Citation
Experiments with sugar beets in 1897

Material Information

Title:
Experiments with sugar beets in 1897
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry ;
Creator:
Wiley, Harvey Washington, 1844-1930
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
165 p., [2] folded leaves of col. maps : ill. ; 24 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Sugar beet -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )

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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
Running title: Beet-sugar industry in the United States.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harvey W. Wiley.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029706031 ( ALEPH )
13940883 ( OCLC )
agr09001087 ( LCCN )
Classification:
S584 .A3 no.52 ( lcc )

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S LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY,
Washington, D. C.," January 25, 1899.
Sip: The bulletin herewith presented as 'No. 52 of the Division of
Chemistry comprises the portion of the report which was prepared by
the Chemist of the Department for the Special Report on the Beet Sugar
Industry of the United States, submitted by you to the President of
the United States and by him transmitted to Congress, and published
as Document No. 396 of the House of Representatives at the second
session of the Fifty-fifth Congress. It is deemed advisable to secure
the publication of this.part of the report as a bulletin of the Chemical
Division in order to preserve the continuity of the reports on the sugar
industry of the United States as bulletins of that division. In pre-
senting this revised edition, advantage has been taken of the opportu-
nity to correct some slight errors which crept into the first issue. No
changes have been made in the text, nor in the illustrations accompany-
ing it, from the document mentioned above.
H. W. WILEY,
Chief, Division of Chemistry.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary.
3




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CONTENTS.


Page.
References in Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture to matters
relating to the beet-sugar industry ......----------------------................ 12
List of bulletins issued by the Division of Chemistry relating in whole or in
part to sugar beets ---- ---.............---....... ---........-------...---- 15
Plan of investigations for 1897 .-----.. -..................................... 16
Climatology .----.......................------------........................................ 21
Other conditions............................................................ 23
Map of thermal belt...-..----..---...-----------...-------.......................-------------. 23
Changes in the new maps--..----.. -..... ----..-.------.........-......--.....24
Triple isothermal lines .----..........--.. --......---------.........-- ...... .. 24
Beet zone --..................................................... .....--- -. 25
Annual rainfall ..------..-----...------------............-........-------....---------------............ 25
Study of particular localities---------... ---.......----...............--.......-- 27
North Carolina and West Virginia .---------.........-- ..--..--.-- ..... 27
Eastern Shore of Maryland ..-- -......--.................................. 27
Delaware ...-..................................................... .--.... 28
New Jersey ............................................................. 28
Connecticut ...................................................... ... .. 29
Massachusetts .......................................................... 29
New Hampshire and Vermont ----------------------------------...................................----...... 29
New York----------------------------------............................................................... 30
Pennsylvania...............................................--......-... 31
Ohio-----........................-............ ............... ........... 31
Michigan ..-- ........................................................... 32
Indiana.......................................................-.......... 32
Illinois ---................................--------------------------------------................................. 32
W isconsin .............................................................. .32
Minnesota----------------------------33
innesotoa ................................................................ 33
Iowa ---------------...................................................-------------------------------------------....... 33
North and South Dakota ....--......-....-......................... ..... 34
Nebraska .....--........................................................ 35
The arid regions ............................................................ 35
ata from different States ................-................................... 37
Data obtained in the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture .......... 40
autions regarding the value of data........................................ 41
Study of the analytical data ... ....................................-..... 56
Arizona ............................................................ .. 56
Report by R. H. Forbes, chemist .................. ................. .. 56
Arkansas .................-......-- ................ ...................... 60
California .. ......................................................... 60
Colorado --------..... ................. ..........................-... 61
Report by William P. Headden, chemist......... .................... 63
5







6 CO NTEN .

Study of the analytical data -Continued. e.
Idaho.................................................................. 64
Illinois ..................................................... .. .... 68
Indiana. ......... ----....... ........................... ,........ 6X 9
Report by H. A. Huston and J.M. Barrett ......................... 70
Iowa ........ ............................................. 72
Kansas .............................. ................................. 74
Kentucky ............................................................. 76
Maryland ..... .......................................... ............... 77
Michigan ............................................................. 78
Minnesota .............................................................. 81
Report by Harry Snyder, chemist........-----.......................... 82
Missouri................................................................ 83
Montana................................................................ 85
Nebraska ...............................................................-- --- 6
Report by H. Nicholson ...........................................
Nevada.--.............................................................. 87
New Jersey ............................................................. 88
Experiments by James B. Vredenburgh ..............................
New Mexico .-........ .........................-...................... -90
Report by C. T. Jordan, special agent................................ 90
New York .............................................................. 93
Report by W. S.Jordan, director of experiment station at Geneva.... 9
Report by I. P. Roberts, director of experiment station at Ithaca .... 96
Elevations of region of New York suited to beet culture...---------.....
North Dakota........................................................... 99
North Carolina. ......... ...........- ...............-...........-....... 99
Ohio.................................................................... 100
Oklahoma .............................................................. --103
Report by G. E. Morrow, director ................................... 103
Oregon ................................................................. 103
Report by G. W.Shaw ............................................... 10
Pennsylvania........................................................... 108
Rhode Island ........................................................... 110
South Carolina.......................................................... 110
South Dakota ........................................................... 10
Texas .................................................................. 112
Tennessee..........................----.......................-.......... 113
Vermont................................................................ 124
Report by Joseph L. Hills, director......---......................... 1-
Virginia ................................................................ 114
Report by William B. Alwood, vice-director ......................... 114
Washington .-........................ ............ ..................-.. 115
Report by Elton Fulmer, chemist ............................... 116
W isconsin .................. ...... ..... ............................-.... 119
W yom ing.................................-.....-....... .. .............. 123
Influence of temperature on the quality of sugar beets ....................... 1
Sugar beets as cat tle fod ........................-------.................... 128
Use of beet pulps as cattle fod ..... ................................. 129
Diffusion pulps or exhausted cosettes-.......-- ......-.....-----......... 130
Feedig experiments with beet pulp .................................... 131

2N1Z~ ileb L~ c ,,w s------------------------------------------ *c,,,-c 131 ~ ~
eef cattle ........................................................ .
Ox n ................... ............................................ 131
Milch cows ......................................................... 131
lh ep............................................................... 132
Experiments made with ewes ....................................... 132
Experiments by And ard and Dezana.................... ......... 132







CONTENTS. 7

Page.
aryof data collectedin previous years ---......... .. .............. 134
otes on preceding table........................................... 140
Investigation in seed production..................... ........................ 141
STennessee............................................................... -----------------------------------------------------144
Report by Charles W. Vanderford..-.-- ...---.--...---...-....--.. 145


Iowa........--------------------------------------------------------- 146
Report by C. F. Crtiss------------.......--...........---..--............ 147
Wisconsin .......................----........-------.. --.------------ 147
Analyses made in laboratory of Department of Agriculture ...-..---..--- 150
NeYork ............................................................ ------------155
Data of each variety..----...--..---..---...--------.----.---------- 156
Vilmorin's La Plus Riche..----------........---..........----....----. 156
Vilmorin's Improved Schuyler seed .....----------. ------------ 156
Vilmorin's Improved------------ .---------------------------156
Vilmoriin's Improved ... ......................................... 156
Demesmay------------------............-- ............ --------- 157
Vilmorin's Improved Elite, grown by Dippe Bros..-... .....-.... 157
High Grade Commercial Kleinwanzlebener---------............ .. 157
Original Kleinwanzlebener (Holland).. ----------------.-------- 157
Kleinwanzlebener Elite ......................................... 157
Classifation of the beets of all varieties .-----.......----.... ------........ 158
reservation of mother beets---................ .............................. 158
Growth of seed from mothers above described ............................... 158
Necesity of seed development .......................-...... ............... 158






















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ILLUSTRATIONS.



PLATES.
Page.
PLATE 1. Map showing the probable areas suited to beet culture in the United
States .....-...----.....-..--........-....-..-..----.--.....-... 22
2. Map showing isothermal lines of 680, 690, 700, and 710 F. for the
months of June, July, and August, and mean temperatures for the
same months at other points in the State of New York and parts
of adjacent States on the east ................................... 24

TEXT FIGURES.
FIG. .. Indicating point at which top of beet should be cut off.............. ---- 38
2. Plot for guidance in planting sugar beets ............................ 141
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SPECIAL REPORT ON THE BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.



REPORT OF THE CHEMIST.

H. W. WILEY.



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY,
fWashington, D. C., March 2, 1898.
SIm: I submit herewith for your consideration the manuscript containing the data
of recent investigations on the growth of sugar beets and the manufacture of sugar
therefrom.
Respectfully, H. W. WILEY,
Chief of Division of C(hemistry.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.


PREFATORY NOTE.

The investigations conducted by the Department of Agriculture for
many years in the study of sugar-producing plants and methods of
manufacturing sugar in the United States were suspended by order of
Secretary Morton in 1893. In resuming the study of this subject by
order of Secretary Wilson, it is important that citations to the work
already done be presented. The student of the subject will be able
from these citations to have a general idea of the scope of the work
which has been accomplished, and will be guided in further research by
the data contained in the brief rt~sum, which will be appended. It is
not possible in such a list of citations to refer to the work which has
been done by the agricultural experiment stations nor by private indi-
viduals. A collection of the titles of all accessible works in English
elating to the subject of the sugar beet has been issued by the library
io this Department as the library bulletin for June, 1897, entitled Itef-
erences to the Literature on the Sugar Beet, Exclusive of Works in
Foreign Languages.
11






12 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITE STA

In the rdsum6 of citations given below are first noted the publica-
tions which have been made in the annual reports of the Department
of Agriculture, and afterwards a list of the special bulletins relating
to beet sugar will be found. Many important papers have been pub-
lished in the annual reports, which students of the beet-sugar industry
might wish to consult. It is interesting to know that as early as 1867
Dr. Antisell, at that time the Chemist of the Department, pointed out
the probability that an area or belt suited to the culture of the beet
might be mapped out. He gave also some of the probable data which
would be used in determining the limits of this belt. The annual
report for 1868 contains a reference to the fact that Henry Clay visited
Europe and made a study of the beet sugar industry on the Continent,
and presented the results of his studies in a speech delivered in the
Congress of the United States. Careful search of the records has not
been able to discover this report in print.
It is to be regretted that many of the agricultural reports are entirely
out of print, and the same is true of the greater part of the bulletins
which have been issued on the subject of beet sugar. It will therefore
not be possible for the Superintendent of Public Documents to suppy
the bulletins which are marked out of print to those who may desire to
secure them.
Following the r6sum6 of the work already done is given an account
of the investigations conducted under the supervision of the Chemical
Division of this Department during the year 1897.

REFERENCES IN ANNUAL REPORTS OF TIE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL-
TURE TO MATTERS RELATING TO THE SUGAR-BEET INDUSTRY.

1862. 536. Relative to the composition of beet juice.
1867. 32. Report of Thomas Antisell, Chemist, Department of Agriculture.
Dr. Antisell indicates the following as the probable "beet belt," based on tempera-
ture conditions:
"The northern limit of the beet culture is doubtful. On the plains of Russia it is
grown where the isocheimal line is 10. If this would hold good on this continent,
there is no portion of the United States too cold for its culture. This vast extent of
country is naturally divided into two regions, viz: (1) The middle division of the
temperate zone of the United States, lying between parallels 39 and 43, comprising
Massachusetts, lRhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebrska, southern Idaho, with an area of 453,.
square miles, is favorable to beet culture, tle mean annual temperature varying
between 47 and 53 F; (2) the district between parallels 36 and 39!, embracing the
border States, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee,
Missouri, with Kansas, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and northern California, possessing
an area of 675,000 square miles and a mean aninal temperature of 580 to 0 F., is
also favorable to the beet; so that a belt of country 7 wide in latitude ad wit an
extent of 1,129,000 square mile is open t this industrial art."







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 13

In experiments in beet culture on the Department grounds the maximum percent-
age of sugar in the juice is given for each variety:

Variety. Number Per cent
of tests. of sugar.

White Silesian:
Redtop ................................................................. 12 6.97
Sreen to-------. ..-------- ...... ..-----------------------.....-- ..-- .. .. 10 7.20
ite Magdeb rg ............................. ....................... -.......... 12 7. 74
i Magdeburg-----------------------------12 7. 74
Impoved hite Imperial ................. ........... ........ ......... 11 7.34
Beta Imperialis:
No. .............. ......... ............ ........... ................. ....... 12 6.70
No. 2 .......................................................................... 12 7.40
Vilmorin's Improved ..-- -.....-.....- ..... ... ........ ......... ................. 12 7.40
Castlenandry Yellow ............................................................. 12 8.00


1867. 48. Methods of sugar manufacture in Europe.
1868. 158. Report of Theodore Gennert to the Commissioner of Agriculture. A
general article on the statistics and manufacture of beet sugar.
1868. 164. Notes on the manufacture of beet sugar in Europe.
In 1867 the Department sent nine varieties of seed to Chatsworth, Ill., for trial,
with the following results:
Polarization. Polarization.
No ...........................--------------- 11.90 No. 7............................. ----11.98
2 ---.....-...................... 10.95 8 ............................. 13.67
3.. .---...--... ..........--.. 12.59 9-....- ........................ 13.25
4--l----------.--- ,,.---------12. 21
4............................. 12. 21---
5 _--_-............ ........ .. 11 5t Average.................... 12.40
0-----------------.-------.... 11.52
S 6 ............................. 13.52

Mention is made in this article that while in Europe Henry Clay took much inter-
est in the beet-sugar industry and afterwards, in a speech in Congress, predicted
great results from the introduction of the industry into the United States.
1869. 334. A review of the manufacture of sugar in Europe.
1869. 34. A letter inclluded in the above review. It reviews the manufacture in
Europe and mentions trials made in the United States. The first attempt to
produce beet sugar in this country, mentioned in this review, was by John
Vaughn and James Ronaldson, Philadelphia. Seed was imported and beets
were grown, but no factory was built.
1870. 98. Report of the Chemist on Beet Sugar. He states that the returns of the
growth of sugar beets in this country have not yet shown an approach to that
amount of sugar which is yielded by the growth of France and northern
Germany. Beets grown at Chatsworth, Ill., from seeds supplied by the
Department of Agriculture contained from 9.31 to 11.24 per cent of sugar.
0. 215. Progress of the beet sugar industry in Europe. A brief statistical
article.
0. 210. Largely historical. Three establishments were in operation-Chats-
worth, Ill., Alvarado, Cal., Sauk County, Wis. Capacity of the Chatsworth
factory, 50 tons of beets per day.
154. Report of Ryland T. Brown, Chemist, United States Department of
Agriculture. Following are some of the chief points mentioned:
The experiments of David L. Child, at Northampton, Mass., 1838, are probably the
liest recorded in this country.
The factory of Bonesteel and Otto, at Fond du Lac, Wis., 1867, had a capacity of
10 tons of beets per day; capital, $12,000.







14 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STAT

Analyses of beets grown on the experiental farm of the Univesity of irginia,
1872, viz:

Variety. Weigt. Suar

O,&nces. Per cent.
White Silesia (French sseed) .... ....... ...... ...... ... .......... .11.75
Carter's Prize Nursery (English seed) ............ ... .. ...... 1 72
Vilmorin's Improved (French seed) .......... .............. 3 12.
White sugar b t (Philadelphia) .. ................ ........... ...... ........10.17

1872. 451. April, 1872, the legislature of New Jersey passed an t, operative for
ten years, exempting beet-sugar factories from taxation.
1873. 108. A brief report by the Statistician.
The two California factories produced an estimated total of 750 tons of sugar
during 1873.
1873. 287. Relative to the capacity and product of the Alvarado factory. Capacity,
7,000 tons of beets per annum.
1875. 512. A r'sum6 of a German report on the composition of sugar beets.
1876. 153. Statistics of the production of sugar in various countries. Mention is
made in this article of a factory at Soquel, Santa Cruz County, Cal. The
State Agricultural Society of California reported, in 1874 that the production
of beet sugar in the State amounted in 1870 to 500,000 pounds; in 1871 to
800,000 pounds; in 1872 to 1,125,000 pounds, and in 1873 to 1,500,000 pounds.
1876. 266. Statistics of the yield of beet sugar, by countries.
1877. 243. A brief statement as to soils suitable for beets.
1877. 579. German statistics.
1878. 117. Analysis of a sample of beet-root sirup.
1879. 67. A report on the analysis of seven sugar beets received from various parts
of the country. The percentage of sugar in the juice ranged from 8.9 to 14.3,
the latter sample being from Oswego, N. Y.
1879. 184. General sugar statistics.
1880. 9. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture. A report of the condition of
the Maine Beet Sugar Company and a statement of the experiments in Delaware
were miade. Capacity of the Maine factory, 150 tons per day. In 1877 the Stat
legislature of lare a e appropriated 300 s premius to farmers for crops of
sugar beets, and in 1878 $1,500 were appropriated for the s e purpose. Imper-
feet experiments were made in 1878 by the Delaware Beet Sugar Compay. The
total crop amounted to 350 tons of roots, yielding an average of 9 per cent of
sugar. A new factory was built by Colwell Brothers, of New York, costing
$30,000, with a capacity of 60 tons of roots per day of twenty-four hours. The
company did not make running expenses, but the experiment was encouraing.
1880. 619. A letter from E. 11. Dyer urging a bounty law.
1881. 675. Statistics of sugar production. Statistics of domestic sugar are given
in brief. Beet sugar was made siccessfully for three successive seasns in
California in one factory. The Maine factory, which was in operation for
three seasons, producing in one year 1,200,00 pounds and in another 1,000,000
pounds of sugar, was obliged to suspend operations for want of beet, which
the farmers thought they could not grow at the prices offered, namely, 5 to 6
per ton.
1881. 22. leport of H1, W. Wiley to the Commissioner of Agriculture on the North-
rn1 sugar industry.in 1883. This is an abstract of data given in Bulletin No.3
of the Division of Chemistry.
1881. 562. Yield of beet sugar in Russia.
886. 311. Analyses of sugar beets grown in various parts of the ou y. Most
of these sampls containd very little sugar, with one exception. This sample
contained 18.84 per cent, and was from 11Mnoinine, Mich. The highest per-
contage of sugar in the other saples was 11.71. Twenty-eht test were made.







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 15

1889. 140. Cultivation of the sugar beet. Report of the Chemist.
1890. 167. Experiments with sugar beets. Abstract of a report published in full
in Bulletin No. 27 of the Division of Chemistry.
1891. 150. Experiments with sugar beets. Abstract of a report published in full
in Bulletin No. 30 of the Division of Chemistry.
1891. 156. Laws relating to taxation and bounties in various countries.
1892. 128. A r6sume of experiments with sugar beets. Full details of this work
are published in Bulletin No. 36 of the Division of Chemistry.
1892. 467. Statistics of beet-sugar production for the year 1892:
Pounds.
Utah Beet Sugar Company..--------......---...-------..-------..............------... 1,473, 500
Alameda Sugar Company ......-...-...------..----.. ----...----------.. 2,506,860
Western Beet Sugar Company........--------....----.........---......----------------- 11,390,921
Chlno Valley Beet Sugar Company...----- -.. ---.... ------------................. 7,903,541
Oxnard Beet Sugar Company .......- ..-- ..-- ....................--..... 2,110,100
Norfolk Beet Sugar Company .......----......-- ....---.....----- -...... 1,698,400

Total ...... ........-.......--...... .... ................ .......-.... 27, 083, 322
In 1891 these factories produced a total of 12,004,838 pounds.
1893. 175. Experiments with sugar beets. This is an abstract of a report published
in full in Bulletin No. 39 of the Division of Chemistry.
1893. 184. Growth of beets at different altitudes.

LIST OF BULLETINS ISSUED BY THE DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY
RELATING IN WHOLE OR IN PART TO SUGAR BEETS.

Bulletin No. 3, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. The Northern
Sugar Industry; edited by H. W. Wiley, 1884; pp. 118 (out of print). Pages
24 to 29 of this report relate to the beet sugar industry.
Bulletin No.5, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. The Sugar Indus-
try of the United States; edited by H. W. Wiley, 1885; pp. 224 (out of print).
Part second of this report, including pp. 73 to 136, inclusive, 12 plates, relates to the
beet-sugar industry.
Bulletin No. 27, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. The Sugar Indus-
try: Culture of the Sugar Beet, and Manufacture of Beet Sugar; edited by
H. W. Wiley, 1890; pp. 262 (out of print).
Bulletin No. 30, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. Experiments
with Sugar Beets in 1890; edited by H. W. Wiley, 1891; pp. 93 (out of print).
Bulletin No. 33, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. Experiments
with Sugar Beets in 1891; edited by H. W. Wiley, 1892; pp. 158 (out of print).
Bulletin No. 36, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. Experiments
with Sugar Beets in 1892; edited by H. W. Wiley, 1893; pp. 74 (out of print).
ulletin No. 39, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. Experiments
with Sugar Beets in 1893; by Harvey W. Wiley, with the collaboration of
Walter Maxwell, 1894; pp. 59.

MISCELLANEOUS BULLETINS AND REPORT.

Special Report No. 28, United States Department of Agriculture. Report on the
Culture of the Sugar Beet and the Manufacture of Sugar Therefrom, in France
and the United States; by Wm. McMurtrie, 1880; pp. 294 (out of print).
Farmers' Bulletin No. 3, United States Department of Agriculture. Culture of the
Sugar Beet by H. W. Wiley, 1891; pp. 24 (out of print).
Farmers' Bulletin No. 52, United States Department of Agriculture. The Sugar
Beet: Culture, Seed Development, Manufacture, and Statistics; by H. W.
Wile, 1897; p. 48.







16 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATE

PLAN OF THE INVESTIGATIONS FOR 1897.

On the 11th day of January, 1897, the following letter was add
to the Secretary of Agriculture:
SIR: Numerous inquiries for sugar-beet seed have come to this divisionstead of
to the seed division, and I am unable to give any defiite answer to our correspond-
ents in respect of the policy of the Department regaridi th istribution of the
seeds in question. I would be glad to know if it would be possible for the Depart-
nient of Agriculture to provide a few thousand packages of high-grade beet seed
which could be distributed to inquiring farmers. There is a widespread interest in
this country in the sugar-beet industry, and it appears to me that a part of the
money voted by Congress for the distribution of seeds could be very profitably used
in supplying experimenters with the best quality of sugar-beet seed. Farmers can
not be certain in buying bert seeds from dealers that they are getting anything
more than the ordinary quality of garden seeds. The guaranty of the Department,
however, that they are securing high-grade sugar-beet seeds would be of great
advantage.
I am now engaged in a revision of Farmers' Bulletin No.3, to be used in supplying
the information which is so largely asked for respecting the culture of the sugar
beet and the maniufacture of sugar therefrom. It would be of interest to make a
statement in this bulletin in regard to the possibility of securing the seeds from the
Department. An early reply to this inquiry will be appreciated.
I am, respectfully,
H. W. WILEY, Chief of Diviion.
The honorable the SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE.
In reply to this request, in the following letter the information was
conveyed that no funds were available for the lprchase of beet seeds:

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY,
Washington, D. C., Januay 13, 1897.
DEAR SI in: The Secretary h hahanded me your letter of the llth instant, calling his
attention to the advisability of distributing some sugar-beet seed in connection with
the present Congressional seed distribution.
If this matter had been mentioned in time it would have been possible to purchse
a supply of beet seed. As it is now, however, the whole appropriation for the pur-
chase of seed is exhausted. There is not a dollar left with which sugar-beet seed
could be purchased. If you will bring the matter up early next June it will be
possible to include sugar-beet seed in the distribution of the following year.
Very truly, yours,
CHAS. W. DABNEY, Jr., AwBstani Secrdary.
Dr. IH. W. WILEY, Chemist.

All further attempts to reestablish the investigations looking to the
introduction of the sugarbeet industry in the United Sates, which
had been sIspended (during four years, were therefore deferred to await
the action of the new Admllinistration.
Immediately after Secretary Wilson assumed the duties of his offie,
arrangements were made for a renewal of the investigatiofnsbut that
date was entirely too late to purchase seeds diretly fo m the growers
in Europe; therefore arrangements were made with the Oxnard Beet
Sugar Company, which kindly offered to donate the quantity of seed
reuired for the purpose. As rapidly as possible the sedwere sent






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 17

to different parties in the United States interested in the subject,
special attention being given to distributing the seed in those localities
where the theoretical conditions for the production of sugar were the
best. Packages were sent directly to the addresses of parties in dif-
ferent parts of the country, and large quantities of seed were distrib-
uted through the media of agricultural experiment stations, boards of
trade, business men's associations, and others interested particularly
in the culture. It is impossible, therefore, to determine the number of
persons who were actively engaged in the work during the year.
In so far as possible the .cooperation of the agricultural experiment
stations was secured, it being deemed advisable to conduct the experi-
ments in each State under the direct auspices of the State authorities.
It was only when such cooperation could not be secured or where
preference was shown for direct communication with the Department
of Agriculture, and in miscellaneous cases, that the experiments were
conducted directly under the auspices of the Department. Copies of
Farmers' Bulletin No. 52, containing directions for planting and culti-
vating the crop, were sent to every person directly interested in the
experiments, as well as to many others.
The promiscuous method of investigation which has been practiced
during this and preceding years is faulty and unsatisfactory. In former
reports the objections to such investigations have been outlined. In
Bulletin No. 27 of this division (on pages 6, 7, and 8) is found a number
of statements relating to the general conduct of experimental work,
which are still pertinent. Inasmuch as this bulletin is out of print, it
will be found of interest to repeat these statements here:
It must be understood that the object of this bulletin is not to give a complete
treatise upon the culture of the sugar beet and the manufacture of sugar therefrom,
but simply to indicate, for the information of those interested, the general principles
of this industry. One especial object which will be kept in view is to prevent those
intending to engage in this industry from going wrong in the beginning and squan-
dering their money and time in battling with problems which science has already
met and overcome. It is further hoped that the careful study of the data presented
will prevent any mistakes from being made which would end in financial disaster
and which are so apt to attend the early history of every industry.
There will probably be found for many years to come in the United States more
enthusiasm than knowledge connected with the sugar beet, and the result of this
will be, unless great care is taken, that many ventures will be made which may
result in financial disaster, disaster which could have been avoided by a thorough
comprehension of the fundamental principles of the industry.
In so far as the manufacture of sugar from the matured beet is concerned, we are
able to start at the present time with the accumulated knowledge and experience of
tree-quarters of a century of investigation. So perfect have the processes of manu-
facture become that nearly all of the sugar which is stored in the beet can be
secured in merchantable form and by comparatively inexpensive methods. By the
erm inexpensive, however, it must be understood thit the actual processes of manu-
facture are denoted and not the cost of the machinery. The various processes for
the extraction of the sugar from the beet, the best methods of clarifying the juice
and of evaporating it and for separating the sugar from the molasses, are thoroughly
H. Doc. 396-.--2







18 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED S

well understood and are no longer legitimate subject for publi Th
great problem in this country is the agricultural one. The sel of suitablesoil
the finding of the proper climatic conditions, and instrucon in he method of plant-
ing, cultivating, and harvesting the beets, are all matters of vital importance. With-
out a careful study of these subjects, and without the proper knowledge thereof, it
is a hopeless task to attempt to introduce successfully the beet-sugar industry into
this country.
One of the great dangers to be avoided is the formation of hasty conclusions in
regard to the proper localities for the production of the gar beet Often without
any study whatever of the climatic conditions or of the character of the soil, efforts
are made to build large and expensive factories, which as often have to be abandoned
on account of having been wrongly located. The studies which have been ade
heretofore in regard to climatic conditions have been of such a nature as to locate,
in a general way, the areas in the United States suitable for the culture of the
sugar beet.
It has been found in general that the coast valleys of California, and probably
large areas in Oregon and Washington, certain parts of the Dakotas and Nebraska,
localities in Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Michigan, parts of northern Illinois,
Indiana, Ohio, and New York present favorable conditions for sugar-beet culture;
but in the regions thus broadly intimated there are certain restricted areas most
suitable to the sugar beet, and it is only these restricted areas to which we must
look for success. The fact that in one locality, for instance in Nebraska, good sugar
beets can be produced would be no warrant whatever for assuming that all parts of
that State were equally suitable for this purpose, and this remark may be applied
to every one of the States mentioned above.
Sugar beets have also been raised in other sections in the United States, notably
in New England, New Jersey, Delaware, and an nsas, and while there may be areas
in the New England States where beets can be successfully grown, it must be
admitted that the States last named stand in the second rank of beet-sugar produc-
ing localities. In Kansas, during the last year, as will be shown in the body of this
report, sugar beets were grown and a considerable quantity of sugar manufactured
therefrom. This, however, does not show that Kansas will be able to compete with
more favorable States in the production of beet sugar.
In general, it may be said that the suners in Kansas are too hot to expect the
production of a sugar beet uniform in its nature and containing a high percentageof
sugar.
If the sugar-beet industry is to succeed in this country, the success must come
from sharp competition with the same industry in older countries, where its condi
tions are better understood and where the localities suited to it have been selected
by long and often costly experience. It must also compete with the sugar-cane
industry, both of this country and of tropical countries, and for this reason we can
only expect it to survive in those regions where soil and climatic conditions, prox-
inity to fuel, cheapness of labor, and other favorable environments are found.
It is to be hoped that the mistakes which have so long threatened the sorghum-
sugar industry with destruction may be avoided with the sugar beet. Calm judg-
ient and sober reason must not give way to enthusiasm and extravagnt expecta-
tions. All conditions of suecess must be carefully studied, all the difficulties in the
way of success must be intimately investigated and surmounted, and ample apital,
coupled with judicious Pers~veranc, must be enlisted i it behall
t 0 O
For the proper erection and completion of a eetsugar factory not less than twelve
months should be allowed, and even in this time it can only be properlyaccomplished
under cxperienced technical control.
ftf t tf







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 19

In Bulleti No. 30 (on page 7) the following observations are found:
ly in a few instances were the directions of the Department followed out to the
e. ost cases the planting and cultivation of the beet seed were conducted
c ing to such methods as the agriculturist might hit upon at the time. From
information gathered it was found that the chief variation from the instructions
ws in the preparation of the soil. In very few cases was a subsoil plow used and
st of the beets which were sent to the Department were evidently grown in soil
of insufficient depth. In some cases, where the exact directions for cultivation were
crried out, the character of the beets received showed by contrast with the others
absolute necessity of employing the best methods of agriculture for their pro-
duction.
In Bulletin No. 33 (on page 9) the following statement is made:
One of the most striking features in regard to this method of conducting experi-
mntal work is found in the fact that it is almost impossible to secure compliance with
directions. It is evident, at once, that the value of experimental work depends upon
the care with which it is done and the accuracy with which the directions prescribed
a.e followed. It is nmt to be wondered at that farmers, busy with their other occu-
pations, failed to comply with the minute directions necessary to secure the greatest
advantage in experimental work.
Very few of the blanks were returned properly filled out. In many cases the data
which were returned were palpably erroneous. In one instance a yield of 99 tons per
acre was reported, and in a great many cases the reported yield per acre was so great
s to show inaccuracy on the part of the measurement of the land or the weighing of
tebeets. In making out returns for such reported phenomenal yields the theoretical
uantity of sugar per acre given was always questioned. We are accustomed to look
ith suspicion upon any yield of sugar beets which exceeds 25 tons per acre. While
t is not impossible to secure a higher yield than this, and of beets of good saccharine
aity, yet it is so rare as to throw doubt upon miscellaneous data showing an
excess of that yield.
Another point, which makes the returns obtained less valuable, is found in the fact
f the length of time which necessarily elapsed between the harvesting of the beets
ad their reception at the laboratory. Nearly all the samples received were from
tant States, requiring for packages of this kind from three to eight days in the
mails. Although the beets were in most cases well wrapped, according to directions,
our experiments have shown that they must have lost a considerable quantity of mois-
ture by evaporation during their long transit. The data, therefore, showing the con-
tnt of sugar in thejuicewould be uniformly too high for normal beets. It is estimated
that not less than 10 per cent should be subtracted from the number for sugar to
xpress the normal percentage of sugar in the beets as originally harvested.
In Bulletin No. 36 (on page 28) the ideas outlined above are some-
what expanded in the following words:
Before proceeding to discuss the data in the preceding tables, attention should be
led to the fact that in previous reports of this kind some dissatisfaction has been
epressed in some States on account of the poor showing of the samples therefrom.
I former reports attention has been particularly called to the probability that the
daabtained by this method of experimentation are not wholly reliable and in all
sdo not truly represent the capabilities of any locality for beet-sugar production.
Sis true that a large number of data received from a given State will indicate, in a
eral way, whether or not that State is capable of producing a good sugar beet,
b where the number of data is limited, it may be that the agricultural conditions
der which the samples were produced were so poor, or the season so exceptional,
to prevent a fairjudgment of the capabilities of the soil and climate. On the







20 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED TT

other hand, the culture which the samples received may have been so careful and
the seasonal conditions so favorable as to produce a beet far above the average
which could be produced in the whole State.
Again, the loss of moisture during transportation, or the failure of the farmers to
send their beets in as soon as harvested, may tend to reduce the amount of water
present in the beet and to raise correspondingly the quantity of sugar therein. Inas-
much as the analyses are made on the expressed juice, this would tend to show
always an increased amount of sugar over that present naturally in the beets.
All these disturbing influences must be taken into consideration in judging the
data which have been recorded. This has been said in general explanation so as to
forestall any criticisms which may be made of the value of the data obtained.
To illustrate more particularly what is meant, attention is called to the instance,
say, of Colorado and Montana. From the State of Colorado one hundred and twenty-
three samples were received for analysis, and from the State of Montana only one
sample. Any comparison, therefore, between the average results of the two States
would be simply absurd. While one hundred and twenty-three samples from Colo-
rado, showing, as they do, fine possibilities of sugar-beet culture, indicate that the
State of Colorado is capable of producing beets of high quality, the single sample
from Montana, whether it proved exceptionally poor or exceptionally fine, could
have been no criterion by whiFc the capabilities of the State for beet sugar could be
judged.
In connection with the tentative results which have been obtained by this kind of
work should be considered the characteristics of the soil and climate of each locality,
and by putting the two together a fairly good idea can be formed of the possibilities
of beet-sugar production. The reader should carefully bear the above explanation
in mind, both in looking over the data in the tables and in reading the remarks
thereon which follow.
In Bulletin No. 39 (on page 8) in commenting on the results of the
year's work, the following statements are made:
The general results of the work this year are somewhat discouraging as com-
pared with previous years. Throughout a great part of the beet-growing region the
surmmer was excessively dry, and large numbers of total failures were reported.
In former reports attention has been called to the fact that the present method of
experiment is unsatisfactory, and the reasons therefor have been fully set forth.
The farmers are so busy with other work that, as a rule, they are not able to give
careful attention to the experimental details. They do not have the time to suitably
prepare the soil for beet culture, nor do they give the growing beet proper attention.
When the time for harvesting comes they are usually engaged in other farm work,
so that the heets are not harvested at the right time, nor are data obtained by
means of which any accurate estimate of the yield per acre can be determined.
The analytical data, therefore, of such work are usually fragmentary and far from
teaching any definite lesson in regard to the industry itself. In general, however,
the data bear out those of previous years in showing the areas in this country where
the best beets can be grown. It is in these regions that the development of the
lindustry 1musat be expectIed.
There is probably not a State or Territory in the Union which is not capable of
growing a fair article of sugar beets. Even in the fir South beets of fair sugar con-
tent have been produced, and with good tonnage; but when the competition of the
world is to be met, with the price of sugar as low as it is now, only those parts of
the country where the soil and climate are especially favorable can be expected to
compewte successfully with the beet-sugar industry already firmly established in older
countries. The sole valuable lesson, therefore, of the promiscuous distribution of
beet seed is in the fact that, as a rule, those regions best suited to the growth of the
sugar beet will gradually be outlined, and intendig investors led to the proper
localities for the etablishmet of factorie.






BEiET-StGAf INDUSTRY INT THE UNITED STATES. 21

The great success of the beet-sugar industry on the Pacific coast leads to the con-
lusion that if the northern part of the eastern and central portions of our country
is to bcome the seat of a great sugar industry, every possible advantage must be
taken of soil and location, in order to compete successfully with the beet fields of
California, Washington, and Oregon.
The experience of the past season, as will be seen from the data in
the following pages, has served only to give additional point to the
observations made in previous bulletins.
SThe sugar-beet industry in this country has now reached a point
where it is incumbent upon the National Government to secure a com-
plete and accurate agricultural survey of the country in respect of
growing beets. The competition in sugar making is now so keen that
only those localities where natural conditions are best will, in the end,
be found sustaining the industry. If we depend upon costly experi-
ment to delimit these localities, hundreds of thousands of dollars will
be wasted in the attempt. At a comparatively small expense, the
Department of Agriculture will be able to have made careful and
accurate surveys, based upon experimental data, to point out the regions
where the sugar industry is most likely to succeed. This, however,
can iot be done by the promiscuous kind of experimentation which the
Department has been compelled heretofore to pursue. Up to this time
a sufficient scientific interest in the matter has not been aroused among
the people to secure the kind of a survey which is necessary. Now,
however, the conditions have changed. The agricultural experiment
stations in most of the States are thoroughly aroused in this matter.
They are willing, with the cooperation of the Department, to undertake
an agricultural survey of their respective localities. In addition to
this, intelligent men, either in their capacity of private citizens or as
representatives of boards of trade, or of business men's associations,
are ready to supervise, in limited districts, series of experiments
which will give satisfactory answers to the questions which must be
answered before the sugar-beet industry is fully established. It will
therefore be the object of the Department in subsequent work, espe-
cially that of 1898, to secure in each locality interested in the matter, a
few carefully conducted experiments. To this end it is urged that the
experiment stations in the various States arrange with 25, 50, 100, or.
ore representative farmers, who can be relied upon to do good work,
to grow plats of beets in size of not less than half an acre.

CLIMATOLOGY.
It is evident that one of the first things to be considered, after the
soil itself, in connection with the sugar beet industry is the climate.
The sugar beet is a plant very susceptible to climatic conditions. At
the beginning of its growth the beet plant is peculiarly helpless. It
an not lift, in passing from the germ to the new plant, the lightest
clod. A rain which packs the surface of the soil-immediately after
ermination will sometimes prevent the plant from reaching the light.






22 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

After the plant is established it requires a consid le qy of
water for its proper growth; this water must be supplied either by the
rainfall of the locality, by irrigation, or by the subsoil High te
tures extending over long periods of time are peculiarly injurious to the
storing of sugar in the tuber. While high temperatures may not dimin-
ish the tonnage yielded by a field, nor apparently produce any iuri-
ous effects, in so far as the external appearance of the mature plant is
concerned, it will be found, as a rule, that plants grown under such condi-
tions of temperature are less rich in sugar than others grown in a milder
climate. Since the production of sugar in the leaf of a plant is a joint
function of the chlorophyll cells and sunlight, it is found that the high
northern latitudes, where the summer days are exceptioially long and
the nights correspondingly short, tend to produce, other conditions
being the same, a beet rich in sugar. The climatic conditions of this
country are so different from those of Europe as to render of little val
the general conclusions which experience has drawn from the effect of
climate, in the beet-sugar producing countries of Europe, on the sugar
content of the beet itself. Nevertheless, it is seen that in Europe the
great centers of the beet-sugar industry are in regions far to the north,
in fact, so far north as to make it impracticable ever to expect, in this
country, to establish the centers of the industry on the same parllels
of latitude. When it is considered for a moment that the great capi-
tals of Europe-St. Petersburg, London, and Berlin-are situated 1,460,
870, and 940 miles, respectively, north of Washigton, and yet in pros-
perous agricultural communities the above statement does not create
surprise. Thevicissitudes of climatic conditions in orthern Europe are
also less marked than they are in the United States. Throughout
the beet-growing area of Europe it is expected that the summers will
be mild. They are not attended with many days of excessive heat.
Spring comes early and permanently; the autumn comes slowly and late.
In France and Belgium a severe frost is not expected in May, nor is it
anticipated that ice of a considerable thickness will form in October. The
summer days in these localities are considerably longer than even in the
more northern portions of our country, and at least an hour longer than
in the centers of our greatest agricultural prosperity. We find, there-
fore, so great a deviation in their climatic conditions that we can not
apply with rigidity in this country the rules respecting the climate
deduned from the experience of European countries. With those rules
applicable in this country, it would be easily demonstrable that the
great center of the sugar-beet industry on this continent would be in
Canada, and not in the United States. We have, therefore, had to
depend so fir largely on theory in the application of the principles of
climatology in the culture of the sugar beet in the United States. The
experimental data which have been at our disposal have-been fragmen-
tary, and, as hs already been noted, ave not been secred i the syst-
atic way desirable. The result i, even t-day, that any of our theories







*.. .l *l /. '.. ... .... .. ... ..











6&4



2\




A l z do















69J4

rREAREwn Belt-Prob a ba. ae o
Beet fulture
t rLight .own Shad
tnso715 of8 t Beeon o urbo











annual preeipitatin
SBlue Figures-Inches of annual rainfal

S/R i/'\ r o Red Li-lother f mean tempera-
: ; J tJes fr Jun d August.

S:Red Figure temrat for
1| \/ iJune, July, s August.










WAsBnroBe,. D. C., A*eny 24.
....... .............. :......... ... :......... .. ..... .... .- .






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 23

in regard to climate are not yet substantiated by facts. In the light of
the data at hand, in the publication of previous reports it has been
assumed tat the beet-sugar zone of the United States would be found
located over an area of which the southern limit would be marked by
the mean isotherm of 710 F. for the summer months of June, July, and
August. While this temperature is considerably higher than the mean
temperature of the European beet-sugar areas for the same period of
time, it has always been evident that the beet area of the United States
woud necessarily be situated farther south than the like area of Europe.
There are two reasons which make this location imperative. In the
first place, the more northern latitudes not only have late springs, but
even after the spring is once established the occurrence of a heavy frost
is not unusual. In the second place, these same latitudes have short
autumns, and the occurrence of heavy frosts in late October or early
November are not at all unexpected. As a result of this, the season for
the growth and harvest of the beet is too short if we should apply for
the mean summer temperature the same rules as obtain in Europe. It
is evident, however, that the assumption of the mean isotherm of 710
for June, July, and August as the southern limit of the beet-sugar area
is based upon so many independent conditions as to render it only use-
ful as a working basis.
SOTHER CONDITIONS.
In connection with the temperature must be considered the rainfall,
the contour and the nature of the soil, the possibility of irrigation, the
abundance of subsoil moisture, the proximity of coal, limestone, and
water, price of labor, facilities for distribution and transportation, and
many other matters which are important in a discussion of the subject.
It is further evident that the tracing of a single isothermal line and the
- i-
arbitrary addition thereto of a certain width of land on either side do
not give even the proper theoretical thermal basis for a careful study
of climatic conditions.

MAP OF THERMAL BELT.
For this reason, the present report is supplied with a new map
(Plate I), which has been kindly prepared by the Weather Bureau at
Srequest, in which the isothermal lines for June, July, and August
have been traced with greater care and from data extending over a
longer period of time.'
The result of these new studies has been to change from former maps,
in some cases slightly and in some cases considerably, the position of
the mean isotherm of 700 for the three summer months named. This
change, as will be seen by consulting the new map, is most marked in
Data supplied, through the courtesy of Mr. Willis S. Moore, chief of the Weather
Burea, by Mr. A. J. Henry. The map was drawn by the draftsmen of the Bureau
under Mr. Henry's direction.






24 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE U D

the case of the State of ew York, where in form aps
isotherm of 700 was traced in a line running almos
Albany to Buffalo.

CHANGES IN THE NEW MAP.

In the new map the influence of the Allegheny Mo ins on tempera
ture has been more carefully studied, and as a reult there has been
considerable deflection of the isotherm of 70 to the th and south-
west. The general trend of this isotherm from Alby is in a south-
westerly direction until the Allegheny Mountains are cr it
turns in a westerly direction until it reaches its former locatio practi-
cally in the neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. The position of this
isotherm from this point westward is so nearly the ae as that of the
other map as to require no particular mention. The Stateof New York,
however, especially that portion of it lying between Albany and Buffalo,
has peculiar thermal conditions, and these are shown in a speCial map
of that State (P1. II). A considerable area of the State with a ean
summer temperature of 700 is found in the northwestern part in the
neighborhood of Rochester, while between this area and the continuous
isotherm of 700, as traced upon the map, is a considerable space of
territory where the mean summer temperature is considerably below
70o. This area, however, corresponds more nearly to the beet areas of
northern Europe than any other portions of our country. The tempera-
ture and other climatic conditions in this area are more uniform by
reason of the modifying effects of the Great Lakes on thewinds which
blow from the west and northwest. The experimental data which have
been collected show, therefore, that this area, although in many cases
the mean summer temperature is below 700, is peculiarly suited to the
production of beets of a high sugar content. The comparatively mild
springs and autumns also favor the planting and harvesting of the beet,
so that the conditions of this area are as favorable to the production of
beets of the proper grade as those areas lying immediately contiguous
to the mean isotherm of 700.

TRIPLE ISOTHERMAL LINES.
As a single isothermal line passing across the country affords a very
narrow basis for study, it has been deemied advisable in the map here-
with presented to take as the ncleus of the isothermic sugar zone not
merely the isotherm of 700, but that belt of territory, varying in width,
which is bounded by the isotherms of 690 upon the north and 710 upon
the south. The isotherm of 700 is found between these two, usutlly
occupying the center of the belt, or nearly so, but sometimes approach-
ing more nearly the one or the other. If, now, we add to the outside
of the belt of irregular width, thus outlined by the two isotherms men-
tioned, on the south a strip of country of varying width and on the
north aarea bounded by the limit of danerous fros will












Oidensburf Plattrburr












4.FI Henry a
Watertown
















K .LoeIp tbi R ocihuter Uome
a Outai A


t, P -
othe otsofJnluyadAg ste rfyor





sa nMorris an h n teo w ra p

a Cartland
are 1Middlebur
*Arde *New Ua6ba,3
DunKiriK
a Goownda




*Hum rayhr









Map showing mean Isothermal Lines of 680, 690, o70, and 710 F.
for- the months of June, July, and August, and mean temperatures for75.P
the same months at other points in the State of New York and parts
of adjacent States on the east. Heavy and light shading shows
probable areas best suited to Beet Culture.

PREPARED BY DR. II. W. WILEY.

WA.suINcTON, 1). C., MarAk 25, z898.







HDoc .3- 6'55 2







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 25

practically include the whole of the United States which, from theo-
retical conditions of temperature, is best suited to the growth of sugar
beets of a high saccharine content.

BEET ZONE.

The shaded portions of the map herewith presented indicate in a
general way this area. No attempt has been made to extend this lat-
eral shading west of the Missouri River. The paucity of data for the
western part of the country, in connection with the extreme vicissitudes
of climate, renders of little value any extension of the thermal belt.

ANNUAL RAINFALL.

Connected with this study, the annual precipitation is of the utmost
importance. There has therefore been marked upon the map, in the
area covered by this belt, the mean precipitation, in inches, from 50 to
40, from 40 to 30, and so on down to the least recorded quantities
of rainfall in the far western arid regions.
The mean annual precipitation is, of course, of importance in deter-
mining the relations of the different regions to the water supply and
the need of irrigation. It is also important to know the mean precipi-
tation for the months during which the chief growth of the crop and
the harvest take place, namely, for April, May, June, July, August,
September, and October. The mean precipitation for each of these
three months, as furnished by the Weather Bureau for the localities
mentioned, is indicated in the following tables:

Monthly arerages of rainfall, April-October.

SNunm
Stations. Lati- ongi- Ela- be Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Total
tude. tude. ti. years.

MASSACHUSETTS.
Amherst.............. 42 22 72 32 235 61 3.1 3.9 3.7 4.5 4.4 3.4 3.9l 26.
Boston................ 4221 71 04 12 79 3.8 3.7 3.2 3.6 4.3 3.4 3.8 25.8
Fall iver ............ 41 42 71 09 259 22 3.9 4.0 3.1 3.5 4.4 3.3 4.5 26.7
Fitchburg............ 42 36 71 50 433 32 2.9 3.8 3.3 3.7 4.3 3.2 4.1 25.3
Lowell................ 42 39 71 17 104 42 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.4 3.3 3.8 25.9
New Bedford ......... 41 39 70 56 100 83 3.6 t;.8 3.0 3.1 3.9 3.3 3.7 24.4
Springfield .......... 4205 7235 70 47 3.2 4.2 3.8 4,5 4.5 3.4 4.2 27.8
Taunton .... ---. .. 41 54 71 05 30 1 22 3.6 3.3 2.5 3.5 4.2 2.8 3.8 23.7
Worcester ........... 42 16 71 49 473 43 3.7 4.1 3.1 3.8 4.5 3.5 4.4 27.1
CONNECTICUT.
Hartford ............. 41 45 72 40 38 27 3.0 3.6 3.0 4.1 4.6 3.2 3.9 25.4
New Haven.......... 41 18 72 56 10 45 3.3 3.9 3.1 4.5 4.6 3.8 3.8 27.0
NewLondon.......... 41 21 72 05 8 26 3.7 3.6 3.2 4.0 4.7 3.4 4.4 27.0
iddletown ......... 41 33 72 39 37 33 3.4 3.8 3.5 4.,3 4.8 3.6 4.1 27.5
Southington .......... 4135 7251 152 26 3.1 3.2 2.8 3.9 4.6 2.9 3.6 24. 1
Walngford.......... 41 27 7249 73 35 3.6 4.2 3.6 4.2 5.,0 3,6 4.2 28.4
NEW YORK.
Albany............... 42 40 7345 32 69 2.8 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.0 3.5 3.5 25.7
Bufflo .............. 4253 78 53 587 27 2.5 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.2 3. 3.6 22.7
oopertown......... 4242 7457 1,300 43 2.86 3.6 4.1 4.3 4.1 3.4 3.3 25.4
ouverneur .......... 4425 7535 423 21 2. 1 2.7 2,7 2.8 2.3 3, 1 3. 4 19 1
Ithaca................ 42 27 76 30 375 36 2.2 34 3.7 3. 5 3.0 3.0 2.9 21.7
Nw YorkCity...... 40 43 73 58 52 61 3.4 4.0 3.8 4.0 4.7 3.4 3.6 26.9
North lemra........... 41 20 7334 361 23 3.4 4.4 8.5 4.0 4.1 3.1 4.1 26 6








26 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATE

Monthly averages of rainfall, April-October-Conltinued.


Lati Longi Elevau
Sec. tions. lon. her of Apr. May. June. Jly. Aug. Sept. Oct. Total.
t srude. tude. tion. years.


NEW YORK-Cont'd.
0 I 0 1
Oswego............... 43 29 76 35 335 26 2.1 2.8 3.4 3.1 2. 2.8 3.3 20.1
Palermo .............. 43 20 76 22 ....... 42 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.3 2.7 3.2 3.4 21.0
Rochester ............ 43 08 77 42 494 27 2.5 3.3 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.9 20.4
Utica................. 43 06 75 13 473 41 2.7 3.5 4.3 4,7 3.5 3.5 3.5 25.7

NEW JERSEY.

Atlantic City......... 39 22 74 25 13 23 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.5 4.3 3.2 3,2 23.6
Lambertville ......... 40 23 74 57 75 25 3.3 4.4 3.8 4.4 4.9 4.3 3.6 28.7
Newark ............. 40 45 74 10 13 52 3.5 4.0 3.5 4.4 5.0 3.8 3.6 27.8
New Brunswick ...... 40 30 74 27 48 43 3.7 3.9 3.9 4.7 4.9 3.8 3.4 28.3
South Orange......... 40 45 74 15 141 26 3.3 3.2 3.6 4.9 5.2 4.0 3.7 27.9
Trenton ............ 40 14 74 45 33 24 3.7 4.1 3.9 5.5 5.3 4.0 4.0 30.5
Vineland ........... 39 29 75 01 97 25 3.3 3.9 3.3 4.3 4.9 4.0 3.4 27.1

PENNSYLVANIA.

Blooming Grove ...... 41 23 75 09 ....... 25 3.2 4.0 4.1 5.0 4.9 3.1 3.6 27.9
Dyberry............. 41 38 75 18 1,100 25 2.5 3.4 3.1 4.6 3.8 2.8 3.3 23.5
Erie ............... 42 07 8005 686 23 2.5 3.8 3.9 2.8 3.3 4.0 4.1 24.4
Gettysburg........... 39 49 77 15 624 24 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.41 3.6 3.0 3.1 24.1
Harrisburg ........... 40 16 76 53 320 25 3.0 4.6 4.4 4.2 3,9 3.6 3.3 27.0
Pittsburg............. 40 22 79 59 745 54 3.0 3.5 3.6 .4.0 3.4 2.9 2.8 23.2
Philadelphia.......... 39 53 75 10 32 72 3.4 3 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.3 3.5 .2 20

MARYLAND.

Baltimore............. 39 17 76 37 68 26 3.4 3.8 4.0 4.7 4.0 3.9 2.9 26.7
Cumberland .......... 39 39 78 45 639 24 2.5 3.4 3.8 3.4 3.2 2.8 2.3 21.4
Emritsabrg ......... 39 44 77 20 498 12 3.5 4.6 3.9 3.4 3.3 3.8 3.8 26.3
Frederick............ 39 24 77 24 415 15 3.7 4.4 4.6 3.5 2.7 3.7 2.5 25.1

OHIO.

Cleveland............. 41 30 81 42 582 41 2.7 3.5 3.9 3.4 3.1 3.6 2.8 23.0
Columbus ............; 39 58 83 00 812 17 3. 2 4.2 3.5 3.2 3.2 2.6 2.6 22.5
Marietta ...... .... 39 30 81 26 611 69 3.3 3.9 4.1 4.4 3.9 3.1 3.1 25.8
North Lewieburg..... 4011 83 35 1,030 25 3.1 3.9 4.0 4.4 3.3 3.2 2.2 24.1
Steubenville.......... 40 25 80 41 663 39 3.4 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.1 25.8
Toledo............... 41 40 83 34 579 26 2.2 3. .43.4 3.1 2.7 2.4 2.4 19.6
Wauseon ........... 41 36 8407 767 23 3.0 4.2 4.1 3.4 2.7 2.6 2.6 22.6
Westerville........... 40 04 82 46 850 35 3.0 3.4 3.8 3.9 3.3 3.1 2.1 22.6

INDIANA.

Angola .............. 41 36 85 00 1,052 11 2.9 4.5 3.7 2. 7 2.7 3.8 2.3 22.
Columbia City........ 41 09 85 30 863 16 3.4 4.5 4.1 3.2 2.7 3.9 1.9 23.7
Connersville.......... 39 40 85 03 844 14 3.7 4.4 4.3 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.2 22.3
Farmland........ .. 40 11 85 10 1,040 14 3.4 4.7 4.0 2.8 3.5 3.6 2.0 24.0
Fort Wayne.......... 41 05 85 07 815 13 3.2 3.9 3.8 4.9 3.4 3.2 3.0 25.4
Indianapolis...... 39 46 86 10 753 27 3.6 4.0 4.5 4.2 3.3 3.1 2.8 25.5
Lafayette........... 40 28 86 54 667 16 3.7 4.8 4.2 3.7 3.5 2.7 2.2 24.8
L ogansport......... 40 45 86 22 586 19 3.5 5.0 4.2 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.5 24.1
Mazy................ 39 37 85 23 ...... 13 3.5 4.2 4.5 2.2 2.7 3.1 2.5 22.7
frichond ....... ...39 51 84 53 850 26 3.6 4.3 3.9 3. 5 3.9 4.1 2.8 26.1
Spieelnd ............. 39 48 85 18 1,063 28 2.9 3.8 4.4 4.1 3.3 3.1 2.2 23.8
Wabash .............. 40 48 85 49 698 10 2.9 4.2 4.6 3.4 3.0 2.5 3.6 24.2

ILLINOIS.

Athens............... 39 57 89 4 800 16 4.1 4.8 5.7 3.4 3.0 3.3 2.5 26.8
Agsta............. 40 12 907 674 19 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.8 3.6 4.1 2.9 27.6
Arora......... 41 47 8808 648 22 3.2 4.0 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.2 2.9 23.8
Chie-ago............... 41 52 87 38 589 30 3.0 3.7 3.7 3.4 2.9 1.0 2.7 22.4
Elmira ............. 41 10 89 49 505 17 3.2 4.1 4.1 3.2 3.6 3.3 2.1 23.
Galesburg ............ 40 5 90 22 78 12 2.9 3.5 4.0 3.7 4.2 4.1 2.6 2 .0
Geneseo ........ ... 41 27 9o 06 845 11 2.7 3.1 3,8 2.9 3.0 3.6 2.7 21.8
Havana............... 40 18 90 05 475 11 3.5 3.6 4.2 4.6 2.5 3.8 2.2 24.4
H11nnepin............. 41 16 89 21 ...... 13 3.0 3.7 4.1 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.7 21.9
Marego............ 42 15 88 37 819 45 2.8 3.9 4.3 3. 7 3.7 3.8 2.4 24.
Mattoon ............. 3 9 24 737 15 4.2 5.0 4.8 3.9 3.4 2.9 2.8 27.0
Oswego ............ .. 41 40 88 22 670 16 3. .9 4.0 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.8 22.6
Ottawa ............... 41 22 884 8 88 25 2.9 4.0 3.6 3. 2.9 2.9 2.3 22.2
Peoria................ 40 42 8 36 452 41 3.2 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.0 .5 2.5 23.7
Philo ............... .. 39 59 88 0 771 11 3.8 4.2 4.2 2.7 2.1 3.3 1.7 22.0
Pontl i............... 40 54 88 40 000 6 2.2 3.2 3,2 2.2 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.5
Rockford .............. 42 15 89 05 70 22 4.0 4.8 8.6 3.2 2.4 8.2 2.5
k sland Arsenal 41 32 38 528 14 2.7 3.9 3.9 3.7 8.3 3.2 1.6 22.
Sandwich..,..... 41 1 8832 65 17 .7 4.6 4. 4.5 4.5 2.5 27.6


s~. .- .~llsll ^ i" J|







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 27

Monthlg averages of rainfall, April-October-Continued.

Lati- ILongi Eleva- Num-erfpr
Scude. tud e.e- ero Apr. May. June. Juy. Aug. Sept. Oct. Total.
.years.

ILLINOIS -ontinued.
o0 / 0
Sprigfield .....---------...... 39 48 89 39 644 17 3.7 5.0 4.4 2.8 2.4 3.2 2.7 24.2
Syamore............ 42 00 88 42 800 15 3.6 4.3 5.0 3.6 2.9 3.0 3.1 25.5
Watek ......... .. 40 48 87 45 640 7 3.7 5.6 3.7 3.0 2.4 2.9 2.6 23.9
inn'ebago ...-...---. 42 17 i 89 12 861 18 3.2 4.0 4.1 3.5 3.2 3.6 2.3 23.9
Wyanet.............. 41 30 8945 750 11 3.8 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.7 4.8 2.4 29.0
WI8CONSIN.
Beloit ...............- 42 30 89 11 741 30 2.9 3.2 4.0 3.5 3.6 3.4 2.5 23.1
La Crosse............ 43 49 91 15 657 24 2.4 3.3 4.5 4.0 3.2 4.2 2.3 23.9
Madison.............. .43 05 89 24 857 28 2.6 3.5 4.5 4.0 3.1 3 1 2.6 23.4
Manitowoc ......... 4407 8746 593 33 .2.4 2.6 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.6 20.9
Milwaukee........... 43 02 87 54 591 53 2.8 3.4 3.8 3.2 2.7 3.0 2.2 21.1
MICHIGAN.
Detroit........... 4220 83 03 580 46 2.6 3.1 3.8 3.6 2.6 3.0 2.6 21.3
Grand Haven......... 43 05 8618 593 25 2.6 3.4 3.8 2.8 2.7 3.6 3.2 22.1
Grand Rapids ........ 42 57 8540 604 14 2.8 3.6 4.2 2.4 2.4 3.4 2.5 21.3
Kaamazoo........... 4220 85 38 770 20 2.6 4.4 4.5 3.2 2.6 3.2 2.8 23.3
Lansing ............. 42 44 84 32 836 33 2.4 3.4 4.0 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.5 21.0
Port Huron........... 43 00 82 26 584 22 2.1 3.4 3.5 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.8 19.4


STUDY OF PARTICULAR LOCALITIES.

NORTH CAROLINA AND WEST VIRGINIA.

The elevated areas of the mountain regions of North Carolina and
West Virginia afford conditions of temperature and precipitation which
are favorable to the growth of sugar beets. The rough and moun-
tainous character of this portion of the country, however, presents
mechanical difficulties in cultivation of sufficient magnitude to warrant
the statement that the beet industry on a large scale is not likely to be
established within it. A portion of the region specified has a mean
annual rainfall of more than 50 inches, while the most of it is supplied
with a rainfall of 40 inches. It is not probable, on account of the con-
sideration mentioned above, that the beet-sugar industry, on a scale
of any magnitude, will ever be established in the regions specified.

EASTERN SHORE OF MARYLAND.

The isotherm of 710 enters Maryland at a point about the center
of the Atlantic coast of the eastern shore, and runs north by north-
east almost to Ponghkeepsie, N. Y. It is evident, therefore, that
the temperature conditions of this region are similar to those en or
south of the isotherm of 710 in other parts of the country, although
here in this area the region lies to the west of this isotherm. Judged
by this factor, and also by the mean annual rainfall, which is 40 inches
for this locality, the cultivation of the sugar beet might be success-
flly inaugurated along the Atlantic coast of the eastern shore; in fact,
practically over the whole of the southern portion of the eastern shore
of Maryland. The character of the soil in this locality is mostly sandy,
and its natural fertility has been considerabl diminished by long years






28 BEET-SUGAR INDSTRY IN THE UNITED STATE

of cultivation. There is no reason to doubt, however, the fact that
with proper fertilization and cultivation the requisite degree of fertili
for the production of sugar beets could be secured. The general ted-
ency in this region is in the direction of a too high temperature and
too few hours of sunshine. The above observations apply also to
Accomac County, Va.
DELAWARE.

The observations which have been made in regard to the eastern
shore of Maryland also apply to the eastern region of Delaware. On
account of the ravages of the "yellows" among the peac orards of
southern Delaware, it might be worth while for the agricultural experi-
ment station to make a careful survey of the southeastern portion of
the State with reference to the possibility of producing sugar beets of
the requisite degree of saccharine strength. The surace of the soil is
generally level; a good deal of it is of a sandy nature, and so far as
its physical properties are concerned, it may be regarded as favorable
to beet growth.
NEW JERSEY.

The mean isotherm of 710 degrees passes northward almost parallel
to the Atlantic coast of New Jersey, and at varying distances there-
from. The part of New Jersey lying between this isotherm and the
seacoast is mostly composed of sandy soils, reasonably level. There
are no mechanical difficulties of any magnitude connected with the
culture of the beet, and the problem of fertilization of the soil is one
which is easily solved. The same observations in regard to possibilities
of beet culture may be made of this region of New Jersey as have
been made in respect of Maryland and Delaware. This general obser-
vation relating to the whole may be added:
We have in this area a mean summer temperature of 710. In no
place does it reach the isotherm of 700. The whole region may there-
fore be regarded as representing that of a maximum temperature com-
patible with beet culture. It may be further said that the culture of
the beet should only be pushed south and beyond the isotherm of 710,
where peculiar natural advantages, independent of thermal ctors, are
aflfrded. These natural advantages consist of exceptionally fertile
soil, favorable contour of the surface, cheapness of fuel, facilities for
transportation, etc. A large portion of the region which has been
mentioned is devoted to truck farming for the markets of large cities,
and it is doubttil if this remunerative firm of agriculture could be
replaced successfully with sugar-beet culture in competition with more
northern localities, where richer beets can be produced. Nevertheless,
the possible production of fairly good beets in the regi0n indicated
must be admitted from the point of view of temperature and precipi-
tation alone.






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 29

CONNECTICUT.
It will be observed that, both in respect of precipitation and tem-
perature, te whole of Connecticut may be regarded as lying in the
beet belt. From theoretical considerations, therefore, it could be pre-
dicted that beets grown in Connecticut would show a satisfactory
content of sugar and possess a high purity. So favorable are the theo-
retical conditions in that locality that it would be advisable for the
agricultural experiment stations of the State to make a systematic
agricultural survey of the possibilities of growing beets. The valley
of the Connecticut River affords a fertile field of experiment where
the mechanical conditions of culture and the natural conditions of the
soil are factors which favor success. There are large areas of the State,
Showever, so broken in contour as to render the possibilities of beet cul-
ture unpromising, but wherever large bodies of fairly level land with
good fertility can be found it is fair to presume that the culture of the
sug beet would be attended with success. Conditions which obtain
in Connecticut are also found in the State of Rhode Island, although a
portion of that State lies north of the isotherm of 690. As will be
seen farther along, however, in discussing the conditions of growth in
N-ew York, there are many localities in the United States north of the
isotherm of 690 where beets flourish; in fact, it may be said that the
possibilities of growing beets north of the isotherm of 690, where rea-
soably mild autumns can be expected, are much better than south of
the isotherm of 71.
MASSACHUSETTS.

The valley of the Connecticut, in the State of Massachusetts, ,oubt-
less affords as fine facilities for beet culture as in the State of Con-
necticut. The greater part of the State lies north of the isotherm of
690. As in the case of Connecticut, there are doubtless many regions
in this State north of the isotherm of 69o where, owing to the mild
autumns, the sugar beet may be expected to grow satisfactorily for
sugar-making purposes. A large part of the State is unfitted, by rea-
son of its contour and the nature of the soil, for the culture of beets,
but at least the Connecticut Valley and similar stretches of soil might
be used to good advantage for this purpose.

NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT.

These States, lying north of the isotherm of 69o. will have to contend
in the growth of beets with the shorter growing season and less heac
for the three months of June, July, and August for forcing the beets to
maturity. Nevertheless, it is doubtless true that for a distance of 100
miles, or even more, north of the isotherm of 690 beet culture could be
Sracticed with successon account of the longer sumnmuer days. Samples
of beets received from Vermont nd analyzed in this laboratory show






30 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED TAT.

favorable contents of sugar, and high purities. Those grown also at
the experiment station of Vermont, as will be seen f r on, aff
encouraging data. The thing to be feared in thee localities is not
inability to grow a beet rich in sugar, but the possibility of being able
to harvest and secure it properly before the advent of winter. These
areas do not enjoy the immunity from sudden changes of temperature,
due to the lake breezes, which is characteristic of the great plain of the
State of New York between Albany and Buffalo.

NEW YORK.
In this State we have a remarkable variety of theral conditions."
The mean isotherms of 690 and 700 pass in a southwesterly direction
from Albany into the State of Pennsylvania, following, in general, the
trend of the ranges of the Allegheny Mountains. The influence of
these high altitudes is seen in forcing these isotherms to the south.
The southeastern portion of the State of New York lies, therefre,
within the belt of isotherms peculiarly favorable -to beet culture, with
the exception of the valley of the Hudson from a point a few miles
above Poughkeepsie to the mouth of the river. This valley, including
the city of New York, has a higher temperature than that deemed
most suitable to beet culture. As this valley is, however, unfitted
by reason of its contour to the culture of beets, the above fact is of
little importance. Passing to the west of Albany, the mean summer
.temperatures for the three months of June, July, and August are con-
siderably below the standards which have been mentioned until the
region immediately east of Rochester is reached, where again we find
a mean isotherm of 700, and about Palmyra of almost 710. South-
west of this the mean temperatures of the sunmer are again below 690,
Nevertheless, a fairly satisfactory agricultural survey of this region
has shown that it is capable of producing beets of high quality; and
the effects of the lake breezes upon the climate have doubtless much
to do with this condition. For instance, in regions in this area where
the mean suimmer tem perature is below 690 the autumns are far more
mild than in the similar regions in Minnesota, so that the months of
October and November can both be relied upon with great certainty
for securing the harvest of the beets. As has been before mentioned,
we have in this region a nearer approach to the conditions of beet
growing in orthern Europe thai in any other place in the United
States. This whole region, therefore, must be considered and included
in the area of our country where the theoretical conditions, and where
the actual conditions, of temperature and )recipitation favor the pro-
duction of a beet of high saccharine content. If we should leave out
of the calculation the southern deflection of the isotherm s of 690 and
70, due to the Appalachian systm, and connect direcy thearea, in the
neighborhood of Rochester, where these temperatures btan, with
Albany, neglecting the intermediate temperatures, we should have the
isotherms occupying practically the same position in this new map that






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 31

they were made to occupy in the former maps furnished by the Signal
Office this Department. In the absence of definite information on
the sub it is fair to presume that the former maps were made in
this way, and this accounts for the discrepancy in the position of the
isotherm of 700 found in these maps and in the one now presented.
Abundant experimental data go to show that the total area of the
State of New York south of Saratoga is well suited to the growth of
beets, wherever the physical conditions of contour are favorable and the
soil suitable. The map of the beet area has therefore been extended
so as to include this region in the beet belt.
PENNSYLVANIA.
A large portion of the State of Pennsylvania, from the thermal point
of view alone, is well suited to the growth of beets. The position occu-
pied by the belt of territory included between the isotherms of 690 and
710, however, in the State of Pennsylvania indicates an area which, for
physical reasons, is mostly unsuited to beet culture, as it covers prin-
cipally the mountainous region of that State. The northwestern part
of the State, especially the portion bordering on Lake Erie, has the
same favorable conditions for beet culture as are found in the great
valley of the State of New York; and the principal development of the
industry in that State, for the physical reasons mentioned above, must
be looked for in that section. South of the isotherm-of 710 there may be
favorable regions in the southern and eastern p'rtions of the State, but
the altitude has pushed the isotherms too far south to look for the best
result in the southwestern part of the State, on account of the shorter
days due to the more southern latitude. Where conditions of contour
and fertility of soil are favorable, the whole portion of Pennsylvania
north and west of the isotherm of 710 may be regarded as favorable to
beet culture The precipitation immediately west of the Allegheny
Mountains is not so great as on the east, but there is an area in the
extreme northwestern part of the State where the mean average pre-
cipitation is nearly the same as that east of the mountains, namely,
between 40 and 50 inches.
OHIO.

The northeastern and northern parts of Ohio are well situated for
beet culture. In general, the contour of the land is favorable, being
reasonably level, and the soil is fairly fertile. The conditions in these
localities are fairly comparable with those in the State of New York,
except that the mean temperature is higher, the mean isotherm of 70o
running in a northwesterly direction across the northern part of Ohio
and entering the lake near Sandusky. It is probable also that to a
csierable distance south of the isotherm of 710, good beets can be
grown, but where so large an area is found with more favoring climatic
conditions, it is not well to push the industry too far south until more
favorable localities are fully exploited.






32 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STA

MICHIGAN.
A large part of the southern peninsula of Michigan is directly in the
heart of the beet belt. The contour of the soil is also favorable, being
reasonably level, with an average fertility, and the data which have
been secured in actual experiments in those regions are of the most
encouraging kind. There seems to be no doubt of the fact that this
locality is among the best in the United States for beet culture, and the
modifying influence of the lake on the autumnal climate must not be
lost sight of.
INDIANA.
The northern counties of Indiana, especially the northwestern, are
situated in the beet area, and it is probable that the culture of the beet
may be extended southward, as in the case of Ohio, as far as Fort
Wayne and Lafayette, although it is not advisable for intending
investors to locate in the more southern areas until the more north-
ern have been fully exploited. The agricultural survey of the northern
part of the State, undertaken by the experiment station at Lafayette,
in conjunction with the work of this Department, will indicate finally
with more accuracy than a mere theoretical map the most favorable
conditions of culture. Great interest has been manifested in Indiana
in the extreme southwestern portion, near Evansville, in the culture
of the beet, and, as will be seen in the following data,.many samples
have been secured from that portion of the State. In many respects
this region is most favorable to beet culture, particularly on account of
the facilities for transportation, cheapness of fuel, and the fertility of
the soil. The mean summer temperature, however, is so high as to
cause grave doubts concerning the future success of beet growth in
that locality.
The soil in northern Indiana is much like that of Michigan-sandy,
reasonably level, and fairly fertile-and there is reason to believe that
an industry profitable both to the farmer and manufacturer may grow
up in that part of the country.
ILLINOIS.
The northern part of Illinois is in the beet-sugar belt, and the con-
ditions in respect of contour of the surface and fertility of the soil,
fiilities and chealmess of tralsl)portation, etc., are excellent for the
sugar-beet industry. The chmracter of the soil in northern Illinois,
however, is quite different from that of northern Indiana and the
southern peiinsula of Michigan. It is mostly a prairie soil, dark and
underlaid with clay, so that the physical conditions of culture are
probably not so favorable as in the other sections just named.


Southern Wisconsin occupies a most avorable position for beet
culture, and the data which have bee obtained from at State by
the agricultural experiment station at Madison, in conjunction with the






BEET-UGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 33

work o tis Department, are favorable, and show great possibilities of
succesr the industry in that region. We begin to notice here the
efe southwestern breezes in forcing northward the isotherms
of: 700 n 690, and these hot breezes cut off from the culture of the
ae areas where soil and other conditions are extremely favor-
able. The same remark should be applied to the belt of country imme-
diately south of the isotherm of 710 that has heretofore been made,
namely, that there are doubtless many sections where the successful
culture of the beet may be secured. This is dependent upon local
conditions which must be determined by careful agricultural surveys
in the future.
MINNESOTA.

The deflection in a northwesterly direction of the isotherms of 700
and 690 includes in the sugar-beet area a large portion of the State of
Minnesota, especially the southeastern portion. Here there is no
question of the growth of the crop and the production of beets of high
charine qualities. The great point to be feared in this locality is
the early approach of winter, and this is true of all the cis-montane
western regions. We find here a drop in the rainfall from an annual
verage of 30 to 40 inches to one of from 20 to 30 inches. We there-
femeet here a greater possibility of suffering from a dry season
than in the regions of the East. As a rule, however, the quantity of
rainfall during the growing season is sufficient for the production of a
good crop.
IOWA.

Sremarkable deflection of the isotherms of 690 and 700 is noticed
in passing from Minnesota to Iowa. Not only are these isotherms
deflected toward the south, but they actually take a backward course
toward the east, so that their direction for a considerable distance is
east of south. This brings the theoretical beet belt, so tar as tempera-
ture is concerned, almost through the center of the State of Iowa.
The well-known fertility of the soil of this State, with the generally
level character of the surface, shows that the agricultural possibilities
for the growth of sugar beets are great. In the greater part of the
tate the rainfall reaches 30 inches per annum, but in the northwestern
part the approach to the arid region is shown by a dropping off of the
average rainfall, so that it is between 20 and 30 inches. Nevertheless,
xperience shows that, as a rule, a sufficient rainfall is provided in all
as of the State for the growth of ordinary agricultural crops. The
i so sof 69 and 70, after passing partly across the State of Iowa
ta sudden turn toward the north and west and pass out of the State
aga ito Minnesota, where they reach a more northern latitude than
Minneolis. With the exception of the southwestern counties of
it is fair to presume that alost the whole of the area of the
State, in so far as thermal conditions and rainfall are concerned, is
H. Doc. 396---3






34 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

suited to the growth of beets. Of course, in this matter, it should be
remembered, that local conditions of soil, transportation, fuel supply,
and other factors must be taken into consideratio. wa also occupies
a position where there is no tempering influence of the northwestern
winds, so that it begins to feel the rigors of the winter at an earlier
date than is experienced on the same isotherms east of the Great Lakes.
NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA.
The conditions which prevail in North and South Dakota are some-
what unique. From the highest position attained in Minnesota, at the
border line between that State and North and South Dakota, the iso-
therm of 69o turns again east and south and suffers a considerable
deflection, due doubtless to the lower altitude of the Red River Valley.
Passing, however, into Dakota the isotherms are rapidly pushed north-
ward by reason of the hot southwest winds which are so often experi-
enced in the summer time in those localities. For these reasons the
isotherm of 690 reaches almost as far north as Bismarck, and the iso-
therm of 700 is only a few miles south of it. From this point the
isotherms of 690 and 700 run almost due south from North Dakota
entirely across the State of South Dakota and into Nebraska. The
most favorable beet-sugar belt, in so far as the temperature alone is
concerned, would be the area bounded by the isotherms of 71 and 69
degrees, occupying a belt of considerable breadth running north and
south through South Dakota into North Dakota, and southeast through
North Dakota back into South Dakota. The depression due to the
Missouri River causes an area of higher temperature to extend in a
northwesterly direction into South Dakota. This area, although per-
haps not so favorable to beet growth as the.other, is still situated in a
fertile country, and doubtless has many advantages for growing beets
not possessed by the higher lands to the east and west of it. There is
no question of the ability of both the regions within the area specified
to grow beets of fine saccharine strength. Abundant experimental
data have been secured from both the States to substantiate this state-
ment. Caution, however, must again be given in regard to the sudden
advent of the winters, especially in North Dakota, where sometimes in
October, and usually in November, temperatures approaching zero or
even below zero, degrees Fahrenheit, are observed. These sudden falls
of temperature would prove disastrous to the beet harvests, and hence
tend to restrict to a certain degree the spread of the industry in that
country. Again, attention should be called to the fat that the whole
of the areas in the two Dakotas, where the thermal conditions are
best suited to beet culture, has an average annual rainfall of only
from 15 to 20 inches. The danger of drought and the possible shortag
or loss of the crop from that source are therefore increased,and we begin
to approach an area where artificial irrigation must be looked to in
many seasons. Probably, however, in the majority of se s the rain
fall in thi vicinity wold be sufficient to secure a ood cro






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 35
NEBRASKA.
A study of the position of the isotherms shows that the best part of
the State of Nebraska, both as respects soil and rainfall, has an average
temperature of more than 710 during the summer months. The most
favorable conditions of temperature are found almost in the center of
the State over an area of somewhat irregular shape, and occupying a
position where the extreme distance separating the isotherms of 710
and 690 is the greatest of any in the country. In Nebraska the two
isotherms of 69 and 700 run almost parallel, but the isotherm of 710
runs first in a southeasterly direction, then almost south, and finally
almost due west, forming a stomach-shaped area occupying a portion
of Dakota and the central portion of Nebraska. The agricultural and
analytical data which have been obtained in Nebraska are very exten-
sive, and it will be observed that both of the sugar factories which have
been established in that State are south of the limit of 710. It has been
observed also, by those who have had access to the analytical data of
these two factories, that the saccharine contents of the beets which have
been delivered to them have not been equal to those of beets grown in
more favorable localities in the United States. On the other hand, the
insufficiency of the rainfall in the central and western portions of the
State renders less certain the growth of sugar beets, and tends to crowd
the sugar factories and the sugar industry into the wetter and more
fertile portions, in spite of the fact that the temperature is higher.
THE ARID REGIONS.
It will now be necessary to trace the theoretical sugar-beet belt, so
far as thermal conditions are concerned, by States through the arid
regions. There is so little of the area embraced in this belt which is
subject to irrigation, that it is understood at once that the possible beet-
sugar industry of that region must be confined to the most favorable
localities. It is interesting to see, however, how the elevation produced
by the Rocky Mountain range deflects the isotherms which have been
traced in a generally westerly direction up to this point so far to the
south. Passing from Nebraska, the isotherm of 700 runs in a south-
westerly direction to a point southwest of Denver, whence it turns in a
southeasterly direction to New Mexico, thence almost due south to near
the Mexican border. Being deflected to the west, it ascends on the
other side of the Rocky Mountain range in a general northerly and
westerly direction, passing in a northwesterly direction through Utah,
thence turning west and south in Nevada, being deflected again to the
south by the Sierra Nevada range of mountains, which it crosses, pass-
ing fromNevada into California, whence it passes northward again
along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains until it comes
near the coast line in the northern part of California. Thence the
isotherm of 700 is deflected southward, almost parallel with the coast
line until it passes into lower California. It is seen that all the coast






6 BEET-UGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED

valleys of California are included in the thermal belt most favorble t
beet culture. The greater part of the area included in the th
belt which has just been traced across the arid region is totally unsuited,
on account of the mountainous and rough region of the surface, r
agricultural uses. It is therefore evident that it is onl in isolated
places, where the surface of the land is smooth and irrigation can be
practiced, that beet culture can be established. In connection with the
thermal belt, the map shows that the mean average rainfall in many
cases does not exceed 5 inches per annum.
In addition to the continuous belt thus marked out, there are some
areas of varying temperature which demand attention, as, for instance,
the elliptical area bounded by the isotherm of 700 in Idaho, of which
Boise City is the center, and another area bound by the isotherm of
700, within which an isotherm of 710 is found, in the State of Washing-
ton. There is also one locality in Montana, on the Yellowstone River,
where the average summer temperature is 710.
In so far as thermal conditions are concerned, vast areas of the aid
regions could be devoted to beet culture if the other conditions of cul-
ture were favorable. The differences of elevation of the plateaus cause
numerous sudden changes of temperature, so that there are doubtless
many localities not marked on the map where the mean summer tem-
perature is almost identical with that which has bn already mapped.
out. By reason of the meagerness of data, experimental and other-
wise, relating to this whole region west of the Missouri River, the
shading showing the probable extension of the beet area beyond the
borders of the basic thermal belt has been omitted. The nera dis-
cussion of this thermal belt, accompanied as it is by the chart of pre-
cipitation, is not necessary at this point. In general, in connection
with this study, the remarks which are made in Bulletin No. 27, on
page 169, and repeated in Farmers' Bulletin No. 52, may be recalled
with profit:
The mistake must not be made of supposing that all the region included within
the boundaries of this zone is suitable for beet culture. Rivers, hills, and moun-
tains occupy a large portion of it, and much of the rest would be excluded for vari-
ous reasons. In the western portion, perhaps all but a small part of it would be
excluded by mountains and drought. Beginning at a point midway between the one
hundredth and one hundredth and first meridian, as ndicated by the dotted line,
beets could be grown only in exceptional places without rrigation. On the Pacific
coast only that portion of the zone lying near the ocean will be found suitable for
beet culture.
On the other hand, there are many localities lying outside the ndated belt, both
north and south, where doubtless the sugar beet will be found to thrive. The map,
therefore, mut be taken to indicate only in a geeral way tose localities at or near
which we should expect success to attend the growth of sugar beets in the most
favorable conditions other than temperature alone.
The present map (Plate 1) gives in greater detail than ever before
the boundaries of this thermal belt, by reason of the fact that the






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 37

observations of the -Teather Bureau have been more numerous, and
have been compiled in a more systematic manner. It would be idle to
assert tha subsequent observations of the Weather Bureau may not
change in a marked degree the boundaries of the belt which has been
mapped. It is also quite true that the agricultural surveys which will
be conducted by the several States will locate definitely, beyond the
limits already outlined, the areas where successful beet culture will be
practiced. I may venture the prediction, however, that these areas
wil be contiguous to the zone which is already mapped out, and that
the future beet-sugar industry of the United States, when it shall have
reached a magnitude sufficient to supply to our people a large part of
the sugar they consume, will be located almost entirely within the areas
which have thus been traced.

DATA FROM DIFFERENT STATES.

Two methods of collecting the data from States have been pursued.
In the first place, those receiving seeds directly from the Department
of Agriculture were supplied with Farmers' Bulletin No. 52, giving
instructions for preparing the soil, and planting and cultivating the
beets. Each person was also supplied with a series of blanks for the
purpose of obtaining cultural and climatic data, and for securing as
great accuracy as possible in the reports which were made. The data
blanks used are represented in the following forms:

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
Washington, D. C., August 15, 1897.
DIRCTIONS FOR TAKING SAMPLES OF SUGAR BEETS FOR ANALYSIS.
Prepared by H. W. WILEY, Chief of Division of Chemistry.
When the beets appear to be mature (September 15 to November 15, according tn
latitude and time of planting) and before any second growth can take place, select
an average row or rows, and gather every plant along a distance which should vary
as follows, according to the width between rows:
From rows 1f inches apart, length 75 From rows 22 inches apart, length 54f
feet. feet.
From rows 13 inches apart, length 66 From rows 24 inches apart, length 50
feet. feet.
From rows 20 inches apart, length 59 From rows 28 inches apart, length 42-T
feet. feet.
The beets growing in the row, of the length above mentioned, are counted. The
tops are removed, leaving about an inch of the stems, the beets carefully washed
free of all dirt and wiped with a towel. Where the row is not long enough to meet
the conditions, take enough from the adjacent row or rows to make up the required
length. Rows of average excellence must be selected; avoid the best or poorest.
Throw the beets promiscuously in a pile and divide the pile into two parts. This
subdivision, of one-half each time, is continued until there are about ten beets in a
pile. From these ten select wo of medium size. Be careful not to select the largest
or simallest.







38 BEET -SUGAR IDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

From all of the rest of the beets, save these two, the necks are removed with a sharp
knife at the point indicated by the dotted line in the figure (fig. 1). The beets,
including the two saved as a sample, are then weighed.
The number of beets
harvested multiplied
by 435.6 will give the
1total number per acre.
The total weight of
beets harvested multi-
/plied by 435.6 will give
Sthe yield per acre.
Wrap the two sam-
/ ple beets carefully in
soft paper, and write
-- your name legibly
Sthereon. The beet
1nmust be perfectly dry.
I Fill out the blank de-
\ scribing the beets, in-
close it in the envelope,
and sew it up in the
bag with the beets
Attach the inclosed
shipping tag to the
bag and send the pack-
age by mail.
No beets will be ana-
lyzed which are not
sampled as described
labove and properly
identified.
Miscellaneous anal-
yses of samples with-
Sout accurate descrip-
tion are of no value.
Blanks are ent to
each one for two sets
of samples. From two
to four weeks should
elapse between the
times of sending the
FIG. L-Indicatiag point at which top of beet should be cut off. sets of samples.
If additional analy-
ses be desired, other blanks will be sent on application, but not more than four
aalyses can be made for any one person, except in special cae.
A model, showing how blanks should be filled out, is inclosed.


[Model B.]
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRCULTURE.
MonDtL FOR D1 R SCIBIN SAMPLE OF SUGAR BEETS.
Prepared by 1. W. WIEY, Chief of Diiion of Chemitry.
Variety: Kleinwanzlebner.
Date planted: May 3, 1897.
Date thinned: June 3, 1897.
Date harvested: November 5, 1897.







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 39

Character of soil: Black prairie loam; in cultivation for 20 years, chiefly in corn;
level, tile-drained; last crop, oats; no fertilizer was used; barnyard manure applied
in 1895.
Character cultivation (dates, implements, etc.): Plowed November, 1896, 8
inche deep, subsoiled 6 inches; harrowed with disk harrow May 1, 1897; rolled;
seed planted with hand drill one-half inch deep; plants up May 16; stand excellent;
hoed by hand May 22; plowed with horse hoe May 28 and June 8, 16, 24, July 3, 10,
and 17.
Length of row harvested (feet): 66.
Width between rows (inches): 18.
Number of beets harvested: 88.
Total weight of beets, less necks and tops (pounds): 88.
Weather for each month: May, dry; June, copious rains; July, fine growing
weather; August, hot and dry; September, dry until the 24th, when a heavy rain
fell.
State: Iowa.
Post-office: Hanover, Buena Vista County.
Date: November 17, 1897.
Name: Robert Simpson.
NowT.-Beets will not be analyzed unless accompanied with description as above.
It is evident that in promiscuous experimentation of this kind, even
when directions are closely followed, and when all the operations are
conducted in accordance with the directions in Farmers' Bulletin No.
52, and the procedure described in the blanks for taking samples faith-
fully followed, the data are still of an unsatisfactory nature. For
instace, when a plot of beets has been harvested and quartered until
the two beets required for a sample have been selected in accordance
with directions, we still have an uncertainty prevailing as to whether
the two beets correctly represent the whole lot. In fact, it is well
known that the variations in the character of beets grown side by side
are very great, far more so than is the case with sugar canes. As an
illustration of this, the following analyses, giving the weight and sugar
content of every beet grown in a row at the experiment station of
Kentucky, is sufficient evidence:
Analyses of all the beets in a row, Kentucky station.

Serial Weight Sucrose Serial rose Serial Weigh Sucrose
No. it n in beets. No. fter in beets. No. ftrp g in beets.
topping. topping. topping.
Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
1985 27 7.7 2009 8 8.2 2033 10 8. 1
1986 25 9.9 2010 4 9.3 2034 10 7. 2
1987 24 10.4 2011 1 9.9 2035 12I 9.1
1988 24 10.6 2012 1 10.5 2036 11 9.0
1989 20 8.6 2013 2 9.6 2037 11 9.8
1990 20 7.9 2014 31 10.9 2038 9 8.8
1991 28 6.7 2015 3k 9.9 2039 9 7.4
1992 31 9.0 2016 34 8.2 2040 8 9.7
1993 18 10.4 2017 27 7.0 2041 11 8. 9
1994 24 9.0 2018 20 9.3 2042 8 9.3 .
1995 53 4.8 2019 8 11.9 2043 9 6.9
1996 19 8.2 2020 16 6.2 2044 8 10.4
1997 33 2.6 2021 22 8.0 2045 7 9.4
1998 16 9.9 2022 15 6.8 2046 5 8.2
1999 2 10.7 2023 20 9.8 2047 4 8.4
2000 2 8.8 2024 26 9.0 2048 5 8.6
2001 2 9.6 2025 16 9.4 2049 4 8.7
2002 13 8.9 2026 18 9.7 2050 4 10. 5
2003 8 9.6 2027 18 6 6 2051 4 9.3
2004 12 11. 0 2028 15 8.6 2052 3 10.7
2005 6 10.5 2029 11 9.3 2053 2 12.2
200 11.1 2030 17 4.9 2054 Ij 10.6
2007 5 10.6 2031 12 6.8 2055 1 9.9
2008 1| 10.2 2032 12 6.9 2056 11 11.2






40 BEET-SUGARY IN THE UNITED S

The great variations which exist, both in size qulity of b
are most strikingly shown by the above figures. The varatn i
extends from 1 to 53 ounces, and in sugar content from2. to 12.2 per
cent. When, however, it is considered that all overgrown and un
grown beets are rejected in taking the samples, and only those of
medium size and perfect form selected, it is evident that the chances
of the sample representing fairly the average of the whole lot are very
much improved. Even granting this, however, it is unsatisfactory to
depend upon the analysis of two or three samples alone for determin-
ing the character of the whole plot. It is evident, however, that on
account of the nature of the method of investigation d the undesira-
bility of burdening the mails with too many samples, it is impracticable
to do better than has been done in this matter. The aalyses of all of
the samples which were sent to the Department of Agriculture from
each of the States and Territories are given in the tables which are
found farther along. For convenience of reference, the analyses re
tabulated by counties in each case.
The second method of collecting data was throughthe cooperation
of the agricultural experiment stations. To facilitate this, the ecre
tary of Agriculture appointed the directors of these stations special
correspondents of the Department for distributing the seed and collect
ing the beets for analysis. The analyses were made by he chemists
of the several stations, and they are given below, grouped under the
various States. Where the cooperation of the agricultural experiment
stations was secured, the reports are given by the director or off in
charge. Inasmuch as the details of these analyses are published by the
various stations, including the names and residences of the persons
who grew the beets, in the present report only the averages of the
analyses by counties or sections, together with sch observations as
have seemed desirable, are given. The reports of the directors and
other officers in charge contain much interesting material, and in some
cases are given without abbreviation.

DATA OBTAINED IN THE LABORATORY OF THE DEPARTMENT O
AGRICULTURE.

The analyical data obtaine during the season of 1897 in the Depart-
ient of Agriculture have been classified as follows:
The data obtained from each State or Territory collected by counties
or sections and te general aerae for ach county are as follows
The analytical tables showing the data of the Department samples
contain the names of the States and counties arranged alphabetically.
The name of each county is followed by a symbol in the ape of a
square to designate the position of the county in the State The plain
square shows that the county is situated in the central while a
straight line attaced to the center of the top of the qa shows the
county is in te orther art of the State; attahed a






BEET-UGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 41

direction to the upper right-hand corner, that it is in the northeastern
portiof the State; attached to the center of the right side, shows it
is in the eatern portion of the State; attached to the lower right-hand
corner, that it is in the southeastern portion; attached to the center of
the lower side of the square, that it is in the southern part; to the
lower left-hand corner, in the southwestern; to the center of the left-
hand side of the square, in the western part, and to the upper left-hand
corner, in the northwestern.
The tables also state the number of samples received from each
county, the average weight of the samples in ounces, the average per
cent of sugar in the beet, the average purity coefficient of the juice,
and the maxima and minima percentages of sugar in the juice and
the coefficients of purity.
In many cases the quantity of juice was too small to compute the
purity in the usual way, and in others the low percentage of sugar
rendered the ascertainment of the purity unnecessary. These two rea-
sons account for the omission in many instances of the number express-
ing the purity of the juice.

CAUTIONS REGARDING THE VALUE OF THE DATA.

It is highly important that the persons using the analytical data
contained in the following tables be cautioned in regard to the value
which should be attached thereto. It is evident, in the first place,
that samples which have been grown in such a promiscuous way as
those received by the Department, in so many different characters of soil,
under so many different climatic conditions, and with such variable
culture, water supply, and fertilizing maherials, must lack that uni-
formity of value which should characterize scientific data in general.
Attention has already been called, moreover, to the fact that the few
samples of beets which have been sent can not be regarded as exactly
representing the whole mass of which they originally formed a part.
The variations in individuals are so great under practically identical
conditions as to render somewhat doubtful data which are based upon
a few samples alone. For instance, in the comparison of different
States in respect of sugar-producing qualities, it may be that one
State is represented by perhaps less than 50 samples, while others may
ave 500 or 1,000. In such eases the average of the 50 samples does
not in any way present such convincing data as the average of 1,000.
The greater the number of samples examined, the more nearly will
the disturbing influences of individuals be eliminated. When it comes
to a comparison of the counties in the several States, the same remarks
ar true. In many instances a county may be represented by a single
sample. It may be that the sample is extremely good or extremely poor.
In neither case is it representative. It would be unjust, therefore, to
compare a county with one sample with another from which 50, 100, or
200 samle have been received. Even in the averas reresentin






42 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STA

the samples from a single county or locality care must be taken not to
be misled. The samples may include, for instance, very sml beet
with an excessive sugar content, or a very larg one with a deficiet
sugar content. In case only two or three samples constitute the whole
number, the influence of these abnormal samples is raised to a maximum.
As an illustration of this, the analysis of samples from Clinton County,
Ill., may be cited as a type of many others. Three samples were received
from this county, the average weight of which was 13 ounces, and the
average sugar content 15.7 per cent. One of these samples, however,
weighed only 4 ounces, and had the abnormal sugar content of 21.2 per
cent. It is evident, therefore, that the average percentage of sugar in
the three samples is very much higher than it would have been ha they
all been normal in size.
Another point must not be forgotten, and that is, granting that the
samples of any locality are representative, they represent only one
season. That season may have been peculiarly favorable or unfavorable,
and hence no section should be judged by the results of a single year's
experiment. The reader who wishes to study critically the data which
follow must take all these facts into consideration, and the judgment
which he may form in regard to any particular section must be sub-
ject to the rectifications indicated by the variable factors mentioned
above.





Table 8howinug mean analyses and maxima and minima of te beets examined in the ocemical laboratory of tAe United States Department of Agrioulture
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties.


Number Averages. Maxima. Minima.
State. County. of Sugar in Purity W it Sugar in PuritySuar n Purity
samples. Weight. the beet. coefficient W the beet. coeficient thebeet. ent


Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
Arioa ...................................... Apache o-........... 1 26 9,6 70.4 ...... ..................................................
Pima y .............. 6 23 9.3 ......... 30 12.0 .......... 9 7.6 .........

___ -=--= -- --
Averages, etc.................................................. 7 23 9.3 .......... 30 12..0 .......... 9 7.6 .........

Arkansas ..................................... Phillips -........... 1 19 10.6 ......................... .......... .............................
Poinsett cd ............. 1 17 11.9 71.5 ......... ..............................................
___---- ----- --- ------- --------------------_- __ _--- __-I---____----- ---- --- -------- S__ _
Averages, etc.................... ........ ........................ 2 18 11.3 .......... 19 11.9 .......... 17 10.6 ..........

California..................................... Mendooino ........ 1 26 16.8 .......... ...............................................................

Colorado ..... ..... .. ..................... Bent 1 .............. 2 19 17.1 .......... 20 19.4 .......... 18 14.7 .........
Boulder 6 ............ 9 31 15.3 80.9 62 20.0 86.4 15 12.5 77.0
Chaffee ............. 2 22 15. 5 .......... 28 17.4 .......... 16 13.6 .........
Conejos 0 ............ 12 29 13.9 77.9 49 17.0 85.9 12 10.5 70.6
Costilla ............ 4 20 13.2 82.3 28 16. 3 86.9 12 9.3 84.6
Delta .............. 2 20 17.1 80.5 23 18.6 84.3 16 15.5 76.7
Douglas o............ 5 23 15.1 76.8 34 18.7 85.5 12 9.6 69.4
Eagle [ ......... ..... 1 14 14.5 81.7 ....... .. ........... ..... .......... .......... ..........
Elbert ............. 13 18 14.7 77.6 45 18.7 87.7 8 9.7 68.9
El Pasoo ............ 3 22 13.9 76.6 39 14.7 80.1 6 12.7 73.1
Fremont ........... 4 19 14.8 80.7 33 17.0 84.8 11 12.4 75.6
Garfield b........... 16 14 16.6 83.2 28 20.9 85.9 9 14.4 79.4
Huerfano D ......... 1 14 17.8 .......... .......... ............ ......... .. ....... .......... -
Larimer ............ 9 21 13.3 77.8 28 16.7 84.5 '14 8.8 68.9 T
Logan d .............. 23 15 9.6 73.8 43 16.5 83.3 4 4.1 63.4 4
Mesa -o .............. 4 29 15.1 81.9 49 17.6 88.1 18 11.9 75.6
Morgan f .............. 34 16 12.0 75.5 32 16.1 82.8 6 8.1 68.0 M
Otero q ............. 6 28 13.7 79.0 35 17.3 84.3 16 10.7 75.2 H
Phillips ... ........ 4 33 12.0 71.4 60 14.7 75.4 18 9.7 68.9 4
Prowers D............. 5 20 14.8 77.5 34 17.1 83.9 10 12.0 72.8 8
Pueblo P ............. 1 16 20.2 85.9 .............. .......... ...............................
Rio Grande 9 ........ 5 20 15.1 80.0 33 17.6 84.1 7 12.4 76.5
Rot ttU .............. 2 10 18.8 ......... 11 19.0 .......... 10 18.6 .........
Saguacho d .......... 3 23 12.1 .......... 34 16.5 ......... 10 8.0 .........
Washington ....... 2 15 14.3 80.2 19 14.8 82.0 11 13.8 78.4
Weld d'............... 2 34 14.8 86.5 40 16.2 87.0 27 13.4 85.9

Averages, etc... ........................... ....................... 174 20 13.6 76.7 62 20.9 88.1 4 4.1 63.4 .
_ _- .. = -







Table hot wig mnean analyese and maxima and minima of the beets examined in the chemical laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture 4
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties-Continued.

Number Averages. Maxima. Minima.
State County. Sugar in Purity Weight. Sugar in Purity Weight. Sugar in Purity
amples. Weight. h beet. coefficient g the beet. coefficient the beet. cbefficient

.-------------------------------------------~--------------
Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
Idabo..................................... Blgham q ........... 5 18 16.2 80.5 26 18.2 86.7 6 13.9 73.2 0
Fremont .......... 2 27 14.0 77.1 32 16.1 80.1 21 11.9 74.1 1
----- -------- -- ----------------------- Q
Average,et.............................................. 7 21 15.5 79.4 32 18.2 86.7 6 11.9 73.2
Il ...................................... Burau ............ 1 15 11.6 78. 1 ......... ......... .. ....................................
Clark c-.............. 1 18 13.8 86.8 ..... .. ........... ..
Clinton ..........-.. 83 13 15.7 73. 7 21 21.2 74.1 4 12.8 73.2 2
Cook T............... 6 12 12.7 76.8 17 18.7 78.4 6 10.0 75.2
Cumberland D-....... 2 24 14.3 77.8 32 15.2 84.7 16 13.4 70.9
Edwards ........... 1 8 12.7 69.0 ............................... .. ...........
Eingha ......... 2 8 11.1 .........8 11.8 .......... 7 10.3 .........
Franklin 9............. 1 20 11.2 67.8 .......... .......... .......... ......... ......... ..........
Henry ............. 18 13.6 76.2 19 14.5 80.8 16 12.6 73.7
Jackson ............ 1 13 14.0 76.8 .......... .......... ....... ......... ..........
Jefferson ? ............ 1 9 10.2 ..... .............. .............. ....... ................ ..........
McHenry .......... 1 57 11.9 73.0 .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Macoupin .......... 1 12 1.1 72.2 .................. .......... .......... .......... ..........
ason i ............. 1 30 12. 6 81.0 ................................ ............................
Peoria ............. 1 22 14.7 77.0 .................... .......... ......... ..... ......
Rock Island ........ 1 30 10.6 78.1 ................... ....... ......................
Saint Clairp ......... 2 12 16.4 ......... 13 166 .......... 10 18.2 ..........
Sangamon .......... 2 14 12.4 69.9 18 12.8 72.0 11 11.9 67.7 7
Union 9.............. 1 28 8.3 .................... ...................... ..... .......... ......
verages,etc ........................... 82........................32 17 13.1 75.5 57 21.2 88.8 4 8.3 67.7
....................................... Allen .............. 3 28 13.4 77.7 37 15.0 78.7 17 11.9 78.4
Delaware .......... 1 20 14.3 77. .......... .......... .................... .......... ..........
Elkhart 6............ 4 15 14.8 77.6 16 16.0 82.1 13 13.6 72.6
Hendricks o ......... 1 14 13.9 82.9 ......... .......... .......... .......... ....................
Renory o.----.......... 8 17 13.1 78.5 25 15.9 81.6 5 9.4 73.1
K nox 3 .............. 1 28 10.0 71.4 .......... .......... .. ....... .......... .......... .........
Madison 0 ........... 3 16 14.4 82.4 17 17.1 85.6 14 12.1 79.1
Marion 0 ........... 1 9 15.1 81.9 ... ..... .... *......... ..............
Morgan 0 ............ 3 14 14.8 80.3 17 14.9 81.5 914.3 78.8
Pulaski Cf............ 6 16 13.5 73.2 20 14.9 78.4 10 11.9 74.6
Rush o ............... 1 21 12.9 80.0 .................... ......................................
Starke ............. 10 32.8 15.7 81.8 17 18.4 88.4 9 11.4 71.3
Tippecano7-o ........ 17 7 15.1 81.1 20 19.3 84.4 3 12.3 78.
. .............. .... .. .. .. .....





Union o .............. 2 15 14.7 709.8 1 15.3 82.9 14 14.0 7t.6
Vanderburg p........ 40 14 11.2 77. 42 18.8 87.7 7 7.8 71.4
arrck ........ .. 1 14 8 ..... .................................. .......... ....
W hitley CY ............ '1 16 14.0 88.1 .................... .......... .......... ........ .. ...... ....
Averageseto ........................... ........................ 103 14 13.1 78.9 42 19.1 88.4 38 7.8 1 *
Iowa..................................... .... ir.......... .... 1 19 12.6 74.2 ................................................ ....... .
Adams ............. 3 19 12.9 75.4 24 18.4 78.8 17 12.2 68.8
Allanakee d......... .1 20 14.7 76.6......... .................... ................. .
Appanoose i. ......... 1 7 19.0 .................................... .............................
Benton 0-............. 6 16 13.8 76.9 18 18.2 77.7 13 9.5 73.4
Bremer --............ 2 15 13.6 81.3 15 15.7 83.3 14 11.6 79.2
Butler 6 ............. 1 48 10.7 72.7 .................... .......... ..........................
Calhoun-o............ 2 10 18.1 ..........12 18.1 .......... 10 16.1 ..........
Carroll -............... 1 20 14.0 80.8 ............................ ........... .........
Cas ...............3 17 11.4 71.7 20 12.3 75.0 16 10.8 67.7
Cerro Gordo 6 ..... 1 32 12.7 77.8 .......... .................................... ..........
Clinton 0- ........... 5 11 16.8 75.8 12 18.2 77.7 9 15.4 78.2
Crawford .......... 2 20 8.5 .......... 24 11.0 .......... 15 6.1 ..........
Dallas I? ............. 3 18 13.9 76.4 26 14.8 79.1 14 13.3 75.1
Davis 9 .............. 2 15 16.1 72.4 20 16.4 74.1 10 15.8 70. 8
Decatur ........... 1 16 15.6 79.2 ..................................... .............
Dclkinsonb .......... 1 15 10.9 69.7 ......................................... ........
Dubuque lD-........... 1 17 10.0 68.3 .................... ................. ..... .............
Franklin ........... 1 14 14. 3 73.5 .................................... ................
Greene ............. 39 21 12.7 76.3 32 16.7 87.4 10 9.8 66.7
Guthrie p............ 6 23 12.5 78.8 30 15. 0 84.0 17 10.0 74.5
Howard ,............ 1 24 15.3 78.8 .................... .....................................
Hiumbtoldt 6 ......... 1 8 18.0 ............................. ..................... ..........
Jefferson ........... 1 14 11.8 76.5 ........ ........ ..... .. ............................
Keokuk ............ 3 12 13.2 .......... 15 14.3 .......... 7 12.5 ....
K suth 6 ........... 2 32 10.7 72.7 34 11.1 73.9 30 10.3 71.5
Linn D- ............... 1 10 11.8 67.7 .......................... ..........................
Louisaq.............. 2 19 12.8 70.3 20 13.3 71.7 18 12.2 68.8
Moon-os ............. 1 13 13.8 78.8 ..... ...... ... ..................... ....................
M uscatine o-......... 2 18 14.3 80.8 18 14.3 81.0 17 14.2 80,.6
O'Brien b ............ 15 16 13.8 76.1 32 16.4 83.0 9 9.6 69.1
Polk a ............... 1 10 11.3 ...... .......................................................
Story D .............. 5 13 14.7 76.6 20 17.3 82.6 11 12.8 72.4 0P
Tama o .............. 3 20 11.9 78.0 24 13.5 80.6 15 10.7 74.9
Van Buren ......... 3 19 13.0 74.5 21 18.0 83.2 17 10.5 65.9
Wnashington ....... 3 18 13.7 78.8 26 15.0 84.8 14 12.5 71.3
Wayne (............. 1 10 14.0 ....................................... .......... .......... ..........
Winneshiek ........ 2 18 13.4 78.3 22 13.6 79.9 14 13.1 76.6
Averages,et...................... ....................... 130 18 13.3 73.7 48 19.0 87.4 7 6.1 65.9
Kansas.................................... Allen q ............... 2 28 11.1 71.5 35 11.5 71.8 20 10.6 71 2
Anderson 0-......... 2 88 10.9 74.5 110 10.9 76.0 65 10.8 72.9
Barton 0 ............. 26 24 11.0 72.4 57 13.3 78.3 10 7.2 65. 7
Clay 6 .............. 1 37 9.7 68.9 .... .......... ...... .................. ........






Table showing mean analyses and maxima and minfima of the beets examined in the chemical laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture .
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties-Continued.

Averages. Maxima. Minima.
Number
State. County. sa les. Weiht. Sugar in Purity eigt. Sugar in Purity Weiglt. Sugar in Purity
mp We the beet. coefficient i the beet. oelicient t beet. coeticient

Ounces. P cent. Ounces. Per ceent. Ounces. Per cent. l
........................................ Cloud 6 .............. 1 15 14.8 82.4 .......... .......... .......... .......... ....................
Douglas 0-........... 2 26 12.7 80.4 28 13.3 80.8 23 12.1 79. 9
Lane ............... 2 11 16.2 84.5 11 17.8 85.3 10 14.6 83. 6
Montgomery ....... 2 15 11.2 ......... 21 15.7 .......... 8 6.6 .6 .......
Morris c-............. 1 34 11.5 70.4 ..... ... ...............................
Sedgwick ......... 1 22 13.8 70.8 ... ........... ....... ........ .... ........................
Woodson .......... 1 35 10.8 73.5 ......... .................. ........ ... ..........
Wyandotte C .......... 1 48 9.4 ......... ............................. .......... .........
Average et................................................ 41 27 11.4 73.8 110 17.8 85.3 8 6. 6 65. 7
A. ---------.-------- ---.85.3.8.....
Xentuky................................... aviess ............ 1 9 15.7 83.3 .................................................
Fayette ] ............ 4 19 11.2 68.5 21 13.3 72.5 17 9.5 65.0 0
Henry 6 .............. 1 10 11.1 ................... ........ ..... ............ ... .......... ...
Ave ............................ ...... .. 6 16 11.9 71.5 21 15.7 83.3 9 9.5 65.0
Maryland .......... ..... ................ Anne Arndel ..... 4 22 7.7 73.8 26 10.5 80.3 19 3.2 67.2
Baltimore .......... 3 21 .8 .......... 38 11.1 .......... 8 8.9 ..........
Frederick .......... 2 2u 13.5 82.9 24 13.7 83.2 15 13.2 82.7
Harford f ........... 4 13 13.8 78.9 16 15.7 82.7 7 11.6 76.6
Montgomer o ....... 4 23 11.9 85.0 35 14.6 85.4 18 8.6 84.5
Princeeorge ...... 3 16 12.9 81.9 26 13.6 85.7 11 12.6 79.7
Talbot -............. 3 15 11.2 78.9 19 12.9 81.8 10 9.3 75. 9
Wahngtn ....... 5 18 11.8 73.5 25 15.6 77.1 12 8.0 66.8
Wicomico Q........ 1 32 9.0 ..........................................................
i ~B fd: i-----.-:----- ---------- ------------------------------ ---------- tv i "
Averagesetc ..................................... ........ 29 19 11.4 79.1 38 15.7 85. 7 83.2 66.8
Michigan..................................... Allegan ............ 3 62 8 .......... 82 9.9 .......... 50 4.1 ..........
Alpena ............. 2 18 13.7 81.2 24 14.4 85.4 12 13.0 77.0
Arna ......... 1 26 8.9 ........ .......... .......... .................... ................
arry .............. 1 19 15.2 83.7 ...... ................................................
ay o-................ 5 24 14.2 80.5 40 16.2 83.7 16 13.2 74.6
Cahon ............ 8 17 15.8 83.2 32 16.9 89.8 12 15.1 79.8
Delta .............. 2 17 16.4 .......... 24 20.2 .......... 10 12.5 ..........
Dickison .......... 2 18 14.1 81.4 18 14.1 81.4 17 12.7 75.
Gene e ............ 1 28 14.6 81 4 .................... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Huron o............. 3 19 15.3 81.9 24 16.2 82.9 16 14.2 81.0
Isablla ............ 5 24 13.3 82.2 26 16.4 86.8 20 8.2 85.7





*Kalamazoo ......... 2 24 16.7 78.9 29 19.0 85.7 18 14.3 72.2
Kalkaska 6 .......... 1 35 16.5 82.9 ....................................------ ...-.....---....--
Macomb o--...-....... 3 13 16.8 80.8 14 18.6 83.2 10 18.8 78.8
Manisteet ..-......... 1 14 15.5 87.1 .................. ................... ................
MoDtmorency fg-..... 1 22 15.5 84.0 .......... .......... ...................-....................
Oakland q............ 1 16 17.4 82.7 .................... .......... ........-... .....-..........
Ottawa-...........------ 1 9 17.0 86.0 .......... ......... ................. ---------------------------
St. Joseph p .......... 1 22 11.6 77.2 ................................... ............
Saginaw 3 ........... 399 22 14.8 83.3 37 19.6 91.0 9 9.8 67.9 N
Sanilac D-.......--.... 5 25 14.6 81.9 36 16.6 84.8 16 10.4 78.5
Schoolcraft 3 ........ 1 28 12.3 73.8 .......... -........ ...---- ----.......... ..-....----
-- --- __ ---- -- I
Averages, eto .................---- ----- --------------.......... 4b0 22 14.7 81.1 82 20. 2 91.0 9 4.1 67.9
Minnesota ......... .........-. ......... Aitkin ............. 3 31 11.5 79.7 51 15.4 81.7 10 6.9 77.6
Carlton o- ............ 1 14 15.0 84.8 .................... ..................... ..........
Dakota o............. 3 26 12.2 75.2 28 13.2 77.3 25 11.1 71.5
Dodge q ............ 1 24 13.0 77.0 .......... ... ................. ......... .......... -
Freeborn 9 ... 12 20 14.1 82.3 28 15.6 86.3 15 12.3 75.0 z
Goodhue q............ 8 23 11.7 76.1 36 13.8 83.5 16 7.7 72.7 7
Hennepin a .......... 1 43 13.3 79.4 ......................................................
Mower ............. 1 19 13.2 75.8 ....................................
Nicollet I ............ 2 31 11.3 72.3 32 10. 9 77.1 29 10.9 67.5
Ottertail- ........... 4 23 14.9 82.1 30 16.0 82.3 14 13.5 82.0
Polk b ............... 1 8 17.7 .................... .......... .. ............................
Redwood p ........... 1 30 12.0 75.9 .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Rice 9 ............... 1 18 13.7 82.7 .......... ......... .......... ..........
Scott .............. 1 14 10.9 73.5......... .........................................
Stearns 3 ............ 9 29 12.7 79.8 48 15.9 83. 20 10.4 72. 6

Averages, etc.......................... ... ............ 49 24 11.0 79.2 51 17.7 86. 3 8 6. 9 67. 5
Missouri .....-....... ..................... Adair 6 .............. 4 25 12.5 74.5 38 13.9 77.6 14 9.9 70.3
Atchison. b........... 5 53 10.6 73.3 59 12.0 75.2 34 6.3 72. 2
Audrain 3 .......... 3 34 6.1 ..... 47 10.2 .......... 21 8.2.........
Barry p .............. 7 15 15.3 76.4 28 18.6 82.0 8 11.0 68.2 .
Barton p ............. 3 27 15.3 77.3 34 16.5 77.9 22 13.5 76.4 M
Bates .............. 1 12 10.5 62.5 .......... ... .... -- ....... .........- ..-.. .........
Benton 0.............. 5 16 15.5 77.1 33 18.8 78.8 10 13.0 74.9
Boone ............. 2 11 11.1 ......... 12 12.6 .......... 10 9.5 .........
Bollinger o........... 1 14 15.6 67.8 ................. .......... ....... ........ .......
Buchanan ........... 2 30 11.0 .......... 43 13.7 ......... 16 8.2 ........
Caldwellb ........... 7 25 11.2 72.5 41 12.6 76.7 12 9.5 70.0
Callaway 0........... 5 19 9.9 77.0 29 14.6 78.5 10 4.1 74.0
Cande o ............ 2 14 13.8 76.5 14 13.9 77.8 13 13.7 75.2 .
Cape Girardeau .... 2 8 12.4 .......... 9 18.1 .......... 7 6.6 .........
Carroll 6 ............. 6 27 11.8 77.6 43 14.8 84.5 4 8.1 70.1
Cass ............. 4 19 11.9 66.2 24 13.5 77.5 16 9.6 58.7
Cedar ................ 4 17 10.6 .......... 0 13.9 .......... 6 7.2 .........
Chariton 6 ........... 5 17 11.7 75.8 28 16.2 79.1 10 8.3 72.4
Christian ? ........ 2 12 13.3 78.9 15 13.5 83.0 8 13.1 74.9
Clay b .............. 1 29 8.8 .......... ........... .......... ................. .. .....







Table showing mean analyes and maima and minima of the beets xamined in the ohenmical laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture m
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties-CContinued.


umber Averages. Maxima. Minima.
anmebsr beet. coeffi-ie-
Sugar in Purity Sugar
State. County. of Suar in Purity eig Sugar in Purity We Sugar in Purity
samples. eigt the beet. coetficient W ight. the beet. coicient e beet. coefficient
._____________.______------------------- -----
Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent. I
Missouri...................................... 4 8. Clinton b ............ 1 24 8.8 ............... ........
Cooper o ............. 21 16 10.0 72.1 39 12.8 77.0 2- 7.0 08.0
Crwford ........ 2 11.3 .......... 10 11.9 ......... 8 10.7 .........
Dade ............... 2 14 13.1 .......... 17 13.6 .......... 11 12.6 ........
Dllas .............. 2 10 11.9 .......... 10 12.3 .......... 10 11.4 .........
Davies b ............ 2 21 14.8 78.0 26 15.9 82.3 15 13.6 73. 7
Dekalb D ............ 4 31 10.6 69.6 45 11.6 72.5 12 9.9 65. 6
Douglas P............ 3 8 15.3 79.4 10 17.1 83.2 4 13.2 77.1
Franklin -.......... 6 23 12.8 72.5 37 17.2 83.2 12 9.8 68. 7
Gasconade ......... 10 23 11.0 72.4 31 15.5 78.5 16 7.0 65.9
Gentry b.............5 28 12.3 73.2 64 14.7 79.0 13 10.4 69.1
Grle ............ 1 12 3.6 ........ ................................ .....- .......
Greeno ............. 8 17 11.3 73.2 28 16.7 83.7 8 7.0 57.8 ,
Grundv 6 ............ 3 23 11.0 72.3 28 11.8 73.0 17 10.2 71.3
Harrison ........... 4 12 14.5 77.9 17 16.4 84.2 5 12.3 74.2 4
Henry ............. 8 18 11.9 71.5 87 17.9 74.1 8 8.9 69.3 z
Hickory ........... 1 20 11.4 70.9 ........ .........................................
Holt ................ 8 31 12.3 79.1 54 14.3 83.7 17 8.7 74.0
Howard ............. .. .. 26 14.9 .......... 5 6.7 .........
Howell y............. 5 24 11.2 78.9 35 15.3 82.0 18 5.7 75.8 B
Iron E ................ 1 3 14.8 ........................... ................. ...........
Jackson -o........... 1 38 10.7 70.2 ........ ............................... .. ... .......
Jsperp ............ 3 33 12.1 .......... 38 14. ......10.7 ..........
Jeffersona........... 68 16 12.3 75 0 24 14.4 79.9 10 10.9 72.6
Knox dC ............. 1 38 10.3 67.9 .................... ............... ....
Laclede p ............ 3 10 12.0 .......... 20 12.4 .......... 4 11.3 ..........
Lafayette-a.......... 8 29 11.8 74.5 50 14.1 -80.0 10 9.6 68.3
Lawrencep.......... 10 18 10.2 72. 5 26 14.2 79.1 11 6. 2 3. 2
Lewig .............. 1 20 10.5 65.1 .... ...... .. -----.... .......... ..................-----
Lincoln ............. 2 14 11.8 72.5 14 12. 5 7.86 18 11.2 08.3
Linn 6 ............... 3 15 12.9 74.8 18 15.2 75.0 12 11.0 74.7
McDo a .......... 1 21 13. 3 85. .......... .................... .......... ...................
Macon 6 ............. 1 10 14.2 72.3 ........ ........... ........ ......................... .......
Marion c............. 2 15 10.0 .......... 15 11.4 ........ 1 8 ..........
Mercer ............. 1 44 11.5 75.5 .......... .. .... .......... .... ....- ......
Miller ............. 2 17 12.5 71.8 17 15.4 82.2 17 9.7 60.4
M onit .......... 1 10 12.1 74. .................... ........ .......... ...... ........
Monroe d ............ 3 19 12.0 69.8 20 13.1 71.1 17 10.8 68.5
Montgomery ....... 8 16 8.8 69.2 26 11.4 75.4 9 8.0 59.5
Morgan a............ 1 11 9.3 .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ...........**..........
............ .. . .. .. .





New Madrid k ....... 4 16 11.8 74. 8 28 11.8 74.7 6 10. 7 73. 8
Newtun ............ 7 15 12.7 74.8 20 19.8 78.8 2 10.0 68.7
Nodaway b ..........6 3o 11.1 72.7 47 15.9 77.4 18 8.0 65.1
O rk .............. 1 4 1 .8 .......... ......... .......... .......... .................... ..........
Perry O............. 1 22 9.8 73 6. ........ .. .............................. ......
Pettis C .............. 5 20 10.8 71.6 27 12.9 74.2 14 8.4 88.7
Phelps ............. 3 9 14.0 ..........11 15.4 .......... 8 13.2 ..........
SPike ............... 8 22 12. 1 68.7 56 14.4 76.3 3 10.2 60.9 9
Plattet ............. 5 31 10.3 71.2 44 11.3 74.0 16 8.6 66.3 N
SPolk ............... 2 24 12.4 76.9 27 13.2 79.8 20 11.5 74.5
Pulsi ............ 1 12 18. 86.1 .......... ...... ................ ...................
Putnam 6 ............ 2 6 14 .......... 6 15.9 .......... 6 1.4 ..........
Rails Ct ............... 1 21 8.1 .......... .......... .......... ........... ......... ..........
Ray b................ 1 4 10.5 68.3 .......... .......... .......... ..........
St. Charleso-......... 4 19 11.9 76.1 29 14.4 77.1 15 10.3 75.0
St. Clair-............. 6 13 12.8 74.2 24 17.4 76.0 6 9.0 72.0
St. Franots C0-........ 1 11 11.8 67.7 .......... ................... ....... .........
St. Louis -........... 5 20 10.4 .......... 43 15.7 .......... 5 6.6 ...........
Saline, ............ 7 23 11.5 74.2 47 12.7 77.5 18 10.6 69.3
Schuyler 6 ........... 1 13 13.2 72.6 ......... ............... .......... .......... ..........
Scotland d............ 1 19 14.3 75.8 .......... .......... ..................... .........
Scott a ............. 2 9 11.3 .......... 9 13.3 ......... 9 9.2 ..........
Shannon ............ 2 9 12.0 ........ 9 13.1 .......... 9 10.9 ..........
Shelby d.............4 18 11.5 67.5 30 15.5 69.3 10 8.8 65.7
Texas .............. 2 15 12.4 70. 20 12.8 71.2 10 12.0 69.4 4
Vernon -............. 4 21 11.0 66.1 26 12.7 72.6 13 8.1 58.7
Warren 0-............ 5 20 11.4 75.7 25 15.2 83.2 13 9.4 71.1
Wayne ............. 2 23 11.1 .......... 29 11.4 ......... 17 10.7 ..........
Webster ............ 3 17 10.4 .......... 31 12.0 .......... 9 8.9 .........
Wright ............ 3 18 15.7 77.8 20 17.0 80.6 16 13.4 74.9
Avenrgeseto......... ................ ..... ................ 324 20 11.7 I 73.5 64 19.8 86.1 2 8.6 57.8

Montana ..................... .............Dawson ............ 12 13. 8 79 7......................................................
Gallatin 9 ............ 1 29 13.1 77.1 .......... ............................................
Lewirs and Clarke c ... 1 15 18.6 81.6 .......... .......... .......... ... ..............................
Yellowstone q........ 1 25 11.9 72.8 .......................... .................... ..........
Averages,etc...... ............... ...... .... ................... 4 20 14.4 77.8 29 18.6 81.6 12 11.9 72.8

ebratka.................................... Cheyenne-o .......... 2 13 15.7 .......... 14 17.3 .......... 12 14.0 ..........
Dakota cI............. 1 37 17.0 80.2 ............................ .. ....... ..........
.ncauster -.......... 2 20 11.9 74.4 20 13.1 75.7 20 10.6 73.0
Nemaha q ............ 3 32 12.7 76.4 33 13.3 78.5 32 12.2 74.0
PawneTe E........... 2 51 8.8 .......... 58 9.1 ........ 43 8.5 ..........
Richardson q ........ 1 17 15.0 78.2 .............................. .............................
Saunders 0- .......... 1 25 12.7 76.9 .......... .......... .............. .....................
Washington o- ....... 1 34 13.0 78.6 ..................................................
Averae etc ........................... ........................ 13 29 12.9 76.9 58 17.3 80.2 12 8.5 78.0
I -- ,cl^^^ __ _. ---- --
cL0








TYble skhwing mean analyses and maxima and minima of the beets examined in the chemical laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties-Continued.

uber Averages. Maxima. Minima.
tNu.ofitember ighty o
State. County.. i Sugar in Purity We Sugar in Purity W. Sugar in Purity
samples. Weig the beet. coefficient the beet. coefficient eight. the beet. coefficient

Ounces. Per cent Ounces Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
evada........................................ erda ........ 2 25 17.5 81.1 27 17.0 81.8 22 17.8 80.4
Humboldt, 0 ......... 10 21 18.8 83.1 84 20.8 84.5 8 16.3 82.2
Lander ............ 1 10 20.3 85.5 .................. ........ ..........................
Lyon-o .............. 8 19 17.6 79.6 20 18.0 80.1 19 18.9 79.0
Washoe-o ........... 4 10 18.2 .......... 15 200 ............ 4 17.1..........
White Pine o-........ 1 8 16.0 75.4 .......... .......... .......... ....................
Averages,et........ ............ ............................. 21 18 18. 81.4 84 20.8 85.5 4 16.0 75.4
ew Jere....................... ....... Atlantic ............ 2 24 14.8 81.9 38 17. 87.2 10 12.0 76. 5
Burlington o ........ 1 17 18.7 83.7 .......... .......... ......... ..............................
Camdenp ..... 2 22 12.9 80.0 28 14.1 82.2 16 11.8 77.7
Cu berland ....... 2 9 15.8 ......... 9 16.2 .......... 9 15.4 ..........
Essex d ............. 7 17 13.3 79.2 22 14.9 83.0 14 9.8 67.8
Mercer o ............ 7 20 11.5 79. 3 34 13.6 83.1 13 8. 76. 2
ean 3 ............. 8 8 16.4 86.3 11 18.5 90.1 5 12. 82. 5
Warre b3 ... ... 2 20 14.9 87. 6 24 15.6 88.6 16 14.2 86. 6 .
Averages, et .................................................. 31 16 14. 2 81.4 38 18. 7 90.1 5 8.6 67. 8
New Meico--.......-..-.................. Mora 3 ............. 8 13 17. 2 82.0 14 18. 5 86. 2 11 I16. 5 78.2
ew York ...................................Albany .......... 2 19 14.0 .......... 19 16.0 ......... 19 12.0 ..........
Broome 1 ............ 4 22 15.1 82.8 29 16.1 87.1 151 12.8 76. 6
attragu ....... 15 18 15.1 81.9 28 17.6 86.7 8 11.8 73.0
Chautauquap ...-... 45 21 16.6 82.7 48 20.0 86.2 10 10.2 75.0
Ch an o .......... 3 1 15.4 78.7 20 15.5 83.8 18 15.3 70.8
Columba .......... 1 20 14.7 81.5 ........ ........ ........ .................... ........
Dutchess .......... 4 16 17.3 85.11 18 22. 89.1 18 14.5 8.7
Erie- ............... 87 19 15.9 83.9 89 19.2 90.6 5 9.7 66.6 P
Fulton ............. 2 24 15.4 83.6 26 16.6 84.4 21 14.1 82.7 I
erkimer .......... 1 16 1.5 78..9 .......... .......... .......... ............... .........
Lewis .............. 2 21 13.9 77.8 22 14.3 79.4 20 13.4 78.2 0
Livn -o......... 3 20 16.8 79.8 25 18.2 88.9 10 14.4 76.7
Madison 0 ........... 8 14 17.8 78.1 20 20.2 81.8 8 15.0 74.8
Mon roe- ............ 8 23 13.1 79.8 27 15.9 85.2 21 18.1 72.7
agara ............ 9 28 14.5 81.9 38 16.6 88.7 18 12.1 78.6
Oneida ............. 22 14 13. 81.8 67 17.2 88.2 6 9.7 71.2
Onondaga .......... 7 17 17.5 8.3.2 25 19.5 86.4 9 15.5 82.
Ontaro ............ 22 17 15.0 83.4 20 18.8 87.8 18 12.5 73.5
7A





ego ............. 24 1. 80.9 37 14.8 82.1 17 11. 7.8
St. La.wrence ....... .......... 0 15.9 .......... 8 1. ..........
Schuyler ........... 1 25 1. 8 82. 4 ..... ..... .......... .......... .......... ....................
8teuben p ........-- -- 2 24 17.0 85.5 24 17. 85.7 24 10. 85.3
Sutflk q.. .......... 1 24 16.9 88.0 ........................................ .......... ..........
ayne ............. 8 28 14.5 81.2 39 17.5 87.8 18 18.5 77.5
Westchester ....... 4 10 12.1 .......... 16 18.9 .......... 7 10.0 ...........
Yates -o .............. 15 23 12.7 79. 6 50 17.1 88. 6 8 9.0 73.2

Avrages,etc ............................ ....... ............. 225 21 15.0 82.4 67 22.6 90.8 5 I9.0 70.8 -
orth Carolina............................... Cherokee ........... 2 86 7.1 ......... 86 7.6 .......... 29 6.5 ..........
Davidson o .......... 2 18 8.3 .......... 20 9.2 .......... 15 7.4 .......... 0
Mecklenburg p ...... 1 20 11.9 ........ ............................. ..............................
New Hanover cr ...... 1 17 10. 2 72.8 .......... .......... .........
Rowan .............. .... 1 27 10.6 77.7 .......... ......... ........................................
Averags, etc .......................... ........................ 28 9. 1 75. 3 36 11.9 77.7 15 6.5 72.8
North Dakota.-.............. ............... Benson 6 ............. 1 17 10.8 .......... ............ ....................................
Pembtnatd ........... 1 89 10. 6 ......................... ...............................
Richland p3 .......... 1 80 11.6 81.2 ..................... .......... ..........
Walsh ............ 1 26 9.1 .......... ........................................ ....................
Average, et .......................... ........................ 4 28 10.5 .......... 39 11.6 .......... 17 9.1 ..........

Ohio .......................................... Allen 13 ............. 1 33 13. 3 74. 8 ...................
Aluglaize ........... 1 16 7.4 .......... ..... .......... .............. .........
Ashtabula ......... 4 24 15.3 84.1 83 .2 872. 17 13.9 78.5.
Brown p ............. 2 21 11.9 71.4 23 18.5 73.5 19 10. 3 69. 2
Champaign -o ....... 2 21 13. 9 79. 7 22 14.3 80.2 20 13. 5 79.2
Clark a ............... 2 14 13.2 ........ 18 16.0 .......... 10 10.4 .......
Detlance b .......... 1 14 17.0 86.4 ........................................... .............
Delaware E ......... 1 33 14.7 80.6 ................ ......... .......... ..........
Fairfield E3 ........... 2 33 13.2 75.9 48 13.9 76.8 18 12.5 74. 9
Fayette 9 ............ 1 24 15.4 80.9 ......................... .... .............................
Fulton b ............. 4 23 13.8 83.7 26 16.0 85.3 16 8.9 81.6 6
Greene C ............. 1 32 11.3 76.6 .......... .......... .......... ....................
Hardin -o ............ 3 .11 14.3 81.9 20 15.6 84.5 14 13.4 78.4 M
Henrybl.............. 1 16 16.2 78.3 ........ .. .. ........................................
Hocking ........... 2 19 13.1 75.3 20 13.9 77.2 17 12.3 73.3
Jefferson -........... 1 12 17.7 79.1 ............................................... .........
Licking o ............ 2 13 13.3 81.7 16 13.5 82.0 10 13.0 81.4
Lucas .............. 1 22 16.0 82.0 .......... .......... .................... ....................
Morrow .......... .... 2 36 14.5 71.1 49 16.6 79.0 23 12.4 63.1
Ottawa 6 ............ 1 29 5.6 .. .... ............ ... .........................
Paulding' .......... 10 24 13.1 76.5 63 17.3 85.3 9 9.5 65.4
Preble -o ............. 1 12 13.3 .......... ...... .... .............................. ..........
Putnamub ............. 1 16 12.3 80.6 ............ ........ ........ ....... .................
Seneca 6 ............. 1 19 17.0 81.7 .......... .. ................. .......... .............
Shelby-a ............. 1 43 14.5 79.6 ........................... .....................









Tatble howig an analysea and m xaima and minima of the beets examined in the chemical laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture 7
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties-Continued.


r Averages. Maxima. Minima.
Number ...
tamples. Weight. the bet. coefficientbee. nt Weight.. the bee. o ent
ample.] Weight. beet. coefficient in Purit Weet coefioleut

Ounces. Per cent. Ounes. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
Ohio ....................................... Stark ............ 3 23 14. ..........39 16. ......... 12 14.2 ..........
Summit d............ 2 20 13.4 73.8 24 16.0 84.4 15 10.8 63.1
Trumbull d .......... 1 19 15.0 79.3 ................. ........................... .......
Van Wert ......... 1 25 11.0 70.6 .......... .................... ......... .................
Washngton ....... 2 40 11.8 77.7 40 12.8 82.7 89 10.7 72.7
Wayne ............. 8 16 14.7 83.2 26 17.9 89.9 9 12.0 77.8
Wood .............. 2 18 15.7 78.5 20 18.7 79.5 15 12.6 77.4
Av ges et........................... ........................ 68 22 13. 8 79.1 68 18.7 89.9 9 5.6 63. 1
Oklahoma.................................... Wooward ......... 1 10 11.8 72.5 .......... ................................... ..........
Pennsylvania........... ................ Allegeny .......3 18 13.8 77.0 25 18.4 86.2 10 7.1 72.8
Crawford b .......... 3 25 13.9 75.3 33 17.0 78.7 19 12.3 72.9
Cumberland ....... 22 12 12.2 79.6 20 17.3 89.2 8 8.6 65.0
Elk 6 ................ 2 16 13.0 77.4 17 13.5 78.5 16 12.5 76.8
Erie t ............... 7 28 15.8 82.5 45 17.8 86.5 18 13.5 77.8
Lawrence .......... 2 16 16.8 79.9 19 17.0 80.4 14 16.1 79.8
Lebanon ........... 1 24 14.4 79.0 ... .......... ........ .................... ..........
Merer b............. 2 34 15.4 83.7 34 15.6 84.6 34 15.1 82.8
Perry .............. 2 31 15.7 82.2 40 17.3 85.3 22 14.1 79.1 c
Potter 6 ............. 1 18 18.0 81.1 ....... ..... ........... ........ ................
Union .............. 1 10 19.6 ...........................................................
York i ............... 8 25 13.9 80.2 43 14.5 82.7 16 13.7 77.4
Aver e,e ........................... ...................... 59 18 13.8 79.85 45 19.6 89.2 6 7.1 65.
Rhode and ................................. Washingto ....... 2 21 11.9 74.2 23 12.3 76.7 18 11. 71. 6
outh na............................ Abbeville o ........ 1 1 9 ....... .......... .... ....... .......... .......... .........
Berkeley ......... 1 21 7.5 .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .........
Charleston ......... 8 29 9.4 .......... 81 8.0 .......... 10 3.8 ..........
Edgefield-o .......... 1 15 11.4 ......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Greenville ......... 2 21 12.6 .......... 25 13.1 .......... 17 1 ..........
Lexington ......... 1 16 7.4 .................... .......... .................... ......... ..........
Pickens b............ 2 1 13.5 .......... 22 13.7 .......... 10 18.3 ..........
Sumter a ........... 22 1 11.2 .......... 12 11.5 .......... 2 10.9 ..........
Av ,tc................................................... 13 17 9.9 79.9 31 13.7 .......... 10 3.8 ...
8 .









,- --
South ....................*.... ...... Beadle a. ........... 1 19 14.3 .. ... ... .

n on .0 .......... .......... .. .... .. .. ..... .......... .....

Averages,etc ........................... --......-....... ......- 5 17 15.1 83.2 22 17.5 87.6 12 13.4 80.0
Tennessee..................................... Knox a .............. 8 4 12.1 .......... 7 1.5 .......... 1 1. ...... ...
Maury 0 ....-- 4 16 11.5 72,6 24 14.9 74.1 10 8.9 69.8
Warren ............ 2 24 9.5 .......... 28 10o. .......... 20 8.3 ..........
Washington ....... 1 10 10.9 72.6 .................... .......... .......... .......... ..........
Weakley 1 ........... 2 20 5.7 .......... 21 5.7 .......... 18 5.6 ..........

Aveages,et ................. ............................ 17 11 10.8 71.9 28 14.9 74.1 1 5.6 69.8
Texas ...................... ...... ..... 1 9 13.5 .......... .......... ..................................................
BErath e .............. 1 47 11.1 .................... .......... .................. ......... .......
Grayson cf.......... 1 28 13.0 80.1 ......... .............................................
Hopkins Cf ........... 1 12 8.8 .......... ............ ............- .. ............ .....
Hunt l .............. 1 6 1.4................... 1 ............ ..................... ....... .
MoLennan a ......... 1 5 1.0 ........................................................... ........ .
Reeves ............. 4 80 13.6 76.7 83 14.7 79.8 14 11.8 75.1 90
Wise 6 ............... 1 13 11.5 72.3 .................. .... ........ ....- ..... .......... ......... r
Averages,et ..................................................... 11 22 12.6 76.5 47 14.7 80.1 5 8.8 72.3
Utah...... ................... .......... Boxelder ........... 3 25 11.7 78.4 27 13.4 81.4 22 10.2 78.1
Cache .............. 3 17 11.6 78.8 24 15.3 80.0 10 9.1 77.5
Davie 6 .............. 3 20 14.0 83.0 26 16.2 85.4 15 10.8 80.2
Sanpete o ............ 13 21 14,5 81.0 43 16.6 88.2 10 11.1 77.3
Sevier o.............. 4 16 14.9 78.8 21 16.1 82.0 10 12.9 74.3
Utah o...*............. 6 14 16.7 84.8 16 20.2 90.5 11 13.5 79.2
Weber ................ 29 13.1 79. 3 86 14.9 85.3 16 10.8 70.6
Averay etc .................................................. 35 20 14.3 81.1 43 20.2 90.5 10 9.1 70.6
Vermont....................... ............... Addison ........... 1 47 10.0 .......... .......... ... ..... .. ..............
Caledonia c.......... 3 29 16.9 85.0 ........... ................... ..................
Chittenden b......... 1 9 16.3 86.3 ........................... ............ ....... ..........
Frauklin ........... 1 10 12.7 79.3 ............... .......................... .........
Lamoille 6 ........... 1 30 13.2 81.8 .............. ......... .. ....... ............. .....
Windham ........... 3 16 14.7 85.5 24 15.9 86.9 11 14.0 83.3
Averages, ec... ................................. .......... 8 22 14.2 84.1 47 16.9 86.9 9 10.0 79.8
Virgnia....................................... Albermarle a ........ 1 10 9.7 65.4 ................... ............... .........
Appomattox o ....... 2 11 11.2 .......... 11 14.3 ....... 10 8.1 ......
Augusta-n ............ 2 17 10. .......... 20 13.6 .......... 13 7. 5 .........
Bedford a ............ 2 34 6.5 ......... 48 7 4 .......... 20 5.6 ..........
Caroline o ........... 2 32 11.1 77.2 40 12.2 82.6 24 9.9 71.7
Carroll ............. 1 15 15.4 .......... .......... .........................
Charles City o....... 11 19 12.2 77.6 ......... ......................................








Table shoiring mean analysee and maxoima and minima of the beets examined in the chemical laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture C
during 1897, arranged alphabetically by States and counties-Continufed.


Number Averages. Maxima. Minima.
State. County. of Sugar in Purity Weight Sugar in Purity Weight. Sugar n Purity
_______________ ________ ____ ___ __I___ __-__
samples. Weight. the beet. coefficient the beet. oefficient the beet.. oecient

Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
Virginia .. .................... ... Fairfax 6 ............ 2 25 12.4 79.9 31 12.4 83.3 19 12.4 76.5
Fluvanna .......... 1 19 11.1 78.5 ........... .......... ......... ....................
Goochlaud a ......... 2 14 13.7 75.4 14 14.0 75.8 13 13.4 74.9
Hanover o ........... 1 23 13.1 73.3 ............... ........................................
Henrico ............ 1 24 6.7 .......... .................... .......... .......... .......... ..........
James City o- ........ 1 24 12.4 81.8 I.................... ............ ....... .......... .
King William o.....'. 1 13 13.7 80.9 .................................................
Lououn 6 ........... 1 7 15.4 72.7 ....................................... ...........
Niew Kent c- .......... 1 13 12.3 73.3 ...................................... ................ ..
Northampton o- ..... 4 20 11.6 77.5 26 12.5 79.4 16 10.9 76.2 g
Orange o............. 1 21 15.5 76.4 ................... ...... ............................
Prines Anne ..... 1 19 11.5 78.9 .............. .......................................
Warren 6 ............ 5 31 10.9 73.0 49 14.7 76.5 22 8.3 69.2 2 4
Wythe p ............ 1 2 12.2 ...... ................. ...... ... ......................
Average t.............................................. 4 21 11.6 76.2 49 15.5 83.3 2 5.8 65.4
W h g .................................. Cbihallis- .......... 4 48 7.9 ..........6 9.8 ........... 36 5.8 ........
Clarkej3 ............. 1 23 13.5 .. ........ ...........................................
King ............... 2 25 11.8 81.1 32 11.9 83.0 17 11.6 79.1
Kitap -0o............. 1 58 11.0 7.2 ............. ......... ...... ... .........
Lincoln 0............ 5 18 14.6 74.0 26 19.9 81.0 9 9.1 87.0 !
Pierce -............ 1 83 13.0 81.4 .. ................... .......... ....... ... ..........
SanJuan ......... 1 18 14.1 4 78.38 ........................ ..................
Skagitta ............. 86 26 12.7 78.4 48 15.8 83.4 18 9.9 74.3
Whatcom b .......... 2 23 11.3 77.5 25 12.9 83.3 20 9.8 71.6 l t
Yakim ............ 11 24 17.0 87.0 33 19.1 89.7 13 15.0 84.5
Averag .................................................... 34 27 13.7 80.7 668 19.9 89.7 9 5.8 67.0 9
Westirginia............................... Grant or'.............. 1 53 13.5 83.0 ........................................................... 0
Hardy c ............. 1 20 11.9 69.1 .......... .......... .......... .................... t
Monroe 9 ............ 9 18 1.6 81.8 30 18.9 88.8 6 138. 75.3
Morgan'f ............ 2 8 14. .......... 8 14.5 .......... 7 14.1 ..........
Summer .......... 1 1 12.3 78.2 .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
A geet.................................................... 14 19 15.4 80.4 53 18.9 88.8 11.9 69.1
..................................... ...... 1 12. 75.2 ....... ................... ............. ..........
Clark .............. 1 14 13. 854 ...... .. .................... .......... .......... ..........





















E-4
z




-t







.......L.... 6 ........... 9.1 vi I .......... 6 *LT 61 s .
6 "; 9 '6t 9 6 '8I 6It
1.......... 8 a. 61 ............ 13 T$o.z7
9 6EL L *V 6 6 99 1TL 0o91 11 v.. ............ b ole1uvj
T 96 VtK 6 "9L V1 cc I 9L 11 ............ P uoSUqo
.......... .............................. ........... ..................... ............... L --[--Oaa
L Ul9 '9T I 8 98 8 "c 09 978 8 'Lt 97 6 ........... -- 09JOAUo
Z0S 'L8 L'9 9 8 L 09.8, OQ 9 "
S 8 9 L98 L81 --------b qV-----------------

I t'T I 91T69 88 96T 891 91 V8 ............ .. ............. ................ gi 4BoPv..oA.
........ i.. .. --. ...- .. -....... ..... .......... g" + t............... p
O '3 "- 'PI 0 1 .. ............. OU I ji
+++ ....... ...... ..t...... ... .... .......... ...... +.............. L 8 L I I I.........o.. p po
90 t5 *91 g 888 81S4 Its 1 S191 i is .............. a. 86 V

iiI'.-11 '" *f+~~~l;t l EI f i~El~,'tUt *1 ftO l^ yl M B+ B
...s si 1.1* Ifes* xl~i^ 'S~fS ^ A S W~f 1iSlif ^ F W^B ^ *k sssiiih."-.-






56 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED ATE.

STUDY OF THE ANALYTICAL DATA.

In further elucidation of the data contained in the preceding tables
a brief discussion of them for each State is appended, supplemented
by a summary of those secured by the experiment stations i the
several States.
ARIZONA.
The samples from Arizona consist of one from Apache County, and
six from the agricultural experiment station in Pima County. In the
foregoing tables the averages of weight are givento the nearest ounce
to avoid the fractions of an ounce, which would necessarily increase the
space required for printing. Inasmuch as the weight of the cut beet is
so easily varied by a slight difference of the position of the knife in cut-
ting, it is evident that this method of estimation is practically sufficient
In the analytical data obtained from Arizona, as will be seen by
referring to the preceding data, the mean weight of the beets examined
was 23 ounces and the mean percentage of sugar in the samples 9.3.
On account of the poor quality of the beets, the purity of the juices was
not determined. The highest observed percentage of sugar in the beet
was 12 and the lowest 7.6.
The following report of his investigations and observations in regard
to the sugar beets grown in Arizona, during the season of 1897, was
made by Robert H. Forbes, chemist of the Agricultural Experiment
Station of Arizona.

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS WITH SUGAR BEETS IN ARIZONA FOR 1897.
By R. H. FORBES, Chemist.
Briefly stated, the average for 157 analyses of beets from all over the Territory is
8.56 per cent of sugar in the juice, with a purity of 61.8. At first glance these are
discouraging figures indeed, but taken as they stand they are misleading, and their
true significance can only be gotten at by examining the whole series of analyses
for differences due to the effect of such important factors as care and skill in grow-
ing, different kinds of soil, differences of climate found in various localities and at
different times of the year, and the variety of beets planted.
In order to show the results of careful cultivation upon the quality of the beets,
I have divided the samples received from S4lt River Valley into three lots.
The first lot consists of 13 samples grown by Dr. Claflin n the experimental sub-
station grounds near Phonix. These beets were given the most excellent care.
The second lot consists of 24 samples obtained from 12 growers near Phnx, Glen-
dale, and Mesa. These beets received a fair amount of care during growth, but on
the average were probably not as carefully attended to as Dr. Clafln's 13 samples. The
third lot consists of 60 samples from the same localities, but which were card for
scarcely at all excepting for an occasional irrigation. The result speak for them-
selves. Dr. Claflin's 13 samples averaged 11.23 per cent of sugar in the juice with
a purity of 8.3. The 24 cultivated samples from ther growers averaged 9.42 per
cent of sugar in the juice, with a purity of 66.3. The 60 neglected samples ve 8.35
per cent of sugar in the Juice, with a purity of 53.4.
These figures confirm the well-known fact that ntelligent and skillful care s
essential in beet culture; more so, I dare say, than in the production of any other
ret staple, and careless or iorant treatment of our veetabl thoroughbred will







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 57

inevitably end in disaster. The sugar beet is no exception to the well-known rule
that plants, which have been developed through cultivation, if neglected or allowed
to run wild, quickly return to their former primitive condition.
Becase of the unusual facility with which the sugar beet returns to its former
unprofitable condition, it is evident that beet culture is a high art, and in this coun-
try the more intelligence is required in its treatment because the conditions are in
many ways unusual, and the rules which are successfully applied in other countries
must be changed or modified here.
In a general way, however, we may insist that deep and thorough preparation of
the soil, careful irrigation, and repeated cultivations and hoeings as long as the
crop will permit are no less essential here than elsewhere.
The effect of climate is also perceptible in our analyses. Samples have been
received from St. Johns, St. Joseph, Holbrook, Duncan, Buckeye, Thatcher, Skull
Valley, Tombstone, Taylor, Fort Thomas, and other more elevated or more northerly
points. Almost without exception, the beets from these places were much above the
average in richness and purity. The richest samples we have as yet received came
from St. Joseph and contained 16.3 per cent of sugar in the juice, with a purity of
81; 17 samples received from the above places averaged 12.37 per cent of sugar in
the juice, with a purity of 75.5.
In order to make the comparison more rigid, we select the Kleinwanzlebener
variety only from among them, and find that 7 samples average 12.4 per cent sugar,
with a purity of 76.3, as against 10.22 per cent sugar and a purity of 67.82 for this
ame variety in Salt River Valley.
Knowing the great influence of temperature upon the composition of the beet, it is
difcult to lay these differences to any other cause than the cooler temperature of
these higher and more northerly localities.
It is a matter of regret that arable land is so scarce in these parts of the Territory.
Our observations, however, may guide us in obtaining better results in warmer
localities, and in this way: Most of the Salt River Valley plantings were made in
March and April, so that almost from the start the plants were subject to the hot
Smer weather, the temperature throughout the months of June, July, August,
and September being much above the point generally regarded as most favorable
to sugar beets. Now, it is possible that by planting earlier in the year a cooler
teperature may be secured for the first three or four months of the life of the
plants. Of course the risk from frost will be increased, but that there is some possi-
bility of success in the plan is suggested by the fact that on June 14 we analyzed a
sample of beets from Fowler Brothers, near Phoenix, which gave 15.2 per cent of
sugar in the juice, with a purity of 76. The seed for this lot was planted Feb-
rary 12 and the beets were probably not mature.
We can not safely draw conclusions from a single instance, but the high percentage
and purity in this extremely early sample are suggestive of the possible advantage
in early planting.
Selecting the Kleinwanzlebener beets received from the northern places and com-
paring them with those obtained from Phaenix, Glendale, Tempe, and Mesa, in the
Salt River Valley, we obtain the following results:

Averagei Surnrity
Showing effect of climte. e Sugar in Sugar in Purity co.
of beet juice. beet efficient.

Klewanebener: Ounces. Per cent. Per cent.
From more northerly or elevated localities. 14 samples... 18 13.35 12.35 78.8
From Salt River Valley, 18 samples...................... 18.2 10.48 9. 69 69.5

The average mean monthly temperatures for Phenix, Prescott, and Fort Thomas
during several years past are shown in the following table. Phoenix is in the Salt
River Valley, Prescott reresents the cooler northern part of the Territory from







58 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

which beets were received, and Fort Thomas is in the fertile, i
Graham County, in Southeastern Arizona.


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept Oct Nov. Dec.

OF. OF. OF. OF. OF. OF. OF. oF, OF. F. oF. O'
Phenix ................. 49 54 61 67 74 82 00 80 70 61 55
Prescott ................. 34 8 44 51 59 66 74 72 65 54 42
Fort Thomas ............ 47 48 55 61 70 79 86 83 75 62 49


Finally, as to the soil, it is much more difficult to trace any connection between
the quality of beets produced and the numerous varieties of soil, for which this
region is famous and on which they have been grown. Fortunately, however, we
have recently completed the analysis of a series of twenty rep tativ Salt River
Valley soils and certain general characteristics of the soils of this region have been
determined.
From a chemical point of view the following statements may be made about five
of the most important soil constituents, viz, potash, lime, nitrogen, phosphoric acid,
and humus.
Potash is everywhere present in abundant quantities. We have found from 0.47
to 1.96 per cent in our samples, the-lower figure being ample for a fertile soil.
Lime also is present in great sfficiency, the samples shoing from 057 to 4.2 per.
cent.:
Nitrogen, however, is deficient almost everywhere, the average for the series being
0.048 per cent, and in only two instances rising above 0.10 per cent, which is con-
sidered to be a needful amount to insure nitrogen fertility.
This deficiency probably affects the richness of sugar beet less than it does their
size. It is well known that an excess of nitrogen produces beets of an enormous
size, but of very poor quality. In one instance we received a beet weighing 5
pounds, which had been grown on heavily manured and abundantly irrigated soil.
The sample gave only 1.7 per cent of sugar in the jnice, with a prity of 23. This
result was probably due, in part at least, to excessive nitrogen.
The small average size of the beets received, however, points to a poverty of nitro
gen in the soil for this crop. This will hold for other crops as well as beets, and I
am told that in one case near here two neighboring orange orchards were planted,
one on virgin mesa soil, the other on plowed alfalfa ground. It is stated that the
latter orchard has prospered far more than its neighbor. This was doubtless due to
the nitrogen which alfalfa and other leguminous crops contribute to the soil. In
selecting beet ground, therefore, other things being equal, it would be well n this
region to choose that which has previously been in alfalfa.
In support of this view I would state that Dr. Claflin's samples were grown on
ground that had previouly been n alfalf, so that his excellent record may have
been due in part to this cause.
Phosphoric acid is usually present in sufficiency, though never very abundant.
In some cases a serious lack of phosphoric acid has bee noted. The average for the
valley is 0.13 per cent. It is stated that the effect of phosphoric d in beet culture
is to increase the sugar and hasten maturity It supplied to advantage n con
tion with nitrogen, this combintion tending to ncrease the size of the beets and
also maintain their richness.
This desirable combination of nitrogen and phosphoric acid f d
and in bone superphosphate, and it is probable that the appliof these f
tilizers will, so far as beet culture is onrned, greatly improve the soils of this
region. The question of cost, of course, enters he, butt is one whc must l any
case soon be solved. At Chino, Cal., with an exceedingly fertile soil, the need of
commercial fertilizers is ready felt, after the lands having been or
six years.






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 59

Barn manure is of value for beets only after other crops have been grown on the
land, and the manure thereby thoroughly Incorporated with the soil. If applied
jst befre plyating the beet seed, it will prove injurious both to the stand of plants
and the quality of the product.
Humu, or vegetable matter, is deficient in all arid soils, our own among the
number. Humus and lime are valuable largely because they impart better tilling
qualities to the soil, give it greater water-holding power, and lessen the tendency to
hardness when dry. Humus results from barn manure, and the application of this
material with suitable precautions should be beneficial.
As to alkali and its effect upon beets, it may be said that when the plants are once
established in thrifty growth they will stand more alkali than most other crops. It
has been observed also at Chino that the quality of the beets is not impaired by
alkaline ground. It is probable, however, as a matter of opinion, that young plants-
are injured by the crust formed on the surface of the soil through the action of alkali,
and this may account in part for the exceedingly poor stand of plants obtained in
most of the experiments this year. Almost without exception, the reports state that
the seed did not come up well or that the young plants died. This difficulty may
possibly be overcome by planting earlier in the year, by using more and better seed,
and by taking more care to keep the surface soil loose during the germination of
the seed and the first weeks of plant growth. Salt River Valley is not excessively
alkaline; much less so, it is stated, than the Pecos Valley in New Mexico, where beet
culture is now attempted.
So much for the result of one season's experimental work. The lessons we have
learned are: (1) That here as elsewhere sugar beets must be grown with the utmost
care; (2) that the cooler portions of the Territory, so far as observed, produce
better beets than the warmer localities, and, that experiments should be made as to
what early planting will do in these warmer localities; (3) that the Kleinwanzle-
bener variety, so far as yet known, yields the best results in Arizona; and (4) that
the soils of the valley stand in need of nitrogen and organic matter, possibly phos-
pho acid also, and that previous occupation of the ground with alfalfa or other
means of fertilization should be secured.
Though many of the results are unfavorable, the occasional successes that have
been seured show that there is ample reason for a continuance of the work.
If, during the next year, a half dozen first-class farmers of this valley will each
put in an acre of Kleinwanzelebener beets early in the year, on ground that has been
in alfalfa, and will care for them as they ought to be cared for, I believe that we
may have something much more favorable to report on this subject.
Further details of the above experiments with beets are published in
Bulletin No. 26 of the Arizona experiment station, issued in December,
1897.
The poor results obtained in Arizona are somewhat surprising,
although in general it may be said that the climate of Arizona is too
warm for securing the best results. The remarks made by Mr. Forbes
in regard to careful culture should be given due consideration. The
probabilities are, however, that inasmuch as the beets in Arizona were
all grown with irrigation, the application of the water was of such
Scharacter as to prevent, in some respects, the development of the
highest saccharine content. It may be remarked in general, in regard
to the beets grown with irrigation, that much is yet to be learned in
regard to the manner of supplying the water, the time at which it is to
be applied, and the quantity which is to be used. It would be expected
tat the ideal conditions of moisture could b secured by irrigation,
and yet in racticthe results have not been the most encouraing.






60 BEET-SUGAR DUTRY IN THE UNITED

This has been true in regard to the growth of beets in Utah and New
Mexico under irrigation. There is no factor connected with the sugar
beet industry which is of more practical interest than a careful study
of the conditions under which irrigated beets should be grown. he
fertile soils of the arid regions are undoubtedly able to produce large
crops of beets under irrigation, when the proper conditions are under-
stood. Complaints have also been made in respect of the effects of
alkali upon beets in these soils, and also of insect pests. It is impor-
taut that a study be made of the bacteria, molds, and insect pests of
sugar beets, together with the effects of the alkali. After allowing for
all these conditions, however, it must be confessed that the Arizona
data are somewhat disappointing, and unless great improvement can
be made there is little prospect of the industry being established on a
secure foundation in that region.
ARKANSAS.
Arkansas lies so far south of the beet belt as to make a discussion
of the possibilities of beet growing in that vicinity nnecessary. Only
two samples were received from the State, and as might be expected,
these do not show any very favorable qualities. A few general rearks
may be made about growing beets in warmer climates than those best
suited to obtaining the highest grade of beets, namely:
First, that it is quite possible to get fine harvests of beets with
favorable tonnage per acre,
Second, that it is possible to grow beets containing quantities of
sugar which would have made them valuable for manufacturing pur-
poses several years ago, before the beet reached its present high state
of development, and
Third, that such beets could probably be grown with grea ft p for
stock-feeding purposes in all these localities. The full value of the
beet and beet pulp will be discussed in a separate portion of this report.
The average weight of the two samples received from Arkansas was
18 ounces, and the average content of sugar in the beet 11.3per cent.

CALIFORNIA.
California is recognized as the principal beet sugar producing State
in the Union. Only one sample of beets was received from this
State, and it had a weight of 26 ounces and contained 16.8 per cent
of sugar. All of the coast valleys of California are favorably situated,
in respect of temperature, for the producion of sugar beets, and the
same may be sid of certain lands, the limits of which are not yet well
defined, in other prts of the State. Even in the Sacramento Valley, as
far inland as the point of junction with the San Joaquin River, where
the temperature is higher than that considered best for beets, it as
been found that good beets can be grown. In experiments conducted
on Union Island, near Stockton, Cal., during the years d
direction of the chief chemist of the Deartment of tur ery






BEET-UGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 61

encouraging results were obtained, both in the quantity and the char-
acter of the beets produced. These beets were grown upon the reclaimed
lands of the delta of the San Joaquin at its junction with the Sacra-
entoRiver. The lands were protected from overflow by strong levees,
but the conditions were not theoretically the most favorable for the
production of high-grade beets.
Unfortunately, however, large portions of the coast lands, by reason
of their contour, are not well suited to the cultivation of beets. On
page 90 of Bulletin No. 5 of the Division of Chemistry, published in
1885, the following observation is made: "In the interior and eastern
divisions of California only the high Sierra regions have a temperature-
low enough for beets, and in that locality there is no land adapted to beet
culture. The beet region of California, therefore, is confined to the coast
valleys. This statement may have to be modified to some extent by
reason of the data mentioned above from Union Island. These obser-
vations are corroborated by the analyses made by Director Hilgard,
during 1897, of beets grown in Sacramento County. This locality adjoins
Union Island, where the experiments conducted by the Department of
Agriculture were made. The average size of the beets examined by
Director Hilgard was satisfactory, and the content of sugar in the beets
was a little over 16 per cent, with a high purity reaching almost 85 for
a whole series of analyses. These data show that in the Sacramento
Valley, at least where the temperature is somewhat higher than that
regarded as most favorable, beets of fine sugar-producing qualities can
be grown. After a careful personal study of the climatic and soil con-
ditios in California, made in 1884, it is stated on page 100 of Bulletin
No. 5 of the Division of Chemistry that there are in California about
5,830 square miles of land suitable to beet culture, provided the whole
of it could be supplied with a sufficient quantity of water. Even if only
one-third of this area should be found eventually fit for the culture of
beets, it would be possible for the State of California alone to produce
nearly 50,000 tons of beet sugar and still practice a proper rotation of
crops. In view of the fact that the beet-sugar industry has been so
carefully studied in California, both by the agricultural experiment
station and by those engaged in the manufacture of sugar, it is not
necessary here to dwell further upon the possibilities of its extension
in that State.
ICOLORADO.
The number of samples received from the State of Colorado at the
Department of Agriculture was 174. The average weight of the beets
received was 20 ounces, the mean percentage of sugar in the beet
1.6, and the mean purity 76.7. The conditions which obtain in Colo-
rado are so different from those of the Eastern States as to warrant a
detailed discussion of the data. This, however, in the present condition
of affairs, would be somewhat premature. It is advisable to wait until
a more thorough agricultural survey of the State be made, under the
immediate suervision of the agricultural experiment station. When






62 BEET-UGAR INDUSTRY IN T

the analytical tle of the data received from is con
is seen that most remarkable differences exist in t returfrom
different counties. Since in most cases only a very fw samples have
been received from any given county, it is not fair to e anyjudgent
of the possibilities of any one county from data of so limited a nature.
The great variations in altitude in the State, causing sharp differece
of temperature, must also be taken into consideration. In addition to
this, it is fair to presume that the samples have all been grown nder
irrigation, and it is impossible, in such data as are collected from the
farmers, to determine with any certainty what the proper conduct of
the irrigation should be. In general, the data areentirely satisfactory,
especially in respect of content of sugar. As regards the mean purity
of the juices, the data are somewhat unsatisfactory, since it falls more
than three points below the minimum of good beets. This may be due
to the great amount of mineral salts which the soils of Colorado contain,
and to the well-known property of the sugar beet of absorbing these
salts from the soil. For this reason, it may be sugges that in many
cases cultivation of the sugar beet could be advantageously practiced,
not alone on account of the profit in the beet itself, but because ofthe
improvement in the soil which would result from the extraction of the
alkaline materials. Among the counties where te samples have been
somewhat numerous and the results most encouraging may be men-
tioned Boulder, lying to the northwest of Denver and mostly within the
favorable thermal area, where the average conent of sugar in the beet
was over 15, and the purity nearly 81. This most favorable result wa
obtained with exceptionally large beets, the average weight of which
was 31 ounces. This fact makes the data even more valuable and
suggestive.
Another county where the data were extremely favorable, although
the number of samples was only two, is Delta, a county lying within
the theoretical thermal area, and where the average size of the samples
was 20 ounces, the average content of sugar over 17,and the purity 80.5.
Another favorable result may be reported from Garfield County,
although the average size of the beets is a little low. The ean per-
centage of sugar in the beets was 16.6, and the purity .2. This
county also lies mostly in the thermal belt.
In contrast with the above should be cited the returns from Logan
County, showing not only small beets, but exeptionally low contents
of sugar and purities. Logan County, nevertheles, is contained almost
wholly within the thermal belt, which is most favorable to the growth
of beets. The poor results obtained must therefore be due to causes
which are not made known.
Upon the whole, the data from Colorado are exceedingly encouraging
and lead to the belief that there are may parts of that State where,
with proper cenditions of tillage and irrigation, the sugar beet industry
may be establised with profit.
In onnection with the work done by the Department of Agriculture,







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 63

it is itereting to consider the report of the director and chemist of
the agricultural experiment station of Colorado at Fort Collins:

BRIEF REPORTS REGARDING SUGAR BEET EXPERIMENTS FOR THE YEAR 1897, AT
THE COLORADO STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
Chemical section.
The work of the chemical department on sugar beets can be summarized briefly
as follows:
We began taking weekly samples on September 2. The varieties represented were
Vilmorin, two plots; Kleinwanzlebener, two plots; Leon Brand,' one plot; and
Imperial, one plot. The amount of sugar in the beets was determined from week to
week. We did not find a very rapid increase as the season advanced until the beets
approached maturity, when we observed a sudden increase of about 3.5 per cent.
Our samples varied greatly in their sugar content, but agreed in indicating that the
crop in tis country was not sufficiently matured to yield marketable beets before
the middle of October. The average of the beets analyzed subsequent to this date,
debarring one lot, the most of which were grown under unfavorable conditions, and
a few samples which were clearly unmarketable beets, is 14 per cent, the range
being from 10 per cent to 18.25 per cent of sugar. The coefficient of purity has
ranged from 70 to 89, and has averaged 80.7. We believe the average percentage of
sugar given to be high enough, but the coefficient of purity--80.7-is lower than the
actual coefficient rather than higher.2
Respectfully submitted. WILLIAM P. HEADDEN,
Station Chemist.


Agricultural section.
(From Report of the Director.)
In a general way it can be said that the results of this season's work are very favor-
able to the establishment of the beet-sugar industry in Colorado. The following
figures are to be judged in the light of the statements that come from all the beet-
sugar manufacturing States of the Union, that the season of 1897 was especially
unfavorable to the industry. If in this poor year Colorado can make such a good
showing, what may we expect of her in ordinary or favorable years?
The above report of the chemist of our Experiment Station gives the figures for
the beets raised on the College Farm. But few analyses were made here of beets
raised elsewhere, since the failure to get into our new chemical building last fall left
the Chemical Department in poor shape for doing much outside work.
Practially all the analyses of Colorado beets not grown at Fort Collins were
made in the Chemistry Division of the Department of Agriculture at Washington.
It has seemed best to give here merely a summary with reference to our local
conditions.
For the purpose of sugar-beet raising Colorado may be divided into five sections:
(1) The valley of the South Platte and its tributaries.
%2) The divide south of Denver, and the plains region where beets are grown with-
out irrigation.
(3) The valley of the Arkansas River.
(4) The vaUey of the Grand River.
(5) The San Luis Valley.
All these, except the second, use irrigation. There are two features of the raising
of sgar beets that require special study-namely, the quality of the beets when
ey are ripe and the time of the year when they reach that degree of ripeness. The

STh variety is unknown to me.-H. W. W.
It s t clear what is meant by this expression.-H. W. W.






64 BEET-SUGAR IDUSTRY IN THE UNTED STATES

earlier in the season they reach a profitable degree of sugar and purity the longer
season the factory will have to manufacture the crop, and the larger the amount of
crop that can be handled by a factory of a given size.
Many tests were made of sugar beets dug in September, but only a few showed
beets suited for use in sugar making. Nevertheless, the fact that a few samples,
even by September 18, exceeded 12 per cent sugar and a purity of 80, shows that
when our farmers are more used to growing sugar beets they can bring them to
maturity several days, and probably two weeks, earlier than the average crop of
1897. With the first days of October the crops ripened rapidly.
The following table presents a summary of the season of 1897, with erference to
the quality of the beets, and the time of ripening in different parts of Colorado:

Samples dug be Samples dug be- Samples dug after
tween Oct. 1 and 10. tween Oct. 10 and 15. Oct. 15.
Section of State.
Sar. Purityco- Sugar. P co Purity co
efficient, efcient. ecient.

Per cen Per cent. Per cent.
The valley of the South Platte.......... 14.1 80.7 14. 6 81.1 15.4 81.1
The divide and the plains .............. 12.5 73.7 15.1 80.6 14.8 78.3
The valley of the Arkansa .............. ..... .... ........ 13.1 77.9 15.8 81.9
The valley of the Grand................. 16.3 83. ........ ..................
The San Luis Valley .................. 13.7 79.2 12.4 78.5 14.8 80.3

IDAHO.

The number of samples received at this laboratory from the State of
Idaho was only seven, representing two counties. The average weight
of the beets received was 21 ounces, the average content of sugar therein
15.5 per cent, and the average purity 79.4. Both in respect of size of
the beets and content of sugar the results are very encouraging. The
average coefficient of purity is almost up to the minimum standard, and
doubtless could be improved later on. The alkalinity of the soil, which
has been mentioned in connection with the lowering of the average in
Colorado, is doubtless active in Idaho. There are large areas in Idaho
where the thermal conditions are favorable, but they are detached
from the main thermal belt crossing the continent. There are two
centers of thermal conditions in Idaho which serve as nuclei for deter-
mining the conditions most favorable. One of these lies almost wholly
in the State, and Boise City may be regarded as the center of it, and
the other extends into the western and northern part of the State from
the State of Washington. In general, it may be said that the thermal
conditions in Idaho, if they alone are to be considered, are sufficiently
favorable for the culture of the beet, in so far as the growing season is
concerned. The data obtained, while meager, are suffciently encour
aging to warrant a more thorough survey of the State, and also the
belief that the conditions for the successful establishment of the sugar
industry may be found wherever the character of the soil, n respect of
contour and fertility, and the facilities for irrigation and other factors
favorable to the growth of the sugar beet and the manufacture of
sugar can be ecured. The report of the chemist of the station contains
much valuable information in respect of the sugar-beet industry in the
State of Idaho, and is herewith appended:







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 65

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN IDAHO.
In the frst place, the results of the past season are quite disappointing and unsat-
tory, due several causes which will be eliminated largely in the experiments
of next year. -
he climatic conditions of Idaho are quite varied, the growing season opening
everl weeks earlier in South Idaho, along the Snake River and in the Boise Basin,
tn a g the Clearwater or in North Idaho. The seed furnished gratis to this
ation by the Department of Agriculture arrived late, and before it could be dis-
ribted-May 4 to June 2-the season was well advanced, hence the seed that was
anted either failed of germination, or the young plants were killed by severe
imatic changes of heat and drought, or of cold and wet soil, which latter condition
ailed in the Palouse region. Much of the seed sown in our station plats failed
grow. The stand was irregular, weak, and of poor quality, so that the tonnage per
re could not be estimated with any degree of reliability. It is therefore omitted
from the tables.
Seed was mailed to 114 farmers, representing 41 different sections of the State,
samples of beets for analysis were received at this Department from only 20
ers, representing 13 localities. This apparent apathy on the part of our farmer
ends is explainable in part. In many cases the seed did not reach its destination,
when planted it failed to germinate, or the young plants were destroyed by insects
r jack rabbits. In a few cases there was not sufficient interest manifested in the
epment to induce proper cultivation of the young plants, therefore no samples
orthy of shipment were grown.
Sugar-beet growing is a new industry to the American farmer, and he has yet to
that the ordinary farm methods are not always applicable and sufficient to
w and mature a typical sugar beet. The Idaho rancher is not an exception. He
yet to learn the value of intensive methods, from the preparation of the seed
to the marketing of his crop. The neglect to plow deeply, to pulverize finely,
place the seed with care, to thin the plants judiciously, to cut out the weeds,
ithal to cultivate and hoe the growing plants regularly, resulted in partial or
tire failure of the experiment. The sugar beet is a thoroughbred, and must be
ven care in keeping with its regal characteristics if high sugar content and purity
e to be attained. The successfulsugar-beet grower has learned that the sucrose is
ractically hoed into the root. This knowledge and its application our farmers
evidently were not in possession of, or the number of samples forwarded would have
been greatly augmented. It is a matter of education, however, which will be
overcome in time by the dissemination of information through the press, the station
bulletin, and closer competition induced by immigration from older States, where
better methods of farming prevail.
The 41 samples analyzed averaged in sugar content 15.17 per cent; in purity, 87.55.
The 20 samples grown by the Station gave in sugar 15 28 per cent; in purity, 92.55.
The 21 samples grown elsewhere averaged 15.07 per cent of sugar, and 82.78 in purity.
The highest and lowest results gave 19 and 10.2 per cent in sugar; and 95.10 and
81.81 purity, respectively.
OTHER SUGAR BEET DATA NOT HITHERTO GIVEN TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC.
During the fall of 1894, 192 analyses of sugar beets were made by the Station,
which gave an average of 13.7 per cent of sugar and a purity of 76.08 degrees. Some
f the samples were large, others had been frozen, still othrers wee immature, while
few varieties were not at all adapted to our soil and climate. This reduced an
oherwise much higher average. Excluding about 20 samples, the remainder, 55
smples of Vilmorin's Improved gave an average of 11.77 per cent of sugar and a
purity of 75.55 degrees.
Forty-;our samples of Kleinwanzlebener beets averaged 14.16 per cent of sugar
t a purity of 82.80.
Thirt samples of Imperial averaged in sugar 14.1 per cent, in purity, 85.42.
H. Doe. 396-5







66 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTR IN TIE UNIT ) 1

Ten samples of French Red Top gave an average of 13.6 percent of sugarwith
purity of 82.70.
The average of 10 samples of Lane's was 13.44 per cent of sugar with a purity of
81.69.
Eight samples of New Danish gave an average of 13.83 per cent of sugar and a
purity of 81.81.
The highest and lowest percentages of sugar in each variety were as follows:

Variety. Highest. Lowest.

Per cent. Per cent.
Vilmorin's .. .............. ..... .... ..... .... ........... .................... ... 16. 14.4
Kleinwanzlebener .. .... ............ ..................... ............ ...... .19.6 14.6
M ette ........ .............. ..... ... .. ......... ............... .... ............. 18.4 14.6
Imperial................ ...... ................................................... 18. 10.6
Lane's ........................................................................... 15.7 10.
Red Top ......... ....... ................... ............. ....................... 15.9 10.7
Danish ....................................................................... 15.2 10.8


The places represented in the experiment were the University of Idaho, Cur
d'Alene, Sand Point, Moscow, Kendrick, Lenville, Princeton, Cornwall, Genesee,
substation at Grangevile, substation at Idaho Falls, substation at Nampa.
The average yield throughout the State was estimated at 20 tons per acre.'

ANALYSES OF BEETS GROWN IN 1895.
The experiments in sugar beets for 1895 were covered by 342 analyses of beets
grown by the University of Idaho and by farmers residing near Grangeville, Nampa
Moscow, Weippe, Vollmer, Palouse, Spokane Bridge, Westlake, Starner, Newport,
Salmonn, and Paris.
The average sugar content of the crop was 15.19 per cent; coefficient of purity,
79.91. In the analyses were included 15 samples of red or table beets. These 15
contained an average of 13.75 per cent of sugar in the juice and a coefficient of
purity of 75.57.
Several analyses were made for the purpose of determining what bearing, if any,
the size of the sample beet had upon the sugar content and purity. Among other
I select four varieties, and submit the results without comment:
VILMORIN'S IMPROVED.
ie. t. Sugar in Purity c-
Sizebe. oeffcint.

Ounces. Per cent.
1. Lare................. ........................................... 21.4 14.02 79.
2. Medium ............. ............................. .15. 2 14.81 81.26
. Small.. ..............-..................................... 7.8 14.07 78.58

FLORIMOIND DESPREZ.

28. 7 14.35 83.95
S arg ............................... ....................... ..... 16.5 14.4 84.00
. arge ........... ........... .......----.......----- -- ........................... 10.7 14.10 80.25

LANME'S IMPERIuAL.


2. M lim ........3.6....... ... ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. ...-.-.-. 1 8* S *17
3. Small 8....................................... 0 13.38 82.0

KLEIN 'ANZLEIENER.
-




26.0 14.00 84.72
1. L arge ............. ..-a----- ca-s-e-- .... .. d .........t o....... W8
2. MeI umXXI~I- .-- .........------- --l--13.0 13.74 83.93
3. S rnll to ................. ... it-........ ...-- ................... I1 1 1 1 1 W W


1 TZna stimenat, is unal in *such cas, is doubtles to hghII W. W,







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 67

AITALYSES OF BEETS GROWN IN 1896.

Te work of the year was confined very largely to the station, and consisted of a
cial effort the way of growing typical sugar beets. The effect of deep and
ow plowing, regular cultivation, fertilization, and irrigation, as compared with
te average treatment given the root under natural conditions as to soil, moisture,
ad cultivation, was noted. The seed bed was prepared and the seed sown from the
21st to he 30th of May. Very heavy rains prevailed on June 5 and again on June
9.All of the seed had germinated by June 11. The average per cent of stand
June 5 was 10.7; June 24 it was 29; one month later it had reached 61.8 per cent.
The crop was harvested and analyzed during October. The number of analyses
made was 60; the per cent of sucrose in juice was 14.18; coefficient of purity, 77.30;
yield per acre, 48,5.10 pounds.
The sugar-beet experiments connected with this station during 1894, 1895, 1896,
and the inauguration of the work of 1897 were under the direction and control of the
Agricultural Department, the chemist being responsible only for the analytical data.
In July, 1897, under the redistribution of the powers of the station staff, the rather
unsatisfactory data thus collected were assigned to the chemical department for
compilation and publication, together with the power of supervision of such experi-
ments in the future.
METEOROLOGICAL RECORD.

The better to understand the possibilities of the sugar-beet industry in the Palouse
country of Idaho, as well as other experiments that may hereafter be undertaken by
the station upon the "university farm," thefollowing meteorological data are included
in this report. We are under obligations to Prof. J. E. Bonebright, meteorologist of
the station, for the results tabulated:

TABLE 11.-Meteorological record for Moscow.


Maxi- Mini- Average Humid- ainf. ays Days
Month. mm tem- mum tem. tempera- it Rainfall. clear clody.
perature. perature. ture.

1894. o o o Per cent. Inches.
April................... 76.0 25. 0 47.40 76.0 1.38 8 7 15
.................... 86.0 30.0 57.40 63.0 1.53 7 15 9
June ................... 84.0 32. 0 62.00 74.0 1. 23 3 19 8
July ..................... 93.0 40.0 78.00 65. .12 2 29 0
August.................. 96.0 34.0 70.50 46.0 .25 3 26 2
September............... 85.0 32.0 58.80 72.0 .89 2 25 3
October.................. 74.0 28. 0 40.40 85.0 3.70 9 9 13
1895.
SApril.................... 76.0 26.0 48.10 70.0 1. 30 5 12 13
May..................... 81.0 30.0 51.90 68.0 2.17 2 22 7
June..................... 96.0 33.0 59.40 52.0 .41 ........................
July ..................... 92.0 41.0 72.70 38.0 .90 1 29 1
August................ 94.0 33.0 74.50 47.0 .32 3 26 2
September ............... 84.0 28.0 49.80 70.0 3. 33 2 20 8
October................ 74.0 21.0 46.10 72.0 Trace. 2 27 2
1896.
April.................... 68.0 26.0 42.53 .......... .57 12 10 8
May..................... 84.0 31. 46.50 85.5 3.60 4 13 14
SJun..................... 92.0 34.0 61.10 61.7 2.21 0 30 (
July..................... 97.0 14.0 70.41 55.6 .17 0 30 1
August................... 93. 0 38. O 67.17 55.4 1.33 0 26 5
ember............. 85.0 30. 0 54.65 72.2 .81 0 22 8
October.................. 76.0 28.0 46.33 .......... 1.07 2 17 12
1897.
April................... 63.1 36.5 49.70 72.2 .40 0 19 11
May..................... 78.8 38.8 ..........- ....... .1. 120 0 21 10
June .................... 65.6 46.0 53.80 77.4 2.72 0 25 5
July..................... 82.0 48.5 70.00 45.4 .85 0 26 5
Augt .................. 81.6 46.4 71.50 40.3 .35 0 30 1
tmber............... 69. 9 38.4 59.20 776 1. 67 0 22 8
O ob .................. .4 36.4 .......... 1.10 3 22 6
-III" *-







68 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED

ILLINOIS.

The samples received from the State of Illinois by the Department of
Agriculture were 32 in number. The average weight of the samples
was 17 ounces, percentage of sugar 13.1, and the purity 75.5. Twelve
of these samples were from the northern, 8 from the central, d 12
from the southern belt.
When judged by the few samples analyzed by the Department of
Agriculture, it is seen that Illinois presents an exception to the esta
lished rule, inasmuch as the beets grown in the norther belt are infe-
rior to those grown in the central belt. The data, however, are not
numerous enough to base any certain conclusions upon them, and the
usual rule is established from the more numerous analyses conducted
by the agricultural experiment station, as will be een farther along.
Summarized, the results obtained at the Department of Agriculture
from the northern, central, and southern belts in Illinois are as follows:

Summary of analyses of sugar beets from llinois.

[Compiled from analyses of the United States Department of Agriculture.]


pies. w~ght
Number Averge Sugar in Prity co-
weight. beets. eftie nt.

Ounces. Per cent.
Northern belt................................................. 12 19 12.6 76.2
Central belt....... ............................. ............. 8 20 1. 8 76.5
Southern belt........... ............... ..... .... ........ ... 12 13 13.2 73.


At the agricultural experiment station of Illinois, at Urbana, 312
samples of beets were received and analyzed. The following smmary
shows the analytical data and the distribution of the samples by
counties:
Summary of analyses of sugar beets from Illinois, by contie



County. County.


NORTRN HELT. CENTRAL BELT.
Ounce. Per et. unes. Per t.
Stephenson ........ 1 20 10.7 70.0 Kankakee........ 8 24 12.9 79.3
Winnebago ....... 2 18 13.4 75.8 Henderson ...... 1 22 9.2 70.8
McHenry ......... 1 19 15.1 84 3 Knox ........ 4 20 11.0 75. 1
Ca ll............ 4 20 13.8 81.4 Strk ............ 10 14.4 78.3
W bhiteide......... 6 22 13.9 79. 2 Peoria............ 4 24 13.0 80.1
Ogle ............. 3 23 12.6 74.6 Marshall......... 1 18 14. 83. 9
Lee ............. 8 16 13.8 80.6 Woodford ........ 1 22 18.3 82.1
a ........... 7 20 13.4 78.3 Livngton....... 17 14.0 82.
Dupag .......... 1 21 15. 82.2 ro ois......... 0 20 11. 75.
Cook -.... ..... 3 24 14.3 82.7 k ......... 1 17 10.6 64.0
ckIlad ....... 1 16 14.9 82.5 F lton ...... .. 1 17 112 77.1
Henry............. 6 18 12.7 78.3 T w ......... 2 20 12.3 78.8
B1nreau............ 3 33 10.5 76.5 McLean.......... 5 24 12.0 77.0
Lasallo........... 31 22 13.1 76.4 Ford .... ..... 1 24 10.8 77.0
Kewhll ........ 2 14 13.8 82.8 Adams........... 4 17 12.4 75.5
Grudy ........... 1 18 13.9 80.2 M' on ........... 5 19 11.1 73.7
Will ........ .... 23 28 12.9 74.6 Logan............ 4 29 %.8 0 9.
Merer ............... 17 12. 79.7 Dewitt........... 1 13.8 81.7







BEET-SUG.AR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 69

Summary of analyses of sugar beets from Illinois, by counties-Continued.

Couty = P4 b P.




CENTRAL BELT- CNTRAL BELT-
continued. continued.
Ounces. Per ct. Ounces. Per ct.
Macon ............ 1 18 8.0 64.9 Clark ............ 4 11 13.6 73.9
Piatt-...- --------- 2 20 12.7 81.0
Champaign- 10 21 11. 7 79. 6 SOUTHERN BELT.
Vermilion --------- 2 19 11.3 75.2
Pike .............. 1 10 9. 6 69. 4 Etflingha........... 1 10 12. 6 74.6
Scott------------- 1 10 9.7 64.3 Madison ......... 15 21 10.3 74.0
Morgan ........ 4 22 10.3 74.3 Bond .---....--.------- ....... 1 18 10.3 80.8
angamon--------- 2 17 11.2 76.8 St. Clair-----.....----. --11 21 12. 3 77.7
Christian..........2 19 11.8 76. 5 Washington...... 1 16 11. 9 75.2
Shelby ............ 3 21 10. 9 71.9 Jefferson ......... 1 14 12. 1 85. 0
Douglas........... 3 24 11.2 77.5 Wayne ........... 1 16 14.3 77.0
Edgar............. ------------- 2 16 12.1 74. 9 Clay .............. 1 15 11. 8 68. 3
Calhoun........... 2 14 9.4 72.1 Edwards ......... 1 15 8.7 58.7
Greene ............ 3 14 8. 5 68. 3 Jackson .........------ 2 17 10.8 73. 8
Macoupin ......... 6 17 11.6 72. 2 Saline ........... 3 10 9. 3 68.9
Montgomery ...... 5 11 13.0 76.9


The average weight of the beets received was 20 ounces, the mean
percentage of sugar therein 11.9, and the mean purity 76.4. Distrib-
uted geographically into northern, central, and southern sections, we
find each of the sections represented by the number of samples of the
mean average composition indicated in the following summary:
Summary of analyses of sugar beets from Illinois.
[Compiled from the experiment station report.]

Number
of Average Sugar in Purity co-
samples. weight. beets. efficient.

Ounces. Per cent.
Northern belt .........................................-----....... 104 22 13.2 79.3
Centralbelt............ ..............------...... ........---......... 165 20 11.5 75.4
Southern belt............................................... 43 19 11. 1 74.7
Average,etc........................................... 312 20 11.9 76.4


Here we see the regular rule illustrated, and the beets derived from
the northern are superior in every respect to those from the central and
southern belts. It is evident, however, judged by the data obtained
during the present year, that Illinois is not so well adapted to the
growing of high-grade beets as some of the States to the east of it.
Nevertheless, it is quite certain that, with proper drainage, scientitic
cultivation and fertilization, and good culture, high-grade beets can be
grown in many of the northern counties of Illinois, and it would prob-
ably be safe to say that for a distance of 100 miles from the boundary
between Wisconsin and Illinois the sugar-beet industry could be suc-
cessfully established where the conditions of soil and factors favorable
to manufacture are suitable.
INDIANA.

One hundred and three samples were received at the Department of
Agriculture from the State of Indiana, representing several different






70 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

parts of the State, but mostly from the northern portions. The largest
number of samples, however, from any one county wa from Vander-
burg, in the extreme southwestern part of the State. The average size
of the beets from Indiana was small, the percentage of sugar in the beet
fair, and the purity a little below the minimum for good beets. In
general, the best beets were grown in the northern portion of the State,
near or in the thermal beet belt, although a few samples received from
the central and eastern parts of the State were very satisfactory.
Among the counties furnishing the largest number of samples may be
mentioned Henry, in the central eastern part of the State, from which 8
samples were received, having an average weight of 17 ounces, contain-
ing 13.1 per cent of sugar, with a purity of 78.5. The averages for
Henry County in sugar and purity were almost exactly those for the
whole State. Three samples from Marion County, in the central por-
tion of the State, show excellent results, both in percentage of sugar
and in purity, and having an average size of a pound. The best results
are reported from Stark County, in the northwestern portion of the
State, where the percentage of sugar was 15.7 and purity 81.8. The
beets, however, from this region were small, the average size being only
12.8 ounces. The beets received from the agricultural experiment sta-
tion were very much undergrown, the average weight being less than 7
ounces. The percentage of sugar in the beets was good-15.1-and the
purity also above the minimum. The causes of the poor yield of beets
are discussed farther on in the report of the chemist of the station.
The largest number of beets from any one county was received from
Vanderburg, namely, 40 samples. The people of this county have been
particularly interested in the industry, and especially to Mr. H. Cordes
are we indebted for the large number of samples received. In spite of
the very fertile soil and other favorable conditions of culture, the beets
had an average size of only 14 ounces, and both the percentage of sugar
in the beet and the purity were below the minima. In general, it
may be said of Indiana that the northern portions of the Stte, where
the character of the soil is favorable, are best suited to the culture of
the sugar beet, namely, those portions either lying in the area of favor-
able thermal conditions, or extending to a varying distance to the
south thereof and covering the greater portion of the northern part of
the State. The central counties of the State, judged by the few sam-
ples received, may also be expected to grow beets of fair quality. A
more careful agricultural survey of the State is neede, and the data
above are suppllemented by the more valuable data collected by the
agricultural experiment station under the supervision of the chemist
Mr. H. A. lluston.
NOTES ON SUGAR BEETS RAISED IN INDIANA IN 1.
(From Report of H. A. HUBTON.)
The early part of the season was fairly avorable to the growth of the crop. In
many cases, however, the beets were planted quitn late and were much below norml
Size when the drought came on in August. From the middle of Auust until the







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 71

dof the uual growing season very little rain fell. This tended to produce beets
high sugar content and small size. The popular interest in the subject has been
uh greater tan in previous years and a much better return than usual was
from the seed sent out.
At three points in the State parties are now engaged in placing contracts for
ufficient acreage to insure a three years' supply of beets for. a 300-ton factory.
Reports from these localities indicate that the required acreage will be secured.
Nearly all farmers who have raised experimental crops of beets for the past few
years report that they believe the crop would be a profitable one at $4 per ton. This
estimate is based solely on their own experience with the crop.

The total number of samples analyzed at the agricultural experiment
station of Indiana was 205. Arranged by counties, the following table
gives the most important data connected with the analyses:

Tests of sugar beets grown in Indiana in 1897 under the direction of the Indiana agricul-
tural experiment station. H. A. Huston and J. M. Barrett.




County. r F ;: County.




Ozs. Ozas.
Lake ti .. ........... 51 8. 3 68.0 1 Grant [ .............. 12 13. 6 70. 1 2
IPor .............. 12 13 7 84.0 2 Jayi- .............. 26 13.3 79. 5 2
La te ............. 22 9.0 64.3 1 Fountain c ........... 31 10. 68. 6 1
St. Joseph 6 ........... 24 1 13.0 85.0 6 Clinton o ............. 18 13.2 83. 2 4
Elkhart 6 ............. 12 14. 8 83. 6 7 Boone a .*.......... I:- 13. 6 82. 0 5
Lagrange .......... 12 16.6 87.4 1 Tipton .............-------- 20 13.5 82. 3 11
Starke ......... ...... 14. 185. 28 Madison ...... .. 33 9.2 i70. 2 1
85.0 8




Newt*on .............. 11 13. 7 96.4 1 andolph ........... 24 12. 9 79. 0 3
Jasper b ............... 2 17. 9 8. 4 1 Parke ............. 8 10.2 56. 7
Allen r .-............. 23 13.5 82 4 21 Marion o .............. 17 12. 783. 5 1
Ben ton .............. 31 11.2 79. 6 3 Fancock --........... 23 14. 0 87.4 4
White -b ......... .. 20 10. 3 6.0 1 HCenrty D .............. 19 1 12. 78.0 12
Cass 6 ................- 17 12. 1 77.2 4 BMoraone ............. 14 13.9 82.8 3
Wabash 6 .............. 14 13. 77.8 4 1Gren p ............. 2 12. 824. 13
HStngton d ........... 25 11.1 8. 0 219 Jackson D ........... 8 10. 0 72.8 2
Waren .............. 18 12.2 83.0 1 Vanderburg ........ 15 10.2 77.7 36
Aippen o ............. 15 12.5 84.6 8
Carroll ................ 11 12.4 82.0 5 Averages, etc... 17.8 12.6 80. 7 205


As will be seen above, nearly all the counties represented are in the
northern part of the State. Only a few counties are represented in the
central and southern portions of the State. Making an average of
the results from the different counties by sections of the State, it is
seen that they vary considerably, as is shown in the following summary:

Summary of results.

Average
Averag per cent of Average KNumber
weight. sugar in puriy bets.
juice.

Ounces.
Northern belt....................................... 18.9 13. 3 81.9 97
Centrallt..................................... 18.5 12.9 80.7 67
b t ........................................ 14. 2 10.7 78.0 41






72 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

It is seen that there are considerable areas in the northern part
of the State where both soil and climatic conditions are extremely
favorable to the culture of the sugar beet. The proximity of these
counties to Chicago insures a market for all the products of the fac-
tory. In many cases these counties are situated in or near the gas area
of the State, so that fuel is comparatively cheap. ll of them are
within easy distance of the great coal fields of Indiana, and the supply
of water and limestone is abundant. It is evident, therefore, that all
the conditions favorable to the growth and manufacture of the beets
exist in the northern part of the State of Indiana, and there is no rea-
son to doubt the speedy foundation and healthy growth of the industry
in that locality.
IOWA.
The thermal conditions for the growth of beets in Iowa are favorable
over almost the whole of the State from north to south. The southern
counties are probably a little too warm for the best results, and the
northern counties too much exposed to severe cold weather during
harvest time.
One hundred and thirty samples of beets were sent directly from
Iowa to the Department of Agriculture for analysis.
In the results as tabulated by counties it will be observed that a
great many of the counties are represented by a single sample, and
therefore it is not possible to base any conclusions on the work done
in respect of the possibilities of growth of beets in such counties.
Benton County sent 6 samples, with an average weight of 16 ounces;
13.8 per cent of sugar in the beet, with a purity of 76.9. Clinton
County furnished 5 samples. The beets were very small, averaging
only 11 ounces. The content of sugar was high, namely, 16.8 per
cent, and the purity low, 75.8. Greene County sent 39 samples of good
size, namely, 21 ounces; r'ather low content of sugar, namely, 12.7 per
cent, and a low purity,, namely, 76.3. Guthrie County sent 6 samples of
good size, namely, 23 ounces; rather low content of sugar, 12.5 per cent,
with a purity of 78.8. The averages for the 130 samples from the
State are as follows: Weight, 18 ounces; sugar in beets, 13.3 per cent;
purity, 73.7.
Under the direction of the agricultural experiment station of the
State, in cooperation with this Department, a large number of samples
of seed was distributed, and 642 samples of beets sent to the station
for analysis. Following is an abstract of the report of Prof. C. F.
Curtiss, director of the Iowa station:
Total number of samples analyzed, 642.
One and seven-tenths per cent of the samples ontained 17 per cent
or more of sugar; 73 per cent of these had a purity coefficient of 80
orabove, and 50 per cent ofthese samples weighed 14 ounces or above.
Four and three-cnths per cent of the samples contained 16 per cet
and over of suar and less than 17 per cent of these samles 8 er







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 73

ent had a purity coefficient of 80 degrees or above, and 2.9 per cent
eighed 14 ounces or above.
Twenty-two and three-tenths per cent of the samples contained 14
per cent or over of sugar and less than 16 per cent; of these samples
0 per cent had a purity coefficient of 80 or above, and 62 per cent
weighed 16 ounces or above.
Forty-one and four-tenths per cent of the samples contained 12 per
cet and over of sugar and less than 14 per cent; of these samples
14.7 per cent had a purity coefficient of 80 or above, and 69 per cent
weighed 16 ounces or above.
Sixty-nine and three-tenths per cent.of the total number of samples
contained 12 per cent or more of sugar.
The above percentages are based on the weight of the juice.
The mean weight of the samples received at the Iowa station was 19
ounces, the mean percentage of sugar in the beet 12.4, and the mean
purity 76.6. The results by counties are given in the following table:

Analyses of sugar beets grown in Iowa and analyzed by the Iowa agricultural experiment
station.

Average Purity Average Purity
County. weight Sugar. coef- County. weight Sugar. coef-
per root. ficient. per root. ficient.

Ounces. Per cent. Ounces. Per cent.
Adair.............. 19 13.40 77.45 Johnson........... 20 12.54 76.98
Adams ............ 21 13. 26 75. 30 Jones.............. 17 14.05 77.52
Allamakee......... 20 14. 26 78.87 Keokuk ........... 23 14.06 76. 46
Appanoose ........ 8 16.11 82.80 Kossuth........... 25 12.58 77.26
Audubon.......... 16 13.09 78.36 Linn............... 17 12.08 74.02
Benton ............ 21 13. 30 76. 68 Louisa............. 10 12. 65 74.54
Blackhawk........ 17 13. 98 79.64 Lyon .............. 19 14. 07 79. 33
Boone --............. 17 13. 33 76.81 Madison........... 18 12. 55 74.34
Bremer ............ 14 11.24 78.71 Marion ............ 21 12. 86 74. 66
Buchanan ........ 15 14.24 76.25 Marshall .......... 22 12.51 74.85
Buena Vista ....... 19 13.62 77.70 Milla .............. 19 12.94 76.94
Butler ............. 13 10. 77 74. 45 Mitchell........... 20 12.37 76. 21
Calhoun........... 12 15. 80 81.46 Monona ............. 27 13.86 80.87
Carroll........... 22 12.34 75.51 Montgomery ...... 25 12.33 76.52
Cass............... 22 12.03 75.34 Muscatine........ 20 14.44 80. 92
Cedar ............. 21 12.56 74.48 O'Brien. ......... 16 14.38 92.77
Cherokee .......... 19 13. 34 77. OL Osceola............ 14 14. 16 81. 48
Chickasaw ........ 15 13.34 75.54 Page .............. 23 12.56 74. 22
Clay............... 17 12. 08 74.06 Palo Alto.......... 22 12. 88 106. 85
Clayton ......... 23 13.48 78. 47 Plymouth ......... 26 12. 49 79. 39
Clinton............ 17 15.81 78.97 Pocahontas...... 20 11.76 78.46
Crawford .......... 23 10.55 68.24 Polk............... 22 12.96 76. 09
Dallas ............ 23 13.46 79.33 Pottawattamie .... 19 13.04 78. 13
Davis.............. 14 15.78 73.94 Poweshiek ........ 20 12. 87 77.52
Decatur ........... 12 14. 14 79.27 Ringgold .......... 17 12. 54 75.58
Delaware......... 18 13.23 75.76 Scott .............. 16 13.73 76.59
Dickinson......... 21 12.81 75.16 Shelby............. 24 13. 43 78.58
Dubuque .......... 17 14.14 69.76 Sioux.............. 28 12.44 73.79
Fayette............ 17 14.62 80. 33 Story ................ 22 12.30 76. 51
............. 24 12.77 75.01 Tama.............. 17 12.55 77.04
Franklin .......... 17 12. 62 73.23 Taylor............. 11 11.82 70. 39
reont........... 19 12.15 71.37 Union ........... 15 13.98 76.54
Grene ............ 19 13.04 77.42 Wapello........... 19 13.70 76. 74
rundy............ 23 12.00 73.91 Warren............ 20 13.62 75.79
Guthrie ........... 22 12. 60 74. 98 Washington ...... 21 13. 84 77.84
Hamilton ....... 21 12.58 75.24 Wayne............ 13 15.15 70.92
ancock ........... 18 11.92 75.84 Webster........... 18 12.57 76. 14
ardin........... 19 12. 88 77.01 Winnebago........ 22 12. 21 76.87
Harriso.......... 17 12. 65 76. 57 Winnehiek....... 19 13.57 76. 42
enry............. 26 14.24 78.64 W!oodbury........... 20 12.72 74.34
Howard ........... 18 13.33 77.48 Worth............. 18 13.34 78.77
da ................ 21 12.79 77.49 Wright............ 15 12.22 75.48
Jasper............. 23 13. 06 76. 86
efron .......... 12 12.36 76.27 Average... 19 12.98 76.56
_ _ _ _ __ _ _ __






74 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

The results contained in the above table are not as satisfactory as
would be expected from the location of Iowa in respect of thermal
and other climatic influences. The poor results obtained are due
either to the seasonal influences, which might have been particularly
bad for the season in question, or to some unsuitability of the soil
or climate to the production of high-grade beets. In general, it has
been observed that soils particularly rich in humus and of a black
color do not produce as high-grade beets as sandy and somewhat lighter-
colored soils. The character of the subsoil and of the stratum under-
lying it must also be taken into consideration before we can have an
idea of the condition of aeration of the soil and the possibilities of the
roots of the beets extending to the proper depth. It is fortunate that
the agricultural experiment station of Iowa will continue thee experi-
ments in a more careful manner and under more efficient control of
the station or some of its representatives. It is evident that with the
possible exception of the southern tier of counties a large portion of
the State of Iowa with favorable soil conditions should produce beets
of high saccharine strength. The causes which hive depressed both
the content of sugar and the coefficient of purity should be carefully
investigated.
KANSAS.
Several years ago extensive experiments in growing beets in Kansas
were made at Medicine Lodge, and accounts of the work are given in
former bulletins on this subject. At that time it was stated, in dis-
cussing the results, that the climate of Kansas was particularly unfa-
vorable to beet culture. The extremely dry weather to which much of
the State is frequently subjected, in conjunction with the hot winds
which sweep over the vast plains almost every year from the southwest,
renders the growth of the beet extremely precarious. At times excel-
lent beets can be grown; in fact, beets of fine character were produced
at the time mentioned at Medicine Lodge. It is not to be expected,
however, that from year to year beets of high grade can be grown in
sufficient quantities to warrant the building of factories in the State.
Nevertheless, considerable interest is taken in the work by the farmers
in various parts of the State, and also by the agricultural cllege and
experiment station. Forty-one samples were received by the Depart-
ment of Agriculture. The average size of these samples was rather
large, namely, 27 ounces. The sugar content was low, 11.4 per cent,
and the purity quite low, 73.8. While it is evident that large quanti
ties of sugar can be made from beets of this character, it is also plain,
without argument, that such a quality of beets would not be able to
comnlete with those grown in ore favorable localities.
The agricultural experiment station of Kansas in cooperation with
the Department of Agriculture, also conducted a series o experiments
and recived for analysis 157 samles. A detailed reort of this work







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 75

wil be found in the bulletins of the agricultural experiment station of
s, an he following summary sufficiently indicates the character
the results obtained. The number of samples analyzed was 157. The
verage net weight of the beets received was 17 ounces; the average
ntent of sugar in the beets, 11.9 per cent, and the average coefficient of
urity of the juice, 77. The percentage of the whole number of beets
containing 13 per cent of sucrose or over was 15.2. The percentage of
beets containing 13 per cent of sugar or over, having a coefficient of
purity of the juice of 80 per cent or over, was 67. The percentage
f beets containing 13 per cent and over of sugar and weighing 16
ounces or more, net, was 42.
The analyses made at the agricultural experiment station of Kansas
have been consolidated and tabulated by counties. The table of
analyses follows:

Summary of analyses of beets from Kansas.

[Compiled from report of experiment station.]






B ber.......... 14 14. 91 72. 5 Marshall...... 49 5 2, 12. 20 79. 4




Bart ......... 4 10. 35 74. 0 McPherson... 7 1 7 13. 08 76. 0
Countyr 8 County. .3 .
Q 0 h;z




Brown.......... 10 11.2 81. Mo ........ 14 2 1 14.01 74.5
BOzu. Per et. 7 8 Per ct.
Chse .......... 10 1 14 10.64 72.0 Lyon .......... 14 2 16 13.29 79.5
Atchieeon....... 17 2 17 12.61 79.5 arion ....... 33 6 16 11. 23 71.8
Barber .......... 14 2 12 14.91 7. Marshall ........ 49 5 25 12.20 79.




Cloud........... 93 9 20 13.65 79.02 Pawnee........ 8 1 54 8.52 70.0
Barton ......... 4 1 34 10.35 74.0 McPherson ... 7 1 7 13.08 76.0
Cra L ....... 18 1 5121 13.88 75.0 Pottaatgomie... 23 3 15 11.39 74.6
Brown.......... 1 8 21 11.29 81.0 Morris. ........ 14 2 15 14.01 74.5

Dickinson ...... 22 4 18 1. 86 70.8 NeRawlinha ....... 48 4 23 10. 30 74.2
Chase .......-.. 6 1 14 11.61 77.0 Osage.......... 20 4 16 12.178 77.2
Seenne........ 10 1 17 12.14 79. 9 Obornep c ...... 10 1 16 12. 39 70.0
SClayds....... 37 3 28 11.21 78.0 Ottawa........ 27 4 22 12.90 78.2
EClokud........... 9 20 11.65 79.2 Pawnee......... 8 1 4 8.52 70.0
ECofleyo....... ... 1 20 15.13 78. Phillips ......... 21 2 19 12.16 79.5
Crawford....... 12 1 142\1 13.87 82.0 Pottawatomie 30 3 16 12.20 83.6
Do ...... 1 28 ................ Pratt.......... 14 2 8 12.19 75.0
Dicnkion ....... 20 4 17 12. 28 77. 0 Rawlins ........ 8 1 16 9.57 73.0
iphanr......... 15 1 24 13.67 84.0 eSno .......... 18 2 12 13.78 79.5
Douglas ........ 11 2 20 12.48 77.5 Republic ...... 49 4 18 10.69 74.5

rwadam ........ 31 1 12 11.12 71.0 eRic ........... 12 2 14 11.71 74.5
SElk............ 14 2 21 14.04 83.0 iley.......... ..... 3 21 8.98 70.3
lsworth........ 5 1 17 ........ ........ ook ........ 21 2 16 13.39 80.5
Doinn ......... 6 1 19 14.14 74.0 Rush .......... 10 1 28 11.88 77.0
rJacksn ........ 16 1 16 11.86 77.0 ussell ........ 12 31 1 11.493 71.0
Gearyo....... 6 1 13 9.51 70.0 Saline ......... 16 2 91 15.78 84.0
Gehaw n ........ 31 3 18 1283 76.0 Sdgwick ...... 12 2 12 11.23 74. 0

hnsont ......... 1 1 16 15.47 78.0 Shawnee...g... 29 3 15 12. 19 77.3
Harbet ........ 6 1 5 ....... ...... Shridan .......20 2 2 11.59 78.5
6 L e ........... 6 1 14 12.83 78.0 Smithn ......... 10 1 28 11.12 78.0
Javewor....... 1 4 1 20 11.17 73.0 Woson er...... 17 1 18 13.38 76.0
Jefoln........ 16 1 15 11.82 76.0 Waubaunse... 23 2 15 12.14 77.5
ell.......... 40 4 19 11.12 77.3 allac .... 6 1 19 11.58 760
Jonoln........ 14 2 18 14.23 83.0 Wasahiugton... 99 10 27 10.79 75.2
Labette.......* 3 1 20 8.76 67.0 Wichita....... 6 1 14 11.24 79.0
Lane........... 26 2 4 10.17 68.5 WilsonT........ 36 5 14 13.12 81.0
Lewave'worth-.. 22 4 12 12.75 79.0 Woodson...... 10 1 7 14.32 73.0
;Lincoln........ 16 3 28 111.38 79.6 Wyandotte 4 1 14 14.11 75.0
Logan.......... 10 1 19 11.40 76.0


The data obtained at the Kansas station corroborate in every respect
those secured at the Department of Agriculture. It is evident that






76 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED SA

fairly good beets can be grown in Kansas, and re are doub
seasons when exceptionally rich beets might be securedIn genera
however, it may be said that there is no immediate prospect of the suc-
cessful establishment of the sugar-beet industry in that State, unless it
might be in someof the extreme western or northwestern counties where
irrigation might be practiced, and where the altitude is sufficiently high
to secure a lowering of the temperature. One of the great causes of
danger, however, is found in the hot southwest winds, which frequently
blow over the State with disastrous consequences at the period wen the
crops are growing most rapidly. It will be seen thatin many instances
individual analyses obtained in Kansas are extreely satisfactory, as
for instance, in Elk County, where two samples, including 14 different
beets, showed an average weight of 21 ounces, an average content of
sugar in the juice of 14 per cent, and an average purity of 83. Another
sample is found in Saline County, where 16 beets, forming two samples,
showed a sugar content of 15.8 per cent in the juice, with an average
purity of 84. In this case, however, the beets were very much under
size, the average weight being only 9 ounces. When, however, the
data received from the counties are compared with similar data fro
the State of New York, the discrepancy observed is so great as to
indicate, without further elucidation, the proper locality where the first
development of the sugar-beet industry should be looked for.
In the light of our previous experiments, it must be evident that
high-grade sorghum, developed from carefully selected eeds, has a
better prospect in Kansas of being a profitable sugar-producing plant
than the sugar beet.
KENTUCKY.
Only a few samples, with the exception of those sent by the experi-
ment statiqn, have been received from Kentucky. This State being
situated far south of the theoretical sugar-beet belt, it is not to be
expected that the results of the analyses would be particularly encour-
aging. The mean weight of the six samples received was 16 ounces,
the mean percentage of sugar 11.9, and the purity 71.5. The six sam-
ples included four from the experiment station. The beets received
were small, and the percentage of sugar only a trifle under the mini-
mum which is advisable for profitable sugar making; The purity,
however, is excessively low, and this seems to be characteristic of beets
grown too far south, the purity coefficient usually falling in a more
rapid proportion than the content of sugar.
Large numbers of samples were received from the experiment sta-
tion in addition to those analyzed above, which were grown upon the
special plot, which will be mentioned later on, and under the most
favorable conditions of culture. The beets which were sent to the
Department were of good size and mostly of a favorable shape, but the
analytical data were very disappointing, falling a gret deal lower than






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 77

wasexpected. Nine samples of White Improved Imperial Elite, planted
May 8 and harvested December 9, had an average weight of 33 ounces,
with 4.9 per cent of sugar. Three samples of original Kleinwanzlebener
bad an average weight of 23 ounces, with 10.8 per cent of sugar. Six-
teen samples of Vilmorins Improved had an average weight of 25
ounces, with 6.4 per cent of sugar. Thirty-nine samples of the Demes-
may variety had an average weight of 29 ounces, with 5.3 per cent of
sugar. All of these -beets were somewhat overgrown, but not suffi-
ciently so to account for the extremely low percentage of sugar. A
large additional number of samples had been selected for analysis, but
the results of the preceding analyses were so discouraging as to render
the further prosecution of the analytical work unnecessary. This sub-
ject will be mentioned again when the experiments in the specially
cultivated plots with high-grade seeds are discussed.

MARYLAND.

All the analyses of the samples of beets grown in Maryland were made
in the laboratory of this division, the agricultural station at College
Park not having undertaken any work of this kind. The whole num-
ber of samples received from the State was 29. The mean size of the
beets was 19 ounces, the mean percentage of sugar in the beets 11.4,
and the mean purity of the juices 79.1. In respect of size, the samples
from Maryland are about the mean. The purity of the juice is almost
up to the minimum standard, but the percentage of sugar in the beet
is about 0.6 less than is advisable for manufacture.
In regard to climatic conditions, as has been before intimated, the
State of Maryland occupies a somewhat peculiar position. There is a
considerable area along the eastern shore, next to the ocean, where the
average summer temperature is 710. In the western part of the State,
after a long deflection to the north, the isotherm of 700 may again be
found. Lying immediately south of the isotherm of 710, in the north-
ern portion of Maryland, are found some very fine valley lands where
the conditions of culture may be considered favorable. These lands
are underlaid by limestone, which in many cases comes to the surface.
Theoretically they are a little too warm for the most successful culture,
but lying so near the favorable thermal belt there may be reasonable
hopes of successful culture in many localities. In the western portion
of the State, where the thermal conditions are favorable, we find the
mountain ranges, and the low temperature of the summer is due to the
high elevation. The quantity of table lands upon the tops of the moun-
tains, however, is not sufficiently great to warrant the expectation of
the founding of a great industry. There is no doubt, however, of the
possibility of growing very rich beets on these table lands. In general
it may be said that the State of Maryland is not very favorably situated
for the culture of sugar beets, but there are circumscribed localities






78 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TE ITED SA

within the State where it is desirable to conduct experimet.
It is therefore earnestly hoped that the agricultural experiment station
of the State will make a more careful agricultural surve of the
bilities of the culture of sugar beets therein.

MICHIGAN.
The southern peninsula of Michigan is favorably situated for the
culture of sugar beets, both in respect of thermal conditions and rain-
fall. The soil is also for the most part well suited to sugar-beet culture.
In going northward, however, it becomes more sandy until finally the
pine regions are reached, where a soil without fertilization would not be
sufficiently rich to produce large crops. The well-known tendency of a
sandy soil, with proper meteorological conditions, to produce beets of a
high purity is well illustrated in the samples which have been received
from Michigan. In all, 450 samples from the State were sent to this
laboratory for analysis, 400 of them being from Saginaw County and
grown under the supervision of Messrs. Higgins & Lenders.
In regard to the results from particular counties, attention should be
called to the fact that the samples from Allegan were all enormously
overgrown, the average weight of the beets being 62 ounces and the
corresponding content of sugar and the coefficient of purity low. The
results from Calhoun County, in the southern part of the State, are par-
ticularly favorable, the average weight of the samples being 17 ounces,
average content of sugar in the beet 15.8, and the average purity 83.2.
The greater part of the samples having come from Saginaw County, the
average data for this county are almost the same as those of the State,
with the exception that the purity is considerably higher. The average
composition of the 400 samples from Saginaw County was as follows:
Average weight, 22 ounces; sugar content in the beet, 14.8 per cent,
and purity, 83.3. For the whole State-450 samples-the average
weight was 22 ounces, average sugar content 14.7 per cent, and average
purity 81.1.
The agricultural experiment station of Michigan, in cooperation with
the Department of Agriculture, also made an extensive series of inves-
tigations, a resum6 of which is given below:
RESULTS BY COUNTIES OF THE CULTIVATION OF SUGAR BEETS IN MICHIGAN IN
1897.
The following table is given containing the number of samples sent to the station
from each county, the average per cent of sugar in the juice, and coefficient of purity
of all samples sent. Seed was distributed in ixty-eight counties, and from the tble
below it will be seen that samples have been ~eceived from sixty-four of them. The
average per cent of sugar in the juice of beets of the whole State, when grown on
the proper kind of soil and from the right kind of seed, is 16.40, and the coeffiient
of purity is 84. An average of 16.40 per cent of sugar for the wole State, f
exceeding the best districts in Frnce and Germany, is both rprisingand gratifying.'
'These data are obtained by omitting from the table the analyses of mples
which were known to have been grown under unfavorable conditins.-H. W. W.








BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 79


Analyse of 8sgar beets grown in Michigan and analyzed by the Michigan agricultural
experiment station.


Number
Total Coeffi- mpl ofsam- Sugarin Coeffi-
TolCoefi- rejected plesIn jmce
County. number Sugarn cent of for bad pes on of
Sof juice. r a right soil such
Samples. purity. soil or and prop- samples. purity.
se er seed.

Per cent. Per cent.
Alger ....:................... 1 14.22 80 0 1 14.22 80
Allegan ...................... 3 15.67 86 0 3 15.67 86
Alpena...................... 2 15.01 80 0 2 15.01 80
Antrim ...................... 2 15.97 82 0 2 15.97 82
Arena...................... 8 16.77 85 0 8 16.77 85
Baraga ..................... 1 14.10 76 0 1 14.10 76
Barry....................... 4 14.90 81 0 4 14.90 81
Bay ........---.....-------- 10 15.53 84 1 9 16.00 84
Berrien ....------....------ 3 17.83 87 0 3 17.83 87
Branch........................ 3 16.62 84 0 3 16.62 84
Calhoun....................... 6 15.82 84 0 6 15.82 84
Cas--- .-.......-- -------.. .. 2 15.44 82 0 2 15.44 82
Charlevoix.................... 7 17.58 87 0 7 17.58 87
Clare......................... 2 16.80 84 0 2 16.80 84
Clinton ................... .... 4 15.89 84 1 3 16.05 86
Crawford.................... 1 15.25 81 0 1 15.25 81
Eaton --............ .......... 5 17.50 83 0 5 17.50 83
Emmet ........................ 1 15.02 82 0 1 15.02 82
Genesee...................... 6 14.75 82 1 5 16.14 84
Grand Traverse..........---- .... 7 15.75 82 2 5 15. 91 83
Gratiot.................--...... 6 16.09 83 0 6 16.09 83
Hillsdale... ................. 2 16.71 84 0 2 16.71 84
Huron ........................ 6 17.47 85 0 6 17.47 85
Ingham .--..... .............. 36 16.43 87 1 35 16. 53 87
lonia ........................ 4 16.36 82 0 4 16.36 82
osco...........-.............. 6 13.18 77 1 5 14.22 79
Iron......................... 1 18.18 80 0 1 18.18 80
Isabella................... 4 14.09 78 1 3 16.41 82
Jackson ...................... 7 19.74 74 5 2 18.16 86
Kalamazoo ................... 17 15. 45 82 3 14 15. 87 82
Kalkaska ..... ............ 2 16. 91 83 0 2 16.91 83
Kent ........................ 16 15.55 83 2 14 15.85 84
Lapeer....................... 2 17.71 84 0 2 17.71 84
Leelanaw ...... ............. 3 18.77 89 0 3 18.77 89
Lenawee ... ................ 5 15. 96 85 0 5 15. 96 85
Livingston................... 2 14. 34 80 0 2 14. 34 80
Mackinac.................... 1 16.22 85 0 1 16.22 85
Macomb ..................... 11 16.11 82 2 9 16.91 83
Manistee..................... 6 17.09 84 0 6 17. 09 84
Mason ....................... 5 16.54 85 0 5 16.54 85
Mecosta...................... 4 16.67 84 0 4 16.67 84
Menominee .................. 6 16.58 84 0 6 16.58 84
Midland...................... 2 17.62 86 0 2 17.62 86
Missaukee ................... 1 15.79 84 0 1 15.79 84
Monroe ...................... 2 16.41 84 0 2 16.41 84
Montcalm...... ............... 2 17.64 83 0 2 17.64 83
SMuskegon ................... 9 16.03 85 0 9 16.03 85
Newaygo..................... 13 16.11 81 1 12 16.54 81
Oakland..................... 7 15.29 83 1 6 16. 26 83
Oceana...................... 11 1. 54 86 0 11 16.54 86
Ontonagon.................. .. 4 15.15 79 0 4 15.15 79
Osceola...................... 2 16.55 85 0 2 16.55 85
Otsego .... ............... 1 18.00 90 0 1 18.00 90
Ottawa....................... 14 16.47 83 0 14 16.47 83
Saginaw ..................... 127 15.99 84 4 123 16.13 84
St. Clair ...................... 31 17. 53 83 1 30 17.64 83
St. Joseph.................... 1 12. 16 76 0 1 12. 16 76
Sanilac...................... 11 18. 15 86 0 11 18.15 86
Shiawassee................... 4 16. 89 83 0 4 16. 89 83
Tu scola ...................... 1 18.94 89 0 1 18.94 89
Van Buren ................... 4 13.82 80 0 4 13.82 80
Washteiaw ... ............ 4 16. 10 84 0 44 16.10 84
Wayne....................... 9 16.12 84 1 8 17.08 85
Wexford .................... 9 14.59 79 1 8 15.25 81
Total................... 493 .............. .......... 465 ................
Average : .............. .......... 16.08 83 .................... 16.40 84


Five samples from Oceana County are not included in results of analyses, because
$tey were dried and damaged by keeping.






80 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UN ED

Interesting data in regard to cost of culture were obtained at the
Michigan station. The plats were planted on the 8th of May, and
harvested on the 6th of October. After throwing te dirt awayfrom
the beets by a plow they were pulled by hand and the leaves and stems
removed. Owing to the deep subsoiling and thorough preparation of
the ground, the beets were found wholly embedded in the soil, none of
them having been pushed above the surface. The average weight of
the beets before the removal of the necks was about 2J pounas. The
following table gives the total labor, calculated to 1 acre, required for
growing and harvesting the beets:

Man and Man.
team.

Hours. Hours.
Plowing and bsoiling ........................... .. ........................... 12.00 ........
Harrowing .............................................w................. .......... 3.75 ........
M arking ........................ ... ......................... .... .80 ........
Planting............................................................................ .......... 3.25
Cultivating......................................................................... 15.00 ........
Thinning and hoeing........ ....................... .......- ....w .... ... ..----- -..--- .... 75.90
Harvesting ... ................................................................ 4.60 130.75
Total .........-............................................................... 36.15 209.90

The hand labor in harvesting was performed by boys at 8 cents a
hour. The work of hoeing and thinning was performed by men at 12
cents an hour. The cost of team work is computed at 25 cents an hour
for man and team. On the above basis, the total cost of planting, culti-
vating, and harvesting an acre of beets at the Michigan Experiment
Station was $29.40. The yield per acre, the percentage of sugar in the
juice, and the purity for each variety grown are shown in the following
table:

Variety. Yield er Sugar. Purity.

Pounds. Per cent.
Wohanka .. ..*5....... ................. ........ .......... 23,15 15. 22 88
Improved Kleinwanzlebener...................................-....... 25,678 16.40 91
Original Kleinwanzlebener ............- .................. ........ .. 27, 368 18.27 94
Government Kleinwanzlebener ........................................ 25, 48 17.78 94
La Plus Riche..-...........-..... ...... ..-....................-... 29,205 18.78 92
(Government Kleinwanzebener........................................ 32,27 17.78 94
ornig' I proved ..................................................500 15.20 89
Floto'A Improved ................................... .................. 20,200 13.21 88
Kleinwanzlebener on ck............................................ ...... 12.6 75

Full details of all the experiments conducted in Michigan by the
agricultural experiment station are found in Bulletin No. 150 of that
station, issued in December, 1897, by Director C. D. Smith and Chemist
R. C. Kedzie.
The study of the two sets of data seured at the Department of Agri-
culture and by the agricultural experiment station of Michiga( is suf-
ficient to demonstrate the fact that the southern peninsula of Michigan
has great possibilities for the development of the sugar-beet industry.
When it is remembered that the most of those who grew the samples
had had no previous experience in the atter, that no systemat
fertilization was attempted, and that in many insan soil w






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 31

properly prepared, the remarkably favorable results obtained are the
re convincing. It is evident that all the southern portion of the
outhern Michigan Peninsula, in conjunction with the northern part
f Indiana, forms an area in which the future will see a remarkable
development of the sugar-beet industry.
MINNESOTA.
Frty-nine samples from the State of Minnesota were received for
analysis at the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture. The
mean weight of the samples received was 24 ounces, the mean percent-
age of sugar in the beet 11, and the mean purity coefficient 79.2.
Great variations are shown in the samples received from different
parts of the State. One of the best series of results was obtained from
Freeborn County, in the southern part of the State, from which twelve
samples were received, having an average weight of 20 ounces, an
average content of sugar in the beet of 14.1 per cent, and an average
coefficient of purity of 82.3.
Another good series of samples, though less in number, was from
Ottertail County, in the western part of the State, from which four
samples were received, having an average weight of 23 ounces, a mean
content of sugar in the beets of 14.9 per cent, and a mean coefficient of
purity of 82.1. The general average from the State was lowered by a
large number of very poor samples, which evidentlyhad been grown
under extremely unfavorable conditions.
The period of growth in Minnesota, while a little short, is neverthe-
less favorable from other considerations, eApecially in the southern and
eastern portions of the State. Toward the northwestern portion of the
State the rainfall is somewhat uncertain, and the autumn is perhaps a
little too cold. As has been intimated before, the chief difficulty in
Minnesota in the establishment of the beet-sugar industry is not in
securing a proper growing season, but in having a sufficient time to
properly harvest and protect the beets. The sudden, and often early,
advent of winter in the northern and western portions of the State will
be the cause of difficulties of a serious nature in the harvesting and
siloing of the beets. These are factors which intending investors will
do well to carefully consider. In general, the conditions of growth are
so favorable as to warrant the careful study of the soils of the State by
the agricultural experiment station with a view to selecting those locali-
ties where the conditions of culture are most favorable. In a State of
such vast area it is far better to determine those restricted sections
where the conditions are most favorable rather than try to establish
the industry indiscriminately in every portion of the Stte.
In cooperation with the Department of Agriculture, the agricultural
experiment station of Minnesota conducted an extensive series of cul-
re experiments in various parts of the State. The general results
Sthe experiments are indicated in the report of the chemist of the
tion, which follows.
H. Doe. 396







82 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TE UNITED ATES.

EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED BY THE AGRICULTURAL EX SATION OF
MINNESOTA.
The seed from which the beets were grown was obtained from a variety of sources.
Some procured seed from the stock which the legislature directed the State treas-
urer to purchase. About 100 pounds of seed were obtained from the United States
Department of Agriculture and distributed by the experiment station. Some seed
was obtained direct from Germany, while a few obtained seed from seed dealers and
other sources. As a rule, the seed was of good quality. Only a few instances of poor
seed were reported. There was but little difference as to the quality of the beets
produced by the seed furnished by the State and by the Department of Agriculture.
At the experiment station the average of four plots of Kleinwanzlebener beets grown
from State seed showed 17.5 per cent sugar, with a purity coefficient of 86.7, while the
average of four plots of Kleinwanzlebener beets grown from United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture seed gave 17.4 per cent sugar and a purity coefficient of 87.8.
The past season has not been one particularly favorable to the production of the
highest quality of beets. It has been the most unfavorable season in nine years.
As a whole, however, the results have been satisfactory, and I consider them of
unusual value, because they indicate the quality of the beets which are produced
in an unfavorable rather than a favorable season,
At the experiment station the average of those plots which were grown under
normal conditions gave a sugar content of 17.4 per cent and a purity coefficient of
87.3.
There is one factor in our favor which I think has been overlooked in considering
desirable locations for sugar-beet factories, and that is, we have never lost a sugar-
beet crop from hot, dry winds, which occasionally occur in some of the prairie
States.
About three hundred samples of beets have been tested during the season. In
many cases the results were lower than they would have been if. the beets had been
properly cultivated. In one of the tables the results are given of some of the beets
which have been grown under abnormal conditions. In one case twenty-five min-
utes' time was spent on a quarter acre of beets, while in another case the seeds were
planted five inches. These results, while they possess no value as indicating the
quality of sugar beets which may be produced in a locality, are nevertheless valua-
ble, because they emphasize the importance of the right kind of cultivation for
sugar-beet production.
Sugar beets grown at the Minnesota Experitet Station.

No. No. urity Average
plot. tests. coicient. weight.

Highest results: Rows 18 inches apart and beets 4 Per cent. Per cent. Oue.
inches in row ............ ......... ................... .. ..... 18.5 92.5 12.8
Lowest results: Rows 30 inches apart and beets 10
inches in row .................................................... 14.2 78.0 18.4
Average of rows:
24 and 30 inches apart and bts 4 to 6 inches in row. 8 16 16.0 86.1 15.1
24and 30 inches apart and beets 6 to 10 inches in
row ......... ... ...... ........ .............. 8 16 15.8 85.5 14.0
14 and 18 Incheo apart and beets 8 and 10 inches in
row ............. ...... ...................... 8 16 15.9 85.4 14.1
14 and 18 inches apart and beets 4 and 6 inches in
row .............................................. 8 16 17.4 187.3 6I

The cultivation of the beet was under the supervision of the Agricultural Div
Nion. The analyses were all made by the chemist of the station.
The analytical data obtained are summarized fro the details of th
chemist's report in the following table:
Total number of analyss reported ..........................*......, ....
Average weight of the beets (ounces) ......................................... 17
Average per cent of sugar in the juice.......... ...... .......
Average coefficient of purity .... ................. .. ***.. ......... *...... 81






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 83

SThe classification of results is made in several portions, namely,
analyses of miscellaneous samples from the State at large and analyses
of special samples from definite localities. In the analyses of mis-
cellaneous beets collected from djfferent parts of the State, with the
exception of those specially mentioned below, thirty-four samples were
examined. The mean weight of the beet is not given in this table of
analyses. The mean percentage of sugar in the juice is 14.25 and the
mean purity coefficient 82.
Sixteen samples grown at Mankato, Minn., showed an average weight
of 21.9 ounces, a mean percentage of sugar in the juice of 12.8, and a
purity coefficient of 80.2.
Ten samples grown at Winton and Stockton had an average weight
of 17.1 ounces, contained 13.7 per cent of sugar in the juice, and had
a purity coefficient of 81.9.
Eighty-three samples grown at Albert Lea had an average weight of
16.6 ounces, contained 13.8 per cent of sugar in the juice, and had a
purity coefficient of 82.1.
In general, it will be observed that the results obtained on the samples
sent directly to the station were better than those secured at the lab-
oratory in Washington. Upon the whole, the results of the work done
at the experiment station are eminently satisfactory, especially as they
were accompanied with the statement of the director that the condi-
tions were the most unfavorable, for the development of a crop of sugar
beets, which had been known in the State since the commencement of
the experiments in this direction, in 1888.
The results of the analyses of the beets grown at the station are
extremely satisfactory. The average weight of the beet, to be sure, is
somewhat low, but this doubtless was due to an unfavorable growing
season. The mean percentage of sugar in the beets grown in different
plots is exceptionally fine, and the coefficient of purity in one instance
is higher than could reasonably be expected with the best kind of
culture. Only in one of the plots cultivated on the station are the
results unsatisfactory, and in this case it is the coefficient of purity
especially which has fallen below the standard.

MISSOURI.

Very extensive experiments were made in Missouri, about 4,000 sam-
ples of seed having been distributed, and over 600 returns made.
There were sent directly to the Department of Agriculture 324 sam-
ples, detailed analyses of which are found in the preceding tables.
The average weight of the samples received was 20 ounces. The mean
percentage of sugar in the beet was 11.7 and the mean purity 73.5.
Many individual samples from the State show excellent qualities, but
reliable judgment, as intimated before, can only be based upon large
numbers of analyses. Among the counties furnishing beets of high
quality may be mentioned Barton, in the southwestern part of the
State. Three samples were received from this county, all of them of







84 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

rather large size and fine* content of sugar, the mean size being 27
ounces, the mean content of sugar in the beet 15.3 per cent; only the
purity in all cases was a little low, the mean being 77.3. Benton
County, in the center of the State, also showed good results, five sam-
ples having an average weight of 16 ounces, an average sugar content
of 15.5 per cent, and an average purity of 77.1. The best single sam-
ple received was from Pulaski County, in the center of the State, the
percentage of sugar being 18.3, the purity 86.1; but the weight was
low, namely, only 12 ounces.
Two hundred and ninety-nine samples of beets were sent directly to
the agricultural experiment station of Missouri and analyzed in the
laboratory of that station. The mean results, by counties, obtained on
analysis are given in the following table:

Summary of analyses of beets grown in Missouri.
[From Report of Missouri Experiment Station.]

410 5 P


S. O |.0 1 1 8


Ozs. Per ct. Ozi. Pe t.
Adair .............. 2 29 14.31 82.89 Livingsto........ 1 12 9.75 70. 3
Andrew ............ 1 22 12. 16 76. 76 McDonald ......... 5 19 13.83 8005
Audrain ........... 1 32 7.10 56.66 Maccn ............ 1 14 14.11 70.89
Barry.............. 4 24 12. 85 73.96 Madison .......... 2 20 13.07 71.85
Barton............. 1 41 16.97 81.62 Maries............ 1 28 12.95 78.92
Bates .............. 1 22 11.56 76.82 Marion............ 4 32 9.76 69.32
Benton............. 2 16 18.19 86.36 Mercer............ 1 44 13.51 80.22
Boone.............. 2 29 8.19 63.78 Mississippi ....... 3 24 10.57 5.0
Buchanan .......... 4 34 12. 20 81. 88 Monroe ........... 2 11 7.71 57. 57
Butler ............. 1 8 6.47 58.23 Montgomery ..... 5 21 12.62 78.11
Caldwell ........... 6 35 12. 99 80. 16 New Madrid...... 2 20 12.30 79.03
Callaway........... 3 33 12.45 76.45 Nodaway ......... 4 42 11.66 72.61
Carroll............. 2 28 11.08 75.03 Oregon............ 1 20 8.37 67. 12
Cass ............. 3 22 16.36 84.75 Ozark ............. 1 6 13.81 77. 15
Cedar.............. 1 7 11.08 78.86 Perry ............. 1 16 1406 74.8
Chariton ............ 4 16 12. 35 74.24 Pettis ....... 8 24 10.05 5.67
Christian.......... 3 32 11.14 67.86 Phelps ............ 4 13 11.31 75.5
Clark .............. 1 54 12.80 77.76 Platte............. 4 27 12.11 74.74
Clay............... 1 36 8.87 67.16 Pike (average).... 63 21 10.14 75.55
Cooper ............ 4 19 8.43 61.69 First harvest.. 38 21 10.94 76. 8
Crawford............ 3 20 11.95 81.27 Second harvest 25 21 9.34 74.30
Dade............... 2 30 10.56 67.95 Randolph ......... 2 16 14.30 80.17
Dallas............. 2 16 14.06 74.95 a............ 6 44 105 72.40
Dekalb............ 2 46 10.11 70.40 Salin............ 3 21 13.74 76.39
Dent............... 1 10 14.51 72.66 Schuyler.......... 3 25 15.74 82.30
Dougla ............ 2 4 15.19 88. 68 Scotland ......... 2 20 15.51 79.46
Franklin........... 3 30 9.31 70.81 Scott.............. 3 26 9.70 66.43
Gasconade ...... 2 19 10.88 68. 60 Shannon .......... 3 12 11.94 76.10
Gentry............. 7 31 12.68 75.42 Shelby ............ 8 7.87 76.
Green........... 1 20 12.27 77.17 St. Charles ........ 6 58 11.21 78.3
Grundy ........... 1 18 12. 16 71.11 St. lair........... 1 21.02 92. 19
Harrison .......... 1 6 18.45 ........ St. rancois ....... 2 22 9.68 .99
Henry ............ 3 25 11.05 V6. 76 St. Louis .......... 6 27 13,53 82.80
Hickory............ 1 24 11.88 76.66 Stoddar..i......... 1 16 14.79 74,1
HIolt .............. 4 29 10.26 73.29 Sullivan........... 2 26 16.08 85.92
Howell............. 2 8 110 78.18 Taney...... ... 3 15 13.08 74.95
Iron...... ,...... 2 13 13.11 79.76 Texa ............. 2 18 14.33 78.47
Jackson........... 4 36 12.14 79.2 Vernon............ 7 6 13.17 8030
Jas r ......... 6 27 11.04 72.57 Warrn ........... 2 3 8.07 6,1. 4
Jef on .......... 3 17 10.71 68.73 Washington ..... 1 28 10.71 73.71
Johnson............ 5 22 11.90 72.54 Wayn ............. 1 22 13.0 .......
Knox .............. 1 46 12.81 74.87 Web .ter .......... 1 14 13.12 80. 5
Lalede ...... ..... 5 19 12. 30 68.02 Worth ............ 1 4 11. 35 73.13
Lafayett .......... 4 25 11.45 74.08 Wright ........... 4 13 14.01 83.24
Lawrence ......... 1 24 12.12 78.0 -
Lewis.............. 8225 15.0 27 Total and
Lincoln ........... 1 42 7.94 57.18 mean..... 301 28 111 74.
Linn............. 5 28 12.28 72.21






EET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 85

the whole number of samples, the percentage of those containing
3 p cet or more of sugar in the beet was 24; the percentage of
beets ith a sugar content of 13 per cent or over having a purity
cient of 80 or over was 83; the percentage of the number of beets
g 13 per cent of sugar which had a purity coefficient of 80 or
ver ad weighing 16 ounces or over was 68.
The average percentage of sugar in the beet for the whole number
Ssamples examined at the station was 11.1. The average coefficient
f purity 74.9, and the average weight in ounces 25. A tabular com-
ison of the mean results obtained by the Missouri station and in the
laboratory of the Department will be interesting:

Total
number Average Sugar in Purity co-
of sam- weight. juice. efficient.
ples.
Ounces. Per cent.(
United States Department of Agriculture................... 324 20 11.7 73.5
Agriculturaexperiment station of Missouri................ 201 28 11.1 74.9

As will be seen above, there is a remarkable agreement between the
mean results obtained in the two laboratories. The average size of the
samples received at'Washington was smaller than that of the beets
analyzed at the agricultural experiment station of Missouri, and this is
doubtless the cause of the slightly increased mean percentage of sugar
obtained in the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture. A general
study of the results obtained leads to the inevitable conclusion that
Missouri is not very favorably situated for producing beets of the high-
est quality. It is possible to secure, in some instances, results which
are exceptionally favorable, but that such results could be secured con-
tinuously, and from season to season, is not probable. The data show
that the whole State of Missouri belongs in the same category, in respect
of growing rich sugar beets, as the southern parts of the States of Ohio,
Idiana, and Illinois. Even the northern counties of Missouri are too
far south to give the best results. It is evident, however, in so far as
yield is concerned, that Missouri is probably the equal of any State in
the Union for growing beets of fine size and large tonnage per acre.
Unless exceptional conditions favorable to manufacture are found in
the State, it is not probable that the sugar-beet industry will gain a
foothold for some time in competition with the more favorable local-
ities farther north and east.
MONTANA.
Only four samples were received from the State of Montana at the
laboratory of the Department of Agriculture. The average weight of
the samples was 20 ounces, the mean percentage of sugar in the beet
14 and the ean purity coefficient of 77.8.
Analyses were also made by the agricultural experiment station of
tana. Fifteen aalyses were made of samples rown on the






86 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATE

grounds of the station. The averae weight of the amples was 14.8
ounces, the mean percentage of sugar in the beet 2, and the mean
coefficient of purity of the juice 81.9. Thirty samples grown in the
Gallatin Valley had a mean weight of 22 ounces, a mean content of
sugar in the beet of 13.7 per cent, and a mean coefficient of purity of
76.4. Eight samples grown at Livingston had an average weigt
of 24.7 ounces, with a mean sugar content of 13.8 per cent in the beet,
and a coefficient of purity of 74.3. Nine samples from Kalispell had a
mean weight of 32 ounces, a mean content of 13. 5 per cent of sugar in
the beet, and a mean coefficient of purity of 76.2. Four samples of
beets from Missoula had an average weight of 32 ounces, a mean per-
centage of sugar in the beet of 12, and a mean coefficient of purity of
73.6. Four samples of miscellaneous origin had an average weight of
23 ounces, an average sugar content in the beet of 12.7 per cent, and a
coefficient of purity of 74. The whole number of samples analyzed by
the agricultural experiment station of Montana was 70, with a mean
weight of 23 ounces, a mean content of sugar in the beet of 14.7 per
cent, and a mean coefficient of purity of 77.
The results obtained at the experiment station show what can be
done by careful culture, and indicate that Montana, under proper con-
ditions, is capable of producing a fairly good sugr beet. The data in
general are sufficiently encouraging to warrant the agricultural experi-
ment station of the State in making a more thorough and careful agri-
cultural survey of the possibilities of beet production.
NEBRASKA.
Thirteen samples grown in Nebraska were received at the Depart-
ment of Agriculture for analysis. The mean weight of the samples
received was 29 ounces, the mean percentage of sugar in the beet 12.9,
and the mean purity coefficient 76.9. The studies which have been made
in Nebraska have been so thorough in previous years that it would not
be advisable to make any deductions from so mall a number of samples
as was analyzed. In connection with the work done at the Department,
the following report of the chemist of the agricultural experiment sta-
tion of Nebraska may be considered:
RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN NEBRASKA.
We distributed seed to 433 persons. Of these 158 responded, either by sending
beets or written communication, or both. Of the 158, 106 returned sample of
beets for analysis; 52 reported failure to secure crop. Of the 52 reporting fail-
ures, 11 said that the seed failed to germinate; 14 ascribed failure to dry weather; 24
gave various reasons for failure, 13 stating tat the crop was destroyed by grasshop-
pers; 4 lost their crop by reason of stock incursions, and 7 through general neglect.
Putting these figures in the form of percentages: 36.4 per cent of those receiving
seed responded in some way; 67 per cent of those who reported to us sent beets for
analysis; 269 per cent of failures were attributd to dry weather; 269 per cent of
failures were attributed to poor seed; 25 per cent of failures were caused b grass-
hopers; 7.7 per cent of failure were caused by cattle; 134 per cent of failures
were cauend by general neglect.
The resus of aalyses owed an averae of 12.34 per cent of ugin the j






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 87

ith a parity coefficient of 75. The highest per cent of sugar in juice was 16.8 with
a purity of 78.5. The lowest was 4.6 per cent with a purity coefficient of 45.
Beet seed was sent into sixty-seven counties and beets were received from thirty-
six counties.
The average results obtained agree very closely with those secured
in the laboratory of the Department of Agriculture.
So long a time has elapsed since sugar-beet growing was commenced
in Nebraska on a large scale that it is possible to form some idea of
the adaptability of that State for beet growing. The soils of Nebraska
are mostly very fertile, with a fairly level surface, and are well suited in
this respect to beet culture. The climatic conditions, as will be seen
by consulting the map, are somewhat variable, and the rainfall in parts
f the State is scant and in all parts of it very uncertain in respect of
istribution. Periods of extremely wet weather are apt to alternate with
long droughts. Hot winds may be expected over many parts of the
State during the period of most rapid growth, and these winds are
extremely injurious to all kinds of vegetation. The winters are apt to
come on early and with severity, rendering the harvesting season some-
what precarious. There is no doubt of the fact that good beets can be
grown under favorable conditions in Nebraska, but the uncertainties of
the season are such as to indicate that there will not be a very
rapid expansion of the industry in that State until more favorable
areas have been thoroughly exploited. For details in regard to
Nebraska the reports of the agricultural experiment station of
Nebraska, at Lincoln, may be consulted. For about eight years this
station has been engaged in the study of this question, and has pub-
lished numerous and valuable bulletins, many of which can still be
obtained by applying to the director of the station.

NEVADA.
A large portion of the State of Nevada, in fact the whole of the
northern and western parts, lies within the thermal area suitable to beet
culture. Twenty-one samples of beets were received at the Department
of Agriculture from Nevada, the average weight of which was 25 ounces,
the average content of sugar in the beet 16.6 per cent, and the average
coefficient of purity 81.1. These samples all came from the parts of the
State lying within the favorable thermal area. The agricultural experi-
ment station of Nevada, at, Reno, also made an investigation of the
ossibilities of growing beets in that State, and has submitted a report
on the subject. In all, twenty-two samples were received at Reno for
analysis the average weight of which was 25 ounces, and the average
content of sugar 16.9 per cent, the purity not being given. These data
show a remarkable agreement with those obtained by the Department
of Agriculture. The beets were grown entirely under irrigation. Some
f them, however, received only one irrigation and others as high as five.
The results obtained at the station itself were in the highest degree
satifactory. The total number of amle grown and analyzed at the






88 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED ST

station was ten, the mean weight of the beets was 1 ounces, and the
mean percentage of sugar 18.9, purity coefficient not given.
Mr. Stubbs, the director of the station, in submitting his report,
states that he distributed 90 pounds of the seed received from the
Department to thirty farmers residing in fifteen countis. Only five of
the thirty farmers sent samples for analysis. One reported failure from
stock breaking into the field and destroying the crop; one, failure from
lack of water, and one stated that the samples of seeds sent him did
not arrive. Mr. John Harrison reports that there are 20,000 acres of
land in a single body such as he used for growing his beets.
All the samples sent to the Department of Agricluture by Mr. Harri-
son, ten in number, were from Humboldt County; the average weight
of the samples was 21 ounces, the mean content of sugar in the beets
18.8 per cent, and the mean coefficient of purity 83.1. It is evident
that, if such beets as these can be grown in that locality, the 20,000
acres of land suitable to beet culture would suffice to maintain a large
factory, which must of necessity prove eminently successful if fuel,
limestone, and water can be had in sufficient abundance and sufficiently
cheap to operate it. The cultural results in Nevada are of the high-
est significance. This State, which is devoted chiefly to mining, has
very small agricultural interests, but if a few areas capable of irriga-
tion, like that at Lovelocks, in Humboldt County, can be found, Nevada
should become a beet producing State. The establishment of this agri-
cultural industry could not fail to be of immense benefit to the Com-
monwealth. There is no other State in which the reports are more
favorable, although it may be said that the number of samples is not
sufficiently large to carry absolute conviction. Nevertheless, the uni-
form excellence of the samples can not be the result of accident, but
must have been due to the favorable influences of soil and climate.
The agricultural experiment station of this State will do well to make
a more careful survey, and especially to map out the localities where
the contour of the State is suitable to beet culture and where water
can be obtained.
NEW JERSEY.
As has been before stated, New Jersey is traversed from the south
toward nort t he th the mean isotherm of 710 for the three summer
months. A portion of it is therefore within the theoretical thermal
belt for beet growing. In general, it may be said, however, that the
temperature will be found a little too warm to secure the best results.
On the other hand, the soil of New Jersey is of a sandy nature, suited
to the growth of a beet with a high purity.
The data which have been collected durng the season from New Jer-
sey are encouraging. The whole number of samples received from the
State was 31, the average weight 16 ounce, the mean content of sugar
in the beet 14.2 per cent, and the coefent of purity 81.4. Essex and
Me r counties each furnished seven amples; the results Essex
Conty were fairly ood, but in Mercer County were oor. Ocean







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 89

Conty furnished eight samples, with a high average percentage of
sugar and purity coefficient, but with a weight only half the normal.
No investigations were made by the experiment station of New Jer-
ey, but Mr. James B. Vredenburgh, of Jersey City, conducted some very
careful experiments at Freehold, in Monmouth County. The following
report of Mr. Vredenburgh is interesting and contains valuable data.

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN NEW JERSEY.

May 0, 1897.-I had one-quarter acre clover sod plowed and prepared for planting.
ay S2.-I had planted four kinds of beet seed, viz, a strip of 111 by 2 feet 9
inches or seven one-thousandths of an acre in imported Vilmorin.
A similar strip in imported Kleinwanzlebener; a similar strip in Government seed,
and the balance of the quarter acre in cattle beets.
I fertilized the whole plot equally with 300 pounds of phosphate. I weeded the
beets twice, cultivated them five times, and gathered them November 1.
I had one of each kind analyzed each week, commencing August 3, by an expert
chemist, the result of which I herewith inclose:

1W"eight.
Varieties.
arietie. hen Without
gathered. tops.

Pounds. Pounds.
The Vilmorin............ .... ............ .... ....... .... ... ...... ............. 258 239
The Government................ ..................... .............. ...... ......... 279 258
The Kleinwanzlebener ..................................................... .............. 236 220

The Vilmorin, therefore, produced at the rate of 174 tons to the acre, without tops;
the Government, 18 tons to the acre without tops; Kleinwanzlebener, 15 tons to the
acre without tops.
It will be seen that by far the best result came from the Vilmorin, the purity of
the juice in the analysis of November 1 being 88.20.
This latter result was from an average of three beets, one small, one middle size,
and one large.
The cost of the labor, fertilizer, etc., on the one-quarter acre was about $15.

R.1esuts on farm at Freehold, Monmouth County.

Weight of the beet. Percentage of
Date. Marked. --P- -urity co-
'With With top In the In the elicient.
top on. cut off. beet. juice.

1897. Potids. Pounds.
Aug. 30 No mark ................................. 1.171 1.088 10.45 11.30 80.14
30 ....do .................................. 1.384 1.161 11.15 12.50 83. 30
Sept. 8 .....do .................................. 1.481 1.168 11.75 12.55 79.40
8 .....do .................................. 1.251 1.000 11.85 ...............
15 Government ......................... 2.093 1.545 9.80 10. 60 80. 60
15 Kleinwanzlebener ...................... 1.704 1.329 11.40 12. 00 83.90
15 Vilmorin............................. ....... 1.724 1.311 12.40 13.10 84.50
20 No mark (Jack)........................ 0.587 0.505 14.30 15.60 83.40
27 Government............................ 4.391 2. 923 10.40 11.25 81.50
27 Kleinwanzebener...................... 4.491 3. 000 10. 10 10. 35 77.24
27 Vilmorin.............................. 4. 292 3. 058 9.90 10.55 78. 47
Oct. 4 Government ......................... 2.097 1.700 12.40 13. 25 84.30
4 Kleinwanzlebener ...................... 1.633 1. 225 12.00 13. 10 82.40
4 Vlmorin................................ 1.876 1.479 13.80 14.10 86.10
14 Government ............................ 1.662 1.474 11.50 12.75 80.20
14 Kleinwanebener ...................... 2.234 1.770 12.30 12.75 81.70
14 Vlmorin..-............................. 1.70 1.474 14.20 15.65 84.10
20 Government .......................... 1.583 1.373 13.0 14.60 82.00
20 Kleiwanlebener .................... 2.415 2.037 11.90 12.70 81.90
20 Vilm ................................ 2.150 1.715 14.30 14.95 83.50
v. 1 Government ............................ 2.313 1.757 12.40 13.50 78.00
1 Keiwan b ...................... 1.380 1.000 13.10 13.80 83.10
1 Vilmo ............................. .. 1.270 0.958 14.30 15. 5 88.20







90 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED TATES.

Excluding the analyses made before the 20th of September, which
would be anterior to the manufacturing season, and including all of
those made after that date, we find that the sixteen s ples analyzed
had an average weight of 27 ounces, a mean content of sugar of 12.5
per cent, and a mean purity of 82.3. These data, obtained by Mr.
Vredenburgh, in conjunction with those secured from the analyses of
the samples forwarded to Washington, indicate the possibilities of suc-
cessfully establishing the industry in the State on the lands which are
particularly suited thereto. As before stated, however, the danger from
a slightly too high temperature must be expected, and while good
beets, capable of yielding high percentages of sugar, and with high
purities, may be grown in New Jersey, it is scarcely probable that they
will reach as high a grade as those grown farther north.

NEW MEXICO.

Only three samples, grown in New Mexico were received at this
laboratory for analysis. These were all grown in Mora County by the
La Cueva Ranch Company. The average size of these samples was
small, but the content of sugar and the coefficient of purity of the juice
were high. In connection with this work the report of the director of
the agricultural experiment station will be found of interest.

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN NEW MEXICO.

TABLE 1.-Analyses in the chemical laboratory of the New Mexico Experient tatin
prior to October 25, 1897.

Number Average A
Localityof sa weight of per cent
Loity. ple na. bt sug m
lyzed. ee th juice.

New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station, Mesilla Park: Pounds.
Harvested Sept. 15............................................. 31 1.21 11.02
Harvested Oct. 14... ....... .............. .......... ... 31 1.53 12.47
Blue Water:
Barvesied Sept. 8 ..... ............ ........... ............ .. .. 4 1.38 10. 5
Harvested Sept. 30...................... .... .... ........ ..... 4 1.63 12.70
Albuquerque ... ............................................ .... 3 1.73 13. 16
Santa F ........................................... ... 7 1.0 14. 10
Corro.............................................................. 83 1.04 17.0
Doraey .......................................... ............... ... 1 1. 60 12. 6
Chapham ............... .. ......... ....................... ......... 1 1.0 1510
Tularosa ................. .. ...... ................ ......... 2 1.98 11. 20
Anthon yg ................................ ............ .............. .. 1 1. 18 11.I5
Maxwell City ................................ 3 2.77 14.15
Hath ........... .... ... .................. ............. ... ............ 1 2. 35 11. 5
Socorro............................................................. 1 .48 15.50
Lordsburg ..1.... ..... ............ ..... ...... ............ 1 .55 1. a
Blosaburg ...... .... .................... ....... ............. 1 3. 10. 8a
A S be Sbexperi nt Station .............. ................ 1 1.85 14.60
A eragesm ............................... ........ ..... 96 1. 61 13.18








BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 91

S2.-Analyses in the chemical laboratory of the New Mexico Experiment Station
between October 25 and November 15, 1897.

Number Average
Locality. Couity. of sam- Average percent
ples ana- weight. sugar in
lyzed. the juice.

Pounds.
Aztec Subexperiment Station ................. San Juan............. 5 1.5 16.8
Farmington ... ...........-- -- ---- -......... ... do .....--.-------- 6 1.9 17.6
eett ................................... ..... do ................ 1 1.9 13.5
.Blu at........-.-- ......- ---..-...-..-.-- Valencia.............. 4 3.5 10.6
Per.....--...... .-------.-------- ----..... Bzrnalillo ............ 2 2.7 12.5
a Vegas-......--......-................ San Miguel........... 1 2.8 13.5
L vega ..... ............................. d...... .. ............ 1 3.2 15.1
Pine Spring ............... ............. Lincoln............... 1 1.5 13.5
lRaton--............ ......... Colfax.................. 2 2.1 13.1
MaxwellCity ........................... ...-.. do ................ 1 1.7 15.3
Dorsy..................................... .. ...do ............... 1 1.1 15.4
Wagonmod ...................................... do ............... 1 1.6 13.9
Hatch......................-.........-.... DonaAna ............ 1 1.7 16.5
*anta Fe.................... ................... Santa Fe.............. 5 1.0 15. 9
Hobart ... ... ...................................... .. do ............... 1 1.9 14.9
Lacueva ..................................... Mora ................. 6 1.1 17.6
Cerro ...................................... Taos.................. 1 1.5 18.6
Averagesetic................................................... 40 1.7 15.3


TABLE 3.-Analyses in the chemical laboratory of the New Mexico Experiment Station
between November 15 and December 20, 1897.

Numiber Average
Locality. County. of sam- Average per cent
ples ana- weight, sugar ill
lyzed. thejuice.


New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station,
Mesilla Park. Pounds.
Harveeted Nov. 16............ .......... Dona Ana ............. 31 1.7 13.9
Harvested Dec. 15 ........ ............................... 27 1.6 13.9
Sample came in not marked......................................... 1 1.5 17.4
'atrous.......... ........... .... ..... Mora .............. 1 .8 12.0
Lac eva ................................ ..... do............... 2 1.1 15.6
Los Lunas ....... ...... .... .... ...... ........ Valencia............. 1 2.5 14.5
Blue Water................ ...............do ............... 4 1.2 13.8
Roswell.... ..... .............................. Chavez............... 13 1.7 13.8
Hagerman............. ............ ........ Eddy ............ .. 3 1.2 13.5
SantaFe...................... ................. SantaFe ............. 3 .8 18.0
Espanola ............. ............... ...... ....... do ... ......... 5 1.6 14 1
Jewett......................- ............. San Juan ............ 1 2.2 13. 0
Las Vegas Subexperiment Station ............ San Miguel........... 1 1.6 17. 6
Average, etc ........................... ..................... 83 1.6 14.1


Our work is still in an incomplete condition, as we have not had time to estimate the
coefficient of purity and consider some other points in connection with these analyses.
I beg to call your attention to the fact that nearly all of the beets analyzed here were
grown by farmers who had had no previous experience in growing beets, and whose
habits of farming are extremely loose. We can say definitely that if these beets
had been grown under such conditions as would be expected to obtain upon a well-
reIlated farm, the results would have beern very much more satisfactory. We know
that the conditions under which the most of the samples grew on the station farm
here were not of the most satisfactory kind, as we are trying experiments on time
of planting, time of harvesting, variety testing, deep and shallow plowing, different
modes of irrigation, etc. It is now established beyond a doubt that New Mexico
n grow large crops of sugar beets, containing a very high percentage of sugar.
Located at Eddy, in the southeastern part of the Territory, there is already estab-
lied a sugar-beet factory, doing a successful and profitable business.
In~ J e orthern portions of the Territory coal is comparatively cheap, and the






92 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATS.

completion of a railroad now in process of building will vry materially cheapen
coal in the southern part of the Territory.
Limestono seems to be scattered pretty well throughout the Territory, and while
we have not had time to go fully into this subject, the few analyses that we have
made indicate that the Territory affords limestone of a very good grade. We have
just taken a survey of the limestone and waters of the sugar-beet district The
question of water is engaging our attention, too; and we believe that water of fairly
good quality can be secured.
There is a lively interest taken in sugar-beet work in all parts of the Territory,
and from the tables herewith inclosed the most favorable locatio easily be
selected. Particular attention should be called to the Rio Grande Valley, especially
the northern portion, and the Animas Valley. This latter has an extensive and
abundant supply of very good water, but at present no railroad. This valley seems
to be a very promising section for the production of sugar beets. See Aztec and
Farmington in the tables.
The soils of the Territory contain, I think, about the average amount of nitrogen
and phosphoric acid and about the usual amount of potash. They have a decided
advantage over the soils in the rainfall districts, because the fertility is largely kept
up by the plant food contained in the irrigating water, and nearly all that once gets
on the soil remains, as very little, indeed, is lost by leaching and drainage.
We expect to publish a bulletin about the 1st of February, giving our results in
detail.
The analyses which were made by the chemist of the agricultural
experiment station of the samples received by him are classified in
accordance with the time at which they were made. Ninety-six analy-
ses made prior to October 25 showed an average weight of the samples
of 26 ounces, with an average content of sugar in the beet of 12.5 per
cent. The purity coefficient of the juice is not given.
Forty samples analyzed between the 25th of October and the 15th
of November had an average weight of 27 ounces, with an average
content of sugar in the beet of 14.5 per cent, the purity coefficient
not being stated.
Eighty-three samples analyzed between November 15 and December
20 had an average weight of 26 ounces, and an average content of
sugar in the beet of 13.4 per cent. The purity was not given.
It is evident that there are many localities in New Mexico where the
conditions of temperature are most favorable to the growth of beets.
There are also large areas of fairly level land which are capable of irri-
gation. Wherever the temperature of these regions is sufficiently low
to permit the proper development of the beet, and where sufficient
water for irrigation can be secured, there is reason to believe that the
industry may be established and prove to be firly profitable. While
the summer days in New Mexico are not so long by an hour or more as
in the regions farther north, the amount of sunshine which the growing
beet will receive is practically as great as in more northern localities,
because of the comparative absence of cloudy and rainy days. The
remarks which have already been made in regard to the growth of
beets on irrigated areas apply to New Mexico. This is a ubjet which
demands the most careful scientific stu d the work which is now
doing by the aricultral e eriment station of the Terrto s certain






BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN" THE UNITED STATES. 93

to bear excellent fruits in the near future. New Mexico is provided
with a beet-sugar factory in the extreme southwestern portion of the
Territory, d thus a practical demonstration of the possibilities of
beet growing can be made. It is difficult to secure definite data from
this factory, but from the meager reports received it is believed that
the seasn's work has not been so successful as had been expected from
the results obtained during the preceding year. Accounts have been
received of a mold or fungus attacking the beets, and it is also evident
that the true principles of irrigation have not yet been thoroughly
worked out. There should not, however, be anything'discouraging in
accidents of this kind, as the conditions, upon the whole, are such as
to warrant the expectation of final success.
NEW YORK.

On January 16, 1894, in addressing the New York Farmers Club on
the subject of beet sugar, I used the following words:
The plateaus of the great West subject to irrigation are especially suited to the
production of sugar beets. The same is true of the lands of certain portions of
Nebraska and Dakota, of Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, of northern Illinois, Indi-
ana, Ohio, and New York. Recently, in passing over the valley of the Genesee River,
I was particularly struck with the quality of the soil and its suitability to beet cul-
ture. The valley of the Genesee is only a type of hundreds of thousands of acres in
New York which could be profitably devoted to beet culture.
At that time practically no experiments had been made to determine
the suitability of the soil and climate of New York for producing high-
grade beets. In fact, not until the last year has any systematic attempt
been made to ascertain the capabilities mentioned above. In the spring
of 1896, in conversation with a committee of the board of trustees of the
agricultural experiment station at Geneva, I urged upon them the
desirability of studying the capabilities of New York for beet produc-
tion. In 1897 the Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with the
experimerit stations at Geneva and Ithaca, conducted a series of inves-
tigations throughout the State of New York, which has given data of
extraordinary interest and importance.
The climatic conditions, as respects temperature and rainfall, affecting
the State of New York have already been discussed. It has been seen
that there are two areas in which the thermal conditions are particu-
larly favorable, separated by a large area where the mean summer
temperature is less than 690. It has already been pointed out, how-
ever, that a lower temperature than 690 is still highly favorable to the
production of beets of superior excellence if coupled with conditions
which permit their maturity and harvest in time to avoid the severe
frosts of winter. These conditions exist in a marked degree through-
out the whole of the region in New York lying between the Hudson
River on the east and the Great Lakes on the west, excluding the
extreme northern portion, where the altitude and mountainous char-
acter of the country preclude the possibilities of beet culture. The






94 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STA

whole of the area named, therefore, where the contour is fvorale and
the character of the soil suitable may be regarded as a prospective area
of sugar-beet culture.

SAMPLES RECEIVED AT THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
From the seed distributed to farmers in different parts of the State
225 samples of beets were received at the Department of Agriculture
for analysis. The mean weight of these samples was 21 ounces, the
mean percentage of sugar in the beet 15, and the mean coefficient of
purity 82.4. Every county in the State reporting results showed favor-
able data. The counties having the largest number of samples of
course gave data which are the most instructive.
Cattaraugus County supplied 15 samples, with a mean weight of 18
ounces, a mean percentage of sugar in the beet of 15.1, and a mean
coefficient of purity of 81.9.
Chautauqua County furnished 45 samples, with a mean weight of 21
ounces, a mean sugar content in the beet of 16.6 per cent, and a mean
coefficient of purity of 82.7.
Erie County sent 37 samples, having a mean weight of 19 ounces, a
mean content of sugar of 15.9 per cent in the beet, and a mean coeffi-
cient of purity of 83.9.
Oneida County was the source of 22 samples, with a mean weight of
14 ounces, a mean sugar content of 13.6 per cent, and a mean coeffi
cient of purity of 81.8.
Ontario County furnished 22 samples, having a mean weight of 17
ounces, a mean content of sugar in the beets of 15 per cent, ad a mean
coefficient of purity of 83.4.
Yates County supplied 15 samples, having a mean weight of 23
ounces, a mean sugar content of 12.7, and a mean coefficient of purity
of 79.6.
The uniformly good properties of so large a percentage of samples
collected in the promiscuous way made necessary by the method of
the experiments show beyond question the favorable auspices under
which they must have been grown.
In addition to the special plot work on high-grade beets which was
conducted under the supervision of the Geneva station, cooperative
work by the Department of Agriculture, in conjunction with the
farmers of the State, was also carried on. From the whole number of
p)ackages of seed distributed by the station, 135 samples of beets were
received for analysis, and the results obtained, without distinction of
locality, are shown in the following report of Direcor Jordan:

ICESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS IN NEW YORK.
The number of samples reported is 135, which aine from a sufficient number of
points in the State to make them fairly representative of the conditions prevailing.
I make no report to you of the production, because in most instaUces, whenever
the tonnage was reported, the figures appeared to us to e unreliabl because of
method used in reaching them.







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 95

Kleinwanzlebener.

Beets con- Number Average Coeffi- Average
S taining of 8am- per cent cient of weight of
sugar. ples. abet.n purity. one beet.

Per cent. Ounces.
11-12 4 12 76.5 20
12-13 11 13 75.4 18
13-14 10 13.8 80 14
14-15 11 14.7 80.3 17
15-16 15 15.8 84.3 14
16-17 11 16.5 85.3 16
17-18 13 17.6 85.2 14
18-19 3 18.5 85.9 13


Vilmorin Improved.

Number Average Coeffici- Average
of per cent ent of weightof
samples. sugar in purity, one beet.

Ounces.
3 -11.7 75 16
5 12.8 76.7 24
9 13.8 82.4 19
8 14.8 83 16
17 15.6 82 16
9 16.6 87.5 15
6 17.8 85.4 18
2 18.6 83.8 24


My chief anxiety with regard to the development of the sugar-beet industry in
New York is that farmers shall not reach unwarranted conclusions concerning the
profits of their side of the work. I have no reason to believe that the industry will
prove more profitable to our farmers than the production of several crops which we
are now growing. I recognize, of course, the benefits of adding to our list of crops
another one which will have a ready cash market.
*There appears to be a move all over the State for the establishment of factories at
desirable centers, and promoters are already in the field who are, as a rule, urging
the farmer to invest in beet sugar-factory stock. I am very much afraid that there
will be serious misdirection of capital, which will not only cause the farmer to
lose money, but seriously disappoint him in regard to the benefits from growing
angar beets. My judgment is that the matter should be discussed by those who take
the lead in the matter in the most conservative way, and both farmers and business
men should be severely cautioned to proceed slowly and only after extended and
careful investigation.
A carefully grown crop of sugar beets yielded on the experiment station farm
this season at the rate of 161 tons per acre, carrying 15.2 per cent sugar in the
beet and 16 per cent in the juice. No dependence should, in my judgment, be placed
upon the reports of yields of 25 and 30 tons per acre of high-grade beets in this
State.

In studying the report of Director Jordan we see that of the Klein-
wanulebener variety only four samples out of the whole number fell
below the minimum of 12 per cent of sugar in the beets, and of the
Vilmorin variety only three. This is without doubt a remarkable show-
ing of excellence, in so far as the content of sugar is concerned. The
caution of Director Jordan to proceed carefully in this matter, and
ith a due study of the factors, is perfectly in harmony with the tenor
ote reorts which have been issued by the Deartment of Agricul-






96 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

ture, on the subject of beet sugar, from time to time during the past
fifteen years, and is deserving of careful consideration, both by intend-
ing investors and farmers. Our reports have constantly dwelt upon
the danger of misdirected enthusiasm and failure to study properly all
the factors entering into any enterprise connected with the manufacture
of sugar.
The agricultural experiment station of Cornell University, at Ithaca,
also cooperated with the Department in the experimental work in New
York. Four hundred and twenty-five samples were received for analy-
sis at the experiment station at Ithaca. The data obtained on analysis,
arranged by counties, are given in the report of Director Roberts. In
this report the percentage of sugar in the juice of the beet only is
given, the mean being 16.9. Converting this number into terms of
the sugar in the beet, the percentage becomes 16.1, which is one point
higher than the mean percentage of sugar in the samples from New York
analyzed by the Department of Agriculture. The coefficient of purity,
83.5, obtained at the Ithaca station is only a little over one point higher
than that secured from the analyses by the Department of Agriculture.
Director Roberts, in his report, estimates that the mean yield per
acre obtained in the State of New York was 17 tons, but as his esti-
mate is made upon the returns made by the farmers, many of which
are evidently too high, it is not final as a source of deductions in
regard to the average yield which may be obtained. It is not at all
likely that an average yield of 16 tons per acre could be obtained, even
by the best culture.
The counties furnishing the data with the most weight are Broome,
Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Monroe, Steuben, and Wayne. Chautau-
qua County, especially, is to be regarded on account of the mean data
being based upon 122 separate samples, in which the mean percentage
of sugar in the juice was 16.8, and the mean coefficient of purity, 83.5.
The next highest number is furnished by Genesee County, where the
mean percentage of sugar in the juice from 62 samples is 16.6, and the
coefficient of purity, 82.9. Monroe, with 59 samples, showed a meani
sugar content in the juice of 17.2 per cent, and a mean coefficient of
purity of 83.9. Erie County, with 38 samples, gave a mean content of
sugar in the juice of 17.9 per cent, and a mean coeficient of purit
of 86.3. Wayne County furnished 27 samples, having'a mean content
of sugar in the juice of 16.7 per cent, and a mean coefficient of purity of
82.9. Broome County sent 25 samples, containing 16.2 per cent of
sugar in the juice, with a coefficient of purity of 81.8; and Steuben
County furnished 24 samples, containing 16.2 per cent of sugar in the
juice, with a coefficient of purity of 82.6. Following is the report of
Prof. Roberts:
The 500 pounds of Bugar-beet seed sent us by th Department of Agriculture
were dlistributed to over 300 farmers of the State, with directions an to preparation
of thl oil, plat ingIl, ill cultivatiVng. Duriln the growing sasoni the l9 reri pit o







BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. 97

te pats was inspected by an officer of this station and observations made as to
the eral conditions found.
eseason as a favorable one, and in nearly all cases the beets made good
t, and t the per cent of sugar was satisfactory will be shown by the table
of a lyses given later.
It is safe to say that the citizens of New York State, both capitalists and farmers,
e thoroughly awakened to the importance of the subject of the manufacture of
ugar from beets. During the season one factory has been in successful operation
t Rme, N. Y. Other factories are contemplated, and at the present time agents
are in rance negotiating for machinery to be used in a large factory to be erected
the coming season.
Officers of this station attended eight meetings of farmers and capitalists to give
information and advice as to the advisability of locating factories in certain sections
of the State. Abundance of capital is ready to be invested once the success of the
Industry is assured. Farmers feel that in the raising of sugar beets a new avenue
is open for them, and in most parts of the State favorable for the growth of beets
they are heartily favoring the new enterprise.
When the various experimental plats were harvested, agents from this station per-
sonally superintended the taking of the samples and the calculations of yield on 178
of the plats. To those farmers whose places we were unable to visit directions were
ent as to how the samples should be taken and the yield estimated; so it is believed
that this report of results is a fair statement of what can be done in New York State
in the way of raising sugar beets.
The necessity now seems to be the education of the farmers in the system of
intensive culture necessary for the successful raising of the beets. The farmers
appreciate the importance of this instruction, and are eager to learn. It is safe to
predict that the manufacture of sugar from beets is to be one of New York's promi-
nent industries in the near future.
The following report is furnished by our chemists, summarizing the results by
counties:
Report of sugar-beet experiments in New York, 1897.

Total Total
Su n Purity number n nar Purity number
County. Sugr in oefficient of sam- County. juice. coefficient of sam-
j of juice, ples ana- juce of juice. ples ana-
lyzed. lyzed.

Per cent. Per cent.
Albany............ 17. 25 86.6 1 Oneida............ 16.16 82.1 4
Broome........... 16. 23 81.8 25 Onondaga ........ 17. 40 86.6 1
ttaraugus ..... 16. 94 84. 5 15 Orleans ........... 17. 20 86. 1 3
Cayuga ......... 17. 34 84.3 10 Oswego........... 14. 45 76. 1 1
Chautauqua ....... 16.83 83.5 122 Saratoga......... 20.25 86.6 1
Erie............... 17.93 86.3 38 Schuyler.......... 16.26 79. 7 2
Geese ........... 16. 62 82.9 62 Seneca .......... 16. 58 83. 2 5
Herkimer........... 13.85 79. 2 1 Steuben .......... 16. 24 82. 6 24
Jefferson......... 16.16. 81.0 3 Tioga............. 18. 73 82.7 2
Livingston........ 19.25 85.6 1 Tompkins ........ 17.49 83. 1 8
Monroe............ 17.22 83.9 59 Wayne ........... 16.74 82. 9 27
Montgomery....... 15.08 79.3 3
............ 17.31 83. 4 7 Average .... 16.89 83.5 425

From the foregoing data, the conclusion is inevitable that the State
oNew York stands among the first in the Union in its capabilities of
p ducing beets. with a high content of sugar and a high purity. The
eager data at hand also show that a fair tonniage per acre can be
eure. It is evident that with proper fertilization and rotation of
ops the fertility of the soil can not only be maintained, but even
creaed, so that it is not unreasonable to expect, under the best con-
H. Doe. 396-7






98 BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES.

ditions of culture, that the mean tonnage per acre produced in th
State of New York will be quite equal to that of the best sugar regions
of Germany. Judging by the data obtained from a single season
alone, there is no sugar-beet producing country of Europe that can
compete with the State of New York in the richness of its beets. If a
factory, constructed on the best approved modern principles, and with
every facility for converting the whole of the sugar into marketable
form, could be supplied with such beets as were grown in the State o
New York during the season of 1897, it would be capable of placing
upon the market 240 pounds of pure granulated sugar for every ton of
2,000 pounds of beets entering into manufacture. When, in addition
to these facts, are considered the cheapness of fuel, the abundance of
labor, the proximity of markets, and the importance of the dairy indus
try in its relations to the refuse of the factory as a feed, it is seen that
there is no place in the United States which offers more favorable
inducements for the development of the industry.

ELEVATION OF REGIONS OF NEW YORK SUITED TO BEET CULTURE.

A contour map of the State of New York, showing the elevations
above tide water, is found in the fifth annual report of the meteoro-
logical bureau and weather service of the State for 1893. The eleva-
tion in the region of the Catskills in some places reaches an altitude of
3,000 feet. Immediately west of this mountainous region, and extend-
ing to Binighamton on the south and almost across the State through
the south central portion, there is a large area in which the average
elevation is 1,000 feet. In the southwestern portion of the Stae there
is a considerable area the elevation of which is 1,500 feet. The region
of the Adirondacks and the northeastern portion of the State has
various elevations, but as these regions are probably too far north for
successful beet culture they do not interest us here. Starting from
Albany with an average elevation of 100 feet and following the
course of the New York Central Railway, we pass through an area a
large portion of which is below 500 feet in elevation. From Rome
through Syracuse and as thr west as Lyons the average elevation is
less than 500 feet, with the exception of small areas. From Lyons to
Bufftlo the average elevation is above 500 and less than 1,000 feet.
Immediately along the shores of Lake Ontario the average elevation is
less tlan 500 feet. Passing to the south near Rochester, along the
Genesee Valley, is a considerable area below 500 feet in elevation.
An interesting description of the physical contour of the State is given
in the report mentioned above as taken from the work of Prof. Arnold
Guyot. This description is as follows:
The following outline of tle orography of New York is substantially 88 given by
Prof. Arnold (uyot. Further details are exhibited by the accompanying relie
maRp.




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