Citation
Approximate air-drying and kiln-drying periods for 1-inch lumber

Material Information

Title:
Approximate air-drying and kiln-drying periods for 1-inch lumber
Series Title:
Technical note ;
Creator:
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Rev. Aug. 1960.
Physical Description:
[6] p. : ; 21 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Lumber -- Drying ( lcsh )
Genre:
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
Caption title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029723929 ( ALEPH )
61326225 ( OCLC )
Classification:
TA419 .U45 no.233 rev.1960 ( lcc )

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T E HNICAL NOTE NUMBER 233
UNID STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
MADISN 5 WISCONSIN A- August 1960




APPROXIMATE AIR-DRT IN AND- KILN-DRING
PERIODS FOR 1-IN
--'--EPOS ITORY


The air-drying periods for 1-inch lumber given in table 1 are based on
climatic conditions for the region in which the particular species is cut.
e periods apply particularly to hand-stacked piles varying in width
from 6 to 16 feet. Lumber in unit packages, commonly about 4 feet
wide, piled by machine would presumably dry in shorter periods. The
minimum periods given apply to lumber piled during the good drying
weather, generally during spring and summer. Lumber piled too late
in the period of good drying weather to reach 20 percent moisture con-
tent, or lumber that is piled during the fall or winter, will not reach a
moisture content of 20 percent until the following spring. This accounts
for the maximum periods given in the table. Local yard and weather
conditions and yard layout should be considered as well as general sea-
ronl factors in estimating the periods required for air drying.

n the portion of the table devoted to kiln drying, the minimum periods
represent the fastest drying reported in forced-air-circulation kilns.
Sometimes quality is sacrificed in favor of fast drying. Where the pro-
duct requires uniformly dry, stress-free lumber, longer drying periods
may be necessary.

Although table 1 lists kiln-drying periods for lumber greenfrom the saw,
the hardwoods are generally air dried to some extent before kiln drying.
Softwoods that are kiln dried are loaded into the kiln greenfrom the saw.
Factors affecting the period required for kiln drying are type of kiln,
quality or standard of drying, width of stock, type of sawing (plain or
quartered), moisture content, and preponderance of heartwood or sap-
wood. The time required for kiln drying, as might be expected, also
varies with the product being manufactured, some products requiring
low moisture contents, uniformity of dryness and stress-freeness, and
other requiring a somewhat lower quality of drying.







The drying periods given in table 1 apply only to 1-inch lumber. The
increase in drying time for thicker stock is theoretically nearly pro-
portional to the square of the thickness but commercial experience
indicates it is somewhat less than this.

A list of Laboratory publications that give information on the seasoning
of lumber is available on request.











































Z M 80729 F







Table I.--Approximate drying periods for 1-inch lumber-



Species Days required to --
----------------------------------------------
: Air dry : Kiln dry 4/4 stock from --
S4/4 green:--------------------------------------
stock to : 20 percent : Green to
:20 percent: to 6 percent : 6 percent
--------------------W -- ---- - -- ------l M -----

HARDWOODS

Alder, red............ ..........: 3-5 : 6-10

Apple................ ..........: 4-7 10-15

Ash:
Black ..............: 60-200 : 5-7 : 10-14
White ...........: 60-200 : 4-7 : 11-15

Aspen (quaking and
bigtooth)..........: 50-150 : 3-5 : 6-10

Basswood..............: 40-150 : 3-5 6-10

Beech.................: 70-200 :5-8 : 12-15

Birch: : :
Paper............... ...... ... .... ........ 3-5
Yellow.............. 70-200 5-8 : 11-15

Buckeye, yellow ...............: 5-8 12-16

Butternut............. .........: 5-8 10-15

Cherry, black......... : 70-200 : 5-7 10-14

Chestnut .............. 60-150 :4-8 8-12

Chinquapin......................: 7-12 : 22-28

Cottonwood, black.....:.......... 4-8 : 8-12

Dogwood...... ..... ... .........: 5-8 12-16

Elm:
American........... 50-150 : 4-6 : 10-15
Rock .......... : .. .. ......: 5-8 13-17

(Sheet 1 of 4)







Table 1.--Approximate drying periods for 1-inch lumber1 (continued)



Species Days required to --
eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee--------- ------e 0-- -----
: Air dry : Kiln dry 4/4 stock from --
: 4/4 green: -------.--------------------
: stock to : 20 percent : Green to
:20 percent: to 6 percent : 6 percent
---- --- .-- .--- -- : -------- -- -.. ..-- ---- -- ------- -.. .C

HARDWOODS (con't)

Hackberry ............:..........: 4-6 :7-11

Hickory...............: 60-200 : 4-12 : 7-15

Holly................. :.... ......: 5-8 :12-16

Hophornbeam (ironwood): ..........: 5-8 : 12-16

Laurel, California : : :
(Oregon myrtle).....:..........: 5-7 : 10-15

Locust, black.........:..........: 5-8 : 12-16

Madrone ..... .......: ..........: 8-11 : 15-20

Magnolia..............: 40-150 : 4-6 : 10-15

Mahogany..............: 60-150 : 4-7 : 12-15

Maple: : :
Silver (soft).......:..........: 4-6 :7-13
Sugar (hard)........: 50-200 : 5-8 : 11-15

Oak:
California black....:..........: 6-10 25-35
Live................ : ..........: ................ 30-40
Lowland .............: 100-300 :... ...........
Red................. : 70-200 : 5-10 16-28
Tan ................. ...........: 7-12 24-30
White ...............: 80-250 : 6-12 : 20-30

Osage-orange.........:..........: 5-8 : 12-16

Persimmon.............: .......... 5-8 12-16

(Sheet 2 of 4)







Table 1.--Approximate drying periods for 1-inch lumber (continued)



Species : Days required to --
a --- a----------- ------
SAir dry : Kiln dry 4/4 stock from --
: 4/4 green: --------------- -------------
: stock to : 20 percent : Green to
:20 percent: to 6 percent : 6 percent


HARDWOODS (con't)

Sweetgum: : : :
eartwood ..........: 70-300 : 8-12 : 15-25
Sapwood.............: 60-200 : 5-7 : 10-15

Sycore ............:..........: 4-7 6-12

Tupelo:
Black...............: 70-200 : 4-6 : 6-10
Water...............: 70-200 : 5-7 : 6-12

Walnut, black.........: 70-200 5-8 : 10-16

illow, black.........:..........: 5-8 12-16

Yellow-poplar.........: 40-150 : 3-6 6-10

SOFTWOODS

Baldcypress...........: 100-300 : 4-8 : 10-20

Cedar: : : :
Alaska yellow ...... .:........... ......... .... .: 4-6
Eastern red.........:..........: 2-3 : 6-8
California incense..:..........:................: 3-6
. . . : 3-6
Northern white......: ........:... ...........: 8-10
Port Orford white... ..........:................: 4-8
Atlantic ..ite.... .:..........:..... ...........: 8-10
stern rd............... ............... 10-15

Douglas-fir: : :
Coast typ..........: 20-200 :................: 2-4
Intermediate type ...:.........................: 4-7
ocky Mountain type.:..........:................: 4-7



(Sheet 3 of 4)






Table 1.--Approximte drying periods for 1-inch lumber- (continued)



Species Days required to --
S---------6-M-------------- -- ---
: Air dry : Kiln dry 4/4 stock fro -
S4/4 green:----------------------------
: stock to : 20 percent : Gree to
:20 percent: to 6 percent : 6 percent

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
SOFTWOODS (con't)

Fir: :: 3 1262 09216 7476
Alpine.............. : .......... .... : ......... .. -
Balsam .............. : .. ............. 3-5
Grand (lowland : .. .......:........... .. .:
white) ............ : .......... : ................: 3-5
Noble............... : .......... : ................ : 3-5
Pacific silver... ...:......... .: ...............: 3-5
Red .. ........ ....... .......... : .... ..... : 3-5
White............... : ..........: ......... 3-5

Hemlock: : : :
Eastern.. .......... : .... ..... ....... ....... .: 3-5
Western .............: 60-200 :................: 3-5

Larch, western........: 60-120 :...............: 3-5

Pine: : : :
Eastern white.......: 60-200 : 2-3 : 4-6
Lodgepole ....... : ...... .: ................: 3-5
Ponderosa .......... : 15-150 :................: 3-6
Red ................. ..........:................ : 6-8
Southern yellow : :
Loblolly..........: 30-150 :................ 3-5
Longleaf... .......: 30-150 :................: 3-5
Shortleaf.........: 30-150 :................ 3-5
Sugar: : :
Light.... .........: 15-90 :.................: 3-4
Sinker............: 45-200 :............... 5-10
Western white(Idaho):................... : 3-5

Redwood: :
Light...............: 60-185 : 3-5 : 10-14
Sinker..............: 200-365 : 5-7 : 20-24

Spruce: :
Eastern...... ...... : 90-200 :.... ............ 4-6
Engelmann...........: 20-120 :...............: 3-5
Sitka :..... ........: 40-150 :... ........ ...: 4-7

Tamarack (eastern larch):.......... :..............: 3-5

(Sheet 4 of 4)




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