals to be treated, whereas those ...
made with the extract kept for a week. The addition of 1/2 pound of soaEp- -..t


. ..

....... .. .. . -

., I "-- .

..: r..p T .100 gallons of ater was recommended and also that of 1/2 pound of
8::: sodium carbonate to contteract the hardness of the vater. For complete
..c....f...t nrol of the parasites cattle usually required two dips, vith an inter-
J v 'ao1f about a fortnight, twice a year, except -ten seriously infested,
:. n 'which case a third pair of dips was necessary.

The effective concentrations of ground root containing 6.8 percent
\af rotenone, and of extract containing 5.5 percent of rotenone vere,
S respectively, 1s3,000 and 1:15,000 for H, eurysternus, and 1:2,000 and
iI::: i18,000 for He suis. The ground root and the extract Tere equally
effective, and were ia no iay inferior to other dips,

,The Southern fhedesia Director of Veterinary Research (25) in
1.930 reported that liee, H. eurysternus, on cattle wore controlled by
| t -. the application of derris.
a.-. .
: .Schroeder (2k) in 1937 reported tests of derris against cattle
S and horse lice. The following species were dealt ':with: H, asini, H,
F ..urysternus, and Linognathus vituli (L.). He concluded that a derris-
..... .poli-earth mixture containing 1/8 of 1 percent of rotenone is an
S efficient insecticide in controlling both Anoplura and Mallophaga on
r". battlee and horses, Tephrosia virginiana root vas found to be as effective
: as.. S derris vhen the rotenone concentration vYis the same. From 1 to 4 ounces
.:. pof dust, depending on the size of the animal, TJraS sufficient to give 0ood
.o" .. oerage. No evidence ias found to indicate that the rotenone or sulfur
V :: dists had. any effect on the eggs. Thus subsequent applications are
S necessary to effect complete control. The cost of dorris in a dust
I -with a rotenone content of 1/8 of 1 percent ras only 1-1/4 cents per
S pound. In general, sulfur as used in these tests was less efficient
|. than dusts containing rotenone, although in some instances infestations
were reduced 80 percent*

: In 1937 R. TV. VWells, in a quarterly report to the Division cf
S:. Insects Affecting Man and Animals, of the Bureau, described a method
l: of applying rotenone effectively to an animal -vithout iretting it. He
found that a solution of rotenone in carbon tetrachloride, 1/2 gin. to
'" 100 cc., was promptly and remarkably effective on both Mallophaga and
Anoplura 'when sprayed lightly into the animal's coat with an ordinary
IV;" tin hand sprayer held at a distance of about 4 inches. Six animals
S were sprayed vwrdth the solution, five of which were moderately infested
I with Mallophagae. and one vith H. eurysternus. Wells concluded that the
1 method is rapid, simple, and promptly effective on lice, but that their
. eggs are not vulnerable. About 100 cc. of the solution vere required
: to treat a large animal thoroughly.

.' Babcock (3) in April 1940 reported on the control of the short-
: nosed ox louse at Sonora, Tex. A dip containing 2.5 pcurnds of cube
F.*. (5 percent rotenone) and 50 pounds of sulfur in 1,000 gallons of vater
K1 kills all lice present but not the eggs. At least a 17-day interval
.. between dippings is essential. In a paper published in Larch 1940,
Babcock (2) recommended a dip composed of 100 pounds of wvettable sulfur
I and 10 pounds of cube or derris (5 percent rotenone)in 1,000 gallons
V of vater. In the vat this mixture remains effective at least 5 or 6 days.

? .:-.
: ":,'!.::.

t ~ ~ ,- T-, .[; .; *..* .. .^ ,, :;;' y r

Linognathus piliferus Burm., a sucking louse of dogs

Wells, Bishbpp, and Laake (31) ir. 1922 reported that all suok in.g
lice, L. piliferus, and their eggs on a dog vere killed by 2 gm, of a^.k
mixture of 1 part of derris and 3 parts of corn starch; also, -with a I t I$`
mixture-of derris and flour. The authors concluded that derris powder, or j
very effective against Anoplura on dogs, one treatment accomplishing- ."'''
destruction of all stages. nfl

DeBussy et al. (8) in 1935 reported derris powder to be exc1i"t' '
against this louse on dogs .

Linognathus vituli (L.), a long-nosed cattle louse .,

See Schrocaer (24) under Haematopinus eunrtternus on page 3. ..<

Wells, Bishopp, and Laake (1) in 1922 reported that pure dr..'.
powder and a 1:1 mixture of derris and flour, applied with a shaker, WBW.

Mixtures of dorris with flour in the proportions of 1:5, 1:10, and I:22jff
A': '":'I
killed all but a few of the lice, A mixture of equal parts'of..derris.........".it"
sodium fluoride killed all lice and their eggs. The authors cqnobadedl u!;
that derris powder is very effective against Anoplura on cattle, onre.': '* i
treatment accomplishing the destruction of all stages. .:',:i

Babcock (i) in 1938 recommended a dust containing not less thau a.-i^l,
of 1. percent cif fotenone for the control of cattle lice in Texas, eGep. ,0
the lcnr-nosed cattle louse oar so-called blue louse, (L. vituli), From..
to 4 ounces of this dust should be w,-orked into the hair of each animal4l..'
depending on its size. A suitable rotenone dust is made by dilutihng : 9, %
derris or cube with kaolin or talc, -.

Polyplax spinulosus (Bunn.), a rat louse

Gilmer (9), in the 1922 report of the Minnesota State entomoJloxti
reported tests made vith derris powder, and w.ith a derris extract said t^u^
contain 16 percent of active derris and 84 percent of inert substancii"
apparently pyridine. Both these products were manufactured by a Brifiats-LI
company. The rat louse was the common louse infesting thdse animals.. .
Dorris powder acted with surprising rapidity, the rats usually being,,
practically free of lice within 3 to 5 hours. It vwas applied by rubbing.,:.
small pinches into the fur. Derris mixed with tobacco dust acted more
slowly and two or three applications were required to remove all lio, 0-
Gilrer stated that the use of the liquid derris extract on animals is'b *;
to be recommended,

Solenopotes capillatus End. l
: *...'. ,

Wells, Bishopp, and Laake (31) in 1922 reported the results of:::..
tests of poIvdered derris root against certain external parasites ofhe
animals. Calves infested with Solenopotes capillatus were dusted o i ,th...,r
mixtures of derris vith flour in the proportions of 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, and'..
1:20. The 1:1 mixture, -when 1-3/4 ounces per animal vpas used, killed:':. i
~~~.- ..".... ... .

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'-'-.. . . ..., ': " " *" " " . : "'. "
M E: "" -- ".. -' - - - -- -

, :: *: V .,
.6 I -. k

.7. 5

'41 aii lice, but the weaker mixtures vere not 100-percent effective. The
*if hors concluded that derris powder is very effective against An-oplura
S:pattle, one treatment destroying all stages.

;EOaematoinidae unidentifiedd species)

Metscalf and fellnt (21) in 1928 summarized current information on
.derria. For checL-ing sheeo lice in winter when dipp-n[ ce&.ino+ be done
#, safely, dusting pyrethrw-n or derris into the wvcol is recoramenc'ed.

C. B. Dibble, of the Michigan State Collewe Extension Ser-,uic, in
ta. livestockic-insect-pest calendar (post card) issued in 1938, recoinmended
.that in cold '.ea'ther derris powder be used for combating lice on cattle.
isThe treatment should be repeated in 14 Cdays.
I Wells (30) in April 1938 reported derris Dowrder to be effective
-'Agai.nst cattle lice. It was found. t-at derris po-.der diluted v.ith tripoli
Sar..,..,. th to 1/116 of 1 percent cf rotenone is "nadeqat: t.:. kill all the lice,
lb.u...i some dead lice were found. From this test, .nd in niewu of -the tests
perfbrnned last year, it is ccnolided that dilutior should no-t. be vre-atr
han 1/8 of 1 percent of rote-none. Because of th. snail dif'?rerce in
it':K.. OQ St oi rotenone content, 1/4 of 1 percent is judged to be tie proper
.g, dilution for general reco.anendaticn. Such a content T7)nuld comLpensate for
VV:laSzk of thoroughness in application.
l,;-." -' .:** i:* :' '
7" Pedic.l idae

? i:u: dlculus humanus capitis Deg., a head louse

.B. ryant (5) in 1909 stated that the Zulus use the e:rtr,-,ct of the
:: :::leaves of Tehrcsia macropoda for destroying hpad lice. T. diffisa is
'i.." Ximi3larly employed.

-;-. Pbhthirus pubis (L.), the crab louse, or pubic louse
?'-.:. Little (20) -in 1931 reported that the powdered root of? Tephrosia
nr.L"" inliana vras effective against the crab louse Lut did not affect the eggs.

Un ... identified species of Anor;lura

;,l Descourtilz (3), v-riti-f ; o- the flora of the -"ntilles in 1855,
reported that thp rowdered root of &lega sericea vis used to destroy
vi- Termin on children but -,as rot so effect.ivo a, arnd stated
S' that the sap of TephrosiLa tcricari rnay take the place of sa'adilla.

-' In December 1C16 Leiuerens an.d 'ryer a;:o1iedc. for certa'.in Britich (14)
Sand German (17, 13) petantb covering the u".e as iTsecticides cf powdered
r Tephrosia and of Tenhrosia e::tract. T. vo-;cl'i is particularly mentioned.
i;. The patentees describe the rurposo of t'.e invention as follov.,s:

: '..

6 ;A" T ?:

The object of this invention is to provide improVed. '1 ." .'. ...
means for the destruction of insects, vemin, and like ..:*
parasites of various animals and plants, such means being. .. X ''.:.
capable of production and use in the form of preparations U .*",
as a po-wder, paste, o1 liquid suitable for ready vuse as ani ..
insecticide ponder or viash for spraying upon plants, trees, ....:
and other vegetable grcrwth and upon soil, and also as a-sheep .-,u":.
dip, cattle dressing, or Twash for animals, whereby the para-
sitic pest is destroyed T.ithout any injury whatsoever to the ...
plant or animal life. In practice, the mixture employed will ,.k
contain fro.n 1-1/2 ounces oi the compound to 100 imperial ; .:
gallons of -ater for the destruction of small and delicate -..:
insects up to 12 ounces of the compound to 100 gallons of .
t.ater for the destruction of the more hardy and vigorous ..

In January 1917 Lermmens and Fryer (15, 16) applied for United t-t i
patents covering the same invention, ,:... ..

Wardle and Buckle (28) in 1923, in a review of some of the iiehoft:,
cidal uses of derris, referred to the successful use of 1:1 mixture-qto^.^':.'i-:;
derris powder and cornstarch against Anoplura on domestic animals. .'.:

Derris, used undiluted and also at the rate of 1 part of derris ,:.i:4
to 5 parts of dry cement powder, Evms very effective against lice on -".-":i
cattle and horses.--Kelsall et al. (12) in 1926. '':

Baseman (10), chairman of the subcommittee cn insecticides ancT tf
appliances of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, in 190.8 .:i
reported that derris had proved satisfacto-ry as a control for same of..n *'bir .t...
pests o0 livestock and poultry. '"*;

Metcalf and Flint (21) in 1928 summarized current information on :3.0..
derris, v'hich is recommended for lice on domestic animals, o-i

Peyer (22) in 1930, in a revievi of information on derris, recotmen,:9 l
derris-tobacco dusts for ectoparasites of vertebrate animals, a recommenii:da'!"*:
tion apparently based on the i.'ork of Gilmer (9). '1

Schmitt (23) in 1930 stated that derris freed cats, dogs, rabbits, ....
and chickens from lice within 3 to 5 hours. 4

Killip and Smith (13) in 1931 reported that water treated with oubbi 4.
vas sometimes used as a sheep dip at Huanchaco, Peru. ,-*
In 1931 almost perfect results were obtained by Little (19) on ..;
various species of lice with powdered root of Tephrosia virginiana. .

Davis (7) in 1932, in a description of derris as a contact insecti- *:
cide, stated that it seemed to have special usefulness as a control for ::
lice on domestic animals. ',



:..: ,." 7'tt aid 3reyer-"randvwijk (29) in 1032 stated that the Zulus use
I "T. h h'rosia macropoda as a vermin kiTTar. The leaves of T. vof lii are
i':i. aid to be an efficient parasiticide against lice, and are cor. only used
r:. in Rhodesia. by Europeans for this purpose. The Thongas use a decoction
o..-f the root of a species of Tenhrosia (probably T. grar:diflora) as a
::p:..Parasiticide. The preparation is said to have been used for the same pur-
!.. pose by transport riders in the early days of Vat.l, T. diffusa is used as
[....a parasiticide by the Zulus.

."J.. 3ock (4) in 1934 reported that a derris-soap spray .-,as rapid in its
effect on parasites on birds, dogs, 2.nd calves. 'this spray ,.-as made by
[t x ,2 extracting derris --ith rfuLel alcohol into a 1:5 solution and adding 100 gmn.
.. of this tincture and 125 gn. of soft soap to 7 liters of vrat3r.

IS:. Spoon (26) in 1935 reported thct- lice onr cats and dogs were con-
i: t rolled by rubbing into 'the hair a ;:-.ixture of 1 part of derris (2 percent
.. rotenone and 8 percent ether e::trvct) and 40 parts of some neutral diluent,
I t suoh as talc. An aqueous suspension of this derris po.-.der It300 nay also
be used to bathe th.e animal,
M-:" Hearle (11), of the Canadian Departnent of Atriciul".ire, in 1938
: stated that derris po-.der in dilutions of up tc 10 pr-..rts of' ax inert
: carrier, such as cornstarch, .was fairly effective against both tVpres of
lice on all classes o. livestock:.
S In addition to the species mentioned herein, it is possible that
J.. some of the "lice" referred to under .'allopha? in Part I of this series
f Bureau of '"ntonology and Plant Quarantine E-579] belong to the order
7 Anoplura, as popular writers often f--il to distinguish bet-.een the t;'o
kinds of lice.

r -- _____



Anoplura -- - - -
Blue louse --- ------
Cattle lice- ------ -
Crab louse - - - - -
Ectoparasites- - -
Elephant louse - - - -
External oarasites-----
Haematonyzidae -- ----- ---
Haeimatomyzus elephantis- -
Haematopinidae - -- - -
unidentified species - -
adventicius - - -- -
asini- ----- - - -
eurysternus- - - --
macrocephalus. See H. asix
suis. See H. adventicius.
Head louse - - - -
hog louse - - - -- -
horse lice - - - - -
Lice on--
calves - - - - -
cats - - - - - -
cattle - - - - -
chickens ---------
dogs - - - - - -
domestic animals - - -
horses - - - -- -
livestock- - - - -
rabbits- --------
Lino gnathus--
miliferus- -- ------
vituli- -----------
Livestock pests-------
Lo--.:-nosed cattle louse- -
Louse- ---------
Lallophaa - - - - --
Parasites on--
birds- - - ------
calves - - ------
dogs ----------
Pedicul idae- - - - -
Pedic'lus hiaunanus capitis- -
fPhtthirus pubis - - - -
Tol-,plax spinulosus- - -
Poultry pests
Pubic louse-- -------

.6 - -
a - -
.6 - a

- .6 k - -




- 6,7
- -6,7
3- - ,6
- 6,7
- -- 6


- 37

--- - - - -

--- - - - -

.:".. .... : ,., .;; 3 .."" : <. ", * ... ". ; ':.: "
, ::;A ;.* : Ti.:::* ** ,: ; *" ... .. .. *
eF ":c' :.". +" ': ; " ., 1 .
.'+.* :: i-, 5, : < '" :.:'.' :...+ .o (: + '. *, : .

te ^ ^ .; 1 ~.t J :ot*des - e -
'De lice - - - -

#*tort-noeed cattle louse
Short-nosed ox. louse -
EJolonoyfftes capillatus -
Si% horse louse- .
+Su:king + line-- -.-.
S'^.hucking louse of dog -
'Vermin - - -

il l :II '" ll

ki. 1. .

(31^ ..7, ;
: :; Rmm(21)

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*i lira m.i --m-im-m
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0. G.
The control of cattle lice. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Plant Quar. E-447, 2 pp.

Bur. Ent. and

Progress being made in louse control. Sotthvresternr Sheep
and Goat Raiser 10 (6): 7.

1940. Control of short-nosed cx louse. U. S. Dept. Agr, B3ur.
Pnt. and Plartt C-uar. Nors Let. 7 (4): 18.


Derris elliptica. Deut. Apoth. Ztg. 2: 588-5e9.

1909. Zulu medicine and medicine-men. Natal Mlus. Ann. 2 (): 1-103.

BUSSY, L, P. de, LAAIT, P. A. van der, and JACOBI, E. F.
1935. Resultaten van proeven met derris.poedor en rotrmncn op neder-
landsche insecten. Tijdschr. over Plantenfziekten. 41:
33-501 illus.; also .znmsterde.m Kolon Inst., Afd, :andel-
museum. Ber. 91, 25 --pp., ilivs.; and InC'ische Mercuur 58:
103-104, 119-121.

(7) DAVIS, J. .
1932. Dorris. Insecticides and their uses.
Ext. Ser. I. 3ul. 32 (7): 27.

Itrdue Univ. Pharnm.

IFm (8) bESCO:-TILZ, E.
1:<:, "1833. Flore pittoresquc et medica.le des .ntillos, ou histoire
:-: naturelle des plants usuelles des colonies francaises,
';... anglaises, espagnoles et portugaises. Ed. 2, v. 3, 370 pp,
-,, Paris.

9'1- Co) GILiE,. F. It.
1923 .....'sa v a.
:' 1923. Derris as a parasiticide. lMinn. State Ent. p m41-49.




S(10) HASEMAN, L, '"s1'0-
1929. Report of subcommittee'on insecticides and appliances Jaorw!,J:
Econ. Ent. 22: 13-15,
(APL E, . :
1938: Insects and allied parasites injurious to livestock and ..:...
poultry in Canada. Canad. Dept. Agr. Pub, 604 (Farmers4 ',l
Bulq 53), 108 pp., illus. ....

(12) KELSAJLL, A., SPITTALL, J. P., GORHA", R. P., and WALKER, G. P. ;-
1926. Derris as an insecticide. Ontario Ent. Soc. Amnn, Rpt. (l i.2.....
56: 24-40.
(13) KILLIP, E. P., and SEITH, A. C, *\
1931. The use of fish poisons in South America. Smithsn. Inst. "i
Ann. Rpt. 1930: 401-408.

(14) LE2-DES, G. J., and FRYER, P. J.
1917. Improvements relating to insecticides, sheep dips, animal *:|
washes, and the like. British Patent 105,525; issued .
April 19, 1917. .

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(17) ------- and rTYER, P.J. i":'
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(18) ------- and FrYEP, P. J,
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r- *:t'i"t'"' 1 .1 1

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(References are to Literature Cited)


3 1262 09224 7005
** .* : ,* ,

Bishopp, F. C9 See WVells, R, Vo, 31
Breyer-Zrandvrijk, 1. G, See Vfatt, J. M., 29
Buckle, P. See "'ardle, R. A., 28
Flint, V. P. See M:etoalf, C. L., 21
Fryer, P. J. See Lernea-,s, G. J., 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
Gorhan, R. F. See Kelsall, A., 12
Jacobi, E, F. See 3ussy, L. P. de, 6
Laake, E. T1. See 7ells, R. W., 31
Laan, P. A. van der. See Bussy, L. P. de, 6
Oca-npo, Je A. See Trille, J., 32
Schofield, D. See Tille, J., 32
Smith, A, C. See Killip, E. P., 13
Spittall, J, P. See Kelsall, A., 12
Walker, G. P. See Kelsall, A., 12
Weberbauer, A, See T"iie, J,, 32

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