Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..

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Title:
Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..
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United States. Bureau of Chemistry. Bulletin
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Food -- Preservation -- Physiological effect   ( lcsh )
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ProoeWy of the United States Gover.moL,.'


U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE,


BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY-BULLETIN No. 84, PART II.
H. W. WILEY, CHIEF OF BUREAU.


INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL

COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.




II.-SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.




BY H. W, WILEY, M. D.,
WITH THE COLLABORATION OF W. 11. BIGELOW, CHIEF OF THE DIVISION
OF FOODS, F. '. WEBER, AND) OTHERS.


WASHINGTON:


GOVERNMENT PRINTING


OFFICE.


1906.





















































































































































a






















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY,
Washington, D. C., April 28, 1906.
SIR: I beg to submit for your inspection and approval the results
of the investigations which have been made in this Bureau to deter-
mine the effect of salicylic acid and salicylates upon digestion and
health. The work is a continuation in plan of that described in Part
I of Bulletin 84, devoted to boric acid and borax. I recommend that
the report be published as Part II of Bulletin 84.
Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Chief ,fBt1Jureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Aqricult tire.
In



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013













http://archive.org/details/ineoffoodp00u nit















CONTENTS.

Page
Organization of the experiment............................................ ----------------------------------------479
SERIES VI.
Administration of the preservative --------------...--..........----..-------------------............. 481
Schedule of administration -----------------------------------------481
Method of administration ..---------------..........--.-----.-------...----------- 482
Quantity of the preservative ..---------...----.....---..----------------------... 483
Excretion of the salicylic acid ---------..--.....-------------............-----..-----------.... 483
Method for determining salicylic acid in the urine--------------------- 483
Discussion of results -------.......-------...---..-------.....----..----------------- 485
Daily medical and clinical notes-..-----------------------..----------------.... 486
Individual data ...................................................... 486
Conclusions------------........----..---.------------------......----..-------------........ 504
Body weights.-----..-----------....--- ---------------------------------- 505
Variations in body weights ......------------.......------..--------------------- 505
Ratio of food weight to body weight--------------------------------..................................- 508
Microscopical examination of the blood ----------------------------------520
Weight and water content of the feces ------------........---------....-------------.. 525
The urine.--.........------------------------..............--------------..------.....------------..... 531
Volume, specific gravity, and total solids -----------.........-..------.----..------- 531
Individual data .....--............................................ ------------------------------------------531
Summary for nine men ........................................... 534
Presence of albumin and the reaction of the urine .--------..-------------.. 539
Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid to nitrogen excreted in
the urine.------------.----------........--------.....-..-...------..-----....---.----- 541
Individual data .................................................. 541
Summary for nine men ........................................... 543
Changes in the relative quantities of sulphur compounds excreted in the
urine......--------------------......-------------------..----------------.............-... 557
Individual data .....-------------------------...........----....----------------...... 558
Summary for nine men ........................................... 561
Microscopical examination of the urine.......------------...------.....-----------...... 574
Discussion of observations ........................................ 575
General conclusion ............................................... 577
Metabolic processes ...................................................... 582
Nitrogen balance..................................................... -----------------------------------------------583
Individual data .................................................. 583
General discussion of individual data .............................. 589
Summary .........---.........-...----................................... 590
Phosphoric acid balance .............................................. 604
Individual data .................................................. 604
Summary ........................................................ 612
Sulphur balance ...................................................... 626
Individual data .................................................. 627
Summary .....---.......--.......--......---..---............................. 632
V






VI CONTENTS.

Metabolic processes-Continued. Page.
Fat balance......---------------------------------------------------.................................................... 646
Individual data ................................................. ---------------------------------------------646
Summary ----------------------------...................................-----.................... 649
Calories balance---.....----------------....--------------------........---..------ 663
Individual data ...------------............---------------------------.................------ 664
Sum mary ........................................................ 668
Solids balance .--..-..................--....-...............---................ -----681
Individual data ................................................---------------------------------------------.. 681
Summary ....---.------...------..-----------------.......----------...---.----- 688
Summary of results --.....----..----.--.--------......--------...---..-----....------------ 701

SERIES XI.

The effect of salicylic acid anti sodium salicylate upon the nitrogenous elements
of the urine---...------.....-----------.-------------..-----..--------------- 706
Preliminary study for the determination of the ration and methods of
anal vsis -------------..............-..--.........---......----------.................-.. 706
The ration ....................................................... 706
Analytical results--------------------------------------------................................................. 707
Individual data .............................................. 707
Sumnimarv ....----------..------------.....-.....-------....--.--------------.. 712
Methods of analysis employed and comparison of results ----...-------- 722
Urea determinations.......................................... --------------------------------------722
Uric acid determinations. ----------------------------------723
Kreatinin determinations ---..-------------..---..-----..-----.----- 723
Xanthin determinations ......------------...-----.....--------...---------- 724
Special study of the distribution rif the nitrogenous constituents of the
urine as affected by the preservatives ........------------.......-------.--..--------- 725
Introduction .................................................-----------------------------------------------... 725
Schedule of administration of the preservative..-----.....---------------- 726
Supplemental study of the presence of albumini and the reaction of
the urine ...............................----------------------------..-----.-------...-------- 726
Individual analytical data.------------------------------------- 732
Summary for Nos. 1 and 2 -------------------------------------........................................ 735
Summary for Nos. 11 and 12 ...................................... 737
General summary .-------------------------------------------............................................... 737
The use of small quantities of the preservative...-------------....--......------------... 754
General voiclusiions --------.........-----.......---------------...-------.........--....---------- 757
List of tables....... ------------------------------------------------------760





I 1 U STATIONS.



Fm.. 1. Daily anI average body weights fur Series VI, N.os. 1-S ............. 506
2. Dahtily and average ihldy weights for series VI, Nos. 9-12, and sum-
mlary ...........................................................---- 507
3. ( ra;'l1ic cliart, representing tie eoimparative influence of foods and
preservatives ................................................... 754














INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTI-

FICIAL COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.


IL.-SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPERIMENT.
The researches to determine the effect of salicylic acid upon diges-
tion and health were carried on in the same manner as those described
in the first part of this bulletin on boric acid and borax. Some few
changes were made in the methods of manipulation, sampling, and
analysis in order to simpl)lify the process and to save time. Instead
of the analysis being made upon each daily sample of the food or feces,
a careful study of composite samples for the various periods was made
and the analysis of the composite sample for the period accel)ted as a
true representative composition of the food or excrement during that
period. It was found also, in so far as the labor and time were con-
cerned, that it was just as convenient to have all twelve of the subjects
under observation at once as to divide them into squads of six each and
alternate the periods of observation of each squad with periods of rest.
For example, in the analysis of the bread for the tables the daily
samples were composite and the analyses made for twelve persons as
easily as for six. The same is true for each article of diet and for the
analysis of the excrementitious material. By this arrangement the
analysts were able to complete the analytical work during the periods
of recreation and to devote more time to tlhe classification and tabula-
tion of the data. The burden of the analytical work was thus dilin-
ished one-half, while its accuracy and efliciencv were not sacrificed in
any respect, but on tlhe contrary rather increased.
The analyses of the foods aind feces were made in the Division of
Foods un(ler the supervision of W. D. Bigelow; the conduct of the
food table, the study of the body weights, and the urinalyses were
under the charge of F. C. Weber, and the microscopic tests were con-
ducted by B. .. Howard.
Owing to other arrangements the surgeons in connection with
the Marine Hosp)ital Service found themselves unable to give the
479






480 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

time necessary to the regular inspection of the physical state of the
young men under observation, and this inspection was undertaken by
the Chief of the Bureau. A thorough physical and medical examina-
tion was given to each applicant before his admission to the table, in
order to be certain that those admitted to the experimental work were
in a perfectly sound physical state and for at least one year previous
to the beginning of the experimental work had not suffered from
any severe illness. In this respect the same means were employed
and the same care exercised as in the experiment with borax, the
squad having been chosen, thoroughly examined as described, and
placed upon the permanent diet for about a week before the regular
period of observation began, on October 19, 1903.
The main experiment on salicylic acid is referred to as Series VI,
following Series V of Part I on boric acid, while Series XI is a sup-
plemental, special study conducted at a later date to determine certain
effects on the urine, the importance of which had been suggested by
the work of Series VI. It will be noted from the schedules following
that the work of Series VI began on October 19, 1903, and was com-
pleted on December 7, a period of fifty days, excluding the preparatory
work, which began about October 15. Series XI consisted of a pre-
liminary study of three men from March 29, 1905, to April 9, and a
special study of four men from April 27 to May 16, a total of thirty-
two days under observation.


















SERIES VI.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESERVATIVE.

SCHEDULE OF ADMINISTRATION.


In Table I are given the dates of the periods and subperiods of the
observations, which are useful in case their duration is not repeated in
the text. In Table II are given the data showing the administration
of the salicylic acid for each of the periods and subperiods and the
quantities given to each individual daily.

TABLE I.-Dates of periods and subperiods in Series 1I.

Date of Date of
Period and subperiod. begin- ending.
ning. edn

1903. 1903.
Fore peid---------------------------Oc t. 19 Oct. 28
Fore period ............................. .......................... ..... .......... Oct. 19 O-t. 28
First subperiod ............. ................. ................................... do ... Oct. 23
Second subperiod .............................................................. Oct. 24 Oct. 28
Preservative period ..........-...- ................................................. Oct. 29 Nov. 27
First subperiod ................................................................. .... do ... Nov. 2
Second subperiod .............................................................. Nov. 3 Nov. 7
Third subperiod ...................-............................................ Nov. 8 Nov. 12
Fourth subperiod.............................................................. Nov. 13 Nov. 17
Fifth subperind ...................................................... .......... Nov. 18 Nov. 22
Sixth subperiod ................................................................. Nov. 23 Nov. 27
After period .........................-................. .......... .................... Nov. 28 Dec. 7
First subperiod ................................. ............. -.................... ... do ... Dec. 2
Second subperiod .............................................................. Dec. 3 Dec. 7


TABLE II.-Schedule of administration of preserratire, Series VI.

IN TABLETS.

NoN.j 1, 2, No3
Period and date. No. 1, 2, No. 3.
4-12.

First subperiod: Grams. Grams.
October 29,1903 .........'.............................................. 0.21 0
30,1903 ................................................................ 21 0
31,1903 ................................................................ 21 0
Novem ber 1,1903 ............. ......................... ........... ............ 21 10
2,1903 ............................................................... 21 0
'rotal per individual ......................................................... 1.05 0
Second subperiod:
November 3, 1903 ................................-............................ .42 .21
4, 1903.- ............................................. .................. 42 .21
5, 1903 ............................................................... 42 .21
6, 1903 ............................................ ....o............... 42 .21
7,1903 ............................0..-...................... o.. ....... 42 .21
Total per individual ..........................-.............................. 2.10 1.05


481







482 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE II.-Schedule of administration of preserrative, Series TVI-Continued.
IN CAPSULES.

Period miand date. Nos.-1,2, No. 3.
4-12.

Third subpvriod: Grams. Grams.
November x,1903................................................................ 0.74 0.42
9, 1m3. .............................................................. .. .74 .42
10, 1903. .............................................................. .74 .42
11. 1903 ............................................................... .74 .42
12,1903 ............................................................... .74 .42
Tidal pir individual .......................................................... 3.70 2.10
Fourth -ublpperiod:
N .v rmnber 13, 19 3 .............................................................. 1.2 .8
14, 1903 .............................................................. 1.2 .8
15, 1903:1 .................................. ............................ 1.2 .8
16. 903 .............................................................. 1.2 .8
17,1903.............................................................. 1.2 .8
Tot:il Pir iniliviili l ......................................................... 6.0 4.0
Fift it -uli tri' (d:
N \ ivi' ib .r 1s,. 1 3 .............................................................. 1.6 1.2
19i, lJ03 ............................................................. I. I 1. 2
20, 1903 .............................................................. 1.6 1.2
21.1903 .............................................................. 1. t; 1.2
22,19-03 .............................................................. 1. 6 1.2
T ,tal per irdivida a l .......................................................... 8.0 6.0
Sixtli -ulhferiid.u
NUvt 1J r 23,. 1903 .............................................................. 2.0 1..
24r ,11.03 ............... ................ ....... ....................... 2.0 1.6
25, .1903 .............................................................. 2.0 1.6
26, 19'.H .3 ..............................................................2.0 1.6
27, 1903" ............................................................ 2.0 1.6
T ital p-r ini idi\i 1 ......................................................... 10.0 8.0
Total p.ar indlividulal for tInlirt prerv-raltivt' period .......................... 30. 85 21.15

a No. 6 took no preservative on Ntvcmber '!7. liLkitig lhi.s ii1al do e ftr the sixth subperiod .4
gr1r-i insteiail (if 10, Hul1 the total for the entire prt.rrvative pTriimd 2..s.5 grams.

The only notable variation in the administration of the preservative
OCCuL' rred in the case of No. 3, who, on atccounit of a slight, indisp)osition
which devCeloped during the fore period, did not begin to take the
priesehrvative until the second sulbperiod.

METIIOD (j F AD)MINISTIIATION.

The prleser.vatiive was adinlilisterled in two forms, consideredd to he
,Iust c,.nv.eniijeit, tnaliely, in tablets .and in ca1s)lles. 1 Objections have
lbeen urged against tlis mi.nin er of :tdministerinig tihe Ireservative, a' d
it lilas e\ l VII 1leeI4 .stattled in some criti'cists of thie bollax experiment
tilt t t l use Of tli s etIt11ot d is stilli(i-enht gi'lrolnd for the rejection of all
tlie data 'oill-'ctd relative to tlhe injurious el 'cs fet of thie preservative
11upon the Im etalboli'c p)rivcesses, because ( of tlie alleged irritant effects
of preservatives dml2 inisteredL a ('0111)Mm red with the effects pro-
du'ced ly tlie' sM eVt' I e),(ij(hs5 as fiunt d ill tli e foods th.ieiselv\'es as purchased
oni tlie itairket.
It liiard llv necessaryy t6o call a'tttentlio toi tlhe futility of such an
o)ljec.tion. W eVr tlhie' PI.''revatives emplh)ye(d poisonous ( s Ibodies, in the
oildinary sLV .Js Of tl i teI'i, )roduc1 ing direct fmeclmnical effect upon
tlle ( tM Ira e Of' ts o tlie nioutlli, esoplifLguls, and stomach, there might be
80114 groudil ir criticising their ingest ion in the form of tablets or






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


capsules. In the case of the preservatives employed, however, which
in the quantities used produced no such effects, the objections are
entirely groundless. A preservative administered in this way at the
time of the meals, as was always the case, is at once thoroughly
incased in the food, is rapidly mixed with the contents of the stomach
during the process of digestion, and could not in any way exert any
injurious effect by reason of the form of its administration. More-
over, this method of exhibition in connection with injection into the
blood is one commonly followed in medical and pharmacological
experiments.
QUANTITY OF THE PRESERVATIVE.
It will be seen that the quantities subjected vary from 210) milli-
grams a day at the beginning of the preservative period to as much
as 2 grams a day at its close, the object in this arrangement being to
determine progressively the limit of toleration for ordinary medicinal
doses. With a substance whose activity is as limited as that of sali-
cylic acid, it is evident that it would be impossible within any reason-
able time to secure any idea of its physiological effect by administering
mere traces of the reagent. On the other hand, the quantity used,
namely, 30.85 grams, over a period of thirty days, an average of a
gram a day, while not excessive, is sufficient to permit of a study of
the effects of this substance upon the metabolic processes.

EXCRETION OF THE SALICYLIC ACID.

Tracing the history of salicylic acid in the organism is a somewhat
difficult procedure. Soon after the exhibition of salicylic acid it or
its derivatives appears in the urine, and it is evident that the kidney
is the principal excretory organ. Owing to the changes in the coim-
position of the salicylic acid resulting in the formation of salicyluric
acid and other decomposition products, a comparison of the amounts
excreted in the urine with the quantity given is a; difficult operation.
Table III shows in milligrams the quantity of salicvlic acid adminis-
tered and the amount thereof recovered in the urine. In the course
of five days after the cessation of the administration of thie salicylic
acid nothing but a mere trace was found in the urine. In fact, in sonime
cases only traces were left after four days.
In this connection attention is called to the difficulties attending the
exact determination of salicylic acid and the products obtained there-
from in its passage through the body. The method used in these
investigations for determining salicylic acid is as follows.
METHOD FOR DETERMINING SALICYLIC ACID IN TilE URINE.
Make alkaline with sodium hydrate 25 or 50 cubic centimeters of
urine, according to the amount of salicylic acid administered, and
evaporate, with the addition of a little sand, to a thick sirup. Rub
this mass with a pestle, after adding 50 cubic centimeters of 98-99 per


483






484 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

cent alcohol, decant the alcohol on a filter paper and repeat the extrac-
tion five or six times. Transfer the precipitate to a filter and wash
until no test for salicylic acid can be obtained by evaporating 10 cubic
centimeters of the extract to dryness, taking up with petroleum spirit
and testing in the usual way.
Evaporate the extracts to free them from alcohol, take up with
water, acidify, extract with ether, and evaporate until free from ether.
Dissolve the salicylic acid in hot water and make up to a definite
volume at room temperature and make up aliquot portions of this
solution to 100 cubic centimeters in Nessler's jars.
Add 5 cubic centimeters of a 0.5 per cent ferric alum solution to
one of these jars and mix thoroughly, noting the depth of color.
Make utip a set of standards from a solution containing 0.1 milligram
per cubic centimeter of salicylic acid so that they approximately match
the color developed in the test just described. That is, if the color
developed approximates 1.2 milligrams make up the standards so that
they will contain 1.18, 1.20, and 1.22 milligrams of salicylic acid.
Then compare a new solution of the sample with these samples, mak-
ing the comparisons immediately after adding the ferric alum solution,
as the color fades rapidly. The comparisons should be made in tripli-
cate and are accurate to 0.02 of a milligram.
Blanks run by adding salicylic acid to normal urines averaged 95
per cent of the acid recovered. Extracts of urines passed during the
preservaitve period were heated to 156' to volatilize the salicylic acid
and the residues weighed as salicyluric acid. In every case the residues
were so small as to be negligible.
The samples of feces tested gave no indication of the presence of
salicylic acid.
TABLE: I II.--NIlCliC1/I;" (Wid ingested mid recovered in urine, Series VL.
No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4.

Periodd. li W IV
I...] : '
0
3 330
-' C o *
I -< __________ -< ___________ _______________
PrcMr'ti r, p14riod: Jigs. ,lig. Jigs. Jigs. I Ml First sill,.i 8S .m I- Mibjieriod, Nov. 31-7..... 2, 100 795 2,100 695 1,050 814 2,100 575
Thiri .iI lj.ri-rj l. New'. M-12 .... 3, 7K0 1.115 3,7001 1,311 2,100 508S 8.700 1,9wo
l'-nirrh I siI JPBTiod, Nev. 13-17 .. 6. 00( ) 2.7M7 6, XU0 2,992 4,000 1,769 6,000 2,759
Fiflth 'lizbli-.ril, Nev. 1.4-22 ..... ., xU(M) :,2;7 8,0K) 1,3.8 6 (,000 2,710 8,000 8,993
SixLth subplrio1d, Nuv. 23-27..... 10,(HM) 1.990 10.0(K0 It.945 8,000 3,386 10,000 5,010
Tutal, (O t. 2."-Nov. 27......... :, KS5 13;, 259 30, 50 1.1,3-11 21,1.50 8,687 30,850 14,843
A vrngc ecr day.............. U02S 12 1, o28 478 M4(; 290 1,0 28 495
Afitr it.riiol:
Firsi NiuliI'rioid-
Ne v'. 2 1-De 2 .............. 0 524 0 18(0 0 129 0 859
D e. I ....................... o Tr. U (h)idtr. 0 Ft. tr. 0 Tr.
Iec.2 ...................... 0 Ft. tr. 0 Ft. tr. 0 -0 0 0
Seconil s1nn lPri-riIl-
Di.c. 3 ............ ........... 0 0 Ft. I r. 0 0 0 0
[) I.. 0 ........... 0 0 .......... 0 .......0........0 0........ 0 .......
Dec. 5 .......................0........ 0 0 ........ 0 ........ 0 .......







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


485


TABLE III.-Salicylic acid ingested and recovered in urine, Series VI-Continued.


Period.


Preservative period:
First subperiod, Oct. 29-Nov. 2.
Second subperiod, Nov. 3-7.....
Third subperiod, Nov. 8-12 ..-i
Fourth subperiod, Nov. 13-17...
Fifth subperiod, Nov. 18-22.....
Sixth subperiod, Nov. 23-27.....
Total, Oct. 29-Nov. 27........
Average per day.............
After period:
First subperiod-
Nov. 28-Dec. 2 .............
Dec. 1......................
Dec. 2.....................
Second subperiod-
Dec. 3 .......................
Dec. 4.....................
Dec. 5......................


N No. 5. No. 6.


Mgs.
1,050
2,100
3,700
6,000
8,000
10,000
30,850
1,028


I


<->a
c >-
S0.
0 >



Mgs.
302
439
1,947
3,606
4,422
4,853
15,569
519


194
Tr.
0

0


No. 7. No. 8.


Cs C.
V, -d,'

-,



Igs. Jigs. Mjs. Jg.s. I. 1fs.
1,050 513 1,050 276 1,050 281
2,100 471 2,100 635 2,1C0 7.50
3,700 1,070 3,700 1,548 3, 7-01 1,431
6,000 2,516 6,000 2,346 6, O00 2,323
8,000 3,636 8,000 3,567 8, 00) 3, 92
8,000 4,301 10 00 3,8 I97 10,000 4,926
28, 850 12,507 130,850 12,269 30,8 0 13 0:3
962 417 1,028 406 1,028 -153


\. rv
ft. tr.
Verv
ft. tr.


0


97I
Tr. I
Ft. tr.

0


311
Tr.
Dbtful.

Tr.
Ft. tr.
0


No. 9. No. 10. No. 11. No. 12.


Period. t- I -
o SC ,- -..J t
-u o > .z = -cJ = ; *J :*
0 0(i 0 I C 0.


Preservative period: Mgs. JMgs. Mjgs. Mys. ifgs. gs.. Mgs. .igs..
First subperiod, Oct. 29-Nov.2.. 1,050 212 1,050 392 1,050 360 1,050 26i7
Second subperiod, Nov. 3-7..... 2,100 820 2,100 892 2,100 638 2,100 600
Third subperiod, Nov. 8-12 ..... 3,700 1,496 3,700 S58 3,700 1,361 3,700 1,705
Fourth subperiod, Nov. 13-17... 6,000 2,785 6,000 2,399 6,000 2,459 6, (00 2,597
Fifth subperiod, Nov. 18-22 ..... 8,000 3,993 8,000 3,778 8,000 3,624 4,000 3.660
Sixth subperiod, Nov. 23-27..... 10,000 5,060 10,000 4,250 10,000 5, 160 10,000 4,976
Total, Oct. 29-Nov.27......... 30,850 14,366 30,850 12,569 30,850 13,602 30,..o50 13,1405
Average per day .............. 1,028 479 1,028 419 1,028 i 453 1. 02S 460


After period:
First subperiod-
Nov. 28-Dec. 2 ..............
Dec. 1.....................
Dec. 2.......................
SSecond subperiod-
Dec. 3......................
Dec. 4.....................
Dec. 5......................


310
Tr.
Ft. tr.

0
0


124
Tr.
T'r.


0 0 0
) ....... 0
1 ........ 0


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.


As before stated, the quantities obtained by analysis rel)resent 95
per cent of the actual quantities of salicylic acid in the urine. The
tests as applied show that no weighable quantities of salicyluric acid
are present in the urine.
The individual data show in the case of No. 1 a little over one-third


of the salicylic acid


recovered in the urine an(1 the same is true of


No. 2. A little more than one-third is recovered in the case of No. 3.


215
Tr.
Tr.


Tr.
0





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


Almost one-half is recovered in the case of No. 4, a little over one-half
in the case of No. 5, a little less than one-half in the case of No. 6, a
little over one-third in the case of No. 7, almost one-half in the case
of Nos. s and 9, a little over a third in the case of No. 10, and less than
one-half in the cases of Nos. 11 and 12.
The summary for 12 men shows that 44.47 per cent of the salicylic
acid administered was recovered, an average of 443 milligrams out of
996. If the correction indicated by the blanks be made, a total average
recovery of 46.8S per cent of salicylic acid unchanged is indicated.
The balance of the salicylic acid is apparently changed into salicyluric
acid or other combinations or remains stored in the body.
The difference in composition between salicylic acid and salicyluric
acid is shown by the following formula:
Salicylic acid, CH603 -OH.C6H4.COH.
Salicyluric acid, CgHNO4-0-H.C611,.CO.NH.CH.CO H0211.
It is stated by most authorities that salicylic acid when administered
internally is found in the urine partly as salicyluric acid. This body
is .separated from salicylic acid by the volatilization process described.
The quantitiess found in our experiments by this method were not
weighable.
DAILY MEDICAL AND CLINICAL NOTES.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
No. i.-J. IL ,S'.
On the first (lay of the fore period the subject's weight was 53.45
kilograms: temperature, 98.4-; pulse, two )observations, 76 and 80.
His health was excellent and his 1)hysical condition without a flaw.
No variations o(f l )te in phIysical condition occurred on the succeeding
days of the fore period. The temperature on thle final day of the fore
l)wriod, October 28, was 98.2 and 98-.6 two observations; the pulse,
7i :and so, and the weight 53.36 kilograms. The average weight for
the entire fore period was 53.38 kilogranms, and the daily variations
were smiiall.
On the first dlay oft tlie first preservatives subperiod (October 29 to
Nov ei tber 2) the tetiperatuire was a little below the normal, two
observ'atios beIing 19,S. 1 and 97.8 and the pulse 6S and 70 per
miiiiite, re'slectively. ''lw second (lay the tcmperiIture was normal.
No marked lari'itiol in condition was oPserved during the first pr1-
servtative' sulbperiod except a slight decrease in weight, the average
weight for tlis period being 53.25 kilograms.
lThe second resirvative sul)bperio(d began on Novenler 3;i and closed
Novelliber 7. The tenipenraturlI wLs slightly e-1low the, normal on
No'eIm)r 4, reaclhitg 97.9A' on the first oIbseirvation and 98.4I on the
second. On the 5th the temperature was still slightly below the nor-


486





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


mal, but the health of the subject was good. On November 6 No. 1
complaned of not having his appetite satisfied by his meals and stated
that he was hungry, but his health was good. The feeling of lack of
sufficient food continued on the following day, and there was a slight
increase in the temperature, three observations having been made,
registering 98.2'', 99.8-, and 99', respectively. The rapidity of the
pulse was also increased, having registered 82 at 6.20 p. m. There
was a continued, though slight, falling off in weight during this sub-
period, the average weight being 53.15 kilograms.
The third preservative sul)period began on November s and closed
on November 12. On the first day of this subperiod the subject still
complained of being hungry. His health was good, but the feelingof
hunger was pronounced on the following day, when the subject entered
upon his notes, '" Don't get enough to eat," and on the following day
registered the observation, "'Could eat more." The feeling of hunger
continued during the whole of the third l)preservative subperiod. The
average weight decreased to 53.05 kilograms.
The fourth preservative subperiod began on November 13 and closed
on the 17th. There was a slight increase of temperature noticed at
the second observation on the 13th, the thermometer registering 99.4's
and the pulse registering 84 beats per minute. The feeling of hunger
continued through the fourth subperiod, but no other notable vari-
ation in the condition of the subject was observed. The weight
throughout this subperiod remained practically constant, the average
weight being 53.06 kilograms.
The fifth preservative subperiod began on November IS and ended
on the 22d. The feeling of hunger still persisted, and on the 19th the
subject complained of feeling as though there were a lump in the stonm-
ach, accompanied by continued belching. His temperature waN below
the normal, the two observations being 97.7' and 97.42, respectively.
The feeling of disturbance in the stomach and of hunger continued on
the 20th, but the temperature was restored to normal. On the 21st
the patient described himself as feeling uncomfortable in the region
of the stomach and still hungry. On the 22d lie was very hungry.
and the feeling as of a lump in the stomach continued. There was a
continued loss of weight during this subperiod, the average for the
subperiod being 52.78 kilograms.
The sixth preservative subperiod began on November 23 and ended
on November 27. On the 23d the patient described his svnymptomns as
"Very hungry," with a gnawing feeling in the stomach. The same
symptoms were also rel)orted for the 24th and 25th of November.
The average weight for the sixth preservative subperiod was 52.62
kilograms and that of the entire l)reservative perio(l 52.99 kilograms.
Judged by the daily chart, the permianent symp)tonm connected with
the preservative period in the case of No. 1 was a feeling of hunger,


487





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


although the ration was exactly that given in the fore period, when no
sense of hunger was experienced, accompanied during the latter pre-
servative subperiods with a feeling of distress in the stomach and some
belching.
The first after subperiod began on November 28 and ended on
December 2. On the first day of the after period the subject com-
plained of a slight cold and sore throat. There was no perceptible
rise in temperature, however. The cold continued in a mild degree
on the 29th. but the temperature was slightly below the normal. The
temperature was normal on the 30th, with slight cold continuing. The
feeling of hunger had disappeared and did not return on December
1 and 2. The average weight for the first after subperiod was 52.42
kilograms.
The second after subperiod began on December 3 and ended Decem-
ber 7. A slight cold was reported on the 3d, with temperature slightly
below the normal. On the 4th the slight cold continued, with almost
normal temperature.. On the 5th the second observation of tempera-
ture was slightly above normal, 990, with the pulse at 80. On the 6th
all symptoms of cold had disappeared and no sense of hunger was
experienced. On the 7th the temperature was normal and the hunger
symptom occurred after dinner. The average weight for the second
after subperiod was 52.31 kilograms, and the mean weight for the
entire after period 52.37 kilograms.
No. 2.-l : P.
At the beginning of the fore period, on November 19, the tempera-
ture was slightly above 98, the pulse 73 beats per minute, and the
weight of the body 67.9 kilograms. On Tuesday, October 20, there
was a slight rise in temperature, but no other symptoms of a derange-
ment of the normal processes appeared. The temperature was normal
on the 21st, and no variation from tihe normal was observed on the fol-
lowing days, except an occasional ri.ke in temperature after the dinner
hour. Throughout the whole of the fore period, with very few excep-
tions, this tendency to an increased temperature after dinner was quite
apparent. The temperature before dinner was perhaps slightly below
the normal, the average being only a little above 98. The average
weight for the first fore suhperiod was 68.43 kilograms and for the
second sub)period 68.21 kilograms. The final weight on the last day
of the fore period, October 28, was 67.72, a total loss of 180 grains.
The average weight for the entire fore period, however, was 68.32
kilograms.
Tlie preservative period began on October 29, on which day there
was a slight diminution in the normal temperature and a slight increase
of weight, the first weighing being 68.05 kilograms. On the second


488





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


day of the first preservative subperiod the temperature was slightly
above the normal,but no other symptoms of abnormality were observed.
This increase in temperature also continued during the 31st, and on
November 1 the temperature was again normal and the weight had
increased to 68.35 kilograms, followed by a fall on November 2 to
67.85 kilograms. The average weight for the first preservative sub-
period was 68.01 kilograms.
The second preservative subperiod began on November 3 with normal
temperature and a weight of 1-.05 kilograms. On the 5th of Novem-
ber No. 2 was reported as feeling well with the exception of a slight
headache. There was also a slight depression of temperature after
dinner in this case instead of before. On the 7th of November No. 2
described himself as "hungry as a bear." Temperature and respira-
tion, however, remained normal. The weight of the body had fallen
on November 7 to 67.60 kilograms, the average weight for this sub-
period being 67.84, a slight decrease as compared with the average for
the preceding subperiod.
The third preservative subperiod began on November 8 with all
symptoms normal. On the 9th No. 2 described himself as still hungry,
and on the 10th as feeling all right. On the I ith he was normal, and
the hungry feeling had disappeared. The average weight was 67.80,
theoretically a very slight decrease.
The fourth preservative subperiod began on the 13th of November
with no unfavorable symptoms. On November 14 No. 2 described
himself as feeling a little feverish and as having a bad headache in
the morning. On the 15th of November the headache continued all
day, but the subject was not ill. The headache disappeared on the
16th. This subperiod closed on the following day with an average
weight of 67:65 kilograms, the average decrease continuing.
On the 18th, the first day of the fifth preservative subperiod, there
were decided pains in the stomach, and the temperature fluctuated
somewhat, but there were no marked symptoms of fever. The weight
on this day was 67.63 kilograms. The condition of No. 2 remained
normal from this time until the beginning of the sixth preservative
subperiod, on November 23, when he had nausea during the whole
afternoon. After dinner on the 24th he returned to the dining room
after a short absence complaining of very severe burning pains in the
stomach, and was evidently quite ill and in considerable distress.
After meals on November 25 there were burning sensations in the
stomach which lasted for a greater or less length of time, and the
weight decreased to 67.11 kilograms. On the 26th the patient was
feeling better, could eat more, al(nd the appetite was fairly good. On
the 27th extreme sensitiveness in the stomach was mnanifested, and
there was a slight increase of temperature at the dinner hour. The
7656-No. 84, pt 2-06--2


489






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


preservative period closed November 27, showing an average weight
of 67.66 kilograms, a slight decrease as compared with the fore period.
The after period began with a weight of 67 kilograms, temperature
and pulse normal. No. 2 speedily regained his normal feelings,
although onil the 3oth he had considerable headache and again felt sen-
sations of nausea. These feelings passed away on the 1st of Deceim-
ber and an increased appetite was developed, although the weight
continued to fall. On December 2 the patient complained of being
still hungry after having eaten three normal meals during the day.
The first day of the second after subperiod was characterized by
unpleasant sensations, nausea, and general discomfort during the
afternoon. This continued on the following day. The symptoms
were better on the 5th of December, the nausea having entirely
passed away at that time. Only normal symptoms were exhibited
from that time until the end of the after period on December 7. At
this time the subject was perfectly well, temperature and pulse nor-
mal, but continued to lose weiglit, as the last recorded weight was
(W;.5;. kilograms and the average for the after period 66.79.
No. 3.-C. P.

'his subject at the time of the beginningof the fore period was in good
physical condition, although of a rather sinall stature, having a.weight
of 52.78 kilograms, normal pulse and temperature. There was a slight
rise of temperature on the 21st ()f October, and also a considerable
lluiCkcning of the )pulse, showing a decidedly feverish condition. This
indisposition developed to such an extent that No. 3 (lid not report for
observation at the table until October 26. On the 26th the fever still
continiled, the pulse was above the normal, and his weight had fallen
to 5o.54 kilograms. On the 2Stlh of October there had been some
imll)r e'fient ill the subject's condition and his )pulse and temperature
were only sligrtiltv :abil e the normal. Owing to this illness the ana-
3lytical data of the fore period aire without value and the time of the
first pre.servative suibperiod, ()ctober 25 to Novemiber 2, became, in
tlie case of No. 3, the fore( period, at thie beginliiing of which the tem-
peratir, e a111d )pulse were ln0ormLlal l1nd the weight 5). 34 kilograms. No
lledical svinilptollN of any signiifica:nce were developed (Iluring the foic
perio'l. l'he plllse and templ)eratuitre reiTmiiled lpraiCtic Illy normal and
tlhe weight 1i:ld ilT.ersed ait tlie enld Of tlhe 1wriod to 50.43 kilograms,
tle aerag' foir tlie pleriodi( being 540.42. hDuring the first preservative
subpel'iod (No'vemnbIr 3-7 in the case tof this subject) the pulse and
tet.lpel':ra tr1 we're n 'ril 1 :'wil tlie weight slightly increased, the aver-
,age 1 eig 54..7" kilograms. Thie ap)petite of No. 3 increased very
markedl" dvrinig thlis subt)period an(d het was still hungry after the three
regular rationls hiad In' (i eaten. A slight (cold developed on the 5th of
November, butt was not of any consequence. At the end of this sub-


490





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 491

period the patient was in good condition, but was still complaining of
hunger. His weight had increased to 50.80 kilograms and the l)ulse
and temperature were normal.
During the second preservative subperiod some pain was felt in the
shoulder, but evidently this bore no definite relation to the diet. Com-
plaint was made on December 9 of a very empty feeling in the stomach;
otherwise the subject was feeling well. This condition continued
throughout this subperiod, with a general feeling that the amount of
ration eaten was not sufficient to supply the appetite, and the subject
complained frequently of being hungry.
The third preservative subperiod (November 13-17) began with pulse
and temperature normal. The weight had risen to 51.15 kilograms.
Complaint was made during the first day of severe pains in the stomach.
This continued during the next day, but the subject still complained
of being hungry. On the 15th severe pains were felt in the shoulder,
but normal conditions were restored on the 16th. On the 17th the
pains in the stomach returned, but the other conditions were normal,
and at the end of this subperiod the weight of the subject was 51.14
kilograms; but the average weight was only 50.96 kilograms.
The fourth preservative subperiod (November 18-22) began with
marked symptoms of hunger after the usual rations were eaten. On
the 19th constipation was marked and the pains in the stomach con-
tinued. On the 20th report was made of very severe pains in the
stomach, continuing during the night, and the constipation continued
markedly. The general condition was better on the 21st, but the con-
stipation continued. On the 22d the subject was belching all the time
with acidity of the stomach and indigestion. This subperiod closed
with the subject in rather an unfavorable condition, but with an
increased average weight, i. e., 51.14 kilograms.
The fifth preservative subperiod (November 23-27) began with
normal pulse an(l temperature, but with continued belching, indiges-
tion, and heartburn, which rendered the subject very uncomfortable.
On the 24th these symptoms were ameliorated to a certain degree and
he was feeling reasonably well. The symptoms returned, however,
with renewed vigor on the 25th, with continued burning sensation in
the throat and stomach, especially after meals, and continuing for about
two hours. The weight on this day was slightly increased, being 51.54
kilograms, tihe average weight for the fifth subperiod being 51.31
kilograms. The end of the entire preservative period found the
patient in reasonably good condition, with :i strong appetite, pulse and
temperature normal, and weight 51.60 kilograms, while the average
weight for the period was 50.93 kilograms.
The first after sulbperiod began with ai ril)idly restored normal con-
dition, whicli continued until IDecemlber 1, when the patient was attacked
with another severe cold, the temperature having risen at the dinner






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


period to 102: The appetite, however, was not impaired. The ill
feelings arising from the cold were increased on the 2d of December,
although the temperature had fallen somewhat. The weight at the
close of the subperiod on this day was 51.54 kilograms; the average
for the subperiod was 51.57 kilograms.
The second after subperiod began with both temperature and pulse
slightly above the normal, pains in the chest, and the patient under
treatment by Doctor Perry, of the Public Health and Marine-Hospital
Service. The patient was decidedly better on December 4, and the
temperature and pulse were normal. A slight headache developed on
the 5th of December, but with no other abnormal symptoms. On the
th the patient was feeling perfectly well, and the same is true of the
7th, the close of the after period. On this date the temperature and
pulse were normal and the weight was 51.55 kilograms. The average
weight for the after period was 51.66 kilograms, showing a gain in
weight throughout the observation, in connection with which the sub-
ject's state of convalescence must be remembered.
No. 4.-F. E. B.

No. 4 proved to be one of the best subjects under observation,
b)einlg very steady in his habits and very careful in the entry of data
intrusted to him. At the beginning of the fore period No. 4 was in
excellent physical condition, normal in every respect and having a
weight of 61.08 kilograms. There were no deviations from the nor-
mal during the entire fore period, at the end of which the weight was
60.62 kilograms, the average weight for the period being 60.73 kilo-
grains. I)uring the first of the preservative subperiods there were
no synmptomis showing alnormallty, except perhaps a slight increase
in the appetite. The weight on the last day of the first preseiva-
tive subperiod was 60.23 kilograms, and the average weight 60.53
kilograms.
During the second preservative subperiod the symptoms remained
normal, Iut there was an increased desire for food, although the
ration was not changed. At the end of this subperiod the weight was
slightly greater than at the beginning, namely, 60.S2 kilograms, and
no Imarkd( syn)ptom1s of any abnormalH condition had been developed.
The average weight liad also increased slightly, to 60).5 kilograms.
rThe tiird lpreservativ'e sublpetriod began with a keen appetite, nor-
Imal p1ils a(nd tenvilperature. On the 9th of November the patient
co1plaiLiNId Of ilig ravenously hungry, although his weight had not
se(lsiibl diminished(l, reilatining at 60.60 kilogranis. On the loth the
feeling (of hltunger aLt the en(d of the dl'ay s(MedN(( to be appeased and
the sject exl)pressedl hittiself as hain g had enough to eat. The
weight remnai(ied almost constant, namely, 60.64 kilograms. This
subperiod ended with normal symptoms, a good appetite, but no


492





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


unusual feeling of hunger, and with a weight of 60.51 kilograms.
There was an increase in the average weight to 60.62 kilograms.
The fourth preservative subperiod began with a good appetite and
no unfavorable symptoms. At the end of the period there was a
slight increase in weight, namely, to 60.90 kilograms, and the average
weight also increased to 60.85 kilograms.
The fifth preservative subperiod began with a good physical condi-
tion, normal in every respect. At the close of this period the normal
conditions were still maintained, with good appetite hut not excessive
hunger, and the weight had risen to 61 kilograms, though the average
weight slightly decreased, being 60.81 kilograms.
During the sixth preservative subperiod the patient complained of
a slight headache but still had a fairly good appetite, though not so
keen as during the earlier preservative subperiods. The average
weight for the entire preservative period was 60.67 kilograms, a
slight decrease as compared with the fore period average.
At the close of the first after subperiod normal conditions still
continued, but the weight had fallen to 60.35 kilograms, though
showing an average of 60.42 kilograms. The second after subperiod
began with normal conditions, which continued unchanged to the end
of the period, when the pulse and temperature were normal, and the
weight was 60.38 kilograms and the average 60.43 kilograms. The
average weight for the entire after period was 60.43 kilograms,
showing a continued loss in weight throughout the exl)eriment.
No. 5.-G. E. C.
No. 5 began the fore period in good physical condition, with
temperature and pulse slightly below the normal. His weight was
59.43 kilograms. No unfavorable symptoms were developed during
the fore period, the physical condition of the subject remaining
practically unchanged. During the whole observation there seemed
to be a slight normal depression of the temperature, which, however,
was not due to any unusual cause. At the end of the fore period
No. 5 was in excellent physical condition, with temperature slightly
below the normal. The weight had risen to 59.94 kilograms, the
average weight for the entire fore period being 59.76 kilograms.
The first preservative subperiod was passed without any unusual
symptoms, except the continued slight depression of the temperature
until November 2, when a slight headache was developed which con-
tinued during the whole day. The second pl)reservativesubprio(ld l)paissed
without any unusual phenomena until the 7th of November, when a
remarkably strong appetite persisted after the last meal of the day.
The weight of the subject on this date was 59.83 kilograms, the average
weight for the subperiod being 60.07 kilograms. The third preserva-
tive subperiod passed without incident until November 10, when the


493






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


patient felt that his appetite was satisfied with the usual rations. On
the 12th of November. the appetite still remaining normal, the subject
was not feeling well, having a slight tendency to diarrhea. The
beginning of the fourth preservative subperiod found the patient feel-
ing drowsy, but still with a normal appetite. No other abnormal
symptoms were developed during this subperiod.
During the fifth preservative subperiod the patient remained in a
normal condition until the 20th of November, when symptoms of
indigestion or uneasiness in the region of the stomach appeared, but
the appetite was not noticeably disturbed. These feelings passed
away on the following day and the subject remained normal during
the rest of that period. During the sixth preservative subperiod the
patient continued normal and at the end of the preservative period
was in good condition, weighing 59.52 kilograms. The average weight
for thle entire preservative period, however, was 59.71 kilograms, a
slight decrease as cOml)ared with the fore period.
The patient was in good condition at the beginning of the after
period and no unfavorable symptoms of any kind were developed;
the appetite was normal and the food appeared to suit the demands of
the appetite. At the end of the after period the l)pulse and tempera-
ture were normal and the weight was 59.29 kilograms, that being also
the average for the entire period, thus showing a sligoliht continued
decrease in weight.
No. 6.-L. M. S.
This subject began the fore period in normal condition as respects
both temperature and pulse and with a weight of 58.12 kilograms.
No unusual symp)ton0s developed during the fore period excepting
perhaps a slight tendency to constipation. At the end of the fore
period the patient's condition remained normal but with a slight loss
of weight, which had fallen to 57.4s kilograms. The average weight
for the fore period, however, was somewhat higher, i. e., 58.06 kilo-
granLIs.
ID)uring thle p)reserIvative period the condition of thile subject re-
miaied normal without any notable sympl)toms during tlhe first and
second subperiods until the 5th of Novelmber, when complaint was
made of a feeling of hlunger after thile usutl rations of the day had
been (consunIed. There wa's a g'radual Ibut not marked loss of weight,
and the subject continuedd to complainn aIt times of leaving the table
very hun]'gry. The appetite remained good du(lring the( third preserva-
tive subperiod, and on the 9thi of Novemlber ta slight cold in the head
developed without ally Lmarked increase in temperature. There was
a considerable fall in weight on tha.t date, which was ascribed to a little
unusuaal exercise. A slight cold continued on the l oth of November,
but otherwise tihe subject was feeling well and the appetite was still keen,


494





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


the feeling of hunger continuing during the next day. Onil Novem-
ber 124at 3.40) p. in.. the patient was seized with cramps ill the abdo-
men but not of a very severe character. At the beginning of the
fourth preservative siibperiod the feeling of hunger had disappeared,
but the slight cold in the head continued without notable rise of tem-
perature. The cold continued on the 14th. with the feeling of uneasi-
ness in the stomach, which feeling disappeared on the 15th, the cold
continuing but not in a disturbing degree. Normal conditions were
restored on the 16th. On the 17th the subject was still hungry after
taking the usual meals and had anll uneasy feeling in the stomacllh.
During the fifth preservative suiperiod the feeling of hunger per-
sisted. A tendency to diarrhea developed on the l19th, and there was
some discomfort from indigestion. A little cold p)eriisted during the
following days but not of any serious nature, and the sensation of
hunger continued. The sixth preservative silbperiod began with
pains in the stomach and abdomen but with the feeling of hunger con-
tinuing. On the 211th the pains in the stomach were marked, especially
after meals: the slight cold continued buLt without, notable increase of
temperature. Although still hungry on the 2.5th. there was a feeling
as of a lump in the stomach and other iunpl)leasant sensations, described
as "unusual" feelings inl the stomach. This indisposition continued
on the 26th, and the temperattire was slightly below the normal. At
6.45 p. m. of this day considerable nausea developed, and m,,ot of the
dinner wa- vomited. A cold and sore throat were complained of on
the 27th, the last day of the p)reservative period. The telmperiature
on the afternoon of tils day was considerably above tlhe normal, and
the weight was 56.51 kilograms, the average weight for tlhe entire
preservative period beingg 56.94 kilograms' a decided decrease.
At the beginning of the after period the temll)terattire was nornmi..
but a slight sore throat persisted which continued also on the follw-
ing three days. The feeling of ithunger also was reported at times
during this period. In the second after sutbl)eriod there was a slight
headache and sonime continued cold. buit the cold il general was better.
The weight continued to diiiiinislh. (1n tlie 5th of D)ecembeler nori;il
symptomnis were fully reestablislhed in every particular, but there was
a slight feeling of indigestion after dinner. Eight g,,rains of (ilinine
had been taken in thlie pr'ece'dinig two or threl' dlays. ()1n D)ecemlbelr
normal symptonlis and ntorinal appetite weN re e,4tablislhed, and thl.-e
continue tiuil tlite et'ii of the after period,. at. which tillec tlie weight
was 55.So kilogramns.
To suilitrize, tlie average' weiglit of No. (; for thle fore period was
58.06 kilograms; for the preservative peritod. 5-t6.14 kilograni s: and
for the after period, 55.s7 kii griaiis, slow ng a loss of 1. 12 kilograms
in the preservative period from the fore period and 1.417 kilograms i,


495





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


the after period from the preservative period, a total loss during the
experiment of 2.19 kilograms, in connection with which, of course,
the cold from which the subject suffered must be remembered.
No. 7.--.L N. B.

At the beginning of the fore period the weight of No. 7 was 68.3
kilograms, and thile temperature and pulse were normal. He was in
excellent physical condition, no organic disease of any of the vital
organs was found, and he had had no serious illness for a long period.
The first fore subperiod passed without any unusual incident. At the
beginning of the second subperiod the weight had fallen to 67.90 kilo-
grams, but no other disturbances were noted. At the close of the
fore period the weight was 67.55 kilograms and the average weight
for the fore period 67.91 kilograms.
The preservative period opened with the subject in good condition,
though somewhat inclined to indulge in vivid imagination and to dis-
cover symptoms of trouble which did not exist. No unusual symp-
toms were manifested during the first preservative subperiod, but at
the close of the second subperiod the syml)toms of hunger appeared,
the subject not feeling that the rations, which were entirely sufficient
to satisfy his hunger during the fore period, were enough. On
November 7 he first complained of indigestion, and at the beginning
of tihe third preservative subperiod was feeling reasonably well.
During November 9 a very bad headache was developed, which lasted
during the afternoon, and on the following day there was an uneasy
sensation in the stomach. 'T'he general al ppeaLrance of the subject at
this time was not as good as 'at first, )but no specific complaints were
made. I)During the night of November 12 the sul)ject was feeling quite
ill and was not well throughout tihe following (day. On the 14th the
symptoms of mnalaise lhad largely disappeared, but not entirely.
Headache developed again on the 15th, and thle feeling of hunger
seellied to le accentuated. Insomnia was complained of on the night
of the 15thl, 1and tihe statement was made, that for two preceding nights
diffitIltyv in sleeping, especially in tlie early morning hours, had been
experienced. Insoniia continued during the 17th, and the headache
also persiste duringg that day. On the 19th symptoms of indigestion
were cletrlly manifested, especially in the afteroo110011, lbut the sensation
of hulinger still continued. On thie 20th of Novenimber the symptoms
of indigestion increased, and the subject was feeling very ill. There
seetted also to he a sligilt dlepression of the temperature. On the 21st
the weight fell below 67 kilogranms. Tihe indigestion became more
l)ronotInced, and thlie hea(lache also continued. Tlie appetite failed on
the 22d, 11an11d some li( icuiilty was expl)erienced in taking the full ration.
At thle beginning of the sixth preservative subperiod the weight


496





U
SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 497

had fallen to 66.80 kilograms and the illness of the preceding days had
passed #way; the appetite was restored and a sensation of hunger was
complained of after the regular meals. This feeling of hunger, con-
tinued for several days, and on the 26th the illness before complained
of again appeared but passed away on the following day.
The subject started on the after period with a weight of 66.9( kilo-
grams, pulse and temperature normal, but complaining of constipa-
tion. On the 29th he felt quite well, but during the succeeding days
there was a continued loss of weight, although the regular rations
selected at the fore period were eaten and the subject felt well. In
the second part of the after period the weight fell below 66 kilograms,
but the subject was feeling well. This condition of health was con-
tinued to the end of the after period. The weight on the last day of
the after period was 66.83 kilograms and the average weight for the
after period was 66.34 kilograms.
Comparing the average weights of the three periods, we have for
the fore period 67.91 kilograms, for the preservative period 67.28
kilograms, and for the after period 66.34 kilograms.
No. 8.-W. C. L.

No. 8 was a somewhat peculiar subject, very conscientious and very
attentive to every detail, but much inclined at all times to imagine
that he had some specific or general trouble. The data which were
obtained with No. 8, therefore, are of peculiar interest. He was in a
very good physical condition at the time of the beginning of the
experimental work and in the physical examination revealed no lesion
of any vital organ, nor had he suffered from any severe disease for a
period of more than a year. His weight at the beginning of the fore
period was 61.30 kilograms and his temperature and pulse were normal.
He entered the preservative period weighing 60.65 kilograms. On
the 1st of November a slight headache was developed early in the
morning, which continued until the afternoon, when, after the subject
had slept for forty minutes, it disappeared. An unpleasant feeling
in the abdomen was experienced at the same time. It should be stated
here that during the whole of the observation No. 8 took regularly a
given quantity of laxative, administered in such a way that it could
not interfere with any of the observations, inasmuch as it was the same
during all the periods. A feeling of languor was experienced on the
4th of November, and it was reported as having been experienced for
several preceding days. A slight headache was noted on the 5th of
November, but it passed away after breakfast; the subject felt tired
on waking. A sore knee with which he entered the preservative
period gave him some little trouble at this time, due, as he explained,
to hitting it accidentally. On the 8th of November a slight tendency






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


to diarrhea was developed, but this was followed on the succeeding
day by a period of constipation. Abdominal pains were experienced
on the nighlit of November 10, )ut in general the subject was feeling
better. There was pain in the stomach onil the night of the 11th,
but thh feeling of languor anl(l indi.pcsition to exertion had passed
away. A feeling of weight in the stomach was also noted. Abdomi-
nal pains, thoughll slight, continued( on the 12th. On the 13th a
feeling of indigestion was experienced, but it passed away within a
short time. A small quantity of food was lost b)y belching on the 14th,
but not to exceed a spoonful. Onil the 15th the subject was feeling
quite well again, and this condition continued until the 18th, when a
slight headache developed with a tendency to diarrhea. Slight head-
ache was also experienced on the 19th and the bowels continued loose.
On the 220th the subject felt exceedingly well, although there was a
very slight headache after dinner. This favorable condition continued
until the 22d and then was interrupted only by a slight headache with
a tendency to drowsiness. Headache continued on November 23 and
24, with slight pains in the stomach and abdomen and with a drowsy
feeling (.coming (on early inll the evening. A slight abdominal disturb-
anlce was nlloticed on the 25th, while a slight headache continued on
the 26th ail onil the afternoon of the 27th. The subject closed the
l)priservative period with a weight of 6(.13 kilograms and feeling
reasonably well. his average weight for the whole preservative
p'riodl was 6(.(62 kilogramis, and for the fore period 61.20 kilograms.
'T'he first day of the after period tihe headache continued, but the
subject filt miuclh bIetter after luncheon. The second day the subject
felt well, excep)t for it slight feelihug of uneasiness in the stomach.
I 'a lachi'e came o()n aboitt. :Ln ou tr I0efore dnlir wit4 a1 Witt pl 1i1s ill the lbtack
Li(d so1e1, we,'arin,-ess. NO uil)nleasalt feelings were experienced during
t.he 3(tl, butt a slight, feeling (of laziness ()or drowsiness. A slight cold
developed on D ecemiber 1, 'and the tuil)erature at dinner was 9I.6)..
Sonie s 'IIymp)tolis of tliis cld lihad b1ieen manifest(ed for several days
Jefoire,, but, io account lha(d b1een Iimade of it until Niis day. Slight
1)pains iIl t hi(aLclk were (,Xperincei'd oni thle 2d of D)ecelbler, but other-
wise it( subjt(ct was feeling well. Sonle little headache was expe-
ric(i(ed on tle l ( t)) of D)e.'til1ber. An:l abscess formed on a tooth at this
tilme, wilich keptl)t tle Subect. iLW't aw:(ke luringg t-le night of the 4th of
I )Dceh),er aild lie felt corresp)oidiilgly ill during tUie day. The abscess
was pl)t1e11 on t(he 5thll of D)ece.lmher and thl(, subject felt much better,
bliut slept. only half tl.I night. ()On the 6th all bad sympton.s haddisap-
p)('aredl. T'I ihe s subjectt closed tlhe after period feeling inll excellent con-
tlitiion ill spite of the tro(mble which li(e ad 1ha(d with his tootli. The
fil weight Mon ie(' last dl:y N'of the after period) l was 51w.87 kilograms, and
his average weight during thlie after period was 5).S84 kilograms, show-
ing a progre(ssiv'e loss in wVeight.


498






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


Xo. 9.--;. I| L.

The weight of No. 9 at the beginning of the fore period was 62.10
kilograms. The temperature was very slightly above the normal and
the rate of pulsation 84 per minute. The general physical condition
was good. This subject had suffered from no serious disease within a
year and had a long history of good health. Physical examination
disclosed all the organs in sound state and performing their normal
functions. There was but little variation in the condition of No. 9
during the fore period. The pul)lsation remained at about the original
rate, which was slightly above normal. The average weight for the
fore period was 62.25 kilograms, but the weight on the last day of the
fore period was exactly that of the first day, namely, 62.10 kilograms.
No. 9 entered the preservative period in good condition. The first
day there was a slight increase of temperature, almost 1 degree, but
not sufficient to indicate a fever. This condition passed away,-and on
the second day the usual normal conditions were restored. The first
preservative subperiod passed without any unusual incident. No. 9
did not, as most of the others had clone, complain of being hungry
during this period. Normal conditions were continued until Novelm-
ber 3, when a slight cold was noticed, with an increase of temperature
of about three-fourths of a degree. This condition continued on the
following day, a slight degree of fever being manifested, witli head-
ache and a feeling of drowsiness during the day. These symptoms
evidently were to be attributed to the cold rather than to the preserva-
tire. The conditions were very much improved on the 5th instant; in
fact, with the exception of a slight cold in the lead, the conditions
were normal. The slight, cold continued but without any inconvezli-
ence on the 6th instant, and the temperature and pulsation were nor-
mal. At this time there was a loss of weight amounting to about half
a kilogram. This loss of weight was due in part to a rathelir larger
evacuation than usual. Conditions were practically normal onl the 7th
with the exception of a slight continuation of the cold. All condi-
tions were reported as favorable on November ., duringg the second
preservative subperiod, but a dislike for inuttmon and lamlb was
expressed when these meats were served. There was a slight increase
of the cold on November 10, h)ut without any Iunipleasant results.
During the night of the 10th a restless condition which interfered to
some extent with sleep developed, and onl Novenibl)er 12 tlhe cold was
worse, but without any increase of temperature or other Ulnfavorable
symptoms.
No. 9 entered the fourth preservative subperiod feeling reasonably
well and weighing 61.90 kilograms, almost the same as at the lwbegin-
ning of the period. There was a complaint of slight blurring of tlhe
vision during the previous day, and though the cold in the head was


499






T5INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


better, a pain in the region of the kidneys developed. This did not
persist, however, and on the following day No. 9 was in good condi-
tion. Some pain in the eyes was noticed on November 17.
The fifth preservative subperiod found No. 9 with exactly the same
weight as at the beginning of the fore period, namely, 62.10 kilo-
grains. He coImplained of coughing slightly at night and of some
nocturnal perspiration, but this was of an entirely unimportant
character.
At the beginning of the sixth preservative subperiod No. 9 weighed
62.7o kilograms and was inl excellent condition, feeling better even
than at any period during the progress of tihe exl)eriment. The appe-
tite was excellent, and on November 26 the subject felt hungry after
dinner.
At the end of the preservative period, namely, November 27, No. 9
weighed 62.40 kilograms and was feeling in excellent condition. The
average weight for the entire preservative period was 62.22 kilograms,
as compared with 62.25, the average of the fore period.
The beginning of the after period found No. 9 in excellent condi-
tion, and he passed through the entire after period without any inci-
dent worthy of attention, save that he complained of hunger on every
day of the first siibperiod, bit mniade no such complaint during the
second su)bperiod.
Tih( weight of No. 9 at the end of the after period was 62.30 kilo-
gra"lis, temperature and l)ulse normal, annd all the functions of the
body a)lpparently properly discharged. This case is quite in contrast
with most of the others. First, in the fact that no unpleasant symp-
toills were observed e'veia with the largest doses of salicylic acid; and,
seAoild, that the foeelilg (f Ihungetr, which was so commonly manifested
during tle,, first period(ls o()f the administration o)f the salicylic acid in
tlhe(. other casi's, wILs .ot- .notiedl in this, biut tile symptoms of hunger
(levelope(d decidedly after, tlee cessation o(f theim doses of the salicylic.

J udged, therefore, si.pll) by the inedical history no unfavorable
smpftotlis of any kind were noticed during tihe whole course of
ob )se('rvltio( )n.
.Vo. in. R. I). I).
No. 10 began the f(ore period weighing .7.11) kilograms. Physical
(exalJlination reveal( ) no defects in any of tihe organs of the body.
Tlere, Ia:(id Ieen o(, pr' viots diseasee (Of any consequence within a year
atld 11o tveidilec',y to aIIy otr'atlic list IrlibLnces was found. The fore
period passed witlolit aly incident worthy of record. The tempera-
tur' :ald p)1lse retuineii(i' normal during the entire time. At the close
of tlhe fort period the weight of No. 10 was 56.99 kilograms and all
the funmtions o()f tlhe 1))(ld were normally discharged. The average
w('ight for tile ('etir' fore period was 5;.91 kilograms.


500






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 501

At the beginning of the preservative Iferiod the weight of No. 10
was 56.9. kilograms; temperature and pulsation normal. During the
first preservative subperiod he did not report any unusual hunger.
During the second subperiod he remained in excellent condition,
without any apparent disturbance of any of the functions of the body.
A slight cold developed at the beginning of the third preservative sub-
period on November 8, but it was of no consequence and passed awayV
on the following day.
Atkthe beginning of the fourth subperiod the weight of No. 10 was
57.39kilograms. A feeling of fullness was reported by the stLbjecct on
that day. There was a slight depression of temperature amounting to
about three-tenths of a degree. No unfavorable symptoms were mani-
fested during the rest of this period.
At the beginning of the fifth preservative subperiod the weight of
.No. 10 was 57.26 kilograms and he was in excellent condition.
At the beginning of the sixth subperiod the weight of No. 10 was
57.10 kilograms, the temperature and pulse normal, and lie was feel-
ing very well. At the close of the sixth preservative subp)eriod the
weight of No. 10 was 57.10 kilograms and no unfavorable symptoms
had developed. No. 10 did not even complain of the hunger which
was a characteristic symptom in most of the other cases. The average
weight of No. 10 during the preservative period was 57.33 kilograms.
The subject entered the after period in excellent condition and on
the second day complained of being hungry. He again complained of
hunger on December 1.
At the beginning of the second after subperiod his weight was 541.330
kilograms and he still complained of being hungry. On December 4
No. 10 was taken ill and was unable to appear at his meals. On the 5th
he reported for duty with a temperature about I degree )above tilhe
normal and with a pulse of 90 per minute. HIe complained of feeling
weak, his stomach was out of order, and his tongue coated. His con-
dition was somewhat improved on the following day, but he did not
feel entirely well. On the 7th the temperature and pullse were normal
again and No. o10 reported himself as feeling well. The subject's
weight on the last day of the after l)eriod was 52.2 kilogramlls, having
lost about 4 kilograms from his illness.
It does not appear that in the above case the administration of tilhe
salicylic acid had any apparent effect either iin increasing or decrleas-
ing the appetite or affecting in :any way the ordinary functions of the
organs of the body.
Ah. 11.-I. F. M.
The weight of No. 11 at the beginning of the fore period was 65. 4;
kilogram.. His temperature and pulse were normal. )uIring tlie
whole of the fore period No. 11 remained in excellent condition and
no variations of any consequence in his condition were noted. His






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


weight on the last day of thlb fore period was 64.95 kilograms and his
average weight for the period 65.36 kilograms.
Hlie entered upon the preservative period in excellent physical
condition. There were no unfavorable symptoms developed during
the first, preservative subperiod nor was there any complaint of
hunger. A feeling of hunger was reported after dinner on November
7, the end of the second subperiod, the usual amount of food not having
satisfied the craving.
The third preservative subperiod found No. 11 in excellent condi-
tion, weighing 64.8s! kilograms, and with normal pulse and tempera-
ture. During the night of November 9 lie was restless and had a
slight headache throughout the following day. On the 11th decided
symptoms of indigestion developed, but without disturbing the tem-
perature or lpulse. The subject was feeling better on November 12
and entered the fourth preservative subperiod in fairly good condi-
tion, weighing 64.S5 kilograms and with normal pulse and tempera-
ture. These normal conditions continued during the whole of the
fourth preservative subperiod.
The weight of No. 11 at the beginning of the fifth subperiod was
64.27 kilograms. Slight symptoms of indigestion appeared at this
time, especially after luncheon. No. 11 was feeling better on the fol-
lowing day and no further unfavorable symptoms were reported until
November 22, when a slight headache was noticed.
At the beginning of the sixth preservative subperiod No. 11 weighed
64.03 kilograms and was suffering from a slight febrile attack, the
temperature rising to 100 and the pulsation to 90. headache persisted
during the day, with a. fever following and general weakness. Symp-
tomis of a sore throat were developed and slighllt headache persisted
during tlie following day, but the temperature was normal. On the
eveningg of the 24th he indulged in unusual exercise, but without dis-
comnfort. On the 25th No. 11 was again feeling in excellent condi-
t ion, and this continued until thle close of thie preservative period.
His l average weightduring the preservative period was 64.559 kilograms.
No. 11 entered the after period weighing 63.1S kilograms and with
a ioriimal temperature and( pulIse. The appetite increased during tihe
after period., and o0 l)eceilher 2 No. 11 complained of hunger after
dinner. Tihe Secondl after subperiod passed without any unusual
incident. No. I I felt remarkably well lduri ng this time and weighed
Lit its 'close 63.52 kilograms. I lis average weight for the entire after
periodl wa.s 63..57 kilogranis. In tie case of No. 11, as is seen, there
were no very tiarked sm il)toiis, th1(ugh in the al)sen(tte of iany cold or
infltuenza of anY description the feelings of headache and indigestion
which were d('evelolped from timne to tinie could justly Ibe attributed to
tli lh pree'rvhLti'e that. was a(dIinistered. 'liThese symptoms, however,
in io case were very serious nor did they cause any lasting discomfort.


50 2






SALICYLIC ACID ANDt) SALICYLATES.


Xo. 12.-- '. B. t'.
No. 12 was one of the very best mien of the cla is. His weight at,
the beginning of the fore period was 69..5) kilograms; his tempera-
ture and pulse were normal. No unfavorable symptonis of any
description were developed during the entire fore period and his
average weight was 69.70 kilograms.
No. 12 entered the preservative perio(l in excellent condition, weigh-
ing 69.80 kilograims, and with normal plise and temperature. No
unfavorable symptoms were rieco)rded during the first preservative
subperiod. A good deal of mental work was required on November
3, l)probab)ly incident to his studies. The amount of exercise taken on
November 5 was less than usual, No. 12 having experienced a feeling
of drowsiness on that day with a sensation of fullness in the head and
a slight headache which persisted during the entire day. He was
nervous during the night of the 5th. but there was some improvement
in his feelings during the 6th. Onil this date also there were symp-
tomnis of a slight cold in the head and the feeling of fullness in the head
continued. There was also a loss of appetite, and the urine discharged
during the day was more cloudy than i usual. The loss of appetite
continued during the following day, but otherwise No. 12 was feeling
very much better.
The third preservative suibperiod hegan with a severe headache which
lasted all day, but there was some improvement in the appetite. He
complained of feeling very hungry at dinner time. The headache
and other unfavorable syniptoms lihad passed away on the 9th, and the
feeling of hunger was increased. On the (10th, however, the appetite
failed again partially, and sympl)toms of a bad cold were manifested,
but without any marked increase in tenemlperattire or pulsation.
No. 12 was better on November 11, 1hut on the following day he was
not so well. lie had a feeling of fatigiue, although he hliad not takell
any more than the usual amount of exercise, and the symptoms of
hunger persisted.
The fourth preservative subperiod was marked by a slight loss of
appetite and a headache whlich contillnuedl duringg the day. Otherwise
No. 12 was feeling very well. (O)i the 14th lhe was extreinly nervotis,
and had not slept well idutring tihe preyiotus night. The headache and
a sense of driyness in ti e inmoutli and throat. contitined throughoutit the
day, a11d the headache persisted during tlie follow ing day witl1 a loss
of appetite. The headache continued dtiring." tlie d(ay of Nov e iher 16,
but otherwise tihe sy pn)tonis were more fitavorable and( tlie slilbject
improved. The t nfal oIra ble sy"p)tOil's hlad pas..ed away on IIt ', 17th,
and a feeling of huinger was inaniftested.
The fifth preservative si)l)erio(l foutin No. 12 in the possession of
a good appl)l)etite and wvitlhout any id(ispositioi oft ally kid. Tlihe rest-
less condition, however, returned on tlhe night of tie lstli and lasted


503






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


throughout the night, but did not interfere with the appetite the fol-
lowing day. On the 20th No. 12 was in excellent condition again.
The feeling of hunger continued on the 22d of November with a head-
ache which lasted all day, preceded by a restless night, No. 12 report-
ing that he had very little sleep the night before.
The sixth preservative subperiod found No. 12 in good condition,
weighing 70.15 kilograms and with normal temperature and pulse.
During the remainder of this subperiod he felt very well, and the
close of the preservative period found him in excellent condition,
weighing 70.22 kilograms and with normal temperature and pulse.
The average weight for the entire preservative period was 70.03 kilo-
gramns, an increase as compared with the average weight of the fore
periods, 69.70 kilograms.
In the beginning of the after period No. 12 weighed 69.95 kilo-
gramis, with a temperature just a trifle below the normal and with
normal pulsation.
During the first day of the after period No. 12 experienced a con-
siderable degree of hunger, which was not entirely satisfied by the
dinner. This feeling of hunger continued for two or three days, but
with no other unfavorable symptoms. No. 12 continued to feel better
during the whole of the after period and at its close weighed 69.8 kilo-
gramis. His average weight during the after period was 69.87 kilo-
grams, a slight increase over that of the fore period, but a slight
decrease as compared with the preservative period.
From the above description it is seen that No. 12 suffered very little
during the administration of the preservative save from headache and
fullness in the head and sometimes a disposition to drowsiness. The
feeling of hunger, which was very marked in this case, was especially
pronounced in the after period, and this, while similar to two or three
cases, is Lquite differentt from the experience of most of the other
subjects.
CON('IJISIONS.

A general review of the medical data shows in some instances decid-
edly unfavorable svinptollis atten(ling the use of the salicylic acid,
while in a iiiinority of cases no symptoms of a distinctly unfavorable
character can be attributed to the use tof the preservative. In the
majority of cases there was i strollng feeling of hunger developed dur-
ing tihe administration of the pireserv:Ltive, especially during its early
stages, although the rations served were not less in quantity and were
of the same jwuality as those which were provided during the fore
period. In at least thirel.t of tleW (ast's -perIhal-s four-the feeling of
himuger whichli was developl)ed was noticeablle chiefly during the after
period. The general conclusion, therefore, judged by the medical
history of all the cases considered as a whole, is that in some instances,


504






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


and probably the majority, the administration of the preservative
developed unfavorable conditions, while in the minority of the cases
it seemed to have practically little effect one way or the other upon
those who consumed it.

BODY WEIGHTS.

VARIATIONS IN BODY WEIGHTS.

In order to bring this important factor into prominence and to ren-
der a comparison easier, the changes in body weights of the individuals.
daily and by periods, are expressed in graphic form in figs. 1 and 2. alnd
the general average for nine men, by periods, is also given. The data
for total and average weights, by periods, on which the lines of aver-
age weight in the charts are based may be found in Table IV. on the
relation between the food weights and body weights, under which head
these data are discussed in greater detail. The daily variations are
shown only by the broken lines, of which the straight lines give the
average.
It is seen that No. 1 experienced a marked loss of weight during the
preservative period and a greater loss during the after period. In
the case of No. 2, the same condition exists, but in a still more marked
degree. The case of No. 3 is especially interesting. This subject at
the opening of the experiment weighed 52.7S kilograms., but after the
second day of the fore period was taken ill with the grippe and was
confined to his room until October 26. On his return to the table his
- weight had decreased to 50.54 kilograms. A new ration was selected
as suited to his condition of convalescence and calculated to restore
normal conditions. The graphic chart shows that there was a .slight
tendency throughout the preservative period toward ai gain in weight.
amounting as a whole throughout the preservative period of 25 days
to 0.51 kilogram, but when the preservative was withdrawn tilhe
weight suddenly rises and the average for the after period show-z a
very marked increase, amounting to a gain of 0.73 kilograzi for tie ten
days of that period. It, is certainly indicated in this instance that the
preservative inhibited to a marked degree the assimilation of the food.
as a ration had been allowed which would meet the needs of the bodyl
in repairing and building up tissue after a short illness.
In the case of No. 4 the weight during the preservative period was
almost identical with that of the foic period. but there was a slight
loss of weight, during the after period. The same conditions obtain
in the case of No. 5. No. 6 shows an extreme case of veir\" decided
loss of weight amounting to about 1 kilogram in both the preservative
and the after periods. No. 7 loses more tlan half a kilogram in
the preservative period and about a kilogram in the after period.
No. 8 lost 0.58 kilogram in the preservative period and 0.7-S kilogram
7656-No. 84, pt 2-06--3


505






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


OCTOBER


r n>p(_3c o-o U) to P., to -a 1,


NOVEMBER


+i ~~11uI}K:


67 - - - 4-- _ _ _ a j :4 - -

21 IN[1 H I tFtI- I ,i 1 -1-T I I 11 11 1 lL


~ ws7wNT
::::::::::::im in 11111U\ \ I TTrn-[T:M||,i
FMORE PERIOD PRESERVATIVE PERIOD AFTEp I
F]'.. I -l uid uvcrnigu budiy ivelght for Series VI, Nom. 1-8.


61

60

59
N


506


-fl


tt-1i


I n--






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


in the after period. In the case of No. 9 the weight remains practi-
cally constant throughoutthe whole series, there being only a tendency
to decrease in weight, which was more pronounced in the after period.
No. 10 showed a considerable increase'in weight during the preserva-
tive period and a slight loss during the after period covered by his
illness, the average weight for the after period being practically the
same as that of the fore period. It will be observed, however, that
Nos. 3, 9, and 10 are excluded from the general summary, the data inll

OCT"OBECR NOVEWMtIBINR DECEMBER
f -, M , - -, ->- -


-+-+-.........


N i i!i i


- N |1-


i i i


I I! i I4f V i i V4 III


61r 1 I


F1L I I N 9 1 | | 1-T ----- , . . . .

67o .pp.. ......


-- . .MMARY 1-2-4-5-6-7-8-11-12-. -^- --i.


-. fl4/Lr nrGnTr --
- d4Le~aSfl4 wcasnHr


FORE P3R10D 1 PRSeVAtVE ferIO AFTER PERIOD
FiG 2.-Daily and average body weights for Series VI, Nos. 1J-12, ind sunianry.


these cases, owing to variations introduced by sickness and other
external causes, not being considered strictly conpiiarable. No. 11
shows a considerable loss of weight during thie preservative period,
amounting to 0.77 kilogram, and a still more marked loss during the
after period, of 1.03 kilogramus. No. 12 shows a slightly increased
weight during the preservative period, ).33 kilogram, and a very
slight loss in the after period, resulting in a slight gain for the entire
series, i. e., 0.17 kilogram.


11111 It


Lai^l


507


%7.7"






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


The data showing the average effect produced on the nine men
completing the series are plotted in the chart shown in fig. 2. It is
evident that this effect is toward a loss of weight during the pre-
servative period and an increased loss during the after period. In
other words, the larger relative loss produced during the after period
is due doubtless to the momentum, as it may be called, of the effects
produced during the preservative period.

RATIO OF FOOl) WEIGHT 1TO BODY WEIGHT.
9
In Table IV are shown the results of the study made of the quantity
of food consumed as compared with the body weight.
The average weight of No. 1 for the fore period is 53.38 kilograms,
for the preservative period 52.99 kilograms, and for the after period
52.37 kilograms. It is seen that there is a slight loss of weight during
the preservative period and a slightly greater loss during the after
period. The average weight of moist food administered during the
fore period is 2,427 grams and of dry food 467 grains. The daily
weight of moist food consumed is 4.55 per cent and of the dry food
o.(S7 per cent of the weight of the body. During the preservative
period the average daily quantity of moist food consumed is 2,421 and
of dry food 474 grams. The moist food consumed daily is 4.57 per
cent and the dry food 0.s.9 per cent of the weight of the body. Dur-
ing thle after period the quantity of moist food consumed daily is 2,345
grants and of dry food 476 grams. The moist food consumed is 4.48
per cent and the dry food 0.91 per cent of the weight of the body.
It will he noticed that the quantity of dry food consumed during the
various periods is almost constant, being least in the fore period and
greatest in the after period. The loss of weight therefore can not be
ascribed to alny diminution of the quantity of food, the latter having
been slightly increased.
In the case of No. 2 the average quantity of moist food consumed
(luring the fore period is 2,6()i grans and of dry food 604 grams,
being 3.91 per cent and 0.,S peter cent, respectively, of the weight of
the bldy. luring the preservative period the quantity of moist food
consumed by No. 2 is 2,90S granims and of dry food 598 gramins, being
4.30 anld 0.-s5 per cent, respectively, of the weight of tihe body. Dur-
ing tl0e after lri(i(od tlie average (q11Lltity of moist food consumed by
No. 2 is 2,8s76 grains and of dry food 612 grams daily, being 4.30) and
0.91 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the iody.
Th1e average weight of No. 2 during the fore period is 68.32, during
thle lpreserv'ative period 67.66, and during the after period 66.91 kilo-
graiLi.s. TheV re is tihus s1een thI progressive loss of weight which con-
tinued tl 'rough the after period, although tle quantity of food
remained practically the same, but was dilminislhed by a few grams


508





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


during the preservative period and increased by a few grams (tciuring
the after period.
The data for No. 3 are only fragmentary, as has already been
explained, and therefore are of little value for experimental purposes.
During the second subperiod of the fore period the quantity of moist
food consumed daily by No. 3 is 2,610 grams, equivalent to 530 grams
of dry material, or 5.18 and 1.05 per cent, respectively, of the weight
of the body. For five subperiods of the preservative period the weight
of moist food consumed daily is 2,568 grams, equivalent to 592 grams
of the dry material, corresponding to 5.04 and 1.16 per cent, respec-
tively, of the weight of the body. During the after period the quan-
tity of. moist food daily consumed is 2,524 grams, equivalent to 621
grams of dry food, 4.89 and 1.20 per cent, respectively, of the body
weight. The average weight of No. 3 during his fore period (five
days) is 50.42 kilograms, during the five subperiods of the preservative
period 50.93 kilograms, and during the after period 51.66 kilograms.
No. 3 therefore presents a progressive gain in weight and also an
increased quantity of dry food consumed. The explanation of this
condition in connection with the illness of the subject has already been
discussed under body weights.
The average weight of moist food consumed daily by No. 4 in the
fore period is 2,311 grams, equivalent to 535 grams of dry material,
these data corresponding to 3.80 and 0.88 per cent, respectively, of
the weight of the body. For the preservative period the average
quantity of moist food consumed daily is 2,378 grams, equivalent to
556 grams of dry material, corresponding to 3.92 and 0.92 per cent,
respectively, of the weight of the body. For the after period the
quantity of moist food consumed daily is 2,408 gramins, corresponding
to 569 grams of dry material, equivalent to 3.9.8 and 0.9-4 per cent,
respectively, of the weight of the body. The mean weight of No. 4
for the fore period is 60.73, for the preservative period 60.67, and
for the after period 60.43 kilograms. The loss of weight is practically
negligible during the preservative period, and becomes a small though
noticeable quantity for the after period, notwithstanding the slightly
increased quantity of food.
The quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 5 during the
fore period is 2,357 grams, corresponding to 558 grams of dry mnate-
rial. .These data represent 3.94 and 0.93 per cent, respectively, of
the body weight. For the entire preservative period the average
daily quantity of moist food consumed is 2,346 grams, equivalent to
563 grams of dry material and corresponding to 3.93 and 0.94 per
cent, respectively, of the weight of the body. During the after
period the average daily quantity of food consumed is 2,382 grais,
corresponding to 564 grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.01 and


509





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


0.95 per cent. respectively, of the weight of the body. The average
weight of No. 5 for the fore period is 59.76, for the preservative
period 59.71, and for the after period 59.33 kilograms. There is
scarcely any change of weight between the fore period and the pre-
servative period, but a decided loss during the after period, in spite
of a slightly increased quantity of food.
The average quantity of moist food consumed daily during the fore
period by No. 6 is 2,289 grams, corresponding to 537 grams of dry
material, equivalent to 3.94 and 0.92 per cent, respectively, of the
weight of the body. During the preservative period the mean daily
quantity of mnoist food consumed is 2,372 grams, corresponding to 556
grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.17 and 0.98 per cent, respec-
tively, of the weight of the body. During the after period the quan-
tity of moist food consumed daily is 2,275 grams, corresponding to
561 grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.07 and 1 per cent, respec-
tively of the weight of the body. The mean daily weight of No. 6
during tlhe fore period is 58.06, for the preservative period 56.94,
and for the after period 55.S7 kilograms. These data show a very
decided loss of weight during the preservative period, although the
quantity of dry food consumed was somewhat greater than in the
fore period. This loss of weight was continued through the after
period anid the total decrease was considerable, namely 2.19 kilograms.
The amount of dry food consumed increased throughout the series.
11h) quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 7 during the fore
period is 2,2403 grams, corresponding to 4S1 gramis of dry material,
equivalent to 3.24 awln( 0.71 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the
body. During the preservative period the daily quantity of moist
food consumed is 2,,33 grans, corresponding to 4S2 grams of dry
material, equivalent to 3.47 awld ). 72 per cent, respectively, of the
weight of the body. )During til after period the quaLIltity of moist
food eonsumied (bii -abyNo
food os ed daily b No. 7 is 2,261 graim, corresponding to 48S
grains of (dry material, equivalevit to 3.41 and 0.74 per cent, respect-
iv'ly, of the wilt of t1he body. 1e average weight of No. 7 during
the fore period is 67.91, during the l)reservative period 67.28, and
during teth after l).period 66.33 kilograms. There is thus observed a
C.onsideralle loss of weight during tie preseivative period as conm-
psLrCd witli the fore period (63o grants), and an increased loss of weight
dcliring tle after periodi (95;0 grains). 'I'The respective quantities of food
(consumed nb arve iost tlie sainte for tlhe three periods. There is, how-
everi, :iTi inc' r1iS( off 7 grainis ()f (Ir1N food daily il thle after period over
tlhe fore perii. and of 6; gran .s daily in tlhe after period over the pre-
seivttive period. 'This continued los. of weight, attended as it is with
a slight increase of the, weight of food tcoisued, c'an only be attri-
lbuted to tli. persistent effects of tlee preservative upon the metabolic
proceCsses.


510






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


The average quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 8 during
the for& period is 3,338 grams, corresponding to 531 grams of dry
material, equivalent to 5.45 and 0.87 per cent, respectively, of the
weight of the body. During the preservative period the average daily
quantity of moist food consumed by No. 8 is 3,408 grams, correspond-
ing to 575 grains of dry material, equivalent to 5.62 and 0.95 per cent,
respectively, of the weight of the body. During the after period the
quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. s is '2,9u6 grams, corre-
sponding to 587 grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.96 and 1.98 per
cent, respectively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of
No. 8 during the fore period is 61.20, during the preservative l)eriod
60.62, and during the after period 59.84 kilograms. T'he data here
show also a progressive decrease in weight which was continued
through the after period, although both in the preservative period and
in the after period the quantity of dry material consutiied is greater
than in the fore period. This continued depressing action of the
preservative on the metabolic processes as a whole, shown in decreased
weight, is quite as marked in the case of No. S, if not more so, as in
that of No. 7, for although the actual decrease in weight is slightly
less, the amount of dry food taken by No. S was appreciably greater,
namely, for No. 8 an average daily increase of 56 grams, as compared
with an increase of only 7 grams for No. 7.
The average quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 9 is
2,833 grams, corresponding to 634 grams of dry material, equivalent
to 4.55 and 1.02 per cent, respectively, of the weight of the body.
During the preservative period thle average quantity of moist food
consumed daily by No. 9 is 2,867 grams, corresponding to 624 grains
of dry material, equivalent to 4.61 and I per cent, respectively. of the
weight of the body. The average daily quantity of moist food con-
sumed by No. 9 during the after period is 2,579 grams, correspond illg
to 623 grams of dry material, equivalent to 4.15 aind I per cent,
respectively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of No. 9
during the fore period is 62.25, during the preservative period 62. -).
and during the after period 62.11 kilograms. These data show no
marked change in the weight of the body during the entire progress
of the observation, though the tendency is tow'arld i d(creaise.
The average daily quantity of moist food consumed by No. 10 is
2,710 grams, corresponding to 660) grains of dry material, equivalent
to 4.76 and 1.16 per cent, respectively, of the weight of thle 1)od(v.
No. 10 consumed daily during the preservative period :.1'29 gralms of
moist food, corresponding to 676 grams of dry material, equivalent to
5.28 and 1.18 per cent, respectively, of thle weight of the bod'y. D)ur-
ing the after period No. 10 was ill during the second subperiod and tlhe
data for the first subperiod are therefore taken as the average for the
whole after period. These data show that No. 10 in the after period


511





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


consumed daily 2,897 grams of moist food, corresponding to 659
graills of dry material, equivalent to 5.09 and 1.16 per cent, respect-
ively, of the weight of the body. The average weight of No. 10
during the fore period is 563.91, during the preservative period 57.33,
,and during the after period 56.90 kilograms. These data show a con-
siderable increase in weight during the administration of the preserva-
tive and a slight loss during the after period, doubtless due to the
illness occurring at that time.
The quantity of moist food consumed daily by No. 11 during the
fore period is 3.013 kilograms, corresponding to 621 kilograms of dry
material, and equivalent to 4.61 and 0.95 per cent, respectively, of the
weight of the body. During the preservative period No. 11 consumed
daily 27 ,)97 grams of moist food, corresponding to 622 grams of dry
material, equivalent to 4.64 and 0.96 per cent, respectively, of the
weiiglt of the b)ody. During the after period No. 11 consumed daily
3.o74 orainis of moist food, corresponding to 615 grams of dry mate-
rial, andl equivalent to 4.S4 and 0.97 per cent, respectively, of the
weight ()f the body. The average weight of No. 11 during the fore
l)eri('iod( is 4;.i.3'(;, during the preservative period 64.59, and during the
afteIr period 63.56 kilograms. These data show a decided tendency
toward a decrease inl the body weight, although the ainount of food
rellaime(d practically the same in the fore and I)reservative periods;
this tenenncy continuedd during the after period, and is not explained
by the slight decrease in the weight of dry food consumed in that
period, namely, 6 grains p)er day.
TlIe averatre daily quantity of moist food consumed by No. 12 during
theI fore period is 2.,So4 grails, corresponding to 660 gramins of the
(1t l:LteYrial, and equivalent to 4.03 and 0.95 per cent, respectively,
of thl, weight of tlie bod(y. During the preservative period No. 12
'o-%Iiedl daily 2.7sMs grains of o()ist food, corresponding to 653 grams
(Of (1irvy material, atii etqllvalent. to 3.98 and ().93 per cent, respectively,
of th weight tflit' blody. Duriiing the after period No. 12 consumed
dailv 2,628 grains of moist food, corresmpond(ing to 640 grams of dry
ateril, aild uivalent. to 3.74; and 0.92 per cent, respectively, of the
weight of tft Iboly. 11the average weight of No. 12 during the fore
period is 69. 7, during tllit plre.sv'rvative period 704.03, and during the
after period ;9..7 kilmlogralis. These data show a slight increase of
weight d(lrilag flle prese'rvativye e)riod, which increase was somewhat
dinuisi.i.Med (luirii g tlie after period, leaving the average weight for
that period 170 grLaiMs greater than the average for the fore period.
It is also to 1W noted that inl this case the amount. of dry food decreased
an average of 7 grams at day in thlie lreser'vative period, and 13 grams
idlitional il tihe after period, presenting a very slight tendency in the
oppoIsite direction to thalt manifested in tihe majority of cases, namely,
.an increase inl dry food and a decrease in weight. This might indicate


512





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


that the condition of No. 12 was such that the salicylic acid adminis-
tered ha4 a medicinal value, and shows the fallacy of depending on
individual results in such a study. These figures, whatever their
explanation, receive full weight in the summary for nine men given
in Table V. The data for the three men excluded, Nos. 3, 9, and 10,
while given in detail, are not included in the averages of the summary
for the reason that illness on the part of No. 3 rendered the data in
his case not strictly comparable, and certain marked irregularities in
the balances for Nos. 9 and 10 could only be explained onil the basis
that they had violated the rules of observation and so invalidated the
data.
The data for the nine men, averaged by periods, are as follows:
Body weightkfor the fore period, 62.71 kilograms; moist food con-
sumed, 2,601 grams; dry food, 555 grams; mean percentage of body
weight represented by the moist food, 4.15; by the dry food, 0.SS.
For the entire preservative period the average weight of the nine
men is 62.27 kilograms; the amount of moist food consumed daily,
2,661 grams; the amount of dry food, 564 grams; the average per-
centage of the body weight represented by the moist food is 4.27, and
by the dry food, 0.91.
In the after period the average daily weight for the nine men is
61.61 kilograms; the amount of moist food, 2,579 grams; the amount
of dry food, 568 grams;.the average percentage of the weight of the
body represented by the moist food is 4.19, and by the dry food, 0.92.
This summary shows that the average body weight declined con-
sistently throughout the experiment, the average total loss of weight
being 1.1 kilograms. The quantity of dry food consumed, however,
gradually increased, rising from 555 grams for the fore period, to 564
in the preservative period, and to 568 in the after period, an average
daily increase of 9 grams during the preservative period and 4 grams
additional during the after period. These data show a distinct ten-
dency as a whole on the part of the preservative to diminish the
weight of the body notwithstanding an increase in dry food consumed.
The graphic presentations of the variations in body weight as dis-
cussed above and given in the tables are to be found in figs. I and 2.


513







514 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE I\'.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
,'eight, Series VI.

[Averages are per day.]


No. 1.


Period.


Ire period..

First subperiod:
Total.............
Average .........
Second subperiod:
Total.............
Average .........

Entire fore period:
Total.............
Average .........

1'rescrratir' period.

First subperiod:
Total.............
Average .........
Second subperiod:
Total.............
Average .........
Third subperiod:
Total............
Average .........
Fourth subperi id:
Total.............
Average .........
Fifth miblperiod:
Total ............
Average ........
Sixth subipcr iodl:
Total .............
Averag ........


Body
weight.


Kilos.
267. 18
53.44

266.58
53.32

533.76
53.38



266.26
53.25

265.77'


Weight of food.


Dry.



Grains.
2,394
479

2,275
455

4,669
467



2,360
472

2, 338


53.15 468


265.25
53.05


2,340
468


265.31 2,305
53.06 461

26l3. ,, 2,568
52.7m 514-1

263. 10 2, "*15
52.62 1 463
I-- __


Moist.



Grams.
12,335
2,467

11,930
2,386


24,265
2,427



12,258
2, 452

12,385
2,477

11,934
2,387

12,273
2, 455

11i, 830
2, 366

11,913
2. 389


Eni;re prcservilive
period
Total............1. ,589.57 14,226 72,623
Average ......... 52.99 471 2.421

.Afer 1' rinl.

First siubperi ,d:
Totlnl ............. 262. .S 2,32) 11, 895
Average .......... 52.42 46i5 2,379
Sec"jid stibperioel:
Total............. 1 261.57 2,435 11. 558
Averatge. ......... 52.:31 487 1 2.312

Entire ifter pLrinl':
'i til ............. 523.1 65 1,7li0 23. 4M53
Average ......... 52. 3I7 176 2, :115


Average
daily ratio
of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist.



P. ct. P. ct.
0.90 4.62


.85


.87




89

88

.88


4.48


4.55




4.60


4.66

4..50


i...... .......

.87 4.63


.97 4.48

.8s 4.54


.89

.93


No. 2.


Body
weighfit.





Kilos.
342.16
68.43

341.05
68.21


683.21
68.32



340.05
68.01

339.18
67.84

339.02
67.80

338.23
67.65

337.69
67.54

335.75
67.15


Weight of food.



Dry. Moist.



Grams. Grams.
2,999 13,346
600 2,669

3,040 13,348
608 2,670


6,039 26,694
604 2,669


2,925
585

2,937
587

2,996
599

3,009
602.

3,100
620

2,963
593


Average
daily ratio
of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist.



P. ct. P. ct.
0.88 3.90


.89 3.91


.88 3.91
.'=..... ".......


14,552 .86
2,910 ......

14,456 .87
2,931 ......

14,553 .88
2,911 ......

14,391 .89
2,878 ......

14,814 .92
2,963 ......

14,264 .88
2,853 ......


4.57 2,029.92 17,930 87,230
....... I 67.66 598 2,908


4.54 335.12 3,021
....... ;67.02 604

4.42 333.95 3,094
....... 66.79 619


.91i 4.48


669.07
661.91


i6,115
612


14,069
2.814

14, 692
2,938


1.28

4.32

4.29

4.25


4.39

4.25



4.30


.90 4.20


.93


28,761 .91
2,876 ......


4.40


4.30








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


515


TABLE IV.-Amount of moist and dry food ronr-umed, expressed .s percentage of body
weight, Series !I -Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


I No. 3.


SAverage
daily ratio
Weight of food. of food
Body i | weight to iBody
weight, body weight, weight.


Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams.
Total ........... ........ .... ........
Average .......... ..................
Second subperiod: i
Total ............. 2.52. 11 2, 63)1
Average ......... 50.42 530


Entire fore period:
Total............
Average .........

Preserviative period.

First subperiod:
Total............
Average .........
Second subperiod:
Total...........
Average .........
Third subperiod:
Total.............
Average .........
Fourth subperiod:
Total .............
Average .........
Fifth subperiod:
Total............
Average .........
Sixth subperiod:
Total .............


253.67
50.73

252.62
50. 52

254.79
50.96

255. 69
51.14

256.54
51.31


Average ...................

Entire preservative
period:
Total........... "1,273.31
Average ......... 50.93

After period.


First subperiod:
Total............
Average .........
Second subperiod:
Total............
Average .........

Entire after period:
Total............
Average .........


257.86
51.57


258.77
51.75

516.63
51.66


2, 826
5f65

2, 872
574

2,890
578

3,06."
613

3,137
627


Moist. Dry.


Grams.


P. .-I.


13,050 1.05
2,610 ......


13, 2M1
2,656

12,298
2,460

12,696
2,539

12,725
2,545


Moist.



P. ct. Kil.s
....... 1 30)3.
.IH 303.
60.

5). ?1 :303.
....... 60.


91
7s


No. 4.


SAverage
I daily ratio
V eight oif food. of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist.


Grav$ms.
S2,680
536


35 2, 671
67 534


....... 607. 26 5,351
....... 60.73 3


1.11 5.21

1.14 4.,7


1.13


1.20


4.98


4.98


13,207 1.22 5.15
2,641 ...... I.......


14,790 64,207 1.16 5.04
592 2,568 ...... I .......

I
1
3,04X 12, 473: 1. 1 i 4.'4
610 "2,495 ...... .......

3,163 12.769 1.22 4.93
633 2, 5-54 .............


6,211 25,242 1.20 4.89
621 2,524 .............
I I


302. 67
60.53

302.96
60. 59


Grams. I'. vi. 1'. rt.
11,270 i o. 82s 3.71
2,254 .............

11,835 .S: 3.90
2,367 ..........

23,' 105 ,sS 3. W
2, 311 .............


2. 7:1 11, __5
.-'0 2,377

2,736 11,921
.-47 2, 3S4


.91 3. 93


.91)


3. 93


303.12 2, 7. 11, X64 .92 3.91
60.62 R55. 2,373 ..... i .......

304.27 2,76l- 11,6"9 .91 3.4 M
60.85 553 2,338 ....... ......


304.06 2, 8;2 12,057 .91
60.81 572 2,411 .......


3 97


302.8S 2,7.N1 11,912 .92 3.93
60.58 5ii;b 2.3.%2 ...... ......


1,819.96 1t, 6. 3
60.67 .-5;


71.32. .92 3 92
2.37S .............


302. 10 2. 714; 12, )01 .92 3.97
61. 42 553: 2,400 .............

302.17 2,922 12.074 .9 7 4.00
60.43 "4 2. -15 .............

604.27 :,l;.s 21,075 .94 3.98
60. 43 5;9 2, 408 ..... ...
i . .


aNo. 3 had only five preservative subperiods.


Period.








INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE IV.-Amount 1f moist find dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Series II-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


No. 5.


Period.





Fore period.

First ;ubperiod:
Total............ I
Average ......... I
Second subperiod:
Total............
Average..........


We
Body v
weight.


eight of food.


Dry. Moist.



Kilos. Gramins. Grams.
298.15 2,824 11,689
59.63 565 2,338

299.45 2,758 11,885


59. 89 552


uEntire fore period:
Total ............. 597.60 5,582
Average........... 59.76 I 558


Preervatve period.

First subpcriod:
Total..............
Average .........
Second 4tu period
Total............
Average.........
Third subperio(d:
Toltal............
Average .........
Fourth sii bperiotd:
Total............
A vu~ rag u.......
Fifth stibjienori.
T"l'it .............
Average ..........
Sixth subperiod-
Total.............
Average ..........

Ent ire preservative
period.
Total .............
Avt iraig..........

.fbt r p, rin,!

First siitlijeriirl
Tl11tal ............
AvIrigt ..........
Sccoin l 'I i ,ubp~trlo'l
'r'tail ............

Average ..........
Entire Pfter period
T (1111 .. .... .. .. .
AVLcrlLgU .... .......


299.45
59.89

300.33
60.07

298.56
59.71

298.84
59.77

296.77
59. 35

297.33
59. 47


1,791.28
59. 71


2,377

23,574
2,357


2,867 11,872
573 2,374

2,753 11,798
551 2,360

2,787 11,596
557 2,319

2,804 11,538
561 2,308

2,862 11,822
572 2,364

2,814 11.756
563 2,351


(j16,87 70 382
563 2,346


296.8 2 2,791 11, 904
5'9.36 55m 2,;L1

2911. 4: 2, m.)0 1 911
:)9 29 570 2,382


693. 25
'9 33


f5,(i41 23,815
564 2, 382


Average
daily ratio
of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist.

P I et t


P. ct.
0.95

.92


P. ct.
3.92


3.97


No. 6.


Body
weight.


Kilos.
290. 32
58.06

290.28
58.06


1
.93 3.94 580.60
...... ....... 58.06


.96 3.96


.92 3.93

. 93 3.88


.94 3.86s

.96 ..........
.96 3 98


288.73
57.75

288.19
57.64

283.91
56.78

284.22
56.84

281.77
56. 35


95 3.95 281.28
... 56. 26


.94 3.93 1,708.10
...... ....... .56.94



.91 4.01 280.10
...... ....... 56 02

.96 4.02 278. 56
. ..... ....... 55. 71


.95 4 01 1
.r


558 66
55. 87


Weight of food.


Dry.



Grams.
2,631
526

2,736
547


5,367
537



2,602
520

2,721
544

2,745
549

2,778
556

2,874
575

2,960
592


Moist.



Grams.
11,885
2,377

11,000
2,200

22,885
2,289



11,412
2,282

11,693
2,339

11,965
2,8393

11.343
2.2b9

12,185
2,437

12, 571
2,514


16,680 71,169
N56 2,372


2,761
h552

2,848
570


11,673
2,335

11,077
2,215


Average
daily ratio
of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist.



P. ct. P. ct.
0.91 4.09


.94 3.79


.92 3.94
...... [.......




.90 3.95


.94 4.06


.97 4.21

.98 3.99
.... .....


1 02


1 05



.98




.99


1.02


5,609 22,750 I 1 00
561 2,275 ......


4.32

4.47



4.17




4. 17

3.98


4.07


516


mlllgm


i i i J m i


*


I


I








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


517


TABLE IV.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Series JI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total............
Average.........
Second subperiod:
Total............
Average ..........

Entire fore period:
Total.............
Average .........

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total...........
Average.........
Second subperiod:
Total...........
Average.........
Third subperiod:
Total............
Average..........
Fourth subperiod:
Total............
Average..........
Fifth subperiod-
Total............
Average..........
Sixth subperiod:
Total............
Average..........

Entire preservative
period
Total............
Average..........

After period.

First subperiod
Total............
Average..........
Second subperiod:
Total ......... ....
Average..........

Entire alter period.
Total............
Average..........


No. 7.


Body 1 Weight of food.

weight.

Dry. Moist.


Kilos.
341.27
68.25


Grams.
2,317
463


337.86 2,490
67.57 498


Gram s.
11,644
2,329

10,3S6
2.077


679.13 4,807 22,030 .71
67.91 I 481 2,203 ......


337.53
67.51

337.88
67.58

337.82
67.56

336 68
67.34

335 85
67.17

332.62
66 52


2,376 11,771
475 2,354

2,402 11,335
480 2.267

2,396 12,093
479 2,419

2,431 11,839
486 2,368

2,434 11,517
487 2,303

2,435 11,429
487 2,286


2,018.38 14,474
67.28 482


332.20
66.44

331.14
66.23


2,395
479

2,488
498


663.34 4,883
66.33 488


Average
daily ratio
of food
weight to Bod
body weight. weigfit.

Dry. Moist.



P. ci. P. ct. Kh'ilos.
0.68 3.41 307.10
...... ........ 61.42

.74 3.07 304.88
...... ........ 60.9S


3.24


.70 3.49

.71 3.3.5

.71 3.58
II

.72 3 52

.72 3.43


.73 3.44


611. 9
61.20



304.55
60.91

304.34
60.87

303.06
60 61


302. 15
60.43

302.08
60.42

302.33
60.47


No. S.

A average
daily ratio
Weight pf foud. of f(ood(.
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist.



Granis. Grams. P. ct. P. ct.
2.667 17,169 0. s7 5.59
533 3,434 .............

2,6441 16,214 1.7 5.32
529 3,243 .. .... .......

5,311 33, 383 S7 5.45
531 3,33S .........
____________________ I _______ -


2,S47 18,140 .93
569 3,62S ......

2,777 17,766 .91
555 3,553 ......
II
2,760 16,646 .91
552 3.329 ......

2,-27 17,357 .94
565 3,471 ......

3,00S 17,177 1.00
602 3.435 .......
1
3,040 1. 162 1.01
60b 3,032 ......


5.96

5. 84


5.49

5.74

5.69

5.02


69,984 .72 3.47 1,818 .51 17,25)9 102., 24; .95 5.62
2,333 ..... .......' 60 62 575 3,408 ............

- - - -


11,026
2,205

11,581
2,316


.72 3.32

.75 3.50 i
. . . . . . .


22,607 74 3.41
2,261 .............


300.12 2.S07 15,347 .94 5 11
60.02 5fi1 3,0t69 . .......

29. 26 3,0`18 11.313 1.0)3 4 sO
59.65 012 2.-,s3 .............

598.3,s 5, 865 29,(660i .98 4.96
59.84 5S7 2,96;6 .............








INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


STABLE IV.-Amouit of moist (ad dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, S'eries 17-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


No. 9.


Period.





/Firr p, riid.

First suibperioil:
Total.............
Average .........
Stmc;id subperioh :
Total............
Average. ........

Entire for. pierio(Id:
Total............
AveragL .........

Prcserruti ii priol.

First subperiod:
Total.............
AvcrLge ........
Second lsuhperiod:
Total .............
Avera ge .........
Tiirid subperinil:
Total............
Average .........
Fourth sihliUriod:
Total.............
Averag .........
Fifth ulipiLTrid:
Total............
Avr rage .........
Sixtlh Mbprilod:
'TiLta l.............
Average .........

Entire prr>cr\mitivu
ptriu l
'l' tal .............
A\ enig ..........

Ifil r Ieri''il.

First %,ul teriodi:
']oI i ............
.\ vriniLg ........
S.',inl unhlieriodl:
l' tal 'li ............
.\ % rage .........

Eiitir, nftl r 1-iriud:
'l',tal .............
Avvrag' .........


Body


\l


Weight of food.


Average
daily ratio
of food
I weight to


t.igni. body weight.

)ry. Moist. Dry. Moist.


Khilis.
311.25
62. 25


(i ram s.
3,157
631


311.20 3,17S
62.24 636


622. 45
62.25 7



310.98
l'>;2. 20


l. 335
634


firmss' P. cI. P. Ct.
13,035 1.01 4.19
2,607 ...... .......

1 299 1.02 4.92
:3,060 ...... .......


28,334 1.02 4.55
2, 833 I...... .......


No. 10.


Body
weightli


I


3,117 15,963 1.00 5.13
623 3,193 .............


:310.73 3.,130 15,,3S3 1.01 4.95
i;2. 15 626 3,077 ...... .......

309.90 3,129 14,015 1.01 4..52
61.9h 626 2,803 .............
I I I
309. ,6 3,111; 13,552 1. 02 4.37
61.97 1629 2,710 ..............


313.45 3,141 13,850
62.69 62M 2,770

:11.71 :3,062 13.246


=1.I


62.34


I si;6. (63
62. 22


SI
1.00 4.42

I .9 4.25
.9M 4.25


Avenrage
daily ratio
Weight of food. of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist. Dry. ,Moist.


Vilos. Grams.
2.5. 63 3,286
57.13 657

2M,3.47 3,310
56. 69 662


Grams.
13,510
2,702

13.586
2,717


P. Cf.
1.15


P. c1.
4.73


1.17 4.79


569.10 6,596 27,096 1.16 4.76
56.91 660 2,710 .............

1

287.26 3,417 16,629 1.19 5.79
57.45 683 3,326............

287.60 3,392 15,939 1.1S 5.54
57.52 678 3,188 .............


287. 06 3,300
57. 1 660

286. 65 3,337
57.33 667


285.96
57.19

285. 1t)
r. u


i I -" ii i .' . -. .. . . . .n U r


IX, 725 81i, 009 1.00 1. 61 1,719.93
624 2. S67 ............. 57.33


310 27 3, 113 12,852 1. UO 4. 11
62. 0) li23 2, 570 .............


: 11). 87
i.2. 17


3, 1 I .
',21


621. 14 ., 232
6;2. 11 623


12,I) 7 1. 0 4. 1i
2,5,7 ...... .......


:84. 5:)
56;. 90


3,468
694

3,871
674


20,285
6i76


3,293
6;59


" 2M1.50l (3.293)
(l56.9 11 (659)


i 1 1
25,7819 1.0() 4.15 ,056;9.00 ll 6;,51)
2,579 .... .. ... t. 90) ("59)


15,424
3,085

13,827
2,765

14,967
2,993

14,077
2,815


90, 863
3,029



14, 484
2,897

(14,484)
(2,897)


1.15 5.37


1. 16


1.21


1.18



1. IS


4.82


5.23


4.93



5.28


1.16 5.09


(1. 16>)


15.09)


(28,968) (1.161 (5.09)
(2,897' ..........


a aWIh o hrv'cl for lirLt muibperiud only, owviug to illuess of subject during second sublperioil.


518


, =" lit








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


519


TABLE IV.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Series IV-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total...........
Average ........
Second subperiod:
Total...........
Average ........

Entire fore period:
Total ............-
Average ........

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total...........
Average ........
Second sibperiod:
Total...........
Average ........
Third subperiod:
Total...........
Average ........
Fourth .ubperiod:
Total............
Average ........
Fifth subperiod:
Total...........
Average ........
Sixth subperiod:
Total...........
Average ........

Entire preservative
period:
Total............
Average ........

After period.

First subperiod:
Total .............
Average .........
Second subperiod:
Total .............
Average .........

Entire after period:
Total...........
Average ........


No. 11.



Body Weight of food.
Body
weight.

Dry. Moist.



Kilos. Grams. Grams.
328.24 1 3.120 15,481
65. 65 624 3,096


325.34
65.07


3,093
619


653.58 6,213
65.36 621



325.14 3,192
65.03 638

325.11 3,087
65.02 617

323.56 3,088
64.71 618

322.77 3,089
64.55 61S

321.78 3,143
64.36 629

319.19 3,070
G3.84 614


14,651
2,930


Average
daily ratio
of food
-weight to
body weight.


Body
weight.


Dry. Moist.



P'. ct. P. cl. Kilos.
0.95 4.72 348.18
..... ....... 69.64

.95 4.50 348.78
...... ....... 69.76


30,132 95 4.61 696.96
3,013 ...... -....... 69.70



14,490 .98 4.46 350.66
2,898 ..............I 70.13

15,369 .95 4.73 349.30
3,074 ...... ....... 69.86

15,038 .95 4.64 350.10
3,002 ...... ....... 70.02

14,870 .96 4.61 349.36
2,974 ......------ ....... 69.87

14,476 .98 I 4.50 350.70
2,895 ............ 70.14

15,711 .96 4.92 350.77
3,142 ............. 70.15


i ~iI
1,937.55 18,669 89,924 .96 4.64 2,100.89
64.59 622 2,997 ...... ........ 70.03



318.44 3,039 15.566 .95 4.89 349.35
63.69 608 3,113 ...... ....... 69.87

317.20 3,111 15,173 .98 4.78 349.35
63.44 622 3,035 ...... ....... 69. 87


635.64 <6,150 30,739 .97 4.84
63.56 615 3,074 .............


698.70
69.87,


No. 12.

Average
daily ratio
Weigh t of food. of food
weight to
body weight.

Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist.


Grams.
3,247
649
3,356
671

6,603
660



3.274
655

3,252
650

3.237
647

3,273
1.55

3,326
665

3,230
646


Gramis.
13.352
2,670


P. it.
0.93


14,709 .96
2,942 ......

28.061 .95
2,8S06 ......


14.331
2,866

13.435
2,687

13,982
2,796

14.,677
2,935

13.800
2, 760

13.421
2,684


P. cf.
3.83

4.22


4.03


.93 4.09
S...... i .......
.

S.93 3. 53.5

.92 3.99


S...... .......
,.94 4.20
.


.95

. 92


3.93

3. 83


19,592 83,646 .93 3.98
653 2,7N8 ............



3,1S8 12.672 .91 3.63
638 2,534 .............

3,208 13,612 .92 3.90
642 2,722 ...... .......

6.396 26,284 .92 3;. 76
6 0O 2, 28 ...... .......


I


i








520 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE V.-Summary:or nine men, by periods, showing average daily ratio of food weight
to body weight, Series VI.

[Averages are per man per day.]


Period.


Fore period.
First subperind:
Total ........................................
A average ................................... ...
Second subperiod:
Total .........................................
A average ......................................
Entire fore period:
T otaI .........................................
A average ................. .....................
Prrsrratfire jirriod.
First siibperiodl:
Total .........................................
A average ......................................
Second siibperiod:
T ota l ............... ..........................
Average ......................................
Third suhperiod:
Total .........................................
Average ......................................
Fourth suibperiod:
Total .........................................
Average ......................................
Fifth subptriod:
T o ta I .........................................
Average ......................................
Sixth sublieriod:
T ota l .................. .......................
Average ............... ......................


Body
weight.


Kilograms.
2,826.51
62.81
2,817.57
62.61


(


Average daily ratio
Weight of fopd. of food weight to
Body weight.

Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist.


ranms. Grams. Per ceid. Per c-t.
24,879 118,171 O.98 4.18
563 2,626 .......... ..........


2.5,063
557


5,644.08 49,942
62.71 I 55



2,815.04 25,194


62.56

2.813.06
62.51
2,S04.40
62.32
2,801.83
62.27

2,794.58
62.10
2,785.25
61.89


Entire preservative period:
Tital ......................................... If;. S14. 16
A average ...................................... 2.27

After prriol.
First subhperind:
Total ........................................ 2,776.33
A v ragt' ...................................... 1. 70
Second Mhibicriod:
Total ......................................... 2, 71L8. r63
Averim t. ................................... .61. 53
Fire ILfter period:
T otn l ......................................... .. 5-11. 91
A v' ragt ...................................... l;l. ll


560
25,003
556
25,137
559 1

25,2A1
562
26,177
582


115,958 ; .69 4.12
2, 577 ............... ....

234,129 .M8 4.15
2,601 ...... ..........


120,711
2,682
1420,358
2,675
119,641
2,659
119,977
2,666
119,678
2,660


.89 4.. ..29

.89' 4.28
......... 'o........

.90 4.27
.. ..... == = =.... .....
.90 [ 4.28

..... ....... .2
.94 41.
.........' ..........=


25, 60S 118,169 .92 4.24
569 2.626 ....................

152,400 718 ,534 .91 4.27
564 2,661 .................



25,093 116,153 .90 4.18
558 2,581 ....................

2t6,014 115,991 .94 i 4.19
578 2,578 ....................

51,107 232,144 .92 i 4.19
:. 579 ...... .... ......


MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF THE BLOOD.

'11C bloocId was examllned ait stated intervals for corpuscles and hem-

oglolin, cordingg to the mnethod(s describedd in the borax report.
ilwo indt)epndolvIIt e(-tinmates were made by Messrs. B. J1. Howard and

('. I Knight, andl tlie. :Lvertage. taken as the correct expression for the
count, witl the results shown in Ilale VI.

In the (case of No. I there was a diminution in the number of red
corpuscles l( an i aL iincreuase in tlie number o()f white corpuscles during
the aLdiuillistration of tlie preserv:atiyve. After the withdrawal of the

preservative the red corputicles again increased in number and the





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


white corpuscles decreased. There was a slight loss in color also
during the administration of the preservative, which was partially
regained inll the after period.
In the case of No. 2 both the red and the whIite corpuscles increal.ed
during the administration of the preservative and both diminished
during the after period. The color of the blood was also less intense
during both the preservative period and the after period.
The data for No. 3 have no comparative value and are somellwhat
fragmentary, owing to the illness of the subject. Considered indli-
vidually the figures show an increase in the number of red corpuscles
during the preservative period and a slight decrease inll the after
period. The number of white corpI)uscles also increased (during the
preservative period and decreased in the after period. Th color Of
the blood was less intense inll the preservative period and partially
recovered in the after period.
In the case of No. 4 there was a marked dimihnution 1 oth inll the
number of the red and the white corpuscles and inl the intensity of the
color during the administration of thle preservative. "Thie'le was a
recovery in the number of both the red and the white corpil.scles in
the after period, but the color continued to fade.
In the case of No. 5 no comparison can be made with one if the
tests, as it was lost. The remaining test shows a slight d(linintitoi il
the number of red corpuscles and a very great diminution inl the nunl-
ber of white corpuscles and also a very slight fading of the color.
In the after period the red corpuscles. diminished again very con-
siderably in number. The white corpluscles increased but the color
faded still more.
No. 6 showed a marked increase in thle number of red corpuscles
during the administration of the preservative, a ,light loss in white
corpuscles, and a slight increase in the intensity of the color. IDurig
the after period the luwber of red corl)puseles very greatly di(im-
ished, the number of white corpuscles slightly increased, and tlie
color diminished in intensity.
In the case of No. 7 the n11umber oTf red lcorpu*scle. ye' iarkedl v
decreased during the administration of thle pres-ervative\, tlihe iuilber
of white corp)uscles increased, and the color faded vcer y plerceptibly.
During the after period the number of red corpuscles wa again
greatly diminished, the numnlber of white corpuscles slitg'ltly dinin-
ished, and the color slightly increased, not reaching, however, that of
the fore period.
In the case of No. S the nuin)er tof red corpuscles increased dhiring
the administration of tile preservative' awl( th illil ber of white cor-
puscles was almost doubled. Tlie1 color of tlit blood waNLs slightlV
decreased. There was a diminution of the red corpuscles during tilhe
76t56-No. 84, pt 2-U6---4


521





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


after period, a very marked diminution of the white corpuscles, and a
slight fading of the blood.
While Nos. and 10 Lare excluded from the summary for the rea-
sons already stated, the individual data may be considered. In the
case of No. the red corpuscles decreased and the white corpuscles
increased in the preservative period, while both increased in the after
period. The color of the blood slightly increased in the preservative
period, but diminished very decidedly in the after period.
In the case of No. 10 the red corpuscles decreased, the white cor-
puscles increased, and the color increased in the preservative period.
In the after period the red corpuscles again decreased, but very
slightly, the white corpuscles continued to increase, and the color of
the blood faded.
No. 11 showed an increase in the number of red corpuscles during
the administration of the preser'vattive, an increase in the white cor-
puscles, and a very slight increase in the intensity of the color of the
blood. There was a decrease in the number of red corpuscles in the
after period, a slight increase in the number of white corpuscles, and
a vry slight increase in the intensity of color.
No. 12 showed a considerable increase ini the number of red corpus-
cles, a decrease in the number of white corpuscles, and a marked
increase in the intensity of color during the administration of the pre-
servative. During the after period the number of red corpuscles
diminished, th1 nminl.ber of white corpuscles increased, and the inten-
sity of color was notably diminished.
rlThe summary of the number of corpuscles and. the percentage of
hemoglobin in the blood for the i' nie men, compared throughout the
series, shows that the average 1num1ber of red corpuscles for the fore
l)period(l is 5,; (I,(,H); for the lpIeervLative period, 5,90)0,938; for the
after period, 5,450,444. "'Thle nuniber of white corpuscles in the fore
p('ri(od is I1i,601, il the j)lreservLtiye period, 10,714, and in the after
peri.(lt,.,. The intensity of color, measure(l by the hemoglobin,
dimiini-le'd retguhirly from the fore to the after period, being repre-
se(lltd bIy l1 ;.l il the fore period, 1(14.7 in tli preservative period,
an(d (11.; inl the after period. '[herie is ani apparent tendency on the
part of tie pl'ser'atire to icTrease the inumher of the red and the
wilit(e c,,'l rpuisctl's in t.le blo(! d :1(and at the same time to slightly diminish
the intensity ,of tihe colh,'i. )iirintg thle after period the number of
,both thl. red alnd the whit ei crptiscl'es dec1rase% and at the same time
there is still anotl'r slight decrease in the intensity of the color.


5.222







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


523


TABLE VI.-Arerages, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in ihe blood, Series IL


Period.


I

Date. Red corpus.
ate icles per
cubic milli-
meter.


Fore period: 1903.
Estimate A .......... :
Estimate B ..........let. 26-29
Mean ..............
Preservative period:
Estimate A ....---.... ..
Estimate B .......... Nv. 23-27
Mea n .............. .f
After period:
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B .......... 'Dec. 5-7
Mean..............


No. 1.

! White
corpus- Herno-
cles per globin.
cubicmil- g i.
limeter.


6,295,000 8,593 109.2
5,835,000 9,620 106.4
6,065,000 9,107 108.8


Non. 2.


Red corpus-
cles per
cubic milli-
meter.


White
corpus-
cles per
cubicmil-
limeter.


5,745,000 12,796
5,380,000 11,76.S


5,562,500 12,281 108.6


5,475,000 9,196 104.9 6,825,000 14,127 104.7
. 5,545,000 11,768 105.4 6,160,000 16, 6i2 105.1
' 5,510,000K) 10,482 105.2 6,492,500 15.376 10-..9

6,660,000 6,426 105.6 5,320,000 6,039 9S. 5
6,350,0001) 8,499 107.7 5,035,000 6,538 97.1

6,505,000 7,463 106.7 5,177,500 6,289 97.8


Period.


Fore period:
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B ..........
Mean..............


Preservative period:
Estimate A .........
Estimate B .........
Mean.............
After period:
Estimate A .........
Estimate B .........
M ean.......... ...


No. 3.

Red corpus- White
cles per corpus- I Hemo-
cubic milli- ice peri globin.
meter. cubic mul-I
meter limeter.

1903.
5.385.000 8.966 1 98.0


IOct. 26-29




NOV.23-27


I IN,.I


4,705,000 9,340 ..........
5.045,0(10 9,153 ..........


No. 4.

Red corpus- White
icles per corpl-r lemo-
cubic milli- cles per I globin.
meter. cubiemil-
meter limeter.


5,820,OOU 11,955 106.7
5,232,000 8,6S6 106.4
5, .526,000 10,321 106.6


........... 9, 06 94.2 5.105,000 5,511 103.9
5.833,333 10,087 93. 7 5,095.0(I0 8,032_ 102.-5
........... 9, 587 94.0 5, 100,0(10 6,772 103. 2

5,660,00t0 5,7061; 97.0 5, 2S8,, 000 11.,S:,I 101. 6
I 5,760,000 ,312 95.3 1 5,495,000 IP, 70t2 101.9
5,710,000 7,009 96.2 5,391,500 11,76, 101.3


No. 5.


Period.


Fore period: 1
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B ......... Ot
Mean ..............


Date. Red corpus-
Scles per
cubic milli-
I meter.


'03.
f 6,010,000
26-29 6, 32.S,000
S6,169,000


Preservative period: I
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B .......... Nov.23-27
Mean ..............
After period: ]
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B .......... De. --
Mean ..............


S6,110,000
Lo.l.


White
corpus-
clIes per
cubic mil-
limeter.


S 966
173
8,570

6,445
6. ;,79
I 6,679


I5,2255,000 A, 199
S5, 250, 0io 10t, :; i
6,252.500 I 9,517


No. 6.
W~*hit e
R corpus- W it I
Iueno- 'les jlr corpis- Heio-
gli bini. cub' mnilli-, "les' p lin.
m eter c u b:1 glu 1'i
liunicLer. i


104.6 5, 500W, (oxt) 13,2G3 107.7
111W.9 5, 725-, M0U 12,702 107.3
10 .8 5,6112, 5, 12. 983 107.5

103.5 t;, 790,000 10,637 10S.9
105.9 (i. 100, 00 13,917 Il0. 1
104.7 6, 595. 000 12,277 10; 5

102.7 5.370,(000W 12,213 103.4
102.4 52, 2;10, t1 15, J:3 107.0
102.16 .5,300, 000 1:1,7.1 105.2


Hemo-
globin.


108.6
10.S.6







524 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TA BLE VI.-. Icrages, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood, Series VI-
Continued.


Period.


Fore period : 1
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B ......... Oc.
M an..............
I'rcs.rvaittive period.
Estimate A ..........
EtimateB .......... Nov
M -ian ..... . . . . .
Aft er peri(nd:
Estimate A ..........
Estimate B .......... tc
M ean ............. .




PerTiod. Da




F,,'re period:
Etiumate A .........
Estimate B .......... Oct.
Mean ..............I


No. 7.


Date. Red corpus-
cles per
cubic milli-
meter.


103.

26-29


White
corpus-
cles per
'ubic mil-
limeter.


Hemo-
globin.


No. 8.


Red corpus- White
"^^Whitev
(les per corpus-
cuIc milli_- ce: per
cubic rbiemil-
meter. Ilimeter.


Hemo-
globin.


6 6,75,000 9,900 102.4 4,880,000 8,032 101.9
5 .50., 000 9,900 102. 0 4,930,000 9,340 101.4
6.,312, 500 9,900 102.3 1 4,905,000 8,686 101.7


J 5,285, 00 13, 628 94.7 5,580,000 13,795
-27 5,030,0O0 12,235 94.7 5,425,000 16,158
5,b157,500 12,932 94.7 5,502,500 14,977

4,725,000 10,249 99.7 4,8 50,000 6,538
5-7 5,055,000 12,702 i 9.9.8 4,870,000 7,098
,- 8,000 11,476 99.8 4,860,000 6- -818
j4,890,000 11,476 99. S 4,860,000 6,818


No. 9.

Red corpus- White
Ite. i cles per corpus- Hemo-
cubic milli- Ie globin.
meter. litneter


203.

26-29


Preservil ive periii:
E-tiuiil, A ..........
EtilnaUt. B .......... .2-27
Mean ..............
After ['riod:l
EKiintHI A ..........
Estirnait I .......... Dec. 54
M fIL' 1 ............... I


No. 10.

Red corpus- White
cles per I corpus-
cubic mi li-: c es per
meter. ClbCmil-
Iter. limeter.


101.0
99.8
100.4

99.8
98.8
99.3


Hemo-
globin.


5,375,000 5,604 99.3 5,885,000 6,071 110.9
5, 030,000 7,192 10>6.5 6,000,000 5,881 100.4
5,202,500 ;,3.*s 102.9 6,912,500 5,978 105.7

1 4,070,000 7, 90 102.3 5,875,000 8,532 111.3
S4,18 5,000 1 9,711 104.7 5,705, (000 9,807 110.6
4,127,500 8,652 103.5 1 5,790,000 9,170 111.0

., 420.000 .8, 310 92.9 5, 780,000 9, 363 108.1
-1I. 670.000 10,274 91. I 5, 655, I) 13,076 10 8.0
1, 545, *00 9,292 92.2 5,717,500 11,220 108.1
I -.- I .),lt~uI


No. 11.


Non. 12.


I'erii,.


Four. jpirild:
lP:' ilIm li' A ..........
P.'.M i fnitl IS ..........
M e t I ..............

l'r's rvoitiv\ p 'rili
l':. inulitr" A .........
E-tinntlt B ..........
ManI ..............


hLIt. ied l(1.4
I est'
C(Lubit
Ill,'[


1 103.



)l. 2:'l-27

i,,v :2:1-27


After Ir idTl
E HIilltx i A .........
K': illm't B ..... .... I),,.

M '.l . . . . . ..


5, 971
|5 .lW

I 72


6, 191
6. 611


5, 77l
6 47 6 :77
5, 677


S White I ,,d White
priS .rpus- rlt-'il'O l per .orpus- Ilh'mo-
j illi P-\. l n t'eI -. 1" '' cles per
tr. 1civii ieril- glev. I ubici31111
1t, r. iisnetrr. meter. limeter.


0, 000 7,192 108. ; 5, 37t;,000 I 7,425 105. 1
r,l (IN 6, !8 10M. 3 5f, 28, )000 I 8, t66 105.2
7,1 7 |45 10.I u. 5,330,500| 8,056 105.2

5, 000) t (,593 110. 1 6,46, (5000 7, 645 113.7
5,6.K) 11,582 107.0 6,015.00N) 8,032 110.5
[),00X .1 IM 1 t8.I; 1;, 210, INO f 7,8.39 112.1

), 0(. ) 17r, 110.1 5, 916,000 10,249 107.7
f i0)O 12,791; 107.4 5,s55.)00 11,301 108.1

7, 500 10,636 10S.8 5,90s0,000 10,775 107.9


. 2)






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


TABLE VI.-A4verage, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood, Series VI-
Continued.
SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN (NOS. 3,9, AND 10 EXCLUDEDD.

Red corpus-I White I
('le- per I cop .- Hripu-
Period .ubi p'e Ir i
cub e'ni cubi p globin.
ineter. | limctetr-

Fore period ............................................................ 5,690,000 10, 609 I 1U6. 1
Preservative period .................................................. 5, 9)00, 93S 10,714 104.7
After period .................... .. .................................... iO, 4 -144 9,836 103.3


WEIGHT AND WATER CONTENT OF THE FECES.

In Table VII are given the data respecting the weight and water
content of the feces for the individuals by periods, together with a
summary of the data for the nine men compared throughout the series.
In the case of No. 1 the average content of water in the feces in the
preservative period is markedly less than in the fore period, and there
is a still further diminution in the after period. No. 2 also shows
a diminution in the percentage of water in the feces in the preserva-
tive period, but this is restored in the after period to almost the
same content as at the beginning. The weight of the dry feces is less
both in the preservative period and in the after period than in the
fore period, while in the case of No. 1 the weight of the dry feces is
slightly less in the preservative period and greater in the after period.
The percentage of water in the feces of No. 3 is greater in the preserva-
tive period than in either of the other periods. The actual weight
of the dry feces is also greater. No. 4 shows a diminution in the
percentage of water in the feces and a slight decrease in weight in
the preservative period, and almost the same rate of diminution is
continued in the after period. In No. 5 a like condition obtains as in
the case of No. 4, but to a somewhat greater degree. In No. 6 there
is also a slight diminution in the percentage of water, attended with a
slight decrease in the dry weight, and these conditions continue in an
increased degree in the after period. In No. 7 there is a marked
decrease in the percentage of water in the feces in the preservative
period, while in the after period there is a partial restoration to the
condition of the fore period. There is a llmarked diminution in the
weight of the dry feces in the preservative period, and the dry weight
is greater in the after period than in the fore 1)period. No. $ also shows
a diminution in the percentage of water in the feces in the preserva-
tive period, but an increase in the dry weight. In the after period
the percentage of water is higher than in the fore period, and the dry
weight is greater than in the preservative period and the fore period.
In No. 9 there is also an increase in the percentage of water in the
feces, and a marked increase in the weight in the preservative period.


525






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


The percentage of water in the after period is slightly greater than in
the preservative period uit the weight is slightly less, but it is still
greater than in thle fore period. In No. 10 there is almost no differ-
ence in the percentage of water in the preservative period, but there
is a marked decrease in the weight of the dry feces. In the after
period there is a slight decrease in the percentage of water and a
marked increase in the weight of the dry feces. No. 11 shows a marked
increase in the percentage of water in the feces in the preservative
period and a slight decrease in the weight of the dry feces. In the
after period there is a smaller percentage of water in the feces than
in-.the preservative period, and also a marked decrease in the weight
of the dry feces. In No. 12 the percentage of water in the feces in
the preservative period is slightly increased, but the dry weight of
the feces very markedly diminishes. There is a decided decrease
in the percentage of moisture in the after period, but a slight increase
in the weight of the dry feces.
The summary for the nine men who can )e compared throughout
the series shows that the average daily weight of moist feces during
the fore period is 8" grains and of the dry feces 22 grams, and the
percentage of water therein 75.61. For the preservative period the
average weight of the moist feces is 75 grams, the average weight of
the dry feces 2)20 grams, and the percentage of moisture 73.83. These
data show that the administration of the preservative has a distinct
tendency to (liliinish both the percentage of water in the feces and
also the quantity of dry feces excreted.
For the after period the average weight of the moist feces is 79
grains., tihe average weight of the dr(I feces 20 gramns, and the percent-
age' of moisture 74.12. The effect of the l)reselr'ative therefore is to
diminish the total (jmnitity of the feces both wet and dry, the average
aiiount of dry feces being 2 grains less during the preservative period
than in tlhe fore period. In tlhe after period the weight of dry feces
rielliains thie s bame t tinhere is an increase of 4 grams in the weight of
moist fe.ces, which is only 10 grains less than in the fore period. In
gener:Ll theie appears to )be a distinct intl ,ence of tihe preservative to
(diIliInis.l the weight. o(f tle solid matter excreted in tihe feces and also
a1 teAdh.eJcy to hlc(,'ase the Hquantity of water therein. While the latter
eff',ct is not m,,arked, it i, evident tha.t salicylic acid in the quantities
ad1iniiist-irI.d (1 's not pr'odu(tce a'ty tendency to diarrhea but rathlier
the opposite effect.


526







SSALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


TABLE VII.- Weight and water content offtce.s, iy periods, Scries VI.

[Averages are per day.]


No. 1.

Feces Water
moist, infeces.



Gramis.' Per ct.
236 66.97
47........
I
172 63.97
34 .......


408 65.69
41 ........


Fare period.

First subperiod:
Total ..................
Average................
Second subperiod:
Total ...................
Average...............

Entire fore period:
Total ...............
Average...............

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ..................
Average................
Second subperiod:
Total ...................
Average...............
Third subperiod:
Total ...................
Average...............
Fourth subperiod:
Total ..................
Average...............
Fifth subperiod:
Total ..................
Average .................
Sixth subperiod:
Total ..................
Average................


Period.


63.87


70.95


63.36


64.20


Entire preservative period.
Total .................... 1,039
Average................ 35

After period.


First subperiod:
Total ..................
Average ...............
Second subperiod:
Total ..................
Average...............

Entire after period:
Total ...................
Average ...............


Noi. 2.


Feces
dry.


N _. 3.


Feces Water I Fec(' F'Cee4 \VW.ter
mois-t. infeee. dry. moist. in feg.:c


Graims. Grais. I Per cf. 6'ra/s. Grait.
78 4.53 71.74 12! ........
16 91 ........ 26 .......

62 492 71.15 142 294
12 98 ........ 59


192 62.02
3- ....-....


53.06


63.52 379
S 13
........ 13



61.62 110
........ .22

63.49 R4
........ 17


62.48 194
........ 19


287
57

230
46


517
52


140 945 71.43
14 95 ........



62 359 7U. 17
12 72 .......

56 400 6S.97
11 ?0 ........

63 419 6'. 74
13 84 ........

66 464 70.25
13' 93 .........
73 237 67.9S
15 437 ........

.59 433 69.>2


2,312 I 69.3S
77 ......



345 I 72.71
69 .. .. .. .

399 69. 6,,
KO ........


744 71.10
74 ........


Per 0I. GramI .


73.30


270 .. .. .. .
7. ... ...


1i7 327 m'0.76
21 65 ........

124 593 77.:)7
25 119 ........

131 212 71.71
26; 42 ........


drFeces
dry.


7s
16


l :;.' 399 69j. 916 1201
2 ., ........ 21
Si) 21
76 2t67 75.6;2 .
15 5:; ........ 1.

132 ........ ........ ........
26.; .......................


70. 1,79-
21 72



9 1 ........
19 ........


7.1. 17 411


........ L. '.

Lo_).t. LO,-I


311 74.20
63 ........


215 ........ ................
2 . .


a No. 3 lhad only live preservative .suibvriils.


527


.. ...... I.... ....







528 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
i

T. BLE VII.--Weight vil ,',ftr rintent of Et'R, by periods, Series l'I-Continued.

[Averagsi ar re per day.]


1'crioEl.


Bmrf ip ril"l.

First -ulplrii6l:
1'' I t 1...................
A vI\' ............
.-" ci. r -l 'Il-p .ritod:
T, ital ...................
A% intg ................

Entir. bn.- Ipt.ri(ml:
T, ta i ...................
A' triL't ................

J'rt .I 1 1 i6 ,' i' P. ,f ,iil.

First -iilhIi'rii ,l:
[ -mhil ...................
.\A \ r;i .. .............
So"ccoiil "IIlIperiid:
A .' ll ...............
S '.* vrn'1 -.lae. ......: ..

ThirI -nli[,fri.dl:
Total ..................
A v r:r i t.' ................
F niirt lli -il)l)l riilI:
'I'-,ll ...................
Av'1i'r ,i ...............
Fifth -iil. 'rii il:
'l d.I ...................
A\ v'iiL'" .................
Sixthi .,.ulq~~iiiLi l:
"l', nI...................
Avc-r gi .................

Enli in. preservative period:
Total ..................
A \ .%l'r i, ................

.A t, r p" I ;il.


N|. 4.

Fet vs Wat icr
moit-. inl f.rcs.



( lr'as. PJ (r cf.
:*41 72.69



7:; ........

711', 71. Gil
7 1 ........



2t ;o 7. 711
12 ........

322 68. 37
I4 ........

311 ;,. 53
tiJ 2 .. ... ..

*2.9 70. 1.
5S .......

3'A- 119. 51
77 ........


72. 7>4


No. 5.


Fcv c
dry.




93
19

10%
'2"2


201




'4
17
1 Lii
20

9S
21)
M5
17
117

23
9s
21)


Feces Water
moist, infe.cs.


Otrans.
599
120

524
105


Per ct.
77.96


76.93


1,123 77.47
112 ........




572 77.96
114 ........

329 72. 93
lit; ........ .

441 74.56


3G-) 73. 1:3
61 ........

393 72.71
79 ........


No. 6.

Feces Feces Water Feces
dry. moist, infeces. dry.



rains. i Grams. Per ct., Grams.
132 555 78.55 11S
26 111 ......... 24
*


121
24


253


126


126


752
150


I *I I


29
is
113
23
S2
16

107
21


S71. SUr 121
........ '23


1. 9123 1 3'. (3 4 2. 4.51 i 71.21 6 ;32
;-I .... 2 ..... .... 21


1,307
131




498
100

546
109

701
140

601
120

C44
129

446
S9


3,436
115


81.26 141
..... ... 28


80.11 260
........ 26




77.49 112
d. ..... 22

76.19 130
........ 26


79.60


80.53


79.50


72.84


78.03


755
25


Fij r-I -,i Iluii.ri, ,,'I:
*lF i '-ii I
''tn il ...................
A \,'r*i ,'r .. .............
Sm'i'lnil -Illipl I1|l,1|"
Total ..................
A v' .I i .' ...............

l-'i I nr ifl'I r I '-lri il:
I'rl g'l .. ... ............
A x 'il .' + ....,...........%


*2:3 I it;. 62
17 .. .. ...


:. 1 71.11
7 1 ... .. ...


101 625
00 125


. 1 71. i12 10; ',", i 72'. 1; 7S 114
71 ........ 21 1it; ........ Id .s3:


.',s Cis. 71


I. l t;;i(; 71. s ;
I 1 611 .... ...


179 1. 0t39


76.79 145
........I 29

77.05 95
........ 19


76.90


104 .........


)


<







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


529


TABLE VII.- Weight and water content offeces, by periods, Series lTV-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


No. 7.


Feces Water
moist, infeces.


Fore period.

First subperiod: Grams. Per ct.
Total ................... 624 85.42
Average................ 125 ........
Second subperiod:
Total ................... i 212 75.95
Average ............... 42 ........

Entire fore period: 836 83.01
Total ..................... 84 ......
Average................ -

Preserviatire period.


No. 8.


Feces Feces
dry. moist.



Grams. Grams.
91 315
18 63


51
10


No. 9.


Water Feces Feces Water Feces
infeces. dry. moist, infeces, dry.


Per cl. Grams. Grains.
76.82 73 208
........ 15 42


415 77.34
A3 ........


Per c.
71. 14


Grams.
60
12


94 277 65.74
19 55 ........


142 730 77.12 i 167 4S5, 68.04
14 73 ......'.. 17 49 ........


155
16


First subperiod:
Total ...................
Average...............
Second subperiod:
Total ..................
Average ...............
Third subperiod: .
Total ..................
Average ...............
Fourth subperiod: -
Total ..................
Average................
Fifth subperiod:
Total ...................
Average ................
Sixth subperiod:
Tota ..................
Average................1

Entire preservative period:
Total ...................
Average...............

After period.

First subperiod:
Total ...................
Average ................
Second subperiod:
Total..................
Average ................

Entire after period:
Total ...................I
Average ................


259 76.03
52 ........

205 76.60
41 ........

254 i 74.82
51 ........

214 78.49
43 ........

271 75.26
54 ........ I

119 72.22
24 ........


478 77.40
96 ........

466 75.53I
93 .........

235 6S.93
47 .......

511 77.71
102 .......

204 70.64'
41 ........

425 78.37
85 ........


108 556 71.39
22 111 ........

114 427 75.20
23 85 ........


380 71.56
76 ........

275 71.66
-7i5 ........

522 73.37
104 ........


92 364 68.98
s18 73 ........


1,322 75.79 320 2,319 75.81 5611 2.524 72.15 703
44 ........ 11 77 ........ 19 M ........ 23



264 73.48 70 446 76.21i 0lot; 153 69.95 46
53 ........ 14 N9 ........ 21 31 ........ I 9
I I
556 82.36 98 630 83.66 103 509 73.87 133
111 ........ 20 i 126 ........ 21 102 ........ 27

820 79.51 168 1,076 80.58 209 66i2 72. 96 179
82 ........ 17 10M ........ 21 66 ........ 18
i 1 i







530 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VII.- Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series VI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


Feces
moist.


Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams.
Total ................... 500
Average ................ 100
Second subperiod:
Total................... 312
Average ................ 62
Entire fore period: 812
Total ................... sl
Average ...............
Prcst'rrulti'' p, riod.


First subperiod:
Total ..................
Average................
Second subperiod:
Total .................
Average ..............
Third subperiod:
Total.................
Average ...............
Fourth subperiod:
Total .................
Average ..............
Fifth subperiod:
Total .................
Average..............
Sixth sutperiod:
Total .................
Average ...............
Entire preservative period:
Toltail ..................
Average...............
After peri, ,i.
First mubperiod:
Total .......... .......
A verag ..............
.Second -uhperiod:
T total ...................
Average ................
Entire after period:
Tojtal .............. ....
Average................


2,127
71



157
91
"(457)
(91l

," (9141I
(91 l


No. 10. No. 11. No. 12.

Water Feces Feces Water Feces Feces Water
infeces. dry. moist. ,infeces. dry. moist. infeces.
I


Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Gram. Gramins. Per ct.
75.00 125 450 72.90 122 585 74.88
........ 25 90 ........ 24 117 .......
72.43 86 494 73.87 129 434 71.22
........ 17 99........ 26 87.......
74.01 211 944 73.41. 251 1,019 73.31
........ 21 94 ........ 25 102 ........

1 t


Feces
dry.



I Grams.
147
29
1I QO.


A-U
25
272
27


75.61 1 121 489 76.08 1 117 3281 73.44 87.
........ 24 98 ......... 23 66 ........ 17
74.29 105 505 75. 123 341 74.18 88
........ 21 101 !... .... 25 68 ........ 18
72.615 112 529 76.56 124 576 75.35 142
........ 22 106 ........ 25 115 ........ 28
76.33 90 457 74.81 115 357 76.22 85
....... 18 91 ....4....81 23 71 76.2. 517
74.66 78 473 77.17 108 492 73.97 128
........ 16 95 ........ 22 98 ........ 26
70.40 37 465 73.98 121 337 71.20 97
........ 7 93 ....... 24 67 ....... 19

74.47I 543 2,918 75.74 70W 2,431 74.21 627
........ 18 97 1 ........ 24 81 ...... 21



73.30 1'22 466 76.37 110 416 C 72. 58 114
........ 24 93 ........ 22 83 ....... 23
I -
(73.30) (122); 389 72.48 107 403 71.21 116
........ (24), 78 ......... 21 1 ........ 23

(73.30)' (244) 855 7.1.62 217 819 I 71.92 230
........ 24): 86 ........ 22 82 ........ 23
I I ,I . .


aIData ta,. erved for subperiod only, owing to Illne.ss of slubjectl during second period.


I







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


531


TABLE VII.- Weight and water content of feces, by periods, Series VI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN.


Period.


Fore period.
First subperiod:
Total................
Average ..............
Second subperiod:
Total................
Average .............
Entire fore period:
Total...............
Average ...........
Presemnative period.
First subperiod:
Total................
Average ............
Second subperiod:
Total................
Average ............
Third subperiod:
Total...............
Average ............
Fourth subperiod:
Total................
Average ............


Feces I Water Feces
moist, 'infeces. dry.
________ I i_____________

Gramins.' Per ct. Grams.
I 4,158 76.36 983j
9.2 !...... -. 2"2
SI 22
3,862 74.81 973
86 ........ 2-2.

S,020 75.61 1,956
89 2.......... *22



3,415 74.67 865
76 ........ 19
3,307 73.57 .74
73 ........ 19
3,641 73.88 951
$1 ........ 21
3,382 74.93 848
75 ........ 19


Period.


Feces
moist.


Water : Feces
infeces.: dry.


Prcservatire period-Con-
tinued.
Fifth subperiod: Grais., Per H. ;rans.
Total ............... 3,290 73.62 ,N6
Average............ 73 ........ 19
Sixth subperiod: I
Total ................ 3,116 72.14 ,s6S
Average............. I 9 ...9 .. 19
Entire preservative pe- i
riod.
Total ............... 20, 151 73. ,3 .5,274
Average ............. 75 ........ 20
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ............... 3,437 73.1O 928
Average .............. 71 ........ 21
Second subperiod |
Tota I ................ 3,657 75.17 908
Average ............. 81 ......... 20
Entire after period: i r
Total ................ 7,094 74.12 1S36
Average ...... ...... 79 ........ 20


THE URINE.

The importance of a study of the urine in connection with the ascer-
tainment of any effects produced by the administration of salicylic
acid and other preservatives is evident without comment. In the fol-
lowing tables are given the results of the observations obtained on the
urine. The influence of any added preservative Ul)On the voluNme of
the urine and the amount of solids therein is quite significant, and
these points were carefully studied. These studies were conducted
by F. C. Weber.

VOLUME, SPECIFIC (GIAVITY, ANI) TOTAL SOLIDS.

The data given in Table VIII relating to the total solids in the urine
are calculated from the specific gravity, in harmony with the method
used in the b)orax experiment, by the factor 0.245.."

INDIVIDUAL DATA.

Xo. 1.

The volume of the urine is decreased during the preservative period
and still further decreased in the after period. The specific gravity is
increased in the preservative period and still further increased, by a
very slight amount, in the after period. The increase in specific
gravity is greater in proportion than the decrease in volume, since the
weight of the total solids excreted is greater in the preservative period
and still further increased, by a slight amount, in the after period.

a U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry, Bul. 84, Part I, pp. 166-167.






532 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

No. 2.
In this case the volume of the urine is increased and the specific
gravity diminished in the preservative period. In the after period
the volume of the urine is considerably diminished below the fore
1)eriod, and its specific gravity is increased above that of the fore period
and also of the preservative period. The weight of the total solids
excreted is greater in the preservative period than in the fore period,
and this weight is still further increased in the after period.
No. 3.
The data for No. 3 are somewhat fragmentary and show little change
in the volume of the urine during the three periods. The specific
gravity is slightly less in the preservative period, while in the after
period it rises a very little above that of the fore period. The quan-
titv of total solids is decreased during the preservative period, while
in the after period the quantity is the same as in the fore period.

No. 4.
In this case there is a slight increase in the volume of the urine in
the l)peservative period and a still further slight increase in the after
period. The specific gravity is high through all the periods, being
slightly greater in the preservative and again slightly increased in the
after period. The total quantity of solids excreted is greater in the
preservative period and continues to increase in the after period.
N\o. .5.
There is a slight increase in the total volume of the urine in the
preservative period and a greater increase in the after period. The
specific gravity is slightly higher in the preservative period and
slightly lower inll tie after period than in the fore period. The total
quantity of soi(l matter excreted in the urine is greater in the pre-
servative period ald( still solliewhat greater in the after period.
MN. t;.
lThere is a niotalble increase ill the voliiume of tihe urine in the pre-
srv'ativ.e periodi, but tl is increase is only partially maintained in the
afte,' period. The specific giavity of the urine is high and almost the
sae ill the fore and preservIwative periods a(nd slightly higher in
the after p)eri(od. h'lPh quantity of total solid.s excreted is notably
greater il tO' lpresPrvativte period, with a slight loss in weight in the
after period.
No. 7.
There is a notable increase in the volume of the urine in the pre-
servative period in this case, while in the after period the volume is
only slightly greater than in the fore period. The specific gravity of





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


the urine in the after period, while slightly greater than in the pre-
servative period, is still far below that of the fore period. The total
weight of solids excreted is, in this case, less in the preservative period
than in the fore period and still less in the after period. No. 7 in this
respect differs from five of the six cases already cited.
No. 8.
In the case of No. 8 there is a slight decrease in the volume of the
urine in the preservative period and a very notable decrease, in the
after period. The volume of the urine is very great in the case of
No. 8 and the specific gravity correspondingly low, being slightly
greater in the preservative period and notably greater in the after
period than in the-fore period. The quantity of solids excreted in the
urine is slightly greater in the preservative period and still further
increased in the after period.
No. 9.
The volume of urine in this case is greater in the preservative period
and slightly greater in the after period than in the preservative period.
The specific gravity is slightly higher in the l)reservative period, and
in the after period it is almost the same as in the preservative period.
The total weight of solids excreted is greater in the preservative period
and almost the same in the after period as the preservative period.

No. 10.
There is a notable increase in the volume of the urine in this case
in the preservative period, and the volume in the after period is almost
identical with that of the preservative period. The specific gravity
is less in the preservative period and still further diminished to a
slight extent in the after period. The weight of the solids excreted
is greater in the preservative period and almost the same in the after
as in the preservative period.
No. 11.
The volume of the urine in the case of No. 11 is less in the pre-
servative period and is almost the same in the after as in the preserva-
tive period. The specific gravity of the urine in the preservative
period is increased and in the after period is only slightly less than in
the preservative period. The total solids excreted are high and are
slightly less in the preservative period and still further diminished in
the after period.
No. 12.
The volume of the urine in this case is notably diminished in the
preservative period and increased over the preservative period in the
after period, but not to the volume of the fore period. The specific


533





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


gravity is notably higher in the preservative period, and in the after
period it is still higher than in the fore period. The weight of the
solids excreted is slightly greater in the preservative period and still
further increased in the after period.

SUM.IMARY FOR NINE MEN.

The average effects Iproduced upon the nine men who completed the
observations show that thle volume of the urine in the preservative
period is almost the same as that of the fore period, being only 7
cubic centimeters greater. In the after period the volume is slightly
less than in the fore period, being diminished by 47 cubic centimeters.
Thlie average specific gravity of the urine in the preservative pex'iod is
slightly higher than in the fore period and in the after period is again
slightly increased as compared with the preservative period. The
quantityy of solids excreted is increased in the preservative period and
still further increased by half a gram a day in the after period.
Trhe general effect therefore upon the urine is that no notable change
is produced in the volume of the urine due to the administration of
the preservative. There is, however, a distinct increase in the specific
gravity of the urine under the administration of the preservative, due
to at decided increase in the weight of the solids excreted. This effect
is continued to a certain extent in the after period, during which even
a lar'gr quantity of solids is. excreted than during the preservative
period.
It is just to conclude from tihe above data that the administration of
the salicylic acid increases the katabolic activities of the organs, result-
ing in 'an increased excretion of solid matters in the urine.


534







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


535


TABLE VIII.- Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids-Series VI.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


U
Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total ..................
Average...............
Second subperiod:
Total ..................
Average...............

Entire fore period:
Total .................
Average...............

Preservative period.

First wubperiod:
Total ..................
Average............ ...
Second subperiod:
Total .................
Average ................
Third subperiod:
Total ...................
Average................
Fourth subperiod:
Total .................
Average ...............
Fifth subperiod:
Total .................
Average ...............
Sixth subperiod:
Total ..................
Average ...............

Entire preservative period:
Total ..................
Average...............

After period.

First subperiod:
Total ...................
Average...............
Second subperiod:
Total ..................
Average...............

Entire after period:
Total ...................
Average...............


No. 1.


Vol-
ume.


cc.
6,830
1,366

6,685
1,337


13,515
1,352



5,840
1,168

6,745
1,349
b5,715
1,143


Specific
gravity
at
2,5o125
C.




1.0161


1. 0187


Total
solids
(factor
0.245).




Grams.
269.4
53.9

306.3
61.3


No. 2.


Vol-
ume.


cc.
a 5,663
1,133

6,4S5
1,297


Specific
gravity
at
250o25
C.




1.0254

1.0192


........ .575.7 112,148 .......
1.0174 57.6 1,215 1.022;3


1.0210


1.0190


300.5
60.1

314.0
62.8


1.0220 a307.9
....... 61.6


5,930 1.0216
1,186 ........

6,050 1.0210
1,210 ........

5,940 1.0219
1,188 ........

36,220 .......
1,207 i 1.0211


5,820
1,164

5,660
1,132


1.0222

1. 0227


11,480.......
1,148 1.0225


313.8
62.8

311.3
62.7

318.7
63.7

1,866.2
62.2



316.5
63.3

314.8
63.0

631.3
63.1


6,080
01,216

7,170
1,434

5,960
1,192

5,645
1,129

7,330
1,466

7,065
1,413

39,250
1,308



5,630
1,126

5,720
1,144

11,350
1,135


I No. 3.

Total 'Specific! Total
solids I Vol- gravity ol
m at solids
(factor ume a5 (factor
0.245). 0.245).
I


Grams. cc. Grams.
352.4 ........ ................
70.5 ........................

305.1 4,820 1.0213 251.5
61.0 964 ........ 50.3

657.5 ................. ........
65.8............ ........


1.0207 308.4
........ 61.7

1.0188 330.3
........ 66.1

1.0231 337.3
........ 67.5

1.0240 331.9
........ 66.4

1.0204 366.1
........ 73.3

1.0195 337.6
........ 67.5


4,485 1.0123
897 ........

'4,888 1.0213
978 .......


4,970 1.0214
994 .........

5,420 1.0197
1,084.......

5,130 1.0206
1,0.. .......

.. . . . .


II
........ 2,011.9 '24,893 1.0190
1.0211 i 67.3 9 ;.......



1.0248S 342.1 5,020 1.0204
........ 68.4 1,004 .........
1.0249 348.91 .1.410 1.0233
69.8 1 882 ........

........ 691.0 9,430 .......
1.0249 69.1 943 1.0219


135. 2
27.4
"255.0
51.0

260.6
52.1

261.6
52.3

258.9
51.8


1,171.3
46.8



250.9
50.2

251.9
50.4

502.8
50.3


a Average added in order to complete record.
b Four-day composites; average added in each case inii order to complete five-day period.
cNo. 3 only had five preservative subperiods.


I -








INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VIII.- 'rMie determinations-Volume, specific grarity, and total solids-Series
I/-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


Fuor period.

First subperiod:
Tota I ...................
Average................
Seci mil sublqtri, :
Total ..................
Average................

Entire fore itrirtl:
TItat Il ...................
A average ................

P'tsrr'rulifI f4 rio,0.

First subperiod:
Total ...................
Average ................
Secu >id -.uljpcriod:
Tr tal ...................
A veragc ................
Third subperiod:
Total ..................
Average ................
Fourth subperinnd:
Total ...................
Av.ra ge ..............
Fift hi %uii'vriod:
',,til ...................
Avcrnag .................
Sixth %ih)Jtriad:
T nl l ...................
Avtragt.................

En tiire preservative period:
Total ...................
Averaig. ...............

.IifTr pf ri',Ml.

First snh4lperiod:
l' taIl ...................
Average ..............
Sua ad N-itehl jal: I
T alt)l ...................
Avernaitge ................
:lntir. aflci r arniul:
Tl'aIl ...................
A v'crat .................


No. 4. No. 5.

Specific' T 'Specific
Sgravity Totalgravity
Vol- at I solids Vol- '9 "
ume. .502.5o factori ime.
0.245 2-50L2tC.



.'. i Gritns. cc.
4.,995 i 1.0257 314.5 4.620 1.0261
999 ......... 62.9 924- ........

4.N35 1. 0263 311.6 5,66,5 1.0199
967 ........ 62.3 1,133 ........


Total
solids
(factor
0.245).



Granis.
295.4
59.1

276.2
55.3


9.830 ........ 626.1 i 10,285 ........ 571.6
98.3 1.0260 62.6 1, 029 1.0230 57.2



4,480 1.0291 31t. 4 4,720 1.0257 297.2
896 ........ I 53.9 944 ........ 59.4

4,715 1.02P6 330.4 5,785 1.0206 292.0
943 ......... 66.1 1,157 ....... 58.4
41,960 1.0273 331.7 5,410 1.0231 306.2
992 ........ 66.3 1,082 ........ 61.2


5,415
1, 0.83

5,470
1,094
:5, 965
1, 193


l.0


1.0
1 .1.1


I
1261 316.2
.... 69.3

r246 329.7
65. 9
243 355. 2
.... 71.0


5,900
1, 1,sO

5, 765
1,153

5,170
1,034


31,005 ........ 2,012.6 32,750
1.034 1. 021(; I 67.1 1,092



5, -14-5 1.0257 342.8 t;,063
1. o 9 ....... 6;M. ; 1,21:1

:5,1SO 1.028O 3d:). 13 5,095
1, 31; ........ 71.1 1, 1119

1(, ;25........ ... 6 1;. 1 I l, 15.i
1,1363 I. (026I 119. 1 116


1.0222

1. 0227


1.0250


320.9
A4. 2

320.6
64. 1

316. 7
63.3


a4,100 1.0275
820 ........
a 4,5 -W 1.0273
918 ........

4, 545 1.0273,
909 .........

4,480 1.0263
896 ........


276.3
55.3
1' 306.8
61.4

304.0
60.8

288.7
57.7


I I
........ 1,8 53.6 26,268 ........ 1,722.7
1.0i232 61.8 876 1.1r268 57.4



1.0210 3:11. 4,135 1.0274 277.6
........ 62. 4 827 ........ 55.5

1.02 I0'1.. ,; 4,150 1.0277 281.6
......... ;l.. 9 830 ......... 56.3


........ 6'. 285 ....... 9.2
1. 0229 62.2 S29 1.027'; 59.9


a Finr d1na\ omposits: ivcraig,, adldedI in La1, tlIVi't' ia inlrder to ComilaiUt live-day period.
b Average'aidded i torder to complete record.


53)t)


No. 6.
Vo sPeci"n- Tta
gSperavific Total
Vol- a i solids
time. a to5.),o (factor
c." 0.245).



rcc. (rams.
3,635 1 1.0272 242.2
727 ......... 4-1.4
1
3,850 1. 0267 251.9
770 ......... 50.4

7,485 ........ 494.1
749 1.0269 49.4

I 6

4,070 1.0273 272.2
s14 ........ 54.4

4, 485 1.0250 274.7
897 ........ 54.9


I








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


537


TABLE VIII.-Urine determinations-Volume, .qc'iflr /rat'ity, mid (otld .s-olids-.Vc,'is
AVeI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total ...................
Average ................
Second subperiod:
Total ..................
Average ...............

Entire fore period:
Total ..................
Average..............

Preser'l- ir i'eriuid.


No 7.

Specific
Vol gravity
Vol- at
me. C.
I C. ,


No. x.


Total
solid%,
Factor
0.2-4l. ).


er. GriUtiS.
5, IS. 1.0228 289. 1
1,0361 . .... 57.9

4,00O 1.02.7.. 289. 1
isoo .. ....'. ^ ..


9,.140 1 ........ 57S. 5
918 1 1.026i2 .7.9


First subperiod: I
Total .................. 4, 430 1.0224
Average ................ M.........
Second subperiod:
Total ................. 5,340 1.0210 i
Average ............... 1,01' .S....... i
Third subperiod:
Total .................. 4.960 1.0202
Average ............... 992 .......
Fourth subperiod:
Total ................... 5,56'0 1.0195
Average ................ 1,112 .......
Fifth subperiod:
Total .................. 4,m20 1.0223
Average ................ 964 .......
S'xth subperiod:
Total .................. 6,495 1.0199
Average ............... 1,299 .......

Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 31,605 .......
Average ................ 1,053 1.0209

After p< riod.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 4,83:5 1.0205-
Average ............... .967 .......
Second sibperiodl:
Total ................... 4,745 1.0216
Average ................ 949 .......

Entire after period:
Total .................. '.i, .ns ........
Average ................. |--) 1.0211


243.1
45. 6>

274.7
-4. 9

245. 5
49. 1


VIl-






CC.
.4, OqW
1,61A

10, 925
2,18-7


Specific
graivity
lit
27.oi25o
C.


Total
solid].
I act'jr
0.245).


G ra1.s.
(. nl .' r-:. n1. 7
1. 0128 2'. 3. 7
50.7


1.0105


19,015 ........
1,902 1.0117




9.360 1.0113
1, 70 ........

9,500 1.,'119
1 ,,9011.........

9, so 1.0113
1. 9 0. ........


2f;5.7 i S7LO
53.1 1,76o


263.4
52.7

316.7
63.3


1, 609. 1
53. 1;


242. .s
4l.'.


1. 0121;


No. t.

Spu'iv iit
V\,I- gravity
" ll t.'. 5'-'
I.


I10,01*
*. 51
*1,1:3


1.0(214


2.%.U Q ->, 720 1.0.23-
56 2 1, 1-11 ........


53 1. 7 11, 235 ........
.3. 1, 124 1.0()_41


25). s
51. s

277.0
05. 1


-, 7;';0
1,1 52

.5.').'
1, 11,;


271.3 5. 4211
54.3 1,10,I

271. ; 5, 70
54.3 1.111


10,810 1.0114 301.9 .-1.275
2, 16i2 ........ ;0. 4 1. 055


, 210
1, 642


1.0146 ; 293.7
........ "s. 7


5 ;, 47) ........ 1, iC74. 3
1,8.S2 1.0123 5.>,


9, 720 1. :11131
1. 944 ........


;;12. v
_2. I


2:.)1.1 I ;6. 3-0 1.01.M; 2 19. 1
5)0 2 1.27 ........ >7.
-,__ 5 7 .9__ ) _


193.9 16 ;, 11711 ... ....
49.4 ,1607 1. 0.1)9


6i, 77.)
1, 3.V55


1 O021ii1
1. 112.; I



1.0 (257





i .o )I

1.0231


34-. :3 11 ........
1,1 h; I. o-'.51




l"). 1til 1. 112,;',
1. 132 ........

G. .'.I 1 1. 112 ;
1. 279 .......
--I- I__


6Ui. 4 11. ... 1 .......
M;l). I 1. IV' 1. 012 .1;


T, tl l
T.I Ii 1tal
I I'aictor
0.24.- .



IT'j i.' .
329. 7

6G. 7



.t;:j. 2





.372. t'
1 ;4. 7;
r.ij). 7i
7,n.5
63. 7

311.2
6s. 2

:t.-. 7
73. 1

:134N. S

7fi. 7;

7i'i. 7


2.1:1,1.4
71.''



;'>:;,,. ,>
i,7. '.

:;-ll. e,
76;. 1


71'.. 4
71.9


a Fuir-ilny cominpit'..s: average IIdle(Il in each case in mrier to <'-ii,,ldlt" liv .i-, y.v record.

7656-No. 84, pt 2-06i- 5


!
i

i








538 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VIII.-Urine determinations-Vl'olume, specific gravity, and total solids-Series
17-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]


Period.


F'rn'(i period.

First sunperiod:
Tottl ...................
A average ................
Second subperiod:


No. 10.


Vol-
U ne.


cc.
4,240
84s


Total .................. 4,640
Average. .............. .. 92s

Entire fore period:
Total ................... ,80
Average............... 81 'Ns


No. 11.


Specific Total Specitic
gravity solids Vol- Igravity
2/at5 (facor ume. "t
C 25012 0.245). 250/250




Grams. CC.
1.0252 261.8 a6, 2.56 1.0234
........ 52.4 1,251 ........

1. 0240 272.8 5, 890 1.0236
........ 54.6 ,17 .......


1. 0246


S 534.6 12,116 ........!
I 53.5 1,215 1.0235


Preserrative period.

First subperiod: I
Total ................... I 4, 910 1.0217 261.0
Average................ 9-2 .......... 52.2
Second uibperiod:
Total .................. 5, 83U 1.0202 288.5
Averag................. 1,166 ....... 57.7
Third subperiod:
Total .................. 5,955 1.0197 287.4
Average .............. 1, l'Ji I........ 57.5
Fourth stihperiod:
Total .................. 5,330 1.0220 2X7.3
Average ............... 1,0t;6 ........ 57.5
Fifth sutbiperiod: 1
Total ................... 5, 1u 1.0222 277.7
Av raig( ................ 1,021 ........ 55.6
Sixth sibijcriod:
Tottal ................... .4,0 u60 1.0276 274.5
Average................ 812 1........ 54.9

Enti re pre..crvat i v. period: 1
Total ................... 31, 190U . .... 1, 67;. 4
Average................ 1,3.) 1.0222 55.9

t, ftr lc 'itol.

First siihlpriod:
Toltal ................... 5,190 1. 0218 277.2
Av r g ................ 1, I3' ........ 55.4
sev.ond stili~lt-ri,)d: :
Totlnl .................. 5,190 1.lr21s 277.2
Av'rage ................ b 1, :3.s ........ ........


EKitir(. atfhr irtrio,.! i
T o tIIl ................... lI ) .i ........
Avertage. .............. 1, u0: I. 021M


5.1.4
55. 4


5,800
1,160

6.080
1,216

5,235
1,047

5,465
1,093

5, 331
1,066

5,575
1.115


1.0263

1.0'238

1.02.56

1. 0254


1.0270

1.0229


Total
solids Vol-
(factor ume.
0.245).


Grams.
358.6
71.7

340.6
68.1


cc.
6, 180I
1,236

6,140
1, 228


No. 12.

Specific
gravity
at
250/250
C.




1.0 214

1.0- 204


699. 2 12,320 ........
69.9 1,232 1.0 209



373 8 4 770 I 1 0242


74.8

354.5
70.9

328.3
65.6

340.1
68.0

352.6
70.5

312.8
62.6


954

5,170
1,034

5,840
1,168

5,410
1,082

5,545
1,109

5,970
1,194


33.4.%5 ........ 2,062.1 32,705
1,116 1.0252 i 68.7 1,090
i


5,765 1.0228 322. 0 5. 965
1, 153 ........ 1,193

5,630 1.0215 337.9 5,770
1,126 ................ 1, 1.",4


11, ;95 ........ t59.i 11.735
1,110 1.0217 66.0 1,174


1.0248

1.0 236

1.0247

1.0 250

1.0244 I


Total
solids
I factor
0.245).



Grams.
324.0
64.8

306.9
61.4


630.9
63.1


282.8
56.6

314.1
62.8

337.7
67.7

327.4
65.5

339.6
67.9

356.9
71.4


........ 1,958.5
1.0245 i 65.3



1.0225 32. 8


1.0244 344.9
.... .... .......


1..0235


673. 7
67.4


SFil.I,,mtr-i, ,Ili"),ii> : av'itrag. milled] i( i(rder tei e0uiip1l1tC 1i v-dayv record.
b No. 10 out secoijil iii ter .iuliperiud; average of first tfter stiUbljieriod used.


I







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


539


TABLE VIII.-Urine determiinations-Volume, specift, gracity, and total .solid-R, Series
IVI-Continued.
[Averages arc per (lay.]
SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN.


Period.


i Total Avenvrge Sprtcifie Total
volume griv 7at
volume, solic'a
per maizi. 2-71 25.0" C.


Fore period.
First subperiod:
Total.....................................................
Average ..................................................
Second subperiod:
Total------........---.-....--....---------.--......-........----------.........
Average ............-..........----....--......-.............
Entire fore period:
Total.....................................................
Average ..................................................
Prescrratir: perioitt.


cc.
51,449

514,475


1. o, 924


First subperiod:
Total ...................................................... 49,540 S
Average ............................................................
Second subperiod:
Total ...........--...............------...............--.........-.... 54, 990
Average ...........................................................
Third subperiod:
Total...................................................... ------------------------------------------51,9,80
Average ............................................................
Avrg7-------- ------- ------------ *---------
Fourth subperiod:
Total ...................................................... 52,713
Average ........................................ ..........
Fifth subperiod:
Total----------..........---......-----------..-------.............--------... 55,665
Average ............-------------------------------------......................................-------.........-
Sixth subperiod:
Total ...................................................... 54,870
Average ...........................................................


Cc.
5,717
1,143


1.0223


GrIams.
2,699.6
60.0


6, '.-3 1.0216 2,668.7
1,211 .......... 59.3

11,770 1. 0'220- 5. t;,. 3
1,177 1 .......... 5 7


-, 10.I 1. 023:1
1,101 ..........


t1, 110
1,222
5,776
1,155
5, .b7
1,171
6, 1S5
1,237
6,097
1,219


1.0215

1.0226

1. (22';
....o......


2. 1'1-6.2
59.. 0
2,761.7
61.4
2,742.2
1;0.9

2,.,24.4
62.8,


1.0224 2, 889.5
.......... 6 -1. 2
1. 0221 2,897.0
.......... 64.4


Entire preservative period:
Total ...................................................... 319,758 35,..5 ,., 1.0224 16, 771.0
Average ..................................................I .......... 1 l'4 .......... i ;2.1
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ...................................................... 5.3, 37 5, 931 1.0222 2. 7'f;. 5
Average .................................................. .......... -,' .......... 62.1
Second subperiod:
Total, 3......................................................7 1.0241 2, 1s;3.5
Average ..... ----------------------------------------------1,073 ......... ;3.0
Entire after period:
Total ...................................................... 101,678 11,29S 1. o02:3 5M ;:u. ii
Average .................................................. .......... - 1,130 ...... 62.6

a Average figures in this column -how I lie itivetrag.,- INr man per dny.

PRESENCE OF ALBUMIN AN) THlE REACTION OF THE LUHINE.

The urine was also examined for all)buminhl, anid its reaction was deter-
mined from time to time during the progress of the experinllit. Tlhe
quantity of albumin present at each test was not estimated, the exami-
ination being confined to ascertaining its presence. Ill Series VI,
therefore, a comparison as to the relative quantity of allmllin present
in the three periods can not be made, as was done in Part 1 in the case
of boric acid. The degree of acidity-was determined in terms of
standard alkali.
No. 1.

There is no albumin in the urine of No. 1 at thle beginning of tlhe
fore period, but at the end there is a minute trace. Tlre l ,is no appear-
ance of albumin during the preservative period. 'lihe reaction of the
urine in this case is amphoteric in the fore period and was not deter-
mined in the other periods.


I______; ______






INFLUENCE OF FOOD IPRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


A'o. !.
A trace of at)ltlllill occLur- in the urine of No. 2 during thle whole
l)Period of o -ervation. The reaction of the rilile is anmphoteric in the
fore period, and it becomes acid in the preservative period.

Xvi,. .*/.

No albumin is found in the urine of No. 3 during any period of
olservation. The acidity of tlihe urine increases during the adminis-
tration of the salicylic acid.
y,. 4.

The observations ill tlie case of No. 4 are practically tlhe same as in
tlie cast of No. -.
.Vo. .i.

There appears to be no delinitfe challnge produced in the case of No. 5
by thie action of tlhe salicylic acid either 1upon0 tlhe small quantity of
all )LIlill pi)rst'clit or upon the relative acidity. Tle trine is stroll."
acid during" tlie fore period, and also strongly acid during the preserva-
.tive pTeriod.
N ,. <;.

lie( data in tle case of No. 6 indicate practically the sane absence
o(f efflect. a, those of No. 5.
X-V. 7.
No allbuullti i.- observed in the case of No. 7 at any time during tlhe
observation. The reaction of tlie urine is alternately acid and amiphlo-
te'ric, amtd tlhe preservative appears to, have lihad no influence in deter-
milling the condition.
N'o. 8.
No all,,uminl app1t*l,.ars in tlie ca:( of the iinitie of No. S at any time.
1The i'ea,.tito of tl i uine Und(ler tli inflentce of ilthe preservative
bec''oes,, Mtllphote1ric. Ini this case there appear. to hlavye bl een a ve ry
-hi.'hit itllut(,ee oil tilte part, of tlhe drug- adminilistered to diniiiiish tihe
ai(l itv of tlt- urinie and to p1 )ttrice an antiphoteric conditions thereof.

Xii. .',.
No albumllini- present ill thle ur1'ilnea alltay timlei o,' tite observationsn.

Tl' ret'li on of tlie' Iriet is atillphote'ric ait o e' tilli' uri-ing i tlie tfore'
pe'ilod. ltiti aid the t1 of the tille.
.\' Ili.
No alliuimin i- fo ind ili tlit, ,ase t at y limi. Durim. thle adminlis-

tratimn 4 ti lle s lit .li,. cid HIPl r.aliii,(i l or llie id ll ie ch(' nilIged fronl i
a:iiphotteric to ,trodly ltidl. 'h'l( aipparent't eetl't, ill this case is
exactlyy tl'he olOit of tlat )proT(ducd in ti;e cas1tt of No. S.


540






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


.Vo. 11.
A very minute quantity of albumin is noticed in the urine during
the administration of the salicylic acid. The reaction of the urine
changed from amphoteric in the fore period to acid during tlhe pre-
servative period.
No. 12.
No albumin occurs in the urine daring the periocjs of observation.
The reaction of the urine is changed from amphoteric in the fore
period to strongly acid in the second preservative sub)period, becoming
amphoteric again in the third preservative subperiod.
In so far as these data are concerned no effect upon the presence of
albumin nor upon the relative acidity can be attributed to the admin-
istration of the salicylic acid. A more detailed study of these points,
leading to more definite results, is to be found under Series XI,
page 726.
RATIO OF SULPHUR, SU-LPHATES. AND PHOSPHORIC ACID TO NITRO(;EN
EXCRETED IN THE ULRINE.
In Table IX are found the data showing the ratio of sulphur, sul-
phates, and phosphates excreted to the nitrogen in the urine. The
total weight of nitrogen excreted, the total weight of sulphur, the
total weight of sull)hur as SO3, and the total weight of phosphorus as
P.,O served as a basis for (determining the ratios.
The object of this study was to ascertain whether or not the adilinis-
tration of salicylic acid changed in any definite way the ratio of these
bodies to the total nitrogcren excreted. When the ratio increases it
shows that there is a loss in the quLantity of thle substance under .oi-
sideration excreted in relation to the total nitrogen, aLnd when the
ratio decreases it, shows that there is an increa-ed quantity of that
substance in relation to the total nitrogen.
IN)IVIHU'AL DATA.
iXi. 1.
The data show a slight decrease in the ratio of sulp)hur to nitrogen
and of sulphuric acid to nitrogen during the adminiistration of tlhe pre-
servative, while the ratio of the phosphoric acid to the nitrogo'il
remains unchanged. In the after period there is a still fuirthi'er
decrease in the ratio of sulphur to nitrogen. while tlhe ratio f sdul-
phuiric acid to nitrogen is restored to its original liaglnitid('. t'liere
is a notable increase il the ratio of tlhe phospl)loric acid to nitn'.rv,'e in
the after period.

'There is aL miarked (decrease iII thie Ia initilde of tlhe ratio of sulphur
to nitrogen mid of phosl)lporic acid to nitr(mvle in tlie preserv:ative


541





INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


period, while the ratio of sulphuric acid to nitrogen remains unchanged.
Inll the after period there is a still further slight decrease in the ratio
of the sulphur to the nitrogen, while the ratio of phosphoric acid to
nitrogen rises to a greater magnitude than in the fore period. The
ratio of sulphuric acid to nitrogen remains unchanged.
Nt. 3.
The ratio of sulphur to nitrogen in the preservative period is the
Iame as in the fore period. The ratio of sulphuric acid to nitrogen is
the same iil the preservative period as in the fore period. There is a
slight decrease in the preservative period in the ratio of phosphoric
acid to nitrogen. In the after period there is a notable decrease in
the ratio of sulphur to nitrogen and a slight decrease in the ratio of
sulphuric acid to nitrogen, and the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitro-
gen is hIi(rli(hr than in the preservative period, but not so high as in
the fore period. The fore period was, however, interrupted by the
illne.s.s of the subject.
No. 4.
A slight increase is noted in the ratio of sulphur and sulphuric acid
in thle preservative period and a slight decrease in the ratio of phos-
phoric acid. There is a further decrease in the sulphur and sulphuric-
a.id ratios in the after period. There is, on the other hand, an increase
inll thle phosphoric-a.id ratio in this period.
No. 5.
A notable dece 4se inll the sulphur ratio is found in this case in the
preservativ'e period, wivil, the ratios of stilphuric acid and phosphoric
acid recall ii unlchalngedl. In the after period there is a still further
-light dli'creiase in thle utlpliri' ratio, no change inll thle sulphuric-acid
ratio, 11( nd iiotab:tlle increase ii the plhosplhoric-acid ratio.
N\o. /;.
A slight decrease of tlie sulplihuir and siulphuric-acid ratios is noticed
inll this ,'ae, inll ti preservative period :nidl a slight, increase in the
plo'pioric-acid r:ttio. In the after period there i.s a notable decrease
inll tllV. su.lphu1r ratio, :i still further slight decrease in the sulphuri(c-
aI idl rnitio, and ai slight inicreise in the phosphoric-acid ratio.
No. 7.
A notable' decrease in thle sulphur ratio) is indicated in this case in
Iliii pr iisrvaiti v per,,iodl, ail .liglit. decrease in tie sul)hli'c-acid ratio,
1ii]d IIIvv illn 'i-a inl tlie i)1(1sllhl )ric-acid ratio. In t he after period
tlie' 1,tllhr ritti i restore ill part to its original nmagnitutde and the
iljli1iric-;ic'id rlitio exactly to its olrigilnal niagnlituide. There is a very
illtetlL' ii'111r'ii.E'1 i1 the iiiignilitud.d of the p)h osj)phoric-acid ratio.


542





SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES. 543

No. 8.
There is noticed here for the first time a decided increase in the sul-
phur ratio in the preservative period, while the sulphuric-acid and
phosphoric-acid ratios remain unchanged. In the after period there
is a slight falling off in the sulphur ratio as compared with the pre-
servative period, no change in the sulphuric-acid ratio, and a notable
increase in the phosphoric-acid ratio.
No. 9.
There is a slight diminution in the magnitude of the sulphur and
sulphuric-acid ratios in this case and a notable loss in the phosphoric-
acid ratio during the preservative period. In the after period the
sulphur ratio is increased beyond its original magnitude, the
sulphuric-acid ratio is restored to the figure for the fore period, and
there is an increase in the magnitude of the phosphoric-acid ratio over
the preservative period, but it does not quite reach the magnitude of
the fore period.
No. 10.
There is no change in the sulphur and sulphuric-acid ratios in the
preservative period in this case and a slight diminution in the mag-
nitude of the phosphoric-acid ratio. In the after period there is a
slight loss in the magnitude of the sulphur and sulphuric-acid ratios
and a notable increase in the ihosphoric-acid ratio.
No. 11.
The ratios of sulphur and sulphuric acid are smaller in this case in
the preservative period and that of phosphoric acid larger. In the
after period there is a still further diminution in the magnitude of the
sulphur ratio over the preservative period, no change in that of the
sulphuric acid, and a still further slight increase of ratio of the phos-
phoric acid.
No. 12.
We have here the third instance of an increase in the magnitude of
the sulphur ratio in the preservative period, accompanied with a slight
decrease in that of the sulphuric-acid ratio and the phosphoric-acid
ratio. In the after period the sulphur ratio is slightly diminished as
compared with that of the preservative period, the -ilplhiiuric-:uaid ratio
remains unchanged, and there is a notable increase in the Illmagnitude
of the phosphoric-acid ratio.
rI'MMARY FOIl NINE MEN.
Combining into one expression the nine ratios which are complete
and comniparable, it is seenl that there is a notable diniinution in the
ratio of sulphur and a slight diminution in the ratio of sulphuric acid






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


to nitrogen in the preservative period. The ratio (if phosphoric acid
to nitrogenl rellmaizns unchanged. The tendency to reduce thle nimagrii-
tude of tihe ratio of sulphur to nitrogell is maintained in the after
period, whereas there is no further diminution of the magnitude of
the ratio of sulphutric acid in that period. The ratio of the phosphoric
acid, however, i., very markedly increased in the after period. A
general review of these data indicates that the administration of the
salicvlic acid tended to increase the relative excretion of sulphur to
11itrog4enl, aHd that this tendency was continued in quite a marked
derTee ill the after period. There i., scarcely any effect produced by
the .-salicylic acid upon tlie relative quantities of sulphuric acid and
nitrogen excreted. There seeIms to be a marked tendency on the part
of the pre-servative to produtice a condition which diminishes the rela-
tive :unounzt of ph,)sphoric acid to nitrogen excreted, but this full effect
i- not slhown until thle after period.
In general. it may be said that the disturbing influence upon the
relative qMuantities of these bodies excreted as compared with nitrogen
is not very great, but that there ik a marked tendency to disturb inll a
meLsurablle degree tihe relative metabolic changes which the sdulphur
undergoes in relation to nitrogen as determined by the constitution of
tihe urine.






9


544








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


545


TABLE IX.- Urine delerminaitim.o--Ruifo of salph ', siplilhe., id pJhiiospie x. tu nitro-
ge--,'Sries 1V.

[Average-- are per dlay.]

No. 1.


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total .................-------------------.....
Average ...................
Second subperiod:
Total ......................
Average ...................

Entire fore period:
Total ............... ....
Average ...................

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ......................
Average...................
Second subperiod:
Total ......................
Average ....--.........---......
Third subperiod:
Total ......................
Average...................
Fourth subperiod:
Total ......................
Average .................
Fifth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average .................
Sixth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average ...................


Entire preservative period:
Total ......................
A average ...................

After period.

First subperiod:
Total ......................
Average...................
Second subperiod:
Total ................... ..
Average...................

Entire after period:
Total ......................
Average..................


Quantity.


Ratio.


Nitrogen. Sulphur. SOd. P. i S : N. SOj: N. Il.( N.
______________ _________________ ______ ________________ ________________ _________________I- ______________


Grams. Gramins. Grams. (raws.
59.83 4.002 8.674 10.723 1:15.0
11.97 .800 1.735 2.1-15 ..........-

67.99 .252 9.800 10.963 1:16.0
13.60 .8S50 1.960 2.193 .........


1:6.9 1:5.6


1:6.9 1:6.2


127.82 .257 i 18.474 21.6';6 1:"15.3 1: 1 9 1:5.9
12.78 .,25 1. 847 2. lt9 ......... .......... ..........



66.40 4.415 9. 800 11.271 1: 15.0 1: 6. h 1:5.9-.
13.2S 83 1.9i;0 2.25-4 ..............................


69. 68
13.94
'i 68.95
13.79

618. 55
13.71

71.33
14.27

74.07
14.S1


41 A. 98
13.97



69. 61
13.92

70. x',i;
14.17


140.47
14.05


4.654 10.239
.931 2.0h4S
4.376 9.974
.875 1.995

4.7201) 10.342


.944 2.068

4.429 10.539
.S886 2.10S

1.621 10.502
.924 2.100


27.215
.907


61.396
2.047


4.580 10.150


.916 2.030 2. 0 4 ..................... ..........


4.771
.9541


12.343
2.469

11.596
2.319

12.216
2.443

11.737
2.347

11.315
2.269


1:15.0 1:6.8! 1:5.6


1:15.8 1:6.9 1:5.9
....... . ... ...... ...... ....

1:14.5 1:6.6 1:5.6


l: 16.1 1:6.8 1:6.1


1:16.0


1:7.1


70.50S. 1:15.1 1.6. S
2.350 .......... ..........



10.1418 1.15.2 1: .9


10.279 10.9241
2.056 2. lb57


1:14.9 1:6.9


1:6.5


1.5. 9




1:6.7


1:6.5
........ ..


9.35-1 20. 129 21.312 1. 1i.1i 1.6.9 1 6.6
.935 2.043 2.13 1 ......... .......... ..........
i I I


a (mn. i*ly'- at vrvtigt' ai Ili.l ill ,rhirr to 'iniinilti', record.


I








546 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE IX.-Urine determinations-(Ratio of sulphur, vulphates, and phuspitma tou nitro-
gen-Series I7-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

NTo. 2.


Quantity.


Period.


,NitrogVn. Sulphur. SOj.


Force pcrinl.


First ,.ubperiod: 1,1 Grms.
Total ...................... 85.34
Average- .................. 17.07
Second -lb period:
To Ital ..................... 72.37
Averagce................... 14-.17

Eniitirc fore peri(id.
ToItl ...................... 157.71
Average................... }15. '7


Grano:.
5.44,14
1. 40W
1. OUt)i


(dramhis.
12.016
2. 403


4.643 10.454
.92w 2.091


10.091 22.470
1. OJ9 2.247


Ratio.


S : N. SO8 : N.


GIrcons.
16.025
3.205

14. 267
2. 53


1:15.7


1:15.6


30.292 1:15.6
3. 029 ..........


J'lrin-rrattirf pc'i,,,l.

First ..i)period:
Tota ..................... 71. 87 4. 621 9.971 14.71-1
Average .................. 14.37 .924 1.994 2.943
Semciind sUiibpJeriod:
Ti)tal ..................... 72.49 4.517 10.181 16. 061
AvTrgu ................... 14.50 .903 2.036 3.212
Third siibperiod:
rTotl ..................... 77.12 5.108 10. 835 15.734
Av'riige ................... 15.42 1.022 2.167 3.147
Fourth subilperiod:
Total ..................... 71.30 1.516 10.910 14.903
Avvragt.................... 11. 26 .903 2. 185 2.9Sl1
Fifth mti p i'riiid:
TI tial ....................... 82. 10 5.212 11.596 15.979
Av riig ................... 4 1.042 2. .196
Sixth sUbperiod: .
TotLI ...................... 76.80 5.574 11.092 14.271
Average................... 15. -.; 1.115 2.218 2. ')4

I.ntire presrvative [)tril: I
1I,1tn I...................... 451. i.S 29.5-48 I 6f4. 615 91.16 2
Avcrngc ................... 15.0t6 .9.45 2. 151 3.055

Iftb r period.

First sniperiw]d:
Totl.I ...................... 77.92 5. 123 11.170 11.075
A 'vriniui-. ...................i- 5x 1.2 (l25 2.231 2.815


S.c'onid --idoplriid:
T ldal ......................
Av'croge ..................

Intirtr Mifer lp.riil:
"l' t I I .....................
Av rlig( ..................


79. 97 5. 26iS
15.99 1151


157 .9 10.391
15.79 1.039


1:15.6
. ....... ..

1:16.0
S..........

1:15.1
........ ..

1:15.S

1:15. 8


1:13.8



1:15.3


P206 : N.


1:7.1 1:5.3


1:6.9


1:7.0


1:5.1


1:5.2


1:7.2 1:4.9
......,..........

1:7.1 1:4.5
... .... ...... ....

1:7.1 1:4.9
....... u..........

1:6.5 1:4.8


1:7.1 1:5.1
.....o.. ..... .o...


1:6fi.9


1:5.4
..... ......


1 7.0 1:4.9
..... ...... ....1


1:15.2 1:7.0
.. .. .. .... ...... ....


11.36>0 14.986 1:15 2 1:7.0
2.272 2. 997 ....................
- I

22. '30 i 29. (161 1:15.2 1:7.0
2.253 2.906 ..........


1:5.5
...... ..

1:5.3

1:5.........4
1:5.4







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


547


TABLE IX.-Urine determinations-Ratio of sulphur, slphatefs, and phosphates to nitro-
gen-S&ries Il-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

WNo. 3.


Period.


Sis


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total ......................
Average ...................'
Second subperiod:
Total ................----.
Average ................... I

Entire fore period:
Total ----------------------
Average ...................
Average-------

Preservatime period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average...................
Second subperiod:
Total ......................n
Average ...................
Third subperiod:
Total ......................
Average..................
Fourth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average...................
Fifth subperiod:
Total......................
Average..................


Quantity.

nitrogen. Sulphur. SO.j. P.O10. S



Grams. (rams. Grams. -'ram I .
Broken by illness.


63.19 4.126
12. 64 .M25

1;3. 19 4.126
12.64- .X25


56. 15
11.23
a 57. 33
11.47

54.57
10.91

57.67
11.53

55.51
11.10


First, second, third, fourth,
and fifth subperiods:
Total ...................... i281.23
Average................... 11.25

After period.


First subperiod:
Total ......................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
TotH I ......................
Average ..................

Entire after period:
Total .....................
Average..................


53.56
10.71

5.5.08
11.02

108.64
10.86


3.661
733

3.665
.733

3.58S
.718

3.740
.748

3.699
.740


18.356
.734



3. 619
.724

4.013
803

7.632
763


9. 091
1. .1S


7.773
1.555

8.141
1.628

7.777
1.555


39.916
1.597



7.480
1.496

S.3,h'
1. 678

15. s6S
1.5.7


10.700
2.140


Ratio.


N.


1:15.3


1:7.0


1:5.9


10.7uo 1: 15.3 1:7.0 1:5.9
2.110 O .......... .......... ..........


10. S99 1:15.3
2.180 ..........


1:7. 0 1:5.2


10.410 1:15.7
2.082 '...........


10.487
2.097

9.919
1. 9I4


1 1:15.2

S1:15..........
S 1:15. 4
i..........


1:7.0 1:5.2
....1:..7......... 5..8
..... 1.:.! .. .... 1. ....


9.234 1:15.0 1:7. 1 1:6.0
1. 7 .......... .......... ..........


50.949 1:15.3 1:7.0 1:5.5
2.03S ............................ ..


9.036 i 1:11.8
1. ,07 ..........

9.9;7 i 1:13.7
1.993 .........

19.003 1:14.2
1.900 ..........


1:7.2 1:5.9

1:6. 1; 1:5.5

S1:6.8 1:5.7.....
S 1:6.8 1:5.7


a One day's iiverage iildled in order to complete record.
b No. 3 had ouly live preservative subperiods.


SO;, : N. IP.0 : N.








548 TNFLUENCE (F FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


T.,II.E IX.-Urine dct'rmainioi-Jithio of fsulphur, .sulphafs, and phosphates to nitro-
gen--.ries 1l-Continued.

[Averagc% are per day.]

WNo. 4.


Period.


Quantlity.


Nitrogen. Sulphur.


Flu/. pI riodl.


Fir-t sublieritl:
'T1ot l ......................
Av. r ge ...................
Suc' nil :ubperiod:
T dtil ......................
Average ...................

Enzirt fort lrn'riil:
"lnt l .....................
.A V, rg' ...................

Pr, ., r,','it iie It ,'i'Il.

First unliprciodrI:

.Xvicr~iger. ... .. .. .. .. .. .....
1,I t ill ......................
A v r gii t ...................

Total .....................

Average ..................
Fourthir subperiul:
Total ......................
AVerTfige ....................
Fifth iublpcridi':
Totally ......................
Average ...................
Sixth uilqperiol:
Total ......................

A V r .a ...................
Sixthi --uiluri(il':


rIotail ......................
AvuriTg ...................I

Enti I' r riod.riol



Firl r^ ulp~i' ~ind
T itIl ......................
A v triLg .. ..... ..............



Fir-i -u l l1 .rriol:

Total ......................
Av'rngt .................
A rngt .....................
I A \'t.ri ig ww .. . .. .

'l'olnl .....................
A \trrigv. ...................


Grams. \
73. 7s
14. 76

71. A34
l 1. 3:i


115.72
1 1.57




7(. 07
11. 0

74.59
14.92

68. 50
13.70

72. t7
14.41

fil;. I
13.22

71.94
14.39


123. 25
11. 1]


72.111
14.41

74.44
14. ',9


1 1;. IX
1 I. t;.)


G ra I ,.
4.905
911

4. 574
.915


9. 179
.91'4




1. I.5


1.724
915

4.5-1S
910

4. -V>9
912

.s}-2
4. 699
.60

I. 76(
95:.'


2-7.;'.40
-'. .3611
...11It


SO'.



Grains.
10.719
2.144


ClI'aO,,.

Grauis.
12.7 s7
2.557


10.724 11. 505
2.145 2.901


21. 413
2.144


1i0. 26. S
2. 054 i

10. 675 i
2. 135

10. 267
2. 053


Ratio.

S:N. SO0:N. P.O:,N.




1:15.0 1:6.9 1:5.8
........., ......... ....... .


1:15.7 1: 6.7


1:5.0


1
2-7. 292 1:15.4 i 1:6. S 1:5.3
2. 729 .......... .......... .........
=[



13. S43 1:15. S 1:6. S 1:5.1
2. 769 .............................
III
15.277 1:15. A i 1:7.0 1:4.9
3. 055 .......... .......... ..........
I I
13.(640 1:15. 1 1:6. 7 1:5.0
2.72- .......... ....................


111. 224 14..S9 1 1:15. S 1:7.0 1:4.i8
. 0l451 2.97S .......... ........ .. ..........

9. 72t; 13.402 1:15.4 1:6. 8S 1:4.9
1. 915 2. 680 .......... .......... ..........

I11. 391 13. S39 1:15. 1 1:6.9 1 :5.2
2. 1 7 2. 7 S. .......... .......... ..........


61. .51 ,l. Sil9 1:15.5 1:6.9 1:5.0
2. 0152 '2 s;(i ..................... ..........


4.737 111l. 12. .959
.i *7 1') I 0 .?11)


1:15.2 1:(;. ,


1:5. 6;


.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..17U 2. 1T-h- 2.S0.1 ......... .......... ..........


'. 5.s5 21. 511 26i. 99i7 1:15.3 1:(;. 1:5. I
9. I-S 2. 151 2. 700 .......... ....................
I I I I








SALICYLIC ACID AN[) SALICYLATES.


TABLE IX.-Urine ,leterminiinti.i-R-aRt io of sutldphr, ,mlhilites, <(ind phloslhiI.is I, nit,',-
[ieu-Serie I-('out in ned.

[Averages ire per day.]

No. ..


Period.


Fore period.


First subperiod:
Total ......................
Average.................
Second subperiod:
Total .....................
Average ..................

Entire fore period:
Total ......................
Average..................

Prcseruafirw pcriul.

First subperiod:
Tota I .....................
Average..................
Second snbperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Third subperiod:
Total ...................
Average ..................
Fourth subperiod:
Total ......................
Average ................
Fifth subperiod:
Total ......... .............
Average ..................
Sixth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average ...................

Entire preservative peril To ta I ......................
Average .................

Iffter ]i'riu<,l.

First subrperiod:
Total ......................
A verge ...................
Second suiblT.riod:
T tlal ......................
Average ..................

Entire after [period:
Total .....................
A \verag....................


(Quantity.


Nitrogen. Sulphur.



Gramts. Gradis.
691. 53 4. 565
13.91 .913

G1. StG 3.711
12.37 .742


131.39
13.14




13. 70


,%. ,.176
.828



4. )_12
. stis


69..02 4.495
13.)0 .:99

67.90 4.566
13.5S .913


69.38
13. Sn

72.81
14. 56

68.66
13.73


4.632
.926

4.670
.934

4. 534
.- i 7


S(o J. ;


G,


9. 933
1.987

8.588
1.718


P.(1.),.



Grams.
12.890
2. 57K

11.896
2.379


5: N.


R.)t i, .

S(., :N. l'., : N.


1:15.2 1:7.0 1:5.4


1:16.7


1:7.2


1:5.2


IS. 521 24. 7,M'; 1:17,. 9 1:7.1 1:5.3
1.s52) 2.479.............................


9.7:33
1.917


9. 545
1. 909

9. 760
1.952

9.1 I
1.968

10.216
2. 043

9.430
1.. MSi


416. 2. 27. 239 1. 52.'',,
13. M .9uIx 1.951


it 1;11. :it)
13. 'f;

70.67
11. 13


1.516 9. :773
. 9U3 l..',75

4.677 111.2'11
.937 2. I0 is


13 i. .l7 1.. l9'.:; I iI
1 1. Ou .91N; I 9fti


12.791 1:15.. 1:7. L 1:',. 4
2.."5s .......... .......... ..........

i.3.595 1:15.4 1:7.2 1:5.1
2.719 .................... ..........

13.579 1:14.9 1:7.0 1:5.0
2. 71 G .......... ........... ........

13.2111 1:15..0 1:7.1 1:5.2
2.643 .............................

13.U0.',7 1:15.6 1:7.1 1:5.6
2.617 .............................


12.408


1:15.1


1:7.3


1-5.5


2.4 2 .................... ..........


7,-. 6716 1:15. : 1-7.1 1. 3. 3
2. C-23 .......... .......... ..........


11.,83 l :15[.3
'2. :77 ..........

12. 73. 1:15. 1
'2. 1 ..........


17 1 15. S


1:6.9 1:5.5


21 'i. 2 21 1:15.2 1 1 1 :.. 7
2. 112 ..2 ...


aOne day'S average a'll'td in order to .voLuplUtc record.


549








550


INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE IX.--Ur"ie determinatiois-Ratio of sulphur, sulphiates, and phIosphates to nitro-
yen-Ser;es 1I-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

NTo. G.


Quantity. Ratio.
Period.
Nitrotgen. Sulphur. SOj. P.O5. S :N. S03:N. P...05: N.

Fore period.


First -:ubperif-pd:
Total .....................
Avtvragv ..................
Suvcod !tubl,eriod;
T itail .....................
AvLragu. ...................

Et irv. f,,re period:
Tolal .....................
A%'rrag .. ..................

P'res'cr i rtirf period.

First subperiod:
T,-tul .....................
A "c rage ...................
Sc',iid t-u jbp riid:
'T'ntal .....................
Avcrag ...................
Third .t*liptkripil;
Total .....................
AT vtrng ...................
Filrth Sil Ppl'ri, ,i
Total ..................
At'rar;L ...................
Fifth -uhp,.ricd:
Toitl ......................
A v trag,' ...................
Sixth stljperiod:
Tot I ......................
A 'v'ratL'....................

Ti tin, preservative ptrriil:
Total .....................
A'U raug ...................

.lf/' 1" ri,,il.

First u ,lifri,,,!:
'I', tlnl ......................
Avi, lll.r ...................
.f i'Tl' 1 -uI. tit~l, ri,,d
T wtl + ......................
A viraii ....................

n ti,'. ,ift,.rl .ri,,, :
'T wl', ...................
A v r a l .. ................


Grm iI.Q. Grams. Grams. Grams. I
59.40 4.03.S 9.0., 9.814 1:14.7 1:6.5 1:6.1
11. S ,'U.S 1. ,S I 1.963 .......... ... ....I .........


57. 71
11.51


3. 796
.759


,. 555
1.711


117.11 7. s34 17. 635
11.71 .7.',: 1. 764


65.93
13.19

68.49
13.70U

"70.76
14.15

a 73. 21;
14. 65

74.36
14. S7

53. 40
Utl. ;.-'


411H;. 20
13. 1'-1



66. 12


4.090
. IS18

4.521
.904

4.748
. 950
;. 015U
.065
fi. OC.
1.013

4.800
.96;0

4.390
. .7S


9.621
1.921
9.966
1.993

10. >i0
2. 132

11..21
2. 3 .)

10. 899
2.1,0

9. 757
1.951


10.010 1:15.2 1:6.7 1:5.8
2.002 '-- ......... ... .. ........


19. ,24 1:14.9 1'. :6.6 1:5.9
1.982 .................... I ..........



11.315 1:16.1 1:6.9 1:5.8
2. 263 ....... ......... ........

12.020 1:15.1 1:6.9 1:5.7
2.404 ..............................

11.275 1:14.9 1:6.6 i 1:6.8
2. 2,5 .......... ..........'

11.92M 1:14.5 1:6.4 1:6.1
* 2.3sti ---------- ..........

11.044 1:15.5 1:6.. ; 1:6.7
2.21.9 .........................
.990 1:1.2 1:5.5 I 1:5.3
9.99 1:12.2 1:5. 5 ', 1:5.3


1:14.7 1:6.5 1:6;.0


- I
27. ;14 Gl2. 427 6 ,7.572
.1.120 2.0,s I 1 2.252

I


1.316 9.411 4 9. 1%0 1:15.2


13.22 N'1I9 1. ,'5I


1. Mit;


1:7.0


1:7.2


11.9 'JO .6ll ( .t1.s 12. 71 7 1:11.9 1:5.5 1:5.1
92-_ 1. 999 2. 141 .......... ....................


121.02
12. Ill


.s. 9:7 llt 112 19. S.,7 1:13.5 1:6.2 1:6. 1
. 89. 1. 911 1. 99.4 ......... ....................


a _ii. dtl ?.. iavteragt uiddvd in ordlt'r to Cuumpll'te recurd.


i I


I "11'1.-








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


551


TABLE IX.- Urine determinations- Ratio of sulphur, sulphat'es, and (ph osphates to nitro-
gen-Scries Vl-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

-No. 7.


Quantity.


Period.


Force period.

First subperiod:
Total ...--........--..--......
Average ..................
Second subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................

Entire fore period:
Total .....................
Average..-.....----........

PreseratitreiT period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Total .....................
Average........----.......
Third subperiod:
Total .....................
A ve rage ..................
Fourth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Fifth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Sixth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................

Entire preservative period:
Total .....................
Average..................

After period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Total .....................
Average ........... .......

Entire after period:
Tota I .....................
Average..................


Nitrogen.I Sulphur.



Grams. Grams.
56.57 3.756
11_ : I .751


S03. P.-05.


Grains.
7.956
1. .'S91


63.00 4.280 9.288
S 12.60 .'5 .


119.57 S.036 17.244
11.96 .804 1.724


50.72
10.14

56.98
11.40

51.24
10.25

49.15
9.K3

52.92
10.58
PA t


3.513
.703

4.085
.817

3.368
.674

3.564
.713

3.870
.774


P ,efA


12.83 1.285
12.83 1. 285


7.425
1. 465

8.715
1.743

7.341
1.468

7.539
1.508


Grams.
8. 547
1.709

8.480
1.696

17.027
1.7u3


7.354
1.471

7.903
1.581

6.597
1.319

6.450
1.290


8.184 6.989
1.637 1.398

9.054 8.379
1.811 1.676


325.18 24.X 24 48.258 13. 67'2
10. ,s4 .827 1.608 1.456


Ratio.

S: N. .3: N. P.,O: N.




1:1.-3.1 1:7. 1 1: 6. 6
.. ..... ... ..... .. .. .... .....


1:14.7


1:14.9




1:14.4


1:13.9


1:1.-5.2


1:13.7


1:10.0


1:6.8 1:7.4


.. .. . . 1:7.0




:..: 9


1:6.5
... . .


1:7.2


1:13.8 1:6.5 1:7.6


1:6.5 1:7.6

1:7.1 1:7.7....... ........
1:7.1I 1:7.7


I
1:13.1 1:(6. 7


52.80 3.650 7.697 5. h02 1.14.5
10.56 .730 1. 539 1.160 ..........
56.09 3.891 8. .1 0 6.5, ; 1:14.4
11.22 .778 1.631; 1.319 ..........


10-. S9
10. s9


1:7. 4


i:6.Y 1:9.1


. :. . 9 1:8.5


7.A-11 15.-,77 12.3 .' 1- 14. 1 1. 1 ,'.,
754 1.5.,, s 1. 24u .
75 1. 'i.^1. W . ... ...' .... .. .. . . . ....


1:7.0 1:7.8








552 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TA u.I-: I X. ('i;ne detI-', uIiatn.--Rtio o)f .svlphuir, ilphaites, and phosphates to nitro-
gen-S..r,.- I 1-Continued.

[Averages are per (lay.]

WNo. S.


3. t .',
. 7;3


Ratt% iO.
S:N. SOa":N. I\._0 : N.


lIrm i il ..
1 t'rri, l. .. ..


1"r'1 1, pi rIod.

Fir-t ul I ppl'ri, 1m :
T IlIi al ......... ............
t'ra tv . ........... .....
.-i~ 'I<* till MI S period:
Total ......................
A\ Tr;gt ....................

Eii ir. firr ]i rir 4l
I to i .......... : ...........
A\'lTraw ....................

I1retfervuitir pfriwod.

First subperiod:
`1t.(,I ......................
Avt'n r ,' ....... ............

Total ......................
A \ I.r.il C ...................
T lnri -iiii li~trri1"
T"'.lal .....................
A 'vi-ir g ....................
l-'iiitrth -Itil,,.rii),l :
Total ....................
A i tr ,'xt .. .................
Fifl i -iihicrii,,I.
Total .....................
Avermil ...................
Sixth ,'iilhlprrl,,fl
T"I It aI ......................
IA v rAit .. ..................

I.:Eitirt, preservative p'riI0
To"l tatl ......................
A vt'r llt .. ..................

Sfli, r period.

First uihlo.ritil:
II 'tl ......................



M 'I ~II P f- I ( .
A \ ,'r* ,g. .................
r'r'illl] i lllltlp l'liifl
Total ..... ...............
A \<' i ". .............. .....

I':mn i,. firr period:
Total ......................
A vcrugi,....................


(il'lllllfS.
10. 5t"*




52.9
.'"). fit)
11. 111


1Hi.'. 41
10-. i


".1l
,')_. 7;i
I0. :N)

54.44
1l0. ,vj

51.74
10i. ,I5


a- ",Il. 1'
I0.0 i:1


322. I I
i0. 7W


vI,*i rum.
7. 6.)3
1. .31


71.6 1.604


7.t;77 15.672
. 7i;.^ 1.."ni7


3.. 111

3. 610
. 22
3-..1


7. i;11 I
1.522

7. 's5
1.577


;3.675 7.2-,d
.7:3) 1.450

3.731 7.744
-746 1.5 *.


W7. ;62 3. N27 7.91
11. 52 .765 1.57,s

55. 7'1 3. .ll1.1 8. 173
11.15 .75.0 7. 91.)


22. 223
.711


ii;. s~a;
1. n2


(1rams.
s. M I's1 1:14.3 1:6.9 1:6.0
1. 764

74u 1:13.9 1:6.9 1:6.4
1.74.S .............. ................


1. 75); .. 4.. 1.l.(. 9 1:6.91


8. 8.S2
1.776

9. 5LD
1.'.00

8. s20
1. 7it


432
1. i;68

7. 7S3
1. 557


1'15.3

1:15.1


1:14.1


.ss 1:13 .4
1.77s ..........


52.3-0.5> 1. 14.5
1.711 .........


1I. :il '0 5 7. 3s7 1: 11. 3
12.117 .S 12 1.707 1.477 ...........

:,i. 1.IS 4.1D'; 8. 7.;,, 7.938 1 .1t.2
11.,' 1 .',:1: 1.7. 1.5.,, .....5.....4


11 -I I 51 ". t75 17.322 11.32r75 1: 1.*I. ;
I I X ) 1, s I 7 32 1 : ;;3 . . . . . .
I


1:6.9 1:5.9


1:6.9 1:5.7


1:7.1 1:5.9


1:16.5 1:5.6


1: 15.1 1:7.:3 1: 6.8


1:11.1 l~6 1: 7. 2


I
1:6.9 1:6.2




1:7.1 1:8. 2
......... ..........

1:1;.7 1:7. 5



1:7.8


S0lie IIlity' It'VL-rigt' 1II',l0 ill orr to I'inldlt'u r-ccrnl.


Nit ri 19V Sulphur.







SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


553


TABLE IX.-Urine determinations-Ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates t,) nitro-
gen-Series 'I-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 9.


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average.................
Second subperiod:
Total ....................
Average.................

Entire fore period:
Total ....................
Average.......... ......

Preserratire period.

First subperiod:
Total ....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Tota I ............... .......
Average..................
Third subperiod:
Total ....................
Average.................
Fourth subperiod:
Total ....................
Average..................
Fifth subperiod:
Total .....................
A verage.................
Sixth subperiod:
Total .......................
Average.................. I

Entire preservative period:
Total ......................
Average..................

After period.

First subperiod:
Tota I ...... ...............
Average ..................
Second subperiud:
Total .....................
Average.................

Entire after period:
Total......... ...........
Average..................


Quantity.


Ratio.


Nitrogen.' Sulphur. S03. P._03. S : N. SO : N. P.I0 ,:N.



Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
70.26 4.671 11.663 11. -57 1:15.0 1:6.0 1:5.9
14.05 -1934 2.333 2.371 ..............................

67.15 4.547 11.354 10.410 1:14.8 1:5.9 1:6.5
13.43 .909 2.271 2.082 .............................

137.41 9.218 23.017 22.267 1:14.9 1:6.0 1:6.2
13.74 .922 2.302 2.227 .................... .........


72.12
14.42

66.12
13.22

69.10
13.82

67.84
13.57

63.35
12.67

73.44
14.69

411.97
13.73



64.45
12.89


4.948
.990

4.570
.914

4.780
.956

4.567
.913

4.072
.814

4.864
.973

27.801
S927



4.345
S9


12.355
2.471

11.411
2.2.2Q

11.936
2.387

11.404
2.281

10.168
2.034

12.145
2.429

69.419
2.314



10. 849
2.170


70.20 4.57.S 11.431
14.04 .911; 2.2s6


134.65
13.47


S.923
. %12


22. 2SO
2.228


11.750
2.350

11.997
2.399

12.249
2.450

13.981
2.796

10.919
2.184

12.805
2.5 .l1


73.701
2. 457


1:14.6

1:14.5

...1:14.5.....

1:14.9

..1:15.6....
1:14.9
..........
1:15.6


1:15.1


1:5.8

1:5.8


1:6.1

1:5.5


1:5.8 1:5.6
....-..o ..o.......

1:5.9 1:4.9

1:6.2 1:5.8


1:6.0


...... -. .....


1: 14. 's


1:5.9 I
1:5.91


1:5.7


1:5.6


10.12:1 1:14.8 1 5.9 1:6.2


2.5i ......................... ...

22.9!'51 1:l1. 1 1:6.0 1:5.9
2.295 ..............................


7656-No. 84, pt 2-06- 6


1







554 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH;


TABLE IX.-Urine delermi nation s-Rat;o of sulphlur, salphates, and phosphates to nitro-
gen-Series IV'-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]J

No. 10.


I'eriod.


FentI p1 riod.

First subperiod:
Total I ... ..................
Average .................
Seconil sulibperiuod:
Total ....................
Average .................

Entire fore period:
Total ....................
Average .................

Prti'a tirc period.

First subperiod:
TotaI ....................
Average.................
See ii1l ?.-ulperi(od:
Total ....................
Average .................
Third sub|ieriod:
Total ....................
Average .................
Fourth .iIljpriud:
'ota .....................
Average .................
Fifth subperiod:
Total ......................
Average.................
Sixth subperiod:
T'ctal ......................
Average..................

Entire preservative period:
Total .....................
Average ..................


Quantity.


Ratio.


Nitrogen. Sulphur. SOj. P.,O. S: N. SO3: N.


Gruuno.. jrtm8s. rtS. Grs inams.
63.81 4.215 10.525j 10.727 1:15.1 1:6.1
12.76 .843 2. 1U5 2.145 ....................

62.7. 4.301 10.740 11.600 .... ...... .......
12.56 .60 2.148 2.320 1:14.6 5 1:5.8


126. 59
12. u6


71.36
14.27

67.35
13.47

61.61
12.32

64.37
12.87

47. 99
9.60


37 I. G I
12. 49


IAftr peri'I. i

First subperiol:
TotalI ...................... 9.71
A VTri gU ................... 11. '
Seeo'lld .ii, pt.riii:
Tli l ...................... Sick.
A veriige................... ..........


Entire after period:
Tolal ......................
Average ..................


'"ii. 71
1 1. '95


h. 516
52


61.96 3.997
12.39 .799


4.786
.957

4.073
.815

4. 264
.853

4.135
.827

3.934
.7.,7


21 2t,5
2. 126



9.981
1.996

11.951
2.390

10.170
2.034

10. 647
2.129

10.325
2.0651

9.823
1. 965


1 1
22.327 1:14.9 i 1:6.0
2. 233 .......... i .......


10. .51
2.170

12.768
2.554

11. 612
2.322

11.513
2.303


1:15.5


1:14.9

1:16.5


1:14.4


10.823 1 :15.6
2.165 ..........


9.744
1.949


1:12.2


SP.,O5: N.


1:5.9
.... ...o...

S.... ......
1:5.4

1:5.7


1:6.2 1:5.7

1:6.0 1:5.6

1:6.6 1:5.8


1:5. 1 :-1:5.4


1:6.2 1:5.9


1: -1.9 j 1:4.9


25.).18S9 62. 897 67.311 1:14.9 1:6.0 1:5.6
.,40 2.097 2.244 1 ....... ....................



4.033 10.070 9. 198 1:14.8 1:5.9 1:6.3
.807 2.014 1.900 ..............................

Sick. Sick. Sick .......... .......... ..........


1. 03:3 10.070 4.198 1:1.4.8 1:5.9 1:6.3
.X07 2.014 l.'lO .......10... 0..........








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


555


TABLE IX.- Urine determinations-Ratio of sulphur, sulphvde.x, and phosphate.s to nitro-
gen-Series VI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No.11.


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Total ......................
Average..................

Entire fore period:
Total ......................
Average..................

Preservatire period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Total ........... ...........
Average..................
Third subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Fourth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Fifth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Sixth subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................

Entire preservative period:
Total .....................
Average ..................

Aj'lcr period.

First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................

Entire after period:
Total ...............
Average......... ............


Quantity.


Nitrogen.



Gramns.
a 80.83
16.17

77.69
15. 54

158.52
15.85



85.49
17.10

77.64
15.53

73.34
14.67

67.82
13.56

75.63
15.13


449.89
15.00



68. 49
13.70

67.67
13.53


Sulphur.



Grams.
4.673
.93.3


S03.



Grams.
10.510
2.102


5.325 11.768
1.065 2.354

9.998 22.278
1.000 2.228


5.469
1.094

5.33S
1. 068

4.455
.891

4.602
.920

5.021
1.004


29.546
9s5


12.714
2.,.543

11. (6 6
2.337

10. 679
2.136

10.19S
2.040

11.204
2.241

10.291
2. U5S

66.772
2.226


Gra ms.
14. 139
2.828

14.4?<9
2. 98


P.,O5. S: N.


1"17.3

1:1.6


Ratio.

SOj: N. P:,05:N.




1:7.7 1:5.7


1: 6.6 ;


1:5.4


2S. 628 1:1?.9 1:7.1 1:5.5
2. 863 ..............................



13. 572 1:15.6 1:G. 7 1:6.3
2.714 .......... .......... ..........


12.829
2. 566

12.616
2. 523

11.96S
2.394
12.792
2.55.S

1t. 648


1: 14. 5 l 'G;.o 1:6. 1
.......... .......... ..........

1:16.5 1:6.9 1:5.8

1:14.7 1:6. 7 1:5.7

1:15.1 1:6.M 1:5.9

1:15.0 l1:6. 1 1:6.6


2.130 ..........


74.425 1:15.2 1:6.7 1:6.01
2.4-,1 ..................... ..........


L

4.854 9.616 10.377 1:11.1 1:7.1 1 :6.i;
.971 1. 923 2. 07 ..............................

4.780 10.70,S 11.710 1:14.2 1:6.3 1:5.8
.956 2.142 2.31_2 ...........................


9.634
.963


2. 321
2. 0:22


22.0.',7 1: 1 .1 1:6.7 1: ;. 2
2.209 .......... ...................


aOne day's average a, ldlcd in order to t'Iiih1tt, rrt-corl.


69.97 4. 661
13.99 .932








556 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE IX.-Urline determ u;titUis-Ratiu) of ilphiuir, sulpluets, and phosphates to nitro-
gen-Series IV-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 12.


Period.
Nitrogen.

Fur, pcriiod.


First -uI)pcriod:
TrIll ......................
Average ...................
Secimil suhl~neriid:
T'1t' I ......................
Avriigu ...................

E nt i re fore period:
To ;il ......................
Average..................

Preservative period.

First ,-I.bhlcriod:
Total.....................
Aviragt....................
SeCt)Ill] :.uhii riod:
'I' tal .....................
A\ t'ragi ...................
Thirdii iibjuriod:
Total ......................
A \'LTimrl t.. ..................
Fourth ?.,uln.riodl:
AvrniL ....................

'wial .....................
Av'tiirag ...................
Fifth tilii~criid:
'1'111l .....................
Avirg ...................
Sixth ]ulirp vril:


'1 'Ial ......................
A\'vruge ...................
Entire sii.crvativ,, period:
Tt,,lnl ................. ....
A v' t'rag ....................


*Si.cni ll, rl"rni],I
First snllqeri,,d:



'l tnl ......................
A vi.\\ t' ....................
T'" t I[ I ......................
E v un'r .ftcr in-.rim .:
T].a ,[l ............. ........
A.\ *' rngt' . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .


< ialllis.
76. 69
15.34

72.02
14.40


14,S. 71
14. ,S7



65.06
13. Ul

75. 17
15.).03

74.75
11. 95

70.01
14. oU

74.-147
14. .,i

7:>. 2S
15. 1(;


431.71
14. 49



73. 6;7
14.73

7(;. 'M)
15. :t;


15J. 17
15. (1 I


Quantity


Sulphur. SOa.


(6 ro ,a;
5. 16 t;
1.033

4.918
.9, l


10. 0s4
1. LION



4. 2:t;
.847

5. 129
1.02;

4.9(16


4.734
9 17

5.173
1. t)3.

4. 173

II 9*.l:
29.11 -2
.9172


(;ramef.
11.482
2.291;

10.487
2. U97


21. 969
2. 197



9. ;.,3
1. 93-7

11. :3il1
2.273

10. 769
2. 151

10. 625
2.125

11.279
2. 2*.i

11.092
2. 21.^


I; .Sl 2
2. 16(0


P._(O.



Grains.
12.731
2.546i

12.955
i 2.591

2.). 2. 569



11. :91
2.3l1 -

13.237)
2. C47

14.425
2. s5

12.930
2. 4.16

12.U.',sM
2.41 l

1:3.015
2. 603


77.2*S-
2. 576


8:N.


Ratio.

SOa803: N.


P.O;: N.


1:14.8 1:6.7 1:6.0


1:14.6 1:6.9 1:5.6
.......... .......... ...... ..

1:14.7 1:6.8 1:5.8





1:15.4 1:6.7 1:5.6


1:14.7 i


1:15.2


1:14.8

1:14.4

1:15.1



l:l. 9
1: 1.1. 9


1: G. 6


1:5.7


1:6.9 1:5.2


1:6.6 1:5.4


1: 6. i 1:;. 2


1:6. 1


1:6.7


4.9'.'l 11.02:, 11.s70 1:141.7 1:6.7
1. u)(I 2. -,)5 2.374 ......... ..........

t. 1i 11.321 12.694 1:1-1.9 1:6.,
1. ;1i 2. 2i61 2. :s.19......... .........


It.. 1 l. 3 212. 31-1 1. :)1. 1:1 I. S 1:6. 7
1. 01. 2. 2:3 1 *2. 1:6, 1 .......... ..........


1:5.8


1:5.6




1:'6.2


l :li. 1



1:6.1








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


557


TABLE IX.- (Trine determinations-Jl'tio of sulpihur, siIpliali's, gen-,Ser,'.- I V-Continueld.

[Averages atire per man per flay.]

Suininary fRoir nine riein.


T2Pnri Ai


Q iQuant ity.


......... Nitrogen. Sulphur.

Fore p'rio'l.
First subperiod: Grams. Grams.
Total ...................... 614. Ks 40.242
Average ................... 13.66 .M94
Second subperiod:
Total ................ ..... 600.08 39.4K7
Average-----------------................... 13. 3:3 .877


Entire fore period:
Total ...................... 1 214.96
Average................... 13.50


1-'rescrratirv pi riod.
First subperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Second subperiod:
Total.............. .......
A verage..................
Third subperiod:
Tota I .....................
Average..................
Fourth subperiid:
Total .....................
Average..................
Fifth suibperiod:
Total .....................
Average..................
Sixth subperiod:
Total ......................
Average.................


596.76
13.26
618.50
13.74

604.30
13.43
591. 70
13.15
627.32
13.94
C;10.04
13.56


79. 729




38. 571
57T

41.073
.913

39.7,.0
.8w3
h" 3

10.123
.892
41.301
.918
43.892
.975


so),.



IGra i s.
X. 023
1.956'

87. i':i
1.949


Grams.
106.474
2. 366
106. 30(5
2.3,;2


10,0(). S : N


1:15.3

1:15.2


Jlitiii.

So : N. I'.O_(. N.




1:7.0 1:5.8

1:6.8 1:5.6


17. 7011 212. 779 1:15 .2 1 ",. u
1.952 2.361 .......... ..........


86.826
1.929
90. 2.'i;
2. I.0I1
)7. 537
1.U91V
8.. 977
1.977
91.534
2.03-1
90.082
2.1102


105. 333
2.341
112. 763
2. 50;
l08. 2S2
2.406
107.390
2. 3P6
105. 550
2.3 ';
101. 678
2. 259


1 .. 7


1:157.5 1:6.9 1:5.7

1:15..1 1:6.9 1:5.5
...... .... .......... . ........
1:15.2 1:6.9 1:5.6

1:14.7 1:6.7 1:5.5


1:15.2 1:6.9


1:5.9


1:13.9 1:6.8 1:6.0


Entire preservnti ve period: i
Total ..................... GI.. 62i 211.710
Average................... 13. 51 .901,
After w.rioin.


First sub eriod:
Total ..................... 610.31
Average................... 13.57
Second '.ub period:
Tota !..................... 610..7S
Average.................. 13.'57
Entire after period:
Total ...................... 1,220.S9 '
Average .................. 13.77


41.01 I


5357. 212 10. 9"I ';
1 9. 12. ). 371


1:1 1. 9


1: 6;.8


.7. 6;25 93.951 1: 11. 1 1:7. 11


1:5.7


.911 1. 947 2. (NN.
.911 1.947 2.XS ..........................
12.171; 91.73:' 102.331 1:14.3 1:6.7 1 1;.0
.937 2.0 :19 2.271 .......... ..................


s:3. 190
.921


179.3'.7
1. y.13


9i6. 2_ 2 1':11.7 1 i; ',
2. 1 ......... ..........


CHANGES IN TlHE RELATIVE QUANTITIES OF SULPHl'UI COMI'PO)NI)S
EXCRETE) IN rlTHE URLINE.

The changes which the urine may undergo in respect of its relative
content of sulphur compounds are of great physiologi(ical importance.

For tile purpose of determining the extent of any suth chLngs an
elaborate study was made of the total sulphur, sLlphLates, and other
sulphur compounds excreted in the urine. To this end not only was
the total sulphur determined, but also the amount occurring naturally
as sulphlates and that occurring as ethereal Clonlpolinds of sulphur or
as neutral sulpjhtr. The data were compared with the respective
quantities of sulphur administered in the food and tlhe ratio of ethereal






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


to inorganic sulphates determined as well as the ratio of the sulphur
in different forms to the nitrogen in the urine. The particular object
in view was to determine whether or not the total quantity of sulphur
in the urine was affected by the administration of the preservative
and whether the kinds of sulphur, as related to each other, were
changed in any definite proportions. This required the determination
of the total nitrogen in the urine, the total sulphur, total sulphur as
SO', neutral sulphur as SOS, total sulphuric acid as SO3, ethereal sul-
phates as SO3, inorganic sulphates as SO3, the ratio of the ethereal
sutlphates to the inorganic sulphates and the calculation of the per-
centage relations of the various kinds of sulphur to the total sulphur,
namely, the percentage of neutral sulphur asSO, total sulphur as
SO. and ethereal sulphates as SO3.
The ilmportanee of the urine as an index of changes in metabolic
activity is fully realized and, without minimizing the importance of
the constitution of the feces or of the other excretions, it is sufficient
to call attention to the greater magnitude of the urine excretions and
to their greater significance in relation to the metabolized products of
the food elements.
The individual and sunimarized data on the relation of the pre-
formeld sulp)hates to the ethereal sulplhates and neutral sulphur are
given in Table X.
INIDIVID)I'AL DATA.
,. 1.
Inasmuch as the quantities of sulphur in the food vary slightly in
the ditffereiit Iphriod.-, it is best to base the discussion upon the per-
centtag4, of the total sulphur occurring under the various forms rather
thlIll ulponl thle ratios alone. The quantities excreted, however, and
the ratios which have 1eni determined are stated in the table, so that
full illformla:ttioll respecting the wvhole matter may be available. In
tihle case of No. 1 the percentage of sulllphur occurring in the neutral
state is (1iiniiishe'(d in the. p)reservative l)period, while it is very notably
iiI.reased in tlie after period. The rentge of total sulphur occur-
'ing ;as su"llpha:tes is slightly increased in the preservative period
anlld ]otablly dlinliislhed ini tihe after period. Tlie percentage of total
slll)IIIur o11( 'inlll'ilfg Us ethereal suilphates is increased in the preserva-
ti'e plrio(i :ilid soiliewViIlIt diminislied in the after period, but not to
tlhe iiiiiiiiii of the fore period. Tile percentage of total sulphur as
il1(i'rganic ,l"I.lphates is tlie same in the preservative period as in the
folre pei noid iioil s *lglitly dimiiinislihed in the after period.
N 2.
In tlie c:ie of No. 2 tlihere i.s ILl) increase in the percentage of neutral
suiilphiiir in i the preslr'Ivaitive lperild and at still finurthier increase in the
atfte' period. This, is attended with Ia decrease in the percentage of


558






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


total sulphates both in the preservative and after periods. There is
also a decrease in the ethereal sulphur in the preservative period and
this decrease is continued in the after period. The percentage of inor-
ganic sulphates is diminished in the preservative period and still
further diminished in the after period.
No. 3.
The neutral sulphur is increased in the preservative period and very
notably increased in the after period, while the percentage of total
sulphates decreases in both periods. The ethereal sulphur is very
low in this case and slightly higher in the preservative period than
in either the fore or after period. The percentage of inorganic sul-
phur decreases slightly in the preservative period and very notably in
the after period.*
No. 4.
There is a slight increase in the neutral sulphur in the preservative
period and a notable increase therein in the after period, with corre-
sponding inverse changes in the percentage of sulphur as sulphates.
The percentage of ethereal sulphates is increased in the preservative
period, with a slight loss in the after period. The inorganic sulphates
show a loss in the preservative period and a still further slight loss in
the after period.
No. 5.
There is a notable increase in this case of the neutral sulphur in the
preservative period and a still further slight increase in the after
period, with corresponding inverse changes in the total sulphur as
sulphates. The percentage of ethereal sulphates- is slightly diminished
in the preservative period and still further diminished in the after
period. The percentage of inorganic sulphates is notably dillinished
in the preservative period and again slightly d(lecreased in the after
period.
No. 6.
The percentage of neutral sulphur is slightly diminished in the pre-
servative period, but very notably increased in the after period, with
corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of total s'ilphates
present. The percentage of ethereal sulphates remains practically
unchanged throughout the three periods. There is a slight increase in
the percentage of inorganic sulphates in the preservative period and a
notable decrease therein in the after period.
No. 7.
This case shows an extraordinary increase in the neutral sulphur in
the preservative period. This increase is nearly all lost in the after
period, where the percentage is only slightly greater than the fore


559






INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


period. There are corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of
total sulphates present. The percentage of ethereal sulphates is
slightly increased in the preservative period, but falls in the after period
to a lower number than in the fore period. The percentage of inor-
ganic sulphates is somewhat low to begin with, but there is a very great
loss in the preservative period which is not quite wholly restored in
the after period.
No. 8.

There is a notable loss in this case in the percentage of neutral sul-
phur in the preservative period, and this loss is partially restored in
the after period, with corresponding inverse changes in the percentage
of total sulphates present. There is a slight increase in the percent-
age of ethereal sulphates in the preservative period, but in the after
period the number falls below that of the fore period. The percentage
of inorganic sulphates is very low, being slightly greater in the pre-
se.rvative and after periods than in the fore period.

vNo. 9.
There is an increase in the percentage of neutral sulphur in the
preservative period, which is partially lost in the after period, with
corresponding g inverse changes in the percentage of total sulphates
present. In the percentage of ethereal sulphates there is a loss in the
preservative period, and this loss is further increased in the after
period. There is butt little change in the percentage of inorganic sul-
plhur present in the three 1)eriods, a slight decrease occurring in the
preservative period and an increase in the after period.

Xo. 10.

There is an increLase in the percentage of neutral sulphur in the
preservative ) period in this case and a corresp)ondting decrease in the
total suilpliates. ''llere is also a slight increase in the percentage of
ethereal sulphates and i decrease in the percentage of inorganic sul-
phi:ats. The (data for the, after period are illcomlplete.

No. 11.
There is :L decrease in tlhe percelitaLg'e of, neutral suilpliates in this
cise in tllie preser'ative period and st very large increase in the after
peri(1d(, with correspo(iing inverse ctha ges in the percentage of total
si l pates pres(e!1t. TlilC It-IercILl -silp ates arT rem1rtarkably low in this
':Is e id tie p)(;r'entage is slightly hIiglher in the presetrvative period
tliii iI, either of tlhe others. There is a slight increase in the percent-
age olf ilorgaiic sulplLtes in the preservative period and a notable loss
in the after period.


500






SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


561


No. 12.

In this case there is a decrease in the percentage of neutral sulphur
in the preservative period, while in the after period the loss is partially
restored, with corresponding inverse changes in the percentage of total
sulphates. There is little difference in the percentage of ethereal sul-
phates in the fore and preservative periods and a notable loss in the
after period. The percentage of inorganic sulphates is slightly
increased in the preservative period and is almost the same in the
after as in the preservative period.
SUMMARY FOR NINE MEN.

It is seen that the average quantity of sulphur exhibited in the foods
is greater in the preservative period than in the fore period, and
decreases in the after period (Table XVII, p. 645). This fact must
be taken into consideration in the study of the table in regard to the
actual weight of the different kinds of sulphur found in the urine, and
also in connection with the ratio of the ethereal to the inorganic sul-
phates. This ratio, it is seen, in general is almost 1 : 11, being slightly
less in the preservative period than in either of the others. The per-
centage of the total sulphur occurring as neutral sulphur is 0.7 greater
in the preservative period than in the fore period, and the increase is
much more marked in the after period, amounting to 1.3 per cent.
There is a corresponding decrease in the percentage of total sulphates,
since the neutral sulphur and the total sulphates make utip the whole
quantity of sulphur. The ethereal sulphates and the inorganic sul-
phates, expressed as SO3, together make up the total sulphates. It is
seen that there is a slight increase in the percentage of ethereal sul-
phates in the preservative period, while in the after period the per-
centage of ethereal sulphates falls slightly below that of the fore
period. There is a slight decrease in the inorganic sulphates in the
preservative period, and a still further decrease of about the same
magnitude occurs in the after period.
A general summary of the data shows that the administration of the
salicylic acid produces a well-marked tendency to increase the per-
centage of neutral sulphur with a corresponding decrease of total
sulphates during the administration of the preservative, and that this
tendency is continued, as might well be expected, in the after period.
On the other hand, the administration of the salicylic acid appears
to have had no notable effect in disturbing the relative percentages of
ethereal sulphates and the inorganic sulphates in the urine. It must
be admitted, therefore, in the light of these data, that the principal
disturbing effect of the preservative has been upon the relative pro-
portion of neutral sulphur excreted.








562 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLEX.-Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and
neutral sulphur-Series VI.

[Averages are per day.]

2N'o. 1.


Peril id.


Fore periiJ.

First subperiod:
Total...........
Avernige........
Second :iubpleriod:
Total ...........
Average .......

Entir. fore period:
T jlil ...........
Av'raig,. .........


PrIcs.r(ative 1pr riwl.

Fir.nt sibplkriod:
Total ...........
Avrnigu ........
Seeiond subperiod:
otalI ..........
Aviraigi,........
Third slubieriod:
Total ...........
Aveitrage ........
Fourth subiripriod:
Tijtil ...........
AveriLge .......
Fifthi .subpiriod1:
Tolal ...........
Avvrngt, ........
Sixth .tibt ,ri !d:
Total ...........
Average ........

Enitir' jir.trv'1i iv,.
pt.riold:
T1 titIl ...........
Averngi .......

After wriu'od

Firt !.iulip eriiid:
TI' il ti ...........
A vi'-rngi.........
Si''-owil -tiblipri(d:
T'l'ilil ...........
AvuvriLg! .......
iitlire t' fi'r lp ri(id-
"I'i i lt ..........
Av V'triijl' .......


7.







drai ,..
4. ()2


-1. 2.)2
S50


*2.
5-


z







9. 993
1. 99.

10. 617
2. 122


-7 I


3 I
-. I *
.'--










Graiis. raniss.
1.319 I 86.74
.*263 1.737
I
.s17 9.800
162 1.960U


z -'
ao














17


tr



c









Grant
7.80
.i


.19 7611
.19,s' 1. 762-


?.2 51 20. 610 2. 136 1. 474 1. ,;-)li 16.1S
.s2>) 2.060 .213 1. 847 I 146 1.66il1




4.41) 11.0241 1.224 9. SM) 1.069 S. 731
Sss.3 2.2. .2.1,5 1. 960 .214 1.716


4. 1.73
.931

4.376
. 75

4.720
.9411

4. 129
. st6

I. 1621




27. 217




1. 7.111
. !i I;


1.771


11.621
2.325

IU. 927
2.185

11. 7o8
2. 357

11. 1059
2.212


1. 3S2
.277

. 953
.191

1.444
. 2s.9

.5 )20
.104


11. 539 1. 0;37
2.30S .2117



67. 9:6 l;. 5)60
2. 261; .219




11. 13.I 1.2S6
.2. 27| .'257


1 913
2. .I2


. 3:1 23. :3 19
. ,l:l,; 2.33",


10.239
2.04S


992
S19,


9.971 1.040
1.995. .208

10.342 1.091
2.o( s; .218

10.539 1. 6;2
2. 10 S .232


tl. )02
2. 100



l1 39'; i
2. 1-17




21. 'll)3
2.1130


1. 3I6 10. 279
. :326 2. U.'i


2. 921> 20). 129
.292 2. 143


1. 2-:3
l. 2.')7t
2537



6. 637
.221





. 22o

1.0.U1
.216


9.217
1.850

8.934
1.787

9. 251
1. ,0

1-. 377
1. .877

'.1. -2l'.1
1.S41



54. 759
1. 25




'.. U50
1 ,St)

9. .1is
1. .SIO


2. I1 18. 2 IS8
.21S 1. S 25


Oj

o '-


Results expressed in per
cent of total sulphur
in terms of SOj.


I-
I s-,L





i .ci


iP P. ct.
1:9.0 13.2


1:8.9 7.7


0
CIO






P. ci.
86. 8


9'2.3


1:9.0 i 10. 4 1 eG.fG
...... ..... .>.....




1:8.2 11.1 S,.9


1:9.3 11.9 88.1


1:8.6


8.7 91.3


1:s.5 12.3


1: 1 4.7


1:7.'2 9.0




I :s. 3 9i. 7








1:S. 2 13. 7

1:S. 5 12. 7
. ..... ......


87.7


- C.-
5r cr rfl

I- p^ -
CSS3







P. cf. P1. ct.
8.7 78.1


9.3 S3.0



9.0 .:0.6


9.3


95.. 10. 5


'91.0 11. 1




90.3 I.s


79.2


79.6


81.S


7s. 5


79. 9




SO.6


i
SS. 8 9. 6 79. 1


96.3 9.1 77.2



87.5 9.3:1 7S.2


i.
7
2








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


563


TABLE X.--Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed ,ulphates to ethereal sulphates and
neutral sulphur-Series I '-C('ontinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 2.


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Second subperiod:
Total ...........
Average ........

Entire fore period:
Total ...........
Average.......

Preservative period.


1_


[...
~r.

H


i
- f
zI-
7-

7. -


"."


Graim Grams. Grams. grams.
5.44S 13.604 1.5M 12. 01.;
1.090 2.721 .31x 2.403

4.643 11.594 1.140 10.454
.929 2.320 .229 2.091


10.0 91
1. 1J9


First subperiod:
Total ........... 4.621
Average ........ 924
Second subperiod:
Total.... ...-----------.. 4.517
Average........ .903
Third subperiod:
Total ........... 5.108
Average ........ 1.022
Fourth subperiod:
Total ........... 4.516
Average....... 903
Fifth subperiod:
Total ........... 5.212
Average ........ 1.042
Sixth subperiod:
Total ........... 5.574
Average........ 1.115

Entire preservative
period:
Total ...........i 29.54M
Average ........ .985

After pe.riod.


First subperiod:
Total ...........
Average ........
Second subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........


5.123
1.025

5.268
1. 0.4


Entire aftLer peri(ol: !
Total ............ 10.391
Average ........ 1.039


7.








r.247
&._







G ra/ii..i.
1. 235
.-247


t. "1.

I -





L -3-




(Graf ils.
10.7x1 1:8.7
2. IM ------


1.154 9.300
.231 1. 860


1:8.1


Rt-ult.;- .xprvs-ciI in
per vent of total sul-
phur in term of S ,.


T


f, *17.
Z 7.
-/. -7.


P. ftI. P. etC. P. ct. P. Cl.
11.7 .3 9.1 79.2

9.8 90..2 10.0 ... 0.2
9.8 'd0.2_ 10. 0 1 s. 2


2. 198 2.728 22. 470 2.389 20.081 1 S.4 10. sY. 2 9.5 79.7
2.520 .273 2.247 .239 2.008 ........................ .....


11.539
2.307

11.279
2.255

12.755
2.552

11.276
2.255

13.014
2. 602

13.918
2.784


73.781
2. 460



12.792
2. 559


1. 568
.313

1.098
.219

1.920
.38-5

.336
.067

1.418
.283

2.826
.566;


9.971
1 OCll


1.143
Of)Q


10.181 1.018
2.036 .204

10.835 1.120
2.167 .22-1

10.940 1.061
2.188 .212

11.596 1.180
2.319 .236

11.092 1.130
2.218 .226


S. S2S
1. 765

9. 163
1.832

9.715
1.943

9.879
1.976


1:7.7


1:9.0


1:8.7


13. ;


19.3 3.0 97.0


10.416 1:..8 10.9 "9.1
2.083 ............. ....


9. 9t62
1.992


S1:.8 20.2


79.8


SG.4 9.9 : 76.5


81.2


76.2


9.4 s7.6
.:..1..5....

9.1 80.0


8.1 71.6


--- 1. -

9. 1t6 114.615 6.652 57. 96f3 1 :.. 7 12. 4 ,7., ; J. 0 78.6
.306 2.154 .222 1.932 ....... ...... ...... ...... ......



1.622 11.170 1. 10.1 10.01l l:. 1 12.7 87.3 I ,.7 7%.7
.325 2. 2.A 222 2.012 ...............................


13.154 1.794 11.3W0 1.155 10.205 1.s. .6 N.4 8 77.6
2. 632 .360 2.272 .231 2.011 ...... ...... .............


25.9-16 3.416 22. 530 2. 261 20. 266 1 :9. l) 13.2 16. .. 7 7.,,
2.594 .341 2.2 3 .226 2. 027 ....... ...... ...... ............
2.5 .221: 2


9.7 90.3


15.1 ,,4.9









564 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE X.- Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and
neutral sulphiur-'Series VI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

%T o. 3.


U

Perioido. |


t-




For( pvrioid.

First -ubperiod: (Gr'rmaw,'.
Total ........... 1
Average ........
Second subperiod:
Totai ........... 4. 126
Average .......... 8'25


Entire fore period:
Total..........
Average .......


Preservtyive period.

First s.ubperi'd:
'T tiil ...........
Average........
S c'nd sIIbplJj)eriod:
Total ...........
A verge' ........
Third su iperild:
Tfotit l ...........
Avteri ge........
Fourth sI iblperiod:
ToLta ...........
Averag(e........i
Fifthi .-Ub'perio'l:
Toril ...........
AvTerige........ I


1. 126
. S.25




3.664
.733

3. (;li.
.733

3.58.s
.71h

3.710
.7 Is

3. 699
. 710


Fir-l, second thirl,
fiirtli. i111 lifth
.itilperitll: a
'I riI ........... Is 3-*56
Av-t.rgt ........ .731

A.ftI r w riodl.


Fir-[t -ibiuriod:
Toltl ...........
AvrniLgt........
Second suiiferimimi:
T ll411 ...........


A verge ........
Entire, nfl'er ]Ietriod:
'1" l It I .. .. .. ....
i el'pl~l" . ......


:31. 1,19.
. 724


1. 01:
. M,03


S

5-





0




tiUiit


-7




I-

' i

hi1F';


-7






Grams.


+.J
I-,


I'-

L.






(U tit llS.


-T
7.

--





I-
'-4'

/. IlLS


' 0

s-c
-.. ...


u5g
-'3S

C) ^^3
C
oS-sI
o,-
i'f &a


Results expressed in per
cent of total sulphur
in terms of SO3.


3i)
a.,

'-5-
CO


CD
CO
4.4
0
I"


ct. \P. cl.


Co
a,


4-0





P.ct.


or's
0 B
i3 ;


0pm
wo





-P. Ct.


P. ci.


Broken by illness.


10.303 1.212 9.091 0.670
2.0601 .242 1.S1s .134


10.303 1.212 9.091 0.670
2. 061) .212 1.18 .134


8.421 1:12.6 11.8 88.2 6.5 81.7
1.6,4 ....................... ......
i. - - - - - - -. --... .


8.421 1:12.6; 11.8 88.2 6.5 81.7
1.684............... ;,4.............


9.149 1.1S4 7.9i65 .520 7.44V5 1:14.3 12.9 87.1 5.7 81.4
1.:S30 237 1.593 .104 1.4S9 ....... ............ ............

9.151 ..S91 8.2611 0 .591 7.669 1:13.0 9.7 90.3 6.5 I S3.8
1.830 .178 1.652. .u11 1.534 ...... .

.959 1.1 6 7.773 .676 7. 097 1:10.5 13. 2 86.8 7.5 79.2
1.793 .237 1.55:5 .135 1.419 ...... ....... .... ...... .....

9.339 1.198 S.141 .656 7.485 1:11.4 12.8 87.2 7.0 80.1
1.86 .210 1.62.s .131 1.497 ...............................

9.236 1.459 7.777 .723 7.0 54 1: 9.8 15.8 .1-4.2 7.8 i 76.4
1. -M h .293 1.555 .115 1.411 ........ ....... ..... .....




45.. 834 5.918 39. 916 3. 166 36. 7V) 1:11.6 12.9 97.1 6.9 80.2
1. X33 .2317 1. 597 .127 1.470 .............. I ...... .. .....




9.0137 1..")7 7. IS.0 .532 (; 9.18 1:13.1 17.2 82.8 5.9 76.9
1 7 1 ..9 It 39o i ......
1.07 .311 1. .106 1.390............. ............ ......

10. 11210 1. 632 8.3.SS .679 7.709 1:11.4 16.3 83.7 6. 76.9
2. M ? A .327 1. 67.1' 13; 1.. ...12...... ... ..... ...


7. 632: 19. 057 ;( 1',U 1i. 86s 1.2'11 14.657 '1:12.1 2 i. 7 83.3 6.4-1 76. 9

7t.; 1. .11H 319 I. 5.',7 .121 1. I .. .. ...... ...... ...... ......


aNt>. 3 1liill mnily live iprserviLtIvt ihli'erihuds.


I








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


565


TABLE X.- Urine determninations-Ratio ot pretormed sulphiales to ethereal sulphates lnd
neutral sulphur-Series I'I-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4.


I.
Period.


C.
S -'




Fare period.

First subperiod: Grants.
Total ........... 4.905
Average ........ .981
Second subperiod:
Total ........... 4.574
Average........ .915


Entire fore period:
Total ........... 9.479
Average........ 94S
I __ __


rfl
C;




S.
t-








Grams.
12.248
2.450

11.421
2. D2S5


'0
,.U



.7.


z





Grants.
1.529
306

697
140


23.669 2.226
2. 367 .223


'/.
7.


I -.



Ci
I.


wO
U,
0)



"p.
9.4

0
1-1


.-w




L -.7
-d" .-
.4. S Z
o' tz *
zMa


Results Lxpre,-sd in per
cent (if total sulphur
in terms of SO.


/.c


CO
z34


C
(#2

0
4


A
(#2
U)

C) -


7-


I I
Grants. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. r. P. P. rt.
10.719 0.694 10.025 1:14.4 12.5 s%7.5 5.6 1S1.9
2.144 .139 2.005 ...... .........

10.724 .803 9.921 1:12. 6.1 93.9 7.0 W.9
2.145 1 l 1 1. 9 4 ....... ...... ...... ...... ......


21.443 1.497 19.946 1:13.3 9.4 90.6 6.3 84.3
2.144 .150 I 1.994 ............. ...... ...... ......


Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total ........... 4.444 11.097 ..29
Average........I .89 2.220 .166
Second subperiod:
Total........... 4.724 11.796 1.121
Average........ .945 2.360 .225
Third subperiod:
Total........... 4.548 11.356 1.089
Average--...---....I .910 2.272 .219
Fourth subperiod:
Total ........... 4. 559 11.384 1.160
Average........ .912 2.277 .232
Fifth subperiod:
Total ........... 4.299 10.735 1.009
Average........ .860 2.147 202
Sixth subperiod:
Total ........... 4.7C 11.901 1.510
Average........ .953 2.380 .302

Entire preservative
period:
rlrl. I . rk j Jf\ y [ |. i l I l iO


I Ma I ........... 2.3( 1 v 06. -'01
Average........ .911 2.276

After period.

First subperiod: '
Tutal ...........I 4.7:47 11.82,8
A average ........ .947 2. 365
Second suibpcrihil:
Total ........... 4.-448 12.105
Average........ ; .970 2.421


U. I In
. 224



I i11


10.268
2.054 :

10.675
2.135

10.267
2. 053

10.221
2.045

9.726
!. 945

1fl -IQ1


.905
.181

.783
.157

.789
.158
75.
.152

.717
.143


9.363
i.873

9.892
1.978

9. 47S
1.895

9.466
1.893

9.009
1.802


X'. Q 91


1:10.3 7.5


1:12.6 9.5


1:12.0


1:12.5


9.6


10.2


1:12.6 9.4


111 iI I .7 '


92.5 i S.2 -1.1


90.5 6.6
- - - -


83.9


90.4 6.9 83.5
9. 8 .... 8..2..

"%9.8 6.7 83.2


90.6 6.7 83.9

. ... .. .. ......


2.078 .173 1. 905 ....... ....... .... ...... ......



61.551 4.817 56.734 1:11.8 9. N 11-1.2 7.1 .3.1
2.052 .1111 1. x I ....... ...... ...... ...... ......



1ii IJ1 L-l*l A= LIO .11 *JI i= a qI "=.) 1t


J. LuV IV. Ii .' 131.I -. 1 i 7.1-.@ IV. -
.242 2.124 .160 1. ,li .............

1.217 10.M .)S50 1t0.03 1:1l.X 10.1
.243 2.17. .170 2. wll% ....... ......


,1.1.9 7.01


,'0. 9


82.9


Entire after period: I
Total ...........9. 5m5
Average-......... .958S


I- ________________________________ _________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________


23.934 2.42-4 21..'0 1.650
2.393 .243 2.151 .165


19. 5s56; 1:12.0 1L. 1 11.1 6 3.1
1.9 9 ...... ...... ...... ...... ......


I








566 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE X.-- 'riine te rnm inaotions-Ratio of preforine! sulphates to ethereal stdphales and
neuitrail sulplhur--.Serie 1--Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 5.


Peri.-Ld.


F,,ro ptri',f.


Fitr-I n.Ip-rncwl:
T ,it l ...........
.St-.', ,it, I -iLib[,efl.NI
T.'al ...........
Av.ra'rt- . .....

Entire i'rti- I-.n'.-:
T ti l ...........
A 'vraZv ......

Pr, .,' rv UtI, e p.ri',.

Fir-t -uibperi,.dl:
T ,tal ...........
A v,.: rtgt" .......
-:coi'n'l -ulit.ri ,,I1:
T tail ...........
Avenra. ........
Thinrd iit i,..rii.l:
T,',til ...........
A % t-ra,',t- ........
F,.mirth -i ,iaol:
T.tl ...........
Avrt-........
FHOi h -ll j rt' i, .-I.
T,jatl ...........
Av trau .. ........
Sixth -,''pturiu"1
T' ,ta I ...........
A v r,"'i .........

-' rit in. lr -.ri' t'!
T -tu l ...........
A v. i' lt .- .. .... ..

1 1'. r 1, e rl ,,

Fir-t -11bpr-n, ,1:
', ,t . ... .. . ..
A X'+';Li' .'' .. .. ...
,', iii I **ii1j,1, ri, m .
T L A v .-r z, .. .......


2:







I, i~'f I/i

913


-7_
z





72






2ir' nis.
11.3 3,
"2. 2'2


I.


"2






1. 4',;
* 2^:3


* WA

2:



7

L.

I -
I -


1. 9-.C
l r y<~


U'. 7-21
.144


X..
._ *J


v;ra if.
. 212
1. 14"


3.711 i*>7
. 712 1." 3 I:',


". 27t 21.). 1-
"2' 2 .l.*,6





% 6%. 2.16.-

4.4'.4.:, 11. 224
9 2'..21 24"5

4. 5.; 11. 4011
L.4 13: '2. 2'4"-

4. r..i 11 J ,.
.2r.'; 2. :21;


2. 1441 1",. .-12l 1. 4U
.214 1. S.52 .114




1. lu'. 9.73;; .7ciu
. 2' 1. .447 1.52

l.A'7 9..AI .71"
. &36 1 .w .142



1 7t .5 '.'. -41 7yr-
I. :'-1 1. 7 ;.. 1.'y


4. 17, 11. PWi'1 1. 4 1. 1'. "I.-
. 9. 2. .'::ii .Z", 2. t4l3


4. _34 11. .;'1
S'.Ni.' 2. _2 P'


~~KI 1.;


. N1-


.1 ~.;


- -t
'-a
t.2' :.

f

I?


SResults exprLssed in per
cent of total sulphur
in terms of SO3.


-


Z-L
S::


- -a
1.. -M


P. e. P. 't. P. ct.
1:12.S 12. 9 7.1 6.3 ,


-J"
x
5-


P. ct.
M3).S


1:10.9 7.3 '92.7 9.S .S4.9


17.0.-1 1:11.9 1U.4 ,9.6 7.0
1. 7'-, ................ ........


1.973 1:.11... 1U.. 2 s9.
I.7 ....... ...... ......


S2. 6


7.0 ,2.%.


',33 1:12.4 15.0 %6.0 6.3 7%.7
1. 7 7 ....... ...... ...... ...... ......
;.9",1 1:11.i 14.4 S'N.r; 6. b 7,. S

1. 79 .. ....... ...... ...... -- ---- ------


9. 14. 1:11.4 14.9 s. I
1. ", ....... ...... ......

9. 44.3 1-12.2 12.4 %,7.6
1 . .... .. ...... .. ....


1. I . 4:1j 7'. .7
'-,,. I ,t" 1 -I I "1%"


.. I'.; '. 'i
.; i.i 1. 9 ,1


4 "si; 11. I _7 ; 1 '. I3 :-7:;
'-- ; '* -',".') .i" 1 I "7 "


1. 1.73
. I V.


7. '.J


. ,.77 1 1. .7;
' :'- ..2 t


6..9


7. 2


t6. t" 81.0


1. I 1*F . . . . . . . . _. - - - - --. *



.<2 1 11.51 11.1 N6.0 U 6. 9 W7. 42
1. *............. .. .... ...... ...... ......




".r,22 1 11.5 t16.9 ,,l. 1 t6.7 76. 5
1. 72-4 ........ ........... ............

9. 477 1:12.1 1".J.3 .N7.7 i.5 1..2
1. ', ....... ...... ..... ...... ......


EKtiirt tr iI .- p nirti ,
I ,[; l ........ . 1 ;
A vt'rugt:'" ........ '.+I'.+


2 '.., -


2.; 'Z 1' l l i
;.jl 1. "f;1


1. 'L '. I % .IC 1:11. 14. ; %l. I G..6 .7..
. 1 '2 1. l ....... ............ ..... ......
1 I_ _


1..'.. .7144 1. '1;y
1. 71", .144 l. .T7-


l:iti.l t',. 7 ?3. 3 7. 5 7S.8


1. lJ7 1I 211 7ril
. ,,%7 '2 I ', I .;








SALICYLIC ACID AND SA.LICYLATES.


567


TABLE X.-Urine determinution-s-Ratio of prejbrmed salphates to ethereal sulphates and
neutral sulphur-Series Tl-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

N" o. 6.


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Second subperiod:
Total...........
Average........

Entire fore period:
Tota I ...........
Average .......

Preser'ative period.

First subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Second subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Third subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Fourth subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Fifth subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Sixth s'libperiod:
Total ...........
Average........

Entire preservative
period:
Total ...........
Average.......

After porii, .


I -

-I.
1
I -
i-i 1-


Grams.
4.038
I. ,.8


Gram s.
10. 0OS
2.01,s


3.796 9.479
.759 1.89.5


7. 83-4
.7,3


19.561
1.955


4.090 10.213
.818 2.043

4.521 11.299
.904 2.257

4.748 11.S56
.950 2.371

5.065 12. (-47 7
1.013 2.529

4.800 11.998';
.960 2.397


4.390 10.962
.878 2.192



27. 614 6.9753
.920 2.29s


First subperiTI: i
Total ...........I 4.346 I
Average ....... .'69
Second subperiodi: I
Total ........... 4.611
Average- ........ .922

Entire after period:
Tota I ........... s.957
Average -....... 8.96


A

.=




r-






Gramhs.
1. 003
.* 20.2


"T. 7.




-7-









Grams. Granms. Gra ns.
.O,) 0. 622 s. 4. "'S
1. S16 .124 1. t9"2


Re-u Its ex pressed in pet r
cent of total sulphur
in ternu> of SO.j.


i0\
- -" ..1L7
- ,- -,_

-Z--


P. cf.
1:13.6 9.9


.924 M.m5h .5.-'. 7.970 1:13.6;
.1s4 1.711 .117 1.594 .....


1.926 17. 135
.191 1 1.764
1=


.592
.119

1.3323
. 264

1. 196
.239

1.123
.225

1.0.s,7
.217

1.20F'
.241



6. 526
.218


9.621
1. V24

9.966
1.993

10.660
2.132

11.524
2.305

10.S99
2.180

9.757
1.951



62.427
1 2. Obl


: 1.207


I C:.-


-7.
4 1


I'. C1. P. ct. p. ,'-.
90.1 6. "2 ,s3.9


9.7 90.3 6.'2 -I. 1


16.42 1:13.6 9.s .2 .2 .
16.42.14 1":13.6 9., 4.o). "2 1. "21 .'%A. 0


.121 1. 643 ..- ..... ...... ...... ...... .....




.720 S.910 1:12.4 5.'% 94.2 7. 0 .'7.2
.144 1.7 --------.------ ... . .....-......---

.709 9.257 1:13.1 11.7 s4.3 6.3 s2.0
.142 1 1 ....... .....-. .-....- . -..... -......

.698 9.96-2 1:14.3 10.0 )90.0 5.9 %4.O
.140 1.992 ....... ...... ...... .. ... ...

.688 10. %-36 1:1.'. 8 S. 9' 91.1 5.4 t.7
.138 2.167 ........................ ......

.700 10.199 1:14.6 9.1 90. 5.8 s:.I
.140 2.040 |....... ------ -------------


.735 9.022
.147 1.04


4.250 .SS.177
.142 1.939


1:12.3 11.0 S9.0 6..7 ,,2.3
.. .... ...... ...... .. ... .... .


1:13.7 . 4 0.. 6. "2 :4. 4.
. .. ... .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .


10.S52 1.408 9.444 .695 s..749 1:12.6 13,.i
2.170 .2S 1 1...s9 139 1.750) .............

11.514 1..-46 9.96kS .71S v.25-0 1:12.9 %13. 4
2.302 .308 1.994 .144 1. ,'0.) .............


22.366 2.954I 19.412 1.413 17.9'99 1:12.7 13.2
2.237 .296 1.941 .141 1. SOU .............


,7.0 16.4 .4 1.6


,,. 6 t6. 2 .s,0. 3



,6. 6.3 Nm. 5


)







568 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE X.-Urine (detern mation.q-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and
neutral sulphur-Series TVI-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

:No. 7.


I'Priod.


kurt ji ritd.

Fir'.t 'ul)pcrionId:
Total ........ ..
Av t'ragt........
s('e(old sullpcriod:
T wial ...........
Average .......

Entire fire ptrior]:
Total ...........
Avuragvt.........


're sf r'atiir1 p, riod.

First subperiod:
Tr il ...........
Averagc........
S t)ndl tiil .l.t..riod :
T1)tad ...........
.A 't-ragc .......
Thi rnil -ul)pt-riod:
'litiil ..........
.A Vtiazt ........
F,. ,iiri ]i -uiibj.rio'1

A.vv' i i r. .......
Fifth s il,.i tri(id:
'To al ..........
A\ v.'rvg .......
Sixthli uiilirarilid:
'T'otal ...........
Averagtie........

';inti pri -4jI rrvit ive
periol:
li', it ..........
A vtvrag .......

.k/ r '" rnI l.

Fir-i -.iulptrio( :
'T. litl ..........
Avrngi.. .......
Sr i' ,i l -iil1iivrik d:
'I' at I ..........
.A %I raiig' .......

E liiro, nrirr livrhi:
Til)iitil ..........
verg' ........


b-,
5.5
3.





l .ra7,l.
3. 756
.751

4.280
S."i6
.566


Si .036
| .h04


3..-113
.703

4. 1.85
.817

3. :36S
. t71


3.5f;1 8.h99
.71; 1.7 ,0

3. .s70% 9. i663
.771 1.933

'i t;. 424 16. 1)11
1. 2.: 3.2U9



21.S2.1 61.9,6
.%27 2. 06i')



:3. i"') 9. 1 1
7:1o I. 2:3

3. p31 9.711;
.77S 1.9 13

7.:)I1 1 M. ,,3f I
7. '1 1. Kii3
.7.M 1.x.3c


1.360


7. 539


.272 1.50S,

1.179 S..1,1
.291; i 1. 637

;. 9-,7 9. 054
1.31.8 1. 11 I


13.7 72N
-1457


. 656
.131


.747
.149

S76f;
1533


4S. 258 4.400
1. I60S' .147


1.I 417 7. 6917 .1;00
.2- 1 1.:119 .120

1. :36 7 A.,i0 175I
.3l7 l. i;;li; .117


2. 13
.) 2i.i.'


1:>. S77 1. I1i
I. ISM Is


1
6.883 1:10.5 15.3
1.377 ..............
1
7.437 1:10.0 15.3
1.4,, ....... ......

x.2.2S 1:10.8 43.6
1.658. .............


13. S58
1. 4111




7.097
1.419

7.591r
1.519


II. 11;93
1. 170


1:10.0 22.1


Its expressed in per
it of total sulphur
terms of SO3.


TO

0

E


s-QJ
W.


' AO

r.. -1
cda


CE Resu
- .cer

S~~C &. S -
-d i a 0-5 1
1.... es


W -Z Io
I .." r 3, 0
IP I ?I
-. I ^ -A ''
S-1 7- Is |.






9.379 1. 42:; 7.956 0. 596 7.360 1:12.3 15. 2
1.875 .2.s- 1.591 .119 1.472 ....... ......
I





10.i687 1.399 9.288 OO 8. 488 .1:10.6 i 13.1
2. 137 .279 1..h58 .160 1.698 ....... ......


2U. 0(6; 2.122Q 17.I241 1.39t; 15.848 :1:11.4 14.1
2. tS 2-4 1 724 .140 1. 5S4 .......'......




8.772 1.347 7.425 .7.sO 6.645 1: S.5 15.4
1.7-55 .270 1.4.K5 .156 1.329 ....... ......
10.200 1. -1S5 8.71- 742 7.973 1:10.7 14.6
.0 0 .297 1.74r .1 4m 1. :9 ... ...r. ..
.0410 1.069 7.341 .709 6.332 1:9.4 12.7
1. 6.8 : .215 1. 461 142 1. 32i ....... ....
I . .


85. 9





84.6


85.4


87.3


84.7


s4.7


56.4




77.9


1:11.8 15.5 84.5


1:13.0 15. 84.2



1:12.4 15.7 84.3


6.9 79.0





8.9 75.8


7.3 78.2
.. .. ......

8.4 7S.9


7.4 77.3


7.7 77.0


1.S 51.7




7.1 70.8




6.6 77.9

.... .... 2 ..
6.0 U 7,4.'2


71.0


SL'Uiniaiuntoiiilbly high.


P. ct. P. cf. P. cl.
84.8 6.4 78.5


86.9 7.5 1 79.4








SALICYLIC ACID AND SALICYLATES.


569


TABLE X.-Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed .ulphates to ethereal saliphates mind
neutral sulph ur-Series VII-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

TN o. 8.


Period.


Fore period.

First subperiod:
Total .........
Average.......
Second subperiod:
Total ..........
Average.......

Entire fore period:
Total ..........
Average.......

Preservalire period.

First subperiod:
Total .........
Average.......
Second subperiod:
Total .........
Average.......
Third subperiod:
Total ..........
Average........
Fourth subperiod:
Total ...........
Average........
Fifth subperiod:
Total ..........
Average.......
Sixth subperiod:
Total .........
Average.......

Entire preservative
period:
Total ..........
Average.......

After period.

First subperiod:
Total ..........
Average.......
Second subperiod:
Total ..........
Average.......

Entire after period:
Total ...........
Average ........


0.
U,






Grainms.
3.689
.738

3.988
.798


7.677
.768


7.













Grams.. Gram~s. G ra s. Gramts.
9.211 1.559 7. 651 0.93
1. 843 .312 1. 531 .168
9.958 1.939 9.019 .940
1.993 .3S9 1. 604 .188
z i

^ j{2














19.169 3.497 15. 6i72 1.S78
1.918 .351 1..5t, .188


rg.
-t
-a


L -
rn -

- p.-
I 1


Resil.,, expresc4d in per
cent of total sulphur
in terms of SO;.


'-a
S.. -

z


- a


1-. .J


-o7
5' 7-
i=3


Grams. P. t. P. l. P. t. P. crt.
6.715 1:1.2 16.9 83.1 10.2 72.9
1.343...........
1. 343 .. ... ... .... .... ............

7.079 1:7.5 19.5 80.5 9. 1 71.0
1.416 ..............................
- ___________________ I*____ ____ ____ ____

13.794 1:7.3 I18.2 81.8 9.8 72.0
1.379 ....... ...... ...... ...... ......


3.441 8.592 .981 7.611 .907 6.704 1:7.4
.688 1.718 .196 1.522 .181 1.341 .......

3.610 9.014 1.129 7.885 .922 6.963 1:7.6
.722 1.803 .226 1.577 .184 1.393 ......

3.675 9.176 1.924 7.252 .892 | 6.360 1:7.1
.735 1.835 .385 1.450 .17 1.272 .......

3.731 9.318 1.574 7.741 .915 6.829 1:7.5
.746 1.864 .315 1.549 .183 1.366.......

3.827 9.556 1. 665 7. 91 .940 6.951 1:7.4
.765 1.910 .332 1.578 .18's 1.390 .......

3.949 9.861 1.388 8.473 .961 7.512 1:7.8
.790 1.973 .278 1 1.695 .192 1.503 .......



22.233 55.518 8.662 46.856 5.537 41.319 1:7.5
.711 1.850 .289 1.562 .185 1.377 .......



4.209 10.510 1.976 s. .534 .933 7. ;01 1:8.1
.842 2.102 .395' 1.707 .18S7 1.520 .......


I
4.166 10 40-2 1.611 ,. 788 1 .826
.833 2.080 .322 1.75 I 165


8.375 20.912 3.590 17.322 1.759
.838 2.092 .360 1.732 .176


7.962 1:9.6
1.593 .......


15.563 1:8.8
1.556 .......


11.5 ,S.5 10.6 78.0


12.6 87.4 10.2 77.2
....... ...... ...... ......

21.0 79.0 9.7 69.3


16.9 83.1 9.8 73.3


17.4 82.6 9.8, 72.7
.. .i..... ............

14.1 1 8.5.9 9.7 76.2
1. .. .. . . . . .



15. 6 -S4. 4 10. 0 74.4




18.7 81.2 8.9 72.3


15.5 84.5 7.9 76.5
i... .. . ... .. ... .. ,.. .. .


17.2 82.8 S 8.4 1 74.4
I ...... ......


7656-No. 84, p)t 2-06-- 7








570 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TA. ii-: X.- 'ri,' d'h'rm n;t.)ls-.-Rb,Uio 4f fprielunn'{l s/ulp/Iihcs to ethereal sulphates and
Puh'ia it/lph,'ir--. ,',',fl',s Il-Continued.

[Averages aire per day.]

No. 9.


l'vri),i .


I..


j.


J"of i rIio'i.


Kr'i r-i uhpcrinhl:
To'lo l ..........
A\ r;ig .........
.t'2',util -niibpvricId:
"utu 1 ..........
A'vriag ........

Entire f'i'rt peri .-1:
Total..........
Avi.-ri g ........
t',, s, ,** 'l ,iti p,, r;,,,l.

11ir-It -|iilipjritul
'I' tiLl ..........
Av'-rnim .........
St.till : illlpunrild:
T.'1 .a I ...........
Av niage.......
T'in ir, I injin'rii~l : |
'r,,'i l ..........
A vraig I .......
F-mIrtin subperiod ..
TA,,ultl ..........

Fifth "ii ..ri' :
TotaI ...........
Avrrir .........
.-i x ll -l )lj 'un i ,,l'
'J'UiIl ...........
A %'Tigi .........

Ll~niri |Irc-i rviilive


A % -Hi-ni .........

Aft, ', period.

ir-l -,il [,11ri,,,1d :
"l', lJi I ...........
.\ \ ,rri ,'" .......
1-i mir i' mil u 'hri ,d
j'',t -' ...........
A\ rvng ........

Kulir1 r ill Ivr 11-111111
A M Ti"I I .........
A'r n ........


Irl'l llllf.
4. 671
'9.14


I i'l' I II1,'**.
G1 1 1. ;
2. 333


I. 7)J7 l1.31
. "l' p 2.271


*t.

"i.



I-
z






II. nl:^ i
I 1. .1,


G'ramsK.
10. 721
2. 14]


7





.-
i i-


I. 6201
1. 921


1~
4
- I..
C

S


I v'r(thi. (-a'l f !ms


.'1 1 (. ll. .:;6 001 9. 73.' 1:9..
. I; 2. 1.17 .210 1. 907 .......


9.'21. 2:3.017 1.757 21l.2-'7 1. 11 9. 535 1: 9.'"
i 2' ;'2. 3 2 17i6 2. 121; 2-0 1. 907 .......


1. '91S 12. "1.-,
. '.,9 1 2. 171


N.S] 11.474 1I. 7uI I10. 420 1: 1.1. .I
.176 2.295 2.11 2. 21,'. .......


4-.l 71n 11.411 1.27-, 1 156 .7US 9.3718S 1:11. 7
.91 "*. 2 '2 27'] '. 031 llw 1.872 .......

1. 7 I 11. 93; 1. 194 10.742 .,41 9.902 1:11. S
.9." 2 3.',7 .23. 2.1 IV 1ti 1.9. 0 .......


4. .P67 11. 114 1.2(00 10. 214
1. 12 1.-1 .2 1 2. 011 I


,1. 117-2 111. 11 ; S,21 9.3-17
.,'I1 :2. 11:3 .1 i6 l S1. '


1173
-1 K(;l
*i7:4


27. sillI
I.127


12 11-71
2. 4 9



*,l. .IN
1. MIl


1.2"51 0ll. ,'.1 I
. 2 2:01 2. 179i


I,. I;(20
. "220


1. 2'. 17
2. 1191


NI :; I 2.1711 I l I.9:;S
M..;'.1 '2. 1 7ll I1."2 1. 9l.,


116


11. 131
2. 2.m.


17!
.11111


11l. 11101 SIl
*I. 1911 I(N,


S 1 .9 :'. I
,,-,, 22 2 'S" I.S..h LIl I
. 2...1.x 2.0


. .s 6 9. : 1 :1 i 1: 5
. 177 1. s ;. .......


! 1 1.5


Results expressed in per
(tint of total sulphur
in sterns of SO(..


I *~
t

L. -

z


7 .

L '
-'
-'I:.


-.-

ill
' -: a

-q'o


P.I 1'. ,rf. 1'. I P'. c.
8.1 91.9 ............


7.2 92.8 S. S 84.0
. .. ... ...... .... . .. ....


7.6 92.4 8.8 83.6
. ..... ... .. ...... .... ..



7.1 2.'9 [ ..53 84.4


11.0 89.0 7.0 2.0


iWo 10.0 7.10 83.0


10. .59 7.. 8 s1.7
. . . . . . . . . .


.Sl "129j 1:10..4 S 1 91.9
. I i I 1. 7U ; ....... ...... ......


.919 '.. 9 1.5
19l I. L.it


1.10.5 10.3 S9.7


:v7. ,172 1:Il. s
1. 916> .......


X. 0 s3.9


7.s S1.9


9.5 90.u 5 7.7 82.8


,$1.3


7.3 S1.2


. .... I .. ...
7.3 I84.3

...... ..=....


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